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Sample records for algal lipid bodies

  1. Raman microspectroscopy of algal lipid bodies: β-carotene as a volume sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pilát, Zdenek; Bernatová, Silvie; Ježek, Jan; Šery, Mojmir; Samek, Ota; Zemánek, Pavel; Nedbal, Ladislav; Trtílek, Martin

    2012-02-01

    Advanced optical instruments are useful for analysis and manipulation of individual living cells and their internal structures. We have employed Raman microspectroscopic analysis for assessment of algal lipid body (LB) volume in vivo. Some algae contain β-carotene in high amounts in their LBs, including strains which are considered useful in biotechnology for lipid and pigment production. We have detected proportionality between the Raman vibrations of β-carotene and the LB volume. This finding may allow fast acquisition of LB volume approximation valuable e.g. for Raman microspectroscopy assisted cell sorting. We combine optical manipulation and analysis on a microfluidic platform in order to achieve fast, effective, and non-invasive sorting based on spectroscopic features of the individual living cells. The resultant apparatus could find its use in demanding biotechnological applications such as selection of rare natural mutants or artificially modified cells resulting from genetic manipulations.

  2. Raman microspectroscopy of algal lipid bodies: β-carotene as a volume sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pilát, Zdenek; Bernatová, Silvie; Ježek, Jan; Šery, Mojmir; Samek, Ota; Zemánek, Pavel; Nedbal, Ladislav; Trtílek, Martin

    2011-09-01

    Advanced optical instruments are useful for analysis and manipulation of individual living cells and their internal structures. We have employed Raman microspectroscopic analysis for assessment of algal lipid body (LB) volume in vivo. Some algae contain β-carotene in high amounts in their LBs, including strains which are considered useful in biotechnology for lipid and pigment production. We have detected proportionality between the Raman vibrations of β-carotene and the LB volume. This finding may allow fast acquisition of LB volume approximation valuable e.g. for Raman microspectroscopy assisted cell sorting. We combine optical manipulation and analysis on a microfluidic platform in order to achieve fast, effective, and non-invasive sorting based on spectroscopic features of the individual living cells. The resultant apparatus could find its use in demanding biotechnological applications such as selection of rare natural mutants or artificially modified cells resulting from genetic manipulations.

  3. Algal Lipids as Quantitative Paleosalinity Proxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maloney, A.; Shinneman, A.; Hemeon, K.; Sachs, J. P.

    2012-12-01

    The tropics play an important role in driving climate. However it is difficult to uncover past changes in tropical precipitation due to a lack of tree ring records and low accumulation rates of marine sediments. Hydrogen isotope ratios of algal lipids preserved in lacustrine and marine sediments have been used to qualitatively reconstruct tropical paleohydrology. Changes in the hydrologic balance are reflected in salinity and in lake water D/H ratios, which are closely tracked by lipid D/H ratios of algal biomarkers. While useful for determining past periods of "wetter" or "drier" conditions, variability in isotope fractionation in algal lipids during lipid biosynthesis can be exploited to more quantitatively determine how much wetter or drier conditions were in the past. The estuarine diatom, Thalassiosira pseudonnana, was grown in continuous cultures under controlled light, temperature, nutrient, and growth rate conditions to assess the influence of salinity (9-40 PSU) on D/H fractionation between lipids and source water. Three fatty acids, 24-methylcholesta-5,24(28)-dien-3B-ol, and phytol show decreasing fractionation between lipid and source water as salinity increases with 0.8-1.3‰ change in fractionation per salinity unit. These results compliment field-based empirical observations of dinosterol in Chesapeake Bay suspended particles that change 0.99‰ per salinity unit and lipid biomarkers from hyper-saline ponds on Christmas Island that change 0.7-1.1‰ per salinity unit. Biological pathways responsible for the inverse relationship between fractionation and salinity will be discussed.

  4. Collection and conversion of algal lipid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Ching-Chieh

    Sustainable economic activities mandate a significant replacement of fossil energy by renewable forms. Algae-derived biofuels are increasingly seen as an alternative source of energy with potential to supplement the world's ever increasing demand. Our primary objective is, once the algae were cultivated, to eliminate or make more efficient energy-intensive processing steps of collection, drying, grinding, and solvent extraction prior to conversion. To overcome the processing barrier, we propose to streamline from cultivated algae to biodiesel via algal biomass collection by sand filtration, cell rupturing with ozone, and immediate transesterification. To collect the algal biomass, the specific Chlorococcum aquaticum suspension was acidified to pH 3.3 to promote agglomeration prior to sand filtration. The algae-loaded filter bed was drained of free water and added with methanol and ozonated for 2 min to rupture cell membrane to accelerate release of the cellular contents. The methanol solution now containing the dissolved lipid product was collected by draining, while the filter bed was regenerated by further ozonation when needed. The results showed 95% collection of the algal biomass from the suspension and a 16% yield of lipid from the algae, as well as restoration of filtration velocity of the sand bed via ozonation. The results further showed increased lipid yield upon cell rupturing and transesterified products composed entirely of fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) compounds, demonstrating that the rupture and transesterification processes could proceed consecutively in the same medium, requiring no separate steps of drying, extraction, and conversion. The FAME products from algae without exposure to ozone were mainly of 16 to 18 carbons containing up to 3 double bonds, while those from algae having been ozonated were smaller, highly saturated hydrocarbons. The new technique streamlines individual steps from cultivated algal lipid to transesterified products and

  5. Algal lipid bodies: stress induction, purification, and biochemical characterization in wild-type and starchless Chlamydomonas reinhardtii.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zi Teng; Ullrich, Nico; Joo, Sunjoo; Waffenschmidt, Sabine; Goodenough, Ursula

    2009-12-01

    When the unicellular green soil alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii is deprived of nitrogen after entering stationary phase in liquid culture, the cells produce abundant cytoplasmic lipid bodies (LBs), as well as abundant starch, via a pathway that accompanies a regulated autophagy program. After 48 h of N starvation in the presence of acetate, the wild-type LB content has increased 15-fold. When starch biosynthesis is blocked in the sta6 mutant, the LB content increases 30-fold, demonstrating that genetic manipulation can enhance LB production. The use of cell wall-less strains permitted development of a rapid "popped-cell" microscopic assay to quantitate the LB content per cell and permitted gentle cell breakage and LB isolation. The highly purified LBs contain 90% triacylglycerol (TAG) and 10% free fatty acids (FFA). The fatty acids associated with the TAGs are approximately 50% saturated (C(16) and C(18)) fatty acids and approximately 50% unsaturated fatty acids, half of which are in the form of oleic acid (C(18:1)). The FFA are approximately 50% C(16) and approximately 50% C(18). The LB-derived TAG yield from a liter of sta6 cells at 10(7) cells/ml after starvation for 48 h is calculated to approach 400 mg. The LB fraction also contains low levels of charged glycerolipids, with the same profile as whole-cell charged glycerolipids, that presumably form LB membranes; chloroplast-specific neutral glycerolipids (galactolipids) are absent. Very low levels of protein are also present, but all matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-identified species are apparent contaminants. Nitrogen stress-induced LB production in C. reinhardtii has the hallmarks of a discrete pathway that should be amenable to additional genetic and culture condition manipulation.

  6. Algal Lipid Bodies: Stress Induction, Purification, and Biochemical Characterization in Wild-Type and Starchless Chlamydomonas reinhardtii▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Zi Teng; Ullrich, Nico; Joo, Sunjoo; Waffenschmidt, Sabine; Goodenough, Ursula

    2009-01-01

    When the unicellular green soil alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii is deprived of nitrogen after entering stationary phase in liquid culture, the cells produce abundant cytoplasmic lipid bodies (LBs), as well as abundant starch, via a pathway that accompanies a regulated autophagy program. After 48 h of N starvation in the presence of acetate, the wild-type LB content has increased 15-fold. When starch biosynthesis is blocked in the sta6 mutant, the LB content increases 30-fold, demonstrating that genetic manipulation can enhance LB production. The use of cell wall-less strains permitted development of a rapid “popped-cell” microscopic assay to quantitate the LB content per cell and permitted gentle cell breakage and LB isolation. The highly purified LBs contain 90% triacylglycerol (TAG) and 10% free fatty acids (FFA). The fatty acids associated with the TAGs are ∼50% saturated (C16 and C18) fatty acids and ∼50% unsaturated fatty acids, half of which are in the form of oleic acid (C18:1). The FFA are ∼50% C16 and ∼50% C18. The LB-derived TAG yield from a liter of sta6 cells at 107 cells/ml after starvation for 48 h is calculated to approach 400 mg. The LB fraction also contains low levels of charged glycerolipids, with the same profile as whole-cell charged glycerolipids, that presumably form LB membranes; chloroplast-specific neutral glycerolipids (galactolipids) are absent. Very low levels of protein are also present, but all matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-identified species are apparent contaminants. Nitrogen stress-induced LB production in C. reinhardtii has the hallmarks of a discrete pathway that should be amenable to additional genetic and culture condition manipulation. PMID:19880756

  7. Raman microspectroscopy based sensor of algal lipid unsaturation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samek, Ota; Pilát, Zdeněk; Jonáš, Alexandr; Zemánek, Pavel; Šerý, Mojmír; Ježek, Jan; Bernatová, Silvie; Nedbal, Ladislav; Trtílek, Martin

    2011-05-01

    Raman spectroscopy is a powerful tool for chemical analysis. This technique can elucidate fundamental questions about the metabolic processes and intercellular variability on a single cell level. Therefore, Raman spectroscopy can significantly contribute to the study and use of microalgae in systems biology and biofuel technology. Raman spectroscopy can be combined with optical tweezers. We have employed microfluidic system to deliver the sampled microalgae to the Raman-tweezers. This instrument is able to measure chemical composition of cells and to track metabolic processes in vivo, in real-time and label-free making it possible to detect population variability in a wide array of traits. Moreover, employing an active sorting switch, cells can be separated depending on input parameters obtained from Raman spectra. We focus on algal lipids which are promising potential products for biofuel as well as for nutrition. Important parameter characterizing the algal lipids is the degree of unsaturation of the constituent fatty acids. We demonstrate the capacity of our Raman tweezers based sensor to sort cells according to the degree of unsaturation in lipid storage bodies of individual living algal cells.

  8. Algal Lipid Extraction and Upgrading to Hydrocarbons Technology Pathway

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, R.; Biddy, M.; Jones, S.

    2013-03-01

    This technology pathway case investigates the cultivation of algal biomass followed by further lipid extraction and upgrading to hydrocarbon biofuels. Technical barriers and key research needs have been assessed in order for the algal lipid extraction and upgrading pathway to be competitive with petroleum-derived gasoline-, diesel-, and jet-range hydrocarbon blendstocks.

  9. Raman microspectroscopy of individual algal cells: sensing unsaturation of storage lipids in vivo.

    PubMed

    Samek, Ota; Jonáš, Alexandr; Pilát, Zdeněk; Zemánek, Pavel; Nedbal, Ladislav; Tříska, Jan; Kotas, Petr; Trtílek, Martin

    2010-01-01

    Algae are becoming a strategic source of fuels, food, feedstocks, and biologically active compounds. This potential has stimulated the development of innovative analytical methods focused on these microorganisms. Algal lipids are among the most promising potential products for fuels as well as for nutrition. The crucial parameter characterizing the algal lipids is the degree of unsaturation of the constituent fatty acids quantified by the iodine value. Here we demonstrate the capacity of the spatially resolved Raman microspectroscopy to determine the effective iodine value in lipid storage bodies of individual living algal cells. The Raman spectra were collected from three selected algal species immobilized in an agarose gel. Prior to immobilization, the algae were cultivated in the stationary phase inducing an overproduction of lipids. We employed the characteristic peaks in the Raman scattering spectra at 1,656 cm(-1) (cis C═C stretching mode) and 1,445 cm(-1) (CH(2) scissoring mode) as the markers defining the ratio of unsaturated-to-saturated carbon-carbon bonds of the fatty acids in the algal lipids. These spectral features were first quantified for pure fatty acids of known iodine value. The resultant calibration curve was then used to calculate the effective iodine value of storage lipids in the living algal cells from their Raman spectra. We demonstrated that the iodine value differs significantly for the three studied algal species. Our spectroscopic estimations of the iodine value were validated using GC-MS measurements and an excellent agreement was found for the Trachydiscus minutus species. A good agreement was also found with the earlier published data on Botryococcus braunii. Thus, we propose that Raman microspectroscopy can become technique of choice in the rapidly expanding field of algal biotechnology.

  10. Algal Cell Response to Pulsed Waved Stimulation and Its Application to Increase Algal Lipid Production

    PubMed Central

    Savchenko, Oleksandra; Xing, Jida; Yang, Xiaoyan; Gu, Quanrong; Shaheen, Mohamed; Huang, Min; Yu, Xiaojian; Burrell, Robert; Patra, Prabir; Chen, Jie

    2017-01-01

    Generating renewable energy while sequestering CO2 using algae has recently attracted significant research attention, mostly directing towards biological methods such as systems biology, genetic engineering and bio-refining for optimizing algae strains. Other approaches focus on chemical screening to adjust culture conditions or culture media. We report for the first time the physiological changes of algal cells in response to a novel form of mechanical stimulation, or a pulsed wave at the frequency of 1.5 MHz and the duty cycle of 20%. We studied how the pulsed wave can further increase algal lipid production on top of existing biological and chemical methods. Two commonly used algal strains, fresh-water Chlorella vulgaris and seawater Tetraselmis chuii, were selected. We have performed the tests in shake flasks and 1 L spinner-flask bioreactors. Conventional Gravimetric measurements show that up to 20% increase for algal lipid could be achieved after 8 days of stimulation. The total electricity cost needed for the stimulations in a one-liter bioreactor is only one-tenth of a US penny. Gas liquid chromatography shows that the fatty acid composition remains unchanged after pulsed-wave stimulation. Scanning electron microscope results also suggest that pulsed wave stimulation induces shear stress and thus increases algal lipid production. PMID:28186124

  11. Algal Cell Response to Pulsed Waved Stimulation and Its Application to Increase Algal Lipid Production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Savchenko, Oleksandra; Xing, Jida; Yang, Xiaoyan; Gu, Quanrong; Shaheen, Mohamed; Huang, Min; Yu, Xiaojian; Burrell, Robert; Patra, Prabir; Chen, Jie

    2017-02-01

    Generating renewable energy while sequestering CO2 using algae has recently attracted significant research attention, mostly directing towards biological methods such as systems biology, genetic engineering and bio-refining for optimizing algae strains. Other approaches focus on chemical screening to adjust culture conditions or culture media. We report for the first time the physiological changes of algal cells in response to a novel form of mechanical stimulation, or a pulsed wave at the frequency of 1.5 MHz and the duty cycle of 20%. We studied how the pulsed wave can further increase algal lipid production on top of existing biological and chemical methods. Two commonly used algal strains, fresh-water Chlorella vulgaris and seawater Tetraselmis chuii, were selected. We have performed the tests in shake flasks and 1 L spinner-flask bioreactors. Conventional Gravimetric measurements show that up to 20% increase for algal lipid could be achieved after 8 days of stimulation. The total electricity cost needed for the stimulations in a one-liter bioreactor is only one-tenth of a US penny. Gas liquid chromatography shows that the fatty acid composition remains unchanged after pulsed-wave stimulation. Scanning electron microscope results also suggest that pulsed wave stimulation induces shear stress and thus increases algal lipid production.

  12. Algal Cell Response to Pulsed Waved Stimulation and Its Application to Increase Algal Lipid Production.

    PubMed

    Savchenko, Oleksandra; Xing, Jida; Yang, Xiaoyan; Gu, Quanrong; Shaheen, Mohamed; Huang, Min; Yu, Xiaojian; Burrell, Robert; Patra, Prabir; Chen, Jie

    2017-02-10

    Generating renewable energy while sequestering CO2 using algae has recently attracted significant research attention, mostly directing towards biological methods such as systems biology, genetic engineering and bio-refining for optimizing algae strains. Other approaches focus on chemical screening to adjust culture conditions or culture media. We report for the first time the physiological changes of algal cells in response to a novel form of mechanical stimulation, or a pulsed wave at the frequency of 1.5 MHz and the duty cycle of 20%. We studied how the pulsed wave can further increase algal lipid production on top of existing biological and chemical methods. Two commonly used algal strains, fresh-water Chlorella vulgaris and seawater Tetraselmis chuii, were selected. We have performed the tests in shake flasks and 1 L spinner-flask bioreactors. Conventional Gravimetric measurements show that up to 20% increase for algal lipid could be achieved after 8 days of stimulation. The total electricity cost needed for the stimulations in a one-liter bioreactor is only one-tenth of a US penny. Gas liquid chromatography shows that the fatty acid composition remains unchanged after pulsed-wave stimulation. Scanning electron microscope results also suggest that pulsed wave stimulation induces shear stress and thus increases algal lipid production.

  13. Unraveling algal lipid metabolism: Recent advances in gene identification.

    PubMed

    Khozin-Goldberg, Inna; Cohen, Zvi

    2011-01-01

    Microalgae are now the focus of intensive research due to their potential as a renewable feedstock for biodiesel. This research requires a thorough understanding of the biochemistry and genetics of these organisms' lipid-biosynthesis pathways. Genes encoding lipid-biosynthesis enzymes can now be identified in the genomes of various eukaryotic microalgae. However, an examination of the predicted proteins at the biochemical and molecular levels is mandatory to verify their function. The essential molecular and genetic tools are now available for a comprehensive characterization of genes coding for enzymes of the lipid-biosynthesis pathways in some algal species. This review mainly summarizes the novel information emerging from recently obtained algal gene identification.

  14. Algal Lipid Extraction and Upgrading to Hydrocarbons Technology Pathway

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, Ryan; Biddy, Mary J.; Jones, Susanne B.

    2013-03-31

    In support of the Bioenergy Technologies Office, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) are undertaking studies of biomass conversion technologies to identify barriers and target research toward reducing conversion costs. Process designs and preliminary economic estimates for each of these pathway cases were developed using rigorous modeling tools (Aspen Plus and Chemcad). These analyses incorporated the best information available at the time of development, including data from recent pilot and bench-scale demonstrations, collaborative industrial and academic partners, and published literature and patents. This technology pathway case investigates the cultivation of algal biomass followed by further lipid extraction and upgrading to hydrocarbon biofuels. Technical barriers and key research needs have been assessed in order for the algal lipid extraction and upgrading pathway to be competitive with petroleum-derived gasoline, diesel and jet range hydrocarbon blendstocks.

  15. Releasing Stored Solar Energy within Pond Scum: Biodiesel from Algal Lipids

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blatti, Jillian L.; Burkart, Michael D.

    2012-01-01

    Microalgae have emerged as an attractive feedstock for the mass production of renewable transportation fuels due to their fast growth rate, flexible habitat preferences, and substantial oil yields. As an educational tool, a laboratory was developed that mimics emerging algal biofuel technology, including the extraction of algal lipids and…

  16. Design of algal film photobioreactors: material surface energy effects on algal film productivity, colonization and lipid content.

    PubMed

    Genin, Scott N; Stewart Aitchison, J; Grant Allen, D

    2014-03-01

    A parallel plate air lift reactor was used to examine the growth kinetics of mixed culture algal biofilms grown on various materials (acrylic, glass, polycarbonate, polystyrene and cellulose acetate). The growth kinetics of the algal biofilms were non-linear overall and their overall productivities ranged from 1.10-2.08g/m(2)day, with those grown on cellulose acetate having the highest productivity. Overall algal biofilm productivity was largely explained by differences in the colonization time which in turn was strongly correlated to the polar surface energy of the material, but weakly correlated to water-material contact angle. When colonization time was taken into account, the productivity for all materials except acrylic was not significantly different at approximately 2g/m(2)/day. Lipid content of the algal biofilms ranged from 6% to 8% (w/w) and was not correlated to water-material contact angle or polar surface energy. The results have potential application for selecting appropriate materials for algal film photobioreactors.

  17. Effects of different biomass drying and lipid extraction methods on algal lipid yield, fatty acid profile, and biodiesel quality.

    PubMed

    Hussain, Javid; Liu, Yan; Lopes, Wilson A; Druzian, Janice I; Souza, Carolina O; Carvalho, Gilson C; Nascimento, Iracema A; Liao, Wei

    2015-03-01

    Three lipid extraction methods of hexane Soxhlet (Sox-Hex), Halim (HIP), and Bligh and Dyer (BD) were applied on freeze-dried (FD) and oven-dried (OD) Chlorella vulgaris biomass to evaluate their effects on lipid yield, fatty acid profile, and algal biodiesel quality. Among these three methods, HIP was the preferred one for C. vulgaris lipid recovery considering both extraction efficiency and solvent toxicity. It had the highest lipid yields of 20.0 and 22.0% on FD and OD biomass, respectively, with corresponding neutral lipid yields of 14.8 and 12.7%. The lipid profiling analysis showed that palmitic, oleic, linoleic, and α-linolenic acids were the major fatty acids in the algal lipids, and there were no significant differences on the amount of these acids between different drying and extraction methods. Correlative models applied to the fatty acid profiles concluded that high contents of palmitic and oleic acids in algal lipids contributed to balancing the ratio of saturated and unsaturated fatty acids and led to a high-quality algal biodiesel.

  18. Process Design and Economics for the Conversion of Algal Biomass to Biofuels: Algal Biomass Fractionation to Lipid- and Carbohydrate-Derived Fuel Products

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, R.; Kinchin, C.; Markham, J.; Tan, E.; Laurens, L.; Sexton, D.; Knorr, D.; Schoen, P.; Lukas, J.

    2014-09-01

    Beginning in 2013, NREL began transitioning from the singular focus on ethanol to a broad slate of products and conversion pathways, ultimately to establish similar benchmarking and targeting efforts. One of these pathways is the conversion of algal biomass to fuels via extraction of lipids (and potentially other components), termed the 'algal lipid upgrading' or ALU pathway. This report describes in detail one potential ALU approach based on a biochemical processing strategy to selectively recover and convert select algal biomass components to fuels, namely carbohydrates to ethanol and lipids to a renewable diesel blendstock (RDB) product. The overarching process design converts algal biomass delivered from upstream cultivation and dewatering (outside the present scope) to ethanol, RDB, and minor coproducts, using dilute-acid pretreatment, fermentation, lipid extraction, and hydrotreating.

  19. Saline wastewater treatment by Chlorella vulgaris with simultaneous algal lipid accumulation triggered by nitrate deficiency.

    PubMed

    Shen, Qiao-Hui; Gong, Yu-Peng; Fang, Wen-Zhe; Bi, Zi-Cheng; Cheng, Li-Hua; Xu, Xin-Hua; Chen, Huan-Lin

    2015-10-01

    Chlorella vulgaris, a marine microalgae strain adaptable to 0-50 g L(-1) of salinity, was selected for studying the coupling system of saline wastewater treatment and lipid accumulation. The effect of total nitrogen (T N) concentration was investigated on algal growth, nutrients removal as well as lipid accumulation. The removal efficiencies of TN and total phosphorus (TP) were found to be 92.2-96.6% and over 99%, respectively, after a batch cultivation of 20 days. To illustrate the response of lipid accumulation to nutrients removal, C. vulgaris was further cultivated in the recycling experiment of tidal saline water within the photobioreactor. The lipid accumulation was triggered upon the almost depletion of nitrate (<5 mg L(-1)), till the final highest lipid content of 40%. The nitrogen conversion in the sequence of nitrate, nitrite, and then to ammonium in the effluents was finally integrated with previous discussions on metabolic pathways of algal cell under nitrogen deficiency.

  20. Bicarbonate trigger for inducing lipid accumulation in algal systems

    SciTech Connect

    Gardner, Robert; Peyton, Brent; Cooksey, Keith E.

    2015-08-04

    The present invention provides bicarbonate containing and/or bicarbonate-producing compositions and methods to induce lipid accumulation in an algae growth system, wherein the algae growth system is under light-dark cycling condition. By adding said compositions at a specific growth stage, said methods lead to much higher lipid accumulation and/or significantly reduced total time required for accumulating lipid in the algae growth system.

  1. Extractive-transesterification of algal lipids under microwave irradiation with hexane as solvent.

    PubMed

    Martinez-Guerra, Edith; Gude, Veera Gnaneswar; Mondala, Andro; Holmes, William; Hernandez, Rafael

    2014-03-01

    This study describes the use of microwaves (MW) for enhanced extractive-transesterification of algal lipids from dry algal biomass (Chlorella sp.). Two different single-step extractive-transesterification methods under MW irradiation were evaluated: (1) with ethanol as solvent/reactant and sodium hydroxide catalyst; and (2) with ethanol as reactant and hexane as solvent (sodium hydroxide catalyst). Biodiesel (fatty-acid-ethyl-esters, FAEE) yields from these two methods were compared with the conventional Bligh and Dyer (BD) method which followed a two-step extraction-transesterification process. The maximum lipid yields for MW, MW with hexane and BD methods were 20.1%, 20.1%, and 13.9%, respectively; while the FAEE conversion of the algal lipids were 96.2%, 94.3%, and 78.1%, respectively. The algae-biomass:ethanol molar ratio of 1:250-500 and 2.0-2.5% catalyst with reaction times around 6min were determined as optimum conditions for both methods. This study confers that the single-step non-conventional methods can contribute to higher algal lipid and FAEE yields.

  2. Progress on lipid extraction from wet algal biomass for biodiesel production.

    PubMed

    Ghasemi Naghdi, Forough; González González, Lina M; Chan, William; Schenk, Peer M

    2016-11-01

    Lipid recovery and purification from microalgal cells continues to be a significant bottleneck in biodiesel production due to high costs involved and a high energy demand. Therefore, there is a considerable necessity to develop an extraction method which meets the essential requirements of being safe, cost-effective, robust, efficient, selective, environmentally friendly, feasible for large-scale production and free of product contamination. The use of wet concentrated algal biomass as a feedstock for oil extraction is especially desirable as it would avoid the requirement for further concentration and/or drying. This would save considerable costs and circumvent at least two lengthy processes during algae-based oil production. This article provides an overview on recent progress that has been made on the extraction of lipids from wet algal biomass. The biggest contributing factors appear to be the composition of algal cell walls, pre-treatments of biomass and the use of solvents (e.g. a solvent mixture or solvent-free lipid extraction). We compare recently developed wet extraction processes for oleaginous microalgae and make recommendations towards future research to improve lipid extraction from wet algal biomass.

  3. Biodiesel from wastewater: lipid production in high rate algal pond receiving disinfected effluent.

    PubMed

    Assemany, Paula Peixoto; Calijuri, Maria Lucia; do Couto, Eduardo de Aguiar; Santiago, Aníbal Fonseca; Dos Reis, Alberto José Delgado

    2015-01-01

    The production of different species of microalgae in consortium with other micro-organisms from wastewaters may represent an alternative process, to reduce the costs, for obtaining biofuels. The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of pre-ultraviolet disinfection (UV) in the production of lipids from biomass produced in high rate ponds. Two high rate algal ponds were evaluated: a pond that received domestic sewage without disinfection and the other receiving domestic sewage previously disinfected by UV radiation (uvHRAP). The UV disinfection did not lead to significant differences in fatty acid profile and total lipid productivities, although it increased algal biomass concentration and productivity as well as lipid content. Moreover, the overall biomass concentrations and productivities decreased with the UV disinfection, mostly as a consequence of a loss in bacterial load. We thus conclude that uvHRAP disinfection may represent a potential strategy to promote the cleaner and safer growth of algal biomass when cultivated in consortium with other micro-organisms. Mainly regarding the use of wastewater as culture medium, together with a cheaper production of lipids for biodiesel, pre-disinfection may represent an advance since extraction costs could be significantly trimmed due to the increase in lipid content.

  4. Subcritical water extraction of lipids from wet algal biomass

    DOEpatents

    Deng, Shuguang; Reddy, Harvind K.; Schaub, Tanner; Holguin, Francisco Omar

    2016-05-03

    Methods of lipid extraction from biomass, in particular wet algae, through conventionally heated subcritical water, and microwave-assisted subcritical water. In one embodiment, fatty acid methyl esters from solids in a polar phase are further extracted to increase biofuel production.

  5. Effects of anodic oxidation of a substoichiometric titanium dioxide reactive electrochemical membrane on algal cell destabilization and lipid extraction.

    PubMed

    Hua, Likun; Guo, Lun; Thakkar, Megha; Wei, Dequan; Agbakpe, Michael; Kuang, Liyuan; Magpile, Maraha; Chaplin, Brian P; Tao, Yi; Shuai, Danmeng; Zhang, Xihui; Mitra, Somenath; Zhang, Wen

    2016-03-01

    Efficient algal harvesting, cell pretreatment and lipid extraction are the major steps challenging the algal biofuel industrialization. To develop sustainable solutions for economically viable algal biofuels, our research aims at devising innovative reactive electrochemical membrane (REM) filtration systems for simultaneous algal harvesting and pretreatment for lipid extraction. The results in this work particularly demonstrated the use of the Ti4O7-based REM in algal pretreatment and the positive impacts on lipid extraction. After REM treatment, algal cells exhibited significant disruption in morphology and photosynthetic activity due to the anodic oxidation. Cell lysis was evidenced by the changes of fluorescent patterns of dissolved organic matter (DOM) in the treated algal suspension. The lipid extraction efficiency increased from 15.2 ± 0.6 g-lipidg-algae(-1) for untreated algae to 23.4 ± 0.7 g-lipidg-algae(-1) for treated algae (p<0.05), which highlights the potential to couple algal harvesting with cell pretreatment in an integrated REM filtration process.

  6. Acid-Catalyzed Algal Biomass Pretreatment for Integrated Lipid and Carbohydrate-Based Biofuels Production

    SciTech Connect

    Laurens, L. M. L.; Nagle, N.; Davis, R.; Sweeney, N.; Van Wychen, S.; Lowell, A.; Pienkos, P. T.

    2014-11-12

    One of the major challenges associated with algal biofuels production in a biorefinery-type setting is improving biomass utilization in its entirety, increasing the process energetic yields and providing economically viable and scalable co-product concepts. We demonstrate the effectiveness of a novel, integrated technology based on moderate temperatures and low pH to convert the carbohydrates in wet algal biomass to soluble sugars for fermentation, while making lipids more accessible for downstream extraction and leaving a protein-enriched fraction behind. We studied the effect of harvest timing on the conversion yields, using two algal strains; Chlorella and Scenedesmus, generating biomass with distinctive compositional ratios of protein, carbohydrate, and lipids. We found that the late harvest Scenedesmus biomass had the maximum theoretical biofuel potential at 143 gasoline gallon equivalent (GGE) combined fuel yield per dry ton biomass, followed by late harvest Chlorella at 128 GGE per ton. Our experimental data show a clear difference between the two strains, as Scenedesmus was more successfully converted in this process with a demonstrated 97 GGE per ton. Our measurements indicated a release of >90% of the available glucose in the hydrolysate liquors and an extraction and recovery of up to 97% of the fatty acids from wet biomass. Techno-economic analysis for the combined product yields indicates that this process exhibits the potential to improve per-gallon fuel costs by up to 33% compared to a lipids-only process for one strain, Scenedesmus, grown to the mid-point harvest condition.

  7. Hydrolysate of lipid extracted microalgal biomass residue: An algal growth promoter and enhancer.

    PubMed

    Maurya, Rahulkumar; Paliwal, Chetan; Chokshi, Kaumeel; Pancha, Imran; Ghosh, Tonmoy; Satpati, Gour Gopal; Pal, Ruma; Ghosh, Arup; Mishra, Sandhya

    2016-05-01

    The present study demonstrates the utilization of the algal hydrolysate (AH) prepared from lipid extracted residual harmful bloom-forming cyanobacteria Lyngbya majuscula biomass, as a growth supplement for the cultivation of green microalgae Chlorella vulgaris. BG-11 replacements with AH in different proportions significantly affects the cell count, dry cell weight (DCW), biomass productivity (BP) and pigments concentration. Among all, 25% AH substitution in BG11 media was found to be optimum which enhanced DCW, BP and pigments content by 39.13%, 40.81% and 129.47%, respectively, compared to control. The lipid content (31.95%) was also significantly higher in the 25% AH replacement. The volumetric productivity of neutral lipids (ideal for biodiesel) and total protein content of the cells significantly increased in all AH substitutions. Thus, lipid extracted microalgal biomass residue (LMBR) hydrolysate can be a potential growth stimulating supplement for oleaginous microalgae C. vulgaris.

  8. [Effects of allelochemical EMA isolated from Phragmites communis on algal cell membrane lipid and ultrastructure].

    PubMed

    Li, Feng-min; Hu, Hong-ying; Chong, Yun-xiao; Men, Yu-jie; Guo, Mei-ting

    2007-07-01

    In order to reveal the antialgal mechanisms of allelochemicals, effects of the allelochemical eathyl-2-methyl acetoacetate (EMA) on cell membrane lipid and ultrastructure of Chlorella pyrenoidosa, Microcystis aeruginosa and Chlorella vulagaris were studied in this paper. The lipid fatty acids of the algal membrane were isolated following the Bligh and Dye method and quantified by gas chromatograph/mass spectrometry. The ultrastructure of algal cells was observed with TEM. The results showed that EMA increased the contents of linolenic acid and linolic acid with increment of 14%, while decreased the content of myristic acid and cetylic acid in C. pyrenoidosa, membrane. The content of unsaturated fatty acids C18:1 and C18:2 increased 12% and 10% in M. aeruginosa with the addition of EMA, while the content of saturated fatty acids C18:0 and C16:0 decreased. EMA showed no significant change in the fatty acid composition in C. vulagaris under the experiment condition. EMA broke off cell wall of C. pyrenoidosa and M. aeruginosa. EMA damaged the cell membrane and the inclusion of algal cell leaked out. Nuclear and mitochondrial structure was damaged with the addition of EMA. EMA showed no significant change in the ultrastructure of C. vulgaris.

  9. Acid-Catalyzed Algal Biomass Pretreatment for Integrated Lipid and Carbohydrate-Based Biofuels Production

    DOE PAGES

    Laurens, L. M. L.; Nagle, N.; Davis, R.; ...

    2014-11-12

    One of the major challenges associated with algal biofuels production in a biorefinery-type setting is improving biomass utilization in its entirety, increasing the process energetic yields and providing economically viable and scalable co-product concepts. We demonstrate the effectiveness of a novel, integrated technology based on moderate temperatures and low pH to convert the carbohydrates in wet algal biomass to soluble sugars for fermentation, while making lipids more accessible for downstream extraction and leaving a protein-enriched fraction behind. We studied the effect of harvest timing on the conversion yields, using two algal strains; Chlorella and Scenedesmus, generating biomass with distinctive compositionalmore » ratios of protein, carbohydrate, and lipids. We found that the late harvest Scenedesmus biomass had the maximum theoretical biofuel potential at 143 gasoline gallon equivalent (GGE) combined fuel yield per dry ton biomass, followed by late harvest Chlorella at 128 GGE per ton. Our experimental data show a clear difference between the two strains, as Scenedesmus was more successfully converted in this process with a demonstrated 97 GGE per ton. Our measurements indicated a release of >90% of the available glucose in the hydrolysate liquors and an extraction and recovery of up to 97% of the fatty acids from wet biomass. Techno-economic analysis for the combined product yields indicates that this process exhibits the potential to improve per-gallon fuel costs by up to 33% compared to a lipids-only process for one strain, Scenedesmus, grown to the mid-point harvest condition.« less

  10. Lipids of recently-deposited algal mats at Laguna Mormona, Baja California

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cardoso, J.; Brooks, P. W.; Eglinton, G.; Goodfellow, R.; Maxwell, J. R.; Philp, R. P.

    1976-01-01

    A preliminary survey of the lipid composition of the core of a recently deposited algal mat of a subtropical, hypersaline coastal pond is described. Two layers of the core were examined: the upper, 2-cm-thick layer, comprising the fresh algal mat of predominantly the blue-green species Microcoleus chthonoplastes, and the black anaerobic algal ooze at a depth of 10 cm. About 75% of the n-alkanes in the mat were accounted for by n-C17, with smaller amounts of higher homologues maximizing at n-C27. The ooze was characterized by a bimodal distribution with maxima at n-C17 and n-C27. The n-alkanoic acids distributions were similar to the corresponding n-alkane distributions. A marked decrease in the ratio of monounsaturated to saturated acids in the ooze relative to the mat was observed, which indicates a preferential removal of unsaturated components. Certain triterpenes of the hopane skeletal type were present in the mat and ooze. The presence of stanols and sterenes in the ooze with similar carbon number distributions suggests a relationship between them.

  11. Plasticizer and surfactant formation from food-waste- and algal biomass-derived lipids.

    PubMed

    Pleissner, Daniel; Lau, Kin Yan; Zhang, Chengwu; Lin, Carol Sze Ki

    2015-05-22

    The potential of lipids derived from food-waste and algal biomass (produced from food-waste hydrolysate) for the formation of plasticizers and surfactants is investigated herein. Plasticizers were formed by epoxidation of double bonds of methylated unsaturated fatty acids with in situ generated peroxoformic acid. Assuming that all unsaturated fatty acids are convertible, 0.35 and 0.40 g of plasticizer can be obtained from 1 g of crude algae- or food-waste-derived lipids, respectively. Surfactants were formed by transesterification of saturated and epoxidized fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs) with polyglycerol. The addition of polyglycerol would result in a complete conversion of saturated and epoxidized FAMEs to fatty acid polyglycerol esters. This study successfully demonstrates the conversion of food-waste into value-added chemicals using simple and conventional chemical reactions.

  12. Growth-dependent hydrogen isotopic fractionation of algal lipid biomarkers in hypersaline Isabel Lake (México)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romero-Viana, Lidia; Kienel, Ulrike; Wilkes, Heinz; Sachse, Dirk

    2013-04-01

    In this study, we evaluated the potential of the hydrogen isotopic composition of algal lipid biomarkers as a proxy for past hydroclimatic variability in hypersaline Isabel Lake, Mexico (Eastern Pacific). We compared rainfall variability recorded in the region over the last 65 years with changes in δD values of the most abundant compounds preserved in the uppermost 16 cm of lake sediment. Changes in δD values of the 1,15-C32 diol (δDdiol), a specific biomarker of algal populations, were related to rainfall variability; specifically, n-alkyl diols were more deuterium-enriched (depleted) during wetter (drier) periods. Strikingly, neither the magnitude of lipid biomarker isotopic changes over interannual timescales (of up to 70-80‰) nor the direction of that variability can be explained by changes in δD values of the water source or salinity fluctuations (approximately 30 on the practical salinity scale) controlled by seasonal rainfall. However, changes in sedimentary biomarker composition, higher total organic carbon content and less negative δ13C values of the 1,15-C32 diol indicate enhanced algal growth during wetter periods. We find that these conditions result in less negative δD values of n-alkyl diols. We hypothesize that due to higher lipid demand during enhanced algal growth, an increasing proportion of hydrogen for lipid synthesis is derived from the cytosol via oxidation of polysaccharides, which may cause a deuterium enrichment of the acetogenic compounds. This study has significant implications for paleohydrological reconstructions using algal lipid δD values, particularly in highly seasonal environments such as Isabel Lake. In such environments, δD values of specific algal lipid biomarkers may not record the full seasonal cycle in source water δD but appear to be mainly controlled by the physiological state of algal populations. Our data provide the first evidence that changes in D/H fractionation due to algal growth conditions can be recorded

  13. Microalgae from domestic wastewater facility's high rate algal pond: Lipids extraction, characterization and biodiesel production.

    PubMed

    Drira, Neila; Piras, Alessandra; Rosa, Antonella; Porcedda, Silvia; Dhaouadi, Hatem

    2016-04-01

    In this study, the harvesting of a biomass from a high rate algal pond (HRAP) of a real-scale domestic wastewater treatment facility and its potential as a biomaterial for the production of biodiesel were investigated. Increasing the medium pH to 12 induced high flocculation efficiency of up to 96% of the biomass through both sweep flocculation and charge neutralization. Lipids extracted by ultrasounds from this biomass contained around 70% of fatty acids, with palmitic and stearic acids being the most abundant. The extract obtained by supercritical CO2 contained 86% of fatty acids. Both conventional solvents extracts contained only around 10% of unsaturated fats, whereas supercritical CO2 extract contained more than 40% of unsaturated fatty acids. This same biomass was also subject to direct extractive-transesterification in a microwave reactor to produce fatty acid methyl esters, also known as, raw biodiesel.

  14. Oil crop biomass residue-based media for enhanced algal lipid production.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhen; Ma, Xiaochen; Zhou, Wenguang; Min, Min; Cheng, Yanling; Chen, Paul; Shi, Jian; Wang, Qin; Liu, Yuhuan; Ruan, Roger

    2013-10-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the use of hydrolysates from acid hydrolysis of four different oil crop biomass residues (OCBR) as low cost culture media for algae growth. The one-factor-at-a-time method was used to design a series of experiments to optimize the acid hydrolysis conditions through examining the total nitrogen, total phosphorus, chemical oxygen demand, and ammonia nitrogen in the hydrolysates. The optimal conditions were found to be using 3% sulfuric acid and hydrolyzing residues at 90 °C for 20 h. The hydrolysates (OCBR media) produced under the optimal conditions were used to cultivate the two algae strains, namely UM258 and UM268. The results from 5 days of cultivation showed that the OCBR media supported faster algae growth with maximal algal biomass yield of 2.7 and 3 g/L, respectively. Moreover, the total lipids for UM258 and UM268 were 54 and 35%, respectively, after 5 days of cultivation, which suggested that the OCBR media allowed the algae strains to accumulate higher lipids probably due to high C/N ratio. Furthermore, over 3% of omega-3 fatty acid (EPA) was produced for the two algae strains. In conclusion, OCBR media are excellent alternative for algae growth and have a great potential for large-scale production of algae-based ingredients for biodiesel as well as high-value food and pharmaceutical products.

  15. Triflate-catalyzed (trans)esterification of lipids within carbonized algal biomass.

    PubMed

    Levine, Robert B; Bollas, Alexandra A; Durham, Matthew D; Savage, Phillip E

    2012-05-01

    This study demonstrates the utility of rare-earth metal triflate catalysts (i.e., Sc(OTf)(3) and In(OTf)(3)) in the (trans)esterification of oleic acid as well as the lipids contained within carbonized algal biomass using ethanol in the presence of water. Both catalysts are highly active between 200 and 235°C with an ethanol:fatty acid (EtOH:FA) molar ratio of 10-20:1 and showed a high tolerance for moisture. Lipids within hydrochars produced by reacting Chlorella protothecoides paste (25% solids) in high temperature water (220-250°C) were successfully converted into fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEE). The highest FAEE yields (85-98%) were obtained when hydrochars were reacted for 60 min at 215°C with about 11-13 mol% Sc(OTf)(3), a 17-19:1 EtOH:FA molar ratio, and without water. FAEE yields remained as high as 93% in the presence of 9 wt.% water. Our preliminary results warrant further work to optimize triflate-catalyzed in situ (trans)esterification at low catalyst and ethanol loadings.

  16. Hydrogen Isotope Fractation Between Water and Algal Lipids of Three Strains of Botryococcus braunii Under Controlled Conidtions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Z.; Sachs, J. P.

    2004-12-01

    Understanding of precipitation anomaly variations is essential to the reconstruction of paleo-El Nino at the low latitudes. In enclosed lakes, where lake level is affected by the balance between precipitation and evaporation only, water δ D reflects precipitation patterns. Freshwater algae, which utilize lake water for photosynthesis, should incorporate such signal in the hydrogen isotopes of their tissues. However, a fundamental question still exits: do algal lipid biomarkers truly record lake water hydrogen isotopic ratios? We have measured hydrogen isotope fractionation by freshwater algae Botryococcus braunii (3 strains) grown under controlled conditions in the lab. In order to establish a good relationship between lipid δ D and water δ D, for each strain we set up cultures in five waters with different δ D. δ D of alkadienes and botryococcenes of Botryococcus brauni measured on GCIRMS showed strong positive linear relation with water δ D (R2=0.99). Hydrogen isotopic ratios in the algal hydrocarbons are about 165 ‰ more negative compared to the water at the start while they are 270 ‰ more negative compared to water δ D at harvest. Such linear relationships establish a foundation for reconstructing lake water level and thus precipitation anomaly by analyzing δ D of algal lipids preserved in lake sediments.

  17. Transformation of lipid bodies related to hydrocarbon accumulation in a green alga, Botryococcus braunii (Race B).

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Reiko; Ito, Naoko; Uno, Yuki; Nishii, Ichiro; Kagiwada, Satoshi; Okada, Sigeru; Noguchi, Tetsuko

    2013-01-01

    The colonial microalga Botryococcus braunii accumulates large quantities of hydrocarbons mainly in the extracellular space; most other oleaginous microalgae store lipids in the cytoplasm. Botryococcus braunii is classified into three principal races (A, B, and L) based on the types of hydrocarbons. Race B has attracted the most attention as an alternative to petroleum by its higher hydrocarbon contents than the other races and its hydrocarbon components, botryococcenes and methylsqualenes, both can be readily converted into biofuels. We studied race B using fluorescence and electron microscopy, and clarify the stage when extracellular hydrocarbon accumulation occurs during the cell cycle, in a correlation with the behavior and structural changes of the lipid bodies and discussed development of the algal colony. New accumulation of lipids on the cell surface occurred after cell division in the basolateral region of daughter cells. While lipid bodies were observed throughout the cell cycle, their size and inclusions were dynamically changing. When cells began dividing, the lipid bodies increased in size and inclusions until the extracellular accumulation of lipids started. Most of the lipids disappeared from the cytoplasm concomitant with the extracellular accumulation, and then reformed. We therefore hypothesize that lipid bodies produced during the growth of B. braunii are related to lipid secretion. New lipids secreted at the cell surface formed layers of oil droplets, to a maximum depth of six layers, and fused to form flattened, continuous sheets. The sheets that combined a pair of daughter cells remained during successive cellular divisions and the colony increased in size with increasing number of cells.

  18. Conversion of membrane lipid acyl groups to triacylglycerol and formation of lipid bodies upon nitrogen starvation in biofuel green algae Chlorella UTEX29.

    PubMed

    Goncalves, Elton C; Johnson, Jodie V; Rathinasabapathi, Bala

    2013-11-01

    Algal lipids are ideal biofuel sources. Our objective was to determine the contributors to triacylglycerol (TAG) accumulation and lipid body formation in Chlorella UTEX29 under nitrogen (N) deprivation. A fivefold increase in intracellular lipids following N starvation for 24 h confirmed the oleaginous characteristics of UTEX29. Ultrastructural studies revealed increased number of lipid bodies and decreased starch granules in N-starved cells compared to N-replete cells. Lipid bodies were observed as early as 3 h after N removal and plastids collapsed after 48 h of stress. Moreover, the identification of intracellular pyrenoids and differences in the expected nutritional requirements for Chlorella protothecoides (as UTEX29 is currently classified) led us to conduct a phylogenetic study using 18S and actin cDNA sequences. This indicated UTEX29 to be more phylogenetically related to Chlorella vulgaris. To investigate the fate of different lipids after N starvation, radiolabeling using ¹⁴C-acetate was used. A significant decrease in ¹⁴C-galactolipids and phospholipids matched the increase in ¹⁴C-TAG starting at 3 h of N starvation, consistent with acyl groups from structural lipids as sources for TAG under N starvation. These results have important implications for the identification of key steps controlling oil accumulation in N-starved biofuel algae and demonstrate membrane recycling during lipid body formation.

  19. Mass cultivation of various algal species and their evaluation as a potential candidate for lipid production.

    PubMed

    Sharif, Nadia; Munir, Neelma; Saleem, Faiza; Aslam, Farheen; Naz, Shagufta

    2015-01-01

    Microalgae have been proposed as a promising source for biodiesel production. Focusing on algal strains for biodiesel production, efforts should be made to search new strains. Experiments were carried out to investigate the effects of growth parameters (nutrients, pH, light, aeration and temperature) and the oil percentage of eight algal strains (Chlorella sp., Cladophora sp., Hydrodictylium sp., Oedogonium sp., Oscillatoria sp., Spirogyra sp., Stigeocolonium sp., Ulothrix sp.). Results show that 6.5-7.5 is the optimum pH for the growth of all algal species. Temperature showed a greater variation (25°40°C). Ulothrix sp. gave more biomass productivity and is the most suitable strain for biodiesel production due to higher oil percentage (62%). Least biomass production was observed for Stigeocolonium sp. and least oil content was obtained from Hydrodictylium sp. It was observed that among these eight algal strains for biodiesel production, Ulothrix and Chlorella are the most promising algae species.

  20. Algal Diet of Small-Bodied Crustacean Zooplankton in a Cyanobacteria-Dominated Eutrophic Lake.

    PubMed

    Tõnno, Ilmar; Agasild, Helen; Kõiv, Toomas; Freiberg, Rene; Nõges, Peeter; Nõges, Tiina

    2016-01-01

    Small-bodied cladocerans and cyclopoid copepods are becoming increasingly dominant over large crustacean zooplankton in eutrophic waters where they often coexist with cyanobacterial blooms. However, relatively little is known about their algal diet preferences. We studied grazing selectivity of small crustaceans (the cyclopoid copepods Mesocyclops leuckarti, Thermocyclops oithonoides, Cyclops kolensis, and the cladocerans Daphnia cucullata, Chydorus sphaericus, Bosmina spp.) by liquid chromatographic analyses of phytoplankton marker pigments in the shallow, highly eutrophic Lake Võrtsjärv (Estonia) during a seasonal cycle. Copepods (mainly C. kolensis) preferably consumed cryptophytes (identified by the marker pigment alloxanthin in gut contents) during colder periods, while they preferred small non-filamentous diatoms and green algae (identified mainly by diatoxanthin and lutein, respectively) from May to September. All studied cladoceran species showed highest selectivity towards colonial cyanobacteria (identified by canthaxanthin). For small C. sphaericus, commonly occuring in the pelagic zone of eutrophic lakes, colonial cyanobacteria can be their major food source, supporting their coexistence with cyanobacterial blooms. Pigments characteristic of filamentous cyanobacteria and diatoms (zeaxanthin and fucoxanthin, respectively), algae dominating in Võrtsjärv, were also found in the grazers' diet but were generally avoided by the crustaceans commonly dominating the zooplankton assemblage. Together these results suggest that the co-occurring small-bodied cyclopoid and cladoceran species have markedly different algal diets and that the cladocera represent the main trophic link transferring cyanobacterial carbon to the food web in a highly eutrophic lake.

  1. Algal Diet of Small-Bodied Crustacean Zooplankton in a Cyanobacteria-Dominated Eutrophic Lake

    PubMed Central

    Tõnno, Ilmar; Agasild, Helen; Kõiv, Toomas; Freiberg, Rene; Nõges, Peeter; Nõges, Tiina

    2016-01-01

    Small-bodied cladocerans and cyclopoid copepods are becoming increasingly dominant over large crustacean zooplankton in eutrophic waters where they often coexist with cyanobacterial blooms. However, relatively little is known about their algal diet preferences. We studied grazing selectivity of small crustaceans (the cyclopoid copepods Mesocyclops leuckarti, Thermocyclops oithonoides, Cyclops kolensis, and the cladocerans Daphnia cucullata, Chydorus sphaericus, Bosmina spp.) by liquid chromatographic analyses of phytoplankton marker pigments in the shallow, highly eutrophic Lake Võrtsjärv (Estonia) during a seasonal cycle. Copepods (mainly C. kolensis) preferably consumed cryptophytes (identified by the marker pigment alloxanthin in gut contents) during colder periods, while they preferred small non-filamentous diatoms and green algae (identified mainly by diatoxanthin and lutein, respectively) from May to September. All studied cladoceran species showed highest selectivity towards colonial cyanobacteria (identified by canthaxanthin). For small C. sphaericus, commonly occuring in the pelagic zone of eutrophic lakes, colonial cyanobacteria can be their major food source, supporting their coexistence with cyanobacterial blooms. Pigments characteristic of filamentous cyanobacteria and diatoms (zeaxanthin and fucoxanthin, respectively), algae dominating in Võrtsjärv, were also found in the grazers’ diet but were generally avoided by the crustaceans commonly dominating the zooplankton assemblage. Together these results suggest that the co-occurring small-bodied cyclopoid and cladoceran species have markedly different algal diets and that the cladocera represent the main trophic link transferring cyanobacterial carbon to the food web in a highly eutrophic lake. PMID:27124652

  2. Utilization of non-conventional systems for conversion of biomass to food components: Recovery optimization and characterizations of algal proteins and lipids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Karel, M.; Nakhost, Z.

    1986-01-01

    Protein isolate obtained from green algae (Scenedesmus obliquus) cultivated under controlled conditions was characterized. Molecular weight determination of fractionated algal proteins using SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis revealed a wide spectrum of molecular weights ranging from 15,000 to 220,000. Isoelectric points of dissociated proteins were in the range of 3.95 to 6.20. Amino acid composition of protein isolate compared favorably with FAO standards. High content of essential amino acids leucine, valine, phenylalanine and lysine makes algal protein isolate a high quality component of closed environment life support system (CELSS) diets. To optimize the removal of algal lipids and pigments supercritical carbon dioxide extraction (with and without ethanol as a co-solvent) was used. Addition of ethanol to supercritical CO2 resulted in more efficient removal of algal lipids and produced protein isolate with a good yield and protein recovery. The protein isolate extracted by the above mixture had an improved water solubility.

  3. Enhanced energy conversion efficiency from high strength synthetic organic wastewater by sequential dark fermentative hydrogen production and algal lipid accumulation.

    PubMed

    Ren, Hong-Yu; Liu, Bing-Feng; Kong, Fanying; Zhao, Lei; Xing, Defeng; Ren, Nan-Qi

    2014-04-01

    A two-stage process of sequential dark fermentative hydrogen production and microalgal cultivation was applied to enhance the energy conversion efficiency from high strength synthetic organic wastewater. Ethanol fermentation bacterium Ethanoligenens harbinense B49 was used as hydrogen producer, and the energy conversion efficiency and chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal efficiency reached 18.6% and 28.3% in dark fermentation. Acetate was the main soluble product in dark fermentative effluent, which was further utilized by microalga Scenedesmus sp. R-16. The final algal biomass concentration reached 1.98gL(-1), and the algal biomass was rich in lipid (40.9%) and low in protein (23.3%) and carbohydrate (11.9%). Compared with single dark fermentation stage, the energy conversion efficiency and COD removal efficiency of two-stage system remarkably increased 101% and 131%, respectively. This research provides a new approach for efficient energy production and wastewater treatment using a two-stage process combining dark fermentation and algal cultivation.

  4. Relationship between plant lipid bodies and fungal endophytes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Lipid bodies are universal components of plant cells and provide a mobilized carbon source for essential biological processes. Plant oils harvested for food and fuel often reside in these lipid bodies. Plants also host diverse populations of endophytic fungi, which easily escape microscopic detect...

  5. Determining the Effect of Growth Rate on Hydrogen Isotope Fractionation of Algal Lipids in Two North Pacific Sites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolfshorndl, M.; Sachs, J. P.

    2015-12-01

    Tropical hydrologic changes have a large effect on global climate, but there does not yet exist a good indicator of rainfall variation in the tropics. Understanding past natural variability of such features as the Intertropical Convergence Zone and El Niño Southern Oscillation provides information about the extent of anthropogenic climate change today. The hydrogen isotopic composition (D/H ratio) of algal lipids has been shown to track the isotopic composition of source water in which the organism grew, providing information about precipitation variability over time. However, culture work has revealed that environmental factors such as salinity, temperature, growth rate, and irradiance also influence algal lipid D/H ratios. Here I present work determining the effect of growth rate and irradiance on the hydrogen isotope composition of alkenone-producing algae in the water column in two North Pacific locations, off the coast of Oregon and near the Hawaii Ocean Time Series site. This work corroborates empirical relationships observed in culture studies and indicates that the effects of growth rate and irradiance should be taken into account when applying the D/H isotope ratio rainfall proxy to reconstruct past climates.

  6. Fatty Acids from Membrane Lipids Become Incorporated into Lipid Bodies during Myxococcus xanthus Differentiation

    PubMed Central

    Bhat, Swapna; Boynton, Tye O.; Pham, Dan; Shimkets, Lawrence J.

    2014-01-01

    Myxococcus xanthus responds to amino acid limitation by producing fruiting bodies containing dormant spores. During development, cells produce triacylglycerides in lipid bodies that become consumed during spore maturation. As the cells are starved to induce development, the production of triglycerides represents a counterintuitive metabolic switch. In this paper, lipid bodies were quantified in wild-type strain DK1622 and 33 developmental mutants at the cellular level by measuring the cross sectional area of the cell stained with the lipophilic dye Nile red. We provide five lines of evidence that triacylglycerides are derived from membrane phospholipids as cells shorten in length and then differentiate into myxospores. First, in wild type cells, lipid bodies appear early in development and their size increases concurrent with an 87% decline in membrane surface area. Second, developmental mutants blocked at different stages of shortening and differentiation accumulated lipid bodies proportionate with their cell length with a Pearson's correlation coefficient of 0.76. Third, peripheral rods, developing cells that do not produce lipid bodies, fail to shorten. Fourth, genes for fatty acid synthesis are down-regulated while genes for fatty acid degradation are up regulated. Finally, direct movement of fatty acids from membrane lipids in growing cells to lipid bodies in developing cells was observed by pulse labeling cells with palmitate. Recycling of lipids released by Programmed Cell Death appears not to be necessary for lipid body production as a fadL mutant was defective in fatty acid uptake but proficient in lipid body production. The lipid body regulon involves many developmental genes that are not specifically involved in fatty acid synthesis or degradation. MazF RNA interferase and its target, enhancer-binding protein Nla6, appear to negatively regulate cell shortening and TAG accumulation whereas most cell-cell signals activate these processes. PMID:24906161

  7. Effect of phosphorous concentrations on sedimentary distributions and isotopic composition of algal lipid biomarkers in lakes from central Switzerland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ladd, N.; Dubois, N.; Schubert, C. J.

    2015-12-01

    Lakes in the Swiss central plateau experienced increasing anthropogenic phosphorous loading throughout much of the 20th century. Since the 1980s concerted remediation efforts on the part of the Swiss government have significantly reduced P concentrations in most lakes and reversed previous eutrophication. However, P concentrations remain elevated above their preindustrial levels in many sites. High quality monitoring of lake nutrient levels since the 1950s, along with several lakes of wide-ranging P concentrations in close proximity, make central Switzerland an ideal location for studying the ways in which nutrient loading affects the organic composition of lacustrine sediments. Results of such studies can be used to develop proxies of eutrophication in sites where fewer historical data exist, and to reconstruct historical P concentrations in local lakes from the time before record keeping began. We analyzed the distributions of algal lipid biomarkers from surface sediment and sediment traps collected in the spring of 2015 from ten lakes with variable P concentrations in central Switzerland. Sedimentary lipid distributions from these lakes confirm that biomarkers associated with algal and cyanobacterial sources are more abundant in the sediment of lakes with greater P loading. The dry sedimentary concentrations of biomarkers such as brassicasterol (primarily diatom source) and diplopterol (cyanobacteria source), as well as the less source specific short-chain n-alkanols, linearly increase from 0.3 - 1.9 μg/g as total phosphorous in the upper water column increases by 1 μg/L over a range of 7 - 50 μg/L. We also present preliminary hydrogen isotope data from these biomarkers. Hydrogen isotopes of algal lipids primarily reflect the source water in which the algae grew, and this relationship has been developed as a paleohydrologic proxy. However, laboratory cultures of marine algae demonstrate that they discriminate more against 2H under nutrient replete conditions

  8. Renewable Diesel from Algal Lipids: An Integrated Baseline for Cost, Emissions, and Resource Potential from a Harmonized Model

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, R.; Fishman, D.; Frank, E. D.; Wigmosta, M. S.; Aden, A.; Coleman, A. M.; Pienkos, P. T.; Skaggs, R. J.; Venteris, E. R.; Wang, M. Q.

    2012-06-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy's Biomass Program has begun an initiative to obtain consistent quantitative metrics for algal biofuel production to establish an 'integrated baseline' by harmonizing and combining the Program's national resource assessment (RA), techno-economic analysis (TEA), and life-cycle analysis (LCA) models. The baseline attempts to represent a plausible near-term production scenario with freshwater microalgae growth, extraction of lipids, and conversion via hydroprocessing to produce a renewable diesel (RD) blendstock. Differences in the prior TEA and LCA models were reconciled (harmonized) and the RA model was used to prioritize and select the most favorable consortium of sites that supports production of 5 billion gallons per year of RD. Aligning the TEA and LCA models produced slightly higher costs and emissions compared to the pre-harmonized results. However, after then applying the productivities predicted by the RA model (13 g/m2/d on annual average vs. 25 g/m2/d in the original models), the integrated baseline resulted in markedly higher costs and emissions. The relationship between performance (cost and emissions) and either productivity or lipid fraction was found to be non-linear, and important implications on the TEA and LCA results were observed after introducing seasonal variability from the RA model. Increasing productivity and lipid fraction alone was insufficient to achieve cost and emission targets; however, combined with lower energy, less expensive alternative technology scenarios, emissions and costs were substantially reduced.

  9. Detection of algal lipid accumulation due to nitrogen limitation via dielectric spectroscopy of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii suspensions in a coaxial transmission line sample cell.

    PubMed

    Bono, Michael S; Ahner, Beth A; Kirby, Brian J

    2013-09-01

    In this study, dielectric characterization of algae cell suspensions was used to detect lipid accumulation due to nitrogen starvation. Wild-type Chlamydomonas reinhardtii (CC-125) was cultivated in replete and nitrogen-limited conditions in order to achieve a range of lipid contents, as confirmed by Nile Red fluorescence measurements. A vector network analyzer was used to measure the dielectric scattering parameters of a coaxial region of concentrated cell suspension. The critical frequency fc of the normalized transmission coefficient |S21(*)| decreased with increasing lipid content but did not change with cell concentration. These observations were consistent with a decrease in cytoplasmic conductivity due to lipid accumulation in the preliminary transmission line model. This dielectric sensitivity to lipid content will facilitate the development of a rapid, noninvasive method for algal lipid measurement that could be implemented in industrial settings without the need for specialized staff and analytical facilities.

  10. Algal Lipids and Omega-3 Production via Autotrophic and Heterotrophic Pathways at Cellana?s Kona Demonstration Facility, Hawaii

    SciTech Connect

    Bai, Xuemei; Knurek, Emily; Goes, Nikki; Griswold, Lynn

    2012-05-05

    Cellana?s Kona Demonstration Facility (KDF) is a 2.5 hectare facility, with 17,000 sq. ft. under roof and 1 hectare of cultivation systems. KDF is designed to execute and support all stages of the production process at pilot scale, from cultivation through extraction. Since Feb. 2009, KDF has been producing up to 0.7MT dry weight of algal biomass per month, while at the same time optimizing processes of cultivation, harvesting, dewatering and extraction. The cultivation system at KDF uses ALDUO? technology, a hybrid system of photobioreactors (PBRs) and open ponds. All fluid transfers related to KDF cultivation and harvesting processes are operated and monitored by a remote Process-Control System. Fluid transfer data, together with biochemical data, enable the mass balance calculations necessary to measure productivity. This poster summarizes methods to improve both biomass and lipids yield by 1) alleviating light limitation in open ponds, 2) de-oxygenation and 3) heterotrophic lipid production for post-harvesting cultures.

  11. Optimization of pilot high rate algal ponds for simultaneous nutrient removal and lipids production.

    PubMed

    Arbib, Zouhayr; de Godos, Ignacio; Ruiz, Jesús; Perales, José A

    2017-07-01

    Special attention is required to the removal of nitrogen and phosphorous in treated wastewaters. Although, there are a wide range of techniques commercially available for nutrient up-take, these processes entail high investment and operational costs. In the other hand, microalgae growth can simultaneously remove inorganic constituents of wastewater and produce energy rich biomass. Among all the cultivation technologies, High Rate Algae Ponds (HRAPs), are accepted as the most appropriate system. However, the optimization of the operation that maximizes the productivity, nutrient removal and lipid content in the biomass generated has not been established. In this study, the effect of two levels of depth and the addition of CO2 were evaluated. Batch essays were used for the calculation of the kinetic parameters of microbial growth that determine the optimum conditions for continuous operation. Nutrient removal and lipid content of the biomass generated were analyzed. The best conditions were found at depth of 0.3m with CO2 addition (biomass productivity of 26.2gTSSm(-2)d(-1) and a lipid productivity of 6.0glipidsm(-2)d(-1)) in continuous mode. The concentration of nutrients was in all cases below discharge limits established by the most restrictive regulation for wastewater discharge.

  12. Process Design and Economics for the Conversion of Algal Biomass to Biofuels: Algal Biomass Fractionation to Lipid-and Carbohydrate-Derived Fuel Products

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, R.; Kinchin, C.; Markham, J.; Tan, E. C. D.; Laurens, L. M. L.; Sexton, D.; Knorr, D.; Schoen, P.; Lukas, J.

    2014-09-11

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) promotes the production of a range of liquid fuels and fuel blendstocks from biomass feedstocks by funding fundamental and applied research that advances the state of technology in biomass production, conversion, and sustainability. As part of its involvement in this program, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) investigates the conceptual production economics of these fuels. This includes fuel pathways from lignocellulosic (terrestrial) biomass, as well as from algal (aquatic) biomass systems.

  13. Structural correlates of cytoplasmic and chloroplast lipid body synthesis in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii and stimulation of lipid body production with acetate boost.

    PubMed

    Goodson, Carrie; Roth, Robyn; Wang, Zi Teng; Goodenough, Ursula

    2011-12-01

    Light microscopy and deep-etch electron microscopy were used to visualize triacylglyceride (TAG)-filled lipid bodies (LBs) of the green eukaryotic soil alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, a model organism for biodiesel production. Cells growing in nitrogen-replete media contain small cytoplasmic lipid bodies (α-cyto-LBs) and small chloroplast plastoglobules. When starved for N, β-cyto-LB formation is massively stimulated. β-Cyto-LBs are intimately associated with both the endoplasmic reticulum membrane and the outer membrane of the chloroplast envelope, suggesting a model for the active participation of both organelles in β-cyto-LB biosynthesis and packaging. When sta6 mutant cells, blocked in starch biosynthesis, are N starved, they produce β-cyto-LBs and also chloroplast LBs (cpst-LBs) that are at least 10 times larger than plastoglobules and eventually engorge the chloroplast stroma. Production of β-cyto-LBs and cpst-LBs under the conditions we used is dependent on exogenous 20 mM acetate. We propose that the greater TAG yields reported for N-starved sta6 cells can be attributed to the strain's ability to produce cpst-LBs, a capacity that is lost when the mutant is complemented by a STA6 transgene. Provision of a 20 mM acetate "boost" during N starvation generates sta6 cells that become so engorged with LBs-at the expense of cytoplasm and most organelles-that they float on water even when centrifuged. This property could be a desirable feature for algal harvesting during biodiesel production.

  14. Plant-animal diversity relationships in a rocky intertidal system depend on invertebrate body size and algal cover.

    PubMed

    Best, Rebecca J; Chaudoin, Ambre L; Bracken, Matthew E S; Graham, Michael H; Stachowicz, John J

    2014-05-01

    Considerable research has examined the influence of herbivores on the maintenance of plant diversity, but fewer studies have examined the reciprocal effect of plant diversity on the animals that use the plant community for food and shelter, particularly in marine systems. Several mechanisms could underlie such effects. Animal diversity and abundance could be increased by complementary use of different plants by different animals, or by an indirect effect of plant diversity on plant production that results in more total plant biomass in high plant-diversity communities. Alternatively, plant species identity could play a dominant role leading to sampling effects or no effect of diversity at all. We conducted a six-year field manipulation of the richness of rocky shore seaweeds in northern California and measured the effects of algal richness and identity on the invertebrate community, from meiofauna to macrofauna. We found that diverse algal communities hosted more species of both large and small invertebrates than the average algal monoculture but that the mechanisms underlying this pattern differed substantially for organisms of different size. More species of macrofauna occurred in the polycultures than in any of the monocultures, likely due to the greater total cover of algae produced in polycultures. Rare and common macrofaunal taxa responded to host plant species richness in opposite ways, with more occurrences of rare taxa and lower abundance of very common taxa in the polycultures. In contrast, meiofaunal richness in polycultures was no different than that of monocultures of finely branched species, leading to strong effects of algal identity. Our findings are similar to those from terrestrial systems in that the effects of plant diversity we observed were most related to the greater amount of habitat in polycultures as a result of overyielding in algal biomass. However, our findings differ from those in terrestrial systems in that the primary mechanisms for

  15. Lipid metabolism and body composition in Gclm(-/-) mice

    SciTech Connect

    Kendig, Eric L.; Chen, Ying; Krishan, Mansi; Johansson, Elisabet; Schneider, Scott N.; Genter, Mary Beth; Nebert, Daniel W.; Shertzer, Howard G.

    2011-12-15

    In humans and experimental animals, high fat diets (HFD) are associated with risk factors for metabolic diseases, such as excessive weight gain and adiposity, insulin resistance and fatty liver. Mice lacking the glutamate-cysteine ligase modifier subunit gene (Gclm(-/-)) and deficient in glutathione (GSH), are resistant to HFD-mediated weight gain. Herein, we evaluated Gclm-associated regulation of energy metabolism, oxidative stress, and glucose and lipid homeostasis. C57BL/6J Gclm(-/-) mice and littermate wild-type (WT) controls received a normal diet or an HFD for 11 weeks. HFD-fed Gclm(-/-) mice did not display a decreased respiratory quotient, suggesting that they are unable to process lipid for metabolism. Although dietary energy consumption and intestinal lipid absorption were unchanged in Gclm(-/-) mice, feeding these mice an HFD did not produce excess body weight nor fat storage. Gclm(-/-) mice displayed higher basal metabolic rates resulting from higher activities of liver mitochondrial NADH-CoQ oxidoreductase, thus elevating respiration. Although Gclm(-/-) mice exhibited strong systemic and hepatic oxidative stress responses, HFD did not promote glucose intolerance or insulin resistance. Furthermore, HFD-fed Gclm(-/-) mice did not develop fatty liver, likely resulting from very low expression levels of genes encoding lipid metabolizing enzymes. We conclude that Gclm is involved in the regulation of basal metabolic rate and the metabolism of dietary lipid. Although Gclm(-/-) mice display a strong oxidative stress response, they are protected from HFD-induced excessive weight gain and adipose deposition, insulin resistance and steatosis. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A high fat diet does not produce body weight and fat gain in Gclm(-/-) mice. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A high fat diet does not induce steatosis or insulin resistance in Gclm(-/-) mice. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Gclm(-/-) mice have high basal metabolism and mitochondrial

  16. Towards a paleo-salinity proxy: Decreasing D/H fractionation in algal and bacterial lipids with increasing salinity in Christmas Island saline ponds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sachse, D.; Sachs, J. P.

    2007-12-01

    We investigated the effect of a wide range of salinities (13 -149 PSU) on the D/H ratio of lipids in microbial mat sediments from hypersaline ponds on Christmas Island. The hydrogen isotope ratios (expressed as δD values) of total lipid extracts, and the individual hydrocarbons heptadecane, heptadecene, octadecane, octadecene, diploptene and phytene from algae and bacteria, became increasingly enriched in deuterium as salinity increased, spanning a range of 100‰ while lake water δD values spanned a range of just 12‰. D/H fractionation between lipids and source water thus decreased as salinity increased. Isotope fractionation factors (αlipid-water) were strongly correlated with salinity and increased in all compound classes studied. The apparent isotope fractionation (ɛlipid-water) decreased by 0.8 to 1.1‰ per PSU increase in salinity. Differences in the hydrogen isotopic composition of lipids derived from three biosynthetic pathways (acetogenic, MVA and DOXP/MEP) remained similar irrespective of the salinity, suggesting that the mechanism responsible for the observed αlipid-water - salinity relationship originates prior to the last common biosynthetic branching point, the Calvin Cycle. These findings imply that caution must be exercised when attempting to reconstruct source water δD values using lipid δD values from aquatic environments that may have experienced salinity variations of ~3 PSU or more (based on a 1‰ per PSU response of D/H fractionation to salinity changes, and a lipid δD measurement precision of 3‰). On the other hand our results can be used to establish a paleo-salinity proxy based on algal and bacterial lipid δD values if salinity variations exceeded ~3 PSU and/or if additional constraints on source water δD values can be made.

  17. Biodiesel production from lipids in wet microalgae with microwave irradiation and bio-crude production from algal residue through hydrothermal liquefaction.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Jun; Huang, Rui; Yu, Tao; Li, Tao; Zhou, Junhu; Cen, Kefa

    2014-01-01

    A cogeneration process of biodiesel and bio-crude was proposed to make full use of wet microalgae biomass. High-grade biodiesel was first produced from lipids in wet microalgae through extraction and transesterification with microwave irradiation. Then, low-grade bio-crude was produced from proteins and carbohydrates in the algal residue through hydrothermal liquefaction. The total yield (40.19%) and the total energy recovery (67.73%) of the cogenerated biodiesel and bio-crude were almost equal to those of the bio-oil obtained from raw microalgae through direct hydrothermal liquefaction. Upon microwave irradiation, proteins were partially hydrolyzed and the hydrolysates were apt for deaminization under the hydrothermal condition of the algal residue. Hence, the total remaining nitrogen (16.02%) in the cogenerated biodiesel and bio-crude was lower than that (27.06%) in the bio-oil. The cogeneration process prevented lipids and proteins from reacting to produce low-grade amides and other long-chain nitrogen compounds during the direct hydrothermal liquefaction of microalgae.

  18. Lipid body formation during maturation of human mast cells.

    PubMed

    Dichlberger, Andrea; Schlager, Stefanie; Lappalainen, Jani; Käkelä, Reijo; Hattula, Katarina; Butcher, Sarah J; Schneider, Wolfgang J; Kovanen, Petri T

    2011-12-01

    Lipid droplets, also called lipid bodies (LB) in inflammatory cells, are important cytoplasmic organelles. However, little is known about the molecular characteristics and functions of LBs in human mast cells (MC). Here, we have analyzed the genesis and components of LBs during differentiation of human peripheral blood-derived CD34(+) progenitors into connective tissue-type MCs. In our serum-free culture system, the maturing MCs, derived from 18 different donors, invariably developed triacylglycerol (TG)-rich LBs. Not known heretofore, the MCs transcribe the genes for perilipins (PLIN)1-4, but not PLIN5, and PLIN2 and PLIN3 display different degrees of LB association. Upon MC activation and ensuing degranulation, the LBs were not cosecreted with the cytoplasmic secretory granules. Exogenous arachidonic acid (AA) enhanced LB genesis in Triacsin C-sensitive fashion, and it was found to be preferentially incorporated into the TGs of LBs. The large TG-associated pool of AA in LBs likely is a major precursor for eicosanoid production by MCs. In summary, we demonstrate that cultured human MCs derived from CD34(+) progenitors in peripheral blood provide a new tool to study regulatory mechanisms involving LB functions, with particular emphasis on AA metabolism, eicosanoid biosynthesis, and subsequent release of proinflammatory lipid mediators from these cells.

  19. Role of adipose specific lipid droplet proteins in maintaining whole body energy homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Konige, Manige; Wang, Hong; Sztalryd, Carole

    2014-03-01

    Excess or insufficient lipid storage in white adipose tissue lipid droplets is associated with dyslipidemia, insulin resistance and increased risk for diabetes type 2. Thus, maintenance of adipose lipid droplet growth and function is critical to preserve whole body insulin sensitivity and energy homeostasis. Progress in understanding biology of lipid droplets has underscored the role of proteins that interact with lipid droplets. Here, we review the current knowledge of adipose specific lipid droplet proteins, which share unique functions controlling adipocyte lipid storage, limiting lipid spill-over and lipotoxic effects thought to contribute to disease. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Modulation of Adipose Tissue in Health and Disease.

  20. Algal biofuels.

    PubMed

    Razeghifard, Reza

    2013-11-01

    The world is facing energy crisis and environmental issues due to the depletion of fossil fuels and increasing CO2 concentration in the atmosphere. Growing microalgae can contribute to practical solutions for these global problems because they can harvest solar energy and capture CO2 by converting it into biofuel using photosynthesis. Microalgae are robust organisms capable of rapid growth under a variety of conditions including in open ponds or closed photobioreactors. Their reduced biomass compounds can be used as the feedstock for mass production of a variety of biofuels. As another advantage, their ability to accumulate or secrete biofuels can be controlled by changing their growth conditions or metabolic engineering. This review is aimed to highlight different forms of biofuels produced by microalgae and the approaches taken to improve their biofuel productivity. The costs for industrial-scale production of algal biofuels in open ponds or closed photobioreactors are analyzed. Different strategies for photoproduction of hydrogen by the hydrogenase enzyme of green algae are discussed. Algae are also good sources of biodiesel since some species can make large quantities of lipids as their biomass. The lipid contents for some of the best oil-producing strains of algae in optimized growth conditions are reviewed. The potential of microalgae for producing petroleum related chemicals or ready-make fuels such as bioethanol, triterpenic hydrocarbons, isobutyraldehyde, isobutanol, and isoprene from their biomass are also presented.

  1. Lipid accumulation, lipid body formation, and acyl coenzyme A oxidases of the yeast Yarrowia lipolytica.

    PubMed

    Mlícková, Katerina; Roux, Emeline; Athenstaedt, Karin; d'Andrea, Sabine; Daum, Günther; Chardot, Thierry; Nicaud, Jean-Marc

    2004-07-01

    Yarrowia lipolytica contains five acyl-coenzyme A oxidases (Aox), encoded by the POX1 to POX5 genes, that catalyze the limiting step of peroxisomal beta-oxidation. In this study, we analyzed morphological changes of Y. lipolytica growing in an oleic acid medium and the effect of POX deletions on lipid accumulation. Protrusions involved in the uptake of lipid droplets (LDs) from the medium were seen in electron micrographs of the surfaces of wild-type cells grown on oleic acid. The number of protrusions and surface-bound LDs increased during growth, but the sizes of the LDs decreased. The sizes of intracellular lipid bodies (LBs) and their composition depended on the POX genotype. Only a few, small, intracellular LBs were observed in the mutant expressing only Aox4p (Deltapox2 Deltapox3 Deltapox5), but strains expressing either Aox3p or both Aox3p and Aox4p had the same number of LBs as did the wild type. In contrast, strains expressing either Aox2p or both Aox2p and Aox4p formed fewer, but larger, LBs than did the wild type. The size of the LBs increased proportionately with the amount of triacylglycerols in the LBs of the mutants. In summary, Aox2p expression regulates the size of cellular triacylglycerol pools and the size and number of LBs in which these fatty acids accumulate.

  2. Screening and identification of early warning algal species for metal contamination in fresh water bodies polluted from point and non-point sources.

    PubMed

    Rai, U N; Dubey, Smita; Shukla, O P; Dwivedi, S; Tripathi, R D

    2008-09-01

    The water bodies of Lucknow, Unnao and Kanpur (U.P.), India polluted through various point and non point sources were found to be either eutrophic or oligotrophic in nature. These water bodies supported a great number of algal diversity, which varied seasonally depending upon the physico-chemical properties of water. Further, the water bodies polluted through non point sources supports diverse algal species, while the water bodies polluted through point sources supports growth of tolerant blue green algae. High biomass producing algal species growing in these water bodies have accumulated significant amount of metals in their tissues. Maximum amount of Fe was found accumulated by species of Oedogonium sp. II (20,523.00 microg g(-1) dw) and Spirogyra sp. I (4,520.00 microg g(-1) dw), while maximum Chromium (Cr) was found accumulated in Phormedium bohneri (2,109.00 microg g(-1) dw) followed by Oscillatoria nigra (1,957.88 microg g(-1) dw) and Oedogonium sp. I (156.00 microg g(-1) dw) and Ni in Ulothrix sp. (495.00 microg g(-1) dw). Results showed that some of these forms growing in polluted environment and accumulating high amounts of toxic metals may be used as bioindicator species, however, their performance in metal contaminated water under different ecological niche is to be ascertained.

  3. Strategic enhancement of algal biomass, nutrient uptake and lipid through statistical optimization of nutrient supplementation in coupling Scenedesmus obliquus-like microalgae cultivation and municipal wastewater treatment.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Chunmin; Zhang, Yalei; Zhuang, Baolu; Zhou, Xuefei

    2014-11-01

    Supplementing proper nutrients could be a strategy for enhancing algal biomass, nutrients uptake and lipid accumulation in the coupling system of biodiesel production and municipal wastewater treatment. However, there is scant information reporting systematic studies on screening and optimization of key supplemented components in the coupling system. The main factors were scientifically screened and optimized using statistical methods. Plackett-Burman design (PBD) was used to explore the roles of added nutrient factors, whereas response surface methodology (RSM) was employed for optimization. Based on the statistic analysis, the optimum added TP and FeCl3·6H2O concentrations for Scenedesmus obliquus-like microalgae growth, nutrients uptake and lipid accumulation were 4.41 mg L(-1) and 6.48 mg L(-1), respectively. The corresponding biomass, lipid content and TN/TP removal efficiency were 1.46 g L(-1), 36.26% and >99%. The predicted value agreed well with the experimental value, as determined by validation experiments, which confirmed the availability and accuracy of the model.

  4. Body lipids and pesticide burdens of migrant blue-winged teal

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    White, D.H.; King, K.A.; Mitchell, C.A.; Krynitsky, A.J.

    1981-01-01

    Blue-winged Teal were collected before and after their migration to wintering grounds in Latin America. Pesticide burdens, body weights, and lipid levels of carcasses were determined. Only DDE and dieldrin were detected in a small proportion of the samples and then at concentrations far below known-effect levels. Residue loads, because of their infrequency, were not significantly correlated with overall body weight and percent lipid. Body weights among most age and sex classes did not differ in either fall or spring, nor did percent lipid in any instance. However, body weights and lipid levels were significantly correlated; as body weight increased so did percent lipid. Thus, the extreme variability in body weight appears to be a function of the amount of fat present and not overall body size, age, or sex.

  5. Differential lipid and fatty acid profiles of photoautotrophic and heterotrophic Chlorella zofingiensis: assessment of algal oils for biodiesel production.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jin; Huang, Junchao; Sun, Zheng; Zhong, Yujuan; Jiang, Yue; Chen, Feng

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this study was to document and compare the lipid class and fatty acid composition of the green microalga Chlorella zofingiensis cultivated under photoautotrophic and heterotrophic conditions. Compared with photoautotrophic cells, a 900% increase in lipid yield was achieved in heterotrophic cells fed with 30 g L(-1) of glucose. Furthermore heterotrophic cells accumulated predominantly neutral lipids (NL) that accounted for 79.5% of total lipids with 88.7% being triacylglycerol (TAG); whereas photoautotrophic cells contained mainly the membrane lipids glycolipids (GL) and phospholipids (PL). Together with the much higher content of oleic acid (C18:1) (35.2% of total fatty acids), oils from heterotrophic C. zofingiensis appear to be more feasible for biodiesel production. Our study highlights the possibility of using heterotrophic algae for producing high quality biodiesel.

  6. Ultrastructural study on dynamics of lipid bodies and plastids during ripening of chili pepper fruits.

    PubMed

    Liu, Lin

    2013-03-01

    Dynamics of lipid bodies and plastids in chili pepper fruits during ripening were investigated by means of transmission electron microscopy. Mesocarp of chili pepper fruits consists of collenchyma, normal parenchyma, and huge celled parenchyma. In mature green fruits, plastids contain numerous thylakoids that are well organized into grana in collenchyma, a strikingly huge amount of starch and irregularly organized thylakoids in normal parenchyma, and simple tubes rather than thylakoids in huge celled parenchyma. These morphological features suggest that plastids are chloroplasts in collenchyma, chloroamyloplasts in normal parenchyma, proplastids in huge celled parenchyma. As fruits ripen to red, plastids in all cell types convert to chromoplasts and, concomitantly, lipid bodies accumulate in both cytoplasm and chromoplasts. Cytosolic lipid bodies are lined up in a regular layer adjacent to plasma membrane. The cytosolic lipid body consists of a core surrounded by a membrane. The core is comprised of a more electron-dense central part enclosed by a slightly less electron-dense peripheral layer. Plastidial lipid bodies in collenchyma, normal parenchyma, and endodermis initiate as plastoglobuli, which in turn convert to rod-like structures. Therefore, plastidial lipid bodies are more dynamic than cytosolic lipid bodies. Both cytosolic and plastidial lipid bodies contain rich unsaturated lipids.

  7. Rac1 signaling in the establishment of the fucoid algal body plan

    PubMed Central

    Hable, Whitney E.

    2014-01-01

    Fucoid zygotes use environmental vectors, including sunlight, to initiate a growth axis a few hours after fertilization. The first division is then transversely oriented by the growth axis, producing daughter cells of distinct fates. The tip growing rhizoid cell gives rise to the holdfast, anchoring the alga to the intertidal substratum, while the opposite thallus cell mainly generates the photosynthetic and reproductive stipe and fronds. Elaboration of this simple growth axis thus establishes the basic body plan of the adult; and elucidating the mechanisms responsible for formation of the growth axis is paramount to understanding fucoid morphogenesis. Recent studies have culminated in a model whereby sunlight, and perhaps other environmental cues, activate the signaling protein Rac1 at the rhizoid pole. Here it sets in motion nucleation of a patch of actin filaments that in turn, targets ions, proteins, and cellular processes to the future growth site. At germination, Rac1 initiates morphogenesis by inducing transformation of the patch of actin filaments to a structure that delivers vesicles to the growing tip, and a few hours later orients the spindle and cytokinetic plate. PMID:25540648

  8. Disruption of cell walls for enhanced lipid recovery

    DOEpatents

    Knoshaug, Eric P; Donohoe, Bryon S; Gerken, Henri; Laurens, Lieve; Van Wychen, Stefanie Rose

    2015-03-24

    Presented herein are methods of using cell wall degrading enzymes for recovery of internal lipid bodies from biomass sources such as algae. Also provided are algal cells that express at least one exogenous gene encoding a cell wall degrading enzyme and methods for recovering lipids from the cells.

  9. Inhibition of lipid accumulation and lipid body formation in oleaginous yeast by effective components in spices, carvacrol, eugenol, thymol, and piperine.

    PubMed

    Kimura, Kazuyoshi; Yamaoka, Masakazu; Kamisaka, Yasushi

    2006-05-17

    We screened natural organic compounds, which affected the lipid accumulation and the lipid body formation in oleaginous yeast, Lipomyces starkeyi, generating large lipid bodies. We found that four natural components in spices, carvacrol, thymol, eugenol, and piperine, inhibited the lipid accumulation at concentrations of 20-50 mg/L with a slight growth inhibition. The inhibitory effects were quantitatively represented by the total lipid accumulation amount, the triacylglycerol accumulation amount, and the average lipid body size. At 50 mg/L, the effects of these compounds were not identical and exhibited 11-37% decrease in lipid amount and 15-21% decrease in lipid body size with 13-39% decrease in cell growth. The inhibitory effect of these compounds lead to 30-69% decrease in triacylglycerol accumulation without any additional accumulation of its intermediates, suggesting that they will suppress the total carbon inflow into the triacylglycerol biosynthesis.

  10. Hydrothermal liquefaction of harvested high-ash low-lipid algal biomass from Dianchi Lake: effects of operational parameters and relations of products.

    PubMed

    Tian, Chunyan; Liu, Zhidan; Zhang, Yuanhui; Li, Baoming; Cao, Wei; Lu, Haifeng; Duan, Na; Zhang, Li; Zhang, Tingting

    2015-05-01

    Hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL) allows a direct conversion of algal biomass into biocrude oil, not only solving the environmental issues caused by the over-growing algae but also producing renewable energy. This study reports HTL of algae after separation from eutrophicated Dianchi Lake in China. Conversion efficiency was studied under different operational conditions via an orthogonal design, including holding temperature (HT) (260-340 °C), retention time (RT) (30-90 min) and total solid (TS) (10-20%). A highest biocrude oil yield (18.4%, dry ash-free basis, daf) was achieved at 300 °C, 60 min, and 20% (TS), due to the low contents of lipids (1.9%, daf) and proteins (24.8%, daf), and high contents of ash (41.6%, dry basis) and carbohydrates (71.8%, daf). Operational parameters significantly affected the biocrude yields, and chemical distribution of HTL products. The biocrude production also related to other HTL products, and involved chemical reactions, such as deoxygenation and/or denitrogenation.

  11. Bioprospecting for acidophilic lipid-rich green microalgae isolated from abandoned mine site water bodies.

    PubMed

    Eibl, Joseph K; Corcoran, Jason D; Senhorinho, Gerusa N A; Zhang, Kejian; Hosseini, Nekoo Seyed; Marsden, James; Laamanen, Corey A; Scott, John A; Ross, Gregory M

    2014-03-26

    With fossil fuel sources in limited supply, microalgae show tremendous promise as a carbon neutral source of biofuel. Current microalgae biofuel strategies typically rely on growing high-lipid producing laboratory strains of microalgae in open raceways or closed system photobioreactors. Unfortunately, these microalgae species are found to be sensitive to environmental stresses or competition by regional strains. Contamination by invasive species can diminish productivity of commercial algal processes. A potential improvement to current strategies is to identify high-lipid producing microalgae, which thrive in selected culture conditions that reduce the risk of contamination, such as low pH. Here we report the identification of a novel high-lipid producing microalgae which can tolerate low pH growth conditions. Lig 290 is a Scenedesmus spp. isolated from a low pH waterbody (pH = 4.5) in proximity to an abandoned lignite mine in Northern Ontario, Canada. Compared to a laboratory strain of Scendesmus dimorphus, Lig 290 demonstrated robust growth rates, a strong growth profile, and high lipid production. As a consequence, Lig 290 may have potential application as a robust microalgal species for use in biofuel production.

  12. Bioprospecting for acidophilic lipid-rich green microalgae isolated from abandoned mine site water bodies

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    With fossil fuel sources in limited supply, microalgae show tremendous promise as a carbon neutral source of biofuel. Current microalgae biofuel strategies typically rely on growing high-lipid producing laboratory strains of microalgae in open raceways or closed system photobioreactors. Unfortunately, these microalgae species are found to be sensitive to environmental stresses or competition by regional strains. Contamination by invasive species can diminish productivity of commercial algal processes. A potential improvement to current strategies is to identify high-lipid producing microalgae, which thrive in selected culture conditions that reduce the risk of contamination, such as low pH. Here we report the identification of a novel high-lipid producing microalgae which can tolerate low pH growth conditions. Lig 290 is a Scenedesmus spp. isolated from a low pH waterbody (pH = 4.5) in proximity to an abandoned lignite mine in Northern Ontario, Canada. Compared to a laboratory strain of Scendesmus dimorphus, Lig 290 demonstrated robust growth rates, a strong growth profile, and high lipid production. As a consequence, Lig 290 may have potential application as a robust microalgal species for use in biofuel production. PMID:24670060

  13. Heterologous expression of AtClo1, a plant oil body protein, induces lipid accumulation in yeast.

    PubMed

    Froissard, Marine; D'andréa, Sabine; Boulard, Céline; Chardot, Thierry

    2009-05-01

    Proteomic approaches on lipid bodies have led to the identification of proteins associated with this compartment, showing that, rather than the inert fat depot, lipid droplets appear as complex dynamic organelles with roles in metabolism control and cell signaling. We focused our investigations on caleosin [Arabidopsis thaliana caleosin 1 (AtClo1)], a minor protein of the Arabidopsis thaliana seed lipid body. AtClo1 shares an original triblock structure, which confers to the protein the capacity to insert at the lipid body surface. In addition, AtClo1 possesses a calcium-binding domain. The study of plants deficient in caleosin revealed its involvement in storage lipid degradation during seed germination. Using Saccharomyces cerevisiae as a heterologous expression system, we investigated the potential role of AtClo1 in lipid body biogenesis and filling. The green fluorescent protein-tagged protein was correctly targeted to lipid bodies. We observed an increase in the number and size of lipid bodies. Moreover, transformed yeasts accumulated more fatty acids (+46.6%). We confirmed that this excess of fatty acids was due to overaccumulation of lipid body neutral lipids, triacylglycerols and steryl esters. We showed that the original intrinsic properties of AtClo1 protein were sufficient to generate a functional lipid body membrane and to promote overaccumulation of storage lipids in yeast oil bodies.

  14. Isomerization of octadecapentaenoic acid (18:5n-3) in algal lipid samples under derivatization for GC and GC-MS analysis.

    PubMed

    Svetashev, Vasily I; Imbs, Andrey B

    2014-04-01

    During gas chromatography (GC) analysis of fatty acid (FA) composition of the dinoflagellate Gymnodinium kowalevskii, we found unex-pectedly low and irreproducible content of all-cis-3,6,9,12,15-octadecapentaenoic acid (18:5n-3), which is an important chemotaxonomic marker of several classes of microalgae. We compared chromatographic behavior of 18:5n-3 methyl ester and other GC derivatives obtained using different conventional methods of derivatization. The use of methods based on saponification or base-catalyzed transesterification resulted in a mixture of double-bond positional isomers of 18:5. On a SUPELCOWAX 10 column, the equivalent chain length (ECL) value for authentic 18:5n-3 methyl ester was 20.22, whereas the main component after base-catalyzed methylation had ECL 20.88. Attempts to prepare N-acyl pyrrolidides or 4,4-dimethyloxazoline (DMOX) derivatives of 18:5n-3 also gave inadequate results. These derivatives also showed a main peak corresponding to isomerized 18:5. Mass spectra for both DMOX and pyrrolidide derivatives of this compound showed the base peak at m/z 139, probably corresponding to 2,6,9,12,15-18:5 acid. Of all methods tested for methylation, only derivatization with 5% HCl or 1% sulphuric acid in methanol gave satisfactory results. Therefore, GC or GC-mass spectrometry analyses of algal lipids containing 18:5n-3 may be inaccurate when base-catalyzed methods of FA derivatization are applied. The best and simplest way to avoid incorrect GC results is to use standard acid-catalyzed methylation.

  15. How common is the lipid body-containing interstitial cell in the mammalian lung?

    PubMed

    Tahedl, Daniel; Wirkes, André; Tschanz, Stefan A; Ochs, Matthias; Mühlfeld, Christian

    2014-09-01

    Pulmonary lipofibroblasts are thought to be involved in lung development, regeneration, vitamin A storage, and surfactant synthesis. Most of the evidence for these important functions relies on mouse or rat studies. Therefore, the present study was designed to investigate the presence of lipofibroblasts in a variety of early postnatal and adult mammalian species (including humans) to evaluate the ability to generalize functions of this cell type for other species. For this purpose, lung samples from 14 adult mammalian species as well as from postnatal mice, rats, and humans were investigated using light and electron microscopic stereology to obtain the volume fraction and the total volume of lipid bodies. In adult animals, lipid bodies were observed only, but not in all rodents. In all other species, no lipofibroblasts were observed. In rodents, lipid body volume scaled with body mass with an exponent b = 0.73 in the power law equation. Lipid bodies were not observed in postnatal human lungs but showed a characteristic postnatal increase in mice and rats and persisted at a lower level in the adult animals. Among 14 mammalian species, lipofibroblasts were only observed in rodents. The great increase in lipid body volume during early postnatal development of the mouse lung confirms the special role of lipofibroblasts during rodent lung development. It is evident that the cellular functions of pulmonary lipofibroblasts cannot be transferred easily from rodents to other species, in particular humans.

  16. MALDI-TOF MS analysis of lipids from cells, tissues and body fluids.

    PubMed

    Fuchs, Beate; Schiller, Jürgen

    2008-01-01

    Many diseases as atherosclerosis and metabolic dysfunctions are known to correlate with changes of the lipid profile of tissues and body fluids. Therefore, the importance of reliable methods of lipid analysis is obvious. Although matrix-assisted laser desorption and ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) was so far primarily used for protein analysis, this method has itself proven to be very useful in lipid analysis, too. This review provides an overview of applications of MALDI-TOF MS in lipid analysis and summarizes the specific advantages and drawbacks of this modern soft-ionization method. The focus will be on the analysis of body fluids and cells as well as the diagnostic potential of the method in the lipid field. It will be shown that MALDI-TOF mass spectra can be recorded in a very short time and provide important information on the lipid as well as the fatty acyl composition of the lipids of an unknown sample. However, it will also be shown that only selected lipid classes (in particular those with quaternary ammonia groups as phosphatidylcholine) are detected if crude mixtures are analyzed as they are more sensitively detectable than other ones. This review ends with a short outlook emphasizing current methodological developments.

  17. Mechanism and challenges in commercialisation of algal biofuels.

    PubMed

    Singh, Anoop; Nigam, Poonam Singh; Murphy, Jerry D

    2011-01-01

    Biofuels made from algal biomass are being considered as the most suitable alternative energy in current global and economical scenario. Microalgae are known to produce and accumulate lipids within their cell mass which is similar to those found in many vegetable oils. The efficient lipid producer algae cell mass has been reported to contain more than 30% of their cell weight as lipids. According to US DOE microalgae have the potential to produce 100 times more oil per acre land than any terrestrial plants. This article reviews up to date literature on the composition of algae, mechanism of oil droplets, triacylglycerol (TAG) production in algal biomass, research and development made in the cultivation of algal biomass, harvesting strategies, and recovery of lipids from algal mass. The economical challenges in the production of biofuels from algal biomass have been discussed in view of the future prospects in the commercialisation of algal fuels.

  18. Validation of adipose lipid content as a body condition index for polar bears

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McKinney, Melissa A.; Atwood, Todd; Dietz, Rune; Sonne, Christian; Iverson, Sara J.; Peacock, Elizabeth

    2014-01-01

    Body condition is a key indicator of individual and population health. Yet, there is little consensus as to the most appropriate condition index (CI), and most of the currently used CIs have not been thoroughly validated and are logistically challenging. Adipose samples from large datasets of capture biopsied, remote biopsied, and harvested polar bears were used to validate adipose lipid content as a CI via tests of accuracy, precision, sensitivity, biopsy depth, and storage conditions and comparisons to established CIs, to measures of health and to demographic and ecological parameters. The lipid content analyses of even very small biopsy samples were highly accurate and precise, but results were influenced by tissue depth at which the sample was taken. Lipid content of capture biopsies and samples from harvested adult females was correlated with established CIs and/or conformed to expected biological variation and ecological changes. However, lipid content of remote biopsies was lower than capture biopsies and harvested samples, possibly due to lipid loss during dart retrieval. Lipid content CI is a biologically relevant, relatively inexpensive and rapidly assessed CI and can be determined routinely for individuals and populations in order to infer large-scale spatial and long-term temporal trends. As it is possible to collect samples during routine harvesting or remotely using biopsy darts, monitoring and assessment of body condition can be accomplished without capture and handling procedures or noninvasively, which are methods that are preferred by local communities. However, further work is needed to apply the method to remote biopsies.

  19. Effects of body weight and season on serum lipid concentrations in sloth bears (Melursus ursinus ursinus).

    PubMed

    Shanmugam, Arun Attur; Kumar, Jadav Kajal; Selvaraj, Illayaraja; Selvaraj, Vimal

    2011-09-01

    Serum lipid levels were measured in 66 healthy sloth bears (Melursus ursinus ursinus) living under semicaptive conditions with access to natural food resources in the Bannerghatta Biological Park (Karnataka, India), a portion of their native habitat range in the Indian peninsula. Total cholesterol, triglycerides, high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels were analyzed. The effects of age, body weight, and season on these lipid parameters were statistically evaluated. There were no correlations between age and any of the serum lipid parameters analyzed. Positive correlations of body weight to both triglyceride and HDL cholesterol levels in these bears were identified. In addition, seasonal trends in physiological serum lipid values, potentially due to variations in the sloth bear diet, were identified. Serum triglyceride levels were higher during postmonsoon season and cholesterol levels were higher during winter compared to other seasons. Serum lipid values obtained from sloth bears in this study were also compared to previously published data on other members of the family Ursidae. This is the first report of serum lipid values as a reference for sloth bears. These values can be used as sensitive predictors of overall health and nutritional status to aid in the captive management and feeding of these bears.

  20. Ratiometric imaging of gastrodermal lipid bodies in coral-dinoflagellate endosymbiosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Y.-J.; Wang, L.-H.; Chen, W.-N. U.; Peng, S.-E.; Tzen, J. T.-C.; Hsiao, Y.-Y.; Huang, H.-J.; Fang, L.-S.; Chen, C.-S.

    2009-03-01

    Cnidaria-dinoflagellate endosymbiosis is the phenomenon of autotrophic symbionts living inside the gastrodermal cells of their animal hosts. The molecular mechanism that regulates this association remains unclear. Using quantitative microscopy, we now provide evidence that the dynamic lipid changes in gastrodermal “lipid bodies” (LBs) reflect the symbiotic status of the host cell and its symbiont in the hermatypic coral Euphyllia glabrescens. By dual-emission ratiometric imaging with a solvatochromic fluorescent probe, Nile red (9-diethylamino-5H-benzo[α]phenoxazine-5-one), we showed that the in situ distribution of polar versus neutral lipids in LBs in living gastrodermal cells and symbionts can be analyzed. The ratio of Nile red fluorescence at red (R) versus green (G) wavelength region (i.e., R/G ratio) correlated with the relative molar ratio of polar (P) versus neutral (NP) lipids (i.e., P/NP ratio). The R/G ratio in host LBs increased after bleaching, indicating a decrease in neutral lipid accumulation in gastrodermal cells. On the other hand, neutral lipid accumulation inside the symbiont LBs resulted in gradual decreases of the R/G ratio as a result of bleaching. In comparison with the bleaching event, there was no relative lipid concentration change in host LBs under continual light or dark treatments as shown by insignificant R/G ratio shift. Patterns of R/G ratio shift in symbiont LBs were also different between corals undergoing bleaching and continual light/dark treatment. In the latter, there was little lipid accumulation in symbionts, with no resulting R/G ratio decrease. These results, demonstrating that the symbiotic status positively correlated with morphological and compositional changes of lipid bodies, not only highlight the pivotal role of LBs, but also implicate an involvement of lipid trafficking in regulating the endosymbiosis.

  1. Oocyte size, egg index, and body lipid content in relation to body size in the solitary bee Megachile rotundata

    PubMed Central

    Delphia, Casey M.; O’Neill, Ruth P.

    2014-01-01

    Females of solitary, nest-provisioning bees have relatively low fecundity, but produce large eggs as part of their overall strategy of investing substantially in each offspring. In intraspecific comparisons of several species of solitary, nest-provisioning bees and wasps, the size of the mature eggs produced increases with female body size. We further examined oocyte size–body size correlations in the solitary bee Megachile rotundata (F.), an important crop pollinator. We hypothesized that larger females carry larger basal oocytes (i.e., those next in line to be oviposited) but that body size–oocyte size correlations would be absent soon after emergence, before their first eggs fully matured. Because egg production is likely affected by the quantity of stored lipids carried over from the bees’ immature stages, we also tested the hypothesis that female body size is correlated with the body lipid content at adult emergence, the time during which oocyte growth accelerates. We found significant correlations of body size with oocyte size variables chosen to reflect: (1) the magnitude of the investment in the next egg to be laid (i.e., the length and volume of the basal oocyte) and (2) the longer term potential to produce mature oocytes (i.e., the summed lengths and volumes of the three largest oocytes in each female). Positive correlations existed throughout the nesting season, even during the first week following adult emergence. The ability to produce and carry larger oocytes may be linked to larger females starting the nesting season with greater lipid stores (which we document here) or to greater space within the abdomen of larger females. Compared to other species of solitary bees, M. rotundata appears to have (1) smaller oocytes than solitary nest-provisioning bees in general, (2) comparable oocyte sizes relative to congeners, and (3) larger oocytes than related brood parasitic megachilids. PMID:24711966

  2. Production of biofuel using molluscan pseudofeces derived from algal cells

    DOEpatents

    Das, Keshav C.; Chinnasamy, Senthil; Shelton, James; Wilde, Susan B.; Haynie, Rebecca S.; Herrin, James A.

    2012-08-28

    Embodiments of the present disclosure provide for novel strategies to harvest algal lipids using mollusks which after feeding algae from the growth medium can convert algal lipids into their biomass or excrete lipids in their pseudofeces which makes algae harvesting energy efficient and cost effective. The bioconverter, filter-feeding mollusks and their pseudofeces can be harvested and converted to biocrude using an advanced thermochemical liquefaction technology. Methods, systems, and materials are disclosed for the harvest and isolation of algal lipids from the mollusks, molluscan feces and molluscan pseudofeces.

  3. Muscle Mass and Body Fat in Relation to Cardiovascular Risk Estimation and Lipid-Lowering Eligibility.

    PubMed

    Lee, Kayoung

    2016-12-06

    This cross-sectional population-based study aimed to evaluate the relationships of muscle-mass and body-fat phenotypes to 10-yr risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) events and eligibility for lipid management. Participants were Korean adults (N = 7315; 3163 men, 4152 women) aged 40-79 yr, free from stroke and coronary heart disease, who provided complete data for estimating 10-yr CVD risk and body composition during the Fifth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2009-2010). Four levels of combined muscle mass and body fat were determined using sex-specific quintiles of appendicular skeletal muscle mass divided by height squared, and sex-specific quintiles of total body fat percentage. Ten-year CVD risk was calculated using Pooled Cohort Equations and Framingham risk scores. Lipid-lowering medication eligibility was determined using American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association (ACC/AHA) and Adult Treatment Panel (ATP) III guidelines. Compared with the reference group, the risk of CVD events was higher in men with low muscle mass, high body fat, or the 2 factors combined. CVD risk was lower in women with low muscle mass, higher in women with high body fat, and nonsignificant in women with the 2 factors. Participants with low muscle mass and high body fat had higher odds for medication eligibility using the ACC/AHA guidelines but not the ATP III guidelines. Higher estimated 10-yr CVD risk was associated with combined phenotypes of low muscle mass and high fat in men but not in women. Also, the relationship of these phenotypes to lipid-lowering medication eligibility was guideline-specific.

  4. Activation of the lipid droplet controls the rate of lipolysis of triglycerides in the insect fat body.

    PubMed

    Patel, Rajesh T; Soulages, Jose L; Hariharasundaram, Balaji; Arrese, Estela L

    2005-06-17

    The hydrolysis of triglyceride (TG) stored in the lipid droplets of the insect fat body is under hormonal regulation by the adipokinetic hormone (AKH), which triggers a rapid activation cAMP-dependent kinase cascade (protein kinase A (PKA)). The role of phosphorylation on two components of the lipolytic process, the TG-lipase and the lipid droplet, was investigated in fat body adipocytes. The activity of purified TG-lipase determined using in vivo TG-radiolabeled lipid droplets was unaffected by the phosphorylation of the lipase. However, the activity of purified lipase was 2.4-fold higher against lipid droplets isolated from hormone-stimulated fat bodies than against lipid droplets isolated from unstimulated tissue. In vivo stimulation of lipolysis promotes a rapid phosphorylation of a lipid droplet protein with an apparent mass of 42-44 kDa. This protein was identified as "Lipid Storage Droplet Protein 1" (Lsdp1). In vivo phosphorylation of this protein reached a peak approximately 10 min after the injection of AKH. Supporting a role of Lsdp1 in lipolysis, maximum TG-lipase activity was also observed with lipid droplets isolated 10 min after hormonal stimulation. The activation of lipolysis was reconstituted in vitro using purified insect PKA and TG-lipase and lipid droplets. In vitro phosphorylation of lipid droplets catalyzed by PKA enhanced the phosphorylation of Lsdp1 and the lipolytic rate of the lipase, demonstrating a prominent role PKA and protein phosphorylation on the activation of the lipid droplets. AKH-induced changes in the properties of the substrate do not promote a tight association of the lipase with the lipid droplets. It is concluded that the lipolysis in fat body adipocytes is controlled by the activation of the lipid droplet. This activation is achieved by PKA-mediated phosphorylation of the lipid droplet. Lsdp1 is the main target of PKA, suggesting that this protein is a major player in the activation of lipolysis in insects.

  5. Validation of adipose lipid content as a body condition index for polar bears

    PubMed Central

    McKinney, Melissa A; Atwood, Todd; Dietz, Rune; Sonne, Christian; Iverson, Sara J; Peacock, Elizabeth

    2014-01-01

    Body condition is a key indicator of individual and population health. Yet, there is little consensus as to the most appropriate condition index (CI), and most of the currently used CIs have not been thoroughly validated and are logistically challenging. Adipose samples from large datasets of capture biopsied, remote biopsied, and harvested polar bears were used to validate adipose lipid content as a CI via tests of accuracy, precision, sensitivity, biopsy depth, and storage conditions and comparisons to established CIs, to measures of health and to demographic and ecological parameters. The lipid content analyses of even very small biopsy samples were highly accurate and precise, but results were influenced by tissue depth at which the sample was taken. Lipid content of capture biopsies and samples from harvested adult females was correlated with established CIs and/or conformed to expected biological variation and ecological changes. However, lipid content of remote biopsies was lower than capture biopsies and harvested samples, possibly due to lipid loss during dart retrieval. Lipid content CI is a biologically relevant, relatively inexpensive and rapidly assessed CI and can be determined routinely for individuals and populations in order to infer large-scale spatial and long-term temporal trends. As it is possible to collect samples during routine harvesting or remotely using biopsy darts, monitoring and assessment of body condition can be accomplished without capture and handling procedures or noninvasively, which are methods that are preferred by local communities. However, further work is needed to apply the method to remote biopsies. PMID:24634735

  6. Hepatocyte β-Klotho regulates lipid homeostasis but not body weight in mice.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Kanako; Tanaka, Tomohiro; Okada, Sadanori; Morimoto, Yuki; Matsumura, Shigenobu; Manio, Mark Christian C; Inoue, Kazuo; Kimura, Kumi; Yagi, Takashi; Saito, Yoshihiko; Fushiki, Tohru; Inoue, Hiroshi; Matsumoto, Michihiro; Nabeshima, Yo-Ichi

    2016-02-01

    β-Klotho (β-Kl), a transmembrane protein expressed in the liver, pancreas, adipose tissues, and brain, is essential for feedback suppression of hepatic bile acid synthesis. Because bile acid is a key regulator of lipid and energy metabolism, we hypothesized potential and tissue-specific roles of β-Kl in regulating plasma lipid levels and body weight. By crossing β-kl(-/-) mice with newly developed hepatocyte-specific β-kl transgenic (Tg) mice, we generated mice expressing β-kl solely in hepatocytes (β-kl(-/-)/Tg). Gene expression, metabolomic, and in vivo flux analyses consistently revealed that plasma level of cholesterol, which is over-excreted into feces as bile acids in β-kl(-/-), is maintained in β-kl(-/-) mice by enhanced de novo cholesterogenesis. No compensatory increase in lipogenesis was observed, despite markedly decreased plasma triglyceride. Along with enhanced bile acid synthesis, these lipid dysregulations in β-kl(-/-) were completely reversed in β-kl(-/-)/Tg mice. In contrast, reduced body weight and resistance to diet-induced obesity in β-kl(-/-) mice were not reversed by hepatocyte-specific restoration of β-Kl expression. We conclude that β-Kl in hepatocytes is necessary and sufficient for lipid homeostasis, whereas nonhepatic β-Kl regulates energy metabolism. We further demonstrate that in a condition with excessive cholesterol disposal, a robust compensatory mechanism maintains cholesterol levels but not triglyceride levels in mice.

  7. Lipid Body Organelles within the Parasite Trypanosoma cruzi: A Role for Intracellular Arachidonic Acid Metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Toledo, Daniel A. M.; Roque, Natália R.; Teixeira, Lívia; Milán-Garcés, Erix A.; Carneiro, Alan B.; Almeida, Mariana R.; Andrade, Gustavo F. S.; Martins, Jefferson S.; Pinho, Roberto R.; Freire-de-Lima, Célio G.; Bozza, Patrícia T.; D’Avila, Heloisa

    2016-01-01

    Most eukaryotic cells contain varying amounts of cytosolic lipidic inclusions termed lipid bodies (LBs) or lipid droplets (LDs). In mammalian cells, such as macrophages, these lipid-rich organelles are formed in response to host-pathogen interaction during infectious diseases and are sites for biosynthesis of arachidonic acid (AA)-derived inflammatory mediators (eicosanoids). Less clear are the functions of LBs in pathogenic lower eukaryotes. In this study, we demonstrated that LBs, visualized by light microscopy with different probes and transmission electron microscopy (TEM), are produced in trypomastigote forms of the parasite Trypanosoma cruzi, the causal agent of Chagas’ disease, after both host interaction and exogenous AA stimulation. Quantitative TEM revealed that LBs from amastigotes, the intracellular forms of the parasite, growing in vivo have increased size and electron-density compared to LBs from amastigotes living in vitro. AA-stimulated trypomastigotes released high amounts of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and showed PGE2 synthase expression. Raman spectroscopy demonstrated increased unsaturated lipid content and AA incorporation in stimulated parasites. Moreover, both Raman and MALDI mass spectroscopy revealed increased AA content in LBs purified from AA-stimulated parasites compared to LBs from unstimulated group. By using a specific technique for eicosanoid detection, we immunolocalized PGE2 within LBs from AA-stimulated trypomastigotes. Altogether, our findings demonstrate that LBs from the parasite Trypanosoma cruzi are not just lipid storage inclusions but dynamic organelles, able to respond to host interaction and inflammatory events and involved in the AA metabolism. Acting as sources of PGE2, a potent immunomodulatory lipid mediator that inhibits many aspects of innate and adaptive immunity, newly-formed parasite LBs may be implicated with the pathogen survival in its host. PMID:27490663

  8. Lipid Composition of Multilamellar Bodies Secreted by Dictyostelium discoideum Reveals Their Amoebal Origin

    PubMed Central

    Paquet, Valérie E.; Lessire, René; Domergue, Frédéric; Fouillen, Laetitia; Filion, Geneviève; Sedighi, Ahmadreza

    2013-01-01

    When they are fed with bacteria, Dictyostelium discoideum amoebae produce and secrete multilamellar bodies (MLBs), which are composed of membranous material. It has been proposed that MLBs are a waste disposal system that allows D. discoideum to eliminate undigested bacterial remains. However, the real function of MLBs remains unknown. Determination of the biochemical composition of MLBs, especially lipids, represents a way to gain information about the role of these structures. To allow these analyses, a protocol involving various centrifugation procedures has been developed to purify secreted MLBs from amoeba-bacterium cocultures. The purity of the MLB preparation was confirmed by transmission electron microscopy and by immunofluorescence using H36, an antibody that binds to MLBs. The lipid and fatty acid compositions of pure MLBs were then analyzed by high-performance thin-layer chromatography (HPTLC) and gas chromatography (GC), respectively, and compared to those of amoebae as well as bacteria used as a food source. While the bacteria were devoid of phosphatidylcholine (PC) and phosphatidylinositol (PI), these two polar lipid species were major classes of lipids in MLBs and amoebae. Similarly, the fatty acid composition of MLBs and amoebae was characterized by the presence of polyunsaturated fatty acids, while cyclic fatty acids were found only in bacteria. These results strongly suggest that the lipids constituting the MLBs originate from the amoebal metabolism rather than from undigested bacterial membranes. This opens the possibility that MLBs, instead of being a waste disposal system, have unsuspected roles in D. discoideum physiology. PMID:23748431

  9. Algal production in wastewater treatment high rate algal ponds for potential biofuel use.

    PubMed

    Park, J B K; Craggs, R J

    2011-01-01

    Wastewater treatment High Rate Algal Ponds with CO2 addition could provide cost-effective and efficient tertiary-level wastewater treatment with the co-benefit of algal biomass production for biofuel use. Wastewater grown algal biomass can have a lipid content of 10-30% of dry weight, which could be used to make biodiesel. This research investigated algal biomass and total lipid production by two pilot-scale wastewater treatment HRAP(S) (4-day HRT) with and without CO2 addition under New Zealand mid summer (Nov-Jan) conditions. The influence of CO2 addition on wastewater treatment performance was also determined. CO2 was added to one of the HRAPs (the HRAP(E)) by maintaining the maximum pH of the pond below 8. Measurements of HRAP influent and effluent water qualities, total lipid content and algal biomass production were made twice a week over the experimental period. Both HRAP(S) achieved high levels of organic compound and nutrient removal, with >85% SBOD5, >92 NH4(+)-N and >70% DRP removal. Algal/bacterial biomass production in the HRAP(E) (15.2 g/m2/d) was improved by CO2 addition by approximately 30% compared with that of the control HRAP(W) (10.6 g/m2/d). Total lipid content of the biomass grown on both HRAP(S) was slightly reduced (from 25% to 20%) with CO2 addition and the maximum total lipid content of approximately 40% was observed in the HRAP(W) when low NH4(+)-N concentration (<0.5 mg/L) and high maximum pH (>10.0) occurred. Total lipid content of the biomass increased by approximately 15% under nitrogen limiting conditions, however, overall algal/bacterial biomass production was reduced by half during the period of nitrogen limitation. More research is required to maintain algal production under near nitrogen-limiting conditions.

  10. Anomalies occurring in lipid profiles and protein distribution in frontal cortex lipid rafts in dementia with Lewy bodies disclose neurochemical traits partially shared by Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases.

    PubMed

    Marin, Raquel; Fabelo, Noemí; Martín, Virginia; Garcia-Esparcia, Paula; Ferrer, Isidre; Quinto-Alemany, David; Díaz, Mario

    2017-01-01

    Lipid rafts are highly dynamic membrane microdomains intimately associated with cell signaling. Compelling evidence has demonstrated that alterations in lipid rafts are associated with neurodegenerative diseases such Alzheimer's disease, but at present, whether alterations in lipid raft microdomains occur in other types of dementia such dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) remains unknown. Our analyses reveal that lipid rafts from DLB exhibit aberrant lipid profiles including low levels of n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (mainly docosahexaenoic acid), plasmalogens and cholesterol, and reduced unsaturation and peroxidability indexes. As a consequence, lipid raft resident proteins holding principal factors of the β-amyloidogenic pathway, including β-amyloid precursor protein, presenilin 1, β-secretase, and PrP, are redistributed between lipid rafts and nonraft domains in DLB frontal cortex. Meta-analysis discloses certain similarities in the altered composition of lipid rafts between DLB and Parkinson's disease which are in line with the spectrum of Lewy body diseases. In addition, redistribution of proteins linked to the β-amyloidogenic pathway in DLB can facilitate generation of β-amyloid, thus providing mechanistic clues to the intriguing convergence of Alzheimer's disease pathology, particularly β-amyloid deposition, in DLB.

  11. Composition and role of tapetal lipid bodies in the biogenesis of the pollen coat of Brassica napus.

    PubMed

    Hernández-Pinzón, I; Ross, J H; Barnes, K A; Damant, A P; Murphy, D J

    1999-06-01

    The composition of the two major lipidic organelles of the tapetum of Brassica napus L. has been determined. Elaioplasts contained numerous small (0.2-0.6 micron) lipid bodies that were largely made up of sterol esters and triacylglycerols, with monogalactosyldiacylglycerol as the major polar lipid. This is the first report in any species of the presence of non-cytosolic, sterol ester-rich, lipid bodies. The elaioplast lipid bodies also contained 34- and 36-kDa proteins which were shown by N-terminal sequencing to be homologous to fibrillin and other plastid lipid-associated proteins. Tapetosomes contained mainly polyunsaturated triacylglycerols and associated phospholipids plus a diverse class of oleosin-like proteins. The pollen coat, which is derived from tapetosomes and elaioplasts, was largely made up of sterol esters and the C-terminal domains of the oleosin-like proteins, but contained virtually no galactolipids, triacylglycerols or plastid lipid-associated proteins. The sterol compositions of the elaioplast and pollen coat were almost identical, consisting of stigmasterol > campestdienol > campesterol > sitosterol > cholesterol, which is consistent with the majority of the pollen coat lipids being derived from elaioplasts. These data demonstrate that there is substantial remodelling of both the lipid and protein components of elaioplasts and tapetosomes following their release into the anther locule from lysed tapetal cells, and that components of both organelles contribute to the formation of the lipidic coating of mature pollen grains.

  12. The Mycobacterium tuberculosis Ag85A is a novel diacylglycerol acyltransferase involved in lipid body formation.

    PubMed

    Elamin, Ayssar A; Stehr, Matthias; Spallek, Ralf; Rohde, Manfred; Singh, Mahavir

    2011-09-01

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis accumulates large amounts of triacylglycerol (TAG) which acts as storage compounds for energy and carbon. The mycobacterial triacylglycerols stored in the form of intracellular lipid droplets are essential for long-term survival of M. tuberculosis during a dormant state. We report here that when the M. tuberculosis mycolytransferase Ag85A is overexpressed in Mycobacterium smegmatis mc(2)155, cell morphology was changed and the cells became grossly enlarged. A massive formation of lipid bodies and a change in lipid pattern was observed simultaneously. We suspected a possible role of Ag85A in the acyl lipid metabolism and discovered that the enzyme possesses acyl-CoA:diacylglycerol acyltransferase (DGAT) activity in addition to its well-known function as mycolyltransferase. Ag85A mediates the transesterification of diacylglycerol using long-chain acyl-CoA as acyl donors. The K(m) and K(cat) values for palmitoleoyl-coenzyme A were 390 µM and 55.54 min(-1) respectively. A docking model suggests that palmitoleoyl-coenzyme A and 1,2-dipalmitin occupy the same active site as trehalose 6,6'-dimycolate and trehalose 6'-monomycolate. The site-directed Ser126Ala mutation of the active site proved that this residue is involved in the catalytic activity of this enzyme. Although not proven conclusively for dormant stage of M. tuberculosis, our novel finding about the synthesis of TAGs by Ag85A strongly suggests that Ag85A may play a significant role in the formation of lipid storage bodies and thus also in the establishment and maintenance of a persistent tuberculosis infection.

  13. Trade-off of ovarian lipids and total body lipids for fecundity and starvation resistance in tropical populations of Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Kalra, B; Parkash, R

    2014-11-01

    In Drosophila melanogaster, clines of starvation resistance along a latitudinal gradient (south to north) have been reported in India, which matched with their cline for total body lipids (TL ). Nevertheless, producing too many reserves is likely to be costly and a trade-off might exist with life-history traits. Previous studies on starvation resistance and life-history traits of D. melanogaster have mainly focused on quantification of total body lipids, instead of separating ovarian lipids from total body lipids. In the present study, we have quantified absolute ovarian lipids (OL ) versus absolute body lipids excluding ovarian lipids (BL ) and examined associations with fecundity as well as starvation resistance in two latitudinal populations (8.34 vs. 32.43°N) of D. melanogaster. Firstly, we observed a trade-off between BL and OL that matched the trade-off of starvation resistance, longevity versus fecundity and development time in latitudinal populations of D. melanogaster. Southern populations had higher starvation resistance, more BL and lesser OL, whereas northern populations had enhanced fecundity, OL and lesser BL . Secondly, within population, starvation resistance also correlated with BL , and fecundity with OL . However, there was no correlation between starvation resistance and OL . Moreover, there was utilization of BL and nonutilization of OL under starvation stress. Therefore, resources invested for fecundity in the form of OL were independent of evolved starvation resistance in D. melanogaster. Our results suggest that a common pool of energy storage compounds (lipids) are allocated differentially between fecundity and starvation resistance and are consistent with Y-model of resource allocation.

  14. Host Lipid Bodies as Platforms for Intracellular Survival of Protozoan Parasites.

    PubMed

    Toledo, Daniel A M; D'Avila, Heloísa; Melo, Rossana C N

    2016-01-01

    Pathogens induce several changes in the host cell signaling and trafficking mechanisms in order to evade and manipulate the immune response. One prominent pathogen-mediated change is the formation of lipid-rich organelles, termed lipid bodies (LBs) or lipid droplets, in the host cell cytoplasm. Protozoan parasites, which contribute expressively to the burden of infectious diseases worldwide, are able to induce LB genesis in non-immune and immune cells, mainly macrophages, key players in the initial resistance to the infection. Under host-parasite interaction, LBs not only accumulate in the host cytoplasm but also relocate around and move into parasitophorous vacuoles. There is increasing evidence that protozoan parasites may target host-derived LBs either for gaining nutrients or for escaping the host immune response. Newly formed, parasite-induced LBs may serve as lipid sources for parasite growth and also produce inflammatory mediators that potentially act in the host immune response deactivation. In this mini review, we summarize current knowledge on the formation and role of host LBs as sites exploited by intracellular protozoan parasites as a strategy to maintain their own survival.

  15. Host Lipid Bodies as Platforms for Intracellular Survival of Protozoan Parasites

    PubMed Central

    Toledo, Daniel A. M.; D’Avila, Heloísa; Melo, Rossana C. N.

    2016-01-01

    Pathogens induce several changes in the host cell signaling and trafficking mechanisms in order to evade and manipulate the immune response. One prominent pathogen-mediated change is the formation of lipid-rich organelles, termed lipid bodies (LBs) or lipid droplets, in the host cell cytoplasm. Protozoan parasites, which contribute expressively to the burden of infectious diseases worldwide, are able to induce LB genesis in non-immune and immune cells, mainly macrophages, key players in the initial resistance to the infection. Under host–parasite interaction, LBs not only accumulate in the host cytoplasm but also relocate around and move into parasitophorous vacuoles. There is increasing evidence that protozoan parasites may target host-derived LBs either for gaining nutrients or for escaping the host immune response. Newly formed, parasite-induced LBs may serve as lipid sources for parasite growth and also produce inflammatory mediators that potentially act in the host immune response deactivation. In this mini review, we summarize current knowledge on the formation and role of host LBs as sites exploited by intracellular protozoan parasites as a strategy to maintain their own survival. PMID:27199996

  16. Effects of potato and lotus leaf extract intake on body composition and blood lipid concentration

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Keuneil; Kim, Jongkyu; Lee, Namju; Park, Sok; Cho, Hyunchul; Chun, Yoonseok

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of potato and lotus leaf extract intake on body composition, abdominal fat, and blood lipid concentration in female university students. [Methods] A total of 19 female university students participated in this 8-week study, and they were randomly assigned into 2 groups; potato and lotus leaf extract (skinny-line) administered group (SKG, n =9) and placebo group (PG, n = 10). The main results of the present study are presented below. [Results] 1) Body mass index, and percent body fat and abdominal fat in students of the SKG showed a decreasing tendency without significant interaction, 2) total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG), and low density lipoprotein (LDL-C) in students of the SKG showed an averagely decreasing tendency and there was a significant interaction of TC only, 3) high density lipoprotein (HDL-C) in students of the SKG showed an increasing tendency without significant interaction, and 4) Z-score of fatness testing interaction in group × repetition did not show a significant interaction; however, there was a significant interaction of TC in group × repetition. Based on these results, 8-week intake of potato and lotus leaf extract had a positive effect of lowering TC. On the other hand, it had no significant effect on other types of lipids and percent body fat changes. [Conclusion] There was a positive tendency of blood lipids in students of the SKG and it seems that potato and lotus leaf extract intake might prevent obesity and improve obesity related syndromes. PMID:25960952

  17. A Compartmental Comparison of Major Lipid Species in a Coral-Symbiodinium Endosymbiosis: Evidence that the Coral Host Regulates Lipogenesis of Its Cytosolic Lipid Bodies.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hung-Kai; Song, Shin-Ni; Wang, Li-Hsueh; Mayfield, Anderson B; Chen, Yi-Jyun; Chen, Wan-Nan U; Chen, Chii-Shiarng

    2015-01-01

    The lipid body (LB) formation in the host coral gastrodermal cell cytoplasm is a hallmark of the coral-Symbiodinium endosymbiosis, and such lipid-based entities are not found in endosymbiont-free cnidarian cells. Therefore, the elucidation of lipogenesis regulation in LBs and how it is related to the lipid metabolism of the host and endosymbiont could provide direct insight to understand the symbiosis mechanism. Herein, the lipid composition of host cells of the stony coral Euphyllia glabrescens, as well as that of their cytoplasmic LBs and in hospite Symbiodinium populations, was examined by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS), and six major lipid species were identified: wax esters, sterol esters, triacylglycerols, cholesterols, free fatty acids, and phospholipids. Their concentrations differed significantly between host coral cells, LBs, and Symbiodinium, suggesting compartmental regulation. WE were only present in the host coral and were particularly highly concentrated in LBs. Amongst the four species of WE, the monoene R = C18:1/R = C16 was found to be LB-specific and was not present in the host gastrodermal cell cytoplasm. Furthermore, the acyl pool profiles of the individual LB lipid species were more similar, but not equal to, those of the host gastrodermal cells in which they were located, indicating partially autonomous lipid metabolism in these LBs. Nevertheless, given the overall similarity in the host gastrodermal cell and LB lipid profiles, these data suggest that a significant portion of the LB lipids may be of host coral origin. Finally, lipid profiles of the in hospite Symbiodinium populations were significantly distinct from those of the cultured Symbiodinium, potentially suggesting a host regulation effect that may be fundamental to lipid metabolism in endosymbiotic associations involving clade C Symbiodinium.

  18. A Compartmental Comparison of Major Lipid Species in a Coral-Symbiodinium Endosymbiosis: Evidence that the Coral Host Regulates Lipogenesis of Its Cytosolic Lipid Bodies

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Hung-Kai; Song, Shin-Ni; Wang, Li-Hsueh; Mayfield, Anderson B.; Chen, Yi-Jyun; Chen, Wan-Nan U.; Chen, Chii-Shiarng

    2015-01-01

    The lipid body (LB) formation in the host coral gastrodermal cell cytoplasm is a hallmark of the coral-Symbiodinium endosymbiosis, and such lipid-based entities are not found in endosymbiont-free cnidarian cells. Therefore, the elucidation of lipogenesis regulation in LBs and how it is related to the lipid metabolism of the host and endosymbiont could provide direct insight to understand the symbiosis mechanism. Herein, the lipid composition of host cells of the stony coral Euphyllia glabrescens, as well as that of their cytoplasmic LBs and in hospite Symbiodinium populations, was examined by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS), and six major lipid species were identified: wax esters, sterol esters, triacylglycerols, cholesterols, free fatty acids, and phospholipids. Their concentrations differed significantly between host coral cells, LBs, and Symbiodinium, suggesting compartmental regulation. WE were only present in the host coral and were particularly highly concentrated in LBs. Amongst the four species of WE, the monoene R = C18:1/R = C16 was found to be LB-specific and was not present in the host gastrodermal cell cytoplasm. Furthermore, the acyl pool profiles of the individual LB lipid species were more similar, but not equal to, those of the host gastrodermal cells in which they were located, indicating partially autonomous lipid metabolism in these LBs. Nevertheless, given the overall similarity in the host gastrodermal cell and LB lipid profiles, these data suggest that a significant portion of the LB lipids may be of host coral origin. Finally, lipid profiles of the in hospite Symbiodinium populations were significantly distinct from those of the cultured Symbiodinium, potentially suggesting a host regulation effect that may be fundamental to lipid metabolism in endosymbiotic associations involving clade C Symbiodinium. PMID:26218797

  19. Structure of the body-centered cubic phase of lipid systems.

    PubMed

    Saludjian, P; Reiss-Husson, F

    1980-12-01

    A new model is proposed for the structure of the body-centered cubic phase of lipid systems. Infinite rods of polar groups (and water) are arranged with axes parallel to the four cubic [unk]1 1 1[unk] directions. The hydrocarbon chains fill the space between the rods to form a continuous matrix. With this unified topology, the model explains satisfactorily the x-ray diffraction patterns of strontium soaps, lecithin, galactolipids, potassium soaps, and hexadecyltrimethylammonium bromide and explains the transition between cubic/H(II) phases. The paradoxical thermal effects on the lipid cubic phase, in particular the decrease of unit cell dimensions with increasing temperature, can be explained with the proposed model by mechanisms similar to those used for the monodimensional and bidimensional (mesomorphic) phases.

  20. The internal architecture of leukocyte lipid body organelles captured by three-dimensional electron microscopy tomography.

    PubMed

    Melo, Rossana C N; Paganoti, Guillherme F; Dvorak, Ann M; Weller, Peter F

    2013-01-01

    Lipid bodies (LBs), also known as lipid droplets, are complex organelles of all eukaryotic cells linked to a variety of biological functions as well as to the development of human diseases. In cells from the immune system, such as eosinophils, neutrophils and macrophages, LBs are rapidly formed in the cytoplasm in response to inflammatory and infectious diseases and are sites of synthesis of eicosanoid lipid mediators. However, little is known about the structural organization of these organelles. It is unclear whether leukocyte LBs contain a hydrophobic core of neutral lipids as found in lipid droplets from adipocytes and how diverse proteins, including enzymes involved in eicosanoid formation, incorporate into LBs. Here, leukocyte LB ultrastructure was studied in detail by conventional transmission electron microscopy (TEM), immunogold EM and electron tomography. By careful analysis of the two-dimensional ultrastructure of LBs from human blood eosinophils under different conditions, we identified membranous structures within LBs in both resting and activated cells. Cyclooxygenase, a membrane inserted protein that catalyzes the first step in prostaglandin synthesis, was localized throughout the internum of LBs. We used fully automated dual-axis electron tomography to study the three-dimensional architecture of LBs in high resolution. By tracking 4 nm-thick serial digital sections we found that leukocyte LBs enclose an intricate system of membranes within their "cores". After computational reconstruction, we showed that these membranes are organized as a network of tubules which resemble the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). Our findings explain how membrane-bound proteins interact and are spatially arranged within LB "cores" and support a model for LB formation by incorporating cytoplasmic membranes of the ER, instead of the conventional view that LBs emerge from the ER leaflets. This is important to understand the functional capabilities of leukocyte LBs in health and

  1. Harmful Algal Bloom Webinar

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The problem is complex. Excessive nitrogen and phosphorous levels can cause harmful algal blooms. Different algal/cyanobacteria strains bloom under different conditions. Different strains produce different toxins at varying amounts.

  2. Unsaturated lipid bodies as a hallmark of inflammation studied by Raman 2D and 3D microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Czamara, K.; Majzner, K.; Selmi, A.; Baranska, M.; Ozaki, Y.; Kaczor, A.

    2017-01-01

    Endothelial HMEC-1 cells incubated with pro-inflammatory cytokine TNF-α for 6 and 24 hours were studied as a model of inflammation using Raman imaging. Striking changes in distribution, composition and concentration of cellular lipids were observed after exposure to TNF-α compared to the control. In particular, 3D Raman imaging revealed a significant increase in the amount of lipid entities formed under inflammation. Lipid bodies were randomly distributed in the cytoplasm and two types of droplets were assembled: more saturated one, in spectral characteristics resembling phosphatidylcholine and saturated cholesteryl esters, observed also in the control, and highly unsaturated one, containing also cholesterols, being a hallmark of inflamed cells. The statistical analysis showed that the number of lipid bodies was significantly dependent on the exposure time to TNF-α. Overall, observed formation of unsaturated lipid droplets can be directly correlated with the increase in production of prostacyclins - endogenous inflammation mediators.

  3. Unsaturated lipid bodies as a hallmark of inflammation studied by Raman 2D and 3D microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Czamara, K.; Majzner, K.; Selmi, A.; Baranska, M.; Ozaki, Y.; Kaczor, A.

    2017-01-01

    Endothelial HMEC-1 cells incubated with pro-inflammatory cytokine TNF-α for 6 and 24 hours were studied as a model of inflammation using Raman imaging. Striking changes in distribution, composition and concentration of cellular lipids were observed after exposure to TNF-α compared to the control. In particular, 3D Raman imaging revealed a significant increase in the amount of lipid entities formed under inflammation. Lipid bodies were randomly distributed in the cytoplasm and two types of droplets were assembled: more saturated one, in spectral characteristics resembling phosphatidylcholine and saturated cholesteryl esters, observed also in the control, and highly unsaturated one, containing also cholesterols, being a hallmark of inflamed cells. The statistical analysis showed that the number of lipid bodies was significantly dependent on the exposure time to TNF-α. Overall, observed formation of unsaturated lipid droplets can be directly correlated with the increase in production of prostacyclins - endogenous inflammation mediators. PMID:28098251

  4. Algal biofuels: challenges and opportunities.

    PubMed

    Leite, Gustavo B; Abdelaziz, Ahmed E M; Hallenbeck, Patrick C

    2013-10-01

    Biodiesel production using microalgae is attractive in a number of respects. Here a number of pros and cons to using microalgae for biofuels production are reviewed. Algal cultivation can be carried out using non-arable land and non-potable water with simple nutrient supply. In addition, algal biomass productivities are much higher than those of vascular plants and the extractable content of lipids that can be usefully converted to biodiesel, triacylglycerols (TAGs) can be much higher than that of the oil seeds now used for first generation biodiesel. On the other hand, practical, cost-effective production of biofuels from microalgae requires that a number of obstacles be overcome. These include the development of low-cost, effective growth systems, efficient and energy saving harvesting techniques, and methods for oil extraction and conversion that are environmentally benign and cost-effective. Promising recent advances in these areas are highlighted.

  5. Fitness, body composition and blood lipids following 3 concurrent strength and endurance training modes.

    PubMed

    Eklund, Daniela; Häkkinen, Arja; Laukkanen, Jari Antero; Balandzic, Milica; Nyman, Kai; Häkkinen, Keijo

    2016-07-01

    This study investigated changes in physical fitness, body composition, and blood lipid profile following 24 weeks of 3 volume-equated concurrent strength and endurance training protocols. Physically active, healthy male and female participants (aged 18-40 years) performed strength and endurance sessions on different days (DD; men, n = 21; women, n = 18) or in the same session with endurance preceding strength (ES; men, n = 16; women, n = 15) or vice versa (SE; men, n = 18; women, n = 14). The training volume was matched in all groups. Maximal leg press strength (1-repetition maximum (1RM)) and endurance performance (maximal oxygen consumption during cycling), body composition (dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry), and blood lipids were measured. 1RM and maximal oxygen consumption increased in all groups in men (12%-17%, p < 0.001; and 7%-18%, p < 0.05-0.001, respectively) and women (13%-21%, p < 0.01-0.001; and 10%-25%, p < 0.01-0.001, respectively). Maximal oxygen consumption increased more in DD vs. ES and SE both in men (p = 0.003-0.008) and women (p = 0.008-0.009). Total body lean mass increased in all groups (3%-5%, p < 0.01-0.001). Only DD led to decreased total body fat (men, -14% ± 15%, p < 0.001; women, -13% ± 14%, p = 0.009) and abdominal-region fat (men, -18% ± 14%, p = 0.003; women, -17% ± 15%, p = 0.003). Changes in blood lipids were correlated with changes in abdominal-region fat in the entire group (r = 0.283, p = 0.005) and in DD (r = 0.550, p = 0.001). In conclusion, all modes resulted in increased physical fitness and lean mass, while only DD led to decreases in fat mass. Same-session SE and ES combined training is effective in improving physical fitness while volume-equated, but more frequent DD training may be more suitable for optimizing body composition and may be possibly useful in early prevention of cardiovascular and metabolic diseases.

  6. Lipid bodies in coral-dinoflagellate endosymbiosis: proteomic and ultrastructural studies.

    PubMed

    Peng, Shao-En; Chen, Wan-Nan U; Chen, Hung-Kai; Lu, Chi-Yu; Mayfield, Anderson B; Fang, Lee-Shing; Chen, Chii-Shiarng

    2011-09-01

    Gastrodermal lipid bodies (LBs) are organelles involved in the regulation of the mutualistic endosymbiosis between reef-building corals and their dinoflagellate endosymbionts (genus Symbiodinium). As their molecular composition remains poorly defined, we herein describe the first gastrodermal LB proteome and examine in situ morphology of LBs in order to provide insight into their structure and function. After tissue separation of the tentacles of the stony coral Euphyllia glabrescens, buoyant LBs of the gastroderm encompassing a variety of sizes (0.5-4 μm in diameter) were isolated after two cycles of subcellular fractionation via stepwise sucrose gradient ultracentrifugation and detergent washing. The purity of the isolated LBs was demonstrated by their high degree of lipid enrichment and as well as the absence of contaminating proteins of the host cell and Symbiodinium. LB-associated proteins were then purified, subjected to SDS-PAGE, and identified by MS using an LC-nano-ESI-MS/MS. A total of 42 proteins were identified within eight functional groups, including metabolism, intracellular trafficking, the stress response/molecular modification and development. Ultrastructural analyses of LBs in situ showed that they exhibit defined morphological characteristics, including a high-electron density resulting from a distinct lipid composition from that of the lipid droplets of mammalian cells. Coral LBs were also characterized by the presence of numerous electron-transparent inclusions of unknown origin and composition. Both proteomic and ultrastructural observations seem to suggest that both Symbiodinium and host organelles, such as the ER, are involved in LB biogenesis.

  7. Diel rhythmicity of lipid-body formation in a coral- Symbiodinium endosymbiosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, W.-N. U.; Kang, H.-J.; Weis, V. M.; Mayfield, A. B.; Jiang, P.-L.; Fang, L.-S.; Chen, C.-S.

    2012-06-01

    The biogenesis of intracellular lipid bodies (LBs) is dependent upon the symbiotic status between host corals and their intracellular dinoflagellates (genus Symbiodinium), though aside from this observation, little is known about LB behavior and function in this globally important endosymbiosis. The present research aimed to understand how LB formation and density are regulated in the gastrodermal tissue layer of the reef-building coral Euphyllia glabrescens. After tissue fixation and labeling with osmium tetroxide, LB distribution and density were quantified by imaging analysis of serial cryo-sections, and a diel rhythmicity was observed; the onset of solar irradiation at sunrise initiated an increase in LB density and size, which peaked at sunset. Both LB density and size then decreased to basal levels at night. On a seasonal timescale, LB density was found to be significantly positively correlated with seasonal irradiation, with highest densities found in the summer and lowest in the fall. In terms of LB lipid composition, only the concentration of wax esters, and not triglycerides or sterols, exhibited diel variability. This suggests that the metabolism and accumulation of lipids in LBs is at least partially light dependent. Ultrastructural examinations revealed that the LB wax ester concentration correlated with the number of electron-transparent inclusion bodies. Finally, there was a directional redistribution of the LB population across the gastroderm over the diel cycle. Collectively, these data reveal that coral gastrodermal LBs vary in composition and intracellular location over diel cycles, features which may shed light on their function within this coral-dinoflagellate mutualism.

  8. Raman spectroscopy for the characterization of algal cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samek, Ota; Jonáš, Alexandr; Pilát, Zdeněk; Zemánek, Pavel; Nedbal, Ladislav; Tříska, Jan; Kotas, Petr; Trtílek, Martin

    2010-12-01

    Raman spectroscopy can elucidate fundamental questions about intercellular variability and what governs it. Moreover, knowing the metabolic response on single cell level this can significantly contribute to the study and use of microalgae in systems biology and biofuel technology. Raman spectroscopy is capable to measure nutrient dynamics and metabolism in vivo, in real-time, label free making it possible to monitor/evaluate population variability. Also, degree of unsaturation of the algae oil (iodine value) can be measured using Raman spectra obtained from single microalgae. The iodine value is the determination of the amount of unsaturation contained in fatty acids (in the form of double bonds). Here we demonstrate the capacity of the spatially resolved Raman microspectroscopy to determine the effective iodine value in lipid storage bodies of individual living algal cells. We employed the characteristic peaks in the Raman scattering spectra at 1,656 cm-1 (cis C=C stretching mode) and 1,445 cm-1 (CH2 scissoring mode) as the markers defining the ratio of unsaturated-to-saturated carbon-carbon bonds of the fatty acids in the algal lipids.

  9. Total body nitrogen and total body carbon as indicators of body protein and body lipids in the melon fly: Effects of methoprene, a juvenile hormone analogue, and of diet supplementation with hydrolyzed yeast

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The application of methoprene and dietary protein enhanced mating success and had no effect on survival in male melon fly Bactrocera cucurbitae Coquillett (Diptera: Tephritidae). .The objective of the present study was to investigate the effect of methoprene and protein on body lipids and protein tu...

  10. Canine epidermal lipid sampling by skin scrub revealed variations between different body sites and normal and atopic dogs

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Previously, we evaluated a minimally invasive epidermal lipid sampling method called skin scrub, which achieved reproducible and comparable results to skin scraping. The present study aimed at investigating regional variations in canine epidermal lipid composition using the skin scrub technique and its suitability for collecting skin lipids in dogs suffering from certain skin diseases. Eight different body sites (5 highly and 3 lowly predisposed for atopic lesions) were sampled by skin scrub in 8 control dogs with normal skin. Additionally, lesional and non-lesional skin was sampled from 12 atopic dogs and 4 dogs with other skin diseases by skin scrub. Lipid fractions were separated by high performance thin layer chromatography and analysed densitometrically. Results No significant differences in total lipid content were found among the body sites tested in the control dogs. However, the pinna, lip and caudal back contained significantly lower concentrations of ceramides, whereas the palmar metacarpus and the axillary region contained significantly higher amounts of ceramides and cholesterol than most other body sites. The amount of total lipids and ceramides including all ceramide classes were significantly lower in both lesional and non-lesional skin of atopic dogs compared to normal skin, with the reduction being more pronounced in lesional skin. The sampling by skin scrub was relatively painless and caused only slight erythema at the sampled areas but no oedema. Histological examinations of skin biopsies at 2 skin scrubbed areas revealed a potential lipid extraction from the transition zone between stratum corneum and granulosum. Conclusions The present study revealed regional variations in the epidermal lipid and ceramide composition in dogs without skin abnormalities but no connection between lipid composition and predilection sites for canine atopic dermatitis lesions. The skin scrub technique proved to be a practicable sampling method for canine

  11. Nitrogen fixation in peanut nodules during dark periods and detopped conditions with special reference to lipid bodies

    SciTech Connect

    Siddique, A.M.; Bal, A.K. )

    1991-03-01

    The peanut plant (Arachis hypogaea L.), unlike other known legumes, can sustain nitrogen fixation when prolonged periods of darkness or detopping curtail the supply of photosynthate to the nodule. This ability to withstand photosynthate stress is attributed to the presence of lipid bodies in infected nodule cells. In both dark-treated and detopped plants, the lipid bodies show a gradual decrease in numbers, suggesting their utilization as a source of energy and carbon for nitrogen fixation. Lipolytic activity can be localized in the lipid bodies, and the existence of {beta}-oxidation pathway and glyoxylate cycle is shown by the release of {sup 14}CO{sub 2} from {sup 14}C lineoleoyl coenzyme A by the nodule homogenate.

  12. l-Serine Deficiency Elicits Intracellular Accumulation of Cytotoxic Deoxysphingolipids and Lipid Body Formation*

    PubMed Central

    Esaki, Kayoko; Sayano, Tomoko; Sonoda, Chiaki; Akagi, Takumi; Suzuki, Takeshi; Ogawa, Takuya; Okamoto, Masahiro; Yoshikawa, Takeo; Hirabayashi, Yoshio; Furuya, Shigeki

    2015-01-01

    l-Serine is required to synthesize membrane lipids such as phosphatidylserine and sphingolipids. Nevertheless, it remains largely unknown how a diminished capacity to synthesize l-serine affects lipid homeostasis in cells and tissues. Here, we show that deprivation of external l-serine leads to the generation of 1-deoxysphingolipids (doxSLs), including 1-deoxysphinganine, in mouse embryonic fibroblasts (KO-MEFs) lacking d-3-phosphoglycerate dehydrogenase (Phgdh), which catalyzes the first step in the de novo synthesis of l-serine. A novel mass spectrometry-based lipidomic approach demonstrated that 1-deoxydihydroceramide was the most abundant species of doxSLs accumulated in l-serine-deprived KO-MEFs. Among normal sphingolipid species in KO-MEFs, levels of sphinganine, dihydroceramide, ceramide, and hexosylceramide were significantly reduced after deprivation of external l-serine, whereas those of sphingomyelin, sphingosine, and sphingosine 1-phosphate were retained. The synthesis of doxSLs was suppressed by supplementing the culture medium with l-serine but was potentiated by increasing the ratio of l-alanine to l-serine in the medium. Unlike with l-serine, depriving cells of external l-leucine did not promote the occurrence of doxSLs. Consistent with results obtained from KO-MEFs, brain-specific deletion of Phgdh in mice also resulted in accumulation of doxSLs in the brain. Furthermore, l-serine-deprived KO-MEFs exhibited increased formation of cytosolic lipid bodies containing doxSLs and other sphingolipids. These in vitro and in vivo studies indicate that doxSLs are generated in the presence of a high ratio of l-alanine to l-serine in cells and tissues lacking Phgdh, and de novo synthesis of l-serine is necessary to maintain normal sphingolipid homeostasis when the external supply of this amino acid is limited. PMID:25903138

  13. Effects of total body irradiation on fatty acid and total lipid content of rats.

    PubMed

    Chukwuemeka, Nwokocha; Philippe, Mounmbegna; Magdalene, Nwokocha; Onyezuligbo, Onyekachi

    2012-01-01

    We examined time-dependent changes in plasma lipids of rats given total body irradiation (TBI) with X-rays at 3 Gy. for consecutive periods. Animals were exposed to x ray radiations consecutively for 20 days at 5 day interval thereafter five animals were picked at random and sacrificed (5, 10, 15 and 20 days after beginning the exposure). The triacylglycerols and total cholesterol serum levels were significant differences between control and experimental groups after the first exposure (5 days), values for the triacylglcerols were significantly higher with the second (day 10) and third (day 15) radiation exposures but not with the fourth radiation exposures (day 20) (p<0.05). However, the serum cholesterol values were not found to be significant with the second and third exposures but with the fourth exposure (day 20) (p<0.05). The serum HDL-C concentrations were not significantly different between control and experimental groups at any time analyzed. But the LDL cholesterol was found to decrease on days 5 and 20 of the experimental period. Our results indicate that the applied long term exposure to x rays ionization radiations exposure may induce slight but statistically significant alterations in some serum lipids profile of rats, within the physiological range. The mechanisms for the effects of these ionizing radiations on serum lipid profile are not well understand yet, we suggest that the changes could be due to some non-specific stress reactions. The consequences of our observation are not known yet, but could point to some possible clinical intervention.

  14. Modification of corporal weight, body fat distribution, blood lipids and glucose levels in oral contraceptive users.

    PubMed

    Carranza-Lira, S; Bueno Fontal, J P

    2000-01-01

    The association between oral contraceptives and the modification of corporal weight and body fat distribution is controversial. The characteristics of the menstrual cycle, lipids and glucose levels were also analyzed. Thirty women who received ethinylestradiol 0.035 mg and norethindrone 0.400 mg for one year were studied. The following variables were analyzed every 3 months: weight, body mass index (BMI), hip perimeter, waist perimeter, waist-hip ratio (WHR), duration of menstrual cycle, quantity of uterine bleeding, as well as blood levels of cholesterol, triglycerides and glucose. Waist and hip perimeters increased during the third evaluation; as well as the BMI starting from the second evaluation. The triglycerides levels rose from the first evaluation. No modifications were found in the WHR, glucose and cholesterol levels and the duration of the menstrual cycle, but the quantity of uterine bleeding decreased from the third month. The oral contraceptive significantly increased BMI and triglycerides level, but no changes were detected in body fat distribution, cholesterol and glucose levels. Uterine bleeding decreased from the first evaluation.

  15. Association of common JAK2 variants with body fat, insulin sensitivity and lipid profile

    PubMed Central

    Ge, Dongliang; Gooljar, Sakina B; Kyriakou, Theodosios; Collins, Laura J; Swaminathan, Ramasamyiyer; Snieder, Harold; Spector, Tim D; O'Dell, Sandra D

    2007-01-01

    The leptin signal is transduced via the JAK2-STAT3 pathway at the leptin receptor. JAK2 also phosphorylates IRS, integral to insulin and leptin action and is required for optimum ABCA1-dependent transport of lipids from cells to apoA-I. We hypothesised that common variation in the JAK2 gene may be associated with body fat, insulin sensitivity and modulation of the serum lipid profile in the general population. Ten tagging SNPs spanning the gene were genotyped in 2760 Caucasian female twin subjects (mean age 47.3±12.6 years) from the St Thomas' UK Adult Twin Registry (Twins UK). Minor allele frequencies were between 0.170 and 0.464. The major allele of rs7849191 was associated with higher central fat (P=0.030), % central fat (P=0.014) and waist circumference (P=0.027) and the major allele of rs3780378 with higher serum apoA (P=0.026), total cholesterol (P=0.014) and LDL cholesterol (P=0.012) and lower triglyceride (P=0.023). However, no associations were significant at a level which took account of multiple testing. Although JAK2 is a critical element in leptin and insulin signalling and has a role in cellular cholesterol transport, we failed to establish associations of common SNPs with relevant phenotypes in this human study. PMID:18239666

  16. Body mass and lipid content of shorebirds overwintering on the south Texas coast

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    White, D.H.; Mitchell, C.A.

    1990-01-01

    Three species of shorebirds were collected at bimonthly intervals in 1979-1980, from the time of their arrival in early autumn to mid-February, on the south Texas coast. Female Long-billed Dowitchers (Limnodromus scolopaceus) and Western Sandpipers (Calidris mauri) were heavier (P 0.05) between sexes in any of the three species. During the wintering period, fat stores in Long-billed Dowitchers and Western Sandpipers declined 70% and 44%, respectively, but not in American Avocets. Lipid content was highly correlated (P < 0.001) with body mass in all three species, providing further evidence that fat accumulation is responsible for the major variation in total mass of some shorebird species.

  17. Lipid Droplets Are Essential for Efficient Clearance of Cytosolic Inclusion Bodies.

    PubMed

    Moldavski, Ofer; Amen, Triana; Levin-Zaidman, Smadar; Eisenstein, Miriam; Rogachev, Ilana; Brandis, Alexander; Kaganovich, Daniel; Schuldiner, Maya

    2015-06-08

    Exposing cells to folding stress causes a subset of their proteins to misfold and accumulate in inclusion bodies (IBs). IB formation and clearance are both active processes, but little is known about their mechanism. To shed light on this issue, we performed a screen with over 4,000 fluorescently tagged yeast proteins for co-localization with a model misfolded protein that marks IBs during folding stress. We identified 13 proteins that co-localize to IBs. Remarkably, one of these IB proteins, the uncharacterized and conserved protein Iml2, exhibited strong physical interactions with lipid droplet (LD) proteins. Indeed, we here show that IBs and LDs are spatially and functionally linked. We further demonstrate a mechanism for IB clearance via a sterol-based metabolite emanating from LDs. Our findings therefore uncover a function for Iml2 and LDs in regulating a critical stage of cellular proteostasis.

  18. Saponin-based adjuvants induce cross-presentation in dendritic cells by intracellular lipid body formation

    PubMed Central

    den Brok, Martijn H.; Büll, Christian; Wassink, Melissa; de Graaf, Annemarie M.; Wagenaars, Jori A.; Minderman, Marthe; Thakur, Mayank; Amigorena, Sebastian; Rijke, Eric O.; Schrier, Carla C.; Adema, Gosse J.

    2016-01-01

    Saponin-based adjuvants (SBAs) are being used in animal and human (cancer) vaccines, as they induce protective cellular immunity. Their adjuvant potency is a factor of inflammasome activation and enhanced antigen cross-presentation by dendritic cells (DCs), but how antigen cross-presentation is induced is not clear. Here we show that SBAs uniquely induce intracellular lipid bodies (LBs) in the CD11b+ DC subset in vitro and in vivo. Using genetic and pharmacological interference in models for vaccination and in situ tumour ablation, we demonstrate that LB induction is causally related to the saponin-dependent increase in cross-presentation and T-cell activation. These findings link adjuvant activity to LB formation, aid the application of SBAs as a cancer vaccine component, and will stimulate development of new adjuvants enhancing T-cell-mediated immunity. PMID:27819292

  19. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon bioaccumulation by meiobenthic copepods inhabiting a superfund site: techniques for micromass body burden and total lipid analysis.

    PubMed

    Klosterhaus, Susan L; Ferguson, P Lee; Chandlert, G Thomas

    2002-11-01

    Microtechniques for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) body burden and total lipid analysis were developed and applied to determine the first lipid-normalized bioaccumulation factors for a hydrophobic organic toxicant in a meiobenthic organism (0.063-0.500 mm) living in field-contaminated sediments. The total lipid microtechnique combines the standard Bligh-Dyer extraction method with a colorimetric quantification method for analysis of samples containing I to 50 microg lipid. The microtechnique for body burden analysis quantifies PAHs from tissue samples containing as little as 10 pg PAH. Fluoranthene, benz[a]anthracene, and benzo[a]pyrene biota-sediment accumulation factors (BSAFs) were determined for the meiobenthic copepod Microarthridion littorale living in an estuarine U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Superfund site. Gravid female, nongravid female, and male BSAFs were 0.82, 0.54, and 0.36, respectively, for fluoranthene; 0.50, 0.44, and 0.40, respectively, for benz[a]anthracene; and 0.09, 0.12, and 0.15, respectively, for benzo[a]pyrene. Comparison of nonlipid-normalized bioaccumulation factors (BAFs) to BSAFs indicates that M. littorale bioaccumulated PAHs on a gram lipid basis. The BSAFs declined consistently with increasing PAH log K(ow) for all copepod sex and reproductive stages. Sex- and stage-specific comparisons of BSAFs suggest that differences in lipid content and quality may lead to differences in BSAF values depending on PAH molecular weight and/or hydrophobicity.

  20. The Dinoflagellate Lingulodinium polyedrum Responds to N Depletion by a Polarized Deposition of Starch and Lipid Bodies

    PubMed Central

    Dagenais Bellefeuille, Steve; Dorion, Sonia; Rivoal, Jean; Morse, David

    2014-01-01

    Dinoflagellates are important contributors to the marine phytoplankton and global carbon fixation, but are also infamous for their ability to form the spectacular harmful algal blooms called red tides. While blooms are often associated with high available nitrogen, there are instances where they are observed in oligotrophic environments. In order to maintain their massive population in conditions of nitrogen limitation, dinoflagellates must have evolved efficient adaptive mechanisms. Here we report the physiological responses to nitrogen deprivation in Lingulodinium polyedrum. We find that this species reacts to nitrogen stress, as do most plants and microalgae, by stopping cell growth and diminishing levels of internal nitrogen, in particular in the form of protein and chlorophyll. Photosynthesis is maintained at high levels for roughly a week following nitrate depletion, resulting in accumulated photosynthetic products in the form of starch. During the second week, photosynthesis rates decrease due to a reduction in the number of chloroplasts and the accumulation of neutral lipid droplets. Surprisingly, the starch granules and lipid droplets are seen to accumulate at opposite poles of the cell. Lastly, we observe that cells acclimated to nitrogen-depleted conditions resume normal growth after addition of inorganic nitrogen, but are able to maintain high cell densities far longer than cells grown continuously in nitrogen-replete conditions. PMID:25368991

  1. Quantitative lipidomics reveals age-dependent perturbations of whole-body lipid metabolism in ACBP deficient mice.

    PubMed

    Gallego, Sandra F; Sprenger, Richard R; Neess, Ditte; Pauling, Josch K; Færgeman, Nils J; Ejsing, Christer S

    2017-02-01

    The acyl-CoA binding protein (ACBP) plays a key role in chaperoning long-chain acyl-CoAs into lipid metabolic processes and acts as an important regulatory hub in mammalian physiology. This is highlighted by the recent finding that mice devoid of ACBP suffer from a compromised epidermal barrier and delayed weaning, the physiological process where newborns transit from a fat-based milk diet to a carbohydrate-rich diet. To gain insights into how ACBP impinges on weaning and the concomitant remodeling of whole-body lipid metabolism we performed a comparative lipidomics analysis charting the absolute abundance of 613 lipid molecules in liver, muscle and plasma from weaning and adult Acbp knockout and wild type mice. Our results reveal that ACBP deficiency affects primarily lipid metabolism of liver and plasma during weaning. Specifically, we show that ACBP deficient mice have elevated levels of hepatic cholesteryl esters, and that lipids featuring an 18:1 fatty acid moiety are increased in Acbp depleted mice across all tissues investigated. Our results also show that the perturbation of systemic lipid metabolism in Acbp knockout mice is transient and becomes normalized and similar to that of wild type as mice grow older. These findings demonstrate that ACBP serves crucial functions in maintaining lipid metabolic homeostasis in mice during weaning.

  2. INDIVIDUAL TISSUE TO TOTAL BODY-WEIGHT RELATIONSHIPS AND TOTAL, POLAR, AND NON-POLAR LIPIDS IN TISSUES OF HATCHERY LAKE TROUT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Tissue body weight relaltionships, total lipid, and major lipid subclasses were measured in 20 adult hatchery lake trout to obtain a more in-depth understanding of the major lipid compartments of the "lean" lake trout for use in modeling the disposition of xenobiotics. It is sug...

  3. Peanut protein reduces body protein mass and alters skeletal muscle contractile properties and lipid metabolism in rats.

    PubMed

    Jacques, Hélène; Leblanc, Nadine; Papineau, Roxanne; Richard, Denis; Côté, Claude H

    2010-05-01

    It is well known that diets high in nuts or peanuts favourably affect plasma lipid concentrations. However, few studies have examined the effects of nut and peanut protein (PP) on body composition and skeletal muscle properties. The present study was aimed at evaluating the effect of dietary PP compared with two animal proteins, casein (C) and cod protein (CP) on body composition, skeletal muscle contractile properties and lipid metabolism in rats. Thirty-two male rats were assigned to one of the following four diets containing either C, CP, PP or C+peanut protein (CPP, 50:50) mixture. After 28 d of ad libitum feeding and after 12-h fast, blood, liver and muscle were collected for measurements of plasma and hepatic cholesterol and TAG, plasma glucose and insulin and contractile properties. Rats fed with the low-quality protein, PP, had lower body weight gain, body protein mass, soleus mass and liver weight than those fed with the high-quality dietary proteins, C and CP. PP also caused a deficit in contractile properties in soleus. Likewise, PP increased plasma cholesterol and body fat mass compared with CP. However, these elevations were accompanied with increased hepatic TAG concentrations and lowered intestinal fat excretion. These results show that PP intake alters body composition by reducing skeletal muscle mass and liver weight as well as muscle contractility and lipid metabolism. Adding a complete protein such as C might partially counteract these adverse effects.

  4. Serum Adiponectin and Leptin Concentrations in Relation to Body Fat Distribution, Hematological Indices and Lipid Profile in Humans.

    PubMed

    Lubkowska, Anna; Radecka, Aleksandra; Bryczkowska, Iwona; Rotter, Iwona; Laszczyńska, Maria; Dudzińska, Wioleta

    2015-09-14

    The purpose of the study was to evaluate the relationship between serum adiponectin and leptin concentrations and body composition, hematological indices and lipid profile parameters in adults. The study involved 95 volunteers (BMI from 23.3 to 53 kg/m²). Anthropometric parameters were measured: body weight and height, waist and hip circumference, waist-to-hip ratio, body fat mass (BMF), subcutaneous and visceral fat mass (SFM, VFM), lean body mass (LBM), skeletal muscle mass (SMM). In serum we determined adiponectin and leptin concentrations, extracellular hemoglobin, total bilirubin, as well as lipid metabolism (TCh, HDL-Ch, LDL-Ch, TG). Mean adipokine levels were significantly higher in women (p ≤ 0.01), adiponectin significantly negatively correlated with body height and weight, systolic blood pressure and absolute LBM and SMM values. The same relation was observed for erythroid system indicators and lipid indicators. A positive correlation was exceptionally found between adiponectin and HDL-Ch. LEP negatively correlated with some percentage rates (%LBM, %SMM). Only in women, we observed a positive correlation between LEP and body weight, BMI and WHR. Studies on ADPN and the ADPN/LEP ratio as a valuable complementary diagnostic element in the prediction and prevention of cardiovascular diseases need to be continued.

  5. Lipids and leukocytes in newborn umbilical vein blood, birth weight and maternal body mass index.

    PubMed

    Brittos, T; de Souza, W B; Anschau, F; Pellanda, L

    2016-12-01

    Maternal obesity during pregnancy may influence fetal development and possibly predispose offspring to cardiovascular disease. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the relationship between maternal pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI) and weight gain during pregnancy, and newborn birth weight, with lipid profile, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) and leukocyte in newborns. We performed a cross-sectional study of 245 mothers and their children. Blood was collected from the umbilical vein and assayed for lipid profile, hs-CRP and leukocyte count. Newborns average weight was 3241 g, total cholesterol 53.9 mg/dl, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-c) 21.9 mg/dl, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-c) 26.2 mg/dl, triglyceride 29.5 mg/dl and leukocytes 13,777/mm3. There was a direct correlation of pre-pregnancy BMI of overweight mothers with total cholesterol (r=0.220, P=0.037) and LDL-c (r=0.268, P=0.011) of newborns. Total cholesterol, LDL-c and HDL-c were higher in pre-term newborns (66.3±19.7, 35.9±14.6 and 25.2±7.7 mg/dl, respectively) that in full-term (52.4±13.1, 25.0±8.7 and 21.5±6.0 mg/dl), with P=0.001, 0.001 and 0.003, respectively. Leukocyte counts were higher in full-term newborns (14,268±3982/mm3) compared with pre-term (9792±2836/mm3, P<0.0001). There was a direct correlation between birth weight and leukocyte counts of newborns (r=0.282, P<0.0001). These results suggest the possible interaction of maternal weight and fetal growth with lipid metabolism and leukocyte count in the newborn, which may be linked to programming of the immune system.

  6. Understanding low-lipid algae hydrothermal liquefaction characteristics and pathways through hydrothermal liquefaction of algal major components: crude polysaccharides, crude proteins and their binary mixtures.

    PubMed

    Yang, Wenchao; Li, Xianguo; Li, Zihui; Tong, Chenhong; Feng, Lijuan

    2015-11-01

    Crude polysaccharides and proteins extracted from algae were chosen as model materials to investigate the hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL) characteristics and pathways of low-lipid algae. Liquefaction behavior of the two individuals and their binary mixtures with different mass ratios were evaluated under different temperatures. Formation pathways of bio-oil from crude polysaccharides/proteins were proposed. Results showed that polysaccharides had a small contribution to bio-oil (<5%) and approximately 60% distributed in aqueous phase, while proteins played a crucial role on bio-oil formation (maximum 16.29%). Bio-oil from polysaccharides mainly contained cyclic ketones and phenols and from proteins composed of pyrazines, pyrroles and amines. Interaction between polysaccharides and proteins forming polycyclic nitrogenous compounds had a negative effect on bio-oil yield at 220 and 260°C. However, their further decomposition caused increase of bio-oil yield at 300°C. Mixture liquefaction obtained the highest higher heating value (HHV) of bio-oil and energy recovery than polysaccharides/proteins liquefaction at 300°C.

  7. Algal Supply System Design - Harmonized Version

    SciTech Connect

    Abodeely, Jared; Stevens, Daniel; Ray, Allison; Newby, Deborah; Schaller, Kastli

    2013-03-01

    The objective of this design report is to provide an assessment of current technologies used for production, dewatering, and converting microalgae cultivated in open-pond systems to biofuel. The original draft design was created in 2011 and has subsequently been brought into agreement with the DOE harmonized model. The design report extends beyond this harmonized model to discuss some of the challenges with assessing algal production systems, including the ability to (1) quickly assess alternative algal production system designs, (2) assess spatial and temporal variability, and (3) perform large-scale assessments considering multiple scenarios for thousands of potential sites. The Algae Logistics Model (ALM) was developed to address each of these limitations of current modeling efforts to enable assessment of the economic feasibility of algal production systems across the United States. The (ALM) enables (1) dynamic assessments using spatiotemporal conditions, (2) exploration of algal production system design configurations, (3) investigation of algal production system operating assumptions, and (4) trade-off assessments with technology decisions and operating assumptions. The report discusses results from the ALM, which is used to assess the baseline design determined by harmonization efforts between U.S. DOE national laboratories. Productivity and resource assessment data is provided by coupling the ALM with the Biomass Assessment Tool developed at PNNL. This high-fidelity data is dynamically passed to the ALM and used to help better understand the impacts of spatial and temporal constraints on algal production systems by providing a cost for producing extracted algal lipids annually for each potential site.

  8. Algal swimming velocities signal fatty acid accumulation.

    PubMed

    Hansen, Travis J; Hondzo, Miki; Mashek, Mara T; Mashek, Douglas G; Lefebvre, Paul A

    2013-01-01

    The use of microalgae for biofuel production will be beneficial to society if we can produce biofuels at large scales with minimal mechanical energy input in the production process. Understanding micro-algal physiological responses under variable environmental conditions in bioreactors is essential for the optimization of biofuel production. We demonstrate that measuring micro-algal swimming speed provides information on culture health and total fatty acid accumulation. Three strains of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii were grown heterotrophically on acetate and subjected to various levels of nitrogen starvation. Other nutrient levels were explored to determine their effect on micro-algal kinetics. Swimming velocities were measured with two-dimensional micro-particle tracking velocimetry. The results show an inverse linear relationship between normalized total fatty acid mass versus swimming speed of micro-algal cells. Analysis of RNA sequencing data confirms these results by demonstrating that the biological processes of cell motion and the generation of energy precursors are significantly down-regulated. Experiments demonstrate that changes in nutrient concentration in the surrounding media also affect swimming speed. The findings have the potential for the in situ and indirect assessment of lipid content by measuring micro-algal swimming kinetics.

  9. Factors influencing 14C concentrations of algal and archaeal lipids and their associated sea surface temperature proxies in the Black Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kusch, Stephanie; Rethemeyer, Janet; Hopmans, Ellen C.; Wacker, Lukas; Mollenhauer, Gesine

    2016-09-01

    Understanding the preservation and deposition history of organic molecules is crucial for the understanding of paleoenvironmental information contained in their abundance ratios such as Uk‧37 and TEX86 used as proxies for sea surface temperature (SST). Based on their relatively high refractivity, alkenones and glycerol dialkyl glycerol tetraethers (GDGTs) can survive postdepositional processes like lateral transport, potentially causing inferred SSTs to be misleading. Likewise, selective preservation of alkenones and GDGTs may cause biases of the SST proxies themselves and can lead to decoupling of both proxy records. Here we report compound-specific radiocarbon data of marine biomarkers including alkenones, GDGTs, and low molecular weight (LMW) n-fatty acids from Black Sea sediments deposited under different redox regimes to evaluate the potentially differential preservation of both biomarker classes and its effect on the SST indices Uk‧37 and TEX86. The decadal Δ14C values of alkenones, GDGTs, and LMW n-fatty acids indicate similar preservation under oxic, suboxic, and anoxic redox regimes and no contribution of pre-aged compounds, e.g., by lateral supply. Moreover, similar 14C concentrations of crenarchaeol, alkenones, and LMW n-fatty acids imply that the thaumarchaeotal GDGTs preserved in these sediments are produced in the euphotic zone rather than in subsurface/thermocline waters. However, we observe biomarker-based SSTs that strongly deviate (ΔSST up to 8.4 °C) from in situ measured mean annual SSTs in the Black Sea. This is not due to redox-dependent differential biomarker preservation as implied by their Δ14C values and spatial SST pattern. Since contributions from different sources can largely be excluded, the deviation of the Uk‧37 and TEX86 proxy-derived SSTs from in situ SSTs requires further study of phylogenetic and other yet unknown environmental controls on alkenone and GDGT lipid distributions in the Black Sea.

  10. Accelerating Commercialization of Algal Biofuels Through Partnerships (Brochure)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2011-10-01

    This brochure describes National Renewable Energy Laboratory's (NREL's) algal biofuels research capabilities and partnership opportunities. NREL is accelerating algal biofuels commercialization through: (1) Advances in applied biology; (2) Algal strain development; (3) Development of fuel conversion pathways; (4) Techno-economic analysis; and (5) Development of high-throughput lipid analysis methodologies. NREL scientists and engineers are addressing challenges across the algal biofuels value chain, including algal biology, cultivation, harvesting and extraction, and fuel conversion. Through partnerships, NREL can share knowledge and capabilities in the following areas: (1) Algal Biology - A fundamental understanding of algal biology is key to developing cost-effective algal biofuels processes. NREL scientists are experts in the isolation and characterization of microalgal species. They are identifying genes and pathways involved in biofuel production. In addition, they have developed a high-throughput, non-destructive technique for assessing lipid production in microalgae. (2) Cultivation - NREL researchers study algal growth capabilities and perform compositional analysis of algal biomass. Laboratory-scale photobioreactors and 1-m2 open raceway ponds in an on-site greenhouse allow for year-round cultivation of algae under a variety of conditions. A bioenergy-focused algal strain collection is being established at NREL, and our laboratory houses a cryopreservation system for long-term maintenance of algal cultures and preservation of intellectual property. (3) Harvesting and Extraction - NREL is investigating cost-effective harvesting and extraction methods suitable for a variety of species and conditions. Areas of expertise include cell wall analysis and deconstruction and identification and utilization of co-products. (4) Fuel Conversion - NREL's excellent capabilities and facilities for biochemical and thermochemical conversion of biomass to biofuels are being

  11. The Apolipoprotein E Polymorphism rs7412 Associates with Body Fatness Independently of Plasma Lipids in Middle Aged Men

    PubMed Central

    Tejedor, M. Teresa; Garcia-Sobreviela, Maria Pilar; Ledesma, Marta; Arbones-Mainar, Jose M.

    2014-01-01

    Background The apolipoprotein E (APOE) gene is polymorphic, encoding one of 3 common alleles (ε2, ε3, ε4) produced from combinations of 2 non-synonymous SNPs (rs429358 and rs7412). APOE plays an important role controlling plasma lipids but its association with adipocyte functionality and body fatness remains to be determined. Methods We analyzed fasting plasma lipids and genotyped the two main APOE-SNPs (rs429358 and rs7412), both located in the fourth exon of the APOE, in 4660 Caucasian middle-aged men free of cardiovascular disease. Results The rs7412 SNP, which determines the APOE2 isoform, was significantly associated with Body Mass Index (BMI) and Waist Girth (WG) in a multivariate model accounting for age, smoking status and plasma lipids. BMI and WG were highest in TT homozygotes and lowest in CC homozygotes. This effect was independent of the rs429358 SNP, which failed to show any association with the BMI and WG variables. The odds ratio of being obese (BMI>30) for individuals carrying the APOε2 allele, present in 14% of the cohort and defined by the rs7412 SNP, was also significant in this multivariate model, with an OR of 1.27 (95% CI: 1.01–1.59). Conclusions This study provides an evidence of a lipid-independent association between the APOE SNP rs7412 and body fatness surrogates, BMI and WG, in a large cohort of middle-aged males. PMID:25268647

  12. Comparison of diet consumption, body composition and lipoprotein lipid values of Kuwaiti fencing players with international norms

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background No published data is currently available that describes the dietary patterns or physiological profiles of athletes participating on the Kuwaiti national fencing team and its potential impact on health and physical performance. The purpose of this investigation was to: 1) collect baseline data on nutrient intake 2) collect, analyze and report baseline for body composition, plasma lipid and lipoprotein concentrations during the competitive season, 3) compare the results with the international norms, 4) and provide necessary health and nutritional information in order to enhance the athletes' performance and skills. Methods Fifteen national-class fencers 21.5 ± 2.6 years of age participated in this study. Food intake was measured using a 3-day food record. Body composition was estimated using both the BOD POD and Body Mass Index (BMI). Total blood lipid profiles and maximum oxygen consumption was measured for each of the subjects during the competitive season. Results The results of the present study showed significant differences in dietary consumption in comparison with the recommended dietary allowances (RDA). The blood lipids profile and body composition (BMI and % body fat) were in normal range in comparison with international norms However, the average VO2 max value was less than the value of the other fencers. Conclusion Due to the results of the research study, a dietary regimen can be designed that would better enhance athletic performance and minimize any health risks associated with nutrition. Percent body fat and BMI will also be categorized for all players. In addition, the plasma blood tests will help to determine if any of the players have an excessive level of lipids or any blood abnormalities. The outcomes of present study will have a direct impact on the players health and therefore their skills and athletic performance. PMID:21992447

  13. Reduction of PII signaling protein enhances lipid body production in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii.

    PubMed

    Zalutskaya, Zhanneta; Kharatyan, Nina; Forchhammer, Karl; Ermilova, Elena

    2015-11-01

    In all examined organisms that have the PII signal transduction machinery, PII coordinates the central C/N anabolic metabolism. In green algae and land plants, PII is localized in the chloroplast and controls the L-arginine biosynthetic pathway pathway. To elucidate additional functions of PII in the model photosynthetic organism Chlamydomonas reinhardtii (CrPII), we generated and analyzed four strains, in which PII was strongly under-expressed by artificial microRNA (GLB1-amiRNA strains). In response to nitrogen deficiency, Chlamydomonas produces triacylglycerols (TAGs) that are accumulated in lipid bodies (LB). Quantification of LBs by confocal microscopy in four GLB1-amiRNA strains showed that reduced PII levels resulted in over-accumulation of LBs compared to their parental strains. Moreover, knock-down of PII caused also an increase in the total TAG level. We propose that the larger yields of TAG-filled LBs in N-starved GLB1-amiRNA cells can be attributed to the strain's depleted PII level and their inability to properly control acetyl-CoA carboxylase activity (ACCase). Together, our results imply that PII in Chlamydomonas negatively controls TAG accumulation in LBs during acclimation to nitrogen starvation of the alga.

  14. Life cycle environmental impacts of wastewater-based algal biofuels.

    PubMed

    Mu, Dongyan; Min, Min; Krohn, Brian; Mullins, Kimberley A; Ruan, Roger; Hill, Jason

    2014-10-07

    Recent research has proposed integrating wastewater treatment with algae cultivation as a way of producing algal biofuels at a commercial scale more sustainably. This study evaluates the environmental performance of wastewater-based algal biofuels with a well-to-wheel life cycle assessment (LCA). Production pathways examined include different nutrient sources (municipal wastewater influent to the activated sludge process, centrate from the sludge drying process, swine manure, and freshwater with synthetic fertilizers) combined with emerging biomass conversion technologies (microwave pyrolysis, combustion, wet lipid extraction, and hydrothermal liquefaction). Results show that the environmental performance of wastewater-based algal biofuels is generally better than freshwater-based algal biofuels, but depends on the characteristics of the wastewater and the conversion technologies. Of 16 pathways compared, only the centrate cultivation with wet lipid extraction pathway and the centrate cultivation with combustion pathway have lower impacts than petroleum diesel in all environmental categories examined (fossil fuel use, greenhouse gas emissions, eutrophication potential, and consumptive water use). The potential for large-scale implementation of centrate-based algal biofuel, however, is limited by availability of centrate. Thus, it is unlikely that algal biofuels can provide a large-scale and environmentally preferable alternative to petroleum transportation fuels without considerable improvement in current production technologies. Additionally, the cobenefit of wastewater-based algal biofuel production as an alternate means of treating various wastewaters should be further explored.

  15. Body mass and lipid dynamics of Arctic and Antarctic deep-sea copepods (Calanoida, Paraeuchaeta): ontogenetic and seasonal trends

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Auel, Holger; Hagen, Wilhelm

    2005-07-01

    Ontogenetic and seasonal trends in body dry mass (DM) and total lipid content were studied in polar species of the predatory calanoid copepod genus Paraeuchaeta. Analyses included the Arctic representatives Paraeuchaeta glacialis, P. norvegica, P. barbata, and P. polaris as well as the Antarctic congener P. antarctica and one sample of P. cf. biloba. A total of 567 samples including 7007 individuals collected during four Antarctic and six Arctic research cruises was processed to provide seasonal coverage from spring to fall for both areas investigated, the Antarctic Weddell Sea and Arctic Fram Strait. All epipelagic species, i.e. P. glacialis, P. norvegica, and P. antarctica, showed a continuous increase in body DM from early copepodite stage CI onwards to stage CV. On average, body mass tripled with every moult. In females, body mass tripled again during the last moult to adulthood, whereas adult males, which have reduced mouthparts and do not feed at all, did not significantly increase their body mass after moulting from the CV stage. In contrast, early stages, i.e. nauplii to copepodids CII, of the bathypelagic species P. barbata remained at similar DMs. The deepest living species P. polaris was characterised by relatively large juvenile stages but small adult females, resulting in a rather small increase in body mass during ontogenetic development. Total lipid content decreased from maximum values of 60-70% of DM in eggs and early copepodite stages to <20-30% DM in stage CIII. Starting with stage CIV, lipids were again accumulated leading to high values of 40% to >50% DM in adult females. Distinct differences were detected with regard to seasonal trends of body mass and lipid content between epipelagic and bathypelagic species: Copepodids CIV, CV and adult females of epipelagic species exhibited highest body masses and lipid contents in fall, whereas for the deeper-living P. barbata maximum values occurred in spring. These discrepancies are discussed in

  16. Loss of Body Weight and Fat and Improved Lipid Profiles in Obese Rats Fed Apple Pomace or Apple Juice Concentrate

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Kyung-Dong; Han, Chan-Kyu

    2013-01-01

    Abstract The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of apple pomace (AP) and apple juice concentrate (AC) supplementation on body weight and fat loss as well as lipid metabolism in obese rats fed a high-fat diet. Diet-induced obese rats were assigned to three groups (n=8 for each group): high fat diet (HFD) control, HFD containing 10% (w/w) AP, and HFD containing 10% (w/w) AC. There was also a normal diet group (n=8). After 5 weeks, body weight gain, adipose tissue weight, serum and hepatic lipid profiles, liver morphology, and adipocyte size were measured. Body weight gain, white adipose tissue (WAT) weight, serum total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and triglyceride concentrations, epididymal adipocyte size, and lesion scores were significantly lower and serum high-density lipoprotein cholesterol concentration and brown adipose tissue weights were significantly higher in the AP and AC groups compared with the HFD group. In addition, atherogenic indices in the AP and AC groups were significantly lower than in the HFD group. These results indicate that supplementing apple products such as AP and AC may help suppress body weight and WAT gain, as well as improve lipid profiles in diet-induced obese rats. PMID:23909905

  17. Loss of body weight and fat and improved lipid profiles in obese rats fed apple pomace or apple juice concentrate.

    PubMed

    Cho, Kyung-Dong; Han, Chan-Kyu; Lee, Bog-Hieu

    2013-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of apple pomace (AP) and apple juice concentrate (AC) supplementation on body weight and fat loss as well as lipid metabolism in obese rats fed a high-fat diet. Diet-induced obese rats were assigned to three groups (n=8 for each group): high fat diet (HFD) control, HFD containing 10% (w/w) AP, and HFD containing 10% (w/w) AC. There was also a normal diet group (n=8). After 5 weeks, body weight gain, adipose tissue weight, serum and hepatic lipid profiles, liver morphology, and adipocyte size were measured. Body weight gain, white adipose tissue (WAT) weight, serum total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and triglyceride concentrations, epididymal adipocyte size, and lesion scores were significantly lower and serum high-density lipoprotein cholesterol concentration and brown adipose tissue weights were significantly higher in the AP and AC groups compared with the HFD group. In addition, atherogenic indices in the AP and AC groups were significantly lower than in the HFD group. These results indicate that supplementing apple products such as AP and AC may help suppress body weight and WAT gain, as well as improve lipid profiles in diet-induced obese rats.

  18. The relative contribution of intramyocellular lipid to whole body fat oxidation is reduced with age, but subsarcolemmal lipid accumulation and insulin resistance are only associated with overweight individuals

    PubMed Central

    Chee, Carolyn; Shannon, Chris E.; Burns, Aisling; Selby, Anna L.; Wilkinson, Daniel; Smith, Kenneth; Greenhaff, Paul L.; Stephens, Francis B.

    2016-01-01

    Insulin resistance is closely related to intramyocellular lipid (IMCL) accumulation, and both are associated with increasing age. It remains to be determined to what extent perturbations in IMCL metabolism are related to the ageing process per se. On two separate occasions whole-body and muscle insulin sensitivity (euglycaemic hyperinsulinaemic clamp with 2-deoxyglucose) and fat utilisation during 1 h of exercise at 50% VO2max ([U-13C]palmitate infusion combined with electron microscopy of IMCL) were determined in young lean (YL), old lean (OL), and old overweight (OO) males. OL displayed comparable IMCL content and insulin sensitivity to YL, whereas OO were markedly insulin resistant and had over 2-fold greater IMCL in the subsarcolemmal (SSL) region. Indeed, whereas the plasma free fatty acid rate of appearance and disappearance was twice that of YL in both OL and OO, SSL only increased during exercise in OO. Thus, skeletal muscle insulin resistance and lipid accumulation often observed in older individuals are likely due to lifestyle factors, rather than inherent ageing of skeletal muscle as usually reported. However, age per se appears to cause exacerbated adipose tissue lipolysis, suggesting that strategies to reduce muscle lipid delivery and improve adipose tissue function may be warranted in older overweight individuals. The global prevalence of type 2 diabetes is most apparent in older people (1), and it is estimated that the number of people over 65 years of age with diabetes will have increased 4.5 fold by 2050 (2). Gaining mechanistic insight of age related insulin resistance and strategies to improve insulin sensitivity with age are clearly warranted. Although ageing is associated with insulin resistance, age per se does not appear to cause insulin resistance (3, 4, 5). Several factors that likely contribute to age related insulin resistance include increased abdominal adiposity and reduced physical activity (3, 4), along with declines in muscle mass (6

  19. Harmful Algal Blooms

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Graham, Jennifer L.

    2007-01-01

    What are Harmful Algal Blooms (HABs)? Freshwater and marine harmful algal blooms (HABs) can occur anytime water use is impaired due to excessive accumulations of algae. HAB occurrence is affected by a complex set of physical, chemical, biological, hydrological, and meteorological conditions making it difficult to isolate specific causative environmental factors. Potential impairments include reduction in water quality, accumulation of malodorous scums in beach areas, algal production of toxins potent enough to poison both aquatic and terrestrial organisms, and algal production of taste-and-odor compounds that cause unpalatable drinking water and fish. HABs are a global problem, and toxic freshwater and (or) marine algae have been implicated in human and animal illness and death in over 45 countries worldwide and in at least 27 U.S. States (Yoo and others, 1995; Chorus and Bartram, 1999; Huisman and others, 2005).

  20. Indicators: Algal Toxins (microcystin)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Algal toxins are toxic substances released by some types of algae (phytoplankton) when they are present in large quantities (blooms) and decay or degrade. High nutrient levels and warm temperatures often result in favorable conditions for algae blooms.

  1. Effects of dietary lipid and environmental salinity on growth, body composition, and cold tolerance of juvenile red drum (Sciaenops ocellatus).

    PubMed

    Craig, S R; Neill, W H; Gatlin, D M

    1995-02-01

    Simultaneous, 6-week feeding trials were conducted in which diets containing menhaden, corn, coconut and hydrogenated menhaden oil at 7.0%, plus a diet containing 14% menhaden oil, were fed to triplicate groups of juvenile red drum (Sciaenops ocellatus) at two different salinities (5 and 32%.). Weight gain was significantly (p < 0.05) affected by diet and salinity. Fish fed the diet containing 14% menhaden oil had the greatest weight gain; whereas, fish fed the diet containing coconut oil gained the least weight. Fish in brackish water had significantly greater weight gain than fish in full-strength seawater over the 6-week period, although fish fed coconut and saturated menhaden oil in brackish water had reduced survival. Dietary lipid also significantly affected muscle and liver total lipid, hepatosomatic index (HSI), and intraperitoneal fat (IPF) ratio, as fish fed the diets containing 14% menhaden oil had higher values for all of these body condition indices.After the feeding trial, fish were subjected to a chronic cold tolerance assay. In the chronic trial, where temperature was gradually reduced over a 3-week period, fish fed the diets containing menhaden oil had significantly lower median lethal temperatures (MLT) than those fish fed the diets containing coconut, corn and saturated menhaden oils. No significant effects of cold exposure were observed on muscle and liver total lipid. Cold exposure prompted a modification in lipid metabolism by lowering total saturated fatty acids and raising (n - 3) highly unsaturated fatty acids (HUFA) in the neutral lipid of liver. Fish with the lowest MLT in the chronic assay exhibited signs of conserving (n - 3) HUFA and depleting (n - 6) fatty acids [primarily 18:2 (n - 6)], resulting in higher (n - 3)/(n - 6) ratios in the polar lipid of liver. These data suggest that the lower lethal temperature of juvenile red drum can be reduced through dietary manipulation involving the inclusion of high levels of dietary lipid rich

  2. The effect of dietary fat and omega-3 fatty acids on whole body lipid oxidation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Lipid peroxidation of polyunsaturated fatty acids yields several electrophilic, reactive carbonyl metabolites. We hypothesized that an increased intake of omega-3 fatty acids (n-3) would lead to increased lipid peroxidation metabolites compared to a diet low in n-3. As part of a randomized crossov...

  3. Variation in genes related to hepatic lipid metabolism and changes in waist circumference and body weight.

    PubMed

    Meidtner, Karina; Fisher, Eva; Angquist, Lars; Holst, Claus; Vimaleswaran, Karani S; Boer, Jolanda M A; Halkjær, Jytte; Masala, Giovanna; Ostergaard, Jane N; Mortensen, Lotte M; van der A, Daphne L; Tjønneland, Anne; Palli, Domenico; Overvad, Kim; Wareham, Nicholas J; Loos, Ruth J F; Sørensen, Thorkild I A; Boeing, Heiner

    2014-03-01

    We analysed single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) tagging the genetic variability of six candidate genes (ATF6, FABP1, LPIN2, LPIN3, MLXIPL and MTTP) involved in the regulation of hepatic lipid metabolism, an important regulatory site of energy balance for associations with body mass index (BMI) and changes in weight and waist circumference. We also investigated effect modification by sex and dietary intake. Data of 6,287 individuals participating in the European prospective investigation into cancer and nutrition were included in the analyses. Data on weight and waist circumference were followed up for 6.9 ± 2.5 years. Association of 69 tagSNPs with baseline BMI and annual changes in weight as well as waist circumference were investigated using linear regression analysis. Interactions with sex, GI and intake of carbohydrates, fat as well as saturated, monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids were examined by including multiplicative SNP-covariate terms into the regression model. Neither baseline BMI nor annual weight or waist circumference changes were significantly associated with variation in the selected genes in the entire study population after correction for multiple testing. One SNP (rs1164) in LPIN2 appeared to be significantly interacting with sex (p = 0.0003) and was associated with greater annual weight gain in men (56.8 ± 23.7 g/year per allele, p = 0.02) than in women (-25.5 ± 19.8 g/year per allele, p = 0.2). With respect to gene-nutrient interaction, we could not detect any significant interactions when accounting for multiple testing. Therefore, out of our six candidate genes, LPIN2 may be considered as a candidate for further studies.

  4. Genetic studies of spectrin in the larval fat body of Drosophila melanogaster: evidence for a novel lipid uptake apparatus.

    PubMed

    Diaconeasa, Bianca; Mazock, G Harper; Mahowald, Anthony P; Dubreuil, Ronald R

    2013-11-01

    Spectrin cytoskeleton defects produce a host of phenotypes affecting the plasma membrane, cell polarity, and secretory membrane traffic. However, many of the underlying molecular mechanisms remain unexplained by prevailing models. Here we used the larval fat body of Drosophila melanogaster as a genetic model system to further elucidate mechanisms of αβ-spectrin function. The results provide unexpected new insights into spectrin function as well as mechanisms of dietary fat uptake and storage. We show that loss of α- or β-spectrin in the fat body eliminated a population of small cortical lipid droplets and altered plasma membrane architecture, but did not affect viability of the organism. We present a novel model in which αβ-spectrin directly couples lipid uptake at the plasma membrane to lipid droplet growth in the cytoplasm. In contrast, strong overexpression of β-spectrin caused fat body atrophy and larval lethality. Overexpression of β-spectrin also perturbed transport of dietary fat from the midgut to the fat body. This hypermorphic phenotype appears to be the result of blocking secretion of the lipid carrier lipophorin from fat cells. However, this midgut phenotype was never seen with spectrin loss of function, suggesting that spectrin is not normally required for lipophorin secretion or function. The β-spectrin hypermorphic phenotype was ameliorated by co-overexpression of α-spectrin. Based on the overexpression results here, we propose that β-spectrin family members may be prone to hypermorphic effects (including effects on secretion) if their activity is not properly regulated.

  5. Effects of chromium brewer's yeast supplementation on body mass, blood carbohydrates, and lipids and minerals in type 2 diabetic patients.

    PubMed

    Król, Ewelina; Krejpcio, Zbigniew; Byks, Hanna; Bogdański, Paweł; Pupek-Musialik, Danuta

    2011-11-01

    Chromium(III) is considered as an essential element for carbohydrate and lipid metabolism. The aim of this clinical study was to evaluate the efficacy of Cr brewer's yeast supplementation on body mass, carbohydrate, lipids and mineral indices in type 2 diabetic patients. Twenty adult type 2 diabetic subjects (11 males and 9 females aged 37-63) were supplemented with Cr brewer's yeast in dosages of 500 μg Cr/person/day or placebo for 8 weeks in a double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover design. It was found that supplemental Cr did not affect body mass, blood lipid profile, resistin levels, and the serum and hair Zn, Fe, and Cu levels, but increased serum Cr (by 116%) and hair Cr (by 20.6%) concentrations and improved some blood carbohydrate indices (significant increase in the β cell function index by 18.8%) in type 2 diabetic patients. In conclusion, Cr brewer's yeast has a weak hypoglycemic potential, but does not affect body mass, blood biochemical profile, and microelement levels in type 2 diabetic subjects.

  6. Study of polyacrylamide grafted starch based algal flocculation towards applications in algal biomass harvesting.

    PubMed

    Banerjee, Chiranjib; Gupta, Pratibha; Mishra, Sumit; Sen, Gautam; Shukla, Pratyoosh; Bandopadhyay, Rajib

    2012-11-01

    Microalgae may be the source of high amount of lipid and protein. It has the property for carbon dioxide sequestration, recycling and also can remove pollutants from wastewater. Using traditional methods, collection of algal biomass is either cost effective, time consuming or may be toxic due to use of chemical salts. The aim of this study is to harvest freshwater microalgae (Chlorella sp. CB4) biomass by using polymer. Polyacrylamide grafted starch (St-g-PAM) has been synthesized by microwave assisted method involving a synergism of microwave radiation and ceric ammonium nitrate (CAN) to initiate the grafting reaction. The synthesis was optimized in terms of CAN and monomer (acrylamide) concentration. The algal flocculation efficacy of all the grades of this graft copolymer was studied through standard 'Jar test' procedure. Effects of percentage grafting, pH and zeta potential on percentage recovery of algal biomass were thoroughly investigated.

  7. Safety evaluation of Algal Oil from Schizochytrium sp.

    PubMed

    Fedorova-Dahms, I; Marone, P A; Bailey-Hall, E; Ryan, A S

    2011-01-01

    The safety of Algal Oil from Schizochytrium sp. was evaluated by testing for gene mutations, clastogenicity and aneugenicity, and in a subchronic 90-day Sprague-Dawley rat dietary study. The results of all genotoxicity tests were negative. The 90-day study involved dietary exposure to 0.5, 1.5, and 5 wt.% of Algal Oil and two control diets: a standard low-fat basal diet and a basal diet supplemented with 5 wt.% menhaden oil (the fish oil control). There were no treatment-related effects of Algal Oil on clinical observations, body weight, food consumption, behavior, hematology, clinical chemistry, coagulation, or urinalysis parameters. Increased mean liver weights and alveolar histiocytosis were observed in both the fish oil control and the high-dose Algal Oil-treated animals and were not considered to be adverse. Algal Oil was bioavailable as demonstrated by the dose-related increase of DHA and EPA levels in tissues and plasma. The no observable adverse effect level (NOAEL) for Algal Oil under the conditions of this study was 5 wt.% in the diet, equivalent to an overall average Algal Oil intake of 3250 mg/kg bw/day for male and female rats. Based on the body surface area, the human equivalent dose is about 30 g Algal Oil/day for a 60 kg adult.

  8. Effects of duodenal switch alone or in combination with sleeve gastrectomy on body weight and lipid metabolism in rats

    PubMed Central

    Gudbrandsen, O A; Kodama, Y; Mjøs, S A; Zhao, C-M; Johannessen, H; Brattbakk, H-R; Haugen, C; Kulseng, B; Mellgren, G; Chen, D

    2014-01-01

    Background: A combined procedure of sleeve gastrectomy and duodenal switch (SG+DS) has been applied to the treatment of super obesity. The aim of the present study was to test whether duodenal switch alone (DS) leads to similar weight loss and changes in lipid metabolism as SG+DS. Methods: Male Sprague–Dawley rats underwent sham surgery (Sham, N=7), duodenal switch alone (DS, N=5) or sleeve gastrectomy followed by duodenal switch (SG+DS, N=5). Body weight, feed and water intakes, and ambulatory activity were recorded 2 months post surgery. Tissue and faecal lipids, faecal bile acids, plasma cytokines and lipid metabolism-related gene expression in adipose tissue and liver were analysed. Results: Daily energy intake, relative feed uptake, ambulatory activity and body weight reduction were similar between DS and SG+DS rats. The hepatic triacylglycerol content was higher and faecal secretion of triacylglycerol was lower after SG+DS compared to DS (P<0.05). Faecal bile acid secretion was higher in SG+DS than in DS rats (P<0.05) despite similar hepatic CYP7A1mRNA level. Plasma levels of proinflammatory cytokines interleukin (IL)-1b, IL-2, IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, IL-12, granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor and tumour necrosis factor alpha were higher in SG+DS than in DS rats (P<0.05). Conclusions: Although DS and SG+DS had similar efficacy in terms of body weight loss, SG+DS resulted in a poorer regulation of lipid metabolism than DS. PMID:24979153

  9. Comparison of percentage body fat and body mass index for the prediction of inflammatory and atherogenic lipid risk profiles in elderly women

    PubMed Central

    Funghetto, Silvana Schwerz; de Oliveira Silva, Alessandro; de Sousa, Nuno Manuel Frade; Stival, Marina Morato; Tibana, Ramires Alsamir; Pereira, Leonardo Costa; Antunes, Marja Letícia Chaves; de Lima, Luciano Ramos; Prestes, Jonato; Oliveira, Ricardo Jacó; Dutra, Maurílio Tiradentes; Souza, Vinícius Carolino; da Cunha Nascimento, Dahan; de Oliveira Karnikowski, Margô Gomes

    2015-01-01

    Objective To compare the clinical classification of the body mass index (BMI) and percentage body fat (PBF) for the prediction of inflammatory and atherogenic lipid profile risk in older women. Method Cross-sectional analytical study with 277 elderly women from a local community in the Federal District, Brazil. PBF and fat-free mass (FFM) were determined by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry. The investigated inflammatory parameters were interleukin 6 and C-reactive protein. Results Twenty-five percent of the elderly women were classified as normal weight, 50% overweight, and 25% obese by the BMI. The obese group had higher levels of triglycerides and very low-density lipoproteins than did the normal weight group (P≤0.05) and lower levels of high-density lipoproteins (HDL) than did the overweight group (P≤0.05). According to the PBF, 49% of the elderly women were classified as eutrophic, 28% overweight, and 23% obese. In the binomial logistic regression analyses including age, FFM, and lipid profile, only FFM (odds ratio [OR]=0.809, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.739–0.886; P<0.0005) proved to be a predictor of reaching the eutrophic state by the BMI. When the cutoff points of PBF were used for the classification, FFM (OR=0.903, CI=0.884–0.965; P=0.003) and the total cholesterol/HDL ratio (OR=0.113, CI=0.023–0.546; P=0.007) proved to be predictors of reaching the eutrophic state. Conclusion Accurate identification of obesity, systemic inflammation, and atherogenic lipid profile is key to assessing the risk of cardiometabolic diseases. Classification based on dual energy X-ray absorptiometry measures, along with biochemical and inflammatory parameters, seems to have a great clinical importance, since it allows the lipid profile eutrophic distinction in elderly overweight women. PMID:25609936

  10. The effect of repeated tryptophan administration on body weight, food intake, brain lipid peroxidation and serotonin immunoreactivity in mice.

    PubMed

    Coşkun, Sule; Ozer, Ciğdem; Gönül, Bilge; Take, Gülnur; Erdoğan, Deniz

    2006-06-01

    Tryptophan as a circulating precursor of serotonin (5-HT) may suppress food intake and body weight. Tryptophan administration can enhance the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) by inducing oxidative pathway in vivo and in vitro. We have examined the effect of repeated tryptophan administration on food consumption, body weight, brain lipid peroxidation and 5-HT immunoreactivity. Tryptophan was given at the dose of 100 mg/kg/24 hr in 0.2 ml saline solution i.p. for 7 days to mice. Control mice received 0.9% NaCL solution at the same manner and volume. Body weights were recorded at the beginning and end of the experiments. Thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS), the last product of lipid peroxidation, was measured spectrophotometrically. Brain 5-HT levels were determined by the immunohistochemical method. Our findings indicate that the tryptophan suppresses food intake significantly in mice. Body weight decreased and brain TBARS levels increased significantly by repeated tryptophan treatment. Immunohistochemical detection showed that 5-HT levels increased by tryptophan administration. There is a link between increased 5-HT level and oxidative stress by tryptophan administration on brain tissue. Tryptophan at repeated doses should be exercised carefully in clinical practice.

  11. Simplifying biodiesel production: the direct or 'in situ' transesterification of algal biomass

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The ‘in situ’ esterification/transesterification of algal biomass lipids to produce fatty acid methyl esters (FAME), for potential use as biodiesel, was investigated. Commercial algal biomass was employed, containing 20.9 wt percent hexane extractable oil. This consisted of 35.1 wt percent free fa...

  12. Kinetic modeling of growth and lipid body induction in Chlorella pyrenoidosa under heterotrophic conditions.

    PubMed

    Sachdeva, Neha; Kumar, G Dinesh; Gupta, Ravi Prakash; Mathur, Anshu Shankar; Manikandan, B; Basu, Biswajit; Tuli, Deepak Kumar

    2016-10-01

    The aim of the present work was to develop a mathematical model to describe the biomass and (total) lipid productivity of Chlorella pyrenoidosa NCIM 2738 under heterotrophic conditions. Biomass growth rate was predicted by Droop's cell quota model, while changes observed in cell quota (utilization) under carbon excess conditions were used for the modeling and predicting the lipid accumulation rate. The model was simulated under non-limiting (excess) carbon and limiting nitrate concentration and validated with experimental data for the culture grown in batch (flask) mode under different nitrate concentrations. The present model incorporated two modes (growth and stressed) for the prediction of endogenous lipid synthesis/induction and aimed to predict the effect and response of the microalgae under nutrient starvation (stressed) conditions. MATLAB and Genetic Algorithm were employed for the prediction and validation of the model parameters.

  13. Proteomic profiling of oil bodies isolated from the unicellular green microalga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii: with focus on proteins involved in lipid metabolism.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Hoa M; Baudet, Mathieu; Cuiné, Stéphan; Adriano, Jean-Marc; Barthe, Damien; Billon, Emmanuelle; Bruley, Christophe; Beisson, Fred; Peltier, Gilles; Ferro, Myriam; Li-Beisson, Yonghua

    2011-11-01

    Oil bodies are sites of energy and carbon storage in many organisms including microalgae. As a step toward deciphering oil accumulation mechanisms in algae, we used proteomics to analyze purified oil bodies from the model microalga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii grown under nitrogen deprivation. Among the 248 proteins (≥ 2 peptides) identified by LC-MS/MS, 33 were putatively involved in the metabolism of lipids (mostly acyl-lipids and sterols). Compared with a recently reported Chlamydomonas oil body proteome, 19 new proteins of lipid metabolism were identified, spanning the key steps of the triacylglycerol synthesis pathway and including a glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase (GPAT), a lysophosphatidic acid acyltransferase (LPAT) and a putative phospholipid:diacylglycerol acyltransferase (PDAT). In addition, proteins putatively involved in deacylation/reacylation, sterol synthesis, lipid signaling and lipid trafficking were found to be associated with the oil body fraction. This data set thus provides evidence that Chlamydomonas oil bodies are not only storage compartments but also are dynamic structures likely to be involved in processes such as oil synthesis, degradation and lipid homeostasis. The proteins identified here should provide useful targets for genetic studies aiming at increasing our understanding of triacyglycerol synthesis and the role of oil bodies in microalgal cell functions.

  14. Rice protein improves adiposity, body weight and reduces lipids level in rats through modification of triglyceride metabolism

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background To elucidate whether rice protein can possess a vital function in improving lipids level and adiposity, the effects of rice proteins extracted by alkaline (RP-A) and α-amylase (RP-E) on triglyceride metabolism were investigated in 7-week-old male Wistar rats fed cholesterol-enriched diets for 2 weeks, as compared with casein (CAS). Results Compared with CAS, plasma concentrations of glucose and lipids were significantly reduced by RP-feeding (P < 0.05), as well as hepatic accumulation of lipids (P < 0.05). RP-A and RP-E significantly depressed the hepatic activities of fatty acid synthase (FAS), glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) and malate dehydrogenase (MDH) (P < 0.05), whereas the activities of lipoprotein lipase (PL) and hepatic lipase (HL) were significantly stimulated (P < 0.05), as compared to CAS. Neither lipids level nor activities of enzymes were different between RP-A and RP-E (P > 0.05). There was a significant positive correlation between protein digestibility and deposit fat (r = 0.8567, P < 0.05), as well as the plasma TG concentration (r = 0.8627, P < 0.05). Conclusions The present study demonstrates that rice protein can modify triglyceride metabolism, leading to an improvement of body weight and adiposity. Results suggest that the triglyceride-lowering action as well as the potential of anti-adiposity induced by rice protein is attributed to upregulation of lipolysis and downregulation of lipogenesis, and the lower digestibility of rice protein may be the main modulator responsible for the lipid-lowering action. PMID:22330327

  15. Coupling of Algal Biofuel Production with Wastewater

    PubMed Central

    Panwar, Amit; Bisht, Tara Singh; Tamta, Sushma

    2014-01-01

    Microalgae have gained enormous consideration from scientific community worldwide emerging as a viable feedstock for a renewable energy source virtually being carbon neutral, high lipid content, and comparatively more advantageous to other sources of biofuels. Although microalgae are seen as a valuable source in majority part of the world for production of biofuels and bioproducts, still they are unable to accomplish sustainable large-scale algal biofuel production. Wastewater has organic and inorganic supplements required for algal growth. The coupling of microalgae with wastewater is an effective way of waste remediation and a cost-effective microalgal biofuel production. In this review article, we will primarily discuss the possibilities and current scenario regarding coupling of microalgal cultivation with biofuel production emphasizing recent progress in this area. PMID:24982930

  16. Coupling of algal biofuel production with wastewater.

    PubMed

    Bhatt, Neha Chamoli; Panwar, Amit; Bisht, Tara Singh; Tamta, Sushma

    2014-01-01

    Microalgae have gained enormous consideration from scientific community worldwide emerging as a viable feedstock for a renewable energy source virtually being carbon neutral, high lipid content, and comparatively more advantageous to other sources of biofuels. Although microalgae are seen as a valuable source in majority part of the world for production of biofuels and bioproducts, still they are unable to accomplish sustainable large-scale algal biofuel production. Wastewater has organic and inorganic supplements required for algal growth. The coupling of microalgae with wastewater is an effective way of waste remediation and a cost-effective microalgal biofuel production. In this review article, we will primarily discuss the possibilities and current scenario regarding coupling of microalgal cultivation with biofuel production emphasizing recent progress in this area.

  17. Algal Biofuels Fact Sheet

    SciTech Connect

    2009-10-27

    This fact sheet provides information on algal biofuels, which are generating considerable interest around the world. They may represent a sustainable pathway for helping to meet the U.S. biofuel production targets set by the Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007.

  18. Harmful Algal Blooms Research

    EPA Science Inventory

    This project represents the Agency’s first effort to unify harmful algal blooms (HABs) research that had been previously carried out in isolation within various laboratories. A unified program is the most efficient way generate useful results for the Agency’s decision...

  19. Effects of Indoor Cycling Associated with Diet on Body Composition and Serum Lipids

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    do Valle, Valeria S.; de Mello, Danielli B.; Fortes, Marcos de Sa R.; Dantas, Estelio H. M.

    2009-01-01

    Study aim: To determine the effects of indoor cycling training combined with restricted diet, lasting 12 weeks, on serum lipid concentrations in obese women. Material and methods: Twenty women aged 23.8 [plus or minus] 3.6 years were randomly assigned into two groups: control (C) and experimental (E), the latter subjected to indoor cycling at…

  20. Overexpression of Jazf1 reduces body weight gain and regulates lipid metabolism in high fat diet

    SciTech Connect

    Jang, Woo Young; Bae, Ki Beom; Kim, Sung Hyun; Yu, Dong Hun; Kim, Hei Jung; Ji, Young Rae; Park, Seo Jin; Park, Si Jun; Kang, Min-Cheol; Jeong, Ja In; Park, Sang-Joon; Lee, Sang Gyu; Lee, Inkyu; Kim, Myoung Ok; Yoon, Duhak; Ryoo, Zae Young

    2014-02-14

    Highlights: • The expression of Jazf1 in the liver suppressed lipid accumulation. • Jazf1 significantly increases transcription of fatty acid synthase. • Jazf1 plays a critical role in the regulation of energy and lipid homeostasis. • Jazf1 associates the development of metabolic disorder. • Jazf1 may provide a new therapeutic target in the management of metabolic disorder. - Abstract: Jazf1 is a 27 kDa nuclear protein containing three putative zinc finger motifs that is associated with diabetes mellitus and prostate cancer; however, little is known about the role that this gene plays in regulation of metabolism. Recent evidence indicates that Jazf1 transcription factors bind to the nuclear orphan receptor TR4. This receptor regulates PEPCK, the key enzyme involved in gluconeogenesis. To elucidate Jazf1’s role in metabolism, we fed a 60% fat diet for up to 15 weeks. In Jazf1 overexpression mice, weight gain was found to be significantly decreased. The expression of Jazf1 in the liver also suppressed lipid accumulation and decreased droplet size. These results suggest that Jazf1 plays a critical role in the regulation of lipid homeostasis. Finally, Jazf1 may provide a new therapeutic target in the management of obesity and diabetes.

  1. Lipid metabolism predicts changes in body composition during energy restriction in overweight humans

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this analysis of a subset from a multi-center 12 wk weight-loss trial was to determine if calcium supplementation or dairy food consumption during energy restriction changed circulating lipids compared with an energy-restricted placebo group. Overweight adults (n = 63) were randomiz...

  2. Role of prostaglandin F2α production in lipid bodies from Leishmania infantum chagasi: insights on virulence.

    PubMed

    Araújo-Santos, Théo; Rodríguez, Nilda E; Moura-Pontes, Sara; Dixt, Upasna Gaur; Abánades, Daniel R; Bozza, Patrícia T; Wilson, Mary E; Borges, Valéria Matos

    2014-12-15

    Lipid bodies (LB; lipid droplets) are cytoplasmic organelles involved in lipid metabolism. Mammalian LBs display an important role in host-pathogen interactions, but the role of parasite LBs in biosynthesis of prostaglandin F2α (PGF2α) has not been investigated. We report herein that LBs increased in abundance during development of Leishmania infantum chagasi to a virulent metacyclic stage, as did the expression of PGF2α synthase (PGFS). The amount of parasite LBs and PGF2α were modulated by exogenous arachidonic acid. During macrophage infection, LBs were restricted to parasites inside the parasitophorous vacuoles (PV). We detected PGF2α receptor (FP) on the Leishmania PV surface. The blockage of FP with AL8810, a selective antagonist, hampered Leishmania infection, whereas the irreversible inhibition of cyclooxygenase with aspirin increased the parasite burden. These data demonstrate novel functions for parasite-derived LBs and PGF2α in the cellular metabolism of Leishmania and its evasion of the host immune response.

  3. Travelling light: white sharks (Carcharodon carcharias) rely on body lipid stores to power ocean-basin scale migration

    PubMed Central

    Del Raye, Gen; Jorgensen, Salvador J.; Krumhansl, Kira; Ezcurra, Juan M.; Block, Barbara A.

    2013-01-01

    Many species undertake long-distance annual migrations between foraging and reproductive areas. Such migrants depend on the efficient packaging, storage and utilization of energy to succeed. A diverse assemblage of organisms accomplishes this through the use of lipid reserves; yet, it remains unclear whether the migrations of elasmobranchs, which include the largest gill breathers on Earth, depend on such a mechanism. We examine depth records from pop-up satellite archival tags to discern changes in buoyancy as a proxy for energy storage in Eastern Pacific white sharks, and assess whether lipid depletion fuels long-distance (approx. 4000 km) migrations. We develop new algorithms to assess body condition, buoyancy and drift rate during drift dives and validate the techniques using a captive white shark. In the wild, we document a consistent increase in drift rate over the course of all migrations, indicating a decrease in buoyancy caused by the depletion of lipid reserves. These results comprise, to our knowledge, the first assessment of energy storage and budgeting in migrating sharks. The methods provide a basis for further insights into using electronic tags to reveal the energetic strategies of a wide range of elasmobranchs. PMID:23864595

  4. Travelling light: white sharks (Carcharodon carcharias) rely on body lipid stores to power ocean-basin scale migration.

    PubMed

    Del Raye, Gen; Jorgensen, Salvador J; Krumhansl, Kira; Ezcurra, Juan M; Block, Barbara A

    2013-09-07

    Many species undertake long-distance annual migrations between foraging and reproductive areas. Such migrants depend on the efficient packaging, storage and utilization of energy to succeed. A diverse assemblage of organisms accomplishes this through the use of lipid reserves; yet, it remains unclear whether the migrations of elasmobranchs, which include the largest gill breathers on Earth, depend on such a mechanism. We examine depth records from pop-up satellite archival tags to discern changes in buoyancy as a proxy for energy storage in Eastern Pacific white sharks, and assess whether lipid depletion fuels long-distance (approx. 4000 km) migrations. We develop new algorithms to assess body condition, buoyancy and drift rate during drift dives and validate the techniques using a captive white shark. In the wild, we document a consistent increase in drift rate over the course of all migrations, indicating a decrease in buoyancy caused by the depletion of lipid reserves. These results comprise, to our knowledge, the first assessment of energy storage and budgeting in migrating sharks. The methods provide a basis for further insights into using electronic tags to reveal the energetic strategies of a wide range of elasmobranchs.

  5. Overexpression of Jazf1 reduces body weight gain and regulates lipid metabolism in high fat diet.

    PubMed

    Jang, Woo Young; Bae, Ki Beom; Kim, Sung Hyun; Yu, Dong Hun; Kim, Hei Jung; Ji, Young Rae; Park, Seo Jin; Park, Si Jun; Kang, Min-Cheol; Jeong, Ja In; Park, Sang-Joon; Lee, Sang Gyu; Lee, Inkyu; Kim, Myoung Ok; Yoon, Duhak; Ryoo, Zae Young

    2014-02-14

    Jazf1 is a 27 kDa nuclear protein containing three putative zinc finger motifs that is associated with diabetes mellitus and prostate cancer; however, little is known about the role that this gene plays in regulation of metabolism. Recent evidence indicates that Jazf1 transcription factors bind to the nuclear orphan receptor TR4. This receptor regulates PEPCK, the key enzyme involved in gluconeogenesis. To elucidate Jazf1's role in metabolism, we fed a 60% fat diet for up to 15 weeks. In Jazf1 overexpression mice, weight gain was found to be significantly decreased. The expression of Jazf1 in the liver also suppressed lipid accumulation and decreased droplet size. These results suggest that Jazf1 plays a critical role in the regulation of lipid homeostasis. Finally, Jazf1 may provide a new therapeutic target in the management of obesity and diabetes.

  6. Organochlorine concentrations in bald eagles: Brain/body lipid relations and hazard evaluation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barbehenn, K.R.; Reichel, W.L.

    1981-01-01

    Residue levels of 12 organochlorine compounds found in the brains of bald eagles can be predicted from the corresponding concentrations in the carcass when expressed on a hexane-extractable lipid basis. The compounds varied by a factor of about 3 in the degree to which they accumulated in the brain. An understanding of these relations enhances our ability to assess the toxic hazards of environmental contamination.

  7. Algal functional annotation tool

    SciTech Connect

    2012-07-12

    Abstract BACKGROUND: Progress in genome sequencing is proceeding at an exponential pace, and several new algal genomes are becoming available every year. One of the challenges facing the community is the association of protein sequences encoded in the genomes with biological function. While most genome assembly projects generate annotations for predicted protein sequences, they are usually limited and integrate functional terms from a limited number of databases. Another challenge is the use of annotations to interpret large lists of 'interesting' genes generated by genome-scale datasets. Previously, these gene lists had to be analyzed across several independent biological databases, often on a gene-by-gene basis. In contrast, several annotation databases, such as DAVID, integrate data from multiple functional databases and reveal underlying biological themes of large gene lists. While several such databases have been constructed for animals, none is currently available for the study of algae. Due to renewed interest in algae as potential sources of biofuels and the emergence of multiple algal genome sequences, a significant need has arisen for such a database to process the growing compendiums of algal genomic data. DESCRIPTION: The Algal Functional Annotation Tool is a web-based comprehensive analysis suite integrating annotation data from several pathway, ontology, and protein family databases. The current version provides annotation for the model alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, and in the future will include additional genomes. The site allows users to interpret large gene lists by identifying associated functional terms, and their enrichment. Additionally, expression data for several experimental conditions were compiled and analyzed to provide an expression-based enrichment search. A tool to search for functionally-related genes based on gene expression across these conditions is also provided. Other features include dynamic visualization of genes on KEGG

  8. Effects of trans-10,cis-12 conjugated linoleic acid on body fat and serum lipids in young and adult hamsters.

    PubMed

    Navarro, V; Miranda, J; Churruca, I; Fernández-Quintela, A; Rodríguez, V M; Portillo, M P

    2006-06-01

    The aim of the present work was to determine whether t-10, c-12 conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) feeding was able to reduce body fat accumulation and improve the serum lipid profile in adult hamsters fed an atherogenic diet, in order to compare these effects with those observed in young growing hamsters. Young and adult hamsters were fed semi-purified atherogenic diets supplemented with 0.5 % linoleic acid or 0.5% t-10, c-12 CLA for 6 weeks. Body weight and food intake were measured every two days. Adipose tissue from different anatomical locations, liver and gastrocnemious muscle were dissected and weighed. Cholesterol, triacylglycerols, non-esterified fatty acids and proteins were determined spectrophotometrically and water content by gravimetry. In young hamsters, no significant differences were found in food intake, final body weight and gastrocnemious muscle weight. White adipose tissue weights were reduced, liver weight was increased and cholesterol and triacyl-glycerols in both serum and liver were reduced. In adult hamsters, CLA feeding decreased food intake and adipose tissue weights. No changes were observed in other parameters. The present study demonstrates that age has an influence in hamster responsiveness to t-10, c-12 CLA because, although when this isomer is added to an atherogenic diet it reduces body fat accumulation in both young and adults hamsters, the lessening of the effects on serum lipids brought about by atherogenic feeding is only observed in young animals. Moreover, it is clear that liver is a target for CLA in young but not in adult hamsters.

  9. Rapid induction of lipid droplets in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii and Chlorella vulgaris by Brefeldin A.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sangwoo; Kim, Hanul; Ko, Donghwi; Yamaoka, Yasuyo; Otsuru, Masumi; Kawai-Yamada, Maki; Ishikawa, Toshiki; Oh, Hee-Mock; Nishida, Ikuo; Li-Beisson, Yonghua; Lee, Youngsook

    2013-01-01

    Algal lipids are the focus of intensive research because they are potential sources of biodiesel. However, most algae produce neutral lipids only under stress conditions. Here, we report that treatment with Brefeldin A (BFA), a chemical inducer of ER stress, rapidly triggers lipid droplet (LD) formation in two different microalgal species, Chlamydomonas reinhardtii and Chlorella vulgaris. LD staining using Nile red revealed that BFA-treated algal cells exhibited many more fluorescent bodies than control cells. Lipid analyses based on thin layer chromatography and gas chromatography revealed that the additional lipids formed upon BFA treatment were mainly triacylglycerols (TAGs). The increase in TAG accumulation was accompanied by a decrease in the betaine lipid diacylglyceryl N,N,N-trimethylhomoserine (DGTS), a major component of the extraplastidic membrane lipids in Chlamydomonas, suggesting that at least some of the TAGs were assembled from the degradation products of membrane lipids. Interestingly, BFA induced TAG accumulation in the Chlamydomonas cells regardless of the presence or absence of an acetate or nitrogen source in the medium. This effect of BFA in Chlamydomonas cells seems to be due to BFA-induced ER stress, as supported by the induction of three homologs of ER stress marker genes by the drug. Together, these results suggest that ER stress rapidly triggers TAG accumulation in two green microalgae, C. reinhardtii and C. vulgaris. A further investigation of the link between ER stress and TAG synthesis may yield an efficient means of producing biofuel from algae.

  10. Lipid, ketone body and oxidative metabolism in the African lungfish, Protopterus dolloi following 60 days of fasting and aestivation.

    PubMed

    Frick, Natasha Therese; Bystriansky, Jason Scott; Ip, Yuen Kwong; Chew, Shit Fun; Ballantyne, James Stuart

    2008-09-01

    The potential importance of lipids and ketone bodies as fuels in the African lungfish, Protopterus dolloi, and the role of oxidative metabolism, were examined under control, fasted and aestivated conditions. In aestivating but not fasting lungfish, the activities of citrate synthase (CS) and cytochrome c oxidase (CCO) (enzymes of oxidative metabolism) showed tissue-specific changes. Significant reductions in CS activity occurred in the kidney, heart, gill and muscle, and in CCO in the liver and kidney tissues. Aestivation, but not fasting, also had a tissue-specific effect on mitochondrial state 3 respiration rates (using succinate as a substrate), with a >50% reduction in the liver, yet no change within muscle mitochondria. There is no indication that enzymes involved in lipid catabolism are up-regulated during periods of fasting or aestivation; however, both 3-hydroxyacyl CoA dehydrogenase (HOAD) and carnitine palmitoyl CoA transferase (CPT) activities were sustained in the liver despite the approximately 42% reduction in CCO activity, potentially indicating lipid metabolism is of importance during aestivation. Lungfish are able to utilize both the d- and l-stereoisomers of the ketone body beta-hydroxybutyrate (beta-HB); however, beta-HB does not appear to be an important fuel source during aestivation or fasting as no changes were observed in beta-HB tissue levels. This study demonstrates that an important aspect of metabolic depression during aestivation in lungfish is the tissue-specific down regulation of enzymes of aerobic metabolism while maintaining the activities of enzymes in pathways that supply substrates for aerobic metabolism.

  11. Tert-butylhydroquinone reduces lipid accumulation in C57BL/6 mice with lower body weight gain.

    PubMed

    Nam, Kung-Woo; Kim, Yong Hyun; Kwon, Hyun Jung; Rhee, Sang-Ki; Kim, Wan-Jong; Han, Man-Deuk

    2013-07-01

    tert-Butylhydroquinone (tBHQ) is a commonly used antioxidant additive that is approved for human use by both the Food and Agriculture Organization and the World Health Organization (FAO/WHO). In this study, we examined the effect of tBHQ on body weight gain and found that food supplementation with 0.001 % (w/w) tBHQ inhibited 61.4 % (P < 0.01) of body weight gain in high-fat diet (HFD)-induced C57BL/6 mice, and the oral administration of tBHQ (1.5 mg/kg) reduced 47.5 % (P < 0.05) of body weight gain in normal diet fed db/db mice. The HFD increased lipid deposit in adipocytes, but these were reduced significantly by tBHQ treatment in C57BL/6 mice. tBHQ supplementation significantly lowered the plasma triglyceride and total cholesterol, with reduced size of accumulated fat mass. The rate limiting enzyme of beta-oxidation (ACOX1) was significantly over-expressed in the liver with tBHQ treatment. These results indicate that tBHQ suppresses body weight gain in mice, possibly at least related to the up-regulation of ACOX1 gene expression.

  12. Effects of prolactin and experimental handling on liver, fat body and ovary lipid contents and their daily variations in Rana esculenta (L.).

    PubMed

    Sotowska-Brochocka, J; Jaklewicz, S

    1984-01-01

    Three groups of females of R. esculenta were kept under constant temperature and photoperiod conditions (L:D = 12:12). One group consisted of intact frogs, while the remainder were given saline or prolactin (PRL) injections 6 hours after light onset. After 5 days of such treatment examination was made every 6 hours over a 24-hour period of lipid content in the liver, fat bodies (FBs) and ovaries and the level and composition of plasma lipids. Both the experimental handling and PRL treatment caused in animals a decrease in weight of the liver and mobilization of lipid metabolism, inducing a shift in lipids and a change in their distribution within the organs examined. In animals injected with saline lipids were transported chiefly to FBs, whereas in frogs given PRL the whole, combined lipid content in these organs decreased considerably, suggesting that they had been transported to the tissues and that their catabolism had been intensified. It is suggested also that PRL has sparing effect on the ovarian lipid pool. In both groups, especially in frogs given PRL, there was a marked increase in plasma lipid concentration and the contents in percentages of its different classes. Increase in concentration of phospholipids (3X) and cholesterol (10X) in animals given PRL is particularly distinct. Both experimental handling and PRL administration affected the pattern of diurnal fluctuations in the lipid content of the organs examined.

  13. Yield of trihalomethanes and haloacetic acids upon chlorinating algal cells, and its prediction via algal cellular biochemical composition.

    PubMed

    Hong, Hua Chang; Mazumder, Asit; Wong, Ming Hung; Liang, Yan

    2008-12-01

    The major objective of the present study was to investigate the contribution of major biomolecules, including protein, carbohydrates and lipids, in predicting DBPs formation upon chlorination of algal cells. Three model compounds, including bovine serum albumin (BSA), starch and fish oil, as surrogates of algal-derived proteins, carbohydrates and lipids, and cells of three algae species, representing blue-green algae, green algae, and diatoms, were chlorinated in the laboratory. The results showed that BSA (27 microg mg(-1) C) and fish oil (50 microg mg(-1) C) produced more than nine times higher levels of chloroform than starch (3 microg mg(-1) C). For the formation of HAAs, BSA was shown to have higher reactivity (49 microg mg(-1) C) than fish oil and starch (5 microg mg(-1) C). For the algal cells, Nitzschia sp. (diatom) showed higher chloroform yields (48 microg mg(-1) C) but lower HAA yields (43 microg mg(-1) C) than Chlamydomonas sp. (green algae) (chloroform: 34 microg mg(-1) C; HAA: 62 microg mg(-1) C) and Oscillatoria sp. (blue-green algae) (chloroform: 26 microg mg(-1) C; HAA: 72 microg mg(-1) C). The calculated chloroform formation of cells from the three algal groups, based on their biochemical compositions, was generally consistent with the experimental data, while the predicted values for HAAs were significantly lower than the observed ones. As compared to humic substances, such as humic and fulvic acids, the algal cells appeared to be important precursors of dichloroacetic acid.

  14. Estrogen supplementation reduces whole body leucine and carbohydrate oxidation and increases lipid oxidation in men during endurance exercise.

    PubMed

    Hamadeh, Mazen J; Devries, Michaela C; Tarnopolsky, Mark A

    2005-06-01

    Healthy active men exhibit higher rates of carbohydrate (CHO) and leucine oxidation and lower rates of lipid oxidation compared with their female counterparts both at rest and during moderate intensity endurance exercise. We postulated that this reduced dependence on amino acids as a fuel source in women was due to the female sex hormone estrogen. In a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over design, we investigated the effect of supplementing 12 recreationally active men with estrogen on whole body substrate oxidation and leucine kinetics at rest and during moderate intensity endurance exercise. Subjects cycled for 90 min at an intensity of 65% maximum O(2) consumption after 8 d of either estrogen supplementation (2 mg 17beta-estradiol/d) or placebo (polycose). After a 2-wk washout period, they repeated the test after 8 d of the alternate treatment. On the test day, after a primed continuous infusion of l-[(13)C]leucine, O(2) consumption, CO(2) production, steady-state breath (13)CO(2), and plasma alpha-[(13)C]ketoisocaproate enrichments were measured at rest and at 60, 75, and 90 min during exercise in the postabsorptive state. Exercise increased energy expenditure more than 5-fold, CHO oxidation more than 6-fold, lipid oxidation more than 4-fold, and leucine oxidation 2.2-fold (all P < 0.0001), whereas it decreased the ratio of lipid to CHO oxidation by 50-70% (P = 0.003) compared with values at rest. Estrogen supplementation decreased respiratory exchange ratio during exercise (P = 0.03). Estrogen supplementation significantly decreased CHO oxidation by 5-16% (P = 0.04) and leucine oxidation by 16% (P = 0.01), whereas it significantly increased lipid oxidation by 22-44% (P = 0.024) at rest and during exercise. We conclude that estrogen influences fuel source selection at rest and during endurance exercise in recreationally active men, characterized by a reduced dependence on amino acids and CHO and an increased reliance on lipids as a fuel

  15. National Algal Biofuels Technology Roadmap

    SciTech Connect

    Ferrell, John; Sarisky-Reed, Valerie

    2010-05-01

    The framework for National Algal Biofuels Technology Roadmap was constructed at the Algal Biofuels Technology Roadmap Workshop, held December 9-10, 2008, at the University of Maryland-College Park. The Workshop was organized by the Biomass Program to discuss and identify the critical challenges currently hindering the development of a domestic, commercial-scale algal biofuels industry. This Roadmap presents information from a scientific, economic, and policy perspectives that can support and guide RD&D investment in algal biofuels. While addressing the potential economic and environmental benefits of using algal biomass for the production of liquid transportation fuels, the Roadmap describes the current status of algae RD&D. In doing so, it lays the groundwork for identifying challenges that likely need to be overcome for algal biomass to be used in the production of economically viable biofuels.

  16. Total body nitrogen and total body carbon as indicators of body protein and body lipids in the melon fly Bactrocera cucurbitae: effects of methoprene, a juvenile hormone analogue, and of diet supplementation with hydrolyzed yeast.

    PubMed

    ul Haq, Ihsan; Mayr, Leopold; Teal, P E A; Hendrichs, Jorge; Robinson, Alan S; Stauffer, Christian; Hood-Nowotny, Rebecca

    2010-12-01

    The application of methoprene, and providing access to diet including hydrolyzed yeast, are treatments known to enhance mating success in the male melon fly Bactrocera cucurbitae Coquillett (Diptera: Tephritidae), supporting their use in mass rearing protocols for sterile males in the context of sterile insect technique (SIT) programmes. The objective of the present laboratory study was to investigate the effect of methoprene application and diet supplementation with hydrolyzed yeast (protein) on the turnover of body lipids and protein to confirm the feasibility of their application in melon fly SIT mass-rearing programmes. While females had access to a diet that included hydrolyzed yeast (protein), males were exposed to one of the following treatments: (1) topical application of methoprene and access to diet including protein (M+P+); (2) only diet including protein (M-P+); (3) only methoprene (M+P-) and (4) untreated, only sugar-fed, control males (M-P-). Total body carbon (TBC) and total body nitrogen (TBN) of flies were measured at regular intervals from emergence to 35 days of age for each of the different treatments. Nitrogen assimilation and turnover in the flies were measured using stable isotope ((15)N) dilution techniques. Hydrolyzed yeast incorporation into the diet significantly increased male body weight, TBC and TBN as compared to sugar-fed males. Females had significantly higher body weight, TBC and TBN as compared to all males. TBC and TBN showed age-dependent changes, increasing until the age of sexual maturity and decreasing afterwards in both sexes. Methoprene treatment did not significantly affect TBC or TBN. The progressive increase with age of TBC suggests that lipogenesis occurs in adult male B. cucurbitae, as is the case in other tephritids. Stable isotope dilution was shown to be an effective method for determining N uptake in B. cucurbitae. This technique was used to show that sugar-fed males rely solely on larval N reserves and that the N

  17. Hepatic mTORC1 controls locomotor activity, body temperature, and lipid metabolism through FGF21.

    PubMed

    Cornu, Marion; Oppliger, Wolfgang; Albert, Verena; Robitaille, Aaron M; Trapani, Francesca; Quagliata, Luca; Fuhrer, Tobias; Sauer, Uwe; Terracciano, Luigi; Hall, Michael N

    2014-08-12

    The liver is a key metabolic organ that controls whole-body physiology in response to nutrient availability. Mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) is a nutrient-activated kinase and central controller of growth and metabolism that is negatively regulated by the tumor suppressor tuberous sclerosis complex 1 (TSC1). To investigate the role of hepatic mTOR complex 1 (mTORC1) in whole-body physiology, we generated liver-specific Tsc1 (L-Tsc1 KO) knockout mice. L-Tsc1 KO mice displayed reduced locomotor activity, body temperature, and hepatic triglyceride content in a rapamycin-sensitive manner. Ectopic activation of mTORC1 also caused depletion of hepatic and plasma glutamine, leading to peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ coactivator-1α (PGC-1α)-dependent fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) expression in the liver. Injection of glutamine or knockdown of PGC-1α or FGF21 in the liver suppressed the behavioral and metabolic defects due to mTORC1 activation. Thus, mTORC1 in the liver controls whole-body physiology through PGC-1α and FGF21. Finally, mTORC1 signaling correlated with FGF21 expression in human liver tumors, suggesting that treatment of glutamine-addicted cancers with mTOR inhibitors might have beneficial effects at both the tumor and whole-body level.

  18. Hepatic mTORC1 controls locomotor activity, body temperature, and lipid metabolism through FGF21

    PubMed Central

    Cornu, Marion; Oppliger, Wolfgang; Albert, Verena; Robitaille, Aaron M.; Trapani, Francesca; Quagliata, Luca; Fuhrer, Tobias; Sauer, Uwe; Terracciano, Luigi; Hall, Michael N.

    2014-01-01

    The liver is a key metabolic organ that controls whole-body physiology in response to nutrient availability. Mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) is a nutrient-activated kinase and central controller of growth and metabolism that is negatively regulated by the tumor suppressor tuberous sclerosis complex 1 (TSC1). To investigate the role of hepatic mTOR complex 1 (mTORC1) in whole-body physiology, we generated liver-specific Tsc1 (L-Tsc1 KO) knockout mice. L-Tsc1 KO mice displayed reduced locomotor activity, body temperature, and hepatic triglyceride content in a rapamycin-sensitive manner. Ectopic activation of mTORC1 also caused depletion of hepatic and plasma glutamine, leading to peroxisome proliferator–activated receptor γ coactivator-1α (PGC-1α)–dependent fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) expression in the liver. Injection of glutamine or knockdown of PGC-1α or FGF21 in the liver suppressed the behavioral and metabolic defects due to mTORC1 activation. Thus, mTORC1 in the liver controls whole-body physiology through PGC-1α and FGF21. Finally, mTORC1 signaling correlated with FGF21 expression in human liver tumors, suggesting that treatment of glutamine-addicted cancers with mTOR inhibitors might have beneficial effects at both the tumor and whole-body level. PMID:25082895

  19. Advanced Algal Systems Fact Sheet

    SciTech Connect

    2016-06-01

    Research and development (R&D) on advanced algal biofuels and bioproducts presents an opportunity to sustainably expand biomass resource potential in the United States. The Bioenergy Technologies Office’s (BETO’s) Advanced Algal Systems Program is carrying out a long-term, applied R&D strategy to lower the costs of algal biofuel production by working with partners to develop revolutionary technologies and conduct crosscutting analyses to better understand the potential

  20. [Assessment of an association between fatty acid structure of lipids in pulmonary surfactant and 137Cs content in the body of children, residents of radiation-contaminated areas].

    PubMed

    Parkhomenko, V M; Kolpakov, I Ie; Studenykina, O M; Briuzhina, T S; Artemchuk, H P

    2012-01-01

    An evaluation of correlation between fatty acid composition in pulmonary surfactant lipids and 137Cs content in the body of children, residents of radiation-contaminated areas revealed that a increased incorporation of 137Cs promotes a disruption of fatty acid balance towards an increase in the saturation of the surfactant lipid complex, a destruction of lecithin fraction of surfactant, a decrease in antioxidant properties of surfactant system, an activation of lipid peroxidation processes in the respiratory area of lung by lipoxygenase type, a disturbance of polyunsaturated fatty acid metabolism on the stage of bioregulators-eicosanoid formation.

  1. High-throughput fluorescence-activated cell sorting for lipid hyperaccumulating Chlamydomonas reinhardtii mutants.

    PubMed

    Xie, Bo; Stessman, Dan; Hart, Jason H; Dong, Haili; Wang, Yingjun; Wright, David A; Nikolau, Basil J; Spalding, Martin H; Halverson, Larry J

    2014-09-01

    The genetically tractable microalga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii has many advantages as a model for renewable bioproducts and/or biofuels production. However, one limitation of C. reinhardtii is its relatively low-lipid content compared with some other algal species. To overcome this limitation, we combined ethane methyl sulfonate mutagenesis with fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS) of cells stained with the lipophilic stain Nile Red to isolate lipid hyperaccumulating mutants of C. reinhardtii. By manipulating the FACS gates, we sorted mutagenized cells with extremely high Nile Red fluorescence signals that were rarely detected in nonmutagenized populations. This strategy successfully isolated several putative lipid hyperaccumulating mutants exhibiting 23% to 58% (dry weight basis) higher fatty acid contents than their progenitor strains. Significantly, for most mutants, nitrogen starvation was not required to attain high-lipid content nor was there a requirement for a deficiency in starch accumulation. Microscopy of Nile Red stained cells revealed that some mutants exhibit an increase in the number of lipid bodies, which correlated with TLC analysis of triacyglycerol content. Increased lipid content could also arise through increased biomass production. Collectively, our findings highlight the ability to enhance intracellular lipid accumulation in algae using random mutagenesis in conjunction with a robust FACS and lipid yield verification regime. Our lipid hyperaccumulating mutants could serve as a genetic resource for stacking additional desirable traits to further increase lipid production and for identifying genes contributing to lipid hyperaccumulation, without lengthy lipid-induction periods.

  2. A Method to Identify and Isolate Pluripotent Human Stem Cells and Mouse Epiblast Stem Cells Using Lipid Body-Associated Retinyl Ester Fluorescence

    PubMed Central

    Muthusamy, Thangaselvam; Mukherjee, Odity; Menon, Radhika; Megha, P.B.; Panicker, Mitradas M.

    2014-01-01

    Summary We describe the use of a characteristic blue fluorescence to identify and isolate pluripotent human embryonic stem cells and human-induced pluripotent stem cells. The blue fluorescence emission (450–500 nm) is readily observed by fluorescence microscopy and correlates with the expression of pluripotency markers (OCT4, SOX2, and NANOG). It allows easy identification and isolation of undifferentiated human pluripotent stem cells, high-throughput fluorescence sorting and subsequent propagation. The fluorescence appears early during somatic reprogramming. We show that the blue fluorescence arises from the sequestration of retinyl esters in cytoplasmic lipid bodies. The retinoid-sequestering lipid bodies are specific to human and mouse pluripotent stem cells of the primed or epiblast-like state and absent in naive mouse embryonic stem cells. Retinol, present in widely used stem cell culture media, is sequestered as retinyl ester specifically by primed pluripotent cells and also can induce the formation of these lipid bodies. PMID:25068130

  3. Changes in Body Mass Index and Lipid Profile in Psoriatic Patients After Treatment With Standard Protocol of Infliximab.

    PubMed

    Ehsani, Amir Houshang; Mortazavi, Hossein; Balighi, Kamran; Hosseini, Mahboubeh Sadat; Azizpour, Arghavan; Hejazi, Seyyedeh Pardis; Goodarzi, Azadeh; Darvari, Seyyedeh Bahareh

    2016-09-01

    Psoriasis is a chronic and inflammatory dermatologic disease. Psoriasis may predispose to cardiovascular disease and diabetes. However, the role of tumor necrosis factor (TNF) inhibitor in mediating this risk is controversial. Regarding frequent use of infliximab in psoriasis, and the hypothesis that anti TNF-α treatment may increase Body Mass Index (BMI) and alter lipid profile in these patients, the aim of this study was to assess changes in BMI and Lipid Profile and level of leptin in Psoriatic Patients under Treatment of Standard Protocol of Infliximab in a 24 week period. This study was accomplished as a before-after study. Twenty-seven psoriatic patients were included, and standard infliximab therapy was applied. All patients underwent 3 times of blood collection and in each session; LDL, HDL, Total Cholesterol, Triglycerides, Leptin, and PASI score were measured at the start of the study and at the 12th and 24th week of follow-up. Twenty-five patients consisted of 18 (72%) male and 7 (28%) female subjects were evaluated. The mean age of the patients was 36.91±13.31 years. PASI score demonstrated significant decrease after 24 weeks; however, BMI and HDL and leptin showed a significant increase during treatment. Significant negative correlation was seen between Leptin and PASI score changes (r=0.331, P=0.042). HDL and BMI had the most correlations with leptin (positive correlation) and PASI score (negative correlation). Results demonstrated a dramatic decrease in PASI, increase in BMI and HDL and increased in leptin; somewhat correlated to each other. These results suggest that patients taking infliximab should take more care of their weight and lipid profile, while on treatment.

  4. Potential of mixed microalgae to harness biodiesel from ecological water-bodies with simultaneous treatment.

    PubMed

    Mohan, S Venkata; Devi, M Prathima; Mohanakrishna, G; Amarnath, N; Babu, M Lenin; Sarma, P N

    2011-01-01

    Biodiesel as an eco-friendly fuel is gaining much acceptance in recent years. This communication provides an overview on the possibility of using mixed microalgae existing in ecological water-bodies for harnessing biodiesel. Microalgal cultures from five water-bodies are cultivated in domestic wastewater in open-ponds and the harvested algal-biomass was processed through acid-catalyzed transesterification. Experiments evidenced the potential of using mixed microalgae for harnessing biodiesel. Presence of palmitic acid (C16:0) in higher fraction and physical properties of algal oil correlated well with the biodiesel properties. Functional characteristics of water-bodies showed to influence both species diversity and lipid accumulation. Microalgae from stagnant water-bodies receiving domestic discharges documented higher lipid accumulation. Algal-oil showed to consist 33 types of saturated and unsaturated fatty acids having wide food and fuel characteristics. Simultaneous wastewater treatment was also noticed due to the syntrophic association in the water-body microenvironment. Diversity studies visualized the composition of algae species known to accumulate higher lipids.

  5. Effects of body size, condition, and lipid content on the survival of juvenile lake herring during rapid cooling events

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pangle, K.L.; Sutton, T.M.; Kinnunen, R.E.; Hoff, M.H.

    2005-01-01

    Juvenile lake herring Coregonus artedi were exposed to rapid cooling events during two laboratory experiments to determine the effects of body size, physiological condition, and lipid content on survival. The first experiment was conducted at the onset of winter, exposing small (50 to 85 mm) and large (85 to 129 mm) fish to a decline in water temperature from 12 to 2??C at a rate of 1??C/hr. During this experiment, both large and small individuals exposed to a rapid cooling event experienced no mortality or abnormal behaviors. Separate fish were then maintained under thermal and photoperiod regimes that mimicked those in Lake Superior from October through May. Fish in each size class were maintained at two feeding treatments: Artemia ad libitum and no food. At the completion of the winter period, these lake herring were subjected to the same rapid cooling event conducted in the first experiment. During the experiment, lake herring exhibited no mortality or abnormal behaviors despite treatment-dependent differences in condition and lipid content. Our results indicate that mortality due to rapid cooling events does not appear to contribute to the recruitment variability observed for juvenile lake herring in Lake Superior.

  6. Algal biofuels from wastewater treatment high rate algal ponds.

    PubMed

    Craggs, R J; Heubeck, S; Lundquist, T J; Benemann, J R

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines the potential of algae biofuel production in conjunction with wastewater treatment. Current technology for algal wastewater treatment uses facultative ponds, however, these ponds have low productivity (∼10 tonnes/ha.y), are not amenable to cultivating single algal species, require chemical flocculation or other expensive processes for algal harvest, and do not provide consistent nutrient removal. Shallow, paddlewheel-mixed high rate algal ponds (HRAPs) have much higher productivities (∼30 tonnes/ha.y) and promote bioflocculation settling which may provide low-cost algal harvest. Moreover, HRAP algae are carbon-limited and daytime addition of CO(2) has, under suitable climatic conditions, the potential to double production (to ∼60 tonnes/ha.y), improve bioflocculation algal harvest, and enhance wastewater nutrient removal. Algae biofuels (e.g. biogas, ethanol, biodiesel and crude bio-oil), could be produced from the algae harvested from wastewater HRAPs, The wastewater treatment function would cover the capital and operation costs of algal production, with biofuel and recovered nutrient fertilizer being by-products. Greenhouse gas abatement results from both the production of the biofuels and the savings in energy consumption compared to electromechanical treatment processes. However, to achieve these benefits, further research is required, particularly the large-scale demonstration of wastewater treatment HRAP algal production and harvest.

  7. Mango modulates body fat and plasma glucose and lipids in mice fed a high-fat diet.

    PubMed

    Lucas, Edralin A; Li, Wenjia; Peterson, Sandra K; Brown, Angela; Kuvibidila, Solo; Perkins-Veazie, Penny; Clarke, Stephen L; Smith, Brenda J

    2011-11-01

    Consumption of fruits and vegetables has been investigated for their role in the prevention of many chronic conditions. Among the fruits, mango provides numerous bioactive compounds such as carotenoids, vitamin C and phenolic compounds, which have been shown to have antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. The present study examined the effects of dietary supplementation of freeze-dried mango pulp, in comparison with the hypolipidaemic drug, fenofibrate, and the hypoglycaemic drug, rosiglitazone, in reducing adiposity and alterations in glucose metabolism and lipid profile in mice fed a high-fat (HF) diet. Male C57BL/6J mice were randomly divided into six treatment groups (eight to nine/group): control (10 % energy from fat); HF (60 % energy from fat); HF+1 or 10 % freeze-dried mango (w/w); HF+fenofibrate (500 mg/kg diet); HF+rosiglitazone (50 mg/kg diet). After 8 weeks of treatment, mice receiving the HF diet had a higher percentage body fat (P = 0·0205) and epididymal fat mass (P = 0·0037) compared with the other treatment groups. Both doses of freeze-dried mango, similar to fenofibrate and rosiglitazone, prevented the increase in epididymal fat mass and the percentage of body fat. Freeze-dried mango supplementation at the 1 % dose improved glucose tolerance as shown by approximately 35 % lower blood glucose area under the curve compared with the HF group. Moreover, freeze-dried mango lowered insulin resistance, as indicated by the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance, to a similar extent as rosiglitazone and modulated NEFA. The present findings demonstrate that incorporation of freeze-dried mango in the diet of mice improved glucose tolerance and lipid profile and reduced adiposity associated with a HF diet.

  8. Body Mass Parameters, Lipid Profiles and Protein Contents of Zebrafish Embryos and Effects of 2,4-Dinitrophenol Exposure

    PubMed Central

    Hachicho, Nancy; Reithel, Sarah; Miltner, Anja; Heipieper, Hermann J.; Küster, Eberhard; Luckenbach, Till

    2015-01-01

    Morphology and physiology of fish embryos undergo dramatic changes during their development until the onset of feeding, supplied only by endogenous yolk reserves. For obtaining an insight how these restructuring processes are reflected by body mass related parameters, dry weights (dw), contents of the elements carbon and nitrogen and lipid and protein levels were quantified in different stages within the first four days of embryo development of the zebrafish (Danio rerio). The data show age dependent changes in tissue composition. Dry weights decreased significantly from 79μgdw/egg at 0hours post fertilization (hpf) to 61 μgdw/egg after 96 hpf. The amounts of total carbon fluctuated between 460 mg g-1 and 540 mg g-1 dw, nitrogen was at about 100 mg g-1 dw and total fatty acids were between 48–73 mg g-1 dw. In contrast to these parameters that remained relatively constant, the protein content, which was 240 mg g-1 at 0 hpf, showed an overall increase of about 40%. Comparisons of intact eggs and dechorionated embryos at stages prior to hatching (24, 30, 48 hpf) showed that the differences seen for dry weight and for carbon and nitrogen contents became smaller at more advanced stages, consistent with transition of material from the chorion to embryo tissue. Further, we determined the effect of 2,4-dinitrophenol at a subacutely toxic concentration (14 μM, LC10) as a model chemical challenge on the examined body mass related parameters. The compound caused significant decreases in phospholipid and glycolipid fatty acid contents along with a decrease in the phospholipid fatty acid unsaturation index. No major changes were observed for the other examined parameters. Lipidomic studies as performed here may thus be useful for determining subacute effects of lipophilic organic compounds on lipid metabolism and on cellular membranes of zebrafish embryos. PMID:26292096

  9. Effects of whey protein isolate on body composition, lipids, insulin and glucose in overweight and obese individuals.

    PubMed

    Pal, Sebely; Ellis, Vanessa; Dhaliwal, Satvinder

    2010-09-01

    The health benefits currently associated with increased dairy intake may be attributable to the whey component of dairy proteins. The present study evaluated the effects of whey protein supplementation on body composition, lipids, insulin and glucose in comparison to casein and glucose (control) supplementation in overweight/obese individuals for 12 weeks. The subjects were randomised to whey protein, casein or glucose supplementation for 12 weeks according to a parallel design. Fasting blood samples and dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry measurements were taken. Seventy men and women with a mean age of 48.4 (SEM 0.86) years and a mean BMI of 31.3 (SEM 0.8) kg/m2 completed the study. Subjects supplemented with whey protein had no significant change in body composition or serum glucose at 12 weeks compared with the control or casein group. Fasting TAG levels were significantly lowered in the whey group compared with the control group at 6 weeks (P = 0.025) and 12 weeks (P = 0.035). There was a significant decrease in total cholesterol and LDL cholesterol at week 12 in the whey group compared with the casein (P = 0.026 and 0.045, respectively) and control groups (P < 0.001 and 0.003, respectively). Fasting insulin levels and homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance scores were also significantly decreased in the whey group compared with the control group (P = 0.049 and P = 0.034, respectively). The present study demonstrated that supplementation with whey proteins improves fasting lipids and insulin levels in overweight and obese individuals.

  10. Algal Pretreatment Improves Biofuels Yield and Value; Highlights in Science, NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    SciTech Connect

    2015-05-15

    One of the major challenges associated with algal biofuels production in a biorefinery-type setting is improving biomass utilization in its entirety, increasing the process energetic yields and providing economically viable and scalable co-product concepts. We demonstrate the effectiveness of a novel, integrated technology based on moderate temperatures and low pH to convert the carbohydrates in wet algal biomass to soluble sugars for fermentation, while making lipids more accessible for downstream extraction and leaving a protein-enriched fraction behind. This research has been highlighted in the Green Chemistry journal article mentioned above and a milestone report, and is based on the work the researchers are doing for the AOP projects Algal Biomass Conversion and Algal Biofuels Techno-economic Analysis. That work has demonstrated an advanced process for algal biofuel production that captures the value of both the algal lipids and carbohydrates for conversion to biofuels.  With this process, as much as 150 GGE/ton of biomass can be produced, 2-3X more than can be produced by terrestrial feedstocks.  This can also reduce the cost of biofuel production by as much as 40%. This also represents the first ever design case for the algal lipid upgrading pathway.

  11. The fatty acid transport protein Fat1p is involved in the export of fatty acids from lipid bodies in Yarrowia lipolytica.

    PubMed

    Dulermo, Rémi; Gamboa-Meléndez, Heber; Dulermo, Thierry; Thevenieau, France; Nicaud, Jean-Marc

    2014-09-01

    In order to live, cells need to import different molecules, such as sugars, amino acids or lipids, using transporters. In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the ScFAT1 gene encodes the long-chain fatty acid transporter; however, the transport of fatty acids (FAs) in the oleaginous yeast Yarrowia lipolytica has not yet been studied. In contrast to what has previously been found for ΔScfat1 strains, ΔYlfat1 yeast was still able to grow on substrates containing short-, medium- or long-chain FAs. We observed a notable difference in cell lipid content between wild-type (WT) and deletion mutant strains after 24 h of culture in minimal oleate medium: in the WT strain, lipids represented 24% of cell dry weight (CDW), while they accounted for 37% of CDW in the ΔYlfat1 strain. This result indicates that YlFat1p is not involved in cell lipid uptake. Moreover, we also observed that fatty acid remobilisation was decreased in the ΔYlfat1 strain and that fluorescence-tagged YlFat1p proteins localised to the interfaces between lipid bodies, which suggests that YlFat1p may play a role in the export of FAs from lipid bodies.

  12. Temporal evaluation of body composition, glucose homeostasis and lipid profile of male rats programmed by maternal protein restriction during lactation.

    PubMed

    Fagundes, A T S; Moura, E G; Passos, M C F; Santos-Silva, A P; de Oliveira, E; Trevenzoli, I H; Casimiro-Lopes, G; Nogueira-Neto, J F; Lisboa, P C

    2009-12-01

    Neonatal protein restriction causes lower body weight and hormonal dysfunctions in 6 months-old rats. In this model, we studied the body composition, glycogen content, serum lipid, serum protein, and hormones related to glucose homeostasis in the offspring during development. At birth, lactating rats were divided into: control dams - fed a normal diet (23% protein) and protein restricted dams - fed a diet with 8% protein. After weaning, pups received normal diet. Offspring were killed at 21, 90, and 180 days-old. Protein restricted offspring showed lower visceral fat (90th day: 14%; 180th day: 19%) and lower total fat (90th day: 16%; 180th day: 14%) that explain their lower body weight. They presented lower glycemia (180th day: 17%), lower insulinemia (21st day: 63%; 180th day: 24%), higher adiponectinemia (21st day: 169%), higher liver glycogen (21st day: 104%), and higher muscle glycogen (180th day: 106%), suggesting a higher insulin sensitivity. The higher serum corticosterone (50%), higher adrenal total catecholamines content (98%) as well as in vitro catecholamine secretion (26%) of adult protein restricted offspring, suggest a programming stimulatory effect upon adrenal gland. They also presented several biochemical changes, such as lower serum total protein, albumin and globulin (21st day: 17, 21, 12%, respectively), higher LDL-c (21st day: 69%), lower triglycerides (21st day: 42%; 90th day: 39%), and lower total cholesterol (180th day: 16%). Thus, maternal protein restriction during lactation induces an energy-protein malnutrition, characterized by an impairment of the pup's protein anabolism and, after weaning, the lower adiposity suggests lower lipogenesis and higher lipolytic activity, probably caused by catecholamine and glucocorticoid action.

  13. A randomised study on the effects of fish protein supplement on glucose tolerance, lipids and body composition in overweight adults.

    PubMed

    Vikøren, Linn A; Nygård, Ottar K; Lied, Einar; Rostrup, Espen; Gudbrandsen, Oddrun A

    2013-02-28

    The popularity of high-protein diets for weight reduction is immense. However, the potential benefits from altering the source of dietary protein rather than the amount is scarcely investigated. In the present study, we examined the effects of fish protein supplement on glucose and lipid metabolism in overweight adults. A total of thirty-four overweight adults were randomised to 8 weeks' supplementation with fish protein or placebo tablets (controls). The intake of fish protein supplement was 3 g/d for the first 4 weeks and 6 g/d for the last 4 weeks. In this study, 8 weeks of fish protein supplementation resulted in lower values of fasting glucose (P< 0·05), 2 h postprandial glucose (P< 0·05) and glucose-area under the curve (AUC) (five measurements over 2 h, P< 0·05) after fish protein supplementation compared to controls. Glucose-AUC was decreased after 8 weeks with fish protein supplement compared to baseline (P< 0·05), concomitant with increased 30 min and decreased 90 min and 2 h insulin C-peptide level (P< 0·05), and reduced LDL-cholesterol (P< 0·05). Body muscle % was increased (P< 0·05) and body fat % was reduced (P< 0·05) after 4 weeks' supplementation. Physical activity and energy and macronutrients intake did not change during the course of the study. In conclusion, short-term daily supplementation with a low dose of fish protein may have beneficial effects on blood levels of glucose and LDL-cholesterol as well as glucose tolerance and body composition in overweight adults. The long-term effects of fish protein supplementation is of interest in the context of using more fish as a protein source in the diet, and the effects of inclusion of fish in the diet of individuals with low glucose tolerance should be evaluated.

  14. Associations of Low-Intensity Resistance Training with Body Composition and Lipid Profile in Obese Patients with Type 2 Diabetes.

    PubMed

    Hamasaki, Hidetaka; Kawashima, Yu; Tamada, Yoshiki; Furuta, Masashi; Katsuyama, Hisayuki; Sako, Akahito; Yanai, Hidekatsu

    2015-01-01

    Resistance training to increase muscle mass and functional capacity is an integral part of diet and exercise programs for the management of obesity and type 2 diabetes. Low-intensity resistance training with slow movement and tonic force generation (LST) may be a practical and safe regimen for elderly obese individuals but the health benefits are uncertain. This study investigated the effects of LST on body composition and metabolic parameters in obese patients with type 2 diabetes. Twenty-six obese patients with type 2 diabetes engaged in LST training during hospitalization and were advised to maintain this regimen for 12 weeks after discharge. We compared lipid profile, arterial stiffness, and body composition before and after LST training. After 12 weeks of LST training, the ratio of lower extremity muscle mass to body weight increased significantly (0.176 ± 0.028 to 0.184 ± 0.023, mean ± SD), while body fat mass and body fat percentage decreased significantly (36.2 ± 10.9 kg to 34.3 ± 9.4 kg and 41.2 ± 8.6% to 40.1 ± 7.7%, respectively). Moreover, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol was significantly increased (42.2 ± 14 mg/dl to 46.3 ± 12.4 mg/dl) and both free fatty acids and lipoprotein(a) were decreased (665.2 ± 212.1 μEq/l to 525.4 ± 231.3 μEq/l and 15.4 ± 18 mg/dl to 13.8 ± 18 mg/dl, respectively). No significant change was observed in arterial stiffness. Although this study was a non-controlled investigation and some confounding factors including dietary intake, medication and compliance with training might affect the study result, a brief (12-week) LST training program may be a safe and effective strategy for the management of obesity and type 2 diabetes.

  15. In situ ethyl ester production from wet algal biomass under microwave-mediated supercritical ethanol conditions.

    PubMed

    Patil, Prafulla D; Reddy, Harvind; Muppaneni, Tapaswy; Schaub, Tanner; Holguin, F Omar; Cooke, Peter; Lammers, Peter; Nirmalakhandan, Nagamany; Li, Yin; Lu, Xiuyang; Deng, Shuguang

    2013-07-01

    An in situ transesterification approach was demonstrated for converting lipid-rich wet algae (Nannochloropsis salina) into fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEE) under microwave-mediated supercritical ethanol conditions, while preserving the nutrients and other valuable components in the algae. This single-step process can simultaneously and effectively extract the lipids from wet algae and transesterify them into crude biodiesel. Experimental runs were designed to optimize the process parameters and to evaluate their effects on algal biodiesel yield. The algal biomass characterization and algal biodiesel analysis were carried out by using various analytical instruments such as FTIR, SEM-EDS, TLC, GC-MS and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) under nitrogen and oxygen environments was also performed to examine the thermal and oxidative stability of ethyl esters produced from wet algae. This simple in situ transesterification process using a green solvent and catalyst-free approach can be a potentially efficient route for algal biodiesel production.

  16. Non-conventional approaches to food processing in CELSS, 1. Algal proteins: Characterization and process optimization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nakhost, Z.; Karel, M.; Krukonis, V. J.

    1987-01-01

    Protein isolate obtained from green algae cultivated under controlled conditions was characterized. Molecular weight determination of fractionated algal proteins using SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis revealed a wide spectrum of molecular weights ranging from 15,000 to 220,000. Isoelectric points of dissociated proteins were in the range of 3.95 to 6.20. Amino acid composition of protein isolate compared favorably with FAO standards. High content of essential amino acids leucine, valine, phenylalanine and lysine make algal protein isolate a high quality component of closed ecological life support system diets. To optimize the removal of algal lipids and pigments supercritical carbon dioxide extraction (with and without ethanol as a co-solvent) was used. Addition of ethanol to supercritical carbon dioxide resulted in more efficient removal of algal lipids and produced protein isolate with a good yield and protein recovery. The protein isolate extracted by the above mixture had an improved water solubility.

  17. Non-conventional approaches to food processing in CELSS. I - Algal proteins: Characterization and process optimization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nakhost, Z.; Karel, M.; Krukonis, V. J.

    1987-01-01

    Protein isolate obtained from green algae (Scenedesmus obliquus) cultivated under controlled conditions was characterized. Molecular weight determination of fractionated algal proteins using SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis revealed a wide spectrum of molecular weights ranging from 15,000 to 220,000. Isoelectric points of dissociated proteins were in the range of 3.95 to 6.20. Amino acid composition of protein isolate compared favorably with FAO standards. High content of essential amino acids leucine, valine, phenylalanine and lysine makes algal protein isolate a high quality component of CELSS diets. To optimize the removal of algal lipids and pigments supercritical carbon dioxide extraction (with and without ethanol as a co-solvent) was used. Addition of ethanol to supercritical CO2 resulted in more efficient removal of algal lipids and produced protein isolate with a good yield and protein recovery. The protein isolate extracted by the above mixture had an improved water solubility.

  18. Erythropoietin enhances whole body lipid oxidation during prolonged exercise in humans.

    PubMed

    Caillaud, Corinne; Connes, Philippe; Ben Saad, Helmi; Mercier, Jacques

    2015-03-01

    Animal studies have suggested that erythropoietin, besides its well-known hematopoietic effects, can modulate metabolism and prevent fat accumulation. We investigated the effects of repeated injections of recombinant human erythropoietin (EPO) on the balance of substrate oxidation during aerobic exercise in humans. Twelve healthy aerobically trained males received subcutaneously either moderate dose of EPO (50 U/kg, EPO) or saline injections (NaCl 0.9 %, control) three times a week for 4 weeks. Body weight, % fat, maximal aerobic capacity, and substrate utilization during exercise were assessed before and after treatment, while hemoglobin and hematocrit were monitored regularly during the treatment. Carbohydrate and fat oxidation were evaluated via indirect calorimetry, during a submaximal exercise performed at 75 % of the participants' maximal aerobic capacity (V̇(O2max)) for 60 min. Results showed that 4 weeks of EPO treatment significantly enhanced fat oxidation (+56 % in EPO versus -9 % in control) during exercise, independent of its effects on hematological parameters or V̇(O2max). This study shows that EPO can modulate substrate utilization during exercise, leading to enhanced fat utilization and lower use of carbohydrates. This opens new research directions exploring whether systemic EPO levels, in physiological conditions, participate to the modulation of fat oxidation.

  19. Responses of Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata and algal assembly to photocatalytic titanium dioxide nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Metzler, David M.

    Development and use of nanomaterials has increased significantly over the past decade. This trend is expected to continue for the foreseeable future, which have led some to call this new industrial revolution. One aspect of these materials that make them special is their unique properties that are different from the bulk material. These unique properties have not been investigated to determine to what extent they will impact the environment. This work was undertaken to understand how nanoparticles could impact algae. For the determination of nanoparticle toxicity, dose-response experiments were run for similar sized Al2O3, TiO2, and SiO2. Additional, a wide range of nanoparticle sizes (d1) were tested at 100 and 1000 mg/L for Al2O3, TiO 2, and SiO2. Results of different nanoparticles and similar d1 dose-response data show increased toxicity with increased surface charge of the nanoparticle. Various d1 of Al2O 3 effect the population and chlorophyll a but not lipid peroxidation. Various d1 of SiO2 and TiO2 effect the population, chlorophyll a, and lipid peroxidation. Of all TiO2 d1 tested 42 nm had the greatest effect on population, chlorophyll a, and lipid peroxidation. The effect of light intensity, algal age, and body burden was examined. The body burden was adjusted by varying the initial algal cell population while keeping the nanoparticle concentration constant. Decreased body burden decreased the effect on population. The chlorophyll a and lipid peroxidation varied with the initial decreased with decreased body burden. This trend was reversed at low body burden, the chlorophyll a and lipid peroxidation increased 3 -- 4 times greater than control values. The algal cell age was controlled by the hydraulic retention time of the pre-exposure continuously stirred tank reactors. As the age of the algae increased the effect of population increased. At algae age great then 10 days the effect on population reminded constant. Titanium dioxide effect on chlorophyll a

  20. Algal Biofuels; Algal Biofuels R&D at NREL (Brochure)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2010-09-01

    An overview of NREL's algal biofuels projects, including U.S. Department of Energy-funded work, projects with U.S. and international partners, and Laboratory Directed Research and Development projects.

  1. Comparative study of tissue deposition of omega-3 fatty acids from polar-lipid rich oil of the microalgae Nannochloropsis oculata with krill oil in rats.

    PubMed

    Kagan, Michael L; Levy, Aharon; Leikin-Frenkel, Alicia

    2015-01-01

    Long-chain omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC n-3 PUFA) exert health benefits which are dependent upon their incorporation into blood, cells and tissues. Plasma and tissue deposition of LC n-3 PUFA from oils extracted from the micro-algae Nannochloropsis oculata and from krill were compared in rats. The algal oil provides eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) partly conjugated (15%) to phospholipids and glycolipids but no docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), whereas krill oil provides both EPA and DHA conjugated in part (40%) to phospholipids. Rats fed a standard diet received either krill oil or polar-lipid rich algal oil by gavage daily for 7 days (5 ml oil per kg body weight each day). Fatty acid concentrations were analyzed in plasma, brain and liver, and two adipose depots since these represent transport, functional and storage pools of fatty acids, respectively. When measuring total LC n-3 PUFA (sum of EPA, docosapentaenoic acid (DPA) and DHA), there was no statistically significant difference between the algal oil and krill oil for plasma, brain, liver and gonadal adipose tissue. Concentrations of LC n-3 PUFA were higher in the retroperitoneal adipose tissue from the algal oil group. Tissue uptake of LC n-3 PUFA from an algal oil containing 15% polar lipids (glycolipids and phospholipids) was found to be equivalent to krill oil containing 40% phospholipids. This may be due to glycolipids forming smaller micelles during ingestive hydrolysis than phospholipids. Ingestion of fatty acids with glycolipids may improve bioavailability, but this needs to be further explored.

  2. Centriole asymmetry determines algal cell geometry

    PubMed Central

    Marshall, Wallace F.

    2012-01-01

    The mechanisms that determine the shape and organization of cells remain largely unknown. Green algae such as Chlamydomonas provide excellent model systems for studying cell geometry due to their highly reproducible cell organization. Structural and genetic studies suggest that asymmetry of the centriole (basal body) plays a critical determining role in organizing the internal organization of algal cells, through the attachment of microtubule rootlets and other large fiber systems to specific sets of microtubule triplets on the centriole. Thus to understand cell organization, it will be critical to understand how the different triplets of the centriole come to have distinct molecular identities. PMID:23026116

  3. Effects of Hazelnut Consumption on Blood Lipids and Body Weight: A Systematic Review and Bayesian Meta-Analysis.

    PubMed

    Perna, Simone; Giacosa, Attilio; Bonitta, Gianluca; Bologna, Chiara; Isu, Antonio; Guido, Davide; Rondanelli, Mariangela

    2016-11-25

    Hazelnuts are rich in monounsaturated fatty acids and antioxidant bioactive substances: their consumption has been associated with a decreased risk of cardiovascular disease events. A systematic review and a meta-analysis was performed to combine the results from several trials and to estimate the pooled (overall) effect of hazelnuts on blood lipids and body weight outcomes. Specifically, a Bayesian random effect meta-analysis of mean differences of Δ-changes from baseline across treatment (MDΔ) (i.e., hazelnut-enriched diet vs. control diet) has been conducted. Nine studies representing 425 participants were included in the analysis. The intervention diet lasted 28-84 days with a dosage of hazelnuts ranging from 29 to 69 g/day. Out of nine studies, three randomized studies have been meta-analyzed showing a significant reduction in low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol (pooled MDΔ = -0.150 mmol/L; 95% highest posterior density interval (95%HPD) = -0.308; -0.003) in favor of a hazelnut-enriched diet. Total cholesterol showed a marked trend toward a decrease (pooled MDΔ = -0.127 mmol/L; 95%HPD = -0.284; 0.014) and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol remained substantially stable (pooled MDΔ = 0.002 mmol/L; 95%HPD = -0.140; 0.147). No effects on triglycerides (pooled MDΔ = 0.045 mmol/L; 95%HPD = -0.195; 0.269) and body mass index (BMI) (pooled MDΔ = 0.062 kg/m²; 95%HPD = -0.293; 0.469) were found. Hazelnut-enriched diet is associated with a decrease of LDL and total cholesterol, while HDL cholesterol, triglycerides and BMI remain substantially unchanged.

  4. Effects of Hazelnut Consumption on Blood Lipids and Body Weight: A Systematic Review and Bayesian Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Perna, Simone; Giacosa, Attilio; Bonitta, Gianluca; Bologna, Chiara; Isu, Antonio; Guido, Davide; Rondanelli, Mariangela

    2016-01-01

    Hazelnuts are rich in monounsaturated fatty acids and antioxidant bioactive substances: their consumption has been associated with a decreased risk of cardiovascular disease events. A systematic review and a meta-analysis was performed to combine the results from several trials and to estimate the pooled (overall) effect of hazelnuts on blood lipids and body weight outcomes. Specifically, a Bayesian random effect meta-analysis of mean differences of Δ-changes from baseline across treatment (MDΔ) (i.e., hazelnut-enriched diet vs. control diet) has been conducted. Nine studies representing 425 participants were included in the analysis. The intervention diet lasted 28–84 days with a dosage of hazelnuts ranging from 29 to 69 g/day. Out of nine studies, three randomized studies have been meta-analyzed showing a significant reduction in low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol (pooled MDΔ = −0.150 mmol/L; 95% highest posterior density interval (95%HPD) = −0.308; −0.003) in favor of a hazelnut-enriched diet. Total cholesterol showed a marked trend toward a decrease (pooled MDΔ = −0.127 mmol/L; 95%HPD = −0.284; 0.014) and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol remained substantially stable (pooled MDΔ = 0.002 mmol/L; 95%HPD = −0.140; 0.147). No effects on triglycerides (pooled MDΔ = 0.045 mmol/L; 95%HPD = −0.195; 0.269) and body mass index (BMI) (pooled MDΔ = 0.062 kg/m2; 95%HPD = −0.293; 0.469) were found. Hazelnut-enriched diet is associated with a decrease of LDL and total cholesterol, while HDL cholesterol, triglycerides and BMI remain substantially unchanged. PMID:27897978

  5. Nitrogen recycling from fuel-extracted algal biomass: residuals as the sole nitrogen source for culturing Scenedesmus acutus.

    PubMed

    Gu, Huiya; Nagle, Nick; Pienkos, Philip T; Posewitz, Matthew C

    2015-05-01

    In this study, the reuse of nitrogen from fuel-extracted algal residues was investigated. The alga Scenedesmus acutus was found to be able to assimilate nitrogen contained in amino acids, yeast extracts, and proteinaceous alga residuals. Moreover, these alternative nitrogen resources could replace nitrate in culturing media. The ability of S. acutus to utilize the nitrogen remaining in processed algal biomass was unique among the promising biofuel strains tested. This alga was leveraged in a recycling approach where nitrogen is recovered from algal biomass residuals that remain after lipids are extracted and carbohydrates are fermented to ethanol. The protein-rich residuals not only provided an effective nitrogen resource, but also contributed to a carbon "heterotrophic boost" in subsequent culturing, improving overall biomass and lipid yields relative to the control medium with only nitrate. Prior treatment of the algal residues with Diaion HP20 resin was required to remove compounds inhibitory to algal growth.

  6. "Long-term callisthenic exercise-related changes in blood lipids, homocysteine, nitric oxide levels and body composition in middle-aged healthy sedentary women".

    PubMed

    Guzel, Nevin Atalay; Pınar, Lamia; Colakoglu, Filiz; Karacan, Selma; Ozer, Cigdem

    2012-06-30

    "Regular physical exercise plays an important role in reducing obesity, preventing hyperglycemia, lowering blood lipids and reducing systemic blood pressure. But the question about the nature of the relationship between homocysteine, nitric oxide and physical activity remains unanswered. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of callisthenic exercises on plasma lipids, homocysteine (Hcy), total nitric oxide (NOx) and body composition in middle-aged healthy sedentary women. Forty-two middle-aged women (ages: 28-49; mean: 41.40 ± 7.3 years) were asked to perform a callisthenic exercise 50 min per session, 3 times per week for 12 weeks in a sports hall. Before and after the exercise, plasma lipids (total cholesterol, high density lipoprotein, low density lipoprotein and triglyceride), Hcy and NO were determined. Body composition, including body mass index, fat percentage, fat free mass, resting systolic and diastolic blood pressures and heart rates were measured. After a 12-week callisthenic exercise program, plasma NOx and Hcy levels were found to be significantly increased (P < 0.05). Body composition parameters, lipid profile, resting systolic and diastolic blood pressures and heart rate significantly decreased (P < 0.05). Aerobic callisthenic exercises characterized by 50 min/day and 3 days/week resulted in positive changes in important health parameters like reducing obesity, lowering blood lipids and increasing plasma NOx. Cardiovascular improvements might be dependent on the increase of NOx values. But callisthenic exercise in such intensity did not lower the plasma Hcy level. Moreover, Hcy level increased significantly. The result shows that if the Hcy is in the normal levels in healthy subjects, long-term callisthenic exercise do not decrease the Hcy levels despite some beneficial effects on health. On the contrary, the Hcy levels are increased by long-term callisthenic exercises."

  7. Fueling Future with Algal Genomics

    SciTech Connect

    Grigoriev, Igor

    2012-07-05

    Algae constitute a major component of fundamental eukaryotic diversity, play profound roles in the carbon cycle, and are prominent candidates for biofuel production. The US Department of Energy Joint Genome Institute (JGI) is leading the world in algal genome sequencing (http://jgi.doe.gov/Algae) and contributes of the algal genome projects worldwide (GOLD database, 2012). The sequenced algal genomes offer catalogs of genes, networks, and pathways. The sequenced first of its kind genomes of a haptophyte E.huxleyii, chlorarachniophyte B.natans, and cryptophyte G.theta fill the gaps in the eukaryotic tree of life and carry unique genes and pathways as well as molecular fossils of secondary endosymbiosis. Natural adaptation to conditions critical for industrial production is encoded in algal genomes, for example, growth of A.anophagefferens at very high cell densities during the harmful algae blooms or a global distribution across diverse environments of E.huxleyii, able to live on sparse nutrients due to its expanded pan-genome. Communications and signaling pathways can be derived from simple symbiotic systems like lichens or complex marine algae metagenomes. Collectively these datasets derived from algal genomics contribute to building a comprehensive parts list essential for algal biofuel development.

  8. Biodiesel from mixed culture algae via a wet lipid extraction procedure.

    PubMed

    Sathish, Ashik; Sims, Ronald C

    2012-08-01

    Microalgae are a source of renewable oil for liquid fuels. However, costs for dewatering/drying, extraction, and processing have limited commercial scale production of biodiesel from algal biomass. A wet lipid extraction procedure was developed that was capable of extracting 79% of transesterifiable lipids from wet algal biomass (84% moisture) via acid and base hydrolysis (90 °C and ambient pressures), and 76% of those extracted lipids were isolated, by further processing, and converted to FAMEs. Furthermore, the procedure was capable of removing chlorophyll contamination of the algal lipid extract through precipitation. In addition, the procedure generated side streams that serve as feedstocks for microbial conversion to additional bioproducts. The capability of the procedure to extract lipids from wet algal biomass, to reduce/remove chlorophyll contamination, to potentially reduce organic solvent demand, and to generate feedstocks for high-value bioproducts presents opportunities to reduce costs of scaling up algal lipid extraction for biodiesel production.

  9. Culture of mouse peritoneal macrophages with mouse serum induces lipid bodies that associate with the parasitophorous vacuole and decrease their microbicidal capacity against Toxoplasma gondii

    PubMed Central

    Mota, Laura Azeredo Miranda; Roberto, João; Monteiro, Verônica Gomes; Lobato, Caroliny Samary Silva; de Oliveira, Marco Antonio; da Cunha, Maura; D’Ávila, Heloisa; Seabra, Sérgio Henrique; Bozza, Patrícia Torres; DaMatta, Renato Augusto

    2014-01-01

    Lipid bodies [lipid droplets (LBs)] are lipid-rich organelles involved in lipid metabolism, signalling and inflammation. Recent findings suggest a role for LBs in host response to infection; however, the potential functions of this organelle in Toxoplasma gondii infection and how it alters macrophage microbicidal capacity during infection are not well understood. Here, we investigated the role of host LBs in T. gondii infection in mouse peritoneal macrophages in vitro. Macrophages cultured with mouse serum (MS) had higher numbers of LBs than those cultured in foetal bovine serum and can function as a model to study the role of LBs during intracellular pathogen infection. LBs were found in association with the parasitophorous vacuole, suggesting that T. gondii may benefit from this lipid source. Moreover, increased numbers of macrophage LBs correlated with high prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) production and decreased nitric oxide (NO) synthesis. Accordingly, LB-enriched macrophages cultured with MS were less efficient at controlling T. gondii growth. Treatment of macrophages cultured with MS with indomethacin, an inhibitor of PGE2 production, increased the microbicidal capacity against T. gondii. Collectively, these results suggest that culture with MS caused a decrease in microbicidal activity of macrophages against T. gondii by increasing PGE2 while lowering NO production. PMID:25317704

  10. Effect of floorball training on blood lipids, body composition, muscle strength, and functional capacity of elderly men.

    PubMed

    Vorup, J; Pedersen, M T; Melcher, P S; Dreier, R; Bangsbo, J

    2016-08-03

    Floorball training consists of intense repeated exercise and may offer a motivating and social stimulating team activity in elderly individuals. However, the effect of floorball training in elderly adults on physiological adaptations important for health is not known. Thus, this study examined the effect of floorball training on blood lipids, muscle strength, body composition, and functional capacity of men aged 65-76 years. Thirty-nine recreational active men were randomized into a floorball group (FG; n = 22) or petanque group (PG; n = 17), in which training was performed 1 h twice a week for 12 weeks. In FG and PG, average heart rate (HR) during training was 80% and 57%, respectively, of maximal HR. In FG, plasma low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol and triglycerides were 11% and 8% lower (P < 0.05), respectively. Insulin resistance determined by homeostatic model assessment (HOMA-IR) was reduced (P < 0.05) by 18%. HR during submaximal cycling was 5% lower (P < 0.05), and maximal voluntary contraction force was 8% higher (P < 0.05). Total and visceral fat content was lowered (P < 0.05) by 5% and 14%, respectively, HR at rest was 8% lower (P < 0.05) and performance in four different functional capacity tests were better (P < 0.05) after compared to before the training period. No changes were observed in PG. In conclusion, 12 weeks of floorball training resulted in a number of favorable effects important for health and functional capacity, suggesting that floorball training can be used as a health-promoting activity in elderly men.

  11. Positive effect of exercise training at maximal fat oxidation intensity on body composition and lipid metabolism in overweight middle-aged women.

    PubMed

    Tan, Sijie; Wang, Jianxiong; Cao, Liquan; Guo, Zhen; Wang, Yuan

    2016-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that 10 weeks of supervised exercise training at the maximal fat oxidation (FATmax) intensity would improve important variables of body composition and lipid metabolism in overweight middle-aged women. A longitudinal study design was employed to evaluate the effects of FATmax exercise training. Thirty women (45-59 years old; BMI 28·2 ± 1·8 kg m(-2) ; body fat 38·9 ± 4·1%) were randomly allocated into the Exercise and Control groups, n = 15 in each group. Body composition, FATmax, predicted VO2 max, lipid profile, plasma lipoprotein lipase activity and serum leptin concentration were measured before and after the experimental period. The Exercise group was trained at the individualized FATmax intensity, 5 days per week and 1 h per day for 10 weeks. No diet control was introduced during the experimental period for all participants. Exercise group obtained significant decreases in body mass, BMI, body fat % and abdominal fat mass, as well as the concentrations of triglycerides, serum leptin and blood glucose. The activity of lipoprotein lipase was increased in trained participants. There were no changes in these variables in the Control group. In addition, there was no significant change in daily energy intake for all participants before and after the experimental period. In conclusion, the 10-week FATmax exercise training achieved improvements in body composition and lipid metabolism in overweight middle-aged women. This result suggests FATmax is an effective exercise training intensity for obesity treatment.

  12. Daunorubicin Lipid Complex Injection

    MedlinePlus

    Daunorubicin lipid complex is used to treat advanced Kaposi's sarcoma (a type of cancer that causes abnormal tissue to ... body) related to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). Daunorubicin lipid complex is in a class of medications called ...

  13. Weight loss increased serum adiponectin but decreased lipid levels in obese subjects whose body mass index was lower than 30 kg/m².

    PubMed

    Lang, Hui-Fen; Chou, Ching-Ya; Sheu, Wanye Huey-Herng; Lin, Jin-Yuarn

    2011-05-01

    We hypothesized that weight loss in obese subjects may affect adipokine levels, such as adiponectin and tumor necrosis factor (TNF) α. This study investigated the effects of an 8-week weight-control program on serum adiponectin, TNF-α, and blood lipid level profiles in obese subjects. Twenty obese subjects with a body mass index (BMI) higher than 25 kg/m² were recruited for this weight loss program that used dietetic control and aerobic exercise training. A total of 3 obese men and 11 obese women (mean age, 40.3 ± 10.8 years; BMI, 30.0 ± 3.4 kg/m²) finished the program. Anthropometric and biochemical characteristics in subjects before and after the program were determined. The results showed that subjects' body weight, BMI, waist circumference, hip circumference, diastolic blood pressure, total cholesterol, and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels significantly (P < .05) decreased during the program. Further analysis showed a negative correlation between delta adiponectin and delta TNF-α, triacylglycerol, and systolic blood pressure in obese subjects. Subgroup analysis showed that obese subjects whose original BMI was less than 30 kg/m² had significantly increased serum adiponectin levels, and more than 3% weight reduction markedly improved blood lipids and body fat profiles during the program. Our findings suggest that weight reduction through an 8-week weight loss program may have anti-inflammatory and antiatherogenic effects via increased serum adiponectin levels and improvements in blood lipid profiles and systolic blood pressure.

  14. Algal culture studies for CELSS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Radmer, R.; Behrens, P.; Arnett, K.; Gladue, R.; Cox, J.; Lieberman, D.

    1987-01-01

    Microalgae are well-suited as a component of a Closed Environmental Life Support System (CELSS), since they can couple the closely related functions of food production and atmospheric regeneration. The objective was to provide a basis for predicting the response of CELSS algal cultures, and thus the food supply and air regeneration system, to changes in the culture parameters. Scenedesmus growth was measured as a function of light intensity, and the spectral dependence of light absorption by the algae as well as algal respiration in the light were determined as a function of cell concentration. These results were used to test and confirm a mathematical model that describes the productivity of an algal culture in terms of the competing processes of photosynthesis and respiration. The relationship of algal productivity to cell concentration was determined at different carbon dioxide concentrations, temperatures, and light intensities. The maximum productivity achieved by an air-grown culture was found to be within 10% of the computed maximum productivity, indicating that CO2 was very efficiently removed from the gas stream by the algal culture. Measurements of biomass productivity as a function of cell concentration at different light intensities indicated that both the productivity and efficiency of light utilization were greater at higher light intensities.

  15. Advancing Commercialization of Algal Biofuels Through Increased Biomass Productivity and Technology Integration

    SciTech Connect

    Bai, Xuemei; Sabarsky, Martin

    2013-09-30

    Cellana is a leading developer of algae-based bioproducts, and its pre-commercial production of marine microalgae takes place at Cellana?s Kona Demonstration Facility (KDF) in Hawaii. KDF is housing more than 70 high-performing algal strains for different bioproducts, of which over 30 have been grown outside at scale. So far, Cellana has produced more than 10 metric tons of algal biomass for the development of biofuels, animal feed, and high-value nutraceuticals. Cellana?s ALDUO algal cultivation technology allows Cellana to grow non-extremophile algal strains at large scale with no contamination disruptions. Cellana?s research and production at KDF have addressed three major areas that are crucial for the commercialization of algal biofuels: yield improvement, cost reduction, and the overall economics. Commercially acceptable solutions have been developed and tested for major factors limiting areal productivity of algal biomass and lipids based on years of R&D work conducted at KDF. Improved biomass and lipid productivity were achieved through strain improvement, culture management strategies (e.g., alleviation of self-shading, de-oxygenation, and efficient CO2 delivery), and technical advancement in downstream harvesting technology. Cost reduction was achieved through optimized CO2 delivery system, flue gas utilization technology, and energy-efficient harvesting technology. Improved overall economics was achieved through a holistic approach by integration of high-value co-products in the process, in addition to yield improvements and cost reductions.

  16. Effect of 12-week-long aerobic training programme on body composition, aerobic capacity, complete blood count and blood lipid profile among young women

    PubMed Central

    Nowak, Robert; Jastrzębski, Zbigniew; Zarębska, Aleksandra; Bichowska, Marta; Drobnik-Kozakiewicz, Izabela; Radzimiński, Łukasz; Leońska-Duniec, Agata; Ficek, Krzysztof; Cięszczyk, Paweł

    2015-01-01

    Background Numerous data suggest that aerobic-type exercise improves lipoprotein-lipid profiles, cardiorespiratory fitness and body composition in young women. The aim of this study was to evaluate the biological response to high-low impact aerobic fitness among young women. Materials and methods Thirty-four young women aged 22 (19-24) years were divided into three groups: underweight (N = 10), normal weight (N = 12) and overweight (N = 12). Aerobic capacity, anthropometry and body composition together with complete blood count and lipid profile were determined before and after completion of a 12-week-long training period. Results The training programme caused a significant decrease in weight (by 4.3 kg, P = 0.003), body mass index (by 1.3 kg/m2, P = 0.003), free fat mass (by 2.1 kg, P = 0.002), total body water (by 0.4 kg, P = 0.036), percentage of fat (by 3 percent points, P = 0.002), all analyzed skinfolds thicknesses, as well as the lipid profile in overweight group, and no changes in normal weight group. Significant changes in weight (by 4.2 kg, P = 0.005), body mass index (by 0.9 kg/m2, P = 0.005), crus skinfold thickness (by 3.3 mm, P = 0.028), and in maximum oxygen uptake (by 2.49 mL/kg/min; P = 0.047) were observed among underweight women. No change in total blood count was observed in all groups. Conclusion Twelve-week-long fitness training programme of two alternating styles (low and high impact) has a beneficial effect on overweight young women. PMID:25672474

  17. Algal polysaccharides as matrices for the immobilization of urease in lipid ultrathin films studied with tensiometry and vibrational spectroscopy: Physical-chemical properties and implications in the enzyme activity.

    PubMed

    de Brito, Audrey Kalinouski; Nordi, Cristina S F; Caseli, Luciano

    2015-11-01

    Currently, many biological substances extracted from algae have received special attention because of their intrinsic characteristics, which can be applied to different areas of biotechnology. Therefore, in the current study, exopolysaccharides (EPS) from the microalgae Cryptomonas tetrapirenoidosa were employed as an aqueous subphase of a monolayer formed by the lipid dioctadecyldimethylammonium bromide (DODAB). The primary objective of this approach was to evaluate whether EPS could serve as a matrix for the immobilization of the enzyme urease to produce biosensors for urea. After DODAB was spread on the EPS solutions, urease was injected into the aqueous subphase, and the surface was submitted to compression using lateral barriers. The monolayers were subsequently characterized by surface pressure-area isotherms and polarization modulation infrared reflection-absorption spectroscopy (PM-IRRAS). The results indicated that EPS enhanced the adsorption of the enzyme on the lipid monolayer. The mixed films were later transferred to solid supports using the Langmuir-Blodgett (LB) technique and were characterized by transfer ratio, PM-IRRAS, quartz crystal microbalance, and atomic force microscopy. The immobilization of the enzyme on solid supports was fundamental for providing an ideal geometrical accommodation of urease because the interaction of EPS with urease in solution causes a decrease of the relative activity of urease. Therefore, these LB films are promising for the fabrication of future urea biosensors, the architecture of which can be manipulated and enhanced at the molecular level.

  18. Sapphire Energy - Integrated Algal Biorefinery

    SciTech Connect

    White, Rebecca L.; Tyler, Mike

    2015-07-22

    Sapphire Energy, Inc. (SEI) is a leader in large-scale photosynthetic algal biomass production, with a strongly cohesive research, development, and operations program. SEI takes a multidiscipline approach to integrate lab-based strain selection, cultivation and harvest and production scale, and extraction for the production of Green Crude oil, a drop in replacement for traditional crude oil.. SEI’s technical accomplishments since 2007 have produced a multifunctional platform that can address needs for fuel, feed, and other higher value products. Figure 1 outlines SEI’s commercialization process, including Green Crude production and refinement to drop in fuel replacements. The large scale algal biomass production facility, the SEI Integrated Algal Biorefinery (IABR), was built in Luna County near Columbus, New Mexico (see fig 2). The extraction unit was located at the existing SEI facility in Las Cruces, New Mexico, approximately 95 miles from the IABR. The IABR facility was constructed on time and on budget, and the extraction unit expansion to accommodate the biomass output from the IABR was completed in October 2012. The IABR facility uses open pond cultivation with a proprietary harvesting method to produce algal biomass; this biomass is then shipped to the extraction facility for conversion to Green Crude. The operation of the IABR and the extraction facilities has demonstrated the critical integration of traditional agricultural techniques with algae cultivation knowledge for algal biomass production, and the successful conversion of the biomass to Green Crude. All primary unit operations are de-risked, and at a scale suitable for process demonstration. The results are stable, reliable, and long-term cultivation of strains for year round algal biomass production. From June 2012 to November 2014, the IABR and extraction facilities produced 524 metric tons (MT) of biomass (on a dry weight basis), and 2,587 gallons of Green Crude. Additionally, the IABR

  19. Impact of Microalgae-Bacteria Interactions on the Production of Algal Biomass and Associated Compounds

    PubMed Central

    Fuentes, Juan Luis; Garbayo, Inés; Cuaresma, María; Montero, Zaida; González-del-Valle, Manuel; Vílchez, Carlos

    2016-01-01

    A greater insight on the control of the interactions between microalgae and other microorganisms, particularly bacteria, should be useful for enhancing the efficiency of microalgal biomass production and associated valuable compounds. Little attention has been paid to the controlled utilization of microalgae-bacteria consortia. However, the studies of microalgal-bacterial interactions have revealed a significant impact of the mutualistic or parasitic relationships on algal growth. The algal growth, for instance, has been shown to be enhanced by growth promoting factors produced by bacteria, such as indole-3-acetic acid. Vitamin B12 produced by bacteria in algal cultures and bacterial siderophores are also known to be involved in promoting faster microalgal growth. More interestingly, enhancement in the intracellular levels of carbohydrates, lipids and pigments of microalgae coupled with algal growth stimulation has also been reported. In this sense, massive algal production might occur in the presence of bacteria, and microalgae-bacteria interactions can be beneficial to the massive production of microalgae and algal products. This manuscript reviews the recent knowledge on the impact of the microalgae-bacteria interactions on the production of microalgae and accumulation of valuable compounds, with an emphasis on algal species having application in aquaculture. PMID:27213407

  20. Impact of Microalgae-Bacteria Interactions on the Production of Algal Biomass and Associated Compounds.

    PubMed

    Fuentes, Juan Luis; Garbayo, Inés; Cuaresma, María; Montero, Zaida; González-Del-Valle, Manuel; Vílchez, Carlos

    2016-05-19

    A greater insight on the control of the interactions between microalgae and other microorganisms, particularly bacteria, should be useful for enhancing the efficiency of microalgal biomass production and associated valuable compounds. Little attention has been paid to the controlled utilization of microalgae-bacteria consortia. However, the studies of microalgal-bacterial interactions have revealed a significant impact of the mutualistic or parasitic relationships on algal growth. The algal growth, for instance, has been shown to be enhanced by growth promoting factors produced by bacteria, such as indole-3-acetic acid. Vitamin B12 produced by bacteria in algal cultures and bacterial siderophores are also known to be involved in promoting faster microalgal growth. More interestingly, enhancement in the intracellular levels of carbohydrates, lipids and pigments of microalgae coupled with algal growth stimulation has also been reported. In this sense, massive algal production might occur in the presence of bacteria, and microalgae-bacteria interactions can be beneficial to the massive production of microalgae and algal products. This manuscript reviews the recent knowledge on the impact of the microalgae-bacteria interactions on the production of microalgae and accumulation of valuable compounds, with an emphasis on algal species having application in aquaculture.

  1. Algal taxonomy forum: Algal Taxonomist, Let Serendipity Reign!

    PubMed

    Druehl, Louis

    2013-04-01

    The publication of a mini-review by Olivier De Clerck et al. in this issue of the Journal of Phycology presented an opportunity to open a dialogue on challenges faced by contemporary algal taxonomists. The Editorial Office solicited the following two additional contributions in response to De Clerck et al.'s paper; the responses were edited solely for clarity, space and format.

  2. Miocene lacustrine algal reefs—southwestern Snake River Plain, Idaho

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Straccia, Frances G.; Wilkinson, Bruce H.; Smith, Gerald R.

    1990-04-01

    The Hot Spring limestone is a shallow-water algal carbonate within a late Tertiary transgressive lacustrine sequence exposed in the southwestern Snake River Plain. This 5 m thick lensoid sequence crops out over an 80 km 2 area that closely approximates original areal extent of nearshore carbonate accumulation. Reefal bodies consist of closely packed algal cylinders, several decimeters in height, each of which includes a dense laminated carbonate wall surrounding porous digitate carbonate that radiates outward and upward from one or more hollow tubes. These coalesce upsection into separate vertical columns several meters in diameter. Moderately well-sorted terrigenous and molluscan debris deposited between columns during growth indicates these structures were resistant to wave erosion and, therefore, were true reefs. Thick rings of littoral carbonate surrounding the upper walls of each column record the final stages of reef development. Structural attributes exhibited by these Miocene carbonate bodies are also common to a number of Tertiary and Quaternary algal buildups reported from other lacustrine settings. Although features within the Hot Spring limestone are complex in gross morphology and structural detail, both columnar reefs and algal cylinders display little variation in size, shape, or internal structure between areas of varying water depth and wave energy, thus reflecting the importance of biological processes as well as physical processes during reef development.

  3. Tamoxifen affects glucose and lipid metabolism parameters, causes browning of subcutaneous adipose tissue and transient body composition changes in C57BL/6NTac mice.

    PubMed

    Hesselbarth, Nico; Pettinelli, Chiara; Gericke, Martin; Berger, Claudia; Kunath, Anne; Stumvoll, Michael; Blüher, Matthias; Klöting, Nora

    2015-08-28

    Tamoxifen is a selective estrogen receptor (ER) modulator which is widely used to generate inducible conditional transgenic mouse models. Activation of ER signaling plays an important role in the regulation of adipose tissue (AT) metabolism. We therefore tested the hypothesis that tamoxifen administration causes changes in AT biology in vivo. 12 weeks old male C57BL/6NTac mice were treated with either tamoxifen (n = 18) or vehicle (n = 18) for 5 consecutive days. Tamoxifen treatment effects on body composition, energy homeostasis, parameters of AT biology, glucose and lipid metabolism were investigated up to an age of 18 weeks. We found that tamoxifen treatment causes: I) significantly increased HbA1c, triglyceride and free fatty acid serum concentrations (p < 0.01), II) browning of subcutaneous AT and increased UCP-1 expression, III) increased AT proliferation marker Ki67 mRNA expression, IV) changes in adipocyte size distribution, and V) transient body composition changes. Tamoxifen may induce changes in body composition, whole body glucose and lipid metabolism and has significant effects on AT biology, which need to be considered when using Tamoxifen as a tool to induce conditional transgenic mouse models. Our data further suggest that tamoxifen-treated wildtype mice should be characterized in parallel to experimental transgenic models to control for tamoxifen administration effects.

  4. Effect of Conjugated Linoleic Acid Associated With Aerobic Exercise on Body Fat and Lipid Profile in Obese Women: A Randomized, Double-Blinded, and Placebo-Controlled Trial.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, Alex S; Pina, Fábio Luiz; Dodero, Soraya R; Silva, Danilo R; Schoenfeld, Brad J; Sugihara Júnior, Paulo; Fernandes, Rodrigo R; Barbosa, Décio S; Cyrino, Edilson S; Tirapegui, Julio

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the effects of 8 weeks of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) supplementation associated with aerobic exercise on body fat and lipid profile on obese women. We performed a randomized, double-blinded and placebo-controlled trial with 28 obese women who received 3.2 g/day of CLA or 4 g/day of olive oil (placebo group) while performing an 8-week protocol of aerobic exercise. Dietary intake (food record), body fat (dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry), and biochemical analysis (blood sample) were assessed before and after the intervention period. Independent of CLA supplementation, both groups improved (p < .05) oxygen uptake (CLA group, 13.2%; PLC group, 14.8%), trunk fat (CLA group, -1.0%; PLC group, -0.5%), leg fat (CLA group, -1.0%; PLC group, -1.6%), and total body fat (CLA group, -1.7%; PLC group, -1.3%) after the 8-week intervention. No main effect or Group × Time interaction was found for total cholesterol, triglycerides, and plasma lipoproteins (p > .05). We conclude that CLA supplementation associated with aerobic exercise has no effect on body fat reduction and lipid profile improvements over placebo in young adult obese women.

  5. Lipids and lipid metabolism in eukaryotic algae.

    PubMed

    Guschina, Irina A; Harwood, John L

    2006-03-01

    Eukaryotic algae are a very diverse group of organisms which inhabit a huge range of ecosystems from the Antarctic to deserts. They account for over half the primary productivity at the base of the food chain. In recent years studies on the lipid biochemistry of algae has shifted from experiments with a few model organisms to encompass a much larger number of, often unusual, algae. This has led to the discovery of new compounds, including major membrane components, as well as the elucidation of lipid signalling pathways. A major drive in recent research have been attempts to discover genes that code for expression of the various proteins involved in the production of very long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids such as arachidonic, eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acids. Such work is described here together with information about how environmental factors, such as light, temperature or minerals, can change algal lipid metabolism and how adaptation may take place.

  6. An assessment of morphometric indices, blood chemistry variables and an energy meter as indicators of the whole body lipid content in Micropterus dolomieu, Sander vitreus and Ictalurus punctatus.

    PubMed

    Mesa, M G; Rose, B P

    2014-12-26

    The effectiveness of several non-lethal techniques as indicators of total lipid content in smallmouth bass Micropterus dolomieu, walleye Sander vitreus and channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus was investigated. The techniques included (1) the Fulton and relative condition factors, (2) relative mass, (3) plasma indicators of nutritional status (alkaline phosphatase, calcium, cholesterol, protein, triglycerides and glucose) and (4) readings from a hand-held, microwave energy meter. Although simple linear regression analysis showed that lipid content was significantly correlated with several predictor variables in each species, the r(2) values for the relations ranged from 0·17 to 0·50 and no single approach was consistent for all species. Only one model, between energy-meter readings and lipid content in I. punctatus, had an r(2) value (0·83) high enough to justify using it as a predictive tool. Results indicate that no single variable was an accurate and reliable indicator of whole body lipid content in these fishes, except the energy meter for I. punctatus.

  7. An assessment of morphometric indices, blood chemistry variables and an energy meter as indicators of the whole body lipid content in Micropterus dolomieu, Sander vitreus and Ictalurus punctatus

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mesa, Matthew G.; Rose, Brien P.

    2015-01-01

    The effectiveness of several non-lethal techniques as indicators of total lipid content in smallmouth bass Micropterus dolomieu, walleye Sander vitreus and channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus was investigated. The techniques included (1) the Fulton and relative condition factors, (2) relative mass, (3) plasma indicators of nutritional status (alkaline phosphatase, calcium, cholesterol, protein, triglycerides and glucose) and (4) readings from a hand-held, microwave energy meter. Although simple linear regression analysis showed that lipid content was significantly correlated with several predictor variables in each species, the r2 values for the relations ranged from 0·17 to 0·50 and no single approach was consistent for all species. Only one model, between energy-meter readings and lipid content in I. punctatus, had an r2 value (0·83) high enough to justify using it as a predictive tool. Results indicate that no single variable was an accurate and reliable indicator of whole body lipid content in these fishes, except the energy meter for I. punctatus.

  8. Impact of Breakfasts (with or without Eggs) on Body Weight Regulation and Blood Lipids in University Students over a 14-Week Semester

    PubMed Central

    Rueda, Janice M.; Khosla, Pramod

    2013-01-01

    The effects of breakfast type on body weight and blood lipids were evaluated in university freshman. Seventy-three subjects were instructed to consume a breakfast with eggs (Egg Breakfast, EB, n = 39) or without (Non-Egg Breakfast, NEB, n = 34), five times/week for 14 weeks. Breakfast composition, anthropometric measurements and blood lipids were measured at multiple times. During the study, mean weight change was 1.6 ± 5.3 lbs (0.73 ± 2.41 kg), but there was no difference between groups. Both groups consumed similar calories for breakfast at all time-points. The EB group consumed significantly more calories at breakfast from protein, total fat and saturated fat, but significantly fewer calories from carbohydrate at every time-point. Cholesterol consumption at breakfast in the EB group was significantly higher than the NEB group at all time points. Breakfast food choices (other than eggs) were similar between groups. Blood lipids were similar between groups at all time points, indicating that the additional 400 mg/day of dietary cholesterol did not negatively impact blood lipids. PMID:24352089

  9. Fucoxanthin-rich seaweed extract suppresses body weight gain and improves lipid metabolism in high-fat-fed C57BL/6J mice.

    PubMed

    Jeon, Seon-Min; Kim, Hye-Jin; Woo, Myoung-Nam; Lee, Mi-Kyung; Shin, Young Chul; Park, Yong Bok; Choi, Myung-Sook

    2010-09-01

    An ethanol extract of fucoxanthin-rich seaweed was examined for its effectiveness as a nutraceutical for body fat-lowering agent and for an antiobese effect based on mode of actions in C57BL/6J mice. Animals were randomized to receive a semi-purified high-fat diet (20% dietary fat, 10% corn oil and 10% lard) supplemented with 0.2% conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) as the positive control, 1.43% or 5.72% fucoxanthin-rich seaweed ethanol extract (Fx-SEE), equivalent to 0.05% or 0.2% dietary fucoxanthin for six weeks. Results showed that supplementation with both doses of Fx-SEE significantly reduced body and abdominal white adipose tissue (WAT) weights, plasma and hepatic triglyceride (TG), and/or cholesterol concentrations compared to the high-fat control group. Activities of adipocytic fatty acid (FA) synthesis, hepatic FA and TG synthesis, and cholesterol-regulating enzyme were also lowered by Fx-SEE supplement. Concentrations of plasma high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol, fecal TG and cholesterol, as well as FA oxidation enzyme activity and UCP1 mRNA expression in epididymal WAT were significantly higher in the Fx-SEE groups than in the high-fat control group. CLA treatment reduced the body weight gain and plasma TG concentration. Overall, these results indicate that Fx-SEE affects the plasma and hepatic lipid profile, fecal lipids and body fat mass, and alters hepatic cholesterol metabolism, FA synthesis and lipid absorption.

  10. High dose trans-10,cis-12 CLA increases lean body mass in hamsters, but elevates levels of plasma lipids and liver enzyme biomarkers.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiaoran; Joseph, Shama V; Wakefield, Andrew P; Aukema, Harold M; Jones, Peter J H

    2012-01-01

    The current study examined the efficacy of graded doses of c9,t11 and t10,c12 CLA isomers on body composition, energy expenditure, hepatic and serum lipid liver biomarkers in hamsters. Animals (n = 105) were randomized to seven treatments (control, 1, 2, 3% of c9,t11; 1, 2, 3% of t10,c12) for 28 days. After 28 days treatment, 1-3% of t10,c12 lowered (p < 0.05) body fat mass compared to the control group. The 1-3% t10,c12 and 3% c9,t11 fed groups showed higher (p < 0.05) lean mass compared to other groups. We observed unfavorable changes in plasma total cholesterol and non-HDL cholesterol levels in animals fed with 3% t10,c12 CLA isomers. The 2%, 3% t10,c12 groups presented elevated (p < 0.05) ALT levels. The present data suggest that a diet enriched with more than 2% t10, c12 led to liver malfunction and poses unfavorable changes on plasma lipid profiles. The 1% t10,c12 CLA lowered (p < 0.05) body fat mass and increased (p < 0.05) lean body mass. The c9,t11 CLA has less potent actions than t10,c12 CLA. We conclude that the actions of CLA on energy and lipid metabolism are form and dose dependent in the hamster model.

  11. Final Report: 17th international Symposium on Plant Lipids

    SciTech Connect

    Christoph Benning

    2007-03-07

    This meeting covered several emerging areas in the plant lipid field such as the biosynthesis of cuticle components, interorganelle lipid trafficking, the regulation of lipid homeostasis, and the utilization of algal models. Stimulating new insights were provided not only based on research reports based on plant models, but also due to several excellent talks by experts from the yeast field.

  12. Small herbivores suppress algal accumulation on Agatti atoll, Indian Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cernohorsky, Nicole H.; McClanahan, Timothy R.; Babu, Idrees; Horsák, Michal

    2015-12-01

    Despite large herbivorous fish being generally accepted as the main group responsible for preventing algal accumulation on coral reefs, few studies have experimentally examined the relative importance of herbivore size on algal communities. This study used exclusion cages with two different mesh sizes (1 × 1 cm and 6 × 6 cm) to investigate the impact of different-sized herbivores on algal accumulation rates on the shallow (<2 m) back-reef of Agatti atoll, Lakshadweep. The fine-mesh cages excluded all visible herbivores, which had rapid and lasting effects on the benthic communities, and, after 127 d of deployment, there was a visible and significant increase in algae (mainly macroalgae) with algal volume being 13 times greater than in adjacent open areas. The coarse-mesh cages excluded larger fishes (>8 cm body depth) while allowing smaller fishes to access the plots. In contrast to the conclusions of most previous studies, the exclusion of large herbivores had no significant effect on the accumulation of benthic algae and the amount of algae present within the coarse-mesh cages was relatively consistent throughout the experimental period (around 50 % coverage and 1-2 mm height). The difference in algal accumulation between the fine-mesh and coarse-mesh cages appears to be related to the actions of small individuals from 12 herbivorous fish species (0.17 ind. m-2 and 7.7 g m-2) that were able to enter through the coarse mesh. Although restricted to a single habitat, these results suggest that when present in sufficient densities and diversity, small herbivorous fishes can prevent the accumulation of algal biomass on coral reefs.

  13. Algal Systems for Hydrogen Photoproduction

    SciTech Connect

    Ghirardi, Maria L

    2015-10-08

    The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), under the guidance of Drs. Michael Seibert (retired, Fellow Emeritus) and Maria Ghirardi (Fellow), led 15 years of research addressing the issue of algal H2 photoproduction. This project resulted in greatly increased rates and yields of algal hydrogen production; increased understanding of the H2 metabolism in the green alga, Chlamydomonas reinhardtii; expanded our knowledge of other physiological aspects relevant to sustained algal photosynthetic H2 production; led to the genetic identification, cloning and manipulation of algal hydrogenase genes; and contributed to a broader, fundamental understanding of the technical and scientific challenges to improving the conversion efficiencies in order to reach the U.S. Department of Energy’s Fuel Cell Technologies Office’s targets. Some of the tangible results are: (i) 64 publications and 6 patents, (ii) international visibility to NREL, (iii) reinvigoration of national and international biohydrogen research, and (iv) research progress that helped stimulate new funding from other DOE and non-DOE programs, including the AFOSR and the DOE Office of Science.

  14. LIPID BIOMARKER CHARACTERIZATION OF BLOOM-RELATED DINOFLAGELLATES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Marine eukaryotic algae synthesize an array of lipids of chemotaxonomic utility that are potentially valuable in characterizing phytoplankton communities. Sterols and photopigments characteristic of dinoflagellates are rarely found in other algal classes. Long chain (C28) highly ...

  15. Mechanical algal disruption for efficient biodiesel extraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krehbiel, Joel David

    Biodiesel from algae provides several benefits over current biodiesel feedstocks, but the energy requirements of processing algae into a useable fuel are currently so high as to be prohibitive. One route to improving this is via disruption of the cells prior to lipid extraction, which can significantly increase energy recovery. Unfortunately, several obvious disruption techniques require more energy than can be gained. This dissertation examines the use of microbubbles to improve mechanical disruption of algal cells using experimental, theoretical, and computational methods. New laboratory experiments show that effective ultrasonic disruption of algae is achieved by adding microbubbles to an algal solution. The configuration studied flows the solution through a tube and insonifies a small section with a high-pressure ultrasound wave. Previous biomedical research has shown effective cell membrane damage on animal cells with similar methods, but the present research is the first to extend such study to algal cells. Results indicate that disruption increases with peak negative pressure between 1.90 and 3.07 MPa and with microbubble concentration up to 12.5 x 107 bubbles/ml. Energy estimates of this process suggest that it requires only one-fourth the currently most-efficient laboratory-scale disruption process. Estimates of the radius near each bubble that causes disruption (i.e. the disruption radius) suggest that it increases with peak negative pressure and is near 9--20 microm for all cases tested. It is anticipated that these procedures can be designed for better efficiency and efficacy, which will be facilitated by identifying the root mechanisms of the bubble-induced disruption. We therefore examine whether bubble expansion alone creates sufficient cell deformation for cell rupture. The spherically-symmetric Marmottant model for bubble dynamics allows estimation of the flow regime under experimental conditions. Bubble expansion is modeled as a point source of

  16. The influence of a 12-week program of physical activity on changes in body composition and lipid and carbohydrate status in postmenopausal women

    PubMed Central

    Pilch, Wanda Barbara; Mucha, Dariusz Mikołaj; Pałka, Tomasz Adam; Suder, Agnieszka Ewa; Tyka, Anna Katarzyna; Tota, Łukasz Marcin; Ambroży, Tadeusz

    2015-01-01

    Introduction For years there have been studies on what kind of physical activity is optimal for maintaining proper health condition. Besides well known and approved endurance training of moderate intensity, an importance of interval exercise where short term, sudden intensification of work is performed at low endurance load is emphasized. The aim of the work was to assess the effects of a program of physical activity applied to postmenopausal women regarding improvement of their body composition and biochemical indices of lipid and carbohydrate status. Material and methods The program of physical activity contained 12-week trainings of Nordic walking (NW) and gymnastic-dance classes (G-D). The intensity of effort during the NW training was at the level of 60% HRmax, whereas intensity of G-D exercises was selected based on a subjective assessment of effort according to the scale of American College of Sports Medicine. Results The 12-week program of physical activity resulted in statistically significant lowering of total cholesterol and low density lipoprotein (LDL) fraction levels. An increase in high density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol level was observed, whereas the values of triacylglycerols (TG) did not change. The average fasting blood glucose level decreased significantly. Similar changes were noted for the insulin level. The analysed body biometrical-structural indices did not change significantly. Conclusions The applied 12-week program of physical activity without changes of dietary habits contributed to an improvement in plasma lipid profile and an increased insulin sensitivity, but it did not affect significantly body composition. PMID:26848294

  17. Asparagine slows down the breakdown of storage lipid and degradation of autophagic bodies in sugar-starved embryo axes of germinating lupin seeds.

    PubMed

    Borek, Sławomir; Paluch-Lubawa, Ewelina; Pukacka, Stanisława; Pietrowska-Borek, Małgorzata; Ratajczak, Lech

    2017-02-01

    The research was conducted on embryo axes of yellow lupin (Lupinus luteus L.), white lupin (Lupinus albus L.) and Andean lupin (Lupinus mutabilis Sweet), which were isolated from imbibed seeds and cultured for 96h in vitro under different conditions of carbon and nitrogen nutrition. Isolated embryo axes were fed with 60mM sucrose or were sugar-starved. The effect of 35mM asparagine (a central amino acid in the metabolism of germinating lupin seeds) and 35mM nitrate (used as an inorganic kind of nitrogen) on growth, storage lipid breakdown and autophagy was investigated. The sugar-starved isolated embryo axes contained more total lipid than axes fed with sucrose, and the content of this storage compound was even higher in sugar-starved isolated embryo axes fed with asparagine. Ultrastructural observations showed that asparagine significantly slowed down decomposition of autophagic bodies, and this allowed detailed analysis of their content. We found peroxisomes inside autophagic bodies in cells of sugar-starved Andean lupin embryo axes fed with asparagine, which led us to conclude that peroxisomes may be degraded during autophagy in sugar-starved isolated lupin embryo axes. One reason for the slower degradation of autophagic bodies was the markedly lower lipolytic activity in axes fed with asparagine.

  18. Beach-goer behavior during a retrospectively detected algal ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Algal blooms occur among nutrient rich, warm surface waters and may adversely impact recreational beaches. During July – September 2003, a prospective study of beachgoers was conducted on weekends at a public beach on a Great Lake in the United States. We measured each beachgoer’s activity at the start and end of their beach visit and the environmental factors: water and air temperature, wind speed and wave height at the study site each day. At the time, there was no notification of algal blooms; we retrospectively evaluated the presence of algal blooms using MERIS data from the Envisat-1 satellite. A total of 2840 people participated in the study over 16 study days. The majority (55%) were female, and 751 (26%) were < 18 years of age. An algal bloom was detected retrospectively by remotely sensed satellite imagery during August 16 – 24. This peak bloom period (PB) included 4 study days. During PB study days, more study participants 226/742 (31%) reported body contact with the water compared to contact 531/2098 (25%) on non-peak days. During the 4 PB days, of the environmental factors, only mean water temperature was significantly different, 250 C vs. 230 C (p<0.05) from other days.These results suggest that beachgoer body contact with water was not deterred by the presence of an algal bloom, and that interventions to actively discourage water contact during a bloom are needed to reduce exposure to blooms. This is an abstract of a proposed presentation and

  19. Effects of interval aerobic training combined with strength exercise on body composition, glycaemic and lipid profile and aerobic capacity of obese rats.

    PubMed

    Coll-Risco, Irene; Aparicio, Virginia A; Nebot, Elena; Camiletti-Moirón, Daniel; Martínez, Rosario; Kapravelou, Garyfallia; López-Jurado, María; Porres, Jesús M; Aranda, Pilar

    2016-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of interval aerobic training combined with strength exercise in the same training session on body composition, and glycaemic and lipid profile in obese rats. Sixteen lean Zucker rats and sixteen obese Zucker rats were randomly divided into exercise and sedentary subgroups (4 groups, n = 8). Exercise consisted of interval aerobic training combined with strength exercise in the same training session. The animals trained 60 min/day, 5 days/week for 8 weeks. Body composition, lipid and glycaemic profiles and inflammatory markers were assessed. Results showed that fat mass was reduced in both lean and obese rats following the exercise training (effect size (95% confidence interval (CI)) = 1.8 (0.5-3.0)). Plasma low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol and fasting glucose were lower in the exercise compared to the sedentary groups (d = 2.0 (0.7-3.2) and 1.8 (0.5-3.0), respectively). Plasma insulin was reduced in exercise compared to sedentary groups (d = 2.1 (0.8-3.4)). Some exercise × phenotype interactions showed that the highest decreases in insulin, homeostatic model assessment-insulin resistance, fasting and postprandial glucose were observed in the obese + exercise group (all, P < 0.01). The findings of this study suggest that interval aerobic training combined with strength exercise would improve body composition, and lipid and glycaemic profiles, especially in obese rats.

  20. Transcription analysis of genes involved in lipid metabolism reveals the role of chromium in reducing body fat in animal models.

    PubMed

    Sadeghi, Mostafa; Najaf Panah, Mohammad Javad; Bakhtiarizadeh, Mohammad Reza; Emami, Ali

    2015-10-01

    Chromium was proposed to be an essential trace element over 50 years ago and has been accepted as an essential element for over 30 years. The recent studies indicated that the addition of supra nutritional amounts of chromium to the diet can only be considered as having pharmacological effects. However, the precise mechanism through which chromium acts on lipid, carbohydrate, protein and nucleic acid metabolism are relatively poor studied. To uncover, at least partially, the role of chromium in lipid metabolism, in this study, we evaluated the expression status of eight important genes, involved in fat biosynthesis and lipid metabolism, in four different tissue types (liver, subcutaneous fat, visceral fat, and longissimus muscle) in domestic goat kids feeding on three different chromium levels. The quantitative real-time PCR (RT-PCR) was established for expression analyses with HSP90 gene was used as reference gene. The results showed that supplementation of goats with 1.5mg/day chromium significantly decreases the expression of the ACC1, DGAT1, FABP4, FAS, HSL, LEP genes, but does not affect the expression of the LPL and SCD1 genes in all studied tissues. This study highlights, for the first time, the role of supra nutritional levels of chromium in lipid biosynthesis and metabolism. These findings are of especial importance for improving meat quality in domestic animals.

  1. Tamoxifen affects glucose and lipid metabolism parameters, causes browning of subcutaneous adipose tissue and transient body composition changes in C57BL/6NTac mice

    SciTech Connect

    Hesselbarth, Nico; Pettinelli, Chiara; Gericke, Martin; Berger, Claudia; Kunath, Anne; Stumvoll, Michael; Blüher, Matthias; Klöting, Nora

    2015-08-28

    Tamoxifen is a selective estrogen receptor (ER) modulator which is widely used to generate inducible conditional transgenic mouse models. Activation of ER signaling plays an important role in the regulation of adipose tissue (AT) metabolism. We therefore tested the hypothesis that tamoxifen administration causes changes in AT biology in vivo. 12 weeks old male C57BL/6NTac mice were treated with either tamoxifen (n = 18) or vehicle (n = 18) for 5 consecutive days. Tamoxifen treatment effects on body composition, energy homeostasis, parameters of AT biology, glucose and lipid metabolism were investigated up to an age of 18 weeks. We found that tamoxifen treatment causes: I) significantly increased HbA{sub 1c}, triglyceride and free fatty acid serum concentrations (p < 0.01), II) browning of subcutaneous AT and increased UCP-1 expression, III) increased AT proliferation marker Ki67 mRNA expression, IV) changes in adipocyte size distribution, and V) transient body composition changes. Tamoxifen may induce changes in body composition, whole body glucose and lipid metabolism and has significant effects on AT biology, which need to be considered when using Tamoxifen as a tool to induce conditional transgenic mouse models. Our data further suggest that tamoxifen-treated wildtype mice should be characterized in parallel to experimental transgenic models to control for tamoxifen administration effects. - Highlights: • Tamoxifen treatment causes significantly increased HbA{sub 1c}, triglyceride and free fatty acid serum concentrations. • Tamoxifen induces browning of subcutaneous AT and increased UCP-1 expression. • Tamoxifen changes adipocyte size distribution, and transient body composition.

  2. 2013 plant lipids Gordon Research conference and Gordon Research Seminar (January 27 - February 1, 2013 - Hotel Galvez, Galveston, TX)

    SciTech Connect

    Welti, Ruth

    2012-11-01

    Presenters will discuss the latest advances in plant and algal lipid metabolism, oil synthesis, lipid signaling, lipid visualization, lipid biotechnology and its applications, the physiological and developmental roles of lipids, and plant lipids in health. Sessions include: Producing Nutritional Lipids; Metabolic biochemistry in the next decade; Triacylglycerols: Metabolism, function, and as a target for engineering; Lipids in Protection, Reproduction, and Development; Genetic and Lipidomic Approaches to Understanding Lipid Metabolism and Signaling; Lipid Signaling in Stress Responses; New Insights on the Path to Triacylglycerols; Membrane Lipid Signaling; Lipid Visualization; Development of Biofuels and Industrial Lipids.

  3. Reduction of body fat and improved lipid profile associated with daily consumption of a Puer tea extract in a hyperlipidemic population: a randomized placebo-controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Jensen, Gitte S; Beaman, Joni L; He, Yi; Guo, Zhixin; Sun, Henry

    2016-01-01

    Objective The goal for this study was to evaluate the effects of daily consumption of Puer tea extract (PTE) on body weight, body-fat composition, and lipid profile in a non-Asian population in the absence of dietary restrictions. Materials and methods A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study design was used. A total of 59 overweight or mildly obese subjects were enrolled upon screening to confirm fasting cholesterol level at or above 220 mg/dL (5.7 mmol/dL). After giving informed consent, subjects were randomized to consume PTE (3 g/day) or placebo for 20 weeks. At baseline and at 4-week intervals, blood lipids, C-reactive protein, and fasting blood glucose were evaluated. A dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry scan was performed at baseline and at study exit to evaluate changes to body composition. Appetite and physical and mental energy were scored at each visit using visual analog scales (0–100). Results Consumption of PTE was associated with statistically significant weight loss when compared to placebo (P<0.05). Fat loss was seen for arms, legs, and the gynoid region (hip/belly), as well as for total fat mass. The fat reduction reached significance on within-group analysis, but did not reach between-group significance. Consumption of PTE was associated with improvements to lipid profile, including a mild reduction in cholesterol and the cholesterol:high-density lipoprotein ratio after only 4 weeks, as well as a reduction in triglycerides and very small-density lipoproteins, where average blood levels reached normal range at 8 weeks and remained within normal range for the duration of the study (P<0.08). No significant changes between the PTE group and the placebo group were seen for fasting glucose or C-reactive protein. A transient reduction in appetite was seen in the PTE group when compared to placebo (P<0.1). Conclusion The results from this clinical study showed that the daily consumption of PTE was associated with significant weight loss

  4. Qualitative analysis of algal secretions with multiple mass spectrometric platforms.

    PubMed

    Kind, Tobias; Meissen, John K; Yang, Dawei; Nocito, Fernando; Vaniya, Arpana; Cheng, Yu-Shen; Vandergheynst, Jean S; Fiehn, Oliver

    2012-06-29

    Lipid secretions from algae pose a great opportunity for engineering biofueler feedstocks. The lipid exudates could be interesting from a process engineering perspective because lipids could be collected directly from the medium without harvesting and disrupting cells. We here report on the extracellular secretions of algal metabolites from the strain UTEX 2341 (Chlorella minutissima) into the culture medium. No detailed analysis of these lipid secretions has been performed to date. Using multiple mass spectrometric platforms, we observed around 1000 compounds and were able to annotate 50 lipids by means of liquid chromatography coupled to accurate mass quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (LC-QTOF), direct infusion with positive and negative electrospray ion trap mass spectrometry and gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC-MS). These compounds were annotated by tandem mass spectral (MS/MS) database matching and retention time range filtering. We observed a series of triacylglycerols (TG), sulfoquinovosyldiacylglycerols (SQDG), phosphatidylinositols and phosphatidylglycerols, as well as betaine lipids diacylglyceryl-N,N,N-trimethylhomoserines (DGTS).

  5. Chronic Insulin Exposure Induces ER Stress and Lipid Body Accumulation in Mast Cells at the Expense of Their Secretory Degranulation Response

    PubMed Central

    Balajadia, Januaria; Shimoda, Lori M. N.; Sung, Carl; Turner, Helen

    2015-01-01

    Lipid bodies (LB) are reservoirs of precursors to inflammatory lipid mediators in immunocytes, including mast cells. LB numbers are dynamic, increasing dramatically under conditions of immunological challenge. We have previously shown in vitro that insulin-influenced lipogenic pathways induce LB biogenesis in mast cells, with their numbers attaining steatosis-like levels. Here, we demonstrate that in vivo hyperinsulinemia resulting from high fat diet is associated with LB accumulation in murine mast cells and basophils. We characterize the lipidome of purified insulin-induced LB, and the shifts in the whole cell lipid landscape in LB that are associated with their accumulation, in both model (RBL2H3) and primary mast cells. Lipidomic analysis suggests a gain of function associated with LB accumulation, in terms of elevated levels of eicosanoid precursors that translate to enhanced antigen-induced LTC4 release. Loss-of-function in terms of a suppressed degranulation response was also associated with LB accumulation, as were ER reprogramming and ER stress, analogous to observations in the obese hepatocyte and adipocyte. Taken together, these data suggest that chronic insulin elevation drives mast cell LB enrichment in vitro and in vivo, with associated effects on the cellular lipidome, ER status and pro-inflammatory responses. PMID:26263026

  6. Algal blooms and public health

    SciTech Connect

    Epstein, P.R. . Harvard Medical School)

    1993-06-01

    Alterations in coastal ecology are expanding the geographic extent, frequency, magnitude, and species complexity'' of algal blooms throughout the world, increasing the threat of fish and shellfish poisonings, anoxia in marine nurseries, and of cholera. The World Health Organization and members of the medical profession have described the potential health effects of global climate change. They warn of the consequences of increased ultraviolet-B (UV-B) rays and of warming: the possible damage to agriculture and nutrition, and the impact on habitats which may alter the distribution of vector-borne and water-based infectious diseases. Algal growth due to increased nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) and warming are already affecting marine microflora and aquatic plants; and there is now clear evidence that marine organisms are a reservoir for enteric pathogens. The pattern of cholera in the Western Hemisphere suggests that environmental changes have already begun to influence the epidemiology of this infectious disease. 106 refs.

  7. Enhancement effect of ethanol on lipid and fatty acid accumulation and composition of Scenedesmus sp.

    PubMed

    Wu, Chengchen; Wang, Wei; Yue, Long; Yang, Zhen; Fu, Qiuguo; Ye, Qingfu

    2013-07-01

    The effects of ethanol concentration gradients along with varied cultivation times on lipid and fatty acid accumulation and composition of Scenedesmus sp. were studied. The maximum increment of algal density, lipid productivity, lipid content and fatty acid content were 6.61, 11.75, 1.34 and 3.14 times higher than the control group under 12h photoperiod. Algal light deprivation inhibited ethanol positive effects on algal growth and lipid biomass. The cumulative quantity of C16:0 and C18:0 decreased correspondingly with the increase of ethanol concentrations and cultivation times. Besides, unsaturated fatty acids appeared early in algal cells and increased 57.02% in maximum. However, only 2.27% (14)C was transferred from ethanol to fatty acids. The results indicated that adding proper amount of ethanol in algal culture medium was beneficial to biodiesel feedstock production and biodiesel properties.

  8. Conjugated linoleic acid versus high-oleic acid sunflower oil: effects on energy metabolism, glucose tolerance, blood lipids, appetite and body composition in regularly exercising individuals.

    PubMed

    Lambert, Estelle V; Goedecke, Julia H; Bluett, Kerry; Heggie, Kerry; Claassen, Amanda; Rae, Dale E; West, Sacha; Dugas, Jonathan; Dugas, Lara; Meltzeri, Shelly; Charlton, Karen; Mohede, Inge

    2007-05-01

    The aim of this study was to measure the effects of 12 weeks of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) supplementation on body composition, RER, RMR, blood lipid profiles, insulin sensitivity and appetite in exercising, normal-weight persons. In this double-blind, randomised, controlled trial, sixty-two non-obese subjects (twenty-five men, thirty-seven women) received either 3.9 g/d CLA or 3.9 g high-oleic acid sunflower oil for 12 weeks. Prior to and after 12 weeks of supplementation, oral glucose tolerance, blood lipid concentrations, body composition (dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry and computerised tomography scans), RMR, resting and exercising RER and appetite were measured. There were no significant effects of CLA on body composition or distribution, RMR, RER or appetite. During the oral glucose tolerance tests, mean plasma insulin concentrations (0, 30, 120 min) were significantly lower (P= 0.04) in women who supplemented with CLA (24.3 (SD 9.7) to 20.4 (SD 8.5) microU/ml) compared to high-oleic acid sunflower oil control (23.7 (SD 9.8) to 26.0 (SD 8.8) microU/ml). Serum NEFA levels in response to oral glucose were attenuated in both men and women in the CLA (P=0.001) compared to control group. However, serum total cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol concentrations decreased in both groups and HDL-cholesterol concentrations decreased in women over 12 weeks (P=0.001, P=0.02, P=0.02, respectively). In conclusion, mixed-isomer CLA supplementation had a favourable effect on serum insulin and NEFA response to oral glucose in non-obese, regularly exercising women, but there were no CLA-specific effects on body composition, energy expenditure or appetite.

  9. Cytocomposition of the vitellarium in Khawia sinensis Hsü, 1935 (Cestoda, Caryophyllidea, Lytocestidae): another caryophyllidean species with lamellar bodies and lipids.

    PubMed

    Bruňanská, Magdaléna; Drobníková, Petra; Mackiewicz, John S; Nebesářová, Jana

    2013-07-01

    The vitellarium of the invasive caryophyllidean tapeworm Khawia sinensis Hsü, 1935 from carp Cyprinus carpio L. was examined by means of transmission electron microscopy and cytochemical staining for glycogen with periodic acid-thiosemicarbazide-silver proteinate (PA-TSC-SP). A vitellarium consists of numerous follicles of irregular size that are interconnected by a net of vitelline ducts. Vitelline follicles are composed of vitelline cells at various stages of development that are interconnected by interstitial tissue. Vitelline follicles are surrounded by a cytoplasmic sheath associated with an intercellular matrix. Extensive development of the granular endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi complexes are both involved in the production of shell globules/shell globule clusters and characterise cytodifferentiation of vitellocytes. Nuclear and nucleolar transformation lead to the formation and storage of intranuclear glycogen, a feature specific for the Caryophyllidea. Newly observed within the mature vitellocytes of Khawia sp. is the presence of lamellar bodies and a few lipid droplets. These cytoplasmic inclusions first occur in the mature cells within the follicles and persist in the vitelline cells within vitelloducts and intrauterine eggs. Two types of lamellar bodies are detected: regular lamellar-structured body and irregular lamellar-structured body. None of the lamellar bodies are membrane bound. Results of the present study indicate that the formation of lamellar bodies may be closely related to the endoplasmic reticulum or shell globule clusters. Some of the shell globule clusters are transformed into lamellar body clusters. Ultrastructural features of vitellocytes in K. sinensis are compared with those of other monopleuroid, polypleuroid, and strobilated cestodes.

  10. Bioprospecting for hyper-lipid producing microalgal strains for sustainable biofuel production.

    PubMed

    Mutanda, T; Ramesh, D; Karthikeyan, S; Kumari, S; Anandraj, A; Bux, F

    2011-01-01

    Global petroleum reserves are shrinking at a fast pace, increasing the demand for alternate fuels. Microalgae have the ability to grow rapidly, and synthesize and accumulate large amounts (approximately 20-50% of dry weight) of neutral lipid stored in cytosolic lipid bodies. A successful and economically viable algae based biofuel industry mainly depends on the selection of appropriate algal strains. The main focus of bioprospecting for microalgae is to identify unique high lipid producing microalgae from different habitats. Indigenous species of microalgae with high lipid yields are especially valuable in the biofuel industry. Isolation, purification and identification of natural microalgal assemblages using conventional techniques is generally time consuming. However, the recent use of micromanipulation as a rapid isolating tool allows for a higher screening throughput. The appropriate media and growth conditions are also important for successful microalgal proliferation. Environmental parameters recorded at the sampling site are necessary to optimize in vitro growth. Identification of species generally requires a combination of morphological and genetic characterization. The selected microalgal strains are grown in upscale systems such as raceway ponds or photobireactors for biomass and lipid production. This paper reviews the recent methodologies adopted for site selection, sampling, strain selection and identification, optimization of cultural conditions for superior lipid yield for biofuel production. Energy generation routes of microalgal lipids and biomass are discussed in detail.

  11. Effect of instant cooked giant embryonic rice on body fat weight and plasma lipid profile in high fat-fed mice.

    PubMed

    Chung, Soo Im; Kim, Tae Hyeong; Rico, Catherine W; Kang, Mi Young

    2014-06-13

    The comparative effects of instant cooked rice made from giant embryo mutant or ordinary normal rice on body weight and lipid profile in high fat-fed mice were investigated. The animals were given experimental diets for seven weeks: normal control (NC), high fat (HF), and HF supplemented with instant normal white (HF-NW), normal brown (HF-NB), giant embryonic white (HF-GW), or giant embryonic brown (HF-GB) rice. The HF group showed markedly higher body weight, body fat, plasma and hepatic triglyceride and cholesterol concentrations, and atherogenic index relative to NC group. However, instant rice supplementation counteracted this high fat-induced hyperlipidemia through regulation of lipogenesis and adipokine production. The GB rice exhibited greater hypolipidemic and body fat-lowering effects than the GW or NB rice. These findings illustrate that the giant embryo mutant may be useful as functional biomaterial for the development of instant rice with strong preventive action against high fat diet-induced hyperlipidemia and obesity.

  12. High-throughput analysis of algal crude oils using high resolution mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Lee, Young Jin; Leverence, Rachael C; Smith, Erica A; Valenstein, Justin S; Kandel, Kapil; Trewyn, Brian G

    2013-03-01

    Lipid analysis often needs to be specifically optimized for each class of compounds due to its wide variety of chemical and physical properties. It becomes a serious bottleneck in the development of algae-based next generation biofuels when high-throughput analysis becomes essential for the optimization of various process conditions. We propose a high-resolution mass spectrometry-based high-throughput assay as a 'quick-and-dirty' protocol to monitor various lipid classes in algal crude oils. Atmospheric pressure chemical ionization was determined to be most effective for this purpose to cover a wide range of lipid classes. With an autosampler-LC pump set-up, we could analyze algal crude samples every one and half minutes, monitoring several lipid species such as TAG, DAG, squalene, sterols, and chlorophyll a. High-mass resolution and high-mass accuracy of the orbitrap mass analyzer provides confidence in the identification of these lipid compounds. MS/MS and MS3 analysis could be performed in parallel for further structural information, as demonstrated for TAG and DAG. This high-throughput method was successfully demonstrated for semi-quantitative analysis of algal oils after treatment with various nanoparticles.

  13. Air pollutant production by algal cell cultures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fong, F.; Funkhouser, E. A.

    1982-01-01

    The production of phytotoxic air pollutants by cultures of Chlorella vulgaris and Euglena gracilis is considered. Algal and plant culture systems, a fumigation system, and ethylene, ethane, cyanide, and nitrogen oxides assays are discussed. Bean, tobacco, mustard green, cantaloupe and wheat plants all showed injury when fumigated with algal gases for 4 hours. Only coleus plants showed any resistance to the gases. It is found that a closed or recycled air effluent system does not produce plant injury from algal air pollutants.

  14. Dietary uptake efficiency of 2,2{prime},4,4{prime},5,5{prime}-hexachlorobiphenyl in yellow perch and rainbow trout: Role of dietary and body lipids

    SciTech Connect

    Dabrowska, H.; Fisher, S.W.; Dabrowski, K.; Staubus, A.E.

    1999-05-01

    Dietary uptake efficiency ({alpha}) and eliminate rate constants (k{sub d}) of 2,2{prime},4,4{prime},5,5{prime}-hexachlorobiphenyl (HCBP) were determined in two fish species, yellow perch and rainbow trout, to investigate the influence of dietary and body lipid levels on bioaccumulation. Groups of juvenile fish with significant differences in percent body lipid were fed with a low-fat(LF) or high-fat(HF) diet spiked with 5 or 50 ppb of {sup 14}C-HCBP for 32 d. Thereafter, fish were fed an uncontaminated LF or HF diet to allow for elimination of HCBP. Feeding and growth rates were quantified. There were eight fish lipid-dietary lipid-HCBP concentration exposure combinations for each species. Four fish from each exposure were collected at the beginning of the study and at 10--17-d intervals during exposure and elimination periods for lipid and {sup 14}C-HCBP analysis. The {alpha} values ranged from 74 to 95% in yellow perch and from 79 to 99% in rainbow trout. The greatest {alpha} values, of 95 to 99%, were found in fish given diets with 5 ppb HCBP. Uptake of HCBP was influenced by both dietary and body lipids and depended on the current status of both lipid pools. The elimination rate constants were in the range of 0.000 to 0.004 d{sup {minus}1} in yellow perch and 0.003 to 0.010 d{sup {minus}1} in rainbow trout. No significant differences in elimination rate constants between HF and LF fish groups were found. In fish on a constant dietary lipid regime, the k{sub d} values tended to be less in HF than in LF fish. However, in fish groups offered diets with a change in lipid regime. The k{sub d} tended to be greater. Lipid x time interactions in the HF and LF fish groups undergoing a change in lipid regime indicated that the k{sub d} values, like the {alpha} values, were influenced by both lipid pools. Changes in elimination rates due to dietary/body lipid status impacted BAFs more strongly than changes in uptake efficiencies. The BAFs were in the range of 1.11 to 2

  15. Deciphering the relationship among phosphate dynamics, electron-dense body and lipid accumulation in the green alga Parachlorella kessleri

    PubMed Central

    Ota, Shuhei; Yoshihara, Mai; Yamazaki, Tomokazu; Takeshita, Tsuyoshi; Hirata, Aiko; Konomi, Mami; Oshima, Kenshiro; Hattori, Masahira; Bišová, Kateřina; Zachleder, Vilém; Kawano, Shigeyuki

    2016-01-01

    Phosphorus is an essential element for life on earth and is also important for modern agriculture, which is dependent on inorganic fertilizers from phosphate rock. Polyphosphate is a biological polymer of phosphate residues, which is accumulated in organisms during the biological wastewater treatment process to enhance biological phosphorus removal. Here, we investigated the relationship between polyphosphate accumulation and electron-dense bodies in the green alga Parachlorella kessleri. Under sulfur-depleted conditions, in which some symporter genes were upregulated, while others were downregulated, total phosphate accumulation increased in the early stage of culture compared to that under sulfur-replete conditions. The P signal was detected only in dense bodies by energy dispersive X-ray analysis. Transmission electron microscopy revealed marked ultrastructural variations in dense bodies with and without polyphosphate. Our findings suggest that the dense body is a site of polyphosphate accumulation, and P. kessleri has potential as a phosphate-accumulating organism. PMID:27180903

  16. Methods for removing contaminants from algal oil

    SciTech Connect

    Lupton, Francis Stephen

    2016-09-27

    Methods for removing contaminants from algal oil are provided. In an embodiment, a method comprises the steps of combining a sulfuric acid-aqueous solution that has a pH of about 1 or less with a contaminant-containing algal oil at treatment conditions effective to form an effluent. The effluent comprises a treated algal oil phase and contaminants in an acidic aqueous phase. The contaminants comprise metals, phosphorus, or combinations thereof. The acidic aqueous phase is removed from the effluent to form a contaminant-depleted algal oil.

  17. Inhibition of Gastric Lipase as a Mechanism for Body Weight and Plasma Lipids Reduction in Zucker Rats Fed a Rosemary Extract Rich in Carnosic Acid

    PubMed Central

    Romo Vaquero, María; Yáñez-Gascón, María-Josefa; García Villalba, Rocío; Larrosa, Mar; Fromentin, Emilie; Ibarra, Alvin; Roller, Marc; Tomás-Barberán, Francisco; Espín de Gea, Juan Carlos; García-Conesa, María-Teresa

    2012-01-01

    Background Rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L.) extracts (REs) exhibit hepatoprotective, anti-obesity and anti-inflammatory properties and are widely used in the food industry. REs are rich in carnosic acid (CA) and carnosol which may be responsible for some of the biological activities of REs. The aim of this study was to investigate whether inhibition of lipase activity in the gut may be a mechanism by which a RE enriched in CA (40%) modulates body weight and lipids levels in a rat model of metabolic disorders and obesity. Methods and Principal Findings RE was administered for 64 days to lean (fa/+) and obese (fa/fa) female Zucker rats and body weight, food intake, feces weight and blood biochemical parameters were monitored throughout the study. Lipase activity (hydrolysis of p-nitrophenylbutyrate) was measured in the gastrointestinal tract at the end of the study and the contents of CA, carnosol and methyl carnosate were also determined. Sub-chronic administration of RE moderately reduced body weight gain in both lean and obese animals but did not affect food intake. Serum triglycerides, cholesterol and insulin levels were also markedly decreased in the lean animals supplemented with RE. Importantly, lipase activity was significantly inhibited in the stomach of the RE-supplemented animals where the highest content of intact CA and carnosol was detected. Conclusions Our results confirm that long-term administration of RE enriched in CA moderates weight gain and improves the plasma lipids profile, primarily in the lean animals. Our data also suggest that these effects may be caused, at least in part, by a significant inhibition of gastric lipase and subsequent reduction in fat absorption. PMID:22745826

  18. Corn gluten hydrolysate and capsaicin have complimentary actions on body weight reduction and lipid-related genes in diet-induced obese rats.

    PubMed

    Mun, Joo-Mi; Ok, Hyang Mok; Kwon, Oran

    2014-05-01

    The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that a combination of corn gluten hydrolysate (CGH) and capsaicin may have an additive or synergistic effect on body weight reduction. For 13 weeks, male Sprague-Dawley rats were provided a diet to induce obesity. Afterward, the rats were randomly divided into 5 dietary groups: the normal control (n = 5), the high-fat control (n = 8), the high-fat diet (HFD) containing 35% CGH (n = 7), the HFD containing 0.02% capsaicin (HF-P) (n = 8), and the HFD containing both CGH and capsaicin (HF-CP) (n = 7) for an additional 4 weeks. Administration of CGH plus capsaicin, along with a HFD, led to significant decreases in body weight, fat mass, lipids in the liver, and plasma leptin as well as increases in plasma adiponectin. The pattern of gene expression was different in each target organ. In the liver, up-regulation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α, carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1α, and acyl-coenzyme A oxidase was found in the HF-CP group. In contrast, down-regulation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ was found in both the HFD containing 35% CGH and HF-CP groups. In skeletal muscle, up-regulation of insulin receptor and uncoupling protein 3 was found in the HF-P group only, whereas up-regulation of the glucose transporter 4 gene was observed in both the HF-CP and HF-P groups. In adipose tissue, up-regulation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ and hormone-sensitive lipase was only found in the HF-CP group. In summary, this study suggests that CGH and capsaicin perform complementary actions on food intake, lipid metabolism, and insulin sensitivity by a coordinated control of energy metabolism in the liver, adipose tissue, and skeletal muscle, thus exerting an additive effect on body weight reduction.

  19. Tumebacillus algifaecis sp. nov., isolated from decomposing algal scum.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yu-Fan; Zhang, Bo; Xing, Peng; Wu, Qing-Long; Liu, Shuang-Jiang

    2015-07-01

    Bacterial strain THMBR28(T) was isolated from decomposing algal scum that was collected during an algal bloom in Taihu lake, China. Cells of strain THMBR28(T) were Gram-staining-positive, facultatively anaerobic and rod-shaped. Growth was observed at 20-45 °C (optimum, 30 °C), at pH 5.0-9.5 (optimum, pH 6.5-7.5), and in the presence of 0-1.0% (w/v) NaCl (optimum, 0.5%). Strain THMBR28(T) contained MK-7 as the major menaquinone and iso-C15 : 0 as the major cellular fatty acid. The polar lipid profile contained phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylmonomethylethanolamine, phosphatidylethanolamine and six unidentified polar lipids. The diamino acid found in the cell-wall peptidoglycan was meso-diaminopimelic acid. The DNA G+C content was 57.6 mol% (Tm). Phylogenetic analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that strain THMBR28(T) belonged to the genus Tumebacillus, most closely related to Tumebacillus ginsengisoli DSM 18389(T) (95.0%) and Tumebacillus permanentifrigoris Eur1 9.5(T) (93.4%). Based on phylogenetic and phenotypic characterization, it is concluded that strain THMBR28(T) represents a novel species of the genus Tumebacillus, for which the name Tumebacillus algifaecis sp. nov. is proposed, with THMBR28(T) ( = CGMCC 1.10949(T) = NBRC 108765(T)) as the type strain.

  20. Algal and microbial exopolysaccharides: new insights as biosurfactants and bioemulsifiers.

    PubMed

    Paniagua-Michel, José de Jesús; Olmos-Soto, Jorge; Morales-Guerrero, Eduardo Roberto

    2014-01-01

    Currently, efforts are being made to utilize more natural biological systems as alternatives as a way to replace fossil forms of carbon. There is a growing concern at global level to have nontoxic, nonhazardous surface-active agents; contrary to synthetic surfactants, their biological counterparts or biosurfactants play a primary function, facilitating microbial presence in environments dominated by hydrophilic-hydrophobic interfaces. Algal and microbial biosurfactants/bioemulsifiers from marine and deep-sea environments are attracting major interest due to their structural and functional diversity as molecules actives of surface and an alternative biomass to replace fossil forms of carbon. Algal and microbial surfactants are lipid in nature and classified as glycolipids, phospholipids, lipopeptides, natural lipids, fatty acids, and lipopolysaccharides. These metabolic bioactive products are applicable in a number of industries and processes, viz., food processing, pharmacology, and bioremediation of oil-polluted environments. This chapter presents an update of the progress and potentialities of the principal producers of exopolysaccharide (EPS)-type biosurfactants and bioemulsifiers, viz., macro- and microalgae (cyanobacteria and diatoms) and bacteria from marine and extreme environments. Particular interest is centered into new sources and applications, viz., marine and deep-sea environments and promissory uses of these EPSs as biosurfactants/emulsifiers and other polymeric roles. The enormous benefits of these molecules encourage their discovery, exploitation, and development of new microbial EPSs that could possess novel industrial importance and corresponding innovations.

  1. Oleic acid inhibits lung Na/K-ATPase in mice and induces injury with lipid body formation in leukocytes and eicosanoid production

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) can emerge from certain pathologies, such as sepsis, fat embolism and leptospirosis, in which the levels of unesterified fatty acids are increased in the patient’s plasma. ARDS is characterized by edema formation, and edema resolution occurs mainly due to the pneumocyte Na/K-ATPase activity. As previously described, increased oleic acid (OA) plasma concentrations induce lung injury by interfering with sodium transport. The first aim of this study was to develop a radioactivity-free assay to detect Na,K-ATPase activity ex vivo using a model of OA-induced lung injury in mice. We also investigated the relationship between Na/K-ATPase inhibition and OA-induced lung injury using ouabain-induced lung injury as a comparison, because of the well-described effect of ouabain as a Na/K-ATPase inhibitor. Methods We developed a Na/K-ATPase assay based on the capture of non-radioactive Rb+ ions by mice lung tissue in the absence or presence of ouabain, a specific Na/K-ATPase inhibitor. Rb+ incorporation into the lung was measured by inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES) after lung tissue mineralization. Na/K-ATPase activity was considered as the difference between Rb+ incorporation in the absence and in the presence of ouabain. Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid was collected for lung injury assessment. For this assessment, cell counting, lipid body enumeration and lipid mediator concentrations were measured. Histological analyses were used to determinate lung pathology. Whole body plethysmographic analysis was performed to assay lung function. Results The lung Na/K-ATPase activity of mice was completely inhibited by an OA dose of 10 μmol, an effect also obtained with 10-3 μmol of ouabain, as demonstrated by the decreased Rb+ incorporation in the lungs. The same OA dose induced lung edema and inflammation with cell influx, lipid body formation, and leukotriene B4 (LTB4) and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2

  2. Effect of boric acid on antioxidant enzyme activity, lipid peroxidation, and ultrastructure of midgut and fat body of Galleria mellonella.

    PubMed

    Büyükgüzel, Ender; Büyükgüzel, Kemal; Snela, Milena; Erdem, Meltem; Radtke, Katarzyna; Ziemnicki, Kazimierz; Adamski, Zbigniew

    2013-04-01

    Boric acid is widely used as an insecticide, acaricide, herbicide, and fungicide and also during various industrial processings. Hence, numerous populations are subjects to this toxic compound. Its action on animals is still not fully known and understood. We examined the effect of boric acid on larvae of greater wax moth (Galleria mellonella). The chemical appeared to be toxic for larvae, usually in a concentration-dependent manner. Exposed groups revealed increased lipid peroxidation and altered activity of catalase, superoxide dismutase, glutathione S-transferase, and glutathione peroxidase. We also observed changes of ultrastructure, which were in tune with biochemical assays. We suggest that boric acid has a broad mode of action, which may affect exposed larvae, and even if sublethal, they may lead to disturbances within exposed populations.

  3. Vitamin E prevents increase in oxidative damage to lipids and DNA in liver of ODS rats given total body X-ray irradiation.

    PubMed

    Yoshimura, Mika; Kashiba, Misato; Oka, Jun; Sugisawa, Ayako; Umegaki, Keizo

    2002-01-01

    We examined the effects of dietary vitamin E (VE) on oxidative damage to DNA and lipids in the liver a few days after total body irradiation (TBI). ODS rats, which lack vitamin C synthesis, were fed either a low VE diet (4.3 mg VE/kg) or a basal VE diet (75.6 mg VE/kg) for 5 weeks while vitamin C was supplied in the drinking water. The VE level in the liver of the low VE group was lower and the levels of lipid peroxides were higher compared to those of the basal VE group: the relative levels in the two groups were 1:30 for VE, 18:1 for 4-hydroxynonenal (HNE), and 10:1 for hexanal (HA). The level of 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine (8OHdG), a marker of oxidative DNA damage, did not differ between the low VE and the basal VE groups. When the rats received TBI at the dose of 3 Gy and were killed on day 6, the levels of HNE, HA and 8OHdG increased by 2.2-, 2-, and 1.5-times, respectively, in the low VE group, but TBI did not cause such increases in the basal VE group. Changes in antioxidative enzymes (glutathione peroxidase, catalase, and Cu/Zn-SOD) in the liver could not explain the different responses of the two diet groups to TBI-induced oxidative damage. The concentrations of vitamin C and glutathione in the liver did not differ between the two groups. These results suggest that dietary VE can prevent the oxidative damage to DNA and lipids in the liver which appear a few days after TBI at dose of 3 Gy.

  4. A Long-Acting FGF21 Molecule, PF-05231023, Decreases Body Weight and Improves Lipid Profile in Non-human Primates and Type 2 Diabetic Subjects.

    PubMed

    Talukdar, Saswata; Zhou, Yingjiang; Li, Dongmei; Rossulek, Michelle; Dong, Jennifer; Somayaji, Veena; Weng, Yan; Clark, Ronald; Lanba, Adhiraj; Owen, Bryn M; Brenner, Martin B; Trimmer, Jeffrey K; Gropp, Kathryn E; Chabot, Jeffrey R; Erion, Derek M; Rolph, Timothy P; Goodwin, Bryan; Calle, Roberto A

    2016-03-08

    FGF21 plays a central role in energy, lipid, and glucose homeostasis. To characterize the pharmacologic effects of FGF21, we administered a long-acting FGF21 analog, PF-05231023, to obese cynomolgus monkeys. PF-05231023 caused a marked decrease in food intake that led to reduced body weight. To assess the effects of PF-05231023 in humans, we conducted a placebo-controlled, multiple ascending-dose study in overweight/obese subjects with type 2 diabetes. PF-05231023 treatment resulted in a significant decrease in body weight, improved plasma lipoprotein profile, and increased adiponectin levels. Importantly, there were no significant effects of PF-05231023 on glycemic control. PF-05231023 treatment led to dose-dependent changes in multiple markers of bone formation and resorption and elevated insulin-like growth factor 1. The favorable effects of PF-05231023 on body weight support further evaluation of this molecule for the treatment of obesity. Longer studies are needed to assess potential direct effects of FGF21 on bone in humans.

  5. Formation of lipid bodies and changes in fatty acid composition upon pre-akinete formation in Arctic and Antarctic Zygnema (Zygnematophyceae, Streptophyta) strains

    PubMed Central

    Pichrtová, Martina; Arc, Erwann; Stöggl, Wolfgang; Kranner, Ilse; Hájek, Tomáš; Hackl, Hubert; Holzinger, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    Filamentous green algae of the genus Zygnema (Zygnematophyceae, Streptophyta) are key components of polar hydro-terrestrial mats where they face various stressors including UV irradiation, freezing, desiccation and osmotic stress. Their vegetative cells can develop into pre-akinetes, i.e. reserve-rich, mature cells. We investigated lipid accumulation and fatty acid (FA) composition upon pre-akinete formation in an Arctic and an Antarctic Zygnema strain using transmission electron microscopy and gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry. Pre-akinetes formed after 9 weeks of cultivation in nitrogen-free medium, which was accompanied by massive accumulation of lipid bodies. The composition of FAs was similar in both strains, and α-linolenic acid (C18:3) dominated in young vegetative cells. Pre-akinete formation coincided with a significant change in FA composition. Oleic (C18:1) and linoleic (C18:2) acid increased the most (up to 17- and 8-fold, respectively). Small amounts of long-chain polyunsaturated FAs were also detected, e.g. arachidonic (C20:4) and eicosapentaenoic (C20:5) acid. Pre-akinetes exposed to desiccation at 86% relative humidity were able to recover maximum quantum yield of photosystem II, but desiccation had no major effect on FA composition. The results are discussed with regard to the capability of Zygnema spp. to thrive in extreme conditions. PMID:27170362

  6. Algal Bloom Detection from HICO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amin, Ruhul; Gould, Richard

    2014-05-01

    Ocean color satellites provide daily, global views of marine bio-optical properties in the upper ocean at various spatial scales. The most productive area of the global ocean is the coastal zone which is heavily impacted by urban and agricultural runoff, transportation, recreation, and oil and gas production. In recent years, harmful algal blooms (HABs) have become one of the serious environmental problems in the coastal areas on a global scale. The global nature of the problem has expanded in its frequency, severity, and extent over the last several decades. Human activities and population increases have contributed to an increase in various toxic and noxious algal species in the coastal regions worldwide. Eutrophication in estuaries and coastal waters is believed to be the major factor causing HABs. In this study, we assess the applicability of the Red Band Difference (RBD) HAB detection algorithm on data from the Hyperspectral Imager for the Coastal Ocean (HICO). Our preliminary results show that due to various uncertainties such as atmospheric correction, calibration and possibly also the relatively low signal-to-noise ratio of HICO for fluorescence detection, it is difficult to extract the fluorescence portion of the reflectance spectrum that RBD uses for bloom detection. We propose an improved bloom detection technique for HICO using red and NIR bands. Our results are validated using other space-borne and ground based measurements.

  7. NREL Algal Biofuels Projects and Partnerships

    SciTech Connect

    2016-10-01

    This fact sheet highlights several algal biofuels research and development projects focused on improving the economics of the algal biofuels production process. These projects should serve as a foundation for the research efforts toward algae as a source of fuels and other chemicals.

  8. Evaluation of novel starch-deficient mutants of Chlorella sorokiniana for hyper-accumulation of lipids

    PubMed Central

    Vonlanthen, Sofie; Dauvillée, David; Purton, Saul

    2015-01-01

    When green algae are exposed to physiological stresses such as nutrient deprivation, growth is arrested and the cells channel fixed carbon instead into storage compounds, accumulating first starch granules and then lipid bodies containing triacylglycerides. In recent years there has been significant interest in the commercial exploitation of algal lipids as a sustainable source of biodiesel. Since starch and lipid biosynthesis involves the same C3 precursor pool, it has been proposed that mutations blocking starch accumulation should result in increased lipid yields, and indeed several studies have supported this. The fast-growing, thermotolerant alga Chlorella sorokiniana represents an attractive strain for industrial cultivation. We have therefore generated and characterized starch-deficient mutants of C. sorokiniana and determined whether lipid levels are increased in these strains under stress conditions. One mutant (ST68) is shown to lack isoamylase, whilst two others (ST3 and ST12) are defective in starch phosphorylase. However, we find no significant change in the accumulation or profile of fatty acids in these mutants compared to the wild-type, suggesting that a failure to accumulate starch per se is not sufficient for the hyper-accumulation of lipid, and that more subtle regulatory steps underlie the partitioning of carbon to the two storage products. PMID:26865991

  9. Assessing plasma lipid levels, body weight, and hepatic and renal toxicity following chronic oral administration of a water soluble phytostanol compound, FM-VP4, to gerbils.

    PubMed

    Wasan, K M; Najafi, S; Wong, J; Kwong, M; Pritchard, P H

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this project was to determine the effect of a FM-VP4 when incorporated into the diet or drinking water on plasma lipids, body weight, and hepatic and renal function following chronic oral administration to gerbils. Gerbils were administered water and food daily containing either no FM-VP4 (controls; n=6), 2% or 4% FM-VP4 incorporated into the gerbil diet (n=6 each treatment group) or 2% or 4% FM-VP4 dissolved in the drinking water (n=6 each treatment group). Body weight and food and water intake were monitored weekly. Following 8 weeks of this regiment blood was obtained via a cardiac puncture and all animals were sacrificed humanely. Plasma obtained from this blood was analyzed for total cholesterol, total triglyceride and high-density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol levels by standard enzymatic and precipitation techniques. Low-density lipoprotein (LDL)-cholesterol levels were determined by the Friedewald equation. The plasma was also analyzed for changes in hepatic enzyme (aspartate aminotransferase [AST] and alanine aminotransferase [ALT]) and plasma creatinine (renal function) concentrations. 2% and 4% FM-VP4 administration incorporated both into the diet and in the drinking water resulted in a significant decrease in total plasma cholesterol and LDL cholesterol concentration compared to controls. Animals administered 4% FM-VP4 in either their diet or drinking water had significantly lower body weight following the 8 weeks of treatment compared to the other groups. Significant differences in daily water intake was observed in all treatment groups with the exception of the 2% FM-VP4 in diet group compared to controls. Significant differences in daily food intake were observed in gerbils administered 2% FM-VP4 in the drinking water and 4% FM-VP4 in the diet and drinking water groups compared to controls. A significant decrease in total plasma triglyceride concentration was observed in gerbils administered 4% FM-VP4 in their drinking water compared

  10. Dietary energy sources affect the partition of body lipids and the hierarchy of energy metabolic pathways in growing pigs differing in feed efficiency.

    PubMed

    Gondret, F; Louveau, I; Mourot, J; Duclos, M J; Lagarrigue, S; Gilbert, H; van Milgen, J

    2014-11-01

    The use and partition of feed energy are key elements in productive efficiency of pigs. This study aimed to determine whether dietary energy sources affect the partition of body lipids and tissue biochemical pathways of energy use between pigs differing in feed efficiency. Forty-eight barrows (pure Large White) from two divergent lines selected for residual feed intake (RFI), a measure of feed efficiency, were compared. From 74 d to 132 ± 0.5 d of age, pigs (n = 12 by line and by diet) were offered diets with equal protein and ME contents. A low fat, low fiber diet (LF) based on cereals and a high fat, high fiber diet (HF) where vegetal oils and wheat straw were used to partially substitute cereals, were compared. Irrespective of diet, gain to feed was 10% better (P < 0.001), and carcass yield was greater (+2.3%; P < 0.001) in the low RFI compared with the high RFI line; the most-efficient line was also leaner (+3.2% for loin proportion in the carcass, P < 0.001). In both lines, ADFI and ADG were lower when pigs were fed the HF diet (-12.3% and -15%, respectively, relatively to LF diet; P < 0.001). Feeding the HF diet reduced the perirenal fat weight and backfat proportion in the carcass to the same extent in both lines (-27% on average; P < 0.05). Lipid contents in backfat and LM also declined (-5% and -19%, respectively; P < 0.05) in pigs offered the HF diet. The proportion of saturated fatty acids (FA) was lower, but the percentage of PUFA, especially the EFA C18:2 and C18:3, was greater (P < 0.001) in backfat of HF-fed pigs. In both lines, these changes were associated with a marked decrease (P < 0.001) in the activities of two lipogenic enzymes, the fatty acid synthase (FASN) and the malic enzyme, in backfat. For the high RFI line, the hepatic lipid content was greater (P < 0.05) in pigs fed the HF diet than in pigs fed the LF diet, despite a reduced FASN activity (-32%; P < 0.001). In both lines, the HF diet also led to lower glycogen content (-70%) and

  11. Whole-Body Vibration Partially Reverses Aging-Induced Increases in Visceral Adiposity and Hepatic Lipid Storage in Mice

    PubMed Central

    van Dijk, Theo H.; Havinga, Rick; van der Zee, Eddy A.; Groen, Albert K.; Reijngoud, Dirk-Jan; Bakker, Barbara M.; van Dijk, Gertjan

    2016-01-01

    At old age, humans generally have declining muscle mass and increased fat deposition, which can increase the risk of developing cardiometabolic diseases. While regular physical activity postpones these age-related derangements, this is not always possible in the elderly because of disabilities or risk of injury. Whole-body vibration (WBV) training may be considered as an alternative to physical activity particularly in the frail population. To explore this possibility, we characterized whole-body and organ-specific metabolic processes in 6-month and 25-month old mice, over a period of 14 weeks of WBV versus sham training. WBV training tended to increase blood glucose turnover rates and stimulated hepatic glycogen utilization during fasting irrespective of age. WBV was effective in reducing white fat mass and hepatic triglyceride content only in old but not in young mice and these reductions were related to upregulation of hepatic mitochondrial uncoupling of metabolism (assessed by high-resolution respirometry) and increased expression of uncoupling protein 2. Because these changes occurred independent of changes in food intake and whole-body metabolic rate (assessed by indirect calorimetry), the liver-specific effects of WBV may be a primary mechanism to improve metabolic health during aging, rather than that it is a consequence of alterations in energy balance. PMID:26886917

  12. Constraints to commercialization of algal fuels.

    PubMed

    Chisti, Yusuf

    2013-09-10

    Production of algal crude oil has been achieved in various pilot scale facilities, but whether algal fuels can be produced in sufficient quantity to meaningfully displace petroleum fuels, has been largely overlooked. Limitations to commercialization of algal fuels need to be understood and addressed for any future commercialization. This review identifies the major constraints to commercialization of transport fuels from microalgae. Algae derived fuels are expensive compared to petroleum derived fuels, but this could change. Unfortunately, improved economics of production are not sufficient for an environmentally sustainable production, or its large scale feasibility. A low-cost point supply of concentrated carbon dioxide colocated with the other essential resources is necessary for producing algal fuels. An insufficiency of concentrated carbon dioxide is actually a major impediment to any substantial production of algal fuels. Sustainability of production requires the development of an ability to almost fully recycle the phosphorous and nitrogen nutrients that are necessary for algae culture. Development of a nitrogen biofixation ability to support production of algal fuels ought to be an important long term objective. At sufficiently large scale, a limited supply of freshwater will pose a significant limitation to production even if marine algae are used. Processes for recovering energy from the algal biomass left after the extraction of oil, are required for achieving a net positive energy balance in the algal fuel oil. The near term outlook for widespread use of algal fuels appears bleak, but fuels for niche applications such as in aviation may be likely in the medium term. Genetic and metabolic engineering of microalgae to boost production of fuel oil and ease its recovery, are essential for commercialization of algal fuels. Algae will need to be genetically modified for improved photosynthetic efficiency in the long term.

  13. The effect of low calorie structured lipid palm mid fraction, virgin coconut oil and canola oil blend on rats body weight and plasma profile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bakar, Aftar Mizan Abu; Ayob, Mohd Khan; Maskat, Mohamad Yusof

    2016-11-01

    This study was carried out to evaluate the effect of low calorie cocoa butter substitutes, the structured lipids (SLs) on rats' body weight and plasma lipid levels. The SLs were developed from a ternary blending of palm mid fraction (PMF), virgin coconut oil (VCO) and canola oil (CO). The optimized blends were then underwent enzymatic acidolysisusing sn-1,3-specific lipase. This process produced A12, a SL which hasa solid fat content almost comparable to cocoa butter but has low calories. Therefore, it has a high potential to be used for cocoa butter substitute with great nutritional values. Fourty two Sprague Dawley rats were divided into 6 groups and were force feed for a period of 2 months (56 days) and the group were Control 1(rodent chow), Control 2(cocoa butter), Control 3(PMF:VCO:CO 90:5:5 - S3 blend), High doseSL (A12:C8+S3), Medium dose SL (A12:C8+S3) and Low dose SL (A12:C8+S3). The body weight of each rat was recorded once daily. The plasma profile of treated and control rats, which comprised of total cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, LDL cholesterol and triglyceride was measured on day 0 (baseline) and day 56 (post-treatment). Low calorie structured lipid (SL) was synthesized through acidolysis reaction using sn 1-3-specific lipase of ThermomycesLanuginos (TLIM) among 25 samples with optimum parameter obtained from the RSM. Blood samples for plasma separation were collected using cardiac puncture and requiring anesthesia via tail vein(Anesthetics for rats: Ketamine/Xylazine) for day 0 and day 56. Results of the study showed that rats in group 1 and group 2 has gained weight by 1.66 g and 4.75 g respectively and showed significant difference (p<0.05). In contrast, G3, G4, G5 and G6 showed significant difference (p<0.05) with weight loss by 2.16 g, 10.71g, 7.27 g and 3.23 g respectively 7.27 g and 3.23 g respectively after the treatment. Biochemical analyses on the ratsplasma lipid revealed that the total blood cholesterol content of rats fed with either low

  14. The Impact of Virgin Coconut Oil and High-Oleic Safflower Oil on Body Composition, Lipids, and Inflammatory Markers in Postmenopausal Women.

    PubMed

    Harris, Margaret; Hutchins, Andrea; Fryda, Lisa

    2017-03-09

    This randomized crossover study compared the impact of virgin coconut oil (VCO) to safflower oil (SO) on body composition and cardiovascular risk factors. Twelve postmenopausal women (58.8 ± 3.7 year) consumed 30 mL VCO or SO for 28 days, with a 28-day washout. Anthropometrics included body weight and hip and waist circumference. Fat percent for total body, android and gynoid, fat mass, and lean mass were measured using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Women maintained their typical diet recording 28 days of food records during the study. Results were analyzed with SPSS v24 with significance at P ≤ .05. Comparisons are reported as paired t-test since no intervention sequence effect was observed. VCO significantly raised total cholesterol, TC (+18.2 ± 22.8 mg/dL), low-density lipoprotein (+13.5 ± 16.0 mg/dL), and high-density lipoprotein, HDL (+6.6 ± 7.5 mg/dL). SO did not significantly change lipid values. TC and HDL were significantly different between test oils. The TC/HDL ratio change showed a neutral effect of both VCO and SO. One person had adverse reactions to VCO and increased inflammation. VCO decreased IL-1β for each person who had a detected sample. The impact of VCO and SO on other cytokines varied on an individual basis. This was the first study evaluating the impact of VCO on body composition in Caucasian postmenopausal women living in the United States. Results are suggestive that individuals wishing to use coconut oil in their diets can do so safely, but more studies need to be conducted with larger sample sizes, diverse populations, and more specific clinical markers such as particle size.

  15. Comparative study of pyrolysis of algal biomass from natural lake blooms with lignocellulosic biomass.

    PubMed

    Maddi, Balakrishna; Viamajala, Sridhar; Varanasi, Sasidhar

    2011-12-01

    Pyrolysis experiments were performed with algal and lignocellulosic feedstocks under similar reactor conditions for comparison of product (bio-oil, gas and bio-char) yields and composition. In spite of major differences in component bio-polymers, feedstock properties relevant to thermo-chemical conversions, such as overall C, H and O-content, C/O and H/C molar ratio as well as calorific values, were found to be similar for algae and lignocellulosic material. Bio-oil yields from algae and some lignocellulosic materials were similar; however, algal bio-oils were compositionally different and contained several N-compounds (most likely from protein degradation). Algal bio-char also had a significantly higher N-content. Overall, our results suggest that it is feasible to convert algal cultures deficient in lipids, such as nuisance algae obtained from natural blooms, into liquid fuels by thermochemical methods. As such, pyrolysis technologies being developed for lignocellulosic biomass may be directly applicable to algal feedstocks as well.

  16. Combined effect of predatory zooplankton and allelopathic aquatic macrophytes on algal suppression.

    PubMed

    Zuo, Shengpeng; Wan, Kun; Ma, Sumin

    2015-01-01

    The present study evaluated the combined effects of four typical predatory zooplankton and allelopathic aquatic macrophytes on algal control in a microcosm system. It would determine the effects of diverse species and biological restoration on the growth of harmful water-bloom microalgae in great lakes polluted by excess nutrients. It was found that the mixtures of each zooplankton and the floating plant Nymphoides peltatum had stronger inhibitory effects on harmful water-bloom microalgae than the individual species in clean or eutrophic water bodies. In addition, a community of four zooplankton types had a synergistic effect on algal inhibition. Algal suppression by the zooplankton community was enhanced significantly when the macrophyte was co-cultured in the microcosm. Furthermore, Chlorella pyrenoidosa was more susceptible than Microcystis aeruginosa when exposed to grazing by zooplankton and the allelopathic potential of the macrophyte. Algal inhibition was also weaker in eutrophic conditions compared with the control. These findings indicate that diverse species may enhance algal inhibition. Therefore, it is necessary to restore biological diversity and rebuild an ecologically balanced food chain or web to facilitate the control of harmful algal blooms in eutrophic lakes.

  17. Safety evaluation of DHA-rich Algal Oil from Schizochytrium sp.

    PubMed

    Fedorova-Dahms, I; Marone, P A; Bauter, M; Ryan, A S

    2011-12-01

    The safety of DHA-rich Algal Oil from Schizochytrium sp. containing 40-45 wt% DHA and up to 10 wt% EPA was evaluated by testing for gene mutations, clastogenicity and aneugenicity, and in a subchronic 90-day Sprague-Dawley rat dietary study with in utero exposure, followed by a 4-week recovery phase. The results of all genotoxicity tests were negative. In the 90-day study, DHA-rich Algal Oil was administered at dietary levels of 0.5, 1.5, and 5 wt% along with two control diets: a standard low-fat basal diet and a basal diet supplemented with 5 wt% of concentrated Fish Oil. There were no treatment-related effects of DHA-rich Algal Oil on clinical observations, body weight, food consumption, behavior, hematology, clinical chemistry, coagulation, or urinalysis. Increases in absolute and relative weights of the liver, kidney, spleen and adrenals (adrenals and spleen with histological correlates) were observed in both the Fish Oil- and the high-dose of DHA-rich Algal Oil-treated females and were not considered to be adverse. The no observed adverse effect level (NOAEL) for DHA-rich Algal Oil under the conditions of this study was 5 wt% in the diet, equivalent to an overall average DHA-rich Algal Oil intake of 4260 mg/kg bw/day for male and female rats.

  18. Optimization of a wet microalgal lipid extraction procedure for improved lipid recovery for biofuel and bioproduct production.

    PubMed

    Sathish, Ashik; Marlar, Tyler; Sims, Ronald C

    2015-10-01

    Methods to convert microalgal biomass to bio based fuels and chemicals are limited by several processing and economic hurdles. Research conducted in this study modified/optimized a previously published procedure capable of extracting transesterifiable lipids from wet algal biomass. This optimization resulted in the extraction of 77% of the total transesterifiable lipids, while reducing the amount of materials and temperature required in the procedure. In addition, characterization of side streams generated demonstrated that: (1) the C/N ratio of the residual biomass or lipid extracted (LE) biomass increased to 54.6 versus 10.1 for the original biomass, (2) the aqueous phase generated contains nitrogen, phosphorous, and carbon, and (3) the solid precipitate phase was composed of up to 11.2 wt% nitrogen (70% protein). The ability to isolate algal lipids and the possibility of utilizing generated side streams as products and/or feedstock material for downstream processes helps promote the algal biorefinery concept.

  19. Optimization of microwave-assisted transesterification of dry algal biomass using response surface methodology.

    PubMed

    Patil, Prafulla D; Gude, Veera Gnaneswar; Mannarswamy, Aravind; Cooke, Peter; Munson-McGee, Stuart; Nirmalakhandan, Nagamany; Lammers, Peter; Deng, Shuguang

    2011-01-01

    The effect of microwave irradiation on the simultaneous extraction and transesterification (in situ transesterification) of dry algal biomass to biodiesel was investigated. A high degree of oil/lipid extraction from dry algal biomass and an efficient conversion of the oils/lipids to biodiesel were demonstrated in a set of well-designed experimental runs. A response surface methodology (RSM) was used to analyze the influence of the process variables (dry algae to methanol (wt/vol) ratio, catalyst concentration, and reaction time) on the fatty acid methyl ester conversion. Based on the experimental results and RSM analysis, the optimal conditions for this process were determined as: dry algae to methanol (wt/vol) ratio of around 1:12, catalyst concentration about 2 wt.%, and reaction time of 4 min. The algal biodiesel samples were analyzed with GC-MS and thin layer chromatography (TLC) methods. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) images of the algal biomass samples before and after the extraction/transesterification reaction are also presented.

  20. Effects of a medium chain triglyceride oil mixture and alpha-lipoic acid diet on body composition, antioxidant status, and plasma lipid levels in the Golden Syrian hamster.

    PubMed

    Wollin, Stephanie D; Wang, Yanwen; Kubow, Stan; Jones, Peter J H

    2004-07-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the effects of the antioxidant alpha-lipoic acid (ALP) versus a medium chain triglyceride oil mixture (MCTo), which was designed to increase energy expenditure and to improve lipid profiles containing medium chain triglycerides, phytosterols, and omega-3 fatty acids in the form of flaxseed oil. A total of 48 hamsters were fed a) hypercholesterolemic (HC) control, b) HC MCTo, c) HC ALP, or d) HC MCTo/ALP diet for 4 weeks. No differences were observed on food intake, body weight, total body water, lean and fat mass, and tissue thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS). ALP alone had no effect on total cholesterol (TC); however, MCTo feeding increased TC with (P < 0.03) and without (P < 0.003) ALP when compared with control. ALP increased HDL levels compared with control (P < 0.04) and MCTo/ALP (P < 0.007) groups. MCTo, with (P < 0.0001) or without (P < 0.006) ALP, increased non-HDL cholesterol levels versus control. The non-HDL:HDL cholesterol ratio was decreased by ALP compared with MCTo (45%) and MCTo/ALP (68%) (P < 0.0001), a similar trend was seen when compared with the HC control (22%) group (P < 0.14). Triglyceride levels were not altered by any dietary treatment. Liver and heart tissue reduced glutathione (GSH) was increased (P < 0.05) by all three treatments when compared with control. Both tissues showed an increase (P < 0.05) in oxidized glutathione (GSSG) when fed ALP as compared with other treatments. Hamsters fed ALP had a lower (P < 0.05) GSH/GSSG ratio compared with other treatment groups. In conclusion, MCTo feeding does not elicit beneficial effects on circulating plasma lipids and measures of body composition. In addition, our results do not clearly support an improvement in oxidative status through supplementation of ALP. However, our results do support the existence of beneficial effects of ALP on circulating lipoprotein content in the hamster.

  1. Metabolic systems analysis to advance algal biotechnology.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Brian J; Lin-Schmidt, Xiefan; Chamberlin, Austin; Salehi-Ashtiani, Kourosh; Papin, Jason A

    2010-07-01

    Algal fuel sources promise unsurpassed yields in a carbon neutral manner that minimizes resource competition between agriculture and fuel crops. Many challenges must be addressed before algal biofuels can be accepted as a component of the fossil fuel replacement strategy. One significant challenge is that the cost of algal fuel production must become competitive with existing fuel alternatives. Algal biofuel production presents the opportunity to fine-tune microbial metabolic machinery for an optimal blend of biomass constituents and desired fuel molecules. Genome-scale model-driven algal metabolic design promises to facilitate both goals by directing the utilization of metabolites in the complex, interconnected metabolic networks to optimize production of the compounds of interest. Network analysis can direct microbial development efforts towards successful strategies and enable quantitative fine-tuning of the network for optimal product yields while maintaining the robustness of the production microbe. Metabolic modeling yields insights into microbial function, guides experiments by generating testable hypotheses, and enables the refinement of knowledge on the specific organism. While the application of such analytical approaches to algal systems is limited to date, metabolic network analysis can improve understanding of algal metabolic systems and play an important role in expediting the adoption of new biofuel technologies.

  2. Lipids and Prostate Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Suburu, Janel; Chen, Yong Q.

    2012-01-01

    The role of lipid metabolism has gained particular interest in prostate cancer research. A large body of literature has outlined the unique upregulation of de novo lipid synthesis in prostate cancer. Concordant with this lipogenic phenotype is a metabolic shift, in which cancer cells use alternative enzymes and pathways to facilitate the production of fatty acids. These newly synthesized lipids may support a number of cellular processes to promote cancer cell proliferation and survival. Hence, de novo lipogenesis is under intense investigation as a therapeutic target. Epidemiologic studies suggest dietary fat may also contribute to prostate cancer; however, whether dietary lipids and de novo synthesized lipids are differentially metabolized remains unclear. Here, we highlight the lipogenic nature of prostate cancer, especially the promotion of de novo lipid synthesis, and the significance of various dietary lipids in prostate cancer development and progression. PMID:22503963

  3. Hydraulic retention time effects on wastewater nutrient removal and bioproduct production via rotating algal biofilm reactor.

    PubMed

    Iman Shayan, Sahand; Agblevor, Foster A; Bertin, Lorenzo; Sims, Ronald C

    2016-07-01

    Rotating algal biofilm reactor (RABR) technology was successfully employed in an effective strategy to couple the removal of wastewater nutrients with accumulation of valuable bioproducts by grown algae. A secondary stage municipal wastewater was fed to the developed system and the effects of the hydraulic retention time (HRT) parameter on both nutrient removal and bioproduct production were evaluated under fed-batch operation mode. Two sets of bench scale RABRs were designed and operated with HRTs of 2 and 6days in order to provide competitive environment for algal growth. The HRT significantly affected nitrogen and phosphorus uptakes along with lipid and starch accumulations by microalgae in harvested biofilms. Domination of nitrogen removal in 2-day HRT with higher lipid accumulation (20% on dried weight basis) and phosphorus removal in 6-day HRT with higher starch production (27% on dried weight basis) was observed by comparing the performances of the RABRs in duplicate runs.

  4. Does Ramadan fasting alter body weight and blood lipids and fasting blood glucose in a healthy population? A meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Kul, Seval; Savaş, Esen; Öztürk, Zeynel Abidin; Karadağ, Gülendam

    2014-06-01

    In this study, we conducted a meta-analysis of self-controlled cohort studies comparing body weights, blood levels of lipids and fasting blood glucose levels before and after Ramadan taking into account gender differences. Several databases were searched up to June 2012 for studies showing an effect of Ramadan fasting in healthy subjects, yielding 30 articles. The primary finding of this meta-analysis was that after Ramadan fasting, low-density lipoprotein (SMD = -1.67, 95 % CI = -2.48 to -0.86) and fasting blood glucose levels (SMD = -1.10, 95 % CI = -1.62 to -0.58) were decreased in both sex groups and also in the entire group compared to levels prior to Ramadan. In addition, in the female subgroup, body weight (SMD = -0.04, 95 % CI = -0.20, 0.12), total cholesterol (SMD = 0.05, 95 % CI = -0.51 to 0.60), and triglyceride levels (SMD = 0.03, 95 % CI = -0.31, 0.36) remained unchanged, while HDL levels (SMD = 0.86, 95 % CI = 0.11 to 1.61, p = 0.03) were increased. In males, Ramadan fasting resulted in weight loss (SMD = -0.24, 95 % CI = -0.36, -0.12, p = 0.001). Also, a substantial reduction in total cholesterol (SMD = -0.44, 95 % CI = -0.77 to -0.11) and LDL levels (SMD = -2.22, 95 % CI = -3.47 to -0.96) and a small decrease in triglyceride levels (SMD = -0.35, 95 % CI = -0.67 to -0.02) were observed in males. In conclusion, by looking at this data, it is evident that Ramadan fasting can effectively change body weight and some biochemical parameters in healthy subjects especially in males compared to pre-Ramadan period.

  5. Sustainable Algal Energy Production and Environmental Remediation

    SciTech Connect

    Cooke, William E.

    2012-07-14

    Overall, our results confirm that wild algal species sequester a wide range of organic and metal contaminants and excess nutrients (PAHs, trace metals, and nutrients) from natural waters, and suggest parameters that could be useful in predicting uptake rates for algae growing on an algal floway or other algal growth systems in the environment or in industrial processes. The implication for various fuel production processes differ with the detailed unit operations involved, and these results will be of use in the developing of scaling experiments for various types of engineering process designs.

  6. Effects of secoisolariciresinol diglucoside lignan-enriched flaxseed powder on body weight, visceral fat, lipid profile, adipokines, and blood pressure in rats fed a high-fructose and high-fat diet

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The potential effects of secoisolariciresinol diglucoside (SDG) lignan-enriched flaxseed powder LEFP) on body weight, visceral fat, lipid profile, adipokines, and blood pressure were investigated using Sprague-Dawley rats. The animals were divided into three groups (n=8) that were fed either a norm...

  7. Exploring the Utilization of Complex Algal Communities to Address Algal Pond Crash and Increase Annual Biomass Production for Algal Biofuels

    SciTech Connect

    Hamilton, Cyd E.

    2014-03-25

    This white paper briefly reviews the research literature exploring complex algal communities as a means of increasing algal biomass production via increased tolerance, resilience, and resistance to a variety of abiotic and biotic perturbations occurring within harvesting timescales. This paper identifies what data are available and whether more research utilizing complex communities is needed to explore the potential of complex algal community stability (CACS) approach as a plausible means to increase biomass yields regardless of ecological context and resulting in decreased algal-based fuel prices by reducing operations costs. By reviewing the literature for what we do and do not know, in terms of CACS methodologies, this report will provide guidance for future research addressing pond crash phenomena.

  8. Human growth hormone replacement in adult hypopituitary patients: long-term effects on body composition and lipid status--3-year results from the HypoCCS Database.

    PubMed

    Attanasio, Andrea F; Bates, Peter C; Ho, Ken K Y; Webb, Susan M; Ross, Richard J; Strasburger, Christian J; Bouillon, Roger; Crowe, Brenda; Selander, Keith; Valle, Domenico; Lamberts, Steven W J

    2002-04-01

    The Hypopituitary Control and Complications Study is an international surveillance study evaluating efficacy and safety of GH therapy of adult GH-deficient patients in clinical practice. The present report examined baseline data from 1,123 adult onset (AO) and 362 childhood onset (CO) patients, as well as efficacy in 242 patients who had completed 3 yr of GH treatment. At study entry, mean height, body mass index, waist to hip ratio, and lean body mass were significantly (P < 0.001 for each) lower in CO compared with AO patients. After 3 yr on GH, lean body mass was significantly increased in AO males and females and CO males but not CO females, whereas fat mass was significantly decreased in AO males only. Serum total cholesterol was decreased in females (-0.32 +/- 1.00 mmol/liter; P = 0.045) and males (-0.36 +/- 0.96 mmol/liter; P = 0.004). High-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol was increased for females (0.10 +/- 0.26 mmol/liter; P = 0.026) and males (0.10 +/- 0.34 mmol/liter; P = 0.022). The low-density lipoprotein/HDL ratio was decreased in AO males (-0.93 +/- 2.00; P = 0.003), AO females (-0.65 +/- 0.74; P < 0.001), and CO females (-0.69 +/- 0.76; P = 0.038), but the decrease in CO males was not significant (-0.84 +/- 2.85; P = 0.273). In AO patients, lean body mass increase from baseline was greatest in the those younger than 40 yr old, less but still significant in the middle group (40-60 yr) and unchanged in older (>60 yr) patients; conversely, decreases in the low-density lipoprotein/HDL ratio were small and not significant in the younger patients but greater and significant in the middle and older age groups. During the 3-yr treatment, 114 (7.7%) patients discontinued, including 9 (0.6%) for tumor recurrences, 9 (0.6%) for neoplasia, and 9 (0.6%) for side effects. Therefore, these observational data showed significant long-term efficacy of adult GH replacement therapy on body composition and lipid profiles and indicate that age is an important

  9. Efficacy of a meal-replacement program for promoting blood lipid changes and weight and body fat loss in US Army soldiers.

    PubMed

    Smith, Tracey J; Sigrist, Lori D; Bathalon, Gaston P; McGraw, Susan; Karl, J Philip; Young, Andrew J

    2010-02-01

    Excess weight is associated with negative health outcomes. Meal replacements are effective in promoting favorable body composition changes in civilian populations; however, their efficacy with military service members who have unique lifestyles is unknown. The objective of this randomized controlled trial was to determine the efficacy of the Army's education-based weight-management program, "Weigh to Stay," with and without meal replacements for improving blood lipids, and to promote weight and body fat loss in overweight US Army soldiers. Soldiers (n=113; 76 males/37 females) attending Weigh to Stay at Fort Bragg, NC, in 2006/2007 were randomized to Weigh to Stay only or a commercially available meal-replacement program (two meal replacements per day) in conjunction with Weigh to Stay, and followed until Army body fat standards were met or for 6 months if standards were not met. Study completers (n=46) in both treatment groups lost weight (Weigh to Stay: -2.7+/-4.3 kg; meal replacers: -3.8+/-3.5 kg) and fat mass (Weigh to Stay, -2.7+/-3.2 kg; meal replacers: -2.9+/-2.5 kg), and improved high-density lipoprotein cholesterol concentrations (Weigh to Stay: 13+/-9 mg/dL [0.34+/-0.23 mmol/L]; meal replacers: 8+/-7 mg/dL [0.21+/-0.18 mmol/L]; P<0.05); however, no between-group differences were observed. Attrition was lower (P=0.009) and success in meeting body fat standards tended to be higher (P=0.06) for the meal replacers vs Weigh to Stay participants. Intent-to-treat analysis demonstrated that meal replacers lost more weight (1.2+/-0.5 kg), percent body fat (1.0%+/-0.4%), and fat mass (0.8+/-0.4 kg) compared to Weigh to Stay volunteers (P<0.05). Our findings suggest that meal replacement use can be recommended as a potential adjunct strategy to Weigh to Stay.

  10. Body mass index, blood pressure, and glucose and lipid metabolism among permanent and fixed-term workers in the manufacturing industry: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Temporary employment, a precarious form of employment, is recognized as social determinant of poor health. However, evidence supporting precarious employment as a risk factor for health is mainly obtained from subjective data. Studies using objective clinical measurement data in the assessment of health status are limited. This study compared body mass index (BMI), lipid and glucose metabolism, and health-related lifestyle factors between permanent workers and fixed-term workers employed in the manufacturing industry. Methods Data of 1,701 male manufacturing industry workers <50 years old in Japan were collected and analyzed. Anthropometric data were BMI, calculated using measured height and weight of study participants, and blood pressure. For lipid metabolism, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and triglyceride levels were determined. For glucose metabolism, fasting plasma glucose and hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) levels were measured. Multiple regression analysis adjusted for age and lifestyle factors was performed. Results BMI was significantly higher in permanent workers (22.9 kg/m2) compared with fixed-term workers (22.4 kg/m2). The leaner population (BMI < 18.5) was greater among fixed-term workers (8.3%) compared with permanent workers (4.0%), whereas the overweight population (BMI ≥ 25.0) was greater among permanent workers (21.4%) compared with fixed-term workers (18.1%). Although fixed-term workers tended not to be overweight, regression analysis adjusted for age and lifestyle factors suggested that fixed-term employment was significantly associated with higher blood pressure (systolic β = 2.120, diastolic β = 2.793), triglyceride (β = 11.147), fasting blood glucose (β = 2.218), and HbA1c (β = 0.107) compared with permanent workers (all p < 0.01). Conclusions Fixed-term workers showed more health risks, such as poorer blood pressure and lipid and glucose metabolism

  11. BIOMARKER LIPIDS IN RED TIDE (GYMNODINIUM BREVE) BLOOMS ALONG THE NORTHWEST FLORIDA COAST

    EPA Science Inventory

    The ability to characterize phytoplankton communities and algal blooms using lipids as biomarkers requires knowledge of their distribution and taxonomic significance. Such an approach would have application, for example, in distinguishing and tracking certain dinoflagellates suc...

  12. LIPID BIOMARKER CHARACTERIZATION OF BLOOM-RELATED DINOFLAGELLATES AND OTHER EUKARYOTIC ALGAE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Marine eukaryotic algae synthesize an array of lipids of chemotaxonomic utility that are potentially valuable in characterizing phytoplankton communities. Sterols and photopigments characteristic of dinoflagellates are rarely found in other algal classes. Long chain (C28) highly ...

  13. Metabolism. Part III: Lipids.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bodner, George M.

    1986-01-01

    Describes the metabolic processes of complex lipids, including saponification, activation and transport, and the beta-oxidation spiral. Discusses fatty acid degradation in regard to biochemical energy and ketone bodies. (TW)

  14. Experimental Protocol for Biodiesel Production with Isolation of Alkenones as Coproducts from Commercial Isochrysis Algal Biomass

    PubMed Central

    O'Neil, Gregory W.; Williams, John R.; Wilson-Peltier, Julia; Knothe, Gerhard; Reddy, Christopher M.

    2016-01-01

    The need to replace petroleum fuels with alternatives from renewable and more environmentally sustainable sources is of growing importance. Biomass-derived biofuels have gained considerable attention in this regard, however first generation biofuels from edible crops like corn ethanol or soybean biodiesel have generally fallen out of favor. There is thus great interest in the development of methods for the production of liquid fuels from domestic and superior non-edible sources. Here we describe a detailed procedure for the production of a purified biodiesel from the marine microalgae Isochrysis. Additionally, a unique suite of lipids known as polyunsaturated long-chain alkenones are isolated in parallel as potentially valuable coproducts to offset the cost of biodiesel production. Multi-kilogram quantities of Isochrysis are purchased from two commercial sources, one as a wet paste (80% water) that is first dried prior to processing, and the other a dry milled powder (95% dry). Lipids are extracted with hexanes in a Soxhlet apparatus to produce an algal oil ("hexane algal oil") containing both traditional fats (i.e., triglycerides, 46-60% w/w) and alkenones (16-25% w/w). Saponification of the triglycerides in the algal oil allows for separation of the resulting free fatty acids (FFAs) from alkenone-containing neutral lipids. FFAs are then converted to biodiesel (i.e., fatty acid methyl esters, FAMEs) by acid-catalyzed esterification while alkenones are isolated and purified from the neutral lipids by crystallization. We demonstrate that biodiesel from both commercial Isochrysis biomasses have similar but not identical FAME profiles, characterized by elevated polyunsaturated fatty acid contents (approximately 40% w/w). Yields of biodiesel were consistently higher when starting from the Isochrysis wet paste (12% w/w vs. 7% w/w), which can be traced to lower amounts of hexane algal oil obtained from the powdered Isochrysis product. PMID:27404113

  15. Enhanced lipid extraction from algae using free nitrous acid pretreatment.

    PubMed

    Bai, Xue; Naghdi, Forough Ghasemi; Ye, Liu; Lant, Paul; Pratt, Steven

    2014-05-01

    Lipid extraction has been identified as a major bottleneck for large-scale algal biodiesel production. In this work free nitrous acid (FNA) is presented as an effective and low cost pretreatment to enhance lipid recovery from algae. Two batch tests, with a range of FNA additions, were conducted to disrupt algal cells prior to lipid extraction by organic solvents. Total accessible lipid content was quantified by the Bligh and Dyer method, and was found to increase with pretreatment time (up to 48 h) and FNA concentration (up to 2.19 mg HNO2-N/L). Hexane extraction was used to study industrially accessible lipids. The mass transfer coefficient (k) for lipid extraction using hexane from algae treated with 2.19 mg HNO2-N/L FNA was found to be dramatically higher than for extraction from untreated algae. Consistent with extraction results, cell disruption analysis indicated the disruption of the cell membrane barrier.

  16. Relation of electrocardiographic left ventricular hypertrophy to blood pressure, body mass index, serum lipids and blood sugar levels in adult Nigerians.

    PubMed

    Opadijo, O G; Omotoso, A B O; Akande, A A

    2003-12-01

    Left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) is considered an independent risk factor even in the absence of systemic hypertension. Electrocardiographic (ECG) LVH with repolarisation changes has been found in some countries to carry more coronary risk than LVH alone. How far this observation is true among adult Nigerians is not known. We therefore decided to study adult Nigerians with ECG-LVH with or without ST-T waves changes and compare them with normal age matched controls (without ECG-LVH) in relation with established modifiable risk factors such as systemic hypertension (BP), body mass index (BMI), fasting blood sugar (FBS) and serum lipids such as total cholesterol (Tc), low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) and triglyceride (TG). Adult Nigerians who were consecutively referred to the ECG laboratory were randomly recruited. Three hundred patients were studied. Their blood pressures (BP) as well as body mass indices were recorded after recording their resting 12 read ECG using portable Seward 9953 ECG machine. Their waist-hip ratio (WHR) was also recorded. Blood samples were taken to determine their fasting blood sugar and serum lipids. Their ECG tracings were read by the cardiologists involved in the study while the blood samples were analysed by the chemical pathologist also involved in the study. At the end of the ECG reading, the patients were divided into 3 groups according to whether there was no ECG-LVH (control group A), ECG-LVH alone (group B), and ECG-LVH with ST-T waves changes (group C). One hundred and fifty (50%) patients belonged to group A, 100 (33.3%) patients to group B and 50 (16.7%) group C. Group B patients were found to have higher modifiable risk factors in form of systemic BP. Tc, LDL-C, and WHR compared to group A. However, the group C patients had increased load of these coronary risk factors in terms of BP elevation, higher BMI, FBS, and scrum cholesterol compared to group B. In addition

  17. High Frequency Monitoring for Harmful Algal Blooms

    EPA Science Inventory

    Harmful algal blooms (HABs) are increasingly becoming a significant ecologic, economic, and social driver in the use of water resources. Cyanobacteria and their toxins play an important role in management decisions for drinking water utilities and public health officials. Online ...

  18. Factsheet: Climate Change and Harmful Algal Blooms

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Climate change is predicted to change many environmental conditions that could affect the properties of fresh and marine waters. These changes could favor the growth of harmful algal blooms and habitat changes.

  19. Eukaryotic algal phytochromes span the visible spectrum

    PubMed Central

    Rockwell, Nathan C.; Duanmu, Deqiang; Martin, Shelley S.; Bachy, Charles; Price, Dana C.; Bhattacharya, Debashish; Worden, Alexandra Z.; Lagarias, J. Clark

    2014-01-01

    Plant phytochromes are photoswitchable red/far-red photoreceptors that allow competition with neighboring plants for photosynthetically active red light. In aquatic environments, red and far-red light are rapidly attenuated with depth; therefore, photosynthetic species must use shorter wavelengths of light. Nevertheless, phytochrome-related proteins are found in recently sequenced genomes of many eukaryotic algae from aquatic environments. We examined the photosensory properties of seven phytochromes from diverse algae: four prasinophyte (green algal) species, the heterokont (brown algal) Ectocarpus siliculosus, and two glaucophyte species. We demonstrate that algal phytochromes are not limited to red and far-red responses. Instead, different algal phytochromes can sense orange, green, and even blue light. Characterization of these previously undescribed photosensors using CD spectroscopy supports a structurally heterogeneous chromophore in the far-red–absorbing photostate. Our study thus demonstrates that extensive spectral tuning of phytochromes has evolved in phylogenetically distinct lineages of aquatic photosynthetic eukaryotes. PMID:24567382

  20. Environmental performance of algal biofuel technology options.

    PubMed

    Vasudevan, Venkatesh; Stratton, Russell W; Pearlson, Matthew N; Jersey, Gilbert R; Beyene, Abraham G; Weissman, Joseph C; Rubino, Michele; Hileman, James I

    2012-02-21

    Considerable research and development is underway to produce fuels from microalgae, one of several options being explored for increasing transportation fuel supplies and mitigating greenhouse gas emissions (GHG). This work models life-cycle GHG and on-site freshwater consumption for algal biofuels over a wide technology space, spanning both near- and long-term options. The environmental performance of algal biofuel production can vary considerably and is influenced by engineering, biological, siting, and land-use considerations. We have examined these considerations for open pond systems, to identify variables that have a strong influence on GHG and freshwater consumption. We conclude that algal biofuels can yield GHG reductions relative to fossil and other biobased fuels with the use of appropriate technology options. Further, freshwater consumption for algal biofuels produced using saline pond systems can be comparable to that of petroleum-derived fuels.

  1. Climate Adaptation and Harmful Algal Blooms

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA supports local, state and tribal efforts to maintain water quality. A key element of its efforts is to reduce excess nutrient pollution and the resulting adverse impacts, including harmful algal blooms.

  2. Recent Advances in Algal Genetic Tool Development

    SciTech Connect

    R. Dahlin, Lukas; T. Guarnieri, Michael

    2016-06-24

    The goal of achieving cost-effective biofuels and bioproducts derived from algal biomass will require improvements along the entire value chain, including identification of robust, high-productivity strains and development of advanced genetic tools. Though there have been modest advances in development of genetic systems for the model alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, progress in development of algal genetic tools, especially as applied to non-model algae, has generally lagged behind that of more commonly utilized laboratory and industrial microbes. This is in part due to the complex organellar structure of algae, including robust cell walls and intricate compartmentalization of target loci, as well as prevalent gene silencing mechanisms, which hinder facile utilization of conventional genetic engineering tools and methodologies. However, recent progress in global tool development has opened the door for implementation of strain-engineering strategies in industrially-relevant algal strains. Here, we review recent advances in algal genetic tool development and applications in eukaryotic microalgae.

  3. Direct conversion of algal biomass to biofuel

    DOEpatents

    Deng, Shuguang; Patil, Prafulla D; Gude, Veera Gnaneswar

    2014-10-14

    A method and system for providing direct conversion of algal biomass. Optionally, the method and system can be used to directly convert dry algal biomass to biodiesels under microwave irradiation by combining the reaction and combining steps. Alternatively, wet algae can be directly processed and converted to fatty acid methyl esters, which have the major components of biodiesels, by reacting with methanol at predetermined pressure and temperature ranges.

  4. Algal and fungal diversity in Antarctic lichens.

    PubMed

    Park, Chae Haeng; Kim, Kyung Mo; Elvebakk, Arve; Kim, Ok-Sun; Jeong, Gajin; Hong, Soon Gyu

    2015-01-01

    The composition of lichen ecosystems except mycobiont and photobiont has not been evaluated intensively. In addition, recent studies to identify algal genotypes have raised questions about the specific relationship between mycobiont and photobiont. In the current study, we analyzed algal and fungal community structures in lichen species from King George Island, Antarctica, by pyrosequencing of eukaryotic large subunit (LSU) and algal internal transcribed spacer (ITS) domains of the nuclear rRNA gene. The sequencing results of LSU and ITS regions indicated that each lichen thallus contained diverse algal species. The major algal operational taxonomic unit (OTU) defined at a 99% similarity cutoff of LSU sequences accounted for 78.7-100% of the total algal community in each sample. In several cases, the major OTUs defined by LSU sequences were represented by two closely related OTUs defined by 98% sequence similarity of ITS domain. The results of LSU sequences indicated that lichen-associated fungi belonged to the Arthoniomycetes, Eurotiomycetes, Lecanoromycetes, Leotiomycetes, and Sordariomycetes of the Ascomycota, and Tremellomycetes and Cystobasidiomycetes of the Basidiomycota. The composition of major photobiont species and lichen-associated fungal community were mostly related to the mycobiont species. The contribution of growth forms or substrates on composition of photobiont and lichen-associated fungi was not evident.

  5. Viral trans-dominant manipulation of algal sphingolipids.

    PubMed

    Michaelson, Louise V; Dunn, Teresa M; Napier, Johnathan A

    2010-12-01

    Emiliania huxleyi is the host for the coccolithovirus (EhV), which is responsible for the demise of large oceanic blooms formed by this alga. The EhV-86 virus genome sequence has identified several genes apparently involved in sphingolipid metabolism. Recently, an unusual glucosylceramide from E. huxleyi infected with EhV-86 was isolated, implicating sphingolipids in the lysis of this alga. However, the EhV-86-encoded genes contain only a subset of the activities required to generate the novel sphingolipid, implying that its synthesis is the result of coordinated interactions between algal- and viral-encoded biosynthetic enzymes. Here, we discuss the likely role for EhV-86 open reading frames (ORFs) in the synthesis of novel sphingolipids and also consider the concept of the trans-dominant manipulation of lipid metabolism.

  6. Microbial communities mediating algal detritus turnover under anaerobic conditions

    PubMed Central

    Morrison, Jessica M.; Murphy, Chelsea L.; Baker, Kristina; Zamor, Richard M.; Nikolai, Steve J.; Wilder, Shawn; Elshahed, Mostafa S.

    2017-01-01

    Background Algae encompass a wide array of photosynthetic organisms that are ubiquitously distributed in aquatic and terrestrial habitats. Algal species often bloom in aquatic ecosystems, providing a significant autochthonous carbon input to the deeper anoxic layers in stratified water bodies. In addition, various algal species have been touted as promising candidates for anaerobic biogas production from biomass. Surprisingly, in spite of its ecological and economic relevance, the microbial community involved in algal detritus turnover under anaerobic conditions remains largely unexplored. Results Here, we characterized the microbial communities mediating the degradation of Chlorella vulgaris (Chlorophyta), Chara sp. strain IWP1 (Charophyceae), and kelp Ascophyllum nodosum (phylum Phaeophyceae), using sediments from an anaerobic spring (Zodlteone spring, OK; ZDT), sludge from a secondary digester in a local wastewater treatment plant (Stillwater, OK; WWT), and deeper anoxic layers from a seasonally stratified lake (Grand Lake O’ the Cherokees, OK; GL) as inoculum sources. Within all enrichments, the majority of algal biomass was metabolized within 13–16 weeks, and the process was accompanied by an increase in cell numbers and a decrease in community diversity. Community surveys based on the V4 region of the 16S rRNA gene identified different lineages belonging to the phyla Bacteroidetes, Proteobacteria (alpha, delta, gamma, and epsilon classes), Spirochaetes, and Firmicutes that were selectively abundant under various substrate and inoculum conditions. Within all kelp enrichments, the microbial communities structures at the conclusion of the experiment were highly similar regardless of the enrichment source, and were dominated by the genus Clostridium, or family Veillonellaceae within the Firmicutes. In all other enrichments the final microbial community was dependent on the inoculum source, rather than the type of algae utilized as substrate. Lineages enriched

  7. Mice spermatogonial stem cells transplantation induces macrophage migration into the seminiferous epithelium and lipid body formation: high-resolution light microscopy and ultrastructural studies.

    PubMed

    Dias, Felipe F; Chiarini-Garcia, Hélio; Parreira, Gleydes G; Melo, Rossana C N

    2011-12-01

    Transplantation of spermatogonial stem cells (SSCs), the male germline stem cells, in experimental animal models has been successfully used to study mechanisms involved in SSC self-renewal and to restore fertility. However, there are still many challenges associated with understanding the recipient immune response for SSCs use in clinical therapies. Here, we have undertaken a detailed structural study of macrophages elicited by SSCs transplantation in mice using both high-resolution light microscopy (HRLM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). We demonstrate that SSCs transplantation elicits a rapid and potent recruitment of macrophages into the seminiferous epithelium (SE). Infiltrating macrophages were derived from differentiation of peritubular monocyte-like cells into typical activated macrophages, which actively migrate through the SE, accumulate in the tubule lumen, and direct phagocytosis of differentiating germ cells and spermatozoa. Quantitative TEM analyses revealed increased formation of lipid bodies (LBs), organelles recognized as intracellular platforms for synthesis of inflammatory mediators and key markers of macrophage activation, within both infiltrating macrophages and Sertoli cells. LBs significantly increased in number and size in parallel to the augmented macrophage migration during different times post-transplantation. Our findings suggest that LBs may be involved with immunomodulatory mechanisms regulating the seminiferous tubule niche after SSC transplantation.

  8. Exploring the status of motility, lipid bodies, deformities and size reduction in periphytic diatom community from chronically metal (Cu, Zn) polluted waterbodies as a biomonitoring tool.

    PubMed

    Pandey, Lalit K; Bergey, Elizabeth A

    2016-04-15

    Taxonomic metrics of diatoms are regularly used for aquatic biomonitoring, including testing for heavy metal stress. In contrast, non-taxonomical parameters in diatoms are rarely assessed. In the present study, taxonomical features of diatoms, such as cell density, chlorophyll a, species richness, and the Shannon index, were reduced at severely polluted (Cu, Zn) sites compared with less polluted sites. Some non-taxonomic parameters, such as, lipid bodies (LBs) number and size, carotenoid/chlorophyll a ratios, and frustule deformities were elevated at the severely polluted sites in comparison to the less polluted sites in both the areas. Cell size diminished and motility changed from smooth to erratic with increasing Cu and Zn pollution. Some of these behavioral and physiological changes were easily assessed (e.g., motility and formation of LBs), while morphological alterations (cell wall deformities and changes in cell size) requires more time and human expertise in diatom taxonomy. These parameters were consistent across metal concentrations of sediments, in the water, and in cells. The results illustrate the usefulness of these non-taxonomic parameters in biomonitoring, especially as early warning tools for ecotoxicity assessment and testing for sublethal effects. Some of these parameters, such as cell size and cell wall deformities, can be easily incorporated into traditional protocols, although LBs and motility metrics will require more effort.

  9. Long-term effects of activity status in the elderly on cardiorespiratory capacity, blood pressure, blood lipids, and body composition: a five-year follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Carmeli, Eli; Orbach, Pini; Lowenthal, David T; Merrick, Joav; Coleman, Raymond

    2003-08-20

    It is generally recognized that physical activity levels in the elderly do not remain constant over time, and typically there is a marked reduction in physical activities in the elderly. The long-term benefits of regular physical training programs in the elderly are still not fully understood. This is a study of 55 elderly healthy subjects (over 65 years old) and re-evaluated for the effects of different physical activity patterns (sedentary, moderately active, and highly active) on several physiological parameters (pre- and post-training) after a 5-year period (5.30 +/- 1.14 years). Measurements included: body composition, blood lipid profiles, resting systolic and diastolic blood pressure, maximal oxygen uptake, and pulmonary function. Results indicated a larger decrease in maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) in the group of elderly sedentary individuals (1.5 +/- 0.5 l/min) compared to the moderately active (1.7 +/- 0.6 l/min) and the highly active groups (1.9 +/- 0.4 l/min). An active lifestyle was not sufficient to increase the physiological function of an individual. This study could not clearly demonstrate favorable differences for the physically active groups over the sedentary group with regard to several important physiological factors over the 5-year follow-up and it appears that the recommendation for, and the initiation of, adopting active lifestyles may not be sufficient on their own to significantly increase an individual's physiological functioning.

  10. The effect of normally consumed amounts of sucrose or high fructose corn syrup on lipid profiles, body composition and related parameters in overweight/obese subjects.

    PubMed

    Lowndes, Joshua; Sinnett, Stephanie; Pardo, Sabrina; Nguyen, Von T; Melanson, Kathleen J; Yu, Zhiping; Lowther, Britte E; Rippe, James M

    2014-03-17

    The American Heart Association (AHA) has advocated that women and men not consume more than 100 and 150 kcal/day, respectively, from added sugars. These levels are currently exceeded by over 90% of the adult population in the United States. Few data exist on longer-term metabolic effects when sucrose and High Fructose Corn Syrup (HFCS), the principal sources of added dietary sugars, are consumed at levels typical of the general population. Sixty five overweight and obese individuals were placed on a eucaloric (weight stable) diet for 10-weeks, which incorporated sucrose- or HFCS-sweetened, low-fat milk at 10% or 20% of calories in a randomized, double-blinded study. All groups responded similarly (interaction p > 0.05). There was no change in body weight in any of the groups over the 10-week study, or in systolic or diastolic blood pressure. Likewise, there were no changes in total cholesterol, triglycerides, low-density lipoprotein (LDL), or apolipoprotein B (Apo B). We conclude that (1) when consumed as part of a eucaloric diet fructose--when given with glucose (as normally consumed) does not promote weight gain or an atherogenic lipid profile even when consumed at two to four times the level recently recommended by the AHA. (2) There were no differences between HFCS and sucrose on these parameters.

  11. Distribution of heavy metals from flue gas in algal bioreactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Napan, Katerine

    Flue gas from coal-fired power plants is a major source of CO2 to the atmosphere. Microalgae can use this enriched form of CO2 as carbon source and in turn the biomass can be used to produce food, feed, fertilizer and biofuels. However, along with CO2, coal-based flue gas will inevitably introduce heavy metals, which have a high affinity to bind algal cells, could be toxic to the organisms and if transferred to the products could limit their uses. This study seeks to address the distribution and impact of heavy metals present in flue gas on microalgae production systems. To comprehend its effects, algae Scenedesmus obliquus was grown in batch reactors in a multimetal system. Ten heavy metals (Cu, Co, Zn, Pb, As, Se, Cr, Hg, Ni and Cd) were selected and were evaluated at four concentrations (1X, 2X, 5X and 10X). Results show that most heavy metals accumulated mainly in biomass and were found in very low concentrations in media. Hg was shown to be lost from the culture, with low amounts present in the biomass. An upper limit for As uptake was observed, suggesting its likelihood to build-up in the system during medium recycle. The As limited bioaccumulation was overcome by addition of sulfur to the algal medium. Heavy metal at 2X, 5X and 10X inhibited both growth and lipid production, while at the reference concentration both biomass and lipids yields were increased. Heavy metal concentrations in the medium and biomass were time dependent, and at the end of the cultivation most heavy metals in the supernatant solution complied with the recommendations for irrigation water, while biomass was below limits for cattle and poultry feed, fertilizer, plastic and paper. This research shows that bioremediation of CO2 and heavy metals in combination with energy production can be integrated, which is an environmentally friendly form of biotechnology.

  12. Producing docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)-rich algae from biodiesel-derived crude glycerol: effects of impurities on DHA production and algal biomass composition.

    PubMed

    Pyle, Denver J; Garcia, Rafael A; Wen, Zhiyou

    2008-06-11

    Crude glycerol is the primary byproduct of the biodiesel industry. Producing docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6 n-3) through fermentation of the alga Schizochytrium limacinum on crude glycerol provides a unique opportunity to utilize a large quantity of this byproduct. The objective of this work is to investigate the effects of impurities contained in the crude glycerol on DHA production and algal biomass composition. Crude glycerol streams were obtained from different biodiesel refineries. All of the glycerol samples contained methanol, soaps, and various elements including calcium, phosphorus, potassium, silicon, sodium, and zinc. Both methanol and soap were found to negatively influence algal DHA production; these two impurities can be removed from culture medium by evaporation through autoclaving (for methanol) and by precipitation through pH adjustment (for soap). The glycerol-derived algal biomass contained 45-50% lipid, 14-20% protein, and 25% carbohydrate, with 8-13% ash content. Palmitic acid (C16:0) and DHA were the two major fatty acids in the algal lipid. The algal biomass was rich in lysine and cysteine, relative to many common feedstuffs. Elemental analysis by inductively coupled plasma showed that boron, calcium, copper, iron, magnesium, phosphorus, potassium, silicon, sodium, and sulfur were present in the biomass, whereas no heavy metals (such as mercury) were detected in the algal biomass. Overall, the results show that crude glycerol was a suitable carbon source for algal fermentation. The crude glycerol-derived algal biomass had a high level of DHA and a nutritional profile similar to that of commercial algal biomass, suggesting a great potential for using crude glycerol-derived algae in omega-3-fortified food or feed.

  13. Use of algae or algal oil rich in n-3 fatty acids as a feed supplement for dairy cattle.

    PubMed

    Stamey, J A; Shepherd, D M; de Veth, M J; Corl, B A

    2012-09-01

    Fish oil is used as a ration additive to provide n-3 fatty acids to dairy cows. Fish do not synthesize n-3 fatty acids; they must consume microscopic algae or other algae-consuming fish. New technology allows for the production of algal biomass for use as a ration supplement for dairy cattle. Lipid encapsulation of the algal biomass protects n-3 fatty acids from biohydrogenation in the rumen and allows them to be available for absorption and utilization in the small intestine. Our objective was to examine the use of algal products as a source for n-3 fatty acids in milk. Four mid-lactation Holsteins were assigned to a 4×4 Latin square design. Their rations were supplemented with 1× or 0.5× rumen-protected (RP) algal biomass supplement, 1× RP algal oil supplement, or no supplement for 7 d. Supplements were lipid encapsulated (Balchem Corp., New Hampton, NY). The 1× supplements provided 29 g/d of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), and 0.5× provided half of this amount. Treatments were analyzed by orthogonal contrasts. Supplementing dairy rations with rumen-protected algal products did not affect feed intake, milk yield, or milk component yield. Short- and medium-chain fatty acid yields in milk were not influenced by supplements. Both 0.5× and 1× RP algae supplements increased daily milk fat yield of DHA (0.5 and 0.6±0.10 g/d, respectively) compared with 1× RP oil (0.3±0.10 g/d), but all supplements resulted in milk fat yields greater than that of the control (0.1±0.10g/d). Yield of trans-18:1 fatty acids in milk fat was also increased by supplementation. Trans-11 18:1 yield (13, 20, 27, and 15±3.0 g/d for control, 0.5× RP algae, 1× RP algae, and 1× RP oil, respectively) was greater for supplements than for control. Concentration of DHA in the plasma lipid fraction on d 7 showed that the DHA concentration was greatest in plasma phospholipid. Rumen-protected algal biomass provided better DHA yield than algal oil. Feeding lipid-encapsulated algae supplements

  14. Assessment risk of osteoporosis in Chinese people: relationship among body mass index, serum lipid profiles, blood glucose, and bone mineral density

    PubMed Central

    Cui, Rongtao; Zhou, Lin; Li, Zuohong; Li, Qing; Qi, Zhiming; Zhang, Junyong

    2016-01-01

    Objective The aim of our study was to investigate the relationship among age, sex, body mass index (BMI), serum lipid profiles, blood glucose (BG), and bone mineral density (BMD), making an assessment of the risk of osteoporosis. Materials and methods A total of 1,035 male and 3,953 female healthy volunteers (aged 41–95 years) were recruited by an open invitation. The basic information, including age, sex, height, weight, waistline, hipline, menstrual cycle, and medical history, were collected by a questionnaire survey and physical examination. Serum lipid profiles, BG, postprandial blood glucose, and glycosylated hemoglobin were obtained after 12 hours fasting. BMD in lumbar spine was measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry scanning. Results The age-adjusted BMD in females was significantly lower than in males. With aging, greater differences of BMD distribution exist in elderly females than in males (P<0.001), and the fastigium of bone mass loss was in the age range from 51 to 55 in females and from 61 to 65 years in males. After adjustment for sex, there were significant differences in BMD among BMI-stratified groups in both males and females. The subjects with a BMI of <18.5 had a higher incidence of osteoporosis than BMI ≥18.5 in both sexes. BMD in type 2 diabetes mellitus with a BG of >7.0 mmol/L was lower than in people with BG of ≤7.0 mmol/L (P<0.001). People with serum high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels of ≥1.56 mmol/L had a greater prevalence of osteoporosis compared with high-density lipoprotein cholesterol ≤1.55 mmol/L. Logistic regression with odds ratios showed that no association was found among total cholesterol, triglyceride, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, glycosylated hemoglobin, postprandial blood glucose and BMD. Conclusion The present study further confirmed that factors such as age, sex, weight, BMI, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and diabetes are significant predictors of osteoporosis in the Chinese people

  15. Algal Energy Conversion and Capture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hazendonk, P.

    2015-12-01

    We address the potential for energy conversions and capture for: energy generation; reduction in energy use; reduction in greenhouse gas emissions; remediation of water and air pollution; protection and enhancement of soil fertility. These processes have the potential to sequester carbon at scales that may have global impact. Energy conversion and capture strategies evaluate energy use and production from agriculture, urban areas and industries, and apply existing and emerging technologies to reduce and recapture energy embedded in waste products. The basis of biocrude production from Micro-algal feedstocks: 1) The nutrients from the liquid fraction of waste streams are concentrated and fed into photo bioreactors (essentially large vessels in which microalgae are grown) along with CO2 from flue gasses from down stream processes. 2) The algae are processed to remove high value products such as proteins and beta-carotenes. The advantage of algae feedstocks is the high biomass productivity is 30-50 times that of land based crops and the remaining biomass contains minimal components that are difficult to convert to biocrude. 3) The remaining biomass undergoes hydrothermal liquefaction to produces biocrude and biochar. The flue gasses of this process can be used to produce electricity (fuel cell) and subsequently fed back into the photobioreactor. The thermal energy required for this process is small, hence readily obtained from solar-thermal sources, and furthermore no drying or preprocessing is required keeping the energy overhead extremely small. 4) The biocrude can be upgraded and refined as conventional crude oil, creating a range of liquid fuels. In principle this process can be applied on the farm scale to the municipal scale. Overall, our primary food production is too dependent on fossil fuels. Energy conversion and capture can make food production sustainable.

  16. Advances in techniques for assessment of microalgal lipids.

    PubMed

    Challagulla, Vineela; Nayar, Sasi; Walsh, Kerry; Fabbro, Larelle

    2016-07-15

    Microalgae are a varied group of organisms with considerable commercial potential as sources of various biochemicals, storage molecules and metabolites such as lipids, sugars, amino acids, pigments and toxins. Algal lipids can be processed to bio-oils and biodiesel. The conventional method to estimate algal lipids is based on extraction using solvents and quantification by gravimetry or chromatography. Such methods are time consuming, use hazardous chemicals and are labor intensive. For rapid screening of prospective algae or for management decisions (e.g. decision on timing of harvest), a rapid, high throughput, reliable, accurate, cost effective and preferably nondestructive analytical technique is desirable. This manuscript reviews the application of fluorescent lipid soluble dyes (Nile Red and BODIPY 505/515), nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), Raman, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) and near infrared (NIR) spectroscopy for the assessment of lipids in microalgae.

  17. Mechanism, Kinetics and Microbiology of Inhibition Caused by Long-Chain Fatty Acids in Anaerobic Digestion of Algal Biomass

    DOE PAGES

    Ma, Jingwei; Zhao, Quan-Bao; Laurens, Lieve L.; ...

    2015-09-15

    Oleaginous microalgae contain a high level of lipids, which can be extracted and converted to biofuel. The lipid-extracted residue can then be further utilized through anaerobic digestion to produce biogas. However, long-chain fatty acids (LCFAs) have been identified as the main inhibitory factor on microbial activity of anaerobic consortium. In this study, the mechanism of LCFA inhibition on anaerobic digestion of whole and lipid-extracted algal biomass was investigated with a range of calcium concentrations against various inoculum to substrate ratios as a means to alleviate the LCFA inhibition.

  18. Methane and nitrous oxide emissions affect the life-cycle analysis of algal biofuels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frank, Edward D.; Han, Jeongwoo; Palou-Rivera, Ignasi; Elgowainy, Amgad; Wang, Michael Q.

    2012-03-01

    Researchers around the world are developing sustainable plant-based liquid transportation fuels (biofuels) to reduce petroleum consumption and greenhouse gas emissions. Algae are attractive because they promise large yields per acre compared to grasses, grains and trees, and because they produce oils that might be converted to diesel and gasoline equivalents. It takes considerable energy to produce algal biofuels with current technology; thus, the potential benefits of algal biofuels compared to petroleum fuels must be quantified. To this end, we identified key parameters for algal biofuel production using GREET, a tool for the life-cycle analysis of energy use and emissions in transportation systems. The baseline scenario produced 55 400 g CO2 equivalent per million BTU of biodiesel compared to 101 000 g for low-sulfur petroleum diesel. The analysis considered the potential for greenhouse gas emissions from anaerobic digestion processes commonly used in algal biofuel models. The work also studied alternative scenarios, e.g., catalytic hydrothermal gasification, that may reduce these emissions. The analysis of the nitrogen recovery step from lipid-extracted algae (residues) highlighted the importance of considering the fate of the unrecovered nitrogen fraction, especially that which produces N2O, a potent greenhouse gas with global warming potential 298 times that of CO2.

  19. Platy algal banks: Modern and ancient

    SciTech Connect

    Brinton, L. )

    1990-05-01

    Plaly algal banks and associated cycles in the lower Ismay zone of the Paradox Formation are exposed along the walls of the San Juan River canyon, southeastern Utah. These complexes closely resemble algal bank reservoirs in the lower Ismay zone of Ismay and Cache, and possibly other Paradox basin fields. Similarities include facies relationships, lateral and vertical textural variations, and early diagenesis. Extensive algal banks exposed along the San Juan canyon generally have flat bases and mound and swale topographic surfaces, and are separated by interbank channels. The surficial mounds have a regular amplitude and wavelength suggesting a hydrologic rather than biologic influence on topography. The banks themselves, however, are believed to be thick, predominantly in-situ accumulations of platy algae. Distribution of algal banks can be mapped on a field scale; mound and swale topographic features may be identified in core on the basis of depositional and early diagenetic characteristics. Halimeda bioherms (Holocene) cover large areas behind the Great Barrier Reef, developing adjacent to the deep passes that separate the individual reefs. These large in-situ accumulations (20-50 m deep) display similar bank geometries, interbank features, topographic features, vertical textural sequence (including porosity type and distribution), and facies relationships to algal banks observed in the outcropping and subsurface Paradox Formation. Although the hydrodynamic and paleobathymetric settings differ markedly between these two examples, analogies between the mounds themselves are very close. The resemblance lends relevance to exploration and development drilling.

  20. Freshwater harmful algal blooms: toxins and children's health.

    PubMed

    Weirich, Chelsea A; Miller, Todd R

    2014-01-01

    Massive accumulations of cyanobacteria (a.k.a. "blue-green algae"), known as freshwater harmful algal blooms (FHABs), are a common global occurrence in water bodies used for recreational purposes and drinking water purification. Bloom prevalence is increased due to anthropogenic changes in land use, agricultural activity, and climate change. These photosynthetic bacteria produce a range of toxic secondary metabolites that affect animals and humans at both chronic and acute dosages. Children are especially at risk because of their lower body weight, behavior, and toxic effects on development. Here we review common FHAB toxins, related clinical symptoms, acceptable concentrations in drinking water, case studies of children's and young adults' exposures to FHAB toxins through drinking water and food, methods of environmental and clinical detection in potential cases of intoxication, and best practices for FHAB prevention.

  1. Effects of high-protein diets on body weight, glycaemic control, blood lipids and blood pressure in type 2 diabetes: meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials.

    PubMed

    Dong, Jia-Yi; Zhang, Zeng-Li; Wang, Pei-Yu; Qin, Li-Qiang

    2013-09-14

    High-protein diets are popular for weight management, but the health effects of such diets in diabetic persons are inconclusive. The aim of the present meta-analysis was to examine the effects of high-protein diets on body weight and metabolic risk factors in patients with type 2 diabetes. We searched the PubMed and Cochrane Library databases for relevant randomised trials up to August 2012. Either a fixed- or a random-effects model was used to combine the net changes in each outcome from baseline to the end of the intervention. Overall, nine trials including a total of 418 diabetic patients met our inclusion criteria. The study duration ranged from 4 to 24 weeks. The actual intake of dietary protein ranged from 25 to 32% of total energy in the intervention groups and from 15 to 20% in the control groups. Compared with the control diets, high-protein diets resulted in more weight loss (pooled mean difference: 22.08, 95% CI 23.25, 20.90 kg). High-protein diets significantly decreased glycated Hb A1C (HbA1C) levels by 0.52 (95% CI 20.90, 20.14) %, but did not affect the fasting blood glucose levels. There were no differences in lipid profiles. The pooled net changes in systolic and diastolic blood pressure were 23.13 (95% CI 26.58, 0.32)mmHg and 21.86 (95% CI 24.26, 0.56) mmHg, respectively. However, two studies reported a large influence on weight loss and HbA1C levels, respectively. In summary, high-protein diets (within 6 months) may have some beneficial effects on weight loss, HbA1C levels and blood pressure in patients with type 2 diabetes. However, further investigations are still required to draw a conclusion.

  2. Differences in the modulation of reactive species, lipid bodies, cyclooxygenase-2, 5-lipoxygenase and PPAR-γ in cerebral malaria-susceptible and resistant mice.

    PubMed

    Borges, Tatiana K S; Alves, Érica A R; Vasconcelos, Henda A R; Carneiro, Fabiana P; Nicola, André M; Magalhães, Kelly G; Muniz-Junqueira, Maria Imaculada

    2017-04-01

    Proinflammatory responses are associated with the severity of cerebral malaria. NO, H2O2, eicosanoid and PPAR-γ are involved in proinflammatory responses, but regulation of these factors is unclear in malaria. This work aimed to compare the expression of eicosanoid-forming-enzymes in cerebral malaria-susceptible CBA and C57BL/6 and -resistant BALB/c mice. Mice were infected with Plasmodium berghei ANKA, and the survival rates and parasitemia curves were assessed. On the sixth day post-infection, cyclooxygenase-2 and 5-lipoxygenase in brain sections were assessed by immunohistochemistry, and, NO, H2O2, lipid bodies, and PPAR-γ expression were assessed in peritoneal macrophages. The C57BL/6 had more severe disease with a lower survival time, higher parasitemia and lower production of plasmodicidal NO and H2O2 molecules than BALB/c. Enhanced COX-2 and 5-LOX expression were observed in brain tissue cells and vessels from C57BL/6 mice, and these mice expressed higher constitutive PPAR-γ levels. There was no translocation of PPAR-γ from cytoplasm to nucleus in macrophages from these mice. CBA mice had enhanced COX-2 expression in brain tissue cells and vessels and also lacked PPAR-γ cytoplasm-to-nucleus translocation. The resistant BALB/c mice presented higher survival time, lower parasitemia and higher NO and H2O2 production on the sixth day post-infection. These mice did not express either COX-2 or 5-LOX in brain tissue cells and vessels. Our data showed that besides the high parasite burden and lack of microbicidal molecules, an imbalance with high COX-2 and 5-LOX eicosanoid expression and a lack of regulatory PPAR-γ cytoplasm-to-nucleus translocation in macrophages were observed in mice that develop cerebral malaria.

  3. Dynamics of ellipsoidal tracers in swimming algal suspensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Ou; Peng, Yi; Liu, Zhengyang; Tang, Chao; Xu, Xinliang; Cheng, Xiang

    2016-10-01

    Enhanced diffusion of passive tracers immersed in active fluids is a universal feature of active fluids and has been extensively studied in recent years. Similar to microrheology for equilibrium complex fluids, the unusual enhanced particle dynamics reveal intrinsic properties of active fluids. Nevertheless, previous studies have shown that the translational dynamics of spherical tracers are qualitatively similar, independent of whether active particles are pushers or pullers—the two fundamental classes of active fluids. Is it possible to distinguish pushers from pullers by simply imaging the dynamics of passive tracers? Here, we investigated the diffusion of isolated ellipsoids in algal C. reinhardtii suspensions—a model for puller-type active fluids. In combination with our previous results on pusher-type E. coli suspensions [Peng et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 116, 068303 (2016), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.116.068303], we showed that the dynamics of asymmetric tracers show a profound difference in pushers and pullers due to their rotational degree of freedom. Although the laboratory-frame translation and rotation of ellipsoids are enhanced in both pushers and pullers, similar to spherical tracers, the anisotropic diffusion in the body frame of ellipsoids shows opposite trends in the two classes of active fluids. An ellipsoid diffuses fastest along its major axis when immersed in pullers, whereas it diffuses slowest along the major axis in pushers. This striking difference can be qualitatively explained using a simple hydrodynamic model. In addition, our study on algal suspensions reveals that the influence of the near-field advection of algal swimming flows on the translation and rotation of ellipsoids shows different ranges and strengths. Our work provides not only new insights into universal organizing principles of active fluids, but also a convenient tool for detecting the class of active particles.

  4. Algal Biology Toolbox Workshop Summary Report

    SciTech Connect

    None, None

    2016-08-01

    DOE-EERE's Bioenergy Technologies Office (BETO) works to accelerate the development of a sustainable, cost-competitive, advanced biofuel industry that can strengthen U.S. energy security, environmental quality, and economic vitality, through research, development, and demonstration projects in partnership with industry, academia, and national laboratory partners. BETO’s Advanced Algal Systems Program (also called the Algae Program) has a long-term applied research and development (R&D) strategy to increase the yields and lower the costs of algal biofuels. The team works with partners to develop new technologies, to integrate technologies at commercially relevant scales, and to conduct crosscutting analyses to better understand the potential and challenges of the algal biofuels industry. Research has indicated that this industry is capable of producing billions of gallons of renewable diesel, gasoline, and jet fuels annually. R&D activities are integrated with BETO’s longstanding effort to accelerate the commercialization of lignocellulosic biofuels.

  5. Critical evaluation and modeling of algal harvesting using dissolved air flotation. DAF Algal Harvesting Modeling

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Xuezhi; Hewson, John C.; Amendola, Pasquale; Reynoso, Monica; Sommerfeld, Milton; Chen, Yongsheng; Hu, Qiang

    2014-07-14

    In our study, Chlorella zofingiensis harvesting by dissolved air flotation (DAF) was critically evaluated with regard to algal concentration, culture conditions, type and dosage of coagulants, and recycle ratio. Harvesting efficiency increased with coagulant dosage and leveled off at 81%, 86%, 91%, and 87% when chitosan, Al3+, Fe3+, and cetyl trimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) were used at dosages of 70, 180, 250, and 500 mg g-1, respectively. The DAF efficiency-coagulant dosage relationship changed with algal culture conditions. In evaluating the influence of the initial algal concentration and recycle ratio revealed that, under conditions typical for algal harvesting, we found that it is possible that the number of bubbles is insufficient. A DAF algal harvesting model was developed to explain this observation by introducing mass-based floc size distributions and a bubble limitation into the white water blanket model. Moreover, the model revealed the importance of coagulation to increase floc-bubble collision and attachment, and the preferential interaction of bubbles with larger flocs, which limited the availability of bubbles to the smaller sized flocs. The harvesting efficiencies predicted by the model agree reasonably with experimental data obtained at different Al3+ dosages, algal concentrations, and recycle ratios. Based on this modeling, critical parameters for efficient algal harvesting were identified.

  6. Critical evaluation and modeling of algal harvesting using dissolved air flotation. DAF Algal Harvesting Modeling

    DOE PAGES

    Zhang, Xuezhi; Hewson, John C.; Amendola, Pasquale; ...

    2014-07-14

    In our study, Chlorella zofingiensis harvesting by dissolved air flotation (DAF) was critically evaluated with regard to algal concentration, culture conditions, type and dosage of coagulants, and recycle ratio. Harvesting efficiency increased with coagulant dosage and leveled off at 81%, 86%, 91%, and 87% when chitosan, Al3+, Fe3+, and cetyl trimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) were used at dosages of 70, 180, 250, and 500 mg g-1, respectively. The DAF efficiency-coagulant dosage relationship changed with algal culture conditions. In evaluating the influence of the initial algal concentration and recycle ratio revealed that, under conditions typical for algal harvesting, we found that itmore » is possible that the number of bubbles is insufficient. A DAF algal harvesting model was developed to explain this observation by introducing mass-based floc size distributions and a bubble limitation into the white water blanket model. Moreover, the model revealed the importance of coagulation to increase floc-bubble collision and attachment, and the preferential interaction of bubbles with larger flocs, which limited the availability of bubbles to the smaller sized flocs. The harvesting efficiencies predicted by the model agree reasonably with experimental data obtained at different Al3+ dosages, algal concentrations, and recycle ratios. Based on this modeling, critical parameters for efficient algal harvesting were identified.« less

  7. Process improvements for the supercritical in situ transesterification of carbonized algal biomass.

    PubMed

    Levine, Robert B; Bollas, Alexandra; Savage, Phillip E

    2013-05-01

    This work focuses on the production of biodiesel from wet, lipid-rich algal biomass using a two-step process involving hydrothermal carbonization (HTC) and supercritical in situ transesterification (SC-IST). Algal hydrochars produced by HTC were reacted in supercritical ethanol to determine the effects of reaction temperature, time, ethanol loading, water content, and pressure on the yield of fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEE). Reaction temperatures above 275 °C resulted in substantial thermal decomposition of unsaturated FAEE, thereby reducing yields. At 275 °C, time and ethanol loading had a positive impact on FAEE yield while increasing reaction water content and pressure reduced yields. FAEE yields as high as 79% with a 5:1 ethanol:fatty acid (EtOH:FA) molar ratio (150 min) and 89% with a 20:1 EtOH:FA molar ratio (180 min) were achieved. This work demonstrates that nearly all lipids within algal hydrochars can be converted into biodiesel through SC-IST with only a small excess of alcohol.

  8. Algal biomass constituent analysis: method uncertainties and investigation of the underlying measuring chemistries.

    PubMed

    Laurens, Lieve M L; Dempster, Thomas A; Jones, Howland D T; Wolfrum, Edward J; Van Wychen, Stefanie; McAllister, Jordan S P; Rencenberger, Michelle; Parchert, Kylea J; Gloe, Lindsey M

    2012-02-21

    Algal biomass compositional analysis data form the basis of a large number of techno-economic process analysis models that are used to investigate and compare different processes in algal biofuels production. However, the analytical methods used to generate these data are far from standardized. This work investigated the applicability of common methods for rapid chemical analysis of biomass samples with respect to accuracy and precision. This study measured lipids, protein, carbohydrates, ash, and moisture of a single algal biomass sample at 3 institutions by 8 independent researchers over 12 separate workdays. Results show statistically significant differences in the results from a given analytical method among laboratories but not between analysts at individual laboratories, suggesting consistent training is a critical issue for empirical analytical methods. Significantly different results from multiple lipid and protein measurements were found to be due to different measurement chemistries. We identified a set of compositional analysis procedures that are in best agreement with data obtained by more advanced analytical procedures. The methods described here and used for the round robin experiment do not require specialized instrumentation, and with detailed analytical documentation, the differences between laboratories can be markedly reduced.

  9. Nutrient removal and biofuel production in high rate algal pond using real municipal wastewater.

    PubMed

    Kim, Byung-Hyuk; Kang, Zion; Ramanan, Rishiram; Choi, Jong-Eun; Cho, Dae-Hyun; Oh, Hee-Mock; Kim, Hee-Sik

    2014-08-01

    This study evaluated the growth and nutrient removal ability of an indigenous algal consortium on real untreated municipal wastewater in a high rate algal pond (HRAP). The HRAP was operated semicontinuously under different hydraulic retention times (HRT: 2, 4, 6, and 8 days). The average removal efficiencies of chemical oxygen demand, and total nitrogen and phosphate of real municipal wastewater were maintained at 85.44 ± 5.10%, 92.74 ± 5.82%, and 82.85 ± 8.63%, respectively, in 2 day HRT. Algae dominated the consortium and showed high settling efficiency (99%), and biomass and lipid productivity of 0.500 ± 0.03 g/l/day and 0.103 ± 0.0083 g/l/day (2 day HRT), respectively. Fatty acid methyl ester analysis revealed a predominance of palmitate (C16:0), palmitoleate (C16:1), linoleate (C18:2), and linolenate (C18:3). Microalgal diversity analyses determined the presence of Chlorella, Scenedesmus, and Stigeoclonium as the dominant microalgae. The algal consortium provides significant value not only in terms of energy savings and nutrient removal but also because of its bioenergy potential as indicated by the lipid content (20-23%) and FAME profiling.

  10. Algal Biomass Constituent Analysis: Method Uncertainties and Investigation of the Underlying Measuring Chemistries

    SciTech Connect

    Laurens, L. M. L.; Dempster, T. A.; Jones, H. D. T.; Wolfrum, E. J.; Van Wychen, S.; McAllister, J. S. P.; Rencenberger, M.; Parchert, K. J.; Gloe, L. M.

    2012-02-21

    Algal biomass compositional analysis data form the basis of a large number of techno-economic process analysis models that are used to investigate and compare different processes in algal biofuels production. However, the analytical methods used to generate these data are far from standardized. This work investigated the applicability of common methods for rapid chemical analysis of biomass samples with respect to accuracy and precision. This study measured lipids, protein, carbohydrates, ash, and moisture of a single algal biomass sample at 3 institutions by 8 independent researchers over 12 separate workdays. Results show statistically significant differences in the results from a given analytical method among laboratories but not between analysts at individual laboratories, suggesting consistent training is a critical issue for empirical analytical methods. Significantly different results from multiple lipid and protein measurements were found to be due to different measurement chemistries. We identified a set of compositional analysis procedures that are in best agreement with data obtained by more advanced analytical procedures. The methods described here and used for the round robin experiment do not require specialized instrumentation, and with detailed analytical documentation, the differences between laboratories can be markedly reduced.

  11. Association of PvuII and XbaI polymorphisms on estrogen receptor alpha (ESR1) gene to changes into serum lipid profile of post-menopausal women: Effects of aging, body mass index and breast cancer incidence

    PubMed Central

    Gomes-Rochette, Neuza Felix; Souza, Letícia Soncini; Tommasi, Bruno Otoni; Pedrosa, Diego França; Fin, Irani do Carmo Francischetto; Vieira, Fernando Luiz Herkenhoff; Graceli, Jones Bernardes; Rangel, Letícia Batista Azevedo; Silva, Ian Victor

    2017-01-01

    Estrogen is a steroidal hormone involved in several physiological functions in the female body including regulation of serum lipid metabolism and breast cancer (BC). Estrogen actions on serum lipids mostly occur through its binding to intracellular Estrogen Receptor alpha (ERalpha) isoform, expressed in most of tissues. This gene (ESR1) exhibit many polymorphic sites (SNPs) located either on translated and non-translated regions that regulate ERalpha protein expression and function. This paper aimed to investigate the association of two intronic SNPs of ESR1 gene, namely c454-397T>C (PvuII) and c454-351A>G (XbaI) to alterations in serum levels of total cholesterol (T-chol), total lipid (TL), low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL), high density lipoprotein (HDL), and triglycerides (TG) in a cohort of post-menopausal women. In addition, we aimed to associate presence of these SNPs to development of BC along 5 years period. To do so, a group of healthy 499, highly miscigenated, post-menopausal Brazilian women, were carried using PCR-FRLP technique and further confirmed by automatic sequence analysis as well followed through 5 years for BC incidence. Measurements of serum lipid profile by standard commercial methods were carried individually whereas Dual Energy X-ray Absorciometry (DXA) measured Body Mass Indexes (BMI), Fat Mass (FM), Lean Body Mass (LBM), and Body Water Content (BWC). No effects of PvuII SNP on ESR1 gene were observed on patient´s serum T-chol, TL, LDL, HDL, and TG. However, c454-397T>C PvuII SNP is associated to lower body fat and higher levels of lean mass and body water and lower incidence of BC. On the other hand, statistically significant effect of XbaI c454-351A>G SNP on serum TG and TL levels. Patients homozygous for X allele were followed up from 2010–2015. They showed higher incidence of breast cancer (BC) when compared to either heterozygous and any P allele combination. Moreover, the increasing of TG and TL serum concentrations

  12. Association of PvuII and XbaI polymorphisms on estrogen receptor alpha (ESR1) gene to changes into serum lipid profile of post-menopausal women: Effects of aging, body mass index and breast cancer incidence.

    PubMed

    Gomes-Rochette, Neuza Felix; Souza, Letícia Soncini; Tommasi, Bruno Otoni; Pedrosa, Diego França; Eis, Sérgio Ragi; Fin, Irani do Carmo Francischetto; Vieira, Fernando Luiz Herkenhoff; Graceli, Jones Bernardes; Rangel, Letícia Batista Azevedo; Silva, Ian Victor

    2017-01-01

    Estrogen is a steroidal hormone involved in several physiological functions in the female body including regulation of serum lipid metabolism and breast cancer (BC). Estrogen actions on serum lipids mostly occur through its binding to intracellular Estrogen Receptor alpha (ERalpha) isoform, expressed in most of tissues. This gene (ESR1) exhibit many polymorphic sites (SNPs) located either on translated and non-translated regions that regulate ERalpha protein expression and function. This paper aimed to investigate the association of two intronic SNPs of ESR1 gene, namely c454-397T>C (PvuII) and c454-351A>G (XbaI) to alterations in serum levels of total cholesterol (T-chol), total lipid (TL), low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL), high density lipoprotein (HDL), and triglycerides (TG) in a cohort of post-menopausal women. In addition, we aimed to associate presence of these SNPs to development of BC along 5 years period. To do so, a group of healthy 499, highly miscigenated, post-menopausal Brazilian women, were carried using PCR-FRLP technique and further confirmed by automatic sequence analysis as well followed through 5 years for BC incidence. Measurements of serum lipid profile by standard commercial methods were carried individually whereas Dual Energy X-ray Absorciometry (DXA) measured Body Mass Indexes (BMI), Fat Mass (FM), Lean Body Mass (LBM), and Body Water Content (BWC). No effects of PvuII SNP on ESR1 gene were observed on patient´s serum T-chol, TL, LDL, HDL, and TG. However, c454-397T>C PvuII SNP is associated to lower body fat and higher levels of lean mass and body water and lower incidence of BC. On the other hand, statistically significant effect of XbaI c454-351A>G SNP on serum TG and TL levels. Patients homozygous for X allele were followed up from 2010-2015. They showed higher incidence of breast cancer (BC) when compared to either heterozygous and any P allele combination. Moreover, the increasing of TG and TL serum concentrations

  13. Algal recycling enhances algal productivity and settleability in Pediastrum boryanum pure cultures.

    PubMed

    Park, Jason B K; Craggs, Rupert J; Shilton, Andy N

    2015-12-15

    Recycling a portion of gravity harvested algae (i.e. algae and associated bacteria biomass) has been shown to improve both algal biomass productivity and harvest efficiency by maintaining the dominance of a rapidly-settleable colonial alga, Pediastrum boryanum in both pilot-scale wastewater treatment High Rate Algal Ponds (HRAP) and outdoor mesocosms. While algal recycling did not change the relative proportions of algae and bacteria in the HRAP culture, the contribution of the wastewater bacteria to the improved algal biomass productivity and settleability with the recycling was not certain and still required investigation. P. boryanum was therefore isolated from the HRAP and grown in pure culture on synthetic wastewater growth media under laboratory conditions. The influence of recycling on the productivity and settleability of the pure P. boryanum culture was then determined without wastewater bacteria present. Six 1 L P. boryanum cultures were grown over 30 days in a laboratory growth chamber simulating New Zealand summer conditions either with (Pr) or without (Pc) recycling of 10% of gravity harvested algae. The cultures with recycling (Pr) had higher algal productivity than the controls (Pc) when the cultures were operated at both 4 and 3 d hydraulic retention times by 11% and 38% respectively. Furthermore, algal recycling also improved 1 h settleability from ∼60% to ∼85% by increasing the average P. boryanum colony size due to the extended mean cell residence time and promoted formation of large algal bio-flocs (>500 μm diameter). These results demonstrate that the presence of wastewater bacteria was not necessary to improve algal productivity and settleability with algal recycling.

  14. Life cycle assessment of biodiesel production from algal bio-crude oils extracted under subcritical water conditions.

    PubMed

    Ponnusamy, Sundaravadivelnathan; Reddy, Harvind Kumar; Muppaneni, Tapaswy; Downes, Cara Meghan; Deng, Shuguang

    2014-10-01

    A life cycle assessment study is performed for the energy requirements and greenhouse gas emissions in an algal biodiesel production system. Subcritical water (SCW) extraction was applied for extracting bio-crude oil from algae, and conventional transesterification method was used for converting the algal oil to biodiesel. 58MJ of energy is required to produce 1kg of biodiesel without any co-products management, of which 36% was spent on cultivation and 56% on lipid extraction. SCW extraction with thermal energy recovery reduces the energy consumption by 3-5 folds when compared to the traditional solvent extraction. It is estimated that 1kg of algal biodiesel fixes about 0.6kg of CO2. An optimized case considering the energy credits from co-products could further reduce the total energy demand. The energy demand for producing 1kg of biodiesel in the optimized case is 28.23MJ.

  15. Harmful Algal Blooms – Special Sampling and Response Actions

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The Harmful Algal Blooms – Special Sampling and Response Actions webpage contains information about Background on Harmful Algae in Surface Waters and What to Do if Your System Has Indicators of an Algal Bloom.

  16. [Remote sensing monitoring and pre-alarming of algal blooms in Taihu Lake].

    PubMed

    Song, Yu; Song, Xiao-dong; Guo, Qing-hai; Tang, Li-na

    2011-03-01

    The explosive growth of algae in inland water bodies is one of the major water environmental problems in China, and it's very important to monitor the dynamic of algae in both temporal and spatial scales. In the present paper, a model, which was used to extract the algae information from the water body of Taihu Lake using MODIS data, was established based on the remote sensing index and image false color composite methods. Using this model, we studied the algae explosive growth formation process between March and May in 2007. Through the analysis of the temporal and spatial distribution features of the algae outbreak between the spring and summer seasons, an early warning method of algal blooms was proposed, that is, when the MODIS green index mainly concentrated in the range between 0. 6 and 0. 8, the water body of Taihu Lake can be considered to have been in the early alarming stage of algal blooms.

  17. A comparison of the effects of swimming and walking on body weight, fat distribution, lipids, glucose, and insulin in older women--the Sedentary Women Exercise Adherence Trial 2.

    PubMed

    Cox, Kay L; Burke, Valerie; Beilin, Lawrence J; Puddey, Ian B

    2010-11-01

    All types of aerobic exercise are assumed to affect cardiovascular risk similarly. There are few studies of swimming, but complex responses to water-based exercise suggest its potential for differential effects. The aim of the study was to compare the effects of swimming and walking on fitness, body weight, lipids, glucose, and insulin in older women. Sedentary women aged 50 to 70 years (N = 116), randomly assigned to swimming or walking plus usual care or a behavioral intervention, completed 3 sessions per week of moderate-intensity exercise, supervised for 6 months then unsupervised for 6 months. After 6 months, 1.6-km walk time decreased in walkers and swimmers, with greater improvement in walkers (1.0 vs 0.6 minute, P = .001). In swimmers, but not walkers, distance swum in 12 minutes increased (78.1 vs -2.2 m, P = .021). Waist and hip circumferences (80.8 vs 83.1 cm and 101.8 vs 102.4 cm; P = .023 and P = .042, respectively) and insulin area under the curve (oral glucose tolerance test) (5128 vs 5623 μU/[L 120 min], P < .05) were lower with swimming. Lipids did not differ between groups. At 12 months, fitness was maintained. Relative to walking, swimming reduced body weight by (1.1 kg, P = .039) and resulted in lower total and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (0.3 and 0.2 mmol/L; P = .040 and P = .049, respectively). The magnitude of the difference in the reduction of insulin area under the curve between swimming and walking was greater at 12 months; however, the significance was attenuated (4677 vs 5240 μU/[L 120 min], P = .052). Compared with walking, swimming improved body weight, body fat distribution, and insulin in the short term and, in the longer term, body weight and lipid measures. These findings suggest that the type of exercise can influence health benefits.

  18. Life Cycle Analysis on Fossil Energy Ratio of Algal Biodiesel: Effects of Nitrogen Deficiency and Oil Extraction Technology

    PubMed Central

    Jian, Hou; Jing, Yang; Peidong, Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Life cycle assessment (LCA) has been widely used to analyze various pathways of biofuel preparation from “cradle to grave.” Effects of nitrogen supply for algae cultivation and technology of algal oil extraction on life cycle fossil energy ratio of biodiesel are assessed in this study. Life cycle fossil energy ratio of Chlorella vulgaris based biodiesel is improved by growing algae under nitrogen-limited conditions, while the life cycle fossil energy ratio of biodiesel production from Phaeodactylum tricornutum grown with nitrogen deprivation decreases. Compared to extraction of oil from dried algae, extraction of lipid from wet algae with subcritical cosolvents achieves a 43.83% improvement in fossil energy ratio of algal biodiesel when oilcake drying is not considered. The outcome for sensitivity analysis indicates that the algal oil conversion rate and energy content of algae are found to have the greatest effects on the LCA results of algal biodiesel production, followed by utilization ratio of algal residue, energy demand for algae drying, capacity of water mixing, and productivity of algae. PMID:26000338

  19. Life cycle analysis on fossil energy ratio of algal biodiesel: effects of nitrogen deficiency and oil extraction technology.

    PubMed

    Jian, Hou; Jing, Yang; Peidong, Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Life cycle assessment (LCA) has been widely used to analyze various pathways of biofuel preparation from "cradle to grave." Effects of nitrogen supply for algae cultivation and technology of algal oil extraction on life cycle fossil energy ratio of biodiesel are assessed in this study. Life cycle fossil energy ratio of Chlorella vulgaris based biodiesel is improved by growing algae under nitrogen-limited conditions, while the life cycle fossil energy ratio of biodiesel production from Phaeodactylum tricornutum grown with nitrogen deprivation decreases. Compared to extraction of oil from dried algae, extraction of lipid from wet algae with subcritical cosolvents achieves a 43.83% improvement in fossil energy ratio of algal biodiesel when oilcake drying is not considered. The outcome for sensitivity analysis indicates that the algal oil conversion rate and energy content of algae are found to have the greatest effects on the LCA results of algal biodiesel production, followed by utilization ratio of algal residue, energy demand for algae drying, capacity of water mixing, and productivity of algae.

  20. Recent Advances in Algal Genetic Tool Development

    DOE PAGES

    R. Dahlin, Lukas; T. Guarnieri, Michael

    2016-06-24

    The goal of achieving cost-effective biofuels and bioproducts derived from algal biomass will require improvements along the entire value chain, including identification of robust, high-productivity strains and development of advanced genetic tools. Though there have been modest advances in development of genetic systems for the model alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, progress in development of algal genetic tools, especially as applied to non-model algae, has generally lagged behind that of more commonly utilized laboratory and industrial microbes. This is in part due to the complex organellar structure of algae, including robust cell walls and intricate compartmentalization of target loci, as well asmore » prevalent gene silencing mechanisms, which hinder facile utilization of conventional genetic engineering tools and methodologies. However, recent progress in global tool development has opened the door for implementation of strain-engineering strategies in industrially-relevant algal strains. Here, we review recent advances in algal genetic tool development and applications in eukaryotic microalgae.« less

  1. Analysis of algal bloom risk with uncertainties in lakes by integrating self-organizing map and fuzzy information theory.

    PubMed

    Chen, Qiuwen; Rui, Han; Li, Weifeng; Zhang, Yanhui

    2014-06-01

    Algal blooms are a serious problem in waters, which damage aquatic ecosystems and threaten drinking water safety. However, the outbreak mechanism of algal blooms is very complex with great uncertainty, especially for large water bodies where environmental conditions have obvious variation in both space and time. This study developed an innovative method which integrated a self-organizing map (SOM) and fuzzy information diffusion theory to comprehensively analyze algal bloom risks with uncertainties. The Lake Taihu was taken as study case and the long-term (2004-2010) on-site monitoring data were used. The results showed that algal blooms in Taihu Lake were classified into four categories and exhibited obvious spatial-temporal patterns. The lake was mainly characterized by moderate bloom but had high uncertainty, whereas severe blooms with low uncertainty were observed in the northwest part of the lake. The study gives insight on the spatial-temporal dynamics of algal blooms, and should help government and decision-makers outline policies and practices on bloom monitoring and prevention. The developed method provides a promising approach to estimate algal bloom risks under uncertainties.

  2. Visceral Adiposity Index and Lipid Accumulation Product Index: Two Alternate Body Indices to Identify Chronic Kidney Disease among the Rural Population in Northeast China

    PubMed Central

    Dai, Dongxue; Chang, Ye; Chen, Yintao; Chen, Shuang; Yu, Shasha; Guo, Xiaofan; Sun, Yingxian

    2016-01-01

    We aimed to compare the relative strength of the association between anthropometric obesity indices and chronic kidney disease (CKD). Another objective was to examine whether the visceral adiposity index (VAI) and lipid accumulation product index (LAPI) can identify CKD in the rural population of China. There were 5168 males and 6024 females involved in this cross-sectional study, and 237 participants (2.12%) suffered from CKD. Obesity indices included body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), waist-to-height ratio (WHtR), VAI and LAPI. VAI and LAPI were calculated with triglyceride (TG), high-density lipoprotein (HDL), BMI and WC. VAI = [WC/39.68 + (1.88 × BMI)] × (TG /1.03) × (1.31/ HDL) for males; VAI = [WC/36.58 + (1.89 × BMI)] × (TG/0.81) × (1.52/HDL) for females. LAPI = (WC-65) × TG for males, LAPI = (WC-58) × TG for females. CKD was defined as an estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) of less than 60 mL/min per 1.73 m2. The prevalence of CKD increased across quartiles for WHtR, VAI and LAPI. A multivariate logistic regression analysis of the presence of CKD for the highest quartile vs. the lowest quartile of each anthropometric measure showed that the VAI was the best predictor of CKD in females (OR: 4.21, 95% CI: 2.09–8.47, p < 0.001). VAI showed the highest AUC for CKD (AUC: 0.68, 95% CI: 0.65–0.72) and LAPI came second (AUC: 0.66, 95% CI: 0.61–0.70) in females compared with BMI (both p-values < 0.001). However, compared with the traditional index of the BMI, the anthropometric measures VAI, LAPI, WC, and WHtR had no statistically significant capacity to predict CKD in males. Our results showed that both VAI and LAPI were significantly associated with CKD in the rural population of northeast China. Furthermore, VAI and LAPI were superior to BMI, WC and WHtR for predicting CKD only in females. PMID:27983609

  3. Changes in anthropometric measurements, body composition, blood pressure, lipid profile, and testosterone in patients participating in a low-energy dietary intervention

    PubMed Central

    Balliett, Mary; Burke, Jeanmarie R.

    2013-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this study was to describe changes in anthropometric measurements, body composition, blood pressure, lipid profile, and testosterone following a low–energy-density dietary intervention plus regimented supplementation program. Methods The study design was a pre-post intervention design without a control group. Normal participants were recruited from the faculty, staff, students, and community members from a chiropractic college to participate in a 21-day weight loss program. All participants (n = 49; 36 women, 13 men; 31 ± 10.3 years of age) received freshly prepared mostly vegan meals (breakfast, lunch, and dinner) that included 1200 to 1400 daily calories (5020.8 to 5857.6 J) for the women and 1600 to 1800 (6694.4 to 7531.2 J) daily calories for the men. Nutritional supplements containing enzymes that were intended to facilitate digestion, reduce cholesterol levels, increase metabolic rate, and mediate inflammatory processes were consumed 30 minutes before each meal. The regimented supplementation program included once-daily supplementation with a green drink that contained alfalfa, wheatgrass, apple cider vinegar, and fulvic acid throughout the study period. A cleanse supplementation containing magnesium, chia, flaxseed, lemon, camu camu, cat's claw, bentonite clay, tumeric, pau d'arco, chanca piedra, stevia, zeolite clay, slippery elm, garlic, ginger, peppermint, aloe, citrus bioflavonoids, and fulvic acid was added before each meal during week 2. During week 3, the cleanse supplementation was replaced with probiotic and prebiotic supplementation. Results Multiple paired t tests detected clinically meaningful reductions in weight (− 8.7 ± 5.54 lb) (− 3.9 ± 2.5 kg), total cholesterol (− 30.0 ± 29.77 mg/dL), and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (− 21.0 ± 25.20 mg/dL) (P < .05). There was a pre-post intervention increase in testosterone for men (111.0 ± 121.13 ng/dL, P < .05). Conclusions Weight loss and improvements

  4. Assessment of factors limiting algal growth in acidic pit lakes--a case study from Western Australia, Australia.

    PubMed

    Kumar, R Naresh; McCullough, Clint D; Lund, Mark A; Larranaga, Santiago A

    2016-03-01

    Open-cut mining operations can form pit lakes on mine closure. These new water bodies typically have low nutrient concentrations and may have acidic and metal-contaminated waters from acid mine drainage (AMD) causing low algal biomass and algal biodiversity. A preliminary study was carried out on an acidic coal pit lake, Lake Kepwari, in Western Australia to determine which factors limited algal biomass. Water quality was monitored to obtain baseline data. pH ranged between 3.7 and 4.1, and solute concentrations were slightly elevated to levels of brackish water. Concentrations of N were highly relative to natural lakes, although concentrations of FRP (<0.01 mg/L) and C (total C 0.7-3.7 and DOC 0.7-3.5 mg/L) were very low, and as a result, algal growth was also extremely low. Microcosm experiment was conducted to test the hypothesis that nutrient enrichment will be able to stimulate algal growth regardless of water quality. Microcosms of Lake Kepwari water were amended with N, P and C nutrients with and without sediment. Nutrient amendments under microcosm conditions could not show any significant phytoplankton growth but was able to promote benthic algal growth. P amendments without sediment showed a statistically higher mean algal biomass concentration than controls or microcosms amended with phosphorus but with sediment did. Results indicated that algal biomass in acidic pit lake (Lake Kepwari) may be limited primarily by low nutrient concentrations (especially phosphorus) and not by low pH or elevated metal concentrations. Furthermore, sediment processes may also reduce the nutrient availability.

  5. Algal toxins alter copepod feeding behavior.

    PubMed

    Hong, Jiarong; Talapatra, Siddharth; Katz, Joseph; Tester, Patricia A; Waggett, Rebecca J; Place, Allen R

    2012-01-01

    Using digital holographic cinematography, we quantify and compare the feeding behavior of free-swimming copepods, Acartia tonsa, on nutritional prey (Storeatula major) to that occurring during exposure to toxic and non-toxic strains of Karenia brevis and Karlodinium veneficum. These two harmful algal species produce polyketide toxins with different modes of action and potency. We distinguish between two different beating modes of the copepod's feeding appendages-a "sampling beating" that has short durations (<100 ms) and involves little fluid entrainment and a longer duration "grazing beating" that persists up to 1200 ms and generates feeding currents. The durations of both beating modes have log-normal distributions. Without prey, A. tonsa only samples the environment at low frequency. Upon introduction of non-toxic food, it increases its sampling time moderately and the grazing period substantially. On mono algal diets for either of the toxic dinoflagellates, sampling time fraction is high but the grazing is very limited. A. tonsa demonstrates aversion to both toxic algal species. In mixtures of S. major and the neurotoxin producing K. brevis, sampling and grazing diminish rapidly, presumably due to neurological effects of consuming brevetoxins while trying to feed on S. major. In contrast, on mixtures of cytotoxin producing K. veneficum, both behavioral modes persist, indicating that intake of karlotoxins does not immediately inhibit the copepod's grazing behavior. These findings add critical insight into how these algal toxins may influence the copepod's feeding behavior, and suggest how some harmful algal species may alter top-down control exerted by grazers like copepods.

  6. Algal Toxins Alter Copepod Feeding Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Jiarong; Talapatra, Siddharth; Katz, Joseph; Tester, Patricia A.; Waggett, Rebecca J.; Place, Allen R.

    2012-01-01

    Using digital holographic cinematography, we quantify and compare the feeding behavior of free-swimming copepods, Acartia tonsa, on nutritional prey (Storeatula major) to that occurring during exposure to toxic and non-toxic strains of Karenia brevis and Karlodinium veneficum. These two harmful algal species produce polyketide toxins with different modes of action and potency. We distinguish between two different beating modes of the copepod’s feeding appendages–a “sampling beating” that has short durations (<100 ms) and involves little fluid entrainment and a longer duration “grazing beating” that persists up to 1200 ms and generates feeding currents. The durations of both beating modes have log-normal distributions. Without prey, A. tonsa only samples the environment at low frequency. Upon introduction of non-toxic food, it increases its sampling time moderately and the grazing period substantially. On mono algal diets for either of the toxic dinoflagellates, sampling time fraction is high but the grazing is very limited. A. tonsa demonstrates aversion to both toxic algal species. In mixtures of S. major and the neurotoxin producing K. brevis, sampling and grazing diminish rapidly, presumably due to neurological effects of consuming brevetoxins while trying to feed on S. major. In contrast, on mixtures of cytotoxin producing K. veneficum, both behavioral modes persist, indicating that intake of karlotoxins does not immediately inhibit the copepod’s grazing behavior. These findings add critical insight into how these algal toxins may influence the copepod’s feeding behavior, and suggest how some harmful algal species may alter top-down control exerted by grazers like copepods. PMID:22629336

  7. Dose- and time-dependent effects of a novel (-)-hydroxycitric acid extract on body weight, hepatic and testicular lipid peroxidation, DNA fragmentation and histopathological data over a period of 90 days.

    PubMed

    Shara, Michael; Ohia, Sunny E; Yasmin, Taharat; Zardetto-Smith, Andrea; Kincaid, Anthony; Bagchi, Manashi; Chatterjee, Archana; Bagchi, Debasis; Stohs, Sidney J

    2003-12-01

    (-)-Hydroxycitric acid (HCA), a natural extract from the dried fruit rind of Garcinia cambogia (family Guttiferae), is a popular supplement for weight management. The dried fruit rind has been used for centuries as a condiment in Southeastern Asia to make food more filling and satisfying. A significant number of studies highlight the efficacy of Super CitriMax (HCA-SX, a novel 60% calcium-potassium salt of HCA derived from Garcinia cambogia) in weight management. These studies also demonstrate that HCA-SX promotes fat oxidation, inhibits ATP-citrate lyase (a building block for fat synthesis), and lowers the level of leptin in obese subjects. Acute oral, acute dermal, primary dermal irritation and primary eye irritation toxicity studies have demonstrated the safety of HCA-SX. However, no long-term safety of HCA-SX or any other (-)-hydroxycitric acid extract has been previously assessed. In this study, we have evaluated the dose- and time-dependent effects of HCA-SX in Sprague-Dawley rats on body weight, hepatic and testicular lipid peroxidation, DNA fragmentation, liver and testis weight, expressed as such and as a % of body weight and brain weight, and histopathological changes over a period of 90 days. The animals were treated with 0, 0.2, 2.0 and 5.0% HCA-SX as feed intake and the animals were sacrificed on 30, 60 or 90 days of treatment. The feed and water intake were assessed and correlated with the reduction in body weight. HCA-SX supplementation demonstrated a reduction in body weight in both male and female rats over a period of 90 days as compared to the corresponding control animals. An advancing age-induced marginal increase in hepatic lipid peroxidation was observed in both male and female rats as compared to the corresponding control animals. However, no such difference in hepatic DNA fragmentation and testicular lipid peroxidation and DNA fragmentation was observed. Furthermore, liver and testis weight, expressed as such and as a percentage of body

  8. Dissolved inorganic carbon enhanced growth, nutrient uptake, and lipid accumulation in wastewater grown microalgal biofilms.

    PubMed

    Kesaano, Maureen; Gardner, Robert D; Moll, Karen; Lauchnor, Ellen; Gerlach, Robin; Peyton, Brent M; Sims, Ronald C

    2015-03-01

    Microalgal biofilms grown to evaluate potential nutrient removal options for wastewaters and feedstock for biofuels production were studied to determine the influence of bicarbonate amendment on their growth, nutrient uptake capacity, and lipid accumulation after nitrogen starvation. No significant differences in growth rates, nutrient removal, or lipid accumulation were observed in the algal biofilms with or without bicarbonate amendment. The biofilms possibly did not experience carbon-limited conditions because of the large reservoir of dissolved inorganic carbon in the medium. However, an increase in photosynthetic rates was observed in algal biofilms amended with bicarbonate. The influence of bicarbonate on photosynthetic and respiration rates was especially noticeable in biofilms that experienced nitrogen stress. Medium nitrogen depletion was not a suitable stimulant for lipid production in the algal biofilms and as such, focus should be directed toward optimizing growth and biomass productivities to compensate for the low lipid yields and increase nutrient uptake.

  9. Modeling the impact of awareness on the mitigation of algal bloom in a lake.

    PubMed

    Misra, A K; Tiwari, P K; Venturino, Ezio

    2016-01-01

    The proliferation of algal bloom in water bodies due to the enhanced concentration of nutrient inflow is becoming a global issue. A prime reason behind this aquatic catastrophe is agricultural runoff, which carries a large amount of nutrients that make the lakes more fertile and cause algal blooms. The only solution to this problem is curtailing the nutrient loading through agricultural runoff. This could be achieved by raising awareness among farmers to minimize the use of fertilizers in their farms. In view of this, in this paper, we propose a mathematical model to study the effect of awareness among the farmers of the mitigation of algal bloom in a lake. The growth rate of awareness among the farmers is assumed to be proportional to the density of algae in the lake. It is further assumed that the presence of awareness among the farmers reduces the inflow rate of nutrients through agricultural runoff and helps to remove the detritus by cleaning the bottom of the lake. The results evoke that raising awareness among farmers may be a plausible factor for the mitigation of algal bloom in the lake. Numerical simulations identify the most critical parameters that influence the blooms and provide indications to possibly mitigate it.

  10. Pyrolysis Strategies for Effective Utilization of Lignocellulosic and Algal Biomass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maddi, Balakrishna

    Pyrolysis is a processing technique involving thermal degradation of biomass in the absence of oxygen. The bio-oils obtained following the condensation of the pyrolysis vapors form a convenient starting point for valorizing the major components of lignocellulosic as well as algal biomass feed stocks for the production of fuels and value-added chemicals. Pyrolysis can be implemented on whole biomass or on residues left behind following standard fractionation methods. Microalgae and oil seeds predominantly consist of protein, carbohydrate and triglycerides, whereas lignocellulose is composed of carbohydrates (cellulose and hemicellulose) and lignin. The differences in the major components of these two types of biomass will necessitate different pyrolysis strategies to derive the optimal benefits from the resulting bio-oils. In this thesis, novel pyrolysis strategies were developed that enable efficient utilization of the bio-oils (and/or their vapors) from lignocellulose, algae, as well as oil seed feed stocks. With lignocellulosic feed stocks, pyrolysis of whole biomass as well as the lignin residue left behind following well-established pretreatment and saccharification (i.e., depolymerization of cellulose and hemicellulose to their monomeric-sugars) of the biomass was studied with and without catalysts. Following this, pyrolysis of (lipid-deficient) algae and lignocellulosic feed stocks, under similar reactor conditions, was performed for comparison of product (bio-oil, gas and bio-char) yields and composition. In spite of major differences in component bio-polymers, feedstock properties relevant to thermo-chemical conversions, such as overall C, H and O-content, C/O and H/C molar ratio as well as calorific values, were found to be similar for algae and lignocellulosic material. Bio-oil yields from algae and some lignocellulosic materials were similar; however, algal bio-oils were compositionally different and contained several N-compounds (most likely from

  11. Algal diseases: spotlight on a black box.

    PubMed

    Gachon, Claire M M; Sime-Ngando, Télesphore; Strittmatter, Martina; Chambouvet, Aurélie; Kim, Gwang Hoon

    2010-11-01

    Like any other living organisms, algae are plagued by diseases caused by fungi, protists, bacteria or viruses. As aquaculture continues to rise worldwide, pathogens of nori or biofuel sources are becoming a significant economic burden. Parasites are also increasingly being considered of equal importance with predators for ecosystem functioning. Altered disease patterns in disturbed environments are blamed for sudden extinctions, regime shifts, and spreading of alien species. Here we review the biodiversity and impact of pathogens and parasites of aquatic primary producers in freshwater and marine systems. We also cover recent advances on algal defence reactions, and discuss how emerging technologies can be used to reassess the profound, multi-faceted, and so far broadly-overlooked influence of algal diseases on ecosystem properties.

  12. Copper desorption from Gelidium algal biomass.

    PubMed

    Vilar, Vítor J P; Botelho, Cidália M S; Boaventura, Rui A R

    2007-04-01

    Desorption of divalent copper from marine algae Gelidium sesquipedale, an algal waste (from agar extraction industry) and a composite material (the algal waste immobilized in polyacrylonitrile) was studied in a batch system. Copper ions were first adsorbed until saturation and then desorbed by HNO(3) and Na(2)EDTA solutions. Elution efficiency using HNO(3) increases as pH decreases. At pH=1, for a solid to liquid ratio S/L=4gl(-1), elution efficiency was 97%, 95% and 88%, the stoichiometric coefficient for the ionic exchange, 0.70+/-0.02, 0.73+/-0.05 and 0.76+/-0.06 and the selectivity coefficient, 0.93+/-0.07, 1.0+/-0.3 and 1.1+/-0.3, respectively, for algae Gelidium, algal waste and composite material. Complexation of copper ions by EDTA occurs in a molar proportion of 1:1 and the elution efficiency increases with EDTA concentration. For concentrations of 1.4, 0.88 and 0.57 mmoll(-1), the elution efficiency for S/L=4gl(-1), was 91%, 86% and 78%, respectively, for algae Gelidium, algal waste and composite material. The S/L ratio, in the range 1-20gl(-1), has little influence on copper recovery by using 0.1M HNO(3). Desorption kinetics was very fast for all biosorbents. Kinetic data using HNO(3) as eluant were well described by the mass transfer model, considering the average metal concentration in the solid phase and the equilibrium relationship given by the mass action law. The homogeneous diffusion coefficient varied between 1.0 x 10(-7)cm(2)s(-1) for algae Gelidium and 3.0 x 10(-7)cm(2)s(-1) for the composite material.

  13. Physico-chemical properties of a novel (-)-hydroxycitric acid extract and its effect on body weight, selected organ weights, hepatic lipid peroxidation and DNA fragmentation, hematology and clinical chemistry, and histopathological changes over a period of 90 days.

    PubMed

    Shara, Michael; Ohia, Sunny E; Schmidt, Robert E; Yasmin, Taharat; Zardetto-Smith, Andrea; Kincaid, Anthony; Bagchi, Manashi; Chatterjee, Archana; Bagchi, Debasis; Stohs, Sidney J

    2004-05-01

    Garcinia cambogia-derived (-)-hydroxycitric acid (HCA) is a popular and natural supplement for weight management. HCA is a competitive inhibitor of the enzyme ATP citrate lyase, which catalyzes the conversion of citrate and coenzyme A to oxaloacetate and acetyl coenzyme A (acetyl CoA) in the cytosol. Acetyl CoA is used in the synthesis of fatty acids, cholesterol and triglycerides, and in the synthesis of acetylcholine in the central nervous system. Studies have demonstrated the efficacy of a novel 60% calcium-potassium salt of HCA derived from Garcinia cambogia (HCA-SX, Super CitriMax) in weight management. Results have shown that HCA-SX promotes fat oxidation, enhances serotonin release and availability in the brain cortex, normalizes lipid profiles, and lowers serum leptin levels in obese subjects. Acute oral, acute dermal, primary dermal irritation and primary eye irritation toxicity, as well as Ames bacterial reverse mutation studies and mouse lymphoma tests have demonstrated the safety of HCA-SX. However, no detailed long-term safety of HCA-SX or any other HCA extract has been previously assessed. We evaluated the dose- and time-dependent effects of HCA-SX in Sprague-Dawley rats on body weight, selected organ weights, hepatic lipid peroxidation and DNA fragmentation, hematology and clinical chemistry over a period of 90 days. Furthermore, a 90-day histopathological evaluation was conducted. The animals were treated with 0, 0.2, 2.0 and 5.0% HCA-SX of feed intake and were sacrificed on 30, 60 or 90 days of treatment. The body weight and selected organ weights were assessed and correlated as a % of body weight and brain weight at 90 days of treatment. A significant reduction in body weight was observed in treated rats as compared to control animals. An advancing age-induced marginal increase in hepatic lipid peroxidation was observed in both male and female rats, while no such difference in hepatic DNA fragmentation was observed as compared to the control

  14. Liquid transportation fuels from algal oils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Daichuan

    Liquid transportation fuels from renewable sources are becoming more prominent and important in modem society. Processing of hydrocarbon oils from algae has not been studied in detail in the past, so components which have been proposed for incorporation in algal oils via genetic engineering, such as cuparene, farnesene, phytol and squalene, have been subjected to processing via catalytic cracking in a pulse reactor at different temperatures. The cracking results showed that liquid products contained numerous high octane molecules which make it feasible for use in automobiles. Additionally, canola oil, chosen as an algal oil model compound, was studied as a feed for catalytic cracking in a fixed-bed reactor at atmospheric pressure over different types of zeolites. The results showed that MFI catalysts gave the highest yield of gasoline range products and lowest coke formation. Gallium loaded MFI zeolites increased the total aromatics yield for the canola oil cracking relative to the acid form of the zeolite. Finally, algal oils were cracked on several selected zeolites, and the results showed the same trend as canola oil cracking. MFI gave the highest gasoline yield (43.8 wt%) and lowest coke (4.7 wt%). The total aromatics yield from algae oil cracking is improved 7.8 wt% when MFI is loaded with gallium.

  15. Targeted 13C enrichment of lipid and protein pools in the body reveals circadian changes in oxidative fuel mixture during prolonged fasting: a case study using Japanese quail.

    PubMed

    McCue, Marshall D; Amaya, James A; Yang, Alice S; Erhardt, Erik B; Wolf, Blair O; Hanson, David T

    2013-12-01

    Many animals undergo extended periods of fasting. During these fasts, animals oxidize a ratio of macronutrients dependent on the nutritional, energetic, and hydric requirements of the fasting period. In this study, we use Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica), a bird with natural intermediate fasting periods, to examine macronutrient use during a 6d fast. We raised groups of quail on isotopically labeled materials ((13)C-1-leucine, (13)C-U-glucose, or (13)C-1-palmitic acid) with the intent of labeling specific macronutrient/tissue pools in each treatment, and then traced their use as fuels by measuring the δ(13)C values of breath CO2. Based on changes in δ(13)C values during the fast, it appears that the carbohydrate label,(13)C-U-glucose, was largely incorporated into the lipid pool and thus breath samples ultimately reflected lipid use rather than carbohydrate use. In the lipid treatment, the (13)C-1-palmitic acid faithfully labeled the lipid pool and was reflected in the kinetics δ(13)C values in breath CO2 during the fast. Endogenous lipid oxidation peaked after 24h of fasting and remained constantly elevated thereafter. The protein label,(13)C-1-leucine, showed clear diurnal periods of protein sparing and degradation, with maximal rates of protein oxidation occurring at night and the lowest rates occurring during the day time. This stable isotope tracer method provides a noninvasive approach to study the nutrient dynamics of fasting animals and should provide new insights into how different types of animals use specific nutrient pools during fasting and possibly other non-steady physiological states.

  16. Fungal and algal gene expression in early developmental stages of lichen-symbiosis.

    PubMed

    Joneson, Suzanne; Armaleo, Daniele; Lutzoni, François

    2011-01-01

    How plants and microbes recognize each other and interact to form long-lasting relationships remains one of the central questions in cellular communication. The symbiosis between the filamentous fungus Cladonia grayi and the single-celled green alga Asterochloris sp. was used to determine fungal and algal genes upregulated in vitro in early lichen development. cDNA libraries of upregulated genes were created with suppression subtractive hybridization in the first two stages of lichen development. Quantitative PCR subsequently was used to verify the expression level of 41 and 33 candidate fungal and algal genes respectively. Induced fungal genes showed significant matches to genes putatively encoding proteins involved in self and non-self recognition, lipid metabolism, and negative regulation of glucose repressible genes, as well as to a putative d-arabitol reductase and two dioxygenases. Upregulated algal genes included a chitinase-like protein, an amino acid metabolism protein, a dynein-related protein and a protein arginine methyltransferase. These results also provided the first evidence that extracellular communication without cellular contact can occur between lichen symbionts. Many genes showing slight variation in expression appear to direct the development of the lichen symbiosis. The results of this study highlight future avenues of investigation into the molecular biology of lichen symbiosis.

  17. Cytarabine Lipid Complex Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... used to treat lymphomatous meningitis (a type of cancer in the covering of the spinal cord and brain). Cytarabine lipid complex is in a class of medications called antimetabolites. It works by slowing or stopping the growth of cancer cells in your body.

  18. Algal taxonomy: a road to nowhere?

    PubMed

    De Clerck, Olivier; Guiry, Michael D; Leliaert, Frederik; Samyn, Yves; Verbruggen, Heroen

    2013-04-01

    The widespread view of taxonomy as an essentially retrogressive and outmoded science unable to cope with the current biodiversity crisis stimulated us to analyze the current status of cataloguing global algal diversity. Contrary to this largely pessimistic belief, species description rates of algae through time and trends in the number of active taxonomists, as revealed by the web resource AlgaeBase, show a much more positive picture. More species than ever before are being described by a large community of algal taxonomists. The lack of any decline in the rate at which new species and genera are described, however, is indicative of the large proportion of undiscovered diversity and bears heavily on any prediction of global algal species diversity and the time needed to catalogue it. The saturation of accumulation curves of higher taxa (family, order, and classes) on the other hand suggest that at these taxonomic levels most diversity has been discovered. This reasonably positive picture does not imply that algal taxonomy does not face serious challenges in the near future. The observed levels of cryptic diversity in algae, combined with the shift in methods used to characterize them, have resulted in a rampant uncertainty about the status of many older species. As a consequence, there is a tendency in phycology to move gradually away from traditional names to a more informal system whereby clade-, specimen- or strain-based identifiers are used to communicate biological information. Whether these informal names for species-level clades represent a temporary situation stimulated by the lag between species discovery and formal description, or an incipient alternative or parallel taxonomy, will be largely determined by how well we manage to integrate historical collections into modern taxonomic research. Additionally, there is a pressing need for a consensus about the organizational framework to manage the information about algal species names. An eventual strategy

  19. Lifespan extension of rotifers by treatment with red algal extracts

    PubMed Central

    Snare, David J.; Fields, Allison M.; Snell, Terry W.; Kubanek, Julia

    2013-01-01

    Aging results from an accumulation of damage to macromolecules inhibiting cellular replication, repair, and other necessary functions. Damage may be due to environmental stressors such as metal toxicity, oxidative stress caused by imperfections in electron transfer reactions, or other metabolic processes. In an effort to discover medical treatments that counteract this damage, we initiated a search for small molecule drugs from natural sources using life table experiments which, through their unbiased approach, present the opportunity to discover first-in-class molecules. We have identified marine red algae as a source of natural products that slow aging of the invertebrate rotifer Brachionus manjavacas. Rotifers are a promising model organism for life extension studies as they maintain a short, measurable lifespan while also having an extensive literature related to aging. Rotifer lifespan was increased 9–14% by exposure to three of a total of 200 screened red algal extracts. Bioassay guided fractionation led to semi-purified extracts composed primarily of lipids responsible for rotifer life extension. The life extending mixture from the red alga Acanthophora spicifera contained eicosanoic, octadecanoic, and hexadecanoic acids as well as several unidentified unsaturated fatty acids. The life extending effects of these small molecule mixtures are not a result of their direct antioxidant capacity; other unknown mechanisms of action are likely involved. An understanding of how these natural products interact with their molecular targets could lead to selective and effective treatments for slowing aging and reducing age related diseases. PMID:24120568

  20. Lifespan extension of rotifers by treatment with red algal extracts.

    PubMed

    Snare, David J; Fields, Allison M; Snell, Terry W; Kubanek, Julia

    2013-12-01

    Aging results from an accumulation of damage to macromolecules inhibiting cellular replication, repair, and other necessary functions. Damage may be due to environmental stressors such as metal toxicity, oxidative stress caused by imperfections in electron transfer reactions, or other metabolic processes. In an effort to discover medical treatments that counteract this damage, we initiated a search for small molecule drugs from natural sources using life table experiments which, through their unbiased approach, present the opportunity to discover first-in-class molecules. We have identified marine red algae as a source of natural products that slow aging of the invertebrate rotifer Brachionus manjavacas. Rotifers are a promising model organism for life extension studies as they maintain a short, measurable lifespan while also having an extensive literature related to aging. Rotifer lifespan was increased 9-14% by exposure to three of a total of 200 screened red algal extracts. Bioassay guided fractionation led to semi-purified extracts composed primarily of lipids responsible for rotifer life extension. The life extending mixture from the red alga Acanthophora spicifera contained eicosanoic, octadecanoic, and hexadecanoic acids as well as several unidentified unsaturated fatty acids. The life extending effects of these small molecule mixtures are not a result of their direct antioxidant capacity; other unknown mechanisms of action are likely involved. An understanding of how these natural products interact with their molecular targets could lead to selective and effective treatments for slowing aging and reducing age related diseases.

  1. In vivo Reconstitution of Algal Triacylglycerol Production in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Hung, Chun-Hsien; Kanehara, Kazue; Nakamura, Yuki

    2016-01-01

    The current fascination with algal biofuel production stems from a high lipid biosynthetic capacity and little conflict with land plant cultivation. However, the mechanisms which enable algae to accumulate massive oil remain elusive. An enzyme for triacylglycerol (TAG) biosynthesis in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, CrDGTT2, can produce a large amount of TAG when expressed in yeast or higher plants, suggesting a unique ability of CrDGTT2 to enhance oil production in a heterologous system. Here, we performed metabolic engineering in Saccharomyces cerevisiae by taking advantage of CrDGTT2. We suppressed membrane phospholipid biosynthesis at the log phase by mutating OPI3, enhanced TAG biosynthetic pathway at the stationary phase by overexpressing PAH1 and CrDGTT2, and suppressed TAG hydrolysis on growth resumption from the stationary phase by knocking out DGK1. The resulting engineered yeast cells accumulated about 70-fold of TAG compared with wild type cells. Moreover, TAG production was sustainable. Our results demonstrated the enhanced and sustainable TAG production in the yeast synthetic platform. PMID:26913021

  2. A Brief Literature Overview of Various Routes to Biorenewable Fuels from Lipids for the National Alliance for Advanced Biofuels and Bio-products (NAABB) Consortium

    SciTech Connect

    Albrecht, Karl O.; Hallen, Richard T.

    2011-03-29

    Renewable methods of producing transportation fuels are currently the focus of numerous large research efforts across the globe. Renewable fuel produced from algal lipids is one aspect of this research that could have profound implications on future transportation fuel requirements. However, technical challenges remain in several areas of algal-lipid-based fuels. These challenges include the identification and development of robust and productive algal species as well as extraction methods to recover the produced lipids. Not the least of these technical challenges is the conversion of the algae lipids to fungible fuels. This brief literature review focuses primarily on state-of-the-art “downstream” applications of producing fuel from fats and lipids, which can be applied to ongoing research with algae-derived lipids.

  3. Effects of algal turfs and sediment on coral settlement.

    PubMed

    Birrell, Chico L; McCook, Laurence J; Willis, Bette L

    2005-01-01

    Successful settlement and recruitment of corals is critical to the resilience of coral reefs. Given that many degraded reefs are dominated by benthic algae, recovery of coral populations after bleaching and other disturbances requires successful settlement amidst benthic algae. Algal turfs often accumulate sediments, sediments are known to inhibit coral settlement, and reefs with high inputs of terrestrial sediments are often dominated by turfs. We investigated the impacts of two algal turf assemblages, and of sediment deposits, on settlement of the coral Acropora millepora (Ehrenberg). Adding sediment reduced coral settlement, but the effects of different algal turfs varied. In one case, algal turfs inhibited coral settlement, whereas the other turf only inhibited settlement when combined with sediments. These results provide the first direct, experimental evidence of effects of filamentous algal turfs on coral settlement, the variability in those effects, and the potential combined effects of algal turfs and trapped sediments.

  4. Wastewater treatment high rate algal ponds for biofuel production.

    PubMed

    Park, J B K; Craggs, R J; Shilton, A N

    2011-01-01

    While research and development of algal biofuels are currently receiving much interest and funding, they are still not commercially viable at today's fossil fuel prices. However, a niche opportunity may exist where algae are grown as a by-product of high rate algal ponds (HRAPs) operated for wastewater treatment. In addition to significantly better economics, algal biofuel production from wastewater treatment HRAPs has a much smaller environmental footprint compared to commercial algal production HRAPs which consume freshwater and fertilisers. In this paper the critical parameters that limit algal cultivation, production and harvest are reviewed and practical options that may enhance the net harvestable algal production from wastewater treatment HRAPs including CO(2) addition, species control, control of grazers and parasites and bioflocculation are discussed.

  5. Characterization of Amoeboaphelidium protococcarum, an algal parasite new to the cryptomycota isolated from an outdoor algal pond used for the production of biofuel.

    PubMed

    Letcher, Peter M; Lopez, Salvador; Schmieder, Robert; Lee, Philip A; Behnke, Craig; Powell, Martha J; McBride, Robert C

    2013-01-01

    Mass culture of algae for the production of biofuels is a developing technology designed to offset the depletion of fossil fuel reserves. However, large scale culture of algae in open ponds can be challenging because of incidences of infestation with algal parasites. Without knowledge of the identity of the specific parasite and how to control these pests, algal-based biofuel production will be limited. We have characterized a eukaryotic parasite of Scenedesmus dimorphus growing in outdoor ponds used for biofuel production. We demonstrated that as the genomic DNA of parasite FD01 increases, the concentration of S. dimorphus cells decreases; consequently, this is a highly destructive pathogen. Techniques for culture of the parasite and host were developed, and the endoparasite was identified as the Aphelidea, Amoeboaphelidium protococcarum. Phylogenetic analysis of ribosomal sequences revealed that parasite FD01 placed within the recently described Cryptomycota, a poorly known phylum based on two species of Rozella and environmental samples. Transmission electron microscopy demonstrated that aplanospores of the parasite produced filose pseudopodia, which contained fine fibers the diameter of actin microfilaments. Multiple lipid globules clustered and were associated with microbodies, mitochondria and a membrane cisternae, an arrangement characteristic of the microbody-lipid globule complex of chytrid zoospores. After encystment and attachment to the host cells, the parasite injected its protoplast into the host between the host cell wall and plasma membrane. At maturity the unwalled parasite occupied the entire host cell. After cleavage of the protoplast into aplanospores, a vacuole and lipids remained in the host cell. Amoeboaphelidium protococcarum isolate FD01 is characteristic of the original description of this species and is different from strain X-5 recently characterized. Our results help put a face on the Cryptomycota, revealing that the phylum is more

  6. Characterization of Amoeboaphelidium protococcarum, an Algal Parasite New to the Cryptomycota Isolated from an Outdoor Algal Pond Used for the Production of Biofuel

    PubMed Central

    Letcher, Peter M.; Lopez, Salvador; Schmieder, Robert; Lee, Philip A.; Behnke, Craig; Powell, Martha J.; McBride, Robert C.

    2013-01-01

    Mass culture of algae for the production of biofuels is a developing technology designed to offset the depletion of fossil fuel reserves. However, large scale culture of algae in open ponds can be challenging because of incidences of infestation with algal parasites. Without knowledge of the identity of the specific parasite and how to control these pests, algal-based biofuel production will be limited. We have characterized a eukaryotic parasite of Scenedesmus dimorphus growing in outdoor ponds used for biofuel production. We demonstrated that as the genomic DNA of parasite FD01 increases, the concentration of S. dimorphus cells decreases; consequently, this is a highly destructive pathogen. Techniques for culture of the parasite and host were developed, and the endoparasite was identified as the Aphelidea, Amoeboaphelidium protococcarum. Phylogenetic analysis of ribosomal sequences revealed that parasite FD01 placed within the recently described Cryptomycota, a poorly known phylum based on two species of Rozella and environmental samples. Transmission electron microscopy demonstrated that aplanospores of the parasite produced filose pseudopodia, which contained fine fibers the diameter of actin microfilaments. Multiple lipid globules clustered and were associated with microbodies, mitochondria and a membrane cisternae, an arrangement characteristic of the microbody-lipid globule complex of chytrid zoospores. After encystment and attachment to the host cells, the parasite injected its protoplast into the host between the host cell wall and plasma membrane. At maturity the unwalled parasite occupied the entire host cell. After cleavage of the protoplast into aplanospores, a vacuole and lipids remained in the host cell. Amoeboaphelidium protococcarum isolate FD01 is characteristic of the original description of this species and is different from strain X-5 recently characterized. Our results help put a face on the Cryptomycota, revealing that the phylum is more

  7. The Impact of Harmful Algal Blooms on USACE Operations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-01-01

    algae multiply rapidly and accumulate in large numbers, creating an event referred to as an algal bloom. Algal blooms have occurred throughout... algae for their color (Woods Hole Oceanographic Institute 2008; Vézie et al. 1998, 2002). Algal blooms can prove harmful through reductions in...when algae species produce toxins such as microcystin, saxitoxin, brevetoxin, ciguatoxin, or domoic acid (Van Dolah 2000). There is still much to be

  8. Association of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) with live algae and total lipids in rivers - A field-based approach

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fitzgerald, S.A.; Steuer, J.J.

    2006-01-01

    The association of PCBs and live algal cells in rivers was studied at four locations during four seasons in two Wisconsin rivers. Positive relations between particle-associated PCBs and both chlorophyll-a and algal carbon concentrations indicated that live algal cells were a significant sorption phase for dissolved PCBs. Large Pennate diatoms (Navicula, Synedra, Pinnularia, Diatoma, and Cocconeis), or more rarely, Euglenoids (Trachelomonas sp.), dominated most sample assemblages on an algal carbon basis. These assemblages made up the highest percentage of total SOC during spring (average=50%) and lowest during summer (average=15%). At the three impounded sites, most individual PCB congeners were relatively enriched in samples characterized by: (1) high concentrations of algal carbon (as a percent of SOC), (2) algal assemblages dominated (or co-dominated) by Euglenoids, and (3) high concentrations of total lipids. Despite relatively higher masses of sorbed PCBs in the most lipid-rich samples, there was no robust correlation between total lipid content and particle-associated PCBs when aggregating all samples from the study. A possible explanation is that PCBs are associated with other structural components in live algae and (or) departure from chemical equilibrium in the river due to algal growth kinetics. A kinetic uptake model was used to calculate the mass of PCBs associated with the total organic carbon content of live algae. Based on this model, PCBs were enriched in algal cells during bloom seasons (spring and fall) compared to non-bloom seasons (summer and winter). Further, although individual PCB congener partition coefficients (log) to live algal cells (range=5.3-6.4) overlapped to those for detritus (range=3.6-7.4), PCBs tended to be enriched in detrital carbon pools during non-bloom conditions. The larger range of estimated PCB partition coefficients for detritus likely reflects the more heterogeneous nature of this material compared to live algal cells.

  9. Limited Weight Loss or Simply No Weight Gain following Lifestyle-Only Intervention Tends to Redistribute Body Fat, to Decrease Lipid Concentrations, and to Improve Parameters of Insulin Sensitivity in Obese Children

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Objectives. To investigate whether lifestyle-only intervention in obese children who maintain or lose a modest amount of weight redistributes parameters of body composition and reverses metabolic abnormalities. Study Design. Clinical, anthropometric, and metabolic parameters were assessed in 111 overweight or obese children (CA of 11.3 ± 2.8 years; 63 females and 48 males), during 8 months of lifestyle intervention. Patients maintained or lost weight (1–5%) (group A; n: 72) or gained weight (group B). Results. Group A patients presented with a decrease in systolic blood pressure (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) ( and , resp.), BMI (), z-score BMI (), waist circumference (), fat mass (), LDL-C (), Tg/HDL-C ratio (), fasting and postprandial insulin (), and HOMA (), while HDL-C () and QUICKI increased (). Conversely, group B patients had an increase in BMI (), waist circumference (), SBP (), and in QUICKI (), while fat mass (), fasting insulin (), and HOMA () decreased. Lean mass, DBP, lipid concentrations, fasting and postprandial glucose, postprandial insulin, and ultrasensitive C-reactive protein (CRP) remained stable. Conclusions. Obese children who maintain or lose a modest amount of weight following lifestyle-only intervention tend to redistribute their body fat, decrease blood pressure and lipid levels, and to improve parameters of insulin sensitivity. PMID:21603203

  10. Algal biodiesel economy and competition among bio-fuels.

    PubMed

    Lee, D H

    2011-01-01

    This investigation examines the possible results of policy support in developed and developing economies for developing algal biodiesel through to 2040. This investigation adopts the Taiwan General Equilibrium Model-Energy for Bio-fuels (TAIGEM-EB) to predict competition among the development of algal biodiesel, bioethanol and conventional crop-based biodiesel. Analytical results show that algal biodiesel will not be the major energy source in 2040 without strong support in developed economies. In contrast, bioethanol enjoys a development advantage relative to both forms of biodiesel. Finally, algal biodiesel will almost completely replace conventional biodiesel. CO(2) reduction benefits the development of the bio-fuels industry.

  11. Conversion of Small Algal Oil Sample to JP-8

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-01-01

    9 Table 4. Wei ht Percent of n-Paraffins for Biofuels and JP-8 Fuel 7051 n-Decane ·n- ndecane n-Dodecane n-Tridecane W911NF -10-C-0021 Algal ...REPORT Conversion of Small Algal Oil Sample to JP-8 14. ABSTRACT 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: A small sample of Algal oil was received by UOP for...P.O. Box 12211 Research Triangle Park, NC 27709-2211 15. SUBJECT TERMS Algal Oil, JP-8, SPK, MIL-DTL-83133G F. S. Lupton UOP LLC 25 East

  12. Assessing the potential of polyculture to accelerate algal biofuel production

    SciTech Connect

    Newby, Deborah T.; Mathews, Teresa J.; Pate, Ron C.; Huesemann, Michael H.; Lane, Todd W.; Wahlen, Bradley D.; Mandal, Shovon; Engler, Robert K.; Feris, Kevin P.; Shurin, Jon B.

    2016-10-24

    To date, the algal biofuel industry has focused on the cultivation of monocultures of highly productive algal strains, but scaling up production remains challenging. However, algal monocultures are difficult to maintain because they are easily contaminated by wild algal strains, grazers, and pathogens. In contrast, theory suggests that polycultures (multispecies assemblages) can promote both ecosystem stability and productivity. A greater understanding of species interactions and how communities change with time will need to be developed before polycultures can be successfully applied to large-scale algal production efforts. Here in this paper we review the agricultural and ecological literature to explore opportunities for increased annual biomass production through the use of algal polycultures. We discuss case studies where algal polycultures have been successfully maintained for industries other than the biofuel industry, as well as the few studies that have compared biomass production of algal polycultures to that of monocultures. Assemblages that include species with complementary traits are of particular promise. These assemblages have the potential not only to increase crop productivity and stability, but they may also be capable of utilizing natural resources (e.g. light, nutrients, water) more efficiently via tighter niche packing. Therefore, algal polycultures show promise for enhancing biomass productivity, enabling sustainable production and reducing overall production costs.

  13. Assessing the potential of polyculture to accelerate algal biofuel production

    DOE PAGES

    Newby, Deborah T.; Mathews, Teresa J.; Pate, Ron C.; ...

    2016-10-24

    To date, the algal biofuel industry has focused on the cultivation of monocultures of highly productive algal strains, but scaling up production remains challenging. However, algal monocultures are difficult to maintain because they are easily contaminated by wild algal strains, grazers, and pathogens. In contrast, theory suggests that polycultures (multispecies assemblages) can promote both ecosystem stability and productivity. A greater understanding of species interactions and how communities change with time will need to be developed before polycultures can be successfully applied to large-scale algal production efforts. Here in this paper we review the agricultural and ecological literature to explore opportunitiesmore » for increased annual biomass production through the use of algal polycultures. We discuss case studies where algal polycultures have been successfully maintained for industries other than the biofuel industry, as well as the few studies that have compared biomass production of algal polycultures to that of monocultures. Assemblages that include species with complementary traits are of particular promise. These assemblages have the potential not only to increase crop productivity and stability, but they may also be capable of utilizing natural resources (e.g. light, nutrients, water) more efficiently via tighter niche packing. Therefore, algal polycultures show promise for enhancing biomass productivity, enabling sustainable production and reducing overall production costs.« less

  14. The effects of a multi-ingredient dietary supplement on body composition, adipokines, blood lipids, and metabolic health in overweight and obese men and women: a randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The present study investigated the effects of a multi-ingredient dietary supplement (MIDS) containing caffeine, conjugated linoleic acid (CLA), green tea, and branched-chain amino acids (BCAA) taken for 8 weeks on body composition, blood lipid profile, glucose, insulin, adiponectin, leptin, and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) in overweight and obese men and women. Methods Twenty-two participants completed the study (PL, n = 11; 7 women, 4 men; age, 34 ± 3.5 years; height, 169.2 ± 3.3 cm; body mass, 96.9 ± 6.8 kg; BMI, 34.1 ± 1.8 kg/m2; MIDS, n = 11; 9 women, 2 men; age, 36 ± 3.4 years; height, 173.2 ± 2.9 cm; body mass, 91.9 ± 5.6 kg; BMI, 30.0 ± 1.5 kg/m2). Participants were randomly assigned and stratified by body fat percentage to two groups: 1) a soybean oil placebo (PL) or 2) MIDS. Each group consumed two pills with breakfast and two pills with lunch. Body composition and android fat, waist and hip circumferences, blood pressure and heart rate were measured at baseline and after 8 weeks of supplementation. Results There were no significant changes for any of the variables of body composition. Feelings of hunger were significantly higher in MIDS versus PL with no changes observed in satiety or desire to eat. Heart rate and blood pressure were unaltered in MIDS after 8 weeks of supplementation. Furthermore, lipid profile, food intake, mood state variables, fasting blood glucose, and endocrine markers did not significantly change regardless of group. Conclusion MIDS intake does not appear to alter body composition or markers of cardiovascular health versus PL. Moreover, MIDS may actually increase feelings of hunger versus PL. PMID:25093015

  15. Proteomic analysis of Chlorella vulgaris: Potential targets for enhanced lipid accumulation

    SciTech Connect

    Guarnieri, Michael T.; Nag, Ambarish; Yang, Shihui; Pienkos, Philip T.

    2013-11-01

    Oleaginous microalgae are capable of producing large quantities of fatty acids and triacylglycerides. As such, they are promising feedstocks for the production of biofuels and bioproducts. Genetic strain-engineering strategies offer a means to accelerate the commercialization of algal biofuels by improving the rate and total accumulation of microalgal lipids. However, the industrial potential of these organisms remains to be met, largely due to the incomplete knowledgebase surrounding the mechanisms governing the induction of algal lipid biosynthesis. Such strategies require further elucidation of genes and gene products controlling algal lipid accumulation. In this study, we have set out to examine these mechanisms and identify novel strain-engineering targets in the oleaginous microalga, Chlorella vulgaris. Comparative shotgun proteomic analyses have identified a number of novel targets, including previously unidentified transcription factors and proteins involved in cell signaling and cell cycle regulation. These results lay the foundation for strain-improvement strategies and demonstrate the power of translational proteomic analysis.

  16. Pretreated algal bloom as a substantial nutrient source for microalgae cultivation for biodiesel production.

    PubMed

    Jain, Priyanka; Arora, Neha; Mehtani, Juhi; Pruthi, Vikas; Majumder, C B

    2017-03-28

    In the present investigation, toxic algal bloom, a copious and low-cost nutrient source was deployed for cultivating Chlorella pyrenoidosa. Various pre-treatment methods using combinations of acid/alkali and autoclave/microwave were tested for preparing hydrolysates and compared with minimal media (BG-11). Acid autoclave treatment resulted in maximum carbon, nitrogen and phosphorous content which substantially boosted the growth of the microalgal cells (4.36g/L) as compared to rest of the media. The microalga grown in this media also showed enhanced lipid content (43.2%) and lipid productivity (188mg/L/d) as compared to BG-11 (19.42mg/L/d). The biochemical composition showed 1.6-fold declines in protein while 1.27 folds in carbohydrate content as compared to BG-11. The fatty acid profile revealed the presence of C14-C22 with increased amount of monounsaturated fatty acids as compared to BG-11. The results obtained showed that algal bloom can be used as a potential nutrient source for microalgae.

  17. Addressing the challenges for sustainable production of algal biofuels: I. Algal strains and nutrient supply.

    PubMed

    Abdelaziz, Ahmed E M; Leite, Gustavo B; Hallenbeck, Patrick C

    2013-01-01

    Microalgae hold promise for the production of sustainable replacement of fossil fuels due to their high growth rates, ability to grow on non-arable land and their high content, under the proper conditions, of high energy compounds that can be relatively easily chemically converted to fuels using existing technology. However, projected large-scale algal production raises a number of sustainability concerns concerning land use, net energy return, water use and nutrient supply. The state-of-the-art of algal production of biofuels is presented with emphasis on some possible avenues to provide answers to the sustainability questions that have been raised. Here, issues concerning algal strains and supply of nutrients for large-scale production are discussed. Since sustainability concerns necessitate the use of wastewaters for supply of bulk nutrients, emphasis is placed on the composition and suitability of different wastewater streams. At the same time, algal cultivation has proven useful in waste treatment processes, and thus this aspect is also treated in some detail.

  18. Algal Attributes: An Autecological Classification of Algal Taxa Collected by the National Water-Quality Assessment Program

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Porter, Stephen D.

    2008-01-01

    Algae are excellent indicators of water-quality conditions, notably nutrient and organic enrichment, and also are indicators of major ion, dissolved oxygen, and pH concentrations and stream microhabitat conditions. The autecology, or physiological optima and tolerance, of algal species for various water-quality contaminants and conditions is relatively well understood for certain groups of freshwater algae, notably diatoms. However, applications of autecological information for water-quality assessments have been limited because of challenges associated with compiling autecological literature from disparate sources, tracking name changes for a large number of algal species, and creating an autecological data base from which algal-indicator metrics can be calculated. A comprehensive summary of algal autecological attributes for North American streams and rivers does not exist. This report describes a large, digital data file containing 28,182 records for 5,939 algal taxa, generally species or variety, collected by the U.S. Geological Survey?s National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Program. The data file includes 37 algal attributes classified by over 100 algal-indicator codes or metrics that can be calculated easily with readily available software. Algal attributes include qualitative classifications based on European and North American autecological literature, and semi-quantitative, weighted-average regression approaches for estimating optima using regional and national NAWQA data. Applications of algal metrics in water-quality assessments are discussed and national quartile distributions of metric scores are shown for selected indicator metrics.

  19. Stress-induced neutral lipid biosynthesis in microalgae - Molecular, cellular and physiological insights.

    PubMed

    Zienkiewicz, Krzysztof; Du, Zhi-Yan; Ma, Wei; Vollheyde, Katharina; Benning, Christoph

    2016-09-01

    Photosynthetic microalgae have promise as biofuel feedstock. Under certain conditions, they produce substantial amounts of neutral lipids, mainly in the form of triacylglycerols (TAGs), which can be converted to fuels. Much of our current knowledge on the genetic and molecular basis of algal neutral lipid metabolism derives mainly from studies of plants, i.e. seed tissues, and to a lesser extent from direct studies of algal lipid metabolism. Thus, the knowledge of TAG synthesis and the cellular trafficking of TAG precursors in algal cells is to a large extent based on genome predictions, and most aspects of TAG metabolism have yet to be experimentally verified. The biofuel prospects of microalgae have raised the interest in mechanistic studies of algal TAG biosynthesis in recent years and resulted in an increasing number of publications on lipid metabolism in microalgae. In this review we summarize the current findings on genetic, molecular and physiological studies of TAG accumulation in microalgae. Special emphasis is on the functional analysis of key genes involved in TAG synthesis, molecular mechanisms of regulation of TAG biosynthesis, as well as on possible mechanisms of lipid droplet formation in microalgal cells. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Plant Lipid Biology edited by Kent D. Chapman and Ivo Feussner.

  20. RNA interference silencing of a major lipid droplet protein affects lipid droplet size in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii.

    PubMed

    Moellering, Eric R; Benning, Christoph

    2010-01-01

    Eukaryotic cells store oils in the chemical form of triacylglycerols in distinct organelles, often called lipid droplets. These dynamic storage compartments have been intensely studied in the context of human health and also in plants as a source of vegetable oils for human consumption and for chemical or biofuel feedstocks. Many microalgae accumulate oils, particularly under conditions limiting to growth, and thus have gained renewed attention as a potentially sustainable feedstock for biofuel production. However, little is currently known at the cellular or molecular levels with regard to oil accumulation in microalgae, and the structural proteins and enzymes involved in the biogenesis, maintenance, and degradation of algal oil storage compartments are not well studied. Focusing on the model green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, the accumulation of triacylglycerols and the formation of lipid droplets during nitrogen deprivation were investigated. Mass spectrometry identified 259 proteins in a lipid droplet-enriched fraction, among them a major protein, tentatively designated major lipid droplet protein (MLDP). This protein is specific to the green algal lineage of photosynthetic organisms. Repression of MLDP gene expression using an RNA interference approach led to increased lipid droplet size, but no change in triacylglycerol content or metabolism was observed.

  1. Determination of Total Lipids as Fatty Acid Methyl Esters (FAME) by in situ Transesterification: Laboratory Analytical Procedure (LAP)

    SciTech Connect

    Van Wychen, S.; Laurens, L. M. L.

    2013-12-01

    This procedure is based on a whole biomass transesterification of lipids to fatty acid methyl esters to represent an accurate reflection of the potential of microalgal biofuels. Lipids are present in many forms and play various roles within an algal cell, from cell membrane phospholipids to energy stored as triacylglycerols.

  2. Recycled de-Oiled Algal Biomass Extract as a Feedstock for Boosting Biodiesel Production from Chlorella minutissima.

    PubMed

    Arora, Neha; Patel, Alok; Pruthi, Parul A; Pruthi, Vikas

    2016-12-01

    The investigation for the first time assesses the efficacy of recycled de-oiled algal biomass extract (DABE) as a cultivation media to boost lipid productivity in Chlorella minutissima and its comparison with Bold's basal media (BBM) used as control. Presence of organic carbon (3.8 ± 0.8 g/l) in recycled DABE resulted in rapid growth with twofold increase in biomass productivity as compared to BBM. These cells expressed four folds higher lipid productivity (126 ± 5.54 mg/l/d) as compared to BBM. Cells cultivated in recycled DABE showed large sized lipid droplets accumulating 54.12 % of lipid content. Decrement in carbohydrate (17.76 %) and protein content (28.12 %) with loss of photosynthetic pigments compared to BBM grown cells were also recorded. The fatty acid profiles of cells cultivated in recycled DABE revealed the dominance of C16:0 (39.66 %), C18:1 (29.41 %) and C18:0 (15.82 %), respectively. This model is self-sustained and aims at neutralizing excessive feedstock consumption by exploiting recycled de-oiled algal biomass for cultivation of microalgae, making the process cost effective.

  3. Utilization of acetic acid-rich pyrolytic bio-oil by microalga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii: reducing bio-oil toxicity and enhancing algal toxicity tolerance.

    PubMed

    Liang, Yi; Zhao, Xuefei; Chi, Zhanyou; Rover, Marjorie; Johnston, Patrick; Brown, Robert; Jarboe, Laura; Wen, Zhiyou

    2013-04-01

    This work was to utilize acetic acid contained in bio-oil for growth and lipid production of the microalga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. The acetic acid-rich bio-oil fraction derived from fast pyrolysis of softwood contained 26% (w/w) acetic acid, formic acid, methanol, furfural, acetol, and phenolics as identified compounds, and 13% (w/w) unidentified compounds. Among those identified compounds, phenolics were most inhibitory to algal growth, followed by furfural and acetol. To enhance the fermentability of the bio-oil fraction, activated carbon was used to reduce the toxicity of the bio-oil, while metabolic evolution was used to enhance the toxicity tolerance of the microalgae. Combining activated carbon treatment and using evolved algal strain resulted in significant algal growth improvement. The results collectively showed that fast pyrolysis-fermentation process was a viable approach for converting biomass into fuels and chemicals.

  4. Luminescent Solar Concentrators in the Algal Industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hellier, Katie; Corrado, Carley; Carter, Sue; Detweiler, Angela; Bebout, Leslie

    2013-03-01

    Today's industry for renewable energy sources and highly efficient energy management systems is rapidly increasing. Development of increased efficiency Luminescent Solar Concentrators (LSCs) has brought about new applications for commercial interests, including greenhouses for agricultural crops. This project is taking first steps to explore the potential of LSCs to enhance production and reduce costs for algae and cyanobacteria used in biofuels and nutraceuticals. This pilot phase uses LSC filtered light for algal growth trials in greenhouses and laboratory experiments, creating specific wavelength combinations to determine effects of discrete solar light regimes on algal growth and the reduction of heating and water loss in the system. Enhancing the optimal spectra for specific algae will not only increase production, but has the potential to lessen contamination of large scale production due to competition from other algae and bacteria. Providing LSC filtered light will reduce evaporation and heating in regions with limited water supply, while the increased energy output from photovoltaic cells will reduce costs of heating and mixing cultures, thus creating a more efficient and cost effective production system.

  5. Exploiting algal NADPH oxidase for biophotovoltaic energy.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Alexander; Laohavisit, Anuphon; Blaby, Ian K; Bombelli, Paolo; Howe, Christopher J; Merchant, Sabeeha S; Davies, Julia M; Smith, Alison G

    2016-01-01

    Photosynthetic microbes exhibit light-dependent electron export across the cell membrane, which can generate electricity in biological photovoltaic (BPV) devices. How electrons are exported remains to be determined; the identification of mechanisms would help selection or generation of photosynthetic microbes capable of enhanced electrical output. We show that plasma membrane NADPH oxidase activity is a significant component of light-dependent generation of electricity by the unicellular green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. NADPH oxidases export electrons across the plasma membrane to form superoxide anion from oxygen. The C. reinhardtii mutant lacking the NADPH oxidase encoded by RBO1 is impaired in both extracellular superoxide anion production and current generation in a BPV device. Complementation with the wild-type gene restores both capacities, demonstrating the role of the enzyme in electron export. Monitoring light-dependent extracellular superoxide production with a colorimetric assay is shown to be an effective way of screening for electrogenic potential of candidate algal strains. The results show that algal NADPH oxidases are important for superoxide anion production and open avenues for optimizing the biological component of these devices.

  6. Potential of carbon nanotubes in algal biotechnology.

    PubMed

    Lambreva, Maya Dimova; Lavecchia, Teresa; Tyystjärvi, Esa; Antal, Taras Kornelievich; Orlanducci, Silvia; Margonelli, Andrea; Rea, Giuseppina

    2015-09-01

    A critical mass of knowledge is emerging on the interactions between plant cells and engineered nanomaterials, revealing the potential of plant nanobiotechnology to promote and support novel solutions for the development of a competitive bioeconomy. This knowledge can foster the adoption of new methodological strategies to empower the large-scale production of biomass from commercially important microalgae. The present review focuses on the potential of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) to enhance photosynthetic performance of microalgae by (i) widening the spectral region available for the energy conversion reactions and (ii) increasing the tolerance of microalgae towards unfavourable conditions occurring in mass production. To this end, current understanding on the mechanisms of uptake and localization of CNTs in plant cells is discussed. The available ecotoxicological data were used in an attempt to assess the feasibility of CNT-based applications in algal biotechnology, by critically correlating the experimental conditions with the observed adverse effects. Furthermore, main structural and physicochemical properties of single- and multi-walled CNTs and common approaches for the functionalization and characterization of CNTs in biological environment are presented. Here, we explore the potential that nanotechnology can offer to enhance functions of algae, paving the way for a more efficient use of photosynthetic algal systems in the sustainable production of energy, biomass and high-value compounds.

  7. Dynamic metabolic exchange governs a marine algal-bacterial interaction

    PubMed Central

    Segev, Einat; Wyche, Thomas P; Kim, Ki Hyun; Petersen, Jörn; Ellebrandt, Claire; Vlamakis, Hera; Barteneva, Natasha; Paulson, Joseph N; Chai, Liraz; Clardy, Jon; Kolter, Roberto

    2016-01-01

    Emiliania huxleyi is a model coccolithophore micro-alga that generates vast blooms in the ocean. Bacteria are not considered among the major factors influencing coccolithophore physiology. Here we show through a laboratory model system that the bacterium Phaeobacter inhibens, a well-studied member of the Roseobacter group, intimately interacts with E. huxleyi. While attached to the algal cell, bacteria initially promote algal growth but ultimately kill their algal host. Both algal growth enhancement and algal death are driven by the bacterially-produced phytohormone indole-3-acetic acid. Bacterial production of indole-3-acetic acid and attachment to algae are significantly increased by tryptophan, which is exuded from the algal cell. Algal death triggered by bacteria involves activation of pathways unique to oxidative stress response and programmed cell death. Our observations suggest that bacteria greatly influence the physiology and metabolism of E. huxleyi. Coccolithophore-bacteria interactions should be further studied in the environment to determine whether they impact micro-algal population dynamics on a global scale. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.17473.001 PMID:27855786

  8. Method and system of culturing an algal mat

    DOEpatents

    Das, Keshav C; Cannon, Benjamin R; Bhatnagar, Ashish; Chinnasamy, Senthil

    2014-05-13

    A system and method for culturing algae are presented. The system and method utilize a fog of growth medium that is delivered to an algal mat generator along with a stream of CO.sub.2 to promote growth of algal cells contained in the generator.

  9. What is causing the harmful algal blooms in Lake Erie?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Harmful and nuisance algal blooms have been increasing in size and extent since about 2000. In recent years, the release of the algal toxin microcystin has become a growing concern and has resulted in the inability to use water from Lake Erie as a drinking water source to the 400,000 residents of T...

  10. Near- and mid-infrared spectroscopic determination of algal composition

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this study was to investigate the feasibility of using near-infrared reflectance spectroscopy (NIRS) and mid-infrared reflectance spectroscopy (MIRS) to determine the composition of algal samples. We assayed a set of algal biomass samples (n=117), collected from algae turf scrubber...

  11. EFFECTS OF MARINE ALGAL TOXINS ON THERMOREGULATION IN MICE.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Hypothermia is often seen in mice and rats exposed acutely to marine algal toxins, but the mechanism of action of these toxins on thermoregulation is not well understood. Our laboratory has assessed the thermoregulatory mechanisms of two marine algal toxins, maitotoxin and brevet...

  12. COMPARISON OF LARGE RIVER SAMPLING METHODS ON ALGAL METRICS

    EPA Science Inventory

    We compared the results of four methods used to assess the algal communities at 60 sites distributed among four rivers. Based on Principle Component Analysis of physical habitat data collected concomitantly with the algal data, sites were separated into those with a mean thalweg...

  13. Determining seabird body condition using nonlethal measures.

    PubMed

    Jacobs, Shoshanah R; Elliott, Kyle; Guigueno, Mélanie F; Gaston, Anthony J; Redman, Paula; Speakman, John R; Weber, Jean-Michel

    2012-01-01

    Energy stores are critical for successful breeding, and longitudinal studies require nonlethal methods to measure energy stores ("body condition"). Nonlethal techniques for measuring energy reserves are seldom verified independently. We compare body mass, size-corrected mass (SCM), plasma lipids, and isotopic dilution with extracted total body lipid content in three seabird species (thick-billed murres Uria lomvia, all four measures; northern fulmars Fulmarus glacialis, three measures; and black-legged kittiwakes Rissa tridactyla, two measures). SCM and body mass were better predictors of total body lipids for the species with high percent lipids (fulmars; R2 = 0.5-0.6) than for the species with low percent lipids (murres and kittiwakes; R2 = 0.2-0.4). The relationship between SCM and percent body lipids, which we argue is often a better measure of condition, was also poor (R2 < 0.2) for species with low lipids. In a literature comparison of 17 bird species, percent lipids was the only predictor of the strength of the relationship between mass and total body lipids; we suggest that SCM be used as an index of energy stores only when lipids exceed 15% of body mass. Across all three species we measured, SCM based on the ordinary least squares regression of mass on the first principal component outperformed other measures. Isotopic dilution was a better predictor of both total body lipids and percent body lipids than were mass, SCM, or plasma lipids in murres. Total body lipids decreased through the breeding season at both sites, while total and neutral plasma lipid concentrations increased at one site but not another, suggesting mobilization of lipid stores for breeding. A literature review showed substantial variation in the reliability of plasma markers, and we recommend isotopic dilution (oxygen-18, plateau) for determination of energy reserves in birds where lipid content is below 15%.

  14. Uniform algal growth in photobioreactors using surface scatterers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahsan, Syed S.; Pereyra, Brandon; Erickson, David

    2014-03-01

    Cultures of algae, such as cyanobacteria, are a promising source of renewable energy. However, algal growth is highly dependent on light intensity and standard photobioreactors do a poor job of distributing light uniformly for algal utilization due to shading effects in dense algal cultures. Engineered scattering schemes are already employed in current slab-waveguide technologies, like edge-lit LEDs. Stacking such slab-waveguides that uniformly distribute light could potentially yield photobioreactors to overcome the shading effect and grow extremely high densities of algal cultures that would lower monetary and energetic costs. Here, we characterize and design a scattering scheme for specific application within photobioreactors which employs a gradient distribution of surface scatterers with uniform lateral scattering intensity. This uniform scattering scheme is shown to be superior for algal cultivation.

  15. The contribution of bacteria to algal growth by carbon cycling.

    PubMed

    Bai, Xue; Lant, Paul; Pratt, Steven

    2015-04-01

    Algal mass production in open systems is often limited by the availability of inorganic carbon substrate. In this paper, we evaluate how bacterial driven carbon cycling mitigates carbon limitation in open algal culture systems. The contribution of bacteria to carbon cycling was determined by quantifying algae growth with and without supplementation of bacteria. It was found that adding heterotrophic bacteria to an open algal culture dramatically enhanced algae productivity. Increases in algal productivity due to supplementation of bacteria of 4.8 and 3.4 times were observed in two batch tests operating at two different pH values over 7 days. A kinetic model is proposed which describes carbon limited algal growth, and how the limitation could be overcome by bacterial activity to re-mineralize photosynthetic end products.

  16. Life-cycle analysis of energy use, greenhouse gas emissions, and water consumption in the 2016 MYPP algal biofuel scenarios

    SciTech Connect

    Frank, Edward; Pegallapati, Ambica K.; Davis, Ryan; Markham, Jennifer; Coleman, Andre; Jones, Sue; Wigmosta, Mark S.; Zhu, Yunhua

    2016-06-16

    The Department of Energy (DOE) Bioenergy Technologies Office (BETO) Multi-year Program Plan (MYPP) describes the bioenergy objectives pursued by BETO, the strategies for achieving those objectives, the current state of technology (SOT), and a number of design cases that explore cost and operational performance required to advance the SOT towards middle and long term goals (MYPP, 2016). Two options for converting algae to biofuel intermediates were considered in the MYPP, namely algal biofuel production via lipid extraction and algal biofuel production by thermal processing. The first option, lipid extraction, is represented by the Combined Algae Processing (CAP) pathway in which algae are hydrolyzed in a weak acid pretreatment step. The treated slurry is fermented for ethanol production from sugars. The fermentation stillage contains most of the lipids from the original biomass, which are recovered through wet solvent extraction. The process residuals after lipid extraction, which contain much of the original mass of amino acids and proteins, are directed to anaerobic digestion (AD) for biogas production and recycle of N and P nutrients. The second option, thermal processing, comprises direct hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL) of the wet biomass, separation of aqueous, gas, and oil phases, and treatment of the aqueous phase with catalytic hydrothermal gasification (CHG) to produce biogas and to recover N and P nutrients. The present report describes a life cycle analysis of energy use and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions of the CAP and HTL options for the three scenarios just described. Water use is also reported. Water use during algal biofuel production comes from evaporation during cultivation, discharge to bleed streams to control pond salinity (“blowdown”), and from use during preprocessing and upgrading. For scenarios considered to date, most water use was from evaporation and, secondarily, from bleed streams. Other use was relatively small at the level of

  17. Detection of surface algal blooms using the newly developed algorithm surface algal bloom index (SABI)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alawadi, Fahad

    2010-10-01

    Quantifying ocean colour properties has evolved over the past two decades from being able to merely detect their biological activity to the ability to estimate chlorophyll concentration using optical satellite sensors like MODIS and MERIS. The production of chlorophyll spatial distribution maps is a good indicator of plankton biomass (primary production) and is useful for the tracing of oceanographic currents, jets and blooms, including harmful algal blooms (HABs). Depending on the type of HABs involved and the environmental conditions, if their concentration rises above a critical threshold, it can impact the flora and fauna of the aquatic habitat through the introduction of the so called "red tide" phenomenon. The estimation of chlorophyll concentration is derived from quantifying the spectral relationship between the blue and the green bands reflected from the water column. This spectral relationship is employed in the standard ocean colour chlorophyll-a (Chlor-a) product, but is incapable of detecting certain macro-algal species that float near to or at the water surface in the form of dense filaments or mats. The ability to accurately identify algal formations that sometimes appear as oil spill look-alikes in satellite imagery, contributes towards the reduction of false-positive incidents arising from oil spill monitoring operations. Such algal formations that occur in relatively high concentrations may experience, as in land vegetation, what is known as the "red-edge" effect. This phenomena occurs at the highest reflectance slope between the maximum absorption in the red due to the surrounding ocean water and the maximum reflectance in the infra-red due to the photosynthetic pigments present in the surface algae. A new algorithm termed the surface algal bloom index (SABI), has been proposed to delineate the spatial distributions of floating micro-algal species like for example cyanobacteria or exposed inter-tidal vegetation like seagrass. This algorithm was

  18. Effects of microalgal polyunsaturated fatty acid oil on body weight and lipid accumulation in the liver of C57BL/6 mice fed a high fat diet

    PubMed Central

    Go, Ryeo-Eun; Hwang, Kyung-A; Park, Geon-Tae; Lee, Hae-Miru; Lee, Geum-A; Kim, Cho-Won; Jeon, So-Ye; Seo, Jeong-Woo; Hong, Won-Kyung; Choi, Kyung-Chul

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Dietary polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), which are abundant in marine fish oils, have recently received global attention for their prominent anti-obesogenic effects. Among PUFAs, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA; 20:5n-3) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA; 22:6n-3), which are n-3 long-chain PUFAs widely referred to as omega-3 oils, were reported to prevent the development of obesity in rodents and humans. In the present study, we evaluated the anti-obesity effects of microalgal oil on high-fat induced obese C57BL/6 mice, compared with commercial omega-3 fish oil and vegetable corn oil. Microalgal oil is an inherent mixture of several PUFAs, including EPA, DHA and other fatty acids produced from a marine microalgal strain of Thraustochytriidae sp. derived mutant. It was found to contain more PUFAs (>80%) and more omega-3 oils than commercial omega-3 fish oil (PUFAs >31%) and corn oil (PUFAs 59%). All three types of oils induced weight loss in high-fat-induced obese mice, with the loss induced by microalgal oil being most significant at 9 weeks (10% reduction). However, the oils tested did not improve blood lipid levels, although microalgal oil showed an apparent inhibitory effect on lipid accumulation in the liver. These findings may be attributed to the higher PUFA content, including omega-3 oils of microalgal oil than other oils. Collectively, these findings suggest that microalgal oil, derived from Thraustochytriidae sp. derived mutant, is a prominent candidate for replacement of omega-3 fish oils based on its apparent anti-obesity effect in vivo. PMID:27533934

  19. Effect of algal recycling rate on the performance of Pediastrum boryanum dominated wastewater treatment high rate algal pond.

    PubMed

    Park, J B K; Craggs, R J

    2014-01-01

    Recycling a portion of gravity harvested algae promoted the dominance of a rapidly settling colonial alga, Pediastrum boryanum (P. boryanum) and improved both biomass productivity and settleability in High Rate Algal Pond (HRAP) treating domestic wastewater. The effect of algal recycling rate on HRAP performance was investigated using 12 replicate mesocosms (18 L) that were operated semi-continuously under ambient conditions. Three experiments were conducted during different seasons with each experiment lasting up to 36 days. Recycling 10%, 25%, and 50% of the 'mass' of daily algal production all increased total biomass concentration in the mesocosms. However, recycling >10% reduced the organic content (volatile suspended solids (VSS)) of the mesocosm biomass from 83% to 68% and did not further increase biomass productivity (based on VSS). This indicates that if a HRAP is operated with a low algal concentration and does not utilise all the available sunlight, algal recycling increases the algal concentration up to an optimum level, resulting in higher algal biomass productivity. Recycling 10% of the daily algal production not only increased biomass productivity by ∼40%, but increased biomass settleability by ∼25%, which was probably a consequence of the ∼30% increase in P. boryanum dominance in the mesocosms compared with controls without recycling.

  20. Microalgal lipids biochemistry and biotechnological perspectives.

    PubMed

    Bellou, Stamatia; Baeshen, Mohammed N; Elazzazy, Ahmed M; Aggeli, Dimitra; Sayegh, Fotoon; Aggelis, George

    2014-12-01

    . Therefore, algal production systems need to be improved and harvesting systems need to be more effective in order for their industrial applications to become more competitive and economically viable. Besides, a reduction of the production cost of microalgal lipids can be achieved by combining lipid production with other commercial applications. The combined production of bioactive products and lipids, when possible, can support the commercial viability of both processes. Hydrophobic compounds can be extracted simultaneously with lipids and then purified, while hydrophilic compounds such as proteins and sugars may be extracted from the defatted biomass. The microalgae also have applications in environmental biotechnology since they can be used for bioremediation of wastewater and to monitor environmental toxicants. Algal biomass produced during wastewater treatment may be further valorized in the biofuel manufacture. It is anticipated that the high microalgal lipid potential will force research towards finding effective ways to manipulate biochemical pathways involved in lipid biosynthesis and towards cost effective algal cultivation and harvesting systems, as well.

  1. Sebaceous gland lipids

    PubMed Central

    Ottaviani, Monica; Camera, Emanuela; Mastrofrancesco, Arianna

    2009-01-01

    The principal activity of mature sebaceous glands is producing and secreting sebum, which is a complex mixture of lipids. Sebum composition is different among species and this difference is probably due to the function that sebum has to absolve. In human sebum there are unique lipids, such as squalene and wax esters not found anywhere else in the body nor among the epidermal surface lipids. Moreover, they correspond to major components supplying the skin with protection. However, the ultimate role of human sebum, as well the metabolic pathways regulating its composition and secretion rate, are far from a complete understanding. Increased sebum secretion is considered, among all features, the major one involved in the pathophysiology of acne. Along with increased sebum secretion rate, quali- and quantitative modifications of sebum are likely to occur in this pathology. Understanding the factors and mechanisms that regulate sebum production is needed in order to identify new targets that can be addressed to achieve a selective modulation of lipid biosynthesis as a novel therapeutic strategy to correct lipid disregulations in acne and other disorders of the pilosebaceous unit. PMID:20224686

  2. The state of U.S. freshwater harmful algal blooms assessments, policy and legislation.

    PubMed

    Hudnell, H Kenneth

    2010-05-01

    The incidence of harmful algal blooms (HABs) is increasing in the United States and worldwide. HAB toxins cause a substantial but unquantified amount of human and animal morbidity and mortality from exposures in recreational, commercial, drinking-source and potable waters. HAB biomass and toxins threaten the sustainability of aquatic ecosystems. U.S. Congressional legislation mandated the establishment of a National Research Plan for Coastal Harmful Algal Blooms, but no similar plan exists for freshwater HABs (FHABs). Eutrophication and FHABs are conservatively estimated to cost the U.S. economy 2.2-4.6 billion dollars annually. A National Research Plan for Freshwater Harmful Algal Blooms is needed to develop U.S. policy and regulations or guidelines to confront FHAB risks. This report reviews the state of FHAB occurrence, risk and risk management assessments in the U.S. Research is identified that must be accomplished to characterize occurrence and risks, and develop cost effective strategies for preventing, suppressing and mitigating FHABs. U.S. Congressional legislation is needed to mandate a National Research Plan for FHABs, establish a timeline for developing policy and fund competitive research-grant programs. The research results will provide a sound scientific basis for making policy determinations and implementing risk management strategies. Successfully confronting FHAB risks will strengthen the U.S. economy, protect human and animal health and help ensure the sustainability of our Nation's freshwater bodies.

  3. Harmful Algal Blooms and Public Health

    PubMed Central

    Grattan, Lynn M.; Holobaugh, Sailor; Morris, J. Glenn

    2015-01-01

    The five most commonly recognized Harmful Algal Bloom related illnesses include Ciguatera poisoning, Paralytic Shellfish poisoning, Neurotoxin Shellfish poisoning, Diarrheic Shellfish Poisoning and Amnesic Shellfish poisoning. Although they are each the product of different toxins, toxin assemblages or HAB precursors these clinical syndromes have much in common. Exposure occurs through the consumption of fish or shellfish; routine clinical tests are not available for diagnosis; there is no known antidote for exposure; and the risk of these illnesses can negatively impact local fishing and tourism industries. Thus, illness prevention is of paramount importance to minimize human and public health risks. To accomplish this, close communication and collaboration is needed among HAB scientists, public health researchers and local, state and tribal health departments at academic, community outreach, and policy levels. PMID:27616971

  4. Harmful Algal Blooms and Public Health.

    PubMed

    Grattan, Lynn M; Holobaugh, Sailor; Morris, J Glenn

    2016-07-01

    The five most commonly recognized Harmful Algal Bloom related illnesses include Ciguatera poisoning, Paralytic Shellfish poisoning, Neurotoxin Shellfish poisoning, Diarrheic Shellfish Poisoning and Amnesic Shellfish poisoning. Although they are each the product of different toxins, toxin assemblages or HAB precursors these clinical syndromes have much in common. Exposure occurs through the consumption of fish or shellfish; routine clinical tests are not available for diagnosis; there is no known antidote for exposure; and the risk of these illnesses can negatively impact local fishing and tourism industries. Thus, illness prevention is of paramount importance to minimize human and public health risks. To accomplish this, close communication and collaboration is needed among HAB scientists, public health researchers and local, state and tribal health departments at academic, community outreach, and policy levels.

  5. The ecology of algal biodiesel production.

    PubMed

    Smith, Val H; Sturm, Belinda S M; Denoyelles, Frank J; Billings, Sharon A

    2010-05-01

    Sustainable energy production represents one of the most formidable problems of the 21st century, and plant-based biofuels offer significant promise. We summarize the potential advantages of using pond-grown microalgae as feedstocks relative to conventional terrestrial biofuel crop production. We show how pond-based algal biofuel production, which requires significantly less land area than agricultural crop-based biofuel systems, can offer additional ecological benefits by reducing anthropogenic pollutant releases to the environment and by requiring much lower water subsidies. We also demonstrate how key principles drawn from the science of ecology can be used to design efficient pond-based microalgal systems for the production of biodiesel fuels.

  6. The dynamics of heterotrophic algal cultures.

    PubMed

    De la Hoz Siegler, H; Ben-Zvi, A; Burrell, R E; McCaffrey, W C

    2011-05-01

    In this work, the time varying characteristics of microalgal cultures are investigated. Microalgae are a promising source of biofuels and other valuable chemicals; a better understanding of their dynamic behavior is, however, required to facilitate process scale-up, optimization and control. Growth and oil production rates are evaluated as a function of carbon and nitrogen sources concentration. It is found that nitrogen has a major role in controlling the productivity of microalgae. Moreover, it is shown that there exists a nitrogen source concentration at which biomass and oil production can be maximized. A mathematical model that describes the effect of nitrogen and carbon source on growth and oil production is proposed. The model considers the uncoupling between nutrient uptake and growth, a characteristic of algal cells. Validity of the proposed model is tested on fed-batch cultures.

  7. Studies on the influence of CCK-8 on the ability of obestatin to reduce food intake, gain in body weight and related lipid parameters.

    PubMed

    Nagaraj, ShreeRanga; Manjappara, Uma V

    2016-06-01

    In an effort to mimic in part the redundancy of satiety peptides involved in energy homeostasis, the combined benefits of the well-established satiety peptide CCK8 and an apparently anorectic peptide obestatin were studied in Swiss albino mice. The optimal dose of obestatin that was required to give the most pronounced effect with CCK8 was worked out by varying the concentration of obestatin while keeping CCK8 concentration constant at 200 nmol/KgBW. Mice administered 160 nmol obestatin and 200 nmol CCK8 per kilogram body weight showed the most drastic reduction in food intake. Gain in body weight was arrested after day four during the eight day experiment. These studies reemphasize the beneficial effects imparted by co-administration of obestatin and CCK8 and their potential use towards countering obesity.

  8. Algal productivity modeling: a step toward accurate assessments of full-scale algal cultivation.

    PubMed

    Béchet, Quentin; Chambonnière, Paul; Shilton, Andy; Guizard, Guillaume; Guieysse, Benoit

    2015-05-01

    A new biomass productivity model was parameterized for Chlorella vulgaris using short-term (<30 min) oxygen productivities from algal microcosms exposed to 6 light intensities (20-420 W/m(2)) and 6 temperatures (5-42 °C). The model was then validated against experimental biomass productivities recorded in bench-scale photobioreactors operated under 4 light intensities (30.6-74.3 W/m(2)) and 4 temperatures (10-30 °C), yielding an accuracy of ± 15% over 163 days of cultivation. This modeling approach addresses major challenges associated with the accurate prediction of algal productivity at full-scale. Firstly, while most prior modeling approaches have only considered the impact of light intensity on algal productivity, the model herein validated also accounts for the critical impact of temperature. Secondly, this study validates a theoretical approach to convert short-term oxygen productivities into long-term biomass productivities. Thirdly, the experimental methodology used has the practical advantage of only requiring one day of experimental work for complete model parameterization. The validation of this new modeling approach is therefore an important step for refining feasibility assessments of algae biotechnologies.

  9. Efficacy of a Meal-Replacement Program for Promoting Blood Lipid Changes and Weight and Body Fat Loss in US Army Soldiers

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-02-01

    preparation tech- iques, healthful recipes, and suggestions for grocery hopping and dining out. utcome Measures ll outcome measures were assessed at...neck, abdomen I, and hip . Success in meet- ng body fat standards was determined according to the rmy Weight Control Program regulation: maximum al...Volunteers ecord activity by selecting from 300 activities in the alance Log database and specifying activity duration. he software derives an estimate

  10. Effects of Agave tequilana fructans with different degree of polymerization profiles on the body weight, blood lipids and count of fecal Lactobacilli/Bifidobacteria in obese mice.

    PubMed

    Márquez-Aguirre, Ana Laura; Camacho-Ruiz, Rosa Maria; Arriaga-Alba, Myriam; Padilla-Camberos, Eduardo; Kirchmayr, Manuel Reinhart; Blasco, José Luis; González-Avila, Marisela

    2013-08-01

    Fructans are dietary fibers with beneficial effects on the gastrointestinal physiology and offer a promising approach for the treatment of some metabolic disorders associated with obesity. In vitro and in vivo studies were developed to test the safety of fructans obtained from Agave tequilana Weber var. azul. Additionally, an in vivo experiment using a diet-induced obesity model was performed to compare the effect of agave fructans with different degree of polymerization (DP) profiles: agave fructans with DP > 10 (LcF), agave FOS with DP < 10 (ScF), and agave fructans with and without demineralization (dTF, TF) versus commercial chicory fructans (OraftiSynergy1™) on the body weight change, fat, total cholesterol, triglycerides and count of fecal Lactobacillus spp. and Bifidobacterium spp. Results showed that A. tequilana fructans were not mutagenic and were safe even at a dose of 5 g per kg b.w. Obese mice that received ScF showed a significant decrease in body weight gain, fat tissue and total cholesterol without increasing the count of fecal Bifidobacteria. Whereas, obese mice that received LcF and TF showed decreased triglycerides and an increased count of fecal Bifidobacteria. Interestingly, although obese mice that received dTF did not show changes in body weight gain, fat tissue, total cholesterol or triglycerides, they showed an increase in the count of Bifidobacteria. These results demonstrate that both the degree of polymerization and the demineralization process can influence the biological activity of agave fructans.

  11. Gamiwalbitang, composed of four herbs, controls body weight increase and lipid level elevation induced by a high-fat diet in mice.

    PubMed

    An, Hyo-Jin; Rim, Hong-Kun; Suh, Se-Eun; Jeong, Hyun-Ja; Um, Jae-Young; Hong, Seung-Heon; Kim, Hyung-Min

    2010-06-01

    Gamiwalbitang (GWB) is a newly developed dietary supplement that is composed of four herbs. The purpose of GWB development is to help control weight. The aim of this study was to investigate whether GWB combined with a 40% high-fat (HF) diet can influence body weight and fat accumulation. An experiment was conducted with 40 C57BL/6J mice with an initial body weight of approximately 18g. Body weight was recorded weekly, and plasma levels of triglyceride, low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, and leptin were analyzed at the end of the study. Weight increases in the 10% GWB group were 38.5% less than in the HF diet group (P < 0.05). Plasma triglyceride and LDL cholesterol levels decreased by 21.2% and 51.0%, respectively, in the 5% GWB group, and 44.1% and 51.5%, respectively, in the 10% GWB group compared to the HF diet group. The HDL cholesterol level was increased by 184.0% in the 5% GWB group and 188.2% in the 10% GWB group. The serum leptin level was significantly decreased by the GWB diet, and in the GWB diet group; gene expression of leptin in adipose tissue was also decreased compared with HF diet group. These findings indicate that GWB may be beneficial in the regulation of high-fat diet-induced blood circulatory disorders.

  12. Effects of algal food quality on sexual reproduction of Daphnia magna.

    PubMed

    Choi, Jong-Yun; Kim, Seong-Ki; La, Geung-Hwan; Chang, Kwang-Hyeon; Kim, Dong-Kyun; Jeong, Keon-Young; Park, Min S; Joo, Gea-Jae; Kim, Hyun-Woo; Jeong, Kwang-Seuk

    2016-05-01

    The objective of our study was to investigate sexual reproduction of Daphnia magna associated with mating behaviors and hatching rates, according to different algal food sources. Since a diatom is known to contain more abundant long-chain poly unsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), we hypothesized that the diatom-consuming D. magna would exhibit more successful reproduction rates. Upon the hypothesis, we designed three experiments using two algal species, a green alga (Chlorella vulgaris) and a diatom (Stephanodiscus hantzschii). From the results, we found that the mating frequency and copulation duration increased in the treatment with S. hantzschii, resulting in a significant increase of hatching rates of resting eggs. In the other two repetitive mating strategies (e.g., one female vs. multiple males, and one male vs. multiple females), we found that the hatching rates of resting eggs were greater in the S. hantzschii treatment. In addition to the mating strategy, male body size significantly increased in the diatom treatment, hence average diameter of penis was also statistically different among the treatments (greater diameter in the S. hantzschii treatment). To examine the effect of algal food quality, we estimated quantity of fatty acids in the two algal species. Our result showed that S. hantzschii had a higher proportion of long-chain PUFAs than C. vulgaris. Furthermore, a stable isotope analysis revealed that carbon and nitrogen originated from S. hantzschii were more assimilated to D. magna. In summary, our study manifested that diatom consumption of D. magna leads to more successful sexual reproduction. We then discussed how the diatom consumption of zooplankton influences food web dynamics in a freshwater ecosystem.

  13. Effects of algal-derived carbon on sediment methane ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Nutrient loading is known to have adverse consequences for aquatic ecosystems, particularly in the form of algal blooms that may result. These blooms pose problems for humans and wildlife, including harmful toxin release, aquatic hypoxia and increased costs for water treatment. Another potential disservice resulting from algal blooms is the enhanced production of methane (CH4), a potent greenhouse gas, in aquatic sediments. Laboratory experiments have shown that algal biomass additions to sediment cores increase rates of CH4 production, but it is unclear whether or not this effect occurs at the ecosystem scale. The goal of this research was to explore the link between algal-derived carbon and methane production in the sediment of a eutrophic reservoir located in southwest Ohio, using a sampling design that capitalized on spatial and temporal gradients in autochthonous carbon input to sediments. Specifically, we aimed to determine if the within-reservoir gradient of sediment algal-derived organic matter and sediment CH4 production rates correlate. This was done by retrieving sediment cores from 15 sites within the reservoir along a known gradient of methane emission rates, at two separate time points in 2016: late spring before the sediments had received large amounts of algal input and mid-summer after algal blooms had been prevalent in the reservoir. Potential CH4 production rates, sediment organic matter source, and microbial community composition were charac

  14. Fungal farmers or algal escorts: lichen adaptation from the algal perspective.

    PubMed

    Piercey-Normore, Michele D; Deduke, Christopher

    2011-09-01

    Domestication of algae by lichen-forming fungi describes the symbiotic relationship between the photosynthetic (green alga or cyanobacterium; photobiont) and fungal (mycobiont) partnership in lichen associations (Goward 1992). The algal domestication implies that the mycobiont cultivates the alga as a monoculture within its thallus, analogous to a farmer cultivating a food crop. However, the initial photobiont 'selection' by the mycobiont may be predetermined by the habitat rather than by the farmer. When the mycobiont selects a photobiont from the available photobionts within a habitat, the mycobiont may influence photobiont growth and reproduction (Ahmadjian & Jacobs 1981) only after the interaction has been initiated. The theory of ecological guilds (Rikkinen et al. 2002) proposes that habitat limits the variety of photobionts available to the fungal partner. While some studies provide evidence to support the theory of ecological guilds in cyanobacterial lichens (Rikkinen et al. 2002), other studies propose models to explain variation in symbiont combinations in green algal lichens (Ohmura et al. 2006; Piercey-Normore 2006; Yahr et al. 2006) hypothesizing the existence of such guilds. In this issue of Molecular Ecology, Peksa & Škaloud (2011) test the theory of ecological guilds and suggest a relationship between algal habitat requirements and lichen adaptation in green algal lichens of the genus Lepraria. The environmental parameters examined in this study, exposure to rainfall, altitude and substratum type, are integral to lichen biology. Lichens have a poikilohydric nature, relying on the availability of atmospheric moisture for metabolic processes. Having no known active mechanism to preserve metabolic thallus moisture in times of drought, one would expect a strong influence of the environment on symbiont adaptation to specific habitats. Adaptation to changes in substrata and its properties would be expected with the intimate contact between crustose

  15. Proterozoic microfossils revealing the time of algal divergences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moczydlowska-Vidal, Malgorzata

    2010-05-01

    Proterozoic microfossils revealing the time of algal divergences Małgorzata Moczydłowska-Vidal Uppsala University, Department of Earth Sciences, Palaeobiology, Villavägen 16, SE 752 36 Uppsala, Sweden (malgo.vidal@pal.uu.se) Morphological and reproductive features and cell wall ultrastructure and biochemistry of Proterozoic acritarchs are used to determine their affinity to modern algae. The first appearance datum of these microbiota is traced to infer a minimum age of the divergence of the algal classes to which they may belong. The chronological appearance of microfossils that represent phycoma-like and zygotic cysts and vegetative cells and/or aplanospores, respectively interpreted as prasinophyceaen and chlorophyceaen microalgae, is related to the Viridiplantae phylogeny. These divergence times differ from molecular clock estimates, and the palaeontological evidence suggests that they are older. The best examples of unicellular, organic-walled microfossils (acritarchs) from the Mesoproterozoic to Early Ordovician are reviewed to demonstrate features, which are indicative of their affinity to photosynthetic microalgae. The first indication that a microfossil may be algal is a decay- and acid-resistant cell wall, which reflects its biochemistry and ultrastructure, and probably indicates the ability to protect a resting/reproductive cyst. The biopolymers synthesized in the cell walls of algae and in land plants ("plant cells"), such as sporopollenin/algaenan, are diagnostic for photosynthetic taxa and were inherited from early unicellular ancestors. These preservable cell walls are resistant to acetolysis, hydrolysis and acids, and show diagnostic ultrastructures such as the trilaminar sheath structure (TLS). "Plant cell" walls differ in terms of chemical compounds, which give high preservation potential, from fungal and animal cell walls. Fungal and animal cells are fossilized only by syngenetic permineralization, whereas "plant cells" are fossilized as body

  16. A comparative study: the impact of different lipid extraction methods on current microalgal lipid research

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Microalgae cells have the potential to rapidly accumulate lipids, such as triacylglycerides that contain fatty acids important for high value fatty acids (e.g., EPA and DHA) and/or biodiesel production. However, lipid extraction methods for microalgae cells are not well established, and there is currently no standard extraction method for the determination of the fatty acid content of microalgae. This has caused a few problems in microlagal biofuel research due to the bias derived from different extraction methods. Therefore, this study used several extraction methods for fatty acid analysis on marine microalga Tetraselmis sp. M8, aiming to assess the potential impact of different extractions on current microalgal lipid research. These methods included classical Bligh & Dyer lipid extraction, two other chemical extractions using different solvents and sonication, direct saponification and supercritical CO2 extraction. Soxhlet-based extraction was used to weigh out the importance of solvent polarity in the algal oil extraction. Coupled with GC/MS, a Thermogravimetric Analyser was used to improve the quantification of microalgal lipid extractions. Among these extractions, significant differences were observed in both, extract yield and fatty acid composition. The supercritical extraction technique stood out most for effective extraction of microalgal lipids, especially for long chain unsaturated fatty acids. The results highlight the necessity for comparative analyses of microalgae fatty acids and careful choice and validation of analytical methodology in microalgal lipid research. PMID:24456581

  17. Lipid Nanotechnology

    PubMed Central

    Mashaghi, Samaneh; Jadidi, Tayebeh; Koenderink, Gijsje; Mashaghi, Alireza

    2013-01-01

    Nanotechnology is a multidisciplinary field that covers a vast and diverse array of devices and machines derived from engineering, physics, materials science, chemistry and biology. These devices have found applications in biomedical sciences, such as targeted drug delivery, bio-imaging, sensing and diagnosis of pathologies at early stages. In these applications, nano-devices typically interface with the plasma membrane of cells. On the other hand, naturally occurring nanostructures in biology have been a source of inspiration for new nanotechnological designs and hybrid nanostructures made of biological and non-biological, organic and inorganic building blocks. Lipids, with their amphiphilicity, diversity of head and tail chemistry, and antifouling properties that block nonspecific binding to lipid-coated surfaces, provide a powerful toolbox for nanotechnology. This review discusses the progress in the emerging field of lipid nanotechnology. PMID:23429269

  18. Photos of Lakes Before and After Algal Blooms

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Nutrient pollution can cause algal blooms that are sometimes toxic and always unsightly. The photos on this page show lakes and ponds around the country that have been impacted by this environmental problem.

  19. A seasnake's colour affects its susceptibility to algal fouling.

    PubMed

    Shine, R; Brischoux, F; Pile, A J

    2010-08-22

    Evolutionary transitions from terrestrial to aquatic life modify selective forces on an animal's coloration. For example, light penetrates differently through water than air, and a new suite of predators and visual backgrounds changes the targets of selection. We suggest that an aquatic animal's coloration may also affect its susceptibility to algal fouling. In a colour-polymorphic field population of seasnakes (Emydocephalus annulatus) in New Caledonia, black individuals supported higher algal cover than did banded conspecifics. In experimental tests, black snake models (plastic tubes) accumulated more algae than did banded models. Algal cover substantially reduced snake activity (in the field) and swimming speeds (in the laboratory). Effects of algal cover on a snake's hydrodynamic efficiency and/or its rate of cutaneous gas exchange thus may impose selection on the colours of aquatic organisms.

  20. Harmful Algal Blooms (HABs) Actionable Research for Tribal Communities

    EPA Science Inventory

    Harmful algal blooms (HABs) from algae, cyanobacteria and golden algae may occur naturally. However, human activities appear to be increasing the frequency of some HABs. HABs can have a variety of ecological, economic and human health impacts.

  1. Improving photosynthesis for algal biofuels: toward a green revolution.

    PubMed

    Stephenson, Patrick G; Moore, C Mark; Terry, Matthew J; Zubkov, Mikhail V; Bibby, Thomas S

    2011-12-01

    Biofuels derived from marine algae are a potential source of sustainable energy that can contribute to future global demands. The realisation of this potential will require manipulation of the fundamental biology of algal physiology to increase the efficiency with which solar energy is ultimately converted into usable biomass. This 'photosynthetic solar energy conversion efficiency' sets an upper limit on the potential of algal-derived biofuels. In this review, we outline photosynthetic molecular targets that could be manipulated to increase the efficiency and yield of algal biofuel production. We also highlight modern 'omic' and high-throughput technologies that might enable identification, selection and improvement of algal cell lines on timescales relevant for achieving significant contributions to future energy solutions.

  2. Airborne Monitoring of Harmful Algal Blooms over Lake Erie

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tokars, Roger; Lekki, John

    2013-01-01

    The Hyperspectral Imager mounted to an aircraft was used to develop a remote sensing capability to detect the pigment Phycocyanin, an indicator of Microcystis, in low concentration as an early indicator of harmful algal bloom prediction.

  3. Enhancement of algal growth and productivity by grazing zooplankton.

    PubMed

    Porter, K G

    1976-06-25

    Colonies of the common planktonic green alga, Sphaerocystis schroeteri, are only partially disrupted and assimilated by Daphnia magna, a natural predator. The Daphnia break up the outer protective gelatinous sheath that surrounds Sphaerocystis colonies, but most of the algal cells emerge from Daphnia guts intact and in viable condition. During gut passage, these viable cells take up nutrients, such as phosphorus, both from algal remains and from Daphnia metabolites. This nutrient supply stimulates algal carbon fixation and cell division. Enhanced algal growth, observed after gut passage, can compensate for the minor losses to the population caused by grazing. Nutrients regenerated by grazers may produce the summer bloom of gelatinous green algae during the seasonal succession of lake phytoplankton.

  4. Algal Biofuels R&D at NREL (Brochure)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2012-09-01

    An overview of NREL's algal biofuels projects, including U.S. Department of Energy-funded work, projects with U.S. and international partners, and Laboratory Directed Research and Development projects.

  5. Strain, biochemistry, and cultivation-dependent measurement variability of algal biomass composition.

    PubMed

    Laurens, Lieve M L; Van Wychen, Stefanie; McAllister, Jordan P; Arrowsmith, Sarah; Dempster, Thomas A; McGowen, John; Pienkos, Philip T

    2014-05-01

    Accurate compositional analysis in biofuel feedstocks is imperative; the yields of individual components can define the economics of an entire process. In the nascent industry of algal biofuels and bioproducts, analytical methods that have been deemed acceptable for decades are suddenly critical for commercialization. We tackled the question of how the strain and biochemical makeup of algal cells affect chemical measurements. We selected a set of six procedures (two each for lipids, protein, and carbohydrates): three rapid fingerprinting methods and three advanced chromatography-based methods. All methods were used to measure the composition of 100 samples from three strains: Scenedesmus sp., Chlorella sp., and Nannochloropsis sp. The data presented point not only to species-specific discrepancies but also to cell biochemistry-related discrepancies. There are cases where two respective methods agree but the differences are often significant with over- or underestimation of up to 90%, likely due to chemical interferences with the rapid spectrophotometric measurements. We provide background on the chemistry of interfering reactions for the fingerprinting methods and conclude that for accurate compositional analysis of algae and process and mass balance closure, emphasis should be placed on unambiguous characterization using methods where individual components are measured independently.

  6. Combinatorial life cycle assessment to inform process design of industrial production of algal biodiesel.

    PubMed

    Brentner, Laura B; Eckelman, Matthew J; Zimmerman, Julie B

    2011-08-15

    The use of algae as a feedstock for biodiesel production is a rapidly growing industry, in the United States and globally. A life cycle assessment (LCA) is presented that compares various methods, either proposed or under development, for algal biodiesel to inform the most promising pathways for sustainable full-scale production. For this analysis, the system is divided into five distinct process steps: (1) microalgae cultivation, (2) harvesting and/or dewatering, (3) lipid extraction, (4) conversion (transesterification) into biodiesel, and (5) byproduct management. A number of technology options are considered for each process step and various technology combinations are assessed for their life cycle environmental impacts. The optimal option for each process step is selected yielding a best case scenario, comprised of a flat panel enclosed photobioreactor and direct transesterification of algal cells with supercritical methanol. For a functional unit of 10 GJ biodiesel, the best case production system yields a cumulative energy demand savings of more than 65 GJ, reduces water consumption by 585 m(3) and decreases greenhouse gas emissions by 86% compared to a base case scenario typical of early industrial practices, highlighting the importance of technological innovation in algae processing and providing guidance on promising production pathways.

  7. Quantitative uncertainty analysis of Life Cycle Assessment for algal biofuel production.

    PubMed

    Sills, Deborah L; Paramita, Vidia; Franke, Michael J; Johnson, Michael C; Akabas, Tal M; Greene, Charles H; Tester, Jefferson W

    2013-01-15

    As a result of algae's promise as a renewable energy feedstock, numerous studies have used Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) to quantify the environmental performance of algal biofuels, yet there is no consensus of results among them. Our work, motivated by the lack of comprehensive uncertainty analysis in previous studies, uses a Monte Carlo approach to estimate ranges of expected values of LCA metrics by incorporating parameter variability with empirically specified distribution functions. Results show that large uncertainties exist at virtually all steps of the biofuel production process. Although our findings agree with a number of earlier studies on matters such as the need for wet lipid extraction, nutrients recovered from waste streams, and high energy coproducts, the ranges of reported LCA metrics show that uncertainty analysis is crucial for developing technologies, such as algal biofuels. In addition, the ranges of energy return on (energy) invested (EROI) values resulting from our analysis help explain the high variability in EROI values from earlier studies. Reporting results from LCA models as ranges, and not single values, will more reliably inform industry and policy makers on expected energetic and environmental performance of biofuels produced from microalgae.

  8. Degradation of algal organic matter using microbial fuel cells and its association with trihalomethane precursor removal.

    PubMed

    Wang, Huan; Liu, Dongmei; Lu, Lu; Zhao, Zhiwei; Xu, Yongpeng; Cui, Fuyi

    2012-07-01

    In order to provide an alternative for removal of algal organic matter (AOM) produced during algal blooms in aquatic environment, microbial fuel cell (MFC) was used to study AOM degradation and its association with THM precursor removal. The chemical oxygen demand (COD) removals in MFCs were 81 ± 6% and 73 ± 3% for AOM from Microcystis aeruginosa (AOM(M)) and Chlorella vulgaris (AOM(C)), respectively. THM precursor was also effectively degraded (AOM(M) 85 ± 2%, AOM(C) 72 ± 4%). The major AOM components (proteins, lipids, and carbohydrates) were obviously removed in MFCs. The contribution of each component to the THM formation potential (THMFP) was obtained based on calculation. The THMFP produced from soluble microbial products was very low. If the energy input during operation process was not considered, MFCs treatment could recover electrical energy of 0.29 ± 0.02 kWh/kg COD (AOM(M)) and 0.35 ± 0.06 kWh/kg COD (AOM(C)).

  9. 2016 National Algal Biofuels Technology Review Fact Sheet

    SciTech Connect

    2016-06-01

    Algae-based biofuels and bioproducts offer great promise in contributing to the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Bioenergy Technologies Office’s (BETO’s) vision of a thriving and sustainable bioeconomy fueled by innovative technologies. The state of technology for producing algal biofuels continues to mature with ongoing investment by DOE and the private sector, but additional research, development, and demonstration (RD&D) is needed to achieve widespread deployment of affordable, scalable, and sustainable algal biofuels.

  10. A rapid and accurate quantification method for real-time dynamic analysis of cellular lipids during microalgal fermentation processes in Chlorella protothecoides with low field nuclear magnetic resonance.

    PubMed

    Wang, Tao; Liu, Tingting; Wang, Zejian; Tian, Xiwei; Yang, Yi; Guo, Meijin; Chu, Ju; Zhuang, Yingping

    2016-05-01

    The rapid and real-time lipid determination can provide valuable information on process regulation and optimization in the algal lipid mass production. In this study, a rapid, accurate and precise quantification method of in vivo cellular lipids of Chlorella protothecoides using low field nuclear magnetic resonance (LF-NMR) was newly developed. LF-NMR was extremely sensitive to the algal lipids with the limits of the detection (LOD) of 0.0026g and 0.32g/L in dry lipid samples and algal broth, respectively, as well as limits of quantification (LOQ) of 0.0093g and 1.18g/L. Moreover, the LF-NMR signal was specifically proportional to the cellular lipids of C. protothecoides, thus the superior regression curves existing in a wide detection range from 0.02 to 0.42g for dry lipids and from 1.12 to 8.97gL(-1) of lipid concentration for in vivo lipid quantification were obtained with all R(2) higher than 0.99, irrespective of the lipid content and fatty acids profile variations. The accuracy of this novel method was further verified to be reliable by comparing lipid quantification results to those obtained by GC-MS. And the relative standard deviation (RSD) of LF-NMR results were smaller than 2%, suggesting the precision of this method. Finally, this method was successfully used in the on-line lipid monitoring during the algal lipid fermentation processes, making it possible for better understanding of the lipid accumulation mechanism and dynamic bioprocess control.

  11. Biogas production from anaerobic digestion of Spirulina maxima algal biomass

    SciTech Connect

    Samson, R.; LeDuy, A.

    1982-08-01

    The photosynthetic spectrum of solar energy could be exploited for the production of chemical energy of methane through the combined algal-bacterial process. In this process, the algae are mass produced from light and from carbon in the first step. The algal biomass is then used as a nutrient for feeding the anaerobic digester, in the second step, for the production of methane by anaerobic bacteria. The carbon source for the production of algal biomass could be either organic carbon from wastewaters (for eucaryotic algae), or carbon dioxide from the atmosphere or from the combustion exhaust gases (for both prokaryotic and eukaryotic algae). The technical feasibility data on the anaerobic digestion of algal biomass have been reported for many species of algae including macroscopic algae and microscopic algae. Research being conducted in the authors' laboratory consists of using the semimicroscopic blue-green alga Spirulina maxima as the sole substrate for this combined algal-bacterial process. This species of alga is very attractive for the process because of its capability of using the atmospheric carbon dioxide as carbon source and its simple harvesting methods. Furthermore, it appeared that the fermentability of S. maxima is significantly higher than other microscopic algae. This communication presents the results on the anaerobic inoculum development by the adaptation technique. This inoculum was then used for the semicontinuous anaerobic digestion of S. maxima algal biomass. The evolutions of biogas production and composition, biogas yield, total volatile fatty acids, alkalinity, ammonia nitrogen, pH, and electrode potential were followed.

  12. Harmful algal bloom smart device application: using image analysis and machine learning techniques for early classification of harmful algal blooms

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Ecological Stewardship Institute at Northern Kentucky University and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency are collaborating to optimize a harmful algal bloom detection algorithm that estimates the presence and count of cyanobacteria in freshwater systems by image analysis...

  13. Life cycle assessment and nutrient analysis of various processing pathways in algal biofuel production.

    PubMed

    Mu, Dongyan; Ruan, Roger; Addy, Min; Mack, Sarah; Chen, Paul; Zhou, Yong

    2017-04-01

    This study focuses on analyzing nutrient distributions and environmental impacts of nutrient recycling, reusing, and discharging in algal biofuels production. The three biomass conversion pathways compared in this study were: hydrothermal liquefaction technology (HTL), hydrothermal hydrolysis pretreatment +HTL (HTP), and wet lipid extraction (WLE). Carbon, nitrogen, and phosphorous (C, N, P) flows were described in each pathway. A primary cost analysis was conducted to evaluate the economic performance. The LCA results show that the HTP reduced life cycle NOx emissions by 10% from HTL, but increased fossil fuel use, greenhouse gas emissions, and eutrophication potential by 14%, 5%, and 28% respectively. The cost of per gallon biodiesel produced in HTP was less than in HTL. To further reduce emissions, efforts should be focused on improving nutrient uptake rates in algae cultivation, increasing biomass carbon detention in hydrothermal hydrolysis, and/or enhancing biomass conversion rates in the biooil upgrading processes.

  14. Process energy comparison for the production and harvesting of algal biomass as a biofuel feedstock.

    PubMed

    Weschler, Matthew K; Barr, William J; Harper, Willie F; Landis, Amy E

    2014-02-01

    Harvesting and drying are often described as the most energy intensive stages of microalgal biofuel production. This study analyzes two cultivation and eleven harvest technologies for the production of microalgae biomass with and without the use of drying. These technologies were combined to form 122 different production scenarios. The results of this study present a calculation methodology and optimization of total energy demand for the production of algal biomass for biofuel production. The energetic interaction between unit processes and total process energy demand are compared for each scenario. Energy requirements are shown to be highly dependent on final mass concentration, with thermal drying being the largest energy consumer. Scenarios that omit thermal drying in favor of lipid extraction from wet biomass show the most promise for energy efficient biofuel production. Scenarios which used open ponds for cultivation, followed by settling and membrane filtration were the most energy efficient.

  15. Analysis of lipid profile in lipid storage myopathy.

    PubMed

    Aguennouz, M'hammed; Beccaria, Marco; Purcaro, Giorgia; Oteri, Marianna; Micalizzi, Giuseppe; Musumesci, Olimpia; Ciranni, Annmaria; Di Giorgio, Rosa Maria; Toscano, Antonio; Dugo, Paola; Mondello, Luigi

    2016-09-01

    Lipid dysmetabolism disease is a condition in which lipids are stored abnormally in organs and tissues throughout the body, causing muscle weakness (myopathy). Usually, the diagnosis of this disease and its characterization goes through dosage of Acyl CoA in plasma accompanied with evidence of droplets of intra-fibrils lipids in the patient muscle biopsy. However, to understand the pathophysiological mechanisms of lipid storage diseases, it is useful to identify the nature of lipids deposited in muscle fiber. In this work fatty acids and triglycerides profile of lipid accumulated in the muscle of people suffering from myopathies syndromes was characterized. In particular, the analyses were carried out on the muscle biopsy of people afflicted by lipid storage myopathy, such as multiple acyl-coenzyme A dehydrogenase deficiency, and neutral lipid storage disease with myopathy, and by the intramitochondrial lipid storage dysfunctions, such as deficiencies of carnitine palmitoyltransferase II enzyme. A single step extraction and derivatization procedure was applied to analyze fatty acids from muscle tissues by gas chromatography with a flame ionization detector and with an electronic impact mass spectrometer. Triglycerides, extracted by using n-hexane, were analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometer equipped with an atmospheric pressure chemical ionization interface. The most representative fatty acids in all samples were: C16:0 in the 13-24% range, C18:1n9 in the 20-52% range, and C18:2n6 in the 10-25% range. These fatty acids were part of the most representative triglycerides in all samples. The data obtained was statistically elaborated performing a principal component analysis. A satisfactory discrimination was obtained among the different diseases. Using component 1 vs component 3 a 43.3% of total variance was explained. Such results suggest the important role that lipid profile characterization can have in supporting a correct

  16. Identification of a new class of lipid droplet-associated proteins in plants

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Lipid droplets in plants (also known as oil bodies, lipid bodies or oleosomes) are well characterized in seeds, and oleosins, the major proteins associated with their surface, were shown to be important for stabilizing lipid droplets during seed desiccation and rehydration. However, lipid droplets ...

  17. A catchment-scale palaeolimnological investigation into multiple forcings of algal community change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moorhouse, H. L.; McGowan, S.; Jones, M.; Brayshaw, S.; Barker, P.; Leavitt, P.

    2013-12-01

    catchment: lake area ratio, climate (specifically precipitation) had a more demonstrable impact on algal communities, through enhanced delivery of catchment nutrients. Therefore, we have identified water-bodies likely to be most 'at-risk' from future climate change, in order to advise on tailored management strategies for individual lakes within the catchment.

  18. Physical Exercise Combined with Whole-Body Cryotherapy in Evaluating the Level of Lipid Peroxidation Products and Other Oxidant Stress Indicators in Kayakers

    PubMed Central

    Sutkowy, Paweł; Augustyńska, Beata; Woźniak, Alina; Rakowski, Andrzej

    2014-01-01

    The influence of exercise combined with whole-body cryotherapy (WBC) on the oxidant/antioxidant balance in healthy men was assessed. The study included 16 kayakers of the Polish National Team, aged 22.7 ± 2.6, subjected to WBC (−120°C–−145°C; 3 min) twice a day for the first 10 days of a 19-day physical training cycle: pre exercise morning stimulation and post exercise afternoon recovery. Blood samples were taken on Day 0 (baseline) and on Days 5, 11 and 19. The serum concentration of malondialdehyde (MDA), conjugated dienes (CD), thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), protein carbonyls, vitamin E, urea, cortisol, and testosterone were determined, along with the glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activity, the total antioxidant capacity (TAC), and morphological blood parameters. On 5th day of exercise/WBC, the baseline GPx activity decreased by 15.1% (P < 0.05), while on 19th day, it increased by 19.7% (P < 0.05) versus Day 5. On Day 19 TBARS concentration decreased versus baseline and Day 5 (by 15.9% and 17.4%, resp.; P < 0.01). On 19 Day urea concentration also decreased versus 11 Day; however, on 5th and 11th days the level was higher versus baseline. Combining exercise during longer training cycles with WBC may be advantageous. PMID:24864189

  19. Patch recognition of algal blooms and macroalgae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szekielda, K. H.; Bowles, J. H.; Gillis, D. B.; Snyder, W.; Miller, W. D.

    2010-04-01

    Fraunhofer lines and atmospheric absorption bands interfere with the spectral location of absorption bands of photosynthetic pigments in plankton. Hyperspectral data were used to address this interference on identifying absorption bands by applying derivative analysis of radiance spectra. Algal blooms show elevated radiance data even at longer wavelengths compared to oligotrophic water and may reach radiance values of around 800 W/m2/micrometer/sr at a wavelength of about 0.8 μm. Therefore, the use of a spectral range beyond 0.55 μm is useful to describe bloom characteristics. In particular, the slope between 0.55 μm to 0.80 μm shows an advantage to depict gradients in plankton blooms. Radiance spectra in the region from 0.4 to 0.8 μm for oligotrophic water and near coastal water show similar location of absorption bands when analyzed with derivative analysis but with different amplitudes. For this reason, radiance spectra were also analyzed without atmospheric correction, and various approaches to interpret radiance data over plankton blooms were investigated. Cluster analysis and ratio techniques at longer wavelengths were found to assist in the separation of ocean color gradients and distinguish bio-geochemical provinces in near-coastal waters. Furthermore, using the slope of spectra from plankton blooms, in connection with scatter diagrams at various wavelengths, shows that details can be revealed that would not be recognized in single channels at lower wavelength.

  20. Sixty years in algal physiology and photosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Pirson, A

    1994-06-01

    This personal perspective records research experiences in chemistry and biology at four German universities, two before and two after World War II. The research themes came from cytophysiology of green unicellular algae, in particular their photosynthesis. The function of inorganic ions in photosynthesis and dark respiration was investigated at different degrees of specific mineral stress (deficiencies), and the kinetics of recovery followed after the addition of the missing element. Two types of recovery of photosynthesis were observed: indirect restitution via growth processes and immediate normalisation. From the latter case (K(+), phosphate, Mn(++)) the effect of manganese was emphasized as its role in photosynthetic O2 evolution became established during our research. Other themes of our group, with some bearing on photosynthesis were: synchronization of cell growth by light-dark change and effects of blue (vs. red) light on the composition of green cells. Some experiences in connection with algal mass cultures are included. Discussion of several editorial projects shows how photosynthesis, as an orginally separated field of plant biochemistry and biophysics, became included into general cell physiology and even ecophysiology of green plants. The paper contains an appreciation of the authors' main mentor Kurt Noack (1888-1963) and of Ernst Georg Pringsheim (1881-1970), founder of experimental phycology.

  1. Algal Cell Factories: Approaches, Applications, and Potentials

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Weiqi; Chaiboonchoe, Amphun; Khraiwesh, Basel; Nelson, David R.; Al-Khairy, Dina; Mystikou, Alexandra; Alzahmi, Amnah; Salehi-Ashtiani, Kourosh

    2016-01-01

    With the advent of modern biotechnology, microorganisms from diverse lineages have been used to produce bio-based feedstocks and bioactive compounds. Many of these compounds are currently commodities of interest, in a variety of markets and their utility warrants investigation into improving their production through strain development. In this review, we address the issue of strain improvement in a group of organisms with strong potential to be productive “cell factories”: the photosynthetic microalgae. Microalgae are a diverse group of phytoplankton, involving polyphyletic lineage such as green algae and diatoms that are commonly used in the industry. The photosynthetic microalgae have been under intense investigation recently for their ability to produce commercial compounds using only light, CO2, and basic nutrients. However, their strain improvement is still a relatively recent area of work that is under development. Importantly, it is only through appropriate engineering methods that we may see the full biotechnological potential of microalgae come to fruition. Thus, in this review, we address past and present endeavors towards the aim of creating productive algal cell factories and describe possible advantageous future directions for the field. PMID:27983586

  2. Tubular photobioreactor design for algal cultures.

    PubMed

    Molina, E; Fernández, J; Acién, F G; Chisti, Y

    2001-12-28

    Principles of fluid mechanics, gas-liquid mass transfer, and irradiance controlled algal growth are integrated into a method for designing tubular photobioreactors in which the culture is circulated by an airlift pump. A 0.2 m(3) photobioreactor designed using the proposed approach was proved in continuous outdoor culture of the microalga Phaeodactylum tricornutum. The culture performance was assessed under various conditions of irradiance, dilution rates and liquid velocities through the tubular solar collector. A biomass productivity of 1.90 g l(-1) d(-1) (or 32 g m(-2) d(-1)) could be obtained at a dilution rate of 0.04 h(-1). Photoinhibition was observed during hours of peak irradiance; the photosynthetic activity of the cells recovered a few hours later. Linear liquid velocities of 0.50 and 0.35 m s(-1) in the solar collector gave similar biomass productivities, but the culture collapsed at lower velocities. The effect of dissolved oxygen concentration on productivity was quantified in indoor conditions; dissolved oxygen levels higher or lower than air saturation values reduced productivity. Under outdoor conditions, for given levels of oxygen supersaturation, the productivity decline was greater outdoors than indoors, suggesting that under intense outdoor illumination photooxidation contributed to loss of productivity in comparison with productivity loss due to oxygen inhibition alone. Dissolved oxygen values at the outlet of solar collector tube were up to 400% of air saturation.

  3. Algal Cell Factories: Approaches, Applications, and Potentials.

    PubMed

    Fu, Weiqi; Chaiboonchoe, Amphun; Khraiwesh, Basel; Nelson, David R; Al-Khairy, Dina; Mystikou, Alexandra; Alzahmi, Amnah; Salehi-Ashtiani, Kourosh

    2016-12-13

    With the advent of modern biotechnology, microorganisms from diverse lineages have been used to produce bio-based feedstocks and bioactive compounds. Many of these compounds are currently commodities of interest, in a variety of markets and their utility warrants investigation into improving their production through strain development. In this review, we address the issue of strain improvement in a group of organisms with strong potential to be productive "cell factories": the photosynthetic microalgae. Microalgae are a diverse group of phytoplankton, involving polyphyletic lineage such as green algae and diatoms that are commonly used in the industry. The photosynthetic microalgae have been under intense investigation recently for their ability to produce commercial compounds using only light, CO₂, and basic nutrients. However, their strain improvement is still a relatively recent area of work that is under development. Importantly, it is only through appropriate engineering methods that we may see the full biotechnological potential of microalgae come to fruition. Thus, in this review, we address past and present endeavors towards the aim of creating productive algal cell factories and describe possible advantageous future directions for the field.

  4. Adsorption of Nanoplastics on Algal Photosynthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turner, James; Bhattacharya, Priyanka; Lin, Sijie; Ke, Pu Chun

    2010-03-01

    The rapid accumulation of disposed plastics in the environment, especially in the Pacific Ocean, has become a global concern in recent years. Photo, chemical and physical degradations constantly fragment these plastics into a wide array of macroscopic to microscopic particles. As a result, marine organisms such as algae may be exposed to plastic particles through ingestion, adsorption and other forms of uptake. Such interactions, currently little understood, could potentially impact on the health state of the entire food chain. Here we report on polystyrene-algae interaction and its impact on algal photosynthesis. We first investigated the adsorption of polystyrene beads (20 nm) on a cellulose film coated on a 96-well plate. We derived a supralinear increase of the adsorption with the beads concentration for both positively and negatively charged polystyrene beads, with a saturation observed for the negatively charged polystyrene beads of concentration above 1.6 mg/mL. Using a bicarbonate indicator we discovered decreased carbon dioxide depletion due to polystyrene-algae binding. Since polystyrene beads also mediated algae aggregation, nanoplastics may alternatively be harnessed for waste water treatment.

  5. The death mechanism of the harmful algal bloom species Alexandrium tamarense induced by algicidal bacterium Deinococcus sp. Y35

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yi; Zhu, Hong; Lei, Xueqian; Zhang, Huajun; Cai, Guanjing; Chen, Zhangran; Fu, Lijun; Xu, Hong; Zheng, Tianling

    2015-01-01

    Harmful algal blooms (HABs) cause a variety of deleterious effects on aquatic ecosystems, especially the toxic dinoflagellate Alexandrium tamarense, which poses a serious threat to marine economic and human health based on releasing paralytic shellfish poison into the environment. The algicidal bacterium Deinococcus sp. Y35 which can induce growth inhibition on A. tamarense was used to investigate the functional mechanism. The growth status, reactive oxygen species (ROS) content, photosynthetic system and the nuclear system of algal cells were determined under algicidal activity. A culture of strain Y35 not only induced overproduction of ROS in algal cells within only 0.5 h of treatment, also decrease the total protein content as well as the response of the antioxidant enzyme. Meanwhile, lipid peroxidation was induced and cell membrane integrity was lost. Photosynthetic pigments including chlorophyll a and carotenoid decreased along with the photosynthetic efficiency being significantly inhibited. At the same time, photosynthesis-related gene expression showed down-regulation. More than, the destruction of cell nuclear structure and inhibition of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) related gene expression were confirmed. The potential functional mechanism of the algicidal bacterium on A. tamarense was investigated and provided a novel viewpoint which could be used in HABs control. PMID:26441921

  6. The death mechanism of the harmful algal bloom species Alexandrium tamarense induced by algicidal bacterium Deinococcus sp. Y35.

    PubMed

    Li, Yi; Zhu, Hong; Lei, Xueqian; Zhang, Huajun; Cai, Guanjing; Chen, Zhangran; Fu, Lijun; Xu, Hong; Zheng, Tianling

    2015-01-01

    Harmful algal blooms (HABs) cause a variety of deleterious effects on aquatic ecosystems, especially the toxic dinoflagellate Alexandrium tamarense, which poses a serious threat to marine economic and human health based on releasing paralytic shellfish poison into the environment. The algicidal bacterium Deinococcus sp. Y35 which can induce growth inhibition on A. tamarense was used to investigate the functional mechanism. The growth status, reactive oxygen species (ROS) content, photosynthetic system and the nuclear system of algal cells were determined under algicidal activity. A culture of strain Y35 not only induced overproduction of ROS in algal cells within only 0.5 h of treatment, also decrease the total protein content as well as the response of the antioxidant enzyme. Meanwhile, lipid peroxidation was induced and cell membrane integrity was lost. Photosynthetic pigments including chlorophyll a and carotenoid decreased along with the photosynthetic efficiency being significantly inhibited. At the same time, photosynthesis-related gene expression showed down-regulation. More than, the destruction of cell nuclear structure and inhibition of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) related gene expression were confirmed. The potential functional mechanism of the algicidal bacterium on A. tamarense was investigated and provided a novel viewpoint which could be used in HABs control.

  7. Swine manure-based pilot-scale algal biomass production system for fuel production and wastewater treatment--a case study.

    PubMed

    Min, Min; Hu, Bing; Mohr, Michael J; Shi, Aimin; Ding, Jinfeng; Sun, Yong; Jiang, Yongcheng; Fu, Zongqiang; Griffith, Richard; Hussain, Fida; Mu, Dongyan; Nie, Yong; Chen, Paul; Zhou, Wenguang; Ruan, Roger

    2014-02-01

    Integration of wastewater treatment with algae cultivation is one of the promising ways to achieve an economically viable and environmentally sustainable algal biofuel production on a commercial scale. This study focused on pilot-scale algal biomass production system development, cultivation process optimization, and integration with swine manure wastewater treatment. The areal algal biomass productivity for the cultivation system that we developed ranged from 8.08 to 14.59 and 19.15-23.19 g/m(2) × day, based on ash-free dry weight and total suspended solid (TSS), respectively, which were higher than or comparable with those in literature. The harvested algal biomass had lipid content about 1.77-3.55%, which was relatively low, but could be converted to bio-oil via fast microwave-assisted pyrolysis system developed in our lab. The lipids in the harvested algal biomass had a significantly higher percentage of total unsaturated fatty acids than those grown in lab conditions, which may be attributed to the observed temperature and light fluctuations. The nutrient removal rate was highly correlated to the biomass productivity. The NH₃-N, TN, COD, and PO₄-P reduction rates for the north-located photo-bioreactor (PBR-N) in July were 2.65, 3.19, 7.21, and 0.067 g/m(2) × day, respectively, which were higher than those in other studies. The cultivation system had advantages of high mixotrophic growth rate, low operating cost, as well as reduced land footprint due to the stacked-tray bioreactor design used in the study.

  8. Lipoxygenase-catalyzed oxygenation of storage lipids is implicated in lipid mobilization during germination.

    PubMed Central

    Feussner, I; Wasternack, C; Kindl, H; Kühn, H

    1995-01-01

    The etiolated germination process of oilseed plants is characterized by the mobilization of storage lipids, which serve as a major carbon source for the seedling. We found that during early stages of germination in cucumber, a lipoxygenase (linoleate: oxygen oxidoreductase, EC 1.13.11.12) form is induced that is capable of oxygenating the esterified fatty acids located in the lipid-storage organelles, the so-called lipid bodies. Large amounts of esterified (13S)-hydroxy-(9Z,11E)-octadecadienoic acid were detected in the lipid bodies, whereas only traces of other oxygenated fatty acid isomers were found. This specific product pattern confirms the in vivo action of this lipoxygenase form during germination. Lipid fractionation studies of lipid bodies indicated the presence of lipoxygenase products both in the storage triacylglycerols and, to a higher extent, in the phospholipids surrounding the lipid stores as a monolayer. The degree of oxygenation of the storage lipids increased drastically during the time course of germination. We show that oxygenated fatty acids are preferentially cleaved from the lipid bodies and are subsequently released into the cytoplasm. We suggest that they may serve as substrate for beta-oxidation. These data suggest that during the etiolated germination, a lipoxygenase initiates the mobilization of storage lipids. The possible mechanisms of this implication are discussed. PMID:11607617

  9. Energetic potential of algal biomass from high-rate algal ponds for the production of solid biofuels.

    PubMed

    Costa, Taynan de Oliveira; Calijuri, Maria Lúcia; Avelar, Nayara Vilela; Carneiro, Angélica de Cássia de Oliveira; de Assis, Letícia Rodrigues

    2016-10-17

    In this investigation, chemical characteristics, higher, lower and net heating value, bulk and energy density, and thermogravimetric analysis were applied to study the thermal characteristics of three algal biomasses. These biomasses, grown as by-products of wastewater treatment in high-rate algal ponds (HRAPs), were: (i) biomass produced in domestic effluent and collected directly from an HRAP (PO); (ii) biomass produced in domestic effluent in a mixed pond-panel system and collected from the panels (PA); and (iii) biomass originating from the treatment effluent from the meat processing industry and collected directly from an HRAP (IN). The biomass IN was the best alternative for thermal power generation. Subsequently, a mixture of the algal biomasses and Jatropha epicarp was used to produce briquettes containing 0%, 25%, 50%, 75%, and 100% of algal biomass, and their properties were evaluated. In general, the addition of algal biomass to briquettes decreased both the hygroscopicity and fixed carbon content and increased the bulk density, ash content, and energy density. A 50% proportion of biomass IN was found to be the best raw material for producing briquettes. Therefore, the production of briquettes consisting of algal biomass and Jatropha epicarp at a laboratory scale was shown to be technically feasible.

  10. Lipid biomarkers in Symbiodinium dinoflagellates: new indicators of thermal stress

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kneeland, J.; Hughen, K.; Cervino, J.; Hauff, B.; Eglinton, T.

    2013-12-01

    Lipid content and fatty acid profiles of corals and their dinoflagellate endosymbionts are known to vary in response to high-temperature stress. To better understand the heat-stress response in these symbionts, we investigated cultures of Symbiodinium goreauii type C1 and Symbiodinium sp. clade subtype D1 grown under a range of temperatures and durations. The predominant lipids produced by Symbiodinium are palmitic (C16) and stearic (C18) saturated fatty acids and their unsaturated analogs, the polyunsaturated fatty acid docosahexaenoic acid (C22:6, n-3; DHA), and a variety of sterols. Prolonged exposure to high temperature causes the relative amount of unsaturated acids within the C18 fatty acids in Symbiodinium tissue to decrease. Thermal stress also causes a decrease in abundance of fatty acids relative to sterols, as well as the more specific ratio of DHA to an algal 4-methyl sterol. These shifts in fatty acid unsaturation and fatty acid-to-sterol ratios are common to both types C1 and D1, but the apparent thermal threshold of lipid changes is lower for type C1. This work indicates that ratios among free fatty acids and sterols in Symbiodinium can be used as sensitive indicators of thermal stress. If the Symbiodinium lipid stress response is unchanged in hospite, the algal heat-stress biomarkers we have identified could be measured to detect thermal stress within the coral holobiont. These results provide new insights into the potential role of lipids in the overall Symbiodinium thermal stress response.

  11. Potency of (doped) rare earth oxide particles and their constituent metals to inhibit algal growth and induce direct toxic effects.

    PubMed

    Joonas, Elise; Aruoja, Villem; Olli, Kalle; Syvertsen-Wiig, Guttorm; Vija, Heiki; Kahru, Anne

    2017-03-27

    Use of rare earth elements (REEs) has increased rapidly in recent decades due to technological advances. It has been accompanied by recurring rare earth element anomalies in water bodies. In this work we (i) studied the effects of eight novel doped and one non-doped rare earth oxide (REO) particles (aimed to be used in solid oxide fuel cells and gas separation membranes) on algae, (ii) quantified the individual adverse effects of the elements that constitute the (doped) REO particles and (iii) attempted to find a discernible pattern to relate REO particle physicochemical characteristics to algal growth inhibitory properties. Green algae Raphidocelis subcapitata (formerly Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata) were used as a test species in two different formats: a standard OECD201 algal growth inhibition assay and the algal viability assay (a 'spot test') that avoids nutrient removal effects. In the 24h 'spot' test that demonstrated direct toxicity, algae were not viable at REE concentrations above 1mgmetal/L. 72-hour algal growth inhibition EC50 values for four REE salts (Ce, Gd, La, Pr) were between 1.2 and 1.4mg/L, whereas the EC50 for REO particles ranged from 1 to 98mg/L. The growth inhibition of REEs was presumably the result of nutrient sequestration from the algal growth medium. The adverse effects of REO particles were at least in part due to the entrapment of algae within particle agglomerates. Adverse effects due to the dissolution of constituent elements from (doped) REO particles and the size or specific surface area of particles were excluded, except for La2NiO4. However, the structure of the particles and/or the varying effects of oxide composition might have played a role in the observed effects. As the production rates of these REO particles are negligible compared to other forms of REEs, there is presumably no acute risk for aquatic unicellular algae.

  12. Induction of lipids and resultant FAME profiles of microalgae from coastal waters of Pearl River Delta.

    PubMed

    Daroch, Maurycy; Shao, Congcong; Liu, Ying; Geng, Shu; Cheng, Jay J

    2013-10-01

    This article presents a study on identification, cultivation and characterisation of microalgal strains from the coastal waters of the Pearl River Delta in Guangdong, China. Thirty-seven identified strains belong to the families: Chlorellaceae, Scotiellocystoidaceae, Scenedesmaceae,Selenastraceae,Micractiniaceae, Coccomyxaceae, Trebouxiaceae and Chlorococcaceae. Of isolated strains, Hindakia PKUAC 169 was selected for lipid induction using two methods: nitrogen starvation and salt stress. After derivatisation of algal lipids through in situ transesterification, lipid profiles of the alga under the two methods were analysed. The results have shown that both lipid yield and fatty acid profiles vary with the methods. Of the two tested methods of inducing lipid production, salt stress yielded three-fold higher lipid productivity than nitrogen starvation. The lipids are predominantly composed of C14-C18 fatty acids, which are favourable for biodiesel production. Moreover, the content of polyunsaturated fatty acids was below the limit of 12% set by EN14214 biodiesel standard.

  13. Combined Supplementation with Grape Pomace and Omija Fruit Ethanol Extracts Dose-Dependently Improves Body Composition, Plasma Lipid Profiles, Inflammatory Status, and Antioxidant Capacity in Overweight and Obese Subjects.

    PubMed

    Han, Hye Jin; Jung, Un Ju; Kim, Hye-Jin; Cho, Su-Jung; Kim, Ae Hyang; Han, Youngji; Choi, Myung-Sook

    2016-02-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the efficacy of combined grape pomace and omija fruit ethanol extracts (GO) on metabolic disorders in overweight or obese subjects. Seventy-six subjects (30-70 years, body mass index ≥23.0 kg/m2) were divided into control (starch, 4 g/day, n = 24), low-GO (low dose GO, grape pomace extract [342.5 mg/day] + omija fruit extract [57.5 mg/day], n = 26), and high-GO (high dose GO, grape pomace extract [685 mg/day] + omija fruit extract [115 mg/day], n = 26) groups. Body composition, nutrient intake, plasma lipid profiles, inflammation, antioxidant capacity, and hepatotoxicity markers were assessed in all subjects at the baseline and 10 weeks after taking the supplements. The body weight and body fat of overweight or obese subjects was not significantly altered in the low-GO and high-GO groups. However, the high-GO supplement significantly decreased the baseline-adjusted final plasma total-cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein (LDL)-cholesterol, and non-high-density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol levels and increased the baseline-adjusted final plasma apolipoprotein (apo) A-1 level compared with that of the control group. In addition, the high-GO supplement significantly lowered apo B, apo B/apo A-1, lipoprotein a (Lp[a]), atherogenic index, interleukin (IL)-1β, tumor necrosis factor-α, and elevated erythrocyte antioxidant capacity compared with the control group or the baseline levels. The low-GO supplement decreased the plasma IL-1β level and elevated erythrocyte superoxide dismutase activity compared with that at baseline. However, in general, high-GO exerted a greater effect than low-GO. There were no significant differences in activities of plasma glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase and glutamate pyruvate transaminase between the groups. This study is a preliminary clinical study to verify that GO could be beneficial for amelioration of obesity-related dyslipidemia, inflammation, and oxidative stress

  14. Effects of Nitrogen Sources and C/N Ratios on the Lipid-Producing Potential of Chlorella sp. HQ.

    PubMed

    Zhan, Jingjing; Hong, Yu; Hu, Hongying

    2016-07-28

    Microalgae are being researched for their potential as attractive biofuel feedstock, particularly for their lipid production. For maximizing biofuel production, it is necessary to explore the effects of environmental factors on algal lipid-producing potential. In this study, the effects of nitrogen (N) sources (NO2-N, NO3-N, urea-N, NH4-N, and N-deficiency) and carbon-to-nitrogen ratios (C/N= 0, 1.0, 3.0, and 5.0) on algal lipid-producing potential of Chlorella sp. HQ were investigated. The results showed that for Chlorella growth and lipid accumulation potential, NO2-N was the best amongst the nitrogen sources, and NO3-N and urea-N also contributed to algal growth and lipid accumulation potential, but NH4-N and N-deficiency instead caused inhibitory effects. Moreover, the results indicated that algal lipid-producing potential was related to C/N ratios. With NO2-N treatment and carbon addition (C/N = 1.0, 3.0, and 5.0), total lipid yield was enhanced by 12.96-20.37%, but triacylglycerol (TAG) yields decreased by 25.52-94.31%. As for NO3-N treatment, carbon addition led to a 17.82-57.43%/ 25.86-82.67% reduction of total lipid/TAG yields. When NH4-N was used as the nitrogen source, total lipid/TAG yields were increased by 46.67-113.33%/28.99-74.76% with carbon addition. The total lipid/TAG yields of urea-N treatment varied with C/N ratios. Overall, the highest TAG yield (TAG yield: 38.75 ± 5.21 mg/l; TAG content: 44.16 ± 4.35%) was achieved under NO2-N treatment without carbon addition (C/N = 0), the condition that had merit for biofuel production.

  15. Effects of Poly-Bioactive Compounds on Lipid Profile and Body Weight in a Moderately Hypercholesterolemic Population with Low Cardiovascular Disease Risk: A Multicenter Randomized Trial

    PubMed Central

    Solà, Rosa; Valls, Rosa-M; Puzo, José; Calabuig, José-Ramón; Brea, Angel; Pedret, Anna; Moriña, David; Villar, José; Millán, Jesús; Anguera, Anna

    2014-01-01

    body weight. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01562080 PMID:25084280

  16. Autoclaving soil samples affects algal-available phosphorus.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Brandon H; Magdoff, Frederick R

    2005-01-01

    Unwanted microbial interference in samples used for biological assays of P availability has routinely been eliminated by autoclaving samples before inoculation with algae. Twenty-three soils were selected to evaluate the relationship between algal growth in P-deficient solutions containing small quantities of soil and the level of P determined by a variety of tests used to evaluate P availability in soils and sediments. Soils were either autoclaved or not before addition to flasks containing P-starved algae in a nutrient solution without P. Compared to non-autoclaved samples, autoclaving soil resulted in approximately 60% more available P as estimated by increased algal growth. However, algal growth in the presence of autoclaved soil was highly correlated with growth in the presence of non-autoclaved samples. There was no consistent change in the correlations (r) between autoclaving or non-autoclaving samples in the relationships of algal numbers with P extracted by a number of soil tests. The effect of autoclaving soil on soluble P was also evaluated for a subset of six soils. Autoclaved soils had significantly greater concentrations of soluble P than non-autoclaved soils, with 78% more orthophosphate monoesters, 60% more orthophosphate diesters, and 54% more soluble inorganic P. Inhibition of algal growth may have occurred with two high-Zn soils that produced relatively low numbers of algae despite being very high in estimated available P by all extraction methods. Removing those samples from the calculations dramatically improved correlations between soil P measured by various methods and algal growth. With these two soils removed from calculations, algal growth with autoclaved soil was most highly correlated with Olsen P (r = 0.95), with other correlations as follows: Fe-oxide strip (r = 0.80), Mehlich 3 (r = 0.75,), modified Morgan (r = 0.61), and Bray-Kurtz 1 (r = 0.57).

  17. Imaging lipid droplets in Arabidopsis mutants

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Confocal fluorescence microscopy was adapted for the imaging of neutral lipids in plant leaves with defects in normal lipid metabolism using two different fluorescent dyes. Disruptions in a gene locus, At4g24160, yielded Arabidopsis thaliana plants with a preponderance of oil bodies in their leaves ...

  18. Effects of acidification on algal assemblages in temporary ponds

    SciTech Connect

    Glackin, M.E.; Pratt, J.R.

    1994-12-31

    Atmospheric deposition monitoring in Pennsylvania has characterized a steep gradient of acidic ion depositions across the north-central portion of the state. This study evaluated acidification effects on the composition of algal assemblages in temporary ponds in two forested areas exposed to atmospheric deposition that varied in degree of acidity. Artificial substrates were used to sample and compare the algal assemblages in the two areas. Colonized communities were also transplanted to lower pH ponds to observe changes in species composition. A laboratory microcosm experiment manipulating pH was conducted to reduce the variables that differed between the two areas. Fewer algal taxa were present in lower pH ponds, on colonized substrates after transplant to lower pH ponds, and in lower pH laboratory treatments. Species composition was altered in the lower pH conditions. Most taxa that were excluded from the lower pH ponds naturally also did not survive when experimentally introduced to those conditions. These results suggest that acidification of temporary ponds can alter the structure of algal communities. There is interest in a possible link between acid deposition and reports of worldwide declines in amphibian populations. Algae are an important food source for larval amphibians, such as the wood frog, which require temporary ponds to breed. Changes in algal species composition could potentially impact the temporary pond and forest ecosystem.

  19. Full-scale validation of a model of algal productivity.

    PubMed

    Béchet, Quentin; Shilton, Andy; Guieysse, Benoit

    2014-12-02

    While modeling algal productivity outdoors is crucial to assess the economic and environmental performance of full-scale cultivation, most of the models hitherto developed for this purpose have not been validated under fully relevant conditions, especially with regard to temperature variations. The objective of this study was to independently validate a model of algal biomass productivity accounting for both light and temperature and constructed using parameters experimentally derived using short-term indoor experiments. To do this, the accuracy of a model developed for Chlorella vulgaris was assessed against data collected from photobioreactors operated outdoor (New Zealand) over different seasons, years, and operating conditions (temperature-control/no temperature-control, batch, and fed-batch regimes). The model accurately predicted experimental productivities under all conditions tested, yielding an overall accuracy of ±8.4% over 148 days of cultivation. For the purpose of assessing the feasibility of full-scale algal cultivation, the use of the productivity model was therefore shown to markedly reduce uncertainty in cost of biofuel production while also eliminating uncertainties in water demand, a critical element of environmental impact assessments. Simulations at five climatic locations demonstrated that temperature-control in outdoor photobioreactors would require tremendous amounts of energy without considerable increase of algal biomass. Prior assessments neglecting the impact of temperature variations on algal productivity in photobioreactors may therefore be erroneous.

  20. Anaerobic co-digestion of pig manure and algae: impact of intracellular algal products recovery on co-digestion performance.

    PubMed

    Astals, S; Musenze, R S; Bai, X; Tannock, S; Tait, S; Pratt, S; Jensen, P D

    2015-04-01

    This paper investigates anaerobic co-digestion of pig manure and algae (Scenedesmus sp.) with and without extraction of intracellular algal co-products, with views towards the development of a biorefinery concept for lipid, protein and/or biogas production. Protein and/or lipids were extracted from Scenedesmus sp. using free nitrous acid pre-treatments and solvent-based Soxhlet extraction, respectively. Processing increased algae methane yield between 29% and 37% compared to raw algae (VS basis), but reduced the amount of algae available for digestion. Co-digestion experiments showed a synergy between pig manure and raw algae that increased raw algae methane yield from 0.163 to 0.245 m(3) CH4 kg(-1)VS. No such synergy was observed when algal residues were co-digested with pig manure. Finally, experimental results were used to develop a high-level concept for an integrated biorefinery processing pig manure and onsite cultivated algae, evaluating methane production and co-product recovery per mass of pig manure entering the refinery.

  1. Multi-omics Frontiers in Algal Research: Techniques and Progress to Explore Biofuels in the Postgenomics World.

    PubMed

    Rai, Vineeta; Karthikaichamy, Anbarasu; Das, Debasish; Noronha, Santosh; Wangikar, Pramod P; Srivastava, Sanjeeva

    2016-07-01

    Current momentum of microalgal research rests extensively in tapping the potential of multi-omics methodologies in regard to sustainable biofuels. Microalgal biomass is fermented to bioethanol; while lipids, particularly triacylglycerides (TAGs), are transesterified to biodiesels. Biodiesel has emerged as an ideal biofuel candidate; hence, its commercialization and use are increasingly being emphasized. Abiotic stresses exaggerate TAG accumulation, but the precise mechanisms are yet to be known. More recently, comprehensive multi-omics studies in microalgae have emerged from the biofuel perspective. Genomics and transcriptomics of microalgae have provided crucial leads and basic understanding toward lipid biosynthesis. Proteomics and metabolomics are now complementing "algal omics" and offer precise functional insights into the attendant static and dynamic physiological contexts. Indeed, the field has progressed from shotgun to targeted approaches. Notably, targeted proteomics studies in microalga are not yet reported. Several multi-omics tools and technologies that may be used to dig deeper into the microalgal physiology are examined and highlighted in this review. The article therefore aims to both introduce various available high-throughput biotechnologies and applications of "omics" in microalgae, and enlists a compendium of the emerging cutting edge literature. We suggest that a strategic and thoughtful combination of data streams from different omics platforms can provide a system-wide overview. The algal omics warrants closer attention in the future, with a view to technical, economic, and societal impacts that are anticipated in the current postgenomics era.

  2. Nutrient sources and composition of recent algal blooms and eutrophication in the northern Jiulong River, Southeast China.

    PubMed

    Li, Ying; Cao, Wenzhi; Su, Caixia; Hong, Huasheng

    2011-01-01

    The natural process of eutrophication is accelerated by human activities worldwide that interrupt nutrient biogeochemical cycles. Three algal bloom events have been monitored in the northern tributary of the Jiulong River since 2009. The inflection points in a robust locally-weighted regression analysis (LOESS) of the relationship between TN and TP concentrations in the river water, and a TN:TP comparison with nutrient source loadings, suggested that both external loading and internal nutrient cycling contributed to these algal blooms. Nutrient release from the sediments may have played an important role in regulating the nutrients in the overlying water column. In particular, excessive nutrient inputs from various sources and ubiquitous river damming caused further accumulation of the nutrient loading. In-situ autochthonous primary production was enhanced in this relatively stable "river" to "lake" water body. Thus, attention must be paid to the effects of river damming and the consequent internal nutrient release.

  3. Effects of the Polysaccharide from the Sporophyll of Brown Alga Undaria Pinnatifida on Serum Lipid Profile and Fat Tissue Accumulation in Rats Fed a High-Fat Diet.

    PubMed

    Kim, Byoung-Mok; Park, Jae-Ho; Kim, Dong-Soo; Kim, Young-Myung; Jun, Joon-Young; Jeong, In-Hak; Chi, Young-Min

    2016-07-01

    We investigated the effects of the polysaccharide from the sporophyll of a selected brown alga Undaria pinnatifida on serum lipid profile, fat tissue accumulation, and gastrointestinal transit time in rats fed a high-fat diet. The algal polysaccharide (AP) was prepared by the treatment of multiple cellulase-producing fungi Trichoderma reesei and obtained from the sporophyll with a yield of 38.7% (dry basis). The AP was mostly composed of alginate and fucoidan (up to 89%) in a ratio of 3.75:1. The AP was added to the high-fat diet in concentrations of 0.6% and 1.7% and was given to male Sprague-Dawley rats (5-wk-old) for 5 wk. The 1.7% AP addition notably reduced body weight gain and fat tissue accumulation, and it improved the serum lipid profile, including triglycerides, total cholesterol, and very low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol. The effects were associated with increased feces weight and shortened gastrointestinal transit time. In addition, the lipid peroxidation of the liver was decreased in both groups.

  4. Copper removal by algae Gelidium, agar extraction algal waste and granulated algal waste: kinetics and equilibrium.

    PubMed

    Vilar, Vítor J P; Botelho, Cidália M S; Boaventura, Rui A R

    2008-03-01

    Biosorption of copper ions by an industrial algal waste, from agar extraction industry has been studied in a batch system. This biosorbent was compared with the algae Gelidium itself, which is the raw material for agar extraction, and the industrial waste immobilized with polyacrylonitrile (composite material). The effects of contact time, pH, ionic strength (IS) and temperature on the biosorption process have been studied. Equilibrium data follow both Langmuir and Langmuir-Freundlich models. The parameters of Langmuir equilibrium model were: q(max)=33.0mgg(-1), K(L)=0.015mgl(-1); q(max)=16.7mgg(-1), K(L)=0.028mgl(-1) and q(max)=10.3mgg(-1), K(L)=0.160mgl(-1) respectively for Gelidium, algal waste and composite material at pH=5.3, T=20 degrees C and IS=0.001M. Increasing the pH, the number of deprotonated active sites increases and so the uptake capacity of copper ions. In the case of high ionic strengths, the contribution of the electrostatic component to the overall binding decreases, and so the uptake capacity. The temperature has little influence on the uptake capacity principally for low equilibrium copper concentrations. Changes in standard enthalpy, Gibbs energy and entropy during biosorption were determined. Kinetic data at different solution pH (3, 4 and 5.3) were fitted to pseudo-first-order and pseudo-second-order models. The adsorptive behaviour of biosorbent particles was modelled using a batch reactor mass transfer kinetic model, which successfully predicts Cu(II) concentration profiles.

  5. Algal cell disruption using microbubbles to localize ultrasonic energy.

    PubMed

    Krehbiel, Joel D; Schideman, Lance C; King, Daniel A; Freund, Jonathan B

    2014-12-01

    Microbubbles were added to an algal solution with the goal of improving cell disruption efficiency and the net energy balance for algal biofuel production. Experimental results showed that disruption increases with increasing peak rarefaction ultrasound pressure over the range studied: 1.90 to 3.07 MPa. Additionally, ultrasound cell disruption increased by up to 58% by adding microbubbles, with peak disruption occurring in the range of 10(8)microbubbles/ml. The localization of energy in space and time provided by the bubbles improve efficiency: energy requirements for such a process were estimated to be one-fourth of the available heat of combustion of algal biomass and one-fifth of currently used cell disruption methods. This increase in energy efficiency could make microbubble enhanced ultrasound viable for bioenergy applications and is expected to integrate well with current cell harvesting methods based upon dissolved air flotation.

  6. Marine algal toxins: origins, health effects, and their increased occurrence.

    PubMed Central

    Van Dolah, F M

    2000-01-01

    Certain marine algae produce potent toxins that impact human health through the consumption of contaminated shellfish and finfish and through water or aerosol exposure. Over the past three decades, the frequency and global distribution of toxic algal incidents appear to have increased, and human intoxications from novel algal sources have occurred. This increase is of particular concern, since it parallels recent evidence of large-scale ecologic disturbances that coincide with trends in global warming. The extent to which human activities have contributed to their increase therefore comes into question. This review summarizes the origins and health effects of marine algal toxins, as well as changes in their current global distribution, and examines possible causes for the recent increase in their occurrence. Images Figure 2 Figure 3 PMID:10698729