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Sample records for algal lipid extraction

  1. Algal Lipid Extraction and Upgrading to Hydrocarbons Technology Pathway

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, R.; Biddy, M.; Jones, S.

    2013-03-01

    This technology pathway case investigates the cultivation of algal biomass followed by further lipid extraction and upgrading to hydrocarbon biofuels. Technical barriers and key research needs have been assessed in order for the algal lipid extraction and upgrading pathway to be competitive with petroleum-derived gasoline-, diesel-, and jet-range hydrocarbon blendstocks.

  2. Algal Lipid Extraction and Upgrading to Hydrocarbons Technology Pathway

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, Ryan; Biddy, Mary J.; Jones, Susanne B.

    2013-03-31

    In support of the Bioenergy Technologies Office, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) are undertaking studies of biomass conversion technologies to identify barriers and target research toward reducing conversion costs. Process designs and preliminary economic estimates for each of these pathway cases were developed using rigorous modeling tools (Aspen Plus and Chemcad). These analyses incorporated the best information available at the time of development, including data from recent pilot and bench-scale demonstrations, collaborative industrial and academic partners, and published literature and patents. This technology pathway case investigates the cultivation of algal biomass followed by further lipid extraction and upgrading to hydrocarbon biofuels. Technical barriers and key research needs have been assessed in order for the algal lipid extraction and upgrading pathway to be competitive with petroleum-derived gasoline, diesel and jet range hydrocarbon blendstocks.

  3. Subcritical water extraction of lipids from wet algal biomass

    DOEpatents

    Deng, Shuguang; Reddy, Harvind K.; Schaub, Tanner; Holguin, Francisco Omar

    2016-05-03

    Methods of lipid extraction from biomass, in particular wet algae, through conventionally heated subcritical water, and microwave-assisted subcritical water. In one embodiment, fatty acid methyl esters from solids in a polar phase are further extracted to increase biofuel production.

  4. Effects of different biomass drying and lipid extraction methods on algal lipid yield, fatty acid profile, and biodiesel quality.

    PubMed

    Hussain, Javid; Liu, Yan; Lopes, Wilson A; Druzian, Janice I; Souza, Carolina O; Carvalho, Gilson C; Nascimento, Iracema A; Liao, Wei

    2015-03-01

    Three lipid extraction methods of hexane Soxhlet (Sox-Hex), Halim (HIP), and Bligh and Dyer (BD) were applied on freeze-dried (FD) and oven-dried (OD) Chlorella vulgaris biomass to evaluate their effects on lipid yield, fatty acid profile, and algal biodiesel quality. Among these three methods, HIP was the preferred one for C. vulgaris lipid recovery considering both extraction efficiency and solvent toxicity. It had the highest lipid yields of 20.0 and 22.0% on FD and OD biomass, respectively, with corresponding neutral lipid yields of 14.8 and 12.7%. The lipid profiling analysis showed that palmitic, oleic, linoleic, and α-linolenic acids were the major fatty acids in the algal lipids, and there were no significant differences on the amount of these acids between different drying and extraction methods. Correlative models applied to the fatty acid profiles concluded that high contents of palmitic and oleic acids in algal lipids contributed to balancing the ratio of saturated and unsaturated fatty acids and led to a high-quality algal biodiesel. PMID:25588528

  5. Hydrolysate of lipid extracted microalgal biomass residue: An algal growth promoter and enhancer.

    PubMed

    Maurya, Rahulkumar; Paliwal, Chetan; Chokshi, Kaumeel; Pancha, Imran; Ghosh, Tonmoy; Satpati, Gour Gopal; Pal, Ruma; Ghosh, Arup; Mishra, Sandhya

    2016-05-01

    The present study demonstrates the utilization of the algal hydrolysate (AH) prepared from lipid extracted residual harmful bloom-forming cyanobacteria Lyngbya majuscula biomass, as a growth supplement for the cultivation of green microalgae Chlorella vulgaris. BG-11 replacements with AH in different proportions significantly affects the cell count, dry cell weight (DCW), biomass productivity (BP) and pigments concentration. Among all, 25% AH substitution in BG11 media was found to be optimum which enhanced DCW, BP and pigments content by 39.13%, 40.81% and 129.47%, respectively, compared to control. The lipid content (31.95%) was also significantly higher in the 25% AH replacement. The volumetric productivity of neutral lipids (ideal for biodiesel) and total protein content of the cells significantly increased in all AH substitutions. Thus, lipid extracted microalgal biomass residue (LMBR) hydrolysate can be a potential growth stimulating supplement for oleaginous microalgae C. vulgaris. PMID:26890794

  6. Effects of anodic oxidation of a substoichiometric titanium dioxide reactive electrochemical membrane on algal cell destabilization and lipid extraction.

    PubMed

    Hua, Likun; Guo, Lun; Thakkar, Megha; Wei, Dequan; Agbakpe, Michael; Kuang, Liyuan; Magpile, Maraha; Chaplin, Brian P; Tao, Yi; Shuai, Danmeng; Zhang, Xihui; Mitra, Somenath; Zhang, Wen

    2016-03-01

    Efficient algal harvesting, cell pretreatment and lipid extraction are the major steps challenging the algal biofuel industrialization. To develop sustainable solutions for economically viable algal biofuels, our research aims at devising innovative reactive electrochemical membrane (REM) filtration systems for simultaneous algal harvesting and pretreatment for lipid extraction. The results in this work particularly demonstrated the use of the Ti4O7-based REM in algal pretreatment and the positive impacts on lipid extraction. After REM treatment, algal cells exhibited significant disruption in morphology and photosynthetic activity due to the anodic oxidation. Cell lysis was evidenced by the changes of fluorescent patterns of dissolved organic matter (DOM) in the treated algal suspension. The lipid extraction efficiency increased from 15.2 ± 0.6 g-lipidg-algae(-1) for untreated algae to 23.4 ± 0.7 g-lipidg-algae(-1) for treated algae (p<0.05), which highlights the potential to couple algal harvesting with cell pretreatment in an integrated REM filtration process. PMID:26722810

  7. Microalgae from domestic wastewater facility's high rate algal pond: Lipids extraction, characterization and biodiesel production.

    PubMed

    Drira, Neila; Piras, Alessandra; Rosa, Antonella; Porcedda, Silvia; Dhaouadi, Hatem

    2016-04-01

    In this study, the harvesting of a biomass from a high rate algal pond (HRAP) of a real-scale domestic wastewater treatment facility and its potential as a biomaterial for the production of biodiesel were investigated. Increasing the medium pH to 12 induced high flocculation efficiency of up to 96% of the biomass through both sweep flocculation and charge neutralization. Lipids extracted by ultrasounds from this biomass contained around 70% of fatty acids, with palmitic and stearic acids being the most abundant. The extract obtained by supercritical CO2 contained 86% of fatty acids. Both conventional solvents extracts contained only around 10% of unsaturated fats, whereas supercritical CO2 extract contained more than 40% of unsaturated fatty acids. This same biomass was also subject to direct extractive-transesterification in a microwave reactor to produce fatty acid methyl esters, also known as, raw biodiesel. PMID:26866759

  8. Comparison of cell rupturing by ozonation and ultrasonication for algal lipid extraction from Chlorella vulgaris.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yuanxing; Hong, Andy; Zhang, Daofang; Li, Liang

    2014-01-01

    Cell disruption is essential for lipid collection from cultivated microalgae. This study examines the performance of ultrasonication (US), conventional bubbling ozonation (CBO), and pressure-assisted ozonation (PAO) as a cell rupturing technique to obtain algal lipid from a freshwater unicellular microalgae Chlorella vulgaris, which was grown in BG11 medium at a temperature of 25 degrees C and illuminated by artificial lighting with light/dark cycle of 12 h/12 h. Changes in total organic carbon, total nitrogen, total phosphorous, and chlorophyll contents in the algae suspension after ozonation and US treatments were measured to evaluate the effectiveness of cell rupture by these techniques. Lipid yields of 21 and 27 g/100 g biomass were obtained using US and PAO, respectively. Lipid yields of about 5 g/100 g biomass were obtained using CBO. In all rupturing treatments, C16 and C18 compounds were found to be predominant accounting for 90% of the fatty acids. Using US for rupturing, fatty acids of C 16:0, C18:1, and C18:2 were predominant, accounting for 76 +/- 4.2% of all the fatty acids. Using CBO and PAO involving ozone, fatty acids of C16:0 and C18:0 were predominant, accounting for 63-94% of the products. The results suggest that saturated fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) products are predominant with oxidative ozonation rupturing while unsaturated FAME products of lower-melting points predominant with physical ultrasonic rupturing means. PAO was an effective cell rupture method for biodiesel production with high lipid yield and more saturated hydrocarbon products. PMID:24645476

  9. Collection and conversion of algal lipid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Ching-Chieh

    Sustainable economic activities mandate a significant replacement of fossil energy by renewable forms. Algae-derived biofuels are increasingly seen as an alternative source of energy with potential to supplement the world's ever increasing demand. Our primary objective is, once the algae were cultivated, to eliminate or make more efficient energy-intensive processing steps of collection, drying, grinding, and solvent extraction prior to conversion. To overcome the processing barrier, we propose to streamline from cultivated algae to biodiesel via algal biomass collection by sand filtration, cell rupturing with ozone, and immediate transesterification. To collect the algal biomass, the specific Chlorococcum aquaticum suspension was acidified to pH 3.3 to promote agglomeration prior to sand filtration. The algae-loaded filter bed was drained of free water and added with methanol and ozonated for 2 min to rupture cell membrane to accelerate release of the cellular contents. The methanol solution now containing the dissolved lipid product was collected by draining, while the filter bed was regenerated by further ozonation when needed. The results showed 95% collection of the algal biomass from the suspension and a 16% yield of lipid from the algae, as well as restoration of filtration velocity of the sand bed via ozonation. The results further showed increased lipid yield upon cell rupturing and transesterified products composed entirely of fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) compounds, demonstrating that the rupture and transesterification processes could proceed consecutively in the same medium, requiring no separate steps of drying, extraction, and conversion. The FAME products from algae without exposure to ozone were mainly of 16 to 18 carbons containing up to 3 double bonds, while those from algae having been ozonated were smaller, highly saturated hydrocarbons. The new technique streamlines individual steps from cultivated algal lipid to transesterified products and

  10. Influence of extractive solvents on lipid and fatty acids content of edible freshwater algal and seaweed products, the green Microalga Chlorella kessleri and the Cyanobacterium Spirulina platensis.

    PubMed

    Ambrozova, Jarmila Vavra; Misurcova, Ladislava; Vicha, Robert; Machu, Ludmila; Samek, Dusan; Baron, Mojmir; Mlcek, Jiri; Sochor, Jiri; Jurikova, Tunde

    2014-01-01

    Total lipid contents of green (Chlorella pyrenoidosa, C), red (Porphyra tenera, N; Palmaria palmata, D), and brown (Laminaria japonica, K; Eisenia bicyclis, A; Undaria pinnatifida, W, WI; Hizikia fusiformis, H) commercial edible algal and cyanobacterial (Spirulina platensis, S) products, and autotrophically cultivated samples of the green microalga Chlorella kessleri (CK) and the cyanobacterium Spirulina platensis (SP) were determined using a solvent mixture of methanol/chloroform/water (1:2:1, v/v/v, solvent I) and n-hexane (solvent II). Total lipid contents ranged from 0.64% (II) to 18.02% (I) by dry weight and the highest total lipid content was observed in the autotrophically cultivated cyanobacterium Spirulina platensis. Solvent mixture I was found to be more effective than solvent II. Fatty acids were determined by gas chromatography of their methyl esters (% of total FAMEs). Generally, the predominant fatty acids (all results for extractions with solvent mixture I) were saturated palmitic acid (C16:0; 24.64%-65.49%), monounsaturated oleic acid (C18:1(n-9); 2.79%-26.45%), polyunsaturated linoleic acid (C18:2(n-6); 0.71%-36.38%), α-linolenic acid (C18:3(n-3); 0.00%-21.29%), γ-linolenic acid (C18:3(n-6); 1.94%-17.36%), and arachidonic acid (C20:4(n-6); 0.00%-15.37%). The highest content of ω-3 fatty acids (21.29%) was determined in Chlorella pyrenoidosa using solvent I, while conversely, the highest content of ω-6 fatty acids (41.42%) was observed in Chlorella kessleri using the same solvent. PMID:24566307

  11. Releasing Stored Solar Energy within Pond Scum: Biodiesel from Algal Lipids

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blatti, Jillian L.; Burkart, Michael D.

    2012-01-01

    Microalgae have emerged as an attractive feedstock for the mass production of renewable transportation fuels due to their fast growth rate, flexible habitat preferences, and substantial oil yields. As an educational tool, a laboratory was developed that mimics emerging algal biofuel technology, including the extraction of algal lipids and…

  12. Process Design and Economics for the Conversion of Algal Biomass to Biofuels: Algal Biomass Fractionation to Lipid- and Carbohydrate-Derived Fuel Products

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, R.; Kinchin, C.; Markham, J.; Tan, E.; Laurens, L.; Sexton, D.; Knorr, D.; Schoen, P.; Lukas, J.

    2014-09-01

    Beginning in 2013, NREL began transitioning from the singular focus on ethanol to a broad slate of products and conversion pathways, ultimately to establish similar benchmarking and targeting efforts. One of these pathways is the conversion of algal biomass to fuels via extraction of lipids (and potentially other components), termed the 'algal lipid upgrading' or ALU pathway. This report describes in detail one potential ALU approach based on a biochemical processing strategy to selectively recover and convert select algal biomass components to fuels, namely carbohydrates to ethanol and lipids to a renewable diesel blendstock (RDB) product. The overarching process design converts algal biomass delivered from upstream cultivation and dewatering (outside the present scope) to ethanol, RDB, and minor coproducts, using dilute-acid pretreatment, fermentation, lipid extraction, and hydrotreating.

  13. Mechanical algal disruption for efficient biodiesel extraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krehbiel, Joel David

    Biodiesel from algae provides several benefits over current biodiesel feedstocks, but the energy requirements of processing algae into a useable fuel are currently so high as to be prohibitive. One route to improving this is via disruption of the cells prior to lipid extraction, which can significantly increase energy recovery. Unfortunately, several obvious disruption techniques require more energy than can be gained. This dissertation examines the use of microbubbles to improve mechanical disruption of algal cells using experimental, theoretical, and computational methods. New laboratory experiments show that effective ultrasonic disruption of algae is achieved by adding microbubbles to an algal solution. The configuration studied flows the solution through a tube and insonifies a small section with a high-pressure ultrasound wave. Previous biomedical research has shown effective cell membrane damage on animal cells with similar methods, but the present research is the first to extend such study to algal cells. Results indicate that disruption increases with peak negative pressure between 1.90 and 3.07 MPa and with microbubble concentration up to 12.5 x 107 bubbles/ml. Energy estimates of this process suggest that it requires only one-fourth the currently most-efficient laboratory-scale disruption process. Estimates of the radius near each bubble that causes disruption (i.e. the disruption radius) suggest that it increases with peak negative pressure and is near 9--20 microm for all cases tested. It is anticipated that these procedures can be designed for better efficiency and efficacy, which will be facilitated by identifying the root mechanisms of the bubble-induced disruption. We therefore examine whether bubble expansion alone creates sufficient cell deformation for cell rupture. The spherically-symmetric Marmottant model for bubble dynamics allows estimation of the flow regime under experimental conditions. Bubble expansion is modeled as a point source of

  14. Mechanical algal disruption for efficient biodiesel extraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krehbiel, Joel David

    Biodiesel from algae provides several benefits over current biodiesel feedstocks, but the energy requirements of processing algae into a useable fuel are currently so high as to be prohibitive. One route to improving this is via disruption of the cells prior to lipid extraction, which can significantly increase energy recovery. Unfortunately, several obvious disruption techniques require more energy than can be gained. This dissertation examines the use of microbubbles to improve mechanical disruption of algal cells using experimental, theoretical, and computational methods. New laboratory experiments show that effective ultrasonic disruption of algae is achieved by adding microbubbles to an algal solution. The configuration studied flows the solution through a tube and insonifies a small section with a high-pressure ultrasound wave. Previous biomedical research has shown effective cell membrane damage on animal cells with similar methods, but the present research is the first to extend such study to algal cells. Results indicate that disruption increases with peak negative pressure between 1.90 and 3.07 MPa and with microbubble concentration up to 12.5 x 107 bubbles/ml. Energy estimates of this process suggest that it requires only one-fourth the currently most-efficient laboratory-scale disruption process. Estimates of the radius near each bubble that causes disruption (i.e. the disruption radius) suggest that it increases with peak negative pressure and is near 9--20 microm for all cases tested. It is anticipated that these procedures can be designed for better efficiency and efficacy, which will be facilitated by identifying the root mechanisms of the bubble-induced disruption. We therefore examine whether bubble expansion alone creates sufficient cell deformation for cell rupture. The spherically-symmetric Marmottant model for bubble dynamics allows estimation of the flow regime under experimental conditions. Bubble expansion is modeled as a point source of

  15. Unraveling algal lipid metabolism: Recent advances in gene identification.

    PubMed

    Khozin-Goldberg, Inna; Cohen, Zvi

    2011-01-01

    Microalgae are now the focus of intensive research due to their potential as a renewable feedstock for biodiesel. This research requires a thorough understanding of the biochemistry and genetics of these organisms' lipid-biosynthesis pathways. Genes encoding lipid-biosynthesis enzymes can now be identified in the genomes of various eukaryotic microalgae. However, an examination of the predicted proteins at the biochemical and molecular levels is mandatory to verify their function. The essential molecular and genetic tools are now available for a comprehensive characterization of genes coding for enzymes of the lipid-biosynthesis pathways in some algal species. This review mainly summarizes the novel information emerging from recently obtained algal gene identification. PMID:20709142

  16. Biodiesel from wastewater: lipid production in high rate algal pond receiving disinfected effluent.

    PubMed

    Assemany, Paula Peixoto; Calijuri, Maria Lucia; do Couto, Eduardo de Aguiar; Santiago, Aníbal Fonseca; Dos Reis, Alberto José Delgado

    2015-01-01

    The production of different species of microalgae in consortium with other micro-organisms from wastewaters may represent an alternative process, to reduce the costs, for obtaining biofuels. The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of pre-ultraviolet disinfection (UV) in the production of lipids from biomass produced in high rate ponds. Two high rate algal ponds were evaluated: a pond that received domestic sewage without disinfection and the other receiving domestic sewage previously disinfected by UV radiation (uvHRAP). The UV disinfection did not lead to significant differences in fatty acid profile and total lipid productivities, although it increased algal biomass concentration and productivity as well as lipid content. Moreover, the overall biomass concentrations and productivities decreased with the UV disinfection, mostly as a consequence of a loss in bacterial load. We thus conclude that uvHRAP disinfection may represent a potential strategy to promote the cleaner and safer growth of algal biomass when cultivated in consortium with other micro-organisms. Mainly regarding the use of wastewater as culture medium, together with a cheaper production of lipids for biodiesel, pre-disinfection may represent an advance since extraction costs could be significantly trimmed due to the increase in lipid content. PMID:25909734

  17. Raman microspectroscopy based sensor of algal lipid unsaturation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samek, Ota; Pilát, Zdeněk; Jonáš, Alexandr; Zemánek, Pavel; Šerý, Mojmír; Ježek, Jan; Bernatová, Silvie; Nedbal, Ladislav; Trtílek, Martin

    2011-05-01

    Raman spectroscopy is a powerful tool for chemical analysis. This technique can elucidate fundamental questions about the metabolic processes and intercellular variability on a single cell level. Therefore, Raman spectroscopy can significantly contribute to the study and use of microalgae in systems biology and biofuel technology. Raman spectroscopy can be combined with optical tweezers. We have employed microfluidic system to deliver the sampled microalgae to the Raman-tweezers. This instrument is able to measure chemical composition of cells and to track metabolic processes in vivo, in real-time and label-free making it possible to detect population variability in a wide array of traits. Moreover, employing an active sorting switch, cells can be separated depending on input parameters obtained from Raman spectra. We focus on algal lipids which are promising potential products for biofuel as well as for nutrition. Important parameter characterizing the algal lipids is the degree of unsaturation of the constituent fatty acids. We demonstrate the capacity of our Raman tweezers based sensor to sort cells according to the degree of unsaturation in lipid storage bodies of individual living algal cells.

  18. Nitrogen recycling from fuel-extracted algal biomass: residuals as the sole nitrogen source for culturing Scenedesmus acutus.

    PubMed

    Gu, Huiya; Nagle, Nick; Pienkos, Philip T; Posewitz, Matthew C

    2015-05-01

    In this study, the reuse of nitrogen from fuel-extracted algal residues was investigated. The alga Scenedesmus acutus was found to be able to assimilate nitrogen contained in amino acids, yeast extracts, and proteinaceous alga residuals. Moreover, these alternative nitrogen resources could replace nitrate in culturing media. The ability of S. acutus to utilize the nitrogen remaining in processed algal biomass was unique among the promising biofuel strains tested. This alga was leveraged in a recycling approach where nitrogen is recovered from algal biomass residuals that remain after lipids are extracted and carbohydrates are fermented to ethanol. The protein-rich residuals not only provided an effective nitrogen resource, but also contributed to a carbon "heterotrophic boost" in subsequent culturing, improving overall biomass and lipid yields relative to the control medium with only nitrate. Prior treatment of the algal residues with Diaion HP20 resin was required to remove compounds inhibitory to algal growth. PMID:25539998

  19. Acid-Catalyzed Algal Biomass Pretreatment for Integrated Lipid and Carbohydrate-Based Biofuels Production

    SciTech Connect

    Laurens, L. M. L.; Nagle, N.; Davis, R.; Sweeney, N.; Van Wychen, S.; Lowell, A.; Pienkos, P. T.

    2014-11-12

    One of the major challenges associated with algal biofuels production in a biorefinery-type setting is improving biomass utilization in its entirety, increasing the process energetic yields and providing economically viable and scalable co-product concepts. We demonstrate the effectiveness of a novel, integrated technology based on moderate temperatures and low pH to convert the carbohydrates in wet algal biomass to soluble sugars for fermentation, while making lipids more accessible for downstream extraction and leaving a protein-enriched fraction behind. We studied the effect of harvest timing on the conversion yields, using two algal strains; Chlorella and Scenedesmus, generating biomass with distinctive compositional ratios of protein, carbohydrate, and lipids. We found that the late harvest Scenedesmus biomass had the maximum theoretical biofuel potential at 143 gasoline gallon equivalent (GGE) combined fuel yield per dry ton biomass, followed by late harvest Chlorella at 128 GGE per ton. Our experimental data show a clear difference between the two strains, as Scenedesmus was more successfully converted in this process with a demonstrated 97 GGE per ton. Our measurements indicated a release of >90% of the available glucose in the hydrolysate liquors and an extraction and recovery of up to 97% of the fatty acids from wet biomass. Techno-economic analysis for the combined product yields indicates that this process exhibits the potential to improve per-gallon fuel costs by up to 33% compared to a lipids-only process for one strain, Scenedesmus, grown to the mid-point harvest condition.

  20. Degradation of algal lipids by deep-sea benthic foraminifera: An in situ tracer experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nomaki, Hidetaka; Ohkouchi, Naohiko; Heinz, Petra; Suga, Hisami; Chikaraishi, Yoshito; Ogawa, Nanako O.; Matsumoto, Kouhei; Kitazato, Hiroshi

    2009-09-01

    We conducted an in situ feeding experiment using 13C-labeled unicellular algae in Sagami Bay, Japan (water depth, 1450 m), in order to understand the fate of lipid compounds in phytodetritus at the deep-sea floor. We examined the incorporation of excess 13C into lipid compounds extracted from bulk sediments and benthic foraminiferal cells. 13C-enriched fatty acids derived from 13C-labeled algae were exponentially degraded during 6 days of incubation in the sediment. Subsequent enrichments in 13C in sedimentary n-C 15,anteiso-C 17, and C 17 fatty acids indicated the microbial degradation of algal material and production of bacterial biomass in the sediment. We observed the incorporation of 13C-labeled algal phytol and fatty acids into foraminiferal cells. The compositions of 13C-labeled algal lipids in foraminiferal cells were different from those in the bulk sediments, indicating that foraminiferal feeding and digestion influenced the lipid distribution in the sediments. Furthermore, some sterols in Globobulimina affinis (e.g., 24-ethylcholesta-5,22-dien-3β-ol, 24-ethylcholest-5-en-3β-ol, and 23,24-dimethylcholesta-5,22E-dien-3β-ol) were newly produced via the modification of dietary algal sterols within 4-6 days. In addition to the effects of bacteria, feeding by benthic foraminifera can result in a significant reorganization of the composition of organic matter and influence benthic food webs and carbon cycling at the deep-sea floor.

  1. Lifespan extension of rotifers by treatment with red algal extracts

    PubMed Central

    Snare, David J.; Fields, Allison M.; Snell, Terry W.; Kubanek, Julia

    2013-01-01

    Aging results from an accumulation of damage to macromolecules inhibiting cellular replication, repair, and other necessary functions. Damage may be due to environmental stressors such as metal toxicity, oxidative stress caused by imperfections in electron transfer reactions, or other metabolic processes. In an effort to discover medical treatments that counteract this damage, we initiated a search for small molecule drugs from natural sources using life table experiments which, through their unbiased approach, present the opportunity to discover first-in-class molecules. We have identified marine red algae as a source of natural products that slow aging of the invertebrate rotifer Brachionus manjavacas. Rotifers are a promising model organism for life extension studies as they maintain a short, measurable lifespan while also having an extensive literature related to aging. Rotifer lifespan was increased 9–14% by exposure to three of a total of 200 screened red algal extracts. Bioassay guided fractionation led to semi-purified extracts composed primarily of lipids responsible for rotifer life extension. The life extending mixture from the red alga Acanthophora spicifera contained eicosanoic, octadecanoic, and hexadecanoic acids as well as several unidentified unsaturated fatty acids. The life extending effects of these small molecule mixtures are not a result of their direct antioxidant capacity; other unknown mechanisms of action are likely involved. An understanding of how these natural products interact with their molecular targets could lead to selective and effective treatments for slowing aging and reducing age related diseases. PMID:24120568

  2. Acid-Catalyzed Algal Biomass Pretreatment for Integrated Lipid and Carbohydrate-Based Biofuels Production

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Laurens, L. M. L.; Nagle, N.; Davis, R.; Sweeney, N.; Van Wychen, S.; Lowell, A.; Pienkos, P. T.

    2014-11-12

    One of the major challenges associated with algal biofuels production in a biorefinery-type setting is improving biomass utilization in its entirety, increasing the process energetic yields and providing economically viable and scalable co-product concepts. We demonstrate the effectiveness of a novel, integrated technology based on moderate temperatures and low pH to convert the carbohydrates in wet algal biomass to soluble sugars for fermentation, while making lipids more accessible for downstream extraction and leaving a protein-enriched fraction behind. We studied the effect of harvest timing on the conversion yields, using two algal strains; Chlorella and Scenedesmus, generating biomass with distinctive compositionalmore » ratios of protein, carbohydrate, and lipids. We found that the late harvest Scenedesmus biomass had the maximum theoretical biofuel potential at 143 gasoline gallon equivalent (GGE) combined fuel yield per dry ton biomass, followed by late harvest Chlorella at 128 GGE per ton. Our experimental data show a clear difference between the two strains, as Scenedesmus was more successfully converted in this process with a demonstrated 97 GGE per ton. Our measurements indicated a release of >90% of the available glucose in the hydrolysate liquors and an extraction and recovery of up to 97% of the fatty acids from wet biomass. Techno-economic analysis for the combined product yields indicates that this process exhibits the potential to improve per-gallon fuel costs by up to 33% compared to a lipids-only process for one strain, Scenedesmus, grown to the mid-point harvest condition.« less

  3. A comparative study: the impact of different lipid extraction methods on current microalgal lipid research

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Microalgae cells have the potential to rapidly accumulate lipids, such as triacylglycerides that contain fatty acids important for high value fatty acids (e.g., EPA and DHA) and/or biodiesel production. However, lipid extraction methods for microalgae cells are not well established, and there is currently no standard extraction method for the determination of the fatty acid content of microalgae. This has caused a few problems in microlagal biofuel research due to the bias derived from different extraction methods. Therefore, this study used several extraction methods for fatty acid analysis on marine microalga Tetraselmis sp. M8, aiming to assess the potential impact of different extractions on current microalgal lipid research. These methods included classical Bligh & Dyer lipid extraction, two other chemical extractions using different solvents and sonication, direct saponification and supercritical CO2 extraction. Soxhlet-based extraction was used to weigh out the importance of solvent polarity in the algal oil extraction. Coupled with GC/MS, a Thermogravimetric Analyser was used to improve the quantification of microalgal lipid extractions. Among these extractions, significant differences were observed in both, extract yield and fatty acid composition. The supercritical extraction technique stood out most for effective extraction of microalgal lipids, especially for long chain unsaturated fatty acids. The results highlight the necessity for comparative analyses of microalgae fatty acids and careful choice and validation of analytical methodology in microalgal lipid research. PMID:24456581

  4. Improved aqueous extraction of microalgal lipid by combined enzymatic and thermal lysis from wet biomass of Nannochloropsis oceanica.

    PubMed

    Chen, Lin; Li, Runzhi; Ren, Xiaoli; Liu, Tianzhong

    2016-08-01

    High moisture content in wet algal biomass hinders effective performance of current lipid extraction methods. An improved aqueous extraction method combing thermal and enzymatic lysis was proposed and performed in algal slurry of Nannochloropsis oceanica (96.0% moisture) in this study. In general, cell-wall of N. oceanica was disrupted via thermal lysis and enzymatic lysis and lipid extraction was performed using aqueous surfactant solution. At the optimal conditions, high extraction efficiencies for both lipid (88.3%) and protein (62.4%) were obtained, which were significantly higher than those of traditional hexane extraction and other methods for wet algal biomass. Furthermore, an excessive extraction of polar lipid was found for wet biomass compared with dry biomass. The advantage of this method is to efficiently extract lipids from high moisture content algal biomass and avoid using organic solvent, indicating immense potential for commercial microalgae-based biofuel production. PMID:27132220

  5. Utilization of non-conventional systems for conversion of biomass to food components: Recovery optimization and characterizations of algal proteins and lipids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Karel, M.; Nakhost, Z.

    1986-01-01

    Protein isolate obtained from green algae (Scenedesmus obliquus) cultivated under controlled conditions was characterized. Molecular weight determination of fractionated algal proteins using SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis revealed a wide spectrum of molecular weights ranging from 15,000 to 220,000. Isoelectric points of dissociated proteins were in the range of 3.95 to 6.20. Amino acid composition of protein isolate compared favorably with FAO standards. High content of essential amino acids leucine, valine, phenylalanine and lysine makes algal protein isolate a high quality component of closed environment life support system (CELSS) diets. To optimize the removal of algal lipids and pigments supercritical carbon dioxide extraction (with and without ethanol as a co-solvent) was used. Addition of ethanol to supercritical CO2 resulted in more efficient removal of algal lipids and produced protein isolate with a good yield and protein recovery. The protein isolate extracted by the above mixture had an improved water solubility.

  6. Life cycle assessment of biodiesel production from algal bio-crude oils extracted under subcritical water conditions.

    PubMed

    Ponnusamy, Sundaravadivelnathan; Reddy, Harvind Kumar; Muppaneni, Tapaswy; Downes, Cara Meghan; Deng, Shuguang

    2014-10-01

    A life cycle assessment study is performed for the energy requirements and greenhouse gas emissions in an algal biodiesel production system. Subcritical water (SCW) extraction was applied for extracting bio-crude oil from algae, and conventional transesterification method was used for converting the algal oil to biodiesel. 58MJ of energy is required to produce 1kg of biodiesel without any co-products management, of which 36% was spent on cultivation and 56% on lipid extraction. SCW extraction with thermal energy recovery reduces the energy consumption by 3-5 folds when compared to the traditional solvent extraction. It is estimated that 1kg of algal biodiesel fixes about 0.6kg of CO2. An optimized case considering the energy credits from co-products could further reduce the total energy demand. The energy demand for producing 1kg of biodiesel in the optimized case is 28.23MJ. PMID:25164337

  7. Direct extraction of photosynthetic electrons from single algal cells by nanoprobing system.

    PubMed

    Ryu, WonHyoung; Bai, Seoung-Jai; Park, Joong Sun; Huang, Zubin; Moseley, Jeffrey; Fabian, Tibor; Fasching, Rainer J; Grossman, Arthur R; Prinz, Fritz B

    2010-04-14

    There are numerous sources of bioenergy that are generated by photosynthetic processes, for example, lipids, alcohols, hydrogen, and polysaccharides. However, generally only a small fraction of solar energy absorbed by photosynthetic organisms is converted to a form of energy that can be readily exploited. To more efficiently use the solar energy harvested by photosynthetic organisms, we evaluated the feasibility of generating bioelectricity by directly extracting electrons from the photosynthetic electron transport chain before they are used to fix CO(2) into sugars and polysaccharides. From a living algal cell, Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, photosynthetic electrons (1.2 pA at 6000 mA/m(2)) were directly extracted without a mediator electron carrier by inserting a nanoelectrode into the algal chloroplast and applying an overvoltage. This result may represent an initial step in generating "high efficiency" bioelectricity by directly harvesting high energy photosynthetic electrons. PMID:20201533

  8. Design of algal film photobioreactors: material surface energy effects on algal film productivity, colonization and lipid content.

    PubMed

    Genin, Scott N; Stewart Aitchison, J; Grant Allen, D

    2014-03-01

    A parallel plate air lift reactor was used to examine the growth kinetics of mixed culture algal biofilms grown on various materials (acrylic, glass, polycarbonate, polystyrene and cellulose acetate). The growth kinetics of the algal biofilms were non-linear overall and their overall productivities ranged from 1.10-2.08g/m(2)day, with those grown on cellulose acetate having the highest productivity. Overall algal biofilm productivity was largely explained by differences in the colonization time which in turn was strongly correlated to the polar surface energy of the material, but weakly correlated to water-material contact angle. When colonization time was taken into account, the productivity for all materials except acrylic was not significantly different at approximately 2g/m(2)/day. Lipid content of the algal biofilms ranged from 6% to 8% (w/w) and was not correlated to water-material contact angle or polar surface energy. The results have potential application for selecting appropriate materials for algal film photobioreactors. PMID:24441594

  9. Saline wastewater treatment by Chlorella vulgaris with simultaneous algal lipid accumulation triggered by nitrate deficiency.

    PubMed

    Shen, Qiao-Hui; Gong, Yu-Peng; Fang, Wen-Zhe; Bi, Zi-Cheng; Cheng, Li-Hua; Xu, Xin-Hua; Chen, Huan-Lin

    2015-10-01

    Chlorella vulgaris, a marine microalgae strain adaptable to 0-50 g L(-1) of salinity, was selected for studying the coupling system of saline wastewater treatment and lipid accumulation. The effect of total nitrogen (T N) concentration was investigated on algal growth, nutrients removal as well as lipid accumulation. The removal efficiencies of TN and total phosphorus (TP) were found to be 92.2-96.6% and over 99%, respectively, after a batch cultivation of 20 days. To illustrate the response of lipid accumulation to nutrients removal, C. vulgaris was further cultivated in the recycling experiment of tidal saline water within the photobioreactor. The lipid accumulation was triggered upon the almost depletion of nitrate (<5 mg L(-1)), till the final highest lipid content of 40%. The nitrogen conversion in the sequence of nitrate, nitrite, and then to ammonium in the effluents was finally integrated with previous discussions on metabolic pathways of algal cell under nitrogen deficiency. PMID:26117237

  10. Life Cycle Analysis on Fossil Energy Ratio of Algal Biodiesel: Effects of Nitrogen Deficiency and Oil Extraction Technology

    PubMed Central

    Jian, Hou; Jing, Yang; Peidong, Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Life cycle assessment (LCA) has been widely used to analyze various pathways of biofuel preparation from “cradle to grave.” Effects of nitrogen supply for algae cultivation and technology of algal oil extraction on life cycle fossil energy ratio of biodiesel are assessed in this study. Life cycle fossil energy ratio of Chlorella vulgaris based biodiesel is improved by growing algae under nitrogen-limited conditions, while the life cycle fossil energy ratio of biodiesel production from Phaeodactylum tricornutum grown with nitrogen deprivation decreases. Compared to extraction of oil from dried algae, extraction of lipid from wet algae with subcritical cosolvents achieves a 43.83% improvement in fossil energy ratio of algal biodiesel when oilcake drying is not considered. The outcome for sensitivity analysis indicates that the algal oil conversion rate and energy content of algae are found to have the greatest effects on the LCA results of algal biodiesel production, followed by utilization ratio of algal residue, energy demand for algae drying, capacity of water mixing, and productivity of algae. PMID:26000338

  11. Life cycle analysis on fossil energy ratio of algal biodiesel: effects of nitrogen deficiency and oil extraction technology.

    PubMed

    Jian, Hou; Jing, Yang; Peidong, Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Life cycle assessment (LCA) has been widely used to analyze various pathways of biofuel preparation from "cradle to grave." Effects of nitrogen supply for algae cultivation and technology of algal oil extraction on life cycle fossil energy ratio of biodiesel are assessed in this study. Life cycle fossil energy ratio of Chlorella vulgaris based biodiesel is improved by growing algae under nitrogen-limited conditions, while the life cycle fossil energy ratio of biodiesel production from Phaeodactylum tricornutum grown with nitrogen deprivation decreases. Compared to extraction of oil from dried algae, extraction of lipid from wet algae with subcritical cosolvents achieves a 43.83% improvement in fossil energy ratio of algal biodiesel when oilcake drying is not considered. The outcome for sensitivity analysis indicates that the algal oil conversion rate and energy content of algae are found to have the greatest effects on the LCA results of algal biodiesel production, followed by utilization ratio of algal residue, energy demand for algae drying, capacity of water mixing, and productivity of algae. PMID:26000338

  12. Bicarbonate trigger for inducing lipid accumulation in algal systems

    SciTech Connect

    Gardner, Robert; Peyton, Brent; Cooksey, Keith E.

    2015-08-04

    The present invention provides bicarbonate containing and/or bicarbonate-producing compositions and methods to induce lipid accumulation in an algae growth system, wherein the algae growth system is under light-dark cycling condition. By adding said compositions at a specific growth stage, said methods lead to much higher lipid accumulation and/or significantly reduced total time required for accumulating lipid in the algae growth system.

  13. Comparison of Cell Disruption Methods for Improving Lipid Extraction from Thraustochytrid Strains.

    PubMed

    Byreddy, Avinesh R; Gupta, Adarsha; Barrow, Colin J; Puri, Munish

    2015-08-01

    Lipid extraction is an integral part of biodiesel production, as it facilitates the release of fatty acids from algal cells. To utilise thraustochytrids as a potential source for lipid production. We evaluated the extraction efficiency of various solvents and solvent combinations for lipid extraction from Schizochytrium sp. S31 and Thraustochytrium sp. AMCQS5-5. The maximum lipid extraction yield was 22% using a chloroform:methanol ratio of 2:1. We compared various cell disruption methods to improve lipid extraction yields, including grinding with liquid nitrogen, bead vortexing, osmotic shock, water bath, sonication and shake mill. The highest lipid extraction yields were obtained using osmotic shock and 48.7% from Schizochytrium sp. S31 and 29.1% from Thraustochytrium sp. AMCQS5-5. Saturated and monounsaturated fatty acid contents were more than 60% in Schizochytrium sp. S31 which suggests their suitability for biodiesel production. PMID:26270668

  14. Comparison of Cell Disruption Methods for Improving Lipid Extraction from Thraustochytrid Strains

    PubMed Central

    Byreddy, Avinesh R.; Gupta, Adarsha; Barrow, Colin J.; Puri, Munish

    2015-01-01

    Lipid extraction is an integral part of biodiesel production, as it facilitates the release of fatty acids from algal cells. To utilise thraustochytrids as a potential source for lipid production. We evaluated the extraction efficiency of various solvents and solvent combinations for lipid extraction from Schizochytrium sp. S31 and Thraustochytrium sp. AMCQS5-5. The maximum lipid extraction yield was 22% using a chloroform:methanol ratio of 2:1. We compared various cell disruption methods to improve lipid extraction yields, including grinding with liquid nitrogen, bead vortexing, osmotic shock, water bath, sonication and shake mill. The highest lipid extraction yields were obtained using osmotic shock and 48.7% from Schizochytrium sp. S31 and 29.1% from Thraustochytrium sp. AMCQS5-5. Saturated and monounsaturated fatty acid contents were more than 60% in Schizochytrium sp. S31 which suggests their suitability for biodiesel production. PMID:26270668

  15. Lipid extraction from isolated single nerve cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krasnov, I. V.

    1977-01-01

    A method of extracting lipids from single neurons isolated from lyophilized tissue is described. The method permits the simultaneous extraction of lipids from 30-40 nerve cells and for each cell provides equal conditions of solvent removal at the conclusion of extraction.

  16. Interaction of Daptomycin with Lipid Bilayers: A Lipid Extracting Effect

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Daptomycin is the first approved member of a new structural class of antibiotics, the cyclic lipopeptides. The peptide interacts with the lipid matrix of cell membranes, inducing permeability of the membrane to ions, but its molecular mechanism has been a puzzle. Unlike the ubiquitous membrane-acting host-defense antimicrobial peptides, daptomycin does not induce pores in the cell membranes. Thus, how it affects the permeability of a membrane to ions is not clear. We studied its interaction with giant unilamellar vesicles (GUVs) and discovered a lipid-extracting phenomenon that correlates with the direct action of daptomycin on bacterial membranes observed in a recent fluorescence microscopy study. Lipid extraction occurred only when the GUV lipid composition included phosphatidylglycerol and in the presence of Ca2+ ions, the same condition found to be necessary for daptomycin to be effective against bacteria. Furthermore, it occurred only when the peptide/lipid ratio exceeded a threshold value, which could be the basis of the minimal inhibitory concentration of daptomycin. In this first publication on the lipid extracting effect, we characterize its dependence on ions and lipid compositions. We also discuss possibilities for connecting the lipid extracting effect to the antibacterial activity of daptomycin. PMID:25093761

  17. Subcritical co-solvents extraction of lipid from wet microalgae pastes of Nannochloropsis sp

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Min; Liu, Tianzhong; Chen, Xiaolin; Chen, Lin; Zhang, Wei; Wang, Junfeng; Gao, Lili; Chen, Yu; Peng, Xiaowei

    2012-01-01

    In this paper subcritical co-solvents extraction (SCE) of algal lipid from wet pastes of Nannochloropsis sp. is examined. The influences of five operating parameters including the ratio between ethanol to hexane, the ratio of mixed solvents to algal biomass (dry weight), extraction temperature, pressure, and time were investigated. The determined optimum extraction conditions were 3:1 (hexane to ethanol ratio), 10:1 ratio (co-solvents to microalgae (dry weight) ratio), 90°C, 1.4 MPa, and 50 min, which could produce 88% recovery rate of the total lipids. In addition, electron micrographs of transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) were conducted to show that the algal cell presented shrunken, collapsed with some wrinkles and microholes after SCE extraction. The main composition of total lipids extracted under the optimum conditions was TAG which represented more than 80%. And the fatty acid profile of triglycerides revealed that C16:0 (35.67 ± 0.2%), C18:1 (26.84 ± 0.044%) and C16:1 (25.96 ± 0.011%) were dominant. Practical applications: The reported method could save energy consumption significantly through avoiding deep dewatering (for example drying). The composition of the extracted lipid is suitable for the production of high quality biodiesel. PMID:22745570

  18. Effects of algal hydrolysate as reaction medium on enzymatic hydrolysis of lignocelluloses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Algal biomass has been proposed as a source of lipids and sugars for biofuel productions. However, a substantial portion of potentially valuable algal material remains as a liquid hydrolysate after sugar and lipid extractions. This study examined the effects of an algal hydrolysate on the enzymatic...

  19. Renewable Diesel from Algal Lipids: An Integrated Baseline for Cost, Emissions, and Resource Potential from a Harmonized Model

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, R.; Fishman, D.; Frank, E. D.; Wigmosta, M. S.; Aden, A.; Coleman, A. M.; Pienkos, P. T.; Skaggs, R. J.; Venteris, E. R.; Wang, M. Q.

    2012-06-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy's Biomass Program has begun an initiative to obtain consistent quantitative metrics for algal biofuel production to establish an 'integrated baseline' by harmonizing and combining the Program's national resource assessment (RA), techno-economic analysis (TEA), and life-cycle analysis (LCA) models. The baseline attempts to represent a plausible near-term production scenario with freshwater microalgae growth, extraction of lipids, and conversion via hydroprocessing to produce a renewable diesel (RD) blendstock. Differences in the prior TEA and LCA models were reconciled (harmonized) and the RA model was used to prioritize and select the most favorable consortium of sites that supports production of 5 billion gallons per year of RD. Aligning the TEA and LCA models produced slightly higher costs and emissions compared to the pre-harmonized results. However, after then applying the productivities predicted by the RA model (13 g/m2/d on annual average vs. 25 g/m2/d in the original models), the integrated baseline resulted in markedly higher costs and emissions. The relationship between performance (cost and emissions) and either productivity or lipid fraction was found to be non-linear, and important implications on the TEA and LCA results were observed after introducing seasonal variability from the RA model. Increasing productivity and lipid fraction alone was insufficient to achieve cost and emission targets; however, combined with lower energy, less expensive alternative technology scenarios, emissions and costs were substantially reduced.

  20. Lipids of recently-deposited algal mats at Laguna Mormona, Baja California

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cardoso, J.; Brooks, P. W.; Eglinton, G.; Goodfellow, R.; Maxwell, J. R.; Philp, R. P.

    1976-01-01

    A preliminary survey of the lipid composition of the core of a recently deposited algal mat of a subtropical, hypersaline coastal pond is described. Two layers of the core were examined: the upper, 2-cm-thick layer, comprising the fresh algal mat of predominantly the blue-green species Microcoleus chthonoplastes, and the black anaerobic algal ooze at a depth of 10 cm. About 75% of the n-alkanes in the mat were accounted for by n-C17, with smaller amounts of higher homologues maximizing at n-C27. The ooze was characterized by a bimodal distribution with maxima at n-C17 and n-C27. The n-alkanoic acids distributions were similar to the corresponding n-alkane distributions. A marked decrease in the ratio of monounsaturated to saturated acids in the ooze relative to the mat was observed, which indicates a preferential removal of unsaturated components. Certain triterpenes of the hopane skeletal type were present in the mat and ooze. The presence of stanols and sterenes in the ooze with similar carbon number distributions suggests a relationship between them.

  1. Algal Lipids and Omega-3 Production via Autotrophic and Heterotrophic Pathways at Cellana?s Kona Demonstration Facility, Hawaii

    SciTech Connect

    Bai, Xuemei; Knurek, Emily; Goes, Nikki; Griswold, Lynn

    2012-05-05

    Cellana?s Kona Demonstration Facility (KDF) is a 2.5 hectare facility, with 17,000 sq. ft. under roof and 1 hectare of cultivation systems. KDF is designed to execute and support all stages of the production process at pilot scale, from cultivation through extraction. Since Feb. 2009, KDF has been producing up to 0.7MT dry weight of algal biomass per month, while at the same time optimizing processes of cultivation, harvesting, dewatering and extraction. The cultivation system at KDF uses ALDUO? technology, a hybrid system of photobioreactors (PBRs) and open ponds. All fluid transfers related to KDF cultivation and harvesting processes are operated and monitored by a remote Process-Control System. Fluid transfer data, together with biochemical data, enable the mass balance calculations necessary to measure productivity. This poster summarizes methods to improve both biomass and lipids yield by 1) alleviating light limitation in open ponds, 2) de-oxygenation and 3) heterotrophic lipid production for post-harvesting cultures.

  2. Extraction and Analysis of Food Lipids

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Along with proteins and carbohydrates, lipids are one of the main components of foods. Lipids are often defined as a group of biomolecules that are insoluble in water and soluble in organic solvents such as hexane, diethyl ether or chloroform. Modern methods for the extraction and analysis of lipi...

  3. Plasticizer and surfactant formation from food-waste- and algal biomass-derived lipids.

    PubMed

    Pleissner, Daniel; Lau, Kin Yan; Zhang, Chengwu; Lin, Carol Sze Ki

    2015-05-22

    The potential of lipids derived from food-waste and algal biomass (produced from food-waste hydrolysate) for the formation of plasticizers and surfactants is investigated herein. Plasticizers were formed by epoxidation of double bonds of methylated unsaturated fatty acids with in situ generated peroxoformic acid. Assuming that all unsaturated fatty acids are convertible, 0.35 and 0.40 g of plasticizer can be obtained from 1 g of crude algae- or food-waste-derived lipids, respectively. Surfactants were formed by transesterification of saturated and epoxidized fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs) with polyglycerol. The addition of polyglycerol would result in a complete conversion of saturated and epoxidized FAMEs to fatty acid polyglycerol esters. This study successfully demonstrates the conversion of food-waste into value-added chemicals using simple and conventional chemical reactions. PMID:25425530

  4. A Simple and Rapid Protocol for Measuring Neutral Lipids in Algal Cells Using Fluorescence

    PubMed Central

    Storms, Zachary J.; Cameron, Elliot; de la Hoz Siegler, Hector; McCaffrey, William C.

    2014-01-01

    Algae are considered excellent candidates for renewable fuel sources due to their natural lipid storage capabilities. Robust monitoring of algal fermentation processes and screening for new oil-rich strains requires a fast and reliable protocol for determination of intracellular lipid content. Current practices rely largely on gravimetric methods to determine oil content, techniques developed decades ago that are time consuming and require large sample volumes. In this paper, Nile Red, a fluorescent dye that has been used to identify the presence of lipid bodies in numerous types of organisms, is incorporated into a simple, fast, and reliable protocol for measuring the neutral lipid content of Auxenochlorella protothecoides, a green alga. The method uses ethanol, a relatively mild solvent, to permeabilize the cell membrane before staining and a 96 well micro-plate to increase sample capacity during fluorescence intensity measurements. It has been designed with the specific application of monitoring bioprocess performance. Previously dried samples or live samples from a growing culture can be used in the assay. PMID:24961928

  5. A simple and rapid protocol for measuring neutral lipids in algal cells using fluorescence.

    PubMed

    Storms, Zachary J; Cameron, Elliot; de la Hoz Siegler, Hector; McCaffrey, William C

    2014-01-01

    Algae are considered excellent candidates for renewable fuel sources due to their natural lipid storage capabilities. Robust monitoring of algal fermentation processes and screening for new oil-rich strains requires a fast and reliable protocol for determination of intracellular lipid content. Current practices rely largely on gravimetric methods to determine oil content, techniques developed decades ago that are time consuming and require large sample volumes. In this paper, Nile Red, a fluorescent dye that has been used to identify the presence of lipid bodies in numerous types of organisms, is incorporated into a simple, fast, and reliable protocol for measuring the neutral lipid content of Auxenochlorella protothecoides, a green alga. The method uses ethanol, a relatively mild solvent, to permeabilize the cell membrane before staining and a 96 well micro-plate to increase sample capacity during fluorescence intensity measurements. It has been designed with the specific application of monitoring bioprocess performance. Previously dried samples or live samples from a growing culture can be used in the assay. PMID:24961928

  6. Lipid Extraction from Mouse Feces

    PubMed Central

    Kraus, Daniel; Yang, Qin; Kahn, Barbara B.

    2016-01-01

    The analysis of feces composition is important for the study of energy metabolism, which comprises various measurements of energy intake, energy expenditure, and energy wasting. The current protocol describes how to measure energy-dense lipids in mouse feces using a modification of the method proposed by Folch et al. (1957). PMID:27110587

  7. Getting to low-cost algal biofuels: A monograph on conventional and cutting-edge harvesting and extraction technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Coons, James E.; Kalb, Daniel M.; Dale, Taraka; Marrone, Babetta L.

    2014-08-31

    Among the most formidable challenges to algal biofuels is the ability to harvest algae and extract intracellular lipids at low cost and with a positive energy balance. Here, we construct two paradigms that contrast energy requirements and costs of conventional and cutting-edge Harvesting and Extraction (H&E) technologies. By application of the parity criterion and the moderate condition reference state, an energy–cost paradigm is created that allows 1st stage harvesting technologies to be compared with easy reference to the National Alliance for Advanced Biofuels and Bioproducts (NAABB) target of $0.013/gallon of gasoline equivalent (GGE) and to the U.S. DOE's Bioenergy Technologies Office 2022 cost metrics. Drawing from the moderate condition reference state, a concentration-dependency paradigm is developed for extraction technologies, making easier comparison to the National Algal Biofuels Technology Roadmap (NABTR) target of less than 10% total energy. This monograph identifies cost-bearing factors for a variety of H&E technologies, describes a design basis for ultrasonic harvesters, and provides a framework to measure future technological advancements toward reducing H&E costs. Finally, we show that ultrasonic harvesters and extractors are uniquely capable of meeting both NAABB and NABTR targets. Ultrasonic technologies require further development and scale-up before they can achieve low-cost performance at industrially relevant scales. But, the advancement of this technology would greatly reduce H&E costs and accelerate the commercial viability of algae-based biofuels.

  8. Effect of high pressure homogenization on aqueous phase solvent extraction of lipids from Nannochloris Oculata microalgae

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Samarasinghe, Nalin; Fernando, Sandun; Faulkner, William B.

    2012-12-01

    The ability to extract lipids from high-moisture Nannochloris Oculata algal biomass disrupted with high pressure homogenization was investigated. During the first phase, the effect of high pressure homogenization (system pressure and number of passes) on disrupting aqueous algae (of different concentrations and degree of stress) was investigated. Secondly, the effect of degree of cell wall disruption on the amount of lipids extracted with three solvents, namely: hexane, dichloromethane and chloroform, were compared. Studies reveled that high pressure homogenization is effective on cell disruption while the amount of system pressure being the most significant factor affecting the degree of cell breakage.more » Although the number of passes had some impact, the level of disruption seemed to level-off after a certain number of passes. The study revealed that slightly polar solvents (such as chloroform and dichloromethane) performed better in aqueous-phase lipid extractions as compared to hexane. Also, it was revealed that it was not necessary to disrupt the algal cells completely to achieve appreciable levels of lipid yields. In fact, conditions that exerted only 20% of the cells to completely disrupt, allowed sufficient damage to liberate most of the lipids contained in the remainder of the cells.« less

  9. Effect of high pressure homogenization on aqueous phase solvent extraction of lipids from Nannochloris Oculata microalgae

    SciTech Connect

    Samarasinghe, Nalin; Fernando, Sandun; Faulkner, William B.

    2012-12-01

    The ability to extract lipids from high-moisture Nannochloris Oculata algal biomass disrupted with high pressure homogenization was investigated. During the first phase, the effect of high pressure homogenization (system pressure and number of passes) on disrupting aqueous algae (of different concentrations and degree of stress) was investigated. Secondly, the effect of degree of cell wall disruption on the amount of lipids extracted with three solvents, namely: hexane, dichloromethane and chloroform, were compared. Studies reveled that high pressure homogenization is effective on cell disruption while the amount of system pressure being the most significant factor affecting the degree of cell breakage. Although the number of passes had some impact, the level of disruption seemed to level-off after a certain number of passes. The study revealed that slightly polar solvents (such as chloroform and dichloromethane) performed better in aqueous-phase lipid extractions as compared to hexane. Also, it was revealed that it was not necessary to disrupt the algal cells completely to achieve appreciable levels of lipid yields. In fact, conditions that exerted only 20% of the cells to completely disrupt, allowed sufficient damage to liberate most of the lipids contained in the remainder of the cells.

  10. Post-extraction algal residue in steam-flaked corn-based diets for beef cattle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The effects of post-extraction algal residue (PEAR) as N source 23 in steam-flaked corn-based (SFC) beef cattle finishing diets on intake, duodenal flow, digestion, ruminal microbial efficiency, ruminal parameters, and blood constituents were evaluated. Ruminally and duodenally cannulated steers (BW...

  11. Algal-bacterial process for the simultaneous detoxification of thiocyanate-containing wastewater and maximized lipid production under photoautotrophic/photoheterotrophic conditions.

    PubMed

    Ryu, Byung-Gon; Kim, Jungmin; Farooq, Wasif; Han, Jong-In; Yang, Ji-Won; Kim, Woong

    2014-06-01

    In this work, a cooperative algal-bacterial system that efficiently degrades thiocyanate (SCN(-)), a toxic contaminant, and exhibits high lipid productivity, was developed. A consortium of mixed bacteria (activated sludge) and microalgae was sequentially cultivated under photoautotrophic and photoheterotrophic modes. The hydrolysis of SCN(-) to ammonium (NH4(+))-nitrogen and subsequent nitrification steps were performed by the initial activated sludge under lithoautotrophic conditions. The NH4(+) and oxidized forms of nitrogen, nitrite (NO2(-)) and nitrate (NO3(-)), were then assimilated and removed by the microalgal cells when light was supplied. After the degradation of SCN(-), the cultivation mode was changed to photoheterotrophic conditions in a sequential manner. Algal-bacterial cultures containing Chlorella protothecoides and Ettlia sp. yielded significantly increased lipid productivity under photoheterotrophic conditions compared to photoautotrophic conditions (28.7- and 17.3-fold higher, respectively). Statistical methodologies were also used to investigate the effects of volatile fatty acids and yeast extract on biomass and lipid production. PMID:24747384

  12. Towards a paleo-salinity proxy: Decreasing D/H fractionation in algal and bacterial lipids with increasing salinity in Christmas Island saline ponds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sachse, D.; Sachs, J. P.

    2007-12-01

    We investigated the effect of a wide range of salinities (13 -149 PSU) on the D/H ratio of lipids in microbial mat sediments from hypersaline ponds on Christmas Island. The hydrogen isotope ratios (expressed as δD values) of total lipid extracts, and the individual hydrocarbons heptadecane, heptadecene, octadecane, octadecene, diploptene and phytene from algae and bacteria, became increasingly enriched in deuterium as salinity increased, spanning a range of 100‰ while lake water δD values spanned a range of just 12‰. D/H fractionation between lipids and source water thus decreased as salinity increased. Isotope fractionation factors (αlipid-water) were strongly correlated with salinity and increased in all compound classes studied. The apparent isotope fractionation (ɛlipid-water) decreased by 0.8 to 1.1‰ per PSU increase in salinity. Differences in the hydrogen isotopic composition of lipids derived from three biosynthetic pathways (acetogenic, MVA and DOXP/MEP) remained similar irrespective of the salinity, suggesting that the mechanism responsible for the observed αlipid-water - salinity relationship originates prior to the last common biosynthetic branching point, the Calvin Cycle. These findings imply that caution must be exercised when attempting to reconstruct source water δD values using lipid δD values from aquatic environments that may have experienced salinity variations of ~3 PSU or more (based on a 1‰ per PSU response of D/H fractionation to salinity changes, and a lipid δD measurement precision of 3‰). On the other hand our results can be used to establish a paleo-salinity proxy based on algal and bacterial lipid δD values if salinity variations exceeded ~3 PSU and/or if additional constraints on source water δD values can be made.

  13. In Vitro Protocols for Measuring the Antioxidant Capacity of Algal Extracts.

    PubMed

    Kenny, Owen; Brunton, Nigel P; Smyth, Thomas J

    2015-01-01

    In the last decade a large amount of research has been directed at targeting algal resources for biologically active molecules. High-throughput in vitro antioxidant assays are routinely used to screen for biologically active compounds present in algal extracts when the requirement is to identify samples for progression to more detailed biological scrutiny. Whilst a myriad of antioxidant assays have been developed, this present chapter aims to give step-by-step practical guidance on how to carry out some of the most popular and biologically relevant assays at the bench. PMID:26108519

  14. Antimicrobial effects of marine algal extracts and cyanobacterial pure compounds against five foodborne pathogens.

    PubMed

    Dussault, Dominic; Vu, Khanh Dang; Vansach, Tifanie; Horgen, F David; Lacroix, Monique

    2016-05-15

    The marine environment is a proven source of structurally complex and biologically active compounds. In this study, the antimicrobial effects of a small collection of marine-derived extracts and isolates, were evaluated against 5 foodborne pathogens using a broth dilution assay. Results demonstrated that algal extracts from Padina and Ulva species and cyanobacterial compounds antillatoxin B, laxaphycins A, B and B3, isomalyngamide A, and malyngamides C, I and J showed antimicrobial activity against Gram positive foodborne pathogens (Listeria monocytogenes, Bacillus cereus and Staphylococcus aureus) at low concentrations (⩽ 500 μg/ml). None of the algal extracts or cyanobacterial isolates had antibacterial activity against Gram negative bacteria (Escherichia coli and Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium). PMID:26775951

  15. Biodiesel production from lipids in wet microalgae with microwave irradiation and bio-crude production from algal residue through hydrothermal liquefaction.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Jun; Huang, Rui; Yu, Tao; Li, Tao; Zhou, Junhu; Cen, Kefa

    2014-01-01

    A cogeneration process of biodiesel and bio-crude was proposed to make full use of wet microalgae biomass. High-grade biodiesel was first produced from lipids in wet microalgae through extraction and transesterification with microwave irradiation. Then, low-grade bio-crude was produced from proteins and carbohydrates in the algal residue through hydrothermal liquefaction. The total yield (40.19%) and the total energy recovery (67.73%) of the cogenerated biodiesel and bio-crude were almost equal to those of the bio-oil obtained from raw microalgae through direct hydrothermal liquefaction. Upon microwave irradiation, proteins were partially hydrolyzed and the hydrolysates were apt for deaminization under the hydrothermal condition of the algal residue. Hence, the total remaining nitrogen (16.02%) in the cogenerated biodiesel and bio-crude was lower than that (27.06%) in the bio-oil. The cogeneration process prevented lipids and proteins from reacting to produce low-grade amides and other long-chain nitrogen compounds during the direct hydrothermal liquefaction of microalgae. PMID:24183493

  16. Disk Diffusion Assay to Assess the Antimicrobial Activity of Marine Algal Extracts.

    PubMed

    Desbois, Andrew P; Smith, Valerie J

    2015-01-01

    Marine algae are a relatively untapped source of bioactive natural products, including those with antimicrobial activities. The ability to assess the antimicrobial activity of cell extracts derived from algal cultures is vital to identifying species that may produce useful novel antibiotics. One assay that is used widely for this purpose is the disk diffusion assay due to its simplicity, rapidity, and low cost. Moreover, this assay gives output data that are easy to interpret and can be used to screen many samples at once irrespective of the solvent used during preparation. In this chapter, a step-by-step protocol for performing a disk diffusion assay is described. The assay is particularly well suited to testing algal cell extracts and fractions resulting from separation through bioassay-guided approaches. PMID:26108520

  17. Stimulation of delta-Aminolevulinic Acid Formation in Algal Extracts by Heterologous RNA.

    PubMed

    Weinstein, J D; Mayer, S M; Beale, S I

    1986-12-01

    Formation of the chlorophyll and heme precursor delta-aminolevulinic acid (ALA) from glutamate in soluble extracts of Chlorella vulgaris, Euglena gracilis, and Cyanidium caldarium was stimulated by addition of low molecular weight RNA derived from greening algae or plant tissue. Enzyme extracts were prepared for the ALA formation assay by high-speed centrifugation, partial RNA depletion, and gel filtration through Sephadex G-25. RNA was extracted from greening barley epicotyls, greening cucumber cotyledon chloroplasts, and growing cells of Chlorella, Euglena, Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, and Anacystis nidulans, freed of protein, and fractionated on DEAE-cellulose to yield an active component corresponding to the tRNA-containing fraction. RNA from homologous and heterologous species stimulated ALA formation when added to enzyme extracts, and the degree of stimulation was proportional to the amount of RNA added. Algal enzyme extracts were stimulated by algal RNAs interchangeably, with the exception of RNA prepared from aplastidic Euglena, which did not stimulate ALA production. RNA from greening cucumber cotyledon chloroplasts and greening barley epicotyls stimulated ALA formation in algal enzyme incubations. In contrast, tRNA from Escherichia coli, both nonspecific and glutamate-specific, as well as wheat germ, bovine liver, and yeast tRNA, failed to reconstitute ALA formation. Moreover, E. coli tRNA inhibited ALA formation by algal extracts, both in the presence and absence of added algal RNA. Chlorella extracts were capable of catalyzing aminoacyl bond formation between glutamate and both the activity reconstituting and nonreconstituting RNAs, indicating that the inability of some RNAs to stimulate ALA formation was not due to their inability to serve as glutamyl acceptors. The first step in the ALA-forming reaction sequence has been proposed to be activation of glutamate via aminoacyl bond formation with a specific tRNA, analogous to the first step in peptide bond

  18. Getting to low-cost algal biofuels: A monograph on conventional and cutting-edge harvesting and extraction technologies

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Coons, James E.; Kalb, Daniel M.; Dale, Taraka; Marrone, Babetta L.

    2014-08-31

    Among the most formidable challenges to algal biofuels is the ability to harvest algae and extract intracellular lipids at low cost and with a positive energy balance. Here, we construct two paradigms that contrast energy requirements and costs of conventional and cutting-edge Harvesting and Extraction (H&E) technologies. By application of the parity criterion and the moderate condition reference state, an energy–cost paradigm is created that allows 1st stage harvesting technologies to be compared with easy reference to the National Alliance for Advanced Biofuels and Bioproducts (NAABB) target of $0.013/gallon of gasoline equivalent (GGE) and to the U.S. DOE's Bioenergy Technologiesmore » Office 2022 cost metrics. Drawing from the moderate condition reference state, a concentration-dependency paradigm is developed for extraction technologies, making easier comparison to the National Algal Biofuels Technology Roadmap (NABTR) target of less than 10% total energy. This monograph identifies cost-bearing factors for a variety of H&E technologies, describes a design basis for ultrasonic harvesters, and provides a framework to measure future technological advancements toward reducing H&E costs. Finally, we show that ultrasonic harvesters and extractors are uniquely capable of meeting both NAABB and NABTR targets. Ultrasonic technologies require further development and scale-up before they can achieve low-cost performance at industrially relevant scales. But, the advancement of this technology would greatly reduce H&E costs and accelerate the commercial viability of algae-based biofuels.« less

  19. Landsat TM image feature extraction and analysis of algal bloom in Taihu Lake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Yuchun; Chen, Wei

    2008-04-01

    This study developed an approach to the extraction and characterization of blue-green algal blooms of the study area Taihu Lake of China with the Landsat 5 TM imagery. Spectral feature of typical material within Taihu Lake were first compared, and the most sensitive spectral bands to blue-green algal blooms determined. Eight spectral indices were then designed using multiple TM spectral bands in order to maximize spectral contrast of different materials. The spectral curves describing the variation of reflectance at individual bands with the spectral indices were plotted, and the TM imagery was segmented using as thresholds the step-jumping points of the reflectance curves. The results indicate that the proposed multiple band-based spectral index NDAI2 (NDAI2 = (B4-B1)*(B5-B3)/(B4+B5+B1+B3) performed better than traditional vegetation indices NDVI and RVI in the extraction of blue-green algal information. In addition, this study indicates that the image segmentation using the points where reflectance has a sudden change resulted in a robust result, as well as a good applicability.

  20. Inhibitory effect of marine green algal extracts on germination of Lactuca sativa seeds.

    PubMed

    Choi, Jae-Suk; Choi, In Soon

    2016-03-01

    The allelopathic potential of nine green seaweed species was examined based on germination and seedling growth of lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.). Out of nine methanol extracts, Capsosiphon fulvescens and Monostroma nitidum extracts completely inhibited germination of L. sativa at 4 mg/filter paper after 24 hr of treatment. Water extracts of these seaweeds generally showed low anti-germination activities than methanol extracts. Of the nine water extracts, Enteromorpha linza extract completely inhibited L. sativa germination at 16 mg/filter paper after 24 hrs. To identify the primary active compounds, C. fulvescens. powder was successively fractionated according to polarity, and the main active agents against L. sativa were determined to be lipids (0.0% germination at 0.5 mg of lipids/paper disc). According to these results, extracts of C. fulvescens can be used to develop natural herbicidal agents and manage terrestrial weeds. PMID:27097439

  1. Mass cultivation of various algal species and their evaluation as a potential candidate for lipid production.

    PubMed

    Sharif, Nadia; Munir, Neelma; Saleem, Faiza; Aslam, Farheen; Naz, Shagufta

    2015-01-01

    Microalgae have been proposed as a promising source for biodiesel production. Focusing on algal strains for biodiesel production, efforts should be made to search new strains. Experiments were carried out to investigate the effects of growth parameters (nutrients, pH, light, aeration and temperature) and the oil percentage of eight algal strains (Chlorella sp., Cladophora sp., Hydrodictylium sp., Oedogonium sp., Oscillatoria sp., Spirogyra sp., Stigeocolonium sp., Ulothrix sp.). Results show that 6.5-7.5 is the optimum pH for the growth of all algal species. Temperature showed a greater variation (25°40°C). Ulothrix sp. gave more biomass productivity and is the most suitable strain for biodiesel production due to higher oil percentage (62%). Least biomass production was observed for Stigeocolonium sp. and least oil content was obtained from Hydrodictylium sp. It was observed that among these eight algal strains for biodiesel production, Ulothrix and Chlorella are the most promising algae species. PMID:25675371

  2. Optimization and kinetic studies on algal oil extraction from marine macroalgae Ulva lactuca.

    PubMed

    Suganya, Tamilarasan; Renganathan, Sahadevan

    2012-03-01

    In this present investigation, kinetic studies on oil extraction were performed in marine macroalgae Ulva lactuca. The algal biomass was characterized by scanning electron microscopy and Fourier Transform-Infra Red Spectroscopy. Six different pre-treatment methods were carried out to evaluate the best method for maximum oil extraction. Optimization of extraction parameters were performed and high oil yield was obtained at 5% moisture content, 0.12 mm particle size, 500 rpm stirrer speed, 55°C temperature, 140 min time and solvent-to-solid ratio as 6:1 with 1% diethyl-ether and 10% methylene chloride in n-hexane solvent mixture. After optimization, 10.88% (g/g) of oil extraction yield was achieved from 30 g of algal biomass. The rate constant was obtained for the first order kinetic study by differential method. The activation energy (Ea) was calculated as 63.031 kJ/mol. From the results obtained in the investigation, U. lactuca biomass was proved to be a suitable source for the biodiesel production. PMID:22209436

  3. Sludge-grown algae for culturing aquatic organisms: Part I. Algal growth in sludge extracts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hung, K. M.; Chiu, S. T.; Wong, M. H.

    1996-05-01

    This project is aimed at studying the feasibility of using sewage sludge to prepare culture media for microalgae ( Chlorella-HKBU) and the use of the sludge-grown algae as a feed for some aquatic organisms. Part I of the project included results on preparing sludge extracts and their use on algal culture. By comparing two culturing techniques, “aeration” and “shaking,” it was noted that both lag and log phases were shortened in the aeration system. A subsequent experiment noted that algal growth subject to aeration rates of 1.0 and 1.5 liters/min had similar lag and log phases. In addition, both aeration rates had a significantly higher ( P < 0.05) final cell density than that of 0.5 liters/min. A detailed study on the variation of growth conditions on the algal growth was done. The results indicated that pH values of all the cultures declined below 5 at day 12. The removal rates of ammonia N ranged from 62% to 70%. The sludge-grown algae contained a rather substantial amount of heavy metals (µg/g): Zn 289 581, Cu 443 682, Ni 310 963, Mn 96 126, Cr 25 118, and Fe 438 653. This implied that the rather high levels of heavy metals may impose adverse effects on higher trophic organisms.

  4. Biotechnological potential of the seaweed Cladophora rupestris (Chlorophyta, Cladophorales) lipidic extract.

    PubMed

    Stabili, L; Acquaviva, M I; Biandolino, F; Cavallo, R A; De Pascali, S A; Fanizzi, F P; Narracci, M; Cecere, E; Petrocelli, A

    2014-09-25

    Recently, with the advent of modern technologies, various marine organisms including algae are being studied as sources of natural substances effective on classical microorganisms and able to also combat the new trend of acquired resistance in microbes. In the present study the antimicrobial activity of the lipidic extract of the green seaweed Cladophora rupestris collected in a Mediterranean area, in two sampling periods (January and April), was assayed. The chemical characterization of the lipidic fractions was performed by gas-chromatography and multinuclear and multidimensional NMR spectroscopy. In the lipidic extract of C. rupestris collected in January an antibacterial activity against Enterococcus sp., Streptococcus agalactiae and Vibrio cholerae non-O1 was recorded; by contrast, bacterial inhibition was measured on several Vibrio species only in April. The fatty acid profile of C. rupestris lipidic extract, analyzed by gas chromatography, resulted mainly composed of palmitic, myristic, oleic, α linolenic, palmitoleic and linoleic acids. Moreover, since α-linolenic acid was the predominant ω3 fatty acid in April, we suggest its involvement in the antibacterial activity observed in this month, taking also into account that pure α-linolenic acid resulted effective towards some vibrios strains. C. rupestris fatty acid profile revealed also an interesting composition in polyunsaturated fatty acids in both the considered periods with the ω6/ω3 ratio lower than 1, leading to conclude that this macroalga may be employed as a natural source of ω3. Finally, the (1)H NMR spectrum in CDCl3 of algal lipid fractions showed the characteristic signals of saturated (SAFAs) and unsaturated fatty acids (UFAs) as well as other metabolites and a marked difference in free fatty acids (FFAs) content for the two examined algal lipid fractions. It is noteworthy that C. rupestris lipidic extracts show, by NMR spectroscopy, the signal pattern of polyhydroxybutyrate, a natural

  5. Enhanced energy conversion efficiency from high strength synthetic organic wastewater by sequential dark fermentative hydrogen production and algal lipid accumulation.

    PubMed

    Ren, Hong-Yu; Liu, Bing-Feng; Kong, Fanying; Zhao, Lei; Xing, Defeng; Ren, Nan-Qi

    2014-04-01

    A two-stage process of sequential dark fermentative hydrogen production and microalgal cultivation was applied to enhance the energy conversion efficiency from high strength synthetic organic wastewater. Ethanol fermentation bacterium Ethanoligenens harbinense B49 was used as hydrogen producer, and the energy conversion efficiency and chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal efficiency reached 18.6% and 28.3% in dark fermentation. Acetate was the main soluble product in dark fermentative effluent, which was further utilized by microalga Scenedesmus sp. R-16. The final algal biomass concentration reached 1.98gL(-1), and the algal biomass was rich in lipid (40.9%) and low in protein (23.3%) and carbohydrate (11.9%). Compared with single dark fermentation stage, the energy conversion efficiency and COD removal efficiency of two-stage system remarkably increased 101% and 131%, respectively. This research provides a new approach for efficient energy production and wastewater treatment using a two-stage process combining dark fermentation and algal cultivation. PMID:24582427

  6. Determining the Effect of Growth Rate on Hydrogen Isotope Fractionation of Algal Lipids in Two North Pacific Sites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolfshorndl, M.; Sachs, J. P.

    2015-12-01

    Tropical hydrologic changes have a large effect on global climate, but there does not yet exist a good indicator of rainfall variation in the tropics. Understanding past natural variability of such features as the Intertropical Convergence Zone and El Niño Southern Oscillation provides information about the extent of anthropogenic climate change today. The hydrogen isotopic composition (D/H ratio) of algal lipids has been shown to track the isotopic composition of source water in which the organism grew, providing information about precipitation variability over time. However, culture work has revealed that environmental factors such as salinity, temperature, growth rate, and irradiance also influence algal lipid D/H ratios. Here I present work determining the effect of growth rate and irradiance on the hydrogen isotope composition of alkenone-producing algae in the water column in two North Pacific locations, off the coast of Oregon and near the Hawaii Ocean Time Series site. This work corroborates empirical relationships observed in culture studies and indicates that the effects of growth rate and irradiance should be taken into account when applying the D/H isotope ratio rainfall proxy to reconstruct past climates.

  7. Growth, lipid extraction and thermal degradation of the microalga Chlorella vulgaris.

    PubMed

    Soštarič, Maja; Klinar, Dušan; Bricelj, Mihael; Golob, Janvit; Berovič, Marin; Likozar, Blaž

    2012-02-15

    The microalga Chlorella vulgaris was cultured in a combined medium obtained by mixing standard Jaworski medium with a solution from the modified Solvay process that contained only NaHCO(3) and NH(4)Cl. Cell number, pH and nitrogen content were monitored throughout growth. Lipids were extracted from lyophilised biomass using CHCl(3)-MeOH. A combination of grinding, microwave treatment and sonication proved to give the best lipid extract yield. Freeze-dried algal biomass was also utilised for thermal degradation studies. The degradation exhibited three distinct regions - primary cell structure breakage paralleled by evaporation of water, followed by two predominant exothermic degradation processes. The latter were modelled using nth order apparent kinetics. The activation energies of the degradation processes were determined to be 120-126kJ/mol and 122-132kJ/mol, respectively. The degradation model may be readily applied to an assortment of thermal algal processes, especially those relating to renewable energy. PMID:22178401

  8. Astaxanthin preparation by lipase-catalyzed hydrolysis of its esters from Haematococcus pluvialis algal extracts.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yingying; Guan, Feifei; Wang, Guili; Miao, Lili; Ding, Jing; Guan, Guohua; Li, Ying; Hui, Bodi

    2011-05-01

    Five of 8 fungal lipases screened were found to effectively hydrolyze astaxanthin esters from Haematococcus pluvialis algal cell extracts. Among these, an alkaline lipase from Penicillium cyclopium, expressed in Pichia pastoris, had the highest enzymolysis efficiency. Tween80 was shown to be an effective emulsifier in this lipase hydrolysis system for the 1st time. A series of experiments were performed to find optimal conditions for hydrolysis (pH, temperature, reaction time, lipase dosage). In the optimal reaction system, Tween80 and H. pluvialis extracts (mass ratio 1:1) were emulsified and added to the above lipase at a dosage of 4.6 U/μg (relative to total carotenoids), in phosphate buffer (0.1 M, pH 7.0), and incubated at 28 °C for 7 h, with agitation at 180 rpm. The free astaxanthin recovery ratio under these conditions was 63.2%. PMID:22417348

  9. An efficient and scalable extraction and quantification method for algal derived biofuel.

    PubMed

    Lohman, Egan J; Gardner, Robert D; Halverson, Luke; Macur, Richard E; Peyton, Brent M; Gerlach, Robin

    2013-09-01

    Microalgae are capable of synthesizing a multitude of compounds including biofuel precursors and other high value products such as omega-3-fatty acids. However, accurate analysis of the specific compounds produced by microalgae is important since slight variations in saturation and carbon chain length can affect the quality, and thus the value, of the end product. We present a method that allows for fast and reliable extraction of lipids and similar compounds from a range of algae, followed by their characterization using gas chromatographic analysis with a focus on biodiesel-relevant compounds. This method determines which range of biologically synthesized compounds is likely responsible for each fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) produced; information that is fundamental for identifying preferred microalgae candidates as a biodiesel source. Traditional methods of analyzing these precursor molecules are time intensive and prone to high degrees of variation between species and experimental conditions. Here we detail a new method which uses microwave energy as a reliable, single-step cell disruption technique to extract lipids from live cultures of microalgae. After extractable lipid characterization (including lipid type (free fatty acids, mono-, di- or tri-acylglycerides) and carbon chain length determination) by GC-FID, the same lipid extracts are transesterified into FAMEs and directly compared to total biodiesel potential by GC-MS. This approach provides insight into the fraction of total FAMEs derived from extractable lipids compared to FAMEs derived from the residual fraction (i.e. membrane bound phospholipids, sterols, etc.). This approach can also indicate which extractable lipid compound, based on chain length and relative abundance, is responsible for each FAME. This method was tested on three species of microalgae; the marine diatom Phaeodactylum tricornutum, the model Chlorophyte Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, and the freshwater green alga Chlorella vulgaris

  10. Effect of phosphorous concentrations on sedimentary distributions and isotopic composition of algal lipid biomarkers in lakes from central Switzerland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ladd, N.; Dubois, N.; Schubert, C. J.

    2015-12-01

    Lakes in the Swiss central plateau experienced increasing anthropogenic phosphorous loading throughout much of the 20th century. Since the 1980s concerted remediation efforts on the part of the Swiss government have significantly reduced P concentrations in most lakes and reversed previous eutrophication. However, P concentrations remain elevated above their preindustrial levels in many sites. High quality monitoring of lake nutrient levels since the 1950s, along with several lakes of wide-ranging P concentrations in close proximity, make central Switzerland an ideal location for studying the ways in which nutrient loading affects the organic composition of lacustrine sediments. Results of such studies can be used to develop proxies of eutrophication in sites where fewer historical data exist, and to reconstruct historical P concentrations in local lakes from the time before record keeping began. We analyzed the distributions of algal lipid biomarkers from surface sediment and sediment traps collected in the spring of 2015 from ten lakes with variable P concentrations in central Switzerland. Sedimentary lipid distributions from these lakes confirm that biomarkers associated with algal and cyanobacterial sources are more abundant in the sediment of lakes with greater P loading. The dry sedimentary concentrations of biomarkers such as brassicasterol (primarily diatom source) and diplopterol (cyanobacteria source), as well as the less source specific short-chain n-alkanols, linearly increase from 0.3 - 1.9 μg/g as total phosphorous in the upper water column increases by 1 μg/L over a range of 7 - 50 μg/L. We also present preliminary hydrogen isotope data from these biomarkers. Hydrogen isotopes of algal lipids primarily reflect the source water in which the algae grew, and this relationship has been developed as a paleohydrologic proxy. However, laboratory cultures of marine algae demonstrate that they discriminate more against 2H under nutrient replete conditions

  11. A hetero-photoautotrophic two-stage cultivation process to improve wastewater nutrient removal and enhance algal lipid accumulation.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Wenguang; Min, Min; Li, Yecong; Hu, Bing; Ma, Xiaochen; Cheng, Yanling; Liu, Yuhuan; Chen, Paul; Ruan, Roger

    2012-04-01

    A hetero-photoautotrophic algal growth model was studied for improved wastewater treatment and low cost algal biofuel feedstock production. The microalga, Auxenochlorella protothecoides UMN280, was grown heterotrophically on concentrated municipal wastewater and then autotrophically with CO(2) supplementation (air, 1% and 5%, respectively). Strain UMN280 was harvested by self-sedimentation after the heterotrophic stage and the supernatant was aerated with different levels of CO(2) to facilitate autotrophic growth in the second stage. The maximal biomass concentration and lipid content at the first and second stages reached 1.12g/L and 28.90%, and 1.16g/L and 33.22%, respectively. The nutrient removal efficiencies for total phosphorus, ammonia, nitrogen and chemical oxygen demand at the end of the two-stage cultivation were 98.48%, 100%, 90.60% and 79.10%, respectively. The above process can be used to treat organic-rich wastewaters (e.g. industrial and animal manure wastewaters) to achieve the dual purpose of low-cost wastewater treatment and biofuel feedstock production. PMID:22326332

  12. The Influence of Salinity, Growth Rate and Temperature on D/H Fractionation in Algal Lipids from Culture and Field Studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sachs, J. P.; Schwab, V.; Sachse, D.; Cash, A.; Nelson, D.; Zhang, Z.; Kawka, O.

    2007-12-01

    The use of compound-specific D/H ratios to decipher biochemical, geochemical, oceanographic, and climatic processes is expanding rapidly. The relative success of these efforts depends on an understanding of the environmental conditions that influence the deuterium depletion relative to environmental water observed in all plant, algal and bacterial lipids, and the sensitivity of D/H fractionation responses to changes in those environmental conditions. Presently very little is known about this interplay between the environment and D/H fraction in algal lipids. Here we present results from field studies (in the Chesapeake Bay, Christmas Island, the Great Salt Lake, and saline basins in Alberta and Saskatchewan) and culture studies (both continuous and batch) that indicate that salinity, growth rate and temperature each influence D/H fractionation in algal lipids to varying degrees, depending on the algae and the lipid. Our initial results indicate that D/H fractionation (1) decreases with increasing salinity, (2) increases with increasing growth rate in isoprenoid lipids, (3) is insensitive to growth rate in acetogenic lipids, and (4) increases with increasing temperature.

  13. The lipidic extract of the seaweed Gracilariopsis longissima (Rhodophyta, Gracilariales): a potential resource for biotechnological purposes?

    PubMed

    Stabili, L; Acquaviva, M I; Biandolino, F; Cavallo, R A; De Pascali, S A; Fanizzi, F P; Narracci, M; Petrocelli, A; Cecere, E

    2012-02-15

    In recent years seaweeds increasingly attracted interest in the search for new drugs and have been shown to be a primary source of bioactive natural products including antibiotics. In the present investigation the antimicrobial activity of Gracilariopsis longissima lipidic extract was assayed and its chemical characterization was carried out by means of advanced analytical techniques such as gas-chromatography and multinuclear and multidimensional NMR spectroscopy. G. longissima lipidic extract showed an antibacterial activity against several Vibrio species. These results are interesting considering both the resistance against antibiotics developed by vibrios and the need to control fish and shellfish diseases due to vibriosis. Analysis of fatty acid methyl esters performed by gas-chromatography showed that palmitic acid methyl ester (16:0) was the predominant saturated fatty acid (42%), while, among monounsaturated fatty acids, oleic acid methyl ester (18:1) prevailed (8.5%). Because the palmitic acid represents the main component of fatty acids we hypothesized its involvement in the antibacterial activity observed. However, a pure sample of palmitic acid did not show an antibacterial activity. The fatty acid profile of G. longissima revealed also an interesting composition in polyunsaturated fatty acids and in particular the ratio of ω-3 to ω-6 fatty acids was >1 thus suggesting that this macroalga may be used as a natural source of ω3. Moreover, the (1)H NMR spectrum in CDCl(3) of algal lipid fraction shows the characteristic signals of saturated and unsaturated fatty acids as well as other metabolites. Interestingly, in the lipid extract the presence of polyhydroxybutyrate, a linear biodegradable and biocompatible polyester, was clearly identified by NMR spectroscopy. In conclusion, the lipidic extract of G. longissima on account of its antimicrobial activity, nutritional value and content in biodegradable and biocompatible polyester represents an

  14. Simplifying biodiesel production: the direct or 'in situ' transesterification of algal biomass

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The ‘in situ’ esterification/transesterification of algal biomass lipids to produce fatty acid methyl esters (FAME), for potential use as biodiesel, was investigated. Commercial algal biomass was employed, containing 20.9 wt percent hexane extractable oil. This consisted of 35.1 wt percent free fa...

  15. The Anti-Inflammatory Effect of Algae-Derived Lipid Extracts on Lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-Stimulated Human THP-1 Macrophages.

    PubMed

    Robertson, Ruairi C; Guihéneuf, Freddy; Bahar, Bojlul; Schmid, Matthias; Stengel, Dagmar B; Fitzgerald, Gerald F; Ross, R Paul; Stanton, Catherine

    2015-08-01

    Algae contain a number of anti-inflammatory bioactive compounds such as omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA) and chlorophyll a, hence as dietary ingredients, their extracts may be effective in chronic inflammation-linked metabolic diseases such as cardiovascular disease. In this study, anti-inflammatory potential of lipid extracts from three red seaweeds (Porphyra dioica, Palmaria palmata and Chondrus crispus) and one microalga (Pavlova lutheri) were assessed in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated human THP-1 macrophages. Extracts contained 34%-42% total fatty acids as n-3 PUFA and 5%-7% crude extract as pigments, including chlorophyll a, β-carotene and fucoxanthin. Pretreatment of the THP-1 cells with lipid extract from P. palmata inhibited production of the pro-inflammatory cytokines interleukin (IL)-6 (p < 0.05) and IL-8 (p < 0.05) while that of P. lutheri inhibited IL-6 (p < 0.01) production. Quantitative gene expression analysis of a panel of 92 genes linked to inflammatory signaling pathway revealed down-regulation of the expression of 14 pro-inflammatory genes (TLR1, TLR2, TLR4, TLR8, TRAF5, TRAF6, TNFSF18, IL6R, IL23, CCR1, CCR4, CCL17, STAT3, MAP3K1) by the lipid extracts. The lipid extracts effectively inhibited the LPS-induced pro-inflammatory signaling pathways mediated via toll-like receptors, chemokines and nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NF-κB) signaling molecules. These results suggest that lipid extracts from P. lutheri, P. palmata, P. dioica and C. crispus can inhibit LPS-induced inflammatory pathways in human macrophages. Therefore, algal lipid extracts should be further explored as anti-inflammatory ingredients for chronic inflammation-linked metabolic diseases. PMID:26308008

  16. The Anti-Inflammatory Effect of Algae-Derived Lipid Extracts on Lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-Stimulated Human THP-1 Macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Robertson, Ruairi C.; Guihéneuf, Freddy; Bahar, Bojlul; Schmid, Matthias; Stengel, Dagmar B.; Fitzgerald, Gerald F.; Ross, R. Paul; Stanton, Catherine

    2015-01-01

    Algae contain a number of anti-inflammatory bioactive compounds such as omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA) and chlorophyll a, hence as dietary ingredients, their extracts may be effective in chronic inflammation-linked metabolic diseases such as cardiovascular disease. In this study, anti-inflammatory potential of lipid extracts from three red seaweeds (Porphyra dioica, Palmaria palmata and Chondrus crispus) and one microalga (Pavlova lutheri) were assessed in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated human THP-1 macrophages. Extracts contained 34%–42% total fatty acids as n-3 PUFA and 5%–7% crude extract as pigments, including chlorophyll a, β-carotene and fucoxanthin. Pretreatment of the THP-1 cells with lipid extract from P. palmata inhibited production of the pro-inflammatory cytokines interleukin (IL)-6 (p < 0.05) and IL-8 (p < 0.05) while that of P. lutheri inhibited IL-6 (p < 0.01) production. Quantitative gene expression analysis of a panel of 92 genes linked to inflammatory signaling pathway revealed down-regulation of the expression of 14 pro-inflammatory genes (TLR1, TLR2, TLR4, TLR8, TRAF5, TRAF6, TNFSF18, IL6R, IL23, CCR1, CCR4, CCL17, STAT3, MAP3K1) by the lipid extracts. The lipid extracts effectively inhibited the LPS-induced pro-inflammatory signaling pathways mediated via toll-like receptors, chemokines and nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NF-κB) signaling molecules. These results suggest that lipid extracts from P. lutheri, P. palmata, P. dioica and C. crispus can inhibit LPS-induced inflammatory pathways in human macrophages. Therefore, algal lipid extracts should be further explored as anti-inflammatory ingredients for chronic inflammation-linked metabolic diseases. PMID:26308008

  17. Microbial-algal community changes during the latest Permian ecological crisis: Evidence from lipid biomarkers at Cili, South China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Genming; Wang, Yongbiao; Grice, Kliti; Kershaw, Steve; Algeo, Thomas J.; Ruan, Xiaoyan; Yang, Hao; Jia, Chengling; Xie, Shucheng

    2013-06-01

    Microbialites flourished globally immediately following the latest Permian mass extinction. In this study, lipid biomarker records were analyzed in the Cili section (Hunan Province, South China) in order to determine the types of microbes involved in microbialite formation and their response to contemporaneous environmental changes. Various biomarkers were identified in the aliphatic and aromatic fractions using gas chromatography (GC) and GC-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Low abundance of steranes in the microbialite layer suggests that it did not contain large amounts of algae, in striking contrast to the abundant algal fossils and algal-derived steranes present in the underlying (pre-crisis) skeletal limestone. Although pristine/phytane (Pr/Ph) ratios increased in the microbialite layer, covariation of Pr/Ph with the ratio of low- to high-molecular-weight n-alkanes (C20 -/C20 +) suggests that the former proxy was controlled by microbial (particularly cyanobacterial) inputs rather than by redox conditions. The microbialite also yielded low ratios of hopanes to short-chain n-alkanes (HP/Lalk) and high abundances of C21n-alkylcyclohexane, indicating that, in addition to cyanobacteria, anaerobic bacteria, archaea, and possibly acritarchs flourished in the aftermath of the marine extinction event. The upper part of the thinly bedded micritic limestone overlying the microbialite exhibits a bimodal distribution of n-alkanes as well as increased abundances of extended tricyclic terpanes and steranes, suggesting a return of habitable shallow-marine conditions for eukaryotic algae several hundred thousand years after the latest Permian mass extinction. Increases in the dibenzofuran ratio (i.e., DBF/(DBF + DBT + F)) and in the coronene to phenanthrene ratio (Cor/P) in the skeletal limestone immediately below the microbialite are evidence of enhanced soil erosion rates and wildfire intensity, marking the collapse of terrestrial ecosystems. The terrestrial crisis thus slightly

  18. Inhibition of lipase and inflammatory mediators by Chlorella lipid extracts for antiacne treatment

    PubMed Central

    Sibi, G.

    2015-01-01

    Acne vulgaris is a chronic inflammatory disease, and its treatment is challenging due to the multifactorial etiology and emergence of antibiotic-resistant Propionibacterium acnes strains. This study was focused to reduce antibiotics usage and find an alternate therapeutic source for treating acne. Lipid extracts of six Chlorella species were tested for inhibition of lipase, reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, cytokine production using P. acnes (Microbial Type Culture Collection 1951). Lipase inhibitory assay was determined by dimercaprol Tributyrate - 5, 5'- dithiobis 2-nitrobenzoic acid method and ROS production assay was performed using nitro-blue tetrazolium test. The anti-inflammatory activity of algal lipid extracts was determined by in vitro screening method based on inhibition of pro-inflammatory cytokines, tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) produced by human peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values of lipid extracts were determined by microdilution method, and the fatty acid methyl esters (FAME) were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy. Chlorella ellipsoidea has the highest lipase inhibitory activity with 61.73% inhibition, followed by Chlorella vulgaris (60.31%) and Chlorella protothecoides (58.9%). Lipid extracts from C. protothecoides and C. ellipsoidea has significantly reduced the ROS production by 61.27% and 58.34% respectively. Inhibition of pro-inflammatory cytokines TNF-α showed the inhibition ranging from 58.39% to 78.67%. C. vulgaris has exhibited the MICvalue of 10 μg/ml followed by C. ellipsoidea, C. protothecoides and Chlorella pyrenoidosa (20 μg/ml). FAME analysis detected 19 fatty acids of which 5 were saturated fatty acids, and 14 were unsaturated fatty acids ranging from C14 to C24. The results suggest that lipid extracts of Chlorella species has significant inhibitory activity on P. acnes by inhibiting lipase activity. Further, anti-inflammatory reaction caused by the

  19. Anaerobic digestion of lipid-extracted Auxenochlorella protothecoides biomass for methane generation and nutrient recovery.

    PubMed

    Bohutskyi, Pavlo; Ketter, Ben; Chow, Steven; Adams, Kameron J; Betenbaugh, Michael J; Allnutt, F C Thomas; Bouwer, Edward J

    2015-05-01

    This study evaluated methane production and nutrient recovery from industrially produced, lipid extracted algal biomass (LEA) of Auxenochlorella protothecoides using semi-continuous anaerobic digestion (AD) at different organic loading rates (OLRs) and hydraulic retention times (HRTs). It was shown, that AD can improve biofuel production efficiency and sustainability, especially for scaled processes, through up to 30% increase in energy generation (up to 0.25 L of methane per g of LEA volatile solids) and partial nutrient recovery and recycling. The nutrient recycling with the AD effluent may reduce the cost of the supplied fertilizers by up to 45%. However, methane production was limited to nearly 50% of theoretical maxima potentially due to biomass recalcitrance and inhibition effects from the residual solvent in the LEA. Therefore, further AD optimization is required to maximize methane yield and nutrient recovery as well as investigation and elimination of inhibition from solvent residues. PMID:25746299

  20. Production and stability of structured lipids from algal oils and capric acid.

    PubMed

    Hamam, Fayez; Shahidi, Fereidoon

    2004-01-01

    This study aimed to incorporate capric acid (CA) into selected algal oils, namely arachidoinc acid single cell oil (ARASCO), docosahexaenoic acid single cell oil (DHASCO) and the OMEGA-GOLD oil rich in dcosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and dosapentaenoic acid (n-6 DPA). Response surface methodology indicated that under optimum conditions (12.3% enzyme, 45 degrees C, and 29.4 h) CA incorporation was 20.0% into ARASCO; (4.2% enzyme, 43.3 degrees C, and 27.1 h) 22.6% into DHASCO and (2.5% enzyme, 46.6 degrees C and 25.2 h) 20.7% into the OMEGA-GOLD oil. Stereospecific analysis indicated that in all oils examined CA was mainly located at the sn-1 and sn-3 positions of the resultant TAG molecules while the highly unsaturated fatty acids being primarily esterified to the sn-2 positions of the three oils. In all cases, enzymatically modified oils were more susceptible to oxidation than their unmodified counterparts. PMID:15630303

  1. Algal biofuels: challenges and opportunities.

    PubMed

    Leite, Gustavo B; Abdelaziz, Ahmed E M; Hallenbeck, Patrick C

    2013-10-01

    Biodiesel production using microalgae is attractive in a number of respects. Here a number of pros and cons to using microalgae for biofuels production are reviewed. Algal cultivation can be carried out using non-arable land and non-potable water with simple nutrient supply. In addition, algal biomass productivities are much higher than those of vascular plants and the extractable content of lipids that can be usefully converted to biodiesel, triacylglycerols (TAGs) can be much higher than that of the oil seeds now used for first generation biodiesel. On the other hand, practical, cost-effective production of biofuels from microalgae requires that a number of obstacles be overcome. These include the development of low-cost, effective growth systems, efficient and energy saving harvesting techniques, and methods for oil extraction and conversion that are environmentally benign and cost-effective. Promising recent advances in these areas are highlighted. PMID:23499181

  2. Extraction of microalgal lipids and the influence of polar lipids on biodiesel production by lipase-catalyzed transesterification.

    PubMed

    Navarro López, Elvira; Robles Medina, Alfonso; González Moreno, Pedro Antonio; Esteban Cerdán, Luis; Molina Grima, Emilio

    2016-09-01

    In order to obtain microalgal saponifiable lipids (SLs) fractions containing different polar lipid (glycolipids and phospholipids) contents, SLs were extracted from wet Nannochloropsis gaditana microalgal biomass using seven extraction systems, and the polar lipid contents of some fractions were reduced by low temperature acetone crystallization. We observed that the polar lipid content in the extracted lipids depended on the polarity of the first solvent used in the extraction system. Lipid fractions with polar lipid contents between 75.1% and 15.3% were obtained. Some of these fractions were transformed into fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs, biodiesel) by methanolysis, catalyzed by the lipases Novozym 435 and Rhizopus oryzae in tert-butanol medium. We observed that the reaction velocity was higher the lower the polar lipid content, and that the final FAME conversions achieved after using the same lipase batch to catalyze consecutive reactions decreased in relation to an increase in the polar lipid content. PMID:27323242

  3. Accelerating Commercialization of Algal Biofuels Through Partnerships (Brochure)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2011-10-01

    This brochure describes National Renewable Energy Laboratory's (NREL's) algal biofuels research capabilities and partnership opportunities. NREL is accelerating algal biofuels commercialization through: (1) Advances in applied biology; (2) Algal strain development; (3) Development of fuel conversion pathways; (4) Techno-economic analysis; and (5) Development of high-throughput lipid analysis methodologies. NREL scientists and engineers are addressing challenges across the algal biofuels value chain, including algal biology, cultivation, harvesting and extraction, and fuel conversion. Through partnerships, NREL can share knowledge and capabilities in the following areas: (1) Algal Biology - A fundamental understanding of algal biology is key to developing cost-effective algal biofuels processes. NREL scientists are experts in the isolation and characterization of microalgal species. They are identifying genes and pathways involved in biofuel production. In addition, they have developed a high-throughput, non-destructive technique for assessing lipid production in microalgae. (2) Cultivation - NREL researchers study algal growth capabilities and perform compositional analysis of algal biomass. Laboratory-scale photobioreactors and 1-m2 open raceway ponds in an on-site greenhouse allow for year-round cultivation of algae under a variety of conditions. A bioenergy-focused algal strain collection is being established at NREL, and our laboratory houses a cryopreservation system for long-term maintenance of algal cultures and preservation of intellectual property. (3) Harvesting and Extraction - NREL is investigating cost-effective harvesting and extraction methods suitable for a variety of species and conditions. Areas of expertise include cell wall analysis and deconstruction and identification and utilization of co-products. (4) Fuel Conversion - NREL's excellent capabilities and facilities for biochemical and thermochemical conversion of biomass to biofuels are being

  4. Process Design and Economics for the Conversion of Algal Biomass to Biofuels: Algal Biomass Fractionation to Lipid-and Carbohydrate-Derived Fuel Products

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, R.; Kinchin, C.; Markham, J.; Tan, E. C. D.; Laurens, L. M. L.; Sexton, D.; Knorr, D.; Schoen, P.; Lukas, J.

    2014-09-11

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) promotes the production of a range of liquid fuels and fuel blendstocks from biomass feedstocks by funding fundamental and applied research that advances the state of technology in biomass production, conversion, and sustainability. As part of its involvement in this program, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) investigates the conceptual production economics of these fuels. This includes fuel pathways from lignocellulosic (terrestrial) biomass, as well as from algal (aquatic) biomass systems.

  5. Effect of algal extract on H2 production by a photosynthetic bacterium Rhodobium marinum A-501: analysis of stimulating effect using a kinetic model.

    PubMed

    Kawaguchi, Hideo; Nagase, Hiroyasu; Hashimoto, Kyoko; Kimata, Shiho; Doi, Mikio; Hirata, Kazumasa; Miyamoto, Kazuhisa

    2002-01-01

    We have established a system for hydrogen (H2) production from algal starch via lactic acid using a mixed culture of a lactic acid bacterium, Lactobacillus amylovorus, and a photosynthetic bacterium, Rhodobium marinum A-501. We found that the H2 production from lactate was stimulated in the presence of algal extract, which was obtained from algal biomass homogenate used as a substrate in the system by removing settleable solids including starch. To analyze the stimulating effect of algal extract on H2 production, we developed a kinetic model for H2 production by R. marinum A-501. The model revealed that approximately 20% of lactate was consumed for cell mass production, and the remaining portion was a source of reducing power to drive hydrogen production or other cellular processes. In the presence of algal extract, the model indicated that the conversion efficiency from lactate to the reducing power increased from 0.56 to 0.80 and nitrogenase activity increased up to twofold, resulting in the increase in yield of hydrogen from lactate from 29% to 48%. These results suggest that algal extract can attenuate the limitation process in lactate catabolism by which the supplementation of reducing power to drive H2 production was suppressed. PMID:16233271

  6. Antioxidant Activity of Flaxseed Extracts in Lipid Systems.

    PubMed

    Slavova-Kazakova, Adriana; Karamać, Magdalena; Kancheva, Vessela; Amarowicz, Ryszard

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this work was to compare the antioxidant activity of the extract of flaxseed and its alkaline hydrolysate in two model systems: lipid autoxidation of triacylglycerols of sunflower oil (TGSO)-in a homogeneous lipid media and during β-carotene-linoleate emulsion system. In addition, pure lignans were tested. The material was defatted with hexane and then phenolic compounds were extracted using dioxane-ethanol (50:50, v/v) mixture. Carbohydrates were removed from the crude extract using an Amberlite XAD-16 column chromatography. The content of total phenolic compounds in the crude extract and after alkaline hydrolysis was determined using a Folin-Ciocalteu's phenol reagent. Individual phenolic compounds were determined by nordihydroguaiaretic acid (RP-HPLC) method in gradient system. The alkaline hydrolysis increased the content of total phenolics in the extract approximately by 10%. In the extracts of flaxseed, phenolic compounds were present in the form of macromolecular complex. In the alkaline hydrolysate, secoisolariciresinol diglucoside (SDG) was found as the main phenolic compound. Small amounts of p-coumaric and ferulic acids were also determined. SDG and both extracts were not able to inhibit effectively lipid autoxidation. The kinetics of TGSO autoxidation at 80 °C in absence and in presence of the extract before hydrolysis (EBH) and after hydrolysis (EAH) was monitored and compared with known standard antioxidants. Ferulic acid (FA) and butylated hydroxyl toluene (BHT) showed much higher antioxidant efficiency and reactivity than that of both extracts. Secoisolariciresinol (SECO) showed a higher activity in both model systems than SDG. However, the activity of SECO was much lower than that of nordihydroquaiaretic acid (NDGA). PMID:26703558

  7. Extraction of lipids from microalgae by ultrasound application: prospection of the optimal extraction method.

    PubMed

    Araujo, Glacio S; Matos, Leonardo J B L; Fernandes, Jader O; Cartaxo, Samuel J M; Gonçalves, Luciana R B; Fernandes, Fabiano A N; Farias, Wladimir R L

    2013-01-01

    Microalgae have the ability to grow rapidly, synthesize and accumulate large amounts (approximately 20-50% of dry weight) of lipids. A successful and economically viable algae based oil industry will depend on the selection of appropriate microalgal strains and the selection of the most suitable lipid extraction method. In this paper, five extraction methods were evaluated regarding the extraction of lipids from Chlorella vulgaris: Bligh and Dyer, Chen, Folch, Hara and Radin, and Soxhlet. Furthermore, the addition of silica powder was studied to evaluate the introduction of more shear stress to the system as to increase the disruption of cell walls. Among the studied methods, the Bligh and Dyer method assisted by ultrasound resulted in the highest extraction of oil from C. vulgaris (52.5% w/w). Addition of powder silica did not improve the extraction of oil. PMID:22938999

  8. Lipid extraction from microalgae cell using persulfate-based oxidation.

    PubMed

    Seo, Yeong Hwan; Sung, Mina; Oh, You-Kwan; Han, Jong-In

    2016-01-01

    In this study, persulfate, a solid-type oxidant, was adopted as a substitute for hydrogen peroxide in extracting lipid from microalgae biomass. Microalgae cells were concentrated at pH 3 and with 200mg/L of ferric chloride, conditions which can activate oxidants such as hydrogen peroxide and persulfate. At a persulfate concentration of 2mM and a reaction temperature of 90°C, exceedingly high extraction efficiency over 95% was obtained, which was higher than with 0.5% hydrogen peroxide at the same temperature. This result showed that persulfate is sufficiently powerful and incomparably cheap enough to replace the potent yet expensive oxidant. It appears that combining iron-based coagulation and persulfate-based lipid extraction is indeed a competitive approach that can possibly lighten the process burden for the microalgae-derived biodiesel production. PMID:26614226

  9. Lipid Extraction and the Fugacity of Stable Isotope Values

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Padula, V.; Causey, D.; Wolf, N.; Welker, J. M.

    2013-12-01

    Stable isotope analysis of blood, feathers, and other tissues are often used to infer migration patterns, diet composition and trophic status of seabirds. Tissues contain variable amounts of lipids that are depleted in the heavy carbon isotope (13C) and may introduce a bias in these values. There is evidence that lipid extraction may affect other stable isotope ratios, such as δ15N. Consequently, correction factors need to be applied to appropriately interpret δ13C and δ15N values for individual species and tissue type. In this study, we collected seven species of seabirds from the Near Islands, the western most group of islands in the Aleutian Island archipelago. We sampled kidney, liver, heart and muscle samples from each bird and after freeze drying, individual tissue samples were divided into two subsamples. We left one subsample unaltered and extracted lipids from the other subsample using a 2:1 chloroform-methanol solution. We found that the change in δ13C values after lipid extraction (Δδ13C) varied widely among categories (eg., species, tissue type) from 0 - 4 ‰, while Δδ15N values ranged from 0 to 2‰. Notably, within category variation was nonsignificant and the Δδ values were linear against the covariant C:N ratio of the isotopic data, which allows us to use arithmetic corrections for categorical values. Our data strongly indicate that the effects of lipid extraction on stable isotopic values, while linear within category, vary widely by species, tissue, geographic area, year of collection, and isotope. Fugacity is usually employed as a thermodynamic quantity related to the chemical potential or activity that characterizes the escaping tendency from a phase (eg. Mackay & Paterson 1982). Here we use fugacity in the earlier, broader sense of fleeting, transitory, or instable states (eg., S. Johnson 1751), and its measure may be approximated by the higher order variance of Δδ13C and Δδ15N among data categories. Clearly, understanding the

  10. c-AMP dependent protein kinase A inhibitory activity of six algal extracts from southeastern Australia and their fatty acid composition.

    PubMed

    Zivanovic, Ana; Skropeta, Danielle

    2012-07-01

    c-AMP dependent protein kinase (protein kinase A, PKA) is an important enzyme involved in the regulation of an increasing number of physiological processes including immune function, cardiovascular disease, memory disorders and cancer. The objective of this study was to evaluate the PKA inhibitory activity of a range of algal extracts, along with their fatty acid composition. Six algal species were investigated including two Chlorophyta (Codium dimorphum and Ulva lactuca), two Phaeophyta (Phyllospora comosa and Sargassum sp.) and two Rhodophyta (Prionitis linearis and Corallina vancouveriensis), with the order of PKA inhibitory activity of their extracts identified as follows: brown seaweeds > red seaweeds > green seaweeds with the brown alga Sargassum sp. exhibiting the highest PKA inhibitory activity (84% at 100 microg/mL). GC/MS analysis identified a total of 18 fatty acids in the six algal extracts accounting for 72-87% of each extract, with hexadecanoic acid and 9,12-octadecadienoic acid as the dominant components. The most active extract (Sargassum sp.) also contained the highest percentage of the saturated C14:0 fatty acid (12.8% of the total extract), which is a known to inhibit PKA. These results provide the first description of the PKA inhibitory activity of marine algae along with the first description of the fatty acid composition of these six algal species from South Eastern Australian waters. Importantly, this study reveals that abundant and readily available marine algae are a new and relatively unexplored source of PKA inhibitory compounds. PMID:22908583

  11. Lipid profiling and corresponding biodiesel quality of Mortierella isabellina using different drying and extraction methods.

    PubMed

    Hussain, Javid; Ruan, Zhenhua; Nascimento, Iracema Andrade; Liu, Yan; Liao, Wei

    2014-10-01

    Four lipid extraction methods (Bligh & Dyer, hexane & isopropanol, dichloromethane & methanol, and hexane) were evaluated to extract lipid from freeze- and oven-dried fungus Mortierella isabellina ATCC42613. The highest lipid yield (41.8%) was obtained from Bligh & Dyer extraction on the oven-dried fungal biomass with a methanol:chloroform:water ratio of 2:1:0.8. Other lipid extraction methods on both freeze- and oven-dried samples had lipid yields ranging from 20.7% to 35.9%. Non-polar lipid was the main lipid class (more than 90% of total lipid) in M. isabellina. Regarding fatty acid profile, there was no significant difference on fatty acid concentration between different drying and extraction methods. Estimation of biodiesel fuel properties using correlative models further demonstrated that the fungal biodiesel is a good alternative to fossil diesel. PMID:25034797

  12. Non-conventional approaches to food processing in CELSS, 1. Algal proteins: Characterization and process optimization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nakhost, Z.; Karel, M.; Krukonis, V. J.

    1987-01-01

    Protein isolate obtained from green algae cultivated under controlled conditions was characterized. Molecular weight determination of fractionated algal proteins using SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis revealed a wide spectrum of molecular weights ranging from 15,000 to 220,000. Isoelectric points of dissociated proteins were in the range of 3.95 to 6.20. Amino acid composition of protein isolate compared favorably with FAO standards. High content of essential amino acids leucine, valine, phenylalanine and lysine make algal protein isolate a high quality component of closed ecological life support system diets. To optimize the removal of algal lipids and pigments supercritical carbon dioxide extraction (with and without ethanol as a co-solvent) was used. Addition of ethanol to supercritical carbon dioxide resulted in more efficient removal of algal lipids and produced protein isolate with a good yield and protein recovery. The protein isolate extracted by the above mixture had an improved water solubility.

  13. Non-conventional approaches to food processing in CELSS. I - Algal proteins: Characterization and process optimization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nakhost, Z.; Karel, M.; Krukonis, V. J.

    1987-01-01

    Protein isolate obtained from green algae (Scenedesmus obliquus) cultivated under controlled conditions was characterized. Molecular weight determination of fractionated algal proteins using SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis revealed a wide spectrum of molecular weights ranging from 15,000 to 220,000. Isoelectric points of dissociated proteins were in the range of 3.95 to 6.20. Amino acid composition of protein isolate compared favorably with FAO standards. High content of essential amino acids leucine, valine, phenylalanine and lysine makes algal protein isolate a high quality component of CELSS diets. To optimize the removal of algal lipids and pigments supercritical carbon dioxide extraction (with and without ethanol as a co-solvent) was used. Addition of ethanol to supercritical CO2 resulted in more efficient removal of algal lipids and produced protein isolate with a good yield and protein recovery. The protein isolate extracted by the above mixture had an improved water solubility.

  14. Peanut skin extract reduces lipid oxidation in cooked chicken patties.

    PubMed

    Munekata, P E S; Calomeni, A V; Rodrigues, C E C; Fávaro-Trindade, C S; Alencar, S M; Trindade, M A

    2015-03-01

    The objectives of this study were to evaluate the antioxidant capacity of peanut skin extract and its effect on the color and lipid oxidation of cooked chicken patties over 15 d of refrigerated storage. The extract was obtained using 80% ethanol and evaluated in terms of total phenolic content, reducing power based on the ferric reducing ability of plasma (FRAP) reagent, and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity. The patties were made with ground thigh fillets, chicken skin, and 2% salt. They were homogenized and divided into the following two groups: a control treatment without antioxidants and a peanut skin treatment with 70 mg gallic acid equivalent (GAE)/kg per patty. Analyses of the fatty acid profiles, instrumental colors (L*, a*, and b*) and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) were performed on d 1, 8, and 15 of storage at 1±1ºC. The peanut skin extract resulted in a phenolic content of 32.6±0.7 mg GAE/g dry skin, an antioxidant activity (FRAP) of 26.5±0.8 6 μmol Trolox equivalent/g dry skin, and an efficient concentration (EC50) of 46.5 μg/mL. The total unsaturated fatty acid was approximately 73%, and 39% of this fatty acid content was monounsaturated. The peanut skin extract slowed the decrease in the a* values (P<0.05) but reduced the L* and b* values compared to the control samples during storage (P<0.05). Lipid oxidation was minimized by the peanut skin extract (P<0.05), which resulted in a maximum value of 0.97 malondialdehyde (MDA)/kg compared to values that were close 19 mg MDA/kg patties in the control sample at the end of storage period. Thus, it can be concluded that although peanut skin extract causes little color change, it can be applied as a natural antioxidant to cooked chicken patties because it efficiently inhibits lipid oxidation in this product during refrigerated storage. PMID:25681473

  15. Algal Supply System Design - Harmonized Version

    SciTech Connect

    Abodeely, Jared; Stevens, Daniel; Ray, Allison; Newby, Deborah; Schaller, Kastli

    2013-03-01

    The objective of this design report is to provide an assessment of current technologies used for production, dewatering, and converting microalgae cultivated in open-pond systems to biofuel. The original draft design was created in 2011 and has subsequently been brought into agreement with the DOE harmonized model. The design report extends beyond this harmonized model to discuss some of the challenges with assessing algal production systems, including the ability to (1) quickly assess alternative algal production system designs, (2) assess spatial and temporal variability, and (3) perform large-scale assessments considering multiple scenarios for thousands of potential sites. The Algae Logistics Model (ALM) was developed to address each of these limitations of current modeling efforts to enable assessment of the economic feasibility of algal production systems across the United States. The (ALM) enables (1) dynamic assessments using spatiotemporal conditions, (2) exploration of algal production system design configurations, (3) investigation of algal production system operating assumptions, and (4) trade-off assessments with technology decisions and operating assumptions. The report discusses results from the ALM, which is used to assess the baseline design determined by harmonization efforts between U.S. DOE national laboratories. Productivity and resource assessment data is provided by coupling the ALM with the Biomass Assessment Tool developed at PNNL. This high-fidelity data is dynamically passed to the ALM and used to help better understand the impacts of spatial and temporal constraints on algal production systems by providing a cost for producing extracted algal lipids annually for each potential site.

  16. Development of Extraction Techniques for the Detection of Signature Lipids from Oil

    SciTech Connect

    Borglin, Sharon; Geller, Jil; Chakraborty, Romy; Hazen, Terry; Mason, Olivia

    2010-05-17

    Pure cultures, including Desulfovibrio vulgaris and Methanococcus maripaludus, were combined with model oil samples and oil/diesel mixtures to optimize extraction techniques of signature lipids from oil in support of investigation of microbial communities in oil deposit samples targets for microbial enhanced hydrocarbon recovery. Several techniques were evaluated, including standard phospholipid extraction, ether linked lipid for Archaeal bacterial detection, and high pressure extractiontechniques. Recovery of lipids ranged from 50-80percent as compared to extraction of the pure culture. Extraction efficiency was evaluated by the use of internal standards. Field samples will also be tested for recovery of signature lipids with optimized extraction techniques.

  17. Effect of Hypericum perforatum Aqueous Extracts on Serum Lipids, Aminotransferases, and Lipid Peroxidation in Hyperlipidemic Rats

    PubMed Central

    Ghosian Moghaddam, Mohammad Hassan; Roghani, Mehrdad; Maleki, Maryam

    2016-01-01

    Background: Patients with high levels of total cholesterol (TCH), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-CH), and triglyceride (TG) are at increased risk of coronary heart disease. Studies have shown that flavonoids and antioxidant compounds have beneficial effects on hyperlipidemia. Objectives: The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of extract of Hypericum perforatum (EHP) on the serum lipid profile (TCH, TG, and LDL-CH), aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, and lipid peroxidation in hyperlipidemic rats. Materials and Methods: Thirty-two male rats weighting 200 ± 10 g were randomly divided into four experimental groups: 1) control, 2) control + EHP, 3) hyperlipidemia, and 4) hyperlipidemia + EHP. The rats in the hyperlipidemic groups were fed a high-fat diet for 60 days, and EHP (300 mg/kg) was injected intraperitoneally for 2 weeks in the rats in the second and fourth groups. At the end of the experimental period, blood samples from each group were analyzed. Results: There was a significant reduction in LDL-CH in the control + EHP group and the hyperlipidemia + EHP group (P < 0.05). TCH was significantly reduced in the control + EHP group (P < 0.05). There were no significant changes in the levels of TG and HDL-CH. Malondialdehyde, aspartate aminotransferase, and alanine aminotransferase were significantly reduced in the hyperlipidemia + EHP group (P < 0.05), with no significant change in alkaline phosphatase. Conclusions: EHP was able to both reduce LDL-CH and to significantly decrease markers of oxidative stress and lipid peroxidation induced by hyperlipidemia. Therefore, this herb, as a new pharmacological component, could be used to reduce certain blood lipids, lipid peroxidation, and aminotransferase markers. PMID:26949689

  18. Algal cell disruption using microbubbles to localize ultrasonic energy for biofuel extraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krehbiel, Joel; Sch, Lance; King, Daniel; Freund, Jonathan

    2014-11-01

    Cell disruption is a critical step in the production of algal-based biofuels, but current mechanical disruption methods require significant energy, typically more than actually available in the cell's oil. We propose and investigate an ultrasound disruption process using ultrasound contrast agents to localize the delivered energy. Experiments in a flow cell with focused ultrasound show a significant benefit. The degree of disruption increases with increasing peak rarefactional ultrasound pressure for pressures between 1.90 and 3.07 MPa and increasing microbubble concentration up to 12 . 5 ×107 bubbles/ml. Estimates suggest the energy of this method is less than one fourth of the energy of other industrial mechanical disruption techniques and comparable with theoretical disruption estimates. The increase in efficiency would make this technique viable for bioenergy applications.

  19. Improved Butanol-Methanol (BUME) Method by Replacing Acetic Acid for Lipid Extraction of Biological Samples.

    PubMed

    Cruz, Mutya; Wang, Miao; Frisch-Daiello, Jessica; Han, Xianlin

    2016-07-01

    Extraction of lipids from biological samples is a critical step in lipidomics, especially for shotgun lipidomics where lipid extracts are directly infused into a mass spectrometer. The butanol-methanol (BUME) extraction method was originally developed to extract lipids from plasma samples with 1 % acetic acid. Considering some lipids are sensitive to acidic environments, we modified this protocol by replacing acetic acid with lithium chloride solution and extended the modified extraction to tissue samples. Although no significant reduction of plasmalogen levels in the acidic BUME extracts of rat heart samples was found, the modified method was established to extract various tissue samples, including rat liver, heart, and plasma. Essentially identical profiles of the majority of lipid classes were obtained from the extracts of the modified BUME and traditional Bligh-Dyer methods. However, it was found that neither the original, nor the modified BUME method was suitable for 4-hydroxyalkenal species measurement in biological samples. PMID:27245345

  20. Solid lipid nanoparticles for topical administration of Kaempferia parviflora extracts.

    PubMed

    Sutthanut, Khaetthareeya; Lu, Xiuling; Jay, Michael; Sripanidkulchai, Bungorn

    2009-04-01

    Extracts of Kaempferia parviflora (KP) were formulated in solid lipid nanoparticles (SLNs) in order to enhance their transdermal permeability. The KP extracts were entrapped within SLNs by adding them to a melted mixture of oils, surfactants and PEGylating agents and subsequently forming an oil-in-water microemulsion at an elevated temperature. Cooling of this microemulsion resulted in the formation of SLNs. The formulation with the optimum properties was composed of stearyl alcohol as the nanoparticle matrix and Tocopheryl Polyethylene Glycol Succinate (TPGS) as the surfactant. Particle sizes of 82-108 nm were obtained with entrapment efficiencies as high as 87%. The release of the flavonoids from the SLN matrix was measured after suspending them in a Phosphate Buffered Saline (PBS)/Tween 80 solution and demonstrated biphasic patterns. Permeability studies using a skin model composed of human-derived epidermal keratinocytes were conducted in which a topically applied KP extract-loaded SLN was compared to a KP-hydroxypropyl methylcellulose/Tween 80 gel formulation containing KP extract. The amount of total KP flavonoids in the SLNs and gel that had permeated through the skin after 25 hours (95.57 +/- 9.08 and 81.04 +/- 5.82 g, respectively) were found to be significantly different (P < 0.05). In addition, the flux values of three of the flavonoids were greater when incorporated in SLNs. PMID:20055101

  1. Algal Pretreatment Improves Biofuels Yield and Value; Highlights in Science, NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    SciTech Connect

    2015-05-15

    One of the major challenges associated with algal biofuels production in a biorefinery-type setting is improving biomass utilization in its entirety, increasing the process energetic yields and providing economically viable and scalable co-product concepts. We demonstrate the effectiveness of a novel, integrated technology based on moderate temperatures and low pH to convert the carbohydrates in wet algal biomass to soluble sugars for fermentation, while making lipids more accessible for downstream extraction and leaving a protein-enriched fraction behind. This research has been highlighted in the Green Chemistry journal article mentioned above and a milestone report, and is based on the work the researchers are doing for the AOP projects Algal Biomass Conversion and Algal Biofuels Techno-economic Analysis. That work has demonstrated an advanced process for algal biofuel production that captures the value of both the algal lipids and carbohydrates for conversion to biofuels.  With this process, as much as 150 GGE/ton of biomass can be produced, 2-3X more than can be produced by terrestrial feedstocks.  This can also reduce the cost of biofuel production by as much as 40%. This also represents the first ever design case for the algal lipid upgrading pathway.

  2. Solid lipid nanoparticles for delivery of Calendula officinalis extract.

    PubMed

    Arana, Lide; Salado, Clarisa; Vega, Sandra; Aizpurua-Olaizola, Oier; de la Arada, Igor; Suarez, Tatiana; Usobiaga, Aresatz; Arrondo, José Luis R; Alonso, Alicia; Goñi, Félix M; Alkorta, Itziar

    2015-11-01

    Solid lipid nanoparticles (SLN) composed of long-chain fatty acids (palmitic acid, stearic acid or arachidic acid), Epikuron 200 (purified phosphatidylcholine), and bile salts (cholate, taurocholate or taurodeoxycholate) have been prepared by dilution of a microemulsion. A total of five different systems were prepared, and characterized by photon correlation spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy, differential scanning calorimetry, and infrared spectroscopy. The SLN formulation showing optimal properties (lowest size and polydispersity index and highest zeta potential) was obtained with stearic acid and taurodeoxycholate as cosurfactant. This formulation was loaded with Calendula officinalis extract, a natural compound used on ophthalmic formulations given its anti-inflammatory, emollient, and wound repairing activity. Calendula-loaded SLN preparations were characterized in order to determine loading capacity and entrapment efficiency. In vitro cytotoxicity and wound healing efficacy of Calendula-loaded SLN compared to that of a free plant extract were evaluated on a conjunctival epithelium cell line WKD. Our results suggest that this SLN formulation is a safe and solvent-free Calendula extract delivery system which could provide a controlled therapeutic alternative for reducing disease-related symptoms and improving epithelium repair in ocular surface. PMID:26231862

  3. Effects of forsythia fruit extracts and lignan on lipid metabolism.

    PubMed

    Cho, Sung-Hee; Rhee, Soon-Jae; Choi, Sang-Won; Choi, Youngsun

    2004-01-01

    A primary methanol extract (F-ME), secondary butanol-soluble fraction (F-BU), and lignans were prepared from forsythia fruit (Forsythia viridissima L.) and added to 0.5% (w/w) cholesterol diets for male Sprague-Dawley rats weighing 121 +/- 12 g. There were six experimental groups: a control group, 0.2%, 0.4% F-ME supplemented groups, 0.1%, 0.02% F-BU groups and 0.02% lignan group. After 3 weeks of feeding, body weight gains, serum GOT and GPT levels were not different among the groups. HDL-/total cholesterol ratios increased in the 0.2% F-BU and lignan groups compared with the control groups. Liver triglyceride level lowered in most of forsythia groups. Fecal cholesterol excretions increased in the lignan group. Arctiin isolated from the forsythia fruit reduced cholesterol and triglyceride contents in cultured HepG2 cells at 0.01-0.1 microM. These results indicated that the forsythia lignan, arctiin is effective on improving blood lipid status without a significant hepatotoxicity and is to be utilized for the functional foods for lipid-lowering action. PMID:15630274

  4. Use of Solid Phase Extraction in the Biochemistry Laboratory to Separate Different Lipids

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flurkey, William H.

    2005-01-01

    Solid-phase extraction (SPE) was used to demonstrate how various lipids and lipid classes could be separated in a biochemistry laboratory setting. Three different SPE methods were chosen on their ability to separate a lipid mixture, consisting of a combination of a either a fatty acid, a triacylglycerol, a mono- or diacylglycerol, phospholipid,…

  5. Enhancing the various solvent extraction method via microwave irradiation for extraction of lipids from marine microalgae in biodiesel production.

    PubMed

    Teo, Chee Loong; Idris, Ani

    2014-11-01

    The types of microalgae strains and the method used in lipid extraction have become crucial factors which influence the productivity of crude oil. In this paper, Nannochloropsis sp. and Tetraselmis sp. were chosen as the strains and four different methods were used to extract the lipids: Hara and Radin, Folch, Chen and Bligh and Dyer. These methods were performed by using conventional heating and microwave irradiation methods. Results revealed that highest lipid yield from the different species was obtained using different extraction methods; both under microwave irradiation. The lipid yield for Tetraselmis sp. and Nannochloropsis sp. was highest when Hara and Radin (8.19%), and Folch (8.47%) methods were used respectively under microwave irradiation. The lipids extracted were then transesterified to biodiesel and the quality of the biodiesel was analyzed using the gas chromatography. PMID:25201293

  6. The mechanism of lipids extraction from wet microalgae Scenedesmus sp. by ionic liquid assisted subcritical water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Zhuanni; Chen, Xiaolin; Xia, Shuwei

    2016-06-01

    In this paper, the total sugar concentration, protein concentration, lipid yield and morphology characteristics of the algae residue were determined to explain the mechanism of lipids extraction from wet microalgae Scenedesmus sp. by ionic liquid assisted subcritical water. The results showed similar variation for the sugar, protein and lipid. However, the total sugar was more similar to lipids yield, so the results showed that the reaction between ionic liquid and cellulose and hemicellulose in cell wall was the most important step which determined the lipids extration directly. And the total sugar variation may be representing the lipids yield. For later lipids extraction, we can determine the total sugar concentration to predict the extraction end product.

  7. Non-conventional approaches to food processing in CELSS. I-algal proteins; characterization and process optimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakhost, Z.; Karel, M.; Krukonis, V. J.

    Protein isolate obtained from green algae (Scenedesmus obliquus) cultivated under controlled conditions was characterized. Molecular weight determination of fractionated algal proteins using SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis revealed a wide spectrum of molecular weights ranging from 15,000 to 220,000. Isoelectric points of dissociated proteins were in the range of 3.95 to 6.20. Amino acid composition of protein isolate compared favorably with FAO standards. High content of essential amino acids leucine, valine, phenylalanine and lysine makes algal protein isolate a high quality component of CELSS diets. To optimize the removal of algal lipids and pigments supercritical carbon dioxide extraction (with and without ethanol as a co-solvent) was used. Addition of ethanol to supercritical CO2 resulted in more efficient removal of algal lipids and produced protein isolate with a good yield and protein recovery. The protein isolate extracted by the above mixture had an improved water solubility.

  8. A Novel Lipid Extraction Method from Wet Microalga Picochlorum sp. at Room Temperature

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Fangfang; Xiang, Wenzhou; Sun, Xiumei; Wu, Hualian; Li, Tao; Long, Lijuan

    2014-01-01

    A novel method using ethanol was proposed for extracting lipids from wet microalga Picochlorum sp. at room temperature and pressure. In this study, Central Composite design (CCD) was applied to investigate the optimum conditions of lipid extraction. The results revealed that the solvent to biomass ratio had the largest effect on lipid extraction efficiency, followed by extraction time and temperature. A high lipid extraction yield (33.04% of the dry weight) was obtained under the following extraction conditions: 5 mL solvents per gram of wet biomass for 37 min with gentle stirring at room temperature. The extraction yield was comparable to that obtained by the widely used Bligh-Dyer method. Furthermore, no significant differences in the distribution of lipid classes and fatty acid composition were observed according to different extraction methods. In conclusion, these results indicated that the proposed procedure using ethanol could extract lipids from wet biomass efficiently and had giant potential for lipid extraction at large scale. PMID:24663114

  9. Lipid Production of Heterotrophic Chlorella sp. from Hydrolysate Mixtures of Lipid-Extracted Microalgal Biomass Residues and Molasses.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Hongli; Ma, Xiaochen; Gao, Zhen; Wan, Yiqin; Min, Min; Zhou, Wenguang; Li, Yun; Liu, Yuhuan; Huang, He; Chen, Paul; Ruan, Roger

    2015-10-01

    This study investigated the feasibility of lipid production of Chlorella sp. from waste materials. Lipid-extracted microalgal biomass residues (LMBRs) and molasses were hydrolyzed, and their hydrolysates were analyzed. Five different hydrolysate mixture ratios (w/w) of LMBRs/molasses (1/0, 1/1, 1/4, 1/9, and 0/1) were used to cultivate Chlorella sp. The results showed that carbohydrate and protein were the two main compounds in the LMBRs, and carbohydrate was the main compound in the molasses. The highest biomass concentration of 5.58 g/L, Y biomass/sugars of 0.59 g/g, lipid productivity of 335 mg/L/day, and Y lipids/sugars of 0.25 g/g were obtained at the hydrolysate mixture ratio of LMBRs/molasses of 1/4. High C/N ratio promoted the conversion of sugars into lipids. The lipids extracted from Chlorella sp. shared similar lipid profile of soybean oil and is therefore a potential viable biodiesel feedstock. These results showed that Chlorella sp. can utilize mixed sugars and amino acids from LMBRs and molasses to accumulate lipids efficiently, thus reducing the cost of microalgal biodiesel production and improving its economic viability. PMID:26234438

  10. Continuous lipid extraction of microalgae using high-pressure carbon dioxide.

    PubMed

    Chen, Kuo-Ti; Cheng, Chen-Hsi; Wu, Yi-Huei; Lu, Wen-Chang; Lin, Yun-Huin; Lee, Hom-Ti

    2013-10-01

    Sequestering carbon, purifying water, and creating biofuel materials using microalgae are of global interest in the R&D field. However, extracting algal oil consumes a high amount of energy, which is an obstacle for the biofuel market. Nontoxic and recyclable high-pressure CO2 extraction processes are being developed by numerous researchers; however, most of these processes use batch operations mixed with a large amount of co-solvent and require improvement. We fabricated a continuous high-pressure CO2 extraction system, evaluating the optimal parameters for the extraction process. The various parameter tests included temperature, pressure, pretreatment methods, ratio, and the species of co-solvent. We integrated the optimal parameters from previous tests, using a 5-d continuous operation. Compared with traditional solvent extraction, a 90.56% extraction yield ratio was achieved using this continuous extraction method. This shows the stable, high extraction yields of this continuous high-pressure CO2 extraction system. PMID:23911813

  11. Extraction of Lipids from Flax Processing Waste Using Hot Ethanol

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The cuticle of flax stems contain lipids that provide a protective barrier to pathogens and control moisture loss. These lipids include wax esters and long chain fatty alcohols or policosanols. Cuticle fragments generated during several different fiber processing operations retain these lipid compou...

  12. Extracting Temporal and Spatial Distributions Information about Algal Glooms Based on Multitemporal Modis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chunguang, L.; Qingjiu, T.

    2012-07-01

    Based on MODIS remote sensing data, method and technology to extraction the time and space distribution information of algae bloom is studied and established. The dynamic feature of time and space in Taihu Lake from 2009 to 2011 can be obtained by extracted method. Variation of cyanobacterial bloom in the Taihu Lake is analyzed and discussed. The algae bloom frequency index (AFI) and algae bloom sustainability index (ASI) is important criterion which can show the interannual and inter-monthly variation in the whole area or the subregion of Taihu Lake. Utilizing the AFI and ASI from 2009 to 2011, it found some phenomena that: the booming frequency decreased from the north and west to the East and South of Taihu Lake. The annual month algae bloom variation of AFI reflect the booming existing twin peaks in the high shock level and lag trend in general. In the subregion statistics, the IBD and ASI in 2011 show the abnormal condition in the border between the Gongshan Bay and Central Lake. The date is obvious earlier than that on the same subregion in previous years and that on others subregion in the same year.

  13. Extraction and Characterization of Lipids from Salicornia virginica and Salicornia europaea

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kulis,Michael J.; Hepp, Aloysius F.; Pham, Phong X.; Ribita, Daniela; Bomani, Bilal M. M.; Duraj, Stan A.

    2010-01-01

    The lipid content from Salicornia virginica and Salicornia europaea is investigated. The plants are leafless halophytes with seeds contained in terminal nodes. The lipids, in the form of cell membranes and oil bodies that come directly from the node cells, are observed using fluorescence microscopy. Two extraction methods as well as the results of extracting from the seeds and from the entire nodes are described. Characterization of the fatty acid components of the lipids using Gas Chromatography in tandem with Mass Spectroscopy is also described. Comparisons are made between the two methods and between the two plant materials as lipid sources.

  14. Induced Resistance in Solanum lycopersicum by Algal Elicitor Extracted from Sargassum fusiforme

    PubMed Central

    Sbaihat, Layth; Takeyama, Keiko; Koga, Takeharu; Takemoto, Daigo; Kawakita, Kazuhito

    2015-01-01

    Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) production relies heavily on the use of chemical pesticides, which is undesired by health- and environment-concerned consumers. Environment-friendly methods of controlling tomato diseases include agroecological practices, organic fungicides, and biological control. Plants' resistance against pathogens is induced by applying agents called elicitors to the plants and would lead to disease prevention or reduced severity. We investigated the ability of a novel elicitor extracted from the brown sea algae (Sargassum fusiforme) to elicit induced resistance in tomato. The studied elicitor induced hypersensitive cell death and O2− production in tomato tissues. It significantly reduced severities of late blight, grey mold, and powdery mildew of tomato. Taken together, our novel elicitor has not shown any direct antifungal activity against the studied pathogens, concluding that it is an elicitor of induced resistance. PMID:25802893

  15. Melittin-Induced Lipid Extraction Modulated by the Methylation Level of Phosphatidylcholine Headgroups.

    PubMed

    Therrien, Alexandre; Lafleur, Michel

    2016-01-19

    Protein- and peptide-induced lipid extraction from membranes is a critical process for many biological events, including reverse cholesterol transport and sperm capacitation. In this work, we examine whether such processes could display specificity for some lipid species. Melittin, the main component of dry bee venom, was used as a model amphipathic α-helical peptide. We specifically determined the modulation of melittin-induced lipid extraction from membranes by the change of the methylation level of phospholipid headgroups. Phosphatidylcholine (PC) bilayers were demethylated either by substitution with phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) or chemically by using mono- and dimethylated PE. It is shown that demethylation reduces the association of melittin with membranes, likely because of the resulting tighter chain packing of the phospholipids, which reduces the capacity of the membranes to accommodate inserted melittin. This reduced binding of the peptide is accompanied by an inhibition of the lipid extraction caused by melittin. We demonstrate that melittin selectively extracts PC from PC/PE membranes. This selectivity is proposed to be a consequence of a PE depletion in the surroundings of bound melittin to minimize disruption of the interphospholipid interactions. The resulting PC-enriched vicinity of melittin would be responsible for the observed formation of PC-enriched lipid/peptide particles resulting from the lipid efflux. These findings reveal that modulating the methylation level of phospholipid headgroups is a simple way to control the specificity of lipid extraction from membranes by peptides/proteins and thereby modulate the lipid composition of the membranes. PMID:26789763

  16. Hydrothermal liquefaction of harvested high-ash low-lipid algal biomass from Dianchi Lake: effects of operational parameters and relations of products.

    PubMed

    Tian, Chunyan; Liu, Zhidan; Zhang, Yuanhui; Li, Baoming; Cao, Wei; Lu, Haifeng; Duan, Na; Zhang, Li; Zhang, Tingting

    2015-05-01

    Hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL) allows a direct conversion of algal biomass into biocrude oil, not only solving the environmental issues caused by the over-growing algae but also producing renewable energy. This study reports HTL of algae after separation from eutrophicated Dianchi Lake in China. Conversion efficiency was studied under different operational conditions via an orthogonal design, including holding temperature (HT) (260-340 °C), retention time (RT) (30-90 min) and total solid (TS) (10-20%). A highest biocrude oil yield (18.4%, dry ash-free basis, daf) was achieved at 300 °C, 60 min, and 20% (TS), due to the low contents of lipids (1.9%, daf) and proteins (24.8%, daf), and high contents of ash (41.6%, dry basis) and carbohydrates (71.8%, daf). Operational parameters significantly affected the biocrude yields, and chemical distribution of HTL products. The biocrude production also related to other HTL products, and involved chemical reactions, such as deoxygenation and/or denitrogenation. PMID:25466998

  17. Pulsed electric field (PEF) as an intensification pretreatment for greener solvent lipid extraction from microalgae.

    PubMed

    Zbinden, Mauricio D Antezana; Sturm, Belinda S M; Nord, Ryan D; Carey, William J; Moore, David; Shinogle, Heather; Stagg-Williams, Susan M

    2013-06-01

    Microalgae, with their high lipid content, are a promising feedstock for renewable fuels. Traditionally, human and environmentally toxic solvents have been used to extract these lipids, diminishing the sustainability of this process. Herein, pulsed electric field technology was utilized as a process intensification strategy to enhance lipid extraction from Ankistrodesmus falcatus wet biomass using the green solvent, ethyl acetate. The extraction efficiency for ethyl acetate without PEF was lower (83-88%) than chloroform. In addition, the ethyl acetate exhibited a 2-h induction period, while the chloroform showed no time dependence. Utilizing PEF technology resulted in 90% of the cells being lysed and a significant enhancement in the rate of lipid recovery using ethyl acetate. The increase in lipid recovery was due to the presence of the electric field and not due to temperature effects. The PEF technology uses less energy than other PEF systems reported in the literature. PMID:23297018

  18. Optimization of a single phase method for lipid extraction from milk.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhiqian; Rochfort, Simone; Cocks, Benjamin G

    2016-08-01

    For LC-MS-based lipidomic analysis of milk, total lipid extraction from raw milk is generally conducted with Folch or Bligh and Dyer methods; both methods are based on two-phase partition of lipids, and thus time-consuming. In this work, three solvent systems for one-phase extraction of milk lipids were compared with the standard Folch method. Two of the solvent systems (butanol/methanol, 3:1 and 1:1) previously tested for lipid extraction from plasma were found to provide adequate extraction for polar lipids, but incomplete extraction for triglycerides, especially highly lipophilic species. By contrast, our newly designed solvent mix composed of butanol, methanol and chloroform (at a 3:5:4 ratio) provided similar extraction efficiency for triglycerides and higher yield for some of the phospholipids, as compared to the Folch method. This new one-phase extraction method is very simple yet comprehensive and thus suitable for high throughput lipid analysis of milk samples. PMID:27372415

  19. [Effects of lipid extraction on stable carbon and nitrogen isotope analyses of Ommastrephes bartramii muscle].

    PubMed

    Gong, Yi; Chen, Xin-Jun; Gao, Chun-Xia; Li, Yun-Kai

    2014-11-01

    Stable isotope analysis (SIA) has become an important tool to investigate diet shift, habitat use and trophic structure of animal population. Muscle is considered to be the most common tissue for SIA, however, lipid content in muscle causes a considerable bias to the interpretation of isotopic ratios of animals. Neon flying squid (Ommastrephes bartramii) is an important economic cephalopod of Chinese distant water fishery, and plays a major role in marine ecosystems. In this study, the effects of lipid extraction on stable isotope ratios of the muscles of 53 neon flying squids were investigated and the interference mechanism of lipid in SIA was clarified with the aim of contrasting the suitability of different lipid correction models of stable carbon isotope. Results showed that the stable carbon and nitrogen isotopic values of non-lipid extracted samples significantly increased after lipid extractions by 0.71 per thousand and 0.47 per thousand, respectively, which suggested that lipid extraction in cephalopod isotope study is needed prior to stable carbon isotope analysis but not recommended for stable nitrogen isotope analysis. The results could help remove the effects of lipid contents and standardize SIA muscle samples, thereby getting better understanding of the isotopic change of neon flying squids in the future. PMID:25898636

  20. Lipid extraction methods from microalgal biomass harvested by two different paths: screening studies toward biodiesel production.

    PubMed

    Ríos, Sergio D; Castañeda, Joandiet; Torras, Carles; Farriol, Xavier; Salvadó, Joan

    2013-04-01

    Microalgae can grow rapidly and capture CO2 from the atmosphere to convert it into complex organic molecules such as lipids (biodiesel feedstock). High scale economically feasible microalgae based oil depends on optimizing the entire process production. This process can be divided in three very different but directly related steps (production, concentration, lipid extraction and transesterification). The aim of this study is to identify the best method of lipid extraction to undergo the potentiality of some microalgal biomass obtained from two different harvesting paths. The first path used all physicals concentration steps, and the second path was a combination of chemical and physical concentration steps. Three microalgae species were tested: Phaeodactylum tricornutum, Nannochloropsis gaditana, and Chaetoceros calcitrans One step lipid extraction-transesterification reached the same fatty acid methyl ester yield as the Bligh and Dyer and soxhlet extraction with n-hexane methods with the corresponding time, cost and solvent saving. PMID:23434816

  1. Lipid extraction and esterification for microalgae-based biodiesel production using pyrite (FeS2).

    PubMed

    Seo, Yeong Hwan; Sung, Mina; Oh, You-Kwan; Han, Jong-In

    2015-09-01

    In this study, pyrite (FeS2) was used for lipid extraction as well as esterification processes for microalgae-based biodiesel production. An iron-mediated oxidation reaction, Fenton-like reaction, produced an expected degree of lipid extraction, but pyrite was less effective than FeCl3 commercial powder. That low efficiency was improved by using oxidized pyrite, which showed an equivalent lipid extraction efficiency to FeCl3, about 90%, when 20 mM of catalyst was used. Oxidized pyrite was also employed in the esterification step, and converted free fatty acids to fatty acid methyl esters under acidic conditions; thus, the fatal problem of saponification during esterification with alkaline catalysts was avoided, and esterification efficiency over 90% was obtained. This study clearly showed that pyrite could be utilized as a cheap catalyst in the lipid extraction and esterification steps for microalgae-based biodiesel production. PMID:25804530

  2. Racial Variations in Interfacial Behavior of Lipids Extracted from Worn Soft Contact Lenses

    PubMed Central

    Svitova, Tatyana F.; Lin, Meng C.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To explore interfacial behaviors and effect of temperature and dilatation on dynamic properties of multilayered human tear lipids extracted from silicone hydrogel (SiH) lenses worn by asymptomatic Asian and Caucasian subjects. Methods Interfacial properties of lipids extracted from Focus® N&D lenses worn by 14 subjects continuously for 1 month were studied. The lipids were deposited on an air bubble immersed in a model tear electrolytes (MTE) solution to form 100 ± 20 nm-thick films. Surface pressure was recorded during slow expansion/contraction cycles to evaluate compressibility and hysteresis of lipid films. Films were also subjected to fast step-strain dilatations at temperatures 22°–45° C for their visco-elastic properties assessment. Results Iso-cycles for Asian and Caucasian lipids were similar at low surface pressures, but had distinctly different compressibility and hysteresis at dynamic pressures exceeding 30 mN/m. Rheological parameters of reconstituted lipids were also dissimilar between Asian and Caucasian. The elastic modulusE∞ for Caucasian lipids was 1.5 times higher than that for Asian lipids, whereas relaxation time (t) was on average 1.3 times higher for Asian. No significant changes were observed in rheological properties of both Asian and Caucasian lipids when temperature increased from 22.0° to 36.5° C. However, for Caucasian lipids, E∞ reduced considerably at temperatures above 42.0° C, while t remained unchanged. For Asian lipids, both E∞ and t started to decline as temperature increased to 38° C and higher. Conclusions Higher elastic modulus of Caucasian lipids and elasticity threshold at certain deformations indicate stronger structure and intermolecular interactions as compared with more viscous Asian lipids. The differences in interfacial behaviors between Asian and Caucasian lipids may be associated with the differences in their chemical compositions. PMID:24270592

  3. Changes Caused by Fruit Extracts in the Lipid Phase of Biological and Model Membranes

    PubMed Central

    Pruchnik, Hanna; Oszmiański, Jan; Sarapuk, Janusz; Kleszczyńska, Halina

    2010-01-01

    The aim of the study was to determine changes incurred by polyphenolic compounds from selected fruits in the lipid phase of the erythrocyte membrane, in liposomes formed of erythrocyte lipids and phosphatidylcholine liposomes. In particular, the effect of extracts from apple, chokeberry, and strawberry on the red blood cell morphology, on packing order in the lipid hydrophilic phase, on fluidity of the hydrophobic phase, as well as on the temperature of phase transition in DPPC liposomes was studied. In the erythrocyte population, the proportions of echinocytes increased due to incorporation of polyphenolic compounds. Fluorimetry with a laurdan probe indicated increased packing density in the hydrophilic phase of the membrane in presence of polyphenolic extracts, the highest effect being observed for the apple extract. Using the fluorescence probes DPH and TMA-DPH, no effect was noted inside the hydrophobic phase of the membrane, as the lipid bilayer fluidity was not modified. The polyphenolic extracts slightly lowered the phase transition temperature of phosphatidylcholine liposomes. The studies have shown that the phenolic compounds contained in the extracts incorporate into the outer region of the erythrocyte membrane, affecting its shape and lipid packing order, which is reflected in the increasing number of echinocytes. The compounds also penetrate the outer part of the external lipid layer of liposomes formed of natural and DPPC lipids, changing its packing order. PMID:21423329

  4. Lipid extraction from microalgae using a single ionic liquid

    DOEpatents

    Salvo, Roberto Di; Reich, Alton; Dykes, Jr., H. Waite H.; Teixeira, Rodrigo

    2013-05-28

    A one-step process for the lysis of microalgae cell walls and separation of the cellular lipids for use in biofuel production by utilizing a hydrophilic ionic liquid, 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium. The hydrophilic ionic liquid both lyses the microalgae cell walls and forms two immiscible layers, one of which consists of the lipid contents of the lysed cells. After mixture of the hydrophilic ionic liquid with a suspension of microalgae cells, gravity causes a hydrophobic lipid phase to move to a top phase where it is removed from the mixture and purified. The hydrophilic ionic liquid is recycled to lyse new microalgae suspensions.

  5. Anti lipid peroxidation activity of Piper trioicum Roxb. and Physalis minima L. extracts.

    PubMed

    Dinakaran, Sathis Kumar; Saraswathi, Narasimha Raju; Nalini, Venkata Rama Rao; Srisudharson; Bodanapu, Venkat Ram Reddy; Avasarala, Harani; Banji, David

    2011-07-01

    Attempt has been made to evaluate free radical scavenging activity of ethanolic extract of Piper trioicum Roxb. and Physalis minima L. individually. In this study goat liver has been used as lipid source. This in vitro evaluation was done by measuring the malondialdehyde (MDA) of tissue homogenates. The results suggest that the ethanolic extract of the Piper trioicum Roxb. and Physalis minima L. has the ability to suppress the lipid peroxidation and it was also found that Piper trioicum Roxb. extract has more activity than Physalis minima L. extract. PMID:21715277

  6. Sasa quelpaertensis leaf extract improves high fat diet-induced lipid abnormalities and regulation of lipid metabolism genes in rats.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jina; Kim, Yoo-Sun; Lee, Hyun Ah; Lim, Ji Ye; Kim, Mina; Kwon, Oran; Ko, Hee-Chul; Kim, Se-Jae; Shin, Jae-Ho; Kim, Yuri

    2014-05-01

    Sasa quelpaertensis is a bamboo leaf that is only grown on Jeju Island in South Korea. It is used as a bamboo tea that is consumed for therapeutic purposes, particularly for its anti-diabetic, diuretic, and anti-inflammatory effects. This study investigated the effect of S. quelpaertensis leaf extract (SQE) on high fat-induced lipid abnormalities and regulation of lipid metabolism-related gene expressions in rats. SQE supplementation significantly decreased the levels of plasma triglycerides, total cholesterol, and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol as well as the atherogenic index. SQE restored levels of plasma high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, which were lowered by a high fat diet. Plasma and cardiac resistin levels were also significantly decreased by SQE supplementation. In adipose tissue, mRNA levels of CAAT/enhancer-binding protein β (C/EBPβ) were suppressed in the SQE group. SQE supplementation decreased the accumulation of lipid droplets, inflammatory cell infiltrations, levels of triglycerides, and total lipids in the liver and effectively down-regulated expression of sterol regulatory element binding protein-1 (SREBP-1), fatty acid synthetase (FAS), and uncoupling protein 2 (UCP-2). These results suggest that SQE may be a potential treatment for high fat-related disorders by improving lipid profiles and modulating lipid metabolism. PMID:24738745

  7. Mechanism, Kinetics and Microbiology of Inhibition Caused by Long-Chain Fatty Acids in Anaerobic Digestion of Algal Biomass

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Ma, Jingwei; Zhao, Quan-Bao; Laurens, Lieve L.; Jarvis, Eric E.; Nagle, Nick J.; Chen, Shulin; Frear, Craig S.

    2015-09-15

    Oleaginous microalgae contain a high level of lipids, which can be extracted and converted to biofuel. The lipid-extracted residue can then be further utilized through anaerobic digestion to produce biogas. However, long-chain fatty acids (LCFAs) have been identified as the main inhibitory factor on microbial activity of anaerobic consortium. In this study, the mechanism of LCFA inhibition on anaerobic digestion of whole and lipid-extracted algal biomass was investigated with a range of calcium concentrations against various inoculum to substrate ratios as a means to alleviate the LCFA inhibition.

  8. Potential of a simple solid-phase extraction method coupled to analytical and bioanalytical methods for an improved determination of microcystins in algal samples.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yi-Min; Lee, Tzong-Huei; Lee, Shyh-Jye; Lin, Jian-Zhi; Huang, Rang; Chou, Hong-Nong

    2006-11-21

    Artemia assays and protein phosphatase assays are commonly used for the screening of microcystins (MCs) in algal samples instead of the standard mouse toxicity assay. However, it has been shown that their results are often biased because of the matrix effects. To eliminate the possible interferences in the algal matrices, a new solid-phase extraction (SPE) method using silica gel as a sorbent was developed and evaluated. Results show that this SPE method could not only reduce the toxicity of the Microcystis samples towards brine shrimp by 50-80% but also eliminate 90-100% of the endogenous phosphatase activity from Spirulina and Chlorella samples, thus improving the determination of microcystins in algal samples using either of the two bioanalytical methods. The application of this SPE method as an off-line cleanup for high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with UV detection is also described in this study. After SPE, the HPLC chromatograms of Microcystis samples have clear baselines that have no interferences with the analyte peaks. PMID:16890502

  9. Supercritical fluid extraction and characterization of lipids from algae Scenedesmus obliquus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Choi, K. J.; Nakhost, Z.; Krukonis, V. J.; Karel, M.

    1987-01-01

    Lipids were extracted from a protein concentrate of green algae (Scenedesmus obliquus), using a one-step supercritical carbon dioxide extraction procedure in presence of ethanol as an entrainer, and were characterized. The compositions of neutral lipids, glycolipids, and phospholipids, separated into individual components by column, thin-layer, and gas-liquid chromatography procedures, are presented. Fatty acid composition patterns indicated that the major fatty acids were 16:0, 16:1, 16:2, 16:3, 16:4, 18:1, 18:2, and 18:3. The lipids of S. obliquus were found to contain relatively high concentrations of polyunsaturated fatty acids and essential fatty acids.

  10. Analysis of the shape fluctuations of reconstituted membranes using GUVs made from lipid extracts of invertebrates

    PubMed Central

    Bouvrais, Hélène; Holmstrup, Martin; Westh, Peter; Ipsen, John H.

    2013-01-01

    Summary Changes in the physical properties of the lipid matrix of cell membranes have repeatedly been proposed to underlie stresses associated with e.g. drought, cold and xenobiotics. Therefore, the ability to experimentally monitor such properties is central to the fundamental physiological understanding of adaptive changes. Here, we test the analysis of shape fluctuations in membranes composed of lipid extracts from two soil invertebrates, and show that theories and experimental approaches previously developed for simpler liposomes may be applied directly to reconstituted membrane lipids. Specifically, we show how the bending rigidity of giant unilamellar liposomes of lipid extracts can be determined precisely. We suggest that future measurements of this parameter could elucidate mechanisms of adaptive processes such as changes in lipid composition and accumulation of protective osmolytes. PMID:23616921

  11. Algal Lipid Bodies: Stress Induction, Purification, and Biochemical Characterization in Wild-Type and Starchless Chlamydomonas reinhardtii▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Zi Teng; Ullrich, Nico; Joo, Sunjoo; Waffenschmidt, Sabine; Goodenough, Ursula

    2009-01-01

    When the unicellular green soil alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii is deprived of nitrogen after entering stationary phase in liquid culture, the cells produce abundant cytoplasmic lipid bodies (LBs), as well as abundant starch, via a pathway that accompanies a regulated autophagy program. After 48 h of N starvation in the presence of acetate, the wild-type LB content has increased 15-fold. When starch biosynthesis is blocked in the sta6 mutant, the LB content increases 30-fold, demonstrating that genetic manipulation can enhance LB production. The use of cell wall-less strains permitted development of a rapid “popped-cell” microscopic assay to quantitate the LB content per cell and permitted gentle cell breakage and LB isolation. The highly purified LBs contain 90% triacylglycerol (TAG) and 10% free fatty acids (FFA). The fatty acids associated with the TAGs are ∼50% saturated (C16 and C18) fatty acids and ∼50% unsaturated fatty acids, half of which are in the form of oleic acid (C18:1). The FFA are ∼50% C16 and ∼50% C18. The LB-derived TAG yield from a liter of sta6 cells at 107 cells/ml after starvation for 48 h is calculated to approach 400 mg. The LB fraction also contains low levels of charged glycerolipids, with the same profile as whole-cell charged glycerolipids, that presumably form LB membranes; chloroplast-specific neutral glycerolipids (galactolipids) are absent. Very low levels of protein are also present, but all matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-identified species are apparent contaminants. Nitrogen stress-induced LB production in C. reinhardtii has the hallmarks of a discrete pathway that should be amenable to additional genetic and culture condition manipulation. PMID:19880756

  12. Lipid extraction by methyl-tert-butyl ether for high-throughput lipidomics*s⃞

    PubMed Central

    Matyash, Vitali; Liebisch, Gerhard; Kurzchalia, Teymuras V.; Shevchenko, Andrej; Schwudke, Dominik

    2008-01-01

    Accurate profiling of lipidomes relies upon the quantitative and unbiased recovery of lipid species from analyzed cells, fluids, or tissues and is usually achieved by two-phase extraction with chloroform. We demonstrated that methyl-tert-butyl ether (MTBE) extraction allows faster and cleaner lipid recovery and is well suited for automated shotgun profiling. Because of MTBE's low density, lipid-containing organic phase forms the upper layer during phase separation, which simplifies its collection and minimizes dripping losses. Nonextractable matrix forms a dense pellet at the bottom of the extraction tube and is easily removed by centrifugation. Rigorous testing demonstrated that the MTBE protocol delivers similar or better recoveries of species of most all major lipid classes compared with the “gold-standard” Folch or Bligh and Dyer recipes. PMID:18281723

  13. An easy, rapid, and cost-effective method for DNA extraction from various lichen taxa and specimens suitable for analysis of fungal and algal strains.

    PubMed

    Park, Sook-Young; Jang, Seol-Hwa; Oh, Soon-Ok; Kim, Jung A; Hur, Jae-Seoun

    2014-12-01

    Lichen studies, including biodiversity, phylogenetic relationships, and conservation concerns require definitive species identification, however many lichens can be challenging to identify at the species level. Molecular techniques have shown efficacy in discriminating among lichen taxa, however, obtaining genomic DNA from herbarium and fresh lichen thalli by conventional methods has been difficult, because lichens contain high proteins, polysaccharides, and other complex compounds in their cell walls. Here we report a rapid, easy, and inexpensive protocol for extracting PCR-quality DNA from various lichen species. This method involves the following two steps: first, cell breakage using a beadbeater; and second, extraction, isolation, and precipitation of genomic DNA. The procedure requires approximately 10 mg of lichen thalli and can be completed within 20 min. The obtained DNAs were of sufficient quality and quantity to amplify the internal transcribed spacer region from the fungal and algal lichen components, as well as to sequence the amplified products. In addition, 26 different lichen taxa were tested, resulting in successful PCR products. The results of this study validated the experimental protocols, and clearly demonstrated the efficacy and value of our KCl extraction method applied in the fungal and algal samples. PMID:25606001

  14. An Easy, Rapid, and Cost-Effective Method for DNA Extraction from Various Lichen Taxa and Specimens Suitable for Analysis of Fungal and Algal Strains

    PubMed Central

    Park, Sook-Young; Jang, Seol-Hwa; Oh, Soon-Ok; Kim, Jung A

    2014-01-01

    Lichen studies, including biodiversity, phylogenetic relationships, and conservation concerns require definitive species identification, however many lichens can be challenging to identify at the species level. Molecular techniques have shown efficacy in discriminating among lichen taxa, however, obtaining genomic DNA from herbarium and fresh lichen thalli by conventional methods has been difficult, because lichens contain high proteins, polysaccharides, and other complex compounds in their cell walls. Here we report a rapid, easy, and inexpensive protocol for extracting PCR-quality DNA from various lichen species. This method involves the following two steps: first, cell breakage using a beadbeater; and second, extraction, isolation, and precipitation of genomic DNA. The procedure requires approximately 10 mg of lichen thalli and can be completed within 20 min. The obtained DNAs were of sufficient quality and quantity to amplify the internal transcribed spacer region from the fungal and algal lichen components, as well as to sequence the amplified products. In addition, 26 different lichen taxa were tested, resulting in successful PCR products. The results of this study validated the experimental protocols, and clearly demonstrated the efficacy and value of our KCl extraction method applied in the fungal and algal samples. PMID:25606001

  15. Hydrothermal nitric acid treatment for effectual lipid extraction from wet microalgae biomass.

    PubMed

    Lee, Ilgyu; Park, Ji-Yeon; Choi, Sun-A; Oh, You-Kwan; Han, Jong-In

    2014-11-01

    Hydrothermal acid (combined with autoclaving and nitric acid) pretreatment was applied to Nannochloropsis salina as a cost-effective yet efficient way of lipid extraction from wet biomass. The optimal conditions for this pretreatment were determined using a statistical approach, and the roles of nitric acid were also determined. The maximum lipid yield (predicted: 24.6%; experimental: 24.4%) was obtained using 0.57% nitric acid at 120°C for 30min through response surface methodology. A relatively lower lipid yield (18.4%) was obtained using 2% nitric acid; however, chlorophyll and unsaturated fatty acids, both of which adversely affect the refinery and oxidative stability of biodiesel, were found to be not co-extracted. Considering its comparable extractability even from wet biomass and ability to reduce chlorophyll and unsaturated fatty acids, the hydrothermal nitric acid pretreatment can serve as one direct and promising route of extracting microalgae oil. PMID:25255190

  16. Lipid extraction from microalgae cell using UV-Fenton-like reaction.

    PubMed

    Seo, Yeong Hwan; Sung, Mina; Oh, You-Kwan; Han, Jong-In

    2015-09-01

    In this study, UV light was adopted to make it possible to attain sufficiently high extraction efficiency even with a minimal amount of H2O2. The Fenton-like reaction showed 80% of lipid extraction efficiency with 0.5% H2O2, whereas the provision of 16 W UV increased efficiency to 85% and decreased H2O2 consumption to 0.3%. This oxidation-based lipid extraction means have one fortuitous yet beneficial effect to remove chlorophylls, which are known to degrade the quality of the final product like biodiesel. The UV-Fenton-like reaction was found to eliminate 77% of chlorophylls. Such oxidation-based lipid extraction approaches as the Fenton-like reaction appear to have the sure application potential; and it is more so with the help of UV. PMID:26072697

  17. Lipid Extraction and Cholesterol Quantification: A Simple Protocol

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barreto, M. Carmo

    2005-01-01

    Enzymatic methods are used to measure cholesterol levels but a simple and inexpensive method is described, which is particularly important when one has repeated lab sessions during the week. It can be carried out on the organic phase containing the lipids, without evaporating the solvent, yielding quick results.

  18. The extraction and use of DDGS lipids for biodiesel production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The microbial fermentation process whereby fuel ethanol is produced does not destroy the acylglycerols resident in the fermentation feedstock. These lipids are contained in the thin stillage and Distillers Dried Grains with Solubles (DDGS) coproducts of fermentation. Recovery and conversion of the...

  19. Detergent assisted lipid extraction from wet yeast biomass for biodiesel: A response surface methodology approach.

    PubMed

    Yellapu, Sravan Kumar; Bezawada, Jyothi; Kaur, Rajwinder; Kuttiraja, Mathiazhakan; Tyagi, Rajeshwar D

    2016-10-01

    The lipid extraction from the microbial biomass is a tedious and high cost dependent process. In the present study, detergent assisted lipids extraction from the culture of the yeast Yarrowia lipolytica SKY-7 was carried out. Response surface methodology (RSM) was used to investigate the effect of three principle parameters (N-LS concentration, time and temperature) on microbial lipid extraction efficiency % (w/w). The results obtained by statistical analysis showed that the quadratic model fits in all cases. Maximum lipid recovery of 95.3±0.3% w/w was obtained at the optimum level of process variables [N-LS concentration 24.42mg (equal to 48mgN-LS/g dry biomass), treatment time 8.8min and reaction temperature 30.2°C]. Whereas the conventional chloroform and methanol extraction to achieve total lipid recovery required 12h at 60°C. The study confirmed that oleaginous yeast biomass treatment with N-lauroyl sarcosine would be a promising approach for industrial scale microbial lipid recovery. PMID:27416517

  20. Quantitative lipid composition of cell envelopes of Corynebacterium glutamicum elucidated through reverse micelle extraction

    PubMed Central

    Bansal-Mutalik, Ritu; Nikaido, Hiroshi

    2011-01-01

    Cells of the Corynebacterium-Nocardia-Mycobacterium group of bacteria are surrounded by an outer membrane (OM) containing mycolic acids that are covalently linked to the underlying arabinogalactan-peptidoglycan complex. This OM presumably acts as a permeability barrier that imparts high levels of intrinsic drug resistance to some members of this group, such as Mycobacterium tuberculosis, and its component lipids have been studied intensively in a qualitative manner over the years. However, the quantitative lipid composition of this membrane has remained obscure, mainly because of difficulties in isolating it without contamination from the inner cytoplasmic membrane. Here we use the extraction, with reverse surfactant micelles, of intact cells of Corynebacterium glutamicum and show that this method extracts the free OM lipids quantitatively with no contamination from lipids of the cytoplasmic membrane, such as phosphatidylglycerol. Although only small amounts of corynomycolate were esterified to arabinogalactan, a large amount of cardiolipin was present in a nonextractable form, tightly associated, possibly covalently, with the peptidoglycan-arabinogalactan complex. Furthermore, we show that the OM contains just enough lipid hydrocarbons to produce a bilayer covering the cell surface, with its inner leaflet composed mainly of the aforementioned nonextractable cardiolipin and its outer leaflet composed of trehalose dimycolates, phosphatidylinositol mannosides, and highly apolar lipids, similar to the Minnikin model of 1982. The reverse micelle extraction method is also useful for extracting proteins associated with the OM, such as porins. PMID:21876124

  1. Fast determination of arsenosugars in algal extracts by narrow bore high-performance liquid chromatography-inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Todolí, José Luis; Grotti, Marco

    2010-11-19

    The potential of narrow bore high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with detection by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) for fast determination of arsenosugars in algal extracts was explored. The retention behavior of four naturally occurring dimethylarsinoylribosides on an anion-exchange microbore column was investigated, with the mobile phase flow rate ranging from 60 to 200μLmin(-1). A low sample consumption system consisting of a micronebulizer and a low inner volume cyclonic spray chamber was used as the interface between the micro-column and the ICP mass spectrometer. Both the high efficiency nebulizer, HEN, and the PFA micronebulizer were tested, with the former providing 20-50% greater sensitivity than PFA (depending on the liquid flow rate), but comparable limits of detection and slightly lower chromatographic resolution. With the setup employed and under the optimal conditions, a satisfactory separation of the arsenosugars was achieved in less than 5min. The instrumental limit of detection was 0.20μgAsL(-1) and the precision was better than 3% (RSD%, n=5). The accuracy of the determination was verified by the analysis of a reference algal extract, obtaining values in good agreement with the reference ones. PMID:20965508

  2. Review Paper on Cell Membrane Electroporation of Microalgae using Electric Field Treatment Method for Microalgae Lipid Extraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joannes, C.; Sipaut, C. S.; Dayou, J.; Yasir, S. M.; Mansa, R. F.

    2015-04-01

    The paper reviews the recent studies on the lipid extraction of microalgae that mainly highlighted on the cell disruption method using variety of microalgae species. Selection of cell disruption method and devices are crucial in order to achieve the highest extraction percentage of lipid and other valuable intracellular (proteins, carotenoids and chlorophylls) from microalgae cell. Pulsed electric field (PEF) and electrochemical lysis methods were found to be potential for enhancing the extraction efficiencies either conducted in single step extraction or used as pre-treatment followed by conventional extraction method. The PEF technology capable to extract lipid as high as 75%. While, electrochemical lysis treatment capable to extract lipid approximately 93% using Stainless Steel (SS) and Ti/IrO2 as the cathode and anode electrode respectively. PEF technology and electrochemical lysis are still considered to be a new method for microalgae lipid extraction and further investigation can still be done for better improvement of the system.

  3. Effect of lipid extraction on analyses of stable carbon and stable nitrogen isotopes in coastal organisms of the Aleutian archipelago

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ricca, M.A.; Miles, A.K.; Anthony, R.G.; Deng, X.; Hung, S.S.O.

    2007-01-01

    We tested whether extracting lipids reduced confounding variation in ??13C and ??15N values by analyzing paired lipid-extracted (LE) and non-lipid-extracted (NLE) samples of bald eagle (Haliaeetus leucocephalus (L., 1766)) whole eggs, muscle tissue from nine seabird and one terrestrial bird species, muscle tissue from four marine fish species, and blue mussels (Mytilus edulis L., 1758) collected from the Aleutian archipelago, Alaska. Lipid extraction significantly increased ??13C by an average of 2.0??? in whole eggs, 0.8??? in avian muscle, 0.2??? in fish muscle, and 0.6??? in blue mussels. Lower ??13C values in NLE samples covaried positively with lipid content across all sample types. Lower ??13C values in NLE samples were not correlated with lipid content within bald eagle eggs and blue mussels, but covaried positively with percent lipid in avian and fish muscles. Neither lipid extraction nor percent lipid significantly changed ??15N values for any sample type. Lower ??13C values in most NLE avian and fish muscle tissues should not confound interpretation of pelagic versus nearshore sources of primary production, but lipid extraction may be necessary when highly precise estimates of ??13C are needed. Lipid extraction may not be necessary when only ??15N is of interest. ?? 2007 NRC.

  4. Physicochemical characterization of wet microalgal cells disrupted with instant catapult steam explosion for lipid extraction.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Jun; Huang, Rui; Li, Tao; Zhou, Junhu; Cen, Kefa

    2015-09-01

    Instant catapult steam explosion (ICSE) was employed to disrupt wet microalgal cells for efficient lipid extraction. Physicochemical properties of exploded cells were investigated through SEM, TEM, FTIR, and TGA. The exploded cells increased in fractal dimension (1.53-1.65) when preheat time was prolonged from 0 min to 5 min and in surface pore area when steam pressure was increased. Meanwhile, the exploded cells decreased in mean size (1.69-1.44 μm) when the filling ratio of wet microalgal biomass in the preheat chamber decreased (75-12.5%). Flash evaporation and volume expansion exploded the cell walls and released the cytoplasm of the microalgal cells. These phenomena decreased the carbohydrate content and increased the lipid content in the exploded biomass. However, ICSE treatment did not change the lipid compositions in the microalgal cells. Using isopropanol as a cosolvent significantly increased the yield of lipids extracted with hexane from the exploded wet microalgal biomass. PMID:25983224

  5. Extraction of Lipids from Chlorella saccharophila Using High-Pressure Homogenization Followed by Three Phase Partitioning.

    PubMed

    Mulchandani, Ketan; Kar, Jayaranjan R; Singhal, Rekha S

    2015-07-01

    Commercial exploitation of microalgae for biofuel and food ingredients is hindered due to laborious extraction protocols and use of hazardous chemicals. Production of lipids in the microalga grown in modified BG11 medium was evaluated to arrive at the appropriate harvesting conditions. The use of three phase partitioning (TPP) as a green approach for extraction of lipids from Chlorella saccharophila was investigated. Cells disrupted by probe sonication were used for separation of lipids by TPP. The TPP-optimized conditions of 30 % ammonium sulfate, using slurry/t-butanol of 1:0.75 for 60 min at 25 to 35 °C, showed a lipid recovery of 69.05 ± 3.12 % (w/w) as against 100 % (w/w) by using chloroform-methanol extraction. Subsequently, parameters of high-pressure homogenization for cell disruption were optimized for maximum recovery of lipids by TPP. A final recovery of 89.91 ± 3.69 % (w/w) lipids was obtained along with ∼1.26 % w/w carotenoids of dry biomass in the t-butanol layer and protein content of ∼12 % w/w of dry biomass in the middle protein layer due to ammonium sulfate precipitation, after performing TPP under the optimized conditions. PMID:25969157

  6. Formation of unilamellar liposomes from total polar lipid extracts of methanogens.

    PubMed Central

    Choquet, C G; Patel, G B; Beveridge, T J; Sprott, G D

    1992-01-01

    Unilamellar liposomes were formed by controlled detergent dialysis of mixed micelles consisting of acetone-insoluble total polar lipids extracted from various methanogens and the detergent n-octyl-beta-D-glucopyranoside. The final liposome populations were studied by dynamic light scattering and electron microscopy. Unilamellar liposomes with mean diameters smaller than 100 nm were obtained with lipid extracts of Methanococcus voltae, Methanosarcina mazei, Methanosaeta concilii, and Methanococcus jannaschii (grown at 50 degrees C), whereas larger (greater than 100-nm) unilamellar liposomes were obtained with lipid extracts of M. jannaschii grown at 65 degrees C. These liposomes were shown to be closed intact vesicles capable of retaining entrapped [14C]sucrose for extended periods of time. With the exception of Methanospirillum hungatei liposomes, all size distributions of the different liposome populations were fairly homogeneous. Images PMID:1444403

  7. Simultaneous treatment (cell disruption and lipid extraction) of wet microalgae using hydrodynamic cavitation for enhancing the lipid yield.

    PubMed

    Lee, Ilgyu; Han, Jong-In

    2015-06-01

    Simultaneous treatment (combining with cell disruption and lipid extraction) using hydrodynamic cavitation (HC) was applied to Nannochloropsis salina to demonstrate a simple and integrated way to produce oil from wet microalgae. A high lipid yield from the HC (25.9-99.0%) was observed compared with autoclave (16.2-66.5%) and ultrasonication (5.4-26.9%) in terms of the specific energy input (500-10,000 kJ/kg). The optimal conditions for the simultaneous treatment were established using a statistical approach. The efficiency of the simultaneous method was also demonstrated by comparing each separate treatment. The maximum lipid yield (predicted: 45.9% and experimental: 45.5%) was obtained using 0.89% sulfuric acid with a cavitation number of 1.17 for a reaction time of 25.05 min via response surface methodology. Considering its comparable extractability, energy-efficiency, and potential for scale-up, HC may be a promising method to achieve industrial-scale microalgae operation. PMID:25817036

  8. The effect of Malaysian cocoa extract on glucose levels and lipid profiles in diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Ruzaidi, A; Amin, I; Nawalyah, A G; Hamid, M; Faizul, H A

    2005-04-01

    The present study aims to investigate the effect of cocoa extract on serum glucose levels and lipid profiles in streptozotocin-diabetic rats. Cocoa extract (contained 285.6 mg total polyphenol per gram extract) was prepared from fermented and roasted (140 degrees C, 20 min) beans by extracting using 80% ethanol in the ratio of 1-10. The extract of three dosages (1, 2, and 3%) was fed to normal and diabetic rats for a period of 4 weeks. In hyperglycaemic group, cocoa extract (1 and 3%) diets were found to significantly lower (p<0.05) the serum glucose levels compared to the control. Furthermore, supplementation of 1 and 3% cocoa extract had significantly reduced (p<0.05) the level of total cholesterol in diabetic rats. In addition, 1, 2, and 3% cocoa extract diets had significantly lowered (p<0.05) the total triglycerides. Interestingly, this study found that serum HDL-cholesterol had increased significantly (p<0.05) in diabetic rats fed with 2% cocoa extract, while the LDL-cholesterol had decreased significantly (p<0.05) in the 1% treated group. These results indicate that cocoa extract may possess potential hypoglycaemic and hypocholestrolemic effects on serum glucose levels and lipid profiles, respectively. The results also found that the effect of cocoa extract was dose-dependent. PMID:15763363

  9. Comparison between several methods of total lipid extraction from Chlorella vulgaris biomass.

    PubMed

    dos Santos, Raquel Rezende; Moreira, Daniel Mendonça; Kunigami, Claudete Norie; Aranda, Donato Alexandre Gomes; Teixeira, Cláudia Maria Luz Lapa

    2015-01-01

    The use of lipids obtained from microalgae biomass has been described as a promising alternative for production of biodiesel to replace petro-diesel. It involves steps such as the cultivation of microalgae, biomass harvesting, extraction and transesterification of lipids. The purpose of the present study was to compare different methods of extracting total lipids. These methods were tested in biomass of Chlorella vulgaris with the solvents ethanol, hexane and a mixture of chloroform:methanol in ratios 1:2 and 2:1. The solvents were associated with other mechanisms of cell disruption such as use of a Potter homogenizer and ultrasound treatment. The percentage of triglycerides in the total lipids was determinated by the glycerol-3-phosphate oxidase-p-chlorophenol method (triglycerides monoreagent K117; Bioclin). Among the tested methods, the mixture of chloroform:methanol (2:1) assisted by ultrasound was most efficient, extracting an average of 19% of total lipids, of which 55% were triglycerides. The gas chromatographic analysis did not show differences in methyl ester profiles of oils extracted under the different methods. PMID:24910443

  10. Lithogenic activity and clinical relevance of lipids extracted from urines and stones of nephrolithiasis patients.

    PubMed

    Boonla, Chanchai; Youngjermchan, Phantip; Pumpaisanchai, Somkiat; Tungsanga, Kriang; Tosukhowong, Piyaratana

    2011-02-01

    We investigated contents and classes of urinary and stone matrix lipids, and evaluated their clinical relevance in nephrolithiasis patients. Lithogenic role of major lipid classes was explored. Urine (24 h) and stone samples were collected from 47 patients with nephrolithiasis. Control urines were obtained from 29 healthy subjects. Urinary 8-hydroxy-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG), malondialdehyde (MDA), N-acetyl-β-glucosaminidase (NAG) activity and total proteins were measured. Total lipids were extracted from centrifuged urines (10,000 rpm, 30 min) and stones by chloroform/methanol method. Major classes of lipids were identified using multi-one-dimensional thin-layer chromatography (MOD-TLC). Influence of each lipid class purified from stone matrices on stone formation was evaluated using crystallization and crystal aggregation assays. Urinary NAG activity and 8-OHdG were significantly elevated in nephrolithiasis patients. Total lipids in centrifuged urines of the patients were not significantly different from that of controls. In nephrolithiasis, urinary excretion of total lipids was linearly correlated to urinary MDA, 8-OHdG, NAG activity and total proteins. Lipid contents in stone matrices varied among stone types. Uric acid stone contained lower amount of total lipids than calcium oxalate and magnesium ammonium phosphate stones. MOD-TLC lipid chromatograms of healthy urines, nephrolithiasis urines and stone matrices were obviously different. Triacylglyceride was abundant in urines, but scarcely found in stone matrices. Stone matrices were rich in glycolipids and high-polar lipids (phospholipids/gangliosides). Partially purified glycolipids significantly induced crystal aggregation while cholesterol was a significant inducer of both crystal formation and agglomeration. In conclusion, total lipids in centrifuged urines did not differ between nephrolithiasis and healthy subjects. Our finding suggests that the significant sources of lipids in patients' urine may be

  11. Extraction of saponifiable lipids from wet microalgal biomass for biodiesel production.

    PubMed

    Jiménez Callejón, María J; Robles Medina, Alfonso; Macías Sánchez, María D; Hita Peña, Estrella; Esteban Cerdán, Luis; González Moreno, Pedro A; Molina Grima, Emilio

    2014-10-01

    Saponifiable lipids (SLs) were extracted with hexane from wet biomass (86 wt% water) of the microalga Nannochloropsis gaditana in order to transform them into fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs, biodiesel). The influence of homogenization pressure on SL extraction yield at low temperature (20-22 °C) was studied. Homogenization at 1700 bar tripled the SL extraction yield. Two biomass batches with similar total lipid content but different lipidic compositions were used. Batch 1 contained fewer SLs (12.0 wt%) and neutral saponifiable lipids (NSLs, 7.9 wt%) than batch 2 (21.6 and 17.2 wt%, respectively). For this reason, and due to the selectivity of hexane toward NSLs, high SL yield (69.1 wt%) and purity (71.0 wt%) were obtained from batch 2. Moreover, this extract contains a small percentage of polyunsaturated fatty acids (16.9 wt%), thereby improving the biodiesel quality. Finally, up to 97.0% of extracted SLs were transformed to FAMEs by acid catalyzed transesterification. PMID:25058294

  12. Optimization of microwave-assisted transesterification of dry algal biomass using response surface methodology.

    PubMed

    Patil, Prafulla D; Gude, Veera Gnaneswar; Mannarswamy, Aravind; Cooke, Peter; Munson-McGee, Stuart; Nirmalakhandan, Nagamany; Lammers, Peter; Deng, Shuguang

    2011-01-01

    The effect of microwave irradiation on the simultaneous extraction and transesterification (in situ transesterification) of dry algal biomass to biodiesel was investigated. A high degree of oil/lipid extraction from dry algal biomass and an efficient conversion of the oils/lipids to biodiesel were demonstrated in a set of well-designed experimental runs. A response surface methodology (RSM) was used to analyze the influence of the process variables (dry algae to methanol (wt/vol) ratio, catalyst concentration, and reaction time) on the fatty acid methyl ester conversion. Based on the experimental results and RSM analysis, the optimal conditions for this process were determined as: dry algae to methanol (wt/vol) ratio of around 1:12, catalyst concentration about 2 wt.%, and reaction time of 4 min. The algal biodiesel samples were analyzed with GC-MS and thin layer chromatography (TLC) methods. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) images of the algal biomass samples before and after the extraction/transesterification reaction are also presented. PMID:20933395

  13. The BUME method: a novel automated chloroform-free 96-well total lipid extraction method for blood plasma[S

    PubMed Central

    Löfgren, Lars; Ståhlman, Marcus; Forsberg, Gun-Britt; Saarinen, Sinikka; Nilsson, Ralf; Hansson, Göran I.

    2012-01-01

    Lipid extraction from biological samples is a critical and often tedious preanalytical step in lipid research. Primarily on the basis of automation criteria, we have developed the BUME method, a novel chloroform-free total lipid extraction method for blood plasma compatible with standard 96-well robots. In only 60 min, 96 samples can be automatically extracted with lipid profiles of commonly analyzed lipid classes almost identically and with absolute recoveries similar or better to what is obtained using the chloroform-based reference method. Lipid recoveries were linear from 10–100 µl plasma for all investigated lipids using the developed extraction protocol. The BUME protocol includes an initial one-phase extraction of plasma into 300 µl butanol:methanol (BUME) mixture (3:1) followed by two-phase extraction into 300 µl heptane:ethyl acetate (3:1) using 300 µl 1% acetic acid as buffer. The lipids investigated included the most abundant plasma lipid classes (e.g., cholesterol ester, free cholesterol, triacylglycerol, phosphatidylcholine, and sphingomyelin) as well as less abundant but biologically important lipid classes, including ceramide, diacylglycerol, and lyso-phospholipids. This novel method has been successfully implemented in our laboratory and is now used daily. We conclude that the fully automated, high-throughput BUME method can replace chloroform-based methods, saving both human and environmental resources. PMID:22645248

  14. Cell-wall disruption and lipid/astaxanthin extraction from microalgae: Chlorella and Haematococcus.

    PubMed

    Kim, Dong-Yeon; Vijayan, Durairaj; Praveenkumar, Ramasamy; Han, Jong-In; Lee, Kyubock; Park, Ji-Yeon; Chang, Won-Seok; Lee, Jin-Suk; Oh, You-Kwan

    2016-01-01

    Recently, biofuels and nutraceuticals produced from microalgae have emerged as major interests, resulting in intensive research of the microalgal biorefinery process. In this paper, recent developments in cell-wall disruption and extraction methods are reviewed, focusing on lipid and astaxanthin production from the biotechnologically important microalgae Chlorella and Haematococcus, respectively. As a common, critical bottleneck for recovery of intracellular components such as lipid and astaxanthin from these microalgae, the composition and structure of rigid, thick cell-walls were analyzed. Various chemical, physical, physico-chemical, and biological methods applied for cell-wall breakage and lipid/astaxanthin extraction from Chlorella and Haematococcus are discussed in detail and compared based on efficiency, energy consumption, type and dosage of solvent, biomass concentration and status (wet/dried), toxicity, scalability, and synergistic combinations. This report could serve as a useful guide to the implementation of practical downstream processes for recovery of valuable products from microalgae including Chlorella and Haematococcus. PMID:26342788

  15. Supercritical fluid extraction of bacterial and archaeal lipid biomarkers from anaerobically digested sludge.

    PubMed

    Hanif, Muhammad; Atsuta, Yoichi; Fujie, Koichi; Daimon, Hiroyuki

    2012-01-01

    Supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) was used in the analysis of bacterial respiratory quinone (RQ), bacterial phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA), and archaeal phospholipid ether lipid (PLEL) from anaerobically digested sludge. Bacterial RQ were determined using ultra performance liquid chromatography (UPLC). Determination of bacterial PLFA and archaeal PLEL was simultaneously performed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The effects of pressure, temperature, and modifier concentration on the total amounts of RQ, PLFA, and PLEL were investigated by 23 experiments with five settings chosen for each variable. The optimal extraction conditions that were obtained through a multiple-response optimization included a pressure of 23.6 MPa, temperature of 77.6 °C, and 10.6% (v/v) of methanol as the modifier. Thirty nine components of microbial lipid biomarkers were identified in the anaerobically digested sludge. Overall, the SFE method proved to be more effective, rapid, and quantitative for simultaneously extracting bacterial and archaeal lipid biomarkers, compared to conventional organic solvent extraction. This work shows the potential application of SFE as a routine method for the comprehensive analysis of microbial community structures in environmental assessments using the lipid biomarkers profile. PMID:22489140

  16. Determination of PCBs and total lipids in edible fish and crab tissue using supercritical fluid extraction

    SciTech Connect

    Gavlor, M.; Hale, R.; Smith, C.; Thames, J.; Mothershead, R.

    1995-12-31

    An offline supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) method has been developed to determine PCB congeners and total tissue lipid content in edible fish and crab tissues collected from several river systems in Virginia. The method is rapid and safe, requiring only 40 minutes per sample and uses nonorganic solvents for total lipid extraction and only 1.5 mL isooctane for PCB extraction. The SFE approach compares favorably with soxhlet extraction, ASE and column elution. Over 800 fish and crab tissue samples were analyzed successfully, thus demonstrating the robustness of the method. Total lipid values obtained using SFE showed considerable spatial and interspecies variability ranging from 1.8% in blue crab (Callinectes sapidus) to 36.4% in striped bass (Morone saxatilis). Total PCB concentrations also varied greatly by site and species. These ranged from below the quantitation limit (1.0 {micro}1 g/kg) to 9,910 {micro}g/kg on a dry weight basis using GCELCD. Dominant PCB congeners detected were in good agreement with those reported by other researchers. Mean total PCB concentrations did not correlate well with total tissue lipid content.

  17. Extraction of proteins and membrane lipids during low temperature embedding of biological material for electron microscopy.

    PubMed

    Weibull, C; Christiansson, A

    1986-04-01

    The extraction of proteins and membrane lipids from biological materials during embedding procedures for electron microscopy carried out at temperatures down to 223 K was studied. Glutaraldehyde-fixed cells of Acholeplasma laidlawii mainly served as test material. More than 99% of the protein and 88% of the lipid of these cells were retained after dehydration with ethanol or acetone between 277 and 223 K and infiltration with methacrylate at 223 K. When methanol was used for dehydration, only 54% of the lipid was retained. The amount of extracted lipid was essentially independent of the ratio between volume of extraction liquid and amount of material subjected to extraction. The cytoplasmic membrane of sectioned Acholeplasma-cells dehydrated and infiltrated as described above appeared more diffuse than that of cells fixed with glutaraldehyde and osmium tetroxide in epoxy resin at room temperature. Glutaraldehyde-fixed erythrocyte ghosts retained 85% of their phospholipid content when dehydrated with ethanol between 277 and 223 K and infiltrated with methacrylate at 223 K. Spinach chloroplasts and thylakoid vesicles retained 61% and 35%, respectively, of their chlorophyll content. PMID:3712423

  18. Extraction of lipid components from hibiscus seeds by supercritical carbon dioxide and ethanol mixtures

    SciTech Connect

    Holser, Ronald A.; King, J. W.; Bost, G.

    2002-01-01

    The genus Hibiscus exhibits great diversity in the production of natural materials with edible and industrial applications. The seeds of twelve varieties of Hibiscus were investigated as a source for triglycerides and phospholipids that could be used in functional foods. Lipid components were extracted from seed samples ground to a nominal particle diameter of 0.1 mm. Extractions were performed with an ISCO model 3560 supercritical fluid extractor using carbon dioxide and a mixture of carbon dioxide modified with ethanol. The neutral lipids were extracted with carbon dioxide at 80 C and 5370 MPa for 45 min. Polar lipids were subsequently extracted with a mixture of carbon dioxide and 15% ethanol at the same temperature and pressure. High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was used to analyze extracts for major neutral and polar lipid classes. A silica column was used with a solvent gradient of hexane/isopropanol/ water and ultraviolet (UV) and evaporative light scattering detectors (ELSD). An aliquot of each triglyceride fraction was trans-methylated with sodium methoxide and analyzed by gas chromatography to obtain the corresponding fatty acid methyl esters. The total lipids extracted ranged from 8.5% for a variety indigenous to Madagascar (H. calyphyllus) to 20% for a hybrid species (Georgia Rose). The average oil yield was 11.4% for the other varieties tested. The fatty acid methyl ester analysis displayed a high degree of unsaturation for all varieties tested, e. g., 75 ' 83%. Oleic, linoleic, and linolenic fatty acids were the predominate unsaturated fatty acids with only minor amounts of C14, C18, and C20 saturated fatty acids measured. Palmitic acid was identified as the predominate saturated fatty acid. The distribution of the major phospholipids, i. e., phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidic acid, phosphatidylserine, phosphatidylcholine, and lysophosphatidylcholine, was found to vary significantly among the hibiscus species examined

  19. Production of biofuel using molluscan pseudofeces derived from algal cells

    SciTech Connect

    Das, Keshav C.; Chinnasamy, Senthil; Shelton, James; Wilde, Susan B.; Haynie, Rebecca S.; Herrin, James A.

    2012-08-28

    Embodiments of the present disclosure provide for novel strategies to harvest algal lipids using mollusks which after feeding algae from the growth medium can convert algal lipids into their biomass or excrete lipids in their pseudofeces which makes algae harvesting energy efficient and cost effective. The bioconverter, filter-feeding mollusks and their pseudofeces can be harvested and converted to biocrude using an advanced thermochemical liquefaction technology. Methods, systems, and materials are disclosed for the harvest and isolation of algal lipids from the mollusks, molluscan feces and molluscan pseudofeces.

  20. Equilibrium and rate data for the extraction of lipids using compressed carbon dioxide

    SciTech Connect

    King, M.B.; Bott, T.R.; Barr, M.J.; Mahmud, R.S.; Sanders, N.

    1987-01-01

    Equilibrium data are given for the solubilities in compressed CO2 of the lipid components in freshly ground rape seed and of glycerol trioleate (a typical constituent of rape oil) at pressures up to 200 bar and temperatures 25 to 75C. Continuous flow tests in which a bed of ground rape seed was contacted with a stream of liquid CO2 at 25C and varied flow conditions are also reported. The results are collated in terms of an empirical mass transfer coefficient. A sharp change took place in the lipid concentration in the extractant stream leaving the bed when about 65% of the available oil had been extracted. This, and changes in the composition of the extract, are discussed, together with the use of this type of data for design purposes.

  1. A Brief Literature Overview of Various Routes to Biorenewable Fuels from Lipids for the National Alliance for Advanced Biofuels and Bio-products (NAABB) Consortium

    SciTech Connect

    Albrecht, Karl O.; Hallen, Richard T.

    2011-03-29

    Renewable methods of producing transportation fuels are currently the focus of numerous large research efforts across the globe. Renewable fuel produced from algal lipids is one aspect of this research that could have profound implications on future transportation fuel requirements. However, technical challenges remain in several areas of algal-lipid-based fuels. These challenges include the identification and development of robust and productive algal species as well as extraction methods to recover the produced lipids. Not the least of these technical challenges is the conversion of the algae lipids to fungible fuels. This brief literature review focuses primarily on state-of-the-art “downstream” applications of producing fuel from fats and lipids, which can be applied to ongoing research with algae-derived lipids.

  2. Characterization of Ornithine and Glutamine Lipids Extracted from Cell Membranes of Rhodobacter sphaeroides

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xi; Ferguson-Miller, Shelagh M.; Reid, Gavin E.

    2009-01-01

    The identification and structural characterization of a series of ornithine lipids extracted from the cell membranes of wild-type Rhodobacter sphaeroides, as well as from a glycerophosphocholine-deficient strain, has been achieved by multistage tandem mass spectrometry of their protonated and deprotonated precursor ions in a linear quadrupole ion trap. Systematic examination of the multistage gas-phase fragmentation reactions of these ions, combined with the use of hydrogen/deuterium exchange, has enabled the pathways responsible for sequential losses of the 3-hydroxy linked fatty acyl chain and the amide linked 3-OH fatty acid chain from these lipids, as well as for formation of the previously reported ornithine specific positively charged ‘fingerprint’ ion at m/z 115, to be determined. Additionally, the fragmentation pathways responsible for formation of a previously unreported ornithine lipid head group specific product ion at m/z 131 in negative ion mode have been examined. Based on these results, and by comparison with the fragmentation behavior of model lipoamino acid standard compounds, a series of novel glutamine containing lipids have also been identified, with analogous structures but with masses 14 Da higher than several of the ornithine lipids observed in this study. Characteristic ‘fingerprint’ ions indicative of these glutamine lipids were found at m/z 147, 130 and 129 in positive ion mode, and at m/z 145 and 127 in negative ion mode. The results from this study establish an experimental basis for future efforts aimed at the sensitive identification, characterization and quantitative analysis of ornithine and glutamine lipids in complex unfractionated cellular extracts. PMID:18835523

  3. The role of squalene in the organization of monolayers derived from lipid extracts of Halobacterium salinarum

    PubMed Central

    Gilmore, Sean F.; Yao, Andrew I.; Tietel, Zipora; Kind, Tobias; Facciotti, Marc T.; Parikh, Atul N.

    2014-01-01

    We have studied interfacial compressibility and lateral organization in monolayer configurations of total (squalene containing) and polar (squalene-devoid) lipid extracts of Halobacterium salinarum NRC-1, an extremely halophilic archaeon. Pressure-area isotherms derived from Langmuir experiments reveal that packing characteristics and elastic compressibility are strongly influenced by the presence of squalene in the total lipid extract. In conjunction with control experiments using mixtures of DPhPC and squalene, our results establish that the presence of squalene significantly extends elastic area compressibility of total lipid extracts, suggesting it has a role in facilitating tighter packing of archaeal lipid mixtures. Moreover, we find that squalene also influences spatial organization in archaeal membranes. Epifluorescence and atomic force microscopy characterization of Langmuir monolayers transferred onto solid hydrophilic substrates reveal unusual domain morphology. Individual domains of microscopic dimensions (as well as their extended networks) exhibiting a peculiar bowl-like topography are evident in atomic force microscopy images. The tall rims outlining individual domains indicates that squalene accumulates at the domain periphery in a manner similar to the accumulation of cholesterol at domain boundaries in their mixtures with phospholipids. Taken together, results presented here support the notion that squalene plays a role in modulating molecular packing and lateral organization (i.e., domain formation) in the membranes of archaea analogous to that of cholesterol in eukaryotic membranes. PMID:23713788

  4. Lipid extraction mediates aggregation of carbon nanospheres in pulmonary surfactant monolayers.

    PubMed

    Yue, Tongtao; Xu, Yan; Li, Shixin; Zhang, Xianren; Huang, Fang

    2016-07-28

    Increasing evidence indicates that carbon nanoparticles (CNPs), which mainly originate from incomplete combustion of fossil fuels, have an adverse impact on the respiratory system. Recent in vivo experiments have shown that the pulmonary toxicity of CNPs is attributed to their aggregation in pulmonary surfactant monolayers (PSMs) while the underlying mechanism of aggregation remains unclear. Here, by performing coarse grained molecular dynamics simulations, we demonstrate for the first time that the aggregation of carbon nanospheres (CNSs) in PSMs is in fact size-dependent and mediated by lipid extractions. Upon CNS deposition, neighbouring lipid molecules are extracted from PSMs to cover CNSs from the top side. The extracted lipids induce clustering of CNSs to maximize the CNS-lipid interaction, by forming inverse micelles to wrap the aggregated CNSs cooperatively. The formed CNS clusters perturb the molecule structure of the PSM and thus affect its biofunction on respiration. Our simulations show that during the expiration process, CNSs form clusters that perturb the mechanical properties of the PSM in a manner depending on the CNS size. With deep inspiration, a high concentration of large CNSs may induce PSM rupture and thus have a potential impact on its biophysical properties. PMID:27353041

  5. Optimization of lipid extraction from Salvinia molesta for biodiesel production using RSM and its FAME analysis.

    PubMed

    Mubarak, M; Shaija, A; Suchithra, T V

    2016-07-01

    The higher areal productivity and lipid content of microalgae and aquatic weed makes them the best alternative feedstocks for biodiesel production. Hence, an efficient and economic method of extracting lipid or oil from aquatic weed, Salvinia molesta is an important step towards biodiesel production. Since Salvinia molesta is an unexplored feedstock, its total lipid content was first measured as 16 % using Bligh and Dyer's method which was quite sufficient for further investigation. For extracting more amount of lipid from Salvinia molesta, methanol: chloroform in the ratio 2:1 v/v was identified as the most suitable solvent system using Soxhlet apparatus. Based on the literature and the preliminary experimentations, parameters such as solvent to biomass ratio, temperature, and time were identified as significant for lipid extraction. These parameters were then optimized using response surface methodology with central composite design, where experiments were performed using twenty combinations of these extraction parameters with Minitab-17 software. A lipid yield of 92.4 % from Salvinia molesta was obtained with Soxhlet apparatus using methanol and chloroform (2:1 v/v) as solvent system, at the optimized conditions of temperature (85 °C), solvent to biomass ratio (20:1), and time (137 min), whereas a predicted lipid yield of 93.5 % with regression model. Fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) analysis of S. molesta lipid using gas chromatograph mass spectroscopy (GCMS) with flame ionization detector showed that fatty acids such as C16:0, C16:1, C18:1, and C18:2 contributed more than 9 % weight of total fatty acids. FAME consisted of 56.32, 28.08, and 15.59 % weight of monounsaturated, saturated, and polyunsaturated fatty acids, respectively. Higher cetane number and superior oxidation stability of S. molesta FAME could be attributed to its higher monounsaturated content and lower polyunsaturated content as compared to biodiesels produced from C. vulgaris, Sunflower

  6. Understanding low-lipid algae hydrothermal liquefaction characteristics and pathways through hydrothermal liquefaction of algal major components: crude polysaccharides, crude proteins and their binary mixtures.

    PubMed

    Yang, Wenchao; Li, Xianguo; Li, Zihui; Tong, Chenhong; Feng, Lijuan

    2015-11-01

    Crude polysaccharides and proteins extracted from algae were chosen as model materials to investigate the hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL) characteristics and pathways of low-lipid algae. Liquefaction behavior of the two individuals and their binary mixtures with different mass ratios were evaluated under different temperatures. Formation pathways of bio-oil from crude polysaccharides/proteins were proposed. Results showed that polysaccharides had a small contribution to bio-oil (<5%) and approximately 60% distributed in aqueous phase, while proteins played a crucial role on bio-oil formation (maximum 16.29%). Bio-oil from polysaccharides mainly contained cyclic ketones and phenols and from proteins composed of pyrazines, pyrroles and amines. Interaction between polysaccharides and proteins forming polycyclic nitrogenous compounds had a negative effect on bio-oil yield at 220 and 260°C. However, their further decomposition caused increase of bio-oil yield at 300°C. Mixture liquefaction obtained the highest higher heating value (HHV) of bio-oil and energy recovery than polysaccharides/proteins liquefaction at 300°C. PMID:26231129

  7. Olive Leaf Extract Improves the Atherogenic Lipid Profile in Rats Fed a High Cholesterol Diet.

    PubMed

    Olmez, Ercument; Vural, Kamil; Gok, Sule; Ozturk, Zeynep; Kayalar, Husniye; Ayhan, Semin; Var, Ahmet

    2015-10-01

    Coronary heart disease because of atherosclerosis is still the most common cause of mortality. Elevated levels of low-density lipoprotein and total cholesterol are major risk factors for atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of the olive leaf extract on serum lipid profile, early changes of atherosclerosis and endothelium-dependent relaxations in cholesterol-fed rats. For this purpose, rats were fed by 2% cholesterol-enriched or standard chow for 8 weeks. Some rats in each group were also fed orally by olive leaf extract at doses of 50 or 100 mg/kg/day. Atorvastatin at dose of 20 mg/kg of body weight daily was also given as positive control. After 8 weeks, lipid profiles of rat serums were analyzed. Antioxidant enzyme activities (superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase) and degree of lipid peroxidation (malondialdehyde levels) were also measured in the hearts isolated from rats. In addition, expression of adhesion molecules and endothelium-dependent relaxations of isolated thoracic aortas of rats were evaluated. Total cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol levels were found to be increased in cholesterol-fed rats, and both doses of olive leaf extract and atorvastatin significantly decreased those levels. In conclusion, because the olive leaf extract attenuates the increased cholesterol levels, it may have beneficial effects on atherosclerosis. PMID:26328503

  8. Stable, biocompatible lipid vesicle generation by solvent extraction-based droplet microfluidics

    PubMed Central

    Teh, Shia-Yen; Khnouf, Ruba; Fan, Hugh; Lee, Abraham P.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we present a microfluidic platform for the continuous generation of stable, monodisperse lipid vesicles 20–110 μm in diameter. Our approach utilizes a microfluidic flow-focusing droplet generation design to control the vesicle size by altering the system’s fluid flow rates to generate vesicles with narrow size distribution. Double emulsions are first produced in consecutive flow-focusing channel geometries and lipid membranes are then formed through a controlled solvent extraction process. Since no strong solvents are used in the process, our method allows for the safe encapsulation and manipulation of an assortment of biological entities, including cells, proteins, and nucleic acids. The vesicles generated by this method are stable and have a shelf life of at least 3 months. Here, we demonstrate the cell-free in vitro synthesis of proteins within lipid vesicles as an initial step towards the development of an artificial cell. PMID:22685501

  9. Algal production in wastewater treatment high rate algal ponds for potential biofuel use.

    PubMed

    Park, J B K; Craggs, R J

    2011-01-01

    Wastewater treatment High Rate Algal Ponds with CO2 addition could provide cost-effective and efficient tertiary-level wastewater treatment with the co-benefit of algal biomass production for biofuel use. Wastewater grown algal biomass can have a lipid content of 10-30% of dry weight, which could be used to make biodiesel. This research investigated algal biomass and total lipid production by two pilot-scale wastewater treatment HRAP(S) (4-day HRT) with and without CO2 addition under New Zealand mid summer (Nov-Jan) conditions. The influence of CO2 addition on wastewater treatment performance was also determined. CO2 was added to one of the HRAPs (the HRAP(E)) by maintaining the maximum pH of the pond below 8. Measurements of HRAP influent and effluent water qualities, total lipid content and algal biomass production were made twice a week over the experimental period. Both HRAP(S) achieved high levels of organic compound and nutrient removal, with >85% SBOD5, >92 NH4(+)-N and >70% DRP removal. Algal/bacterial biomass production in the HRAP(E) (15.2 g/m2/d) was improved by CO2 addition by approximately 30% compared with that of the control HRAP(W) (10.6 g/m2/d). Total lipid content of the biomass grown on both HRAP(S) was slightly reduced (from 25% to 20%) with CO2 addition and the maximum total lipid content of approximately 40% was observed in the HRAP(W) when low NH4(+)-N concentration (<0.5 mg/L) and high maximum pH (>10.0) occurred. Total lipid content of the biomass increased by approximately 15% under nitrogen limiting conditions, however, overall algal/bacterial biomass production was reduced by half during the period of nitrogen limitation. More research is required to maintain algal production under near nitrogen-limiting conditions. PMID:21977667

  10. The Potent In Vitro Skin Permeation of Archaeosome Made from Lipids Extracted of Sulfolobus acidocaldarius

    PubMed Central

    Moghimipour, Eskandar; Kargar, Mohammad; Ramezani, Zahra; Handali, Somayeh

    2013-01-01

    Archaeosomes are a new generation of liposomes that exhibit higher stabilities under different conditions, such as high temperatures, alkaline or acidic pH, and presence of bile salts in comparison with liposomes, and can be used in biotechnology including drug, gene, and vaccine delivery. The objective of this study was to prepare archaeosomes using lipid extracted from Sulfolobus acidocaldarius and evaluate their physicochemical properties. The lipids were extracted from S. acidocaldarius and assayed by High Performance Thin-Layer Chromatography (HPTLC). Archaeosomes were prepared using film method and methylene blue was used as drug model. They were characterized for their vesicle size and Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) was used to investigate changes in their thermal behavior. The released amount of methylene blue was determined using a dialysis membrane and rat skin. HPTLC analysis of the extracted lipids showed that glycerol ether may be the major lipid with more than 78 percent probability. Results of particle size determination showed a mean size of 158.33 nm and the results of DSC indicated the possible interaction of methylene blue with lipids during the preparation of archaeosome. The addition of cholesterol significantly improved the encapsulation of methylene blue in the archaeosome so that the encapsulation efficiency was 61.66 ± 2.88%. The result of in vitro skin permeation showed that methylene blue could pass through skin model according to Peppas model and there was about 41.66% release after 6 h, whereas no release was observed through dialysis membrane. According to the results of the study, it is concluded that archaeosome may be successfully used as drug delivery system. PMID:24453698

  11. Effects of lipid extraction on stable isotope ratios in avian egg yolk: Is arithmetic correction a reliable alternative?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Oppel, S.; Federer, R.N.; O'Brien, D. M.; Powell, A.N.; Hollmén, Tuula E.

    2010-01-01

    Many studies of nutrient allocation to egg production in birds use stable isotope ratios of egg yolk to identify the origin of nutrients. Dry egg yolk contains >50% lipids, which are known to be depleted in 13C. Currently, researchers remove lipids from egg yolk using a chemical lipid-extraction procedure before analyzing the isotopic composition of protein in egg yolk. We examined the effects of chemical lipid extraction on ??13C, ??15N, and ??34S of avian egg yolk and explored the utility of an arithmetic lipid correction model to adjust whole yolk ??13C for lipid content. We analyzed the dried yolk of 15 captive Spectacled Eider (Somateriafischeri) and 20 wild King Eider (S. spectabilis) eggs, both as whole yolk and after lipid extraction with a 2:1 chloroform:methanol solution. We found that chemical lipid extraction leads to an increase of (mean ?? SD) 3.3 ?? 1.1% in ??13C, 1.1 ?? 0.5% in ??15N, and 2.3 ?? 1.1% in ??34S. Arithmetic lipid correction provided accurate values for lipid-extracted S13C in captive Spectacled Eiders fed on a homogeneous high-quality diet. However, arithmetic lipid correction was unreliable for wild King Eiders, likely because of their differential incorporation of macronutrients from isotopically distinct environments during migration. For that reason, we caution against applying arithmetic lipid correction to the whole yolk ??13C of migratory birds, because these methods assume that all egg macronutrients are derived from the same dietary sources. ?? 2010 The American Ornithologists' Union.

  12. Nutrient recycling of lipid-extracted waste in the production of an oleaginous thraustochytrid.

    PubMed

    Lowrey, Joshua; Brooks, Marianne S; Armenta, Roberto E

    2016-05-01

    Improving the economics of microalgae production for the recovery of microbial oil requires a comprehensive exploration of the measures needed to improve productivity as well as to reduce the overall processing costs. One avenue for cost reduction involves recycling the effluent waste water remaining after lipid extraction. This study investigates the feasibility of recycling those wastes for growing thraustochytrid biomass, a heterotrophic microalgae, where wastes were generated from the enzymatic extraction of the lipids from the cell biomass. It was demonstrated that secondary cultures of the tested thraustochytrid grown in the recycled wastes performed favorably in terms of cell and oil production (20.48 g cells L(-1) and 40.9 % (w/w) lipid) compared to the control (13.63 g cells L(-1) and 56.8 % (w/w) lipid). Further, the significant uptake of solubilized cell material (in the form of amino acids) demonstrated that the recycled waste has the potential for offsetting the need for fresh medium components. These results indicate that the implementation of a nutrient recycling strategy for industrial microalgae production could be possible, with significant added benefits such as conserving water resources, improving production efficiency, and decreasing material inputs. PMID:27000841

  13. Potato peel extract-a natural antioxidant for retarding lipid peroxidation in radiation processed lamb meat.

    PubMed

    Kanatt, Sweetie R; Chander, Ramesh; Radhakrishna, P; Sharma, Arun

    2005-03-01

    The effective utilization of potato peel, a waste generated in large quantities by the food industry, as an antioxidant was investigated. Potato peel extract (PPE) exhibited high phenolic content (70.82 mg of catechin equivalent/100 g), chlorogenic acid (27.56 mg/100 g of sample) being the major component. The yield of total phenolics and chlorogenic acid increased by 26 and 60%, respectively, when the extract was prepared from gamma irradiated (150 Gy) potatoes. PPE showed excellent antioxidant activity as determined by beta-carotene bleaching and radical scavenging activity of 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH). The suitability of PPE for controlling lipid oxidation of radiation processed lamb meat was also investigated. PPE (0.04%) when added to meat before radiation processing was found to retard lipid peroxidation of irradiated meat as measured by TBA number and carbonyl content. The antioxidant activity of PPE was found to be comparable to butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT). PMID:15740031

  14. Effects of Pu-erh tea aqueous extract (PTAE) on blood lipid metabolism enzymes.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Liang; Yan, Jingna; Luo, Liyong; Zhang, Dongying

    2015-06-01

    Disorders of blood lipid metabolism are the primary risk factors for many diseases. Recently, the effect of Pu-erh tea on blood lipid metabolism has received increasing attention. However, the mechanism underlying its ability to regulate blood lipid metabolism is unclear. We set out to study this through assessing the effects of Pu-erh tea aqueous extract (PTAE) on the central enzymes of blood lipid metabolism, including lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2 (Lp-PLA2), lecithin: cholesterol acyltransferase (LCAT), 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase (HMGR) and pancreatic lipase (PL). We find that the Lp-PLA2, HMRG and PL activities are inhibited by PTAE in a dose-dependent manner and that the LCAT activity tends to increase with increasing PTAE concentrations. Lineweaver-Burk plot analyses reveal that PTAE acts as a competitive inhibitor for HMGR and PL and as a noncompetitive inhibitor for Lp-PLA2. Moreover, we determine that its active ingredients include catechins, gallic acid, caffeine, free amino acids, and soluble sugar. However, the effect of each ingredient and whether any of them have synergistic effects are still unknown. The results suggest that Pu-erh tea has a potent ability to regulate blood lipid metabolism and knowledge of the mechanisms provides insights into its potential therapeutic application as an alternative hypolipidemic drug. PMID:26018873

  15. Biophysical mechanism of the protective effect of blue honeysuckle (Lonicera caerulea L. var. kamtschatica Sevast.) polyphenols extracts against lipid peroxidation of erythrocyte and lipid membranes.

    PubMed

    Bonarska-Kujawa, D; Pruchnik, H; Cyboran, S; Żyłka, R; Oszmiański, J; Kleszczyńska, H

    2014-07-01

    The aim of the present research was to determine the effect of blue honeysuckle fruit and leaf extracts components on the physical properties of erythrocyte and lipid membranes and assess their antioxidant properties. The HPLC analysis showed that the extracts are rich in polyphenol anthocyanins in fruits and flavonoids in leaves. The results indicate that both extracts have antioxidant activity and protect the red blood cell membrane against oxidation induced by UVC irradiation and AAPH. The extracts do not induce hemolysis and slightly increase osmotic resistance of erythrocytes. The research showed that extracts components are incorporated mainly in the external part of the erythrocyte membrane, inducing the formation of echinocytes. The values of generalized polarization and fluorescence anisotropy indicate that the extracts polyphenols alter the packing arrangement of the hydrophilic part of the erythrocyte and lipid membranes, without changing the fluidity of the hydrophobic part. The DSC results also show that the extract components do not change the main phase transition temperature of DPPC membrane. Studies of electric parameters of membranes modified by the extracts showed that they slightly stabilize lipid membranes and do not reduce their specific resistance or capacity. Examination of IR spectra indicates small changes in the degree of hydration in the hydrophilic region of liposomes under the action of the extracts. The location of polyphenolic compounds in the hydrophilic part of the membrane seems to constitute a protective shield of the cell against other substances, the reactive forms of oxygen in particular. PMID:24862869

  16. Lipid peroxidation and cyclooxygenase enzyme inhibitory activities of acidic aqueous extracts of some dietary supplements.

    PubMed

    Raman, Priyadarshini; Dewitt, David L; Nair, Muraleedharan G

    2008-02-01

    The botanical supplement market is growing at a fast pace with more and more people resorting to them for maintaining good health. Echinacea, garlic, ginkgo, ginseng, Siberian ginseng, grape seed extract, kava kava, saw palmetto and St John's wort are some of the popular supplements used for a variety of health benefits. These supplements are associated with various product claims, which suggest that they possess cyclooxygenase (COX) enzyme and lipid s inhibitory activities. COX enzymes are found to be at elevated levels in inflamed and cancerous cells. To test some of the product claims, selected supplements were analysed for their ability to inhibit COX-1 and -2 enzymes and lipid peroxidation in vitro. The supplements were extracted with acidified water (pH 2) at 37 degrees C to simulate the gastric environment. The supplements tested demonstrated varying degrees of COX enzyme inhibition (5-85% for COX-1 and 13-28% for COX-2). Interestingly, extracts of garlic (Meijer), ginkgo (Solaray), ginseng (Nature's Way), Siberian ginseng (GNC, Nutrilite, Solaray, Natrol), kava kava (GNC, Sundown, Solaray) and St John's wort (Nutrilite) selectively inhibited COX-2 enzyme. These supplements also inhibited lipid peroxidation in vitro (5-99%). The results indicated that the consumption of these botanical supplements studied possess health benefits. PMID:17726737

  17. Antimutagenicity and antiproliferative studies of lipidic extracts from white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei).

    PubMed

    Wilson-Sanchez, Griselda; Moreno-Félix, Carolina; Velazquez, Carlos; Plascencia-Jatomea, Maribel; Acosta, Anita; Machi-Lara, Lorena; Aldana-Madrid, María-Lourdes; Ezquerra-Brauer, Josafat-Marina; Robles-Zepeda, Ramón; Burgos-Hernandez, Armando

    2010-01-01

    An organic extract from fresh shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) was studied for antimutagenic and antiproliferative properties using Salmonella typhimurium tester strains TA98 and TA100 with metabolic activation (S9) and a cancer cell line (B-cell lymphoma), respectively. Shrimp extract was sequentially fractionated by thin layer chromatography (TLC) and each fraction was tested for antimutagenic and antiproliferative activities. Crude organic extracts obtained from shrimp reduced the number of revertants caused by aflatoxina B(1), showing a dose-response type of relationship. Sequential TLC fractionation of the active extracts produced several antimutagenic and/or antiproliferative fractions. These results suggested that the lipid fraction of the tested species contained compounds with chemoprotective properties that reduce the mutagenicity of AFB(1) and proliferation of a cancer cell line. PMID:21139845

  18. Antimutagenicity and Antiproliferative Studies of Lipidic Extracts from White Shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei)

    PubMed Central

    Wilson-Sanchez, Griselda; Moreno-Félix, Carolina; Velazquez, Carlos; Plascencia-Jatomea, Maribel; Acosta, Anita; Machi-Lara, Lorena; Aldana-Madrid, María-Lourdes; Ezquerra-Brauer, Josafat-Marina; Robles-Zepeda, Ramón; Burgos-Hernandez, Armando

    2010-01-01

    An organic extract from fresh shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) was studied for antimutagenic and antiproliferative properties using Salmonella typhimurium tester strains TA98 and TA100 with metabolic activation (S9) and a cancer cell line (B-cell lymphoma), respectively. Shrimp extract was sequentially fractionated by thin layer chromatography (TLC) and each fraction was tested for antimutagenic and antiproliferative activities. Crude organic extracts obtained from shrimp reduced the number of revertants caused by aflatoxina B1, showing a dose-response type of relationship. Sequential TLC fractionation of the active extracts produced several antimutagenic and/or antiproliferative fractions. These results suggested that the lipid fraction of the tested species contained compounds with chemoprotective properties that reduce the mutagenicity of AFB1 and proliferation of a cancer cell line. PMID:21139845

  19. A solvent-free approach to extract the lipid fraction from sewer grease for biodiesel production.

    PubMed

    Tu, Qingshi; Wang, Jingjing; Lu, Mingming; Brougham, Andrew; Lu, Ting

    2016-08-01

    Fats, oils and greases (FOG) are the number one cause of sewer pipe blockage and have been mostly disposed of as a waste until recently. This study investigated a low cost and environmentally friendly approach to extract the lipid fraction (fatty acids and glycerides for biodiesel production) from sewer grease (SG), i.e., FOGs obtained from wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). The lipid fraction of the sewer grease was primarily in the form of free fatty acid (FFA), at 20.7wt%. An innovative solvent-free extraction approach was developed using waste cooking oil (WCO) to overcome the challenges of emulsion, impurities and high moisture content of the sewer grease. A 95% extraction yield of sewer grease was achieved under the optimum operating condition of 3.2:1 WCO-SG ratio (wt/wt), 70°C and 240min. In addition, the reusability of the WCO was also investigated. WCO can be used two to three times for sewer grease extraction with more than 90% extraction efficiency. PMID:27256783

  20. Combined Extraction Processes of Lipid from Chlorella vulgaris Microalgae: Microwave Prior to Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Extraction

    PubMed Central

    Dejoye, Céline; Vian, Maryline Abert; Lumia, Guy; Bouscarle, Christian; Charton, Frederic; Chemat, Farid

    2011-01-01

    Extraction yields and fatty acid profiles from freeze-dried Chlorella vulgaris by microwave pretreatment followed by supercritical carbon dioxide (MW-SCCO2) extraction were compared with those obtained by supercritical carbon dioxide extraction alone (SCCO2). Work performed with pressure range of 20–28 Mpa and temperature interval of 40–70 °C, gave the highest extraction yield (w/w dry weight) at 28 MPa/40 °C. MW-SCCO2 allowed to obtain the highest extraction yield (4.73%) compared to SCCO2 extraction alone (1.81%). Qualitative and quantitative analyses of microalgae oil showed that palmitic, oleic, linoleic and α-linolenic acid were the most abundant identified fatty acids. Oils obtained by MW-SCCO2 extraction had the highest concentrations of fatty acids compared to SCCO2 extraction without pretreatment. Native form, and microwave pretreated and untreated microalgae were observed by scanning electronic microscopy (SEM). SEM micrographs of pretreated microalgae present tearing wall agglomerates. After SCCO2, microwave pretreated microalgae presented several micro cracks; while native form microalgae wall was slightly damaged. PMID:22272135

  1. The BUME method: a new rapid and simple chloroform-free method for total lipid extraction of animal tissue.

    PubMed

    Löfgren, Lars; Forsberg, Gun-Britt; Ståhlman, Marcus

    2016-01-01

    In this study we present a simple and rapid method for tissue lipid extraction. Snap-frozen tissue (15-150 mg) is collected in 2 ml homogenization tubes. 500 μl BUME mixture (butanol:methanol [3:1]) is added and automated homogenization of up to 24 frozen samples at a time in less than 60 seconds is performed, followed by a 5-minute single-phase extraction. After the addition of 500 μl heptane:ethyl acetate (3:1) and 500 μl 1% acetic acid a 5-minute two-phase extraction is performed. Lipids are recovered from the upper phase by automated liquid handling using a standard 96-tip robot. A second two-phase extraction is performed using 500 μl heptane:ethyl acetate (3:1). Validation of the method showed that the extraction recoveries for the investigated lipids, which included sterols, glycerolipids, glycerophospholipids and sphingolipids were similar or better than for the Folch method. We also applied the method for lipid extraction of liver and heart and compared the lipid species profiles with profiles generated after Folch and MTBE extraction. We conclude that the BUME method is superior to the Folch method in terms of simplicity, through-put, automation, solvent consumption, economy, health and environment yet delivering lipid recoveries fully comparable to or better than the Folch method. PMID:27282822

  2. The BUME method: a new rapid and simple chloroform-free method for total lipid extraction of animal tissue

    PubMed Central

    Löfgren, Lars; Forsberg, Gun-Britt; Ståhlman, Marcus

    2016-01-01

    In this study we present a simple and rapid method for tissue lipid extraction. Snap-frozen tissue (15–150 mg) is collected in 2 ml homogenization tubes. 500 μl BUME mixture (butanol:methanol [3:1]) is added and automated homogenization of up to 24 frozen samples at a time in less than 60 seconds is performed, followed by a 5-minute single-phase extraction. After the addition of 500 μl heptane:ethyl acetate (3:1) and 500 μl 1% acetic acid a 5-minute two-phase extraction is performed. Lipids are recovered from the upper phase by automated liquid handling using a standard 96-tip robot. A second two-phase extraction is performed using 500 μl heptane:ethyl acetate (3:1). Validation of the method showed that the extraction recoveries for the investigated lipids, which included sterols, glycerolipids, glycerophospholipids and sphingolipids were similar or better than for the Folch method. We also applied the method for lipid extraction of liver and heart and compared the lipid species profiles with profiles generated after Folch and MTBE extraction. We conclude that the BUME method is superior to the Folch method in terms of simplicity, through-put, automation, solvent consumption, economy, health and environment yet delivering lipid recoveries fully comparable to or better than the Folch method. PMID:27282822

  3. The BUME method: a new rapid and simple chloroform-free method for total lipid extraction of animal tissue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Löfgren, Lars; Forsberg, Gun-Britt; Ståhlman, Marcus

    2016-06-01

    In this study we present a simple and rapid method for tissue lipid extraction. Snap-frozen tissue (15–150 mg) is collected in 2 ml homogenization tubes. 500 μl BUME mixture (butanol:methanol [3:1]) is added and automated homogenization of up to 24 frozen samples at a time in less than 60 seconds is performed, followed by a 5-minute single-phase extraction. After the addition of 500 μl heptane:ethyl acetate (3:1) and 500 μl 1% acetic acid a 5-minute two-phase extraction is performed. Lipids are recovered from the upper phase by automated liquid handling using a standard 96-tip robot. A second two-phase extraction is performed using 500 μl heptane:ethyl acetate (3:1). Validation of the method showed that the extraction recoveries for the investigated lipids, which included sterols, glycerolipids, glycerophospholipids and sphingolipids were similar or better than for the Folch method. We also applied the method for lipid extraction of liver and heart and compared the lipid species profiles with profiles generated after Folch and MTBE extraction. We conclude that the BUME method is superior to the Folch method in terms of simplicity, through-put, automation, solvent consumption, economy, health and environment yet delivering lipid recoveries fully comparable to or better than the Folch method.

  4. Biochemical study on the protective potential of Nardostachys jatamansi extract on lipid profile and lipid metabolizing enzymes in doxorubicin intoxicated rats.

    PubMed

    Subashini, R; Ragavendran, B; Gnanapragasam, A; Yogeeta, S Kumar; Devaki, T

    2007-05-01

    Nardostachys jatamansi is a medicinally important herb of Indian origin used for centuries in Ayurvedic and Unani systems of medicine for the treatment of various ailments. The aim of the present work is to evaluate the effect of ethanolic extract of Nardostachys jatamansi rhizomes on doxorubicin induced myocardial injury with respect to lipid metabolism in serum and heart of Wistar albino rats. Altered lipid metabolism alters the cardiac function which is mainly due to changes in the property of the cardiac cell membrane. Doxorubicin exhibits cardiotoxicity by inhibition of fatty acid oxidation in the heart. The rats treated with a single dose of doxorubicin (15 mg/kg) intraperitoneally showed an increase in serum and cardiac lipids (cholesterol, triglycerides, free fatty acids and phospholipids), along with a significant rise in serum low density lipoproteins (LDL), very low density lipoproteins (VLDL) and drop in high density lipoproteins (HDL) levels, resulting in alteration of serum and cardiac lipid metabolizing enzymes. Pretreatment with a extract of Nardostachys jatamansi (500 mg/kg) orally for seven days to doxorubicin induced rats showed a significant prevention in the lipid status with the activities of the lipid metabolizing enzymes. Histopathological observations were also in correlation with the biochemical parameters. These findings suggest that the protective and hypolipidemic effect of Nardostachys jatamansi against doxorubicin induced myocardial injury in rats could possibly be mediated through its anti lipid peroxidative properties. PMID:17557749

  5. Pharmacological screening of Hypericum androsaemum extracts for antioxidant, anti-lipid peroxidation, antiglycation and cytotoxicity activity.

    PubMed

    Saddiqe, Zeb; Maimoona, Alya; Abbas, Ghulam; Naeem, Ismat; Shahzad, Muhammad

    2016-03-01

    Oxidative stress and glycation processes have a combined effect on diabetes related complications. Crude plant extracts and plant derived compounds possessing both antiglycation and antioxidant activities have a high therapeutic potential for treating these complications. Antioxidant, antiglycation, anti-lipid per oxidation and cytotoxic activities of crude methanol extract and solvent fractions of Hypericum androsaemum L. (Hypericaceae) were evaluated and correlated with total content of phenolics and flavonoids. Significant radical scavenging activity was observed for the methanol extract against 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical used as a basis for antioxidant activity with IC50 value of 92.70±2.85 μg mL(-1) (96.20±2.34% inhibition at 500 μg mL(-1)). In case of anion scavenging activity the results were not very significant (33.20±1.22% inhibition at 500 μg mL(-1)). Anti-lipid per oxidation activity was highest for n-hexane fraction (67.83±1.33% inhibition at 500 μg mL(-1)) while the ethyl acetate fraction had the highest antiglycation activity (62.77±2.54% inhibition at 500 μg mL(-1)). Statistically significant correlation was determined for antioxidant and antiglycation activity and phenolic and flavonoid contents. In cytotoxicity assay all the extracts had IC50 values >30 μg mL(-1) as compared to the standard cycloheximide (IC50 value 0.084±0.1 μg mL(-1)). The polar extracts of H. androsaemum can be a good source of non-toxic compounds with antioxidant, anti-lipid per oxidation and antiglycation activities. PMID:27087068

  6. Natural lipid extracts and biomembrane-mimicking lipid compositions are disposed to form nonlamellar phases, and they release DNA from lipoplexes most efficiently

    SciTech Connect

    Koynova, Rumiana; MacDonald, Robert C.

    2010-01-18

    A viewpoint now emerging is that a critical factor in lipid-mediated transfection (lipofection) is the structural evolution of lipoplexes upon interacting and mixing with cellular lipids. Here we report our finding that lipid mixtures mimicking biomembrane lipid compositions are superior to pure anionic liposomes in their ability to release DNA from lipoplexes (cationic lipid/DNA complexes), even though they have a much lower negative charge density (and thus lower capacity to neutralize the positive charge of the lipoplex lipids). Flow fluorometry revealed that the portion of DNA released after a 30-min incubation of the cationic O-ethylphosphatidylcholine lipoplexes with the anionic phosphatidylserine or phosphatidylglycerol was 19% and 37%, respectively, whereas a mixture mimicking biomembranes (MM: phosphatidylcholine/phosphatidylethanolamine/phosphatidylserine /cholesterol 45:20:20:15 w/w) and polar lipid extract from bovine liver released 62% and 74%, respectively, of the DNA content. A possible reason for this superior power in releasing DNA by the natural lipid mixtures was suggested by structural experiments: while pure anionic lipids typically form lamellae, the natural lipid mixtures exhibited a surprising predilection to form nonlamellar phases. Thus, the MM mixture arranged into lamellar arrays at physiological temperature, but began to convert to the hexagonal phase at a slightly higher temperature, {approx} 40-45 C. A propensity to form nonlamellar phases (hexagonal, cubic, micellar) at close to physiological temperatures was also found with the lipid extracts from natural tissues (from bovine liver, brain, and heart). This result reveals that electrostatic interactions are only one of the factors involved in lipid-mediated DNA delivery. The tendency of lipid bilayers to form nonlamellar phases has been described in terms of bilayer 'frustration' which imposes a nonzero intrinsic curvature of the two opposing monolayers. Because the stored curvature

  7. Biological Activity of Japanese Quince Extract and Its Interactions with Lipids, Erythrocyte Membrane, and Human Albumin.

    PubMed

    Strugała, Paulina; Cyboran-Mikołajczyk, Sylwia; Dudra, Anna; Mizgier, Paulina; Kucharska, Alicja Z; Olejniczak, Teresa; Gabrielska, Janina

    2016-06-01

    The aim of the study was to determine in vitro biological activity of fruit ethanol extract from Chaenomeles speciosa (Sweet) Nakai (Japanese quince, JQ) and its important constituents (-)-epicatechin (EC) and chlorogenic acid (CA). The study also investigated the structural changes in phosphatidylcholine (PC) liposomes, dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine liposomes, and erythrocyte membranes (RBC) induced by the extract. It was found that the extract effectively inhibits oxidation of RBC, induced by 2,2'-azobis (2-amidinopropane) dihydrochloride (AAPH), and PC liposomes, induced by UVB radiation and AAPH. Furthermore, JQ extract to a significant degree inhibited the activity of the enzymes COX-1 and COX-2, involved in inflammatory reactions. The extract has more than 2 times greater activity in relation to COX-2 than COX-1 (selectivity ratio 0.48). JQ extract stimulated growth of the beneficial intestinal bacteria Lactobacillus casei and Lactobacillus plantarum. In the fluorimetric method by means of the probes Laurdan, DPH and TMA-DPH, and (1)H-NMR, we examined the structural changes induced by JQ and its EC and CA components. The results show that JQ and its components induce a considerable increase of the packing order of the polar heads of lipids with a slight decrease in mobility of the acyl chains. Lipid membrane rigidification could hinder the diffusion of free radicals, resulting in inhibition of oxidative damage induced by physicochemical agents. JQ extract has the ability to quench the intrinsic fluorescence of human serum albumin through static quenching. This report thus could be of huge significance in the food industry, pharmacology, and clinical medicine. PMID:26861057

  8. Energy requirements for wet solvent extraction of lipids from microalgal biomass.

    PubMed

    Martin, Gregory J O

    2016-04-01

    Biofuel production from microalgae requires energy efficient processes for extracting and converting triacylglyceride lipids to fuel, compatible with coproduction of protein feeds and nutraceuticals. Wet solvent extraction involves mechanical cell rupture, lipid extraction via solvent contacting, physical phase separation, thermal solvent recovery, and transesterification. A detailed analysis of the effect of key process parameters on the parasitic energy demand of this process was performed. On a well-to-pump basis, between 16% and 320% of the resultant biodiesel energy was consumed depending solely on the process parameters. Highly positive energy balances can be achieved, but only if a correctly designed process is used. This requires processing concentrated biomass (ca 25%w/w) with a high triacylglyceride content (ca 30%w/w), and an efficient extraction process employing a non-polar solvent, low solvent-to-paste ratio, and efficient energy recovery. These requirements preclude many laboratory scale processes and polar co-solvents as viable options for large-scale biofuel production. PMID:26802186

  9. Retardation of lipid oxidation using gelatin film incorporated with longan seed extract compared with BHT.

    PubMed

    Sai-Ut, Samart; Benjakul, Soottawat; Rawdkuen, Saroat

    2015-09-01

    The aim of the present work was to apply the gelatin films with different levels of longan seed extract (LS) or butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) on retardation of lipid oxidation in soybean oil. The films incorporated with various concentrations of aqueous LS (0, 50, 100, 300, and 500 ppm) or BHT (50, and 100 ppm) were developed. The films had transmittance percentages of 60-80 % at 570 nm and showed good light barrier properties when the concentration of LS or BHT increased. About 97 % protein solubility and 41 to 54 % water solubility were obtained for the developed films. Antioxidative activity of gelatin films incorporated with LS increased markedly with increasing storage time as indicated by the increase in DPPH radical scavenging activity (41-50 %) (P < 0.05). Films incorporated with LS or BHT showed the preventive effect on lipid oxidation of soybean oil during 30 days of storage. At the level of 500 ppm, LS provided the highest efficacy for lipid oxidation retardation as evidenced by lower conjugated diene (CD) values (P > 0.05). According to these findings, gelatin film incorporated with longan seed extract or BHT could be used as a tool to prolong the shelf-life of oily foods. PMID:26344999

  10. Recycling of lipid-extracted hydrolysate as nitrogen supplementation for production of thraustochytrid biomass.

    PubMed

    Lowrey, Joshua; Armenta, Roberto E; Brooks, Marianne S

    2016-08-01

    Efficient resource usage is important for cost-effective microalgae production, where the incorporation of waste streams and recycled water into the process has great potential. This study builds upon emerging research on nutrient recycling in thraustochytrid production, where waste streams are recovered after lipid extraction and recycled into future cultures. This research investigates the nitrogen flux of recycled hydrolysate derived from enzymatic lipid extraction of thraustochytrid biomass. Results indicated the proteinaceous content of the recycled hydrolysate can offset the need to supply fresh nitrogen in a secondary culture, without detrimental impact upon the produced biomass. The treatment employing the recycled hydrolysate with no nitrogen addition accumulated 14.86 g L(-1) of biomass in 141 h with 43.3 % (w/w) lipid content compared to the control which had 9.26 g L(-1) and 46.9 % (w/w), respectively. This improved nutrient efficiency and wastewater recovery represents considerable potential for enhanced resource efficiency of commercial thraustochytrid production. PMID:27155854

  11. Effect of pomegranate peel extract on lipid and protein oxidation in beef meatballs during refrigerated storage.

    PubMed

    Turgut, Sebahattin Serhat; Soyer, Ayla; Işıkçı, Fatma

    2016-06-01

    Antioxidant effect of pomegranate peel extract (PE) to retard lipid and protein oxidation was investigated in meatballs during refrigerated storage at 4±1°C. Concentrated lyophilised water extract of pomegranate peel was incorporated into freshly minced beef meat at 0.5% and 1% concentrations and compared with 0.01% butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) as a reference and control (without any antioxidant). PE showed high phenolic content and antioxidant activity. In PE added samples, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) value, peroxide formation, loss of sulfhydryl groups and formation of protein carbonyls were lower than control (P<0.01) after 8 days of storage. Sensory evaluation with respect to colour and rancid odour revealed that PE incorporation in meatballs prolonged the refrigerated storage up to 8 days. Addition of both 0.5 and 1% PE in meatballs reduced lipid and protein oxidation and improved sensory scores. These results indicated that PE was effective on retarding lipid and protein oxidation. PMID:26878610

  12. Effects of potato and lotus leaf extract intake on body composition and blood lipid concentration

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Keuneil; Kim, Jongkyu; Lee, Namju; Park, Sok; Cho, Hyunchul; Chun, Yoonseok

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of potato and lotus leaf extract intake on body composition, abdominal fat, and blood lipid concentration in female university students. [Methods] A total of 19 female university students participated in this 8-week study, and they were randomly assigned into 2 groups; potato and lotus leaf extract (skinny-line) administered group (SKG, n =9) and placebo group (PG, n = 10). The main results of the present study are presented below. [Results] 1) Body mass index, and percent body fat and abdominal fat in students of the SKG showed a decreasing tendency without significant interaction, 2) total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG), and low density lipoprotein (LDL-C) in students of the SKG showed an averagely decreasing tendency and there was a significant interaction of TC only, 3) high density lipoprotein (HDL-C) in students of the SKG showed an increasing tendency without significant interaction, and 4) Z-score of fatness testing interaction in group × repetition did not show a significant interaction; however, there was a significant interaction of TC in group × repetition. Based on these results, 8-week intake of potato and lotus leaf extract had a positive effect of lowering TC. On the other hand, it had no significant effect on other types of lipids and percent body fat changes. [Conclusion] There was a positive tendency of blood lipids in students of the SKG and it seems that potato and lotus leaf extract intake might prevent obesity and improve obesity related syndromes. PMID:25960952

  13. Microalgae to biofuels: life cycle impacts of methane production of anaerobically digested lipid extracted algae.

    PubMed

    Quinn, Jason C; Hanif, Asma; Sharvelle, Sybil; Bradley, Thomas H

    2014-11-01

    This study presents experimental measurements of the biochemical methane production for whole and lipid extracted Nannochloropsis salina. Results show whole microalgae produced 430 cm(3)-CH4 g-volatile solids(-1) (g-VS) (σ=60), 3 times more methane than was produced by the LEA, 140 cm(3)-CH4 g-VS(-1) (σ=30). Results illustrate current anaerobic modeling efforts in microalgae to biofuel assessments are not reflecting the impact of lipid removal. On a systems level, the overestimation of methane production is shown to positively skew the environmental impact of the microalgae to biofuels process. Discussion focuses on a comparison results to those of previous anaerobic digestion studies and quantifies the corresponding change in greenhouse gas emissions of the microalgae to biofuels process based on results from this study. PMID:25181698

  14. Inhibition of lipid peroxidation by extracts/subfractions of Chickrassy ( Chukrasia tabularis A. Juss.)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaur, Rajbir; Thind, Tarunpreet Singh; Singh, Bikram; Arora, Saroj

    2009-01-01

    Polyphenols and polyphenol-rich fractions of plants have been reported to have protective effects against lipid peroxidation, most probably by serving as scavengers of free radicals and/or by chelating metal ions. In the present study, the effect of different extracts/subfractions of Chickrassy ( Chukrasia tabularis) on peroxyl radical mediated damage to the polyunsaturated fatty acids was investigated. Liver homogenate was used as experimental material. The production of malondialdehyde served as a marker of lipid peroxidation and oxidative stress. It was observed that polyphenol-rich fractions, particularly the ethyl acetate fractions of bark and leaves, showed the highest protective activity of 83.02% and 88.62% inhibition, respectively. This study will help in knowing the scientific validation of this plant, for its use in ayurvedic formulations.

  15. Bio-Based Solvents for Green Extraction of Lipids from Oleaginous Yeast Biomass for Sustainable Aviation Biofuel.

    PubMed

    Breil, Cassandra; Meullemiestre, Alice; Vian, Maryline; Chemat, Farid

    2016-01-01

    Lipid-based oleaginous microorganisms are potential candidates and resources for the sustainable production of biofuels. This study was designed to evaluate the performance of several alternative bio-based solvents for extracting lipids from yeasts. We used experimental design and simulation with Hansen solubility simulations and the conductor-like screening model for realistic solvation (COSMO-RS) to simulate the solubilization of lipids in each of these solvents. Lipid extracts were analyzed by high performance thin-layer chromatography (HPTLC) to obtain the distribution of lipids classes and gas chromatography coupled with a flame ionization detector (GC/FID) to obtain fatty acid profiles. Our aim was to correlate simulation with experimentation for extraction and solvation of lipids with bio-based solvents in order to make a preliminary evaluation for the replacement of hexane to extract lipids from microorganisms. Differences between theory and practice were noted for several solvents, such as CPME, MeTHF and ethyl acetate, which appeared to be good candidates to replace hexane. PMID:26861274

  16. Membrane Interaction of Antimicrobial Peptides Using E. coli Lipid Extract as Model Bacterial Cell Membranes and SFG Spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Soblosky, Lauren; Ramamoorthy, Ayyalusamy; Chen, Zhan

    2015-01-01

    Supported lipid bilayers are used as a convenient model cell membrane system to study biologically important molecule-lipid interactions in situ. However, the lipid bilayer models are often simple and the acquired results with these models may not provide all pertinent information related to a real cell membrane. In this work, we use sum frequency generation (SFG) vibrational spectroscopy to study molecular-level interactions between the antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) MSI-594, ovispirin-1 G18, magainin 2 and a simple 1,2-dipalmitoyl-d62-sn-glycero-3-phosphoglycerol (dDPPG)-1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphoglycerol (POPG) bilayer. We compared such interactions to those between the AMPs and a more complex dDPPG/E. coli polar lipid extract bilayer. We show that to fully understand more complex aspects of peptide-bilayer interaction, such as interaction kinetics, a heterogeneous lipid composition is required, such as the E. coli polar lipid extract. The discrepancy in peptide-bilayer interaction is likely due in part to the difference in bilayer charge between the two systems since highly negative charged lipids can promote more favorable electrostatic interactions between the peptide and lipid bilayer. Results presented in this paper indicate that more complex model bilayers are needed to accurately analyze peptide-cell membrane interactions and demonstrates the importance of using an appropriate lipid composition to study AMP interaction properties. PMID:25707312

  17. Caesalpinia decapetala Extracts as Inhibitors of Lipid Oxidation in Beef Patties.

    PubMed

    Gallego, Maria G; Gordon, Michael H; Segovia, Francisco J; Almajano, María P

    2015-01-01

    In this study we investigated the effects of Caesalpinia decapetala (CD) extracts on lipid oxidation in ground beef patties. Plant extracts and butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) were individually added to patties at both 0.1% and 0.5% (w/w) concentrations. We assessed the antioxidant efficacy of CD by the ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assay and evaluated their potential as natural antioxidants for meat preservation by thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS) values, hexanal content, fatty acid composition and color parameters. These were tested periodically during 11 days of refrigerated storage. TBARS levels were significantly lower (p ≤ 0.05) in the samples containing plant extracts or BHT than in the non-treated control. In addition, the beef patties formulated with the selected plant extracts showed significantly (p ≤ 0.05) better color stability than those without antioxidants. These results indicate that edible plant extracts are promising sources of natural antioxidants and can potentially be used as functional preservatives in meat products. PMID:26263964

  18. Effect of Dietary Ethanolic Extract of Lavandula officinalis on Serum Lipids Profile in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Rabiei, Zahra; Rafieian-Kopaei, Mahmoud; Mokhtari, Shiva; Shahrani, Mehrdad

    2014-01-01

    Antioxidants are effective in prevention and treatment of cardiovascular diseases. Lavandula officinalis possesses antioxidant activity, therefore, in this study; the effects of Lavandula officinalis extract were investigated on serum lipids levels of rats. Experimental mature male Wistar rats were treated with 100, 200 or 400 mg/Kg/day of lavender ethanolic extract or distilled water for 25 days via gastric gavage (n=8 each group). At the end of 25th day, the serum cholesterol, triglyceride, HDL, LDL and VLDL levels, as well as atherogenic indices were determined in rats’ serum. The ethanolic extract of lavender decreased serum cholesterol, triglyceride, LDL and VLDL levels in 100 mg/Kg group (p=0.03, p=0.001, p=0.001, p=0.001, respectively). Serum HDL level increased in 100 mg/Kg/day group (p=0.01). Lavender extract decreased LDL/HDL level at doses of 100 and 200 mg/Kg/day (p=0.001, p=0.001, respectively). The TG/HDL levels decreased in experimental groups with doses of 100 and 200 mg/Kg/day (p=0.001, p=0.001, respectively). Lavandula officinalis extract exerts hypolipidemic effect in rats and might be beneficial in hyperlipidemic patients. PMID:25587318

  19. Effect of Dietary Ethanolic Extract of Lavandula officinalis on Serum Lipids Profile in Rats.

    PubMed

    Rabiei, Zahra; Rafieian-Kopaei, Mahmoud; Mokhtari, Shiva; Shahrani, Mehrdad

    2014-01-01

    Antioxidants are effective in prevention and treatment of cardiovascular diseases. Lavandula officinalis possesses antioxidant activity, therefore, in this study; the effects of Lavandula officinalis extract were investigated on serum lipids levels of rats. Experimental mature male Wistar rats were treated with 100, 200 or 400 mg/Kg/day of lavender ethanolic extract or distilled water for 25 days via gastric gavage (n=8 each group). At the end of 25(th) day, the serum cholesterol, triglyceride, HDL, LDL and VLDL levels, as well as atherogenic indices were determined in rats' serum. The ethanolic extract of lavender decreased serum cholesterol, triglyceride, LDL and VLDL levels in 100 mg/Kg group (p=0.03, p=0.001, p=0.001, p=0.001, respectively). Serum HDL level increased in 100 mg/Kg/day group (p=0.01). Lavender extract decreased LDL/HDL level at doses of 100 and 200 mg/Kg/day (p=0.001, p=0.001, respectively). The TG/HDL levels decreased in experimental groups with doses of 100 and 200 mg/Kg/day (p=0.001, p=0.001, respectively). Lavandula officinalis extract exerts hypolipidemic effect in rats and might be beneficial in hyperlipidemic patients. PMID:25587318

  20. Experimental Protocol for Biodiesel Production with Isolation of Alkenones as Coproducts from Commercial Isochrysis Algal Biomass.

    PubMed

    O'Neil, Gregory W; Williams, John R; Wilson-Peltier, Julia; Knothe, Gerhard; Reddy, Christopher M

    2016-01-01

    The need to replace petroleum fuels with alternatives from renewable and more environmentally sustainable sources is of growing importance. Biomass-derived biofuels have gained considerable attention in this regard, however first generation biofuels from edible crops like corn ethanol or soybean biodiesel have generally fallen out of favor. There is thus great interest in the development of methods for the production of liquid fuels from domestic and superior non-edible sources. Here we describe a detailed procedure for the production of a purified biodiesel from the marine microalgae Isochrysis. Additionally, a unique suite of lipids known as polyunsaturated long-chain alkenones are isolated in parallel as potentially valuable coproducts to offset the cost of biodiesel production. Multi-kilogram quantities of Isochrysis are purchased from two commercial sources, one as a wet paste (80% water) that is first dried prior to processing, and the other a dry milled powder (95% dry). Lipids are extracted with hexanes in a Soxhlet apparatus to produce an algal oil ("hexane algal oil") containing both traditional fats (i.e., triglycerides, 46-60% w/w) and alkenones (16-25% w/w). Saponification of the triglycerides in the algal oil allows for separation of the resulting free fatty acids (FFAs) from alkenone-containing neutral lipids. FFAs are then converted to biodiesel (i.e., fatty acid methyl esters, FAMEs) by acid-catalyzed esterification while alkenones are isolated and purified from the neutral lipids by crystallization. We demonstrate that biodiesel from both commercial Isochrysis biomasses have similar but not identical FAME profiles, characterized by elevated polyunsaturated fatty acid contents (approximately 40% w/w). Yields of biodiesel were consistently higher when starting from the Isochrysis wet paste (12% w/w vs. 7% w/w), which can be traced to lower amounts of hexane algal oil obtained from the powdered Isochrysis product. PMID:27404113

  1. Olive Leaf Extract from Sicilian Cultivar Reduced Lipid Accumulation by Inducing Thermogenic Pathway during Adipogenesis.

    PubMed

    Palmeri, Rosa; Monteleone, Julieta I; Spagna, Giovanni; Restuccia, Cristina; Raffaele, Marco; Vanella, Luca; Li Volti, Giovanni; Barbagallo, Ignazio

    2016-01-01

    Olive leaves contain a wide variety of phenolic compounds belonging to phenolic acids, phenolic alcohols, flavonoids, and secoiridoids, and include also many other pharmacological active compounds. They could play an important role in human diet and health because of their ability to lower blood pressure, increase coronary arteries blood flow and decrease the risk of cardiovascular diseases. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of olive leaf extract (OLE) from Sicilian cultivar on adipogenic differentiation of human adipose derived mesenchymal stem cells and its impact on lipid metabolism. We showed that OLE treatment during adipogenic differentiation reduces inflammation, lipid accumulation and induces thermogenesis by activation of uncoupling protein uncoupling protein 1, sirtuin 1, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha, and coactivator 1 alpha. Furthermore, OLE significantly decreases the expression of molecules involved in adipogenesis and upregulates the expression of mediators involved in thermogenesis and lipid metabolism. Taken together, our results suggest that OLE may promote the brown remodeling of white adipose tissue inducing thermogenesis and improving metabolic homeostasis. PMID:27303302

  2. Simultaneous Metabolite, Protein, Lipid Extraction (SIMPLEX): A Combinatorial Multimolecular Omics Approach for Systems Biology.

    PubMed

    Coman, Cristina; Solari, Fiorella Andrea; Hentschel, Andreas; Sickmann, Albert; Zahedi, René Peiman; Ahrends, Robert

    2016-04-01

    Interconnected molecular networks are at the heart of signaling pathways that mediate adaptive plasticity of eukaryotic cells. To gain deeper insights into the underlying molecular mechanisms, a comprehensive and representative analysis demands a deep and parallel coverage of a broad spectrum of molecular species. Therefore, we introduce a simultaneous metabolite, protein, lipid extraction (SIMPLEX) procedure, a novel strategy for the quantitative investigation of lipids, metabolites, and proteins. Compared with unimolecular workflows, SIMPLEX offers a fundamental turn in study design since multiple molecular classes can be accessed in parallel from one sample with equal efficiency and reproducibility. Application of this method in mass-spectrometry-based workflows allowed the simultaneous quantification of 360 lipids, 75 metabolites, and 3327 proteins from 10(6)cells. The versatility of this method is shown in a model system for adipogenesis- peroxisomal proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARG) signaling in mesenchymal stem cells-where we utilized SIMPLEX to explore cross-talk within and between all three molecular classes and identified novel potential molecular entry points for interventions, indicating that SIMPLEX provides a superior strategy compared with conventional workflows. PMID:26814187

  3. Olive Leaf Extract from Sicilian Cultivar Reduced Lipid Accumulation by Inducing Thermogenic Pathway during Adipogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Palmeri, Rosa; Monteleone, Julieta I.; Spagna, Giovanni; Restuccia, Cristina; Raffaele, Marco; Vanella, Luca; Li Volti, Giovanni; Barbagallo, Ignazio

    2016-01-01

    Olive leaves contain a wide variety of phenolic compounds belonging to phenolic acids, phenolic alcohols, flavonoids, and secoiridoids, and include also many other pharmacological active compounds. They could play an important role in human diet and health because of their ability to lower blood pressure, increase coronary arteries blood flow and decrease the risk of cardiovascular diseases. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of olive leaf extract (OLE) from Sicilian cultivar on adipogenic differentiation of human adipose derived mesenchymal stem cells and its impact on lipid metabolism. We showed that OLE treatment during adipogenic differentiation reduces inflammation, lipid accumulation and induces thermogenesis by activation of uncoupling protein uncoupling protein 1, sirtuin 1, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha, and coactivator 1 alpha. Furthermore, OLE significantly decreases the expression of molecules involved in adipogenesis and upregulates the expression of mediators involved in thermogenesis and lipid metabolism. Taken together, our results suggest that OLE may promote the brown remodeling of white adipose tissue inducing thermogenesis and improving metabolic homeostasis. PMID:27303302

  4. Effect of kelp waste extracts on the growth and lipid accumulation of microalgae.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Shiyan; He, Meilin; Jiang, Jie; Zou, Shanmei; Yang, Weinan; Zhang, Yi; Deng, Jie; Wang, Changhai

    2016-02-01

    Kelp waste extracts (KWE) contained massive soluble sugars, amino acids and various mineral elements. To probe the effects of KWE on microalgal physiological and biochemical responses, the cultures were carried out under the different dilutions. The results showed that 8.0% KWE increased the biomass productivities and total lipid contents of Chlorella strains dramatically, which were 1.83-31.86 times and 20.78-25.91% higher than that of the control. Phaeodactylum tricornutum and Spirulina maxima presented a better growth performance in 1.0% and 4.0% treatment respectively, while their lipid accumulation were not enhanced. In Chlorella-Arc, Chlorella sorokiniana and P. tricornutum, the contents of saturated and monounsaturated fatty acids could be increased, and polyunsaturated fatty acids could be decreased under the conditions of high concentration of KWE (6.0-8.0%). Briefly, KWE facilitated to enhance the biomass productivity and lipid content of Chlorella strains, also improved the fatty acid compositions for biodiesel production. PMID:26638137

  5. Fractal microstructure characterization of wet microalgal cells disrupted with ultrasonic cavitation for lipid extraction.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Jun; Sun, Jing; Huang, Yun; Zhou, Junhu; Cen, Kefa

    2014-10-01

    The effects of ultrasonic treatment on fractal microstructures of wet microalgal cells were investigated for lipid extraction. Fractal dimension of cells with distorted surfaces increased with power and ultrasonication time. Microalgal cells shrank owing to dehydration and cytomembranes were reduced to debris, but cell walls were not fragmented. When ultrasonication power increased from 0 to 500W for 30min, the fractal dimension of cells increased from 1.21 to 1.51, cell sizes decreased from 2.78 to 1.68μm and cell wall thickness decreased from 0.08 to 0.05μm. When ultrasonication time increased from 5 to 30min with a power of 150W, the fractal dimension of cells increased from 1.24 to 1.37, cell sizes decreased from 2.72 to 2.38μm and cell wall thickness first increased to a peak of 0.22μm and then decreased. Long-chain and unsaturated lipids were degraded into short-chain and saturated lipids with ultrasonic cavitation. PMID:25128843

  6. Investigation of high pressure steaming (HPS) as a thermal treatment for lipid extraction from Chlorella vulgaris.

    PubMed

    Aguirre, Ana-Maria; Bassi, Amarjeet

    2014-07-01

    Biofuels from algae are considered a technically viable energy source that overcomes several of the problems present in previous generations of biofuels. In this research high pressure steaming (HPS) was studied as a hydrothermal pre-treatment for extraction of lipids from Chlorella vulgaris, and analysis by response surface methodology allowed finding operational points in terms of target temperature and algae concentration for high lipid and glucose yields. Within the range covered by these experiments the best conditions for high bio-crude yield are temperatures higher than 174°C and low biomass concentrations (<5 g/L). For high glucose yield there are two suitable operational ranges, either low temperatures (<105°C) and low biomass concentrations (<4 g/L); or low temperatures (<105°C) and high biomass concentrations (<110 g/L). High pressure steaming is a good hydrothermal treatment for lipid recovery and does not significantly change the fatty acids profile for the range of temperatures studied. PMID:24852645

  7. Black soybean extract improves lipid profiles in fenofibrate-treated type 2 diabetics with postprandial hyperlipidemia.

    PubMed

    Kusunoki, Masataka; Sato, Daisuke; Tsutsumi, Kazuhiko; Tsutsui, Hideyo; Nakamura, Takao; Oshida, Yoshiharu

    2015-06-01

    Black soybeans (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) are known to be rich in polyphenols, including anthocyanins, and they have been consumed since ancient times for their beneficial effects on health. In addition, it has been reported that black soybean (BS) seed coat may ameliorate obesity and insulin resistance. In the present study, we administered BS extract to type 2 diabetics for 2 months to investigate the effects of BS on glycemic control and lipid metabolism parameters. In addition, we administered BS and antihyperlipidemic agent, fenofibrate, to patients with type 2 diabetes complicated by postprandial hyperlipidemia for 2 months and assessed the combined effects of fenofibrate and BS on serum lipid profile. The results showed that administration of the BS alone had no effect on the blood glucose or lipid levels, but that administration of fenofibrate alone and fenofibrate in combination with the BS significantly lowered their serum triglyceride (TG) level at fasting state, and the percent decrease in the serum TG level after combined administration was significantly higher than in the subjects who received fenofibrate alone. Furthermore, the serum LDL cholesterol concentration, which did not decrease when fenofibrate was administered alone, decreased significantly when the BS and fenofibrate were administered in combination. These results suggest that combined administration of the BS with fenofibrate enhanced the antihyperlipidemic action of fenofibrate, and the results of this study demonstrated the usefulness of the BS in clinical practice. PMID:25651043

  8. Extraction and purification of high-value metabolites from microalgae: essential lipids, astaxanthin and phycobiliproteins.

    PubMed

    Cuellar-Bermudez, Sara P; Aguilar-Hernandez, Iris; Cardenas-Chavez, Diana L; Ornelas-Soto, Nancy; Romero-Ogawa, Miguel A; Parra-Saldivar, Roberto

    2015-03-01

    The marked trend and consumers growing interest in natural and healthy products have forced researches and industry to develop novel products with functional ingredients. Microalgae have been recognized as source of functional ingredients with positive health effects since these microorganisms produce polyunsaturated fatty acids, polysaccharides, natural pigments, essential minerals, vitamins, enzymes and bioactive peptides. For this reason, the manuscript reviews two of the main high-value metabolites which can be obtained from microalgae: pigments and essential lipids. Therefore, the extraction and purification methods for polyunsaturated fatty acids, astaxanthin, phycoerythrin and phycocyanin are described. Also, the effect that environmental growth conditions have in the production of these metabolites is described. This review summarizes the existing methods to extract and purify such metabolites in order to develop a feasible and sustainable algae industry. PMID:25223877

  9. Bioavailability of polyphenols from peanut skin extract associated with plasma lipid lowering function.

    PubMed

    Bansode, Rishipal R; Randolph, Priscilla; Ahmedna, Mohamed; Hurley, Steven; Hanner, Tracy; Baxter, Sarah A Schwatrz; Johnston, Thomas A; Su, Mingming; Holmes, Bryce M; Yu, Jianmei; Williams, Leonard L

    2014-04-01

    Peanut skin is a rich source of polyphenols including procyanidins and is shown to have hypolipidemic properties. This study investigated the bioavailability of peanut skin polyphenols using a rat model. First, the bioavailability of peanut skin polyphenols in rat plasma was evaluated. Our results showed procyanidin A2 levels in plasma peaked within 30 min of ingestion. The results of a second study show that peanut skin extract supplemented in addition to oil gavage resulted in significant decrease in plasma triglyceride and VLDL within 5h. In the third study, rats were given a Western type diet for 5 weeks with peanut skin extract at a dose of 150 and 300 mg/kg body weight. The main effects observed were lowering of total blood lipid and reduction of the plasma fatty acids profile. Our results suggest that procyanidin A may impart a key role of hypolipidemic effect seen in peanut skin polyphenols. PMID:24262521

  10. Extraction and purification of high-value metabolites from microalgae: essential lipids, astaxanthin and phycobiliproteins

    PubMed Central

    Cuellar-Bermudez, Sara P; Aguilar-Hernandez, Iris; Cardenas-Chavez, Diana L; Ornelas-Soto, Nancy; Romero-Ogawa, Miguel A; Parra-Saldivar, Roberto

    2015-01-01

    The marked trend and consumers growing interest in natural and healthy products have forced researches and industry to develop novel products with functional ingredients. Microalgae have been recognized as source of functional ingredients with positive health effects since these microorganisms produce polyunsaturated fatty acids, polysaccharides, natural pigments, essential minerals, vitamins, enzymes and bioactive peptides. For this reason, the manuscript reviews two of the main high-value metabolites which can be obtained from microalgae: pigments and essential lipids. Therefore, the extraction and purification methods for polyunsaturated fatty acids, astaxanthin, phycoerythrin and phycocyanin are described. Also, the effect that environmental growth conditions have in the production of these metabolites is described. This review summarizes the existing methods to extract and purify such metabolites in order to develop a feasible and sustainable algae industry. PMID:25223877

  11. [Effect of grape seed extracts on blood lipids in rabbits model with hyperlipidemia].

    PubMed

    Yu, Hongxia; Zhao, Xiulan; Xu, Guifa; Wang, She-e

    2002-04-01

    The effect of grape seed extracts on serum lipids was observed in rabbits fed with high fat diet. The control group fed with normal stock diet. The diet of the four experimental groups was high in fat and cholesterol. The experimental control group fed with the high fat diet only, and the other three experimental groups fed the high fat diet added with grape seed extracts (5, 10 or 15 g/d) for three months. At the 0th, 6th and 12th week of the experiment, there was a lower serum TC, TG, LDL-C and a higher HDL-C in experimental groups in comparison with experimental control group. PMID:12561546

  12. Improvement in lipids extraction processes for biodiesel production from wet microalgal pellets grown on diammonium phosphate and sodium bicarbonate combinations.

    PubMed

    Shah, Syed Hasnain; Raja, Iftikhar Ahmed; Mahmood, Qaisar; Pervez, Arshid

    2016-08-01

    Biomass productivity and growth kinetics for microalgae grown on sodium bicarbonate and diammonium phosphate were investigated. Different carbon and nitrogen ratios have shown different growth rates and biomass productivity and C:N ratio 50:10 as mgL(-1) has shown the best production than all. For effective lipids extraction from biomass thermolysis and sonolysis were carried out from wet biomass. Sonolysis at 2.3W intensity for 5min has released 8.58mg at neutral pH. More quantity of lipids was extracted when extraction was made at pH 4 and 10 which resulted 9mg and 9.28mg lipids respectively. Thermal treatment at 100°C for 10min has released 12.82mg lipid at neutral pH. In the same thermolysis at pH 4 and 10 more quantity of lipids was extracted which were 15.16mg and 14.81mg respectively. Finally transesterified lipids were analyzed through GC-MS for FAME composition analysis. PMID:27132228

  13. Rapid and simple extraction of lipids from blood plasma and urine for liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Bang, Dae Young; Byeon, Seul Kee; Moon, Myeong Hee

    2014-02-28

    A simple and fast lipid extraction method from human blood plasma and urine is introduced in this study. The effective lipid extraction from biological systems with a minimization of the matrix effect is important for the successful qualitative and quantitative analysis of lipids in liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS/MS). The method described here is based on the modification of the quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged and safe (QuEChERS) extraction method, which was originally developed for pesticide residue analysis in food, for the purpose of isolating lipids from biological fluids. Applicability of QuEChERS method for lipids was evaluated by varying organic solvents for the extraction/partitioning of lipids in MgSO4/CH3COONa for the removal of water and by varying sorbents (primary secondary amines, graphitized carbon black, silica, strong anion exchange resins and C18 particles) for the dispersive solid-phase extraction (dSPE) step. This study shows that 2:1 (v/v) CHCl3/CH3OH is effective in the extraction/partitioning step and that 50mg of C18 particles (for 0.1mL plasma and 1mL of urine) are more suitable for sample cleanup for the dSPE step of the QuEChERS method. Matrix effects were calculated by comparing the recovery values of lipid standards spiked to both plasma and urine samples after extraction with those of the same standards in a neat solution using nanoflow LC-ESI-MS/MS, resulting in improved MS signals due to the decrease of the ion suppression compared to the conventional Folch method. The modified QuEChERS method was applied to lipid extracts from both human urine and plasma samples, demonstrating that it can be powerfully utilized for high-speed (<15min) preparation of lipids compared to the Folch method, with equivalent or slightly improved results in lipid identification using nLC-ESI-MS/MS. PMID:24491523

  14. Effect of lipid extracts of Nigella sativa L. seeds on the liver ATP reduction and alpha-glucosidase inhibition.

    PubMed

    Sobhi, Widad; Stevigny, Caroline; Duez, Pierre; Calderon, Bedro Buc; Atmani, Djebbar; Benboubetra, Mustapha

    2016-01-01

    Various extracts from the seeds of Nigella sativa have been used in traditional folk medicine to treat inflammation, liver disorders and arthritis. These seeds have been experimentally shown to possess antioxidant and hepatoprotective properties. Beside the hypoglycaemic and hypolipidemic effects, this study was carried out to evaluate, in vitro, toxicological effect of lipid extracts from the Nigella sativa seeds. The tested fractions were: (i) defatted methanolic extract, (ii) total lipid extract obtained by hexane extraction from methanolic extract and (iii) neutral and polar lipid fractions. The fractions were assessed, in vitro, for their inhibitory activity potential on the enzyme alpha-glucosidase as suppressing the enzyme activity is one among the therapeutic approaches to attenuate postprandial hyperglycemia. High inhibition of alpha-glucosidase by the two polar lipid fractions (F6 and F7) was reflected by their IC50 (0.51±0.04mg/ml and 0.55±0.09mg/ml, respectively), compared to acarbose (0.53±0.06mg/ml) and thymoquinone (0.65±0.05mg/ml). The hypoglycaemic effect of the polar lipid fraction of Nigella sativa could be explained by the inhibition of alpha-glucosidase, which is one of early steps of carbohydrate metabolism. Toxicological evaluation was investigated on precision-cut rat liver slices (PCLS). On PCLS, lipid extracts reduced ATP levels by 27 to 35%. Results indicate suggest that Nigella sativa extracts don't show a hepatoprotective effect against acetaminophen, but don't exhibit a major hepatotoxicity when tested alone. PMID:26826824

  15. Combined Enzymatic and Mechanical Cell Disruption and Lipid Extraction of Green Alga Neochloris oleoabundans

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Dongqin; Li, Yanqun; Hu, Xueqiong; Su, Weimin; Zhong, Min

    2015-01-01

    Microalgal biodiesel is one of the most promising renewable fuels. The wet technique for lipids extraction has advantages over the dry method, such as energy-saving and shorter procedure. The cell disruption is a key factor in wet oil extraction to facilitate the intracellular oil release. Ultrasonication, high-pressure homogenization, enzymatic hydrolysis and the combination of enzymatic hydrolysis with high-pressure homogenization and ultrasonication were employed in this study to disrupt the cells of the microalga Neochloris oleoabundans. The cell disruption degree was investigated. The cell morphology before and after disruption was assessed with scanning and transmission electron microscopy. The energy requirements and the operation cost for wet cell disruption were also estimated. The highest disruption degree, up to 95.41%, assessed by accounting method was achieved by the combination of enzymatic hydrolysis and high-pressure homogenization. A lipid recovery of 92.6% was also obtained by the combined process. The combined process was found to be more efficient and economical compared with the individual process. PMID:25853267

  16. Combined enzymatic and mechanical cell disruption and lipid extraction of green alga Neochloris oleoabundans.

    PubMed

    Wang, Dongqin; Li, Yanqun; Hu, Xueqiong; Su, Weimin; Zhong, Min

    2015-01-01

    Microalgal biodiesel is one of the most promising renewable fuels. The wet technique for lipids extraction has advantages over the dry method, such as energy-saving and shorter procedure. The cell disruption is a key factor in wet oil extraction to facilitate the intracellular oil release. Ultrasonication, high-pressure homogenization, enzymatic hydrolysis and the combination of enzymatic hydrolysis with high-pressure homogenization and ultrasonication were employed in this study to disrupt the cells of the microalga Neochloris oleoabundans. The cell disruption degree was investigated. The cell morphology before and after disruption was assessed with scanning and transmission electron microscopy. The energy requirements and the operation cost for wet cell disruption were also estimated. The highest disruption degree, up to 95.41%, assessed by accounting method was achieved by the combination of enzymatic hydrolysis and high-pressure homogenization. A lipid recovery of 92.6% was also obtained by the combined process. The combined process was found to be more efficient and economical compared with the individual process. PMID:25853267

  17. Effects of Averrhoa bilimbi leaf extract on blood glucose and lipids in streptozotocin-diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Pushparaj, P; Tan, C H; Tan, B K

    2000-09-01

    The present study was designed to investigate the hypoglycemic and hypolipidemic activities of an ethanolic extract of Averrhoa bilimbi Linn. leaves (Oxalidaceae, Common name: Bilimbi) in streptozotocin (STZ)-diabetic rats. The optimal hypoglycemic dose (125 mg kg(-1)) was determined by performing the oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) in both normal and STZ-diabetic rats. To investigate the effect of repeated administration of an ethanolic extract of Averrhoa bilimbi (ABe) leaves, diabetic rats were treated with vehicle (distilled water), ABe (125 mg kg(-1)) or metformin (500 mg kg(-1)) twice a day for 2 weeks. Like metformin, ABe significantly lowered blood glucose by 50% and blood triglyceride by 130% when compared with the vehicle. ABe also significantly increased the HDL-cholesterol concentrations by 60% compared with the vehicle. ABe thus significantly increased the anti-atherogenic index and HDL-cholesterol/total cholesterol ratio. However, like metformin, ABe did not affect total cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol concentrations, but significantly reduced the kidney lipid peroxidation level. These data show that ABe has hypoglycemic, hypotriglyceridemic, anti-lipid peroxidative and anti-atherogenic properties in STZ-diabetic rats. PMID:10967456

  18. Lipid Profile and Electrolyte Composition in Diabetic Rats Treated With Leaf Extract of Musa sapientum.

    PubMed

    Adewoye, E O; Ige, A O

    2016-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus affects lipid levels resulting in diabetic dyslipidemia as well as electrolyte loss from the body. Musa sapientum has been reported to possess antidiabetic properties. This study assessed the lipid profile and electrolyte composition in alloxan-induced diabetic rats treated with methanol leaf extract of M. sapientum (cMEMSL). Diabetes was induced with alloxan (120 mg/kg i.p.). Seventy-five male albino rats were divided into 5 groups of 15 rats each. Group 1 was control; groups 2-5 were made diabetic and treated with 0.2 ml 0.9% NaCl, cMEMSL (250 mg/kg and 500 mg/kg), and glibenclamide (5 mg/kg), respectively, for 14 days. Blood samples were obtained from the retro orbital sinus after light anesthesia from 5 animals in each group on days 2, 7, and 14 for lipids and electrolyte analysis. Lipid profile of diabetic treated (cMEMSL and glibenclamide) animals showed significant reduction (p < .05) in total cholesterol, triglyceride, and low density lipoprotein (LDL) levels. The high density lipoprotein (HDL) level in the treatment groups increased significantly (p < .05) compared with diabetic untreated. Sodium, potassium, and phosphate ions significantly increased in all diabetic treatment groups while chloride ion significantly decreased compared with diabetic untreated. There was no significant difference in calcium and bicarbonate ion concentration in all the groups. This study has showed additional properties of Musa sapientum to include its ability to restore electrolyte balance, reduce cholesterol, triglyceride, LDL, and increase the HDL levels in diabetic animals. PMID:25320868

  19. Optimizing algal cultivation & productivity : an innovative, multidiscipline, and multiscale approach.

    SciTech Connect

    Murton, Jaclyn K.; Hanson, David T.; Turner, Tom; Powell, Amy Jo; James, Scott Carlton; Timlin, Jerilyn Ann; Scholle, Steven; August, Andrew; Dwyer, Brian P.; Ruffing, Anne; Jones, Howland D. T.; Ricken, James Bryce; Reichardt, Thomas A.

    2010-04-01

    Progress in algal biofuels has been limited by significant knowledge gaps in algal biology, particularly as they relate to scale-up. To address this we are investigating how culture composition dynamics (light as well as biotic and abiotic stressors) describe key biochemical indicators of algal health: growth rate, photosynthetic electron transport, and lipid production. Our approach combines traditional algal physiology with genomics, bioanalytical spectroscopy, chemical imaging, remote sensing, and computational modeling to provide an improved fundamental understanding of algal cell biology across multiple cultures scales. This work spans investigations from the single-cell level to ensemble measurements of algal cell cultures at the laboratory benchtop to large greenhouse scale (175 gal). We will discuss the advantages of this novel, multidisciplinary strategy and emphasize the importance of developing an integrated toolkit to provide sensitive, selective methods for detecting early fluctuations in algal health, productivity, and population diversity. Progress in several areas will be summarized including identification of spectroscopic signatures for algal culture composition, stress level, and lipid production enabled by non-invasive spectroscopic monitoring of the photosynthetic and photoprotective pigments at the single-cell and bulk-culture scales. Early experiments compare and contrast the well-studied green algae chlamydomonas with two potential production strains of microalgae, nannochloropsis and dunnaliella, under optimal and stressed conditions. This integrated approach has the potential for broad impact on algal biofuels and bioenergy and several of these opportunities will be discussed.

  20. Constraints to commercialization of algal fuels.

    PubMed

    Chisti, Yusuf

    2013-09-10

    Production of algal crude oil has been achieved in various pilot scale facilities, but whether algal fuels can be produced in sufficient quantity to meaningfully displace petroleum fuels, has been largely overlooked. Limitations to commercialization of algal fuels need to be understood and addressed for any future commercialization. This review identifies the major constraints to commercialization of transport fuels from microalgae. Algae derived fuels are expensive compared to petroleum derived fuels, but this could change. Unfortunately, improved economics of production are not sufficient for an environmentally sustainable production, or its large scale feasibility. A low-cost point supply of concentrated carbon dioxide colocated with the other essential resources is necessary for producing algal fuels. An insufficiency of concentrated carbon dioxide is actually a major impediment to any substantial production of algal fuels. Sustainability of production requires the development of an ability to almost fully recycle the phosphorous and nitrogen nutrients that are necessary for algae culture. Development of a nitrogen biofixation ability to support production of algal fuels ought to be an important long term objective. At sufficiently large scale, a limited supply of freshwater will pose a significant limitation to production even if marine algae are used. Processes for recovering energy from the algal biomass left after the extraction of oil, are required for achieving a net positive energy balance in the algal fuel oil. The near term outlook for widespread use of algal fuels appears bleak, but fuels for niche applications such as in aviation may be likely in the medium term. Genetic and metabolic engineering of microalgae to boost production of fuel oil and ease its recovery, are essential for commercialization of algal fuels. Algae will need to be genetically modified for improved photosynthetic efficiency in the long term. PMID:23886651

  1. Removal of lipid soluble process chemicals from biological materials by extraction with naturally occurring oils or synthetic substitutes thereof

    SciTech Connect

    Woods, K.R.; Orme, T.W.

    1988-12-06

    This patent describes a method of removing lipid soluble process chemicals from biological materials comprising blood plasma and fractions thereof containing the lipid soluble process chemicals. The lipid soluble process chemical is a virus attenuating solvent having a high flash point, a detergent, or a mixture thereof. It comprises bringing the biological materials containing the lipid soluble process chemicals into contact with an effective amount of a naturally occurring oil extracted from a plant or an animal or a synthetic compound of similar chemical structure. Also described is a method of removing lymphokine inducing phorbol esters from lympholkine-containing biological material. It comprises bringing the biological materials containing the phorbol esters into contact with an effective amount of a naturally occurring oil extracted from a plant or an animal or a synthetic compound of similar chemical structure so as to remove 80% or more of the phorbol esters.

  2. Microwave, ultrasound, thermal treatments, and bead milling as intensification techniques for extraction of lipids from oleaginous Yarrowia lipolytica yeast for a biojetfuel application.

    PubMed

    Meullemiestre, Alice; Breil, Cassandra; Abert-Vian, Maryline; Chemat, Farid

    2016-07-01

    In the present work, two different ways of lipids extraction from Yarrowia lipolytica yeast were investigated in order to maximize the extraction yield. Firstly, various modern techniques of extraction including ultrasound, microwave, and bead milling were tested to intensify the efficiency of lipid recovery. Secondly, several pretreatments such as freezing/defrosting, cold drying, bead milling, and microwave prior two washing of mixture solvent of chloroform:methanol (1:2, v/v) were study to evaluate the impact on lipid recovery. All these treatments were compared to conventional maceration, in terms of lipids extraction yield and lipid composition analysis. The main result of this study is the large difference of lipid recovery among treatments and the alteration of lipids profile after microwave and ultrasound techniques. PMID:27017129

  3. Significant Enrichment of Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids (PUFAs) in the Lipids Extracted by Supercritical CO2 from the Livers of Australian Rock Lobsters (Jasus edwardsii).

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Trung T; Zhang, Wei; Barber, Andrew R; Su, Peng; He, Shan

    2015-05-13

    Australian rock lobster (Jasus edwardsii) liver contains approximately 24.3% (w/w) lipids, which can contain a high amount of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs). However, this material has been found to be contaminated with arsenic (240 mg/kg) and cadmium (8 mg/kg). The high level of contaminants in the raw material and the large amount of PUFAs in the lipids prove a significant challenge in the extraction of high-quality lipids from this byproduct by conventional methods. Supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO2) extraction is a highly promising technology for lipid extraction with advantages including low contamination and low oxidation. The technique was optimized to achieve nearly 94% extraction of lipids relative to conventional Soxhlet extraction in Australian rock lobster liver at conditions of 35 MPa and 50 °C for 4 h. The extracted lipids are significantly enriched in PUFAs at 31.3% of total lipids, 4 times higher than those in the lipids recovered by Soxhlet extraction (7.8%). Specifically, the concentrations of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) in SC-CO2 extraction are 7 times higher than those obtained by Soxhlet extraction. Moreover, very small amounts of toxic heavy metals such as lead (Pb), arsenic (As), mercury (Hg), and cadmium (Cd) were detected in the SC-CO2-extracted lipids, 0.5-27 times lower than those in the Soxhlet-extracted lipids, which are 40-200 times lower than the regulatory limit maximum values. The low levels of contaminants and the high proportion of PUFAs (dominated by DHA and EPA) found in the SC-CO2-extracted lipids from Australian rock lobster liver suggest that the material could potentially be used as a valuable source of essential fatty acids for human consumption. PMID:25905456

  4. Evaluation of anticoagulant activity of two algal polysaccharides.

    PubMed

    Faggio, C; Pagano, M; Dottore, A; Genovese, G; Morabito, M

    2016-09-01

    Marine algae are important sources of phycocolloids like agar, carrageenans and alginates used in industrial applications. Algal polysaccharides have emerged as an important class of bioactive products showing interesting properties. The aim of our study was to evaluate the potential uses as anticoagulant drugs of algal sulphate polysaccharides extracted from Ulva fasciata (Chlorophyta) and Agardhiella subulata (Rhodophyta) collected in Ganzirri Lake (Cape Peloro Lagoon, north-eastern Sicily, Italy). Toxicity of algal extracts through trypan blue test and anticoagulant action measured by activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT), prothrombin time (PT) test has been evaluated. Algal extracts showed to prolong the PT and APTT during the coagulation cascade and to avoid the blood coagulation of samples. Furthermore, the algal extracts lack toxic effects towards cellular metabolism and their productions are relatively at low cost. This permits to consider the algae as the biological source of the future. PMID:26360806

  5. Methane and nitrous oxide emissions affect the life-cycle analysis of algal biofuels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frank, Edward D.; Han, Jeongwoo; Palou-Rivera, Ignasi; Elgowainy, Amgad; Wang, Michael Q.

    2012-03-01

    Researchers around the world are developing sustainable plant-based liquid transportation fuels (biofuels) to reduce petroleum consumption and greenhouse gas emissions. Algae are attractive because they promise large yields per acre compared to grasses, grains and trees, and because they produce oils that might be converted to diesel and gasoline equivalents. It takes considerable energy to produce algal biofuels with current technology; thus, the potential benefits of algal biofuels compared to petroleum fuels must be quantified. To this end, we identified key parameters for algal biofuel production using GREET, a tool for the life-cycle analysis of energy use and emissions in transportation systems. The baseline scenario produced 55 400 g CO2 equivalent per million BTU of biodiesel compared to 101 000 g for low-sulfur petroleum diesel. The analysis considered the potential for greenhouse gas emissions from anaerobic digestion processes commonly used in algal biofuel models. The work also studied alternative scenarios, e.g., catalytic hydrothermal gasification, that may reduce these emissions. The analysis of the nitrogen recovery step from lipid-extracted algae (residues) highlighted the importance of considering the fate of the unrecovered nitrogen fraction, especially that which produces N2O, a potent greenhouse gas with global warming potential 298 times that of CO2.

  6. Efficacy of Tribulus Terrestris Extract on the Serum Glucose and Lipids of Women with Diabetes Mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Samani, Nasrin Babadai; Jokar, Azam; Soveid, Mahmood; Heydari, Mojtaba; Mosavat, Seyed Hamdollah

    2016-01-01

    Background: Considering folkloric use of Tribulus terrestris (T. terrestris) in diabetes and proven anti-hyperglycemic and anti-hyperlipidemic effects of T. terrestris in animal studies, we aimed to evaluate the efficacy of the hydro alcoholic extract of T. terrestris on the serum glucose and lipid profile of women with diabetes mellitus. Methods: Ninety-eight diabetic women were randomly allocated to receive the T. terrestris (1000 mg/day) or placebo for three months. The patients were evaluated in terms of the fasting blood glucose, 2-hour postprandial glucose, glycosylated hemoglobin and lipid profile. Results: T. terrestris showed a significant blood glucose lowering effect in diabetic women compared to placebo (P<0.05). Also, the total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein of the T. terrestris group was significantly reduced compared with placebo, while no significant effect was observed in the triglyceride and high-density lipoprotein levels. Conclusion: This study showed preliminary promising hypoglycemic effect of T. terrestris in diabetic women.

  7. Effects of the Cynanchum wilfordii Ethanol Extract on the Serum Lipid Profile in Hypercholesterolemic Rats

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Hye-Sung; Choi, Jun-Hyeok; Kim, Young-Eon; Kim, In-Ho; Kim, Byoung-Mok; Lee, Chang-Ho

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of the ethanol extract of Cynanchum wilfordii (ECW) on the blood lipid profile of hypercholesterolemic rats. Thirty 7-week-old male Sprague-Dawley rats were allowed free access to either a normal diet (AIN-93 diet), or 1% high-cholesterol diet with or without 0.5% or 1% ECW for 5 weeks. After sacrifice, the rat serum lipid profile was analyzed. The diets containing ECW decreased body weight gains compared to the normal diet. Serum HDL-cholesterol levels of ECW-fed groups were significantly increased in the hypercholesterolemic groups and normal groups (P<0.05). When 1% ECW was fed to the normal group, total cholesterol level was increased. Moreover, treatment of ECW in hypercholesterolemic groups yielded a dose-dependent and highly significant decrease in the atherogenic index as compared to the control. These results suggest that intake of Cynanchum wilfordii may help reduce the risks of hypercholesterolemia by increasing blood HDL-cholesterol and lowering the atherogenic index. PMID:24471126

  8. Effects of the Cynanchum wilfordii Ethanol Extract on the Serum Lipid Profile in Hypercholesterolemic Rats.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hye-Sung; Choi, Jun-Hyeok; Kim, Young-Eon; Kim, In-Ho; Kim, Byoung-Mok; Lee, Chang-Ho

    2013-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of the ethanol extract of Cynanchum wilfordii (ECW) on the blood lipid profile of hypercholesterolemic rats. Thirty 7-week-old male Sprague-Dawley rats were allowed free access to either a normal diet (AIN-93 diet), or 1% high-cholesterol diet with or without 0.5% or 1% ECW for 5 weeks. After sacrifice, the rat serum lipid profile was analyzed. The diets containing ECW decreased body weight gains compared to the normal diet. Serum HDL-cholesterol levels of ECW-fed groups were significantly increased in the hypercholesterolemic groups and normal groups (P<0.05). When 1% ECW was fed to the normal group, total cholesterol level was increased. Moreover, treatment of ECW in hypercholesterolemic groups yielded a dose-dependent and highly significant decrease in the atherogenic index as compared to the control. These results suggest that intake of Cynanchum wilfordii may help reduce the risks of hypercholesterolemia by increasing blood HDL-cholesterol and lowering the atherogenic index. PMID:24471126

  9. Intestinal lipids and minerals in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats fed bitter yam (Dioscorea polygonoides) sapogenin extract.

    PubMed

    Omoruyi, Felix O; McAnuff-Harding, Marie A; Asemota, Helen N

    2006-10-01

    Yam is the leading form of staple for millions of people in the tropical and subtropical countries. They are good sources of carbohydrate. However, the protein content of yam is low. The effect of bitter yam sapogenin extract or commercial diosgenin on faecal minerals and intestinal lipids in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats was studied. Sapogenin extract or commercial diosgenin (1%) supplemented diets were fed to diabetic male Wistar rats for three weeks. Bitter yam sapogenin extract or commercial diosgenin did not significantly alter faecal magnesium, calcium, and zinc excretion but significantly decreased faecal sodium and potassium excretion. The absorption of iron was impaired by bitter yam sapogenin extract or commercial diosgenin during the first week of feeding. Bitter yam sapogenin extract or commercial diosgenin supplements significantly decreased intestinal lipids towards normal. Faecal lipids excreted was significantly higher in diabetic rats fed bitter yam sapogenin extract or commercial diosgenin for the three weeks period compared to the diabetic control group. These results show that bitter yam sapogenin extract or commercial diosgenin does not have the same effects on mineral excretion in diabetes. There was no direct correlation between the decrease in excretion of mono-valent cations and the activity of intestinal Na+/K+ATPase. PMID:17105702

  10. Antioxidative and prooxidative effects in food lipids and synergism with α-tocopherol of açaí seed extracts and grape rachis extracts.

    PubMed

    Melo, Priscilla Siqueira; Arrivetti, Leandro de Oliveira Rodrigues; Alencar, Severino Matias de; Skibsted, Leif H

    2016-12-15

    Extracts of açaí seed and of grape rachis alone or in combination with α-tocopherol were evaluated as antioxidants in (i) bulk soybean oil, (ii) soybean oil liposomes and (iii) soybean-oil/water emulsions. The extracts made with 57% aqueous ethanol showed an antioxidant activity not dependent on concentration for grape rachis extracts and a concentration-dependent prooxidative activity for açaí seed extracts in bulk soybean oil. Both the extracts, however, protected liposome suspensions and oil/water emulsions against lipid oxidation. Synergism was demonstrated when extracts were combined with α-tocopherol, effects explained by the solubility of extract components in the water-phase and of α-tocopherol in the lipid-phase. Phenolic profiling of the extracts by U-HPLC-ESI-LTQ-MS was used to identify active antioxidants. Açaí seed and grape rachis extracts served as good sources of procyanidins and flavan-3-ols, imparted high antioxidant activity especially when combined with α-tocopherol and are suggested for protection of food oil/water emulsions. PMID:27451202

  11. Evaluation of micro-colorimetric lipid determination method with samples prepared using sonication and accelerated solvent extraction methods.

    PubMed

    Billa, Nanditha; Hubin-Barrows, Dylan; Lahren, Tylor; Burkhard, Lawrence P

    2014-02-01

    Two common laboratory extraction techniques were evaluated for routine use with the micro-colorimetric lipid determination method developed by Van Handel (1985) [2] and recently validated for small samples by Inouye and Lotufo (2006) [1]. With the accelerated solvent extraction method using chloroform:methanol solvent and the colorimetric lipid determination method, 28 of 30 samples had significant proportional bias (α=1%, determined using standard additions) and 1 of 30 samples had significant constant bias (α=1%, determined using Youden Blank measurements). With sonic extraction, 0 of 6 samples had significant proportional bias (α=1%) and 1 of 6 samples had significant constant bias (α=1%). These demonstrate that the accelerated solvent extraction method with chloroform:methanol solvent system creates an interference with the colorimetric assay method, and without accounting for the bias in the analysis, inaccurate measurements would be obtained. PMID:24401464

  12. Altered Lipid Composition and Enhanced Nutritional Value of Arabidopsis Leaves following Introduction of an Algal Diacylglycerol Acyltransferase 2[C][W

    PubMed Central

    Sanjaya; Miller, Rachel; Durrett, Timothy P.; Kosma, Dylan K.; Lydic, Todd A.; Muthan, Bagyalakshmi; Koo, Abraham J.K.; Bukhman, Yury V.; Reid, Gavin E.; Howe, Gregg A.; Ohlrogge, John; Benning, Christoph

    2013-01-01

    Enhancement of acyl-CoA–dependent triacylglycerol (TAG) synthesis in vegetative tissues is widely discussed as a potential avenue to increase the energy density of crops. Here, we report the identification and characterization of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii diacylglycerol acyltransferase type two (DGTT) enzymes and use DGTT2 to alter acyl carbon partitioning in plant vegetative tissues. This enzyme can accept a broad range of acyl-CoA substrates, allowing us to interrogate different acyl pools in transgenic plants. Expression of DGTT2 in Arabidopsis thaliana increased leaf TAG content, with some molecular species containing very-long-chain fatty acids. The acyl compositions of sphingolipids and surface waxes were altered, and cutin was decreased. The increased carbon partitioning into TAGs in the leaves of DGTT2-expressing lines had little effect on transcripts of the sphingolipid/wax/cutin pathway, suggesting that the supply of acyl groups for the assembly of these lipids is not transcriptionally adjusted. Caterpillars of the generalist herbivore Spodoptera exigua reared on transgenic plants gained more weight. Thus, the nutritional value and/or energy density of the transgenic lines was increased by ectopic expression of DGTT2 and acyl groups were diverted from different pools into TAGs, demonstrating the interconnectivity of acyl metabolism in leaves. PMID:23417035

  13. Evaluation of micro-colorimetric lipid determination method with samples prepared using sonication and accelerated solvent extraction methods

    EPA Science Inventory

    Two common laboratory extraction techniques were evaluated for routine use with the micro-colorimetric lipid determination method developed by Van Handel (1985) [E. Van Handel, J. Am. Mosq. Control Assoc. 1(1985) 302] and recently validated for small samples by Inouye and Lotufo ...

  14. Inhibition of residual n-hexane in anaerobic digestion of lipid-extracted microalgal wastes and microbial community shift.

    PubMed

    Yun, Yeo-Myeong; Shin, Hang-Sik; Lee, Chang-Kyu; Oh, You-Kwan; Kim, Hyun-Woo

    2016-04-01

    Converting lipid-extracted microalgal wastes to methane (CH4) via anaerobic digestion (AD) has the potential to make microalgae-based biodiesel platform more sustainable. However, it is apparent that remaining n-hexane (C6H14) from lipid extraction could inhibit metabolic pathway of methanogens. To test an inhibitory influence of residual n-hexane, this study conducted a series of batch AD by mixing lipid-extracted Chlorella vulgaris with a wide range of n-hexane concentration (∼10 g chemical oxygen demand (COD)/L). Experimental results show that the inhibition of n-hexane on CH4 yield was negligible up to 2 g COD/L and inhibition to methanogenesis became significant when it was higher than 4 g COD/L based on quantitative mass balance. Inhibition threshold was about 4 g COD/L of n-hexane. Analytical result of microbial community profile revealed that dominance of alkane-degrading sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) and syntrophic bacteria increased, while that of methanogens sharply dropped as n-hexane concentration increased. These findings offer a useful guideline of threshold n-hexane concentration and microbial community shift for the AD of lipid-extracted microalgal wastes. PMID:25966884

  15. The effects of black garlic (Allium satvium) extracts on lipid metabolism in rats fed a high fat diet

    PubMed Central

    Ha, Ae Wha; Ying, Tian

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUD/OBEJECTIVES The mechanism of how black garlic effects lipid metabolism remains unsolved. Therefore, the objectives of this study were to determine the effects of black garlic on lipid profiles and the expression of related genes in rats fed a high fat diet. MATERIALS/METHODS Thirty-two male Sqrague-Dawley rats aged 4 weeks were randomly divided into four groups (n=8) and fed the following diets for 5 weeks: normal food diet, (NF); a high-fat diet (HF); and a high-fat diet + 0.5% or 1.5% black garlic extract (HFBG0.5 or HFBG1.5). Body weights and blood biochemical parameters, including lipid profiles, and expressions of genes related to lipid metabolism were determined. RESULTS Significant differences were observed in the final weights between the HFBG1.5 and HF groups. All blood biochemical parameters measured in the HFBG1.5 group showed significantly lower values than those in the HF group. Significant improvements of the plasama lipid profiles as well as fecal excretions of total lipids and triglyceride (TG) were also observed in the HFBG1.5 group, when compared to the HF diet group. There were significant differences in the levels of mRNA of sterol regulatory element binding protein-1c (SREBP-1c), acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC), fatty acid synthase (FAS), and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PDH) in the HFBG1.5 group compared to the HF group. In addition, the hepatic expression of (HMG-CoA) reductase and Acyl-CoA cholesterol acyltransferase (ACAT) mRNA was also significantly lower than the HF group. CONCLUSIONS Consumption of black garlic extract lowers SREBP-1C mRNA expression, which causes downregulation of lipid and cholestrol metahbolism. As a result, the blood levels of total lipids, TG, and cholesterol were decreased. PMID:25671065

  16. Factors influencing 14C concentrations of algal and archaeal lipids and their associated sea surface temperature proxies in the Black Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kusch, Stephanie; Rethemeyer, Janet; Hopmans, Ellen C.; Wacker, Lukas; Mollenhauer, Gesine

    2016-09-01

    Understanding the preservation and deposition history of organic molecules is crucial for the understanding of paleoenvironmental information contained in their abundance ratios such as Uk‧37 and TEX86 used as proxies for sea surface temperature (SST). Based on their relatively high refractivity, alkenones and glycerol dialkyl glycerol tetraethers (GDGTs) can survive postdepositional processes like lateral transport, potentially causing inferred SSTs to be misleading. Likewise, selective preservation of alkenones and GDGTs may cause biases of the SST proxies themselves and can lead to decoupling of both proxy records. Here we report compound-specific radiocarbon data of marine biomarkers including alkenones, GDGTs, and low molecular weight (LMW) n-fatty acids from Black Sea sediments deposited under different redox regimes to evaluate the potentially differential preservation of both biomarker classes and its effect on the SST indices Uk‧37 and TEX86. The decadal Δ14C values of alkenones, GDGTs, and LMW n-fatty acids indicate similar preservation under oxic, suboxic, and anoxic redox regimes and no contribution of pre-aged compounds, e.g., by lateral supply. Moreover, similar 14C concentrations of crenarchaeol, alkenones, and LMW n-fatty acids imply that the thaumarchaeotal GDGTs preserved in these sediments are produced in the euphotic zone rather than in subsurface/thermocline waters. However, we observe biomarker-based SSTs that strongly deviate (ΔSST up to 8.4 °C) from in situ measured mean annual SSTs in the Black Sea. This is not due to redox-dependent differential biomarker preservation as implied by their Δ14C values and spatial SST pattern. Since contributions from different sources can largely be excluded, the deviation of the Uk‧37 and TEX86 proxy-derived SSTs from in situ SSTs requires further study of phylogenetic and other yet unknown environmental controls on alkenone and GDGT lipid distributions in the Black Sea.

  17. Total milk fat extraction and quantification of polar and neutral lipids of cow, goat, and ewe milk by using a pressurized liquid system and chromatographic techniques.

    PubMed

    Castro-Gómez, M P; Rodriguez-Alcalá, L M; Calvo, M V; Romero, J; Mendiola, J A; Ibañez, E; Fontecha, J

    2014-11-01

    Although milk polar lipids such as phospholipids and sphingolipids located in the milk fat globule membrane constitute 0.1 to 1% of the total milk fat, those lipid fractions are gaining increasing interest because of their potential beneficial effects on human health and technological properties. In this context, the accurate quantification of the milk polar lipids is crucial for comparison of different milk species, products, or dairy treatments. Although the official International Organization for Standardization-International Dairy Federation method for milk lipid extraction gives satisfactory results for neutral lipids, it has important disadvantages in terms of polar lipid losses. Other methods using mixtures of solvents such as chloroform:methanol are highly efficient for extracting polar lipids but are also associated with low sample throughput, long time, and large solvent consumption. As an alternative, we have optimized the milk fat extraction yield by using a pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) method at different temperatures and times in comparison with those traditional lipid extraction procedures using 2:1 chloroform:methanol as a mixture of solvents. Comparison of classical extraction methods with the developed PLE procedure were carried out using raw whole milk from different species (cows, ewes, and goats) and considering fat yield, fatty acid methyl ester composition, triacylglyceride species, cholesterol content, and lipid class compositions, with special attention to polar lipids such as phospholipids and sphingolipids. The developed PLE procedure was validated for milk fat extraction and the results show that this method performs a complete or close to complete extraction of all lipid classes and in less time than the official and Folch methods. In conclusion, the PLE method optimized in this study could be an alternative to carry out milk fat extraction as a routine method. PMID:25200790

  18. Olive Leaf Extract Elevates Hepatic PPAR α mRNA Expression and Improves Serum Lipid Profiles in Ovariectomized Rats.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Leena; Liu, Ya-Nan; Park, Hyunjin; Kim, Hyun-Sook

    2015-07-01

    We hypothesized that olive leaf extract might alleviate dyslipidemia resulting from estrogen deficiency. Serum lipid profile and mRNA expression of the related genes in the liver and adipose tissue were analyzed after providing olive leaf extract (200 or 400 mg/kg body weight; n=7 for each group) to ovariectomized rats for 10 weeks. After 10 weeks' administration, the rats in the olive leaf extract-administered groups showed significantly lower levels of serum triglyceride and very-low-density lipoprotein (VLDL)-cholesterol compared with the rats in the control group, whereas the administration of olive leaf extract did not significantly change the elevated low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels. In addition, administration of high dose of olive leaf extract significantly decreased the liver triglyceride and increased serum estradiol levels. mRNA expressions of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPAR α) and acyl-CoA oxidase (ACO) were not affected by ovariectomy, however, administration of olive leaf extract significantly increased both PPAR α and ACO mRNA expression. Expression of adiponectin mRNA in adipose tissue was significantly decreased in the ovariectomized control group. Rats administered low-dose olive leaf extract showed significantly elevated adiponectin mRNA expression compared with rats in the ovariectomized control group. Even though dose-dependent effects were not observed in most of the measurements, these results suggest that genes involved in lipid metabolism may be regulated by olive leaf extract administration in ovariectomized rats. PMID:25714618

  19. Olive Leaf Extract Elevates Hepatic PPAR α mRNA Expression and Improves Serum Lipid Profiles in Ovariectomized Rats

    PubMed Central

    Yoon, Leena; Liu, Ya-Nan; Park, Hyunjin

    2015-01-01

    Abstract We hypothesized that olive leaf extract might alleviate dyslipidemia resulting from estrogen deficiency. Serum lipid profile and mRNA expression of the related genes in the liver and adipose tissue were analyzed after providing olive leaf extract (200 or 400 mg/kg body weight; n=7 for each group) to ovariectomized rats for 10 weeks. After 10 weeks' administration, the rats in the olive leaf extract-administered groups showed significantly lower levels of serum triglyceride and very-low-density lipoprotein (VLDL)-cholesterol compared with the rats in the control group, whereas the administration of olive leaf extract did not significantly change the elevated low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels. In addition, administration of high dose of olive leaf extract significantly decreased the liver triglyceride and increased serum estradiol levels. mRNA expressions of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPAR α) and acyl-CoA oxidase (ACO) were not affected by ovariectomy, however, administration of olive leaf extract significantly increased both PPAR α and ACO mRNA expression. Expression of adiponectin mRNA in adipose tissue was significantly decreased in the ovariectomized control group. Rats administered low-dose olive leaf extract showed significantly elevated adiponectin mRNA expression compared with rats in the ovariectomized control group. Even though dose-dependent effects were not observed in most of the measurements, these results suggest that genes involved in lipid metabolism may be regulated by olive leaf extract administration in ovariectomized rats. PMID:25714618

  20. Antioxidant properties of aqueous extracts of unripe Musa paradisiaca on sodium nitroprusside induced lipid peroxidation in rat pancreas in vitro

    PubMed Central

    Shodehinde, Sidiqat Adamson; Oboh, Ganiyu

    2013-01-01

    Objective To evaluate and compare antioxidant activities of the aqueous extracts of unripe plantain (Musa paradisiaca), assess their inhibitory action on sodium nitroprusside induced lipid peroxidation in rat pancreas in vitro and to characterize the main phenolic constituents of the plantain products using gas chromatography analysis. Methods Aqueous extracts of plantain products (raw, elastic pastry, roasted and boiled) flour of 0.1 g/mL (each) were used to determine their total phenol, total flavonoid, 1,1 diphenyl-2 picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and hydroxyl (OH) radical scavenging ability. The inhibitory effect of the extracts on sodium nitroprusside induced lipid peroxidation was also determined. Results The results revealed that all the aqueous extracts showed antioxidant activity. The boiled flour had highest DPPH and OH radical scavenging ability while raw flour had the highest Fe2+ chelating ability, sodium nitroprusside inhibitory effect and vitamin C content. The antioxidant results showed that elastic pastry had the highest total phenol and total flavonoid content. Characterization of the unripe plantain products for polyphenol contents using gas chromatography showed varied quantity of apigenin, myricetin, luteolin, capsaicin, isorhaemnetin, caffeic acid, kampferol, quercetin, p-hydroxybenzoic acid, shogaol, glycitein and gingerol per product on the spectra. Conclusions Considering the antioxidant activities and ability to inhibit lipid peroxidation of unripe plantain, this could justify their traditional use in the management/prevention of diseases related to stress. PMID:23730557

  1. Development of Hydrothermal Liquefaction and Upgrading Technologies for Lipid-Extracted Algae Conversion to Liquid Fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Zhu, Yunhua; Albrecht, Karl O.; Elliott, Douglas C.; Hallen, Richard T.; Jones, Susanne B.

    2013-10-01

    Bench-scale tests were performed for lipid-extracted microalgae (LEA) conversion to liquid fuels via hydrotreating liquefaction (HTL) and upgrading processes. Process simulation and economic analysis for a large-scale LEA HTL and upgrading system were developed based on the best available test results. The system assumes an LEA feed rate of 608 dry metric ton/day and that the feedstock is converted to a crude HTL bio-oil and further upgraded via hydrotreating and hydrocracking to produce liquid hydrocarbon fuels, mainly alkanes. Performance and cost results demonstrate that HTL would be an effective option to convert LEA to liquid fuel. The liquid fuels annual yield was estimated to be 26.9 million gallon gasoline-equivalent and the overall energy efficiency at higher heating value basis was estimated to be 69.5%. The minimum fuel selling price (MFSP) was estimated to be $0.75/L with LEA feedstock price at $33.1 metric ton at dry basis and 10% internal rate of return. A sensitivity analysis indicated that the largest effects to production cost would come from the final products yields and the upgrading equipments cost. The impact of plant scale on MFSP was also investigated.

  2. On-line solid-phase extraction coupled to liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry for the analysis of cyanotoxins in algal blooms.

    PubMed

    Fayad, Paul B; Roy-Lachapelle, Audrey; Duy, Sung Vo; Prévost, Michèle; Sauvé, Sébastien

    2015-12-15

    An analytical method based on on-line SPE-LC-HESI-MS/MS has been developed for the detection and quantification of eight selected cyanotoxins in algal bloom waters that include mycrocystins, anatoxin-a and cylindrospermopsin. The injection volume was 2 mL according to the expected concentration of cyanotoxins in matrix. The method provides an analysis time of 7 min per sample, acceptable recovery values (91-101%), good precision (RSD < 13%) and method limits of detection at the sub-microgram per liter levels (0.01-0.02 μg L(-1)). A detailed discussion on optimization parameters that have an impact on the overall performance of the method are presented. In particular, method optimization permitted the chromatographic separation of anatoxin-a and phenylalanine, an isobaric interference with a similar chromatographic characteristics. All optimization and validation experiments for the on-line SPE method and chromatographic separation were performed in environmentally relevant algal bloom water matrices. The applicability of the method was tested on several algal bloom water samples from monitored lakes across the province of Québec (Québec, Canada) known to produce cyanotoxins. All of the targeted cyanotoxins were detected with the exception of cylindrospermopsin. In addition, it was found that total microcystin concentrations in several surface water samples exceeded the proposed guidelines established by the province of Québec in Canada of 1.5 μg L(-1) as well as the World Health Organization of 1 μg L(-1) for both free and cell-bound microcystin-LR equivalent. PMID:26494036

  3. Ethanolic extract of Commiphora mukul gum resin attenuates streptozotocin-induced alterations in carbohydrate and lipid metabolism in rats

    PubMed Central

    Ramesh, B.; Karuna, R.; Sreenivasa Reddy, S.; Sudhakara, G.; Saralakumari, D.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of Commiphora mukul gum resin ethanolic extract (CMEEt) administration against altered activities of key enzymes of carbohydrate metabolism, lipid metabolism and changes in glycogen content (liver and muscle) and lipids (liver and heart) in streptozotocin (STZ) induced insulin deficient diabetic Wistar albino rats. Diabetes was induced by intraperitoneal injection of STZ (55 mg/kg body wt) to male Wistar rats. The animals were divided into four groups: Control (C), control-treated (C+CM), diabetic (D) and diabetic-treated group (D+CM). Diabetic-treated and control-treated rats were treated with C. mukul gum resin ethanolic extract (CMEEt) in 2 ml distilled water, orally (200 mg/kg body weight/day for 60 days). At the end of the experimental period, biochemical parameters related to carbohydrate and lipid metabolism were assayed. The significant enhancement in tissue lipids (heart and liver) total cholesterol, triglycerides, phospholipids and free fatty acids of diabetic rats were nearer to normalized in diabetic treated rats (D+CM). Alterations in the activities of enzymes of glucose metabolism (hexokinase, phosphofructokinase, pyruvate kinase, and glucose-6-phosphatase, fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase) and lipid metabolism (fatty acid synthase, malic enzyme and lipoprotein lipase) as observed in diabetic (D) rats were prevented with CMEEt administration. In conclusion, our findings indicate improvement of glucose and lipid metabolisms in STZ induced diabetic rats by treatment with Commiphora mukul and suggest that the plant can be used as an adjuvant for the prevention and/or management of insulin deficiency and disorder related to it. PMID:27004047

  4. Optimization of ultrasound-assisted extraction parameters of chlorophyll from Chlorella vulgaris residue after lipid separation using response surface methodology.

    PubMed

    Kong, Weibao; Liu, Na; Zhang, Ji; Yang, Qi; Hua, Shaofeng; Song, Hao; Xia, Chungu

    2014-09-01

    An investigation into ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) was conducted for the extraction of chlorophyll from Chlorella vulgaris residue after lipid separation. The best possible combination of extraction parameters was obtained with the response surface methodology (RSM), at a three-variable, three-level experiment Box-Behnken design (BBD). The optimum extraction parameters were as follows: extraction temperature, 61.4 °C, extraction time, 78.7 min, ethanol volume, 79.4 %, at a fixed ultrasonic power of 200 W. Under the modified optimal conditions, the model predicted a total chlorophyll content of 30.1 mg/g. Verification of the optimization showed that chlorophyll extraction of 31.1 ± 1.56 mg/g was observed under the optimal conditions, which well matches with the predicted value. Under these conditions, two stage extraction could sufficiently reach the maximal chlorophyll yield (35.2 mg/g), and the extraction rate reached up to 88.9 %. The present paper provides a feasible technology route for comprehensive utilization of bioactive substances from Chlorella and microalgal biomass biorefinery. PMID:25190857

  5. Harmful Algal Blooms (HABs)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Topics Eighth Annual National Conference on Health Communication, Marketing & Media August 19-21, 2014 Atlanta, GA Harmful Algal Blooms Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir On this Page What's the ...

  6. Effects of Aralia mandshurica and Engelhardtia chrysolepis extracts on some parameters of lipid metabolism in women with nondiabetic obesity.

    PubMed

    Abidov, M T; del Rio, M J; Ramazanov, T Z; Klimenov, A L; Dzhamirze, Sh; Kalyuzhin, O V

    2006-03-01

    The effects of oral treatment with Aralox phytopreparation containing Aralia mandshurica (Araliaceae) and Engelhardtia chrysolepis (Juglandaceae) extracts on some parameters of lipid metabolism was studied in women with nondiabetic obesity receiving low-caloric diet. Our randomized placebo-controlled study comprising 32 volunteers showed that aralox treatment led to a decrease in total body weight and fat weight, reduced perilipin content in adipocytes and plasma triglyceride content, and stimulated activity of hormone-sensitive lipase. PMID:17073156

  7. A new PAMPA model using an in-house brain lipid extract for screening the blood-brain barrier permeability of drug candidates.

    PubMed

    Bicker, Joana; Alves, Gilberto; Fortuna, Ana; Soares-da-Silva, Patrício; Falcão, Amílcar

    2016-03-30

    The determination of the permeability of drug candidates across the blood-brain barrier (BBB) is a fundamental step during drug discovery programs. The parallel artificial membrane permeability assay (PAMPA) is a high throughput screening tool applied to evaluate the passive permeability and adapted to predict BBB penetration. Herein, a new PAMPA model was developed using an in-house brain lipid extract capable of discriminating BBB permeable from non-permeable compounds. The apparent permeability (Papp) of 18 reference molecules and 10 test compounds was assessed and compared with phosphatidylcholine and commercial porcine polar brain lipid (PBL). The physicochemical selectivity of the in-house brain lipid extract was demonstrated by correlating Papp values with physicochemical properties and its predictive capacity estimated by establishing in vitro-in vivo correlations. The strong correlations achieved between 2% (w/v) in-house lipid extract and PBL for reference (r(2)=0.77) and test compounds (r(2)=0.94) support an equivalent discriminatory capacity and validate the presented model. Moreover, PAMPA studies performed with PBL and in-house lipid extract exhibited a higher correlation with the in vivo parameter logBB (r(2)=0.76 and r(2)=0.72, respectively) than phosphatidylcholine (r(2)=0.51). Overall, the applied lipid extraction process was reproducible, economical and provided lipid extracts that can be used to reliably assess BBB permeation. PMID:26836708

  8. Lipid Lowering Effects of Hydroalcoholic Extract of Anethum graveolens L. and Dill Tablet in High Cholesterol Fed Hamsters.

    PubMed

    Abbasi Oshaghi, Ebrahim; Khodadadi, Iraj; Saidijam, Massoud; Yadegarazari, Reza; Shabab, Nooshin; Tavilani, Heidar; Goodarzi, Mohamad Taghi

    2015-01-01

    Objective. This study was aimed to determine the effect of Anethum graveolens extract and Anethum graveolens (dill) tablet on lipid profile, liver enzymes, and gene expression and enzymatic activity of HMG-CoA reductase in high cholesterol fed hamsters. Materials and Methods. Golden Syrian male hamsters (130 ± 10 g) were randomly divided into 6 groups (n = 6) and received daily the following: group 1 received chow + 2% cholesterol + 0.5% cholic acid (HCD), groups 2 and 3 received HCD diet plus 100 and 200 mg/kg hydroalcoholic extract of dill, respectively, and groups 4 and 5 received HCD diet plus 100 and 200 mg/kg dill tablet, respectively. Group 6 received only chow. After 1 month feeding serum biochemical factors were determined. HMG-CoA reductase mRNA level was measured (real-time PCR) and its activity was determined spectrophotometrically. Results. Compared with hypercholesterolemic group 1, lipid profile, blood glucose, and liver enzymes significantly decreased in all dill tablet or dill extract treated groups (p < 0.05). The changes in HMG-CoA reductase gene expression level and enzyme activity significantly reduced in animals that received 200 mg/kg of extract or tablet. Conclusion. Dill extract and dill tablet showed potential hypocholesterolemic properties in hamsters by inhibition of HMG-CoA reductase activity. PMID:26823981

  9. Lipid Lowering Effects of Hydroalcoholic Extract of Anethum graveolens L. and Dill Tablet in High Cholesterol Fed Hamsters

    PubMed Central

    Abbasi Oshaghi, Ebrahim; Khodadadi, Iraj; Saidijam, Massoud; Yadegarazari, Reza; Shabab, Nooshin; Tavilani, Heidar; Goodarzi, Mohamad Taghi

    2015-01-01

    Objective. This study was aimed to determine the effect of Anethum graveolens extract and Anethum graveolens (dill) tablet on lipid profile, liver enzymes, and gene expression and enzymatic activity of HMG-CoA reductase in high cholesterol fed hamsters. Materials and Methods. Golden Syrian male hamsters (130 ± 10 g) were randomly divided into 6 groups (n = 6) and received daily the following: group 1 received chow + 2% cholesterol + 0.5% cholic acid (HCD), groups 2 and 3 received HCD diet plus 100 and 200 mg/kg hydroalcoholic extract of dill, respectively, and groups 4 and 5 received HCD diet plus 100 and 200 mg/kg dill tablet, respectively. Group 6 received only chow. After 1 month feeding serum biochemical factors were determined. HMG-CoA reductase mRNA level was measured (real-time PCR) and its activity was determined spectrophotometrically. Results. Compared with hypercholesterolemic group 1, lipid profile, blood glucose, and liver enzymes significantly decreased in all dill tablet or dill extract treated groups (p < 0.05). The changes in HMG-CoA reductase gene expression level and enzyme activity significantly reduced in animals that received 200 mg/kg of extract or tablet. Conclusion. Dill extract and dill tablet showed potential hypocholesterolemic properties in hamsters by inhibition of HMG-CoA reductase activity. PMID:26823981

  10. Therapeutic effect of aqueous extracts of three dietary spices and their mixture on lipid metabolism and oxidative stress in a rat model of chronic alcohol consumption.

    PubMed

    Otunola, Gloria Aderonke; Afolayan, Anthony Jide

    2016-07-01

    The protective effect of aqueous extracts of three dietary spices, garlic, (Allium sativum), ginger (Zingiber officinale) and pepper (Capsicum frutescens) singly and combined was investigated using a rat model of chronic alcohol intake. Rats were given 30% ethanol, with or without aqueous extracts of garlic, ginger, pepper or mixture of the three administered at 200mg/kg body weight by oral gavage for 28 days. Lipid profile, lipid peroxidation, oxidative and antioxidative profiles of serum, faecal, liver, kidney, heart and brain tissues of the rats were analyzed. Alcohol treatment significantly elevated liver enzymes, lipid peroxidation, depleted antioxidant system and induced histopathological changes in the liver. These alterations were markedly ameliorated by treatment with aqueous extracts of the three spices singly or mixed at 200mg/kg body weight. These results suggest that aqueous extracts of garlic, ginger, pepper or a blend of the three protects against alcohol- induced hypercholesterolemia, lipid peroxidation, oxidative stress and liver damage. PMID:27393449

  11. Multiplex microfluidic system integrating sequential operations of microalgal lipid production.

    PubMed

    Kwak, Ho Seok; Kim, Jaoon Young Hwan; Na, Sang Cheol; Jeon, Noo Li; Sim, Sang Jun

    2016-02-21

    The unit cost for the production of algal biofuel needs to be reduced in order to be a substitute for fossil fuel. To achieve this goal, the development of a novel system is needed for a rapid screening of numerous microalgal species to isolate superior strains with the highest lipid productivity. Here, we developed a PDMS-based multiplex microfluidic system with eight chambers and micropillar arrays to expedite multiple steps for lipid sample preparation from different microalgal strains. We could rapidly and efficiently perform sequential operations from cell culture to lipid extraction of eight different microalgal strains simultaneously on a single device without harvesting and purification steps, which are labor- and energy-intensive, by the simple injection of medium and solvent into the central inlet due to the integrated micropillar arrays connecting the chambers and central inlet. The lipid extraction efficiency using this system was comparable (94.5-102.6%) to the conventional Bligh-Dyer method. We investigated the cell growth and lipid productivity of different strains using the microfluidic device. We observed that each strain has a different lipid accumulation pattern according to stress conditions. These results demonstrate that our multiplex microfluidic approach can provide an efficient analytical tool for the rapid analysis of strain performances (e.g. cell growth and lipid productivities) and the determination of the optimal lipid induction condition for each strain. PMID:26783562

  12. Ethanolic extract of Nigella sativa protects Fe(II) induced lipid peroxidation in rat's brain, kidney and liver homogenates.

    PubMed

    Hassan, Waseem; Noreen, Hamsa; Khalil, ShafqatUllah; Hussain, Arshad; Rehman, Shakilla; Sajjad, Shagufta; Rahman, Ataur; da Rocha, Joao B T

    2016-01-01

    The study describes the effect of ethanolic extract of Nigella sativa against Fe(II) induced lipid peroxidation. Basal and Fe(II) induced thiobarbituric acid reactive species (TBARS) production was significantly inhibited by the ethanolic extract of Nigella sativa at 25-200 μg/ml. Our data revealed that the extract has high DPPH radical scavenging activity at highest tested concentrations. The extract significantly chelated Fe(II) and scavenged hydroxyl (OH) radical at 25-200μg/ml concentration. The nutritional analysis was performed and carbohydrate, fats, fiber, protein, moisture and ash content were measured in the studied extract. The phytochemical analysis confirmed the presence of alkaloid, carbohydrate & sugar, glycosides, phenolic compounds, flavonoids, protein and amino acid, phytosterols, tannins, gum and mucilage. The extract also showed significant antimicrobial activities against 10 bacterial strains i.e. Salmonella typhi, Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus cereus, Klebsiella pneumonia, Escheria coli, Xanthomonas, Salmonella heidelberg, Staphylococcus aureus, Clostridium and Escheria coli (human) and 5 fungal strains i.e. Aspergillus niger, Entomola, Aspergillus flavus, Alternaria alternata and Penicillium. This study confirms the potential antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of ethanolic extract of Nigella sativa which can be considered not only as a diet supplement but can be used against a variety of free radical induced damage diseases. PMID:26826815

  13. Lipid Extracted Microalgal Biomass Residue as a Fertilizer Substitute for Zea mays L.

    PubMed

    Maurya, Rahulkumar; Chokshi, Kaumeel; Ghosh, Tonmoy; Trivedi, Khanjan; Pancha, Imran; Kubavat, Denish; Mishra, Sandhya; Ghosh, Arup

    2015-01-01

    High volumes of lipid extracted microalgal biomass residues (LMBRs) are expected to be produced upon commencement of biodiesel production on a large scale, thus necessitating its value addition for sustainable development. LMBRs of Chlorella variabilis and Lyngbya majuscula were employed to substitute the nitrogen content of recommended rate of fertilizer (RRF) for Zea mays L. The pot experiment comprised of 10 treatments, i.e., T1 (No fertilizer); T2 (RRF-120 N: 60 P2O5: 40 K2O kg ha(-1)); T3 to T6-100, 75, 50, and 25% N through LMBR of the Chlorella sp., respectively; T7 to T10-100, 75, 50, and 25% N through LMBR of Lyngbya sp., respectively. It was found that all LMBR substitution treatments were at par to RRF with respect to grain yield production. T10 gave the highest grain yield (65.16 g plant(-1)), which was closely followed by that (63.48 g plant(-1)) under T5. T10 also recorded the highest phosphorus and potassium contents in grains. T4 was markedly superior over control in terms of dry matter accumulation (DMA) as well as carbohydrate content, which was ascribed to higher pigment content and photosynthetic activity in leaves. Even though considerably lower DMA was obtained in Lyngbya treatments, which might have been due to the presence of some toxic factors, no reduction in grain yield was apparent. The length of the tassel was significantly higher in either of the LMBRs at any substitution rates over RRF, except T6 and T7. The ascorbate peroxidase activity decreased with decreasing dose of Chlorella LMBR, while all the Lyngbya LMBR treatments recorded lower activity, which were at par with each other. Among the Chlorella treatments, only T5 recorded significantly higher values of glutathione reductase activity over RRF, while the rest were at par. There were significant increases in carbohydrate and crude fat, respectively, only in T4 and T3 over RRF, while no change was observed in crude protein due to LMBR treatments. Apparently, there was no

  14. Lipid Extracted Microalgal Biomass Residue as a Fertilizer Substitute for Zea mays L.

    PubMed Central

    Maurya, Rahulkumar; Chokshi, Kaumeel; Ghosh, Tonmoy; Trivedi, Khanjan; Pancha, Imran; Kubavat, Denish; Mishra, Sandhya; Ghosh, Arup

    2016-01-01

    High volumes of lipid extracted microalgal biomass residues (LMBRs) are expected to be produced upon commencement of biodiesel production on a large scale, thus necessitating its value addition for sustainable development. LMBRs of Chlorella variabilis and Lyngbya majuscula were employed to substitute the nitrogen content of recommended rate of fertilizer (RRF) for Zea mays L. The pot experiment comprised of 10 treatments, i.e., T1 (No fertilizer); T2 (RRF-120 N: 60 P2O5: 40 K2O kg ha−1); T3 to T6—100, 75, 50, and 25% N through LMBR of the Chlorella sp., respectively; T7 to T10—100, 75, 50, and 25% N through LMBR of Lyngbya sp., respectively. It was found that all LMBR substitution treatments were at par to RRF with respect to grain yield production. T10 gave the highest grain yield (65.16 g plant−1), which was closely followed by that (63.48 g plant−1) under T5. T10 also recorded the highest phosphorus and potassium contents in grains. T4 was markedly superior over control in terms of dry matter accumulation (DMA) as well as carbohydrate content, which was ascribed to higher pigment content and photosynthetic activity in leaves. Even though considerably lower DMA was obtained in Lyngbya treatments, which might have been due to the presence of some toxic factors, no reduction in grain yield was apparent. The length of the tassel was significantly higher in either of the LMBRs at any substitution rates over RRF, except T6 and T7. The ascorbate peroxidase activity decreased with decreasing dose of Chlorella LMBR, while all the Lyngbya LMBR treatments recorded lower activity, which were at par with each other. Among the Chlorella treatments, only T5 recorded significantly higher values of glutathione reductase activity over RRF, while the rest were at par. There were significant increases in carbohydrate and crude fat, respectively, only in T4 and T3 over RRF, while no change was observed in crude protein due to LMBR treatments. Apparently, there was no

  15. Microalgal lipids biochemistry and biotechnological perspectives.

    PubMed

    Bellou, Stamatia; Baeshen, Mohammed N; Elazzazy, Ahmed M; Aggeli, Dimitra; Sayegh, Fotoon; Aggelis, George

    2014-12-01

    . Therefore, algal production systems need to be improved and harvesting systems need to be more effective in order for their industrial applications to become more competitive and economically viable. Besides, a reduction of the production cost of microalgal lipids can be achieved by combining lipid production with other commercial applications. The combined production of bioactive products and lipids, when possible, can support the commercial viability of both processes. Hydrophobic compounds can be extracted simultaneously with lipids and then purified, while hydrophilic compounds such as proteins and sugars may be extracted from the defatted biomass. The microalgae also have applications in environmental biotechnology since they can be used for bioremediation of wastewater and to monitor environmental toxicants. Algal biomass produced during wastewater treatment may be further valorized in the biofuel manufacture. It is anticipated that the high microalgal lipid potential will force research towards finding effective ways to manipulate biochemical pathways involved in lipid biosynthesis and towards cost effective algal cultivation and harvesting systems, as well. PMID:25449285

  16. Algal Bloom Detection from HICO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amin, Ruhul; Gould, Richard

    2014-05-01

    Ocean color satellites provide daily, global views of marine bio-optical properties in the upper ocean at various spatial scales. The most productive area of the global ocean is the coastal zone which is heavily impacted by urban and agricultural runoff, transportation, recreation, and oil and gas production. In recent years, harmful algal blooms (HABs) have become one of the serious environmental problems in the coastal areas on a global scale. The global nature of the problem has expanded in its frequency, severity, and extent over the last several decades. Human activities and population increases have contributed to an increase in various toxic and noxious algal species in the coastal regions worldwide. Eutrophication in estuaries and coastal waters is believed to be the major factor causing HABs. In this study, we assess the applicability of the Red Band Difference (RBD) HAB detection algorithm on data from the Hyperspectral Imager for the Coastal Ocean (HICO). Our preliminary results show that due to various uncertainties such as atmospheric correction, calibration and possibly also the relatively low signal-to-noise ratio of HICO for fluorescence detection, it is difficult to extract the fluorescence portion of the reflectance spectrum that RBD uses for bloom detection. We propose an improved bloom detection technique for HICO using red and NIR bands. Our results are validated using other space-borne and ground based measurements.

  17. Improvement of lipid profile and antioxidant of hypercholesterolemic albino rats by polysaccharides extracted from the green alga Ulva lactuca Linnaeus.

    PubMed

    Hassan, Sherif; El-Twab, Sanaa Abd; Hetta, Mona; Mahmoud, Basant

    2011-10-01

    Sulfated polysaccharides from Ulva lactuca were extracted in hot water and precipitated by ethanol then orally gavaged to rats fed on a hypercholesterolemic diet for 21 days to evaluate the antihypercholesterolemic and antioxidant actions. Atorvastatine Ca (Lipitor) was used as a reference drug. The intragastric administration of U. lactuca extract to hypercholesterolemic rats caused significant decrease of serum total lipids, triglycerides, total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol and vLDL-cholesterol levels. Whereas, HDL-cholesterol concentration was markedly increased by 180%. Aqueous extract showed a significant ameliorative action on elevated atherogenic index, creatine kinase and lactate dehydrogenase activities of hypercholesterolemic group. Furthermore, serum activities of transaminases and alkaline phosphatase were also improved. High fat diet intake caused a highly significantly elevated serum urea, creatinine concentration. These effects were reversed by oral administration of U. lactuca extract. Sulfates polysaccharides extract of U. lactuca ameliorate hepatic enzymatic (catalase, glutathione peroxidase and superoxide dismutase), non-enzymatic (reduced glutathione & total thiol) antioxidant defenses and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances. In conclusion, the tested U. lactuca polysaccharides extract has potent hypocholesterolemic and antioxidant effects in experimentally-induced hypercholesterolemic animal model. PMID:23961145

  18. Coupling of Algal Biofuel Production with Wastewater

    PubMed Central

    Panwar, Amit; Bisht, Tara Singh; Tamta, Sushma

    2014-01-01

    Microalgae have gained enormous consideration from scientific community worldwide emerging as a viable feedstock for a renewable energy source virtually being carbon neutral, high lipid content, and comparatively more advantageous to other sources of biofuels. Although microalgae are seen as a valuable source in majority part of the world for production of biofuels and bioproducts, still they are unable to accomplish sustainable large-scale algal biofuel production. Wastewater has organic and inorganic supplements required for algal growth. The coupling of microalgae with wastewater is an effective way of waste remediation and a cost-effective microalgal biofuel production. In this review article, we will primarily discuss the possibilities and current scenario regarding coupling of microalgal cultivation with biofuel production emphasizing recent progress in this area. PMID:24982930

  19. Ruminant Nutrition Symposium: The utility of lipid extracted algae as a protein source in forage or starch-based ruminant diets.

    PubMed

    Lodge-Ivey, S L; Tracey, L N; Salazar, A

    2014-04-01

    Two experiments were conducted to determine the influence of lipid extracted algae (LEA) on OM digestibility, N flow, and rumen fermentation. Six samples of LEA were evaluated representing 2 genus of microalgae (Nannochloropsis spp. [n = 3] or Chlorella spp. [n = 3]). Four dual-flow continuous flow fermenters (2,700 mL) were used in a Latin square design to evaluate LEA in forage or concentrate diets compared with soybean meal. Temperature (39 °C), pH, solid (5%/h) and liquid (10%/h) dilution rates, and feed schedule were maintained constant for all experiments. Each experimental period consisted of 6-d adaptation and 4-d sampling periods. There were 7 treatments consisting of 6 different samples of LEA and a soybean meal control (SOY). Diets for Exp.1 were formulated to be 13.0% CP (DM basis) using either soybean meal or LEA and met or exceeded the requirements of a nonpregnant and nonlactating beef cow (450 kg). The forage portion consisted of sorghum-sudan hay (6.4% CP and 46.2% TDN, DM basis) and alfalfa (26.1% CP and 82.3% TDN, DM basis). Concentrate diets used in Exp. 2 met or exceeded the nutrient requirements of a (400 kg) growing steer and contained 85% fine ground corn and included 7% (DM basis) soybean meal or LEA. Data were analyzed as mixed model considering the effect of each LEA compared with soybean meal. Orthogonal contrasts were used to determine the overall effect of LEA genus vs. SOY. True OM digestibility were not influenced by LEA addition to forage diets (P ≥ 0.08) but increased with Chlorella LEA addition to concentrate diets (P < 0.01) but not Nannochloropsis LEA. Degradation of N was greater for SOY with forage diets and LEA for concentrate diets (P < 0.0001). Total VFA production was greatest for SOY in forage diets and increased when LEA was added to concentrate diets (P < 0.0001). Microbial efficiency did not differ between SOY and LEA in forage diets (P ≤ 0.08). In concentrate diets Nannochloropsis decreased microbial efficiency

  20. The effect of hydroalcoholic extract and essential oil of Heracleum persicum on lipid profile in cholesterol-fed rabbits

    PubMed Central

    Hajhashemi, Valiollah; Dashti, Gholamreza; Saberi, Salabali; Malekjamshidi, Parvin

    2014-01-01

    Objective: This study was designed to investigate the effect of hydroalcoholic extract and essential oil of Heracleum persicum (Apiaceae) on lipid profile of male hyperlipidemic rabbits. Materials and Methods: Thirty rabbits were randomly divided into six groups of five each. One group received normal diet and the other groups fed with a high cholesterol (2% W/W) diet for 7 weeks. Vehicle, hydroalcoholic extract (500 and 1000 mg/kg), essential oil (200  l/kg), and lovastatin (5 mg/kg) were administered orally to animals and their effects on lipid profile were evaluated. Results: Essential oil of H. perscum significantly (p<0.05) lowered serum triglyceride level and increased HDL-cholesterol concentration. Moreover, hydroalcoholic extract (1000 mg/kg), essential oil (200  l/kg), and lovastatin significantly (p<0.01) reduced serum concentration of total cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol. Conclusion: These findings suggest that essential oil of the plant fruits may have some benefits in reducing cardiovascular risk factors. PMID:25050312

  1. Mass Spectrometric Collisional Activation and Product Ion Mobility of Human Serum Neutral Lipid Extracts

    PubMed Central

    Hankin, Joseph A.; Barkley, Robert M.; Zemski-Berry, Karin; Deng, Yiming; Murphy, Robert C.

    2016-01-01

    A novel method for lipid analysis called CTS (collisional activation and traveling wave mass spectrometry) involving tandem mass spectrometry of all precursor ions with ion mobility determinations of all product ions was applied to a sample of human serum. The resulting four dimensional data set (precursor ion, product ion, ion mobility values, and intensity) was found to be useful for characterization of lipids as classes as well as identification of specific species. Utilization of ion mobility measurements of the product ions is a novel approach for lipid analysis. The trends and patterns of product mobility values when visually displayed yield information on lipid classes and specific species independent of mass determination. The collection of a comprehensive set of data that incorporates all precursor-product relationships combined with ion mobility measurements of all products enables data analysis where different molecular properties can be juxtaposed and analyzed to assist with class and species identification. Overall, CTS is powerful, specific, and comprehensive method for lipid analysis. PMID:27213895

  2. Hawthorn Fruit Extract Elevates Expression of Nrf2/HO-1 and Improves Lipid Profiles in Ovariectomized Rats

    PubMed Central

    Yoo, Jeong-Hyun; Liu, Yanan; Kim, Hyun-Sook

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of hawthorn (Crataegus pinnatifida Bunge) extract on the lipid profiles and antioxidant properties in ovariectomized (OVX) rats. After ovariectomy, the rats were randomly divided into four groups: the non-OVX control (Sham), the OVX-control (OVX), the OVX + 100 mg/kg b.w. of hawthorn extract (OL), and the OVX + 200 mg/kg b.w. of hawthorn extract (OH). The final body weights of the OVX group were significantly increased, but the increment was significantly decreased in hawthorn groups (p < 0.05). The serum total and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol levels were significantly elevated in the OVX group, whereas the hawthorn groups showed a significant decrease in these levels (p < 0.05). The hepatic triglyceride (TG) and malondialdehyde (MDA) levels were significantly reduced in the hawthorn groups compared with the OVX group (p < 0.05). The mRNA expression of nuclear factor erythroid 2–related factor (Nrf2), heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) were significantly decreased in the OVX group, whereas the hawthorn groups exhibited a significant increase in expression (p < 0.05). The protein expressions of Nrf2, HO-1, and GPx were lower in the OVX group than the Sham group (p < 0.05). The oral administration of hawthorn extract reversed the suppression of protein levels. These results suggest that hawthorn extract could have protective effects in OVX rats by improving lipid profiles, decreasing oxidative stress, and improving the antioxidant defense system. PMID:27187458

  3. Hawthorn Fruit Extract Elevates Expression of Nrf2/HO-1 and Improves Lipid Profiles in Ovariectomized Rats.

    PubMed

    Yoo, Jeong-Hyun; Liu, Yanan; Kim, Hyun-Sook

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of hawthorn (Crataegus pinnatifida Bunge) extract on the lipid profiles and antioxidant properties in ovariectomized (OVX) rats. After ovariectomy, the rats were randomly divided into four groups: the non-OVX control (Sham), the OVX-control (OVX), the OVX + 100 mg/kg b.w. of hawthorn extract (OL), and the OVX + 200 mg/kg b.w. of hawthorn extract (OH). The final body weights of the OVX group were significantly increased, but the increment was significantly decreased in hawthorn groups (p < 0.05). The serum total and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol levels were significantly elevated in the OVX group, whereas the hawthorn groups showed a significant decrease in these levels (p < 0.05). The hepatic triglyceride (TG) and malondialdehyde (MDA) levels were significantly reduced in the hawthorn groups compared with the OVX group (p < 0.05). The mRNA expression of nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor (Nrf2), heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) were significantly decreased in the OVX group, whereas the hawthorn groups exhibited a significant increase in expression (p < 0.05). The protein expressions of Nrf2, HO-1, and GPx were lower in the OVX group than the Sham group (p < 0.05). The oral administration of hawthorn extract reversed the suppression of protein levels. These results suggest that hawthorn extract could have protective effects in OVX rats by improving lipid profiles, decreasing oxidative stress, and improving the antioxidant defense system. PMID:27187458

  4. Toward on-line measurement of algal properties

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Algai is a potential soruce of large amounts of lipids for conversion to hydrocarbon fuels. Industria-scale algai production requires process control, which further requires sensors to measure critical algal properties. One of the principal properties that needs to be measured in algae production is...

  5. Algal Biofuels Fact Sheet

    SciTech Connect

    2009-10-27

    This fact sheet provides information on algal biofuels, which are generating considerable interest around the world. They may represent a sustainable pathway for helping to meet the U.S. biofuel production targets set by the Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007.

  6. The effects of aqueous extract of alfalfa on blood glucose and lipids in alloxan-induced diabetic rats

    PubMed Central

    Amraie, Esmaiel; Farsani, Masome Khosravi; Sadeghi, Leila; Khan, Tayaba Naim; Adavi, Zohrab

    2015-01-01

    Diabetes is a common metabolic disorder that is specified by hyperglycemia resulting from defects in insulin secretion, insulin action, or both. The use of nonpharmacological treatments (herbal agents) is a new approach in the management of diabetes. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of aqueous extract of alfalfa on blood glucose and serum lipids in alloxan-induced diabetic rats. In this study, 32 female rats (210–250 g) were used which were divided randomly into 4 groups including intact control group, diabetic control group, and 2 diabetic groups which received 250 and 500 mg/kg doses of aqueous extract of alfalfa, respectively. In the diabetic groups, alloxan-monohydrate was injected peritoneally to create diabetic condition. The two last groups orally received aqueous extract of alfalfa for 21 days. At the end of experiment, sugar, cholesterol, triglycerides, high-density and low-density lipoprotein, and aspartate aminotransferase (ALT) and alanine aminotransferase (AST) levels were measured in the samples. Consumption of aqueous alfalfa extract significantly reduced glucose, cholesterol, triglycerides, and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) levels in the diabetic rats but enhanced high-density lipoprotein (HDL) levels. ALT and AST liver enzyme levels were also reduced in blood. Histological examination showed that the aqueous alfalfa extract caused reconstruction of damaged liver and enhanced Langerhans islets’ diameter in pancreas. Therefore, all signs of diabetes were improved by oral administration of alfalfa in defined dose. PMID:26525173

  7. Cinnamon extract regulates intestinal lipid metabolism related gene expression in primary enterocytes of rats

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Emerging evidence suggests that the small intestine is not a passive organ, but is actively involved in the regulation of lipid absorption, intracellular transport, and metabolism, and is closely linked to systemic lipoprotein metabolism. We have reported previously that the water-soluble components...

  8. Effects of lycopene and tomato paste extracts on DNA and lipid oxidation in LNCaP human prostate cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Eun-Sun; Bowen, Phyllis E

    2005-01-01

    Animal and epidemiological studies point to a cancer preventive/therapeutic role for tomato products and its antioxidant, lycopene. It is hypothesized that lycopene will behave as an antioxidant at low concentrations and as a prooxidant at high concentrations in LNCaP human prostate cancer cell culture systems. We characterized the antioxidant, and prooxidant effects of a hexane extract of tomato paste (TP) and water solubilized lycopene at different concentrations using a prostate cancer cell line. Placebo (5% triglyceride, Roche Inc.) was used as a control. After 6, 24 hr and 48 hr incubation, LNCaP cells were harvested and used for each measurement. Cellular proliferation was determined using the MTT colorimetric assay. Lycopene and TP hexane extract inhibited cell growth in a dose-dependent (0.1-50 microM lycopene) manner and growth inhibition was 55% and 35% at 1 microM lycopene and TP hexane extract, respectively after 48 hr incubation. The levels of 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine/deoxyguanosine (an oxidative DNA damage product) was significantly increased starting at 5 microM lycopene from both TP hexane extract and pure lycopene after 24 and 48 hr incubation with no protection at the lower concentrations. Malondialdehyde formation (a lipid peroxidation product measured by HPLC separation of the MDA-TBA adduct) was significantly reduced at low concentrations (0.1-1 microM) of lycopene in all treatments. Clinically relevant concentrations of lycopene and the tomato fraction containing lycopene significantly reduced LNCaP cancer cell survival which can only be partially explained by increased DNA damage at high lycopene concentrations (> 5 microM). Low concentrations of lycopene acted as a lipid antioxidant but did not protect DNA. PMID:16179751

  9. Antioxidant Activity of Allium hookeri Root Extract and Its Effect on Lipid Stability of Sulfur-fed Pork Patties

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    This study was performed to assess the antioxidant activity of Allium hookeri root extract (AHE) on lipid oxidation of raw sulfur-fed pork patties for 14 d of refrigerated storage. Different concentration of ethanol (0-100%) and time (1-12 h) were applied to determine the extraction condition. Water (0% ethanol) extraction for 1 h was selected as an optimal extraction condition of AHE for the following study showing the highest total phenolic content and total flavonoid content, as well as the strongest antioxidant activity. The 1% AHE (SP1), 3% AHE (SP2), and 0.05% ascorbic acid (SP3) were added into sulfur-fed pork patties against controls; SP0 (sulfur-fed pork patties with no AHE) and P0 (normal pork patties with no AHE). The pH values of P0 and SP0 significantly increased (p<0.05) than others on 14 d and redness of P0 showed the largest decrement during storage. P0 and SP0 showed higher production of conjugated dienes on d 7 than others (p<0.05). Thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) values were decreased in proportion to the increased level of AHE on 14 d (p<0.05) resulting in higher TBARS values on P0 and SP0 (p<0.05) and the negative correlation between AHE level and TBARS were also demonstrated (r=-0.910, p=0.001). Therefore, the results suggest that AHE effectively retarded the lipid oxidation rate of sulfur-fed pork patties indicating the potential usage of AHE as a natural preservative. PMID:26761799

  10. Resolving Mixed Algal Species in Hyperspectral Images

    PubMed Central

    Mehrubeoglu, Mehrube; Teng, Ming Y.; Zimba, Paul V.

    2014-01-01

    We investigated a lab-based hyperspectral imaging system's response from pure (single) and mixed (two) algal cultures containing known algae types and volumetric combinations to characterize the system's performance. The spectral response to volumetric changes in single and combinations of algal mixtures with known ratios were tested. Constrained linear spectral unmixing was applied to extract the algal content of the mixtures based on abundances that produced the lowest root mean square error. Percent prediction error was computed as the difference between actual percent volumetric content and abundances at minimum RMS error. Best prediction errors were computed as 0.4%, 0.4% and 6.3% for the mixed spectra from three independent experiments. The worst prediction errors were found as 5.6%, 5.4% and 13.4% for the same order of experiments. Additionally, Beer-Lambert's law was utilized to relate transmittance to different volumes of pure algal suspensions demonstrating linear logarithmic trends for optical property measurements. PMID:24451451

  11. Lipid-lowering effects of methanolic extract of Vernonia amygdalina leaves in rats fed on high cholesterol diet.

    PubMed

    Adaramoye, Oluwatosin A; Akintayo, Olajumoke; Achem, Jonah; Fafunso, Michael A

    2008-01-01

    We investigated the lipid-lowering effects of methanolic extract of Vernonia amygdalina (VA) leaves in rats fed an high cholesterol diet, and compared with a standard hypolipidemic drug, Questran (Qu). The effects of VA on the lipid profile were assessed by measuring the levels of total cholesterol, triglyceride, low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, lipid peroxidation (LPO), phospholipid, and glutathione (GSH) in the plasma and liver of the rats. Administration of cholesterol at a dose of 30 mg/0.3 ml, five times in a week for nine consecutive weeks resulted in a significant increase (p < 0.05) in plasma and post mitochondrial fraction (PMF) cholesterol levels by 33% and 55%, respectively. However, treatment with extract of VA at doses of 100 and 200 mg/kg caused a dose dependent reduction in the plasma and PMF cholesterol by 20%, 23% and 23%, 29%, respectively. Similar reduction in cholesterol levels was obtained in Qu-treated rats. Furthermore, VA at 200 mg/kg decreased the plasma and PMF LDL-cholesterol levels by 23% and 49%, and also decreased plasma and PMF triglyceride levels by 29% and 28%, respectively. Also, VA at 100 and 200 mg/kg caused a dose-dependent increase in plasma HDL-cholesterol levels by 41% and 59%, respectively. However, there were no significant differences (p > 0.05) in the PMF HDL-cholesterol and phospholipid levels of the treated rats when compared to hypercholesterolemic rats. There were significant decreases (p < 0.05) in the LPO levels of extract-treated rats. Precisely, VA at 100 and 200 mg/kg decreased the levels of plasma and PMF LPO by 38%, 42% and 35%, 45%, respectively. In addition, VA augmented the cholesterol-induced decrease in PMF glutathione levels of the rats. Taken together, these results suggest the lipid-lowering effects of VA and, probably serve as a new potential natural product for the treatment of hyperlipidemia. PMID:18629374

  12. Continuous-flow extractive desorption electrospray ionization coupled to normal phase separations and for direct lipid analysis from cell extracts.

    PubMed

    Li, Li; Schug, Kevin A

    2014-09-01

    Normal phase liquid chromatography is a common mode for chiral separations. Many chiral amines are used as drugs or are important intermediates for drug synthesis. Electrospray ionization mass spectrometry is well known for its high sensitivity. However, when using normal phase liquid chromatography, electrospray ionization is hampered by the poor ionization efficiency of analytes from organic eluents. Continuous-flow extractive desorption electrospray ionization, which introduces the eluents through a hypodermic needle into the electrospray plume is demonstrated here for its success to interface normal phase liquid chromatography to mass spectrometry detection. Such an approach was shown to be as or more sensitive than ultraviolet detection for a selected set of aromatic amine-functionalized enantiomers. Also demonstrated is the direct infusion of cell extracts to monitor phospholipids from three different bacterial cells. Despite their presence in non-electrospray-ionization-friendly extraction solvents, continuous-flow extractive desorption electrospray ionization enabled the sensitive detection of phospholipids and the ability to tune ion forms through incorporation of different spray modifiers. PMID:24923254

  13. Water Extract of Dolichos lablab Attenuates Hepatic Lipid Accumulation in a Cellular Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease Model.

    PubMed

    Im, A-Rang; Kim, Yun Hee; Lee, Hye Won; Song, Kwang Hoon

    2016-05-01

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a common chronic liver disease that is rising in prevalence worldwide. Therapeutic strategies for patients with NAFLD are limited by a lack of effective drugs. In this report, we show that Dolichos lablab water extract (DLL-Ex) protects against free fatty acid (FFA)-induced lipid accumulation and attenuates expression of genes involved in lipid droplet accumulation in cellular NAFLD models. The hepatoprotective effects and underlying mechanism of DLL-Ex were assessed using an in vitro cellular model in which NAFLD was simulated by inducing excessive FFA influx into hepatocytes. HepG2 cells were treated with DLL-Ex and FFAs for 24 h, after which intracellular lipid content was observed by using Nile Red and Oil Red O staining. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction was used to measure expression levels of genes related to FFA-mediated cellular energy depletion. Western blotting was used to measure protein levels of phosphorylated c-Jun N-terminal kinase, AMP-activated protein kinase alpha (AMPKα), and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ coactivator 1 alpha. In HepG2 cells, DLL-Ex inhibited expression of CD36, which regulates fatty acid uptake, as well as BODIPY-labeled fatty acid uptake. Additionally, DLL-Ex significantly attenuated FFA-mediated cellular energy depletion and mitochondrial membrane depolarization. Furthermore, DLL-Ex enhanced phosphorylation of AMPK, indicating that AMPK is a critical regulator of DLL-Ex-mediated inhibition of hepatic lipid accumulation, possibly through its antioxidative effect. These results demonstrate that DLL-Ex exerts potent anti-NAFLD activity, suggesting that it could be a potential adjuvant treatment for patients with NAFLD. PMID:27152979

  14. Effects of sphingolipid extracts on the morphological structure and lipid profile in an in vitro model of canine skin.

    PubMed

    Cerrato, Santiago; Ramió-Lluch, Laura; Brazís, Pilar; Fondevila, Dolors; Segarra, Sergi; Puigdemont, Anna

    2016-06-01

    Ceramides (CER) are essential sphingolipids of the stratum corneum (SC) that play an important role in maintaining cutaneous barrier function. Skin barrier defects occur in both human beings and dogs affected with atopic dermatitis, and have been associated with decreased CER concentrations and morphological alterations in the SC. The aim of the present study was to investigate the changes induced by three different sphingolipid extracts (SPE-1, SPE-2 and SPE-3) on the morphological structure and lipid composition of canine skin, using an in vitro model, whereby keratinocytes were seeded onto fibroblast-embedded collagen type I matrix at the air-liquid interface. Cell cultures were supplemented with SPE-1, SPE-2, SPE-3 or vehicle (control) for 14 days. The relative concentrations of lipids were determined by ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry. The ultrastructural morphology of samples was examined by transmission electron microscopy. SPE-1 induced significant elevation in total CERs, CER[NS], CER[NDS], CER[NP], CER[AS], CER[AP], CER[EOS] and CER[EOP] subclasses, whereas SPE-2 induced a significant elevation in total CER, CER[AP] and CER[EOS] compared with control conditions. Ultrastructural analysis revealed an increase in lamellar-lipid structures in the SC of SPE-1-treated samples. The findings demonstrated that SPE-1 stimulates production of CERs, as shown by changes in lipid composition and ultrastructural morphology. Thus, SPE-1 contributes to the formation of a well-organised SC and represents a potential therapeutic target for improving skin barrier function in atopic dermatitis. PMID:27256026

  15. Inhibition of lipid oxidation and rancidity in precooked pork patties by radical-scavenging licorice (Glycyrrhiza glabra) extract.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Jiang; Zhang, Xin; True, Alma D; Zhou, Lirong; Xiong, Youling L

    2013-11-01

    This study investigated the efficacy of licorice extract (LE) to curtail lipid oxidation and protect sensory attributes of ground pork during refrigerated and frozen storage. Pork patties (20% fat) were formulated with 0%, 0.02%, 0.05%, and 0.1% (meat basis) LE or rosemary extract (RE) as comparison or 0.01% (fat basis) BHA with 0 or 1.5% NaCl. Raw and precooked (75 °C) patties were packaged in polyvinylchloride overwrapped trays and stored at 2 °C up to 7 and 14 d, respectively, or at -20 °C up to 6 mo. Lipid oxidation (thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances [TBARS]) and sensory attributes of stored patty samples were evaluated, radical scavenging activity of the LE was measured, and the active phenolic compounds were identified. Cooking yield (<85%) was similar among antioxidant treatments, and lipid oxidation was minimal in refrigerated or frozen raw samples. However, TBARS values in refrigerated precooked control patties (0.22 mg/kg) rose to 9.3 to 9.4 mg/kg after 14 d, compared to 3.4 to 4.4 and 4.4 to 6.9 mg/kg in patties treated with 0.1% LE and RE, respectively. In frozen precooked samples, TBARS (0.22 mg/kg) increased to 1.3 mg/kg (P < 0.05) in control patties after 6 mo and had no significant change in patties treated with 0.1% LE or 0.01% butylated hydroxyanisol. Sensory panel evaluation confirmed strong inhibition of rancidity production by LE, corroborating its remarkable antiradical activity due to the presence of multiple phenolics. The results indicate that licorice has great potential as a natural antioxidative additive to extend the shelf-life of precooked pork. PMID:24245886

  16. Algal functional annotation tool

    2012-07-12

    Abstract BACKGROUND: Progress in genome sequencing is proceeding at an exponential pace, and several new algal genomes are becoming available every year. One of the challenges facing the community is the association of protein sequences encoded in the genomes with biological function. While most genome assembly projects generate annotations for predicted protein sequences, they are usually limited and integrate functional terms from a limited number of databases. Another challenge is the use of annotations tomore » interpret large lists of 'interesting' genes generated by genome-scale datasets. Previously, these gene lists had to be analyzed across several independent biological databases, often on a gene-by-gene basis. In contrast, several annotation databases, such as DAVID, integrate data from multiple functional databases and reveal underlying biological themes of large gene lists. While several such databases have been constructed for animals, none is currently available for the study of algae. Due to renewed interest in algae as potential sources of biofuels and the emergence of multiple algal genome sequences, a significant need has arisen for such a database to process the growing compendiums of algal genomic data. DESCRIPTION: The Algal Functional Annotation Tool is a web-based comprehensive analysis suite integrating annotation data from several pathway, ontology, and protein family databases. The current version provides annotation for the model alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, and in the future will include additional genomes. The site allows users to interpret large gene lists by identifying associated functional terms, and their enrichment. Additionally, expression data for several experimental conditions were compiled and analyzed to provide an expression-based enrichment search. A tool to search for functionally-related genes based on gene expression across these conditions is also provided. Other features include dynamic visualization of genes on

  17. Algal functional annotation tool

    SciTech Connect

    2012-07-12

    Abstract BACKGROUND: Progress in genome sequencing is proceeding at an exponential pace, and several new algal genomes are becoming available every year. One of the challenges facing the community is the association of protein sequences encoded in the genomes with biological function. While most genome assembly projects generate annotations for predicted protein sequences, they are usually limited and integrate functional terms from a limited number of databases. Another challenge is the use of annotations to interpret large lists of 'interesting' genes generated by genome-scale datasets. Previously, these gene lists had to be analyzed across several independent biological databases, often on a gene-by-gene basis. In contrast, several annotation databases, such as DAVID, integrate data from multiple functional databases and reveal underlying biological themes of large gene lists. While several such databases have been constructed for animals, none is currently available for the study of algae. Due to renewed interest in algae as potential sources of biofuels and the emergence of multiple algal genome sequences, a significant need has arisen for such a database to process the growing compendiums of algal genomic data. DESCRIPTION: The Algal Functional Annotation Tool is a web-based comprehensive analysis suite integrating annotation data from several pathway, ontology, and protein family databases. The current version provides annotation for the model alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, and in the future will include additional genomes. The site allows users to interpret large gene lists by identifying associated functional terms, and their enrichment. Additionally, expression data for several experimental conditions were compiled and analyzed to provide an expression-based enrichment search. A tool to search for functionally-related genes based on gene expression across these conditions is also provided. Other features include dynamic visualization of genes on KEGG

  18. Extra virgin olive oil phenolic extracts counteract the pro-oxidant effect of dietary oxidized lipids in human intestinal cells.

    PubMed

    Incani, Alessandra; Serra, Gessica; Atzeri, Angela; Melis, Maria Paola; Serreli, Gabriele; Bandino, Giovanni; Sedda, Piergiorgio; Campus, Marco; Tuberoso, Carlo I G; Deiana, Monica

    2016-04-01

    The phenolic fraction of extra virgin olive oil (EVOO) concentrates before absorption in the intestinal lumen, where it may contribute to the modulation of enterocytes response to oxidative and inflammatory stimuli. We evaluated the ability of two monovarietal EVOOs phenolic extracts, Bosana and Nera di Gonnos/Tonda di Cagliari, typical and widespread varieties in Sardinia (Italy), to counteract in enterocytes like Caco-2 cells the pro-oxidant action of oxidized lipids, tert-butyl hydroperoxide (TBH) or a mixture of oxysterols of dietary origin. We confirmed that TBH treatment causes a significant increase of ROS production, GSH depletion, increase of MDA, fatty acids hydroperoxides and 7-ketocholesterol, and showed first evidence of oxidative imbalance and cell damage due to oxysterols exposure. Preincubation of cells with the phenolic extracts significantly attenuated oxidative modifications. Bosana extract showed the highest concentration of total phenols, mainly hydroxytyrosol and tyrosol, and was the most active in presence of TBH, where the free radical scavenging activity of these simple phenols seems to be a determining factor. The two extracts were equally effective, in spite of the different composition, in presence of oxysterols, where ROS production probably occurs according to different and more complex mechanisms. PMID:26911552

  19. Effects of Marine Phospholipids Extract on the Lipid Levels of Metastatic and Nonmetastatic Prostate Cancer Patients

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, Lenka A.; Kluth, Jessica; Hübschle, Tobias; Fritzsche, Jonas; Hildenbrand, Bernd; Pletschen, Lars; Schilli, Karin; Hodina, Arwen; Griffith, Lee S.; Breul, Jürgen

    2014-01-01

    High intake of omega-3 fatty acids (n-3 FAs) from fish has shown to reduce metastatic progression of prostate cancer. This clinical trial investigated the influence of high n-3 FA intake (marine phospholipids, MPL) on the FA composition of blood lipids, lysophosphatidylcholine (LPC), and on lipoproteins in prostate cancer patients and elderly men without prostate cancer. MPL supplementation resulted in a significant increase of n-3 FAs (eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acid) in blood lipids, while arachidonic acid (n-6 FA) decreased significantly. Low density lipoprotein (LDL) and high density lipoprotein (HDL) increased significantly, but the LDL increase was observed only in subjects with an inactive tumour. Similarly, LPC plasma concentration increased significantly only in patients without tumour. The missing increase of LDL and LPC after MPL supplementation in patients with actively growing (metastasizing) prostate cancer suggests that tumour cells have an elevated demand for LDL and LPC. Due to the MPL-induced increase of n-3 FAs in these blood lipids, it can be assumed that especially actively growing and metastasizing prostate cancer cells are provided with elevated amounts of these antimetastatic n-3 FAs. A hypothetic model explaining the lower incidence of metastatic progression in prostate cancer patients with high fish consumption is presented. PMID:27351011

  20. Bioactive Lipidic Extracts from Octopus (Paraoctopus limaculatus): Antimutagenicity and Antiproliferative Studies.

    PubMed

    Moreno-Félix, Carolina; Wilson-Sánchez, Griselda; Cruz-Ramírez, Susana-Gabriela; Velázquez-Contreras, Carlos; Plascencia-Jatomea, Maribel; Acosta, Ana; Machi-Lara, Lorena; Aldana-Madrid, María-Lourdes; Ezquerra-Brauer, Josafat-Marina; Rocha-Alonzo, Fernando; Burgos-Hernández, Armando

    2013-01-01

    Fractions from an organic extract from fresh octopus (Paraoctopus limaculatus) were studied for biological activities such as antimutagenic and antiproliferative properties using Salmonella tester strains TA98 and TA100 with metabolic activation (S9) and a cancer cell line (B-cell lymphoma), respectively. A chloroform extract obtained from octopus tentacles was sequentially fractionated using thin layer chromatography (TLC), and each fraction was tested for antimutagenic and antiproliferative activities. Organic extract reduced the number of revertants caused by aflatoxin B(1) showing a dose-response type of relationship. Sequential TLC fractionation of the active extracts produced several antimutagenic and/or antiproliferative fractions. Based on the results obtained, the isolated fractions obtained from octopus contain compounds with chemoprotective properties that reduce the mutagenicity of AFB(1) and proliferation of cancer cell lines. PMID:23401709

  1. Crude Ethanol Extract of Pithecellobium ellipticum as a Potential Lipid-Lowering Treatment for Hypercholesterolaemia

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Janet P.-C.; Wijaya, Sumi; Ting, Kang-Nee; Wiart, Christophe; Mustafa, Kamarul'Ain; Shipton, Fiona; Khoo, Teng-Jin

    2014-01-01

    If left untreated, hypercholesterolaemia can lead to atherosclerosis, given time. Plants from the Fabaceae family have shown the ability to significantly suppress atherosclerosis progression. We selected four extracts from Pithecellobium ellipticum, from the Fabaceae family, to be screened in a 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase (HMG-CoA reductase) assay. The ethanol extract, at a concentration of 500 μg/mL, exhibited superior inhibition properties over the other extracts by demonstrating 80.9% inhibition, while 0.223 μg/mL of pravastatin (control) showed 78.1% inhibition towards enzymatic activity. These findings led to the fractionation of the ethanol extract using ethyl acetate : methanol (95 : 5), gradually increasing polarity and produced seven fractions (1A to 7A). Fraction 7A at 150 μg/mL emerged as being the most promising bioactive fraction with 78.7% inhibition. FRAP, beta carotene, and DPPH assays supported the findings from the ethanol extract as it exhibited good overall antioxidant activity. The antioxidant properties have been said to reduce free radicals that are able to oxidize lipoproteins which are the cause of atherosclerosis. Phytochemical screenings revealed the presence of terpenoid, steroid, flavonoid, and phenolic compounds as the responsible group of compound(s), working individually or synergistically, within the extract to prevent binding of HMG-CoA to HMG-CoA reductase. PMID:24839451

  2. National Algal Biofuels Technology Roadmap

    SciTech Connect

    Ferrell, John; Sarisky-Reed, Valerie

    2010-05-01

    The framework for National Algal Biofuels Technology Roadmap was constructed at the Algal Biofuels Technology Roadmap Workshop, held December 9-10, 2008, at the University of Maryland-College Park. The Workshop was organized by the Biomass Program to discuss and identify the critical challenges currently hindering the development of a domestic, commercial-scale algal biofuels industry. This Roadmap presents information from a scientific, economic, and policy perspectives that can support and guide RD&D investment in algal biofuels. While addressing the potential economic and environmental benefits of using algal biomass for the production of liquid transportation fuels, the Roadmap describes the current status of algae RD&D. In doing so, it lays the groundwork for identifying challenges that likely need to be overcome for algal biomass to be used in the production of economically viable biofuels.

  3. Repeated exposures to roadside particulate matter extracts suppresses pulmonary defense mechanisms, resulting in lipid and protein oxidative damage.

    PubMed

    Pardo, Michal; Porat, Ziv; Rudich, Assaf; Schauer, James J; Rudich, Yinon

    2016-03-01

    Exposure to particulate matter (PM) pollution in cities and urban canyons can be harmful to the exposed population. However, the underlying mechanisms that lead to health effects are not yet elucidated. It is postulated that exposure to repeated, small, environmentally relevant concentrations can affect lung homeostasis. This study examines the impact of repeated exposures to urban PM on mouse lungs with focus on inflammatory and oxidative stress parameters. Aqueous extracts from collected urban PM were administered to mice by 5 repeated intra-tracheal instillations (IT). Multiple exposures, led to an increase in cytokine levels in both bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and in the blood serum, indicating a systemic reaction. Lung mRNA levels of antioxidant/phase II detoxifying enzymes decreased by exposure to the PM extract, but not when metals were removed by chelation. Finally, disruption of lung tissue oxidant-inflammatory/defense balance was evidenced by increased levels of lipid and protein oxidation. Unlike response to a single IT exposure to the same dose and source of extract, multiple exposures result in lung oxidative damage and a systemic inflammatory reaction. These could be attributed to compromised capacity to activate the protective Nrf2 tissue defense system. It is suggested that water-soluble metals present in urban PM, potentially from break and tire wear, may constitute major drivers of the pulmonary and systemic responses to multiple exposure to urban PM. PMID:26735168

  4. Measurement of Lipid Accumulation in Chlorella vulgaris via Flow Cytometry and Liquid-State ¹H NMR Spectroscopy for Development of an NMR-Traceable Flow Cytometry Protocol

    PubMed Central

    Bono Jr., Michael S.; Garcia, Ravi D.; Sri-Jayantha, Dylan V.; Ahner, Beth A.; Kirby, Brian J.

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we cultured Chlorella vulgaris cells with a range of lipid contents, induced via nitrogen starvation, and characterized them via flow cytometry, with BODIPY 505/515 as a fluorescent lipid label, and liquid-state 1H NMR spectroscopy. In doing so, we demonstrate the utility of calibrating flow cytometric measurements of algal lipid content using triacylglyceride (TAG, also known as triacylglycerol or triglyceride) content per cell as measured via quantitative 1H NMR. Ensemble-averaged fluorescence of BODIPY-labeled cells was highly correlated with average TAG content per cell measured by bulk NMR, with a linear regression yielding a linear fit with r2 = 0.9974. This correlation compares favorably to previous calibrations of flow cytometry protocols to lipid content measured via extraction, and calibration by NMR avoids the time and complexity that is generally required for lipid quantitation via extraction. Flow cytometry calibrated to a direct measurement of TAG content can be used to investigate the distribution of lipid contents for cells within a culture. Our flow cytometry measurements showed that Chlorella vulgaris cells subjected to nitrogen limitation exhibited higher mean lipid content but a wider distribution of lipid content that overlapped the relatively narrow distribution of lipid content for replete cells, suggesting that nitrogen limitation induces lipid accumulation in only a subset of cells. Calibration of flow cytometry protocols using direct in situ measurement of TAG content via NMR will facilitate rapid development of more precise flow cytometry protocols, enabling investigation of algal lipid accumulation for development of more productive algal biofuel feedstocks and cultivation protocols. PMID:26267664

  5. Lipid nutritional value of legumes: Evaluation of different extraction methods and determination of fatty acid composition.

    PubMed

    Caprioli, Giovanni; Giusti, Federica; Ballini, Roberto; Sagratini, Gianni; Vila-Donat, Pilar; Vittori, Sauro; Fiorini, Dennis

    2016-02-01

    This study sought to contribute to the assessment of the nutritional properties of legumes by determining the fatty acid (FA) composition of 29 legume samples after the evaluation of nine extraction methods. The Folch method and liquid-solid extraction with hexane/isopropanol or with hexane/acetone were investigated, as was the effect of previous hydration of samples. Soxhlet extractions were also evaluated with different solvent mixtures. Results on FA composition using the hexane/isopropanol extraction method were the same in terms of FA composition of the Folch method, but the extraction yield was only around 20-40% of that of the Folch method preceded by hydration. Some types of legumes showed particularly interesting values for the ratio of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) n-6/n-3, such as lentils, with the value of 4.0, and Azuki beans, at 3.2. In lentils, the PUFAs% ranged from 42.0% to 57.4%, while in Azuki beans it was 57.5%. PMID:26304436

  6. Valeriana officinalis Extracts Ameliorate Neuronal Damage by Suppressing Lipid Peroxidation in the Gerbil Hippocampus Following Transient Cerebral Ischemia.

    PubMed

    Yoo, Dae Young; Jung, Hyo Young; Nam, Sung Min; Kim, Jong Whi; Choi, Jung Hoon; Kwak, Youn-Gil; Yoo, Miyoung; Lee, Sanghee; Yoon, Yeo Sung; Hwang, In Koo

    2015-06-01

    As a medicinal plant, the roots of Valeriana officinalis have been used as a sedative and tranquilizer. In the present study, we evaluated the neuroprotective effects of valerian root extracts (VE) on the hippocampal CA1 region of gerbils after 5 min of transient cerebral ischemia. Gerbils were administered VE orally once a day for 3 weeks, subjected to ischemia/reperfusion injury, and continued on VE for 3 weeks. The administration of 100 mg/kg VE (VE100 group) significantly reduced the ischemia-induced spontaneous motor hyperactivity 1 day after ischemia/reperfusion. Four days after ischemia/reperfusion, animals treated with VE showed abundant cresyl violet-positive neurons in the hippocampal CA1 region when compared to the vehicle or 25 mg/kg VE-treated groups. In addition, the VE treatment markedly decreased microglial activation in the hippocampal CA1 region 4 days after ischemia. Compared to the other groups, the VE100 group showed the lowest level of lipid peroxidation during the first 24 h after ischemia/reperfusion. In summary, the findings in this study suggest that pretreatment with VE has protective effects against ischemic injury in the hippocampal pyramidal neurons by decreasing microglial activation and lipid peroxidation. PMID:25785762

  7. Eucommia ulmoides Oliver Extract, Aucubin, and Geniposide Enhance Lysosomal Activity to Regulate ER Stress and Hepatic Lipid Accumulation

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Hwa-Young; Lee, Geum-Hwa; Lee, Mi-Rin; Kim, Hye-Kyung; Kim, Nan-young; Kim, Seung-Hyun; Lee, Yong-Chul; Kim, Hyung-Ryong; Chae, Han-Jung

    2013-01-01

    Eucommia ulmoides Oliver is a natural product widely used as a dietary supplement and medicinal plant. Here, we examined the potential regulatory effects of Eucommia ulmoides Oliver extracts (EUE) on hepatic dyslipidemia and its related mechanisms by in vitro and in vivo studies. EUE and its two active constituents, aucubin and geniposide, inhibited palmitate-induced endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, reducing hepatic lipid accumulation through secretion of apolipoprotein B and associated triglycerides and cholesterol in human HepG2 hepatocytes. To determine how EUE diminishes the ER stress response, lysosomal and proteasomal protein degradation activities were analyzed. Although proteasomal activity was not affected, lysosomal enzyme activities including V-ATPase were significantly increased by EUE as well as aucubin and geniposide in HepG2 cells. Treatment with the V-ATPase inhibitor, bafilomycin, reversed the inhibition of ER stress, secretion of apolipoprotein B, and hepatic lipid accumulation induced by EUE or its component, aucubin or geniposide. In addition, EUE was determined to regulate hepatic dyslipidemia by enhancing lysosomal activity and to regulate ER stress in rats fed a high-fat diet. Together, these results suggest that EUE and its active components enhance lysosomal activity, resulting in decreased ER stress and hepatic dyslipidemia. PMID:24349058

  8. Dynamic microstructures and fractal characterization of cell wall disruption for microwave irradiation-assisted lipid extraction from wet microalgae.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Jun; Sun, Jing; Huang, Yun; Feng, Jia; Zhou, Junhu; Cen, Kefa

    2013-12-01

    To extract lipids from wet microalgae through cell disruption, the effects of microwave treatment on the dynamic cell wall microstructures were investigated. The fractal dimension of raw, untreated microalgal cells was 1.46. The disruption level of microalgal cell walls was enhanced when microwave treatment temperature increased from 80 to 120°C, resulting in an increase in microalgal cell fractal dimension from 1.61 to 1.91. The cell wall thickness and pore diameters in cell walls increased from 0.11 to 0.59 μm and from 0.005 to 0.18 μm, respectively, when microwave treatment time increased from 0 to 20 min. The outer pectin layers of cell walls gradually detached and the porosity of inner cellulose layers increased when microwave treatment time increased to 26 min. The initial point of disruption appeared at the maximum curvature (approximately 1.01×10(7) m(-1)) of cell walls. Numbers of short-chain and saturated lipids increased because of microwave electromagnetic effect. PMID:24152788

  9. Safety and efficacy of hydroalcoholic extract from Lawsonia inermis leaves on lipid profile in alloxan-induced diabetic rats

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Surender; Verma, Nishikant; Karwasra, Ritu; Kalra, Prerna; Kumar, Rohit; Gupta, Yogendra Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Dyslipidemia is one of the most common risk factor for cardiac-related disorders in diabetes mellitus. Diabetic dyslipidemia is characterized by hypertriglyceridemia, low high density lipoprotein and elevated low density lipoprotein concentration. Aim: To explore the effect of Lawsonia inermis hydroalcoholic extract (LIHE) for diabetic dyslipidemic activity along with its safety profile. Materials and Methods: LIHE administered at doses of 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg in rats after induction of hyperglycemia by alloxan. Insulin (1 IU/kg), glibenclamide (2.5 mg/kg), and metformin (100 mg/kg) were used as positive control and 1% gum acacia as normal control. Statistical analysis was performed using one-way analysis of variance, followed by Dunnett's t-test. Results: The percentage reduction in blood glucose level of LIHE at dose of 400 mg/kg was 39.08% on day 21 when compared to baseline (day 0), which is comparable to glibenclamide (44.77%) and metformin (46.30%). Decrease in blood glucose level exhibited significant improvement in lipid profile, plasma albumin, total plasma protein and serum creatinine. Conclusion: Results of this study demonstrated that LIHE significantly improved lipid and lipoprotein pattern observed in diabetic rats and this could be due to improvement in insulin secretion or action, thus has potential to be used in treatment of diabetes mellitus associated dyslipidemia. PMID:26730149

  10. Effect of Solvent System on Extractability of Lipidic Components of Scenedesmus obliquus (M2-1) and Gloeothece sp. on Antioxidant Scavenging Capacity Thereof

    PubMed Central

    Amaro, Helena M.; Fernandes, Fátima; Valentão, Patrícia; Andrade, Paula B.; Sousa-Pinto, I.; Malcata, F. Xavier; Guedes, A. Catarina

    2015-01-01

    Microalgae are well known for their biotechnological potential, namely with regard to bioactive lipidic components—especially carotenoids and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), well-known for therapeutic applications based on their antioxidant capacity. The aim of this work was to evaluate the influence of four distinct food-grade solvents upon extractability of specific lipidic components, and on the antioxidant capacity exhibited against both synthetic (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH•) and 2,2′-azinobis-(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS+•)) and biological reactive species (O2•− and •NO−). A eukaryotic microalga (Scenedesmus obliquus (M2-1)) and a prokaryotic one (Gloeothece sp.) were used as case studies. Concerning total antioxidant capacity, the hexane:isopropanol (3:2) and acetone extracts of Sc. obliquus (M2-1) were the most effective against DPPH• and ABTS+•, respectively. Gloeothece sp. ethanol extracts were the most interesting scavengers of O2•−, probably due the high content of linolenic acid. On the other hand, acetone and hexane:isopropanol (3:2) extracts were the most interesting ones in •NO− assay. Acetone extract exhibited the best results for the ABTS assay, likely associated to its content of carotenoids, in both microalgae. Otherwise, ethanol stood out in PUFA extraction. Therefore, profiles of lipidic components extracted are critical for evaluating the antioxidant performance—which appears to hinge, in particular, on the balance between carotenoids and PUFAs. PMID:26492257

  11. Effect of Solvent System on Extractability of Lipidic Components of Scenedesmus obliquus (M2-1) and Gloeothece sp. on Antioxidant Scavenging Capacity Thereof.

    PubMed

    Amaro, Helena M; Fernandes, Fátima; Valentão, Patrícia; Andrade, Paula B; Sousa-Pinto, I; Malcata, F Xavier; Guedes, A Catarina

    2015-10-01

    Microalgae are well known for their biotechnological potential, namely with regard to bioactive lipidic components-especially carotenoids and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), well-known for therapeutic applications based on their antioxidant capacity. The aim of this work was to evaluate the influence of four distinct food-grade solvents upon extractability of specific lipidic components, and on the antioxidant capacity exhibited against both synthetic (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH(•)) and 2,2'-azinobis-(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS(+•))) and biological reactive species (O₂(•)⁻ and (•)NO⁻). A eukaryotic microalga (Scenedesmus obliquus (M2-1)) and a prokaryotic one (Gloeothece sp.) were used as case studies. Concerning total antioxidant capacity, the hexane:isopropanol (3:2) and acetone extracts of Sc. obliquus (M2-1) were the most effective against DPPH(•) and ABTS(+•), respectively. Gloeothece sp. ethanol extracts were the most interesting scavengers of O₂(•)⁻, probably due the high content of linolenic acid. On the other hand, acetone and hexane:isopropanol (3:2) extracts were the most interesting ones in (•)NO⁻ assay. Acetone extract exhibited the best results for the ABTS assay, likely associated to its content of carotenoids, in both microalgae. Otherwise, ethanol stood out in PUFA extraction. Therefore, profiles of lipidic components extracted are critical for evaluating the antioxidant performance-which appears to hinge, in particular, on the balance between carotenoids and PUFAs. PMID:26492257

  12. [Fatty acid composition of phospholipids of erythrocytes of lamprey, frog, rat, and absorption spectra of their lipid extracts].

    PubMed

    Zabelinskii, S A; Chebotareva, M A; Shukolyukova, E P; Krivchenko, A I

    2014-01-01

    The work deals with study of content and fatty acid composition of phospholipids as well as of absorption spectra of lipid extracts of blood erythrocytes poikilothermal and homoiothermal animals of different evolutionary levels. Objects of study were poikilothermal lamprey (Lampetra fluviatilis) consuming oxygen from water and the common frog (Rana temporatia) consuming it both from water and from air. Homoiothermal animals were white rats (Rattus rattus) inhabiting in the air medium. The animals were studied at the winter-spring periods. There was established the twofold predominance of the phospholipid content in the lamprey plasma as compared with erythrocytes. In frog and rat the reverse ratio was observed. Based on study of the fatty acid composition of erythrocyte phospholipids it is suggested the higher density of membranes of lamprey as compared with frog membranes. As to fatty acides of the rat blood erythrocytic fraction, they turned out to be less diverse, with almost twofold predominance of saturated over unsaturated acids and not containing the long-chained (C22) Ω3 acids. All this leads to the low unsaturation index and, accordingly, to a dense packing of fatty acids in membrane structures of rat erythrocytes. Mechanism of reversible binding of O2 molecules by hemoglobin in erythrocytes is discussed. The mechanism of interaction of O2 molecules with water molecules is likely to interfere with exchange interaction electrons of hemoglobin iron atoms and oxygen molecule. This confirms our obtained absorption spectra showing that in the lipid extract practically not containing water the heme isolated from erythrocytes is converted to hemin. PMID:25775862

  13. Algal biofuels from wastewater treatment high rate algal ponds.

    PubMed

    Craggs, R J; Heubeck, S; Lundquist, T J; Benemann, J R

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines the potential of algae biofuel production in conjunction with wastewater treatment. Current technology for algal wastewater treatment uses facultative ponds, however, these ponds have low productivity (∼10 tonnes/ha.y), are not amenable to cultivating single algal species, require chemical flocculation or other expensive processes for algal harvest, and do not provide consistent nutrient removal. Shallow, paddlewheel-mixed high rate algal ponds (HRAPs) have much higher productivities (∼30 tonnes/ha.y) and promote bioflocculation settling which may provide low-cost algal harvest. Moreover, HRAP algae are carbon-limited and daytime addition of CO(2) has, under suitable climatic conditions, the potential to double production (to ∼60 tonnes/ha.y), improve bioflocculation algal harvest, and enhance wastewater nutrient removal. Algae biofuels (e.g. biogas, ethanol, biodiesel and crude bio-oil), could be produced from the algae harvested from wastewater HRAPs, The wastewater treatment function would cover the capital and operation costs of algal production, with biofuel and recovered nutrient fertilizer being by-products. Greenhouse gas abatement results from both the production of the biofuels and the savings in energy consumption compared to electromechanical treatment processes. However, to achieve these benefits, further research is required, particularly the large-scale demonstration of wastewater treatment HRAP algal production and harvest. PMID:21330711

  14. Lipid-lowering and antioxidant functions of bottle gourd (Lagenaria siceraria) extract in human dyslipidemia.

    PubMed

    Katare, Charu; Saxena, Sonali; Agrawal, Supriya; Joseph, Anish Zacharia; Subramani, Senthil Kumar; Yadav, Dhananjay; Singh, Nita; Bisen, Prakash Singh; Prasad, G B K S

    2014-04-01

    The study validated the antidyslipidemic, antioxidant, and antihyperglycemic effects of Lagenaria siceraria fruit extract in human subjects with dyslipidemia along with subjects of normal health. A total of 200 mL of freshly prepared Lagenaria siceraria fruit extract was administered daily on empty stomach for 90 days. Significant reductions (P < .01) were found in triglycerides and total cholesterol levels in blood. Cardiac risk ratio, atherogenic coefficient, and atherogenicity index of plasma were also improved. Appreciable reductions in body mass index (P < .01) and blood pressure (systolic P < .01, diastolic P < .05) along with a significant reduction (P < .05) in fasting blood glucose levels were also observed in these subjects. Lagenaria siceraria fruit extract exhibited significant antioxidant activity in dyslipidemic subjects as evident from elevations in SOD (P < .05) and GSH levels (P < .01) with marked improvement in catalase (P < .01) and TBARS levels (P < .05). Phytochemical screening confirmed the presence of saponins, glycosides, flavonoids, terpenoids, and phenolic compounds. Lagenaria siceraria fruit extract serves as dietary adjunct in treatment of human dyslipidemia and cardiovascular disease. PMID:24647091

  15. Yeast extract stimulates production of glycolipid biosurfactants, mannosylerythritol lipids, by Pseudozyma hubeiensis SY62.

    PubMed

    Konishi, Masaaki; Nagahama, Takahiko; Fukuoka, Tokuma; Morita, Tomotake; Imura, Tomohiro; Kitamoto, Dai; Hatada, Yuji

    2011-06-01

    We improved the culture conditions for a biosurfactant producing yeast, Pseudozyma hubeiensis SY62. We found that yeast extract greatly stimulates MEL production. Furthermore, we demonstrated a highly efficient production of MELs in the improved medium by fed-batch cultivation. The final concentration of MELs reached 129 ± 8.2g/l for one week. PMID:21393057

  16. Reduction of adipogenesis and lipid accumulation by Taraxacum officinale (Dandelion) extracts in 3T3L1 adipocytes: an in vitro study.

    PubMed

    González-Castejón, Marta; García-Carrasco, Belén; Fernández-Dacosta, Raquel; Dávalos, Alberto; Rodriguez-Casado, Arantxa

    2014-05-01

    In this in vitro study, we have investigated the ability of Taraxacum officinale (dandelion) to inhibit adipocyte differentiation and lipogenesis in 3T3-L1 preadipocytes. HPLC analysis of the three plant extracts used in this study-leaf and root extracts and a commercial root powder-identified caffeic and chlorogenic acids as the main phenolic constituents. Oil Red O staining and triglyceride levels analysis showed decreased lipid and triglyceride accumulation, respectively. Cytotoxicity was assessed with the MTT assay showing non-toxic effect among the concentrations tested. DNA microarray analysis showed that the extracts regulated the expression of a number of genes and long non-coding RNAs that play a major role in the control of adipogenesis. Taken together, our results indicate that the dandelion extracts used in this study may play a significant role during adipogenesis and lipid metabolism, and thus, supporting their therapeutic interest as potential candidates for the treatment of obesity. PMID:23956107

  17. Anti-lipid peroxidation and induction of apoptosis in the erythroleukaemic cell line K562 by extracts from (Tunisian) Rhamnus alaternus L. (Rhamnaceae).

    PubMed

    Ammar, Rebai Ben; Neffati, Aicha; Skandrani, Ines; Sghaier, Mohamed Ben; Bhouri, Wissem; Ghedira, Kamel; Chekir-Ghedira, Leila

    2011-07-01

    Total oligomer flavonoids (TOF) enriched and ethyl acetate (EA) extracts from Rhamnus alaternus induce apoptotic death in human chronic myelogenous leukaemia K562 cell line, as demonstrated by gel electrophoresis, which demonstrates the characteristic ladder patterns of DNA fragmentation and the proteolytic cleavage of poly(ADP ribose) polymerase (PARP). The effect of R. alaternus extract in reducing oxidative stress was evaluated by anti-lipid peroxidation which was monitored by measuring malondialdehyde level in K562 cultured cells. The TOF and EA extracts were found to be effective to protect against lipid peroxidation. Their IC₅₀ values were 196 and 273 µg mL⁻¹, respectively. These findings suggest that R. alaternus extracts exhibit potential antioxidant and proapoptotic properties. PMID:21726127

  18. Effects of the extract from roasted chicory (Cichorium intybus L.) root containing inulin-type fructans on blood glucose, lipid metabolism, and fecal properties.

    PubMed

    Nishimura, Mie; Ohkawara, Tatsuya; Kanayama, Toshiyuki; Kitagawa, Kazuya; Nishimura, Hiroyuki; Nishihira, Jun

    2015-07-01

    The extract from roasted chicory (Cichorium intybus L.; jú jù) root (chicory root extract), which contains inulin-type fructans, has favorable effects including antihyperglycemic and antidyslipidemic effects and the improvement of bowel movement. In this study, we examined the effects of chicory root extract on blood glucose, lipid metabolism, and fecal properties in 47 healthy adult participants in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study. The participants were divided into a test group that drank chicory root extract and a placebo group that drank nonchicory root extract (ingesting 300 mL daily for 4 weeks). We performed hematological examinations and body composition measurements, and administered a visual analog scale (VAS) questionnaire for fecal properties at the baseline (Week 0) and after the intervention (Week 4) for the two groups. Although no significant differences in fasting plasma glucose or insulin were observed, hemoglobin A1c was found to decrease by ingesting chicory root extract. No intergroup differences in the levels of lipid metabolism parameters were observed. However, the level of adiponectin was significantly improved in the chicory root extract group when the baseline and postintervention values were compared. In addition, chicory root extract tends to improve the VAS score for fecal properties. These results suggest that chicory root extract could delay or prevent the early onset of diabetes mellitus and improve bowel movements. PMID:26151029

  19. Effects of the extract from roasted chicory (Cichorium intybus L.) root containing inulin-type fructans on blood glucose, lipid metabolism, and fecal properties

    PubMed Central

    Nishimura, Mie; Ohkawara, Tatsuya; Kanayama, Toshiyuki; Kitagawa, Kazuya; Nishimura, Hiroyuki; Nishihira, Jun

    2015-01-01

    The extract from roasted chicory (Cichorium intybus L.; 菊苣 jú jù) root (chicory root extract), which contains inulin-type fructans, has favorable effects including antihyperglycemic and antidyslipidemic effects and the improvement of bowel movement. In this study, we examined the effects of chicory root extract on blood glucose, lipid metabolism, and fecal properties in 47 healthy adult participants in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study. The participants were divided into a test group that drank chicory root extract and a placebo group that drank nonchicory root extract (ingesting 300 mL daily for 4 weeks). We performed hematological examinations and body composition measurements, and administered a visual analog scale (VAS) questionnaire for fecal properties at the baseline (Week 0) and after the intervention (Week 4) for the two groups. Although no significant differences in fasting plasma glucose or insulin were observed, hemoglobin A1c was found to decrease by ingesting chicory root extract. No intergroup differences in the levels of lipid metabolism parameters were observed. However, the level of adiponectin was significantly improved in the chicory root extract group when the baseline and postintervention values were compared. In addition, chicory root extract tends to improve the VAS score for fecal properties. These results suggest that chicory root extract could delay or prevent the early onset of diabetes mellitus and improve bowel movements. PMID:26151029

  20. Effect of onion peel extract supplementation on the lipid profile and antioxidative status of healthy young women: a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind, crossover trial

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jungmi; Cha, Yong-Jun; Lee, Kyung-Hea

    2013-01-01

    The consumption of fruits and vegetables that have high polyphenol content has been previously associated with a reduced risk for cardiovascular disease. We investigated the effects of onion peel extract on plasma total antioxidant capacity, lipid peroxidation, and leukocyte DNA damage. This study was a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover trial. Healthy female subjects received either onion peel extract or placebo (dextrin) for two weeks, underwent a 1-week washout period, and then received the other treatment for an additional two weeks. After two weeks of onion peel extract supplementation, the total cholesterol level, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol level, and atherogenic index significantly decreased (P < 0.05). No changes were observed in activities of erythrocyte antioxidant enzymes or levels of lipid peroxidation markers following onion peel extract supplementation. Additionally, no significant difference was found in plasma antioxidant vitamin (retinol, tocopherols, carotenoids, and coenzyme Q10) levels or ex vivo H2O2-provoked oxidative DNA damage after onion peel extract supplementation. The present interventional study provides evidence of the health benefits of onion peel extract and demonstrates its effects in modulating lipid profiles in healthy young Korean women. PMID:24133616

  1. The effect of hydro-alcoholic celery (Apiumgraveolens) leaf extract on cardiovascular parameters and lipid profile in animal model of hypertension induced by fructose

    PubMed Central

    Dianat, Mahin; Veisi, Ali; Ahangarpour, Akram; Fathi Moghaddam, Hadi

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: Hypertension is one of the most common diseases of the modern era. This study evaluates the effect of hydro-alcoholic celery leaf extract onsystolic blood pressure (SBP), heart rate (HR) and lipid profile in animals’ model of hypertension induced by fructose. Materials and Methods: Sprague Dawley rats were divided into five groups: 1) control group (free access to tap drinking water), 2) group receiving 200mg/kg celery leaf extract, 3) group receiving fructose 10%, and 4,5) receiving fructose and 100mg/kg or 200mg/kg of extract (n=8). In all groups, before and during the test period, SBP and HR were measured by Power lab system. Lipid profiles were determined by auto analysis. Repeated measurement and one way ANOVA were used for data analysis. P<0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: The SBP in the fructose group significantly increased compared to control group (P<0.01). SBP, in groups receiving fructose+100mg/kg extract, fructose and receiving 200mg/kg extract, and receiving 200mg/kg of extract, compared to fructose group significantly decreased. Heart rate in any of these groups showed no significant difference. Cholesterol, triglyceride, LDL and VLDL in the fructose group significantly increased; however, these effects significantly decreased in the recipient extract groups. HDL levels in the fructose group showed no difference while in the groups receiving the extract they significantly increased. Conclusions: Celery leaf extract reduces SBP, cholesterol, triglyceride, LDL and VLDL in animal model of fructose-induced hypertension. In conclusion, celery leaf extract with its blood pressure and lipid lowering effects, can be considered as an antihypertensive agent in chronic treatment of elevated SBP. PMID:26101753

  2. Sequential recycling of enzymatic lipid-extracted hydrolysate in fermentations with a thraustochytrid.

    PubMed

    Lowrey, Joshua; Armenta, Roberto E; Brooks, Marianne S

    2016-06-01

    This study extends the findings of prior studies proposing and validating nutrient recycling for the heterotrophic microalgae, Thraustochytrium sp. (T18), grown in optimized fed-batch conditions. Sequential nutrient recycling of enzymatically-derived hydrolysate in fermentors succeeded at growing the tested thraustochytrid strain, with little evidence of inhibition or detrimental effects upon culture health. The average maximum biomass obtained in the recycled hydrolysate was 63.68±1.46gL(-1) in 90h the first recycle followed by 65.27±1.15gL(-1) in 90h in the subsequent recycle of the same material. These compared to 58.59gL(-1) and 64.92gL(-1) observed in fresh media in the same time. Lipid production was slightly impaired, however, with a maximum total fatty acid content of 62.2±0.30% in the recycled hydrolysate compared to 69.4% in fresh control media. PMID:26994462

  3. Quantitative uncertainty analysis of Life Cycle Assessment for algal biofuel production.

    PubMed

    Sills, Deborah L; Paramita, Vidia; Franke, Michael J; Johnson, Michael C; Akabas, Tal M; Greene, Charles H; Tester, Jefferson W

    2013-01-15

    As a result of algae's promise as a renewable energy feedstock, numerous studies have used Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) to quantify the environmental performance of algal biofuels, yet there is no consensus of results among them. Our work, motivated by the lack of comprehensive uncertainty analysis in previous studies, uses a Monte Carlo approach to estimate ranges of expected values of LCA metrics by incorporating parameter variability with empirically specified distribution functions. Results show that large uncertainties exist at virtually all steps of the biofuel production process. Although our findings agree with a number of earlier studies on matters such as the need for wet lipid extraction, nutrients recovered from waste streams, and high energy coproducts, the ranges of reported LCA metrics show that uncertainty analysis is crucial for developing technologies, such as algal biofuels. In addition, the ranges of energy return on (energy) invested (EROI) values resulting from our analysis help explain the high variability in EROI values from earlier studies. Reporting results from LCA models as ranges, and not single values, will more reliably inform industry and policy makers on expected energetic and environmental performance of biofuels produced from microalgae. PMID:23237457

  4. Ethanol Extract of Persimmon Tree Leaves Improves Blood Circulation and Lipid Metabolism in Rats Fed a High-Fat Diet.

    PubMed

    Ryu, Ri; Kim, Hye-Jin; Moon, Byeongseok; Jung, Un Ju; Lee, Mi-Kyung; Lee, Dong Gun; Ryoo, ZaeYoung; Park, Yong Bok; Choi, Myung-Sook

    2015-07-01

    The leaves of the persimmon tree (PL) are known to have beneficial effects on hyperglycemia, dyslipidemia, and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. We recently demonstrated that PL had antithrombotic properties in vitro. However, little is known about the antiplatelet and anticoagulant properties of PL in vivo. Omega-3 fatty acid (n-3 FA)-containing fish oil has been widely prescribed to improve blood circulation. This study compared the effects of dietary supplementation with an ethanol extract of PL or n-3 FA on blood coagulation, platelet activation, and lipid levels in vivo. Sprague-Dawley rats were fed a high-fat diet with either PL ethanol extract (0.5% w/w) or n-3 FA (2.5% w/w) for 9 weeks. Coagulation was examined by monitoring the activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT) and prothrombin time. We examined plasma thromboxane B2 (TXB2), serotonin, and soluble P-selectin (sP-selectin) levels. The aPTT was significantly prolonged in the PL and n-3 FA supplement groups. PL also attenuated the TXB2 level and lowered arterial serotonin transporter mRNA expression, although it did not alter plasma serotonin or sP-selectin levels. C-reactive protein and leptin levels were significantly reduced by PL and n-3 FA supplementation. In addition, PL decreased plasma total- and low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol levels, as did n-3 FA treatment. These results indicated that the PL ethanol extract may have the potential to improve circulation by inhibiting blood coagulation and platelet activation and by reducing plasma cholesterol levels. PMID:26061228

  5. Determination of lipid content of oleaginous microalgal biomass by NMR spectroscopic and GC-MS techniques.

    PubMed

    Sarpal, Amarijt S; Teixeira, Claudia M L L; Silva, Paulo R M; Lima, Gustavo M; Silva, Samantha R; Monteiro, Thays V; Cunha, Valnei S; Daroda, Romeu J

    2015-05-01

    Direct methods based on (1)H NMR spectroscopic techniques have been developed for the determination of neutral lipids (triglycerides and free fatty acids) and polar lipids (glyceroglycolipids/phospholipids) in the solvent extracts of oleaginous microalgal biomasses cultivated on a laboratory scale with two species in different media. The chemical shift assignments observed in the (1)H and (13)C NMR spectra corresponding to unsaturated (C18:N, N = 1-3, C20:3, C20:5, C22:6, epoxy) and saturated (C14-C18) fatty acid ester components in a complex matrix involving overlapped resonances have been unambiguously confirmed by the application of 2D NMR spectroscopy (total correlation spectroscopy and heteronuclear single quantum coherence-total correlation spectroscopy). The study of the effect of a polar lipid matrix on the determination of neutral lipids by an internal reference blending process by a systematic designed experimental protocol has provided absolute quantification. The fatty acid composition of algal extracts was found to be similar to that of vegetable oils containing saturated (C16-C18:0) and unsaturated (C18:N, N = 1-3, C20:N, N = 3-4, C22:6) fatty acids as confirmed by NMR spectroscopy and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analyses. The NMR methods developed offer great potential for rapid screening of algal strains for generation of algal biomass with the desired lipid content, quality, and potential for biodiesel and value-added polyunsaturated fatty acids in view of the cost economics of the overall cost of generation of the biomass. PMID:25801382

  6. Green tea extract suppresses adiposity and affects the expression of lipid metabolism genes in diet-induced obese zebrafish

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Visceral fat accumulation is one of the most important predictors of mortality in obese populations. Administration of green tea extract (GTE) can reduce body fat and reduce the risk of obesity-related diseases in mammals. In this study, we investigated the effects and mechanisms of GTE on adiposity in diet-induced obese (DIO) zebrafish. Methods Zebrafish at 3.5 to 4.5 months post-fertilization were allocated to four groups: non-DIO, DIO, DIO + 0.0025%GTE, and DIO + 0.0050%GTE. The non-DIO group was fed freshly hatched Artemia once daily (5 mg cysts/fish daily) for 40 days. Zebrafish in the three DIO groups were fed freshly hatched Artemia three times daily (60 mg cysts/fish daily). Zebrafish in the DIO + 0.0025%GTE and DIO + 0.0050%GTE groups were exposed to GTE after the start of feeding three times daily for 40 days. Results Three-dimensional microcomputed tomography analysis showed that GTE exposure significantly decreased the volume of visceral but not subcutaneous fat tissue in DIO zebrafish. GTE exposure increased hepatic expression of the lipid catabolism genes ACOX1 (acyl-coenzyme A oxidase 1, palmitoyl), ACADM (acyl-coenzyme A dehydrogenase, c-4 to c-12 straight chain), and PPARA (peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha). GTE exposure also significantly decreased the visceral fat expression of SOCS3 (suppressor of cytokine signaling 3b) which inhibits leptin signaling. Conclusions The present results are consistent with those seen in mammals treated with GTE, supporting the validity of studying the effects of GTE in DIO zebrafish. Our results suggest that GTE exerts beneficial effects on adiposity, possibly by altering the expression of lipid catabolism genes and SOCS3. PMID:22871059

  7. Effect of dietary ethanol extracts of mango (Mangifera indica L.) on lipid oxidation and the color of chicken meat during frozen storage.

    PubMed

    Freitas, Ednardo Rodrigues; da Silva Borges, Ângela; Pereira, Ana Lúcia Fernandes; Abreu, Virgínia Kelly Gonçalves; Trevisan, Maria Teresa Salles; Watanabe, Pedro Henrique

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the dietary effect of mango extracts on lipid stability and the coloring of broiler chicken breast meat during frozen storage. The treatments consisted of broiler chicken diet without antioxidants (control) and diets containing antioxidants: 200 ppm of butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT), 200 ppm of mango peel extract (MPE), 400 ppm of MPE, 200 ppm of mango seed extract (MSE), and 400 ppm of MSE. The broiler breasts were stored for 90 days and analysis of lipid oxidation and color was performed every 30 days. The thiobarbituric acid reactive substances values increased during storage and at 90 days, but the 400 ppm MSE treatment yielded lower values, indicating greater antioxidant activity. During storage, the lightness values decreased and the redness increased. Additions of 200 ppm BHT and 400 ppm MPE increased yellowness at 60 days of storage. Thus, mango peel and seed extracts added to broiler chicken diets reduce lipid oxidation and maintain color in breast meat during frozen storage, with mango seed extract at 400 ppm being the most effective. PMID:26475070

  8. Algal functional annotation tool

    SciTech Connect

    Lopez, D.; Casero, D.; Cokus, S. J.; Merchant, S. S.; Pellegrini, M.

    2012-07-01

    The Algal Functional Annotation Tool is a web-based comprehensive analysis suite integrating annotation data from several pathway, ontology, and protein family databases. The current version provides annotation for the model alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, and in the future will include additional genomes. The site allows users to interpret large gene lists by identifying associated functional terms, and their enrichment. Additionally, expression data for several experimental conditions were compiled and analyzed to provide an expression-based enrichment search. A tool to search for functionally-related genes based on gene expression across these conditions is also provided. Other features include dynamic visualization of genes on KEGG pathway maps and batch gene identifier conversion.

  9. Evaluation of a recent product to remove lipids and other matrix co-extractives in the analysis of pesticide residues and environmental contaminants in foods.

    PubMed

    Han, Lijun; Matarrita, Jessie; Sapozhnikova, Yelena; Lehotay, Steven J

    2016-06-01

    This study demonstrates the application of a novel lipid removal product to the residue analysis of 65 pesticides and 52 environmental contaminants in kale, pork, salmon, and avocado by fast, low pressure gas chromatography - tandem mass spectrometry (LPGC-MS/MS). Sample preparation involves QuEChERS extraction followed by use of EMR-Lipid ("enhanced matrix removal of lipids") and an additional salting out step for cleanup. The optimal amount of EMR-Lipid was determined to be 500mg for 2.5mL extracts for most of the analytes. The co-extractive removal efficiency by the EMR-Lipid cleanup step was 83-98% for fatty samples and 79% for kale, including 76% removal of chlorophyll. Matrix effects were typically less than ±20%, in part because analyte protectants were used in the LPGC-MS/MS analysis. The recoveries of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and diverse pesticides were mostly 70-120%, whereas recoveries of nonpolar polybrominated diphenyl ethers and polychlorinated biphenyls were mostly lower than 70% through the cleanup procedure. With the use of internal standards, method validation results showed that 76-85 of the 117 analytes achieved satisfactory results (recoveries of 70-120% and RSD≤20%) in pork, avocado, and kale, while 53 analytes had satisfactory results in salmon. Detection limits were 5-10ng/g for all but a few analytes. EMR-Lipid is a new sample preparation tool that serves as another useful option for cleanup in multiresidue analysis, particularly of fatty foods. PMID:27139213

  10. Selective detergent-extraction from mixed detergent/lipid/protein micelles, using cyclodextrin inclusion compounds: a novel generic approach for the preparation of proteoliposomes.

    PubMed Central

    Degrip, W J; Vanoostrum, J; Bovee-Geurts, P H

    1998-01-01

    A novel generic approach is described for the selective extraction of detergents from mixed detergent/lipid/protein micelles for the preparation of proteoliposomes of defined lipid-protein ratio. The approach is based on the much higher affinity of inclusion compounds of the cyclodextrin type for detergents in comparison with bilayer-forming lipids. This approach has distinct advantages over other procedures currently in use. It produces good results with all detergents tested, independent of type and critical micelle concentration, and appears to be generally applicable. It yields nearly quantitative recovery of membrane protein in the proteoliposome fraction. Finally, no large excess of lipid is required; a molar ratio of lipid to protein of 100 to 1 already produces proteoliposomes with functional membrane protein, but higher ratios are well tolerated. The size of the vesicles thus obtained depends on the detergent used. Separation of the resulting proteoliposomes from the detergent-cyclodextrin complexes was most easily achieved by centrifugation through a discontinuous sucrose gradient. A variety of detergents was tested in this procedure on the bovine rod visual pigment rhodopsin in combination with retina lipids. In all cases good yields of proteoliposomes were obtained, which contained fully functional rhodopsin. PMID:9480873

  11. Algal Biofuels; Algal Biofuels R&D at NREL (Brochure)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2010-09-01

    An overview of NREL's algal biofuels projects, including U.S. Department of Energy-funded work, projects with U.S. and international partners, and Laboratory Directed Research and Development projects.

  12. Hyphenating size‐exclusion chromatography with electrospray mass spectrometry; using on‐line liquid‐liquid extraction to study the lipid composition of lipoprotein particles

    PubMed Central

    Osei, Michael; Griffin, Julian L.

    2015-01-01

    Rationale Lipoproteins belong to the most commonly measured clinical biochemical parameters. Lipidomics is an orthogonal approach and aims to profile the individual lipid molecules that jointly form the lipoprotein particles. However, in the first step of the extraction of lipid molecules from serum, an organic solvent is used leading to dissociation of the lipoproteins. Thus far it has been impossible to combine lipidomics and lipoprotein analysis in one analytical system. Methods Human plasma was diluted in phosphate‐buffered saline (PBS) and injected onto a Superose 6 PC 3.2 column with PBS as a mobile phase to separate lipoproteins. The eluent was led to a Syrris FLLEX module, which also received CHCl3/MeOH (3:1). The two phases were mixed and subsequently separated using a Teflon membrane in an especially designed pressurized flow chamber. The organic phase was led to a standard electrospray source of an Orbitrap mass spectrometer. Results Size‐exclusion chromatography (SEC) has been commonly applied to separate lipoproteins and is considered a practical alternative to ultracentrifugation. Through the on‐line liquid‐liquid extraction method it becomes possible to obtained detailed mass spectra of lipids across different lipoprotein fractions. The extracted ion chromatograms of specific lipid signals showed their distribution against the size of lipoprotein particles. Conclusions The application of on‐line liquid‐liquid extraction allows for the continuous electrospray‐based mass spectral analysis of SEC eluent, providing the detailed lipid composition of lipoprotein particles separated by size. This approach provides new possibilities for the study of the biochemistry of lipoproteins. © 2015 The Authors. Rapid Communications in Mass Spectrometry Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. PMID:26443395

  13. Protective Effect of Pulp Oil Extracted from Canarium odontophyllum Miq. Fruit on Blood Lipids, Lipid Peroxidation, and Antioxidant Status in Healthy Rabbits

    PubMed Central

    Shakirin, Faridah Hanim; Azlan, Azrina; Ismail, Amin; Amom, Zulkhairi; Cheng Yuon, Lau

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this paper was to compare the effects of pulp and kernel oils of Canarium odontophyllum Miq. (CO) on lipid profile, lipid peroxidation, and oxidative stress of healthy rabbits. The oils are rich in SFAs and MUFAs (mainly palmitic and oleic acids). The pulp oil is rich in polyphenols. Male New Zealand white (NZW) rabbits were fed for 4 weeks on a normal diet containing pulp (NP) or kernel oil (NK) of CO while corn oil was used as control (NC). Total cholesterol (TC), HDL-C, LDL-c and triglycerides (TG) levels were measured in this paper. Antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidise), thiobarbiturate reactive substances (TBARSs), and plasma total antioxidant status (TAS) were also evaluated. Supplementation of CO pulp oil resulted in favorable changes in blood lipid and lipid peroxidation (increased HDL-C, reduced LDL-C, TG, TBARS levels) with enhancement of SOD, GPx, and plasma TAS levels. Meanwhile, supplementation of kernel oil caused lowering of plasma TC and LDL-C as well as enhancement of SOD and TAS levels. These changes showed that oils of CO could be beneficial in improving lipid profile and antioxidant status as when using part of normal diet. The oils can be used as alternative to present vegetable oil. PMID:22685623

  14. Effect of Hibiscus rosa sinensis Linn. ethanol flower extract on blood glucose and lipid profile in streptozotocin induced diabetes in rats.

    PubMed

    Sachdewa, Archana; Khemani, L D

    2003-11-01

    Blood glucose and total lipid levels were determined in streptozotocin induced diabetic rats after oral administration of an ethanol flower extract of Hibiscus rosa sinensis. A comparable hypoglycemic effect was evidenced from the data obtained after 7 and 21 days of oral administration of the extract and glibenclamide. Maximal diminution in blood glucose (41-46%) and insulin level (14%) was noticed after 21 days. The extract lowered the total cholesterol and serum triglycerides by 22 and 30%, respectively. The increase in HDL-cholesterol was much higher (12%) under the influence of the extract as compared to that of glibenclamide (1%). The hypoglycemic activity of this extract is comparable to that of glibenclamide but is not mediated through insulin release. Other possible mechanisms are discussed. PMID:14522433

  15. Investigation of Molecular Marker Lipids in Alpine Ice Cores Via Stir Bar Sorptive Extraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Makou, M. C.; Eglinton, T. I.; Thompson, L. G.; Hughen, K. A.

    2005-12-01

    Recently developed analytical techniques were employed to identify and quantify organic molecular markers trapped in high-altitude ice. While various compounds represent potentially useful proxies for biomass burning, vegetation type, atmospheric circulation, and anthropogenic activity, prior attempts to measure organic compounds in ice cores have typically required large volumes of sample material that are incompatible with generation of high-resolution paleoclimate records. We employed stir bar sorptive extraction (SBSE) and thermal desorption (TD), coupled with gas chromatography/time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GC/TOF-MS), to examine the organic content of small quantities (≤ 30 ml) of ice. To test the utility of the approach, post-industrial ice core samples from the Huascarán and Sajama sites (Andes), the Dasuopu and Puruogangri sites (Tibetan Plateau), and Mt. Kilimanjaro (east Africa) were tested. n-Alkanes, n-alkanoic acids, n-alkyl amides and nitriles, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and various diterpenoids were identified in this suite of cores. These marker compounds suggest inputs from biomass burning, fresh vascular plant material, and anthropogenic activities such as fossil fuel combustion. Differences in distributions of the alkyl amide and nitrile homologues between the different sites suggest a predominantly local or regional supply of organic matter. Pre-industrial samples from the Sajama and Puruogangri ice cores were also analyzed in order to assess the character of biomarker assemblages in the absence of anthropogenic contributions and investigate changes in inputs over time. PAHs and diterpenoids, which may result from biomass burning and were observed in the modern Sajama samples, occurred in two Holocene Sajama samples, but not in a last glacial sample. Enhanced inputs of terrestrial vegetation combustion biomarkers were consistent with periods of enhanced aridity in both cores. This study demonstrates the utility of SBSE, TD

  16. Extracellular lipids of Camelina sativa: characterization of chloroform-extractable waxes from aerial and subterranean surfaces.

    PubMed

    Razeq, Fakhria M; Kosma, Dylan K; Rowland, Owen; Molina, Isabel

    2014-10-01

    Camelina sativa (L.) Crantz is an emerging low input, stress tolerant crop with seed oil composition suitable for biofuel and bioproduct production. The chemical compositions and ultrastructural features of surface waxes from C. sativa aerial cuticles, seeds, and roots were analyzed using gas chromatography and microscopy. Alkanes, primary fatty alcohols, and free fatty acids were common components of all analyzed organs. A particular feature of leaf waxes was the presence of alkyl esters of long-chain fatty acids and very long-chain fatty alcohols, ranging from C38 to C50 and dominated by C42, C44 and C46 homologues. Stem waxes were mainly composed of non-sterol pentacyclic triterpenes. Flowers accumulated significant amounts of methyl-branched iso-alkanes (C29 and C31 total carbon number) in addition to straight-chain alkanes. Seed waxes were mostly primary fatty alcohols of up to 32 carbons in length and unbranched C29 and C31 alkanes. The total amount of identified wax components extracted by rapid chloroform dipping of roots was 280μgg(-1) (fresh weight), and included alkyl hydroxycinnamates, predominantly alkyl coumarates and alkyl caffeates. This study provides qualitative and quantitative information on the waxes of C. sativa root, shoot, and seed boundary tissues, allowing the relative activities of wax biosynthetic pathways in each respective plant organ to be assessed. This detailed description of the protective surface waxes of C. sativa may provide insights into its drought-tolerant and pathogen-resistant properties, and also identifies C. sativa as a potential source of renewable high-value natural products. PMID:25081105

  17. Antioxidant effects of Etlingera elatior flower extract against lead acetate - induced perturbations in free radical scavenging enzymes and lipid peroxidation in rats

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Etlingera elatior or 'pink torch ginger' (Zingiberaceae) are widely cultivated in tropical countries and used as spices and food flavoring. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the antioxidant effects of Etlingera elatior against lead - induced changes in serum free radical scavenging enzymes and lipid hydroperoxides in rats. Findings Rats were exposed to lead acetate in drinking water (500 ppm) for 14 days alone or plus the ethanol extract of E. elatior (50, 100 and 200 mg/kg). Blood lead levels, lipid hydroperoxides, protein carbonyl contents and oxidative marker enzymes were estimated. Lead acetate in drinking water elicited a significant increase in lipid hydroperoxides (LPO) and protein-carbonyl-contents (PCC). There was a significant decrease in total antioxidants, superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase and glutathione S-transferase levels with lead acetate treatment. Supplementation of E. elatior was associated with reduced serum LPO and PCC and a significant increase in total antioxidants and antioxidant enzyme levels. Conclusions The results suggest that flower extract of Etlingera elatior has powerful antioxidant effect against lead - induced oxidative stress and the extract may be useful therapeutic agent against lead toxicity. However, detailed evaluations are required to identify the active antioxidant compounds from this plant extract. PMID:21414212

  18. Bioethanol production from carbohydrate-enriched residual biomass obtained after lipid extraction of Chlorella sp. KR-1.

    PubMed

    Lee, Ok Kyung; Oh, You-Kwan; Lee, Eun Yeol

    2015-11-01

    The residual biomass of Chlorella sp. KR-1 obtained after lipid extraction was used for saccharification and bioethanol production. The carbohydrate was saccharified using simple enzymatic and chemical methods using Pectinex at pH 5.5 and 45°C and 0.3N HCl at 121°C for 15min with 76.9% and 98.2% yield, respectively, without any pretreatment. The residual biomass contained 49.7% carbohydrate consisting of 82.4% fermentable sugar and 17.6% non-fermentable sugar, which is valuable for bioethanol fermentation. Approximately 98.2% of the total carbohydrate was converted into monosaccharide (fermentable+non-fermentable sugar) using dilute acid saccharification. The fermentable sugar was subsequently fermented to bioethanol through separate hydrolysis and fermentation with a fermentation yield of 79.3%. Overall, 0.4g ethanol/g fermentable sugar and 0.16g ethanol/g residual biomass were produced. PMID:26218538

  19. Antiatherogenic activity of extracts of Argania spinosa L. pericarp: beneficial effects on lipid peroxidation and cholesterol homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Berrougui, Hicham; Cherki, Mounia; Koumbadinga, Geremy Abdull; Isabelle, Maxim; Douville, Jasmin; Spino, Claude; Khalil, Abdelouahed

    2007-09-01

    Prevention of lipoprotein oxidation by natural compounds may prevent atherosclerosis via reducing early atherogenesis. In this study, we investigated for the first time the beneficial properties of methanolic extract of argania pericarp (MEAP) towards atherogenesis by protecting human low-density lipoprotein (LDL) against oxidation while promoting high-density lipoprotein (HDL)-mediated cholesterol efflux. By measuring the formation of malondialdehyde (MDA) and conjugated diene as well as the lag phase and the progression rate of lipid peroxidation, the MEAP was found to possess an inhibitory effect. In addition, MEAP reduced the rate of disappearance of alpha-tocopherol as well as the apoB electrophoretic mobility in a dose-dependent manner. These effects are related to the free radical scavenging and copper-chelating effects of MEAP. In terms of cell viability, MEAP has shown a cytotoxic effect (0-40 microg/mL). Incubation of 3H-cholesterol-loaded J774 macrophages with HDL in the presence of increasing concentrations of MEAP enhanced HDL-mediated cholesterol efflux independently of ABCA1 receptor pathways. Our findings suggest that argania seed pericarp provides a source of natural antioxidants that inhibit LDL oxidation and enhance cholesterol efflux and thus can prevent development of cardiovascular diseases. PMID:18066138

  20. One year oral Toxicity of D-004, a lipid extract from Roystonea regia fruits, in Sprague Dawley rats.

    PubMed

    Gutiérrez, A; Gámez, R; Noa, M; Mas, R; Arencibia, D; Pardo, B; Valle, M; Oyarzábal, A; Curveco, D; García, H; Goicochea, E; Mendoza, N; Jiménez, S

    2011-11-01

    D-004, a lipid extract of royal palm (Roystonea regia) fruits that contains a reproducible mixture of fatty acids, has been shown to prevent testosterone and phenylephrine-induced prostate hyperplasia in rodents. This study investigated the long-term oral toxicity of D-004 in rats. Rats from both sexes were randomized into four groups (20 rats sex/group): a control and three treated with D-004 (800, 1500 or 2000 mg/kg/day, respectively). At study completion, rats were sacrificed under anaesthesia. Determinations of blood biochemical and haematological parameters and organ weight were done. Also, necropsy and histopathological studies were performed. Four of 160 rats died before study completion. No clinical signs of toxicity were observed throughout the study. Food and water consumption, bodyweight, blood biochemical and haematological parameters, organ weight ratios and histopathological findings were similar in control and treated groups. The histological lesions found in treated animals are commonly present in this specie and strain according to literature and our historical data. In conclusion, long-term (12 months) oral treatment of rats with D-004 (800-2000 mg/kg/day) did not show evidences of D-004-related toxicity under our conditions. The highest dose tested (2000 mg/kg) was a no-observed adverse effect level in this study. PMID:21839798

  1. Comparison of in-cell lipid removal efficiency of adsorbent mixtures for extraction of polybrominated diphenyl ethers in fish.

    PubMed

    Wardrop, Peter; Morrison, Paul D; Hughes, Jeff G; Clarke, Bradley O

    2015-05-15

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) have become ubiquitous environmental contaminants due to their incorporation into many consumer products. Their ability to bioaccumulate to alarming levels in fat-rich matrices such as fish demands fast and efficient methods to monitor these contaminants. We present an analytical method for selective-pressurised liquid extraction (S-PLE) of PBDEs from fish tissue. Fat removal performance of different mixtures of Florisil, silica gel and sulphuric acid-impregnated silica gel were evaluated using a response surface experimental design approach for determining the optimal fat-retaining mixture for S-PLE. Acid-silica gel had the greatest individual effect on fat retention; with a two-thirds acid-silica one-third Florisil mixture found to be the most efficient (>97%). Method validation was performed using recovery experiments at three spiked concentration levels (0.05, 0.5 and 5ngg(-1) ww). Mean recoveries of target analytes in spiked samples ranged from 70 to 124%, with relative standard deviations <27%. The S-PLE lipid removal efficiency combined with the sensitivity of triple quadrupole mass spectrometers provides a fast and comparatively inexpensive analytical method for analysis of PBDEs in fish samples. PMID:25828727

  2. Valorisation of side streams from wheat milling and confectionery industries for consolidated production and extraction of microbial lipids.

    PubMed

    Tsakona, Sofia; Skiadaresis, Argyrios G; Kopsahelis, Nikolaos; Chatzifragkou, Afroditi; Papanikolaou, Seraphim; Kookos, Ioannis K; Koutinas, Apostolis A

    2016-05-01

    Crude enzymes produced via solid state fermentation (SSF) using wheat milling by-products have been employed for both fermentation media production using flour-rich waste (FRW) streams and lysis of Rhodosporidium toruloides yeast cells. Filter sterilization of crude hydrolysates was more beneficial than heat sterilization regarding yeast growth and microbial oil production. The initial carbon to free amino nitrogen ratio of crude hydrolysates was optimised (80.2g/g) in fed-batch cultures of R. toruloides leading to a total dry weight of 61.2g/L with microbial oil content of 61.8% (w/w). Employing a feeding strategy where the glucose concentration was maintained in the range of 12.2-17.6g/L led to the highest productivity (0.32 g/L·h). The crude enzymes produced by SSF were utilised for yeast cell treatment leading to simultaneous release of around 80% of total lipids in the broth and production of a hydrolysate suitable as yeast extract replacement. PMID:26769508

  3. Synergistic inhibition of lipid oxidation by pea protein hydrolysate coupled with licorice extract in a liposomal model system.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xin; Xiong, Youling L; Chen, Jie; Zhou, Liuming

    2013-09-01

    Fourteen pea protein hydrolysates (PPHs) were prepared using different proteases and tested for antioxidant activity in a liposomal model system under oxidative stress (100 μM FeCl3/2 mM ascorbate). Almost all PPHs inhibited lipid oxidation, and those prepared from heated protein with Flavourzyme (Fla-PPH) or Protamex (Pro-PPH) were the most effective. Remarkable synergistic effects were observed on both Fla-PPH and Pro-PPH with licorice extract (LE). Electron microscopy revealed a self-assembled network that appeared to provide crucial protection of liposome against oxidation. The presence of LE enhanced the antioxidant potential by producing a more compact network apparently via PPH-LE complexation. Zeta-potential measurements suggested electrostatic interactions are important driving forces for the accumulation of active peptides at the liposome interface. Peptides rich in leucine, lysine, glutamic acid, glutamine, valine, or proline with a hydrophobic N-terminus, as identified by mass spectrometry, were implicated in the antioxidative protection. PMID:23924409

  4. Evaluation of TNF-α serum level in patients with recalcitrant multiple common warts, treated by lipid garlic extract.

    PubMed

    Kenawy, Soha; Mohammed, Ghada Farouk; Younes, Soha; Elakhras, Atef Ibrahim

    2014-01-01

    No universal consensus about optimal modality for treating the recalcitrant multiple common warts (RMCW). The objective of the study was to evaluate the immunological mechanisms and clinical therapeutic effect of using lipid garlic extract (LGE) in the treatment of RMCW. The study included 50 patients with RMCW. They were randomly assigned into two groups: the first group (25 patients) received LGE, and the second group (25 patients) received saline as a control group. In both groups, treatments were made to single lesions, or largest wart in case of multiple lesions, until complete clearance of lesions or for a maximum of 4 weeks. Blood serum was taken at pre-study and at the fourth week to measure tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) level. A significant difference was found between the therapeutic responses of RMCW to LGE antigen and saline control group (p < 0.001). In the LGE group, complete response was achieved in 96% of patients presenting with RMCW. There was a statistically nonsignificant increase in TNF-α of LGE group versus saline group. No recurrence was observed in the LGE group. LGE as an immunotherapy is an inexpensive, effective, and safe modality with good cure rates for treatment of RMCWs, when other topical or physical therapies have failed. PMID:24910383

  5. Aloe vera gel extract attenuates ethanol-induced hepatic lipid accumulation by suppressing the expression of lipogenic genes in mice.

    PubMed

    Saito, Marie; Tanaka, Miyuki; Misawa, Eriko; Yamada, Muneo; Yamauchi, Kouji; Iwatsuki, Keiji

    2012-01-01

    We have previously reported that Aloe vera gel had hypoglycemic activity and anti-obesity effects, although the effect on alcoholic fatty liver was unclear. We examined in this present study the effect of an Aloe vera gel extract (AVGE) on hepatic lipid metabolism by using an ethanol-induced transient fatty liver mouse model. Ethanol (3 g/kg of mouse weight) was orally administered to induce an accumulation of triglyceride (TG) and increase the mRNA expression of such lipogenic genes as sterol regulatory element-binding protein-1 (SREBP-1) and fatty acid synthase (FASN) in the liver. Although ethanol ingestion caused a 5.4-fold increase in liver TG, pre-treating with AVGE (1 mg/kg/d) for 1 week significantly suppressed this elevation of the ethanol-induced liver TG level. The expression of lipogenic genes was also lower in the AVGE pre-treatment group than in the control group. This inhibitory effect on the ethanol-induced accumulation of TG was attributed to a reduction in the expression of lipogenic genes that were increased by ethanol. PMID:23132591

  6. Insulin-sensitizing and beneficial lipid-metabolic effects of the water-soluble melanin complex extracted from Inonotus obliquus.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jung-Han; Hyun, Chang-Kee

    2014-09-01

    Inonotus obliquus has been traditionally used for treatment of metabolic diseases; however, the mechanism remains to be elucidated. In this study, we found that the water-soluble melanin complex extracted from I. obliquus improved insulin sensitivity and reduced adiposity in high fat (HF)-fed obese mice. When the melanin complex was treated to 3T3-L1 adipocytes, insulin-stimulated glucose uptake was increased significantly, and its phosphoinositide 3-kinase-dependent action was proven with wortmannin treatment. Additionally, dose-dependent increases in Akt phosphorylation and glucose transporter 4 translocation into the plasma membrane were observed in melanin complex-treated cells. Adiponectin gene expression in 3T3-L1 cells incubated with melanin complex increased which was corroborated by increased AMP-activated protein kinase phosphorylation in HepG2 and C2C12 cells treated with conditioned media from the 3T3-L1 culture. Melanin complex-treated 3T3-L1 cells showed no significant change in expression of several lipogenic genes, whereas enhanced expressions of fatty acid oxidative genes were observed. Similarly, the epididymal adipose tissue of melanin complex-treated HF-fed mice had higher expression of fatty acid oxidative genes without significant change in lipogenic gene expression. Together, these results suggest that the water-soluble melanin complex of I. obliquus exerts antihyperglycemic and beneficial lipid-metabolic effects, making it a candidate for promising antidiabetic agent. PMID:24615848

  7. Assessment of phytochemicals, antioxidant, anti-lipid peroxidation and anti-hemolytic activity of extract and various fractions of Maytenus royleanus leaves

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Maytenus royleanus is traditionally used in gastro-intestinal disorders. The aim of this study was to evaluate the methanol extract of leaves and its derived fractions for various antioxidant assays and for its potential against lipid peroxidation and hemolytic activity. Methods Various parameters including scavenging of free-radicals (DPPH, ABTS, hydroxyl and superoxide radical), hydrogen peroxide scavenging, Fe3+ to Fe2+ reducing capacity, total antioxidant capacity, anti-lipid peroxidation and anti-hemolytic activity were investigated. Methanol extract and its derived fractions were also subjected for chemical constituents. LC-MS was also performed on the methanol extract. Results Qualitative analysis of methanol extract exhibited the presence of alkaloids, anthraquinones, cardiac glycosides, coumarins, flavonoids, saponins, phlobatannins, tannins and terpenoids. LC-MS chromatogram indicated the composition of diverse compounds including flavonoids, phenolics and phytoestrogens. Methanol extract, its ethyl acetate and n-butanol fractions constituted the highest amount of total phenolic and flavonoid contents and showed a strong correlation coefficient with the IC50 values for the scavenging of DPPH, hydrogen peroxide radicals, superoxide radicals, anti-lipid peroxidation and anti-hemolytic efficacy. Moreover, n-butanol fraction showed the highest scavenging activity for ABTS radicals and for reduction of Fe3+ to Fe2+. Conclusions Present results suggested the therapeutic potential of Maytenus royleanus leaves, in particular, methanol extract, ethyl acetate and n-butanol fraction as therapeutic agent against free-radical associated damages. The protective potential of the extract and or fraction may be attributed due to the high concentration of phenolic, flavonoid, tannins and terpenoids. PMID:23800043

  8. Bifidogenic effect of grain larvae extract on serum lipid, glucose and intestinal microflora in rats.

    PubMed

    Park, Sang-Oh; Park, Byung-Sung

    2015-09-01

    The main objective of this study was to investigate whether orally administered Korean grain larvae ethanol extract (GLE) had a bifidogenic effect in normal rats. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into a negative control group (CO) and GLE orally administered (5.0, 7.0 and 9.0 mg/100 g body weight) groups. Thymus and spleen weights dosedependently increased by 128.58 percent and 128.58 percent, respectively, but abdominal fat decreased by 19.18 percent after GLE administration compared with that in the CO group (p less than 0.05). Serum triglycerides, total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and glucose decreased by 30.26 percent, 7.33 percent, 27.20 percent, and 6.96 percent, respectively, whereas highdensity lipoprotein cholesterol increased by 129.93 percent in the GLE groups compared with those in the CO group (p less than 0.05). IgG, IgM, IgA in the GLE groups increased 203.68 percent, 181.41 percent, and 238.25 percent, respectively, compared to that in the CO group (p less than 0.05). Bifidobacteria and Lactobacillus increased by 115.74 percent and 144.28 percent, whereas Bacteroides, Clostridium, Escherichia, and Streptococcus decreased by 17.37 percent, 17.46 percent, 21.25 percent, and 19.16 percent, respectively, in the GLE groups compared with those in the CO group (p less than 0.05). Total organic acids, acetic acid, and propionic acid increased by 151.40 percent, 188.09 percent, and 150.17 percent, whereas butyric acid and valeric acid decreased by 40.65 percent and 49.24 percent, respectively, in the GLE groups as compared with those in the CO group (p less than 0.05). These results suggest that Korean GLE improves the bifidogenic effect by increasing cecal organic acids and modulating gut microflora via a selective increase in Bifidobacterium in normal rats. PMID:26333397

  9. Extractions of High Quality RNA from the Seeds of Jerusalem Artichoke and Other Plant Species with High Levels of Starch and Lipid

    PubMed Central

    Mornkham, Tanupat; Puangsomlee Wangsomnuk, Preeya; Fu, Yong-Bi; Wangsomnuk, Pinich; Jogloy, Sanun; Patanothai, Aran

    2013-01-01

    Jerusalem artichoke (Helianthus tuberosus L.) is an important tuber crop. However, Jerusalem artichoke seeds contain high levels of starch and lipid, making the extraction of high-quality RNA extremely difficult and the gene expression analysis challenging. This study was aimed to improve existing methods for extracting total RNA from Jerusalem artichoke dry seeds and to assess the applicability of the improved method in other plant species. Five RNA extraction methods were evaluated on Jerusalem artichoke seeds and two were modified. One modified method with the significant improvement was applied to assay seeds of diverse Jerusalem artichoke accessions, sunflower, rice, maize, peanut and marigold. The effectiveness of the improved method to extract total RNA from seeds was assessed using qPCR analysis of four selected genes. The improved method of Ma and Yang (2011) yielded a maximum RNA solubility and removed most interfering substances. The improved protocol generated 29 to 41 µg RNA/30 mg fresh weight. An A260/A280 ratio of 1.79 to 2.22 showed their RNA purity. Extracted RNA was effective for downstream applications such as first-stranded cDNA synthesis, cDNA cloning and qPCR. The improved method was also effective to extract total RNA from seeds of sunflower, rice, maize and peanut that are rich in polyphenols, lipids and polysaccharides. PMID:27137377

  10. Extractions of High Quality RNA from the Seeds of Jerusalem Artichoke and Other Plant Species with High Levels of Starch and Lipid.

    PubMed

    Mornkham, Tanupat; Wangsomnuk, Preeya Puangsomlee; Fu, Yong-Bi; Wangsomnuk, Pinich; Jogloy, Sanun; Patanothai, Aran

    2013-01-01

    Jerusalem artichoke (Helianthus tuberosus L.) is an important tuber crop. However, Jerusalem artichoke seeds contain high levels of starch and lipid, making the extraction of high-quality RNA extremely difficult and the gene expression analysis challenging. This study was aimed to improve existing methods for extracting total RNA from Jerusalem artichoke dry seeds and to assess the applicability of the improved method in other plant species. Five RNA extraction methods were evaluated on Jerusalem artichoke seeds and two were modified. One modified method with the significant improvement was applied to assay seeds of diverse Jerusalem artichoke accessions, sunflower, rice, maize, peanut and marigold. The effectiveness of the improved method to extract total RNA from seeds was assessed using qPCR analysis of four selected genes. The improved method of Ma and Yang (2011) yielded a maximum RNA solubility and removed most interfering substances. The improved protocol generated 29 to 41 µg RNA/30 mg fresh weight. An A260/A280 ratio of 1.79 to 2.22 showed their RNA purity. Extracted RNA was effective for downstream applications such as first-stranded cDNA synthesis, cDNA cloning and qPCR. The improved method was also effective to extract total RNA from seeds of sunflower, rice, maize and peanut that are rich in polyphenols, lipids and polysaccharides. PMID:27137377

  11. Oil extraction from algae: A comparative approach.

    PubMed

    Valizadeh Derakhshan, Mehrab; Nasernejad, Bahram; Abbaspour-Aghdam, Farzin; Hamidi, Mohammad

    2015-01-01

    In this article, various methods including soxhlet, Bligh & Dyer (B&D), and ultrasonic-assisted B&D were investigated for the extraction of lipid from algal species Chlorella vulgaris. Relative polarity/water content and impolar per polar ratios of solvents were considered to optimize the relative proportions of each triplicate agent by applying the response surface method (RSM). It was found that for soxhlet, hexane-methanol (54-46%, respectively) with total lipid extraction of 14.65% and chloroform-methanol (54-46%, respectively) with the extraction of 19.87% lipid were the best set of triplicate where further addition of acetone to the first group and ethanol to the second group did not contributed to further extraction. In B&D, however, chloroform-methanol-water (50%-35%-15%, respectively) reached the all-time maximum of 24%. Osmotic shock as well as ultrasonication contributed to 3.52% of further extraction, which is considered to promote the total yield up to almost 15%. From the growth data and fatty acid analysis, the applied method was assessed to be appropriate for biodiesel production with regard to selectivity and extraction yield. PMID:25040906

  12. Determination of the cyanobacterial toxin cylindrospermopsin in algal food supplements

    PubMed Central

    Liu, H.; Scott, P.M.

    2011-01-01

    For the analysis of blue–green algal food supplements for cylindrospermopsin (CYN), a C18 solid-phase extraction column and a polygraphitized carbon solid-phase extraction column in series was an effective procedure for the clean-up of extracts. Determination of CYN was by liquid chromatography with ultraviolet light detection. At extract spiking levels of CYN equivalent to 25–500 μg g−1, blue–green algal supplement recoveries were in the range 70–90%. CYN was not detected in ten samples of food supplements and one chocolate product, all containing blue–green algae. The limit of detection for the method was 16 μg g−1, and the limit of quantification was 52 μg g−1. PMID:21623503

  13. Fueling Future with Algal Genomics

    SciTech Connect

    Grigoriev, Igor

    2012-07-05

    Algae constitute a major component of fundamental eukaryotic diversity, play profound roles in the carbon cycle, and are prominent candidates for biofuel production. The US Department of Energy Joint Genome Institute (JGI) is leading the world in algal genome sequencing (http://jgi.doe.gov/Algae) and contributes of the algal genome projects worldwide (GOLD database, 2012). The sequenced algal genomes offer catalogs of genes, networks, and pathways. The sequenced first of its kind genomes of a haptophyte E.huxleyii, chlorarachniophyte B.natans, and cryptophyte G.theta fill the gaps in the eukaryotic tree of life and carry unique genes and pathways as well as molecular fossils of secondary endosymbiosis. Natural adaptation to conditions critical for industrial production is encoded in algal genomes, for example, growth of A.anophagefferens at very high cell densities during the harmful algae blooms or a global distribution across diverse environments of E.huxleyii, able to live on sparse nutrients due to its expanded pan-genome. Communications and signaling pathways can be derived from simple symbiotic systems like lichens or complex marine algae metagenomes. Collectively these datasets derived from algal genomics contribute to building a comprehensive parts list essential for algal biofuel development.

  14. A comparative study on the effect of rosemary extract and sodium ascorbate on lipid and pigment oxidative stability of liver pate.

    PubMed

    Haile, Demewez Moges

    2015-02-01

    A comparative study on the antioxidant effect of rosemary extract (RE) and sodium ascorbate (SA) on lipid and colour oxidation of liver pâté made of lard and pork liver was done. During the 48 hour experimental time all the pâtés were wrapped in a foil and stored in cold room of 3.5°C under light of 1000 lux. Colour stability was monitored by instrumental colour measurement (CIE L*a*b* colour space) whereas lipid stability was measured by the determination of the 2-thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS). In the present study RE doses range (0,125, 250, 375 and 500 ppm) showed no significant (p>0.05) and linear effect on colour stability. However thez RE revealed a significant effect (p<0.05) against lipid oxidation and linearly reduces the TBARS number. The added SA doses (0, 250, 500, 750 and 1000 ppm) revealed significant (p<0.05) and linear effect in reducing discoloration. However the studied SA dose ranges showed no significant (p>0.05) effect on TBARS number. In this study RE was showed better performance against lipid oxidation and SA was potent against discoloration. The effect of the added spices used in manufacturing of the studied product showed no significant (p>0.05) effect against lipid and color oxidation. However the added spices revealed possible antagonistic and synergetic relationship with the studied the antioxidant systems (RE & SA). PMID:25694710

  15. Identification of the anti-oxidant components in a two-step solvent extract of bovine bile lipid: Application of reverse phase HPLC, mass spectrometry and fluorimetric assays.

    PubMed

    Singh, Namrata; Bhattacharyya, Debasish

    2016-04-15

    An ether extract of nine different bacterial metabolites in combination with two solvent extract (ether followed by ethanol) of bile lipids from ox gall bladder is used as an immune stimulator drug. Over the years bile acids are discussed regarding their anti-oxidant and lipid peroxidation properties. Since some of the bile acids are known to be potent antioxidants, presence of similar activity in the solvent extract of ox bile lipid was investigated using TLC and reverse phase HPLC systems. Fractions from HPLC were analyzed with mass spectrometry using electrospray ionization. The presence of twelve different bile acids along with other substances in small proportions including fatty acids, sulfate conjugates and bile pigments were confirmed. The twelve separated peaks had similar retention times as those of tauroursodeoxycholic acid, glycoursodeoxycholic acid, taurocholic acid, glycocholic acid, glycochenodeoxycholic acid, taurochenodeoxycholic acid, taurodeoxycholic acid, cholic acid, ursodeoxycholic acid, chenodeoxycholic acid, deoxycholic acid, and lithocholic acid. Subsequently, all fractions were tested for their anti-oxidative property on HepG2 cells exposed to H2O2 that served as an oxidative injury model. Four fluorescent dyes H2DCF DA, MitoSOX red, Amplex red and DAF-2 DA were used for estimation of reactive radicals in the HepG2 cells. Among the separated bile acids, tauroursodeoxycholic acid, glycoursodeoxycholic acid and ursodeoxycholic acid prevented the HepG2 cells from H2O2-induced oxidative stress. PMID:26639449

  16. Characterization and storage stability of astaxanthin esters, fatty acid profile and α-tocopherol of lipid extract from shrimp (L. vannamei) waste with potential applications as food ingredient.

    PubMed

    Gómez-Estaca, J; Calvo, M M; Álvarez-Acero, I; Montero, P; Gómez-Guillén, M C

    2017-02-01

    In this work a lipid extract from shrimp waste was obtained and characterized. The most abundant fatty acids found were C16:0, C18:2n6c, C18:1n9c, C22:6n3, and C20:5n3. The extract contained all-trans-astaxanthin, two cis-astaxanthin isomers, 5 astaxanthin monoesters, and 10 astaxanthin diesters (7±1mg astaxanthin/g). C22:6n3 and C20:5n3 were the most frequent fatty acids in the esterified forms. Appreciable amounts of α-tocopherol and cholesterol were also found (126±11mg/g and 65±1mg/g, respectively). Little lipid oxidation was observed after 120days of storage at room temperature, revealed by a slight reduction of ω-3 fatty acids, but neither accumulation of TBARS nor formation of oxidized cholesterol forms was found. This is attributed to the antioxidant effect of astaxanthin and α-tocopherol, as their concentrations decreased as storage continued. The lipid extract obtained has interesting applications as food ingredient, owing to the coloring capacity and the presence of healthy components. PMID:27596389

  17. Final Report: 17th international Symposium on Plant Lipids

    SciTech Connect

    Christoph Benning

    2007-03-07

    This meeting covered several emerging areas in the plant lipid field such as the biosynthesis of cuticle components, interorganelle lipid trafficking, the regulation of lipid homeostasis, and the utilization of algal models. Stimulating new insights were provided not only based on research reports based on plant models, but also due to several excellent talks by experts from the yeast field.

  18. Antioxidant effects of D-004, a lipid extract from the Roystonea regia fruit, on the plasma of healthy men

    PubMed Central

    López, Ernesto; Molina, Vivian; Illnait, José; Oyarzábal, Ambar; Fernández, Lilia C.; Más, Rosa; Gámez, Rafael; Fernández, Julio C.; Jiménez, Sonia; Mesa, Meilis; Hollands, Ivón; Mendoza, Sarahí

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to conduct a randomized, double-blind and placebo-controlled study to investigate the effects of D-004, a lipid extract of the Roystonea regia fruit that prevents testosterone- and phenylepinephrine-induced prostate hyperplasia in rodents, on plasma oxidative markers in healthy men. We enrolled male volunteers (20–55 years) in good health and without lower urinary tract symptoms. Thirty-four eligible participants were randomized to placebo or D-004 (320 mg) capsules administered daily for 6 weeks. An interim check-up and a final visit were conducted after 3 and 6 weeks of therapy, respectively. Physical examinations were performed at each visit, and laboratory tests were performed at baseline and at treatment completion. Oxidative variables included plasma malondialdehyde (MDA), total hydroxyperoxides (TOH), sulphydryl (SH) groups and total antioxidant status (TAS). We assessed treatment compliance and addressed adverse experiences (AEs) at weeks 3 and 6. At week 6, with D-004, the mean reductions of plasma MDA (26.7%), TOH (18.8%) and SH groups (31.6%), and the mean increase of TAS (35.3%) were significantly different from those of placebo (P < 0.001 for plasma TAS, P < 0.0001 for all other comparisons). D-004 did not differ from the placebo in safety indicators. There were two withdrawals (both in the D-004 group), with one due to dyspepsia (the only AE during the trial). In conclusion, D-004 displayed antioxidant effects on plasma oxidative markers in healthy men, which was consistent with findings from laboratory experimental studies. PMID:19169265

  19. Clinical trial of Cecropia obtusifolia and Marrubium vulgare leaf extracts on blood glucose and serum lipids in type 2 diabetics.

    PubMed

    Herrera-Arellano, A; Aguilar-Santamaría, L; García-Hernández, B; Nicasio-Torres, P; Tortoriello, J

    2004-11-01

    Cecropia obtusifolia and Marrubium vulgare have been widely used in Mexican traditional medicine for the control of type 2 diabetes. In order to evaluate the clinical effect produced by the aqueous extract from these species on type 2 non-controlled diabetes mellitus, a total of 43 outpatients were included. Based on the European NIDDM (policy group) criteria, only patients with poor response to the conventional treatment were selected. All patients maintained their medical treatment and also received a prepared infusion of the dry leaves of the plant treatment for 21 days. In a double-blind manner, the patients were randomly grouped as follows: 22 patients were treated with C. obtusifolia and 21 with M. vulgare. The fasting blood glucose values were reduced by 15.25% on patients treated with C. obtusifolia, while cholesterol and triglycerides were decreased by 14.62% and 42.0%, respectively (ANOVA p< 0.02). In the case of patients treated with M. vulgare, the plasma glucose level was reduced by 0.64% and cholesterol and triglycerides by 4.16% and 5.78%, respectively. When the results were compared between groups, significant differences in glucose and cholesterol diminution were found. The obtained results showed that the infusion prepared with the leaves of C. obtusifolia (containing 2.99+/-0.14mg of chlorogenic acid/g of dried plant) produced beneficial effects on carbohydrate and lipid metabolisms when it was administered as an adjunct on patients with type 2 diabetes with poor response to conventional medical treatment. PMID:15636168

  20. Advancing Commercialization of Algal Biofuels Through Increased Biomass Productivity and Technology Integration

    SciTech Connect

    Bai, Xuemei; Sabarsky, Martin

    2013-09-30

    Cellana is a leading developer of algae-based bioproducts, and its pre-commercial production of marine microalgae takes place at Cellana?s Kona Demonstration Facility (KDF) in Hawaii. KDF is housing more than 70 high-performing algal strains for different bioproducts, of which over 30 have been grown outside at scale. So far, Cellana has produced more than 10 metric tons of algal biomass for the development of biofuels, animal feed, and high-value nutraceuticals. Cellana?s ALDUO algal cultivation technology allows Cellana to grow non-extremophile algal strains at large scale with no contamination disruptions. Cellana?s research and production at KDF have addressed three major areas that are crucial for the commercialization of algal biofuels: yield improvement, cost reduction, and the overall economics. Commercially acceptable solutions have been developed and tested for major factors limiting areal productivity of algal biomass and lipids based on years of R&D work conducted at KDF. Improved biomass and lipid productivity were achieved through strain improvement, culture management strategies (e.g., alleviation of self-shading, de-oxygenation, and efficient CO2 delivery), and technical advancement in downstream harvesting technology. Cost reduction was achieved through optimized CO2 delivery system, flue gas utilization technology, and energy-efficient harvesting technology. Improved overall economics was achieved through a holistic approach by integration of high-value co-products in the process, in addition to yield improvements and cost reductions.

  1. LIPID BIOMARKER CHARACTERIZATION OF BLOOM-RELATED DINOFLAGELLATES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Marine eukaryotic algae synthesize an array of lipids of chemotaxonomic utility that are potentially valuable in characterizing phytoplankton communities. Sterols and photopigments characteristic of dinoflagellates are rarely found in other algal classes. Long chain (C28) highly ...

  2. Algal culture studies for CELSS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Radmer, R.; Behrens, P.; Arnett, K.; Gladue, R.; Cox, J.; Lieberman, D.

    1987-01-01

    Microalgae are well-suited as a component of a Closed Environmental Life Support System (CELSS), since they can couple the closely related functions of food production and atmospheric regeneration. The objective was to provide a basis for predicting the response of CELSS algal cultures, and thus the food supply and air regeneration system, to changes in the culture parameters. Scenedesmus growth was measured as a function of light intensity, and the spectral dependence of light absorption by the algae as well as algal respiration in the light were determined as a function of cell concentration. These results were used to test and confirm a mathematical model that describes the productivity of an algal culture in terms of the competing processes of photosynthesis and respiration. The relationship of algal productivity to cell concentration was determined at different carbon dioxide concentrations, temperatures, and light intensities. The maximum productivity achieved by an air-grown culture was found to be within 10% of the computed maximum productivity, indicating that CO2 was very efficiently removed from the gas stream by the algal culture. Measurements of biomass productivity as a function of cell concentration at different light intensities indicated that both the productivity and efficiency of light utilization were greater at higher light intensities.

  3. The Effect of Cinnamon Extract and Long-Term Aerobic Training on Heart Function, Biochemical Alterations and Lipid Profile Following Exhaustive Exercise in Male Rats

    PubMed Central

    Badalzadeh, Reza; Shaghaghi, Mehrnoush; Mohammadi, Mustafa; Dehghan, Gholamreza; Mohammadi, Zeynab

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Regular training is suggested to offer a host of benefits especially on cardiovascular system. In addition, medicinal plants can attenuate oxidative stress-mediated damages induced by stressor insults. In this study, we investigated the concomitant effect of cinnamon extract and long-term aerobic training on cardiac function, biochemical alterations and lipid profile following exhaustive exercise. Methods: Male Wistar rats (250-300 g) were divided into five groups depending on receiving regular training, cinnamon bark extraction, none or both of them, and then encountered with an exhausted exercise in last session. An 8-week endurance training program was designed with a progressive increase in training speed and time. Myocardial hemodynamics was monitored using a balloon-tipped catheter inserted into left ventricles. Blood samples were collected for analyzing biochemical markers, lipid profiles and lipid-peroxidation marker, malondealdehyde (MDA). Results: Trained animals showed an enhanced cardiac force and contractility similar to cinnamon-treated rats. Co-application of regular training and cinnamon had additive effect in cardiac hemodynamic (P<0.05). Both regular training and supplementation with cinnamon significantly decreased serum levels of total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein (LDL), and increased high-density lipoprotein (HDL) level and HDL/LDL ratio as compared to control group (P<0.01). Furthermore, pre-treatment with cinnamon extract and/or regular training significantly reduced MDA level elevation induced by exhausted exercise (P<0.01). Conclusion: Long-term treatment of rats with cinnamon and regular training improved cardiac hemodynamic through an additive effect. The positive effects of cinnamon and regular training on cardiac function were associated with a reduced serum MDA level and an improved blood lipid profile. PMID:25671183

  4. Algal turf scrubber (ATS) floways on the Great Wicomico River, Chesapeake Bay: productivity, algal community structure, substrate and chemistry(1).

    PubMed

    Adey, Walter H; Laughinghouse, H Dail; Miller, John B; Hayek, Lee-Ann C; Thompson, Jesse G; Bertman, Steven; Hampel, Kristin; Puvanendran, Shanmugam

    2013-06-01

    Two Algal Turf Scrubber (ATS) units were deployed on the Great Wicomico River (GWR) for 22 months to examine the role of substrate in increasing algal productivity and nutrient removal. The yearly mean productivity of flat ATS screens was 15.4 g · m(-2)  · d(-1) . This was elevated to 39.6 g · m(-2)  · d(-1) with a three-dimensional (3-D) screen, and to 47.7 g · m(-2)  · d(-1) by avoiding high summer harvest temperatures. These methods enhanced nutrient removal (N, P) in algal biomass by 3.5 times. Eighty-six algal taxa (Ochrophyta [diatoms], Chlorophyta [green algae], and Cyan-obacteria [blue-green algae]) self-seeded from the GWR and demonstrated yearly cycling. Silica (SiO2 ) content of the algal biomass ranged from 30% to 50% of total biomass; phosphorus, nitrogen, and carbon content of the total algal biomass ranged from 0.15% to 0.21%, 2.13% to 2.89%, and 20.0% to 25.7%, respectively. Carbohydrate content (at 10%-25% of AFDM) was dominated by glucose. Lipids (fatty acid methyl ester; FAMEs) ranged widely from 0.5% to 9% AFDM, with Omega-3 fatty acids a consistent component. Mathematical modeling of algal produ-ctivity as a function of temperature, light, and substrate showed a proportionality of 4:3:3, resp-ectively. Under landscape ATS operation, substrate manipulation provides a considerable opportunity to increase ATS productivity, water quality amelioration, and biomass coproduction for fertilizers, fermentation energy, and omega-3 products. Based on the 3-D prod-uctivity and algal chemical composition demonstrated, ATS systems used for nonpoint source water treat-ment can produce ethanol (butanol) at 5.8× per unit area of corn, and biodiesel at 12.0× per unit area of soy beans (agricultural production US). PMID:27007038

  5. 2013 plant lipids Gordon Research conference and Gordon Research Seminar (January 27 - February 1, 2013 - Hotel Galvez, Galveston, TX)

    SciTech Connect

    Welti, Ruth

    2012-11-01

    Presenters will discuss the latest advances in plant and algal lipid metabolism, oil synthesis, lipid signaling, lipid visualization, lipid biotechnology and its applications, the physiological and developmental roles of lipids, and plant lipids in health. Sessions include: Producing Nutritional Lipids; Metabolic biochemistry in the next decade; Triacylglycerols: Metabolism, function, and as a target for engineering; Lipids in Protection, Reproduction, and Development; Genetic and Lipidomic Approaches to Understanding Lipid Metabolism and Signaling; Lipid Signaling in Stress Responses; New Insights on the Path to Triacylglycerols; Membrane Lipid Signaling; Lipid Visualization; Development of Biofuels and Industrial Lipids.

  6. Impact of Microalgae-Bacteria Interactions on the Production of Algal Biomass and Associated Compounds

    PubMed Central

    Fuentes, Juan Luis; Garbayo, Inés; Cuaresma, María; Montero, Zaida; González-del-Valle, Manuel; Vílchez, Carlos

    2016-01-01

    A greater insight on the control of the interactions between microalgae and other microorganisms, particularly bacteria, should be useful for enhancing the efficiency of microalgal biomass production and associated valuable compounds. Little attention has been paid to the controlled utilization of microalgae-bacteria consortia. However, the studies of microalgal-bacterial interactions have revealed a significant impact of the mutualistic or parasitic relationships on algal growth. The algal growth, for instance, has been shown to be enhanced by growth promoting factors produced by bacteria, such as indole-3-acetic acid. Vitamin B12 produced by bacteria in algal cultures and bacterial siderophores are also known to be involved in promoting faster microalgal growth. More interestingly, enhancement in the intracellular levels of carbohydrates, lipids and pigments of microalgae coupled with algal growth stimulation has also been reported. In this sense, massive algal production might occur in the presence of bacteria, and microalgae-bacteria interactions can be beneficial to the massive production of microalgae and algal products. This manuscript reviews the recent knowledge on the impact of the microalgae-bacteria interactions on the production of microalgae and accumulation of valuable compounds, with an emphasis on algal species having application in aquaculture. PMID:27213407

  7. Impact of Microalgae-Bacteria Interactions on the Production of Algal Biomass and Associated Compounds.

    PubMed

    Fuentes, Juan Luis; Garbayo, Inés; Cuaresma, María; Montero, Zaida; González-Del-Valle, Manuel; Vílchez, Carlos

    2016-05-01

    A greater insight on the control of the interactions between microalgae and other microorganisms, particularly bacteria, should be useful for enhancing the efficiency of microalgal biomass production and associated valuable compounds. Little attention has been paid to the controlled utilization of microalgae-bacteria consortia. However, the studies of microalgal-bacterial interactions have revealed a significant impact of the mutualistic or parasitic relationships on algal growth. The algal growth, for instance, has been shown to be enhanced by growth promoting factors produced by bacteria, such as indole-3-acetic acid. Vitamin B12 produced by bacteria in algal cultures and bacterial siderophores are also known to be involved in promoting faster microalgal growth. More interestingly, enhancement in the intracellular levels of carbohydrates, lipids and pigments of microalgae coupled with algal growth stimulation has also been reported. In this sense, massive algal production might occur in the presence of bacteria, and microalgae-bacteria interactions can be beneficial to the massive production of microalgae and algal products. This manuscript reviews the recent knowledge on the impact of the microalgae-bacteria interactions on the production of microalgae and accumulation of valuable compounds, with an emphasis on algal species having application in aquaculture. PMID:27213407

  8. Effect of Trigonella foenum-graecum (fenugreek) extract on blood glucose, blood lipid and hemorheological properties in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Xue, Wan-Li; Li, Xuan-She; Zhang, Jian; Liu, Yong-Hui; Wang, Zhi-Lun; Zhang, Rui-Juan

    2007-01-01

    Trigonella foenum-graecum (fenugreek) seeds have previously been shown to have hypoglycemic and hypocholesterolemic effects on type 1 and type 2 diabetes mellitus patients and experimental diabetic animals. The Trigonella foenum-graecum extract has now been investigated for its effects on general properties, blood glucose and blood lipid, and hemorheological parameters in experimental diabetic rats. Streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats were administrated by oral intragastric intubation separately with low dose (0.44 g/kg.d), middle dose (0.87 g/kg.d), high dose (1.74 g/kg.d) of Trigonella foenum-graecum extract, and Metformin HCl (0.175 g/kg.d) for 6 weeks. Compared with diabetic group, rats treated with Trigonella foenum-graecum extract had an increase in body weight and a decrease in kidney /body weight ratio (p<0.05). Compared with diabetic group, rats treated Trigonella foenum-graecum extract had lower blood glucose, glycated hemoglobin, triglycerides, total cholestrol and higher higher-density-lipoprotein-cholesterol in a dose-dependent manner (p<0.05). The plasma viscosity, whole blood viscosity of high shear rate (200 s-1) and low shear rate (40 s-1), erythrocyte sedimentation rate, whole blood reduction viscosity and platelet conglutination were significantly reduced in diabetic rats treated with high and middle doses of Trigonella foenum-graecum extract, but not in those treated with low dose of Trigonella foenum-graecum extract. It may be concluded that Trigonella foenum-graecum extract can lower kidney /body weight ratio, blood glucose, blood lipid levels and improve hemorheological properties in experimental diabetic rats following repeated treatment for 6 weeks. PMID:17392143

  9. Monoraphidium sp. as an algal feedstock for biodiesel: Determining optimal growth conditions in wastewater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davidson, Zachary William

    This thesis set out to investigate different conditions for growth of the freshwater algal species Monoraphidium sp. for use as a feedstock for biodiesel. The algae was inoculated into effluent gathered from a local water treatment plant and placed into 50gal mesocosms. Cells were grown at large scale in wastewater, harvested, and run through extractions to collect lipids (26%DW). The lipids were then turned into biodiesel. The algae also removed most of the pollutants in the wastewater, lowering nitrate and phosphate levels usually to less than 1mg/L. Erlenmeyer flask cultures (1L) were used to determine optimal growth conditions for temperature (10°C), light intensity (30microE/m2/sec with a 10 hour photoperiod), and initial inoculation density (1x104cells/mL). The addition of bicarbonate during the initial or exponential growth phase had no effect on growth. It was concluded that Monoraphidium sp. grown in USDA Hardiness Zone 5 is capable of producing biodiesel.

  10. From benchtop to raceway : spectroscopic signatures of dynamic biological processes in algal communities.

    SciTech Connect

    Trahan, Christine Alexandra; Garcia, Omar Fidel; Martino, Anthony A.; Raymer, Michelle; Collins, Aaron M.; Hanson, David T.; Turner, Tom; Powell, Amy Jo; James, Scott Carlton; Timlin, Jerilyn Ann; Scholle, Steven; Dwyer, Brian P.; Ruffing, Anne; Jones, Howland D. T.; Ricken, James Bryce; Reichardt, Thomas A.

    2010-08-01

    The search is on for new renewable energy and algal-derived biofuel is a critical piece in the multi-faceted renewable energy puzzle. It has 30x more oil than any terrestrial oilseed crop, ideal composition for biodiesel, no competition with food crops, can be grown in waste water, and is cleaner than petroleum based fuels. This project discusses these three goals: (1) Conduct fundamental research into the effects that dynamic biotic and abiotic stressors have on algal growth and lipid production - Genomics/Transcriptomics, Bioanalytical spectroscopy/Chemical imaging; (2) Discover spectral signatures for algal health at the benchtop and greenhouse scale - Remote sensing, Bioanalytical spectroscopy; and (3) Develop computational model for algal growth and productivity at the raceway scale - Computational modeling.

  11. Production of Branched Tetraether Lipids in the Lower Pearl River and Estuary: Effects of Extraction Methods and Impact on bGDGT Proxies

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Chuanlun L.; Wang, Jinxiang; Wei, Yuli; Zhu, Chun; Huang, Liuqin; Dong, Hailiang

    2012-01-01

    Branched glycerol dibiphytanyl glycerol tetraethers (bGDGTs) are known as bacterial lipids that occur widely in terrestrial environments, particularly in anaerobic peat bogs and soil. We examined the abundance and distribution of bGDGTs in both core (C) and polar (P) lipid fractions from the water column and surface sediments in the lower Pearl River (PR) and its estuary using two extraction methods (sonication vs. Bligh and Dyer). A number of soil samples in the lower PR drainage basin were also collected and extracted for bGDGTs using the sonication method. The results showed aquatic production of bGDGTs as supported by substantial abundances of P-bGDGTs in the water column and sediment samples. The bGDGT-based proxies (BIT, CBT, and MBT) were not affected by the method of extraction when C-bGDGTs were analyzed; in such case, the pHCBT of the sediments reflected the soil pH of the lower PR drainage basin, and the temperature close to the annual mean air temperature (MAT) in the lower PR basin. On the other hand, the P-bGDGT-derived proxies were inconsistent between the two methods. The P-bGDGTs (particularly those extracted using the sonication method) may not be reliable indicators of annual MATs. PMID:22291686

  12. Effect of rosemary extract dose on lipid oxidation, colour stability and antioxidant concentrations, in reduced nitrite liver pâtés.

    PubMed

    Doolaege, Evelyne H A; Vossen, Els; Raes, Katleen; De Meulenaer, Bruno; Verhé, Roland; Paelinck, Hubert; De Smet, Stefaan

    2012-04-01

    The oxidative stability of liver pâté was investigated in relation to different doses of rosemary extract (RE) and sodium nitrite. Colour stability, lipid oxidation (TBARS) and concentrations of ascorbic acid, α-tocopherol, carnosic acid and nitrite were measured on the batters before cooking and on the cooked liver pâté before and after exposure to light and air for 48 h at 4°C. Results showed that the use of RE significantly reduced lipid oxidation, whereas it had no effect on colour stability. Ascorbic acid and nitrite concentrations were significantly higher and lower respectively when RE was added. RE dose-dependently increased the concentration of carnosic acid. Lower sodium nitrite doses resulted in significantly lower nitrite concentrations and slightly lower TBARS values. It was concluded that in liver pâté sodium nitrite levels may be lowered to 80 mg/kg without negatively affecting colour and lipid stability and that the use of RE may help in maintaining lipid stability. PMID:22196091

  13. Effect of Hypericum perforatum L. extract on insulin resistance and lipid metabolic disorder in high-fat-diet induced obese mice.

    PubMed

    Tian, Jin-ying; Tao, Rong-ya; Zhang, Xiao-lin; Liu, Qian; He, Yi-Bo; Su, Ya-lun; Ji, Teng-fei; Ye, Fei

    2015-01-01

    Natural product Hypericum perforatum L. has been used in folk medicine to improve mental performance. However, the effect of H. perforatum L. on metabolism is still unknown. In order to test whether H. perforatum L. extract (EHP) has an effect on metabolic syndrome, we treated diet induced obese (DIO) C57BL/6J mice with the extract. The chemical characters of EHP were investigated with thin-layer chromatography, ultraviolet, high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), and HPLC-mass spectrometry fingerprint analysis. Oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT), insulin tolerance test (ITT), and the glucose infusion rate (GIR) in hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp test were performed to evaluate the glucose metabolism and insulin sensitivity. Skeletal muscle was examined for lipid metabolism. The results suggest that EHP can significantly improve the glucose and lipid metabolism in DIO mice. In vitro, EHP inhibited the catalytic activity of recombinant human protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B) and reduced the protein and mRNA levels of PTP1B in the skeletal muscle. Moreover, expressions of genes related to fatty acid uptake and oxidation were changed by EHP in the skeletal muscle. These results suggest that EHP may improve insulin resistance and lipid metabolism in DIO mice. PMID:25266458

  14. [Effect of biogenic stimulators--aloe extract and biotrite--on lipid peroxidation processes in saliva in inflammatory periodontal disease].

    PubMed

    volik, N A; Beloklitskaia, G F; Stefanov, A V; Makarenko

    1999-01-01

    The influence of biostimulators of vegetative origin, such as aloes and biotritis, on the process of lipid peroxidation in parodontium tissues, was studied. Biotritis has a more considerable parodontoprotective effect than aloes. PMID:10726317

  15. Infrared spectral analysis of MCF-7 cells treated with serum-lipid extracts segregates predominantly brominated flame retardant-exposed subjects from those with mainly organochlorine exposures.

    PubMed

    Bi, Xinhui; Walsh, Michael J; Wei, Xiaomin; Sheng, Guoying; Fu, Jiamo; Martin-Hirsch, Pierre L; Thomas, Gareth O; Jones, Kevin C; Martin, Francis L

    2007-08-15

    We set out to determine whether infrared (IR) spectra of treated MCF-7 cells derived using attenuated total reflection Fourier-transform IR (ATR) microspectroscopy could be used to signature different exposures. Serum-lipid samples from residents living in an electronics waste (e-waste) dismantling region (Region E, n = 26) in the south of P.R. China or from a nearby region (Region S, n = 20) associated with the fishing industry were obtained. Following extraction, estrogen receptor-positive MCF-7 cells were treated for 24 h with < or = 5-mg lipid equivalent of individual extracts prior to ethanol fixation; subsequently, IR spectra of treated-cell populations were obtained using ATR microspectroscopy. Levels of organochlorinated and brominated compounds in parallel extracts were also determined. Principal component analysis (PCA) was employed to ascertain whether IR-spectral scores would cluster according to particular cohort. Scores plots following PCA highlighted significant clustering dependent on with which set of extracts MCF-7 cells were treated. This suggests marked differences in the cell-biochemical modulating effects induced by either set of extracts. Analysis of contaminant profiles in the extracts showed that polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) accounted for 46.0% of total organohalogens and were higher than dichloro-diphenyl-trichloroethanes (DDTs) in Region E; DDTs were the major contaminants (85.2% of total contaminant load) compared to PBDEs (8.7%) in Region S. These results suggest that ATR microspectroscopy can segregate cell-biochemical effects as a consequence of very different exposure paradigms. PMID:17874806

  16. Dietary freshwater clam (Corbicula fluminea) extract suppresses accumulation of hepatic lipids and increases in serum cholesterol and aminotransferase activities induced by dietary chloretone in rats.

    PubMed

    Chijimatsu, Takeshi; Umeki, Miki; Kobayashi, Satoru; Kataoka, Yutaro; Yamada, Koji; Oda, Hiroaki; Mochizuki, Satoshi

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the ameliorative effect of freshwater clam extract (FCE) on fatty liver, hypercholesterolemia, and liver injury in rats exposed to chloretone. Furthermore, we examined the effects of major FCE components (fat and protein fractions) to determine the active components in FCE. Chloretone increased serum aminotransferase activities and led to hepatic lipid accumulation. Serum aminotransferase activities and hepatic lipid content were lower in rats fed total FCE or fat/protein fractions of FCE. Expression of fatty acid synthase and fatty acid desaturase genes was upregulated by chloretone. Total FCE and fat/protein fractions of FCE suppressed the increase in gene expression involved in fatty acid synthesis. Serum cholesterol levels increased twofold upon chloretone exposure. Total FCE or fat/protein fractions of FCE showed hypocholesterolemic effects in rats with hypercholesterolemia induced by chloretone. These suggest that FCE contains at least two active components against fatty liver, hypercholesterolemia, and liver injury in rats exposed to chloretone. PMID:25704646

  17. Water Extractable Phytochemicals from Peppers (Capsicum spp.) Inhibit Acetylcholinesterase and Butyrylcholinesterase Activities and Prooxidants Induced Lipid Peroxidation in Rat Brain In Vitro

    PubMed Central

    Ogunruku, Omodesola O.; Ademosun, Ayokunle O.

    2014-01-01

    Background. This study sought to investigate antioxidant capacity of aqueous extracts of two pepper varieties (Capsicum annuum var. accuminatum (SM) and Capsicum chinense (RO)) and their inhibitory effect on acetylcholinesterase and butyrylcholinesterase activities. Methods. The antioxidant capacity of the peppers was evaluated by the 2,2′-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) (ABTS) radical scavenging ability and ferric reducing antioxidant property. The inhibition of prooxidant induced lipid peroxidation and cholinesterase activities in rat brain homogenates was also evaluated. Results. There was no significant difference (P > 0.05) in the total phenol contents of the unripe and ripe Capsicum spp. extracts. Ripe and unripe SM samples had significantly higher (P < 0.05) ABTS* scavenging ability than RO samples, while the ripe fruits had significantly higher (P < 0.05) ferric reducing properties in the varieties. Furthermore, the extracts inhibited Fe2+ and quinolinic acid induced lipid peroxidation in rats brain homogenates in a dose-dependent manner. Ripe and unripe samples from SM had significantly higher AChE inhibitory abilities than RO samples, while there was no significant difference in the BuChE inhibitory abilities of the pepper samples. Conclusion. The antioxidant and anticholinesterase properties of Capsicum spp. may be a possible dietary means by which oxidative stress and symptomatic cognitive decline associated with neurodegenerative conditions could be alleviated. PMID:26904640

  18. Water Extractable Phytochemicals from Peppers (Capsicum spp.) Inhibit Acetylcholinesterase and Butyrylcholinesterase Activities and Prooxidants Induced Lipid Peroxidation in Rat Brain In Vitro.

    PubMed

    Ogunruku, Omodesola O; Oboh, Ganiyu; Ademosun, Ayokunle O

    2014-01-01

    Background. This study sought to investigate antioxidant capacity of aqueous extracts of two pepper varieties (Capsicum annuum var. accuminatum (SM) and Capsicum chinense (RO)) and their inhibitory effect on acetylcholinesterase and butyrylcholinesterase activities. Methods. The antioxidant capacity of the peppers was evaluated by the 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) (ABTS) radical scavenging ability and ferric reducing antioxidant property. The inhibition of prooxidant induced lipid peroxidation and cholinesterase activities in rat brain homogenates was also evaluated. Results. There was no significant difference (P > 0.05) in the total phenol contents of the unripe and ripe Capsicum spp. extracts. Ripe and unripe SM samples had significantly higher (P < 0.05) ABTS(*) scavenging ability than RO samples, while the ripe fruits had significantly higher (P < 0.05) ferric reducing properties in the varieties. Furthermore, the extracts inhibited Fe(2+) and quinolinic acid induced lipid peroxidation in rats brain homogenates in a dose-dependent manner. Ripe and unripe samples from SM had significantly higher AChE inhibitory abilities than RO samples, while there was no significant difference in the BuChE inhibitory abilities of the pepper samples. Conclusion. The antioxidant and anticholinesterase properties of Capsicum spp. may be a possible dietary means by which oxidative stress and symptomatic cognitive decline associated with neurodegenerative conditions could be alleviated. PMID:26904640

  19. Combined treatment of sodium orthovanadate and Momordica charantia fruit extract prevents alterations in lipid profile and lipogenic enzymes in alloxan diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Yadav, Umesh C S; Moorthy, K; Baquer, Najma Z

    2005-01-01

    Momordica charantia Linn., commonly called bitter gourd, is a medicinal plant used in the Ayurvedic system of medicine for treating various diseases including diabetes mellitus. Sodium orthovanadate (SOV) is also well-known insulin mimetic and an antidiabetic compound. Our laboratory has been using reduced doses of SOV along with administration of herbal extracts to alloxan diabetic rats and has established this combination as a good antihyperglycemic agent. The present study was undertaken to investigate the effects of treatment of Momordica fruit extract (MFE) and sodium orthovanadate, separately and in combination, on serum and tissue lipid profile and on the activities of lipogenic enzymes in alloxan induced diabetic rats. The results show that there was a significant (p < 0.01) increase in serum total lipids, triglycerides and total cholesterol levels after 21 days of alloxan diabetes. In the liver and kidney of diabetic rats the levels of total lipids and triglycerides also increased significantly (p < 0.01) while levels of total cholesterol decreased significantly (p < 0.01 and p < 0.05, respectively). The lipogenic enzymes showed decreased activity in the diabetic liver, while in kidney they showed an increased activity. When compared with the controls these changes were significant. The treatment of alloxan diabetic rats with MFE and SOV prevented these alterations and maintained all parameters near control values. Most effective prevention was however observed in a combined treatment of Momordica with a reduced dose of SOV (0.2%). The results suggest that Momordica fruit extract and SOV exhibit hypolipidemic as well as hypoglycemic effect in diabetic rats and their effect is pronounced when administered in combination. PMID:15724444

  20. Evaluation of an automated hydrolysis and extraction method for quantification of total fat and lipid classess in cereal products.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The utility of an automated acid hydrolysis-extraction (AHE) system was evaluated for extraction of fat for the quantification of total, saturated, polyunsaturated, monounsaturated, and trans fat in cereal products. Oil extracted by the AHE system was assessed for total fat gravimetrically and by c...

  1. Automatic identification of algal community from microscopic images.

    PubMed

    Santhi, Natchimuthu; Pradeepa, Chinnaraj; Subashini, Parthasarathy; Kalaiselvi, Senthil

    2013-01-01

    A good understanding of the population dynamics of algal communities is crucial in several ecological and pollution studies of freshwater and oceanic systems. This paper reviews the subsequent introduction to the automatic identification of the algal communities using image processing techniques from microscope images. The diverse techniques of image preprocessing, segmentation, feature extraction and recognition are considered one by one and their parameters are summarized. Automatic identification and classification of algal community are very difficult due to various factors such as change in size and shape with climatic changes, various growth periods, and the presence of other microbes. Therefore, the significance, uniqueness, and various approaches are discussed and the analyses in image processing methods are evaluated. Algal identification and associated problems in water organisms have been projected as challenges in image processing application. Various image processing approaches based on textures, shapes, and an object boundary, as well as some segmentation methods like, edge detection and color segmentations, are highlighted. Finally, artificial neural networks and some machine learning algorithms were used to classify and identifying the algae. Further, some of the benefits and drawbacks of schemes are examined. PMID:24151424

  2. Evaluation of food grade solvents for lipid extraction and impact of storage temperature on fatty acid composition of edible seaweeds Laminaria digitata (Phaeophyceae) and Palmaria palmata (Rhodophyta).

    PubMed

    Schmid, Matthias; Guihéneuf, Freddy; Stengel, Dagmar B

    2016-10-01

    This study evaluated the impact of different food- and non-food grade extraction solvents on yield and fatty acid composition of the lipid extracts of two seaweed species (Palmaria palmata and Laminaria digitata). The application of chloroform/methanol and three different food grade solvents (ethanol, hexane, ethanol/hexane) revealed significant differences in both, extraction yield and fatty acid composition. The extraction efficiency, in terms of yields of total fatty acids (TFA), was in the order: chloroform/methanol>ethanol>hexane>ethanol/hexane for both species. Highest levels of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) were achieved by the extraction with ethanol. Additionally the effect of storage temperature on the stability of PUFA in ground and freeze-dried seaweed biomass was investigated. Seaweed samples were stored for a total duration of 22months at three different temperatures (-20°C, 4°C and 20°C). Levels of TFA and PUFA were only stable after storage at -20°C for the two seaweed species. PMID:27132836

  3. Algal taxonomy forum: Algal Taxonomist, Let Serendipity Reign!

    PubMed

    Druehl, Louis

    2013-04-01

    The publication of a mini-review by Olivier De Clerck et al. in this issue of the Journal of Phycology presented an opportunity to open a dialogue on challenges faced by contemporary algal taxonomists. The Editorial Office solicited the following two additional contributions in response to De Clerck et al.'s paper; the responses were edited solely for clarity, space and format. PMID:27008510

  4. Effect of inulin extracts or inulin-containing plant supplement on blood lipid indices and fatty acid profile in fattener tissues.

    PubMed

    Grela, E R; Sobolewska, S; Roziński, T

    2014-01-01

    The objective of the study was to evaluate the effect of inulin or dandelion, chicory and Jerusalem artichoke powder on lipid indices and fatty acid profile in fattener tissues. The experiment involved 120 crossbred pigs (PL x PLW) x Duroc with an initial body weight of 25.0 +/- 0.5 kg. Animals were assigned into 6 groups. A diet for group I (control) did not comprise an inulin additive, group II and III received 2% inulin (water or water-alcohol extraction of inulin from chicory root, respectively), while the mixtures for group IV, V and VI contained 4% root powder from Jerusalem artichoke (topinambur), chicory or dandelion, respectively. The animals were slaughtered at 115 kg body weight. The samples of blood, liver and the muscle longissimus dorsi tissues as well as whole hearts were collected for analysis. Fatty acid profile, some lipid indices and crude fat and cholesterol content were evaluated. Dietary supplement of 40 g dandelion powder resulted in preferable significant changes in the blood lipid indices and fatty acids composition (increased PUFA share and decreased n-6/n-3 ratio). PMID:24724475

  5. Magnolia extract (BL153) protection of heart from lipid accumulation caused cardiac oxidative damage, inflammation, and cell death in high-fat diet fed mice.

    PubMed

    Sun, Weixia; Zhang, Zhiguo; Chen, Qiang; Yin, Xia; Fu, Yaowen; Zheng, Yang; Cai, Lu; Kim, Ki-Soo; Kim, Ki Ho; Tan, Yi; Kim, Young Heui

    2014-01-01

    Magnolia as an herbal material obtained from Magnolia officinalis has been found to play an important role in anti-inflammation, antioxidative stress, and antiapoptosis. This study was designed to investigate the effect of Magnolia extract (BL153) on obesity-associated lipid accumulation, inflammation, oxidative stress, and apoptosis in the heart. C57BL/6 mice were fed a low- (10 kcal% fat) or high-fat (60 kcal% fat) diet for 24 weeks to induce obesity. These mice fed with high-fat diet (HFD) were given a gavage of vehicle, 2.5, 5, or 10 mg/kg body weight BL153 daily. The three doses of BL153 treatment slightly ameliorated insulin resistance without decrease of body weight gain induced by HFD feeding. BL153 at 10 mg/kg slightly attenuated a mild cardiac hypertrophy and dysfunction induced by HFD feeding. Both 5 mg/kg and 10 mg/kg of BL153 treatment significantly inhibited cardiac lipid accumulation measured by Oil Red O staining and improved cardiac inflammation and oxidative stress by downregulating ICAM-1, TNF-α, PAI-1, 3-NT, and 4-HNE. TUNEL staining showed that BL153 treatment also ameliorated apoptosis induced by mitochondrial caspase-3 independent cell death pathway. This study demonstrates that BL153 attenuates HFD-associated cardiac damage through prevention of HFD-induced cardiac lipid accumulation, inflammation, oxidative stress, and apoptosis. PMID:24693333

  6. Effect of rooibos extract (Aspalathus linearis) on lipid oxidation over time and the sensory analysis of blesbok (Damaliscus pygargus phillipsi) and springbok (Antidorcas marsupialis) droëwors.

    PubMed

    Jones, Maxine; Hoffman, Louwrens C; Muller, Magdalena

    2015-05-01

    The study objective was to investigate the addition of rooibos extract (RBE) in blesbok and springbok droëwors, a dried meat sausage with added beef fat, to improve oxidative stability. After a storage period of two weeks, inhibition of lipid oxidation showed to be successful with RBE 1.0% addition. No differences (P>0.05) in heme-iron results within the raw, dried or stored samples were seen. However, a positive correlation between lipid oxidation and heme-iron was noted. The fatty acid profiles suggest that after drying the decrease in polyunsaturated fats could be linked to the increase in lipid oxidation. Flavor and aroma differences between the varying RBE concentrations in the droëwors were detected by the sensory panel. A droëwors formulation using a combination of game meat and beef fat with the addition of RBE at a 1.0% concentration could be a successful addition to the processed meat market. PMID:25617707

  7. Inhibition of carbohydrate and lipid digestive enzymes activities by Zygophyllum album extracts: effect on blood and pancreas inflammatory biomarkers in alloxan-induced diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Mnafgui, Kais; Kchaou, Mouna; Hamden, Khaled; Derbali, Fatma; Slama, Sadok; Nasri, Mbarek; Salah, Hichem Ben; Allouche, Noureddine; Elfeki, Abdelfattah

    2014-03-01

    Zygophyllum album has been used as herbal medicine in Southern Tunisia to treat several diseases such as diabetes mellitus. This study is aimed to reveal the mechanisms underlying the antihyperglycemic potential, the anti-inflammatory and the protective hematological proprieties of this plant in diabetic rats. The inhibition of the α-amylase activity by different solvent-extract fractions of Z. album was tested in vitro. The fraction endowed with the powerful inhibitory activity against α-amylase was administered to surviving diabetic rats for 30 days. Data from in vitro indicated that each extract from the medicinal plant showed moderate inhibition of α-amylase enzyme except the ethyl acetate extract which was ineffective. The powerful inhibition was achieved by ethanol extract of Z. album (EZA) with an IC50 of 43.48 μg/ml as compared to acarbose (Acar) with an IC50 of 14.88 μg/ml. In vivo, the results showed that EZA decreased the α-amylase levels in serum, pancreas and intestine of diabetic rats by 40 %, 45 % and 46 %, respectively, associated with considerably reduction in blood glucose rate by 61 %. Moreover, the EZA helped to protect the structure and function of the β-cells. Interestingly, EZA had a potent anti-inflammatory effect which is manifested by decreases in CRP and TNF-α levels. Overall, a notable reduction in lipase activity both in serum and small intestine of treated diabetic rats resulted in the improvement of serum and liver lipids profile. Z. album showed a prominent antidiabetic effect via inhibition of carbohydrate and lipid digestive enzymes and ameliorated the inflammation and the disturbance of hematological biomarkers in diabetes. PMID:23996134

  8. Inhibition of Key Enzymes Linked to Type 2 Diabetes and Sodium Nitroprusside Induced Lipid Peroxidation in Rats’ Pancreas by Phenolic Extracts of Avocado Pear Leaves and Fruit

    PubMed Central

    Oboh, Ganiyu; Isaac, Adelusi Temitope; Akinyemi, Ayodele Jacobson; Ajani, Richard Akinlolu

    2014-01-01

    Persea americana fruit and leaves had been known in folk medicine for their anti-diabetic prowess. Therefore, this study sought to investigate the inhibitory effect of phenolic extract from avocado pear (Persea americana) leaves and fruits on some key enzymes linked to type 2 diabetes (α-amylase and α-glucosidase); and sodium nitroprusside (SNP) induced lipid peroxidation in rats’ pancreas in vitro. The phenolic extracts of Persea americana fruit and leaves were extracted using methanol and 1M HCl (1:1 v/v). Thereafter, their inhibitory effects on sodium nitroprusside induced lipid peroxidation and key enzymes linked to type 2 diabetes (α-amylase and α-glucosidase) were determined in vitro. The result revealed that the leaves had fruit of avocado pear inhibit both α-amylase and α-glucosidase activities in a dose dependent manner. However, the Peel had the highest α-amylase inhibitory activity while the leaf had the highest α-glucosidase inhibitory activity as revealed by their IC50 value. Furthermore, incubation of the rat pancreas in the presence of 5 mM SNP caused an increase in the malondialdehyde (MDA) content in the tissue, however, introduction of the phenolic extracts inhibited MDA produced in a dose dependent manner. The additive and/or synergistic action of major phenolic compounds such as syringic acid, eugenol, vnillic acid, isoeugenol, guaiacol, kaemferol, catechin, ρ-hydroxybenzoic acid, ferulic acid, apigenin, naringenin, epigallocatechin, epicatechin, lupeol and epigallocatechin-3-O-gallate in avocado pear using gas chromatography (GC) could have contributed to the observed medicinal properties of the plant. Therefore, inhibition of some key enzymes linked to type 2 diabetes and prevention of oxidative stress in the pancreas could be some of the possible mechanism by which they exert their anti-diabetic properties PMID:25324703

  9. Inhibition of key enzymes linked to type 2 diabetes and sodium nitroprusside induced lipid peroxidation in rats' pancreas by phenolic extracts of avocado pear leaves and fruit.

    PubMed

    Oboh, Ganiyu; Isaac, Adelusi Temitope; Akinyemi, Ayodele Jacobson; Ajani, Richard Akinlolu

    2014-09-01

    Persea americana fruit and leaves had been known in folk medicine for their anti-diabetic prowess. Therefore, this study sought to investigate the inhibitory effect of phenolic extract from avocado pear (Persea americana) leaves and fruits on some key enzymes linked to type 2 diabetes (α-amylase and α-glucosidase); and sodium nitroprusside (SNP) induced lipid peroxidation in rats' pancreas in vitro. The phenolic extracts of Persea americana fruit and leaves were extracted using methanol and 1M HCl (1:1 v/v). Thereafter, their inhibitory effects on sodium nitroprusside induced lipid peroxidation and key enzymes linked to type 2 diabetes (α-amylase and α-glucosidase) were determined in vitro. The result revealed that the leaves had fruit of avocado pear inhibit both α-amylase and α-glucosidase activities in a dose dependent manner. However, the Peel had the highest α-amylase inhibitory activity while the leaf had the highest α-glucosidase inhibitory activity as revealed by their IC50 value. Furthermore, incubation of the rat pancreas in the presence of 5 mM SNP caused an increase in the malondialdehyde (MDA) content in the tissue, however, introduction of the phenolic extracts inhibited MDA produced in a dose dependent manner. The additive and/or synergistic action of major phenolic compounds such as syringic acid, eugenol, vnillic acid, isoeugenol, guaiacol, kaemferol, catechin, ρ-hydroxybenzoic acid, ferulic acid, apigenin, naringenin, epigallocatechin, epicatechin, lupeol and epigallocatechin-3-O-gallate in avocado pear using gas chromatography (GC) could have contributed to the observed medicinal properties of the plant. Therefore, inhibition of some key enzymes linked to type 2 diabetes and prevention of oxidative stress in the pancreas could be some of the possible mechanism by which they exert their anti-diabetic properties. PMID:25324703

  10. Identification of Plants That Inhibit Lipid Droplet Formation in Liver Cells: Rubus suavissimus Leaf Extract Protects Mice from High-Fat Diet-Induced Fatty Liver by Directly Affecting Liver Cells

    PubMed Central

    Takahashi, Tomohiro; Sugawara, Wataru; Takiguchi, Yuya; Takizawa, Kento; Nakabayashi, Ami; Nakamura, Mitsuo; Nagano-Ito, Michiyo; Ichikawa, Shinichi

    2016-01-01

    Fatty liver disease is a condition in which abnormally large numbers of lipid droplets accumulate in liver cells. Fatty liver disease induces inflammation under conditions of oxidative stress and may result in cancer. To identify plants that protect against fatty liver disease, we examined the inhibitory effects of plant extracts on lipid droplet formation in mouse hepatoma cells. A screen of 98 water extracts of plants revealed 4 extracts with inhibitory effects. One of these extracts, Rubus suavissimus S. Lee (Tien-cha or Chinese sweet tea) leaf extract, which showed strong inhibitory effects, was tested in a mouse fatty liver model. In these mouse experiments, intake of the plant extract significantly protected mice against fatty liver disease without affecting body weight gain. Our results suggest that RSE directly affects liver cells and protects them from fatty liver disease. PMID:27429636

  11. Identification of Plants That Inhibit Lipid Droplet Formation in Liver Cells: Rubus suavissimus Leaf Extract Protects Mice from High-Fat Diet-Induced Fatty Liver by Directly Affecting Liver Cells.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Tomohiro; Sugawara, Wataru; Takiguchi, Yuya; Takizawa, Kento; Nakabayashi, Ami; Nakamura, Mitsuo; Nagano-Ito, Michiyo; Ichikawa, Shinichi

    2016-01-01

    Fatty liver disease is a condition in which abnormally large numbers of lipid droplets accumulate in liver cells. Fatty liver disease induces inflammation under conditions of oxidative stress and may result in cancer. To identify plants that protect against fatty liver disease, we examined the inhibitory effects of plant extracts on lipid droplet formation in mouse hepatoma cells. A screen of 98 water extracts of plants revealed 4 extracts with inhibitory effects. One of these extracts, Rubus suavissimus S. Lee (Tien-cha or Chinese sweet tea) leaf extract, which showed strong inhibitory effects, was tested in a mouse fatty liver model. In these mouse experiments, intake of the plant extract significantly protected mice against fatty liver disease without affecting body weight gain. Our results suggest that RSE directly affects liver cells and protects them from fatty liver disease. PMID:27429636

  12. Algal blooms and public health

    SciTech Connect

    Epstein, P.R. . Harvard Medical School)

    1993-06-01

    Alterations in coastal ecology are expanding the geographic extent, frequency, magnitude, and species complexity'' of algal blooms throughout the world, increasing the threat of fish and shellfish poisonings, anoxia in marine nurseries, and of cholera. The World Health Organization and members of the medical profession have described the potential health effects of global climate change. They warn of the consequences of increased ultraviolet-B (UV-B) rays and of warming: the possible damage to agriculture and nutrition, and the impact on habitats which may alter the distribution of vector-borne and water-based infectious diseases. Algal growth due to increased nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) and warming are already affecting marine microflora and aquatic plants; and there is now clear evidence that marine organisms are a reservoir for enteric pathogens. The pattern of cholera in the Western Hemisphere suggests that environmental changes have already begun to influence the epidemiology of this infectious disease. 106 refs.

  13. The effects of the aqueous extract and residue of Matcha on the antioxidant status and lipid and glucose levels in mice fed a high-fat diet.

    PubMed

    Xu, Ping; Ying, Le; Hong, Gaojie; Wang, Yuefei

    2016-01-01

    Matcha is a kind of powdered green tea produced by grinding with a stone mill. In the present study, the preventive effects of the aqueous extract (water-soluble) and residue (water-insoluble) of Matcha on the antioxidant status and lipid and glucose levels in mice fed a high-fat diet were investigated. Mice were fed seven different experimental diets for 4 weeks: a normal diet control (NC), a high-fat diet (HF), a high-fat diet with 0.025% Matcha (MLD), a high-fat diet with 0.05% Matcha (MMD), a high-fat diet with 0.075% Matcha (MHD), a high-fat diet with 0.05% Matcha aqueous extracts (ME), and a high-fat diet with 0.05% Matcha residues (MR). It was found that serum total cholesterol (TC) and triglyceride (TG) levels of the MHD group were significantly decreased compared to those of the HF group. Furthermore, in the MHD group, the level of high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C) was elevated, on the contrary the level of low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C) was suppressed. Moreover, Matcha could significantly lower the blood glucose levels, and improve the superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity and malondialdehyde (MAD) contents both in serum and liver; besides, the serum GSH-Px activity indicated that the oxidative stress caused by HF could be reversed by administration of Matcha. These findings suggest that Matcha has beneficial effects through the suppression of the blood glucose (BG) accumulation and promotion of the lipid metabolism and antioxidant activities. Moreover, the water-insoluble part of Matcha is suggested to play an important role in the suppression of diet-induced high levels of lipid and glucose. PMID:26448271

  14. Accumulated lipids rather than the rigid cell walls impede the extraction of genetic materials for effective colony PCRs in Chlorella vulgaris

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Failure of colony PCRs in green microalga Chlorella vulgaris is typically attributed to the difficulty in disrupting its notoriously rigid cell walls for releasing the genetic materials and therefore the development of an effective colony PCR procedure in C. vulgaris presents a challenge. Results Here we identified that colony PCR results were significantly affected by the accumulated lipids rather than the rigid cell walls of C. vulgaris. The higher lipids accumulated in C. vulgaris negatively affects the effective amplification by DNA polymerase. Based on these findings, we established a simple and extremely effective colony PCR procedure in C. vulgaris. By simply pipetting/votexing the pellets of C. vulgaris in 10 ul of either TE (10 mM Tris/1 mM EDTA) or 0.2% SDS buffer at room temperature, followed by the addition of 10 ul of either hexane or Phenol:Chloroform:Isoamyl Alcohol in the same PCR tube for extraction. The resulting aqueous phase was readily PCR-amplified as genomic DNA templates as demonstrated by successful amplification of the nuclear 18S rRNA and the chloroplast rbcL gene. This colony PCR protocol is effective and robust in C. vulgaris and also demonstrates its effectiveness in other Chlorella species. Conclusions The accumulated lipids rather than the rigid cell walls of C. vulgaris significantly impede the extraction of genetic materials and subsequently the effective colony PCRs. The finding has the potential to aid the isolation of high-quality total RNAs and mRNAs for transcriptomic studies in addition to the genomic DNA isolation in Chlorella. PMID:24219401

  15. Evaluation of specific humoral immune response and cross reactivity against Mycobacterium tuberculosis antigens induced in mice immunized with liposomes composed of total lipids extracted from Mycobacterium smegmatis.

    PubMed

    de los Angeles García, María; Borrero, Reinier; Marrón, Reynel; Lanio, María E; Canet, Lien; Otero, Oscar; Kadir, Ramlah; Suraiya, Siti; Zayas, Caridad; López, Yamilé; Nor Norazmi, Mohd; Sarmiento, Maria E; Acosta, Armando

    2013-01-01

    The development of a new tuberculosis (TB) vaccine has become one of the main objectives of the scientific community. Protein antigens have been widely explored as subunit TB vaccines, however lipid antigens could be equally important to be used or included in such a vaccine. The aim of this study was to demonstrate the potential of a liposome formulation composed of an extract of lipids from Mycobacterium smegmatis (Ms) as a TB vaccine candidate. We evaluated the immunogenicity of this formulation as well as the cross reactive response against antigens from Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTb) in BALB/c mice. We determined the anti-liposome IgG response in sera from TB patients and from healthy subjects who displayed a positive (PPD+) or negative (PPD-) tuberculin skin test. A significant increase in anti-liposome IgG (p<0.05) was detected in animals immunized with Bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG) compared with all groups, and in the group immunized with liposomes from Ms (LMs) compared to animals immunized with either LMs adjuvanted with aluminium (LMs-A) or the negative control group (phosphate buffered saline, PBS) respectively. With respect to the cross reactive response against a cocktail of cell wall antigens (CWA) from MTb, significantly higher IgG levels were observed in animals immunized with BCG and LMs compared to negative controls and either, aluminium-adjuvanted liposomes (LMs-A) or montanide (LMs-M) (p<0.05). Furthermore, the anti-liposome IgG response was significantly superior in sera from pulmonary TB patients compared to PPD+ and PPD- healthy subjects (p<0.001) suggesting the expression of these antigens in vivo during active MTb infection. The results obtained provide some evidence for the potential use of liposomes containing total lipid extracts of Ms as a TB vaccine candidate. PMID:23458421

  16. The laboratory mouse in routine food safety testing for marine algal biotoxins and harmful algal bloom toxin research: past, present and future.

    PubMed

    Stewart, Ian; McLeod, Catherine

    2014-01-01

    Mouse bioassays have been a mainstay for detecting harmful concentrations of marine algal toxins in shellfish for over 70 years. Routine monitoring involves intraperitoneal injection of shellfish extracts into mice; shellfish contaminated with algal toxins are thus identified by mortality in exposed mice. With the advent of alternative test methods to detect and quantify specific algal toxins has come increasing criticism of enduring use of mouse bioassays for shellfish safety testing. However, the complete replacement of shellfish safety mouse bioassays by chemical, antibody-based, and functional assays has been and will continue to be a gradual process for various reasons, including skills availability and instrument costs for chromatography-based toxin monitoring. Mouse bioassays for shellfish safety testing do not comply with modern standards for laboratory animal welfare, specifically the requirement in published official methods for death as a test outcome. Mouse bioassays for algal biotoxins in shellfish, as well as fundamental algal toxin research endeavors using in vivo models, are amenable to revision and refinement from a humane endpoints perspective. Regulated hypothermia may be a useful and easily acquired nonlethal toxicological endpoint; objective determination of neuromuscular blockade may allow algal neurotoxin testing and research to enter the domain of humane endpoints evaluation. Relinquishing reliance on subjective test endpoints, including death, will likely also deliver collateral improvements in assay variability and sensitivity. PMID:24830147

  17. Evaluation of Mallotus oppositifolius Methanol Leaf Extract on the Glycaemia and Lipid Peroxidation in Alloxan-Induced Diabetic Rats: A Preliminary Study

    PubMed Central

    Nwaehujor, C. O.; Ezeigbo, I. I.; Nwinyi, F. C.

    2013-01-01

    Objective. Mallotus oppositifolius (Geiseler) Müll. Arg. (Euphorbiaceae) is folklorically used to “treat” diabetic conditions in some parts of Nigeria therefore the study, to investigate the extract of the leaves for activities on hyperglycaemia, lipid peroxidation, and increased cholesterol levels in vivo in alloxan diabetic rats as well as its potential antioxidant activity in vitro. Methods. Albino rats (240–280 g) were given an injection of 120 mg/kg body weight, i.p. of alloxan monohydrate. After 8 days, diabetic animals with elevated fasting blood glucose levels (>9 mmol/L) were considered and selected for the study. Results. Oral treatment with the extract administered every 12 h by gavage at doses of 100, 200, and 400 mg/kg of the extract to the test rats, for 14 days, resulted in a significant dose-dependent decrease in blood glucose levels from 12.82 ± 1.02 mmol/dL to 4.92 ± 2.01 mmol/dL at the highest dose of 400 mg/kg compared to the control drug and glibenclamide as well as attendant significant decline in diabetic rats employed in the study. Conclusion. The extract also showed in vitro concentration-dependent antioxidant activity following the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH) and ferric reducing assays. Findings further suggest the presence of active antidiabetic and antioxidant principles in M. oppositifolius leaves. PMID:24224091

  18. Air pollutant production by algal cell cultures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fong, F.; Funkhouser, E. A.

    1982-01-01

    The production of phytotoxic air pollutants by cultures of Chlorella vulgaris and Euglena gracilis is considered. Algal and plant culture systems, a fumigation system, and ethylene, ethane, cyanide, and nitrogen oxides assays are discussed. Bean, tobacco, mustard green, cantaloupe and wheat plants all showed injury when fumigated with algal gases for 4 hours. Only coleus plants showed any resistance to the gases. It is found that a closed or recycled air effluent system does not produce plant injury from algal air pollutants.

  19. Disruption of cell walls for enhanced lipid recovery

    SciTech Connect

    Knoshaug, Eric P; Donohoe, Bryon S; Gerken, Henri; Laurens, Lieve; Van Wychen, Stefanie Rose

    2015-03-24

    Presented herein are methods of using cell wall degrading enzymes for recovery of internal lipid bodies from biomass sources such as algae. Also provided are algal cells that express at least one exogenous gene encoding a cell wall degrading enzyme and methods for recovering lipids from the cells.

  20. Plant Growth Biostimulants Based on Different Methods of Seaweed Extraction with Water.

    PubMed

    Godlewska, Katarzyna; Michalak, Izabela; Tuhy, Łukasz; Chojnacka, Katarzyna

    2016-01-01

    We explored two methods for obtaining aqueous extracts: boiling and soaking of Baltic seaweeds (EB and ES, resp.). Algal extracts were characterized in terms of polyphenols, micro- and macroelements, lipids content, and antibacterial properties. The utilitarian properties were examined in the germination tests on Lepidium sativum for three extract dilutions (0.5, 2.5, and 10%). It was found that the extracts were similar in micro- and macroelement concentrations. Water was proved to be a good solvent to extract phenolic compounds. The algal extract produced by soaking biomass did not show inhibitory effect on Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus. Only the boiled extract had an inhibitory activity against E. coli. Germination tests revealed a positive influence of the bioproducts on the cultivated plants. In the group treated with 10% EB, plants were 13% longer than in the control group; the content of elements B, Mo, Zn, and Na in the group treated with 10% ES was higher by 76%, 48%, 31%, and 59% than in the control group, respectively; the content of chlorophyll was 2.5 times higher in 0.5% ES than in the control group. Extracts showed the slight impact on the morphology of plants. PMID:27366749

  1. Plant Growth Biostimulants Based on Different Methods of Seaweed Extraction with Water

    PubMed Central

    Godlewska, Katarzyna; Tuhy, Łukasz; Chojnacka, Katarzyna

    2016-01-01

    We explored two methods for obtaining aqueous extracts: boiling and soaking of Baltic seaweeds (EB and ES, resp.). Algal extracts were characterized in terms of polyphenols, micro- and macroelements, lipids content, and antibacterial properties. The utilitarian properties were examined in the germination tests on Lepidium sativum for three extract dilutions (0.5, 2.5, and 10%). It was found that the extracts were similar in micro- and macroelement concentrations. Water was proved to be a good solvent to extract phenolic compounds. The algal extract produced by soaking biomass did not show inhibitory effect on Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus. Only the boiled extract had an inhibitory activity against E. coli. Germination tests revealed a positive influence of the bioproducts on the cultivated plants. In the group treated with 10% EB, plants were 13% longer than in the control group; the content of elements B, Mo, Zn, and Na in the group treated with 10% ES was higher by 76%, 48%, 31%, and 59% than in the control group, respectively; the content of chlorophyll was 2.5 times higher in 0.5% ES than in the control group. Extracts showed the slight impact on the morphology of plants. PMID:27366749

  2. Comparative study of tissue deposition of omega-3 fatty acids from polar-lipid rich oil of the microalgae Nannochloropsis oculata with krill oil in rats.

    PubMed

    Kagan, Michael L; Levy, Aharon; Leikin-Frenkel, Alicia

    2015-01-01

    Long-chain omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC n-3 PUFA) exert health benefits which are dependent upon their incorporation into blood, cells and tissues. Plasma and tissue deposition of LC n-3 PUFA from oils extracted from the micro-algae Nannochloropsis oculata and from krill were compared in rats. The algal oil provides eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) partly conjugated (15%) to phospholipids and glycolipids but no docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), whereas krill oil provides both EPA and DHA conjugated in part (40%) to phospholipids. Rats fed a standard diet received either krill oil or polar-lipid rich algal oil by gavage daily for 7 days (5 ml oil per kg body weight each day). Fatty acid concentrations were analyzed in plasma, brain and liver, and two adipose depots since these represent transport, functional and storage pools of fatty acids, respectively. When measuring total LC n-3 PUFA (sum of EPA, docosapentaenoic acid (DPA) and DHA), there was no statistically significant difference between the algal oil and krill oil for plasma, brain, liver and gonadal adipose tissue. Concentrations of LC n-3 PUFA were higher in the retroperitoneal adipose tissue from the algal oil group. Tissue uptake of LC n-3 PUFA from an algal oil containing 15% polar lipids (glycolipids and phospholipids) was found to be equivalent to krill oil containing 40% phospholipids. This may be due to glycolipids forming smaller micelles during ingestive hydrolysis than phospholipids. Ingestion of fatty acids with glycolipids may improve bioavailability, but this needs to be further explored. PMID:25360534

  3. Tumebacillus algifaecis sp. nov., isolated from decomposing algal scum.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yu-Fan; Zhang, Bo; Xing, Peng; Wu, Qing-Long; Liu, Shuang-Jiang

    2015-07-01

    Bacterial strain THMBR28(T) was isolated from decomposing algal scum that was collected during an algal bloom in Taihu lake, China. Cells of strain THMBR28(T) were Gram-staining-positive, facultatively anaerobic and rod-shaped. Growth was observed at 20-45 °C (optimum, 30 °C), at pH 5.0-9.5 (optimum, pH 6.5-7.5), and in the presence of 0-1.0% (w/v) NaCl (optimum, 0.5%). Strain THMBR28(T) contained MK-7 as the major menaquinone and iso-C15 : 0 as the major cellular fatty acid. The polar lipid profile contained phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylmonomethylethanolamine, phosphatidylethanolamine and six unidentified polar lipids. The diamino acid found in the cell-wall peptidoglycan was meso-diaminopimelic acid. The DNA G+C content was 57.6 mol% (Tm). Phylogenetic analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that strain THMBR28(T) belonged to the genus Tumebacillus, most closely related to Tumebacillus ginsengisoli DSM 18389(T) (95.0%) and Tumebacillus permanentifrigoris Eur1 9.5(T) (93.4%). Based on phylogenetic and phenotypic characterization, it is concluded that strain THMBR28(T) represents a novel species of the genus Tumebacillus, for which the name Tumebacillus algifaecis sp. nov. is proposed, with THMBR28(T) ( = CGMCC 1.10949(T) = NBRC 108765(T)) as the type strain. PMID:25858243

  4. Raman spectroscopy for the characterization of algal cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samek, Ota; Jonáš, Alexandr; Pilát, Zdeněk; Zemánek, Pavel; Nedbal, Ladislav; Tříska, Jan; Kotas, Petr; Trtílek, Martin

    2010-12-01

    Raman spectroscopy can elucidate fundamental questions about intercellular variability and what governs it. Moreover, knowing the metabolic response on single cell level this can significantly contribute to the study and use of microalgae in systems biology and biofuel technology. Raman spectroscopy is capable to measure nutrient dynamics and metabolism in vivo, in real-time, label free making it possible to monitor/evaluate population variability. Also, degree of unsaturation of the algae oil (iodine value) can be measured using Raman spectra obtained from single microalgae. The iodine value is the determination of the amount of unsaturation contained in fatty acids (in the form of double bonds). Here we demonstrate the capacity of the spatially resolved Raman microspectroscopy to determine the effective iodine value in lipid storage bodies of individual living algal cells. We employed the characteristic peaks in the Raman scattering spectra at 1,656 cm-1 (cis C=C stretching mode) and 1,445 cm-1 (CH2 scissoring mode) as the markers defining the ratio of unsaturated-to-saturated carbon-carbon bonds of the fatty acids in the algal lipids.

  5. Algal and microbial exopolysaccharides: new insights as biosurfactants and bioemulsifiers.

    PubMed

    Paniagua-Michel, José de Jesús; Olmos-Soto, Jorge; Morales-Guerrero, Eduardo Roberto

    2014-01-01

    Currently, efforts are being made to utilize more natural biological systems as alternatives as a way to replace fossil forms of carbon. There is a growing concern at global level to have nontoxic, nonhazardous surface-active agents; contrary to synthetic surfactants, their biological counterparts or biosurfactants play a primary function, facilitating microbial presence in environments dominated by hydrophilic-hydrophobic interfaces. Algal and microbial biosurfactants/bioemulsifiers from marine and deep-sea environments are attracting major interest due to their structural and functional diversity as molecules actives of surface and an alternative biomass to replace fossil forms of carbon. Algal and microbial surfactants are lipid in nature and classified as glycolipids, phospholipids, lipopeptides, natural lipids, fatty acids, and lipopolysaccharides. These metabolic bioactive products are applicable in a number of industries and processes, viz., food processing, pharmacology, and bioremediation of oil-polluted environments. This chapter presents an update of the progress and potentialities of the principal producers of exopolysaccharide (EPS)-type biosurfactants and bioemulsifiers, viz., macro- and microalgae (cyanobacteria and diatoms) and bacteria from marine and extreme environments. Particular interest is centered into new sources and applications, viz., marine and deep-sea environments and promissory uses of these EPSs as biosurfactants/emulsifiers and other polymeric roles. The enormous benefits of these molecules encourage their discovery, exploitation, and development of new microbial EPSs that could possess novel industrial importance and corresponding innovations. PMID:25300549

  6. Hypocholesterolemic effect of an aqueous extract of the leaves of Sansevieria senegambica Baker on plasma lipid profile and atherogenic indices of rats fed egg yolk supplemented diet

    PubMed Central

    Ikewuchi, Catherine Chidinma

    2012-01-01

    The effects of an aqueous extract of the leaves of Sansevieria senegambica on daily weight gain, lipid profile and atherogenic indices of rats fed egg yolk supplemented diet was studied. The control group was given normal feed while the other three groups received 50 g egg yolk/kg feed. The extract was orally administered daily at 150 and 200 mg/kg body weight; while the test control and control groups received appropriate volumes of water by the same route. On gas chromatographic analysis of the aqueous crude extract, the phytosterol and tannins fractions contained 100 % of β-sitosterol and tannic acid respectively. The mean daily weight gain of the test control group was higher though not significantly, than those of the other groups. The plasma total cholesterol levels, cardiac risk ratio and atherogenic coefficient of the test control group was significantly higher (P<0.05) than those of the test groups, but not significantly higher than that of the control group. The plasma low density lipoprotein and non-high density lipoprotein cholesterol levels of the test control group was significantly higher (P<0.05) than those of the control and test groups. The plasma high density lipoprotein cholesterol of the test control group was significantly lower (P<0.05) than that of the control group, but not significantly lower than those of the test groups. There were no significant differences in the plasma triglyceride and very low density lipoprotein cholesterol levels, and the atherogenic index of plasma of all the groups. These results indicate a dose-dependent hypocholesterolemic effect of the extract, thus suggesting a likely protective role of the extract against the development of cardiovascular diseases. It also revealed the presence of pharmacologically active agents in the leaves. PMID:27418909

  7. Inhibitory effects of black pepper (Piper nigrum) extracts and compounds on human tumor cell proliferation, cyclooxygenase enzymes, lipid peroxidation and nuclear transcription factor-kappa-B.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yunbao; Yadev, Vivek R; Aggarwal, Bharat B; Nair, Muraleedharan G

    2010-08-01

    Black pepper (Piper nigrum) and hot pepper (Capsicum spp.) are widely used in traditional medicines. Although hot Capsicum spp. extracts and its active principles, capsaicinoids, have been linked with anticancer and anti-inflammatory activities, whether black pepper and its active principle exhibit similar activities is not known. In this study, we have evaluated the antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and anticancer activities of extracts and compounds from black pepper by using proinflammatory transcription factor NF-kappaB, COX-1 and -2 enzymes, human tumor cell proliferation and lipid peroxidation (LPO). The capsaicinoids, the alkylamides, isolated from the hot pepper Scotch Bonnet were also used to compare the bioactivities of alkylamides and piperine from black pepper. All compounds derived from black pepper suppressed TNF-induced NF-kappaB activation, but alkyl amides, compound 4 from black pepper and 5 from hot pepper, were most effective. The human cancer cell proliferation inhibitory activities of piperine and alklyl amides in Capsicum and black pepper were dose dependant. The inhibitory concentrations 50% (IC50) of the alklylamides were in the range 13-200 microg/mL. The extracts of black pepper at 200 microg/mL and its compounds at 25 microg/mL inhibited LPO by 45-85%, COX enzymes by 31-80% and cancer cells proliferation by 3.5-86.8%. Overall, these results suggest that black pepper and its constituents like hot pepper, exhibit anti-inflammatory, antioxidant and anticancer activities. PMID:20839630

  8. Effects of flavonoid-rich Chinese bayberry (Morella rubra Sieb. et Zucc.) fruit extract on regulating glucose and lipid metabolism in diabetic KK-A(y) mice.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xianan; Lv, Qiang; Jia, Sheng; Chen, Yanhong; Sun, Chongde; Li, Xian; Chen, Kunsong

    2016-07-13

    In the present study, male diabetic KK-A(y) mice were used to investigate the antidiabetic effect of bayberry fruit extract (BFE, 200 mg kg(-1)) by gavage for 5 weeks. BFE significantly lowered fasting blood glucose, improved glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity in KK-A(y) mice. It significantly reduced serum concentrations of glucose, lipids, inflammation, and liver function markers, including insulin, glucagon, leptin, total cholesterol, triglycerides, low density lipoprotein, interleukin-1β, and alanine transferase in KK-A(y) mice. Liver weight and liver lipid accumulation were also markedly reduced by BFE in mice. The hypoglycemic effect of BFE appeared to be partially mediated through the inhibition of hepatic gluconeogenesis, which was supported by the reduced PPARγ coactivator 1-alpha (PGC-1α) and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK) mRNA expressions in the liver of KK-A(y) mice and by the decreased glucose production, increased glycolysis as well as the reduced gene expression levels of PGC-1α, PEPCK, and glucose-6-phosphatase (G6Pase) in HepG2 cells. Gene expressions of hepatic lipid metabolism and inflammatory markers were also down-regulated by BFE in the liver of KK-A(y) mice. Furthermore, BFE promoted hepatic phosphorylation of AMPKα (Thr172) both in vivo and in vitro. Therefore, the activation of the AMPK pathway may play an important role in the antidiabetic effects of BFE, and red Chinese bayberry fruits may be an effective dietary food for the management of type 2 diabetes and its complications. PMID:27295301

  9. Enhancement of energy production by black ginger extract containing polymethoxy flavonoids in myocytes through improving glucose, lactic acid and lipid metabolism.

    PubMed

    Toda, Kazuya; Takeda, Shogo; Hitoe, Shoketsu; Nakamura, Seikou; Matsuda, Hisashi; Shimoda, Hiroshi

    2016-04-01

    Enhancement of muscular energy production is thought to improve locomotive functions and prevent metabolic syndromes including diabetes and lipidemia. Black ginger (Kaempferia parviflora) has been cultivated for traditional medicine in Thailand. Recent studies have shown that black ginger extract (KPE) activated brown adipocytes and lipolysis in white adipose tissue, which may cure obesity-related dysfunction of lipid metabolism. However, the effect of KPE on glucose and lipid utilization in muscle cells has not been examined yet. Hence, we evaluated the effect of KPE and its constituents on energy metabolism in pre-differentiated (p) and differentiated (d) C2C12 myoblasts. KPE (0.1-10 μg/ml) was added to pC2C12 cells in the differentiation process for a week or used to treat dC2C12 cells for 24 h. After culturing, parameters of glucose and lipid metabolism and mitochondrial biogenesis were assessed. In terms of the results, KPE enhanced the uptake of 2-deoxyglucose and lactic acid as well as the mRNA expression of glucose transporter (GLUT) 4 and monocarboxylate transporter (MCT) 1 in both types of cells. The expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ coactivator (PGC)-1α was enhanced in pC2C12 cells. In addition, KPE enhanced the production of ATP and mitochondrial biogenesis. Polymethoxy flavonoids in KPE including 5-hydroxy-7-methoxyflavone, 5-hydroxy-3,7,4'-trimethoxyflavone and 5,7-dimethoxyflavone enhanced the expression of GLUT4 and PGC-1α. Moreover, KPE and 5,7-dimethoxyflavone enhanced the phosphorylation of 5'AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK). In conclusion, KPE and its polymethoxy flavonoids were found to enhance energy metabolism in myocytes. KPE may improve the dysfunction of muscle metabolism that leads to metabolic syndrome and locomotive dysfunction. PMID:26581843

  10. An extraterrestrial habitat on earth: The algal mat of Don Jaun Pond

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siegel, B. Z.; Siegel, S. M.; Chen, J.; Larock, P.

    On the edge of Don Juan Pond in the Wright Valley of Antarctica lies a mat of mineral and detritus cemented by organic matter. In spite of a CaCl2 concentration of about 33% (w/v), the mat contains Oscillatoria and other cyanobacteria, unicellular forms, colonial forms rich in carotenoids, and diatoms. Bacteria are rare; fungal filaments are not. Oscillatoria showed motility, but only at temperatures <10°C. Acetone extracts of the mat and nearby muds yielded visible spectra similar to those of laboratory grown O. sancta, with 50- to 70-fold molar ratio of chlorophyll a to b. Although rare, tardigrades were also found. The algal mat had enzymatic activities characteristic of peroxidase, catalase, dehydrogenase, and amylase. Cellulose, chitin, protein, lipid and ATP were present. Previously, algae in the Wright Valley have been described in melt water, not in the brine itself. Wright Valley has been used as a near sterile Martian model. It obviously contains an array of hardy terrestrial organisms.

  11. Soy Leaf Extract Containing Kaempferol Glycosides and Pheophorbides Improves Glucose Homeostasis by Enhancing Pancreatic β-Cell Function and Suppressing Hepatic Lipid Accumulation in db/db Mice.

    PubMed

    Li, Hua; Ji, Hyeon-Seon; Kang, Ji-Hyun; Shin, Dong-Ha; Park, Ho-Yong; Choi, Myung-Sook; Lee, Chul-Ho; Lee, In-Kyung; Yun, Bong-Sik; Jeong, Tae-Sook

    2015-08-19

    This study investigated the molecular mechanisms underlying the antidiabetic effect of an ethanol extract of soy leaves (ESL) in db/db mice. Control groups (db/+ and db/db) were fed a normal diet (ND), whereas the db/db-ESL group was fed ND with 1% ESL for 8 weeks. Dietary ESL improved glucose tolerance and lowered plasma glucose, glycated hemoglobin, HOMA-IR, and triglyceride levels. The pancreatic insulin content of the db/db-ESL group was significantly greater than that of the db/db group. ESL supplementation altered pancreatic IRS1, IRS2, Pdx1, Ngn3, Pax4, Ins1, Ins2, and FoxO1 expression. Furthermore, ESL suppressed lipid accumulation and increased glucokinase activity in the liver. ESL primarily contained kaempferol glycosides and pheophorbides. Kaempferol, an aglycone of kaempferol glycosides, improved β-cell proliferation through IRS2-related FoxO1 signaling, whereas pheophorbide a, a product of chlorophyll breakdown, improved insulin secretion and β-cell proliferation through IRS1-related signaling with protein kinase A in MIN6 cells. ESL effectively regulates glucose homeostasis by enhancing IRS-mediated β-cell insulin signaling and suppressing SREBP-1-mediated hepatic lipid accumulation in db/db mice. PMID:26211813

  12. Mechanism of the Inhibitory Effects of Eucommia ulmoides Oliv. Cortex Extracts (EUCE) in the CCl4-Induced Acute Liver Lipid Accumulation in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Chang-Feng; Li, Bo; Lin, Shun-Mei; Yadav, Raj-Kumar; Kim, Hyung-Ryong; Chae, Han-Jung

    2013-01-01

    Eucommia ulmoides Oliv. (EU) has been used for treatment of liver diseases. The protective effects of Eucommia Ulmoides Oliv. cortex extracts (EUCE) on the carbon tetrachloride- (CCl4-) induced hepatic lipid accumulation were examined in this study. Rats were orally treated with EUCE in different doses prior to an intraperitoneal injection of 1 mg/kg CCl4. Acute injection of CCl4 decreased plasma triglyceride but increased hepatic triglyceride and cholesterol as compared to control rats. On the other hand, the pretreatment with EUCE diminished these effects at a dose-dependent manner. CCl4 treatment decreased glutathione (GSH) and increased malondialdehyde (MDA) accompanied by activated P450 2E1. The pretreatment with EUCE significantly improved these deleterious effects of CCl4. CCl4 treatment increased P450 2E1 activation and ApoB accumulation. Pretreatment with EUCE reversed these effects. ER stress response was significantly increased by CCl4, which was inhibited by EUCE. One of the possible ER stress regulatory mechanisms, lysosomal activity, was examined. CCl4 reduced lysosomal enzymes that were reversed with the EUCE. The results indicate that oral pretreatment with EUCE may protect liver against CCl4-induced hepatic lipid accumulation. ER stress and its related ROS regulation are suggested as a possible mechanism in the antidyslipidemic effect of EUCE. PMID:24027582

  13. Effect of jabuticaba peel extract on lipid oxidation, microbial stability and sensory properties of Bologna-type sausages during refrigerated storage.

    PubMed

    de Almeida, Patrícia Leal; de Lima, Silvério Nepomuceno; Costa, Luciene Lacerda; de Oliveira, Cintia Cristina; Damasceno, Karina Aparecida; dos Santos, Bibiana Alves; Campagnol, Paulo Cezar Bastianello

    2015-12-01

    This study investigated the lipid oxidation and the microbiological and sensory quality of Bologna-type sausages produced with the addition of jabuticaba peel extract (JPE). Instrumental parameters of color (L*, a* and b*), pH, thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS) values, microbiological profile, and sensory properties were determined during 35 days of storage. The addition of JPE had an effect on pH and protected the samples from color changes during storage. However, JPE had no positive effect on microbial stability during storage. Samples produced with 0.5, 0.75, and 1% JPE had significantly lower TBARS values (P<0.05) compared with the control group. The addition of up to 0.5% JPE did not affect sensory quality, but prevented the decrease of sensory acceptance during storage. Therefore, due to its antioxidant effect JPE can be used in Bologna-type sausages in order to improve the oxidative stability during the shelf life. PMID:26156583

  14. A new lipid-rich microalga Scenedesmus sp. strain R-16 isolated using Nile red staining: effects of carbon and nitrogen sources and initial pH on the biomass and lipid production

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Biodiesel production from oleaginous microalgae shows great potential as a promising alternative to conventional fossil fuels. Currently, most research focus on algal biomass production with autotrophic cultivation, but this cultivation strategy induces low biomass concentration and it is difficult to be used in large-scale algal biomass production. By contrast, heterotrophic algae allows higher growth rate and can accumulate higher lipid. However, the fast-growing and lipid-rich microalgae that can be cultivated in heterotrophic system for the industrial application of biodiesel production are still few. Traditional solvent extraction and gravimetric determination to detect the microalgal total lipid content is time-consuming and laborious, which has become a major limiting factor for selecting large number of algae specimens. Thus, it is critical to develop a rapid and efficient procedure for the screening of lipid-rich microalgae. Results A novel green microalga Scenedesmus sp. strain R-16 with high total lipid content was selected using the Nile red staining from eighty-eight isolates. Various carbon sources (fructose, glucose and acetate) and nitrogen sources (nitrate, urea, peptone and yeast extract) can be utilized for microalgal growth and lipid production, and the optimal carbon and nitrogen sources were glucose (10 g L-1) and nitrate (0.6 g L-1), respectively. Compared to autotrophic situation, the strain R-16 can grow well heterotrophically without light and the accumulated total lipid content and biomass reached 43.4% and 3.46 g L-1, respectively. In addition, nitrogen deficiency led to an accumulation of lipid and the total lipid content was as high as 52.6%, and it was worth noting that strain R-16 exhibited strong tolerance to high glucose (up to 100 g L-1) and a wide range of pH (4.0-11.0). Conclusions The newly developed ultrasonic-assisted Nile red method proved to be an efficient isolation procedure and was successfully used in

  15. Green, oolong and black tea extracts modulate lipid metabolism in hyperlipidemia rats fed high-sucrose diet.

    PubMed

    Yang, M -H.; Wang, C -H.; Chen, H -L.

    2001-01-01

    The main goal of this study was to compare effects of ethanol-soluble fractions prepared from various types of teas on sucrose-induced hyperlipidemia in 5-week old male Sprague-Dawley rats. Rats (n = 6-8 per group) weighed approximately 200 g were randomly divided into control diet, sucrose-rich diet, green tea, oolong tea and black tea groups. Control-diet group was provided with modified AIN-93 diet while the others consumed sucrose-rich diet. Tea extracts (1% w/v) were supplied in the drink for green tea, oolong tea and black tea groups. Results indicated sucrose-rich diet induced hypertriglyceridemia and hypercholesterolemia. Food intake was reduced by oolong tea extract. Consuming oolong and black tea extracts also significantly decreased body weight gains and food efficiency. Hypertriglyceridemia was normalized by green and black tea drink on day 18 and by oolong tea extract on day 25, respectively. Hypercholesterolemia was normalized by green tea on day 18 and by oolong tea and black tea on day 25, respectively. Plasma HDL-cholesterol concentrations were not affected by any tea extract. The triglyeride content in the liver as well as the cholesterol content in the heart of rats fed sucrose-rich diet were elevated and were normalized by all types of tea drink tested. Although green and oolong tea extracts contained similar composition of catechin, our findings suggest green tea exerted greater antihyperlipidemic effect than oolong tea. Apparent fat absorption may be one of the mechanisms by which green tea reduced hyperlipidemia as well as fat storage in the liver and heart of rats consumed sucrose-rich diet. PMID:11179857

  16. Algal Flocculation with Synthetic Organic Polyelectrolytes

    PubMed Central

    Tenney, Mark W.; Echelberger, Wayne F.; Schuessler, Ronald G.; Pavoni, Joseph L.

    1969-01-01

    The feasibility of removing algae from water and wastewater by chemical flocculation techniques was investigated. Mixed cultures of algae were obtained from both continuous- and batch-fed laboratory reactors. Representative cationic, anionic, and nonionic synthetic organic polyelectrolytes were used as flocculants. Under the experimental conditions, chemically induced algal flocculation occurred with the addition of cationic polyelectrolyte, but not with anionic or nonionic polymers, although attachment of all polyelectrolyte species to the algal surface is shown. The mechanism of chemically induced algal flocculation is interpreted in terms of bridging phenomena between the discrete algal cells and the linearly extended polymer chains, forming a three-dimensional matrix that is capable of subsiding under quiescent conditions. The degree of flocculation is shown to be a direct function of the extent of polymer coverage of the active sites on the algal surface, although to induce flocculation by this method requires that the algal surface charge must concurrently be reduced to a level at which the extended polymers can bridge the minimal distance of separation imposed by electrostatic repulsion. The influence of pH, algal concentration, and algal growth phase on the requisite cationic flocculant dose is also reported. PMID:5370666

  17. Algal biosensor array on a single electrode.

    PubMed

    Tatsuma, Tetsu; Yoshida, Yutaka; Shitanda, Isao; Notsu, Hideo

    2009-02-01

    An algal array was prepared on a single transparent electrode, and photosynthetic activity of each algal channel and its inhibition by a toxin were monitored with a single-channel potentiostat by successive light irradiation with a LED array. PMID:19173040

  18. TEXAS HARMFUL ALGAL BLOOM COORDINATION MX964014

    EPA Science Inventory

    Harmful algal blooms (HAB) are an expanding problem in coastal Texas. Nearly � of the known harmful algal blooms along the Texas coast have occurred in the past ten years and have led to significant resource and tourism losses. For example, there are at least two types of toxic...

  19. LIPID BIOMARKER CHARACTERIZATION OF BLOOM-RELATED DINOFLAGELLATES AND OTHER EUKARYOTIC ALGAE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Marine eukaryotic algae synthesize an array of lipids of chemotaxonomic utility that are potentially valuable in characterizing phytoplankton communities. Sterols and photopigments characteristic of dinoflagellates are rarely found in other algal classes. Long chain (C28) highly ...

  20. BIOMARKER LIPIDS IN RED TIDE (GYMNODINIUM BREVE) BLOOMS ALONG THE NORTHWEST FLORIDA COAST

    EPA Science Inventory

    The ability to characterize phytoplankton communities and algal blooms using lipids as biomarkers requires knowledge of their distribution and taxonomic significance. Such an approach would have application, for example, in distinguishing and tracking certain dinoflagellates suc...

  1. Reduction of body fat and improved lipid profile associated with daily consumption of a Puer tea extract in a hyperlipidemic population: a randomized placebo-controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Jensen, Gitte S; Beaman, Joni L; He, Yi; Guo, Zhixin; Sun, Henry

    2016-01-01

    Objective The goal for this study was to evaluate the effects of daily consumption of Puer tea extract (PTE) on body weight, body-fat composition, and lipid profile in a non-Asian population in the absence of dietary restrictions. Materials and methods A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study design was used. A total of 59 overweight or mildly obese subjects were enrolled upon screening to confirm fasting cholesterol level at or above 220 mg/dL (5.7 mmol/dL). After giving informed consent, subjects were randomized to consume PTE (3 g/day) or placebo for 20 weeks. At baseline and at 4-week intervals, blood lipids, C-reactive protein, and fasting blood glucose were evaluated. A dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry scan was performed at baseline and at study exit to evaluate changes to body composition. Appetite and physical and mental energy were scored at each visit using visual analog scales (0–100). Results Consumption of PTE was associated with statistically significant weight loss when compared to placebo (P<0.05). Fat loss was seen for arms, legs, and the gynoid region (hip/belly), as well as for total fat mass. The fat reduction reached significance on within-group analysis, but did not reach between-group significance. Consumption of PTE was associated with improvements to lipid profile, including a mild reduction in cholesterol and the cholesterol:high-density lipoprotein ratio after only 4 weeks, as well as a reduction in triglycerides and very small-density lipoproteins, where average blood levels reached normal range at 8 weeks and remained within normal range for the duration of the study (P<0.08). No significant changes between the PTE group and the placebo group were seen for fasting glucose or C-reactive protein. A transient reduction in appetite was seen in the PTE group when compared to placebo (P<0.1). Conclusion The results from this clinical study showed that the daily consumption of PTE was associated with significant weight loss

  2. Selective pressurized liquid extraction technique for halogenated organic pollutants in marine mammal blubber: a lipid-rich matrix.

    PubMed

    Robinson, E M; Jia, M; Trumble, S J; Usenko, S

    2015-03-13

    Analytical methods for unique and rare samples, such as marine mammal tissue, strive to reduce opportunities for analyte loss and contamination. Historically, analytical methodologies for marine mammal tissues required an extraction followed by multiple cleanup and concentration steps. These steps increase the opportunity for analyte loss and sample contamination. Selective pressurized liquid extractions (SPLE; an analytical technique that combines PLE with in-cell adsorbent cleanup) have the potential to reduce and/or eliminate the number of steps. A SPLE method was developed for the simultaneous extraction of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) from bowhead whale blubber. This SPLE utilized acidic silica with a fat-to-fat retainer ratio of 0.02 as well as eliminated post-extraction cleanup steps, such as size-exclusion chromatography step. In addition, neutral silica was placed beneath the acidic silica as an acid buffer, thereby preventing acid from contaminating the extraction system. Analysis was performed using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry in electron capture negative ionization mode. PBDE, PCB and OCP triplicate recoveries averaged 84±1%, 83±3%, and 76±11%, respectively. Overall, measurements of NIST Whale Blubber SRM 1945 were within±30% of certified values. PBDEs were measured for the first time in bowhead whale blubber; average concentrations ranged from 0.2 to 1.4 ng g(-1) wet weight (ww). Average OCPs and PCBs concentrations ranged from 0.4 to 37 ng g(-1)ww and 0.1 to 3.0 ng g(-1)ww, respectively, which were within one order of magnitude lower than those previously reported in bowhead whale blubber. PMID:25678322

  3. Ethanol extracts of chickpeas alter the total lipid content and expression levels of genes related to fatty acid metabolism in mouse 3T3-L1 adipocytes.

    PubMed

    Shinohara, Shigeo; Gu, Yuanjun; Yang, Ying; Furuta, Yasuo; Tanaka, Masahiko; Yue, Xiaohua; Wang, Weiqing; Kitano, Masaru; Kimura, Hiroshi

    2016-08-01

    Desi-type chickpeas, which have long been used as a natural treatment for diabetes, have been reported to lower visceral adiposity, dyslipidemia and insulin resistance induced by a chronic high-fat diet in rats. In this study, in order to examine the effects of chickpeas of this type in an in vitro system, we used the 3T3-L1 mouse cell line, a subclone of Swiss 3T3 cells, which can differentiate into cells with an adipocyte-like phenotype, and we used ethanol extracts of chickpeas (ECP) instead of chickpeas. Treatment of the 3T3-L1 cells with ECP led to a decrease in the lipid content in the cells. The desaturation index, defined as monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs)/saturated fatty acids (SFAs), was also decreased by ECP due to an increase in the cellular content of SFAs and a decrease in the content of MUFAs. The decrease in this index may reflect a decreased reaction from SFA to MUFA, which is essential for fat storage. To confirm this hypothesis, we conducted a western blot analysis, which revealed a reduction in the amount of stearoyl-CoA desaturase 1 (SCD1), a key enzyme catalyzing the reaction from SFA to MUFA. We observed simultaneous inactivations of enzymes participating in lipogenesis, i.e., liver kinase B1 (LKB1), acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC) and AMPK, by phosphorylation, which may lead to the suppression of reactions from acetyl-CoA to SFA via malonyl-CoA in lipogenesis. We also investigated whether lipolysis is affected by ECP. The amount of carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1 (CPT1), an enzyme important for the oxidation of fatty acids, was increased by ECP treatment. ECP also led to an increase in uncoupling protein 2 (UCP2), reported as a key protein for the oxidation of fatty acids. All of these results obtained regarding lipogenesis and fatty acid metabolism in our in vitro system are consistent with the results previously shown in rats. We also examined the effects on SCD1 and lipid contents of ethanol extracts of Kabuli

  4. Ethanol extracts of chickpeas alter the total lipid content and expression levels of genes related to fatty acid metabolism in mouse 3T3-L1 adipocytes

    PubMed Central

    Shinohara, Shigeo; Gu, Yuanjun; Yang, Ying; Furuta, Yasuo; Tanaka, Masahiko; Yue, Xiaohua; Wang, Weiqing; Kitano, Masaru; Kimura, Hiroshi

    2016-01-01

    Desi-type chickpeas, which have long been used as a natural treatment for diabetes, have been reported to lower visceral adiposity, dyslipidemia and insulin resistance induced by a chronic high-fat diet in rats. In this study, in order to examine the effects of chickpeas of this type in an in vitro system, we used the 3T3-L1 mouse cell line, a subclone of Swiss 3T3 cells, which can differentiate into cells with an adipocyte-like phenotype, and we used ethanol extracts of chickpeas (ECP) instead of chickpeas. Treatment of the 3T3-L1 cells with ECP led to a decrease in the lipid content in the cells. The desaturation index, defined as monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs)/saturated fatty acids (SFAs), was also decreased by ECP due to an increase in the cellular content of SFAs and a decrease in the content of MUFAs. The decrease in this index may reflect a decreased reaction from SFA to MUFA, which is essential for fat storage. To confirm this hypothesis, we conducted a western blot analysis, which revealed a reduction in the amount of stearoyl-CoA desaturase 1 (SCD1), a key enzyme catalyzing the reaction from SFA to MUFA. We observed simultaneous inactivations of enzymes participating in lipogenesis, i.e., liver kinase B1 (LKB1), acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC) and AMPK, by phosphorylation, which may lead to the suppression of reactions from acetyl-CoA to SFA via malonyl-CoA in lipogenesis. We also investigated whether lipolysis is affected by ECP. The amount of carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1 (CPT1), an enzyme important for the oxidation of fatty acids, was increased by ECP treatment. ECP also led to an increase in uncoupling protein 2 (UCP2), reported as a key protein for the oxidation of fatty acids. All of these results obtained regarding lipogenesis and fatty acid metabolism in our in vitro system are consistent with the results previously shown in rats. We also examined the effects on SCD1 and lipid contents of ethanol extracts of Kabuli-type chickpeas, which are

  5. Alcoholic Extract of Lotus Leaves Improves Lipid Profile in Rats with HIV Protease Inhibitor-induced Dyslipidaemia

    PubMed Central

    Su, QJ; Lu, ZZ; Deng, QY; Wei, BM

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective: To examine the effect of the alcoholic extract of lotus leaves (AELL) on antiretroviral treatment-induced dyslipidaemia in a rat model. Methods: Lotus leaves were extracted by 95% ethanol. Seventy male Sprague-Dawley rats were given lopinavir/ritonavir for six weeks. At weeks 0 and 6, sera were collected for measurement of total cholesterol (TC) and triglyceride (TG). Rats meeting the criteria for dyslipidaemia were assigned to four groups and received once daily for another four weeks lopinavir/ritonavir (group A), lopinavir/ritonavir plus 0.52 g/kg AELL (group B), lopinavir/ritonavir plus 0.26 g/kg AELL (group C), or lopinavir/ritonavir plus 0.13 g/kg AELL (group D), respectively. At weeks 8 and 10, blood samples were collected again for measurement of TC and TG. Results: Both TC and TG increased over time in group A during the observation period (weeks 6 to 10), however, TC and TG decreased in group B, and TG declined in group C. Neither TC nor TG could be reduced to a level near baseline. Conclusion: Alcoholic extract of lotus leaves may have the potential to treat dyslipidaemia related to highly active antiretroviral treatment, but may not be potent enough to reduce TC or TG concentrations to goal levels when used alone. PMID:26426169

  6. A Bacterial Enrichment Study and Overview of the Extractable Lipids from Paleosols in the Dry Valleys, Antarctica: Implications for Future Mars Reconnaissance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hart, Kris M.; Szpak, Michal T.; Mahaney, William C.; Dohm, James M.; Jordan, Sean F.; Frazer, Andrew R.; Allen, Christopher C. R.; Kelleher, Brian P.

    2011-05-01

    The Dry Valleys of Antarctica are one of the coldest and driest environments on Earth with paleosols in selected areas that date to the emplacement of tills by warm-based ice during the Early Miocene. Cited as an analogue to the martian surface, the ability of the Antarctic environment to support microbial life-forms is a matter of special interest, particularly with the upcoming NASA/ESA 2018 ExoMars mission. Lipid biomarkers were extracted and analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry to assess sources of organic carbon and evaluate the contribution of microbial species to the organic matter of the paleosols. Paleosol samples from the ice-free Dry Valleys were also subsampled and cultivated in a growth medium from which DNA was extracted with the explicit purpose of the positive identification of bacteria. Several species of bacteria were grown in solution and the genus identified. A similar match of the data to sequenced DNA showed that Alphaproteobacteria, Gammaproteobacteria, Bacteriodetes, and Actinobacteridae species were cultivated. The results confirm the presence of bacteria within some paleosols, but no assumptions have been made with regard to in situ activity at present. These results underscore the need not only to further investigate Dry Valley cryosols but also to develop reconnaissance strategies to determine whether such likely Earth-like environments on the Red Planet also contain life.

  7. A bacterial enrichment study and overview of the extractable lipids from paleosols in the Dry Valleys, Antarctica: implications for future Mars reconnaissance.

    PubMed

    Hart, Kris M; Szpak, Michal T; Mahaney, William C; Dohm, James M; Jordan, Sean F; Frazer, Andrew R; Allen, Christopher C R; Kelleher, Brian P

    2011-05-01

    The Dry Valleys of Antarctica are one of the coldest and driest environments on Earth with paleosols in selected areas that date to the emplacement of tills by warm-based ice during the Early Miocene. Cited as an analogue to the martian surface, the ability of the Antarctic environment to support microbial life-forms is a matter of special interest, particularly with the upcoming NASA/ESA 2018 ExoMars mission. Lipid biomarkers were extracted and analyzed by gas chromatography--mass spectrometry to assess sources of organic carbon and evaluate the contribution of microbial species to the organic matter of the paleosols. Paleosol samples from the ice-free Dry Valleys were also subsampled and cultivated in a growth medium from which DNA was extracted with the explicit purpose of the positive identification of bacteria. Several species of bacteria were grown in solution and the genus identified. A similar match of the data to sequenced DNA showed that Alphaproteobacteria, Gammaproteobacteria, Bacteriodetes, and Actinobacteridae species were cultivated. The results confirm the presence of bacteria within some paleosols, but no assumptions have been made with regard to in situ activity at present. These results underscore the need not only to further investigate Dry Valley cryosols but also to develop reconnaissance strategies to determine whether such likely Earth-like environments on the Red Planet also contain life. PMID:21545270

  8. Hydraulic retention time effects on wastewater nutrient removal and bioproduct production via rotating algal biofilm reactor.

    PubMed

    Iman Shayan, Sahand; Agblevor, Foster A; Bertin, Lorenzo; Sims, Ronald C

    2016-07-01

    Rotating algal biofilm reactor (RABR) technology was successfully employed in an effective strategy to couple the removal of wastewater nutrients with accumulation of valuable bioproducts by grown algae. A secondary stage municipal wastewater was fed to the developed system and the effects of the hydraulic retention time (HRT) parameter on both nutrient removal and bioproduct production were evaluated under fed-batch operation mode. Two sets of bench scale RABRs were designed and operated with HRTs of 2 and 6days in order to provide competitive environment for algal growth. The HRT significantly affected nitrogen and phosphorus uptakes along with lipid and starch accumulations by microalgae in harvested biofilms. Domination of nitrogen removal in 2-day HRT with higher lipid accumulation (20% on dried weight basis) and phosphorus removal in 6-day HRT with higher starch production (27% on dried weight basis) was observed by comparing the performances of the RABRs in duplicate runs. PMID:27038261

  9. Inhibition of prostate cancer cell growth by an avocado extract: role of lipid-soluble bioactive substances.

    PubMed

    Lu, Qing-Yi; Arteaga, James R; Zhang, Qifeng; Huerta, Sergio; Go, Vay Liang W; Heber, David

    2005-01-01

    Although the avocado is known as a rich source of monounsaturated fatty acids, there has been far less attention given to its content of other bioactive substances including carotenoids, which might contribute to cancer preventive properties similar to those attributed to other fruits and vegetables. The yellow-green color of the avocado prompted us to study the carotenoid content of this fruit using established methods in our laboratory. The California Hass avocado (Persea americana Mill.) was selected for study, because it is the most commonly consumed variety in the southwest United States. These avocados were found to contain the highest content of lutein among commonly eaten fruits as well as measurable amounts of related carotenoids (zeaxanthin, alpha-carotene, and beta-carotene). Lutein accounted for 70% of the measured carotenoids, and the avocado also contained significant quantities of vitamin E. An acetone extract of avocado containing these carotenoids and tocopherols was shown to inhibit the growth of both androgen-dependent (LNCaP) and androgen-independent (PC-3) prostate cancer cell lines in vitro. Incubation of PC-3 cells with the avocado extract led to G(2)/M cell cycle arrest accompanied by an increase in p27 protein expression. Lutein alone did not reproduce the effects of the avocado extract on cancer cell proliferation. In common with other colorful fruits and vegetables, the avocado contains numerous bioactive carotenoids. Because the avocado also contains a significant amount of monounsaturated fat, these bioactive carotenoids are likely to be absorbed into the bloodstream, where in combination with other diet-derived phytochemicals they may contribute to the significant cancer risk reduction associated with a diet of fruits and vegetables. PMID:15629237

  10. Pyrolysis Strategies for Effective Utilization of Lignocellulosic and Algal Biomass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maddi, Balakrishna

    Pyrolysis is a processing technique involving thermal degradation of biomass in the absence of oxygen. The bio-oils obtained following the condensation of the pyrolysis vapors form a convenient starting point for valorizing the major components of lignocellulosic as well as algal biomass feed stocks for the production of fuels and value-added chemicals. Pyrolysis can be implemented on whole biomass or on residues left behind following standard fractionation methods. Microalgae and oil seeds predominantly consist of protein, carbohydrate and triglycerides, whereas lignocellulose is composed of carbohydrates (cellulose and hemicellulose) and lignin. The differences in the major components of these two types of biomass will necessitate different pyrolysis strategies to derive the optimal benefits from the resulting bio-oils. In this thesis, novel pyrolysis strategies were developed that enable efficient utilization of the bio-oils (and/or their vapors) from lignocellulose, algae, as well as oil seed feed stocks. With lignocellulosic feed stocks, pyrolysis of whole biomass as well as the lignin residue left behind following well-established pretreatment and saccharification (i.e., depolymerization of cellulose and hemicellulose to their monomeric-sugars) of the biomass was studied with and without catalysts. Following this, pyrolysis of (lipid-deficient) algae and lignocellulosic feed stocks, under similar reactor conditions, was performed for comparison of product (bio-oil, gas and bio-char) yields and composition. In spite of major differences in component bio-polymers, feedstock properties relevant to thermo-chemical conversions, such as overall C, H and O-content, C/O and H/C molar ratio as well as calorific values, were found to be similar for algae and lignocellulosic material. Bio-oil yields from algae and some lignocellulosic materials were similar; however, algal bio-oils were compositionally different and contained several N-compounds (most likely from

  11. In vitro inhibition activity of polyphenol-rich extracts from Syzygium aromaticum (L.) Merr. & Perry (Clove) buds against carbohydrate hydrolyzing enzymes linked to type 2 diabetes and Fe2+-induced lipid peroxidation in rat pancreas

    PubMed Central

    Adefegha, Stephen Adeniyi; Oboh, Ganiyu

    2012-01-01

    Objective To investigate and compare the inhibitory properties of free and bound phenolic extracts of clove bud against carbohydrate hydrolyzing enzymes (alpha-amylase & alpha-glucosidase) and Fe2+-induced lipid peroxidation in rat pancreas in vitro. Methods The free phenolics were extracted with 80% (v/v) acetone, while bound phenolics were extracted from the alkaline and acid hydrolyzed residue with ethyl acetate. Then, the interaction of the extracts with alpha-amylase and alpha-glucosidase was subsequently assessed. Thereafter, the total phenolic contents and antioxidant activities of the extracts were determined. Results The result revealed that both extracts inhibited alpha-amylase and alpha-glucosidase in a dose-dependent manner. However, the alpha-glucosidase inhibitory activity of the extracts were significantly (P<0.05) higher than their alpha-amylase inhibitory activity. The free phenolics (31.67 mg/g) and flavonoid (17.28 mg/g) contents were significantly (P<0.05) higher than bound phenolic (23.52 mg/g) and flavonoid (13.70 mg/g) contents. Both extracts also exhibited high antioxidant activities as typified by their high reducing power, 1,1 diphenyl-2- picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and 2, 2-azinobis-3-ethylbenzo-thiazoline-6-sulfonate (ABTS) radical scavenging abilities, as well as inhibition of Fe2+-induced lipid peroxidation in rat pancreas in vitro. Conclusions This study provides a biochemical rationale by which clove elicits therapeutic effect on type 2 diabetes. PMID:23569846

  12. Metabolism of mutagenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons by photosynthetic algal species.

    PubMed

    Schoeny, R; Cody, T; Warshawsky, D; Radike, M

    1988-02-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) known to produce carcinogenic and mutagenic effects have been shown to contaminate waters, sediments and soils. While it is accepted that metabolites of these compounds are responsible for most of their biological effects in mammals, their metabolism, and to a large extent their bioactivity, in aquatic plants have not been explored. Cultures of photosynthetic algal species were assayed for their ability to metabolize benzo[a]pyrene (BaP), a carcinogenic PAH under conditions which either permitted (white light) or disallowed (gold light) photooxidation of the compound. Growth of Selenastrum capricornutum, a fresh-water green alga, was completely inhibited when incubated in white light with 160 micrograms BaP/l medium. By contrast concentrations at the upper limit of BaP solubility in aqueous medium had no effect on algal growth when gold light was used. BaP quinones and phenol derivatives were found to inhibit growth of Selenastrum under white light incubation. BaP phototoxicity and metabolism were observed to be species-specific. All 3 tested species of the order Chlorococcales were growth-inhibited by BaP in white light whereas neither the green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii nor a blue-green, a yellow-green or an euglenoid alga responded in this fashion. Assays of radiolabeled BaP metabolism in Selenastrum showed that the majority of radioactivity associated with BaP was found in media as opposed to algal cell pellets, that the extent of metabolism was BaP concentration dependent, and that the proportion of various metabolites detected was a function of the light source. After gold light incubation, BaP diols predominated while after white light treatment at equal BaP concentrations, the 3,6-quinone was found in the highest concentration. Extracted material from algal cell pellets and from media was tested for mutagenicity in a forward mutation suspension assay in Salmonella typhimurium using resistance to 8-azaguanine for

  13. Effects of Three Medicinal Plants Extracts in Experimental Diabetes: Antioxidant Enzymes Activities and Plasma Lipids Profiles inComparison with Metformin.

    PubMed

    Fehresti Sani, Mohammad; Montasser Kouhsari, Shideh; Moradabadi, Leila

    2012-01-01

    In the present study we aimed to evaluate the effects of methanolic extracts of the bulbs of Garlic (Allium sativum L., Alliaceae) and Persian shallot (Allium ascalonicum L., Alliaceae ) and leaves of Sage (Salvia officinalis L., Lamiaceae ), ASE, AAE and SOE respectively, on the antioxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPX) and catalase (CAT) activities and on the levels of plasma lipids profiles such as triglycerides (TG), total cholesterol (TC), high-density lipoproteins (HDL), low-density lipoproteins (LDL) and very low-density lipoproteins (VLDL) in Alloxan diabetic Wistar rats. In comparison with diabetic control rats in diabetic treated rats, AAE increases the activities of SOD (65%), GPX (43%) and CAT (55%). ASE and SOE increase SOD activity by 60% and 33% respectively. ASE reduces TC (34%), SOE decreases TG (40%) and LDL (30%) and AAE reduces VLDL (24%). Metformin exhibits mild antioxidant and hypolipidemic properties. Results of quantitative phytochemical analysis show that the methanolic garlic and Persian shallot bulbs extracts contain secondary metabolites including alkaloids (3.490% and 3.430%), glycosides (18.023% and 13.301%) and saponins (0.812% and 0.752%). Methanolic sage leaves extract contains flavonoids (1.014%), glycosides (23.142%) and saponins (2.096%). The total phenolic contents of ASE, AAE and SOE were in order 4.273, 3.621 and 6.548 mg GAE/g dry weight (DW). These results suggest that Allium sativum, Allium ascalonicum and Salvia officinalis are beneficial in the control of diabetes by noticeable antioxidant and hypolipidemic properties. PMID:24250517

  14. Pyrogenic transformation of Nannochloropsis oceanica into fatty acid methyl esters without oil extraction for estimating total lipid content.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jieun; Jung, Jong-Min; Lee, Jechan; Kim, Ki-Hyun; Choi, Tae O; Kim, Jae-Kon; Jeon, Young Jae; Kwon, Eilhann E

    2016-07-01

    This study fundamentally investigated the pseudo-catalytic transesterification of dried Nannochloropsis oceanica into fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs) without oil extraction, which was achieved in less than 5min via a thermo-chemical pathway. This study presented that the pseudo-catalytic transesterification reaction was achieved in the presence of silica and that its main driving force was identified as temperature: pores in silica provided the numerous reaction space like a micro-reactor, where the heterogeneous reaction was developed. The introduced FAME derivatization showed an extraordinarily high tolerance of impurities (i.e., pyrolytic products and various extractives). This study also explored the thermal cracking of FAMEs derived from N. oceanica: the thermal cracking of saturated FAMEs was invulnerable at temperatures lower than 400°C. Lastly, this study reported that N. oceanica contained 14.4wt.% of dried N. oceanica and that the introduced methylation technique could be applicable to many research fields sharing the transesterification platform. PMID:27082269

  15. Hydrothermal-acid treatment for effectual extraction of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA)-abundant lipids from Nannochloropsis salina.

    PubMed

    Lee, Ilgyu; Han, Jong-In

    2015-09-01

    Hydrothermal acid treatment, was adopted to extract eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) from wet biomass of Nannochloropsis salina. It was found that sulfuric acid-based treatment increased EPA yield from 11.8 to 58.1 mg/g cell in a way that was nearly proportional to its concentration. Nitric acid exhibited the same pattern at low concentrations, but unlike sulfuric acid its effectiveness unexpectedly dropped from 0.5% to 2.0%. The optimal and minimal conditions for hydrothermal acid pretreatment were determined using a statistical approach; its maximum EPA yield (predicted: 43.69 mg/g cell; experimental: 43.93 mg/g cell) was established at a condition of 1.27% of sulfuric acid, 113.34 °C of temperature, and 36.71 min of reaction time. Our work demonstrated that the acid-catalyzed cell disruption, accompanied by heat, can be one potentially promising option for ω-3 fatty acids extraction. PMID:25966023

  16. Ultrafast molecular dynamics of biofuel extraction for microalgae and bacteria milking: blocking membrane folding pathways to damaged lipid-bilayer conformations with nanomicelles.

    PubMed

    Gillet, Jean-Numa

    2015-01-01

    Cell milking is a 100% renewable green energy for CO2 by extraction of biofuels inside the cytosol of photosynthetic micro-organisms as microalgae and bacteria. The cells are exposed to a hydrophobic solvent forming holes and cracks through their membranes from which the biofuels can leak out. In protein folding, the goal would be to find pathways to the unique functional protein conformer. However, in the lipid-bilayer interaction with the solvent for milking, the objective is to block the pathways for damaged membrane conformations of low free energy with undesired nanostructures, using the solvent properties, as shown with an ab initio structural bioinformatic model. Statistical thermodynamics is used to compute the free energy (including entropy) from the molecular dynamics trajectory of the biomolecular system with many conformational changes. This model can be extended to the general problem of biomolecules folding as for proteins and nucleic acids. Using an adaptation of the Einstein diffusion law, the conformational change dynamics of the lipid bilayer depends on the two diffusion coefficients of the solvent: D1 before the irreversible folding transition time and the much smaller D2 thereafter. In contrast to the n-hexane and n-heptane hydrocarbons of smaller size, the residual D2=4.7 × 10(-7)cm(2)/s of the n-decane solvent, with the highest partition coefficient among the three extractors, is the only to present a D2 value that is significantly below the critical threshold of 10(-6)cm(2)/s. Therefore, the membrane would resist to long hydrocarbons and the exposed cells would remain viable for milking. PMID:24735062

  17. Inhibition of Gastric Lipase as a Mechanism for Body Weight and Plasma Lipids Reduction in Zucker Rats Fed a Rosemary Extract Rich in Carnosic Acid

    PubMed Central

    Romo Vaquero, María; Yáñez-Gascón, María-Josefa; García Villalba, Rocío; Larrosa, Mar; Fromentin, Emilie; Ibarra, Alvin; Roller, Marc; Tomás-Barberán, Francisco; Espín de Gea, Juan Carlos; García-Conesa, María-Teresa

    2012-01-01

    Background Rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L.) extracts (REs) exhibit hepatoprotective, anti-obesity and anti-inflammatory properties and are widely used in the food industry. REs are rich in carnosic acid (CA) and carnosol which may be responsible for some of the biological activities of REs. The aim of this study was to investigate whether inhibition of lipase activity in the gut may be a mechanism by which a RE enriched in CA (40%) modulates body weight and lipids levels in a rat model of metabolic disorders and obesity. Methods and Principal Findings RE was administered for 64 days to lean (fa/+) and obese (fa/fa) female Zucker rats and body weight, food intake, feces weight and blood biochemical parameters were monitored throughout the study. Lipase activity (hydrolysis of p-nitrophenylbutyrate) was measured in the gastrointestinal tract at the end of the study and the contents of CA, carnosol and methyl carnosate were also determined. Sub-chronic administration of RE moderately reduced body weight gain in both lean and obese animals but did not affect food intake. Serum triglycerides, cholesterol and insulin levels were also markedly decreased in the lean animals supplemented with RE. Importantly, lipase activity was significantly inhibited in the stomach of the RE-supplemented animals where the highest content of intact CA and carnosol was detected. Conclusions Our results confirm that long-term administration of RE enriched in CA moderates weight gain and improves the plasma lipids profile, primarily in the lean animals. Our data also suggest that these effects may be caused, at least in part, by a significant inhibition of gastric lipase and subsequent reduction in fat absorption. PMID:22745826

  18. Dietary Fructus Schisandrae extracts and fenofibrate regulate the serum/hepatic lipid-profile in normal and hypercholesterolemic mice, with attention to hepatotoxicity

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Schisandra, a globally distributed plant, has been widely applied to health care products. Here, we investigated the effects of dietary intake of Fructus Schisandrae chinensis (FSC), both aqueous and ethanolic extracts (AqFSC, EtFSC), on serum/hepatic lipid contents in normal diet (ND)- and high-fat/cholesterol/bile salt diet (HFCBD)-fed mice. Methods Male ICR mice were fed with ND or HFCBD, supplemented with 1 and 4% of AqFSC and EtFSC, respectively, or 0.1% fenofibrate, for 13 days. Lipids were determined according to the manufacture’s instructions. Results EtFSC, but not AqFSC, significantly elevated hepatic triglyceride (TG) in mice fed with ND. Feeding mice with HFCBD increased serum total cholesterol (TC), high density lipoprotein (HDL) and low density lipoprotein (LDL) levels as well as alanine aminotransferase (ALT) activity. Supplementation with AqFSC, EtFSC or fenofibrate significantly reduced hepatic TC and TG levels. However, AqFSC and EtFSC supplementation increased serum HDL and LDL levels in mice fed with HFCBD. Fenofibrate increased serum HDL and reduced serum LDL contents in hypercholesterolemic mice. EtFSC reduced, but fenofibrate elevated, serum ALT activity in both normal and hypercholesterolemic mice. While fenofibrate reduced serum TC, TG, and HDL levels in mice fed with ND, it increased serum HDL and reduced serum LDL and TC levels in mice fed with HFCBD. Hepatomegaly was found in normal and hypercholesterolemic mice fed with diet supplemented with fenofibrate. Conclusions Feeding mice with AqFSC and EtFSC ameliorated the HFCBD-induced hepatic steatosis. In addition, EtFSC may offer protection against hepatic injury in hypercholesterolemic mice. PMID:22989092

  19. Methanol extract of Ocimum gratissimum protects murine peritoneal macrophages from nicotine toxicity by decreasing free radical generation, lipid and protein damage and enhances antioxidant protection

    PubMed Central

    Mahapatra, Santanu Kar; Chakraborty, Subhankari Prasad; Das, Subhasis

    2009-01-01

    In the present study, methanol extract of Ocimum gratissimum Linn (ME-Og) was tested against nicotine-induced murine peritoneal macrophage in vitro. Phytochemical analysis of ME-Og shown high amount of flavonoid and phenolic compound present in it. The cytotoxic effect of ME-Og was studied in murine peritoneal macrophages at different concentrations (0.1 to 100 µg/ml) using the 3-(4, 5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2, 5 diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) method. To establish the protective role of ME-Og against nicotine toxicity, peritoneal macrophages from mice were treated with nicotine (10 mM), nicotine + ME-Og (1 to 25 µg/ml) for 12 h in culture media. The significantly (p < 0.05) increased super oxide anion generation, reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase activity, myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity, lipid peroxidation, protein carbonyls, oxidized glutathione levels were observed in nicotine-treated group as compared to control group; those were significantly (p < 0.05) reduced in ME-Og supplemented groups in concentration dependent manner. More over, significantly (p < 0.05) reduced antioxidant status due to nicotine exposure was effectively ameliorated by ME-Og supplementation in murine peritoneal macrophages. Among the different concentration of ME-Og, maximum protective effect was observed by 25 µg/ml, which does not produce significant cell cytotoxicity in murine peritoneal macrophages. These findings suggest the potential use and beneficial role of O. gratissimum as a modulator of nicotine-induced free radical generation, lipid-protein damage and antioxidant status in important immune cell, peritoneal macrophages. PMID:20716908

  20. The effect of meclofenoxate with ginkgo biloba extract or zinc on lipid peroxide, some free radical scavengers and the cardiovascular system of aged rats.

    PubMed

    al-Zuhair, H; Abd el-Fattah, A; el-Sayed, M I

    1998-07-01

    Aged rats are highly prone to many physiological changes such as blood pressure and heart rate. These changes could be due to modification in membrane phospholipid composition of their blood vessels. Lipid peroxide in vivo has been identified as a basic deteriorative reaction in cellular mechanisms of aging in human. The effect of a nootropic drug, meclofenoxate (MF) or its combination with extract of ginkgo biloba (EGb-761) or zinc (Zn) on malondialdehyde (MDA) product as an index of endogenous lipid peroxidation; phospholipid; glutathione (GSH) and protein thiols (PrSHs) contents as well as superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity in blood, brain, heart and liver of 24-month-old male rats was investigated. Aged rats were treated with MF once daily at oral doses of 100 mg kg-1 body wt. alone or with either EGb at a dose of 150 mg kg-1 body wt. or Zn at 10.5 mg kg-1 body wt. for 4 weeks. This study showed that aging caused a higher increment in MDA level of brain and heart than liver and plasma accompanied with reduction in brain and heart phospholipid contents as well as alteration of the antioxidant systems as compared to 4-month-old rats. Treatment of aged rats with MF alone or combined with either EGb or Zn caused improvement in the measured free radical scavengers especially in brain and heart tissues. Our results also showed that both EGb and Zn induced a significant potential effect of MF action on blood pressure and heart rate. The results were explained in the light of the antioxidant properties of EGb and Zn. Thus it is concluded that EGb and Zn have a beneficial role with MF in diminishing cumulative oxidative changes in aging. PMID:9697157

  1. Exploring the Utilization of Complex Algal Communities to Address Algal Pond Crash and Increase Annual Biomass Production for Algal Biofuels

    SciTech Connect

    Hamilton, Cyd E.

    2014-03-25

    This white paper briefly reviews the research literature exploring complex algal communities as a means of increasing algal biomass production via increased tolerance, resilience, and resistance to a variety of abiotic and biotic perturbations occurring within harvesting timescales. This paper identifies what data are available and whether more research utilizing complex communities is needed to explore the potential of complex algal community stability (CACS) approach as a plausible means to increase biomass yields regardless of ecological context and resulting in decreased algal-based fuel prices by reducing operations costs. By reviewing the literature for what we do and do not know, in terms of CACS methodologies, this report will provide guidance for future research addressing pond crash phenomena.

  2. Dimethyl carbonate-mediated lipid extraction and lipase-catalyzed in situ transesterification for simultaneous preparation of fatty acid methyl esters and glycerol carbonate from Chlorella sp. KR-1 biomass.

    PubMed

    Jo, Yoon Ju; Lee, Ok Kyung; Lee, Eun Yeol

    2014-04-01

    Fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs) and glycerol carbonate were simultaneously prepared from Chlorella sp. KR-1 containing 40.9% (w/w) lipid using a reactive extraction method with dimethyl carbonate (DMC). DMC was used as lipid extraction agent, acyl acceptor for transesterification of the extracted triglycerides, substrate for glycerol carbonate synthesis from glycerol, and reaction medium for the solvent-free reaction system. For 1g of biomass, 367.31 mg of FAMEs and 16.73 mg of glycerol carbonate were obtained under the optimized conditions: DMC to biomass ratio of 10:1 (v/w), water content of 0.5% (v/v), and Novozyme 435 to biomass ratio of 20% (w/w) at 70°C for 24h. The amount of residual glycerol was only in the range of 1-2.5mg. Compared to conventional method, the cost of FAME production with the proposed technique could be reduced by combining lipid extraction with transesterification and omitting the extraction solvent recovery process. PMID:24583221

  3. Antiatherosclerotic effects of licorice extract supplementation on hypercholesterolemic patients: decreased CIMT, reduced plasma lipid levels, and decreased blood pressure

    PubMed Central

    Fogelman, Yacov; Gaitini, Diana; Carmeli, Eli

    2016-01-01

    Background Ethanolic extract of licorice root has been shown to reduce low-density lipoprotein (LDL) oxidation in atherosclerotic mice and in both hypercholesterolemic and normal lipidemic humans. Objective This study examined the effect of licorice-root extract on carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT) in individuals with hypercholesterolemia. Design Individuals with hypercholesterolemia (total cholesterol ≥6.18 mmol/L [240 mg/dL]) and without significant stenosis were randomly allocated to two groups: an experimental group that consumed 0.2 g/day of ethanolic extract of licorice root for 12 months, and a control group that received a placebo. Results Of 110 eligible participants, 94 (41–80 years old) completed the study. A significant CIMT decrease from 0.92±0.25 mm to 0.84±0.21 mm was observed in the experimental group compared with an increase from 0.85±0.17 mm to 0.88±0.19 mm in the control group. Mean plasma total cholesterol levels and LDL cholesterol decreased, at the range baseline to 1 year, from 284±32 mg/dl to 262±25 mg/dl and from 183±8.5 mg/dl to 174±9.1 mg/dl, respectively, for the experimental group (p<0.001) and from 291±35 to 289±31 mg/dl and from 177.6±10.7 to 179.3±9.6 (p=0.08), respectively, for the control group. Mean high-density lipoprotein (HDL) did not change significantly in either group. In the experimental group, systolic blood pressure decreased from 138±12 mmHg to 125±13 mmHg after 1 year (p=0.01) and increased from 136±15 mmHg to 137±13 mmHg in the control group. Diastolic blood pressure decreased from 92±9 mmHg to 84±10 mmHg (p=0.01) in the experimental group and increased from 89±11 mmHg to 90±8 mmHg in the control group. Conclusion Following 1 year of licorice consumption, mean CIMT, total cholesterol, LDL levels, and blood pressure were decreased. This suggests that licorice may attenuate the development of atherosclerosis and of related cardiovascular diseases. PMID:27113136

  4. Effects of Green Tea Extract on Insulin Resistance and Glucagon-Like Peptide 1 in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes and Lipid Abnormalities: A Randomized, Double-Blinded, and Placebo-Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Chia-Yu; Huang, Chien-Jung; Huang, Lin-Huang; Chen, I-Ju; Chiu, Jung-Peng; Hsu, Chung-Hua

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of green tea extract on patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and lipid abnormalities on glycemic and lipid profiles, and hormone peptides by a double-blinded, randomized and placebo-controlled clinical trial. This trial enrolled 92 subjects with type 2 diabetes mellitus and lipid abnormalities randomized into 2 arms, each arm comprising 46 participants. Of the participants, 39 in therapeutic arm took 500 mg green tea extract, three times a day, while 38 in control arm took cellulose with the same dose and frequency to complete the 16-week study. Anthropometrics measurements, glycemic and lipid profiles, safety parameters, and obesity-related hormone peptides were analyzed at screening and after 16-week course. Within-group comparisons showed that green tea extract caused a significant decrease in triglyceride and homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance index after 16 weeks. Green tea extract also increased significantly high density lipoprotein cholesterol. The HOMA-IR index decreased from 5.4±3.9 to 3.5±2.0 in therapeutic arm only. Adiponectin, apolipoprotein A1, and apolipoprotein B100 increased significantly in both arms, but only glucagon-like peptide 1 increased in the therapeutic arm. However, only decreasing trend in triglyceride was found in between-group comparison. Our study suggested that green tea extract significantly improved insulin resistance and increased glucagon-like peptide 1 only in within-group comparison. The potential effects of green tea extract on insulin resistance and glucagon-like peptide 1 warrant further investigation. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01360567 PMID:24614112

  5. Detection of toxic organometallic complexes in wastewaters using algal assays.

    PubMed

    Wong, S L; Nakamoto, L; Wainwright, J F

    1997-05-01

    Chlorella (a unicellular green alga) and Cladophora (a filamentous alga) were used in algal assays to identify the presence and toxicity of organometallic complexes in four industrial wastewaters. Toxicities of inorganic Pb and organometallic compounds (trimethyl, tetramethyl and tetraethyl leads, cacodylic acid and Cu-picolinate) were examined, using algal cells grown in 10% BBM solution. Inorganic Pb and organometallic compounds altered the fine structure of Chlorella cells in a distinguishable manner. X-ray microanalysis revealed that organometallic compounds accumulated in the neutral lipids of Cladophora cells. By applying the above techniques to the wastewater assays, two of the four wastewaters tested were found to contain organometallic complexes. Wastewater from a chemical company contained only traces of organo-Cu, but one mining effluent contained significant quantities of organo-Cu and organo-Pb, and traces of organo-Cr and organo-Tl (thallium). These studies suggest that X-ray microanalysis of algae may be a useful tool in identifying aquatic systems contaminated with metals and organometallic compounds. PMID:9175500

  6. High Frequency Monitoring for Harmful Algal Blooms

    EPA Science Inventory

    Harmful algal blooms (HABs) are increasingly becoming a significant ecologic, economic, and social driver in the use of water resources. Cyanobacteria and their toxins play an important role in management decisions for drinking water utilities and public health officials. Online ...

  7. Eukaryotic algal phytochromes span the visible spectrum.

    PubMed

    Rockwell, Nathan C; Duanmu, Deqiang; Martin, Shelley S; Bachy, Charles; Price, Dana C; Bhattacharya, Debashish; Worden, Alexandra Z; Lagarias, J Clark

    2014-03-11

    Plant phytochromes are photoswitchable red/far-red photoreceptors that allow competition with neighboring plants for photosynthetically active red light. In aquatic environments, red and far-red light are rapidly attenuated with depth; therefore, photosynthetic species must use shorter wavelengths of light. Nevertheless, phytochrome-related proteins are found in recently sequenced genomes of many eukaryotic algae from aquatic environments. We examined the photosensory properties of seven phytochromes from diverse algae: four prasinophyte (green algal) species, the heterokont (brown algal) Ectocarpus siliculosus, and two glaucophyte species. We demonstrate that algal phytochromes are not limited to red and far-red responses. Instead, different algal phytochromes can sense orange, green, and even blue light. Characterization of these previously undescribed photosensors using CD spectroscopy supports a structurally heterogeneous chromophore in the far-red-absorbing photostate. Our study thus demonstrates that extensive spectral tuning of phytochromes has evolved in phylogenetically distinct lineages of aquatic photosynthetic eukaryotes. PMID:24567382

  8. Direct conversion of algal biomass to biofuel

    DOEpatents

    Deng, Shuguang; Patil, Prafulla D; Gude, Veera Gnaneswar

    2014-10-14

    A method and system for providing direct conversion of algal biomass. Optionally, the method and system can be used to directly convert dry algal biomass to biodiesels under microwave irradiation by combining the reaction and combining steps. Alternatively, wet algae can be directly processed and converted to fatty acid methyl esters, which have the major components of biodiesels, by reacting with methanol at predetermined pressure and temperature ranges.

  9. Algal and fungal diversity in Antarctic lichens.

    PubMed

    Park, Chae Haeng; Kim, Kyung Mo; Elvebakk, Arve; Kim, Ok-Sun; Jeong, Gajin; Hong, Soon Gyu

    2015-01-01

    The composition of lichen ecosystems except mycobiont and photobiont has not been evaluated intensively. In addition, recent studies to identify algal genotypes have raised questions about the specific relationship between mycobiont and photobiont. In the current study, we analyzed algal and fungal community structures in lichen species from King George Island, Antarctica, by pyrosequencing of eukaryotic large subunit (LSU) and algal internal transcribed spacer (ITS) domains of the nuclear rRNA gene. The sequencing results of LSU and ITS regions indicated that each lichen thallus contained diverse algal species. The major algal operational taxonomic unit (OTU) defined at a 99% similarity cutoff of LSU sequences accounted for 78.7-100% of the total algal community in each sample. In several cases, the major OTUs defined by LSU sequences were represented by two closely related OTUs defined by 98% sequence similarity of ITS domain. The results of LSU sequences indicated that lichen-associated fungi belonged to the Arthoniomycetes, Eurotiomycetes, Lecanoromycetes, Leotiomycetes, and Sordariomycetes of the Ascomycota, and Tremellomycetes and Cystobasidiomycetes of the Basidiomycota. The composition of major photobiont species and lichen-associated fungal community were mostly related to the mycobiont species. The contribution of growth forms or substrates on composition of photobiont and lichen-associated fungi was not evident. PMID:25105247

  10. Distribution of heavy metals from flue gas in algal bioreactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Napan, Katerine

    Flue gas from coal-fired power plants is a major source of CO2 to the atmosphere. Microalgae can use this enriched form of CO2 as carbon source and in turn the biomass can be used to produce food, feed, fertilizer and biofuels. However, along with CO2, coal-based flue gas will inevitably introduce heavy metals, which have a high affinity to bind algal cells, could be toxic to the organisms and if transferred to the products could limit their uses. This study seeks to address the distribution and impact of heavy metals present in flue gas on microalgae production systems. To comprehend its effects, algae Scenedesmus obliquus was grown in batch reactors in a multimetal system. Ten heavy metals (Cu, Co, Zn, Pb, As, Se, Cr, Hg, Ni and Cd) were selected and were evaluated at four concentrations (1X, 2X, 5X and 10X). Results show that most heavy metals accumulated mainly in biomass and were found in very low concentrations in media. Hg was shown to be lost from the culture, with low amounts present in the biomass. An upper limit for As uptake was observed, suggesting its likelihood to build-up in the system during medium recycle. The As limited bioaccumulation was overcome by addition of sulfur to the algal medium. Heavy metal at 2X, 5X and 10X inhibited both growth and lipid production, while at the reference concentration both biomass and lipids yields were increased. Heavy metal concentrations in the medium and biomass were time dependent, and at the end of the cultivation most heavy metals in the supernatant solution complied with the recommendations for irrigation water, while biomass was below limits for cattle and poultry feed, fertilizer, plastic and paper. This research shows that bioremediation of CO2 and heavy metals in combination with energy production can be integrated, which is an environmentally friendly form of biotechnology.

  11. Effects of green tea extract and α-tocopherol on the lipid oxidation rate of omega-3 oils, incorporated into table spreads, prepared using multiple emulsion technology.

    PubMed

    Dwyer, Sandra P O'; O'Beirne, David; Ní Eidhin, Deirdre; O'Kennedy, Brendan T

    2012-12-01

    This study examined the effectiveness of fat and water soluble antioxidants on the oxidative stability of omega (ω)-3 rich table spreads, produced using novel multiple emulsion technology. Table spreads were produced by dispersing an oil-in-water (O/W) emulsion (500 g/kg 85 camelina/15 fish oil blend) in a hardstock/rapeseed oil blend, using sodium caseinate and polyglycerol polyricinoleate as emulsifiers. The O/W and oil-in-water-in-oil (O/W/O) emulsions contained either a water soluble antioxidant (green tea extract [GTE]), an oil soluble antioxidant (α-Tocopherol), or both. Spreads containing α-Tocopherol had the highest lipid hydroperoxide values, whereas spreads containing GTE had the lowest (P < 0.05), during storage at 5°C, while p-Anisidine values did not differ significantly. Particle size was generally unaffected by antioxidant type (P < 0.05). Double emulsion (O/W/O) structures were clearly seen in confocal images of the spreads. By the end of storage, none of the spreads had significantly different G' values. Firmness (Newtons) of all spreads generally increased during storage (P < 0.05). PMID:23171419

  12. Extract of okra lowers blood glucose and serum lipids in high-fat diet-induced obese C57BL/6 mice.

    PubMed

    Fan, Shengjie; Zhang, Yu; Sun, Qinhu; Yu, Lijing; Li, Mingxia; Zheng, Bin; Wu, Ximin; Yang, Baican; Li, Yiming; Huang, Cheng

    2014-07-01

    Okra is an important tropical vegetable and source of dietary medicine. Here, we assayed the effects of an ethanol extract of okra (EO) and its major flavonoids isoquercitrin and quercetin 3-O-gentiobioside on metabolic disorders in high-fat diet-induced obese mouse. We found that treatment with EO, isoquercitrin and quercetin 3-O-gentiobioside reduced blood glucose and serum insulin levels and improved glucose tolerance in obese mice. Meanwhile, serum triglyceride levels and liver morphology in the mice were significantly ameliorated by EO and isoquercitrin treatment. Total cholesterol levels in isoquercitrin and quercetin 3-O-gentiobioside treated mice were also reduced. We also found that EO inhibited the expression of nuclear receptor transcription factor PPARγ, which is an important regulator of lipid and glucose homeostasis. Furthermore, we determined that EO and quercetin 3-O-gentiobioside have antioxidant activity in vitro. Our results indicate that okra may serve as a dietary therapy for hyperglycemia and hypertriglyceridemia. PMID:24746837

  13. Producing docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)-rich algae from biodiesel-derived crude glycerol: effects of impurities on DHA production and algal biomass composition.

    PubMed

    Pyle, Denver J; Garcia, Rafael A; Wen, Zhiyou

    2008-06-11

    Crude glycerol is the primary byproduct of the biodiesel industry. Producing docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6 n-3) through fermentation of the alga Schizochytrium limacinum on crude glycerol provides a unique opportunity to utilize a large quantity of this byproduct. The objective of this work is to investigate the effects of impurities contained in the crude glycerol on DHA production and algal biomass composition. Crude glycerol streams were obtained from different biodiesel refineries. All of the glycerol samples contained methanol, soaps, and various elements including calcium, phosphorus, potassium, silicon, sodium, and zinc. Both methanol and soap were found to negatively influence algal DHA production; these two impurities can be removed from culture medium by evaporation through autoclaving (for methanol) and by precipitation through pH adjustment (for soap). The glycerol-derived algal biomass contained 45-50% lipid, 14-20% protein, and 25% carbohydrate, with 8-13% ash content. Palmitic acid (C16:0) and DHA were the two major fatty acids in the algal lipid. The algal biomass was rich in lysine and cysteine, relative to many common feedstuffs. Elemental analysis by inductively coupled plasma showed that boron, calcium, copper, iron, magnesium, phosphorus, potassium, silicon, sodium, and sulfur were present in the biomass, whereas no heavy metals (such as mercury) were detected in the algal biomass. Overall, the results show that crude glycerol was a suitable carbon source for algal fermentation. The crude glycerol-derived algal biomass had a high level of DHA and a nutritional profile similar to that of commercial algal biomass, suggesting a great potential for using crude glycerol-derived algae in omega-3-fortified food or feed. PMID:18465872

  14. Microflotation performance for algal separation.

    PubMed

    Hanotu, James; Bandulasena, H C Hemaka; Zimmerman, William B

    2012-07-01

    The performance of microflotation, dispersed air flotation with microbubble clouds with bubble size about 50 µm, for algae separation using fluidic oscillation for microbubble generation is investigated. This fluidic oscillator converts continuous air supply into oscillatory flow with a regular frequency to generate bubbles of the scale of the exit pore. Bubble characterization results showed that average bubble size generated under oscillatory air flow state was 86 µm, approximately twice the size of the diffuser pore size of 38 µm. In contrast, continuous air flow at the same rate through the same diffusers yielded an average bubble size of 1,059 µm, 28 times larger than the pore size. Following microbubble generation, the separation of algal cells under fluidic oscillator generated microbubbles was investigated by varying metallic coagulant types, concentration and pH. Best performances were recorded at the highest coagulant dose (150 mg/L) applied under acidic conditions (pH 5). Amongst the three metallic coagulants studied, ferric chloride yielded the overall best result of 99.2% under the optimum conditions followed closely by ferric sulfate (98.1%) and aluminum sulfate with 95.2%. This compares well with conventional dissolved air flotation (DAF) benchmarks, but has a highly turbulent flow, whereas microflotation is laminar with several orders of magnitude lower energy density. PMID:22290221

  15. Sterol phylogenesis and algal evolution

    SciTech Connect

    Nes, W.D.; Norton, R.A.; Crumley, F.G. ); Madigan, S.J.; Katz, E.R. )

    1990-10-01

    The stereochemistry of several sterol precursors and end products synthesized by two fungal-like microorganisms Prototheca wickerhamii (I) and Dictyostelium discoideum (II) have been determined by chromatographic (TLC, GLC, and HPLC) and spectral (UV, MS, and {sup 1}H NMR) methods. From I and II the following sterols were isolated from the cells: cycloartenol, cyclolaudenol, 24(28)-methylenecy-cloartanol, ergosterol, protothecasterol, 4{alpha}-methylergostanol, 4{alpha}-methylclionastanol, clionastanol, 24{beta}-ethylcholesta-8,22-enol, and dictyosterol. In addition, the mechanism of C-24 methylation was investigated in both organisms by feeding to I (2-{sup 3}H)lanosterol, (2-{sup 3}H)cycloartenol, (24{sup 3}H)lanosterol, and (methyl-{sup 2}H{sub 3})methionine and by feeding to II (methyl-{sup 2}H{sub 3})methionine. The results demonstrate that the 24{beta} configuration is formed by different alkylation routes in I and II. The authors conclude that Prototheca is an apoplastic Chlorella (i.e., an alga) and that Dictyostelium as well as the other soil amoebae that synthesize cycloartenol evolved from algal rather than fungal ancestors.

  16. Towards developing algal synthetic biology.

    PubMed

    Scaife, Mark Aden; Smith, Alison Gail

    2016-06-15

    The genetic, physiological and metabolic diversity of microalgae has driven fundamental research into photosynthesis, flagella structure and function, and eukaryotic evolution. Within the last 10 years these organisms have also been investigated as potential biotechnology platforms, for example to produce high value compounds such as long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids, pigments and antioxidants, and for biodiesel precursors, in particular triacylglycerols (TAGs). Transformation protocols, molecular tools and genome sequences are available for a number of model species including the green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii and the diatom Phaeodactylum tricornutum, although for both species there are bottlenecks to be overcome to allow rapid and predictable genetic manipulation. One approach to do this would be to apply the principles of synthetic biology to microalgae, namely the cycle of Design-Build-Test, which requires more robust, predictable and high throughput methods. In this mini-review we highlight recent progress in the areas of improving transgene expression, genome editing, identification and design of standard genetic elements (parts), and the use of microfluidics to increase throughput. We suggest that combining these approaches will provide the means to establish algal synthetic biology, and that application of standard parts and workflows will avoid parallel development and capitalize on lessons learned from other systems. PMID:27284033

  17. Use of algae or algal oil rich in n-3 fatty acids as a feed supplement for dairy cattle.

    PubMed

    Stamey, J A; Shepherd, D M; de Veth, M J; Corl, B A

    2012-09-01

    Fish oil is used as a ration additive to provide n-3 fatty acids to dairy cows. Fish do not synthesize n-3 fatty acids; they must consume microscopic algae or other algae-consuming fish. New technology allows for the production of algal biomass for use as a ration supplement for dairy cattle. Lipid encapsulation of the algal biomass protects n-3 fatty acids from biohydrogenation in the rumen and allows them to be available for absorption and utilization in the small intestine. Our objective was to examine the use of algal products as a source for n-3 fatty acids in milk. Four mid-lactation Holsteins were assigned to a 4×4 Latin square design. Their rations were supplemented with 1× or 0.5× rumen-protected (RP) algal biomass supplement, 1× RP algal oil supplement, or no supplement for 7 d. Supplements were lipid encapsulated (Balchem Corp., New Hampton, NY). The 1× supplements provided 29 g/d of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), and 0.5× provided half of this amount. Treatments were analyzed by orthogonal contrasts. Supplementing dairy rations with rumen-protected algal products did not affect feed intake, milk yield, or milk component yield. Short- and medium-chain fatty acid yields in milk were not influenced by supplements. Both 0.5× and 1× RP algae supplements increased daily milk fat yield of DHA (0.5 and 0.6±0.10 g/d, respectively) compared with 1× RP oil (0.3±0.10 g/d), but all supplements resulted in milk fat yields greater than that of the control (0.1±0.10g/d). Yield of trans-18:1 fatty acids in milk fat was also increased by supplementation. Trans-11 18:1 yield (13, 20, 27, and 15±3.0 g/d for control, 0.5× RP algae, 1× RP algae, and 1× RP oil, respectively) was greater for supplements than for control. Concentration of DHA in the plasma lipid fraction on d 7 showed that the DHA concentration was greatest in plasma phospholipid. Rumen-protected algal biomass provided better DHA yield than algal oil. Feeding lipid-encapsulated algae supplements

  18. Harmful Algal Bloom-Associated Illness Surveillance: Lessons From Reported Hospital Visits in New York, 2008-2014.

    PubMed

    Figgatt, Mary; Muscatiello, Neil; Wilson, Lloyd; Dziewulski, David

    2016-03-01

    We identified hospital visits with reported exposure to harmful algal blooms, an emerging public health concern because of toxicity and increased incidence. We used the World Health Organization's International Classification of Disease (ICD) medical code specifying environmental exposure to harmful algal blooms to extract hospital visit records in New York State from 2008 to 2014. Using the ICD code, we identified 228 hospital visits with reported exposure to harmful algal blooms. They occurred all year long and had multiple principal diagnoses. Of all hospital visits, 94.7% were managed in the emergency department and 5.3% were hospitalizations. As harmful algal bloom surveillance increases, the ICD code will be a beneficial tool to public health only if used properly. PMID:26794161

  19. Chlorophytum borivilianum Root Extract Maintains near Normal Blood Glucose, Insulin and Lipid Profile Levels and Prevents Oxidative Stress in the Pancreas of Streptozotocin-Induced Adult Male Diabetic Rats

    PubMed Central

    Giribabu, Nelli; Kumar, Kilari Eswar; Rekha, Somesula Swapna; Muniandy, Sekaran; Salleh, Naguib

    2014-01-01

    The effect of C. borivilianum root on blood glucose, glycated hemoglobin (HbAIc), insulin and lipid profile levels in diabetes mellitus are not fully understood. This study therefore investigated the effect of C. borivilianum root on the above parameters and oxidative stress of the pancreas in diabetes. Methods: C. borivilianum root aqueous extract (250 and 500 mg/kg/day) was administered to streptozotocin (STZ)-induced male diabetic rats for 28 days. Body weight, blood glucose, HbA1c, insulin, lipid profile levels and glucose homeostasis indices were determined. Histopathological changes and oxidative stress parameters i.e. lipid peroxidation (LPO) and antioxidant enzymes activity levels of the pancreas were investigated. Results: C. borivilianum root extract treatment to diabetic rats maintained near normal body weight, blood glucose, HbA1c, lipid profile and insulin levels with higher HOMA-β cell functioning index, number of Islets/pancreas, number of β-cells/Islets however with lower HOMA-insulin resistance (IR) index as compared to non-treated diabetic rats. Negative correlations between serum insulin and blood glucose, HbA1c, triglyceride (TG) and total cholesterol (TC) levels were observed. C. borivilianum root extract administration prevented the increase in lipid peroxidation and the decrease in activity levels of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) with mild histopathological changes in the pancreas of diabetic rats. Conclusions: C. borivilianum root maintains near normal levels of these metabolites and prevented oxidative stress-induced damage to the pancreas in diabetes. PMID:25249786

  20. Microwave-assisted purge-and-trap extraction device coupled with gas chromatography and mass spectrometry for the determination of five predominant odors in sediment, fish tissues, and algal cells.

    PubMed

    Deng, Xuwei; Xie, Ping; Qi, Min; Liang, Gaodao; Chen, Jun; Ma, Zhimei; Jiang, Yan

    2012-01-01

    Off-flavors are among the most troublesome compounds in the environment worldwide. The lack of a viable theory for studying the sources, distribution, and effect of odors has necessitated the accurate measurement of odors from environmental compartments. A rapid and flexible microwave-assisted purge-and-trap extraction device for simultaneously determining five predominant odors, namely, dimethyltrisulfide, 2-methylisoborneol, geosmin, β-cyclocitral and β-ionone, from the primary sources and sinks is demonstrated. This instrument facilitates the extraction and concentration of odors from quite different matrices simultaneously. This device is a solvent-free automated system that does not require cleaning and is timesaving. The calibration curves of the five odor compounds showed good linearity in the range of 1-500 ng/L, with correlation coefficients above 0.999 (levels=7) and with residuals ranging from approximately 77% to 104%. The limits of detection (S/N=3) were below 0.15 ng/L in algae sample and 0.07 ng/g in sediment and fish tissue samples. The relative standard deviations were between 2.65% and 7.29% (n=6). Thus the proposed design is ready for rapid translation into a standard analytical tool and is useful for multiple applications in the analysis of off-flavors. PMID:22153815

  1. Algal Energy Conversion and Capture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hazendonk, P.

    2015-12-01

    We address the potential for energy conversions and capture for: energy generation; reduction in energy use; reduction in greenhouse gas emissions; remediation of water and air pollution; protection and enhancement of soil fertility. These processes have the potential to sequester carbon at scales that may have global impact. Energy conversion and capture strategies evaluate energy use and production from agriculture, urban areas and industries, and apply existing and emerging technologies to reduce and recapture energy embedded in waste products. The basis of biocrude production from Micro-algal feedstocks: 1) The nutrients from the liquid fraction of waste streams are concentrated and fed into photo bioreactors (essentially large vessels in which microalgae are grown) along with CO2 from flue gasses from down stream processes. 2) The algae are processed to remove high value products such as proteins and beta-carotenes. The advantage of algae feedstocks is the high biomass productivity is 30-50 times that of land based crops and the remaining biomass contains minimal components that are difficult to convert to biocrude. 3) The remaining biomass undergoes hydrothermal liquefaction to produces biocrude and biochar. The flue gasses of this process can be used to produce electricity (fuel cell) and subsequently fed back into the photobioreactor. The thermal energy required for this process is small, hence readily obtained from solar-thermal sources, and furthermore no drying or preprocessing is required keeping the energy overhead extremely small. 4) The biocrude can be upgraded and refined as conventional crude oil, creating a range of liquid fuels. In principle this process can be applied on the farm scale to the municipal scale. Overall, our primary food production is too dependent on fossil fuels. Energy conversion and capture can make food production sustainable.

  2. Platy algal banks: Modern and ancient

    SciTech Connect

    Brinton, L. )

    1990-05-01

    Plaly algal banks and associated cycles in the lower Ismay zone of the Paradox Formation are exposed along the walls of the San Juan River canyon, southeastern Utah. These complexes closely resemble algal bank reservoirs in the lower Ismay zone of Ismay and Cache, and possibly other Paradox basin fields. Similarities include facies relationships, lateral and vertical textural variations, and early diagenesis. Extensive algal banks exposed along the San Juan canyon generally have flat bases and mound and swale topographic surfaces, and are separated by interbank channels. The surficial mounds have a regular amplitude and wavelength suggesting a hydrologic rather than biologic influence on topography. The banks themselves, however, are believed to be thick, predominantly in-situ accumulations of platy algae. Distribution of algal banks can be mapped on a field scale; mound and swale topographic features may be identified in core on the basis of depositional and early diagenetic characteristics. Halimeda bioherms (Holocene) cover large areas behind the Great Barrier Reef, developing adjacent to the deep passes that separate the individual reefs. These large in-situ accumulations (20-50 m deep) display similar bank geometries, interbank features, topographic features, vertical textural sequence (including porosity type and distribution), and facies relationships to algal banks observed in the outcropping and subsurface Paradox Formation. Although the hydrodynamic and paleobathymetric settings differ markedly between these two examples, analogies between the mounds themselves are very close. The resemblance lends relevance to exploration and development drilling.

  3. Algal Biomass Constituent Analysis: Method Uncertainties and Investigation of the Underlying Measuring Chemistries

    SciTech Connect

    Laurens, L. M. L.; Dempster, T. A.; Jones, H. D. T.; Wolfrum, E. J.; Van Wychen, S.; McAllister, J. S. P.; Rencenberger, M.; Parchert, K. J.; Gloe, L. M.

    2012-02-21

    Algal biomass compositional analysis data form the basis of a large number of techno-economic process analysis models that are used to investigate and compare different processes in algal biofuels production. However, the analytical methods used to generate these data are far from standardized. This work investigated the applicability of common methods for rapid chemical analysis of biomass samples with respect to accuracy and precision. This study measured lipids, protein, carbohydrates, ash, and moisture of a single algal biomass sample at 3 institutions by 8 independent researchers over 12 separate workdays. Results show statistically significant differences in the results from a given analytical method among laboratories but not between analysts at individual laboratories, suggesting consistent training is a critical issue for empirical analytical methods. Significantly different results from multiple lipid and protein measurements were found to be due to different measurement chemistries. We identified a set of compositional analysis procedures that are in best agreement with data obtained by more advanced analytical procedures. The methods described here and used for the round robin experiment do not require specialized instrumentation, and with detailed analytical documentation, the differences between laboratories can be markedly reduced.

  4. Inhibitory effect of polyphenolic-rich extract from Cola nitida (Kolanut) seed on key enzyme linked to type 2 diabetes and Fe2+ induced lipid peroxidation in rat pancreas in vitro

    PubMed Central

    Oboh, Ganiyu; Nwokocha, Kate E.; Akinyemi, Ayodele J.; Ademiluyi, Adedayo O.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate the inhibitory effect of phenolic-rich extracts from Cola nitida (C. nitida) seeds on key enzymes linked with type-2 diabetes and Fe2+ induced oxidative stress in rat pancreas. Methods The phenolic extract was prepared with 80% acetone (v/v). Subsequently, the antioxidant properties and inhibitory effect of the extract on α - amylase and α - glucosidase as well as on Fe2+ induced lipid peroxidation in rat pancreas were determined in vitro. Results The result revealed that C. nitida extract inhibited α-amylase (EC50=0.34 mg/mL) and α-glucosidase (EC50=0.32 mg/mL) activities as well as Fe2+ induced lipid peroxidation in rat pancreas in a dose dependent manner. In addition, the extract had high DPPH radical scavenging ability (EC50=2.2 mg/mL) and reducing power (8.2 mg AAE/g). Characterization of the main phenolic compounds of the extract using gas chromatography analysis revealed catechin (6.6 mg/100 g), epicatechin (3.6 mg/100 g), apigenin (5.1 mg/100 g) and naringenin (3.6 mg/100 g) were the main compounds in the extract. Conclusions This antioxidant and enzyme inhibition could be some of the possible mechanism by which C. nitida is use in folklore for the management/treatment of type-2 diabetes. However, the enzyme inhibitory properties of the extract could be attributed to the presence of catechin, epicatechin, apigenin and naringenin. PMID:25183118

  5. Effect of the hydroalcoholic extract and juice of Prunus divaricata fruit on blood glucose and serum lipids of normal and streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Minaiyan, M; Ghannadi, A; Movahedian, A; Ramezanlou, P; Osooli, F S

    2014-01-01

    Prunus divaricata (Alloocheh) is a small tree cultivating in Iran, Middle East and central Asia. Prunus genus has many species with anti-oxidant, anti-hyperlipidemia and anti-hyperglycemia effects. In the present study the anti-diabetic and anti-hyperlipidemic effects of P. divaricata fruits were examined in normal and streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats. Both groups, control and reference rats received normal saline and glibenclamide respectively. Test groups were treated with Prunus freeze dried juice (PFDJ, 200, 400, 800 mg/kg) and Prunus freeze dried extract (PFDE, 100, 200, 400 mg/kg) started at the 3(rd) day of the experiment and continued for 27 days thereafter. Weight changes of animals were checked periodically. Fasting blood glucose (FBG) level as well as serum triglyceride (TG), total cholesterol (TC), high density lipoprotein (HDL) and low density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol were determined. Different treatments had no significant effect on body weight increments of normal rats, while in diabetic rats, PFDJ (800 mg/kg) and PFDE (400 mg/kg) opposed with weight loss. In acute phase of experiment (0-8 h of 3(rd) day), none of tested fractions were effective in reducing FBG and serum lipids of normal rats. During the sub-acute phase (13(th) and 30(th) days) however, the greatest test doses of PFDJ (800 mg/kg) and PFDE (400 mg/kg) induced hypoglycema. In diabetic groups, PFDJ and PFDE, at all test doses, could diminish FBG during sub-acute phase of the experiment. In addition, PFDJ and PFDE at most examined doses could diminish TG significantly and they were also effective on cholesterol derivatives in different magnitude. PMID:26339257

  6. Effect of the hydroalcoholic extract and juice of Prunus divaricata fruit on blood glucose and serum lipids of normal and streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats

    PubMed Central

    Minaiyan, M.; Ghannadi, A.; Movahedian, A.; Ramezanlou, P.; Osooli, F.S.

    2014-01-01

    Prunus divaricata (Alloocheh) is a small tree cultivating in Iran, Middle East and central Asia. Prunus genus has many species with anti-oxidant, anti-hyperlipidemia and anti-hyperglycemia effects. In the present study the anti-diabetic and anti-hyperlipidemic effects of P. divaricata fruits were examined in normal and streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats. Both groups, control and reference rats received normal saline and glibenclamide respectively. Test groups were treated with Prunus freeze dried juice (PFDJ, 200, 400, 800 mg/kg) and Prunus freeze dried extract (PFDE, 100, 200, 400 mg/kg) started at the 3rd day of the experiment and continued for 27 days thereafter. Weight changes of animals were checked periodically. Fasting blood glucose (FBG) level as well as serum triglyceride (TG), total cholesterol (TC), high density lipoprotein (HDL) and low density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol were determined. Different treatments had no significant effect on body weight increments of normal rats, while in diabetic rats, PFDJ (800 mg/kg) and PFDE (400 mg/kg) opposed with weight loss. In acute phase of experiment (0-8 h of 3rd day), none of tested fractions were effective in reducing FBG and serum lipids of normal rats. During the sub-acute phase (13th and 30th days) however, the greatest test doses of PFDJ (800 mg/kg) and PFDE (400 mg/kg) induced hypoglycema. In diabetic groups, PFDJ and PFDE, at all test doses, could diminish FBG during sub-acute phase of the experiment. In addition, PFDJ and PFDE at most examined doses could diminish TG significantly and they were also effective on cholesterol derivatives in different magnitude. PMID:26339257

  7. A National-Scale Comparison of Resource and Nutrient Demands for Algae-Based Biofuel Production by Lipid Extraction and Hydrothermal Liquefaction

    SciTech Connect

    Venteris, Erik R.; Skaggs, Richard; Wigmosta, Mark S.; Coleman, Andre M.

    2014-03-01

    Algae’s high productivity provides potential resource advantages over other fuel crops. However, demand for land, water, and nutrients must be minimized to avoid impacts on food production. We apply our national-scale, open-pond, growth and resource models to assess several biomass to fuel technological pathways based on Chlorella. We compare resource demands between hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL) and lipid extraction (LE) to meet 1.89E+10 and 7.95E+10 L yr-1 biofuel targets. We estimate nutrient demands where post-fuel biomass is consumed as co-products and recycling by anaerobic digestion (AD) or catalytic hydrothermal gasification (CHG). Sites are selected through prioritization based on fuel value relative to a set of site-specific resource costs. The highest priority sites are located along the Gulf of Mexico coast, but potential sites exist nationwide. We find that HTL reduces land and freshwater consumption by up to 46% and saline groundwater by around 70%. Without recycling, nitrogen (N) and phosphorous (P) demand is reduced 33%, but is large relative to current U.S. agricultural consumption. The most nutrient-efficient pathways are LE+CHG for N and HTL+CHG for P (by 42%). Resource gains for HTL+CHG are offset by a 344% increase in N consumption relative to LE+CHG (with potential for further recycling). Nutrient recycling is essential to effective use of alternative nutrient sources. Modeling of utilization availability and costs remains, but we find that for HTL+CHG at the 7.95E+10 L yr-1 production target, municipal sources can offset 17% of N and 40% of P demand and animal manures can generally meet demands.

  8. Lipid Extract from Hard-Shelled Mussel (Mytilus coruscus) Improves Clinical Conditions of Patients with Rheumatoid Arthritis: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Yuanqing; Li, Guipu; Zhang, Xinhua; Xing, Gengyan; Hu, Xiaojie; Yang, Lifeng; Li, Duo

    2015-01-01

    Studies have suggested a lipid extract from hard-shelled mussel (Mytilus coruscus) (HMLE) possessed strong anti-inflammatory activity in arthritis model of rats. This study investigated whether HMLE could improve clinical conditions of rheumatoid arthritis patients. Fifty rheumatoid arthritis patients (28–75 years) were randomly assigned to receive HMLE capsules or receive placebo capsules for 6 months. Forty-two subjects and 50 subjects were included in per-protocol and intention-to-treat analysis, respectively. Significant differences in changes on disease activity score (DAS28) and clinical disease activity index (CDAI) after 6-month intervention (p < 0.01) were observed in both analyses with more evident efficacy shown in per-protocol population (∆DAS28 = 0.47; ∆CDAI = 4.17), which favored the benefits of the HMLE group. TNF-α (tumor necrosis factor α), interleukin (IL)-1β and PGE2 (prostaglandin E2) but not IL-6, were significantly decreased in both groups, and the decrements were much larger in the HMLE group for TNF-α and PGE2 after 6 months from baseline (p < 0.05). IL-10 was significantly increased in both groups and the change was much more evident in the HMLE group (p < 0.05). In conclusion, HMLE exhibited benefits for the clinical conditions of rheumatoid patients in relation to improvement in the balance between pro- and anti-inflammatory factors, which indicated its potential to serve as adjunctive treatment for rheumatoid arthritis. (ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02173587). PMID:25602164

  9. Shelf life of ground beef enriched with omega-3 and/or conjugated linoleic acid and use of grape seed extract to inhibit lipid oxidation.

    PubMed

    Gómez, Inmaculada; Beriain, María J; Mendizabal, Jose A; Realini, Carolina; Purroy, Antonio

    2016-01-01

    The shelf life and oxidative stability of refrigerated raw ground beef enriched with omega-3 and/or conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) were studied. Grape seed extract (GSE) was used to inhibit lipid oxidation in the ground beef. Eight treatments of ground beef were established according to the enrichment of beef (control, enriched with omega-3, with CLA, or with omega-3 plus CLA) and the use of GSE (0 and 250 mg GSE/kg product). Fresh beef was ground and mixed with GSE and salt. Treatments of beef were stored at 2 ± 1°C in aerobic packaging for 0, 1, 3, and 6 days under retail display conditions. Oxidation stability (thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances [TBARS]), pH, instrumental color, metmyoglobin formation, and sensory attributes (color and odor) were measured. Omega-3-enriched beef increased the oxidation level at day 6 as determined by TBARS (P < 0.05), but the instrumental color was not affected. The enrichment of CLA improved the coordinates of color (P < 0.05) until day 3 and decreased the oxidation at day 6 (P < 0.05). There were no differences in color and odor values among the types of beef during display, except at day 3, when CLA treatments had the highest scores. Addition of GSE decreased the oxidation level (P < 0.001) and did not affect the instrumental color or the sensory parameters. PMID:26788312

  10. Extraction, Purification, and NMR Analysis of Terpenes from Brown Algae.

    PubMed

    Gaysinski, Marc; Ortalo-Magné, Annick; Thomas, Olivier P; Culioli, Gérald

    2015-01-01

    Algal terpenes constitute a wide and well-documented group of marine natural products with structures differing from their terrestrial plant biosynthetic analogues. Amongst macroalgae, brown seaweeds are considered as one of the richest source of biologically and ecologically relevant terpenoids. These metabolites, mostly encountered in algae of the class Phaeophyceae, are mainly diterpenes and meroditerpenes (metabolites of mixed biogenesis characterized by a toluquinol or a toluquinone nucleus linked to a diterpene moiety).In this chapter, we describe analytical processes commonly employed for the isolation and structural characterization of the main terpenoid constituents obtained from organic extracts of brown algae. The successive steps include (1) extraction of lipidic content from algal samples; (2) purification of terpenes by column chromatography and semi-preparative high-performance liquid chromatography; and (3) structure elucidation of the isolated terpenes by means of 1D and 2D nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). More precisely, we propose a representative methodology which allows the isolation and structural determination of the monocyclic meroditerpene methoxybifurcarenone (MBFC) from the Mediterranean brown alga Cystoseira amentacea var. stricta. This methodology has a large field of applications and can then be extended to terpenes isolated from other species of the family Sargassaceae. PMID:26108508

  11. Red algal beds increase the condition of nekto-benthic fish

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ordines, Francesc; Bauzá, Marco; Sbert, Miquel; Roca, Pilar; Gianotti, Magdalena; Massutí, Enric

    2015-01-01

    The present study analysed the effect of three different benthic habitats, the maërl, Peyssonnelia red algal beds and sandy bottoms, on the condition of two nekto-benthic fish species: Serranus cabrilla and Trigloporus lastoviza. Sampling was conducted during the MEDITS 2010 and 2011 surveys around the Balearic Islands. The condition of the spawning females of both species was determined by using i) biochemical measurements of proteins and lipids in the muscle, liver and gonads, and ii) weight at length relationships based on eviscerated, liver, and gonad weights. Moreover, based on the total weight at length relationship, the mean somatic condition (SC) of the sexually inactive individuals of S. cabrilla and males of T. lastoviza was calculated. Lipid reserves were higher in the livers of S. cabrilla and T. lastoviza from the maërl beds. Additionally, S. cabrilla showed higher lipid reserves in the gonads both in the maërl and Peyssonnelia beds. The mean weights of the liver and gonads at a given individual length revealed the same pattern as the lipids, whereas the mean eviscerated weight was higher in the maërl beds but only for S. cabrilla. A positive correlation was detected between the SC and the biomass of the algal species characterizing the maërl beds for both S. cabrilla and T. lastoviza. The high habitat quality of the red algal beds off the Balearic Islands increased the condition of nekto-benthic fish. In oligotrophic areas, such as the archipelago, these "oases" could help fish to maintain healthy populations.

  12. Critical evaluation and modeling of algal harvesting using dissolved air flotation. DAF Algal Harvesting Modeling

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Zhang, Xuezhi; Hewson, John C.; Amendola, Pasquale; Reynoso, Monica; Sommerfeld, Milton; Chen, Yongsheng; Hu, Qiang

    2014-07-14

    In our study, Chlorella zofingiensis harvesting by dissolved air flotation (DAF) was critically evaluated with regard to algal concentration, culture conditions, type and dosage of coagulants, and recycle ratio. Harvesting efficiency increased with coagulant dosage and leveled off at 81%, 86%, 91%, and 87% when chitosan, Al3+, Fe3+, and cetyl trimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) were used at dosages of 70, 180, 250, and 500 mg g-1, respectively. The DAF efficiency-coagulant dosage relationship changed with algal culture conditions. In evaluating the influence of the initial algal concentration and recycle ratio revealed that, under conditions typical for algal harvesting, we found that itmore » is possible that the number of bubbles is insufficient. A DAF algal harvesting model was developed to explain this observation by introducing mass-based floc size distributions and a bubble limitation into the white water blanket model. Moreover, the model revealed the importance of coagulation to increase floc-bubble collision and attachment, and the preferential interaction of bubbles with larger flocs, which limited the availability of bubbles to the smaller sized flocs. The harvesting efficiencies predicted by the model agree reasonably with experimental data obtained at different Al3+ dosages, algal concentrations, and recycle ratios. Based on this modeling, critical parameters for efficient algal harvesting were identified.« less

  13. Critical evaluation and modeling of algal harvesting using dissolved air flotation. DAF Algal Harvesting Modeling

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Xuezhi; Hewson, John C.; Amendola, Pasquale; Reynoso, Monica; Sommerfeld, Milton; Chen, Yongsheng; Hu, Qiang

    2014-07-14

    In our study, Chlorella zofingiensis harvesting by dissolved air flotation (DAF) was critically evaluated with regard to algal concentration, culture conditions, type and dosage of coagulants, and recycle ratio. Harvesting efficiency increased with coagulant dosage and leveled off at 81%, 86%, 91%, and 87% when chitosan, Al3+, Fe3+, and cetyl trimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) were used at dosages of 70, 180, 250, and 500 mg g-1, respectively. The DAF efficiency-coagulant dosage relationship changed with algal culture conditions. In evaluating the influence of the initial algal concentration and recycle ratio revealed that, under conditions typical for algal harvesting, we found that it is possible that the number of bubbles is insufficient. A DAF algal harvesting model was developed to explain this observation by introducing mass-based floc size distributions and a bubble limitation into the white water blanket model. Moreover, the model revealed the importance of coagulation to increase floc-bubble collision and attachment, and the preferential interaction of bubbles with larger flocs, which limited the availability of bubbles to the smaller sized flocs. The harvesting efficiencies predicted by the model agree reasonably with experimental data obtained at different Al3+ dosages, algal concentrations, and recycle ratios. Based on this modeling, critical parameters for efficient algal harvesting were identified.

  14. Polar lipids from oat kernels

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Oat (Avena sativa L.) kernels appear to contain much higher polar lipid concentrations than other plant tissues. We have extracted, identified, and quantified polar lipids from 18 oat genotypes grown in replicated plots in three environments in order to determine genotypic or environmental variation...

  15. A Teaching Laboratory for Comprehensive Lipid Characterization from Food Samples

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bendinskas, Kestutis; Weber, Benjamin; Nsouli, Tamara; Nguyen, Hoangvy V.; Joyce, Carolyn; Niri, Vadoud; Jaskolla, Thorsten W.

    2014-01-01

    Traditional and state-of-the-art techniques were combined to probe for various lipid classes from egg yolk and avocado qualitatively and quantitatively. A total lipid extract was isolated using liquid-liquid extraction. An aliquot of the total lipid extract was subjected to transesterification to form volatile fatty acid methyl esters suitable for…

  16. Dissolved inorganic carbon enhanced growth, nutrient uptake, and lipid accumulation in wastewater grown microalgal biofilms.

    PubMed

    Kesaano, Maureen; Gardner, Robert D; Moll, Karen; Lauchnor, Ellen; Gerlach, Robin; Peyton, Brent M; Sims, Ronald C

    2015-03-01

    Microalgal biofilms grown to evaluate potential nutrient removal options for wastewaters and feedstock for biofuels production were studied to determine the influence of bicarbonate amendment on their growth, nutrient uptake capacity, and lipid accumulation after nitrogen starvation. No significant differences in growth rates, nutrient removal, or lipid accumulation were observed in the algal biofilms with or without bicarbonate amendment. The biofilms possibly did not experience carbon-limited conditions because of the large reservoir of dissolved inorganic carbon in the medium. However, an increase in photosynthetic rates was observed in algal biofilms amended with bicarbonate. The influence of bicarbonate on photosynthetic and respiration rates was especially noticeable in biofilms that experienced nitrogen stress. Medium nitrogen depletion was not a suitable stimulant for lipid production in the algal biofilms and as such, focus should be directed toward optimizing growth and biomass productivities to compensate for the low lipid yields and increase nutrient uptake. PMID:25585252

  17. Dissolved organic matter reduces algal accumulation of methylmercury

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Luengen, Allison C.; Fisher, Nicholas S.; Bergamaschi, Brian A.

    2012-01-01

    Dissolved organic matter (DOM) significantly decreased accumulation of methylmercury (MeHg) by the diatom Cyclotella meneghiniana in laboratory experiments. Live diatom cells accumulated two to four times more MeHg than dead cells, indicating that accumulation may be partially an energy-requiring process. Methylmercury enrichment in diatoms relative to ambient water was measured by a volume concentration factor (VCF). Without added DOM, the maximum VCF was 32 x 104, and the average VCF (from 10 to 72 h) over all experiments was 12.6 x 104. At very low (1.5 mg/L) added DOM, VCFs dropped by approximately half. At very high (20 mg/L) added DOM, VCFs dropped 10-fold. Presumably, MeHg was bound to a variety of reduced sulfur sites on the DOM, making it unavailable for uptake. Diatoms accumulated significantly more MeHg when exposed to transphilic DOM extracts than hydrophobic ones. However, algal lysate, a labile type of DOM created by resuspending a marine diatom in freshwater, behaved similarly to a refractory DOM isolate from San Francisco Bay. Addition of 67 μM L-cysteine resulted in the largest drop in VCFs, to 0.28 x 104. Although the DOM composition influenced the availability of MeHg to some extent, total DOM concentration was the most important factor in determining algal bioaccumulation of MeHg.

  18. A study of algal biomass potential in selected Canadian regions.

    SciTech Connect

    Passell, Howard David; Roach, Jesse Dillon; Klise, Geoffrey T.

    2011-11-01

    A dynamic assessment model has been developed for evaluating the potential algal biomass and extracted biocrude productivity and costs, using nutrient and water resources available from waste streams in four regions of Canada (western British Columbia, Alberta oil fields, southern Ontario, and Nova Scotia). The purpose of this model is to help identify optimal locations in Canada for algae cultivation and biofuel production. The model uses spatially referenced data across the four regions for nitrogen and phosphorous loads in municipal wastewaters, and CO{sub 2} in exhaust streams from a variety of large industrial sources. Other data inputs include land cover, and solar insolation. Model users can develop estimates of resource potential by manipulating model assumptions in a graphic user interface, and updated results are viewed in real time. Resource potential by location can be viewed in terms of biomass production potential, potential CO{sub 2} fixed, biocrude production potential, and area required. The cost of producing algal biomass can be estimated using an approximation of the distance to move CO{sub 2} and water to the desired land parcel and an estimation of capital and operating costs for a theoretical open pond facility. Preliminary results suggest that in most cases, the CO{sub 2} resource is plentiful compared to other necessary nutrients (especially nitrogen), and that siting and prospects for successful large-scale algae cultivation efforts in Canada will be driven by availability of those other nutrients and the efficiency with which they can be used and re-used. Cost curves based on optimal possible siting of an open pond system are shown. The cost of energy for maintaining optimal growth temperatures is not considered in this effort, and additional research in this area, which has not been well studied at these latitudes, will be important in refining the costs of algal biomass production. The model will be used by NRC-IMB Canada to identify

  19. Slugs' last meals: molecular identification of sequestered chloroplasts from different algal origins in Sacoglossa (Opisthobranchia, Gastropoda).

    PubMed

    Händeler, Katharina; Wägele, Heike; Wahrmund, Ute; Rüdinger, Mareike; Knoop, Volker

    2010-11-01

    Some sacoglossan sea slugs have become famous for their unique capability to extract and incorporate functional chloroplasts from algal food organisms (mainly Ulvophyceae) into their gut cells. The functional incorporation of the so-called kleptoplasts allows the slugs to rely on photosynthetic products for weeks to months, enabling them to survive long periods of food shortage over most of their life-span. The algal food spectrum providing kleptoplasts as temporary, non-inherited endosymbionts appears to vary among sacoglossan slugs, but detailed knowledge is sketchy or unavailable. Accurate identification of algal donor species, which provide the chloroplasts for long-term retention is of primary importance to elucidate the biochemical mechanisms allowing long-term functionality of the captured chloroplast in the foreign animal cell environment. Whereas some sacoglossans forage on a variety of algal species, (e.g. Elysia crispata and E. viridis) others are more selective. Hence, characterizing the range of functional sacoglossan-chloroplast associations in nature is a prerequisite to understand the basis of this enigmatic endosymbiosis. Here, we present a suitable chloroplast gene (tufA) as a marker, which allows identification of the respective algal kleptoplast donor taxa by analysing DNA from whole animals. This novel approach allows identification of donor algae on genus or even species level, thus providing evidence for the taxonomic range of food organisms. We report molecular evidence that chloroplasts from different algal sources are simultaneously incorporated in some species of Elysia. NeigborNet analyses for species assignments are preferred over tree reconstruction methods because the former allow more reliable statements on species identification via barcoding, or rather visualize alternative allocations not to be seen in the latter. PMID:21565106

  20. Characterisation of algal organic matter produced by bloom-forming marine and freshwater algae.

    PubMed

    Villacorte, L O; Ekowati, Y; Neu, T R; Kleijn, J M; Winters, H; Amy, G; Schippers, J C; Kennedy, M D

    2015-04-15

    Algal blooms can seriously affect the operation of water treatment processes including low pressure (micro- and ultra-filtration) and high pressure (nanofiltration and reverse osmosis) membranes mainly due to accumulation of algal-derived organic matter (AOM). In this study, the different components of AOM extracted from three common species of bloom-forming algae (Alexandrium tamarense, Chaetoceros affinis and Microcystis sp.) were characterised employing various analytical techniques, such as liquid chromatography - organic carbon detection, fluorescence spectroscopy, fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, alcian blue staining and lectin staining coupled with laser scanning microscopy to indentify its composition and force measurement using atomic force microscopy to measure its stickiness. Batch culture monitoring of the three algal species illustrated varying characteristics in terms of growth pattern, cell concentration and AOM release. The AOM produced by the three algal species comprised mainly biopolymers (e.g., polysaccharides and proteins) but some refractory compounds (e.g., humic-like substances) and other low molecular weight acid and neutral compounds were also found. Biopolymers containing fucose and sulphated functional groups were found in all AOM samples while the presence of other functional groups varied between different species. A large majority (>80%) of the acidic polysaccharide components (in terms of transparent exopolymer particles) were found in the colloidal size range (<0.4 μm). The relative stickiness of AOM substantially varied between algal species and that the cohesion between AOM-coated surfaces was much stronger than the adhesion of AOM on AOM-free surfaces. Overall, the composition as well as the physico-chemical characteristics (e.g., stickiness) of AOM will likely dictate the severity of fouling in membrane systems during algal blooms. PMID:25682049

  1. Analysis of Phenolic and Flavonoid Contents, and the Anti-Oxidative Potential and Lipid Peroxidation Inhibitory Activity of Methanolic Extract of Carissa opaca Roots and Its Fractions in Different Solvents

    PubMed Central

    Ahmed, Dildar; Fatima, Khaizran; Saeed, Ramsha

    2014-01-01

    The objective of the present work was to investigate the anti-oxidative potential of methanolic extract of Carissa opaca roots and its fractions in solvents of different polarities. Total phenolic (TPC) and flavonoid (TFC) contents of methanolic extract were 211.95 ± 0.78 μg/mL gallic acid equivalents (GAE) and 8.35 ± 0.21 μg/mL rutin equivalents (RE), respectively. Ethyl acetate contained the highest amounts of both (TFC, 11.8 ± 0.28 RE; TPC, 342.80 ± 0.42 GAE) followed by chloroform fraction (TFC, 7.50 ± 0.14 RE; TPC, 275.85 ± 0.50 GAE). Extract and fractions displayed remarkable DPPH radical scavenging activity. EC50 values of methanolic extract was 0.88 mg/mL, while that of hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate, n-butanolic and aqueous fractions were 0.58, 0.38, 0.29, 0.36 and 5.83 mg/mL, respectively, ethyl acetate fraction being most potent. The ethyl acetate fraction also showed the highest activity in terms of reducing power, phosphomolybdate and ABTS assays. All the fractions showed fairly good lipid peroxidation inhibitory activity, which remained almost constant over three days. Based on the results it can be concluded that roots of Carissa opaca contains phytochemicals with exploitable antioxidant, free radical scavenging, and lipid peroxidation inhibitory potential. PMID:26785233

  2. Evaluation of the Effects of Vaccinium arctostaphylos L. Fruit Extract on Serum Lipids and hs-CRP Levels and Oxidative Stress in Adult Patients with Hyperlipidemia: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Clinical Trial.

    PubMed

    Soltani, Rasool; Hakimi, Mustafa; Asgary, Sedigheh; Ghanadian, Syed Mustafa; Keshvari, Mahtab; Sarrafzadegan, Nizal

    2014-01-01

    Background. Dyslipidemia produces atherosclerosis, which in turn results in coronary artery disease (CAD). Atherosclerosis is being considered as an inflammatory disease. Vaccinium arctostaphylos L. is a plant with fruits rich in anthocyanins. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of fruit extract of this plant on serum levels of lipids, hs-CRP, and malondialdehyde (MDA) as a marker of oxidative stress, in hyperlipidemic adult patients. Methods. In this randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial, 50 hyperlipidemic adult patients were randomly and equally assigned to receive either medicinal (V. arctostaphylos fruit extract) or placebo capsules twice daily for 4 weeks. Each medicinal capsule contained 45 ± 2 mg of anthocyanins. Fasting serum levels of total cholesterol, TG, LDL-C, HDL-C, hs-CRP, and MDA were obtained before and after the intervention and compared. Results. V. arctostaphylos fruit extract significantly reduced total cholesterol (P < 0.001), LDL-C (P = 0.004), TG (P < 0.001), and MDA (P = 0.013) compared to placebo but did not have any significant effect on HDL-C (P = 0.631) and hs-CRP (P = 0.190). Conclusion. Fruit extract of Vaccinium arctostaphylos has beneficial effects on serum lipid profile and oxidative stress in hyperlipidemic adult patients. Therefore, it could be considered as a supplement for treatment of dyslipidemia and prevention of atherosclerosis development. PMID:24587807

  3. 40 CFR 797.1050 - Algal acute toxicity test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...) Algistatic means having the property of inhibiting algal growth. (3) ECx means the experimentally derived chemical concentration that is calculated to effect X percent of the test criterion. (4) Growth means a relative measure of the viability of an algal population based on the number and/or weight of algal...

  4. 40 CFR 797.1050 - Algal acute toxicity test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...) Algistatic means having the property of inhibiting algal growth. (3) ECx means the experimentally derived chemical concentration that is calculated to effect X percent of the test criterion. (4) Growth means a relative measure of the viability of an algal population based on the number and/or weight of algal...

  5. 40 CFR 797.1050 - Algal acute toxicity test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...) Algistatic means having the property of inhibiting algal growth. (3) ECx means the experimentally derived chemical concentration that is calculated to effect X percent of the test criterion. (4) Growth means a relative measure of the viability of an algal population based on the number and/or weight of algal...

  6. AL HARMFUL ALGAL BLOOM (HAB) INFORMATION EXCHANGE

    EPA Science Inventory

    This project proposes to implement an integrated web site that will serve as an Alabama Harmful Algal Bloom (HAB) Information Exchange Network. This network will be a stand-alone site where HAB data from all agencies and research efforts in the State of Alabama will be integrate...

  7. Using hyperspectral imagery to monitor algal persence

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, J.M.; Monk, J.; Yan, Gu; Brignal, W.

    1997-08-01

    This paper illustrates how an inexpensive and easily deployable imaging spectrometer can be used to monitor and identify algal blooms at short notice, thus making practical the addition of airborne data to the usual in-situ measurements. Two examples are described, one in the Irish Sea and the other in a reservoir system in the London area.

  8. Algal-based, single-step treatment of urban wastewaters.

    PubMed

    Henkanatte-Gedera, S M; Selvaratnam, T; Caskan, N; Nirmalakhandan, N; Van Voorhies, W; Lammers, Peter J

    2015-08-01

    Currently, urban wastewaters (UWW) laden with organic carbon (BOD) and nutrients (ammoniacal nitrogen, N, and phosphates, P) are treated in multi-stage, energy-intensive process trains to meet the mandated discharge standards. This study presents a single-step process based on mixotrophic metabolism for simultaneous removal of carbon and nutrients from UWWs. The proposed system is designed specifically for hot, arid environments utilizing an acidophilic, thermotolerant algal species, Galdieria sulphuraria, and an enclosed photobioreactor to limit evaporation. Removal rates of BOD, N, and P recorded in this study (14.93, 7.23, and 1.38 mg L(-1) d(-1), respectively) are comparable to literature reports. These results confirm that the mixotrophic system can reduce the energy costs associated with oxygen supply in current UWW treatment systems, and has the potential to generate more energy-rich biomass for net energy extraction from UWW. PMID:25898089

  9. Profiling of ornithine lipids in bacterial extracts of Rhodobacter sphaeroides by reversed-phase liquid chromatography with electrospray ionization and multistage mass spectrometry (RPLC-ESI-MS(n)).

    PubMed

    Granafei, Sara; Losito, Ilario; Trotta, Massimo; Italiano, Francesca; de Leo, Vincenzo; Agostiano, Angela; Palmisano, Francesco; Cataldi, Tommaso R I

    2016-01-15

    Ornithine lipids (OLs), a sub-group of the large (and of emerging interest) family of lipoamino acids of bacterial origin, contain a 3-hydroxy fatty acyl chain linked via an amide bond to the α-amino group of ornithine and via an ester bond to a second fatty acyl chain. OLs in extracts of Rhodobacter sphaeroides (R. sphaeroides) were investigated by high-performance reversed phase liquid chromatography (RPLC) with electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) in negative ion mode using a linear ion trap (LIT). The presence of OLs bearing both saturated (i.e, 16:0, 17:0, 18:0, 19:0 and 20:0) and unsaturated chains (i.e., 18:1, 19:1, 19:2 and 20:1) was ascertained and their identification, even for isomeric, low abundance and partially co-eluting species, was achieved by low-energy collision induced dissociation (CID) multistage mass spectrometry (MS(n), n = 2-4). OLs signatures found in two R. sphaeroides strains, i.e., wild type 2.4.1 and mutant R26, were examined and up to 16 and 17 different OL species were successfully identified, respectively. OLs in both bacterial strains were characterized by several combinations of fatty chains on ester-linked and amide-linked 3-OH fatty acids. Multistage MS spectra of monoenoic amide-linked 3-OH acyl chains, allowed the identification of positional isomer of OL containing 18:1 (i.e. 9-octadecenoic) and 20:1 (i.e. 11-eicosenoic) fatty acids. The most abundant OL ([M-H](-) at m/z 717.5) in R. sphaeroides R26 was identified as OL 3-OH 20:1/19:1 (i.e., 3-OH-eicosenoic acid amide-linked to ornithine and esterified to a nonadecenoic chain containing a cyclopropane ring). An unusual OL (m/z 689.5 for the [M-H](-) ion), most likely containing a cyclopropene ester-linked acyl chain (i.e., OL 3-OH 18:0/19:2), was retrieved only in the carotenoidless mutant strain R26. Based on the biosynthetic pathways already known for cyclopropa(e)ne ring-including acyl chains, a plausible explanation was invoked for the enzymatic

  10. Algal toxins alter copepod feeding behavior.

    PubMed

    Hong, Jiarong; Talapatra, Siddharth; Katz, Joseph; Tester, Patricia A; Waggett, Rebecca J; Place, Allen R

    2012-01-01

    Using digital holographic cinematography, we quantify and compare the feeding behavior of free-swimming copepods, Acartia tonsa, on nutritional prey (Storeatula major) to that occurring during exposure to toxic and non-toxic strains of Karenia brevis and Karlodinium veneficum. These two harmful algal species produce polyketide toxins with different modes of action and potency. We distinguish between two different beating modes of the copepod's feeding appendages-a "sampling beating" that has short durations (<100 ms) and involves little fluid entrainment and a longer duration "grazing beating" that persists up to 1200 ms and generates feeding currents. The durations of both beating modes have log-normal distributions. Without prey, A. tonsa only samples the environment at low frequency. Upon introduction of non-toxic food, it increases its sampling time moderately and the grazing period substantially. On mono algal diets for either of the toxic dinoflagellates, sampling time fraction is high but the grazing is very limited. A. tonsa demonstrates aversion to both toxic algal species. In mixtures of S. major and the neurotoxin producing K. brevis, sampling and grazing diminish rapidly, presumably due to neurological effects of consuming brevetoxins while trying to feed on S. major. In contrast, on mixtures of cytotoxin producing K. veneficum, both behavioral modes persist, indicating that intake of karlotoxins does not immediately inhibit the copepod's grazing behavior. These findings add critical insight into how these algal toxins may influence the copepod's feeding behavior, and suggest how some harmful algal species may alter top-down control exerted by grazers like copepods. PMID:22629336

  11. Composition and quantitation of microalgal lipids by ERETIC ¹H NMR method.

    PubMed

    Nuzzo, Genoveffa; Gallo, Carmela; d'Ippolito, Giuliana; Cutignano, Adele; Sardo, Angela; Fontana, Angelo

    2013-10-01

    Accurate characterization of biomass constituents is a crucial aspect of research in the biotechnological application of natural products. Here we report an efficient, fast and reproducible method for the identification and quantitation of fatty acids and complex lipids (triacylglycerols, glycolipids, phospholipids) in microalgae under investigation for the development of functional health products (probiotics, food ingredients, drugs, etc.) or third generation biofuels. The procedure consists of extraction of the biological matrix by modified Folch method and direct analysis of the resulting material by proton nuclear magnetic resonance (¹H NMR). The protocol uses a reference electronic signal as external standard (ERETIC method) and allows assessment of total lipid content, saturation degree and class distribution in both high throughput screening of algal collection and metabolic analysis during genetic or culturing studies. As proof of concept, the methodology was applied to the analysis of three microalgal species (Thalassiosira weissflogii, Cyclotella cryptica and Nannochloropsis salina) which drastically differ for the qualitative and quantitative composition of their fatty acid-based lipids. PMID:24084790

  12. The SwissLipids knowledgebase for lipid biology

    PubMed Central

    Liechti, Robin; Hyka-Nouspikel, Nevila; Niknejad, Anne; Gleizes, Anne; Götz, Lou; Kuznetsov, Dmitry; David, Fabrice P.A.; van der Goot, F. Gisou; Riezman, Howard; Bougueleret, Lydie; Xenarios, Ioannis; Bridge, Alan

    2015-01-01

    Motivation: Lipids are a large and diverse group of biological molecules with roles in membrane formation, energy storage and signaling. Cellular lipidomes may contain tens of thousands of structures, a staggering degree of complexity whose significance is not yet fully understood. High-throughput mass spectrometry-based platforms provide a means to study this complexity, but the interpretation of lipidomic data and its integration with prior knowledge of lipid biology suffers from a lack of appropriate tools to manage the data and extract knowledge from it. Results: To facilitate the description and exploration of lipidomic data and its integration with prior biological knowledge, we have developed a knowledge resource for lipids and their biology—SwissLipids. SwissLipids provides curated knowledge of lipid structures and metabolism which is used to generate an in silico library of feasible lipid structures. These are arranged in a hierarchical classification that links mass spectrometry analytical outputs to all possible lipid structures, metabolic reactions and enzymes. SwissLipids provides a reference namespace for lipidomic data publication, data exploration and hypothesis generation. The current version of SwissLipids includes over 244 000 known and theoretically possible lipid structures, over 800 proteins, and curated links to published knowledge from over 620 peer-reviewed publications. We are continually updating the SwissLipids hierarchy with new lipid categories and new expert curated knowledge. Availability: SwissLipids is freely available at http://www.swisslipids.org/. Contact: alan.bridge@isb-sib.ch Supplementary information: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. PMID:25943471

  13. Cyanogenic Lipids

    PubMed Central

    Selmar, Dirk; Grocholewski, Sabine; Seigler, David S.

    1990-01-01

    Large amounts of cyanogenic lipids (esters of 1 cyano-2-methylprop-2-ene-1-ol with C:20 fatty acids) are stored in the seeds of Ungnadia speciosa. During seedling development, these lipids are completely consumed without liberation of free HCN to the atmosphere. At the same time, cyanogenic glycosides are synthesized, but the total amount is much lower (about 26%) than the quantity of cyanogenic lipids formerly present in the seeds. This large decrease in the total content of cyanogens (HCN-potential) demonstrates that at least 74% of cyanogenic lipids are converted to noncyanogenic compounds. Whether the newly synthesized cyanogenic glycosides are derived directly from cyanogenic lipids or produced by de novo synthesis is still unknown. Based on the utilization of cyanogenic lipids for the synthesis of noncyanogenic compounds, it is concluded that these cyanogens serve as storage for reduced nitrogen. The ecophysiological significance of cyanolipids based on multifunctional aspects is discussed. PMID:16667514

  14. Dual effects of a mixture of grape pomace (Campbell Early) and Omija fruit ethanol extracts on lipid metabolism and the antioxidant defense system in diet-induced obese mice

    PubMed Central

    Han, Hye Jin; Jung, Un Ju; Kim, Hye-Jin; Moon, Byoung Seok; Cho, Su-Jung; Park, Yong Bok; Lee, Dong Gun

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES We investigated the effects of a combination of grape pomace (Vitis labrusca, Campbell Early) and Omija fruit (Schizandra chinensis, Baillon) ethanol extracts on lipid metabolism and antioxidant defense system in diet-induced obese mice. MATERIALS/METHODS Forty male C57BL/6J mice were divided into four groups and fed high-fat diet (control group, CON) or high-fat diet added 0.5% grape pomace extract (GPE), 0.05% Omija fruit extract (OFE) or 0.5% GPE plus 0.05% OFE (GPE+OFE) for 12 weeks. RESULTS In contrast to the GPE- or OFE-supplemented groups, the GPE+OFE group showed significantly lower body weight and white adipose tissue weights than the CON group. Moreover, GPE+OFE supplementation significantly decreased plasma total cholesterol and increased the plasma HDL-cholesterol/total-cholesterol ratio (HTR) compared to the control diet. The hepatic triglyceride level was significantly lower in the GPE+OFE and GPE groups by increasing β-oxidation and decreasing lipogenic enzyme compared to the CON group. Furthermore, GPE+OFE supplementation significantly increased antioxidant enzyme activities with a simultaneous decrease in liver H2O2 content compared to the control diet. CONCLUSIONS Together our results suggest that supplementation with the GPE+OFE mixture may be more effective in improving adiposity, lipid metabolism and oxidative stress in high-fat diet-fed mice than those with GPE and OFE alone. PMID:26060533

  15. Pyrolysis Strategies for Effective Utilization of Lignocellulosic and Algal Biomass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maddi, Balakrishna

    Pyrolysis is a processing technique involving thermal degradation of biomass in the absence of oxygen. The bio-oils obtained following the condensation of the pyrolysis vapors form a convenient starting point for valorizing the major components of lignocellulosic as well as algal biomass feed stocks for the production of fuels and value-added chemicals. Pyrolysis can be implemented on whole biomass or on residues left behind following standard fractionation methods. Microalgae and oil seeds predominantly consist of protein, carbohydrate and triglycerides, whereas lignocellulose is composed of carbohydrates (cellulose and hemicellulose) and lignin. The differences in the major components of these two types of biomass will necessitate different pyrolysis strategies to derive the optimal benefits from the resulting bio-oils. In this thesis, novel pyrolysis strategies were developed that enable efficient utilization of the bio-oils (and/or their vapors) from lignocellulose, algae, as well as oil seed feed stocks. With lignocellulosic feed stocks, pyrolysis of whole biomass as well as the lignin residue left behind following well-established pretreatment and saccharification (i.e., depolymerization of cellulose and hemicellulose to their monomeric-sugars) of the biomass was studied with and without catalysts. Following this, pyrolysis of (lipid-deficient) algae and lignocellulosic feed stocks, under similar reactor conditions, was performed for comparison of product (bio-oil, gas and bio-char) yields and composition. In spite of major differences in component bio-polymers, feedstock properties relevant to thermo-chemical conversions, such as overall C, H and O-content, C/O and H/C molar ratio as well as calorific values, were found to be similar for algae and lignocellulosic material. Bio-oil yields from algae and some lignocellulosic materials were similar; however, algal bio-oils were compositionally different and contained several N-compounds (most likely from

  16. Selective pressurized liquid extraction of pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls and polybrominated diphenyl ethers in a whale earplug (earwax): a novel method for analyzing organic contaminants in lipid-rich matrices.

    PubMed

    Robinson, Eleanor M; Trumble, Stephen J; Subedi, Bikram; Sanders, Rebel; Usenko, Sascha

    2013-12-01

    Lipid-rich matrices are often sinks for lipophilic contaminants, such as pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs). Typically methods for contaminant extraction and cleanup for lipid-rich matrices require multiple cleanup steps; however, a selective pressurized liquid extraction (SPLE) technique requiring no additional cleanup has been developed for the simultaneous extraction and cleanup of whale earwax (cerumen; a lipid-rich matrix). Whale earwax accumulates in select whale species over their lifetime to form wax earplugs. Typically used as an aging technique in cetaceans, layers or laminae that comprise the earplug are thought to be associated with annual or semiannual migration and feeding patterns. Whale earplugs (earwax) represent a unique matrix capable of recording and archiving whales' lifetime contaminant profiles. This study reports the first analytical method developed for identifying and quantifying lipophilic persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in a whale earplug including organochlorine pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs). The analytical method was developed using SPLE to extract contaminants from ∼0.25 to 0.5g aliquots of each lamina of sectioned earplug. The SPLE was optimized for cleanup adsorbents (basic alumina, silica gel, and Florisil(®)), adsorbent to sample ratio, and adsorbent order. In the optimized SPLE method, the earwax homogenate was placed within the extraction cell on top of basic alumina (5g), silica gel (15g), and Florisil(®) (10g) and the target analytes were extracted from the homogenate using 1:1 (v/v) dichloromethane:hexane. POPs were analyzed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry with electron capture negative ionization and electron impact ionization. The average percent recoveries for the POPs were 91% (±6% relative standard deviation), while limits of detection and quantification ranged from 0.00057 to 0.96ngg(-1

  17. Association of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) with live algae and total lipids in rivers - A field-based approach

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fitzgerald, S.A.; Steuer, J.J.

    2006-01-01

    The association of PCBs and live algal cells in rivers was studied at four locations during four seasons in two Wisconsin rivers. Positive relations between particle-associated PCBs and both chlorophyll-a and algal carbon concentrations indicated that live algal cells were a significant sorption phase for dissolved PCBs. Large Pennate diatoms (Navicula, Synedra, Pinnularia, Diatoma, and Cocconeis), or more rarely, Euglenoids (Trachelomonas sp.), dominated most sample assemblages on an algal carbon basis. These assemblages made up the highest percentage of total SOC during spring (average=50%) and lowest during summer (average=15%). At the three impounded sites, most individual PCB congeners were relatively enriched in samples characterized by: (1) high concentrations of algal carbon (as a percent of SOC), (2) algal assemblages dominated (or co-dominated) by Euglenoids, and (3) high concentrations of total lipids. Despite relatively higher masses of sorbed PCBs in the most lipid-rich samples, there was no robust correlation between total lipid content and particle-associated PCBs when aggregating all samples from the study. A possible explanation is that PCBs are associated with other structural components in live algae and (or) departure from chemical equilibrium in the river due to algal growth kinetics. A kinetic uptake model was used to calculate the mass of PCBs associated with the total organic carbon content of live algae. Based on this model, PCBs were enriched in algal cells during bloom seasons (spring and fall) compared to non-bloom seasons (summer and winter). Further, although individual PCB congener partition coefficients (log) to live algal cells (range=5.3-6.4) overlapped to those for detritus (range=3.6-7.4), PCBs tended to be enriched in detrital carbon pools during non-bloom conditions. The larger range of estimated PCB partition coefficients for detritus likely reflects the more heterogeneous nature of this material compared to live algal cells.

  18. Co-cultivation of fungal and microalgal cells as an efficient system for harvesting microalgal cells, lipid production and wastewater treatment.

    PubMed

    Wrede, Digby; Taha, Mohamed; Miranda, Ana F; Kadali, Krishna; Stevenson, Trevor; Ball, Andrew S; Mouradov, Aidyn

    2014-01-01

    The challenges which the large scale microalgal industry is facing are associated with the high cost of key operations such as harvesting, nutrient supply and oil extraction. The high-energy input for harvesting makes current commercial microalgal biodiesel production economically unfeasible and can account for up to 50% of the total cost of biofuel product