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Sample records for algal oil supplementation

  1. Use of algae or algal oil rich in n-3 fatty acids as a feed supplement for dairy cattle.

    PubMed

    Stamey, J A; Shepherd, D M; de Veth, M J; Corl, B A

    2012-09-01

    Fish oil is used as a ration additive to provide n-3 fatty acids to dairy cows. Fish do not synthesize n-3 fatty acids; they must consume microscopic algae or other algae-consuming fish. New technology allows for the production of algal biomass for use as a ration supplement for dairy cattle. Lipid encapsulation of the algal biomass protects n-3 fatty acids from biohydrogenation in the rumen and allows them to be available for absorption and utilization in the small intestine. Our objective was to examine the use of algal products as a source for n-3 fatty acids in milk. Four mid-lactation Holsteins were assigned to a 4×4 Latin square design. Their rations were supplemented with 1× or 0.5× rumen-protected (RP) algal biomass supplement, 1× RP algal oil supplement, or no supplement for 7 d. Supplements were lipid encapsulated (Balchem Corp., New Hampton, NY). The 1× supplements provided 29 g/d of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), and 0.5× provided half of this amount. Treatments were analyzed by orthogonal contrasts. Supplementing dairy rations with rumen-protected algal products did not affect feed intake, milk yield, or milk component yield. Short- and medium-chain fatty acid yields in milk were not influenced by supplements. Both 0.5× and 1× RP algae supplements increased daily milk fat yield of DHA (0.5 and 0.6±0.10 g/d, respectively) compared with 1× RP oil (0.3±0.10 g/d), but all supplements resulted in milk fat yields greater than that of the control (0.1±0.10g/d). Yield of trans-18:1 fatty acids in milk fat was also increased by supplementation. Trans-11 18:1 yield (13, 20, 27, and 15±3.0 g/d for control, 0.5× RP algae, 1× RP algae, and 1× RP oil, respectively) was greater for supplements than for control. Concentration of DHA in the plasma lipid fraction on d 7 showed that the DHA concentration was greatest in plasma phospholipid. Rumen-protected algal biomass provided better DHA yield than algal oil. Feeding lipid-encapsulated algae supplements

  2. Redox Status and Neuro Inflammation Indexes in Cerebellum and Motor Cortex of Wistar Rats Supplemented with Natural Sources of Omega-3 Fatty Acids and Astaxanthin: Fish Oil, Krill Oil, and Algal Biomass.

    PubMed

    Polotow, Tatiana G; Poppe, Sandra C; Vardaris, Cristina V; Ganini, Douglas; Guariroba, Maísa; Mattei, Rita; Hatanaka, Elaine; Martins, Maria F; Bondan, Eduardo F; Barros, Marcelo P

    2015-10-01

    Health authorities worldwide have consistently recommended the regular consumption of marine fishes and seafood to preserve memory, sustain cognitive functions, and prevent neurodegenerative processes in humans. Shrimp, crabs, lobster, and salmon are of particular interest in the human diet due to their substantial provision of omega-3 fatty acids (n-3/PUFAs) and the antioxidant carotenoid astaxanthin (ASTA). However, the optimal ratio between these nutraceuticals in natural sources is apparently the key factor for maximum protection against most neuro-motor disorders. Therefore, we aimed here to investigate the effects of a long-term supplementation with (n-3)/PUFAs-rich fish oil, ASTA-rich algal biomass, the combination of them, or krill oil (a natural combination of both nutrients) on baseline redox balance and neuro-inflammation indexes in cerebellum and motor cortex of Wistar rats. Significant changes in redox metabolism were only observed upon ASTA supplementation, which reinforce its antioxidant properties with a putative mitochondrial-centered action in rat brain. Krill oil imposed mild astrocyte activation in motor cortex of Wistar rats, although no redox or inflammatory index was concomitantly altered. In summary, there is no experimental evidence that krill oil, fish oil, oralgal biomass (minor variation), drastically change the baseline oxidative conditions or the neuro-inflammatory scenario in neuromotor-associated rat brain regions. PMID:26426026

  3. Redox Status and Neuro Inflammation Indexes in Cerebellum and Motor Cortex of Wistar Rats Supplemented with Natural Sources of Omega-3 Fatty Acids and Astaxanthin: Fish Oil, Krill Oil, and Algal Biomass

    PubMed Central

    Polotow, Tatiana G.; Poppe, Sandra C.; Vardaris, Cristina V.; Ganini, Douglas; Guariroba, Maísa; Mattei, Rita; Hatanaka, Elaine; Martins, Maria F.; Bondan, Eduardo F.; Barros, Marcelo P.

    2015-01-01

    Health authorities worldwide have consistently recommended the regular consumption of marine fishes and seafood to preserve memory, sustain cognitive functions, and prevent neurodegenerative processes in humans. Shrimp, crabs, lobster, and salmon are of particular interest in the human diet due to their substantial provision of omega-3 fatty acids (n-3/PUFAs) and the antioxidant carotenoid astaxanthin (ASTA). However, the optimal ratio between these nutraceuticals in natural sources is apparently the key factor for maximum protection against most neuro-motor disorders. Therefore, we aimed here to investigate the effects of a long-term supplementation with (n-3)/PUFAs-rich fish oil, ASTA-rich algal biomass, the combination of them, or krill oil (a natural combination of both nutrients) on baseline redox balance and neuro-inflammation indexes in cerebellum and motor cortex of Wistar rats. Significant changes in redox metabolism were only observed upon ASTA supplementation, which reinforce its antioxidant properties with a putative mitochondrial-centered action in rat brain. Krill oil imposed mild astrocyte activation in motor cortex of Wistar rats, although no redox or inflammatory index was concomitantly altered. In summary, there is no experimental evidence that krill oil, fish oil, oralgal biomass (minor variation), drastically change the baseline oxidative conditions or the neuro-inflammatory scenario in neuromotor-associated rat brain regions. PMID:26426026

  4. Liquid transportation fuels from algal oils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Daichuan

    Liquid transportation fuels from renewable sources are becoming more prominent and important in modem society. Processing of hydrocarbon oils from algae has not been studied in detail in the past, so components which have been proposed for incorporation in algal oils via genetic engineering, such as cuparene, farnesene, phytol and squalene, have been subjected to processing via catalytic cracking in a pulse reactor at different temperatures. The cracking results showed that liquid products contained numerous high octane molecules which make it feasible for use in automobiles. Additionally, canola oil, chosen as an algal oil model compound, was studied as a feed for catalytic cracking in a fixed-bed reactor at atmospheric pressure over different types of zeolites. The results showed that MFI catalysts gave the highest yield of gasoline range products and lowest coke formation. Gallium loaded MFI zeolites increased the total aromatics yield for the canola oil cracking relative to the acid form of the zeolite. Finally, algal oils were cracked on several selected zeolites, and the results showed the same trend as canola oil cracking. MFI gave the highest gasoline yield (43.8 wt%) and lowest coke (4.7 wt%). The total aromatics yield from algae oil cracking is improved 7.8 wt% when MFI is loaded with gallium.

  5. Safety evaluation of DHA-rich Algal Oil from Schizochytrium sp.

    PubMed

    Fedorova-Dahms, I; Marone, P A; Bauter, M; Ryan, A S

    2011-12-01

    The safety of DHA-rich Algal Oil from Schizochytrium sp. containing 40-45 wt% DHA and up to 10 wt% EPA was evaluated by testing for gene mutations, clastogenicity and aneugenicity, and in a subchronic 90-day Sprague-Dawley rat dietary study with in utero exposure, followed by a 4-week recovery phase. The results of all genotoxicity tests were negative. In the 90-day study, DHA-rich Algal Oil was administered at dietary levels of 0.5, 1.5, and 5 wt% along with two control diets: a standard low-fat basal diet and a basal diet supplemented with 5 wt% of concentrated Fish Oil. There were no treatment-related effects of DHA-rich Algal Oil on clinical observations, body weight, food consumption, behavior, hematology, clinical chemistry, coagulation, or urinalysis. Increases in absolute and relative weights of the liver, kidney, spleen and adrenals (adrenals and spleen with histological correlates) were observed in both the Fish Oil- and the high-dose of DHA-rich Algal Oil-treated females and were not considered to be adverse. The no observed adverse effect level (NOAEL) for DHA-rich Algal Oil under the conditions of this study was 5 wt% in the diet, equivalent to an overall average DHA-rich Algal Oil intake of 4260 mg/kg bw/day for male and female rats. PMID:21914458

  6. Determination of the cyanobacterial toxin cylindrospermopsin in algal food supplements

    PubMed Central

    Liu, H.; Scott, P.M.

    2011-01-01

    For the analysis of blue–green algal food supplements for cylindrospermopsin (CYN), a C18 solid-phase extraction column and a polygraphitized carbon solid-phase extraction column in series was an effective procedure for the clean-up of extracts. Determination of CYN was by liquid chromatography with ultraviolet light detection. At extract spiking levels of CYN equivalent to 25–500 μg g−1, blue–green algal supplement recoveries were in the range 70–90%. CYN was not detected in ten samples of food supplements and one chocolate product, all containing blue–green algae. The limit of detection for the method was 16 μg g−1, and the limit of quantification was 52 μg g−1. PMID:21623503

  7. Evaluation of nutritive value and in vitro rumen fermentation gas accumulation of de-oiled algal residues

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Algae are widely recognized for their high oil content and for exponentially accumulating biomass with particular potential to provide single cell protein for human consumption or animal feed. It is believed that along with biodiesel from algae, the high protein de-oiled algal residue may become an alternative feed supplement option in the future. This study was conducted to investigate de-oiled algal residue obtained from the common Chlorella species, Thalassiosira weissflogii, Selenarstrum capricornutum, Scenedesmus sp., and Scenedesmus dimorphus for assessment as potential feed supplements for ruminants by comparing with soybean (Glycine max) meal and alfalfa (Medicago sativa) hay. Results With the exception of T. weissflogii, algal residue had higher concentrations of Cu, Zn, and Mn and lower concentration of Ca, Mg, and K than soybean meal and alfalfa hay. The algal residue CP (crude protein) concentrations ranged from 140 to 445 g/kg DM and varied among the de-oiled residues. In vitro rumen fermentation gas accumulation curves indicated that algal biomass degradation potential was less than that of soybean meal or alfalfa hay by up to 41.7%. The gas production curve, interpreted with a dual pool logistic model, confirmed that the fraction sizes for fast fermenting and slow fermenting of de-oiled algal residues were smaller than those in soybean meal and alfalfa hay, and the fermenting rate of the fractions was also low. Conclusions Inferior in vitro rumen gas accumulation from the five de-oiled algal residues suggests that these algal byproducts are less degradable in the rumen. PMID:25093078

  8. The effects of diets containing standard soybean oil, soybean oil enhanced with conjugated linoleic acids, menhaden fish oil, or an algal docosahexaenoic acid supplement on juvenile channel catfish performance, hematology

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Current commercial diets for Channel Catfish contain little or no marine fish oil to reduce diet cost and address environmental concerns. However, there is conflicting data on the effects of fish oil and other lipid sources in juvenile Channel Catfish, and some novel lipids have not been tested agai...

  9. The effects of diets containing standard soybean oil, soybean oil enhanced with conjugated linoleic acids, menhaden fish oil, or an algal docosahexaenoic acid supplement on channel catfish performance, body composition,...

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fish consumption is a common method of obtaining beneficial n-3 highly unsaturated fatty acids (HUFAs), but increased use of vegetable oils in fish diets to reduce dependence on fish oil dilutes these HUFAs. Conjugated linoleic acids (CLA) are also considered beneficial for human health. Therefore,...

  10. Will biodiesel derived from algal oils live up to its promise? A fuel property assessment

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Algae have been attracting considerable attention as a source of biodiesel recently. This attention is largely due to the claimed high production potential of algal oils while circumventing the food vs. fuel issue. However, the properties of biodiesel fuels derived from algal oils have been only spa...

  11. Guidance values for microcystins in water and cyanobacterial supplement products (blue-green algal supplements): a reasonable or misguided approach?

    SciTech Connect

    Dietrich, Daniel; Hoeger, Stefan . E-mail: stefan.hoeger@uni-konstanz.de

    2005-03-15

    This article reviews current scientific knowledge on the toxicity and carcinogenicity of microcystins and compares this to the guidance values proposed for microcystins in water by the World Health Organization, and for blue-green algal food supplements by the Oregon State Department of Health. The basis of the risk assessment underlying these guidance values is viewed as being critical due to overt deficiencies in the data used for its generation: (i) use of one microcystin congener only (microcystin-LR), while the other presently known nearly 80 congeners are largely disregarded, (ii) new knowledge regarding potential neuro and renal toxicity of microcystins in humans and (iii) the inadequacies of assessing realistic microcystin exposures in humans and especially in children via blue-green algal food supplements. In reiterating the state-of-the-art toxicology database on microcystins and in the light of new data on the high degree of toxin contamination of algal food supplements, this review clearly demonstrates the need for improved kinetic data of microcystins in humans and for discussion concerning uncertainty factors, which may result in a lowering of the present guidance values and an increased routine control of water bodies and food supplements for toxin contamination. Similar to the approach taken previously by authorities for dioxin or PCB risk assessment, the use of a toxin equivalent approach to the risk assessment of microcystins is proposed.

  12. Toxin content and cytotoxicity of algal dietary supplements

    SciTech Connect

    Heussner, A.H.; Mazija, L.; Fastner, J.; Dietrich, D.R.

    2012-12-01

    Blue-green algae (Spirulina sp., Aphanizomenon flos-aquae) and Chlorella sp. are commercially distributed as organic algae dietary supplements. Cyanobacterial dietary products in particular have raised serious concerns, as they appeared to be contaminated with toxins e.g. microcystins (MCs) and consumers repeatedly reported adverse health effects following consumption of these products. The aim of this study was to determine the toxin contamination and the in vitro cytotoxicity of algae dietary supplement products marketed in Germany. In thirteen products consisting of Aph. flos-aquae, Spirulina and Chlorella or mixtures thereof, MCs, nodularins, saxitoxins, anatoxin-a and cylindrospermopsin were analyzed. Five products tested in an earlier market study were re-analyzed for comparison. Product samples were extracted and analyzed for cytotoxicity in A549 cells as well as for toxin levels by (1) phosphatase inhibition assay (PPIA), (2) Adda-ELISA and (3) LC–MS/MS. In addition, all samples were analyzed by PCR for the presence of the mcyE gene, a part of the microcystin and nodularin synthetase gene cluster. Only Aph. flos-aquae products were tested positive for MCs as well as the presence of mcyE. The contamination levels of the MC-positive samples were ≤ 1 μg MC-LR equivalents g{sup −1} dw. None of the other toxins were found in any of the products. However, extracts from all products were cytotoxic. In light of the findings, the distribution and commercial sale of Aph. flos-aquae products, whether pure or mixed formulations, for human consumption appear highly questionable. -- Highlights: ► Marketed algae dietary supplements were analyzed for toxins. ► Methods: Phosphatase inhibition assay (PPIA), Adda-ELISA, LC-MS/MS. ► Aph. flos-aquae products all tested positive for microcystins. ► Products tested negative for nodularins, saxitoxins, anatoxin-a, cylindrospermopsin. ► Extracts from all products were cytotoxic.

  13. Toxicologic evaluation of DHA-rich algal oil: Genotoxicity, acute and subchronic toxicity in rats.

    PubMed

    Schmitt, D; Tran, N; Peach, J; Bauter, M; Marone, P

    2012-10-01

    DHA-rich algal oil ONC-T18, tested in a battery of in vitro and in vivo genotoxicity tests, did not show mutagenic or genotoxic potential. The acute oral LD50 in rats has been estimated to be greater than 5000 mg/kg of body weight. In a 90-day subchronic dietary study, administration of DHA-rich algal oil at concentrations of 0, 10,000, 25,000, and 50,000 ppm in the diet for 13 weeks did not produce any significant toxicologic manifestations. The algal oil test article was well tolerated as evidenced by the absence of major treatment-related changes in the general condition and appearance of the rats, neurobehavioral endpoints, growth, feed and water intake, ophthalmoscopic examinations, routine hematology and clinical chemistry parameters, urinalysis, or necropsy findings. The no observed adverse effect level (NOAEL) was the highest level fed of 50,000 ppm which is equivalent to 3,305 and 3,679 mg/kg bw/day, for male and female rats, respectively. The studies were conducted as part of an investigation to examine the safety of DHA-rich algal oil. The results confirm that it possesses a toxicity profile similar to other currently marketed algal oils and support the safety of DHA-rich algal oil for its proposed use in food. PMID:22898615

  14. Genetic and acute toxicological evaluation of an algal oil containing eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and palmitoleic acid.

    PubMed

    Collins, M L; Lynch, B; Barfield, W; Bull, A; Ryan, A S; Astwood, J D

    2014-10-01

    Algal strains of Nannochloropsis sp. were developed, optimized, cultivated and harvested to produce a unique composition of algal oil ethyl esters (Algal-EE) that are naturally high in eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, 23-30%) and palmitoleic acid (20-25%), and contain no docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). Algal-EE was evaluated for mutagenic activity (Ames bacterial reverse mutation, in vitro mammalian chromosome aberration, in vivo micronucleus test) and for acute oral toxicity in Sprague-Dawley rats. In the acute toxicity study, rats received a single oral gavaged dose of Algal-EE (2000 mg/kg body weight). Clinical observations were made for 14 days before sacrifice on Day 15. Macroscopic evaluation involved the examination of all organs in the cranial, thoracic, and abdominal cavities. Algal-EE showed no evidence of mutagenicity, did not produce an increase in the frequency of structural chromosome aberrations, and did not cause an increase in the induction of micronucleated polychromatic erythrocytes. There were no macroscopic abnormalities. Algal-EE up to 2000 mg/kg body weight did not affect body weight, organ appearance or produce any toxic-related signs of morbidity. The acute median lethal dose (LD50) of Algal-EE was >2000 mg/kg body weight. Based on these assays, Algal-EE does not appear to have any genetic or acute oral toxicity. PMID:25057807

  15. Recovery of algal oil from marine green macro-algae Enteromorpha intestinalis by acidic-hydrothermal process.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Gwi-Taek; Hong, Yong-Ki; Lee, Hyung-Ho; Kong, In-Soo; Kim, Joong Kyun; Park, Nam Gyu; Kim, Sung-Koo; Park, Don-Hee

    2014-09-01

    In this study, the recovery of algal oil from Enteromorpha intestinalis based on an acidic-hydrothermal reaction was investigated. Overall, the algal oil yield after the acidic-hydrothermal reaction was increased under the conditions of high reaction temperature, high catalyst concentration, and long reaction time within the tested ranges. Significantly, catalyst concentration, compared with reaction temperature and time, less affected algal oil recovery. The optimal acidic-hydrothermal reaction conditions for production of algal oil from E. intestinalis were as follows-200 °C reaction temperature, 2.92 % catalyst concentration, 54 min reaction time. Under these conditions, an 18.6 % algal oil yield was obtained. By increasing the combined severity factor, the algae oil recovery yield linearly increased. PMID:25055795

  16. A comparative study on the effect of algal and fish oil on viability and cell proliferation of Caco-2 cells.

    PubMed

    van Beelen, Vincent A; Roeleveld, Johannes; Mooibroek, Hans; Sijtsma, Lolke; Bino, Raoul J; Bosch, Dirk; Rietjens, Ivonne M C M; Alink, Gerrit M

    2007-05-01

    Polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) rich micro-algal oil was tested in vitro and compared with fish oil for antiproliferative properties on cancer cells in vitro. Oils derived from Crypthecodinium cohnii, Schizochytrium sp. and Nitzschia laevis, three commercial algal oil capsules, and menhaden fish oil were used in cell viability and proliferation tests with human colon adenocarcinoma Caco-2 cells. With these tests no difference was found between algal oil and fish oil. The nonhydrolysed algal oils and fish oil showed a much lower toxic effect on cell viability, and cell proliferation in Caco-2 cells than the hydrolysed oils and the free fatty acids (FFAs). Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA; C20:5n-3) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA; C22:6n-3) were used as samples for comparison with the tested hydrolysed and nonhydrolysed oils. The hydrolysed samples showed comparative toxicity as the free fatty acids and no difference between algal and fish oil. Oxidative stress was shown to play a role in the antiproliferative properties of EPA and DHA, as alpha-tocopherol could partially reverse the EPA/DHA-induced effects. The results of the present study support a similar mode of action of algal oil and fish oil on cancer cells in vitro, in spite of their different PUFA content. PMID:17141934

  17. Fish oil supplements, longevity and aging.

    PubMed

    de Magalhães, João Pedro; Müller, Michael; Rainger, G Ed; Steegenga, Wilma

    2016-08-01

    Fish oil supplementation is of great medical and public interest with epidemiological evidence of health benefits in humans, in particular by conferring protection against heart diseases. Its anti-inflammatory properties have also been reported. Initial results from short-lived mouse strains showed that fish oil can increase lifespan, affecting pathways like inflammation and oxidation thought to be involved in the regulation of aging. Could fish oil and its omega-3 fatty acids act as geroprotectors? Probably not. A new study by Strong et al. challenges the role for fish oil supplementation in aging. Using a large cohort of genetically heterogeneous mice in three sites, part of the Interventions Testing Program of the NIA, Strong et al. show that fish oil supplementation at either low or high dosages has no effect on the lifespan of male or female mice. Although it is still possible that fish oil supplementation has health benefits for specific age-related diseases, it does not appear to slow aging or have longevity benefits. PMID:27564420

  18. Omega-3 Fish Oil Supplements Might Boost Antidepressants' Effects

    MedlinePlus

    ... gov/medlineplus/news/fullstory_158505.html Omega-3 Fish Oil Supplements Might Boost Antidepressants' Effects Data from ... TUESDAY, April 26, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Omega-3 fish oil supplements may improve the effectiveness of antidepressants, ...

  19. Omega-3 Fish Oil Supplements Might Boost Antidepressants' Effects

    MedlinePlus

    ... gov/news/fullstory_158505.html Omega-3 Fish Oil Supplements Might Boost Antidepressants' Effects Data from 8 ... April 26, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Omega-3 fish oil supplements may improve the effectiveness of antidepressants, new ...

  20. Advances in direct transesterification of algal oils from wet biomass.

    PubMed

    Park, Ji-Yeon; Park, Min S; Lee, Young-Chul; Yang, Ji-Won

    2015-05-01

    An interest in biodiesel as an alternative fuel for diesel engines has been increasing because of the issue of petroleum depletion and environmental concerns related to massive carbon dioxide emissions. Researchers are strongly driven to pursue the next generation of vegetable oil-based biodiesel. Oleaginous microalgae are considered to be a promising alternative oil source. To commercialize microalgal biodiesel, cost reductions in oil extraction and downstream biodiesel conversion are stressed. Herein, starting from an investigation of oil extraction from wet microalgae, a review is conducted of transesterification using enzymes, homogeneous and heterogeneous catalysts, and yield enhancement by ultrasound, microwave, and supercritical process. In particular, there is a focus on direct transesterification as a simple and energy efficient process that omits a separate oil extraction step and utilizes wet microalgal biomass; however, it is still necessary to consider issues such as the purification of microalgal oils and upgrading of biodiesel properties. PMID:25466997

  1. Theoretical lessons for increasing algal biofuel: Evolution of oil accumulation to avert carbon starvation in microalgae.

    PubMed

    Akita, Tetsuya; Kamo, Masashi

    2015-09-01

    Microalgae-derived oil is considered as a feasible alternative to fossil-derived oil. To produce more algal biomass, both algal population size and oil accumulation in algae must be maximized. Most of the previous studies have concentrated on only one of these issues, and relatively little attention has been devoted to considering the tradeoff between them. In this paper, we first theoretically investigated evolutionary reasons for oil accumulation and then by coupling population and evolutionary dynamics, we searched for conditions that may provide better yields. Using our model, we assume that algae allocate assimilated carbon to growth, maintenance, and carbon accumulation as biofuel and that the amount of essential materials (carbon and nitrate) are strongly linked in fixed proportions. Such stoichiometrically explicit models showed that (i) algae with more oil show slower population growth; therefore, the use of such algae results in lower total yields of biofuel and (ii) oil accumulation in algae is caused by carbon and not nitrate starvation. The latter can be interpreted as a strategy for avoiding the risk of increased death rate by carbon starvation. Our model also showed that both strong carbon starvation and moderately limited nitrate will promote total biofuel production. Our results highlight considering the life-history traits for a higher total yields of biofuel, which leads to insight into both establishing a prolonged culture and collection of desired strains from a natural environment. PMID:26047852

  2. Production and properties of biodiesel from algal oils

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Biodiesel is an alternative to petroleum-based conventional diesel fuel (petrodiesel). A major issue facing biodiesel is sufficient supply of feedstock to replace significant amounts of petrodiesel. This issue has caused a search for sources of triacylglycerol-based oils with high production poten...

  3. Optimization and kinetic studies on algal oil extraction from marine macroalgae Ulva lactuca.

    PubMed

    Suganya, Tamilarasan; Renganathan, Sahadevan

    2012-03-01

    In this present investigation, kinetic studies on oil extraction were performed in marine macroalgae Ulva lactuca. The algal biomass was characterized by scanning electron microscopy and Fourier Transform-Infra Red Spectroscopy. Six different pre-treatment methods were carried out to evaluate the best method for maximum oil extraction. Optimization of extraction parameters were performed and high oil yield was obtained at 5% moisture content, 0.12 mm particle size, 500 rpm stirrer speed, 55°C temperature, 140 min time and solvent-to-solid ratio as 6:1 with 1% diethyl-ether and 10% methylene chloride in n-hexane solvent mixture. After optimization, 10.88% (g/g) of oil extraction yield was achieved from 30 g of algal biomass. The rate constant was obtained for the first order kinetic study by differential method. The activation energy (Ea) was calculated as 63.031 kJ/mol. From the results obtained in the investigation, U. lactuca biomass was proved to be a suitable source for the biodiesel production. PMID:22209436

  4. Effects of No. 2 Fuel Oil, Nigerian Crude Oil, and Used Crankcase Oil on Attached Algal Communities: Acute and Chronic Toxicity of Water-Soluble Constituents

    PubMed Central

    Bott, Thomas L.; Rogenmuser, Kurt

    1978-01-01

    Water extracts of a no. 2 fuel oil, a Nigerian crude oil, and used crankcase oil were examined for their effects on algal communities in experiments lasting several weeks conducted under near-natural conditions. No. 2 fuel oil extracts depressed algal biomass (chlorophyll a) and resulted in blue-green algal (cyanobacterial) dominance and decreased diatom occurrence. Changes in concentrations of chlorophyll c, which was specific for diatoms in this work, and phycocyanin, which was specific for blue-green algae, confirmed the observations. Used crankcase oil extracts also depressed biomass, but Nigerian crude extracts did not, and both these extracts had less effect on community composition than did no. 2 fuel oil extracts. Photosynthetic 14C incorporation was both stimulated and depressed by exposure to extracts with hydrocarbon concentrations 0.038 to 0.124 mg/liter. Short-term exposure to higher concentrations (1.17 to 15.30 mg of hydrocarbons per liter) of no. 2 fuel oil extracts depressed photosynthetic 14C incorporation by Vaucheria-dominated communities in all tests but one. Toxicity was greater from extracts prepared in the light than from extracts prepared in the dark. PMID:16345329

  5. Effects of no. 2 fuel oil, nigerian crude oil, and used crankcase oil on attached algal communities: acute and chronic toxicity of water-soluble constituents.

    PubMed

    Bott, T L; Rogenmuser, K

    1978-11-01

    Water extracts of a no. 2 fuel oil, a Nigerian crude oil, and used crankcase oil were examined for their effects on algal communities in experiments lasting several weeks conducted under near-natural conditions. No. 2 fuel oil extracts depressed algal biomass (chlorophyll a) and resulted in blue-green algal (cyanobacterial) dominance and decreased diatom occurrence. Changes in concentrations of chlorophyll c, which was specific for diatoms in this work, and phycocyanin, which was specific for blue-green algae, confirmed the observations. Used crankcase oil extracts also depressed biomass, but Nigerian crude extracts did not, and both these extracts had less effect on community composition than did no. 2 fuel oil extracts. Photosynthetic C incorporation was both stimulated and depressed by exposure to extracts with hydrocarbon concentrations 0.038 to 0.124 mg/liter. Short-term exposure to higher concentrations (1.17 to 15.30 mg of hydrocarbons per liter) of no. 2 fuel oil extracts depressed photosynthetic C incorporation by Vaucheria-dominated communities in all tests but one. Toxicity was greater from extracts prepared in the light than from extracts prepared in the dark. PMID:16345329

  6. Production and stability of structured lipids from algal oils and capric acid.

    PubMed

    Hamam, Fayez; Shahidi, Fereidoon

    2004-01-01

    This study aimed to incorporate capric acid (CA) into selected algal oils, namely arachidoinc acid single cell oil (ARASCO), docosahexaenoic acid single cell oil (DHASCO) and the OMEGA-GOLD oil rich in dcosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and dosapentaenoic acid (n-6 DPA). Response surface methodology indicated that under optimum conditions (12.3% enzyme, 45 degrees C, and 29.4 h) CA incorporation was 20.0% into ARASCO; (4.2% enzyme, 43.3 degrees C, and 27.1 h) 22.6% into DHASCO and (2.5% enzyme, 46.6 degrees C and 25.2 h) 20.7% into the OMEGA-GOLD oil. Stereospecific analysis indicated that in all oils examined CA was mainly located at the sn-1 and sn-3 positions of the resultant TAG molecules while the highly unsaturated fatty acids being primarily esterified to the sn-2 positions of the three oils. In all cases, enzymatically modified oils were more susceptible to oxidation than their unmodified counterparts. PMID:15630303

  7. Utilization of acetic acid-rich pyrolytic bio-oil by microalga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii: reducing bio-oil toxicity and enhancing algal toxicity tolerance.

    PubMed

    Liang, Yi; Zhao, Xuefei; Chi, Zhanyou; Rover, Marjorie; Johnston, Patrick; Brown, Robert; Jarboe, Laura; Wen, Zhiyou

    2013-04-01

    This work was to utilize acetic acid contained in bio-oil for growth and lipid production of the microalga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. The acetic acid-rich bio-oil fraction derived from fast pyrolysis of softwood contained 26% (w/w) acetic acid, formic acid, methanol, furfural, acetol, and phenolics as identified compounds, and 13% (w/w) unidentified compounds. Among those identified compounds, phenolics were most inhibitory to algal growth, followed by furfural and acetol. To enhance the fermentability of the bio-oil fraction, activated carbon was used to reduce the toxicity of the bio-oil, while metabolic evolution was used to enhance the toxicity tolerance of the microalgae. Combining activated carbon treatment and using evolved algal strain resulted in significant algal growth improvement. The results collectively showed that fast pyrolysis-fermentation process was a viable approach for converting biomass into fuels and chemicals. PMID:23455221

  8. Life Cycle Analysis on Fossil Energy Ratio of Algal Biodiesel: Effects of Nitrogen Deficiency and Oil Extraction Technology

    PubMed Central

    Jian, Hou; Jing, Yang; Peidong, Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Life cycle assessment (LCA) has been widely used to analyze various pathways of biofuel preparation from “cradle to grave.” Effects of nitrogen supply for algae cultivation and technology of algal oil extraction on life cycle fossil energy ratio of biodiesel are assessed in this study. Life cycle fossil energy ratio of Chlorella vulgaris based biodiesel is improved by growing algae under nitrogen-limited conditions, while the life cycle fossil energy ratio of biodiesel production from Phaeodactylum tricornutum grown with nitrogen deprivation decreases. Compared to extraction of oil from dried algae, extraction of lipid from wet algae with subcritical cosolvents achieves a 43.83% improvement in fossil energy ratio of algal biodiesel when oilcake drying is not considered. The outcome for sensitivity analysis indicates that the algal oil conversion rate and energy content of algae are found to have the greatest effects on the LCA results of algal biodiesel production, followed by utilization ratio of algal residue, energy demand for algae drying, capacity of water mixing, and productivity of algae. PMID:26000338

  9. Life cycle analysis on fossil energy ratio of algal biodiesel: effects of nitrogen deficiency and oil extraction technology.

    PubMed

    Jian, Hou; Jing, Yang; Peidong, Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Life cycle assessment (LCA) has been widely used to analyze various pathways of biofuel preparation from "cradle to grave." Effects of nitrogen supply for algae cultivation and technology of algal oil extraction on life cycle fossil energy ratio of biodiesel are assessed in this study. Life cycle fossil energy ratio of Chlorella vulgaris based biodiesel is improved by growing algae under nitrogen-limited conditions, while the life cycle fossil energy ratio of biodiesel production from Phaeodactylum tricornutum grown with nitrogen deprivation decreases. Compared to extraction of oil from dried algae, extraction of lipid from wet algae with subcritical cosolvents achieves a 43.83% improvement in fossil energy ratio of algal biodiesel when oilcake drying is not considered. The outcome for sensitivity analysis indicates that the algal oil conversion rate and energy content of algae are found to have the greatest effects on the LCA results of algal biodiesel production, followed by utilization ratio of algal residue, energy demand for algae drying, capacity of water mixing, and productivity of algae. PMID:26000338

  10. Life cycle assessment of biodiesel production from algal bio-crude oils extracted under subcritical water conditions.

    PubMed

    Ponnusamy, Sundaravadivelnathan; Reddy, Harvind Kumar; Muppaneni, Tapaswy; Downes, Cara Meghan; Deng, Shuguang

    2014-10-01

    A life cycle assessment study is performed for the energy requirements and greenhouse gas emissions in an algal biodiesel production system. Subcritical water (SCW) extraction was applied for extracting bio-crude oil from algae, and conventional transesterification method was used for converting the algal oil to biodiesel. 58MJ of energy is required to produce 1kg of biodiesel without any co-products management, of which 36% was spent on cultivation and 56% on lipid extraction. SCW extraction with thermal energy recovery reduces the energy consumption by 3-5 folds when compared to the traditional solvent extraction. It is estimated that 1kg of algal biodiesel fixes about 0.6kg of CO2. An optimized case considering the energy credits from co-products could further reduce the total energy demand. The energy demand for producing 1kg of biodiesel in the optimized case is 28.23MJ. PMID:25164337

  11. Effect of postextraction algal residue supplementation on the ruminal microbiome of steers consuming low-quality forage.

    PubMed

    McCann, J C; Drewery, M L; Sawyer, J E; Pinchak, W E; Wickersham, T A

    2014-11-01

    Cattle consuming low-quality forages (LQF) require protein supplementation to increase forage utilization via ruminal fermentation. Biofuel production from algal biomass results in large quantities of postextraction algal residue (PEAR), which has the potential to elicit LQF utilization responses similar to cottonseed meal (CSM); however, its effect on ruminal bacterial communities is unknown. Five ruminally and duodenally cannulated Angus steers in a 5 × 5 Latin square had ad libitum access to oat straw diets. Treatments were infused ruminally and consisted of an unsupplemented control; PEAR at 50, 100, and 150 mg N/kg BW; and CSM at 100 mg N/kg BW. Ruminal samples were collected 4 h after supplementation on d 14 of each period and separated into solid and liquid fractions. Each sample was extracted for genomic DNA, PCR amplified for the V4 to V6 region of the 16S rRNA, sequenced on the 454 Roche pyrosequencing platform, and analyzed using the QIIME pipeline. Weighted UniFrac analysis and Morisita-Horn index demonstrated different community composition between liquid and solid fractions. Measures of richness including observed operational taxonomic units (OTU) and abundance coverage estimator metric decreased with greater PEAR provision (P ≤ 0.09). There were 42 core microbiome OTU observed in all solid fraction samples while the liquid fraction samples contained 30 core OTU. Bacteroidetes was the predominant phylum followed by Firmicutes in both fractions, which together characterized more than 90% of sequences. Relative abundance of Firmicutes increased with PEAR supplementation in the liquid fraction (linear, P = 0.02). Among Firmicutes, Lachnospiraceae, Ruminococcaceae, and Clostridiaceae families increased in the liquid fraction with greater PEAR supplementation (linear, P ≤ 0.03). Prevotella represented over 25% of sequences in all treatments, and relative abundance decreased in the solid fraction with increasing PEAR provision (linear, P = 0

  12. Toxicologic evaluations of DHA-rich algal oil in rats: developmental toxicity study and 3-month dietary toxicity study with an in utero exposure phase.

    PubMed

    Schmitt, D; Tran, N; Peach, J; Edwards, T; Greeley, M

    2012-11-01

    DHA-rich algal oil ONC-T18, tested for subchronic, reproductive, and developmental toxicity in the rat, did not produce any significant toxicologic manifestations. Based on the absence of maternal or developmental toxicity at any dosage level, a dosage level of 2000 mg/kg/day was considered to be the no observed adverse-effect level (NOAEL) for maternal toxicity and embryo/fetal development when DHA-rich algal oil was administered orally by gavage to pregnant Crl:CD(SD) rats during gestation days 6-19. In a dietary combined one-generation/90-day reproductive toxicity study in rats, the NOAEL for F0 male and female and F1 male systemic toxicity was considered to be 50,000 ppm (highest concentration administered) and 25,000 ppm for F1 female systemic toxicity (higher mean body weight, body weight gain, and food consumption). F0 reproductive performance values, estrous cycle length, gestation length, or the process of parturition, and the numbers of former implantation sites and unaccounted-for sites were unaffected by algal oil exposure. Postnatal survival and developmental parameters in the F1 generation were unaffected by algal oil exposure at all dietary concentrations. There were no neurotoxic effects noted at any algal oil exposure level. The results support the safety of DHA-rich algal oil for its proposed use in food. PMID:22960629

  13. Potential of spectroscopic techniques and chemometric analysis for rapid measurement of docosahexaenoic acid and eicosapentaenoic acid in algal oil.

    PubMed

    Wu, Di; He, Yong

    2014-09-01

    Developing rapid methods for measuring long-chain ω-3 (n-3) poly-unsaturated fatty acid (LCPUFA) contents has been a crucial request from the algal oil industry. In this study, four spectroscopy techniques, namely visible and short-wave near infra-red (Vis-SNIR), long-wave near infra-red (LNIR), mid-infra-red (MIR) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, were exploited for determining the docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) contents in algal oil. The best prediction for both DHA and EPA were achieved by NMR spectroscopy, in which the determination coefficients of cross-validation (rCV(2)) values were 0.963 and 0.967 for two LCPUFAs. The performances of Vis-SNIR and LNIR spectroscopy were also accepted. The variable selection was proved as an efficient and necessary step for the spectral analysis in this study. The results were promising and implied that spectroscopy techniques have a great potential for assessment of DHA and EPA in algal oil. PMID:24731319

  14. Enhancement of Anti-Dermatitis Potential of Clobetasol Propionate by DHA [Docosahexaenoic Acid] Rich Algal Oil Nanoemulsion Gel

    PubMed Central

    Sarfaraz Alam, Mohammad; Ali, Mohammad Sajid; Zakir, Foziyah; Alam, Nawazish; Intakhab Alam, Mohammad; Ahmad, Faruque; Siddiqui, Masoom Raza; Ali, Mohammad Daud; Ansari, Mohammad Salahuddin; Ahmad, Sarfaraz; Ali, Maksood

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the potential of nanoemulsion formulation for topical delivery of Clobetasol propionate (CP) using algal oil (containing omega-3 fatty acids) as the oil phase. CP has anti-inflammatory, immunomodulatory and antiproliferative activities. However, its clinical use is restricted to some extent due to its poor permeability across the skin. Algal oil was used as the oil phase and was also exploited for its anti-inflammatory effect along with CP in the treatment of inflammation associated with dermatitis. Nanoemulsion formulations were prepared by aqueous phase titration method, using algal oil, tween 20, PEG 200 and water as the oil phase, surfactant, co-surfactant and aqueous phase respectively. Furthermore, different formulations were subjected to evaluate for ex-vivo permeation and in-vivo anti-inflammatory, irritation and contact dermatitis studies. The optimized nanoemulsion was converted into hydrogel-thickened nanoemulsion system (HTN) using carbopol 971 and had a viscosity of 97.57 ± 0.04 PaS. The optimized formulation had small average diameter (120 nm) with zeta potential of -37.01 mV which indicated good long-term stability. In-vivo anti-inflammatory activity indicated 84.55% and 41.04% inhibition of inflammation for drug loaded and placebo formulations respectively. The assessment of skin permeation was done by DSC and histopathology studies which indicated changes in the structure of epidermal membrane of skin. Contact dermatitis reveals that the higher NTPDase activity in the treatment with the CP-loaded nanoemulsion could be related to the higher anti-inflammatory effect in comparison with placebo nanoemulsion gel. PMID:27610146

  15. Enhancement of Anti-Dermatitis Potential of Clobetasol Propionate by DHA [Docosahexaenoic Acid] Rich Algal Oil Nanoemulsion Gel.

    PubMed

    Sarfaraz Alam, Mohammad; Ali, Mohammad Sajid; Zakir, Foziyah; Alam, Nawazish; Intakhab Alam, Mohammad; Ahmad, Faruque; Siddiqui, Masoom Raza; Ali, Mohammad Daud; Ansari, Mohammad Salahuddin; Ahmad, Sarfaraz; Ali, Maksood

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the potential of nanoemulsion formulation for topical delivery of Clobetasol propionate (CP) using algal oil (containing omega-3 fatty acids) as the oil phase. CP has anti-inflammatory, immunomodulatory and antiproliferative activities. However, its clinical use is restricted to some extent due to its poor permeability across the skin. Algal oil was used as the oil phase and was also exploited for its anti-inflammatory effect along with CP in the treatment of inflammation associated with dermatitis. Nanoemulsion formulations were prepared by aqueous phase titration method, using algal oil, tween 20, PEG 200 and water as the oil phase, surfactant, co-surfactant and aqueous phase respectively. Furthermore, different formulations were subjected to evaluate for ex-vivo permeation and in-vivo anti-inflammatory, irritation and contact dermatitis studies. The optimized nanoemulsion was converted into hydrogel-thickened nanoemulsion system (HTN) using carbopol 971 and had a viscosity of 97.57 ± 0.04 PaS. The optimized formulation had small average diameter (120 nm) with zeta potential of -37.01 mV which indicated good long-term stability. In-vivo anti-inflammatory activity indicated 84.55% and 41.04% inhibition of inflammation for drug loaded and placebo formulations respectively. The assessment of skin permeation was done by DSC and histopathology studies which indicated changes in the structure of epidermal membrane of skin. Contact dermatitis reveals that the higher NTPDase activity in the treatment with the CP-loaded nanoemulsion could be related to the higher anti-inflammatory effect in comparison with placebo nanoemulsion gel. PMID:27610146

  16. Studies of methylhexaneamine in supplements and geranium oil.

    PubMed

    Lisi, A; Hasick, N; Kazlauskas, R; Goebel, C

    2011-01-01

    A number of supplements are now available which are sold as fat burners or pre-workout boosters and contain stimulants which are banned in sport. Many contain methylhexaneamine under one of many pseudonyms including Geranamine, geranium oil or extract, or a number of chemical names such as 1,3-dimethylpentylamine. This has resulted in many athletes returning an adverse finding and having sanctions imposed. Other stimulants such as caffeine, phenpromethamine, synefrine, and phenethylamines are also to be found in supplements. This communication shows that geranium oils do not contain methylhexaneamine and that products labelled as containing geranium oil but which contain methylhexaneamine can only arise from the addition of synthetic material. Since the usual dose of methylhexaneamine is large, the drug is excreted at relatively high amounts for more than 29 h, the time for which the excretion was studied. PMID:22147493

  17. Development and Validation of a Liquid Chromatography-Tandem Mass Spectrometry Method for the Quantitation of Microcystins in Blue-Green Algal Dietary Supplements.

    PubMed

    Parker, Christine H; Stutts, Whitney L; DeGrasse, Stacey L

    2015-12-01

    A liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method was developed for the simultaneous detection and quantitation of seven microcystin congeners (1-7) and nodularin-R (8) in blue-green algal dietary supplements. Single-laboratory method validation data were collected in four supplement matrices (capsule, liquid, powder, and tablet) fortified at toxin concentrations from 0.25-2.00 μg/g (ppm). Average recoveries and relative standard deviations (RSD) using matrix-corrected solvent calibration curves were 101% (6% RSD) for all congeners and supplements investigated. Limits of detection (0.006-0.028 μg/g) and quantitation (0.018-0.084 μg/g) were sufficient to confirm the presence of microcystin contamination at the Oregon-mandated guidance concentration of 1.0 μg of microcystin-LReq/g. Quantitated concentrations of microcystin contamination in market-available Aphanizomenon flos-aquae blue-green algal supplements ranged from 0.18-1.87 μg of microcystin-LReq/g for detected congeners microcystin-LR, microcystin-LA, and microcystin-LY (3-5). Microcystin-RR, -YR, -LW, and -LF and nodularin-R (1, 2, and 6-8) were not detected in the supplements examined. PMID:26466789

  18. Enrichment of poultry products with omega3 fatty acids by dietary supplementation with the alga Nannochloropsis and mantur oil.

    PubMed

    Nitsan, Z; Mokady, S; Sukenik, A

    1999-12-01

    Experiments were conducted to evaluate the efficiency of the microalga Nannochloropsis sp. (Nanno.), as a supplement to laying hens' diet, for the production of enriched eggs and meat with omega3 fatty acids (FA). Nanno. has a unique FA composition, namely, the occurrence of a high concentration of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA; 20:5 omega3) and the absence of other omega3 FA. The effect of supplementing diets with Nanno. on omega3 FA levels in eggs, plasma, liver, and thigh muscle was compared to that of mantur oil, high in alpha-linolenic acid (LNA; 18:3 omega3). Nanno. is rich also in carotenoids, which may be useful for egg yolk pigmentation. The observed effect of Nanno. supplementation on yolk pigmentation was dose responsive, in both the rate of coloration and the color intensity. Addition of enzyme preparations (glucanase plus cellulase or glucanase plus pectinase) slightly elevated the yolk color score. The most prominent changes in the level of omega3 FA in egg yolk were evident when the diets were supplemented with 1% Nanno. or mantur lipid extracts. Levels of dietary algal meal (0.1-1.0%) had low and inconsistent effects on the level of yolk omega3 FA. Algal EPA is not accumulated in the liver or in the egg yolk; it is apparently converted and deposited as docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). LNA from mantur oil was partially converted to DHA, and both DHA and LNA were deposited in egg yolks and livers. It is suggested that the absence of DHA and EPA from thigh muscle is due to the small amount of dietary omega3 FA used in this work, compared to other studies, and to the possibility that in laying hens the egg yolk has a priority on dietary FA over that of muscles. PMID:10606584

  19. Hydrothermal liquefaction of mixed-culture algal biomass from wastewater treatment system into bio-crude oil.

    PubMed

    Chen, Wan-Ting; Zhang, Yuanhui; Zhang, Jixiang; Yu, Guo; Schideman, Lance C; Zhang, Peng; Minarick, Mitchell

    2014-01-01

    In this study, a mixed-culture algal biomass harvested from a functioning wastewater treatment system (AW) was hydrothermally converted into bio-crude oils. The highest bio-crude oil yield (49% of volatile matter) and the highest energy recovery were obtained at 300 °C with 1 h retention time. The highest heating value of the bio-crude oil was 33.3 MJ/kg, produced at 320 °C and 1h retention time. Thermogravimetric analysis showed approximately 60% of the bio-crude oils were distilled in the range of 200-550 °C; and the solid residue might be suitable for use in asphalt. GC-MS results indicated that the bio-crude oil contained hydrocarbons and fatty acids, while the aqueous product was rich in organic acids and cyclic amines. The nitrogen recovery (NR) in the bio-crude oil ranged from 8.41% to 16.8%, which was lower than the typical range of 25%-53% from previous studies. PMID:24287452

  20. Emulsification of algal oil with soy lecithin improved DHA bioaccessibility but did not change overall in vitro digestibility.

    PubMed

    Lin, Xinjie; Wang, Qi; Li, Weili; Wright, Amanda J

    2014-11-01

    Oil emulsification facilitates digestive lipolysis and subsequent lipid bioaccessibility. This study aimed to understand the effects of emulsification on DHA-rich algal oil digestion and bioaccessibility. An oil/water emulsion (50 : 44 : 6 oil-water-soy lecithin) was subjected to an in vitro digestion model with gastric pH 1.6 or 4.0 and particle size distributions, duodenal stage lipolysis and DHA bioaccessibility were determined. The emulsion was destabilized at gastric pH 1.6, with subsequent slow duodenal lipolysis. With gastric pH 4.0, the emulsion structure remained intact, initial lipolysis proceeded rapidly and DHA bioaccessibility was higher than for bulk oil, a mixture of oil, water and soy lecithin, and the gastric pH 1.6 destabilized emulsion (p < 0.05). However, the extent of lipolysis was not affected by emulsification or gastric pH. Therefore, the presence of an intact emulsion at the start of duodenal digestion, while not impacting the extent of lipolysis, did impact the initial lipolysis and DHA bioaccessibility. PMID:25208938

  1. Effects of fish oil supplementation on inflammatory acne

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Given that acne is a rare condition in societies with higher consumption of omega-3 (n-3) relative to omega-6 (n-6) fatty acids, supplementation with n-3 may suppress inflammatory cytokine production and thereby reduce acne severity. Methods 13 individuals with inflammatory acne were given three grams of fish oil containing 930 mg of EPA to their unchanged diet and existing acne remedies for 12 weeks. Acne was assessed using an overall severity grading scale, total inflammatory lesion counts, and colorimetry. Findings There was no significant change in acne grading and inflammatory counts at week 12 compared to baseline. However, there was a broad range of response to the intervention on an individual basis. The results showed that acne severity improved in 8 individuals, worsened in 4, and remained unchanged in 1. Interestingly, among the individuals who showed improvement, 7 were classified as having moderate to severe acne at baseline, while 3 of the 4 whose acne deteriorated were classified as having mild acne. Conclusion There is some evidence that fish oil supplementation is associated with an improvement in overall acne severity, especially for individuals with moderate to severe acne. Divergent responses to fish oil in our pilot study indicates that dietary and supplemental lipids are worthy of further investigation in acne. PMID:23206895

  2. Dietary Supplementation with Olive Oil or Fish Oil and Vascular Effects of Concentrated Ambient Particulate Matter Exposure in Human Volunteers

    EPA Science Inventory

    Background: Exposure to ambient particulate matter (PM) induces endothelial dysfunction, a risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Olive oil (OO) and fish oil (FO) supplements have beneficial effects on endothelial function. Objective: In this study we evaluated the efficacy of...

  3. 15 CFR Supplement No. 3 to Part 754 - Statutory Provisions Dealing With Exports of Crude Oil

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Exports of Crude Oil No. Supplement No. 3 to Part 754 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to... Provisions Dealing With Exports of Crude Oil Public Law 104-58 SEC. 201. EXPORTS OF ALASKAN NORTH SLOPE OIL... crude oil transported by pipeline over rights-of-way granted pursuant to this section, except such...

  4. A nutritional-toxicological assessment of Antarctic krill oil versus fish oil dietary supplements.

    PubMed

    Bengtson Nash, Susan M; Schlabach, Martin; Nichols, Peter D

    2014-09-01

    Fish oil dietary supplements and complementary medicines are pitched to play a role of increasing strategic importance in meeting daily requirements of essential nutrients, such as long-chain (≥ C20, LC) omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and vitamin D. Recently a new product category, derived from Antarctic krill, has been launched on the omega-3 nutriceutical market. Antarctic krill oil is marketed as demonstrating a greater ease of absorption due to higher phospholipid content, as being sourced through sustainable fisheries and being free of toxins and pollutants; however, limited data is available on the latter component. Persistent Organic Pollutants (POP) encompass a range of toxic, man-made contaminants that accumulate preferentially in marine ecosystems and in the lipid reserves of organisms. Extraction and concentration of fish oils therefore represents an inherent nutritional-toxicological conflict. This study aimed to provide the first quantitative comparison of the nutritional (EPA and DHA) versus the toxicological profiles of Antarctic krill oil products, relative to various fish oil categories available on the Australian market. Krill oil products were found to adhere closely to EPA and DHA manufacturer specifications and overall were ranked as containing intermediate levels of POP contaminants when compared to the other products analysed. Monitoring of the pollutant content of fish and krill oil products will become increasingly important with expanding regulatory specifications for chemical thresholds. PMID:25170991

  5. A Nutritional-Toxicological Assessment of Antarctic Krill Oil versus Fish Oil Dietary Supplements

    PubMed Central

    Bengtson Nash, Susan M.; Schlabach, Martin; Nichols, Peter D.

    2014-01-01

    Fish oil dietary supplements and complementary medicines are pitched to play a role of increasing strategic importance in meeting daily requirements of essential nutrients, such as long-chain (≥C20, LC) omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and vitamin D. Recently a new product category, derived from Antarctic krill, has been launched on the omega-3 nutriceutical market. Antarctic krill oil is marketed as demonstrating a greater ease of absorption due to higher phospholipid content, as being sourced through sustainable fisheries and being free of toxins and pollutants; however, limited data is available on the latter component. Persistent Organic Pollutants (POP) encompass a range of toxic, man-made contaminants that accumulate preferentially in marine ecosystems and in the lipid reserves of organisms. Extraction and concentration of fish oils therefore represents an inherent nutritional-toxicological conflict. This study aimed to provide the first quantitative comparison of the nutritional (EPA and DHA) versus the toxicological profiles of Antarctic krill oil products, relative to various fish oil categories available on the Australian market. Krill oil products were found to adhere closely to EPA and DHA manufacturer specifications and overall were ranked as containing intermediate levels of POP contaminants when compared to the other products analysed. Monitoring of the pollutant content of fish and krill oil products will become increasingly important with expanding regulatory specifications for chemical thresholds. PMID:25170991

  6. Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and docosapentaenoic acid (DPAn-6) algal oils reduce inflammatory mediators in human peripheral mononuclear cells in vitro and paw edema in vivo.

    PubMed

    Nauroth, Julie M; Liu, Ying Chun; Van Elswyk, Mary; Bell, Rebecca; Hall, Eileen Bailey; Chung, Gloria; Arterburn, Linda M

    2010-05-01

    The anti-inflammatory activity associated with fish oil has been ascribed to the long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFA), predominantly eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). Here we examined the anti-inflammatory effects of two DHA-rich algal oils, which contain little EPA, and determined the contribution of the constituent fatty acids, particularly DHA and docosapentaenoic acid (DPAn-6). In vitro, lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated Interleukin-1 beta (IL-1beta) and Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) secretion in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) was inhibited with apparent relative potencies of DPAn-6 (most potent) > DHA > EPA. In addition, DPAn-6 decreased intracellular levels of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and was a potent inhibitor of pro-inflammatory prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) production. DHA/DPAn-6-rich DHA-S (DHA-S) algal oil was more effective at reducing edema in rats than DHA-rich DHA-T (DHA-T), suggesting that DPAn-6 has anti-inflammatory properties. Further in vivo analyses demonstrated that feeding DPAn-6 alone, provided as an ethyl ester, reduced paw edema to an extent approaching that of indomethacin and enhanced the anti-inflammatory activity of DHA when given in combination. Together, these results demonstrate that DPAn-6 has anti-inflammatory activity and enhances the effect of DHA in vitro and in vivo. Thus, DHA-S algal oil may have potential for use in anti-inflammatory applications. PMID:20364438

  7. Palm oil and ground nut oil supplementation effects on blood glucose and antioxidant status in alloxan-induced diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Adewale, Olabiyi Folorunso; Isaac, OlatunjiOlusola; Tunmise, Makinwa Temitope; Omoniyi, OguntibejuOluwafemi

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of two common cooking oils (palm oil, PO) and (groundnut oil, GO) supplementation on the antioxidant status and diabetic indices in Alloxan (100mg/kg) induced diabetic Wistar rats. A total of forty-eight Wistar rats of both sexes were used for this study. They were divided into four groups of 12 animals each as: control, diabetic non-supplemented, diabetic supplemented with PO (200mg/kg/day) and diabetic supplemented with GO (200mg/kg/day) rats. Blood glucose, plasma vitamin E, SOD, Total Protein and Albumin levels were measured using standard laboratory procedures. After three weeks of supplementation there was a significant (p<0.05) reduction in blood glucose of supplemented groups compared with the diabetic non-supplemented group. Plasma Vitamins C and E, SOD, and Albumin levels were significantly (p<0.05) increased in the supplemented groups when compared with the diabetic non-supplemented group. However, the plasma levels of these parameters were found to be significantly (p<0.05) higher in the GO supplemented rats compared with the PO supplemented group. The plasma vitamin C levels in the diabetic groups were lower than in other groups while increased levels in the plasma total protein were not significant. There was no significant difference in the measured parameters in reference to the gender of the animals. It was concluded from this study that GO exhibited superior antioxidant activities and that the supplementation of red palm oil and ground nut oil as a source of antioxidant was beneficial in diabetic state as it reduced blood glucose and enhance antioxidant status. PMID:26826842

  8. Microwave enhanced alcoholysis of non-edible (algal, jatropha and pongamia) oils using chemically activated egg shell derived CaO as heterogeneous catalyst.

    PubMed

    Joshi, Girdhar; Rawat, Devendra S; Sharma, Amit Kumar; Pandey, Jitendra K

    2016-11-01

    Microwave enhanced fast and efficient alcoholysis (methanolysis and ethanolysis) of non-edible oils (algal, jatropha and pongamia) is achieved using chemically activated waste egg shell derived CaO (i.e. CaO(cesp)) as heterogeneous catalyst. CaO(cesp) was extracted from waste chicken egg shell and further activated chemically by supporting transition metal oxide. The maximum conversion was achieved using 3wt% catalysts under 700W microwave irradiation and 10:1 alcohol/oil ratio in 6min. Alcoholysis using ZnO activated CaO(cesp) catalyst has shown higher reaction yields in comparison to other modified catalysts. Methanolysis has shown better biodiesel conversion in comparison to ethanolysis. The catalyst has shown longer lifetime and sustained activity after being used for four cycles. Due to more saturated fatty acid content; algal biodiesel has shown improved fuel properties in comparison to other biodiesels. PMID:27521785

  9. 77 FR 75119 - Dakota Prairie Grasslands, North Dakota; Oil and Gas Development Supplemental Environmental...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-19

    ... Forest Service Dakota Prairie Grasslands, North Dakota; Oil and Gas Development Supplemental... Oil and Gas Leasing on the Little Missouri and Cedar River National Grasslands was signed. This... included a Reasonably Foreseeable Development Scenario (RFDS) for Oil and Gas for the Little Missouri...

  10. ALOX5 gene variants affect eicosanoid production and response to fish oil supplementation[S

    PubMed Central

    Stephensen, Charles B.; Armstrong, Patrice; Newman, John W.; Pedersen, Theresa L.; Legault, Jillian; Schuster, Gertrud U.; Kelley, Darshan; Vikman, Susanna; Hartiala, Jaana; Nassir, Rami; Seldin, Michael F.; Allayee, Hooman

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine whether 5-lipoxygenase (ALOX5) gene variants associated with cardiovascular disease affect eicosanoid production by monocytes. The study was a randomized, double-masked, parallel intervention trial with fish oil (5.0 g of fish oil daily, containing 2.0 g of eicosapentaenoic acid [EPA] and 1.0 g of docosahexaenoic acid [DHA]) or placebo oil (5.0 g of corn/soy mixture). A total of 116 subjects (68% female, 20–59 years old) of African American ancestry enrolled, and 98 subjects completed the study. Neither ALOX5 protein nor arachidonic acid-derived LTB4, LTD4, and LTE4 varied by genotype, but 5-hydroxyeicosatetraenoate (5-HETE), 6-trans-LTB4, 5-oxo-ETE, 15-HETE, and 5,15-diHETE levels were higher in subjects homozygous for the ALOX5 promoter allele containing five Sp1 element tandem repeats (“55” genotype) than in subjects with one deletion (d) (three or four repeats) and one common (“d5” genotype) allele or with two deletion (“dd”) alleles. The EPA-derived metabolites 5-HEPE and 15-HEPE and the DHA-derived metabolite 17-HDoHE had similar associations with genotype and increased with supplementation; 5-HEPE and 15-HEPE increased, and 5-oxo-ETE decreased to a greater degree in the 55 than in the other genotypes. This differential eicosanoid response is consistent with the previously observed interaction of these variants with dietary intake of omega-3 fatty acids in predicting cardiovascular disease risk. PMID:21296957

  11. Fish oil and krill oil supplementations differentially regulate lipid catabolic and synthetic pathways in mice

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Marine derived oils are rich in long-chain polyunsaturated omega-3 fatty acids, in particular eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), which have long been associated with health promoting effects such as reduced plasma lipid levels and anti-inflammatory effects. Krill oil (KO) is a novel marine oil on the market and is also rich in EPA and DHA, but the fatty acids are incorporated mainly into phospholipids (PLs) rather than triacylglycerols (TAG). This study compares the effects of fish oil (FO) and KO on gene regulation that influences plasma and liver lipids in a high fat diet mouse model. Methods Male C57BL/6J mice were fed either a high-fat diet (HF) containing 24% (wt/wt) fat (21.3% lard and 2.3% soy oil), or the HF diet supplemented with FO (15.7% lard, 2.3% soy oil and 5.8% FO) or KO (15.6% lard, 2.3% soy oil and 5.7% KO) for 6 weeks. Total levels of cholesterol, TAG, PLs, and fatty acid composition were measured in plasma and liver. Gene regulation was investigated using quantitative PCR in liver and intestinal epithelium. Results Plasma cholesterol (esterified and unesterified), TAG and PLs were significantly decreased with FO. Analysis of the plasma lipoprotein particles indicated that the lipid lowering effect by FO is at least in part due to decreased very low density lipoprotein (VLDL) content in plasma with subsequent liver lipid accumulation. KO lowered plasma non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA) with a minor effect on fatty acid accumulation in the liver. In spite of a lower omega-3 fatty acid content in the KO supplemented diet, plasma and liver PLs omega-3 levels were similar in the two groups, indicating a higher bioavailability of omega-3 fatty acids from KO. KO more efficiently decreased arachidonic acid and its elongation/desaturation products in plasma and liver. FO mainly increased the expression of several genes involved in fatty acid metabolism, while KO specifically decreased the expression of genes involved in

  12. Biosorption of methylene blue by de-oiled algal biomass: equilibrium, kinetics and artificial neural network modelling.

    PubMed

    Maurya, Rahulkumar; Ghosh, Tonmoy; Paliwal, Chetan; Shrivastav, Anupama; Chokshi, Kaumeel; Pancha, Imran; Ghosh, Arup; Mishra, Sandhya

    2014-01-01

    The main objective of the present study is to effectively utilize the de-oiled algal biomass (DAB) to minimize the waste streams from algal biofuel by using it as an adsorbent. Methylene blue (MB) was used as a sorbate for evaluating the potential of DAB as a biosorbent. The DAB was characterized by SEM, FTIR, pHPZC, particle size, pore volume and pore diameter to understand the biosorption mechanism. The equilibrium studies were carried out by variation in different parameters, i.e., pH (2-9), temperature (293.16-323.16 K), biosorbent dosage (1-10 g L(-1)), contact time (0-1,440 min), agitation speed (0-150 rpm) and dye concentration (25-2,500 mg L(-1)). MB removal was greater than 90% in both acidic and basic pH. The optimum result of MB removal was found at 5-7 g L(-1) DAB concentration. DAB removes 86% dye in 5 minutes under static conditions and nearly 100% in 24 hours when agitated at 150 rpm. The highest adsorption capacity was found 139.11 mg g(-1) at 2,000 mg L(-1) initial MB concentration. The process attained equilibrium in 24 hours. It is an endothermic process whose spontaneity increases with temperature. MB biosorption by DAB follows pseudo-second order kinetics. Artificial neural network (ANN) model also validates the experimental dye removal efficiency (R2 = 0.97) corresponding with theoretically predicted values. Sensitivity analysis suggests that temperature and agitation speed affect the process most with 23.62% and 21.08% influence on MB biosorption, respectively. Dye adsorption capacity of DAB in fixed bed column was 107.57 mg g(-1) in preliminary study while it went up to 139.11 mg g(-1) in batch studies. The probable mechanism for biosorption in this study is chemisorptions via surface active charges in the initial phase followed by physical sorption by occupying pores of DAB. PMID:25310576

  13. Biosorption of Methylene Blue by De-Oiled Algal Biomass: Equilibrium, Kinetics and Artificial Neural Network Modelling

    PubMed Central

    Maurya, Rahulkumar; Ghosh, Tonmoy; Paliwal, Chetan; Shrivastav, Anupama; Chokshi, Kaumeel; Pancha, Imran; Ghosh, Arup; Mishra, Sandhya

    2014-01-01

    The main objective of the present study is to effectively utilize the de-oiled algal biomass (DAB) to minimize the waste streams from algal biofuel by using it as an adsorbent. Methylene blue (MB) was used as a sorbate for evaluating the potential of DAB as a biosorbent. The DAB was characterized by SEM, FTIR, pHPZC, particle size, pore volume and pore diameter to understand the biosorption mechanism. The equilibrium studies were carried out by variation in different parameters, i.e., pH (2–9), temperature (293.16–323.16 K), biosorbent dosage (1–10 g L−1), contact time (0–1,440 min), agitation speed (0–150 rpm) and dye concentration (25–2,500 mg L−1). MB removal was greater than 90% in both acidic and basic pH. The optimum result of MB removal was found at 5–7 g L−1 DAB concentration. DAB removes 86% dye in 5 minutes under static conditions and nearly 100% in 24 hours when agitated at 150 rpm. The highest adsorption capacity was found 139.11 mg g−1 at 2,000 mg L−1 initial MB concentration. The process attained equilibrium in 24 hours. It is an endothermic process whose spontaneity increases with temperature. MB biosorption by DAB follows pseudo-second order kinetics. Artificial neural network (ANN) model also validates the experimental dye removal efficiency (R2 = 0.97) corresponding with theoretically predicted values. Sensitivity analysis suggests that temperature and agitation speed affect the process most with 23.62% and 21.08% influence on MB biosorption, respectively. Dye adsorption capacity of DAB in fixed bed column was 107.57 mg g−1 in preliminary study while it went up to 139.11 mg g−1 in batch studies. The probable mechanism for biosorption in this study is chemisorptions via surface active charges in the initial phase followed by physical sorption by occupying pores of DAB. PMID:25310576

  14. 75 FR 57900 - FY 2010 Gulf Oil Spill Supplemental Federal Funding Opportunity

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-23

    ... on February 11, 2008 (73 FR 7696), are applicable to this competition. Paperwork Reduction Act: This... Economic Development Administration FY 2010 Gulf Oil Spill Supplemental Federal Funding Opportunity AGENCY... Supplemental Federal Funding Opportunity. This investment assistance will be made available to help devise...

  15. Biodiesel production from different algal oil using immobilized pure lipase and tailor made rPichia pastoris with Cal A and Cal B genes.

    PubMed

    Bharathiraja, B; Ranjith Kumar, R; PraveenKumar, R; Chakravarthy, M; Yogendran, D; Jayamuthunagai, J

    2016-08-01

    In this investigation, oil extraction was performed in marine macroalgae Gracilaria edulis, Enteromorpha compressa and Ulva lactuca. The algal biomass was characterized by Scanning Electron Microscopy and Fourier Transform-Infra Red Spectroscopy. Six different pre-treatment methods were carried out to evaluate the best method for maximum oil extraction. Optimization of extraction parameters were performed and high oil yield was obtained at temperature 55°C, time 150min, particle size 0.10mm, solvent-to-solid ratio 6:1 and agitation rate 500rpm. After optimization, 9.5%, 12.18% and 10.50 (g/g) of oil extraction yield was achieved from the respective algal biomass. The rate constant for extraction was obtained as first order kinetics, by differential method. Stable intracellular Cal A and Cal B lipase producing recombinant Pichia pastoris was constructed and used as biocatalyst for biodiesel production. Comparative analysis of lipase activity and biodiesel yield was made with immobilized Candida antarctica lipase. PMID:26906444

  16. Determination of lipid oxidation products in vegetable oils and marine omega-3 supplements

    PubMed Central

    Halvorsen, Bente Lise; Blomhoff, Rune

    2011-01-01

    Background There is convincing evidence that replacing dietary saturated fats with polyunsaturated fats (PUFA) decreases risk of cardiovascular diseases. Therefore, PUFA rich foods such as vegetable oils, fatty fish, and marine omega-3 supplements are recommended. However, PUFA are easily oxidizable and there is concern about possible negative health effects from intake of oxidized lipids. Little is known about the degree of lipid oxidation in such products. Objective To assess the content of lipid oxidation products in a large selection of vegetable oils and marine omega-3 supplements available in Norway. Both fresh and heated vegetable oils were studied. Design A large selection of commercially available vegetable oils and marine omega-3 supplements was purchased from grocery stores, pharmacies, and health food stores in Norway. The content of lipid oxidation products were measured as peroxide value and alkenal concentration. Twelve different vegetable oils were heated for a temperature (225°C) and time (25 minutes) resembling conditions typically used during cooking. Results The peroxide values were in the range 1.04–10.38 meq/kg for omega-3 supplements and in the range 0.60–5.33 meq/kg for fresh vegetable oils. The concentration range of alkenals was 158.23–932.19 nmol/mL for omega-3 supplements and 33.24–119.04 nmol/mL for vegetable oils. After heating, a 2.9–11.2 fold increase in alkenal concentration was observed for vegetable oils. Conclusions The contents of hydroperoxides and alkenals in omega-3 supplements are higher than in vegetable oils. After heating vegetable oils, a large increase in alkenal concentration was observed. PMID:21691461

  17. Anaerobic digested dairy manure as a nutrient supplement for cultivation of oil-rich green microalgae Chlorella sp.

    PubMed

    Wang, Liang; Li, Yecong; Chen, Paul; Min, Min; Chen, Yifeng; Zhu, Jun; Ruan, Roger R

    2010-04-01

    The present study was to investigate the effectiveness of using digested dairy manure as a nutrient supplement for cultivation of oil-rich green microalgae Chlorella sp. Different dilution multiples of 10, 15, 20, and 25 were applied to the digested manure and algal growth was compared in regard to growth rate, nutrient removal efficiency, and final algal fatty acids content and composition. Slower growth rates were observed with less diluted manure samples with higher turbidities in the initial cultivation days. A reverse linear relationship (R(2) = 0.982) was found between the average specific growth rate of the beginning 7 days and the initial turbidities. Algae removed ammonia, total nitrogen, total phosphorus, and COD by 100%, 75.7-82.5%, 62.5-74.7%, and 27.4-38.4%, respectively, in differently diluted dairy manure. COD in digested dairy manure, beside CO(2), proved to be another carbon source for mixotrophic Chlorella. Fatty acid profiles derived from triacylglyceride (TAG), phospholipid and free fatty acids showed that octadecadienoic acid (C18:2) and hexadecanoic acid (C16:0) were the two most abundant fatty acids in the algae. The total fatty acid content of the dry weight increased from 9.00% to 13.7% along with the increasing dilution multiples. Based on the results from this study, a process combining anaerobic digestion and algae cultivation can be proposed as an effective way to convert high strength dairy manure into profitable byproducts as well as to reduce contaminations to environment. PMID:19932957

  18. A systematic review of the association between fish oil supplementation and the development of asthma exacerbations

    PubMed Central

    Hardy, M Scott; Kekic, Adrijana; Graybill, Nicole L; Lancaster, Zachary R

    2016-01-01

    A systematic review was conducted to examine the association between fish oil supplementation and the development of asthma exacerbations. Comprehensive literature reviews of recent fish oil studies were performed to evaluate alterations in asthma surrogate markers. Additionally, the relative compositions of the fish oils used in each study were analyzed. The results of the review were inconclusive, but provide a basis for future research methods.

  19. Neonatal lamb vigour is improved by feeding docosahexaenoic acid in the form of algal biomass during late gestation.

    PubMed

    Pickard, R M; Beard, A P; Seal, C J; Edwards, S A

    2008-08-01

    To determine whether feeding a sustainable, algal source of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) to sheep during late pregnancy would improve neonatal lamb vigour, 48 English mule ewes, of known conception date, were divided into four treatment groups. For the last 9 weeks of gestation, ewes received one of two dietary supplements: either a DHA-rich algal biomass providing 12 g DHA/ewe per day, or a control supplement based on vegetable oil. The four dietary treatment groups (n = 12) were: control supplement for the duration of the trial (C), DHA supplement from 9 to 6 weeks before parturition (3 week), DHA supplement from 9 to 3 weeks before parturition (6 week) and DHA supplement for the duration of the trial (9 week). Dietary supplements were fed alongside grass silage and commercial concentrate. There was a tendency for gestation length to be extended with increased duration of DHA supplementation (P = 0.08). After parturition, the concentrations of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and DHA in ewe and lamb plasma and colostrum were elevated in line with increased periods of DHA supplementation. Lambs from the 6-week and 9-week groups stood significantly sooner after birth than lambs from the C group (P < 0.05). These data show that neonatal vigour may be improved by the supplementation of maternal diets with DHA-rich algal biomass and that this beneficial effect depends upon the timing and/or duration of DHA allocation. PMID:22443731

  20. Macadamia oil supplementation attenuates inflammation and adipocyte hypertrophy in obese mice.

    PubMed

    Lima, Edson A; Silveira, Loreana S; Masi, Laureane N; Crisma, Amanda R; Davanso, Mariana R; Souza, Gabriel I G; Santamarina, Aline B; Moreira, Renata G; Martins, Amanda Roque; de Sousa, Luis Gustavo O; Hirabara, Sandro M; Rosa Neto, Jose C

    2014-01-01

    Excess of saturated fatty acids in the diet has been associated with obesity, leading to systemic disruption of insulin signaling, glucose intolerance, and inflammation. Macadamia oil administration has been shown to improve lipid profile in humans. We evaluated the effect of macadamia oil supplementation on insulin sensitivity, inflammation, lipid profile, and adipocyte size in high-fat diet (HF) induced obesity in mice. C57BL/6 male mice (8 weeks) were divided into four groups: (a) control diet (CD), (b) HF, (c) CD supplemented with macadamia oil by gavage at 2 g/Kg of body weight, three times per week, for 12 weeks (CD + MO), and (d) HF diet supplemented with macadamia oil (HF + MO). CD and HF mice were supplemented with water. HF mice showed hypercholesterolemia and decreased insulin sensitivity as also previously shown. HF induced inflammation in adipose tissue and peritoneal macrophages, as well as adipocyte hypertrophy. Macadamia oil supplementation attenuated hypertrophy of adipocytes and inflammation in the adipose tissue and macrophages. PMID:25332517

  1. Macadamia Oil Supplementation Attenuates Inflammation and Adipocyte Hypertrophy in Obese Mice

    PubMed Central

    Lima, Edson A.; Silveira, Loreana S.; Masi, Laureane N.; Crisma, Amanda R.; Davanso, Mariana R.; Souza, Gabriel I. G.; Santamarina, Aline B.; Moreira, Renata G.; Roque Martins, Amanda; de Sousa, Luis Gustavo O.; Hirabara, Sandro M.; Rosa Neto, Jose C.

    2014-01-01

    Excess of saturated fatty acids in the diet has been associated with obesity, leading to systemic disruption of insulin signaling, glucose intolerance, and inflammation. Macadamia oil administration has been shown to improve lipid profile in humans. We evaluated the effect of macadamia oil supplementation on insulin sensitivity, inflammation, lipid profile, and adipocyte size in high-fat diet (HF) induced obesity in mice. C57BL/6 male mice (8 weeks) were divided into four groups: (a) control diet (CD), (b) HF, (c) CD supplemented with macadamia oil by gavage at 2 g/Kg of body weight, three times per week, for 12 weeks (CD + MO), and (d) HF diet supplemented with macadamia oil (HF + MO). CD and HF mice were supplemented with water. HF mice showed hypercholesterolemia and decreased insulin sensitivity as also previously shown. HF induced inflammation in adipose tissue and peritoneal macrophages, as well as adipocyte hypertrophy. Macadamia oil supplementation attenuated hypertrophy of adipocytes and inflammation in the adipose tissue and macrophages. PMID:25332517

  2. Algal biofuels from wastewater treatment high rate algal ponds.

    PubMed

    Craggs, R J; Heubeck, S; Lundquist, T J; Benemann, J R

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines the potential of algae biofuel production in conjunction with wastewater treatment. Current technology for algal wastewater treatment uses facultative ponds, however, these ponds have low productivity (∼10 tonnes/ha.y), are not amenable to cultivating single algal species, require chemical flocculation or other expensive processes for algal harvest, and do not provide consistent nutrient removal. Shallow, paddlewheel-mixed high rate algal ponds (HRAPs) have much higher productivities (∼30 tonnes/ha.y) and promote bioflocculation settling which may provide low-cost algal harvest. Moreover, HRAP algae are carbon-limited and daytime addition of CO(2) has, under suitable climatic conditions, the potential to double production (to ∼60 tonnes/ha.y), improve bioflocculation algal harvest, and enhance wastewater nutrient removal. Algae biofuels (e.g. biogas, ethanol, biodiesel and crude bio-oil), could be produced from the algae harvested from wastewater HRAPs, The wastewater treatment function would cover the capital and operation costs of algal production, with biofuel and recovered nutrient fertilizer being by-products. Greenhouse gas abatement results from both the production of the biofuels and the savings in energy consumption compared to electromechanical treatment processes. However, to achieve these benefits, further research is required, particularly the large-scale demonstration of wastewater treatment HRAP algal production and harvest. PMID:21330711

  3. Olive Oil Supplements Ameliorate Endothelial Dysfunction Caused by Concentrated Ambient Particulate Matter Exposure in Healthy Human Volunteers

    EPA Science Inventory

    Context: Exposure to ambient particulate matter (PM) induces endothelial dysfunction, a risk factor for clinical cardiovascular events and progression of atherosclerosis. Dietary supplements such as olive oil and fish oil have beneficial effects on endothelial function, and ther...

  4. First joint SPE/DOE symposium on enhanced oil recovery, proceedings supplement

    SciTech Connect

    1980-01-01

    The First Joint Symposium on Enhanced Oil Recovery sponsored by the Society of Petroleum Engineers and the US Department of Energy was held in Tulsa, Oklahoma. Besides the thirty-three technical papers which covered all phases of enhanced oil recovery and were published in the Proceedings, the Symposium included a session on Enhanced Oil Recovery Incentives where ten papers were presented which discussed the status of enhanced oil recovery technology, and included papers on incentive programs of the United States, Canada and Venezuela. These papers are published in this Proceedings Supplement under the following titles: Federal Government Role in enhanced Oil Recovery; Financial Realities of an Adequate Petroleum Supply; Major Technology Constraints in Enhanced Oil Recovery; Decontrol-Opportunities and Dangers; Status of EOR Technology; Impact of Federal Incentives on US Production; Canadian Incentives Program; and Heavy Oil Incentives in Venezuela.

  5. Effect of cinnamon (Cinnamomum zeylanicum) essential oil supplementation on lamb growth performance and meat quality characteristics.

    PubMed

    Simitzis, P E; Bronis, M; Charismiadou, M A; Mountzouris, K C; Deligeorgis, S G

    2014-09-01

    A trial was conducted to examine the effect of cinnamon essential oil supplementation on lamb growth performance and meat quality. Sixteen male lambs were randomly assigned to two groups. The first group served as control and was given a basal diet, and the second group was given the same diet supplemented with cinnamon oil (1 ml/kg of concentrated feed) for 35 days. Incorporation of cinnamon oil did not affect growth performance (P>0.05). Meat pH, colour, water-holding capacity, shear force, intramuscular fat and lipid oxidation values of longissimus thoracis muscle were not significantly influenced by cinnamon oil supplementation (P>0.05). The post-inoculation counts of Salmonella enteritidis and Listeria monocytogenes on raw meat during refrigerated storage for 6 days did not differ (P>0.05) between the two groups. The results show that cinnamon oil supplementation may not have the potential to improve lamb growth performance and meat quality characteristics. PMID:24902083

  6. The activity of lysosomal exoglycosidases in serum of alcohol-dependent men supplemented with borage oil enriched with vitamin E.

    PubMed

    Zaniewska, Agnieszka; Borzym-Kluczyk, Malgorzata; Szajda, Slawomir D; Romatowski, Jacek; Gil, Andrzej; Knas, Malgorzata; Dobryniewski, Jacek; Zwierz, Krzysztof

    2009-08-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the activity of the lysosomal exoglycosidases: alpha-mannosidase (MAN), alpha-fucosidase (FUC), and beta-glucuronidase (GLUCUR) in serum of alcohol-dependent men supplemented and not supplemented with borage oil enriched with vitamin E. Serum was collected from eight social drinkers and 16 alcohol-dependent men after a drinking period. The activity of exoglycosidases and the concentration of protein in serum were determined. The increase in specific activity of MAN and GLUCUR was significant in serum of alcohol-dependent men both not supplemented and supplemented with borage oil enriched with vitamin E, in comparison with the specific activity in serum of social drinkers. In serum of alcohol-dependent men treated with borage oil enriched with vitamin E, specific activity of MAN and GLUCUR fluctuated in comparison with alcohol-dependent men not supplemented. Specific activity of FUC in serum of alcohol-dependent men both not supplemented and supplemented with borage oil enriched with vitamin E showed a tendency to increase, in comparison with social drinkers. Specific activity of FUC had a tendency to decrease in serum of alcohol-dependent men supplemented with borage oil enriched with vitamin E, in comparison with alcohol-dependent men not supplemented. Thus, supplementation of alcohol-dependent men after a long-lasting drinking period with borage oil and vitamin E did not change the rate of catabolism of the oligosaccharide chains of glycoconjugates, as evaluated by serum activity of exoglycosidases. PMID:19735195

  7. 75 FR 70738 - Gulf Oil Limited Partnership; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-18

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Gulf Oil Limited Partnership; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based... supplemental notice in the above-referenced proceeding of Gulf Oil Limited Partnership's application for...

  8. Additive effect of linseed oil supplementation on the lipid profiles of older adults

    PubMed Central

    Avelino, Ana Paula A; Oliveira, Gláucia MM; Ferreira, Célia CD; Luiz, Ronir R; Rosa, Glorimar

    2015-01-01

    Background Linseed oil has been investigated as a rich source of n-3 series polyunsaturated fatty acids, which mainly produce a non-atherogenic lipid profile. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of linseed oil supplementation associated with nutritional guidelines on the lipid profiles of older adults, according to the intake of saturated fatty acids (SFA). Methods We conducted a double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial with 110 older adults randomized in two groups: placebo and linseed oil. The linseed oil group received supplementation with 3 g of linseed oil. Both groups received nutritional guidance and were supplemented for 90 days with monthly blood collection for biochemical analysis. The dietary intake of saturated fat was subdivided into low (<7% SFA/day of the total energy value) and high consumption groups (>7% SFA/day of the total energy value). Results Low SFA (<7% SFA/day of total energy value) consumption was associated with lower total cholesterol concentrations. However, we observed that the linseed oil group, including older adults who consumed >7% SFA/day, had a greater reduction in total cholesterol than the placebo group (P=0.020). The same was observed for low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol (P<0.050), suggesting an additive effect of linseed oil and diet. High-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol concentrations were increased significantly in only the linseed group, suggesting that the nutritional intervention alone did not improve HDL cholesterol. Conclusion The results suggest that the nutritional intervention was effective, but linseed oil showed notable effects by increasing the HDL cholesterol concentration. In addition, consumption of <7% SFA/day of the total energy value increased the effect of linseed oil, demonstrating the importance of reducing the consumption of saturated fat. PMID:26543357

  9. Analysis of 1,3 dimethylamylamine concentrations in Geraniaceae, geranium oil and dietary supplements.

    PubMed

    Austin, Krista G; Travis, John; Pace, Gerry; Lieberman, Harris R

    2014-01-01

    1,3-Dimethylamylamine (DMAA) is a sympathomimetic compound currently incorporated into some dietary supplements. Significant controversy exists regarding the 'natural' origin of DMAA, as claimed by manufacturers of supplements. Manufacturers often refer to its presence by the name Geranamine® implying that DMAA is found in the plant species Geranium and Pelargonium known collectively as Geraniaceae. This study determined whether DMAA is present in the plant species, Geranium and Pelargonium. In addition, concentrations of DMAA in popular dietary supplements and commercial Geranium and Pelargonium oils were assessed. One Pelargonium cultivar, one Geranium cultivar, three essential oils from Pelargonium or Geranium, raw DMAA powder, and seven dietary supplements (DS) sold as finished products and labelled as containing DMAA, or one of its synonyms, were analyzed for the presence of DMAA by ultra performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS). No measurable levels of DMAA in Geranium, Pelargonium or essential oils at a detection limit of 1-2 ng/g were present. UPLC/MS/MS analysis confirmed the presence of DMAA in spiked plant and oil samples, all seven DS products, and raw DMAA powder. Concentrations (weight%) of DMAA provided in DS ranged from 0.11% to 673%. This study indicates DMAA contained in DS is of a synthetic origin and is not present in the plant species Geranium and Pelargonium; thus the 'natural' origin and use of DMAA as an ingredient in DS is not substantiated. PMID:23704033

  10. Arachidonate 5-lipoxygenase gene variants affect response to fish oil supplementation by healthy African Americans

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Objective: To determine the effects of arachidonate 5-lipoxygenase gene (ALOX5) variants on plasma lipid and lipoprotein concentrations and changes in response to fish oil supplementation. We hypothesized that Sp1 variants in the ALOX5 promoter, which have previously been associated with cardiovascu...

  11. Fatty acid composition and sensory traits of beef fed palm oil supplements.

    PubMed

    Partida, J A; Olleta, J L; Sañudo, C; Albertí, P; Campo, M M

    2007-07-01

    This study measured the effect of replacing dietary fat from an animal source with palm oil supplements on the intramuscular fatty acid profile and sensory quality traits of the meat from young bulls. Thirty-six entire male Friesian calves (mean age=6.8±1.1 months, mean live weight=162.5±28.6kg) were assigned to one of four isoenergetic (1.03 MFU/kg DM) and isoproteinic (15.5% CP) diets, that differed in their fat additives: (D1) lard-tallow mix (control); (D2) hydrogenated palm oil fatty acids (PFA); (D3) calcium salt of partially hydrogenated PFA, and (D4) calcium salt of the fatty acid distillate from palm oil. Bulls (mean live weight=391.3±30.3kg) were slaughtered under commercial conditions and sensory tests were performed to evaluate the effects of the four diets and ageing time (1, 10, and 21d). Only the proportions of C16:0 and C18:0 were significantly affected by the palm oil dietary supplement. Ageing time affected grass odour, tenderness, juiciness, fibrosity, liver flavour, and acid flavour. Nevertheless, palm oil supplements did not negatively alter the organoleptic characteristics of the meat. PMID:22060986

  12. Coconut oil supplementation and physical exercise improves baroreflex sensitivity and oxidative stress in hypertensive rats.

    PubMed

    Alves, Naiane F B; Porpino, Suênia K P; Monteiro, Matheus M O; Gomes, Enéas R M; Braga, Valdir A

    2015-04-01

    The hypothesis that oral supplementation with virgin coconut oil (Cocos nucifera L.) and exercise training would improve impaired baroreflex sensitivity (BRS) and reduce oxidative stress in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) was tested. Adult male SHR and Wistar Kyoto rats (WKY) were divided into 5 groups: WKY + saline (n = 8); SHR + saline (n = 8); SHR + coconut oil (2 mL·day(-1), n = 8); SHR + trained (n = 8); and SHR + trained + coconut oil (n = 8). Mean arterial pressure (MAP) was recorded and BRS was tested using phenylephrine (8 μg/kg, intravenous) and sodium nitroprusside (25 μg·kg(-1), intravenous). Oxidative stress was measured using dihydroethidium in heart and aorta. SHR + saline, SHR + coconut oil, and SHR + trained group showed higher MAP compared with WKY + saline (175 ± 6, 148 ± 6, 147 ± 7 vs. 113 ± 2 mm Hg; p < 0.05). SHR + coconut oil, SHR + trained group, and SHR + trained + coconut oil groups presented lower MAP compared with SHR + saline group (148 ± 6, 147 ± 7, 134 ± 8 vs. 175 ± 6 mm Hg; p < 0.05). Coconut oil combined with exercise training improved BRS in SHR compared with SHR + saline group (-2.47 ± 0.3 vs. -1.39 ± 0.09 beats·min(-1)·mm Hg(-1); p < 0.05). SHR + saline group showed higher superoxide levels when compared with WKY + saline (774 ± 31 vs. 634 ± 19 arbitrary units (AU), respectively; p < 0.05). SHR + trained + coconut oil group presented reduced oxidative stress compared with SHR + saline in heart (622 ± 16 vs. 774 ± 31 AU, p < 0.05). In aorta, coconut oil reduced oxidative stress in SHR compared with SHR + saline group (454 ± 33 vs. 689 ± 29 AU, p < 0.05). Oral supplementation with coconut oil combined with exercise training improved impaired BRS and reduced oxidative stress in SHR. PMID:25659569

  13. Effects of dietary fish oil and vitamin E supplementation on canine lymphocyte proliferation evaluated using a flow cytometric technique.

    PubMed

    LeBlanc, Casey J; Dietrich, Marilyn A; Horohov, David W; Bauer, John E; Hosgood, Giselle; Mauldin, Glenna E

    2007-10-15

    Lymphocyte proliferation and peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) production of PGE(2) were assayed in 15 healthy dogs fed a basal diet supplemented with either sunflower oil (Group Sunflower oil), sunflower oil and menhaden fish oil (Group Fish oil), or sunflower oil and menhaden fish oil plus alpha-tocopherol acetate for 12 weeks (Group Fish oil + E). Lymphocyte proliferation was determined by a flow cytometric technique utilizing the fluorochrome carboxyfluorescein diacetate succinimidyl ester (CFSE). The PBMC supernatant PGE(2) concentration was assayed using a competitive enzyme-linked immunoassay. Group Fish oil had a significant decrease in lymphocyte proliferation at week 12. PBMC production of PGE(2) was decreased in all three groups but only significantly reduced in groups receiving fish oil supplementation. Based on these results, this level of fish oil supplementation appears to suppress the lymphoproliferative response in healthy, young dogs but this response can be attenuated by high levels of dietary vitamin E supplementation. Furthermore, fish oil-induced reduction in lymphocyte proliferation appears to manifest through a PGE(2)-independent mechanism and is not associated with increased lipid peroxidation. PMID:17658617

  14. Fish oil supplementation for two generations increases insulin sensitivity in rats.

    PubMed

    Hirabara, Sandro M; Folador, Alessandra; Fiamoncini, Jarlei; Lambertucci, Rafael H; Rodrigues, Carlos F; Rocha, Marlene S; Aikawa, Julia; Yamazaki, Ricardo K; Martins, Amanda R; Rodrigues, Alice C; Carpinelli, Angelo R; Pithon-Curi, Tania C; Fernandes, Luiz C; Gorjão, Renata; Curi, Rui

    2013-06-01

    We investigated the effect of fish oil supplementation for two consecutive generations on insulin sensitivity in rats. After the nursing period (21 days), female rats from the same prole were divided into two groups: (a) control group and (b) fish oil group. Female rats were supplemented with water (control) or fish oil at 1 g/kg body weight as a single bolus for 3 months. After this period, female rats were mated with male Wistar rats fed on a balanced chow diet (not supplemented). Female rats continued to receive supplementation throughout gestation and lactation periods. The same treatment was performed for the next two generations (G1 and G2). At 75 days of age, male offspring from G1 and G2 generations from both groups were used in the experiments. G1 rats did not present any difference with control rats. However, G2 rats presented reduction in glycemia and lipidemia and improvement in in vivo insulin sensitivity (model assessment of insulin resistance, insulin tolerance test) as well as in vitro insulin sensitivity in soleus muscle (glucose uptake and metabolism). This effect was associated with increased insulin-stimulated p38 MAP kinase phosphorylation and lower n-6/n-3 fatty acid ratio, but not with activation of proteins from insulin signaling (IR, IRS-1 and Akt). Global DNA methylation was decreased in liver but not in soleus muscle. These results suggest that long-term fish oil supplementation improves insulin sensitivity in association with increased insulin-stimulated p38 activation and decreased n-6:n-3 ratio in skeletal muscle and decreased global DNA methylation in liver. PMID:23246156

  15. Fish oil supplementation during lactation: effects on cognition and behavior at 7 years of age.

    PubMed

    Cheatham, Carol L; Nerhammer, Anne Sofie; Asserhøj, Marie; Michaelsen, Kim F; Lauritzen, Lotte

    2011-07-01

    Early accumulation of n-3 long-chain PUFA (LCPUFA) in the brain may contribute to differences in later cognitive abilities. In this study, our objective was to examine whether fish oil (FO) supplementation during lactation affects processing speed, working memory, inhibitory control, and socioemotional development at 7 years. Danish mothers (n = 122) were randomized to FO [1.5 g/d n-3 LCPUFA] or olive oil (OO) supplementation during the first 4 months of lactation. The trial also included a high-fish intake (HFI) reference group (n = 53). Ninety-eight children were followed-up with an assessment of processing speed, an age-appropriate Stroop task, and the Strength and Difficulties Questionnaire at 7 year. A group effect of the intervention (FO vs. OO) was found in prosocial behavior scores; this negative effect was carried by the boys. Exploratory analyses including all participants revealed the speed of processing scores were predicted by maternal n-3 LCPUFA intake during the intervention period (negative relation) and maternal education (positive relation). Stroop scores indicative of working memory and inhibitory control were predicted by infant erythrocyte DHA status at 4 months of age (negative relation). Early fish oil supplementation may have a negative effect on later cognitive abilities. Speed of processing and inhibitory control/working memory are differentially affected, with speed of processing showing effects of fish oil intake as a whole, whereas inhibitory control/working memory was related more specifically to DHA status. PMID:21512889

  16. Effects of Eucalyptus Crude Oils Supplementation on Rumen Fermentation, Microorganism and Nutrient Digestibility in Swamp Buffaloes

    PubMed Central

    Thao, N. T.; Wanapat, M.; Cherdthong, A.; Kang, S.

    2014-01-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the effects of eucalyptus (E. Camaldulensis) crude oils (EuO) supplementation on voluntary feed intake and rumen fermentation characteristics in swamp buffaloes. Four rumen fistulated swamp buffaloes, body weight (BW) of 420±15.0 kg, were randomly assigned according to a 2×2 factorial arrangement in a 4×4 Latin square design. The dietary treatments were untreated rice straw (RS) without EuO (T1) and with EuO (T2) supplementation, and 3% urea-treated rice straw (UTRS) without EuO (T3) and with EuO (T4) supplementation. The EuO was supplemented at 2 mL/h/d in respective treatment. Experimental animals were kept in individual pens and concentrate mixture was offered at 3 g/kg BW while roughage was fed ad libitum. Total dry matter and roughage intake, and apparent digestibilites of organic matter and neutral detergent fiber were improved (p<0.01) by UTRS. There was no effect of EuO supplementation on feed intake and nutrient digestibility. Ruminal pH and temperature were not (p>0.05) affected by either roughage sources or EuO supplementation. However, buffaloes fed UTRS had higher ruminal ammonia nitrogen and blood urea nitrogen as compared with RS. Total volatile fatty acid and butyrate proportion were similar among treatments, whereas acetate was decreased and propionate molar proportion was increased by EuO supplementation. Feeding UTRS resulted in lower acetate and higher propionate concentration compared to RS. Moreover, supplementation of EuO reduced methane production especially in UTRS treatment. Protozoa populations were reduced by EuO supplementation while fungi zoospores remained the same. Total, amylolytic and cellulolytic bacterial populations were increased (p<0.01) by UTRS; However, EuO supplementation did not affect viable bacteria. Nitrogen intake and in feces were found higher in buffaloes fed UTRS. A positive nitrogen balance (absorption and retention) was in buffaloes fed UTRS. Supplementation of EuO did

  17. Effects of eucalyptus crude oils supplementation on rumen fermentation, microorganism and nutrient digestibility in swamp buffaloes.

    PubMed

    Thao, N T; Wanapat, M; Cherdthong, A; Kang, S

    2014-01-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the effects of eucalyptus (E. Camaldulensis) crude oils (EuO) supplementation on voluntary feed intake and rumen fermentation characteristics in swamp buffaloes. Four rumen fistulated swamp buffaloes, body weight (BW) of 420±15.0 kg, were randomly assigned according to a 2×2 factorial arrangement in a 4×4 Latin square design. The dietary treatments were untreated rice straw (RS) without EuO (T1) and with EuO (T2) supplementation, and 3% urea-treated rice straw (UTRS) without EuO (T3) and with EuO (T4) supplementation. The EuO was supplemented at 2 mL/h/d in respective treatment. Experimental animals were kept in individual pens and concentrate mixture was offered at 3 g/kg BW while roughage was fed ad libitum. Total dry matter and roughage intake, and apparent digestibilites of organic matter and neutral detergent fiber were improved (p<0.01) by UTRS. There was no effect of EuO supplementation on feed intake and nutrient digestibility. Ruminal pH and temperature were not (p>0.05) affected by either roughage sources or EuO supplementation. However, buffaloes fed UTRS had higher ruminal ammonia nitrogen and blood urea nitrogen as compared with RS. Total volatile fatty acid and butyrate proportion were similar among treatments, whereas acetate was decreased and propionate molar proportion was increased by EuO supplementation. Feeding UTRS resulted in lower acetate and higher propionate concentration compared to RS. Moreover, supplementation of EuO reduced methane production especially in UTRS treatment. Protozoa populations were reduced by EuO supplementation while fungi zoospores remained the same. Total, amylolytic and cellulolytic bacterial populations were increased (p<0.01) by UTRS; However, EuO supplementation did not affect viable bacteria. Nitrogen intake and in feces were found higher in buffaloes fed UTRS. A positive nitrogen balance (absorption and retention) was in buffaloes fed UTRS. Supplementation of EuO did

  18. Perturbation of cellular immune functions in cigarette smokers and protection by palm oil vitamin E supplementation

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Cigarette smoke contains free radicals and an have adverse effect to the immune system. Supplementation of palm oil vitamin E (palmvitee), is known has antioxidant properties is thought to be beneficial for system immune protection against free radicals activity. The objective of the study was to determine the effect of palmvitee supplementation on immune response in smokers. Methods This study involved a group of smokers and nonsmokers who received 200 mg/day palmvitee and placebo for the control group. Blood samples were taken at 0, 12 and 24 weeks of supplementation. Plasma tocopherol and tocotrienol were determined by HPLC, lymphocyte proliferation by lymphocyte transformation test (LTT) and enumeration of lymphocytes T and B cells by flow cytometry. Statistical analysis was performed by Mann–Whitney U-test for non-parametric data distribution and correlation among the variables was examined by Spearman. Results Plasma tocopherol and tocotrienol were increased in vitamin E supplemented group as compared to placebo group. Urine cotinine levels and serum α1-antitrypsin were significantly higher in smokers compared to nonsmokers. Lymphocyte proliferation induced by PHA showed an increasing trend with palmvitee supplementation in both smokers and nonsmokers. Natural killer cells were decreased; CD4+ cells and B cells were increased in smokers compared to nonsmokers but were unaffected with vitamin E supplementation except in the percentage of B cells which were increased in nonsmokers supplemented palmvitee compared to placebo. CD4+/CD8+ ratio was increased in smokers compared to nonsmokers. The high TWBC count observed in smokers correlated with the increased CD4+ and B cells. Conclusions Smoking caused alterations in certain immune parameters and palmvitee supplementation tended to cause an increase in lymphocytes transformation test but had no effect on CD3+, CD4+, CD8+, NK cells and B cells except B cells percentage in nonsmokers. PMID

  19. Fatty acid profiles, growth, and immune responses of neonatal lambs fed milk replacer and supplemented with fish oil or safflower oil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Diets supplemented with long-chain, n-3 (e.g., marine fish oil) polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) have improved the health and performance of neonatal and growing animals. This study was conducted with lambs that were orphaned at approximately 1 day of age to determine whether supplementing milk re...

  20. Constraints to commercialization of algal fuels.

    PubMed

    Chisti, Yusuf

    2013-09-10

    Production of algal crude oil has been achieved in various pilot scale facilities, but whether algal fuels can be produced in sufficient quantity to meaningfully displace petroleum fuels, has been largely overlooked. Limitations to commercialization of algal fuels need to be understood and addressed for any future commercialization. This review identifies the major constraints to commercialization of transport fuels from microalgae. Algae derived fuels are expensive compared to petroleum derived fuels, but this could change. Unfortunately, improved economics of production are not sufficient for an environmentally sustainable production, or its large scale feasibility. A low-cost point supply of concentrated carbon dioxide colocated with the other essential resources is necessary for producing algal fuels. An insufficiency of concentrated carbon dioxide is actually a major impediment to any substantial production of algal fuels. Sustainability of production requires the development of an ability to almost fully recycle the phosphorous and nitrogen nutrients that are necessary for algae culture. Development of a nitrogen biofixation ability to support production of algal fuels ought to be an important long term objective. At sufficiently large scale, a limited supply of freshwater will pose a significant limitation to production even if marine algae are used. Processes for recovering energy from the algal biomass left after the extraction of oil, are required for achieving a net positive energy balance in the algal fuel oil. The near term outlook for widespread use of algal fuels appears bleak, but fuels for niche applications such as in aviation may be likely in the medium term. Genetic and metabolic engineering of microalgae to boost production of fuel oil and ease its recovery, are essential for commercialization of algal fuels. Algae will need to be genetically modified for improved photosynthetic efficiency in the long term. PMID:23886651

  1. Effects of herbal essential oil mixture as a dietary supplement on egg production in quail.

    PubMed

    Çabuk, Metin; Eratak, Serdar; Alçicek, Ahmet; Bozkurt, Mehmet

    2014-01-01

    One hundred and eighty 7-week-old laying quail were fed various diets over a 12-week period. The diets included a control diet (without essential oil mixture (EOM) or antibiotics (ANTs)), a basal diet including EOM (24 mg/kg feed), and a basal diet including an ANT (avilamycin, 10 mg/kg feed). Each treatment comprised 4 replications with 4 cages (15 quail per cage), amounting to 60 quail per treatment group. Diets (in mash form) and water were provided for ad libitum consumption. EOM consisted of 6 different essential oils derived from the following herbs: oregano (Origanum sp.), laurel leaf (Laurus nobilis L.), sage leaf (Salvia triloba L.), myrtle leaf (Myrtus communis), fennel seeds (Foeniculum vulgare), and citrus peel (Citrus sp.). In comparison with the control diet, adding supplements such as EOM and ANTs to the basal diet increased egg production in quail (P < 0.001). However, egg production was similar between EOM and ANT treatment groups. Moreover, there were no differences between the treatment groups with regard to egg weight. Feed intake was not affected by EOM or ANT supplementation, whereas feed conversion ratio was significantly improved by EOM and ANT supplementation. Thus, we concluded that EOM has beneficial effects as a dietary supplement on egg production and feed conversion ratio. PMID:24587729

  2. Effects of Herbal Essential Oil Mixture as a Dietary Supplement on Egg Production in Quail

    PubMed Central

    Çabuk, Metin; Eratak, Serdar; Alçicek, Ahmet; Bozkurt, Mehmet

    2014-01-01

    One hundred and eighty 7-week-old laying quail were fed various diets over a 12-week period. The diets included a control diet (without essential oil mixture (EOM) or antibiotics (ANTs)), a basal diet including EOM (24 mg/kg feed), and a basal diet including an ANT (avilamycin, 10 mg/kg feed). Each treatment comprised 4 replications with 4 cages (15 quail per cage), amounting to 60 quail per treatment group. Diets (in mash form) and water were provided for ad libitum consumption. EOM consisted of 6 different essential oils derived from the following herbs: oregano (Origanum sp.), laurel leaf (Laurus nobilis L.), sage leaf (Salvia triloba L.), myrtle leaf (Myrtus communis), fennel seeds (Foeniculum vulgare), and citrus peel (Citrus sp.). In comparison with the control diet, adding supplements such as EOM and ANTs to the basal diet increased egg production in quail (P < 0.001). However, egg production was similar between EOM and ANT treatment groups. Moreover, there were no differences between the treatment groups with regard to egg weight. Feed intake was not affected by EOM or ANT supplementation, whereas feed conversion ratio was significantly improved by EOM and ANT supplementation. Thus, we concluded that EOM has beneficial effects as a dietary supplement on egg production and feed conversion ratio. PMID:24587729

  3. DNA Methylation Pattern in Overweight Women under an Energy-Restricted Diet Supplemented with Fish Oil

    PubMed Central

    do Amaral, Cátia Lira; Milagro, Fermín I.; Curi, Rui; Martínez, J. Alfredo

    2014-01-01

    Dietary factors modulate gene expression and are able to alter epigenetic signatures in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC). However, there are limited studies about the effects of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA) on the epigenetic mechanisms that regulate gene expression. This research investigates the effects of n-3-rich fish oil supplementation on DNA methylation profile of several genes whose expression has been reported to be downregulated by n-3 PUFA in PBMC: CD36, FFAR3, CD14, PDK4, and FADS1. Young overweight women were supplemented with fish oil or control in a randomized 8-week intervention trial following a balanced diet with 30% energy restriction. Fatty acid receptor CD36 decreased DNA methylation at CpG +477 due to energy restriction. Hypocaloric diet-induced weight loss also reduced the methylation percentages of CpG sites located in CD14, PDK4, and FADS1. The methylation patterns of these genes were only slightly affected by the fish oil supplementation, being the most relevant to the attenuation of the weight loss-induced decrease in CD36 methylation after adjusting by baseline body weight. These results suggest that the n-3 PUFA-induced changes in the expression of these genes in PBMC are not mediated by DNA methylation, although other epigenetic mechanisms cannot be discarded. PMID:24579084

  4. Does supplemental 18:0 alleviate fish oil-induced milk fat depression in dairy ewes?

    PubMed

    Toral, P G; Hervás, G; Carreño, D; Frutos, P

    2016-02-01

    Supplementation of dairy ewe diet with marine lipids may be an effective strategy for modulating milk fatty acid composition but induces milk fat depression (MFD). This syndrome has been associated with a shortage of 18:0 for uptake and Δ(9)-desaturation that may impair the capacity of the mammary gland to achieve an adequate fluidity for milk fat secretion. On this basis, it was suggested that supplemental 18:0 may contribute to alleviate marine lipid-induced MFD in sheep. To test this hypothesis, 12 lactating ewes were allocated to 1 of 3 lots and used in a 3×3 Latin square design with 3 periods of 28 d each and 3 experimental treatments: a total mixed ration without lipid supplementation (control) or supplemented with 20 g/kg of DM of fish oil alone (FO) or in combination with 20 g/kg of DM of 18:0 (FOSA). Diets were offered ad libitum, and animal performance and rumen and milk fatty acid composition were studied at the end of each period. After completing the Latin square trial and following a change-over design, the in vivo digestibility of supplemental 18:0 was estimated using 6 lactating sheep. As expected, diet supplementation with fish oil increased the milk content of some potentially health-promoting fatty acids (e.g., cis-9,trans-11 18:2, trans-11 18:1, 20:5n-3, 22:5n-3, and 22:6n-3), but reduced milk fat concentration and yield (-20% in both FO and FOSA treatments). Thus, although reductions in milk 18:0 and cis-9 18:1 output caused by FO (-81 and -51%, respectively) were partially reversed with FOSA diet (-49 and -27%, respectively), the addition of 18:0 to the diet did not prove useful to alleviate MFD. This response, which could not be fully accounted for by the low digestibility coefficient of supplemental 18:0, may challenge the theory of a shortage of this fatty acid as a mechanism to explain fish oil-induced MFD in sheep. Effects of FO and FOSA on rumen and milk fatty acid composition would support that increases in the concentration of some

  5. Intervention with flaxseed and borage oil supplements modulates skin condition in women.

    PubMed

    De Spirt, Silke; Stahl, Wilhelm; Tronnier, Hagen; Sies, Helmut; Bejot, Marie; Maurette, Jean-Marc; Heinrich, Ulrike

    2009-02-01

    Ingestion of selected nutrients modulates dermal properties. In the present study, two groups of women ingested flaxseed or borage oil for 12 weeks. The control group received a placebo containing medium-chain fatty acids. Dose was 2.2 g total fatty acids/d with alpha-linolenic acid and linoleic acid as major constituents in the flaxseed oil group; in the borage oil group linoleic and gamma-linolenic acid were predominant. In the flaxseed oil group, the contribution of alpha-linolenic acid to total fatty acids in plasma was significantly increased on weeks 6 and 12, whereas there was an increase in gamma-linolenic acid in the borage oil group (P < 0.05). Skin irritation was performed by nicotinate treatment, and changes in skin reddening and blood flow were monitored. Compared to week 0, skin reddening was diminished in both groups; blood flow was also lowered. Skin hydration was significantly increased after 12 weeks of treatment compared to week 0, with flaxseed or borage oil (P < 0.05). Transepidermal water loss was decreased in both oil groups by about 10 % after 6 weeks of supplementation. A further decrease was determined after 12 weeks in the flaxseed oil group. Surface evaluation of living skin revealed that roughness and scaling of the skin were significantly decreased with flaxseed and borage oil comparing week 0 and week 12 (P < 0.05). Except for hydration, none of the parameters was affected in the placebo group. The present data provide evidence that skin properties can be modulated by an intervention with dietary lipids. PMID:18761778

  6. Milk cytokines and subclinical breast inflammation in Tanzanian women: effects of dietary red palm oil or sunflower oil supplementation

    PubMed Central

    Filteau, S M; Lietz, G; Mulokozi, G; Bilotta, S; Henry, C J K; Tomkins, A M

    1999-01-01

    Previously, we have found that subclinical breast inflammation, as indicated by raised breastmilk concentrations of sodium and the inflammatory cytokine, interleukin-8 (IL-8), was highly prevalent in Bangladesh and associated with poor infant growth. In order to investigate further the prevalence of subclinical breast inflammation and to assess the impact of dietary intervention, we studied rural Tanzanian women taking part in a study of dietary sunflower or red palm oil supplementation during late pregnancy and lactation. We measured breastmilk concentrations of IL-8, the anti-inflammatory cytokine, transforming growth factor-β2 (TGF-β) and the ratio of sodium to potassium. We also estimated systemic inflammation by plasma concentrations of the acute phase proteins, α1-acid glycoprotein and C-reactive protein. There were highly significant intercorrelations among milk Na/K ratio and concentrations of IL-8 and TGF-β, the last only after treatment with bile salts which also improved TGF-β recovery in the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Plasma acute phase protein concentrations tended to correlate with milk Na/K ratio and IL-8, suggesting that subclinical breast inflammation was related to systemic inflammation. Dietary supplementation with vitamin E-rich sunflower oil but not provitamin A-containing red palm oil decreased milk Na/K, IL-8 and TGF-β at 3 months postpartum; however, the effect was significant only for Na/K ratio. The results suggest that milk Na/K ratio, IL-8, and TGF-β all measure the same phenomenon of subclinical breast inflammation but that Na/K ratio, having the lowest assay variability, is the most useful. Subclinical breast inflammation may result in part from systemic inflammation and may be improved by increased dietary intake of vitamin E-rich sunflower oil. PMID:10457212

  7. Effect of Supplementing Diets of Anglo-Nubian Goats with Soybean and Flaxseed Oils on Lactational Performance.

    PubMed

    Kholif, Ahmed E; Morsy, Tarek A; Abd El Tawab, Ahmed M; Anele, Uchenna Y; Galyean, Michael L

    2016-08-10

    We studied the effect of soybean or flaxseed oil feeding in the diets of lactating Anglo-Nubian goats. A total of 20 goats (33.6 ± 0.6 kg) were divided into four treatments and fed a basal diet of berseem clover and concentrates (40:60 DM basis; control) or the control diet supplemented with either 20 mL/day of flaxseed oil or soybean oil or 10 mL of soybean oil plus 10 mL of flaxseed oil per day for 12 weeks (i.e., 22 to 23 g per kg of DM intake). Oil inclusion decreased ruminal pH (P < 0.05), and acetate but increased (P < 0.05) total volatile fatty acids and molar proportion of propionate and blood glucose (P < 0.01). In addition, increased milk yield and decreased milk-fat contents were evident (P < 0.05) with oil supplementation. Diets containing oil increased (P < 0.05) unsaturated fatty acids (FA), conjugated linoleic acid, and the athrogenicity index of milk fat but decreased saturated FA concentrations. It is concluded that soybean-oil or flaxseed-oil supplementation of goats at 20 mL/day increased feed utilization and milk production. PMID:27415418

  8. Effect of Cocoa Butter and Sunflower Oil Supplementation on Performance, Immunoglobulin, and Antioxidant Vitamin Status of Rats

    PubMed Central

    Çınar, Miyase; Yalçınkaya, İlkay; Atmaca, Nurgül; Güncüm, Enes

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of cocoa butter and sunflower oil alone and in combination on performance, some biochemical parameters, immunoglobulin, and antioxidant vitamin status in Wistar rats. Forty-eight male rats were assigned to four groups, consisting of 12 rats with 3 replicates. Control received balanced rat diet without oil, cocoa butter group received 3.5% cocoa butter, sunflower oil group received 3.5% sunflower oil, the last group received 1.75% sunflower oil + 1.75% cocoa butter supplementation in the rat diet for 8 weeks. The total feed consumption in sunflower oil group was statistically lower than in the other groups. The serum creatinine level was decreased in cocoa butter group compared to control. Triglyceride and VLDL cholesterol levels were decreased in only sunflower oil and only cocoa butter groups as compared to control. The level of Ig M was statistically lower in cocoa butter and cocoa butter + sunflower oil groups than in control and sunflower oil groups. There were no statistically important difference in vitamin concentrations among trial groups. It was concluded that the supplementation of cocoa butter in diet decreased Ig M level, while the supplementation of cocoa butter and sunflower oil alone decreased the triglyceride and VLDL cholesterol levels. PMID:25136602

  9. Fish oil supplements in New Zealand are highly oxidised and do not meet label content of n-3 PUFA.

    PubMed

    Albert, Benjamin B; Derraik, José G B; Cameron-Smith, David; Hofman, Paul L; Tumanov, Sergey; Villas-Boas, Silas G; Garg, Manohar L; Cutfield, Wayne S

    2015-01-01

    We evaluated the quality and content of fish oil supplements in New Zealand. All encapsulated fish oil supplements marketed in New Zealand were eligible for inclusion. Fatty acid content was measured by gas chromatography. Peroxide values (PV) and anisidine values (AV) were measured, and total oxidation values (Totox) calculated. Only 3 of 32 fish oil supplements contained quantities of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) that were equal or higher than labelled content, with most products tested (69%) containing <67%. The vast majority of supplements exceeded recommended levels of oxidation markers. 83% products exceeded the recommended PV levels, 25% exceeded AV thresholds, and 50% exceeded recommended Totox levels. Only 8% met the international recommendations, not exceeding any of these indices. Almost all fish oil supplements available in the New Zealand market contain concentrations of EPA and DHA considerably lower than claimed by labels. Importantly, the majority of supplements tested exceeded the recommended indices of oxidative markers. Surprisingly, best-before date, cost, country of origin, and exclusivity were all poor markers of supplement quality. PMID:25604397

  10. Insomnia and exacerbation of anxiety associated with high-EPA fish oil supplements after successful treatment of depression.

    PubMed

    Blanchard, Lauren B; McCarter, Gordon C

    2015-03-01

    A 54-year-old male consulted his general practitioner for increasing general anxiety and mild panic attacks despite effective treatment for recurrent major depressive disorder, which included a fish oil supplement enriched in eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA). The patient would awaken suddenly at night with shortness of breath and overwhelming worry. During the daytime, he felt a general, nonspecific anxiety and frequently experienced sympathetic activation upon confronting routine challenges. He also experienced dyspnea-induced feelings of panic. He reported that he stopped taking the fish oil supplements after several more months of symptoms, and his anxiety and insomnia then largely disappeared. Several weeks later, he resumed consumption of high-EPA fish oil at the prior dosage for 2 days. On both nights, the patient reported nighttime awakening similar to the previous episodes, followed by daytime agitation. Since halting the fish oil supplements, the anxiety and insomnia have not returned and his depression remains in remission. PMID:26634135

  11. Effect of Arachidonic Acid-enriched Oil Diet Supplementation on the Taste of Broiler Meat

    PubMed Central

    Takahashi, H.; Rikimaru, K.; Kiyohara, R.; Yamaguchi, S.

    2012-01-01

    To elucidate the relationship between the arachidonic acid (AA) content and the taste of broiler meat, the effects of AA-enriched oil (AAO) supplements on the fatty acid content and sensory perceptions of thigh meat were evaluated. Four types of oil, including corn oil (CO), a 1:1 mixture of AAO and palm oil (PO) (1/2 AAO), a 1:3 mixture of AAO and PO (1/4 AAO), and a 1:7 mixture of AAO and PO (1/8 AAO) were prepared. Each type of oil was mixed with silicate at a ratio of 7:3, and added to the diet at a final proportion of 5% of fresh matter. Broiler chickens were fed these diets for 1 wk before slaughter. In thigh meat, the AA content of the 1/2 and 1/4 AAO groups was significantly higher than that of the CO group. The AA content in thigh meat (y, mg/g) increased linearly with increasing dietary AAO content (x, g/100 g of diet), according to the equation y = 0.5674+0.4596× (r2 = 0.8454). The content of other fatty acids was not significantly different among the 4 diet groups. Sensory evaluation showed that the flavor intensity, umami (L-glutamate taste), kokumi (continuity, mouthfulness, and thickness), and aftertaste of the 1/2 and 1/4 AAO groups were significantly higher than that of the CO group. There were significant positive correlations between AA content in thigh meat and the flavor intensity, total taste intensity, umami, and aftertaste. These data suggest that the taste of broiler meat can be improved by the amount of dietary AA supplementation. PMID:25049636

  12. Protective effect of clove oil-supplemented fish diets on experimental Lactococcus garvieae infection in tilapia.

    PubMed

    Rattanachaikunsopon, Pongsak; Phumkhachorn, Parichat

    2009-09-01

    The essential oils extracted from the four herbs, cinnamon (Cinnamomum verum), clove (Syzygium aromaticum), ginger (Zingiber officinale) and holy basil (Ocimum sanctum), were investigated for their antimicrobial activity and mode of action against Lactococcus garvieae, a fish pathogenic bacteria causing lactococcosis. Of all the tested oils, clove oil had the strongest inhibitory effect and exhibited a bactericidal mode of action against the pathogenic bacterium. When an intraperitoneal infection of tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) with L. garvieae was performed, the median lethal dose (LD(50)) was determined to be 1.78x10(2) CFU/fish. For an in vivo trial, no mortality was apparent in fish fed on the fish diets supplemented with 3% (w/w) of clove oil and with 0.5% (w/w) of oxytetracycline 5 d prior to the infection with L. garvieae. These results indicate that clove oil had a protective effect on experimental L. garvieae infection in tilapia and the potential to replace antibiotics for controlling the disease. PMID:19734665

  13. Estimation of Potential Availability of Essential Oil in Some Brands of Herbal Teas and Herbal Dietary Supplements

    PubMed Central

    Kowalski, Radosław; Baj, Tomasz; Kowalska, Grażyna; Pankiewicz, Urszula

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The aim of the study was to estimate potential availability of essential oil in some brands of herbal products. Methods A comparison was performed on the basis of the essential oil yield in the unprocessed raw materials such as leaves of peppermint and lemon balm and inflorescence of chamomile as well as herbal tea bags and in dietary supplements. The yield of essential oil was determined by distillation. Essential oil was analyzed by GC-FID and GC-MS. Results It was found that the average potential availability of essential oils in the products such as dietary supplements for the doses recommended by the producers is lower than in the corresponding tea infusions: for peppermint formulations approximately 6-fold lower, for the formulations with lemon balm about 4-fold lower, and for the chamomile preparations about 3-fold lower. It was found that essential oils extracted from herbal teas have a similar chemical profile with characteristic deviations in the amount of individual components, which arise from the origin of the raw material. Discussion In contrast to homogenous pharmaceutical herbal mixtures consistent with, the Pharmacopoeia requirements, herbal teas (available in grocery stores) and dietary supplements are often out of control in terms of the yield and composition of the essential oil, which is primarily responsible for the health benefits and aromatic qualities of these products. Analysis of the composition of the dietary supplements showed that they contain on average significantly lower amounts of plant material compared to the herbal teas. PMID:26110869

  14. Purification and characterization of solvent tolerant lipase from Bacillus sp. for methyl ester production from algal oil.

    PubMed

    Sivaramakrishnan, Ramachandran; Incharoensakdi, Aran

    2016-05-01

    Lipase from Bacillus sp. isolated from the oil contaminated soil was purified by ammonium sulphate precipitation and ion-exchange chromatography with a 5.1-fold purification and 10.5% yield. SDS-PAGE analysis of the enzyme revealed the molecular mass of 24 kDa. The optimum pH and temperature for lipase activity were 6.5 and 37°C, respectively. The isolated lipase was stimulated by pretreatment with methanol and ethanol as well as by divalent metal ions Ca(2+), Mg(2+) and Mn(2+). The enzyme showed high activity towards oleic rich oils. The enzyme immobilized on celite could retain 90% lipase activity after eight cycles. Transesterification of Botryococcus sp. oil using the immobilized enzyme for 40 h resulted in 80% yield of fatty acid methyl esters which had good properties for use as biodiesel. Overall results suggested that the solvent tolerant Bacillus lipase can be a potential biocatalyst for methyl ester production. PMID:26467697

  15. Efficacy of phytosterols and fish-oil supplemented high-oleic-sunflower oil rich diets in hypercholesterolemic growing rats.

    PubMed

    Alsina, Estefania; Macri, Elisa V; Lifshitz, Fima; Bozzini, Clarisa; Rodriguez, Patricia N; Boyer, Patricia M; Friedman, Silvia M

    2016-06-01

    Phytosterols (P) and fish-oil (F) efficacy on high-oleic-sunflower oil (HOSO) diets were assessed in hypercholesterolemic growing rats. Controls (C) received a standard diet for 8 weeks; experimental rats were fed an atherogenic diet (AT) for 3 weeks, thereafter were divided into four groups fed for 5 weeks a monounsaturated fatty acid diet (MUFA) containing either: extra virgin olive oil (OO), HOSO or HOSO supplemented with P or F. The diets did not alter body weight or growth. HOSO-P and HOSO-F rats showed reduced total cholesterol (T-chol), non-high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (non-HDL-chol) and triglycerides and increased HDL-chol levels, comparably to the OO rats. Total body fat (%) was similar among all rats; but HOSO-F showed the lowest intestinal, epididymal and perirenal fat. However, bone mineral content and density, and bone yield stress and modulus of elasticity were unchanged. Growing hypercholesterolemic rats fed HOSO with P or F improved serum lipids and fat distribution, but did not influence material bone quality. PMID:26983467

  16. Virgin Coconut Oil Supplementation Prevents Bone Loss in Osteoporosis Rat Model

    PubMed Central

    Hayatullina, Zil; Muhammad, Norliza; Mohamed, Norazlina; Soelaiman, Ima-Nirwana

    2012-01-01

    Oxidative stress and free radicals have been implicated in the pathogenesis of osteoporosis. Therefore, antioxidant compounds have the potential to be used in the prevention and treatment of the disease. In this study, we investigated the effects of virgin coconut oil (VCO) on bone microarchitecture in a postmenopausal osteoporosis rat model. VCO is a different form of coconut oil as it is rich with antioxidants. Three-month-old female rats were randomly grouped into baseline, sham-operated, ovariectomized control (Ovx), and ovariectomized rats fed with 8% VCO in their diet for six weeks (Ovx+VCO). Bone histomorphometry of the right femora was carried out at the end of the study. Rats supplemented with VCO had a significantly greater bone volume and trabecular number while trabecular separation was lower than the Ovx group. In conclusion, VCO was effective in maintaining bone structure and preventing bone loss in estrogen-deficient rat model. PMID:23024690

  17. Supplementation of postmenopausal women with fish oil does not increase overall oxidation of LDL ex vivo compared to dietary oils rich in oleate and linoleate.

    PubMed

    Higdon, J V; Du, S H; Lee, Y S; Wu, T; Wander, R C

    2001-03-01

    Although replacement of dietary saturated fat with monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids (MUFA and PUFA) has been advocated for the reduction of cardiovascular disease risk, diets high in PUFA could increase low density lipoprotein (LDL) susceptibility to oxidation, potentially contributing to the pathology of atherosclerosis. To investigate this possibility, 15 postmenopausal women in a blinded crossover trial consumed 15 g of sunflower oil (SU) providing 12.3 g/day of oleate, safflower oil (SA) providing 10.5 g/day of linoleate, and fish oil (FO) providing 2.0 g/day of eicosapentaenoate (EPA) and 1.4 g/day of docosahexaenoate (DHA). During CuSO(4)-mediated oxidation, LDL was depleted of alpha-tocopherol more rapidly after FO supplementation than after supplementation with SU (P = 0.0001) and SA (P = 0.05). In LDL phospholipid and cholesteryl ester fractions, loss of n-3 PUFA was greater and loss of n-6 PUFA less after FO supplementation than after SU and SA supplementation (P < 0.05 for all), but loss of total PUFA did not differ. The lag phase for phosphatidylcholine hydroperoxide (PCOOH) formation was shorter after FO supplementation than after supplementation with SU (P = 0.0001) and SA (P = 0.006), whereas the lag phase for cholesteryl linoleate hydroperoxide (CE18:2OOH) formation was shorter after FO supplementation than after SU (P = 0.03) but not SA. In contrast, maximal rates of PCOOH and CE18:2OOH formation were lower after FO supplementation than after SA (P = 0.02 and 0.0001, respectively) and maximal concentrations of PCOOH and CE18:2OOH were lower after FO supplementation than after SA (P = 0.03 and 0.0006, respectively). Taken together, our results suggest that FO supplementation does not increase the overall oxidation of LDL ex vivo, especially when compared with SA supplementation. Consequently, health benefits related to increased fish consumption may not be offset by increased LDL oxidative susceptibility.-- Higdon, J. V., S. H. Du, Y

  18. Effects of diets supplemented by fish oil on sex ratio of pups in bitch.

    PubMed

    Gharagozlou, Faramarz; Youssefi, Reza; Akbarinejad, Vahid

    2016-01-01

    The present study was conducted to evaluate the effect of fish oil supplementation prior to mating on secondary sex ratio of pups (the proportion of males at birth) in bitches. Sixty five bitches (German Shepherd, n = 35; Husky, n = 30) were enrolled in the study. Bitches (140-150 days post-estrus) were given 2% per dry matter intake palm oil and fish oil in the control (n = 33) and treatment (n = 32) groups, respectively. To induce estrus, bitches were received equine chorionic gonadotropin (eCG) administration (50 IU kg(-1)) 30 days after nutritional supplementation followed by human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) administration (500 IU per dog) seven days later. Bitches were introduced to dogs of the same breed after hCG administration. The weight of bitches was increased over time (p < 0.05), but their weight change was not different between two groups (p > 0.05). The mating rate, pregnancy rate and litter size were not influenced by treatment and breed. Secondary sex ratio was higher in the treatment (105/164; 64.00%) than in the control (68/147; 46.30%) group (p < 0.05; adjusted odds ratio = 2.068). Moreover, secondary sex ratio was higher in Husky bitches (88/141; 62.40%) compared to German Shepherd (85/170; 50.00%; p < 0.05; adjusted odds ratio = 1.661). In conclusion, the present study showed that inclusion of fish oil in the diet of bitches prior to mating could increase the proportion of male pups at birth. In addition, it appears that there might be variation among dog breeds with regard to the sex ratio of offspring. PMID:27482354

  19. Effects of diets supplemented by fish oil on sex ratio of pups in bitch

    PubMed Central

    Gharagozlou, Faramarz; Youssefi, Reza; Akbarinejad, Vahid

    2016-01-01

    The present study was conducted to evaluate the effect of fish oil supplementation prior to mating on secondary sex ratio of pups (the proportion of males at birth) in bitches. Sixty five bitches (German Shepherd, n = 35; Husky, n = 30) were enrolled in the study. Bitches (140-150 days post-estrus) were given 2% per dry matter intake palm oil and fish oil in the control (n = 33) and treatment (n = 32) groups, respectively. To induce estrus, bitches were received equine chorionic gonadotropin (eCG) administration (50 IU kg-1) 30 days after nutritional supplementation followed by human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) administration (500 IU per dog) seven days later. Bitches were introduced to dogs of the same breed after hCG administration. The weight of bitches was increased over time (p < 0.05), but their weight change was not different between two groups (p > 0.05). The mating rate, pregnancy rate and litter size were not influenced by treatment and breed. Secondary sex ratio was higher in the treatment (105/164; 64.00%) than in the control (68/147; 46.30%) group (p < 0.05; adjusted odds ratio = 2.068). Moreover, secondary sex ratio was higher in Husky bitches (88/141; 62.40%) compared to German Shepherd (85/170; 50.00%; p < 0.05; adjusted odds ratio = 1.661). In conclusion, the present study showed that inclusion of fish oil in the diet of bitches prior to mating could increase the proportion of male pups at birth. In addition, it appears that there might be variation among dog breeds with regard to the sex ratio of offspring. PMID:27482354

  20. Fish Oil Supplementation Enhances Pulmonary Strength and Endurance in Women Undergoing Chemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Suzumura, Doris Naoko; Schleder, Juliana Carvalho; Appel, Marcia Helena; Naliwaiko, Katya; Tanhoffer, Ricardo; Fernandes, Luiz Claudio

    2016-01-01

    We investigated the effect of fish oil (FO) supplementation, at 4 g/day, on the respiratory performance and blood lipid profile of 32 patients with breast cancer at the beginning of chemotherapy. They were randomized into two groups: control (C) and FO supplemented (S). Both groups underwent three respiratory evaluations and blood harvest (before chemotherapy-Day 0, and 30 and 60 days after supplementation). The S group showed a significant increase in the maximal inspiratory and expiratory pressure (P ≤ 0.05 vs. Day 0) and in the maximum voluntary ventilation (P ≤ 0.05). In the treadmill 6-min-walk test, the S group had a significant increase in the walked distance (P ≤ 0.05). Blood lactate concentration was significantly lower in the S group after 60 days, at rest, when compared to C (P ≤ 0.05). Plasma high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol concentration remained the same after 60 days of supplementation, while in the C group, it decreased significantly (P ≤ 0.05 Day 0 vs. Day 60). Triacylglycerol (TAG) plasma concentration in the S group was lower when compared to the C group (P ≤ 0.05 Day 60S vs. Day 60). Supplementation with FO caused improvement in the respiratory muscle strength and endurance, ameliorated functional performance, and kept TAG, HDL cholesterol, and lactate plasma concentration at normal levels. PMID:27340931

  1. Algal biofuels: challenges and opportunities.

    PubMed

    Leite, Gustavo B; Abdelaziz, Ahmed E M; Hallenbeck, Patrick C

    2013-10-01

    Biodiesel production using microalgae is attractive in a number of respects. Here a number of pros and cons to using microalgae for biofuels production are reviewed. Algal cultivation can be carried out using non-arable land and non-potable water with simple nutrient supply. In addition, algal biomass productivities are much higher than those of vascular plants and the extractable content of lipids that can be usefully converted to biodiesel, triacylglycerols (TAGs) can be much higher than that of the oil seeds now used for first generation biodiesel. On the other hand, practical, cost-effective production of biofuels from microalgae requires that a number of obstacles be overcome. These include the development of low-cost, effective growth systems, efficient and energy saving harvesting techniques, and methods for oil extraction and conversion that are environmentally benign and cost-effective. Promising recent advances in these areas are highlighted. PMID:23499181

  2. Maternal fish oil supplementation in pregnancy: a 12 year follow-up of a randomised controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Meldrum, Suzanne; Dunstan, Janet A; Foster, Jonathan K; Simmer, Karen; Prescott, Susan L

    2015-03-01

    A number of trials have been undertaken to assess whether the intake of omega-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 LCPUFA) during pregnancy can influence the neurological development of the offspring, yet no consensus from these trials has been reached. We aimed to investigate the long-term effects (12 years) of fish oil supplementation in pregnancy on neurodevelopment, including cognition, language and fine motor skills. In a follow up of a previously published randomised controlled trial of 98 pregnant women, their children were assessed at 12 years of age using a battery of neurodevelopmental assessments. Fifty participants were assessed at 12 years, with 25 participant's mothers receiving fish oil supplementation, and 25 receiving control capsules. There were no significant differences for any of the assessment measures completed. Our data indicate that fish oil supplementation during pregnancy does not influence the cognition, language or fine motor skills of children in late primary school (12 years of age). PMID:25803546

  3. A krill oil supplemented diet suppresses hepatic steatosis in high-fat fed rats.

    PubMed

    Ferramosca, Alessandra; Conte, Annalea; Burri, Lena; Berge, Kjetil; De Nuccio, Francesco; Giudetti, Anna Maria; Zara, Vincenzo

    2012-01-01

    Krill oil (KO) is a dietary source of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, mainly represented by eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid bound to phospholipids. The supplementation of a high-fat diet with 2.5% KO efficiently prevented triglyceride and cholesterol accumulation in liver of treated rats. This effect was accompanied by a parallel reduction of the plasma levels of triglycerides and glucose and by the prevention of a plasma insulin increase. The investigation of the molecular mechanisms of KO action in high-fat fed animals revealed a strong decrease in the activities of the mitochondrial citrate carrier and of the cytosolic acetyl-CoA carboxylase and fatty acid synthetase, which are both involved in hepatic de novo lipogenesis. In these animals a significant increase in the activity of carnitine palmitoyl-transferase I and in the levels of carnitine was also observed, suggesting a concomitant stimulation of hepatic fatty acid oxidation. The KO supplemented animals also retained an efficient mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation, most probably as a consequence of a KO-induced arrest of the uncoupling effects of a high-fat diet. Lastly, the KO supplementation prevented an increase in body weight, as well as oxidative damage of lipids and proteins, which is often found in high-fat fed animals. PMID:22685607

  4. Rapid analytical method for the determination of aflatoxins in plant-derived dietary supplement and cosmetic oils.

    PubMed

    Mahoney, Noreen; Molyneux, Russell J

    2010-04-14

    Consumption of edible oils derived from conventional crop plants is increasing because they are generally regarded as healthier alternatives to animal-based fats and oils. More recently, there has been increased interest in the use of alternative specialty plant-derived oils, including those from tree nuts (almonds, pistachios, and walnuts) and botanicals (borage, evening primrose, and perilla) both for direct human consumption (e.g., as salad dressings) and for the preparation of cosmetics, soaps, and fragrance oils. This has raised the issue as to whether or not exposure to aflatoxins can result from such oils. Although most crops are subject to analysis and control, it has generally been assumed that plant oils do not retain aflatoxins due to the high polarity and lipophobicity of these compounds. There is virtually no scientific evidence to support this supposition, and available information is conflicting. To improve the safety and consistency of botanicals and dietary supplements, research is needed to establish whether or not oils used directly, or in the formulation of products, contain aflatoxins. A validated analytical method for the analysis of aflatoxins in plant-derived oils is essential to establish the safety of dietary supplements for consumption or cosmetic use that contain such oils. The aim of this research was therefore to develop an HPLC method applicable to a wide variety of oils from different plant sources spiked with aflatoxins, thereby providing a basis for a comprehensive project to establish an intra- and interlaboratory validated analytical method for the analysis of aflatoxins in dietary supplements and cosmetics formulated with plant oils. PMID:20235534

  5. A Rapid Analytical Method for Determination of Aflatoxins in Plant-Derived Dietary Supplement and Cosmetic Oils

    PubMed Central

    Mahoney, Noreen; Molyneux, Russell J.

    2010-01-01

    Consumption of edible oils derived from conventional crop plants is increasing because they are generally regarded as more healthy alternatives to animal based fats and oils. More recently there has been increased interest in the use of alternative specialty plant-derived oils, including those from tree nuts (almonds, pistachios and walnuts) and botanicals (borage, evening primrose and perilla) both for direct human consumption (e.g. as salad dressings) but also for preparation of cosmetics, soaps, and fragrance oils. This has raised the issue as to whether or not exposure to aflatoxins can result from such oils. Although most crops are subject to analysis and control, it has generally been assumed that plant oils do not retain aflatoxins due to their high polarity and lipophobicity of these compounds. There is virtually no scientific evidence to support this supposition and available information is conflicting. To improve the safety and consistency of botanicals and dietary supplements, research is needed to establish whether or not oils used directly, or in the formulation of products, contain aflatoxins. A validated analytical method for the analysis of aflatoxins in plant-derived oils is essential, in order to establish the safety of dietary supplements for consumption or cosmetic use that contain such oils. The aim of this research was therefore to develop an HPLC method applicable to a wide variety of oils from different plant sources spiked with aflatoxins, thereby providing a basis for a comprehensive project to establish an intra- and inter-laboratory validated analytical method for analysis of aflatoxins in dietary supplements and cosmetics formulated with plant oils. PMID:20235534

  6. Evaluation of immune markers in asymptomatic AIDS patients receiving fish oil supplementation.

    PubMed

    Virgili, N; Farriol, M; Castellanos, J M; Giró, M; Podzamczer, D; A M, P

    1997-10-01

    The effects of oral fish oil (FO) supplementation (8 g/day, capsules) on nutritional status and selected immune markers (CD4/CD8 ratio, IL-1beta, erythrocyte MDA release, dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate [DHEA-S]) were studied in a homogeneous group of asymptomatic HIV-infected patients during 6 weeks. All subjects were classified clinically as A2 according to the CDC revised criteria (mean CD4 count 290 +/-123 cells/mm(3)) and were receiving zidovudine retroviral treatment. The calculated mean energy intake was 3437 +/- 372 Kcal/d, composed of 14% protein, 38% lipids and 48% carbohydrates, and was not modified during the study. The anthropometric parameters, and hematological and plasma biochemistry data showed non-significant changes after FO supplementation. Mean malonyldialdehyde (MDA) release before treatment was: unstimulated 71.5 +/- 37 and stimulated 350.9 +/- 79.8 nmol/g Hb. After FO supplementation (T(6)) MDA release showed unstimulated values of 96.1 +/- 62, and a significant increase after stimulation of 614.1 106.4 nmol/g Hb, which was, however, within the normal range. In the patient's samples, IL-1beta levels in the unstimulated blood culture showed a statistical increase with respect to the normal range before (T(0)) and after (T(6)) FO supplementation with a slight decrease after (mean 49.8 vs 40.9 pg/ml). The stimulated IL-1beta levels after treatment showed a statistically significant decrease that was maintained within the normal range (T(0): 797.7 vs T(6): 535.6 pg/ml). Taken collectively, these results suggest a tendency toward improvement in immune function. PMID:16844605

  7. Fish oil supplementation reduces severity of exercise-induced bronchoconstriction in elite athletes.

    PubMed

    Mickleborough, Timothy D; Murray, Rachael L; Ionescu, Alina A; Lindley, Martin R

    2003-11-15

    In elite athletes, exercise-induced bronchoconstriction (EIB) may respond to dietary modification, thereby reducing the need for pharmacologic treatment. Ten elite athletes with EIB and 10 elite athletes without EIB (control subjects) participated in a randomized, double-blind crossover study. Subjects entered the study on their normal diet, and then received either fish oil capsules containing 3.2 g eicosapentaenoic acid and 2.2 g docohexaenoic acid (n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid [PUFA] diet; n = 5) or placebo capsules containing olive oil (placebo diet; n = 5) taken daily for 3 weeks. Diet had no effect on preexercise pulmonary function in either group or on postexercise pulmonary function in control subjects. However, in subjects with EIB, the n-3 PUFA diet improved postexercise pulmonary function compared with the normal and placebo diets. FEV1 decreased by 3 +/- 2% on n-3 PUFA diet, 14.5 +/- 5% on placebo diet, and 17.3 +/- 6% on normal diet at 15 minutes postexercise. Leukotriene (LT)E4, 9alpha, 11beta-prostaglandin F2, LTB4, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, and interleukin-1beta, all significantly decreased on the n-3 PUFA diet compared with normal and placebo diets and after the exercise challenge. These data suggest that dietary fish oil supplementation has a markedly protective effect in suppressing EIB in elite athletes, and this may be attributed to their antiinflammatory properties. PMID:12904324

  8. Psyllium husk fiber supplementation to the diets rich in soybean or coconut oil: hypocholesterolemic effect in healthy humans.

    PubMed

    Ganji, V; Kies, C V

    1996-03-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of psyllium husk fiber supplementation to the diets of soybean and coconut oil on serum lipids in normolipidemic humans. A 28-day study was divided into four 7-day experimental periods. Dietary periods were soybean oil (SO), soybean oil plus psyllium fiber (SO + PF), coconut oil (CO) and coconut oil plus psyllium fiber (CO + PF), and were arranged to a randomized cross over design. Ten subjects consumed controlled diet containing 30% fat calories (20% from test oils and 10% from controlled diet) and 20 g per day of psyllium during fiber supplementation periods. SO + PF diet significantly reduced serum cholesterol compared with SO diet (P < 0.001). CO + PF diet significantly reduced serum cholesterol compared with CO diet (P < 0.014). Hypocholesterolemic response was greater with SO + PF compared with CO + PF (0.36 mmol 1(-1) vs 0.31 mmol 1(-1)). Reductions in low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol and apolipoprotein (apo) B were parallel to reductions of serum cholesterol. SO diet decreased, while CO diet increased serum cholesterol, LDL cholesterol and apo B. Very-low density lipoprotein cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and apo A-1 were unaffected by psyllium fiber and saturation of fat. Reduction of serum cholesterol was due to reduction of LDL cholesterol. Psyllium fiber supplementation lowered serum cholesterol regardless of saturation level of dietary fat. PMID:8833174

  9. Fish oil supplementation decreases oxidative stress but does not affect platelet-activating factor bioactivity in lungs of asthmatic rats.

    PubMed

    Zanatta, A L; Miranda, D T S Z; Dias, B C L; Campos, R M; Massaro, M C; Michelotto, P V; West, A L; Miles, E A; Calder, P C; Nishiyama, A

    2014-07-01

    Dietary fish oil supplementation increases the content of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) in cellular membranes. The highly unsaturated nature of n-3 PUFA could result in an enhanced lipid peroxidation in the oxidative environment characteristic of asthma. The oxidative reaction cascade culminates in an increased production of components associated to oxidative stress and of an important proinflammatory mediator platelet-activating factor (PAF)-like lipid. We evaluated the effect of fish oil supplementation in asthmatic rats upon the PAF bioactivity and parameters related to oxidative stress in the lung. Fish oil supplementation of asthmatic rats resulted in lower concentrations of nitrite (1.719 ± 0.137 vs. 2.454 ± 0.163 nmol/mL) and lipid hydroperoxide (72.190 ± 7.327 vs. 120.200 ± 11.270 nmol/mg protein). In asthmatic animals, fish oil increased the activities of superoxide dismutase (EC 1.15.1.1) (33.910 ± 2.325 vs. 24.110 ± 0.618 U/mg protein) and glutathione peroxidase (EC 1.11.1.9) (164.100 ± 31.250 vs. 12.590 ± 5.234 U/mg protein). However, fish oil did not affect PAF bioactivity in lung tissue of asthmatic rats (0.545 ± 0.098 340/380 vs. 0.669 ± 0.101 340/380 nm ratio). Considering the two-step process--oxidative stress and PAF bioactivity--fish oil exhibited a divergent action on these aspects of asthmatic inflammation, since the supplement lowered oxidative stress in the lungs of asthmatic rats, presenting an antioxidant effect, but did not affect PAF bioactivity. This suggests a dual effect of fish oil on oxidative stress and inflammation in asthma. PMID:24858941

  10. Improving lipids with prescription icosapent ethyl after previous use of fish oil dietary supplements.

    PubMed

    Reddy, Kota J; Chowdhury, Sumita

    2016-05-01

    Managing dyslipidemia can be challenging in patients with statin intolerance. We describe the lipid effects of icosapent ethyl 4 g/day (high-purity prescription omega-3 eicosapentaenoic acid) in two coronary artery disease patients with statin intolerance who were self-treating with fish oil dietary supplements. After initiating icosapent ethyl, improvements were noted in the first and second patients, respectively, in total cholesterol (-12%; -21%), LDL cholesterol (-3%; -24%), triglycerides (-34%; -16%), non-HDL cholesterol (-12%; -22%), the omega-3 index (+42%; +8%) and eicosapentaenoic acid levels (+275%; +138%). Icosapent ethyl was well tolerated with no adverse events reported. These cases demonstrated favorable lipid effects with prescription icosapent ethyl treatment that may help optimize the care of high-risk coronary artery disease patients with statin intolerance. PMID:27070379

  11. The contribution of bacteria to algal growth by carbon cycling.

    PubMed

    Bai, Xue; Lant, Paul; Pratt, Steven

    2015-04-01

    Algal mass production in open systems is often limited by the availability of inorganic carbon substrate. In this paper, we evaluate how bacterial driven carbon cycling mitigates carbon limitation in open algal culture systems. The contribution of bacteria to carbon cycling was determined by quantifying algae growth with and without supplementation of bacteria. It was found that adding heterotrophic bacteria to an open algal culture dramatically enhanced algae productivity. Increases in algal productivity due to supplementation of bacteria of 4.8 and 3.4 times were observed in two batch tests operating at two different pH values over 7 days. A kinetic model is proposed which describes carbon limited algal growth, and how the limitation could be overcome by bacterial activity to re-mineralize photosynthetic end products. PMID:25312046

  12. EFFECT OF MENHADEN FISH OIL SUPPLEMENTATION AND STARTER DIET COMPLEXITY ON THE PERFORMANCE AND IMMUNE RESPONSE OF NURSERY PIGS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A trial using 64 weanling pigs (TR4 x PIC C22) was conducted to determine the effects of menhaden fish oil supplementation and diet complexity on performance and immune response of nursery pigs. Pigs (17 d and 6.27±1.16 kg) were weaned into a SEW facility and given free access to a complex diet for...

  13. 75 FR 7440 - Oil and Gas Leasing on Lands Administered by the Dixie National Forest, Supplemental Information...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-19

    ...The USDA Forest Service announces the availability of an additional information report to the Oil and Gas Leasing on Lands Administered by the Dixie National Forest Final Environmental Impact Statement (FEIS). The purpose of this supplemental report is to provide additional analysis and disclosure on the effects of the proposed action on air resources and climate change and to provide the......

  14. Sunflower Oil Supplementation Has Proinflammatory Effects and Does Not Reverse Insulin Resistance in Obesity Induced by High-Fat Diet in C57BL/6 Mice

    PubMed Central

    Masi, Laureane Nunes; Martins, Amanda Roque; Neto, José César Rosa; do Amaral, Cátia Lira; Crisma, Amanda Rabello; Vinolo, Marco Aurélio Ramirez; de Lima Júnior, Edson Alves; Hirabara, Sandro Massao; Curi, Rui

    2012-01-01

    High consumption of polyunsaturated fatty acids, such as sunflower oil has been associated to beneficial effects in plasma lipid profile, but its role on inflammation and insulin resistance is not fully elucidated yet. We evaluated the effect of sunflower oil supplementation on inflammatory state and insulin resistance condition in HFD-induced obese mice. C57BL/6 male mice (8 weeks) were divided in four groups: (a) control diet (CD), (b) HFD, (c) CD supplemented with n-6 (CD + n-6), and (d) HFD supplemented with n-6 (HFD + n-6). CD + n-6 and HFD + n-6 were supplemented with sunflower oil by oral gavage at 2 g/Kg of body weight, three times per week. CD and HFD were supplemented with water instead at the same dose. HFD induced whole and muscle-specific insulin resistance associated with increased inflammatory markers in insulin-sensitive tissues and macrophage cells. Sunflower oil supplementation was not efficient in preventing or reducing these parameters. In addition, the supplementation increased pro-inflammatory cytokine production by macrophages and tissues. Lipid profile, on the other hand, was improved with the sunflower oil supplementation in animals fed HFD. In conclusion, sunflower oil supplementation improves lipid profile, but it does not prevent or attenuate insulin resistance and inflammation induced by HFD in C57BL/6 mice. PMID:22988427

  15. Soft cheese supplemented with black cumin oil: Impact on food borne pathogens and quality during storage

    PubMed Central

    Hassanien, Mohamed Fawzy Ramadan; Mahgoub, Samir A.; El-Zahar, Kahled M.

    2013-01-01

    Black cumin seed oil (BCSO) was tested for its inhibitory effect against some pathogenic bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 6538, Escherichia coli ATCC 8739, Listeria monocytogenes Scott A and Salmonella enteritidis PT4) in Domiati cheese during cold storage. Physical, chemical and sensorial changes in cheese during storage were recorded. Pasteurized milk was inoculated before renneting with a mixed culture of bacteria at ca. 4 log CFU mL−1. In vitro and in situ supplementation with BCSO showed antimicrobial impact on the growth of S. aureus, E. coli, L. monocytogenes and S. enteritidis inoculated into media and cheese samples. Supplementing of cheese with BCSO (0.1% or 0.2%, w/w) significantly reduced the counts of the inoculated pathogens by ca. 1.3 log and 1.5 log CFU g−1 after 21 days of storage. In addition, BCSO controlled the development of titratable acidity, limited the changes in ripening indices, flavor components and kept considerable physicochemical and sensorial properties of cheese. PMID:24955014

  16. Effects of Linseed Oil or Whole Linseed Supplementation on Performance and Milk Fatty Acid Composition of Lactating Dairy Cows

    PubMed Central

    Suksombat, Wisitiporn; Thanh, Lam Phuoc; Meeprom, Chayapol; Mirattanaphrai, Rattakorn

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effects of linseed oil or whole linseed supplementation on performance and milk fatty acid composition of lactating dairy cows. Thirty six Holstein Friesian crossbred lactating dairy cows were blocked by milking days first and then stratified random balanced for milk yields and body weight into three groups of 12 cows each. The treatments consisted of basal ration (53:47; forage:concentrate ratio, on a dry matter [DM] basis, respectively) supplemented with 300 g/d of palm oil as a positive control diet (PO), or supplemented with 300 g/d of linseed oil (LSO), or supplemented with 688 g/d of top-dressed whole linseed (WLS). All cows were received ad libitum grass silage and individually fed according to the treatments. The experiment lasted for 10 weeks including the first 2 weeks as the adjustment period, followed by 8 weeks of measurement period. The results showed that LSO and WLS supplementation had no effects on total dry matter intake, milk yield, milk composition, and live weight change; however, the animals fed WLS had higher crude protein (CP) intake than those fed PO and LSO (p<0.05). To compare with the control diet, dairy cow’s diets supplemented with LSO and WLS significantly increased milk concentrations of cis-9, trans-11-conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) (p<0.05) and n-3 fatty acids (FA) (p<0.01), particularly, cis-9,12,15-C18:3, C20:5n-3 and C22:6n-3. Supplementing LSO and WLS induced a reduction of medium chain FA, especially, C12:0-C16:0 FA (p<0.05) while increasing the concentration of milk unsaturated fatty acids (UFA) (p<0.05). Milk FA proportions of n-3 FA remarkably increased whereas the ratio of n-6 to n-3 decreased in the cows supplemented with WLS as compared with those fed the control diet and LSO (p<0.01). In conclusion, supplementing dairy cows’ diet based on grass silage with WLS had no effect on milk yield and milk composition; however, trans-9- C18:1, cis-9, trans-11-CLA, n-3 FA and

  17. High dose flaxseed oil supplementation may affect fasting blood serum glucose management in human type 2 diabetics.

    PubMed

    Barre, Douglas E; Mizier-Barre, Kazimiera A; Griscti, Odette; Hafez, Kevin

    2008-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes is characterized partially by elevated fasting blood serum glucose and insulin concentrations and the percentage of hemoglobin as HbA1c. It was hypothesized that each of blood glucose and its co-factors insulin and HbA1c and would show a more favorable profile as the result of flaxseed oil supplementation. Patients were recruited at random from a population pool responding to a recruitment advertisement in the local newspaper and 2 area physicians. Completing the trial were 10 flaxseed oil males, 8 flaxseed oil females, 8 safflower (placebo) oil males and 6 safflower oil females. Patients visited on two pre-treatment occasions each three months apart (visits 1 and 2). At visit 2 subjects were randomly assigned in double blind fashion and in equal gender numbers to take flaxseed oil or safflower oil for three further months until visit 3. Oil consumption in both groups was approximately 10 g/d. ALA intake in the intervention group was approximately 5.5 g/d. Power was 0.80 to see a difference of 1 mmol of glucose /L using 12 subjects per group with a p < 0.05. Flaxseed oil had no impact on fasting blood serum glucose, insulin or HbA1c levels. It is concluded that high doses of flaxseed oil have no effect on glycemic control in type 2 diabetics. PMID:18391475

  18. Dietary supplementation with Lovaza and krill oil shortens the life span of long-lived F1 mice.

    PubMed

    Spindler, Stephen R; Mote, Patricia L; Flegal, James M

    2014-06-01

    Marine oils rich in ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids have been recommended as a preventive treatment for patients at risk for cardiovascular diseases. These oils also are the third most consumed dietary supplement in the USA. However, evidence for their health benefits is equivocal. We tested the daily, isocaloric administration of krill oil (1.17 g oil/kg diet) and Lovaza (Omacor; 4.40 g/kg diet), a pharmaceutical grade fish oil, beginning at 12 months of age, on the life span and mortality-related pathologies of long-lived, male, B6C3F1 mice. The oils were incorporated into the chemically defined American Institute of Nutrition (AIN)-93 M diet. An equivalent volume of soybean oil was removed. Krill oil was 3 % and Lovaza 11 % of the oil in the diets. When their effects were analyzed together, the marine oils significantly shortened life span by 6.6 % (P = 0.0321; log-rank test) relative to controls. Individually, Lovaza and krill oil non-significantly shortened median life span by 9.8 and 4.7 %, respectively. Lovaza increased the number of enlarged seminal vesicles (7.1-fold). Lovaza and krill oil significantly increased lung tumors (4.1- and 8.2-fold) and hemorrhagic diathesis (3.9- and 3.1-fold). Analysis of serum from treated mice found that Lovaza slightly increased blood urea nitrogen, while krill oil modestly increased bilirubin, triglycerides, and blood glucose levels. Taken together, the results do not support the idea that the consumption of isolated ω-3 fatty acid-rich oils will increase the life span or health of initially healthy individuals. PMID:24816553

  19. Effect of fish oil supplementation and exercise on serum lipids and aerobic fitness.

    PubMed

    Brilla, L R; Landerholm, T E

    1990-06-01

    The effects of fish oil supplementation and exercise were investigated in healthy, previously sedentary males, ages 19-34. Thirty-two subjects were assigned to four groups: control (C), fish (F), exercise (E), fish and exercise (FE). The fish groups consumed 4 g.d-1 of omega-3 fatty acids. The exercise groups performed aerobic exercise for one hour three per week. The study was conducted for 10 weeks with pre and post values obtained for cholesterol, triglycerides, HDL-cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, maximal oxygen consumption (VO2max), ventilatory anaerobic threshold (VAT), percent body fat, and dietary composition of macronutrients and polyunsaturated to saturated fat (P:S) ratio. No significant differences were noted between groups for any of the blood lipid values, percent body fat or dietary variables. VO2max and VAT did exhibit significant changes among groups. VO2max was greater for the exercise groups (E, FE) as compared to the control group (p less than 0.05). E, but not FE, was significantly greater than F. VAT was significantly greater in F, E, and FE as compared to controls, however the control's VAT decreased slightly. The slight improvement, although statistically non-significant, in VO2max and VAT by the F group requires further study. This data indicates an improvement in aerobic metabolism from aerobic exercise, alone or in combination with fish oil, compared to controls. PMID:2402138

  20. Effect of sunflower oil supplementation and milking frequency reduction on sheep milk production and composition.

    PubMed

    Prieto, N; Bodas, R; López-Campos, Ó; Andrés, S; López, S; Giráldez, F J

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of milking frequency reduction and dietary lipid supplementation on intake, BW, and milk yield and composition in high yielding dairy ewes. Ten lactating Assaf ewes were allocated into 2 experimental groups (n=5). Ewes were fed alfalfa hay ad libitum and 34 g·kg(-1) of BW of a concentrate feed with either 0 (Control group) or 43 g of sunflower oil·kg(-1) of DM (SO group). The experiment lasted 63 d and consisted of 3 periods. During Period 1 (from d 1 to 21), ewes were milked twice a day. During Period 2 (from d 22 to 49), ewes were unilaterally milked, so that each gland of each ewe was milked either once or twice daily. During Period 3 (from d 50 to the end of the experiment), both udder halves were again milked twice daily. Intake, BW, and milk composition were controlled weekly and milk production from each half udder was recorded twice a week. Total DM intake, BW, and milk yield in Period 1 were not significantly (P>0.10) affected by dietary treatments. Milk yield tended to be increased in the ewes fed the SO diet in periods 2 (P=0.093) and 3 (P=0.067). Oil supplementation (SO diet) significantly (P<0.05) decreased milk protein and total solids concentrations in the 3 experimental periods and fat content in Period 3, and tended (P=0.077) to decline fat content in Period 2. Lactose content and somatic cell count (SCC) were unaffected (P>0.10) by dietary lipid supplementation in any of the experimental periods. There were no significant (P>0.10) differences between half udders in milk yield and composition in Period 1, and in SCC in any of the experimental periods. Fat and total solids contents were unaffected (P>0.10) by reducing milking frequency. Nevertheless, milk protein content was increased (P<0.001) when glands were milked only once daily whereas milk yield and lactose content were decreased (P=0.001). The interaction between gland and diet was significant for lactose in Period 2, suggesting a

  1. Avocado oil supplementation modifies cardiovascular risk profile markers in a rat model of sucrose-induced metabolic changes.

    PubMed

    Carvajal-Zarrabal, Octavio; Nolasco-Hipolito, Cirilo; Aguilar-Uscanga, M Guadalupe; Melo-Santiesteban, Guadalupe; Hayward-Jones, Patricia M; Barradas-Dermitz, Dulce M

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of avocado oil administration on biochemical markers of cardiovascular risk profile in rats with metabolic changes induced by sucrose ingestion. Twenty-five rats were divided into five groups: a control group (CG; basic diet), a sick group (MC; basic diet plus 30% sucrose solution), and three other groups (MCao, MCac, and MCas; basic diet plus 30% sucrose solution plus olive oil and avocado oil extracted by centrifugation or using solvent, resp.). Glucose, total cholesterol, triglycerides, phospholipids, low- and high-density lipoproteins (LDL, HDL), very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL), lactic dehydrogenase, creatine kinase, and high sensitivity C-reactive protein concentration were analyzed. Avocado oil reduces TG, VLDL, and LDL levels, in the LDL case significantly so, without affecting HDL levels. An effect was exhibited by avocado oil similar to olive oil, with no significant difference between avocado oil extracted either by centrifugation or solvent in myocardial injury biochemical indicators. Avocado oil decreased hs-CRP levels, indicating that inflammatory processes were partially reversed. These findings suggested that avocado oil supplementation has a positive health outcome because it reduces inflammatory events and produces positive changes in the biochemical indicators studied, related to the development of metabolic syndrome. PMID:24719499

  2. Avocado Oil Supplementation Modifies Cardiovascular Risk Profile Markers in a Rat Model of Sucrose-Induced Metabolic Changes

    PubMed Central

    Carvajal-Zarrabal, Octavio; Nolasco-Hipolito, Cirilo; Aguilar-Uscanga, M. Guadalupe; Melo-Santiesteban, Guadalupe; Hayward-Jones, Patricia M.; Barradas-Dermitz, Dulce M.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of avocado oil administration on biochemical markers of cardiovascular risk profile in rats with metabolic changes induced by sucrose ingestion. Twenty-five rats were divided into five groups: a control group (CG; basic diet), a sick group (MC; basic diet plus 30% sucrose solution), and three other groups (MCao, MCac, and MCas; basic diet plus 30% sucrose solution plus olive oil and avocado oil extracted by centrifugation or using solvent, resp.). Glucose, total cholesterol, triglycerides, phospholipids, low- and high-density lipoproteins (LDL, HDL), very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL), lactic dehydrogenase, creatine kinase, and high sensitivity C-reactive protein concentration were analyzed. Avocado oil reduces TG, VLDL, and LDL levels, in the LDL case significantly so, without affecting HDL levels. An effect was exhibited by avocado oil similar to olive oil, with no significant difference between avocado oil extracted either by centrifugation or solvent in myocardial injury biochemical indicators. Avocado oil decreased hs-CRP levels, indicating that inflammatory processes were partially reversed. These findings suggested that avocado oil supplementation has a positive health outcome because it reduces inflammatory events and produces positive changes in the biochemical indicators studied, related to the development of metabolic syndrome. PMID:24719499

  3. The effect of an oral nutritional supplement enriched with fish oil on weight-loss in patients with pancreatic cancer.

    PubMed

    Barber, M D; Ross, J A; Voss, A C; Tisdale, M J; Fearon, K C

    1999-09-01

    Previous studies have suggested that administration of oral eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) will stabilize weight in patients with advanced pancreatic cancer. The aim of the present study was to determine if a combination of EPA with a conventional oral nutritional supplement could produce weight gain in these patients. Twenty patients with unresectable pancreatic adenocarcinoma were asked to consume two cans of a fish oil-enriched nutritional supplement per day in addition to their normal food intake. Each can contained 310 kcal, 16.1 g protein and 1.09 g EPA. Patients were assessed for weight, body composition, dietary intake, resting energy expenditure (REE) and performance status. Patients consumed a median of 1.9 cans day(-1). All patients were losing weight at baseline at a median rate of 2.9 kg month(-1). After administration of the fish oil-enriched supplement, patients had significant weight-gain at both 3 (median 1 kg, P= 0.024) and 7 weeks (median 2 kg, P = 0.033). Dietary intake increased significantly by almost 400 kcal day(-1) (P = 0.002). REE per kg body weight and per kg lean body mass fell significantly. Performance status and appetite were significantly improved at 3 weeks. In contrast to previous studies of oral conventional nutritional supplements in weight-losing cancer patients, this study suggests that an EPA-enriched supplement may reverse cachexia in advanced pancreatic cancer. PMID:10487616

  4. Effect of dietary supplementation with oregano essential oil on performance of broilers after experimental infection with Eimeria tenella.

    PubMed

    Giannenas, I; Florou-Paneri, P; Papazahariadou, M; Christaki, E; Botsoglou, N A; Spais, A B

    2003-04-01

    A study was carried out to examine the effect of dietary supplementation of oregano essential oil on performance of broiler chickens experimentally infected with Eimeria tenella at 14 days of age. A total of 120 day-old Cobb-500 chicks separated into 4 equal groups with three replicates each, were used in this study. Two groups, one infected with 5 x 10(4) sporulated oocysts of E. tenella and the other not, were given a basal diet and served as controls. The other two groups also infected with E. tenella were administered diets supplemented with oregano essential oil at a level of 300 mg/kg, or with the anticoccidial lasalocid at 75 mg/kg. Following this infection, survival rate, bloody diarrhoea and oocysts excretion as well as lesion score were determined. Throughout the experimental period of 42 days, body weight gain and feed intake were recorded weekly, and feed conversion ratios were calculated. Two weeks after the infection with E. tenella supplementation with dietary oregano oil resulted in body weight gains and feed conversion ratios not differing from the non-infected group, but higher than those of the infected control group and lower than those of the lasalocid group. These parameters correspond with the extent of bloody diarrhoea, survival rate, lesion score and oocyst numbers and indicated that oregano essential oil exerted an anticoccidial effect against E. tenella, which was, however, lower than that exhibited by lasalocid. PMID:12866780

  5. Characterization of the rumen lipidome and microbiome of steers fed a diet supplemented with flax and echium oil

    PubMed Central

    Huws, Sharon Ann; Kim, Eun Jun; Cameron, Simon J S; Girdwood, Susan E; Davies, Lynfa; Tweed, John; Vallin, Hannah; Scollan, Nigel David

    2015-01-01

    Developing novel strategies for improving the fatty acid composition of ruminant products relies upon increasing our understanding of rumen bacterial lipid metabolism. This study investigated whether flax or echium oil supplementation of steer diets could alter the rumen fatty acids and change the microbiome. Six Hereford × Friesian steers were offered grass silage/sugar beet pulp only (GS), or GS supplemented either with flax oil (GSF) or echium oil (GSE) at 3% kg−1 silage dry matter in a 3 × 3 replicated Latin square design with 21-day periods with rumen samples taken on day 21 for the analyses of the fatty acids and microbiome. Flax oil supplementation of steer diets increased the intake of polyunsaturated fatty acids, but a substantial degree of rumen biohydrogenation was seen. Likewise, echium oil supplementation of steer diets resulted in increased intake of 18:4n-3, but this was substantially biohydrogenated within the rumen. Microbiome pyrosequences showed that 50% of the bacterial genera were core to all diets (found at least once under each dietary intervention), with 19.10%, 5.460% and 12.02% being unique to the rumen microbiota of steers fed GS, GSF and GSE respectively. Higher 16S rDNA sequence abundance of the genera Butyrivibrio, Howardella, Oribacterium, Pseudobutyrivibrio and Roseburia was seen post flax feeding. Higher 16S rDNA abundance of the genus Succinovibrio and Roseburia was seen post echium feeding. The role of these bacteria in biohydrogenation now requires further study. PMID:25223749

  6. Characterization of the rumen lipidome and microbiome of steers fed a diet supplemented with flax and echium oil.

    PubMed

    Huws, Sharon Ann; Kim, Eun Jun; Cameron, Simon J S; Girdwood, Susan E; Davies, Lynfa; Tweed, John; Vallin, Hannah; Scollan, Nigel David

    2015-03-01

    Developing novel strategies for improving the fatty acid composition of ruminant products relies upon increasing our understanding of rumen bacterial lipid metabolism. This study investigated whether flax or echium oil supplementation of steer diets could alter the rumen fatty acids and change the microbiome. Six Hereford × Friesian steers were offered grass silage/sugar beet pulp only (GS), or GS supplemented either with flax oil (GSF) or echium oil (GSE) at 3% kg(-1) silage dry matter in a 3 × 3 replicated Latin square design with 21-day periods with rumen samples taken on day 21 for the analyses of the fatty acids and microbiome. Flax oil supplementation of steer diets increased the intake of polyunsaturated fatty acids, but a substantial degree of rumen biohydrogenation was seen. Likewise, echium oil supplementation of steer diets resulted in increased intake of 18:4n-3, but this was substantially biohydrogenated within the rumen. Microbiome pyrosequences showed that 50% of the bacterial genera were core to all diets (found at least once under each dietary intervention), with 19.10%, 5.460% and 12.02% being unique to the rumen microbiota of steers fed GS, GSF and GSE respectively. Higher 16S rDNA sequence abundance of the genera Butyrivibrio, Howardella, Oribacterium, Pseudobutyrivibrio and Roseburia was seen post flax feeding. Higher 16S rDNA abundance of the genus Succinovibrio and Roseburia was seen post echium feeding. The role of these bacteria in biohydrogenation now requires further study. PMID:25223749

  7. Dietary krill oil supplementation reduces hepatic steatosis, glycemia, and hypercholesterolemia in high-fat-fed mice.

    PubMed

    Tandy, Sally; Chung, Rosanna W S; Wat, Elaine; Kamili, Alvin; Berge, Kjetil; Griinari, Mikko; Cohn, Jeffrey S

    2009-10-14

    Krill oil (KO) is rich in n-3 fatty acids that are present in phospholipids rather than in triglycerides. In the present study, we investigated the effects of dietary KO on cardiometabolic risk factors in male C57BL/6 mice fed a high-fat diet. Mice (n = 6-10 per group) were fed for 8 weeks either: (1) a nonpurified chow diet (N); (2) a high-fat semipurified diet containing 21 wt % buttermilk + 0.15 wt % cholesterol (HF); (3) HF supplemented with 1.25 wt % KO (HFKO1.25); (4) HF with 2.5 wt % KO (HFKO2.5); or (5) HF with 5 wt % KO (HFKO5.0). Dietary KO supplementation caused a significant reduction in liver wt (i.e., hepatomegaly) and total liver fat (i.e., hepatic steatosis), due to a dose-dependent reduction in hepatic triglyceride (mean +/- SEM: 35 +/- 6, 47 +/- 4, and 51 +/- 5% for HFKO1.25, -2.5, and -5.0 vs HF, respectively, P < 0.001) and cholesterol (55 +/- 5, 66 +/- 3, and 71 +/- 3%, P < 0.001). Serum cholesterol levels were reduced by 20 +/- 3, 29 +/- 4, and 29 +/- 5%, and blood glucose was reduced by 36 +/- 5, 34 +/- 6, and 42 +/- 6%, respectively. Serum adiponectin was increased in KO-fed animals (HF vs HFKO5.0: 5.0 +/- 0.2 vs 7.5 +/- 0.6 microg/mL, P < 0.01). These results demonstrate that dietary KO is effective in improving metabolic parameters in mice fed a high-fat diet, suggesting that KO may be of therapeutic value in patients with the metabolic syndrome and/or nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. PMID:19761211

  8. Comparison of ruminal lipid metabolism in dairy cows and goats fed diets supplemented with starch, plant oil, or fish oil.

    PubMed

    Toral, P G; Bernard, L; Belenguer, A; Rouel, J; Hervás, G; Chilliard, Y; Frutos, P

    2016-01-01

    Direct comparison of cow and goat performance and milk fatty acid responses to diets known to induce milk fat depression (MFD) in the bovine reveals relevant species-by-diet interactions in ruminal lipid metabolism. Thus, this study was conducted to infer potential mechanisms responsible for differences in the rumen microbial biohydrogenation (BH) due to diet and ruminant species. To meet this objective, 12 cows and 15 goats were fed a basal diet (control), a similar diet supplemented with 2.2% fish oil (FO), or a diet containing 5.3% sunflower oil and additional starch (+38%; SOS) according to a 3 × 3 Latin square design with 25-d experimental periods. On the last day of each period, fatty acid composition (by gas chromatography) and bacterial community (by terminal-RFLP), as well as fermentation characteristics, were measured in rumen fluid samples. Results showed significant differences in the response of cows and goats to dietary treatments, although variations in some fermentation parameters (e.g., decreases in the acetate-to-propionate ratio due to FO or SOS) were similar in both species. Main alterations in ruminal BH pathways potentially responsible for MFD on the SOS diet (i.e., the shift from trans-11 to trans-10 18:1 and related increases in trans-10,cis-12 18:2) tended to be more pronounced in cows, which is consistent with an associated MFD only in this species. However, changes linked to FO-induced MFD (e.g., decreases in 18:0 and increases in total trans-18:1) were stronger in caprine rumen fluid, which may explain their unexpected susceptibility (although less marked than in bovine) to the negative effect of FO on milk fat content. Altogether, these results suggest that distinct ruminal mechanisms lead to each type of diet-induced MFD and confirm a pronounced interaction with species. With regard to microbiota, differences between cows and goats in the composition of the rumen bacterial community might be behind the disparity in the microorganisms

  9. The effects of coconut oil supplementation on the body composition and lipid profile of rats submitted to physical exercise.

    PubMed

    Resende, Nathália M; Félix, Henrique R; Soré, Murillo R; M M, Aníbal; Campos, Kleber E; Volpato, Gustavo T

    2016-05-13

    This study aims to verify the effects of coconut oil supplementation (COS) in the body composition and lipid profile of rats submitted to physical exercise. The animals (n=6 per group) were randomly assigned to: G1=Sedentary and Non-supplemented (Control Group), G2=Sedentary and Supplemented, G3=Exercised and Non-supplemented and G4=Exercised and Supplemented. The COS protocol used was 3 mL/Kg of body mass by gavage for 28 days. The physical exercise was the vertical jumping training for 28 days. It was determined the body mass parameters, Lee Index, blood glucose and lipid profile. The COS did not interfere with body mass, but the lean body mass was lower in G3 compared to G2. The final Lee Index classified G1 and G2 as obese (>30g/cm). The lipid profile showed total cholesterol was decreased in G3, LDL-c concentration was decreased in G2, triglycerides, VLDL-c and HDL-c concentrations were increased in G2 and G4 in relation to G1 and G3. The COS decreased LDL-c/HDL-c ratio. In conclusion, the COS associated or not to physical exercise worsen others lipid parameters, like triglycerides and VLDL-c level, showing the care with the use of lipid supplements. PMID:27192196

  10. Adult cardiorenal benefits from postnatal fish oil supplement in rat offspring of low-protein pregnancies.

    PubMed

    Catta-Preta, Mariana; Oliveira, Daniel Alves; Mandarim-de-Lacerda, Carlos Alberto; Aguila, Marcia Barbosa

    2006-12-23

    We investigated the effect of fish oil (FO) treatment on cardiorenal structure of adult offspring from low-protein pregnancies. Three month old offspring were assigned to eight groups (four male groups and four female groups, n=8 each) (NP=normal-protein diet, LP=low-protein diet): NP, LP, NP plus FO, and LP plus FO. Left ventricle and kidney were analyzed with light microscopy and stereology. The both sexes of LP offspring showed 30% lower birth weights than the respective NP offspring and high blood pressure (BP) levels in adulthood which was efficiently reduced by FO treatment. In the heart, FO treated the cardiomyocyte hypertrophy, the vascularization impairment, and decreased the cardiomyocyte loss usually observed in adult LP offspring. In the kidney, FO treated, in the male, the imbalance of the cortex-to-medulla ratio observed in both sexes of LP offspring, and reduced the glomeruli loss in the LP offspring. The positive correlation between the number of cardiomyocyte nuclei later in life and the body mass (BM) at birth was significant only in both sexes of LP offspring and this correlation disappeared in LP plus fish oil offspring. The positive correlation between the number of glomeruli later in life and the BM at birth was significant in NP male offspring and in both sexes of LP offspring. In conclusion, FO supplement, which is a rich source of n-3 fatty acids (DHA and EPA), has beneficial effects on BP control and cardiac and renal adverse remodeling usually seen in offspring of the LP pregnancies. PMID:17020772

  11. Krill oil supplementation increases plasma concentrations of eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acids in overweight and obese men and women.

    PubMed

    Maki, Kevin C; Reeves, Mathew S; Farmer, Mildred; Griinari, Mikko; Berge, Kjetil; Vik, Hogne; Hubacher, Rachel; Rains, Tia M

    2009-09-01

    Antarctic krill, also known as Euphausia superba, is a marine crustacean rich in both eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). We tested the hypothesis that krill oil would increase plasma concentrations of EPA and DHA without adversely affecting indicators of safety, tolerability, or selected metabolic parameters. In this randomized, double-blind parallel arm trial, overweight and obese men and women (N = 76) were randomly assigned to receive double-blind capsules containing 2 g/d of krill oil, menhaden oil, or control (olive) oil for 4 weeks. Results showed that plasma EPA and DHA concentrations increased significantly more (P < .001) in the krill oil (178.4 +/- 38.7 and 90.2 +/- 40.3 micromol/L, respectively) and menhaden oil (131.8 +/- 28.0 and 149.9 +/- 30.4 micromol/L, respectively) groups than in the control group (2.9 +/- 13.8 and -1.1 +/- 32.4 micromol/L, respectively). Systolic blood pressure declined significantly more (P < .05) in the menhaden oil (-2.2 +/- 2.0 mm Hg) group than in the control group (3.3 +/- 1.5 mm Hg), and the response in the krill oil group (-0.8 +/- 1.4 mm Hg) did not differ from the other 2 treatments. Blood urea nitrogen declined in the krill oil group as compared with the menhaden oil group (P < .006). No significant differences for other safety variables were noted, including adverse events. In conclusion, 4 weeks of krill oil supplementation increased plasma EPA and DHA and was well tolerated, with no indication of adverse effects on safety parameters. PMID:19854375

  12. Corn oil supplementation to steers grazing endophyte-free tall fescue. I. Effects on in vivo digestibility, performance, and carcass traits.

    PubMed

    Pavan, E; Duckett, S K; Andrae, J G

    2007-05-01

    Eighteen Angus steers (438 +/- 4 kg of BW) were supplemented with varying levels of corn oil (0 g/kg of BW, none; 0.75 g/kg of BW, MED; or 1.5 g/kg of BW, HI) on rotationally stocked, endophyte-free tall fescue to determine the effect of supplemental oil level on in vivo digestibility, intake, performance, and carcass traits. Pelleted cottonseed hulls were used as a carrier for the oil supplements, and all supplements were offered to steers using Calan gate feeders for individual intake determination. On d 49, each steer was dosed with a controlled-release capsule containing chromium sesquioxide, and fecal samples were obtained 12 d later over a 7-d period to estimate fecal output that, with forage, supplement, and fecal indigestible NDF concentration, was used to estimate DMI and in vivo total diet digestibility. Steers were slaughtered at the end of the 116-d grazing period, and carcass data were collected at 24 h postmortem. Total fatty acid intake linearly increased with corn oil supplementation, and forage DMI, total DMI, and total DE intake were linearly decreased (P < 0.01). The decrease in total DMI was reflected in forage substitution rates greater (P < or = 0.01) than 1, with a trend (P = 0.09) for a greater substitution rate in HI than in MED. In vivo DM, OM, and NDF digestibility were linearly decreased (P < 0.01) by corn oil supplementation. Average daily gain and final BW tended (P = 0.09) to increase linearly in response to oil level. Oil conversion (0.36 kg of BW gain/kg of corn oil) was greater (P < or = 0.05) than zero and did not differ (P = 0.15) between MED and HI. Dressing percent (P = 0.09), carcass weight (P = 0.01), and carcass backfat thickness (P = 0.01) increased linearly with oil supplementation. No treatment effect was observed for carcass LM area, KPH percentage, marbling score, or yield grade (P > 0.10). Oil supplementation to grazing steers linearly reduced forage DMI intake; however, animal performance was maintained and tended to

  13. Dietary olive oil supplemented with fish oil, rich in EPA and DHA (n-3) polyunsaturated fatty acids, attenuates colonic inflammation in rats with DSS-induced colitis.

    PubMed

    Camuesco, Desirée; Gálvez, Julio; Nieto, Ana; Comalada, Mònica; Rodríguez-Cabezas, M Elena; Concha, Angel; Xaus, Jordi; Zarzuelo, Antonio

    2005-04-01

    Previous studies proposed a protective role of the dietary intake of (n-3) PUFA in human inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), but almost no studies have been performed using olive oil. The aims of the present study were to test the beneficial effects of an olive oil-based diet with or without fish oil, rich in (n-3) PUFA, in the dextran sodium sulfate (DSS) model of rat colitis and to elucidate the mechanisms involved in their potential beneficial effects, with special attention to the production of some of the mediators involved in the intestinal inflammatory response, such as leukotriene B(4) (LTB(4)), tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFalpha) and nitric oxide (NO). Rats were fed the different diets for 2 wk before colitis induction and thereafter until colonic evaluation 15 d later. Colitic rats fed the olive oil-based diet had a lower colonic inflammatory response than those fed the soybean oil diet, and this beneficial effect was increased by the dietary incorporation of (n-3) PUFA. A restoration of colonic glutathione levels and lower colonic NO synthase expression occurred in all colitic rats fed an olive oil diet compared with the control colitic group that consumed the soybean oil diet. However, (n-3) PUFA incorporation into an olive oil diet significantly decreased colonic TNFalpha and LTB(4) levels compared with colitic rats that were not supplemented with fish oil. These results affirm the benefits of an olive oil diet in the management of IBD, which are further enhanced by the addition of (n-3) PUFA. PMID:15795419

  14. Effect of starch-based supplementation level combined with oil on intake, performance, and methane emissions of growing Nellore bulls on pasture.

    PubMed

    Neto, A Jose; Messana, J D; Ribeiro, A F; Vito, E S; Rossi, L G; Berchielli, T T

    2015-05-01

    Intake of tropical grass forages alone is generally insufficient to avoid nutrition imbalances and reduced animal performance; therefore, supplementation is often recommended. The hypothesis of the present study is that when combined with fat, soybean hulls (SH) could replace corn as a source of energy, reducing methane production without affecting animal performance. This study evaluated the effects of starch-based supplementation level combined with oil on intake, digestibility, performance, and methane emissions of growing Nellore bulls (P = 44; initial BW = 250.69 ± 27 kg) fed cv. Xaraés during the rainy season. There were no interactions between starch level and oil supplementation with regard to intake of DM (P = 0.67), forage DM (P = 0.55), supplement DM (P = 0.14), OM (P = 0.66), CP (P = 0.74), NDF (P = 0.50), ether extract (EE; = 0.47), and GE ( P= 0.68). The intake of EE was greater for animals supplemented with oil than those fed supplements without oil (P < 0.01). There were no interactions between starch level and oil supplementation on digestibility of DM (P= 0.18), OM (P = 0.11), NDF (P= 0.42), and EE (P = 0.14). Moreover, there was interaction between starch and oil supplementation on GE (P < 0.01). Independent of starch level used, the addition of oil decreased the digestibility of OM (P = 0.04) and NDF (P = 0.03). There were no main effects of starch level, oil, or interaction between starch and oil for initial BW (P = 0.10), final BW (P = 0.94), ADG (P = 0.40), feed efficiency (P= 0.37), and carcass gain (P = 0.38). There was no interaction between starch-based supplementation level and oil on methane emissions when expressed in grams per day (P = 0.77), kilograms per year (P = 0.77), grams per kilogram DMI (P = 0.53), and grams per kilogram carcass gain (P= 0.31). There was, however, an interaction (P = 0.04) between starch level and oil on methane emissions when corrected for NDF intake. Additionally, oil decreased enteric methane emission

  15. Omega-3 fatty acid profile of eggs from laying hens fed diets supplemented with chia, fish oil, and flaxseed.

    PubMed

    Coorey, Ranil; Novinda, Agnes; Williams, Hannah; Jayasena, Vijay

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of diets supplemented with fish oil, flaxseed, and chia seed on the omega-3 fatty acid composition and sensory properties of hens' eggs. No significant difference in yolk fat content was found between treatments. The fatty acid composition of egg yolk was significantly affected by the dietary treatments. Inclusion of chia at 300 g/kg into the diet produced eggs with the highest concentration of omega-3 fatty acid. Eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid were only detected in eggs from laying hens fed the diet supplemented with fish oil. Diet had a significant effect on color, flavor and overall acceptability of eggs. Types and levels of omega-3 fatty acids in feed influence the level of yolk omega-3 fatty acids in egg yolk. Inclusion of chia into the hens' diet significantly increased the concentration of yolk omega-3 fatty acid without significant change in sensory properties. PMID:25557903

  16. Effects of dietary cottonseed oil and tannin supplements on protein and fatty acid composition of bovine milk.

    PubMed

    Aprianita, Aprianita; Donkor, Osaana N; Moate, Peter J; Williams, S Richard O; Auldist, Martin J; Greenwood, Jae S; Hannah, Murray C; Wales, William J; Vasiljevic, Todor

    2014-05-01

    This experiment was conducted to determine the effects of diets supplemented with cottonseed oil, Acacia mearnsii-condensed tannin extract, and a combination of both on composition of bovine milk. Treatment diets included addition of cottonseed oil (800 g/d; CSO), condensed tannin from Acacia mearnsii (400 g/d; TAN) or a combination of cottonseed oil (800 g/d) and condensed tannin (400 g/d; CPT) with a diet consisting of 6·0 kg dry matter (DM) of concentrates and alfalfa hay ad libitum, which also served as the control diet (CON). Relative to the CON diet, feeding CSO and CPT diets had a minor impact on feed intake and yield of lactose in milk. These diets increased yields of milk and protein in milk. In contrast to the TAN diet, the CSO and CPT diets significantly decreased milk fat concentration and altered milk fatty acid composition by decreasing the proportion of saturated fatty acids but increasing proportions of monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids. The CPT diet had a similar effect to the CSO diet in modifying fatty acid profile. Overall, reduction in milk fat concentration and changes in milk fatty acid profile were probably due to supplementation of linoleic acid-rich cottonseed oil. The TAN diet had no effect on feed intake, milk yield and milk protein concentration. However, a reduction in the yields of protein and lactose occurred when cows were fed this diet. Supplemented tannin had no significant effect on fat concentration and changes in fatty acid profile in milk. All supplemented diets did not affect protein concentration or composition, nitrogen concentration, or casein to total protein ratio of the resulting milk. PMID:24594257

  17. Effect of dietary supplementation of essential oils mixture on performance, eggshell quality, hatchability, and mineral excretion in quail breeders.

    PubMed

    Olgun, Osman; Yıldız, Alp Önder

    2014-12-01

    The main aim of this study was to investigate the effect of six different levels (0, 50, 100, 200, 400, and 600 mg/kg) of phytogenic feed additive containing a mixture essential oils from thyme, black cumin, fennel, anise and rosemary on performance, eggshell quality, reproductive traits, and mineral excretion in quail breeders. In this trial, a total of 60 male and 120 female quails, 91 days old, were randomly distributed in six experimental groups. During the 60-day experiment period, birds were fed with six treatment diets. Performances, eggshell qualities, hatchability, and mineral excretion data were evaluated at the end of the experiment. Results showed that the different dietary levels of essential oil mixture had no significant effect on performance parameters, damaged eggs, eggshell weight, fertility, hatchability of fertile eggs, hatchability of set eggs, and lead and boron excretion. On the other hand, 50 mg/kg supplementation of essential oil mixture (EOM) significantly improved egg-breaking strength and eggshell thickness, and ash, calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, manganese, zinc, and cadmium excretion was significantly depressed in quail breeders supplemented with the two higher doses (400 or 600 mg/kg) of EOM. These results concluded that supplementing diets with EOM improved egg-breaking strength and decreased excretion of minerals in breeder quails. PMID:25012208

  18. Dietary supplementation of pyrroloquinoline quinone disodium protects against oxidative stress and liver damage in laying hens fed an oxidized sunflower oil-added diet.

    PubMed

    Wang, J; Zhang, H J; Xu, L; Long, C; Samuel, K G; Yue, H Y; Sun, L L; Wu, S G; Qi, G H

    2016-07-01

    The protective effects of dietary pyrroloquinoline quinone disodium (PQQ.Na2) supplementation against oxidized sunflower oil-induced oxidative stress and liver injury in laying hens were examined. Three hundred and sixty 53-week-old Hy-Line Gray laying hens were randomly allocated into one of the five dietary treatments. The treatments included: (1) a diet containing 2% fresh sunflower oil; (2) a diet containing 2% thermally oxidized sunflower oil; (3) an oxidized sunflower oil diet with 100 mg/kg of added vitamin E; (4) an oxidized sunflower oil diet with 0.08 mg/kg of PQQ.Na2; and (5) an oxidized sunflower oil diet with 0.12 mg/kg of PQQ.Na2. Birds fed the oxidized sunflower oil diet showed a lower feed intake compared to birds fed the fresh oil diet or oxidized oil diet supplemented with vitamin E (P=0.009). Exposure to oxidized sunflower oil increased plasma malondialdehyde (P<0.001), hepatic reactive oxygen species (P<0.05) and carbonyl group levels (P<0.001), but decreased plasma glutathione levels (P=0.006) in laying hens. These unfavorable changes induced by the oxidized sunflower oil diet were modulated by dietary vitamin E or PQQ.Na2 supplementation to levels comparable to the fresh oil group. Dietary supplementation with PQQ.Na2 or vitamin E increased the activities of total superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase in plasma and the liver, when compared with the oxidized sunflower oil group (P<0.05). PQQ.Na2 or vitamin E diminished the oxidized sunflower oil diet induced elevation of liver weight (P=0.026), liver to BW ratio (P=0.001) and plasma activities of alanine aminotransferase (P=0.001) and aspartate aminotransferase (P<0.001) and maintained these indices at the similar levels to the fresh oil diet. Furthermore, oxidized sunflower oil increased hepatic DNA tail length (P<0.05) and tail moment (P<0.05) compared with the fresh oil group. Dietary supplementation of PQQ.Na2 or vitamin E decreased the oxidized oil diet induced DNA tail length

  19. Replacement of fish oil with a DHA-rich algal meal derived from Schizochytrium sp. on the fatty acid and persistent organic pollutant levels in diets and flesh of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar, L.) post-smolts.

    PubMed

    Sprague, M; Walton, J; Campbell, P J; Strachan, F; Dick, J R; Bell, J G

    2015-10-15

    The replacement of fish oil (FO) with a DHA-rich Schizochytrium sp. algal meal (AM) at two inclusion levels (11% and 5.5% of diet) was tested in Atlantic salmon post-smolts compared to fish fed a FO diet of northern (NFO) or southern hemisphere (SFO) origin. Fish were preconditioned prior to the 19-week experimental feeding period to reduce long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid (LC-PUFA) and persistent organic pollutant levels (POPs). Dietary POP levels differed significantly between treatments in the order of NFO>SFO>11 AM/5.5 AM and were subsequently reflected in the flesh. Fish fed the 11 AM diet contained similar DHA levels (g 100 g(-1) flesh) to FO-fed fish, despite percentage differences. However, the low levels of EPA in the diets and flesh of algal-fed fish compromised the overall nutritional value to the final consumer. Nevertheless, further developments in microalgae culture offer a promising alternative lipid source of LC-PUFA to FO in salmon feeds that warrants further investigation. PMID:25952887

  20. Supplemental ultraviolet-B induced changes in essential oil composition and total phenolics of Acorus calamus L. (sweet flag).

    PubMed

    Kumari, Rima; Agrawal, S B; Singh, Suruchi; Dubey, N K

    2009-10-01

    The effect of supplemental UV-B radiation (sUV-B) was evaluated on the essential oil contents of sweet flag (Acorus calamus L.), a medicinal plant grown under natural field conditions. After the emergence of two leaves, plants were exposed to sUV-B radiation of 1.8 kJ m(-2) above the ambient level of UV-B. The level of essential oil and phenol contents increased with exposure to sUV-B. Exposure of sUV-B resulted in significant increase in p-cymene and carvacrol contents of essential oil. Decrease in the level of major component beta-asarone due to sUV-B treatment is of prime importance, because of its toxicological concern to human health. PMID:19321203

  1. Effect of supplementation with calcium salts of fish oil on n-3 fatty acids in milk fat.

    PubMed

    Castañeda-Gutiérrez, E; de Veth, M J; Lock, A L; Dwyer, D A; Murphy, K D; Bauman, D E

    2007-09-01

    Enrichment of milk fat with n-3 fatty acids, in particular eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), may be advantageous because of their beneficial effects on human health. In addition, these fatty acids play an important role in reproductive processes in dairy cows. Our objective was to evaluate the protection of EPA and DHA against rumen biohydrogenation provided by Ca salts of fish oil. Four Holstein cows were assigned in a Latin square design to the following treatments: 1) ruminal infusion of Ca salts of fish oil and palm fatty acid distillate low dose (CaFO-1), 2) ruminal infusion of Ca salts of fish oil and palm fatty acid distillate high dose (CaFO-2), 3) ruminal infusion of fish oil high dose (RFO), and 4) abomasal infusion of fish oil high dose (AFO). The high dose of fish oil provided approximately 16 and approximately 21 g/d of EPA and DHA, respectively, whereas the low dose (CaFO-1) provided 50% of these amounts. A 10-d pretreatment period was used as a baseline, followed by 9-d treatment periods with interceding intervals of 10 d. Supplements were infused every 6 h, milk samples were taken the last 3 d, and plasma samples were collected the last day of baseline and treatment periods. Milk fat content of EPA and DHA were 5 to 6 times greater with AFO, but did not differ among other treatments. Milk and milk protein yield were unaffected by treatment, but milk fat yield and DM intake were reduced by 20 and 15%, respectively, by RFO. Overall, results indicate rumen biohydrogenation of long chain n-3 fatty acids was extensive, averaging >85% for EPA and >75% for DHA for the Ca salts and unprotected fish oil supplements. Thus, Ca salts of fish oil offered no protection against the biohydrogenation of EPA and DHA beyond that observed with unprotected fish oil; however, the Ca salts did provide rumen inertness by preventing the negative effects on DM intake and milk fat yield observed with unprotected fish oil. PMID:17699033

  2. Enhanced cognitive function and antidepressant-like effects after krill oil supplementation in rats

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The purpose of the study was to evaluate the effects of krill oil (KO) on cognition and depression-like behaviour in rats. Methods Cognition was assessed using the Aversive Light Stimulus Avoidance Test (ALSAT). The Unavoidable Aversive Light Stimulus (UALST) and the Forced Swimming Test (FST) were used to evaluate the antidepressant-like effects of KO. Imipramine (IMIP) was used as the antidepressant reference substance. Results After 7 weeks of KO intake, both males and females treated with KO were significantly better in discriminating between the active and the inactive levers in the ALSAT from day 1 of training (p<0.01). Both KO and IMIP prevented resignation/depression on the third day in the UALST. Similarly, a shorter immobility time was observed for the KO and IMIP groups compared to the control in the FST (p<0.001). These data support a robust antidepressant-like potential and beneficial cognitive effect of KO. Changes in expression of synaptic plasticity-related genes in the prefrontal cortex and hippocampus were also investigated. mRNA for brain-derived neurotrophic factor (Bdnf) was specifically upregulated in the hippocampus of female rats receiving 7 weeks of KO supplementation (p=0.04) and a similar trend was observed in males (p=0.08). Males also exhibited an increase in prefrontal cortex expression of Arc mRNA, a key protein in long-term synaptic plasticity (p=0.05). IMIP induced clear effects on several plasticity related genes including Bdnf and Arc. Conclusions These results indicate that active components (eicosapentaenoic acid, docosahexaenoic acid and astaxanthin) in KO facilitate learning processes and provide antidepressant-like effects. Our findings also suggest that KO might work through different physiological mechanisms than IMIP. PMID:23351783

  3. Dietary emu oil supplementation suppresses 5-fluorouracil chemotherapy-induced inflammation, osteoclast formation, and bone loss.

    PubMed

    Raghu Nadhanan, Rethi; Abimosleh, Suzanne M; Su, Yu-Wen; Scherer, Michaela A; Howarth, Gordon S; Xian, Cory J

    2012-06-01

    Cancer chemotherapy can cause osteopenia or osteoporosis, and yet the underlying mechanisms remain unclear, and currently, no preventative treatments are available. This study investigated damaging effects of 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) on histological, cellular, and molecular changes in the tibial metaphysis and potential protective benefits of emu oil (EO), which is known to possess a potent anti-inflammatory property. Female dark agouti rats were gavaged orally with EO or water (1 ml·day(-1)·rat(-1)) for 1 wk before a single ip injection of 5-FU (150 mg/kg) or saline (Sal) was given. The treatment groups were H(2)O + Sal, H(2)O + 5-FU, EO + 5-FU, and EO + Sal. Oral gavage was given throughout the whole period up to 1 day before euthanasia (days 3, 4, and 5 post-5-FU). Histological analysis showed that H(2)O + 5-FU significantly reduced heights of primary spongiosa on days 3 and 5 and trabecular bone volume of secondary spongiosa on days 3 and 4. It reduced density of osteoblasts slightly and caused an increase in the density of osteoclasts on trabecular bone surface on day 4. EO supplementation prevented reduction of osteoblasts and induction of osteoclasts and bone loss caused by 5-FU. Gene expression studies confirmed an inhibitory effect of EO on osteoclasts since it suppressed 5-FU-induced expression of proinflammatory and osteoclastogenic cytokine TNFα, osteoclast marker receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB, and osteoclast-associated receptor. Therefore, this study demonstrated that EO can counter 5-FU chemotherapy-induced inflammation in bone, preserve osteoblasts, suppress osteoclast formation, and potentially be useful in preventing 5-FU chemotherapy-induced bone loss. PMID:22436700

  4. Palm oil and cardiovascular disease: a randomized trial of the effects of hybrid palm oil supplementation on human plasma lipid patterns.

    PubMed

    Lucci, P; Borrero, M; Ruiz, A; Pacetti, D; Frega, N G; Diez, O; Ojeda, M; Gagliardi, R; Parra, L; Angel, M

    2016-01-01

    This study examines, for the first time, the effect of hybrid Elaeis oleifera × E. guineensis palm oil supplementation on human plasma lipids related to CVD risk factors. One hundred sixty eligible participants were randomized and assigned to one of the two treatments: 25 mL hybrid palm oil (HPO group) or 25 mL extra virgin olive oil (EVOO group) daily for 3 months. Fasting venous samples were obtained at baseline and after 1, 2 and 3 months for measurement of plasma lipids (TC, LDL-C, HDL-C and TAGs). Changes in body mass index and waist circumference were also assessed. Although there was an overall reduction in TC (7.4%, p < 0.001) and in LDL-C (15.6%, p < 0.001), no significant differences were found between the treatment groups in a repeated measures analysis of variance for TC (p = 0.0525), LDL-C (p = 0.2356), HDL-C (p = 0.8293) or TAGs (p = 0.3749). Furthermore, HPO consumption had similar effects on plasma lipids to EVOO, thus providing additional support for the concept that hybrid Elaeis oleifera × E. guineensis palm oil can be seen as a "tropical equivalent of olive oil". PMID:26488229

  5. Attenuation of ciclosporin-induced nephrotoxicity by dietary supplementation of seal oil in Sprague-Dawley rats.

    PubMed

    Yang, Wei; Herzberg, Gene R; Kang, Zhili; Wang, Lili; Robb, Desmond; Randell, Edward; Smeda, John; Xiong, Jieying; Kara, Mohamedtaki; Liu, Hu

    2005-11-01

    Fish oil, rich in omega-3 (n-3) polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), has been reported to attenuate nephrotoxicity induced by ciclosporin (cyclosporine A). Harp seal oil is a rich source of n-3 PUFAs. This study investigated the ability of dietary seal oil to reduce nephrotoxicity caused by ciclosporin. Sprague-Dawley rats were maintained on a standard diet (with sunflower oil as lipid, SFO) or a diet enriched with seal oil (with 85% seal oil and 15% sunflower oil as lipid, SO) for four weeks before and four weeks after intravenous administration of ciclosporin (15 mg kg(-1) daily). Kidney function was assessed by measuring blood urea nitrogen, creatinine clearance, urinary N-acetyl-1-beta-D-glucosaminidase, 6-keto-prostaglandin F(1alpha), thromboxane B(2) and malondialdehyde. Systolic blood pressure (SBP) was monitored. Ciclosporin concentrations in blood were measured using liquid chromatographytandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). The fatty acid compositions of the diets and erythrocyte membranes were analysed by gas chromatography (GC). The results showed that nephrotoxicity was induced by ciclosporin in rats maintained on both SO and SFO diets. However, rats fed on SO diet endured less toxicity than those on SFO diet. The n-3 and n-6 PUFAs in the erythrocyte membrane of rats maintained on SO diet were found to be 10.79% and 11.93%, while those in rats maintained on SFO diet were found to be 1.67% and 22.71%, respectively. In conclusion, dietary supplementation of seal oil was found to reduce ciclosporin-induced nephrotoxicity in rats. PMID:16259782

  6. Expression and Sequence Variants of Inflammatory Genes; Effects on Plasma Inflammation Biomarkers Following a 6-Week Supplementation with Fish Oil

    PubMed Central

    Cormier, Hubert; Rudkowska, Iwona; Lemieux, Simone; Couture, Patrick; Vohl, Marie-Claude

    2016-01-01

    (1) Background: A growing body of literature suggest that polymorphisms (SNPs) from inflammation-related genes could possibly play a role in cytokine production and then interact with dietary n-3 fatty acids (FAs) to modulate inflammation. The aim of the present study was to test whether gene expression of selected inflammatory genes was altered following an n-3 PUFA supplementation and to test for gene–diet interactions modulating plasma inflammatory biomarker levels. (2) Methods: 191 subjects completed a 6-week n-3 FA supplementation with 5 g/day of fish oil. Gene expression of TNF-α and IL6 was assessed in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) using the TaqMan technology. Genotyping of 20 SNPs from the TNF-LTA gene cluster, IL1β, IL6 and CRP genes was performed. (3) Results: There was no significant reduction of plasma IL-6, TNF-α and C-reactive protein (CRP) levels after the 6-week fish oil supplementation. TNF-α and IL6 were slightly overexpressed in PBMCs after the supplementation (fold changes of 1.05 ± 0.38 and 1.18 ± 0.49, respectively (n = 191)), but relative quantification (RQ) within the −0.5 to 2.0 fold are considered as nonbiologically significant. In a MIXED model for repeated measures adjusted for the effects of age, sex and BMI, gene by supplementation interaction effects were observed for rs1143627, rs16944, rs1800797, and rs2069840 on IL6 levels, for rs2229094 on TNF-α levels and for rs1800629 on CRP levels (p < 0.05 for all). (4) Conclusions: This study shows that a 6-week n-3 FA supplementation with 5 g/day of fish oil did not alter gene expression levels of TNF-α and IL6 in PBMCs and did not have an impact on inflammatory biomarker levels. However, gene–diet interactions were observed between SNPs within inflammation-related genes modulating plasma inflammatory biomarker levels. PMID:26999109

  7. Harmful Algal Blooms (HABs)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Topics Eighth Annual National Conference on Health Communication, Marketing & Media August 19-21, 2014 Atlanta, GA Harmful Algal Blooms Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir On this Page What's the ...

  8. Antitumor and anti-cachectic effects of shark liver oil and fish oil: comparison between independent or associative chronic supplementation in Walker 256 tumor-bearing rats

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Shark liver oil (SLOil) and fish oil (FOil), which are respectively rich in alkylglycerols (AKGs) and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), are able to reduce the growth of some tumors and the burden of cachexia. It is known that FOil is able to reduce proliferation rate and increase apoptotic cells and lipid peroxidation of tumor cells efficiently. However, there are few reports revealing the influence of SLOil on these parameters. In the current study, effects of FOil chronic supplementation on tumor growth and cachexia were taken as reference to compare the results obtained with SLOil supplementation. Also, we evaluated if the association of SLOil and FOil was able to promote additive effects. Methods Weanling male Wistar rats were divided into 4 groups: fed regular chow (C), supplemented (1 g/kg body weight) with SLOil (CSLO), FOil (CFO) and both (CSLO + FO). After 8 weeks half of each group was inoculated with Walker 256 cells originating new groups (W, WSLO, WFO and WSLO + FO). Biochemical parameters of cachexia, tumor weight, hydroperoxide content, proliferation rate and percentage of apoptotic tumor cells were analysed. Fatty acids and AKG composition of tumor and oils were obtained by high performance liquid chromatography and gas chromatography – mass spectrometry, respectively. Statistical analysis was performed by unpaired t-test and one-way ANOVA followed by a post hoc Tukey test. Results Fourteen days after inoculation, SLOil was able to restore cachexia parameters to control levels, similarly to FOil. WSLO rats presented significantly lower tumor weight (40%), greater tumor cell apoptosis (~3-fold), decreased tumor cell proliferation (35%), and higher tumor content of lipid hydroperoxides (40%) than observed in W rats, but FOil showed more potent effects. Supplementation with SLOil + FOil did not promote additive effects. Additionally, chromatographic results suggested a potential incorporation competition between the n

  9. Psyllium husk fibre supplementation to soybean and coconut oil diets of humans: effect on fat digestibility and faecal fatty acid excretion.

    PubMed

    Ganji, V; Kies, C V

    1994-08-01

    The effects of psyllium fibre supplementation to polyunsaturated fatty acid rich soybean oil and saturated fatty acid rich coconut oil diets on fat digestibility and faecal fatty acid excretion were investigated in healthy humans. The study consisted of four 7-day experimental periods. Participants consumed soybean oil (SO), soybean oil plus psyllium fibre (20 g/day) (SO+PF), coconut oil (CO) and coconut oil plus psyllium fibre (20 g/day) (CO+PF) diets. Laboratory diet provided 30% calories from fat (20% from test oils and 10% from basal diet), 15% calories from protein and 55% calories from carbohydrate. Fat digestibility was significantly lower and faecal fat excretion was significantly higher with SO+PF diet than SO diet and with CO+PF diet than CO diet. Faecal excretion of myristic and lauric acids was not affected by test diets. Percent faecal palmitic acid excretion was significantly higher during psyllium supplementation periods. Higher faecal linoleic acid excretion was observed with soybean oil diets compared with coconut oil diets. Increased faecal fat loss, decreased fat digestibility and increased faecal palmitic acid excretion with psyllium supplementation may partly explain the hypocholesterolaemic action of psyllium fibre. PMID:7957006

  10. Cod liver oil supplement consumption and health: cross-sectional results from the EPIC-Norfolk cohort study.

    PubMed

    Lentjes, Marleen A H; Welch, Ailsa A; Mulligan, Angela A; Luben, Robert N; Wareham, Nicholas J; Khaw, Kay-Tee

    2014-10-01

    Supplement users (SU) make healthy lifestyle choices; on the other hand, SU report more medical conditions. We hypothesised that cod liver oil (CLO) consumers are similar to non-supplement users, since CLO use might originate from historical motives, i.e., rickets prevention, and not health consciousness. CLO consumers were studied in order to identify possible confounders, such as confounding by indication. The European Prospective Investigation into Cancer (EPIC) investigates causes of chronic disease. The participants were 25,639 men and women, aged 40-79 years, recruited from general practices in Norfolk, East-Anglia (UK). Participants completed questionnaires and a health examination between 1993 and 1998. Supplement use was measured using 7-day diet diaries. CLO was the most common supplement used, more prevalent among women and associated with not smoking, higher physical activity level and more favourable eating habits. SU had a higher occurrence of benign growths and bone-related diseases, but CLO was negatively associated with cardiovascular-related conditions. Although the results of SU characteristics in EPIC-Norfolk are comparable with studies worldwide, the CLO group is different from SU in general. Confounding by indication takes place and will need to be taken into account when analysing prospective associations of CLO use with fracture risk and cardiovascular diseases. PMID:25325252

  11. Cod Liver Oil Supplement Consumption and Health: Cross-sectional Results from the EPIC-Norfolk Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Lentjes, Marleen A.H.; Welch, Ailsa A.; Mulligan, Angela A.; Luben, Robert N.; Wareham, Nicholas J.; Khaw, Kay-Tee

    2014-01-01

    Supplement users (SU) make healthy lifestyle choices; on the other hand, SU report more medical conditions. We hypothesised that cod liver oil (CLO) consumers are similar to non-supplement users, since CLO use might originate from historical motives, i.e., rickets prevention, and not health consciousness. CLO consumers were studied in order to identify possible confounders, such as confounding by indication. The European Prospective Investigation into Cancer (EPIC) investigates causes of chronic disease. The participants were 25,639 men and women, aged 40–79 years, recruited from general practices in Norfolk, East-Anglia (UK). Participants completed questionnaires and a health examination between 1993 and 1998. Supplement use was measured using 7-day diet diaries. CLO was the most common supplement used, more prevalent among women and associated with not smoking, higher physical activity level and more favourable eating habits. SU had a higher occurrence of benign growths and bone-related diseases, but CLO was negatively associated with cardiovascular-related conditions. Although the results of SU characteristics in EPIC-Norfolk are comparable with studies worldwide, the CLO group is different from SU in general. Confounding by indication takes place and will need to be taken into account when analysing prospective associations of CLO use with fracture risk and cardiovascular diseases. PMID:25325252

  12. Algal Bloom Detection from HICO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amin, Ruhul; Gould, Richard

    2014-05-01

    Ocean color satellites provide daily, global views of marine bio-optical properties in the upper ocean at various spatial scales. The most productive area of the global ocean is the coastal zone which is heavily impacted by urban and agricultural runoff, transportation, recreation, and oil and gas production. In recent years, harmful algal blooms (HABs) have become one of the serious environmental problems in the coastal areas on a global scale. The global nature of the problem has expanded in its frequency, severity, and extent over the last several decades. Human activities and population increases have contributed to an increase in various toxic and noxious algal species in the coastal regions worldwide. Eutrophication in estuaries and coastal waters is believed to be the major factor causing HABs. In this study, we assess the applicability of the Red Band Difference (RBD) HAB detection algorithm on data from the Hyperspectral Imager for the Coastal Ocean (HICO). Our preliminary results show that due to various uncertainties such as atmospheric correction, calibration and possibly also the relatively low signal-to-noise ratio of HICO for fluorescence detection, it is difficult to extract the fluorescence portion of the reflectance spectrum that RBD uses for bloom detection. We propose an improved bloom detection technique for HICO using red and NIR bands. Our results are validated using other space-borne and ground based measurements.

  13. Cheek cell fatty acids reflect n-3 PUFA in blood fractions during linseed oil supplementation: a controlled human intervention study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Adequate biomarkers for the dietary supply of fatty acids (FA) are FA of adipose tissue and blood fractions. In human studies, invasive sample collection is unpleasant for subjects. In contrast, cheek cell sampling can be considered as a non-invasive alternative to investigate FA status. The aim of this study was to analyze whether cheek cell FA composition reflect the supplementation of alpha-linolenic acid (ALA) using a linseed oil mixture compared to olive oil supplementation. Additionally, it was investigated if cheek cell FA composition correlates with the FA composition of plasma, red blood cells (RBC) and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) before and during both interventions. Methods During a 10-week randomized, controlled, double-blind human intervention study, 38 subjects provided cheek cell and blood samples. After a two-week run-in period, the test group (n = 23) received 17 g/d of an ALA-rich linseed oil mixture, while the control group (n = 15) received 17 g/d of an omega-3 (n-3) polyunsaturated FA (PUFA)-free olive oil. Cheek cells and blood were collected on days 0, 7 and 56 of the 8-week intervention period. Results Compared to olive oil, the linseed oil intervention increased ALA and also the endogenously converted long-chain n-3 metabolites eicosatetraenoic-, eicosapentaenoic- and docosapentaenoic acid in cheek cells (P ≤ 0.05). Docosahexaenoic acid remained unchanged. Reflecting the treatment, the n-6/n-3 ratio decreased in the test group. In general, cheek cell FA reflected the changes of FA in blood fractions. Independent of treatment, significant correlations (P ≤ 0.05) of n-6 PUFA and n-3 PUFA between cheek cells and plasma, RBC and PBMC were found, except for linoleic acid and ALA. Conclusions The changes in FA composition of cheek cells confirmed that ALA from linseed oil increased endogenously derived n-3 PUFA in cheek cell lipids. These changes in cheek cells and their correlation to the respective

  14. Effect of Supplementation of Fish and Canola Oil in the Diet on Milk Fatty Acid Composition in Early Lactating Holstein Cows

    PubMed Central

    Vafa, Toktam S.; Naserian, Abbas A.; Heravi Moussavi, Ali R.; Valizadeh, Reza; Mesgaran, Mohsen Danesh

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the effects of supplementation of fish oil and canola oil in the diet on milk yield, milk components and fatty acid composition of Holstein dairy cows in early lactation. Eight multiparous early lactation Holstein cows (42±12 DIM, 40±6 kg daily milk yield) were fed a total mixed ration supplemented with either 0% oil (Control), 2% fish oil (FO), 1% canola oil +1% fish oil (FOCO), or 2% canola oil (CO) according to a double 4×4 Latin square design. Each period lasted 3 wk; experimental analyses were restricted to the last week of each period. Supplemental oils were added to a basal diet which was formulated according to NRC (2001) and consisted of 20% alfalfa, 20% corn silage and 60% concentrate. Milk yield was similar between diets (p>0.05), but dry matter intake (DMI) was lower (p<0.05) in cows fed FO diet compared to other diets. Milk fat percentage and daily yield decreased (p<0.01) with the supplementation of fish and canola oil. The daily yield and percentage of milk protein, lactose and solids-not-fat (SNF) were not affected by diets (p>0.05). The proportion (g/100 g fatty acids) of short chain fatty acids (SCFA) decreased and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) increased (p<0.05) in milk of all cows fed diets supplemented with oil. The proportions of 6:0, 8:0, 10:0 12:0 and 14:0 fatty acids in milk fat decreased (p<0.01) for all diets supplemented with oil, but the proportions of 14:1, 16:0 and 16:1 fatty acids were not affected by diets (p>0.05). The proportion of trans(t)-18:1 increased (p<0.01) in milk fat of cows fed FO and FOCO diets, but CO diet had the highest proportion of cis(c)-11 18:1 (p<0.01). The concentration of t-10, c-12 18:2, c-9 t-11 18:2, 18:3, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, 20:5) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6) increased (p<0.05) in FO and FOCO diets in comparison with the other two diets. These data indicate that including fish oil in combination with canola oil significantly modifies the fatty acid composition of

  15. Changes in the rumen bacterial community in response to sunflower oil and fish oil supplements in the diet of dairy sheep.

    PubMed

    Belenguer, A; Toral, P G; Frutos, P; Hervás, G

    2010-07-01

    Rumen microbial biohydrogenation of dietary unsaturated fatty acids has a major effect on the process of developing healthier dairy products. This study aimed to investigate in vivo the effect of diet supplementation with sunflower (SO) and fish (FO) oils on the rumen bacterial community in dairy sheep. First, 32 lactating ewes, divided in 8 lots of 4 animals each (2 lots per treatment), were fed a high-concentrate total mixed ration supplemented with 0, 2% SO, 1% FO, or 2% SO plus 1% FO. After 21 d, rumen fluid samples were taken from each lot for DNA extraction and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) analysis. In a second experiment, 5 cannulated ewes were first fed the same TMR, with the exception of a higher forage level, and then changed to the same diet supplemented with 2% SO plus 1% FO. After 0, 3, and 10 d, rumen content samples were taken for DNA extraction and FISH analysis (fluid). Total bacteria and the Butyrivibrio group were studied in microbial DNA by terminal RFLP analysis (T-RFLP), and real-time PCR was used to quantify Butyrivibrio bacteria that produce vaccenic acid or stearic acid. In rumen fluid samples, total bacteria and clostridial clusters IX and XIV were analyzed by FISH. Dietary supplementation with SO plus FO seemed to induce important changes in the total bacteria and Butyrivibrio populations, and a high interindividual variation was observed, and the speed of the effect of the lipid supplementation depended on the individual microbial composition. Analysis by T-RFLP and FISH showed increases in cluster IX bacteria with SO plus FO supplementation, presumably Quinella-like microorganisms. The abundances of vaccenic acid- and stearic acid-producing Butyrivibrio relative to total bacteria, estimated by real time PCR, were low (0.28 and 0.18%, respectively, in rumen fluid, and 0.86 and 0.81% in rumen contents) and only that of SA-producing bacteria seemed to be reduced by diets containing FO, although differences were only

  16. Influence of fish oil supplementation and strength training on some functional aspects of immune cells in healthy elderly women.

    PubMed

    de Lourdes Nahhas Rodacki, Cintia; Rodacki, André Luiz Felix; Coelho, Isabela; Pequito, Daniele; Krause, Maressa; Bonatto, Sandro; Naliwaiko, Katya; Fernandes, Luiz Cláudio

    2015-07-14

    Immune function changes with ageing and is influenced by physical activity (strength training, ST) and diet (fish oil, FO). The present study investigated the effect of FO and ST on the immune system of elderly women. Forty-five women (64 (sd 1.4) years) were assigned to ST for 90 d (ST; n 15), ST plus 2 g/d FO for 90 d (ST90; n 15) or 2 g/d FO for 60 d followed by ST plus FO for 90 d (ST150; n 15). Training was performed three times per week, for 12 weeks. A number of innate (zymosan phagocytosis, lysosomal volume, superoxide anion, peroxide of hydrogen) and adaptive (cluster of differentiation 4 (CD4), CD8, TNF-α, interferon-γ (IFN-γ), IL-2, IL-6 and IL-10 produced by lymphocytes) immune parameters were assessed before supplementation (base), before (pre-) and after (post-) training. ST induced no immune changes. FO supplementation caused increased phagocytosis (48 %), lysosomal volume (100 %) and the production of superoxide anion (32 %) and H₂O₂(70 %) in the ST90. Additional FO supplementation (ST150) caused no additive influence on the immune system, as ST150 and ST90 did not differ, but caused greater changes when compared to the ST (P< 0·05). FO increased CD4+ and CD8+ lymphocytes in the ST150, which remained unchanged when training was introduced. The combination of ST and FO reduced TNF-α in the ST150 from base to post-test. FO supplementation (ST150, base-pre) when combined with exercise (ST150, pre-post) increased IFN-γ, IL-2, IL-6 and IL-10 production. The immune parameters improved in response to FO supplementation; however, ST alone did not enhance the immune system. PMID:26059004

  17. Fish Oil and Microalga Omega-3 as Dietary Supplements: A Comparative Study on Cardiovascular Risk Factors in High-Fat Fed Rats.

    PubMed

    Haimeur, Adil; Mimouni, Virginie; Ulmann, Lionel; Martineau, Anne-Sophie; Messaouri, Hafida; Pineau-Vincent, Fabienne; Tremblin, Gérard; Meskini, Nadia

    2016-09-01

    Dietary supplementation with marine omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA) can have beneficial effects on a number of risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD). We compared the effects of two n-3 PUFA rich food supplements (freeze-dried Odontella aurita and fish oil) on risk factors for CVD. Male rats were randomly divided into four groups of six animals each and fed with the following diets: control group (C) received a standard diet containing 7 % lipids; second group (HF high fat) was fed with a high-fat diet containing 40 % lipids; third group (HFFO high fat+fish oil) was fed with the high-fat diet supplemented with 0.5 % fish oil; and fourth group (HFOA high fat+O. aurita) received the high-fat diet supplemented with 12 % of freeze-dried O. aurita. After 8 weeks rats fed with the high-fat diet supplemented with O. aurita displayed a significantly lower bodyweight than those in the other groups. Both the microalga and the fish oil significantly reduced insulinemia and serum lipid levels. O. aurita was more effective than the fish oil in reducing hepatic triacyglycerol levels and in preventing high-fat diet-induced steatosis. O. aurita and fish oil also reduced platelet aggregation and oxidative status induced by high fat intake. After an OA supplementation, the adipocytes in the HFOA group were smaller than those in the HF group. Freeze-dried O. aurita showed similar or even greater biological effects than the fish oil. This could be explained by a potential effect of the n-3 PUFA but also other bioactive compounds of the microalgae. PMID:27503614

  18. Fish Oil Supplementation does not Reduce Risks of Gestational Diabetes Mellitus, Pregnancy-Induced Hypertension, or Pre-Eclampsia: A Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Bing; Ji, Xinran; Zhang, Lei; Hou, Zhaohui; Li, Chundong; Tong, Ying

    2015-01-01

    Background The effects of gestational supplementation with fish oil on risks for gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM), pregnancy-induced hypertension (PIH), and pre-eclampsia (PE) have not been confirmed. In this study, a meta-analysis was performed to evaluate the effect of fish oil supplementation on these gestational complications. Material/Methods Randomized controlled human trials that investigated the effects of fish oil supplementation in pregnant women were identified by a systematic search of Medline, Embase, and Cochrane’s Library, and references of related reviews and studies up to December 2014. Relative risks (RRs) for GDM, PIH, and PE were the outcomes of interest. Fixed-effects or random-effects models were applied according to the heterogeneity. Results Thirteen comparisons from 11 published articles, including more than 5000 participants, were included. The results showed that fish oil supplementation was not associated with reduced risks for GDM (RR=1.06, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.85–1.32, p=0.60), PIH (RR=1.03, 95% CI: 0.89–1.20, p=0.66), or PE (RR=0.93, 95% CI: 0.74–1.16, p=0.51). No statistically significant heterogeneity was detected for the comparison of each outcome. The effects of fish oil on these gestational complications were consistent between women with low-risk and high-risk pregnancies. Conclusions Gestational supplementation with fish oil during the second or third trimester of pregnancy is not associated with reduced risks for GDM, PIH, or PE. Other possible benefits of fish oil supplementation during pregnancy warrant further evaluation. PMID:26256041

  19. Carbon tetrachloride-induced liver disease in rats: the potential effect of supplement oils with vitamins E and C on the nutritional status

    PubMed Central

    Ismail, Rasha S. A.; El-Megeid, Ashraf A. A.; Abdel-Moemin, Aly R.

    2009-01-01

    The aim of the present investigation was to study the effects of olive oil (OO), corn oil (CO), and flaxseed oil (FO), with or without supplementation of vitamins E and C, on food intake, body weight gain %, liver weight to body weight %, total lipids, liver functions, and liver histology in male rats intoxicated with carbon tetrachloride (CCl4). Forty-two rats were divided into two main groups. The first main group was fed on basal diet (BD) as a negative control group (NC). The second main group received subcutaneous injections of CCl4 in paraffin oil (50% v/v 2ml/kg) twice a week to induce chronic damage in the liver. The group was then divided into six subgroups, three of which were fed on 4% unsupplemented oils (CO, FO, and OO) as positive control for the three oils used. The rest of the groups were fed on 4% of the same oils supplemented with vitamins E and C. The results of the flaxseed oil rat group indicate that supplementing vitamin E and C led to a significant reduction in the mean values of total cholesterol (TC), low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), and liver alanine amino transferase enzyme (ALT). Moreover, it caused an increase of the mean value of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) as compared to the negative control group (NC). The olive oil group supplemented with the same vitamins showed a significant decrease in the mean value of serum TC and significant (P<0.05) increase in the mean value of serum HDL-C as compared to NC. The results of the corn oil group supplemented with vitamins showed a significant increase in the mean value of serum HDL-C as compared to the negative control group. The histology results confirmed that the group hepatically injured with CCl4 treatment and fed on supplemented FO or OO showed apparently normal hepatocytes. Conclusion: The most effective treatment was observed with oils supplemented with vitamins E and C. Hierarchically FO achieved the best results compared to other additives, followed by OO

  20. Food-grade argan oil supplementation in molasses enhances fermentative performance and antioxidant defenses of active dry wine yeast.

    PubMed

    Gamero-Sandemetrio, Esther; Torrellas, Max; Rábena, María Teresa; Gómez-Pastor, Rocío; Aranda, Agustín; Matallana, Emilia

    2015-12-01

    The tolerance of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae to desiccation is important for the use of this microorganism in the wine industry, since active dry yeast (ADY) is routinely used as starter for must fermentations. Both biomass propagation and dehydration cause cellular oxidative stress, therefore negatively affecting yeast performance. Protective treatments against oxidative damage, such as natural antioxidants, may have important biotechnological implications. In this study we analysed the antioxidant capacity of pure chemical compounds (quercetin, ascorbic acid, caffeic acid, oleic acid, and glutathione) added to molasses during biomass propagation, and we determine several oxidative damage/response parameters (lipid peroxidation, protein carbonylation, protective metabolites and enzymatic activities) to assess their molecular effects. Supplementation with ascorbic, caffeic or oleic acids diminished the oxidative damage associated to ADY production. Based on these results, we tested supplementation of molasses with argan oil, a natural food-grade ingredient rich in these three antioxidants, and we showed that it improved both biomass yield and fermentative performance of ADY. Therefore, we propose the use of natural, food-grade antioxidant ingredients, such as argan oil, in industrial processes involving high cellular oxidative stress, such as the biotechnological production of the dry starter. PMID:26621111

  1. Fish oil supplementation reduces cortisol basal levels and perceived stress: a randomized, placebo-controlled trial in abstinent alcoholics.

    PubMed

    Barbadoro, Pamela; Annino, Isidoro; Ponzio, Elisa; Romanelli, Roberto M L; D'Errico, Marcello M; Prospero, Emilia; Minelli, Andrea

    2013-06-01

    Behavioral distress and dysfunctions of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) axis play a central role in alcohol abuse. Omega-3 fatty acids are proposed as having antistress, regulatory effects on HPA responsiveness, but a possible protective role in ethanol addiction is unexplored.A randomized, doubleblind, placebo-controlled trial was performed in male alcoholics undergoing residential rehabilitation program, to evaluate the effects of 3-week supplementation with fish-oil providing eicosapentaenoic (60 mg/day) and docosahexaenoic acid (252 mg/day) on perceived stress/anxiety and HPA activity, assessed by measuring saliva basal cortisol levels at various daytimes (0730 h, 1130 h, 1600 h, 2000 h, and 2400 h) and the acute cortisol response to Trier Social Stress Test.Results showed that in supplemented subjects, before versus after decrease of stress/anxiety ratings was accompanied by reduction of cortisol basal levels throughout the day; no changes were observed in placebo group. At the end of intervention, amplitude, and duration of stress-evoked cortisol response did not differ between groups; however, the peak of cortisol response was temporally anticipated in supplemented subjects. In conclusion, an elevated omega-3 intake may reduce distress symptoms and basal cortisol secretion in abstinent alcoholics, thus providing a valid subsidiary measure to increase the efficacy of rehabilitation programs in ethanol addicts. PMID:23390041

  2. ALOX5 gene variants affect eicosanoid production and response to fish oil supplementation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this study was to determine whether 5-lipoxygenase (ALOX5) gene variants associated with cardiovascular disease affect eicosanoid production by monocytes. The study was a randomized, double-masked, parallel intervention trial with fish oil (5.0 g of fish oil daily, containing 2.0 g ...

  3. Coupling of Algal Biofuel Production with Wastewater

    PubMed Central

    Panwar, Amit; Bisht, Tara Singh; Tamta, Sushma

    2014-01-01

    Microalgae have gained enormous consideration from scientific community worldwide emerging as a viable feedstock for a renewable energy source virtually being carbon neutral, high lipid content, and comparatively more advantageous to other sources of biofuels. Although microalgae are seen as a valuable source in majority part of the world for production of biofuels and bioproducts, still they are unable to accomplish sustainable large-scale algal biofuel production. Wastewater has organic and inorganic supplements required for algal growth. The coupling of microalgae with wastewater is an effective way of waste remediation and a cost-effective microalgal biofuel production. In this review article, we will primarily discuss the possibilities and current scenario regarding coupling of microalgal cultivation with biofuel production emphasizing recent progress in this area. PMID:24982930

  4. Supplementation with pumpkin seed oil improves plasma lipid profile and cardiovascular outcomes of female non-ovariectomized and ovariectomized Sprague-Dawley rats.

    PubMed

    Gossell-Williams, M; Lyttle, K; Clarke, T; Gardner, M; Simon, O

    2008-07-01

    Pumpkin (Cucurbita species) seed oil (PSO) is a rich source of phytoestrogens and the aim of this study was to examine the effect of PSO supplementation on the total cholesterol (TC), low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), triglycerides, high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), systolic and diastolic blood pressure in non-ovariectomized and ovariectomized Sprague-Dawley rats. Female rats weighing 220-300 g were divided into non-ovariectomized rats for supplementation with corn oil (control CO; n = 6) or PSO (control PSO; n = 5) and ovariectomized rats for supplementation with corn oil (OVX/CO; n = 6) or PSO (OVX/PSO; n = 5) for 5 days per week for 12 weeks (corn oil 40 mg/kg or PSO 40 mg/kg given orally). Systolic and diastolic blood pressures were measured weekly. Blood was collected at the end of the period for plasma lipid assays. Control PSO had lower TC, LDL-C, triglycerides and higher HDL-C than the control CO. The OVX/CO had higher TC, LDL-C, triglycerides and lower HDL-C than the control CO and these changes were prevented in the OVX/PSO rats. PSO supplementation also resulted in lower systolic and diastolic blood pressures in both non-ovariectomized and ovariectomized rats. It is concluded that PSO supplementation can prevent changes in plasma lipids and blood pressure associated with inadequate oestrogen availability. PMID:18567058

  5. Function of ram spermatozoa frozen in diluents supplemented with casein and vegetable oils.

    PubMed

    Del Valle, I; Souter, A; Maxwell, W M C; Muiño-Blanco, T; Cebrián-Pérez, J A

    2013-05-01

    The aim of this study was to assess biologically safer components as alternatives to egg yolk for the frozen storage of ram semen using casein, coconut or palm oil in either Salamon's diluent (S) or a swim-up medium (SU). Ejaculates were frozen as pellets and sperm motility (subjectively) and acrosome integrity (FITC-PNA/PI) by flow cytometry were assessed at 0, 3 and 6h after thawing and incubation at 37°C. Three experiments were done: different concentrations of palm oil (5%, 10% and 20%); casein added as emulsifier and protective agent; and differences between egg yolk, coconut and palm oil in S and SU. 20% of oil added to SU accounted for a lesser percentage (P<0.05) of motile cells compared to rest while no differences were found between different oil levels on viable cells. When casein was added to diluents containing 5% of palm oil, no differences were found between palm or casein (P>0.05). No differences were found when S and SU were compared neither as groups nor between S alone and containing coconut or palm oil; however, SU alone yielded less motility than SU 5% coconut. However, in both groups, S and SU, egg yolk accounted for the greatest values in both bases. These results indicate that none of biologically safer media components (casein, palm or coconut oil) used in this study maintained the function of ram spermatozoa after freeze-thawing better than S-containing egg yolk. The application of vegetable oils as substitutes for egg yolk in diluents for the cryopreservation of ram spermatozoa requires further research. PMID:23561943

  6. Intestinal microbial ecology of broilers vaccinated and challenged with mixed Eimeria species, and supplemented with essential oil blends.

    PubMed

    Oviedo-Rondón, E O; Hume, M E; Hernández, C; Clemente-Hernández, S

    2006-05-01

    Intestinal microbiota is an important component in the development of defense mechanisms in the gut mucosa. This project determined the dynamics of intestinal microbial communities (MC) of broilers vaccinated at first day of age with live oocysts of Eimeria species and fed diets supplemented with 2 specific essential oil (EO) blends, Crina Poultry (CP) and Crina Alternate (CA). Five treatments were analyzed: 1) unmedicated-uninfected (UU) control; 2) unmedicated-infected (UI) control; 3) vaccinated with Advent cocci-vaccine and without feed additive (COV) supplements; 4) vaccinated with Advent and supplemented with CP; and 5) vaccinated with Advent and supplemented with CA. The EO blends were added at 100 ppm to the same basal diets. Chicks were gavage-infected at 19 d of age with Eimeria acervulina, Eimeria maxima, and Eimeria tenella. Duodenal, ileal, and cecal samples were taken from 12 birds per treatment just before the infection and 7 d after the challenge, pooled in 6 samples, and frozen. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis was used to examine PCR-amplified fragments of the bacterial 16S ribosomal DNA variable region. Results are presented as percentages of similarity coefficients (SC). Dendrograms of amplicon patterns indicated MC differences due to intestinal location, feed additives, and cocci infection. The EO blends CP and CA did affect MC in all gut sections. The cocci-infection caused drastic MC population shifts in duodenal, ileal, and cecal sections (36.7, 55.4, and 36.2% SC, respectively). The CP-supplemented birds had higher SC between pre- and postchallenge MC in duodenal and ileal (73.3, 81.8%) than COV (66.4, 66.5%). However, COV broilers had the smallest changes in cecal MC after infection (79.5% SC). We concluded that cocci-vaccination causes small changes in intestinal MC, but challenge causes drastic shifts. The EO blend supplementation modulates MC in cocci-vaccinated broilers, avoiding drastic shifts after a mixed coccidia infection

  7. Effect of Long-Term Fish Oil Supplementation on Semen Quality and Serum Testosterone Concentrations in Male Dogs

    PubMed Central

    Risso, Analía; Pellegrino, Francisco Javier; Relling, Alejandro Enrique; Corrada, Yanina

    2016-01-01

    Background Manipulating the dietary fatty acid (FA) content can alter FA profiles of reproductive tissues. Numerous researchers have evaluated the effect of fish oil (FO) supplementation on reproductive characteristics in domestic animals, but reliable information concerning dietary FO effects on semen quality and testosterone concentrations in dogs has not been reported. Therefore, this study evaluated the effects of dietary FO on semen quality and serum testosterone concentrations in dogs. Materials and Methods In this cross-over experimental study, 5 male dogs consumed either a control diet or the same diet supplemented with 54 mg FO/kg metabolic body weight (BW) for 120 days. After the 120-day wash-out period, control (C) dogs received FO and FO-fed dogs consumed the control diet. In the first period, 2 dogs were allocated to the FO group and 3 to the C group. In the second period, 3 dogs were allocated to the FO group and 2 to the C group. Semen samples collected on days 0, 60, 90 and 120 were evaluated by standard methods. Day 120 semen samples were analyzed for FA profiles. Blood samples were collected on days 0, 30, 60, 90 and 120 to measure serum testosterone concentrations. Data were analyzed by analysis of variance with repeated measures using the Mixed Models procedure of SAS (version 9.0, SAS Institute Inc., Cary, NC, USA). Animals and period of time (first or second 120 days) were random variables; and treatment, time, and the treatment by time interaction were considered fixed effects. Results FO supplementation increased the percentage of motile sperm (P=0.02), total sperm count (P<0.01), total sperm viability (P<0.01), and total morphologically normal sperm (P<0.01). Supplementation decreased the percentage of viable sperm (P=0.03) and serum testosterone concentration (P<0.01). FO supplementation also increased the percentage of arachidonic acid, eicosapentaenoic acid, (EPA) and total n-3 in semen samples (P≤0.05). Conclusion These results are

  8. Algal Biofuels Fact Sheet

    SciTech Connect

    2009-10-27

    This fact sheet provides information on algal biofuels, which are generating considerable interest around the world. They may represent a sustainable pathway for helping to meet the U.S. biofuel production targets set by the Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007.

  9. Dextran-functionalized magnetic fluid mediating magnetohyperthermia combined with preventive antioxidant pequi-oil supplementation: potential use against cancer.

    PubMed

    Miranda-Vilela, Ana Luisa; Peixoto, Raphael Cândido Apolinário; Longo, Joāo Paulo Figueiró; Silva e Cintra, Débora de Oliveira; Portilho, Flávia Arruda; Miranda, Kely Lopes Caiado; Sartoratto, Patrícia Pommé Confessori; Báo, Sônia Nair; de Azevedo, Ricardo Bentes; Lacava, Zulmira Guerrero Marques

    2013-07-01

    This work aimed to test a dextran-functionalized magnetic fluid (DexMF) sample in mediating magnetohyperthermia to treat an advanced clinical Ehrlich-solid-tumor, to verify the effects of oral antioxidant administration of pequi-oil on this treatment and to investigate the potential of these treatments for future use as an adjuvant in cancer therapy. Animals received the treatments: (a) filtered water (control); (b) tumor implantation and no treatment (tumor group); (c) tumor implantation followed by intratumoral injection of DexMF and alternating current magnetic field exposure (MHT group) for three consecutive days; (d) oral pequi-oil supplementation followed by tumor implantation and the same treatment as group MHT (PMHT group). Analyses took place 1 and 2 weeks after tumor implantation. Both treatments were effective in increasing the tumor necrosis process and controlling tumor growth, besides keeping lymphocyte-dependent immunity. Although the MHT treatment was more efficient after the first week in reducing DNA damage to blood peripheral leucocytes, PMHT therapy appeared to be more effective with the advance of the carcinogenesis process after the second week. Our findings evidence the potential use of DexMF mediating magnetohyperthermia in cancer treatment and also suggest that the preventive pequi oil administration could increase the efficiency of this process. PMID:23909142

  10. Shallow Algal Mass Culture Systems for the Production of Oils: Final Report on Work Carried Out 8/16/84 - 6/15/85

    SciTech Connect

    Laws, E. A.

    1985-01-01

    The objective of this project was to improve the technology of outdoor mass culture of microa1gae for oil production by investigation of species/strains, optimization of culture conditions and development of strategies that increase efficiency and improve yield.

  11. Effect of fatty acid profile in vegetable oils and antioxidant supplementation on dairy cattle performance and milk fat depression.

    PubMed

    He, M; Armentano, L E

    2011-05-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of dietary supplementation of unprotected vegetable oils differing in fatty acid profiles with or without a commercial antioxidant (Agrado Plus, Novus International, St. Charles, MO) on dairy cattle performance, milk fatty acid profiles, and milk fat depression. Twenty-four multiparous Holstein cows were blocked by production (high and low) and assigned to Agrado Plus or no Agrado Plus diets as the main plot in this experiment. The 6 cows in each of the fixed effect groups (high with and without Agrado, low with and without Agrado) were then assigned to a 6 × 6 Latin square as a split plot with 21-d periods. The 6 dietary treatments in the split-plot Latin square were no added oil (control), or 5% DM as oil from palm (PO), high-oleic safflower (OSAF), high-linoleic safflower (LSAF), linseed (LNSD), or corn (CO). Added oil replaced corn starch in the total mixed ration. Diets were formulated to have similar crude protein and neutral detergent fiber, and consisted of 41.2% alfalfa silage, 18.3% corn silage, and 40.5% concentrate mix (dry matter basis). Feeding Agrado Plus did not affect milk, milk fat, or milk protein production or milk fatty acid composition in this study. No significant differences were found between oil feeding versus control for dry matter intake, milk yield, and milk protein yield, but oils other than PO significantly decreased milk fat concentration and proportion and yield of milk short- and medium-chain fatty acids (C(<16)). Feeding PO effectively maintained milk fat yield (1.18 kg/d) and concentration (3.44%), whereas the oils rich in linoleic acid (CO and LSAF) significantly decreased milk fat yield (0.98 and 0.86 vs. 1.14 kg/d) and concentration (3.05 and 2.83 vs. 3.41%) compared with control. Similar lactation performance between OSAF and LNSD suggests that oleic and linolenic acids are roughly equal in potency of milk fat depression. PMID:21524540

  12. Antioxidant activity of dietary oregano essential oil and alpha-tocopheryl acetate supplementation in long-term frozen stored turkey meat.

    PubMed

    Botsoglou, Nikolaos A; Govaris, Alexandros; Botsoglou, Evropi N; Grigoropoulou, Sophia H; Papageorgiou, George

    2003-05-01

    The effects of dietary oregano essential oil and alpha-tocopheryl acetate supplementation on the oxidative stability of long-term frozen stored turkey meat were investigated. Thirty 12-week-old turkeys, randomly divided into five groups, were given a basal diet or a basal diet supplemented with 200 mg of alpha-tocopheryl acetate kg(-1), or 100 or 200 mg of oregano oil kg(-1), or 100 mg of oregano oil plus 100 mg of alpha-tocopheryl acetate kg(-1) for 4 weeks prior to slaughter. Lipid oxidation in breast and thigh meat was assessed after 1, 3, 6, and 9 months of frozen storage at -20 degrees C prior to or following 7 days of refrigerated storage at 4 degrees C. Results showed that oregano oil increased the oxidative stability of breast and thigh meat during the frozen storage. Dietary oregano oil at the inclusion level of 200 mg kg(-1) feed was significantly (p < 0.05) more effective in delaying lipid oxidation compared to the level of 100 mg kg(-1), but equivalent to dietary alpha-tocopheryl acetate supplementation at 200 mg kg(-1), which in turn was inferior to dietary supplementation of 100 mg kg(-1) oregano essential oil plus 100 mg kg(-1) alpha-tocopheryl acetate that was significantly (p < 0.05) superior to all other treatments. Thigh meat was more susceptible to oxidation than breast meat, although the former contained alpha-tocopherol at markedly higher levels. Mean alpha-tocopherol levels in breast and thigh meat from all treatments decreased during the frozen storage, the decrease being sharper between 1 and 3 months of frozen storage for breast and between 3 and 6 months for thigh meat. Oregano oil supplementation increased (p < 0.05) the retention of alpha-tocopherol in meat, the increase being positively correlated with the supplementation level. However, the retention of alpha-tocopherol in meat could only partly elucidate the antioxidant activity exhibited by dietary oregano oil supplementation. PMID:12720373

  13. Supplemental fish oil does not alter immune competence or the pathophysiological response to an intramammary infusion of endotoxin in peri-partum multiparous Holstein cows.

    PubMed

    Ballou, Michael A; Gomes, Rodrigo C; DePeters, Edward J

    2009-05-01

    The objective was to determine the effects of supplementing the diet with fish oil during the peri-partum period on the immune competence and the pathophysiological response to a lipopolysaccharide-induced mastitis challenge. Multiparous Holstein cows (n=30) were completely randomized to one of two treatments at 3 weeks pre-partum. Treatments differed only in the source of supplemental lipid and included either Energy Booster or fish oil. Treatment diets were fed from -21 d relative to expected date of parturition until 10 d post partum. Treatments were fed as a bolus prior to the a.m. feeding. The dose of lipid during the pre-partum period was 250 g/d, whereas the amount of lipid supplemented post partum was adjusted to the level of intake, approximately 0.92% of the previous day's dry matter intake. Ex-vivo analyses of immune competence were measured including the antimicrobial activity of whole blood against Escherichia coli, Salmonella typhimurium and Candida albicans as well as the production of interferon-gamma by peripheral blood mononuclear cultures. At 7 days in milk cows were infused with 100 microg of Esch. coli lipopolysaccharide into one rear quarter. Supplementing fish oil increased plasma concentrations of eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acids, but had no affect on the proportions of arachidonic acid at calving. Fish oil did not influence the production of interferon-gamma or the antimicrobial activity of whole blood against any of the microorganisms. Furthermore, fish oil had no ameliorative effect on either the local or the systemic acute phase response following an intramammary lipopolysaccharide challenge in early lactating Holstein cows. Supplementing fish oil in the diet of peri-partum cows will not protect them from deleterious effects of an excessive acute phase response. PMID:19121237

  14. Releasing Stored Solar Energy within Pond Scum: Biodiesel from Algal Lipids

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blatti, Jillian L.; Burkart, Michael D.

    2012-01-01

    Microalgae have emerged as an attractive feedstock for the mass production of renewable transportation fuels due to their fast growth rate, flexible habitat preferences, and substantial oil yields. As an educational tool, a laboratory was developed that mimics emerging algal biofuel technology, including the extraction of algal lipids and…

  15. Simplifying biodiesel production: the direct or 'in situ' transesterification of algal biomass

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The ‘in situ’ esterification/transesterification of algal biomass lipids to produce fatty acid methyl esters (FAME), for potential use as biodiesel, was investigated. Commercial algal biomass was employed, containing 20.9 wt percent hexane extractable oil. This consisted of 35.1 wt percent free fa...

  16. Algal functional annotation tool

    2012-07-12

    Abstract BACKGROUND: Progress in genome sequencing is proceeding at an exponential pace, and several new algal genomes are becoming available every year. One of the challenges facing the community is the association of protein sequences encoded in the genomes with biological function. While most genome assembly projects generate annotations for predicted protein sequences, they are usually limited and integrate functional terms from a limited number of databases. Another challenge is the use of annotations tomore » interpret large lists of 'interesting' genes generated by genome-scale datasets. Previously, these gene lists had to be analyzed across several independent biological databases, often on a gene-by-gene basis. In contrast, several annotation databases, such as DAVID, integrate data from multiple functional databases and reveal underlying biological themes of large gene lists. While several such databases have been constructed for animals, none is currently available for the study of algae. Due to renewed interest in algae as potential sources of biofuels and the emergence of multiple algal genome sequences, a significant need has arisen for such a database to process the growing compendiums of algal genomic data. DESCRIPTION: The Algal Functional Annotation Tool is a web-based comprehensive analysis suite integrating annotation data from several pathway, ontology, and protein family databases. The current version provides annotation for the model alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, and in the future will include additional genomes. The site allows users to interpret large gene lists by identifying associated functional terms, and their enrichment. Additionally, expression data for several experimental conditions were compiled and analyzed to provide an expression-based enrichment search. A tool to search for functionally-related genes based on gene expression across these conditions is also provided. Other features include dynamic visualization of genes on

  17. Algal functional annotation tool

    SciTech Connect

    2012-07-12

    Abstract BACKGROUND: Progress in genome sequencing is proceeding at an exponential pace, and several new algal genomes are becoming available every year. One of the challenges facing the community is the association of protein sequences encoded in the genomes with biological function. While most genome assembly projects generate annotations for predicted protein sequences, they are usually limited and integrate functional terms from a limited number of databases. Another challenge is the use of annotations to interpret large lists of 'interesting' genes generated by genome-scale datasets. Previously, these gene lists had to be analyzed across several independent biological databases, often on a gene-by-gene basis. In contrast, several annotation databases, such as DAVID, integrate data from multiple functional databases and reveal underlying biological themes of large gene lists. While several such databases have been constructed for animals, none is currently available for the study of algae. Due to renewed interest in algae as potential sources of biofuels and the emergence of multiple algal genome sequences, a significant need has arisen for such a database to process the growing compendiums of algal genomic data. DESCRIPTION: The Algal Functional Annotation Tool is a web-based comprehensive analysis suite integrating annotation data from several pathway, ontology, and protein family databases. The current version provides annotation for the model alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, and in the future will include additional genomes. The site allows users to interpret large gene lists by identifying associated functional terms, and their enrichment. Additionally, expression data for several experimental conditions were compiled and analyzed to provide an expression-based enrichment search. A tool to search for functionally-related genes based on gene expression across these conditions is also provided. Other features include dynamic visualization of genes on KEGG

  18. EFFECTS OF FISH OIL SUPPLEMENTATION ON PERFORMANCE AS WELL AS IMMUNOLOGICAL, ADRENAL, AND SOMATOTROPHIC RESPONSES OF WEANED PIGS AFTER ESCHERICHIA COLI LIPOPOLYSACCHARIDE CHALLENGE

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Seventy-two crossbred pigs (7.58 +/- 0.3 kg BW) weaned at 28 days of age were used to investigate the effects of fish oil supplementation on pig performance and immunological, adrenal, and somatotropic responses following Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide (LPS) challenge in a 2 x 2 factorial desig...

  19. Enhanced ex situ bioremediation of crude oil contaminated beach sand by supplementation with nutrients and rhamnolipids.

    PubMed

    Nikolopoulou, M; Pasadakis, N; Norf, H; Kalogerakis, N

    2013-12-15

    Mediterranean coastal regions are particularly exposed to oil pollution due to extensive industrialization, urbanization and transport of crude and refined oil to and from refineries. Bioremediation of contaminated beach sand through landfarming is both simple and cost-effective to implement compared to other treatment technologies. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effect of alternative nutrients on biodegradation of crude oil contaminated beach sand in an effort to reduce the time required for bioremediation employing only indigenous hydrocarbon degraders. A natural sandy soil was collected from Agios Onoufrios beach (Chania, Greece) and was contaminated with weathered crude oil. The indigenous microbial population in the contaminated sand was tested alone (control treatment) or in combination with inorganic nutrients (KNO3 and K2HPO4) to investigate their effects on oil biodegradation rates. In addition, the ability of biosurfactants (rhamnolipids), in the presence of organic nutrients (uric acid and lecithin), to further stimulate biodegradation was investigated in laboratory microcosms over a 45-day period. Biodegradation was tracked by GC/MS analysis of aliphatic and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons components and the measured concentrations were corrected for abiotic removal by hopane normalizations. It was found that the saturated fraction of the residual oil is degraded more extensively than the aromatic fraction and the bacterial growth after an incubation period of approximately 3 weeks was much greater from the bacterial growth in the control. The results show that the treatments with inorganic or organic nutrients are equally effective over almost 30 days where C12-C35n-alkanes were degraded more than 97% and polyaromatic hydrocarbons with two or three rings were degraded more than 95% within 45 days. The results clearly show that the addition of nutrients to contaminated beach sand significantly enhanced the activity of

  20. Fish Oil Supplementation in Humans: Effects on Platelet Responses, Phospholipid Composition and Metabolism.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skeaff, Clark Murray

    Platelets are believed to play a significant role in the development of occlusive vascular diseases. Epidemiological reports have correlated the high intake of marine foods, rich in omega3 fatty acids, with diminished platelet responses and a low incidence of arterial thrombosis and myocardial infarction. The activation of platelet responses is mediated by the accelerated metabolism of membrane phospholipid; therefore, it was of interest to examine, in human volunteers, the effect of a dietary fish oil concentrate (MaxEPA), enriched in omega 3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, on platelet aggregation and phospholipid composition/metabolism. For the complete separation of cellular phospholipids, a one-dimensional thin-layer chromatography system using silica-gel pre-coated glass plates was developed. The solvent system consisted of CHCl_3/CH_3OH/CH _3COOH/H_2O (50/37.5/3.5/2.0, by vol), required approximately 90-120 minutes for full phospholipid separation, and was highly reproducible even under conditions of variable humidity and temperature. The consumption of a fish oil concentrate (MaxEPA) for 6 weeks (3.6 g of 20:5omega 3 and 2.4 g of 22:6omega3 per day) diminished both the collagen- and platelet activating factor-induced maximum aggregation responses in washed human platelet suspensions by 50.1% and 27.2%, respectively, as compared to initial unsupplemented baseline responses. Thrombin -induced aggregation remained unchanged. Thrombin stimulation of intact human platelets produced a significant decrease in the mass of phosphatidylinositol in plasma membrane. In platelets pre-labelled with (2-^3H) glycerol and stimulated with either thrombin or low-dose collagen, the loss of (^3H) phosphatidylinositol did not differ between those subjects consuming olive oil or fish oil. Likewise, the thrombin-stimulated accumulation of diacylglycerol, an activator of protein kinase C, was unaffected by fish oil consumption. The ratio of collagen -induced increase in radioactivity

  1. Feed supplemented with byproducts from olive oil mill wastewater processing increases antioxidant capacity in broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Gerasopoulos, Konstantinos; Stagos, Dimitrios; Kokkas, Stylianos; Petrotos, Konstantinos; Kantas, Dimitrios; Goulas, Panagiotis; Kouretas, Dimitrios

    2015-08-01

    In the present study, a ceramic membrane microfiltration method was used for the separation of two liquid products, the downstream permeate and the upstream retentate, from olive mill wastewater (OMWW). These liquid products were examined for their antioxidant activity by incorporating them into broilers' feed. Twenty four broilers 13 d old were divided into two feeding groups receiving supplementation with OMWW retentate or permeate for 37 d. Blood was drawn at 17, 27 and 37 d, while tissues (muscle, heart, liver) were collected at 37 d. The antioxidant effects were assessed by measuring oxidative stress biomarkers in blood and tissues. The results showed that broilers given feed supplemented with OMWW retentate or permeate had significantly lower protein oxidation and lipid peroxidation levels and higher total antioxidant capacity in plasma and tissues compared to control group. In both OMWW groups, catalase activity in erythrocytes and tissues was significantly increased compared to control group. OMWW retentate administration increased significantly GSH in erythrocytes in broilers with low GSH, although both OMWW products significantly reduced GSH in broilers with high GSH. Thus, it has been demonstrated for the first time that supplementation with OMWW processing residues could be used for enhancing broilers' redox status. PMID:25916917

  2. Comparison of the fatty acid profiles in cheeses from ewes fed diets supplemented with different plant oils.

    PubMed

    Bodas, Raúl; Manso, Teresa; Mantecón, Angel R; Juárez, Manuela; De la Fuente, Miguel Angel; Gómez-Cortés, Pilar

    2010-10-13

    The purpose of this work was to obtain a cheese from ewes milk with a healthier fatty acid (FA) profile. To achieve our aim, 48 ewes (12 per treatment) were fed diets supplemented with 3% of plant oils: palm (used as control), olive (OO), soybean (SO), and linseed (LO). Milk samples from each treatment were collected to manufacture cheeses. The cheesemaking process did not modify the dairy fat FA profile, but OO, SO, and LO did reduce the C12:0 + C14:0 + C16:0 content in dairy fat, thus decreasing the atherogenic index value in the cheeses. Percentages of cis-9 trans-11 C18:2 in cheeses ranged from the 0.43 control value to 0.92, 1.64, and 2.71 with OO, LO, and SO respectively, following the same pattern as trans-11 C18:1. In contrast, trans-10 C18:1 levels were always below 1%. The lowest n-6/n-3 ratio obtained with LO (1.43) suggests that such lipid supplementation would be the most effective nutritional strategy for improving cheese FA profiles. PMID:20836553

  3. Fish oil supplementation inhibits NNK-induced lung carcinogenesis in the A/J mouse

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    High intake of fish oil with a low omega-6 (n-6)/omega-3 (n-3) polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) ratio has been suggested to protect against many chronic diseases. However, its preventive role against cancer remains unresolved, and particularly, the effect of different ratios of dietary n-6 and n-3...

  4. New methods and antioxidants to prevent oxidation of omega-3 oil supplements

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Omega-3 oils have gained much attention recently due to their beneficial health effects. However, their polyunsaturated fats (PUFAs) are so prone to oxidation in the presence of oxygen, heat, light, and metal ions that a strong antioxidant is needed to prevent oxidation during manufacturing processe...

  5. Performance in broiler chickens supplemented with Mexican oregano oil Lippia berlandieri Schauer

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this research was to evaluate the inclusion of two qualities of Mexican oregano oil (MOO) in the broiler diet on broiler weight, feed intake, feed efficiency, average daily gain, and water intake. The qualities were MOO1 (4% thymol, 60% carvacrol) and MOO2 (40% thymol, 20% carvacro...

  6. Oil shales and tar sands: a bibliography. Supplement 2, Parts 1 and 2

    SciTech Connect

    Grissom, M.C.

    1984-07-01

    This bibliography includes 4715 citations arranged in the broad subject categories: reserves and exploration; site geology and hydrology; drilling, fracturing, and mining; oil production, recovery, and refining; properties and composition; direct uses and by-products; health and safety; marketing and economics; waste research and management; environmental aspects; regulations; and general. There are corporate, author, subject, contract number, and report number indexes.

  7. Performance, blood parameters and meat yield in broiler chickens supplemented with Mexican oregano oil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study was conducted to evaluate the inclusion of Mexican oregano oil (MOO) Lippia berlandieri Schauer in broiler diets during grow-out on performance, blood parameters, and meat yield. One hundred and sixty-two one-day-old broilers, randomly divided into three equal groups (treatments): CON =...

  8. ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT OF A FIRETUBE BOILER FIRING COAL/OIL/WATER MIXTURES. VOLUME 2. DATA SUPPLEMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    This volume is a compendium of detailed emission and test data from field tests of a firetube industrial boiler burning a coal/oil/water (COW) mixture. The boiler was tested while burning COW fuel, and COW with soda ash added (COW+SA) to serve as an SO2 sorbent. The test data inc...

  9. National Algal Biofuels Technology Roadmap

    SciTech Connect

    Ferrell, John; Sarisky-Reed, Valerie

    2010-05-01

    The framework for National Algal Biofuels Technology Roadmap was constructed at the Algal Biofuels Technology Roadmap Workshop, held December 9-10, 2008, at the University of Maryland-College Park. The Workshop was organized by the Biomass Program to discuss and identify the critical challenges currently hindering the development of a domestic, commercial-scale algal biofuels industry. This Roadmap presents information from a scientific, economic, and policy perspectives that can support and guide RD&D investment in algal biofuels. While addressing the potential economic and environmental benefits of using algal biomass for the production of liquid transportation fuels, the Roadmap describes the current status of algae RD&D. In doing so, it lays the groundwork for identifying challenges that likely need to be overcome for algal biomass to be used in the production of economically viable biofuels.

  10. Collection and conversion of algal lipid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Ching-Chieh

    Sustainable economic activities mandate a significant replacement of fossil energy by renewable forms. Algae-derived biofuels are increasingly seen as an alternative source of energy with potential to supplement the world's ever increasing demand. Our primary objective is, once the algae were cultivated, to eliminate or make more efficient energy-intensive processing steps of collection, drying, grinding, and solvent extraction prior to conversion. To overcome the processing barrier, we propose to streamline from cultivated algae to biodiesel via algal biomass collection by sand filtration, cell rupturing with ozone, and immediate transesterification. To collect the algal biomass, the specific Chlorococcum aquaticum suspension was acidified to pH 3.3 to promote agglomeration prior to sand filtration. The algae-loaded filter bed was drained of free water and added with methanol and ozonated for 2 min to rupture cell membrane to accelerate release of the cellular contents. The methanol solution now containing the dissolved lipid product was collected by draining, while the filter bed was regenerated by further ozonation when needed. The results showed 95% collection of the algal biomass from the suspension and a 16% yield of lipid from the algae, as well as restoration of filtration velocity of the sand bed via ozonation. The results further showed increased lipid yield upon cell rupturing and transesterified products composed entirely of fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) compounds, demonstrating that the rupture and transesterification processes could proceed consecutively in the same medium, requiring no separate steps of drying, extraction, and conversion. The FAME products from algae without exposure to ozone were mainly of 16 to 18 carbons containing up to 3 double bonds, while those from algae having been ozonated were smaller, highly saturated hydrocarbons. The new technique streamlines individual steps from cultivated algal lipid to transesterified products and

  11. Supplementing long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in canned wild Pacific pink salmon with Alaska salmon oil

    PubMed Central

    Lapis, Trina J; Oliveira, Alexandra C M; Crapo, Charles A; Himelbloom, Brian; Bechtel, Peter J; Long, Kristy A

    2013-01-01

    Establishing n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid contents in canned wild Alaska pink salmon products is challenging due to ample natural variation found in lipid content of pink salmon muscle. This study investigated the effect of adding salmon oil (SO) to canned pink salmon produced from fish exhibiting two opposite degrees of skin watermarking, bright (B) and dark (D). Specific goals of the study were to evaluate the benefits of adding SO to canned pink salmon with regard to nutritional value of the product, sensory characteristics, and the oxidative and hydrolytic stability of the lipids over thermal processing. Six groups of canned pink salmon were produced with variable levels of SO, either using bright (with 0, 1, or 2% SO) or dark (with 0, 2, or 4% SO) pink salmon. Compositional analysis revealed highest (P < 0.05) lipid content in sample B2 (8.7%) and lowest (P < 0.05) lipid content in sample D0 (3.5%). Lipid content of samples B0, B1, D2, and D4 was not significantly different (P > 0.05) ranging from 5.7% to 6.8%. Consequently, addition of SO to canned pink salmon allowed for consistent lipid content between bright and dark fish. Addition of 1% or 2% SO to canned bright pink salmon was not detrimental to the sensory properties of the product. It is recommended that canned bright pink salmon be supplemented with at least 1% SO, while supplementation with 2% SO would guarantee a minimum quantity of 1.9 g of n-3 fatty acids per 100 g of product. Addition of 4% SO to canned dark pink salmon was detrimental to product texture and taste, while supplementation with 2% SO did not negatively affect sensorial properties of the product. Accordingly, canned dark pink salmon should be supplemented with 2% SO so that a minimum n-3 fatty acids content of 1.5 g per 100 g of product. PMID:24804010

  12. Supplementing long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in canned wild Pacific pink salmon with Alaska salmon oil.

    PubMed

    Lapis, Trina J; Oliveira, Alexandra C M; Crapo, Charles A; Himelbloom, Brian; Bechtel, Peter J; Long, Kristy A

    2013-01-01

    Establishing n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid contents in canned wild Alaska pink salmon products is challenging due to ample natural variation found in lipid content of pink salmon muscle. This study investigated the effect of adding salmon oil (SO) to canned pink salmon produced from fish exhibiting two opposite degrees of skin watermarking, bright (B) and dark (D). Specific goals of the study were to evaluate the benefits of adding SO to canned pink salmon with regard to nutritional value of the product, sensory characteristics, and the oxidative and hydrolytic stability of the lipids over thermal processing. Six groups of canned pink salmon were produced with variable levels of SO, either using bright (with 0, 1, or 2% SO) or dark (with 0, 2, or 4% SO) pink salmon. Compositional analysis revealed highest (P < 0.05) lipid content in sample B2 (8.7%) and lowest (P < 0.05) lipid content in sample D0 (3.5%). Lipid content of samples B0, B1, D2, and D4 was not significantly different (P > 0.05) ranging from 5.7% to 6.8%. Consequently, addition of SO to canned pink salmon allowed for consistent lipid content between bright and dark fish. Addition of 1% or 2% SO to canned bright pink salmon was not detrimental to the sensory properties of the product. It is recommended that canned bright pink salmon be supplemented with at least 1% SO, while supplementation with 2% SO would guarantee a minimum quantity of 1.9 g of n-3 fatty acids per 100 g of product. Addition of 4% SO to canned dark pink salmon was detrimental to product texture and taste, while supplementation with 2% SO did not negatively affect sensorial properties of the product. Accordingly, canned dark pink salmon should be supplemented with 2% SO so that a minimum n-3 fatty acids content of 1.5 g per 100 g of product. PMID:24804010

  13. Herbs, thyme essential oil and condensed tannin extracts as dietary supplements for broilers, and their effects on performance, digestibility, volatile fatty acids and organoleptic properties.

    PubMed

    Cross, D E; McDevitt, R M; Acamovic, T

    2011-04-01

    1. Herbs, thyme essential oil (EO) and condensed tannin (CT) extracts were compared for their effects, as dietary supplements, on broiler growth performance, nutrient digestibility and volatile fatty acid (VFA) profiles in the gut. Cooked meat from the birds fed on diets with 4 herbs and an EO extract was compared by a taste panel against those fed on the control treatment, for organoleptic properties in the meat. 2. Female broiler chicks were fed on wheat-soybean meal diets from 0-42 d of age. These chicks were given either the basal diet (control), or the basal diet with one of rosemary, garlic or yarrow herbs, mimosa, cranberry or grapeseed CT's, or thyme EO supplements (8 treatments in total). Body weight (BW) and feed consumption (FC) were measured. 3. The garlic supplement tended to improve growth rate over the first 7 d, while mimosa CT and thyme EO supplements reduced weight gains. The mimosa supplement in diets significantly reduced FC to d 21. Meanwhile, the addition of a cranberry supplement reduced the digestibility of DM, OM and N, compared with the controls. Dietary thyme EO, yarrow, rosemary and garlic supplements modified caecal isovaleric and isobutyric acid proportions (presented as 'Other VFA'; p < 0.05). Dietary herb significantly affected the intensity of meat flavour, and the potential of observing both garlic and abnormal flavours. There were large differences between the consumption of red and white meat samples, while meat temperature affected several flavour attributes. 4. Broiler performance and digestibility for birds given dietary garlic and grapeseed CT supplements were similar to the controls, and these supplements appear suitable for dietary inclusion. Careful choices are necessary when selecting dietary plant extract supplements for broilers, but beneficial effects can be observed. PMID:21491246

  14. Virgin coconut oil supplementation ameliorates cyclophosphamide-induced systemic toxicity in mice.

    PubMed

    Nair, S S; Manalil, J J; Ramavarma, S K; Suseela, I M; Thekkepatt, A; Raghavamenon, A C

    2016-02-01

    Virgin coconut oil (VCO) is an unrefined kernal oil, prepared from Cocos nucifera L., having substantial nutritional and medicinal value. Experimental studies have suggested its antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, immunostimulatory and hypolipidemic effects. The present study assesses its effect on formalin-induced chronic inflammation and cyclophosphamide (CTX)-induced systemic toxicity in murine models. Oral administration of VCO effectively reduced formalin-induced paw oedema in mice with more or less similar efficacy as that of diclofenac. The CTX-induced hike in blood urea, creatinine, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and liver marker enzymes in mice was marginally decreased by VCO (8 g/kg body weight) ingestion orally. The liver and kidney catalase, superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase activities, together with cellular glutathione and TBARS levels, were found to be improved in these animals. Overall the study reveals the protective efficacy of VCO against secondary toxicity induced by CTX possibly through its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. PMID:25805601

  15. Growth performance and antioxidant enzyme activities in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) juveniles fed diets supplemented with sage, mint and thyme oils.

    PubMed

    Sönmez, Adem Yavuz; Bilen, Soner; Alak, Gonca; Hisar, Olcay; Yanık, Talat; Biswas, Gouranga

    2015-02-01

    This study evaluated effects of dietary supplementation of sage (Salvia officinalis), mint (Mentha spicata) and thyme (Thymus vulgaris) oils on growth performance, lipid peroxidation level (melondialdehyde, MDA) and liver antioxidant enzyme activities (superoxide dismutase, SOD; catalase, CAT; glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, G6PD; glutathione reductase, GR; glutathione-S-transferase, GST and glutathione peroxidase, GPx) in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) juveniles. For this purpose, triplicate groups of rainbow trout were fed daily ad libitum with diets containing sage, mint and thyme oils at 500, 1,000 and 1,500 mg kg(-1) for 60 days. While weight gain percentage of fish fed the diets containing sage and thyme oils was significantly higher than the control group, that of fish fed mint oil was the lowest. Similarly, specific growth rate was found to be the highest in all groups of the sage and thyme oil feeding and the lowest in the mint groups. Moreover, feed conversion ratio was significantly higher in the mint oil administered groups. Survival rate was also significantly reduced in the fish fed the diet containing mint oil. It was observed that SOD, G6PD and GPx activities were significantly increased in liver tissues of all the treated fish groups compared to that of control diet-fed group. However, CAT, GST and GR activities were significantly decreased in experimental diet-fed fish groups at the end of the experiment. On the other hand, a significant reduction was found in MDA levels in the fish fed the diets with sage and thyme oils compared to control and mint diets on the 30th and 60th days of experiment. Overall, dietary inclusion of sage and thyme oils is effective in enhancing rainbow trout growth, reduction in MDA and least changing antioxidant enzyme activities at a low level of 500 mg kg(-1) diet, and they can be used as important feed supplements for rainbow trout production. PMID:25431274

  16. Short communication: Chemical composition, fatty acid composition, and sensory characteristics of Chanco cheese from dairy cows supplemented with soybean and hydrogenated vegetable oils.

    PubMed

    Vargas-Bello-Pérez, E; Fehrmann-Cartes, K; Íñiguez-González, G; Toro-Mujica, P; Garnsworthy, P C

    2015-01-01

    Lipid supplements can be used to alter fatty acid (FA) profiles of dairy products. For Chanco cheese, however, little information is available concerning effects of lipid supplements on sensorial properties. The objective of this study was to examine effects of supplementation of dairy cow diets with soybean (SO) and hydrogenated vegetable (HVO) oils on chemical and FA composition of milk and cheese and sensory characteristics of cheese. Nine multiparous Holstein cows averaging 169±24d in milk at the beginning of the study were used in a replicated (n=3) 3×3 Latin square design that included 3 periods of 21d. All cows received a basal diet formulated with a 56:44 forage:concentrate ratio. Dietary treatments consisted of the basal diet (control; no fat supplement), and the basal diet supplemented with SO (unrefined oil; 500g/d per cow) and HVO (manufactured from palm oil; 500g/d per cow). Milk fat yield was lower with HVO compared with control and SO. Cheese chemical composition and sensory profile were not affected by dietary treatment. Vaccenic (C18:1 trans-11) and oleic (C18:1 cis-9) acids were higher for SO than for control and HVO. Compared with control and HVO, SO decreased saturated FA and increased monounsaturated FA. The thrombogenic index of milk and cheese produced when cows were fed SO was lower than when cows were fed on control and HVO. The outcome of this study showed that, compared with control and HVO, supplementing dairy cow diets with SO improves milk and cheese FA profile without detrimental effects on the chemical composition of milk and cheese and the sensory characteristics of cheese. PMID:25465558

  17. Fish oil supplementation induces expression of genes related to cell cycle, endoplasmic reticulum stress and apoptosis in peripheral blood mononuclear cells: a transcriptomic approach

    PubMed Central

    Myhrstad, M C W; Ulven, S M; Günther, C-C; Ottestad, I; Holden, M; Ryeng, E; Borge, G I; Kohler, A; Brønner, K W; Thoresen, M; Holven, K B

    2014-01-01

    Background Fish oil supplementation has been shown to alter gene expression of mononuclear cells both in vitro and in vivo. However, little is known about the total transcriptome profile in healthy subjects after intake of fish oil. We therefore investigated the gene expression profile in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) after intake of fish oil for 7 weeks using transcriptome analyses. Design In a 7-week, double-blinded, randomized, controlled, parallel-group study, healthy subjects received 8 g day−1 fish oil (1.6 g day−1 eicosapentaenoic acid + docosahexaenoic acid) (n = 17) or 8 g day−1 high oleic sunflower oil (n = 19). Microarray analyses of RNA isolated from PBMCs were performed at baseline and after 7 weeks of intervention. Results Cell cycle, DNA packaging and chromosome organization are biological processes found to be upregulated after intake of fish oil compared to high oleic sunflower oil using a moderated t-test. In addition, gene set enrichment analysis identified several enriched gene sets after intake of fish oil. The genes contributing to the significantly different gene sets in the subjects given fish oil compared with the control group are involved in cell cycle, endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and apoptosis. Gene transcripts with common motifs for 35 known transcription factors including E2F, TP53 and ATF4 were upregulated after intake of fish oil. Conclusion We have shown that intake of fish oil for 7 weeks modulates gene expression in PBMCs of healthy subjects. The increased expression of genes related to cell cycle, ER stress and apoptosis suggests that intake of fish oil may modulate basic cellular processes involved in normal cellular function. PMID:24641624

  18. Effect of dietary fish oil supplementation on the exploratory activity, emotional status and spatial memory of the aged mouse lemur, a non-human primate.

    PubMed

    Languille, Solène; Aujard, Fabienne; Pifferi, Fabien

    2012-12-01

    The data are inconsistent about the ability of dietary omega-3 fatty acids to prevent age-associated cognitive decline. Indeed, most clinical trials have failed to demonstrate a protective effect of omega-3 fatty acids against cognitive decline, and methodological issues are still under debate. In contrast to human studies, experiments performed in adult rodents clearly indicate that omega-3 fatty acids supplement can improve behavioural and cognitive functions. The inconsistent observations between human and rodent studies highlight the importance of the use of non-human primate models. The aim of the present study was to address the impact of omega-3 fatty acids (given in the form of dietary fish oil) on exploratory activity, emotional status and spatial reference memory in the aged mouse lemur, a non-human primate. Aged animals fed fish oil exhibited decreased exploratory activity, as manifested by an increase in the latency to move and a reduced distance travelled in an open-field. The fish oil-supplemented animals exhibited no change in the anxiety level, but they were more reactive to go into the dark arms of a light/dark plus-maze. In addition, we found that fish oil supplementation did not significantly improve the spatial memory performance in the Barnes maze task. This study demonstrated for the first time that a fish oil diet initiated late in life specifically modifies the exploratory behaviour without improving the spatial memory of aged non-human primates. Omega-3 fatty acid supplementation may be effective when started early in life but less effective when started at later ages. PMID:22921374

  19. Erythrocyte membrane fatty acids in multiple sclerosis patients and hot-nature dietary intervention with co-supplemented hemp-seed and evening-primrose oils.

    PubMed

    Rezapour-Firouzi, Soheila; Arefhosseini, Seyed Rafie; Ebrahimi-Mamaghani, Mehrangiz; Farhoudi, Mehdi; Baradaran, Behzad; Ali, Torbati Mohammad; Zamani, Fatemeh

    2013-01-01

    The risk of developing multiple sclerosis (MS) is associated with increased dietary intake of saturated fatty acids. For many years it has been suspected that this disease might be associated with an imbalance between unsaturated and saturated fatty acids. We determined erythrocyte membrane fatty acids levels in Hot nature dietary intervention with co-supplemented hemp seed and evening primrose oils in multiple sclerosis patients. To determine the erythrocyte membrane fatty acids levels and correlate it with expanded disability status scale (EDSS) at baseline after 6 months intervention in MS patients by gas chromatography, in this double blind, randomized trial, 100 RRMS patients with EDSS<6 were allocated into three groups: "Group A" that received co-supplemented hemp seed and evening primrose oils with advised Hot nature diet. "Group B" received olive oil and "Group C" received the co-supplemented oils. The results showed that the mean follow-up was 180 ± 2.9SD days (N=65, 23 M and 42 F aged 34.25 ± 8.07 years with disease duration of 6.80 ± 4.33 years). There was no significant difference in the study parameters at baseline. After 6 months, EDSS, Immunological parameters and the erythrocyte cell membrane with regard to specific fatty acids showed improvement in the group A and C, whereas there was worsening condition for the group B after the intervention. We concluded that Hot-nature dietary intervention with co-supplemented hemp seed and evening primrose oils caused an increase PUFAs in MS patients and improvement in the erythrocyte membrane fatty acids composition. This could be an indication of restored plasma stores, and a reflection of disease severity reduction. PMID:24311880

  20. Diet supplementation with cinnamon oil, cinnamaldehyde, or monensin does not reduce enteric methane production of dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Benchaar, C

    2016-03-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of dietary addition of cinnamon oil (CIN), cinnamaldehyde (CDH), or monensin (MON) on enteric methane (CH4) emission in dairy cows. Eight multiparous lactating Holstein cows fitted with ruminal cannulas were used in a replicated 4×4 Latin square design (28-day periods). Cows were fed (ad libitum) a total mixed ration ((TMR); 60 : 40 forage : concentrate ratio, on a dry matter (DM) basis) not supplemented (CTL), or supplemented with CIN (50 mg/kg DM intake), CDH (50 mg/kg DM intake), or monensin (24 mg/kg of DM intake). Dry matter intake (DMI), nutrient digestibility, N retention, and milk performance were measured over 6 consecutive days. Ruminal degradability of the basal diet (with no additive) was assessed using in sacco incubations (0, 2, 4, 8, 16, 24, 48, 72 and 96 h). Ruminal fermentation characteristics (pH, volatile fatty acids (VFA), and ammonia (NH3)) and protozoa were determined over 2 days. Enteric CH4 emissions were measured over 6 consecutive days using the sulfur hexafluoride (SF6) tracer gas technique. Adding CIN, CDH or MON to the diet had no effects on DMI, N retention, in sacco ruminal degradation and nutrient digestibility of the diet. Ruminal fermentation characteristics and protozoa numbers were not modified by including the feed additives in the diet. Enteric CH4 emission and CH4 energy losses averaged 491 g/day and 6.59% of gross energy intake, respectively, and were not affected by adding CIN, CDH or MON to the diet. Results of this study indicate that CIN, CDH and MON are not viable CH4 mitigation strategies in dairy cows. PMID:26888487

  1. Vascular effects and safety of supplementation with shark liver oil in middle-aged and elderly males

    PubMed Central

    HAMADATE, NAOBUMI; MATSUMOTO, YOSHIYUKI; SETO, KAYOKO; YAMAMOTO, TETSURO; YAMAGUCHI, HIDEYO; NAKAGAWA, TAKASHI; YAMAMOTO, ETSUSHI; FUKAGAWA, MITSUHIKO; YAZAWA, KAZUNAGA

    2015-01-01

    Shark liver oil (SLO) has long been used as a traditional health food, with a particular benefit for vascular health, in Japan. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of dietary supplementation with SLO on arterial stiffness and peripheral microvascular function in otherwise healthy middle-aged and older males with slightly increased arterial stiffness. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel study design was used to assign 41 healthy males with a mean age of 59.0±4.0 years (range, 45–69 years) to either SLO (n=21) or placebo (n=20) treatment for eight weeks. The effects on arterial stiffness and peripheral microvascular function were assessed by the cardio-ankle vascular index (CAVI) and by measurement of hand blood flow to cutaneous tissues using a laser Doppler perfusion imaging (LDPI) technique, respectively. Although the magnitude of the changes in the CAVI value during the eight-week intervention for the SLO group did not significantly differ from that for the placebo group, the changes in the CAVI value for the former group were significantly associated (r=0.575, P<0.01) with age. It was also found that the LDPI values at week 8 were significantly lowered (P<0.05) compared with the baseline values in the placebo group, while no change was observed in the SLO group, resulting in a significant difference in the changes between the two groups (P=0.002). Neither SLO supplementation-related adverse side-effects nor any abnormal changes in routine laboratory tests, including lipid profiles and anthropometric and haemodynamic parameters, were observed throughout the intervention. SLO may have the potential to safely improve vascular health in middle-aged and elderly males. PMID:26622368

  2. Effects of crude glycerin from waste vegetable oil supplementation on feed intake, ruminal fermentation characteristics, and nitrogen utilization of goats.

    PubMed

    Chanjula, Pin; Pongprayoon, Sahutaya; Kongpan, Sirichai; Cherdthong, Anusorn

    2016-06-01

    This experiment was evaluation of the effects of increasing concentrations of crude glycerin from waste vegetable oil (CGWVO) in diets on feed intake, digestibility, ruminal fermentation characteristics, and nitrogen balance of goats. Four crossbred male (Thai Native × Anglo Nubian) goats, with an average initial body weight (BW) of 31.5 ± 1.90 kg, were randomly assigned according to a 4 × 4 Latin square design. The dietary treatments contained 0, 2, 4, and 6 % of dietary dry matter (DM) of CGWVO. Based on this experiment, there were significantly different (P > 0.05) among treatment groups regarding DM intake and digestion coefficients of nutrients (DM, OM, CP, EE, NDF, and ADF), which goats receiving 6 % of CGWVO had lower daily DMI and nutrient intake than those fed on 0, 2, and 4 % of CGWVO. Ruminal pH, NH3-N, and blood urea nitrogen (BUN) concentration were unchanged by dietary treatments, except that for 6 % of CGWVO supplementation, NH3-N, and BUN were lower (P < 0.05) than for the diets 0 % of CGWVO, while the differences between the diets 0, 2, and 4 % of CGWVO were not significant. The amounts of N absorption and retention were similar among treatments, except that for 6 % of CGWVO which N absorption was lower (P < 0.05) than among treatments while the difference between the diets 0, 2, and 4 % of CGWVO were not significant. Based on this study, CGWVO levels up to 4 % in total mixed ration could be efficiently utilized for goats. This study was a good approach in exploiting the use of biodiesel production from waste vegetable oil for goat production. PMID:27026232

  3. Enhanced production of prodigiosin-like pigment from Serratia marcescens SMdeltaR by medium improvement and oil-supplementation strategies.

    PubMed

    Wei, Yu-Hong; Chen, Wei-Chuan

    2005-06-01

    Serratia marcescens SMdeltaR, an SpnR-defective isogenic mutant of S. marcescens SS-1, was used to produce a prodigiosin-like pigment (PLP). Luria-Bertani (LB) broth, frequently used for prodigiosin biosynthesis with S. marcescens strains, was modified by increasing the concentrations of tryptone and yeast extract while completely removing NaCl from the medium. The resulting modified LB (MLB) medium achieved an almost 3.0-fold increase in PLP yield (152 mg l(-1)) when compared with the original LB broth. The addition of vegetable oils (2-6% [v/v]) to the fermentation broth markedly enhanced PLP production. PLP yields of 525, 579, and 790 mg l(-1) were obtained when the MLB medium was supplemented with 4% soybean oil, 4% olive oil and 6% sunflower oil, respectively. PLP production was found to be positively correlated with extracellular surface emulsification activity, suggesting a link between the PLP production and the presence of biosurfactant. This work shows that the optimal medium for PLP yield was sunflower oil (6%)-supplemented MLB medium, which resulted in an approximately 14-fold higher PLP yield than that in LB broth. Mass spectrometry and NMR analysis indicated that the PLP product is a prodigiosin derivative, called undecylprodigiosin. PMID:16233840

  4. Changes in the Fatty Acid Profile and Phospholipid Molecular Species Composition of Human Erythrocyte Membranes after Hybrid Palm and Extra Virgin Olive Oil Supplementation.

    PubMed

    Pacetti, D; Gagliardi, R; Balzano, M; Frega, N G; Ojeda, M L; Borrero, M; Ruiz, A; Lucci, P

    2016-07-13

    This work aims to evaluate and compare, for the first time, the effects of extra virgin olive oil (EVOO) and hybrid palm oil (HPO) supplementation on the fatty acid profile and phospholipid (PL) molecular species composition of human erythrocyte membranes. Results supported the effectiveness of both HPO and EVOO supplementation (3 months, 25 mL/day) in decreasing the lipophilic index of erythrocytes with no significant differences between HPO and EVOO groups at month 3. On the other hand, the novel and rapid ultraperformance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method used for PL analysis reveals an increase in the levels of phosphatidylcholine and phosphatidylethanolamine species esterified with polyunsaturated fatty acids. This work demonstrates the ability of both EVOO and HPO to increase the degree of unsaturation of erythrocyte membrane lipids with an improvement in membrane fluidity that could be associated with a lower risk of developing cardiovascular diseases. PMID:27315139

  5. Unocal Parachute Creek Shale Oil Program. Environmental monitoring plan supplemental environmental data report. Volume 1. Trial Trip 1 sampling results. Quarterly report, September 1989-January 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-07-16

    The Energy Security Act of 1980 established a program to provide financial assistance to private industry in the construction and operation of commercial-scale synthetic fuels plants. The Parachute Creek Shale Oil Program is one of four projects awarded financial assistance. The support agreement included development of an Environmental Monitoring Plan, incorporating existing compliance monitoring and supplemental monitoring on water, air, solid waste, worker health and safety, and socioeconomic impacts during the period 1986-1993. Phase I of the project is to produce 10,000 barrels per day of syncrude from oil shale, using the Unishale B process. The report contains results for supplemental monitoring at sixteen sites; five particulates, 15 gas, 1 liquid and three solid samples are included. Concentrations are compared to environmental levels of significance.

  6. Unocal Parachute Creek Shale Oil Program. Environmental Monitoring Plan supplemental environmental data report. Volume 1. Trial trip sampling results. Report for 1 January 1988-31 March 1989

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-07-31

    The Energy Security Act of 1980 established a program to provide financial assistance to private industry in the construction and operation of commercial-scale synthetic-fuels plants. The Parachute Creek Shale Oil Program is one of four projects awarded financial assistance. The support agreement included development of an Environmental Monitoring Plan, incorporating existing compliance monitoring and supplemental monitoring on water, air, solid waste, worker health and safety, and socio-economic impacts during the period 1986-1993. Phase I of the project is to produce 10,000 barrels per day of syncrude from oil shale, using the Unishale 'B' process. Results of monitoring 18 supplemental sites, including particulates, gases, liquids and solids, are given. Up to 47 constituents, primarily non-criteria parameters were checked. Analyses used and quality assurance/quality control results are given.

  7. Detection of surface algal blooms using the newly developed algorithm surface algal bloom index (SABI)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alawadi, Fahad

    2010-10-01

    Quantifying ocean colour properties has evolved over the past two decades from being able to merely detect their biological activity to the ability to estimate chlorophyll concentration using optical satellite sensors like MODIS and MERIS. The production of chlorophyll spatial distribution maps is a good indicator of plankton biomass (primary production) and is useful for the tracing of oceanographic currents, jets and blooms, including harmful algal blooms (HABs). Depending on the type of HABs involved and the environmental conditions, if their concentration rises above a critical threshold, it can impact the flora and fauna of the aquatic habitat through the introduction of the so called "red tide" phenomenon. The estimation of chlorophyll concentration is derived from quantifying the spectral relationship between the blue and the green bands reflected from the water column. This spectral relationship is employed in the standard ocean colour chlorophyll-a (Chlor-a) product, but is incapable of detecting certain macro-algal species that float near to or at the water surface in the form of dense filaments or mats. The ability to accurately identify algal formations that sometimes appear as oil spill look-alikes in satellite imagery, contributes towards the reduction of false-positive incidents arising from oil spill monitoring operations. Such algal formations that occur in relatively high concentrations may experience, as in land vegetation, what is known as the "red-edge" effect. This phenomena occurs at the highest reflectance slope between the maximum absorption in the red due to the surrounding ocean water and the maximum reflectance in the infra-red due to the photosynthetic pigments present in the surface algae. A new algorithm termed the surface algal bloom index (SABI), has been proposed to delineate the spatial distributions of floating micro-algal species like for example cyanobacteria or exposed inter-tidal vegetation like seagrass. This algorithm was

  8. Mass cultivation of various algal species and their evaluation as a potential candidate for lipid production.

    PubMed

    Sharif, Nadia; Munir, Neelma; Saleem, Faiza; Aslam, Farheen; Naz, Shagufta

    2015-01-01

    Microalgae have been proposed as a promising source for biodiesel production. Focusing on algal strains for biodiesel production, efforts should be made to search new strains. Experiments were carried out to investigate the effects of growth parameters (nutrients, pH, light, aeration and temperature) and the oil percentage of eight algal strains (Chlorella sp., Cladophora sp., Hydrodictylium sp., Oedogonium sp., Oscillatoria sp., Spirogyra sp., Stigeocolonium sp., Ulothrix sp.). Results show that 6.5-7.5 is the optimum pH for the growth of all algal species. Temperature showed a greater variation (25°40°C). Ulothrix sp. gave more biomass productivity and is the most suitable strain for biodiesel production due to higher oil percentage (62%). Least biomass production was observed for Stigeocolonium sp. and least oil content was obtained from Hydrodictylium sp. It was observed that among these eight algal strains for biodiesel production, Ulothrix and Chlorella are the most promising algae species. PMID:25675371

  9. The Role of FADS1/2 Polymorphisms on Cardiometabolic Markers and Fatty Acid Profiles in Young Adults Consuming Fish Oil Supplements

    PubMed Central

    Roke, Kaitlin; Mutch, David M.

    2014-01-01

    Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) are omega-3 (n-3) fatty acids (FAs) known to influence cardiometabolic markers of health. Evidence suggests that single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the fatty acid desaturase 1 and 2 (FADS1/2) gene cluster may influence an individual’s response to n-3 FAs. This study examined the impact of a moderate daily dose of EPA and DHA fish oil supplements on cardiometabolic markers, FA levels in serum and red blood cells (RBC), and whether these endpoints were influenced by SNPs in FADS1/2. Young adults consumed fish oil supplements (1.8 g total EPA/DHA per day) for 12 weeks followed by an 8-week washout period. Serum and RBC FA profiles were analyzed every two weeks by gas chromatography. Two SNPs were genotyped: rs174537 in FADS1 and rs174576 in FADS2. Participants had significantly reduced levels of blood triglycerides (−13%) and glucose (–11%) by week 12; however, these benefits were lost during the washout period. EPA and DHA levels increased significantly in serum (+250% and +51%, respectively) and RBCs (+132% and +18%, respectively) within the first two weeks of supplementation and remained elevated throughout the 12-week period. EPA and DHA levels in RBCs only (not serum) remained significantly elevated (+37% and +24%, respectively) after the washout period. Minor allele carriers for both SNPs experienced greater increases in RBC EPA levels during supplementation; suggesting that genetic variation at this locus can influence an individual’s response to fish oil supplements. PMID:24936800

  10. In vitro assessment of the digestibility of forage based sheep diet, supplemented with raw garlic, garlic oil and monensin

    PubMed Central

    Anassori, Ehsan; Dalir-Naghadeh, Bahram; Pirmohammadi, Rasoul; Taghizadeh, Akbar; Asri-Rezaei, Siamak; Farahmand-Azar, Safa; Besharati, Maghsoud; Tahmoozi, Morteza

    2012-01-01

    The effect of inclusion of garlic essential oil (EO) at 33, 66 and 100 µg mL-1, raw garlic (GAR) at 5, 10 and 15 mg mL-1 and monensin (MON) at 7.5 µg mL-1 of incubation medium on organic matter digestibility (OMD) was studied with in vitro gas production, ANKOM daisyII and conventional in vitro (IVOMD) methods. The material was incubated with sheep ruminal fluid and the experimental design was a completely randomized design. Cumulative gas production was recorded at 0, 2, 4, 6, 8, 12, 16, 24, 36, 48, 72 and 96 hours of incubation. Conventional in vitro OMD was determined after 48 hours incubation in acid and pepsin solutions. Samples for DaisyII OMD prepared according to the operating instructions supplied by ANKOM® Tech. Co., Fairport, USA. Compared to in vitro dry matter digestibility (IVDMD), DaisyII and gas production techniques overestimated (P < 0.05) OMD. The addition of EO and MON reduced (P < 0.05) the organic matter (OM), neutral detergent fiber (NDF), acid-detergent fiber (ADF) digestion, and gas production volume. The potential of gas production and rate of gas production for EO and MON were the lowest; however, these variables were higher for GAR supplemented groups. It was concluded that raw garlic could be of great interest for its usage as a modulator of ruminal fermentation. PMID:25653739

  11. Detailed Dimethylacetal and Fatty Acid Composition of Rumen Content from Lambs Fed Lucerne or Concentrate Supplemented with Soybean Oil

    PubMed Central

    Alves, Susana P.; Santos-Silva, José; Cabrita, Ana R. J.; Fonseca, António J. M.; Bessa, Rui J. B.

    2013-01-01

    Lipid metabolism in the rumen is responsible for the complex fatty acid profile of rumen outflow compared with the dietary fatty acid composition, contributing to the lipid profile of ruminant products. A method for the detailed dimethylacetal and fatty acid analysis of rumen contents was developed and applied to rumen content collected from lambs fed lucerne or concentrate based diets supplemented with soybean oil. The methodological approach developed consisted on a basic/acid direct transesterification followed by thin-layer chromatography to isolate fatty acid methyl esters from dimethylacetal, oxo- fatty acid and fatty acid dimethylesters. The dimethylacetal composition was quite similar to the fatty acid composition, presenting even-, odd- and branched-chain structures. Total and individual odd- and branched-chain dimethylacetals were mostly affected by basal diet. The presence of 18∶1 dimethylacetals indicates that biohydrogenation intermediates might be incorporated in structural microbial lipids. Moreover, medium-chain fatty acid dimethylesters were identified for the first time in the rumen content despite their concentration being relatively low. The fatty acids containing 18 carbon-chain lengths comprise the majority of the fatty acids present in the rumen content, most of them being biohydrogenation intermediates of 18∶2n−6 and 18∶3n−3. Additionally, three oxo- fatty acids were identified in rumen samples, and 16-O-18∶0 might be produced during biohydrogenation of the 18∶3n−3. PMID:23484024

  12. A European multicentre, placebo-controlled supplementation study with alpha-tocopherol, carotene-rich palm oil, lutein or lycopene: analysis of serum responses.

    PubMed

    Olmedilla, Begoña; Granado, Fernando; Southon, Susan; Wright, Anthony J A; Blanco, Inmaculada; Gil-Martinez, Enrique; van den Berg, Henk; Thurnham, David; Corridan, Bernice; Chopra, Mridula; Hininger, Isabelle

    2002-04-01

    Increased levels of oxidative stress have been implicated in tissue damage and the development of chronic diseases, and dietary antioxidants may reduce the risk of oxidative tissue damage. As part of a European multicentre project, several studies were undertaken with the aim of testing whether the consumption of foods rich in carotenoids reduces oxidative damage to human tissue components. We describe here the serum response of carotenoids and tocopherols upon supplementation with carotenoids from natural extracts (alpha-carotene+beta-carotene, lutein or lycopene; 15 mg/day) and/or with alpha-tocopherol (100 mg/day) in a multicentre, placebo-controlled intervention study in 400 healthy male and female volunteers, aged 25-45 years, from five European regions (France, Northern Ireland, Republic of Ireland, The Netherlands and Spain). Supplementation with alpha-tocopherol increased serum alpha-tocopherol levels, while producing a marked decrease in serum gamma-tocopherol. Supplementation with alpha- + beta-carotene (carotene-rich palm oil) resulted in 14-fold and 5-fold increases respectively in serum levels of these carotenoids. Supplementation with lutein (from marigold extracts) elevated serum lutein (approx. 5-fold), zeaxanthin (approx. doubled) and ketocarotenoids (although these were not present in the supplement), whereas lycopene supplementation (from tomato paste) resulted in a 2-fold increase in serum lycopene. The isomer distributions of beta-carotene and lycopene in serum remained constant regardless of the isomer composition in the capsules. In Spanish volunteers, additional data showed that the serum response to carotenoid supplementation reached a plateau after 4 weeks, and no significant side effects (except carotenodermia) or changes in biochemical or haematological indices were observed throughout the study. This part of the study describes dose-time responses, isomer distribution, subject variability and side effects during supplementation with the

  13. Comparison of growth, serum biochemistries and n-6 fatty acid metabolism in rats fed diets supplemented with high-gamma-linolenic acid safflower oil or borage oil for 90 days.

    PubMed

    Tso, Patrick; Caldwell, Jody; Lee, Dana; Boivin, Gregory P; DeMichele, Stephen J

    2012-06-01

    Recently, steps have been taken to further developments toward increasing gamma-linolenic acid (GLA) concentration and lowering costs in plant seed oils using transgenic technology. Through identification and expression of a fungal delta-6 desaturase gene in the high linoleic acid safflower plant, the seeds from this genetic transformation produce oil with >40% GLA (high GLA safflower oil (HGSO)). The aim of the study was to compare the effects of feeding HGSO to a generally recognized as safe source of GLA, borage oil, in a 90 day safety study in rats. Weanling male and female Sprague-Dawley rats were fed a semi-synthetic, fat free, pelleted diet (AIN93G) supplemented with a 10% (wt/wt) oil blend containing HGSO or borage oil, with equivalent GLA levels. Results demonstrated that feeding diets containing HGSO or borage oil for 90 days had similar biologic effects with regard to growth characteristics, body composition, behavior, organ weight and histology, and parameters of hematology and serum biochemistries in both sexes. Metabolism of the primary n-6 fatty acids in plasma and organ phospholipids was similar, despite minor changes in females. We conclude that HGSO is biologically equivalent to borage oil and provides a safe alternative source of GLA in the diet. PMID:22265940

  14. Long-term fish oil supplementation attenuates seizure activity in the amygdala induced by 3-mercaptopropionic acid in adult male rats.

    PubMed

    Flores-Mancilla, L E; Hernández-González, M; Guevara, M A; Benavides-Haro, D E; Martínez-Arteaga, P

    2014-04-01

    Several studies have provided evidence of significant effects of omega-3 fatty acids on brain functionality, including seizures and disorders such as epilepsy. Fish oil (FO) is a marine product rich in unsaturated omega-3 fatty acids. Considering that the amygdala is one of the brain structures most sensitive to seizure generation, we aimed to evaluate the effect of long-term chronic FO supplementation (from embryonic conception to adulthood) on the severity of seizures and amygdaloid electroencephalographic activity (EEG) in a 3-mercaptopropionic acid (3-MPA)-induced seizure model using adult rats. Female Wistar rats were fed a commercial diet supplemented daily with FO (300mg/kg) from puberty through mating, gestation, delivery, and weaning of the pups. Only the male pups were then fed daily with a commercial diet supplemented with the same treatment as the dam up to the age of 150days postpartum, when they were bilaterally implanted in the amygdala to record behavior and EEG activity before, during, and after seizures induced by administering 3-MPA. Results were compared with those obtained from rats supplemented with palm oil (PO) and rats treated with a vehicle (CTRL). The male rats treated with FO showed longer latency to seizure onset, fewer convulsive episodes, and attenuated severity compared those in the PO and CTRL groups according to the Racine scale. Moreover, long-term FO supplementation was associated with a reduction of the absolute power (AP) of the fast frequencies (12-25Hz) in the amygdala during the seizure periods. These findings support the idea that chronic supplementation with omega-3 of marine origin may have antiseizure properties as other studies have suggested. PMID:24657504

  15. Fish oil supplementation suppresses resistance exercise and feeding-induced increases in anabolic signaling without affecting myofibrillar protein synthesis in young men.

    PubMed

    McGlory, Chris; Wardle, Sophie L; Macnaughton, Lindsay S; Witard, Oliver C; Scott, Fraser; Dick, James; Bell, J Gordon; Phillips, Stuart M; Galloway, Stuart D R; Hamilton, D Lee; Tipton, Kevin D

    2016-03-01

    Fish oil (FO) supplementation potentiates muscle protein synthesis (MPS) in response to a hyperaminoacidemic-hyperinsulinemic infusion. WhetherFOsupplementation potentiatesMPSin response to protein ingestion or when protein ingestion is combined with resistance exercise (RE) remains unknown. In a randomized, parallel group design, 20 healthy males were randomized to receive 5 g/day of eitherFOor coconut oil control (CO) for 8 weeks. After supplementation, participants performed a bout of unilateralREfollowed by ingestion of 30 g of whey protein. Skeletal muscle biopsies were obtained before and after supplementation for assessment of muscle lipid composition and relevant protein kinase activities. Infusion ofl-[ring-(13)C6] phenylalanine was used to measure basal myofibrillarMPSat rest (REST), in a nonexercised leg following protein ingestion (FED) and followingREand protein ingestion (FEDEX).MPSwas significantly elevated aboveRESTduringFEDEXin both theFOandCOgroups, but there was no effect of supplementation. There was a significant increase inMPSin both groups aboveRESTduringFEDbut no effect of supplementation. Supplementation significantly decreased panPKBactivity atRESTin theFOgroup but not theCOgroup. There was a significant increase fromRESTat post-REforPKBandAMPKα2 activity in theCOgroup but not in theFOgroup. InFEDEX, there was a significant increase in p70S6K1 activity fromRESTat 3 h in theCOgroup only. These data highlight that 8 weeks ofFOsupplementation alters kinase signaling activity in response toREplus protein ingestion without influencingMPS. PMID:27009278

  16. Effect of the dietary supplementation of essential oils from rosemary and artemisia on muscle fatty acids and volatile compound profiles in Barbarine lambs.

    PubMed

    Vasta, Valentina; Aouadi, Dorra; Brogna, Daniela M R; Scerra, Manuel; Luciano, Giuseppe; Priolo, Alessandro; Ben Salem, Hichem

    2013-10-01

    Eighteen Barbarine lambs (3 months of age), were assigned for 95 days to 3 treatments: six lambs were fed a barley-based concentrate plus oat hay ad libitum (control group, C); other lambs received the control diet plus essential oil (400 ppm DM) either of Rosmarinus officinalis (R400 group; n=6) or of Artemisia herba alba (A400 group; n=6). At slaughter the muscle longissimus dorsi was sampled and subjected to fatty acid and volatile organic compounds (VOC) analyses. The A400 lambs presented a greater amount of vaccenic, rumenic and linolenic acids and of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) in meat than the C and R400 animals. Essential oils supplementation did not affect meat VOC profile though the sesquiterpenes copaene and β-caryophyllene were detected only in the meat of R400 and A400 lambs. It is concluded that the supplementation of rosemary or artemisia essential oils does not produce detrimental effects on lamb meat VOC profile. The supplementation of artemisia can improve meat healthy properties. PMID:23747617

  17. Comparison of supplementation of n-3 fatty acids from fish and flax oil on cytokine gene expression and growth of milk-fed Holstein calves.

    PubMed

    Karcher, E L; Hill, T M; Bateman, H G; Schlotterbeck, R L; Vito, N; Sordillo, L M; Vandehaar, M J

    2014-01-01

    The ability to reduce incidence of disease in calves and improve early vaccination strategies is of particular interest for dairy producers. The n-3 fatty acids have been reported to reduce inflammatory diseases in humans but limited research has been done in calves. The objective of this study was to compare supplementation of n-3 fatty acids from fish and flax oil on gene expression of whole blood cells and growth of milk-fed Holstein calves. Forty-eight Holstein bull calves from a commercial dairy were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 diets beginning at 4d old: (1) control milk replacer (MR) with all pork fat, (2) MR with 2% flax oil, and (3) MR with 2% fish oil. All MR were 17% fat, 27% crude protein on a dry matter (DM) basis, with all protein from whey sources. Calves were each fed 654g DM of MR daily for the first 25d and then 327g/d for d26, 27, and 28. On d28, calves were challenged with a Pasteurella vaccine and the temperature response to the vaccine was recorded. Milk and feed intake and fecal scores were recorded daily, and body weight and hip width were recorded weekly. Blood was collected from all calves on d25. One tube of collected blood was incubated with endotoxin (lipopolysaccharide; LPS) for 2h and frozen with a second tube of control blood. Quantitative real-time PCR was used to assess the effects of LPS stimulation on cytokine gene expression. During the 28 d, calves supplemented with flax oil had a greater growth rate and feed efficiency than calves fed fish oil (0.52±0.02 vs. 0.48±0.02g of gain:g of feed). Fish oil tended to decrease LPS stimulation of tumor necrosis factor-α expression. Flax oil, but not fish oil, decreased the expression of IL-4 and tended to decrease expression of osteopontin and IL-8. Flax oil tended to reduce the increase in rectal temperature in response to a Pasteurella vaccine. In conclusion, our data support the idea that supplementation with n-3 fatty acids affects cytokine gene expression. PMID:24485693

  18. Algal functional annotation tool

    SciTech Connect

    Lopez, D.; Casero, D.; Cokus, S. J.; Merchant, S. S.; Pellegrini, M.

    2012-07-01

    The Algal Functional Annotation Tool is a web-based comprehensive analysis suite integrating annotation data from several pathway, ontology, and protein family databases. The current version provides annotation for the model alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, and in the future will include additional genomes. The site allows users to interpret large gene lists by identifying associated functional terms, and their enrichment. Additionally, expression data for several experimental conditions were compiled and analyzed to provide an expression-based enrichment search. A tool to search for functionally-related genes based on gene expression across these conditions is also provided. Other features include dynamic visualization of genes on KEGG pathway maps and batch gene identifier conversion.

  19. Fish oil supplemented for 9 months does not improve glycaemic control or insulin sensitivity in subjects with impaired glucose regulation: a parallel randomised controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Clark, Louise F; Thivierge, M C; Kidd, Claire A; McGeoch, Susan C; Abraham, Prakash; Pearson, Donald W M; Horgan, Graham W; Holtrop, Grietje; Thies, Frank; Lobley, Gerald E

    2016-01-14

    The effects of fish oil (FO) supplementation on glycaemic control are unclear, and positive effects may occur only when the phospholipid content of tissue membranes exceeds 14% as n-3 PUFA. Subjects (n 36, thirty-three completed) were paired based on metabolic parameters and allocated into a parallel double-blind randomised trial with one of each pair offered daily either 6 g of FO (3·9 g n-3 PUFA) or 6 g of maize oil (MO) for 9 months. Hyperinsulinaemic-euglycaemic-euaminoacidaemic (HIEGEAA) clamps (with [6,6 2H2 glucose]) were performed at the start and end of the intervention. Endogenous glucose production (EGP) and whole-body protein turnover (WBPT) were each measured after an overnight fast. The primary outcome involved the effect of oil type on insulin sensitivity related to glycaemic control. The secondary outcome involved the effect of oil type on WBPT. Subjects on FO (n 16) had increased erythrocyte n-3 PUFA concentrations >14%, whereas subjects on MO (n 17) had unaltered n-3 PUFA concentrations at 9%. Type of oil had no effect on fasting EGP, insulin sensitivity or total glucose disposal during the HIEGEAA clamp. In contrast, under insulin-stimulated conditions, total protein disposal (P=0·007) and endogenous WBPT (P=0·001) were both increased with FO. In an associated pilot study (n 4, three completed), although n-3 PUFA in erythrocyte membranes increased to >14% with the FO supplement, the enrichment in muscle membranes remained lower (8%; P<0·001). In conclusion, long-term supplementation with FO, at amounts near the safety limits set by regulatory authorities in Europe and the USA, did not alter glycaemic control but did have an impact on WBPT. PMID:26537735

  20. Algal Biofuels; Algal Biofuels R&D at NREL (Brochure)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2010-09-01

    An overview of NREL's algal biofuels projects, including U.S. Department of Energy-funded work, projects with U.S. and international partners, and Laboratory Directed Research and Development projects.

  1. Effects of FADS and ELOVL polymorphisms on indexes of desaturase and elongase activities: results from a pre-post fish oil supplementation.

    PubMed

    Cormier, Hubert; Rudkowska, Iwona; Lemieux, Simone; Couture, Patrick; Julien, Pierre; Vohl, Marie-Claude

    2014-11-01

    Polymorphisms (SNPs) within the FADS gene cluster and the ELOVL gene family are believed to influence enzyme activities after an omega-3 (n-3) fatty acid (FA) supplementation. The objectives of the study are to test whether an n-3 supplementation is associated with indexes of desaturase and elongase activities in addition to verify whether SNPs in the FADS gene cluster and the ELOVL gene family modulate enzyme activities of desaturases and elongases. A total 208 subjects completed a 6-week supplementation period with 5 g/day of fish oil (1.9-2.2 g/day of EPA + 1.1 g/day of DHA). FA profiles of plasma phospholipids were obtained by gas chromatography (n = 210). Desaturase and elongase indexes were estimated using product-to-precursor ratios. Twenty-eight SNPs from FADS1, FADS2, FADS3, ELOVL2 and ELOVL5 were genotyped using TaqMan technology. Desaturase indexes were significantly different after the 6-week n-3 supplementation. The index of δ-5 desaturase activity increased by 25.7 ± 28.8 % (p < 0.0001), whereas the index of δ-6 desaturase activity decreased by 17.7 ± 18.2 % (p < 0.0001) post-supplementation. Index of elongase activity decreased by 39.5 ± 27.9 % (p < 0.0001). Some gene-diet interactions potentially modulating the enzyme activities of desaturases and elongases involved in the FA metabolism post-supplementation were found. SNPs within the FADS gene cluster and the ELOVL gene family may play an important role in the enzyme activity of desaturases and elongases, suggesting that an n-3 FAs supplementation may affect PUFA metabolism. PMID:25367143

  2. Algal Energy Conversion and Capture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hazendonk, P.

    2015-12-01

    We address the potential for energy conversions and capture for: energy generation; reduction in energy use; reduction in greenhouse gas emissions; remediation of water and air pollution; protection and enhancement of soil fertility. These processes have the potential to sequester carbon at scales that may have global impact. Energy conversion and capture strategies evaluate energy use and production from agriculture, urban areas and industries, and apply existing and emerging technologies to reduce and recapture energy embedded in waste products. The basis of biocrude production from Micro-algal feedstocks: 1) The nutrients from the liquid fraction of waste streams are concentrated and fed into photo bioreactors (essentially large vessels in which microalgae are grown) along with CO2 from flue gasses from down stream processes. 2) The algae are processed to remove high value products such as proteins and beta-carotenes. The advantage of algae feedstocks is the high biomass productivity is 30-50 times that of land based crops and the remaining biomass contains minimal components that are difficult to convert to biocrude. 3) The remaining biomass undergoes hydrothermal liquefaction to produces biocrude and biochar. The flue gasses of this process can be used to produce electricity (fuel cell) and subsequently fed back into the photobioreactor. The thermal energy required for this process is small, hence readily obtained from solar-thermal sources, and furthermore no drying or preprocessing is required keeping the energy overhead extremely small. 4) The biocrude can be upgraded and refined as conventional crude oil, creating a range of liquid fuels. In principle this process can be applied on the farm scale to the municipal scale. Overall, our primary food production is too dependent on fossil fuels. Energy conversion and capture can make food production sustainable.

  3. The Updated Bottom Up Solution applied to mass spectrometry of soybean oil in a dietary supplement gelcap.

    PubMed

    Byrdwell, William Craig

    2015-07-01

    Among the goals of lipidomics applied to triacylglycerols (TAGs) is identification of molecular species, degree and location of unsaturation, and positions of fatty acyl chains (i.e., identification of regioisomers). Toward those ends, we define one, two, and three "Critical Ratios" for Types I, II, and III TAGs that provided different aspects of the desired information. Critical Ratio 1, [MH](+)/Σ[DAG](+), is correlated to the degree of unsaturation ([MH](+) is the protonated molecule and Σ[DAG](+) is the sum of diacylglycerol-like ions, [DAG](+)); Critical Ratio 2, [AA](+)/[AB](+) for Type II TAGs ("ABA/AAB/BAA") and [AC](+)/([AB](+)+[BC](+)) for Type III TAGs ("ABC/CBA/BAC/CAB/ACB/BCA"), is correlated to identification of regioisomers; and Critical Ratio 3, [BC](+)/[AB](+), provides information about those [DAG](+) from Type III TAGs. Furthermore, Critical Ratios are used in the Updated Bottom Up Solution (UBUS) to reproduce the mass spectra of TAGs by atmospheric pressure chemical ionization mass spectrometry applied to analysis of soybean oil in a dietary supplement gelcap. We present a new model for the [MH](+)/Σ[DAG](+) ratio, quantify regioisomers using the [AA](+)/[AB](+) ratio, and describe trends for [BC](+)/[AB](+) that have never been reported before. The UBUS is also applied to other classes of molecules, i.e., vitamin D and DAGs. The amount of vitamin D3 in the gelcap fell from 2011 ± 22 when received to 1689 ± 33 just prior to expiration. The Critical Ratios constitute a compact data set that can provide structural information and also act as a library of mass spectra. PMID:25855147

  4. Effects of Rosmarinus officinalis L. as essential oils or in form of leaves supplementation on goat's production and metabolic statute.

    PubMed

    Smeti, Samir; Hajji, Hadhami; Bouzid, Kahena; Abdelmoula, Jaouida; Muñoz, Fernando; Mahouachi, Mokhtar; Atti, Naziha

    2015-02-01

    The effects of rosemary supply in form of essential oils (REO) or leaves (RL) on performances of goats were investigated. Thirty goats were allocated into three equal groups, which were fed oat-hay ad libitum and 400 g of concentrate during the two last weeks of pregnancy and 600 g during the first 8 weeks of lactation. Three-control diet (C) was a mixture of barley, soybean meal and mineral vitamin supplement. The experimental concentrates contained the same mixture of the control diet plus 0.6 g/kg of REO or its equivalent supply RL (60 g/kg). Rosemary supply did not affect dry matter (DM), organic matter (OM), crude protein (CP) and neutral detergent fiber (NDF) digestibility. While urinary nitrogen loss was higher for experimental groups than the C (P = 0.03). Daily milk production was significantly higher (P = 0.007) for rosemary groups (694 and 582 ml for RL and REO, respectively) than C group (442 ml). Rosemary decreased numerically (P > 0.05) the fat content (23, 25 and 26.5 g/l for REO, RL and C groups, respectively) but significantly increased the fat (P = 0.003) and protein content (P = 0.008). The growth rate of kids was significantly higher (P = 0.008) for RL (111 g) than that for REO and C (97 and 83 g, respectively). However, rosemary has not shown significant effect on the plasma metabolite concentrations. Given the facility to obtain the rosemary leaves, this form of rosemary use is recommended as natural alternative to improve the performances of goats. PMID:25425356

  5. Fueling Future with Algal Genomics

    SciTech Connect

    Grigoriev, Igor

    2012-07-05

    Algae constitute a major component of fundamental eukaryotic diversity, play profound roles in the carbon cycle, and are prominent candidates for biofuel production. The US Department of Energy Joint Genome Institute (JGI) is leading the world in algal genome sequencing (http://jgi.doe.gov/Algae) and contributes of the algal genome projects worldwide (GOLD database, 2012). The sequenced algal genomes offer catalogs of genes, networks, and pathways. The sequenced first of its kind genomes of a haptophyte E.huxleyii, chlorarachniophyte B.natans, and cryptophyte G.theta fill the gaps in the eukaryotic tree of life and carry unique genes and pathways as well as molecular fossils of secondary endosymbiosis. Natural adaptation to conditions critical for industrial production is encoded in algal genomes, for example, growth of A.anophagefferens at very high cell densities during the harmful algae blooms or a global distribution across diverse environments of E.huxleyii, able to live on sparse nutrients due to its expanded pan-genome. Communications and signaling pathways can be derived from simple symbiotic systems like lichens or complex marine algae metagenomes. Collectively these datasets derived from algal genomics contribute to building a comprehensive parts list essential for algal biofuel development.

  6. Krill oil supplementation lowers serum triglycerides without increasing low-density lipoprotein cholesterol in adults with borderline high or high triglyceride levels.

    PubMed

    Berge, Kjetil; Musa-Veloso, Kathy; Harwood, Melody; Hoem, Nils; Burri, Lena

    2014-02-01

    The aim of the study was to explore the effects of 12 weeks daily krill oil supplementation on fasting serum triglyceride (TG) and lipoprotein particle levels in subjects whose habitual fish intake is low and who have borderline high or high fasting serum TG levels (150-499 mg/dL). We hypothesized that Krill oil lowers serum TG levels in subjects with borderline high or high fasting TG levels. To test our hypothesis 300 male and female subjects were included in a double-blind, randomized, multi-center, placebo-controlled study with five treatment groups: placebo (olive oil) or 0.5, 1, 2, or 4 g/day of krill oil. Serum lipids were measured after an overnight fast at baseline, 6 and 12 weeks. Due to a high intra-individual variability in TG levels, data from all subjects in the four krill oil groups were pooled to increase statistical power, and a general time- and dose-independent one-way analysis of variance was performed to assess efficacy. Relative to subjects in the placebo group, those administered krill oil had a statistically significant calculated reduction in serum TG levels of 10.2%. Moreover, LDL-C levels were not increased in the krill oil groups relative to the placebo group. The outcome of the pooled analysis suggests that krill oil is effective in reducing a cardiovascular risk factor. However, owing to the individual fluctuations of TG concentrations measured, a study with more individual measurements per treatment group is needed to increase the confidence of these findings. PMID:24461313

  7. Corn oil or corn grain supplementation to steers grazing endophyte-free tall fescue. II. Effects on subcutaneous fatty acid content and lipogenic gene expression.

    PubMed

    Duckett, S K; Pratt, S L; Pavan, E

    2009-03-01

    Twenty-eight Angus steers (289 kg) were finished on a high-concentrate diet (85% concentrate: 15% roughage; CONC), or endophyte-free tall fescue pastures with corn grain supplement (0.52% of BW; PC), corn oil plus soybean hull supplement (0.10% of BW corn oil plus 0.45% of BW soybean hulls; PO), or no supplement (pasture only; PA). Subcutaneous adipose tissues were processed for total cellular RNA extraction and fatty acid composition by GLC. Relative expression of genes involved in lipogenesis [fatty acid synthase (FASN), acetyl-CoA carboxylase, lipoprotein lipase, stearoyl-CoA desaturase (SCD)] and activators of transcription [(peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma), C/EBPalpha, sterol regulatory binding protein-1, signal transducer and activator of transcription-5, and Spot-14] was determined by real-time quantitative PCR. Housekeeping gene (glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase and beta-actin) expression was used in analysis to normalize expression data. Total fatty acid content was greatest (P < 0.001) for CONC and least (P < 0.001) for PA. Supplementation of grazing cattle increased (P < 0.001) total fatty acid content compared with PA, but concentrations were less (P < 0.001) than for CONC. Myristic and palmitic acid contents were greater (P < 0.001) for CONC than for PO and PC, which were greater (P < 0.001) than for PA. Stearic acid content was greater (P < 0.01) for PO than for CONC, PC, and PA. Finishing on CONC increased (P < 0.001) total MUFA content by 68% compared with PA. Corn grain supplementation increased (P < 0.001) MUFA content compared with PA; in contrast, MUFA content did not differ (P > 0.05) between PO and PA. Corn oil supplementation increased (P < 0.001) trans-11 vaccenic acid content in subcutaneous fat by 1.2-, 1.7- and 5.6-fold relative to PA, PC, and CONC, respectively. Concentrations of the cis-9, trans-11 CLA isomer were 54, 58, and 208% greater (P < 0.01) for PO than for PA, PC, and CONC, respectively. Corn grain

  8. Lemon-flavored cod liver oil and a multivitamin-mineral supplement for the secondary prevention of otitis media in young children: pilot research.

    PubMed

    Linday, Linda A; Dolitsky, Jay N; Shindledecker, Richard D; Pippenger, C E

    2002-07-01

    We measured blood levels of fatty acids, vitamin A, and trace metals in children undergoing ambulatory surgery for placement of tympanostomy tubes and a comparison group having other ambulatory surgical procedures. We then performed a small, outpatient, secondary prevention study using nutritional supplements chosen on the basis of those blood levels. The study subjects had lower levels of red blood cell eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) than did adult controls. Consistent with previous reports, the levels of vitamin A were < or = 40 microg/dL for 69% of our subjects, and the plasma selenium levels for children were lower than published values for adults. We then studied one otitis media (OM) season; 8 children (0.8 to 4.4 years of age) received 1 teaspoon of lemon-flavored cod liver oil (containing both EPA and vitamin A) and 1 half-tablet of a selenium-containing children's chewable multivitamin-mineral tablet per day. During this OM season, study subjects received antibiotics for OM for 12.3% +/- 13.4% (SD; p < .05) fewer days during supplementation than before supplementation. Larger, controlled trials are warranted to assess the utility of cod liver oil (of acceptable purity and taste) and a children's multivitamin-mineral preparation containing selenium, both for the prevention of OM and for the acceptance of delayed prescription of antibiotics for this disorder. PMID:12126022

  9. Corn oil or corn grain supplementation to steers grazing endophyte-free tall fescue. I. Effects on in vivo digestibility, performance, and carcass quality.

    PubMed

    Pavan, E; Duckett, S K

    2008-11-01

    Twenty-eight Angus (289 +/- 3.8 kg) steers were used in a completely randomized design to evaluate the effect of isocaloric supplementation of 2 different energy sources to steers rotationally grazing tall fescue pastures for 197 d in comparison to positive and negative controls. Steers were supplemented with either corn grain (0.52% BW on a DM basis; PC) or soybean hulls plus corn oil (0.45% BW on a DM basis + 0.10% BW on an as-fed basis; PO) using Calan gates for individual intake measurement. Negative, pasture only (PA), and positive, high-concentrate control diets (85% concentrate:15% roughage on DM basis; C) were also included in the study. Steers on PC, PO, and PA treatments were managed together under a rotational grazing system, whereas C steers were fed a high-concentrate diet for the final 113 d using Calan gates. Forage DMI and apparent DM and NDF digestibility for the grazing treatments were evaluated using Cr(2)O(5) and indigestible NDF as digesta markers. Energy supplementation decreased (P = 0.02) forage DMI (% of BW) with respect to PA, but not (P = 0.58) total DMI. There were no differences (P = 0.53) among grazing treatments on apparent total DM digestibility. However, NDF digestibility was less (P < or = 0.05) in PC than in PO and PA; the latter 2 treatments did not differ (P > 0.05). Overall ADG was greater (P < 0.01) in supplemented, regardless of type, than in nonsupplemented grazing treatments. During the final 113 d, ADG was greater (P < 0.01) in C than in the grazing treatments. Overall supplement conversion did not differ (P = 0.73) between supplement types and was less (P = 0.006) than C. Carcass traits did not differ (P > 0.05) between energy sources. Dressing percentage and HCW were greater (P < 0.01) in supplemented cattle than in PA. Fat thickness and KPH percentage for PA were less (P < 0.05) than for PO but did not differ (P > 0.14) from PC. Marbling score, LM area, and quality grade did not differ (P > 0.05) between grazing

  10. Microalgal Oil Supplementation Has an Anti-Obesity Effect in C57BL/6J Mice Fed a High Fat Diet

    PubMed Central

    Yook, Jin-Seon; Kim, Kyung-Ah; Park, Jeong Eun; Lee, Seon-Hwa; Cha, Youn-Soo

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the impact of microalgal oil (MO) on body weight management in C57BL/6J mice. Obesity was induced for 8 weeks and animals were orally supplemented with the following for 8 additional weeks: beef tallow (BT), corn oil, fish oil (FO), microalgal oil (MO), or none, as a high fat diet control group (HD). A normal control group was fed with a normal diet. After completing the experiment, the FO and MO groups showed significant decreases in body weight gain, epididymal fat pad weights, serum triglycerides, and total cholesterol levels compared to the HD and BT groups. A lower mRNA expression level of lipid anabolic gene and higher levels of lipid catabolic genes were observed in both FO and MO groups. Serum insulin and leptin concentrations were lower in the MO group. These results indicated that microalgal oil has an anti-obesity effect that can combat high fat diet-induced obesity in mice. PMID:26770909

  11. Microalgal Oil Supplementation Has an Anti-Obesity Effect in C57BL/6J Mice Fed a High Fat Diet.

    PubMed

    Yook, Jin-Seon; Kim, Kyung-Ah; Park, Jeong Eun; Lee, Seon-Hwa; Cha, Youn-Soo

    2015-12-01

    This study investigated the impact of microalgal oil (MO) on body weight management in C57BL/6J mice. Obesity was induced for 8 weeks and animals were orally supplemented with the following for 8 additional weeks: beef tallow (BT), corn oil, fish oil (FO), microalgal oil (MO), or none, as a high fat diet control group (HD). A normal control group was fed with a normal diet. After completing the experiment, the FO and MO groups showed significant decreases in body weight gain, epididymal fat pad weights, serum triglycerides, and total cholesterol levels compared to the HD and BT groups. A lower mRNA expression level of lipid anabolic gene and higher levels of lipid catabolic genes were observed in both FO and MO groups. Serum insulin and leptin concentrations were lower in the MO group. These results indicated that microalgal oil has an anti-obesity effect that can combat high fat diet-induced obesity in mice. PMID:26770909

  12. Amelioration of obesity-associated inflammation and insulin resistance in c57bl/6 mice via macrophage polarization by fish oil supplementation.

    PubMed

    Bashir, Samina; Sharma, Yadhu; Elahi, Asif; Khan, Farah

    2016-07-01

    Enormous phenotypic plasticity makes macrophages the target cells in obesity-associated inflammatory diseases. Thus, nutritional components that polarize macrophages toward antiinflammatory phenotype can partially reverse inflammatory diseases like insulin resistance. In the present study, macrophage-polarizing and insulin-sensitizing properties of fish oil (FO) were evaluated in obese insulin-resistant c57bl/6 mice fed high-fat diet (HFD-IR) after oral supplementation with FO (4, 8 or 16mg/kg body weight) and compared to lean and HFD-IR mice. FO-supplemented HFD-IR mice exhibited reduced adiposity index, serum cholesterol and triglycerides and increased insulin sensitization and showed improved adipose tissue physiology under light and transmission electron microscopy. NF-κB/P65 expression showed a downward shift on FO supplementation. The surface marker of M1 macrophages (CD-86) and the TLR-4 expression reduced with the increased supplementation of FO. Expression of arginase 1, an important marker of M2 macrophages, increased in a dose-dependent manner in response to FO dosage, which was observed at protein level by the western blotting and at mRNA level by real-time PCR. The cytokine profile of adipose tissue macrophages showed a steep shift toward antiinflammatory ones (IL-4 and IL-10) from the inflammatory TNF-α, IFN-γ, IL-2 and IL-1β. Thus, macrophage polarization seems to be the plausible mechanism via which FO alleviates obesity-induced inflammation and insulin resistance. PMID:27260471

  13. Profiling of Indigenous Microbial Community Dynamics and Metabolic Activity During Enrichment in Molasses-Supplemented Crude Oil-Brine Mixtures for Improved Understanding of Microbial Enhanced Oil Recovery.

    PubMed

    Halim, Amalia Yunita; Pedersen, Dorthe Skou; Nielsen, Sidsel Marie; Lantz, Anna Eliasson

    2015-06-01

    Anaerobic incubations using crude oil and brine from a North Sea reservoir were conducted to gain increased understanding of indigenous microbial community development, metabolite production, and the effects on the oil-brine system after addition of a complex carbon source, molasses, with or without nitrate to boost microbial growth. Growth of the indigenous microbes was stimulated by addition of molasses. Pyrosequencing showed that specifically Anaerobaculum, Petrotoga, and Methanothermococcus were enriched. Addition of nitrate favored the growth of Petrotoga over Anaerobaculum. The microbial growth caused changes in the crude oil-brine system: formation of oil emulsions, and reduction of interfacial tension (IFT). Reduction in IFT was associated with microbes being present at the oil-brine interphase. These findings suggest that stimulation of indigenous microbial growth by addition of molasses has potential as microbial enhanced oil recovery (MEOR) strategy in North Sea oil reservoirs. PMID:25894951

  14. Pyrolysis Strategies for Effective Utilization of Lignocellulosic and Algal Biomass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maddi, Balakrishna

    Pyrolysis is a processing technique involving thermal degradation of biomass in the absence of oxygen. The bio-oils obtained following the condensation of the pyrolysis vapors form a convenient starting point for valorizing the major components of lignocellulosic as well as algal biomass feed stocks for the production of fuels and value-added chemicals. Pyrolysis can be implemented on whole biomass or on residues left behind following standard fractionation methods. Microalgae and oil seeds predominantly consist of protein, carbohydrate and triglycerides, whereas lignocellulose is composed of carbohydrates (cellulose and hemicellulose) and lignin. The differences in the major components of these two types of biomass will necessitate different pyrolysis strategies to derive the optimal benefits from the resulting bio-oils. In this thesis, novel pyrolysis strategies were developed that enable efficient utilization of the bio-oils (and/or their vapors) from lignocellulose, algae, as well as oil seed feed stocks. With lignocellulosic feed stocks, pyrolysis of whole biomass as well as the lignin residue left behind following well-established pretreatment and saccharification (i.e., depolymerization of cellulose and hemicellulose to their monomeric-sugars) of the biomass was studied with and without catalysts. Following this, pyrolysis of (lipid-deficient) algae and lignocellulosic feed stocks, under similar reactor conditions, was performed for comparison of product (bio-oil, gas and bio-char) yields and composition. In spite of major differences in component bio-polymers, feedstock properties relevant to thermo-chemical conversions, such as overall C, H and O-content, C/O and H/C molar ratio as well as calorific values, were found to be similar for algae and lignocellulosic material. Bio-oil yields from algae and some lignocellulosic materials were similar; however, algal bio-oils were compositionally different and contained several N-compounds (most likely from

  15. Rapid Analytical Method for the Determination of Aflatoxins in Plant-Derived Dietary Supplement and Cosmetic Oils

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Consumption of edible oils derived from conventional crop plants is increasing because they are generally regarded as more healthy alternatives to animal based fats and oils. More recently there has been increased interest in the use of alternative specialty plant-derived oils, including those from...

  16. UNOCAL Parachute Creek Shale Oil Program. Environmental Monitoring Plan - supplemental environmental. Volume 1. Trip 2 report. Rept. for 1988-90

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-10-01

    The Energy Security Act of 1980 established a program to provide financial assistance to private industry in the construction and operation of commercial-scale synthetic fuels plants. The Parachute Creek Shale Oil Program is one of four projects awarded financial assistance. The Program agreed to comply with existing environmental monitoring regulations and to develop an Environmental Monitoring Plan (EMP) incorporating supplemental monitoring in the areas of water, air, solid waste, and worker health and safety during the period 1985-1992. These activities are described in a series of quarterly and annual reports. The report contains results of three years of supplemental environmental sampling (Trial Trip, 1988; Trip 1, 1989; and Trip 2, 1990); Trip 2 sampling and analytical methods; quality assurance and quality control procedures; sampling and analytical methods; and corrected data from 1988 and 1989 gas and particulate concentrations.

  17. Dietary Oil Source and Selenium Supplementation Modulate Fads2 and Elovl5 Transcriptional Levels in Liver and Brain of Meagre (Argyrosomus regius).

    PubMed

    Silva-Brito, Francisca; Magnoni, Leonardo J; Fonseca, Sthelio Braga; Peixoto, Maria João; Castro, L Filipe C; Cunha, Isabel; de Almeida Ozório, Rodrigo Otávio; Magalhães, Fernando Antunes; Gonçalves, José Fernando Magalhães

    2016-06-01

    The meagre (Argyrosomus regius) is taking on increasing importance in the aquaculture industry. In view of the limited supply of fish oil (FO) as a feed ingredient, the study of the capacity to biosynthesize long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFA) from alternative dietary oil sources is important. We analyzed changes in fatty acid (FA) desaturase 2 (fads2) and FA elongase 5 (elovl5) mRNA levels in livers and brains in response to FO replacement with a blend of vegetable oils (VO) and selenium (Se) supplementation. Fish were fed for 60 days with either a diet containing FO or a diet including VO, each supplemented or not with organic Se. Results showed that fads2 and elovl5 transcription was higher in liver when fish were fed VO diets. The brain mRNA levels of both genes were not affected by the dietary replacement of FO by VO. FA composition in the liver and skeletal muscle was altered by FO replacement, particularly by decreasing eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid contents. The α-linolenic, linoleic, and arachidonic acid contents increased in both liver and brain of fish fed VO diets. The effect of Se supplementation on lipid metabolism was evident only in fish fed FO, showing a decrease in the transcription of hepatic fads2. Results indicate that the total replacement of FO by VO in diets modulates the expression of genes involved in LC-PUFA biosynthesis in meagre, affecting the FA profile of the fish flesh. PMID:27169705

  18. A Mixed Flavonoid-Fish Oil Supplement Induces Immune-Enhancing and Anti-Inflammatory Transcriptomic Changes in Adult Obese and Overweight Women—A Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Cialdella-Kam, Lynn; Nieman, David C.; Knab, Amy M.; Shanely, R. Andrew; Meaney, Mary Pat; Jin, Fuxia; Sha, Wei; Ghosh, Sujoy

    2016-01-01

    Flavonoids and fish oils have anti-inflammatory and immune-modulating influences. The purpose of this study was to determine if a mixed flavonoid-fish oil supplement (Q-Mix; 1000 mg quercetin, 400 mg isoquercetin, 120 mg epigallocatechin (EGCG) from green tea extract, 400 mg n3-PUFAs (omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid) (220 mg eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and 180 mg docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)) from fish oil, 1000 mg vitamin C, 40 mg niacinamide, and 800 µg folic acid) would reduce complications associated with obesity; that is, reduce inflammatory and oxidative stress markers and alter genomic profiles in overweight women. Overweight and obese women (n = 48; age = 40–70 years) were assigned to Q-Mix or placebo groups using randomized double-blinded placebo-controlled procedures. Overnight fasted blood samples were collected at 0 and 10 weeks and analyzed for cytokines, C-reactive protein (CRP), F2-isoprostanes, and whole-blood-derived mRNA, which was assessed using Affymetrix HuGene-1_1 ST arrays. Statistical analysis included two-way ANOVA models for blood analytes and gene expression and pathway and network enrichment methods for gene expression. Plasma levels increased with Q-Mix supplementation by 388% for quercetin, 95% for EPA, 18% for DHA, and 20% for docosapentaenoic acid (DPA). Q-Mix did not alter plasma levels for CRP (p = 0.268), F2-isoprostanes (p = 0.273), and cytokines (p > 0.05). Gene set enrichment analysis revealed upregulation of pathways in Q-Mix vs. placebo related to interferon-induced antiviral mechanism (false discovery rate, FDR < 0.001). Overrepresentation analysis further disclosed an inhibition of phagocytosis-related inflammatory pathways in Q-Mix vs. placebo. Thus, a 10-week Q-Mix supplementation elicited a significant rise in plasma quercetin, EPA, DHA, and DPA, as well as stimulated an antiviral and inflammation whole-blood transcriptomic response in overweight women. PMID:27187447

  19. A Mixed Flavonoid-Fish Oil Supplement Induces Immune-Enhancing and Anti-Inflammatory Transcriptomic Changes in Adult Obese and Overweight Women-A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    PubMed

    Cialdella-Kam, Lynn; Nieman, David C; Knab, Amy M; Shanely, R Andrew; Meaney, Mary Pat; Jin, Fuxia; Sha, Wei; Ghosh, Sujoy

    2016-01-01

    Flavonoids and fish oils have anti-inflammatory and immune-modulating influences. The purpose of this study was to determine if a mixed flavonoid-fish oil supplement (Q-Mix; 1000 mg quercetin, 400 mg isoquercetin, 120 mg epigallocatechin (EGCG) from green tea extract, 400 mg n3-PUFAs (omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid) (220 mg eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and 180 mg docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)) from fish oil, 1000 mg vitamin C, 40 mg niacinamide, and 800 µg folic acid) would reduce complications associated with obesity; that is, reduce inflammatory and oxidative stress markers and alter genomic profiles in overweight women. Overweight and obese women (n = 48; age = 40-70 years) were assigned to Q-Mix or placebo groups using randomized double-blinded placebo-controlled procedures. Overnight fasted blood samples were collected at 0 and 10 weeks and analyzed for cytokines, C-reactive protein (CRP), F₂-isoprostanes, and whole-blood-derived mRNA, which was assessed using Affymetrix HuGene-1_1 ST arrays. Statistical analysis included two-way ANOVA models for blood analytes and gene expression and pathway and network enrichment methods for gene expression. Plasma levels increased with Q-Mix supplementation by 388% for quercetin, 95% for EPA, 18% for DHA, and 20% for docosapentaenoic acid (DPA). Q-Mix did not alter plasma levels for CRP (p = 0.268), F2-isoprostanes (p = 0.273), and cytokines (p > 0.05). Gene set enrichment analysis revealed upregulation of pathways in Q-Mix vs. placebo related to interferon-induced antiviral mechanism (false discovery rate, FDR < 0.001). Overrepresentation analysis further disclosed an inhibition of phagocytosis-related inflammatory pathways in Q-Mix vs. placebo. Thus, a 10-week Q-Mix supplementation elicited a significant rise in plasma quercetin, EPA, DHA, and DPA, as well as stimulated an antiviral and inflammation whole-blood transcriptomic response in overweight women. PMID:27187447

  20. Algal culture studies for CELSS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Radmer, R.; Behrens, P.; Arnett, K.; Gladue, R.; Cox, J.; Lieberman, D.

    1987-01-01

    Microalgae are well-suited as a component of a Closed Environmental Life Support System (CELSS), since they can couple the closely related functions of food production and atmospheric regeneration. The objective was to provide a basis for predicting the response of CELSS algal cultures, and thus the food supply and air regeneration system, to changes in the culture parameters. Scenedesmus growth was measured as a function of light intensity, and the spectral dependence of light absorption by the algae as well as algal respiration in the light were determined as a function of cell concentration. These results were used to test and confirm a mathematical model that describes the productivity of an algal culture in terms of the competing processes of photosynthesis and respiration. The relationship of algal productivity to cell concentration was determined at different carbon dioxide concentrations, temperatures, and light intensities. The maximum productivity achieved by an air-grown culture was found to be within 10% of the computed maximum productivity, indicating that CO2 was very efficiently removed from the gas stream by the algal culture. Measurements of biomass productivity as a function of cell concentration at different light intensities indicated that both the productivity and efficiency of light utilization were greater at higher light intensities.

  1. Fish oil and olive oil supplements attenuate the adverse cardiovascular effects of concentrated ambient air pollution particles exposure in healthy middle-aged adult human volunteers

    EPA Science Inventory

    Exposure to ambient levels of air pollution increases cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Advanced age is among the factors associated with susceptibility to the adverse effects of air pollution. Dietary fatty acid supplementation has been shown to decrease cardiovascular ris...

  2. Simulating pH effects in an algal-growth hydrodynamics model(1).

    PubMed

    James, Scott C; Janardhanam, Vijayasarathi; Hanson, David T

    2013-06-01

    Models and numerical simulations are relatively inexpensive tools that can be used to enhance economic competitiveness through operation and system optimization to minimize energy and resource consumption, while maximizing algal oil yield. This work uses modified versions of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Environmental Fluid Dynamics Code (EFDC) in conjunction with the U.S. Army Corp of Engineers' water-quality code (CE-QUAL) to simulate flow hydrodynamics coupled to algal growth kinetics. The model allows the flexibility of manipulating a host of variables associated with algal growth such as temperature, light intensity, and nutrient availability. pH of the medium is a newly added operational parameter governing algal growth that affects algal photosynthesis, differential availability of inorganic forms of carbon, enzyme activity in algae cell walls, and oil production rates. A single-layer algal-growth/hydrodynamic model without pH limitation was verified by comparing solution curves of algal biomass and phosphorus concentrations to an analytical solution. Media pH, now included in the model as a growth-limiting factor, can be entered as a measured value or calculated based on CO2 concentrations. Upon adding the ability to limit growth due to pH, physically reasonable results have been obtained from the model both with and without pH limitation. When the model was used to simulate algal growth from a pond experiment in the greenhouse, a least-squares fitting technique yielded a maximum algal production (subsequently modulated by limitation factors) of 1.05 d(-1) . Overall, the measured and simulated biomass concentrations in the greenhouse pond were in close agreement. PMID:27007048

  3. Effects of DHA-rich fish oil supplementation on the lipid profile, markers of muscle damage, and neutrophil function in wheelchair basketball athletes before and after acute exercise.

    PubMed

    Marques, Camila Garcia; Santos, Vinicius Coneglian; Levada-Pires, Adriana Cristina; Jacintho, Thiago Manzoni; Gorjão, Renata; Pithon-Curi, Tânia Cristina; Cury-Boaventura, Maria Fernanda

    2015-06-01

    We investigated the effects of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)-rich fish oil (FO) supplementation on the lipid profile, levels of plasma inflammatory mediators, markers of muscle damage, and neutrophil function in wheelchair basketball players before and after acute exercise. We evaluated 8 male basketball wheelchair athletes before and after acute exercise both prior to (S0) and following (S1) FO supplementation. The subjects were supplemented with 3 g of FO daily for 30 days. The following components were measured: the plasma lipid profile (total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and triglycerides), plasma inflammatory mediators (C-reactive protein, interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-1ra, IL-4, IL-6, IL-8, and tumor necrosis factor-α), markers of muscle damage (creatine kinase and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH)), and neutrophil function (cytokine production, phagocytic capacity, loss of membrane integrity, mitochondrial membrane potential, neutral lipid accumulation, phosphatidylserine externalization, DNA fragmentation, and production of reactive oxygen species (ROS)). Acute exercise increased the plasma levels of total cholesterol, LDH, IL1ra, and IL-6, led to the loss of membrane integrity, ROS production, and a high mitochondrial membrane potential in neutrophils, and reduced the phagocytic capacity and IL-6 production by the neutrophils (S0). However, supplementation prevented the increases in the plasma levels of LDH and IL-6, the loss of membrane integrity, and the alterations in ROS production and mitochondrial membrane potential in the neutrophils that were induced by exercise (S1). In conclusion, DHA-rich FO supplementation reduces the markers of muscle damage, inflammatory disturbances, and neutrophil death induced by acute exercise in wheelchair athletes. PMID:25942100

  4. DHA derivatives of fish oil as dietary supplements: a nutrition-based drug discovery approach for therapies to prevent metabolic cardiotoxicity

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Yonggang; Lindsey, Merry L.; Halade, Ganesh V.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction During the early 1970s, Danish physicians Jorn Dyerberg and colleagues observed that Greenland Eskimos consuming fatty fishes exhibited low incidences of heart disease. Fish oil is now one of the most commonly consumed dietary supplements. In 2004, concentrated fish oil was approved as a drug by the FDA for the treatment of hyperlipidemia. Fish oil contains two major omega-3 fatty acids: eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). With advancements in lipid concentration and purification techniques, EPA- or DHA-enriched products are now commercially available, and the availability of these components in isolation allows their individual effects to be examined. Newly synthesized derivatives and endogenously discovered metabolites of DHA exhibit therapeutic utility for obesity, metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular disease. Areas covered This review summarizes our current knowledge on the distinct effects of EPA and DHA to prevent metabolic syndrome and reduce cardiotoxicity risk. Since EPA is an integral component of fish oil, we will briefly review EPA effects, but our main theme will be to summarize effects of the DHA derivatives that are available today. We focus on using nutrition-based drug discovery to explore the potential of DHA derivatives for the treatment of obesity, metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular diseases. Expert opinion The safety and efficacy evaluation of DHA derivatives will provide novel biomolecules for the drug discovery arsenal. Novel nutritional-based drug discoveries of DHA derivatives or metabolites may provide realistic and alternative strategies for the treatment of metabolic and cardiovascular disease. PMID:22724444

  5. 78 FR 21347 - Supplemental Draft Environmental Impact Statement for Effects of Oil and Gas Activities in the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-10

    ... content of the Supplemental DEIS can be found in the Notice of Availability (78 FR 19212, March 29, 2013...). Attachments to electronic comments will be accepted in Microsoft Word or Excel or Adobe PDF file formats...

  6. Short-Term Energy Outlook Supplement: Key drivers for EIA's short-term U.S. crude oil production outlook

    EIA Publications

    2013-01-01

    Crude oil production increased by 790,000 barrels per day (bbl/d) between 2011 and 2012, the largest increase in annual output since the beginning of U.S. commercial crude oil production in 1859. The U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) expects U.S. crude oil production to continue rising over the next two years represented in the Short-Term Energy Outlook (STEO).

  7. Fuel characteristics pertinent to the design of aircraft fuel systems, Supplement I : additional information on MIL-F-7914(AER) grade JP-5 fuel and several fuel oils

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barnett, Henry C; Hibbard, Robert R

    1953-01-01

    Since the release of the first NACA publication on fuel characteristics pertinent to the design of aircraft fuel systems (NACA-RM-E53A21), additional information has become available on MIL-F7914(AER) grade JP-5 fuel and several of the current grades of fuel oils. In order to make this information available to fuel-system designers as quickly as possible, the present report has been prepared as a supplement to NACA-RM-E53A21. Although JP-5 fuel is of greater interest in current fuel-system problems than the fuel oils, the available data are not as extensive. It is believed, however, that the limited data on JP-5 are sufficient to indicate the variations in stocks that the designer must consider under a given fuel specification. The methods used in the preparation and extrapolation of data presented in the tables and figures of this supplement are the same as those used in NACA-RM-E53A21.

  8. Effects of genotype and dietary oil supplementation on performance, carcass traits, pork quality and fatty acid composition of backfat and intramuscular fat.

    PubMed

    Bertol, T M; de Campos, R M L; Ludke, J V; Terra, N N; de Figueiredo, E A P; Coldebella, A; dos Santos Filho, J I; Kawski, V L; Lehr, N M

    2013-03-01

    A 42-day study was conducted to evaluate the effect of genotype: terminal sire line Duroc×F1 (DC×F1); terminal sire line Embrapa MS-115×F1 (MS-115×F1); and MS-115×Moura (MS-115×MO) and three dietary oil sources: soybean; canola; and canola+flax, on performance, carcass traits, pork quality, and fatty acid composition. Genotype affected the technological quality of pork and fatty acid profile. MS-115-sired pigs had better meat color and Duroc-sired pigs had higher intramuscular fat content, more saturated fat and better omega-6/omega-3 ratio. Moura breed influenced positively meat tenderness and intramuscular fat. Diet did not affect the technological quality of the meat. Canola or canola+flax oil diet supplementations increased monounsaturated and C18:3 and decreased C18:2 fatty acids, reducing the omega-6/omega-3 ratio. The best omega-6/omega-3 ratio was obtained through supplementation with canola+flax. PMID:23273458

  9. Identification of compounds from high-fat and extra virgin olive oil-supplemented diets in whole mouse liver extracts and isolated mitochondria using mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    dos Santos, Gustavo Aparecido; Ferreira, Mônica Siqueira; de Oliveira, Diogo Noin; de Oliveira, Vanessa; Siqueira-Santos, Edilene S; Cintra, Dennys Esper Corrêa; Castilho, Roger Frigério; Velloso, Lício Augusto; Catharino, Rodrigo Ramos

    2015-07-01

    Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) is a fatty liver disorder that could be improved with extra virgin olive oil (EVOO) supplementation in diet. We propose the monitoring, in whole mouse liver extracts and in isolated mitochondria, of the absorption of compounds from three different diets: standard (CT), high-fat (HFD) and high-fat supplemented with EVOO (HFSO). Male mice were submitted to one of the following three diets: CT or HFD for 16 weeks or HFD for 8 weeks followed by additional 8 weeks with HFSO. Following this period, liver was extracted for histological evaluation, mitochondria isolation and mass spectrometry analyses. Diets, liver extracts and Percoll-purified mitochondria were analyzed using ESI-MS and the lipidomics approach. Morphological, histological and spectrometric results indicated a decrease in NASH severity with EVOO supplementation in comparison with animals maintained with HFD. Spectrometric data also demonstrated that some compounds presented on the diets are absorbed by the mitochondria. EVOO was shown to be a potential therapeutic alternative in food for NASH. Our results are in accordance with the proposition that the major factor that influences different responses to diets is their composition - and not only calories - especially when it comes to studies on obesity. PMID:26349651

  10. Protective Effects of Rooibos (Aspalathus linearis) and/or Red Palm Oil (Elaeis guineensis) Supplementation on tert-Butyl Hydroperoxide-Induced Oxidative Hepatotoxicity in Wistar Rats

    PubMed Central

    Ajuwon, Olawale R.; Katengua-Thamahane, Emma; Van Rooyen, Jacques; Oguntibeju, Oluwafemi O.; Marnewick, Jeanine L.

    2013-01-01

    The possible protective effects of an aqueous rooibos extract (Aspalathus linearis), red palm oil (RPO) (Elaeis guineensis), or their combination on tert-butyl-hydroperoxide-(t-BHP-)induced oxidative hepatotoxicity in Wistar rats were investigated. tert-butyl hydroperoxide caused a significant (P < 0.05) elevation in conjugated dienes (CD) and malondialdehyde (MDA) levels, significantly (P < 0.05) decreased reduced glutathione (GSH) and GSH : GSSG ratio, and induced varying changes in activities of catalase, superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, and glutathione reductase in the blood and liver. This apparent oxidative injury was associated with histopathological changes in liver architecture and elevated levels of serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH). Supplementation with rooibos, RPO, or their combination significantly (P < 0.05) decreased CD and MDA levels in the liver and reduced serum level of ALT, AST, and LDH. Likewise, changes observed in the activities of antioxidant enzymes and impairment in redox status in the erythrocytes and liver were reversed. The observed protective effects when rooibos and RPO were supplemented concomitantly were neither additive nor synergistic. Our results suggested that rooibos and RPO, either supplemented alone or combined, are capable of alleviating t-BHP-induced oxidative hepatotoxicity, and the mechanism of this protection may involve inhibition of lipid peroxidation and modulation of antioxidants enzymes and glutathione status. PMID:23690869

  11. Effects of Dietary Supplementation of Oregano Essential Oil to Sows on Oxidative Stress Status, Lactation Feed Intake of Sows, and Piglet Performance

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Chengquan; Wei, Hongkui; Sun, Haiqing; Ao, Jiangtao; Long, Guang; Jiang, Siwen; Peng, Jian

    2015-01-01

    Fifty-four multiparous large white sows were used to determine the effects of supplementing oregano essential oil (OEO) to the gestation and lactation diets on oxidative stress status, lactation feed intake, and their piglet performance. Two groups were fed diets with (OEO; n = 28) or without (Control; n = 26) supplemental 15 mg/kg OEO during gestation and lactation. The serum levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) (P < 0.05), 8-hydroxy-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) (P < 0.05), and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) (P < 0.05) were higher during gestation (days 90 and 109) and lactation (days 1 and 3) than in early gestation (day 10). Compared with the control group, the OEO diet significantly reduced sows' serum concentrations of 8-OHdG (P < 0.05) and TBARS (P < 0.01) on day 1 of lactation. The OEO diet increased the sows' counts of faecal lactobacillus (P < 0.001) while reducing Escherichia coli (P < 0.001) and Enterococcus (P < 0.001). In the third week of lactation the treatment tended to increase sow's feed intake (P = 0.07), which resulted in higher average daily gain (P < 0.01) of piglets. Our results demonstrated that there is an increased systemic oxidative stress during late gestation and early lactation of sows. The OEO supplementation to sows' diet improved performance of their piglets, which may be attributed to the reduced oxidative stress. PMID:26539506

  12. Cognitive enhancement in middle-aged and old cats with dietary supplementation with a nutrient blend containing fish oil, B vitamins, antioxidants and arginine.

    PubMed

    Pan, Yuanlong; Araujo, Joseph A; Burrows, Joey; de Rivera, Christina; Gore, Asa; Bhatnagar, Sandeep; Milgram, Norton W

    2013-07-14

    Cognitive dysfunction syndrome is a major disease affecting old cats and is the consequence of severe and irreversible loss of brain cells and brain atrophy. The present study focused on the hypothesis that the optimal strategy for promoting successful brain ageing is to target risk factors associated with brain ageing and dementia. We used a nutritional strategy involving supplementation with a blend of nutrients (antioxidants, arginine, B vitamins and fish oil) to test this hypothesis. Middle-aged and old cats between 5·5 and 8·7 years of age were assigned to cognitively equivalent control or treatment groups based on prior cognitive experience and performance on baseline cognitive tests. The cats in the treatment group were maintained on a diet supplemented with the nutrient blend and the cats in the control group were maintained on the identical base diet without the additional supplementation. After an initial wash-in period, all cats were tested on a battery of cognitive test protocols. The cats fed the test diet showed significantly better performance on three of four test protocols: a protocol assessing egocentric learning, a protocol assessing discrimination and reversal learning and a protocol focused on acquisition of a spatial memory task. The results support the hypothesis that brain function of middle-aged and old cats can be improved by the nutrient blend that was selected to minimise or eliminate the risk factors associated with brain ageing and dementia. PMID:23211671

  13. 75 FR 59622 - Supplemental Determination for Renewable Fuels Produced Under the Final RFS2 Program From Canola Oil

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-28

    ... biofuel, and palm oil biodiesel (see Section V.C of the RFS2 final rule, 75 FR 14796). To this list we... biodiesel that was published on July 26, 2010 (75 FR 43522). We have considered these comments in developing... produced from canola oil, the delayed RINs provision will only be applicable to this pathway. \\1\\ 75...

  14. ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT OF AN ENHANCED OIL RECOVERY STEAM GENERATOR EQUIPPED WITH A LOW-NOX BURNER. VOLUME 2. DATA SUPPLEMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report is a compendium of detailed test sampling and analysis data obtained in field tests of an enhanced oil recovery steam generator (EOR steamer) equipped with a MHI PM low-NOx crude oil burner. Test data included in the report include equipment calibration records, steame...

  15. Dietary supplementation of chloroquine with nigella sativa seed and oil extracts in the treatment of malaria induced in mice with plasmodium berghei

    PubMed Central

    Emeka, Promise Madu; Badger-Emeka, Lorina Ineta; Eneh, Chiamaka Maryann; Khan, Tahir Mahmood

    2014-01-01

    Background: The aim of the study was to investigate the effects of dietary combination of Nigella sativa seed and oil extracts with chloroquine (CQ), and how these combinations enhance CQ efficacy in mice infected with Plasmodium berghei and their survival rates. Materials and Methods: Chloroquine sensitive P. berghei, NK65 strain was used for the study. This was passaged intraperitoneally into albino mice with a 0.2ml standard inoculum consisting of 106 parasitized erythrocyte suspension in phosphate buffer solution (PBS). Parasitaemia was ascertained by microscopical examination of blood films under oil immersion at X100 magnification. Results: Nigella sativa seed in feed (NSSF), NSSF + CQ on day 4, produced 86.1% and 86.0% suppression respectively, while Nigella sativa oil extract in feed (NSOF) and in combination with CQ had 86.0% and 99.9% suppression respectively. The degree of suppression with the combination was significantly higher compared to CQ alone (P < 0.001) (36.1%). Complete parasitaemia clearance was obtained on the 20th and 15th day of treatment for NSSF, NSSF + CQ respectively, while that for NSOF and NSOF + CQ was on days 26 and 12 respectively. For CQ parasite clearance was 12 days with treatment. Also, the combinastion of 10 mg/kg Nigella sativa oil treatment injected intraperitoneally with oral CQ produced very significant parasite suppression (P < 0.0001) (93%). Survival rate in NSSF and NSOF and in combination with CQ groups was 100 and 60.0% for CQ alone. Conclusions: This study shows that the use of Nigella sativa seed and oil extract as dietary supplements in combination with CQ has a potential in enhancing the efficacy of CQ and could be of benefit in management of malaria. PMID:24991115

  16. Proposed five-year OCS oil and gas lease sale schedule. Final supplement to the final environmental statement, January 1982-December 1986

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-01-01

    This supplement considers a July 1981 proposed five-year schedule extending from January 1982 to December 1986 and consisting of 42 oil and gas leasing sales in 14 of the 23 planning areas offshore of the following states: Maine, New Hampshire, Massachusetts, Rhode Island, Connecticut, New York, New Jersey, Delaware, Maryland, Virginia, North Carolina, South Carolina, Georgia, Florida, Alabama, Mississippi, Louisiana, Texas, California and Alaska. In this document, the proposed schedule dated July 1981 is examined using two different leasing options, one offering all of the acreage within a planning area and the other offering only areas of hydrocarbon potential. A second alternative re-examines the April 1981 draft proposed schedule. A third alternative examines the current schedule with two leasing options, one offering the current pace and system of leasing, the other using the current leasing system but offering larger amounts of acreage per sale. A fourth alternative concerns two modifications of the proposed schedule in Alaska. The first modification reduces the number of sales offshore Alaska while making adjustments in the timing of other Alaska sales. The second modification covered in this alternative proposes the deletion of all Arctic Ocean OCS sales and this too is analyzed with the area-wide and areas of hydrocarbon potential options. Preliminary estimates indicate the possible recovery of around 8.3 billion barrels of oil and around 39 trillion cubic feet of gas. The number of oil spills expected is predicted. Impacts to marine and coastal ecosystems will occur in excess of those described in the FEIS for the current schedule due to the larger number of sales and the increased amount of the available resources expected to be recovered. This supplement also describes the new leasing system and explains what effects it may have on the environment. Socio-economic factors are considered. (DMC)

  17. From benchtop to raceway : spectroscopic signatures of dynamic biological processes in algal communities.

    SciTech Connect

    Trahan, Christine Alexandra; Garcia, Omar Fidel; Martino, Anthony A.; Raymer, Michelle; Collins, Aaron M.; Hanson, David T.; Turner, Tom; Powell, Amy Jo; James, Scott Carlton; Timlin, Jerilyn Ann; Scholle, Steven; Dwyer, Brian P.; Ruffing, Anne; Jones, Howland D. T.; Ricken, James Bryce; Reichardt, Thomas A.

    2010-08-01

    The search is on for new renewable energy and algal-derived biofuel is a critical piece in the multi-faceted renewable energy puzzle. It has 30x more oil than any terrestrial oilseed crop, ideal composition for biodiesel, no competition with food crops, can be grown in waste water, and is cleaner than petroleum based fuels. This project discusses these three goals: (1) Conduct fundamental research into the effects that dynamic biotic and abiotic stressors have on algal growth and lipid production - Genomics/Transcriptomics, Bioanalytical spectroscopy/Chemical imaging; (2) Discover spectral signatures for algal health at the benchtop and greenhouse scale - Remote sensing, Bioanalytical spectroscopy; and (3) Develop computational model for algal growth and productivity at the raceway scale - Computational modeling.

  18. Hybrid life-cycle assessment of algal biofuel production.

    PubMed

    Malik, Arunima; Lenzen, Manfred; Ralph, Peter J; Tamburic, Bojan

    2015-05-01

    The objective of this work is to establish whether algal bio-crude production is environmentally, economically and socially sustainable. To this end, an economic multi-regional input-output model of Australia was complemented with engineering process data on algal bio-crude production. This model was used to undertake hybrid life-cycle assessment for measuring the direct, as well as indirect impacts of producing bio-crude. Overall, the supply chain of bio-crude is more sustainable than that of conventional crude oil. The results indicate that producing 1 million tonnes of bio-crude will generate almost 13,000 new jobs and 4 billion dollars' worth of economic stimulus. Furthermore, bio-crude production will offer carbon sequestration opportunities as the production process is net carbon-negative. PMID:25465782

  19. Algal taxonomy forum: Algal Taxonomist, Let Serendipity Reign!

    PubMed

    Druehl, Louis

    2013-04-01

    The publication of a mini-review by Olivier De Clerck et al. in this issue of the Journal of Phycology presented an opportunity to open a dialogue on challenges faced by contemporary algal taxonomists. The Editorial Office solicited the following two additional contributions in response to De Clerck et al.'s paper; the responses were edited solely for clarity, space and format. PMID:27008510

  20. 75 FR 3706 - Intent to Prepare a Supplemental Environmental Impact Statement on the Exxon Valdez Oil Spill...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-22

    ... ecosystem and play a vital role in the food chain of many injured species. Thus, rebuilding the herring... seek food in sediments where the oil persists and remains a concern and a perception of...

  1. Effect of feeding thoroughbred horses a high unsaturated or saturated vegetable oil supplemented diet for 6 months following a 10 month fat acclimation.

    PubMed

    Harris, P A; Pagan, J D; Crandell, K G; Davidson, N

    1999-07-01

    This study looked at the effect of feeding diets supplemented with either a predominantly saturated or unsaturated vegetable oil over a prolonged period to exercising horses. Eight Thoroughbred horses were assigned to 2 diet treatments and for 10 months were fed Timothy hay and oats, together with a fortified sweet feed supplemented with either a predominantly unsaturated (Un) or a saturated (S) vegetable oil so that approximately 19% DE (Digestible Energy) came from dietary fat and approximately 12% from either the Un or S source (AC). An increased amount of Un or S fortified sweet feed, replacing the oats, was then fed for a further 6 months (HF) so that approximately 27% DE came from fat and approximately 20% from the Un or S vegetable oil. Standardised incremental treadmill exercise (8-12 m/s) tests (STEP) and duplicate oral glucose tolerance tests (TOL) were carried out after 3, 6 and 9 months of the AC diet and after 3 and 6 months on the HF diet. There was no significant effect of dietary treatment or when the tests were undertaken (time) on the insulin or lactate responses to the STEP tests. Overall there was a significant (P < 0.05) effect of time and treatment on the glucose response, but there was no difference between treatments at the first and last tests or between the results for these tests or between the endAC and endHF tests. No significant effect of treatment or time was seen on the TOL glucose response (% change from Time '0') although there was a trend for the glucose concentrations to be lower and the insulin responses higher (nonsignificant) in the S treatment group. No significant effect of treatment on haematological parameters, monitored monthly, was found. Total protein and gamma glutamyl transferase remained within the normal range throughout. There was a significant effect of treatment (P < 0.05) on cholesterol and triglycerides with higher concentrations in the S group from the first (1 month) sample. Linoleic acid was the main fatty

  2. Algal blooms and public health

    SciTech Connect

    Epstein, P.R. . Harvard Medical School)

    1993-06-01

    Alterations in coastal ecology are expanding the geographic extent, frequency, magnitude, and species complexity'' of algal blooms throughout the world, increasing the threat of fish and shellfish poisonings, anoxia in marine nurseries, and of cholera. The World Health Organization and members of the medical profession have described the potential health effects of global climate change. They warn of the consequences of increased ultraviolet-B (UV-B) rays and of warming: the possible damage to agriculture and nutrition, and the impact on habitats which may alter the distribution of vector-borne and water-based infectious diseases. Algal growth due to increased nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) and warming are already affecting marine microflora and aquatic plants; and there is now clear evidence that marine organisms are a reservoir for enteric pathogens. The pattern of cholera in the Western Hemisphere suggests that environmental changes have already begun to influence the epidemiology of this infectious disease. 106 refs.

  3. Growth, nonspecific immune characteristics, and survival upon challenge with Vibrio harveyi in Pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) raised on diets containing algal meal.

    PubMed

    Nonwachai, Thasanee; Purivirojkul, Watchariya; Limsuwan, Chalor; Chuchird, Niti; Velasco, Mario; Dhar, Arun K

    2010-08-01

    A 70-day growth trial was conducted with postlarvae 12 (PL12) Pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) to study the suitability of soybean meal and oil originating from a single-celled microorganism (thraustochytrid) as fishmeal and fish oil substitutes in practical diets for L. vannamei. The growth, survival rate and immune characteristics were evaluated. Seven experimental diets were designed with soybean meal used as the primary protein source; each formulation contained 33% crude protein and 8% lipid. Fish oil was completely substituted with 3% soybean oil and meals originating from single-celled heterotrophs rich in docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and arachidonic acid (ARA) were added at different concentrations. A commercial shrimp feed was used as the control diet. The final weights and survival rates of the shrimp were not significantly different among all treatments. However, shrimp raised on diets supplemented with marine algal meals rich in DHA and ARA showed significant improvement in immune parameters, such as total hemocyte count, phenoloxidase activity, superoxide dismutase activity, and bactericidal activity. Additionally, the survival rate after challenge with Vibrio harveyi was increased. These findings demonstrated that substitution of thraustochytrid-derived meals as an alternative to fish-based ingredients in shrimp diets provided similar growth rates while increasing the immune parameters and providing vibriosis resistance. PMID:20420922

  4. Assessment and treatment of hydrocarbon inundated soils using inorganic nutrient (N-P-K) supplements: II. A case study of eneka oil spillage in Niger Delta, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Osuji, Leo C; Egbuson, Ebitimi J; Ojinnaka, Chukwunnoye M

    2006-04-01

    Polluted soils from Eneka oil field in the Niger delta region of Nigeria were collected two months after recorded incidence of oil spillage as part of a two-site reclamation programme. The soils were taken on the second day of reconnaissance from three replicate quadrats, at surface (0-15 cm) and subsurface (15-30 cm) depths, using the grid sampling technique. Total extractable hydrocarbon content (THC) of the polluted soils ranged from 1.006 x 10(3)-5.540 x 10(4) mg/kg at surface and subsurface depths (no overlap in Standard Errors at 95% Confidence Level). Greenhouse trials for possible reclamation were later carried out using (NH(4))(2)SO(4), KH(2)PO(4) and KCl (N-P-K) fertilizer as nutrient supplements. Nitrogen as NO(3)-N and potassium were optimally enhanced at 2% (w/w) and 3% (w/w) of the N-P-K supplementation respectively. Phosphorus, which was inherently more enhanced in the soils than the other nutrients, maintained same level impact after 20 g treatment with the N-P-K fertilizer. Total organic carbon (%TOC), total organic matter (%TOM), pH and % moisture content all provided evidence of enhanced mineralization in the fertilizer treated soils. If reclamation of the crude oil inundated soils is construed as the return to normal levels of metabolic activities of the soils, then the application of the inorganic fertilizers at such prescribed levels would duly accelerate the remediation process. This would be, however, limited to levels of pollution empirically defined by such THC values obtained in this study. The data on the molecular compositional changes of the total petroleum hydrocarbon content (TPH) of the spilled-oil showed the depletion of the fingerprints of the n-paraffins, nC(8)-nC(10), and complete disappearance of C(12)-C(17) as well as the acyclic isoprenoid, pristane, all of which provided substantial evidence of degradation. PMID:16649138

  5. A comparative study of the physicochemical properties of a virgin coconut oil emulsion and commercial food supplement emulsions.

    PubMed

    Khor, Yih Phing; Koh, Soo Peng; Long, Kamariah; Long, Shariah; Ahmad, Sharifah Zarah Syed; Tan, Chin Ping

    2014-01-01

    Food manufacturers are interested in developing emulsion-based products into nutritional foods by using beneficial oils, such as fish oil and virgin coconut oil (VCO). In this study, the physicochemical properties of a VCO oil-in-water emulsion was investigated and compared to other commercial oil-in-water emulsion products (C1, C2, C3, and C4). C3 exhibited the smallest droplet size of 3.25 µm. The pH for the emulsion samples ranged from 2.52 to 4.38 and thus were categorised as acidic. In a texture analysis, C2 was described as the most firm, very adhesive and cohesive, as well as having high compressibility properties. From a rheological viewpoint, all the emulsion samples exhibited non-Newtonian behaviour, which manifested as a shear-thinning property. The G'G'' crossover illustrated by the VCO emulsion in the amplitude sweep graph but not the other commercial samples illustrated that the VCO emulsion had a better mouthfeel. In this context, the VCO emulsion yielded the highest zeta potential (64.86 mV), which was attributed to its strong repulsive forces, leading to a good dispersion system. C2 comprised the highest percentage of fat among all emulsion samples, followed by the VCO emulsion, with 18.44% and 6.59%, respectively. PMID:24988188

  6. ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT OF AN ENHANCED OIL RECOVERY STEAM GENERATOR EQUIPPED WITH AN EPA (ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY) HEAVY OIL LOW-NOX BURNER. VOLUME 2. DATA SUPPLEMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of comprehensive emission measurements and 30-day flue gas monitoring on a 16-MW (55 million Btu/hr) enhanced oil recovery steam generator equipped with the EPA low-NOx burner firing high-nitrogen crude.

  7. Use of a mixed algal culture to characterize industrial waste waters

    SciTech Connect

    Claesson, A.

    1984-02-01

    A mixture of five freshwater algae was cultivated with additions of waste water samples from chemical, mining, polyvinylchloride, textile, paper mill, and oil refinery industries. Two water samples from chemical industries and one from an oil refinery stimulated the algal growth in a nutrient-poor medium, while growth in other samples, including a nutrient-rich medium, was inhibited in several different ways. For eight of the water samples a delayed growth of 2-4 days was noted. Decreased growth rate and lowered maximal biomass occurred in seven of the samples. The photosynthetic capacity of the algal cells was measured by using in vivo fluorescence of chlorophyll a. These quick measurements mostly agreed with those of the growth rates. When the species composition of the mixed algal culture was investigated, large differences in sensitivities between the different species were found. Stimulation or inhibition were observed in the same sample for different species but also for the same species at different concentrations.

  8. Growth performance, and proximate and fatty acid composition of channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus, fed for different duration with a commercial diet supplemented with various levels of menhaden fish oil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of supplemental menhaden fish oil at levels of 0, 3, 6 and 9% to a commercial diet and feeding duration on growth performance, proximate body and tissue fatty acid (FA) composition of juvenile channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus. Each diet was fed to ...

  9. SITE AND EXENT OF DIGESTION, DUODENAL FLOW, AND INTESTINAL DISAPPEARANCE OF TOTAL AND ESTERIFIED FATTY ACIDS IN SHEEP FED A HIGH-CONCENTRATE DIET SUPPLEMENTED WITH HIGH-LINOLEATE SAFFLOWER OIL

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Our objective was to determine duodenal and ileal flows of total and esterified fatty acids and to determine ruminal fermentation characteristics and site and extent of nutrient digestion in sheep fed an 80% concentrate diet supplemented with high-linoleate (77%) safflower oil at 0, 3, 6, and 9% of ...

  10. EFFECT OF MENHADEN FISH OIL SUPPLEMENTATION AND LIPOPOLYSACCHARIDE EXPOSURE ON NURSERY PIGS: II. EFFECTS ON THE IMMUNE AXIS WHEN FED SIMPLE OR COMPLEX DIETS CONTAINING NO SPRAY-DRIED PLASMA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A trial using 64 weanling pigs (TR4 x PIC C22) was conducted to determine the effects of menhaden fish-oil supplementation and diet complexity on performance and immune response of nursery pigs. Pigs (17 d and 6.27 +/- 1.16 kg) were weaned into a segregated early wean facility and given free access...

  11. Dietary fish oil supplements depress milk fat yield and alter milk fatty acid composition in lactating cows fed grass silage-based diets.

    PubMed

    Kairenius, P; Ärölä, A; Leskinen, H; Toivonen, V; Ahvenjärvi, S; Vanhatalo, A; Huhtanen, P; Hurme, T; Griinari, J M; Shingfield, K J

    2015-08-01

    The potential of dietary fish oil (FO) supplements to increase milk 20:5n-3 and 22:6n-3 concentrations and the associated effects on milk fatty acid (FA) composition, intake, and milk production were examined. Four multiparous lactating cows offered a grass silage-based diet (forage:concentrate ratio 58:42, on a dry matter basis) supplemented with 0, 75, 150, or 300g of FO/d (FO0, FO75, FO150, and FO300, respectively) were used in a 4×4 Latin square with 28-d experimental periods. Milk FA composition was analyzed by complementary silver-ion thin-layer chromatography, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, and silver-ion HPLC. Supplements of FO decreased linearly dry matter intake, yields of energy-corrected milk, milk fat and protein, and milk fat content. Compared with FO0, milk fat content and yield were decreased by 30.1 and 40.6%, respectively, on the FO300 treatment. Supplements of FO linearly increased milk 20:5n-3 and 22:6n-3 concentrations from 0.07 to 0.18 and 0.03 to 0.10g/100g of FA, respectively. Enrichment of 20:5n-3 and 22:6n-3 was accompanied by decreases in 4- to 18-carbon saturated FA and increases in total conjugated linoleic acid (CLA), trans FA, and polyunsaturated FA concentrations. Fish oil elevated milk fat cis-9,trans-11 CLA content in a quadratic manner, reaching a maximum on FO150 (from 0.61 to 2.15g/100g of FA), whereas further amounts of FO increased trans-10 18:1 with no change in trans-11 18:1 concentration. Supplements of FO also resulted in a dose-dependent appearance of 37 unique 20- and 22-carbon intermediates in milk fat. Concentrations of 16-, 18-, 20-, and 22-carbon trans FA were all increased by FO, with enrichment of trans 18:1 and trans 18:2 being quantitatively the most important. Decreases in milk fat yield to FO were not related to changes in milk trans-10,cis-12 CLA concentration or estimated milk fat melting point. Partial least square regression analysis indicated that FO-induced milk fat depression was associated with

  12. Fish oil supplementation from 9 to 18 months of age affects the insulin-like growth factor axis in a sex-specific manner in Danish infants.

    PubMed

    Damsgaard, Camilla T; Harsløf, Laurine B S; Andersen, Anders D; Hellgren, Lars I; Michaelsen, Kim F; Lauritzen, Lotte

    2016-03-14

    Several studies have investigated the effects of fish oil (FO) on infant growth, but little is known about the effects of FO and sex on insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1), the main regulator of growth in childhood. We explored whether FO v. sunflower oil (SO) supplementation from 9 to 18 months of age affected IGF-1 and its binding protein-3 (IGFBP-3) and whether the potential effects were sex specific. Danish infants (n 115) were randomly allocated to 5 ml/d FO (1·2 g/d n-3 long-chain PUFA (n-3 LCPUFA)) or SO. We measured growth, IGF-1, IGFBP-3 and erythrocyte EPA, a biomarker of n-3 LCPUFA intake and status, at 9 and 18 months. Erythrocyte EPA increased strongly with FO compared with SO (P<0·001). There were no effects of FO compared with SO on IGF-1 in the total population, but a sex × group interaction (P=0·02). Baseline-adjusted IGF-1 at 18 months was 11·1 µg/l (95% CI 0·4, 21·8; P=0·04) higher after FO compared with SO supplementation among boys only. The sex × group interaction was borderline significant in the model of IGFBP-3 (P=0·09), with lower IGFBP-3 with FO compared with SO among girls only (P=0·03). The results were supported by sex-specific dose-response associations between changes in erythrocyte EPA and changes in IGF-1 and IGFBP-3 (both P<0·03). Moreover, IGF-1 was sex specifically associated with BMI and length. In conclusion, FO compared with SO resulted in higher IGF-1 among boys and lower IGFBP-3 among girls. The potential long-term implications for growth and body composition should be investigated further. PMID:26758502

  13. Effect of endurance training and/or fish oil supplemented diet on cytoplasmic fatty acid binding protein in rat skeletal muscles and heart.

    PubMed

    Clavel, Stéphan; Farout, L; Briand, M; Briand, Y; Jouanel, P

    2002-07-01

    Endurance training and/or a fish oil supplemented diet affect cytoplasmic fatty acid binding protein (FABP(c)) content in rat skeletal muscles and heart. After 8 weeks of swimming, trained rats exhibited higher FABP(c) content in the extensor digitorum longus (EDL) and in the gastrocnemius than did control rats (30%). The FABP(c) increase was associated with an increase of citrate synthase activity (85% and 93%, respectively, in the two muscles), whereas lactate dehydrogenase activity decreased significantly. In contrast, in the soleus and in the heart we did not observe any effect of exercise either on FABP(c) or on the metabolic profile. Therefore, increasing oxidative capacities of muscle by exercise resulted in a concomitant increase of the FABP(c) content. Giving a polyunsaturated fatty acid (omega-3) supplemented diet for eight weeks induced a large rise of the FABP(c) in EDL (300%), gastrocnemius (250%), soleus (50%) and heart (15%) without a concurrent accumulation of intramuscular triglycerides or modification of the citrate synthase activity, suggesting that polyunsaturated fatty acids may increase FABP(c) content by up-regulating fatty acid metabolism genes via peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha activation. Endurance trained rats fed with an omega-3 diet had similar FABP(c) content in the gastrocnemius muscle when compared to sedentary omega-3 fed rats, whereas an additive effect of exercise and diet was observed in the EDL. The FABP(c) in the soleus and in the heart of rats fed with omega-3 supplements remained constant whether rats performed exercise or not. As a result, both exercise and omega-3-enriched diet influenced FABP(c) content in muscle. These two physiological treatments presumably acted on FABP(c) content by increasing fatty acid flux within the cell. PMID:12111278

  14. Performance, egg quality, and immune response of laying hens fed diets supplemented with mannan-oligosaccharide or an essential oil mixture under moderate and hot environmental conditions.

    PubMed

    Bozkurt, M; Küçükyilmaz, K; Catli, A U; Cinar, M; Bintas, E; Cöven, F

    2012-06-01

    In total, 432 thirty-six-week-old laying hens were fed a basal diet supplemented with mannan-oligosaccharide (MOS) or an essential oil mixture (EOM) from 36 to 51 wk of age. Hens were divided into 3 equal groups replicated 6 times with 24 hens per replicate. No significant difference was observed among the dietary treatments in terms of performance indices. Different from the dietary manipulation, high environmental temperatures negatively influenced all of the laying performance traits except the feed conversion ratio in association with the diminished feed consumption. The MOS, and particularly the EOM, tended to alleviate the deleterious effect of heat stress on BW gain. Mortality was higher in MOS-fed hens than with other treatments. A supplementation diet with MOS or EOM provided increments in eggshell weight (P < 0.01). Relative albumen weight was significantly decreased (P < 0.05) in response to EOM or MOS supplementation; however, this was not the case in the yolk weight rate. The MOS decreased albumen height and Haugh unit (P < 0.05). High environmental temperatures hampered entire egg quality characteristics except for the eggshell breaking strength and egg yolk weight. These results indicated that heat stress adversely affected both productive performance and egg quality. As for the results of this study, neither MOS nor EOM was efficacious in improving efficiency of egg production and stimulating humoral immune response in laying hens reared under moderate and hot climatic conditions. However, the ameliorative effect exerted by MOS and EOM on eggshell characteristics is conclusive. PMID:22582296

  15. Effects of oxidised dietary fish oil and high-dose vitamin E supplementation on growth performance, feed utilisation and antioxidant defence enzyme activities of juvenile large yellow croaker (Larmichthys crocea).

    PubMed

    Wang, Jun; Xu, Houguo; Zuo, Rantao; Mai, Kangsen; Xu, Wei; Ai, Qinghui

    2016-05-01

    This study was conducted to elucidate the effects of oxidised dietary lipids and high-dose vitamin E (VE) on growth performance and immune responses of large yellow croaker. Juvenile fish (initial average body weight of 7·82 (sem 0·68) g) were fed diets containing either fresh fish oil (fresh diet, peroxide value (POV)=1·72 mEq/kg) or fish oil oxidised to varying degrees (oxidised diets, POV=28·29-104·21 mEq/kg), with or without supplementary 600 mg VE/kg diet, for 10 weeks in floating cages. Growth was significantly lower and feed intake (g/100 g body weight per d) was higher in fish fed the oxidised diet. Supplementation with VE increased the growth of fish fed the oxidised diets, but significantly decreased the growth of fish fed the fresh diet. Hepatosomatic index increased with increasing dietary POV and decreased with VE supplementation. Hepatic catalase activity, superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity and malondialdehyde content were significantly higher in fish fed the oxidised diets, and these values decreased significantly following VE supplementation. However, hepatic SOD activity was enhanced by VE supplementation in fish fed the fresh diet. Air-exposure mortality was significantly increased by dietary POV, and this effect was inhibited by VE supplementation. These results suggest that dietary oxidised fish oil could stimulate the activities of antioxidant defence enzymes in stressed large yellow croaker. High-dose VE supplementation can alleviate oxidative stress of large yellow croaker fed oxidised fish oil, but can exert deleterious effects on fish in the absence of oxidative stress. PMID:26948923

  16. Air pollutant production by algal cell cultures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fong, F.; Funkhouser, E. A.

    1982-01-01

    The production of phytotoxic air pollutants by cultures of Chlorella vulgaris and Euglena gracilis is considered. Algal and plant culture systems, a fumigation system, and ethylene, ethane, cyanide, and nitrogen oxides assays are discussed. Bean, tobacco, mustard green, cantaloupe and wheat plants all showed injury when fumigated with algal gases for 4 hours. Only coleus plants showed any resistance to the gases. It is found that a closed or recycled air effluent system does not produce plant injury from algal air pollutants.

  17. Soybean, palm kernel, and animal-vegetable oils and vitamin E supplementation effect on lipid oxidation stability of sous vide chicken meat.

    PubMed

    Narciso-Gaytán, C; Shin, D; Sams, A R; Bailey, C A; Miller, R K; Smith, S B; Leyva-Ovalle, O R; Sánchez-Plata, M X

    2010-04-01

    There is an increasing demand in precooked chicken meat products for restaurants and catering services. Because cooked chicken meat develops lipid oxidation relatively fast, sous vide chicken meat was studied to assess its shelf-life. Six hundred Cobb x Ross broilers were fed for 6 wk with a basal corn-soybean meal diet including soybean, palm kernel, or animal-vegetable oil, each supplemented with 33 or 200 mg/kg of dl-alpha-tocopheryl acetate. Broilers were randomly assigned into 6 treatments and 4 repetitions with 25 birds each. Boneless breast or thigh muscle pieces were dissected into 5 x 5 x 5 cm cubes, vacuum-packed, cooked in water bath (until 74 degrees C internal temperature), chilled, and stored at 4 degrees C for 1, 5, 10, 25, and 40 d. For each storage day, each pouch contained 3 pieces of meat, either breast or thigh. Thiobarbituric acid reactive substances analysis, to quantify malonaldehyde (MDA) values, was conducted to estimate the lipid oxidation development. Nonheme iron values of cooked meat were analyzed. Fatty acid methyl esters analysis was performed in chicken muscle to determine its fatty acid composition. There was no interaction between dietary fat and vitamin E level in all of the variables studied except in nonheme iron. Dietary fat significantly influenced the fatty acid composition of the muscle (P < 0.01), but it did not affect the MDA values, regardless of differences in the muscle fatty acid composition between treatments. Supplementation of the high level of vitamin E significantly reduced the MDA values in both breast and thigh meat (P < 0.01). The maximum MDA values were observed at d 40 of storage in thigh and breast meat in animal-vegetable and soybean oil treatments with the low levels of vitamin E, 0.91 and 0.70 mg/kg, respectively. Nonheme iron values in thigh meat differed between treatments at 1 or 25 d of storage but not in breast meat. In conclusion, refrigerated sous vide chicken meat has a prolonged shelf-life, which

  18. Effect of Cassava Hay and Rice Bran Oil Supplementation on Rumen Fermentation, Milk Yield and Milk Composition in Lactating Dairy Cows

    PubMed Central

    Lunsin, R.; Wanapat, M.; Rowlinson, P.

    2012-01-01

    Four crossbred (75% Holstein Friesian) lactating dairy cows, with an average live weight of 418±5 kg and 36±10 d in milk were randomly assigned according to a 2×2 factorial arrangement in a 4×4 Latin square design to evaluate the effects of cassava hay (CH) and rice bran oil (RBO) on feed intake, nutrient digestibility, ruminal fermentation, milk yield, and milk composition. Factor A was non-supplementation or supplementation with CH in the concentrate. Factor B was supplementation with RBO at 0% or 4% in the concentrate mixture. The four dietary treatments were (T1) control (Concentrate with non-CH plus 0% RBO; C), (T2) Concentrate with CH plus 0% RBO (CH), (T3) Concentrate with non-CH plus 4% RBO (RBO), and (T4) Concentrate with CH plus 4% RBO (CHRBO). The cows were offered concentrate, at a ratio of concentrate to milk production of 1:2, and urea-lime treated rice straw was fed ad libitum. Urea-lime treated rice straw involved 2.5 g urea and 2.5 g Ca(OH)2 (purchased as hydrated lime) in 100 ml water, the relevant volume of solution was sprayed onto a 100 g air-dry (91% DM) straw, and then covering the stack with a plastic sheet for a minimum of 10 d before feeding directly to animals. The CH based concentrate resulted in significantly higher roughage intake and total DM intake expressed as a percentage of BW (p<0.05). Ruminal pH, NH3-N, BUN and total VFA did not differ among treatments, while RBO supplementation increased propionate, but decreased acetate concentration (p<0.05). Furthermore, the population of total ruminal bacteria was significantly lower on the RBO diet (p<0.05). In contrast, the total ruminal bacteria and cellulolytic bacteria on the CH diet were higher than on the other treatments. Supplementation with CH increased (p<0.05) F. succinogens and R. flavefaciens populations, whereas the populations of B. fibrisolvens and M. elsdenii were increased on the RBO diet. In addition, supplementation with CH and RBO had no effect on milk production

  19. Effect of cassava hay and rice bran oil supplementation on rumen fermentation, milk yield and milk composition in lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Lunsin, R; Wanapat, M; Rowlinson, P

    2012-10-01

    Four crossbred (75% Holstein Friesian) lactating dairy cows, with an average live weight of 418±5 kg and 36±10 d in milk were randomly assigned according to a 2×2 factorial arrangement in a 4×4 Latin square design to evaluate the effects of cassava hay (CH) and rice bran oil (RBO) on feed intake, nutrient digestibility, ruminal fermentation, milk yield, and milk composition. Factor A was non-supplementation or supplementation with CH in the concentrate. Factor B was supplementation with RBO at 0% or 4% in the concentrate mixture. The four dietary treatments were (T1) control (Concentrate with non-CH plus 0% RBO; C), (T2) Concentrate with CH plus 0% RBO (CH), (T3) Concentrate with non-CH plus 4% RBO (RBO), and (T4) Concentrate with CH plus 4% RBO (CHRBO). The cows were offered concentrate, at a ratio of concentrate to milk production of 1:2, and urea-lime treated rice straw was fed ad libitum. Urea-lime treated rice straw involved 2.5 g urea and 2.5 g Ca(OH)2 (purchased as hydrated lime) in 100 ml water, the relevant volume of solution was sprayed onto a 100 g air-dry (91% DM) straw, and then covering the stack with a plastic sheet for a minimum of 10 d before feeding directly to animals. The CH based concentrate resulted in significantly higher roughage intake and total DM intake expressed as a percentage of BW (p<0.05). Ruminal pH, NH3-N, BUN and total VFA did not differ among treatments, while RBO supplementation increased propionate, but decreased acetate concentration (p<0.05). Furthermore, the population of total ruminal bacteria was significantly lower on the RBO diet (p<0.05). In contrast, the total ruminal bacteria and cellulolytic bacteria on the CH diet were higher than on the other treatments. Supplementation with CH increased (p<0.05) F. succinogens and R. flavefaciens populations, whereas the populations of B. fibrisolvens and M. elsdenii were increased on the RBO diet. In addition, supplementation with CH and RBO had no effect on milk production

  20. Recycling produced water for algal cultivation for biofuels

    SciTech Connect

    Neal, Justin N.; Sullivan, Enid J.; Dean, Cynthia A.; Steichen, Seth A.

    2012-08-09

    Algal growth demands a continuous source of water of appropriate salinity and nutritional content. Fresh water sources are scarce in the deserts of the Southwestern United States, hence, salt water algae species are being investigated as a renewable biofuel source. The use of produced water from oil wells (PW) could offset the demand for fresh water in cultivation. Produced water can contain various concentrations of dissolved solids, metals and organic contaminants and often requires treatment beyond oil/water separation to make it suitable for algae cultivation. The produced water used in this study was taken from an oil well in Jal, New Mexico. An F/2-Si (minus silica) growth media commonly used to cultivate Nannochloropsis salina 1776 (NS 1776) was prepared using the produced water (F/2-Si PW) taking into account the metals and salts already present in the water. NS 1776 was seeded into a bioreactor containing 5L of the (F/2-Si PW) media. After eleven days the optical density at 750 nm (an indicator of algal growth) increased from 0 to 2.52. These results indicate algae are able to grow, though inhibited when compared with non-PW media, in the complex chemical conditions found in produced water. Savings from using nutrients present in the PW, such as P, K, and HCO{sub 3}{sup -}, results in a 44.38% cost savings over fresh water to mix the F/2-Si media.

  1. Corn oil supplementation to steers grazing endophyte-free tall fescue. II. Effects on longissimus muscle and subcutaneous adipose fatty acid composition and stearoyl-CoA desaturase activity and expression.

    PubMed

    Pavan, E; Duckett, S K

    2007-07-01

    Eighteen steers were used to evaluate the effect of supplemental corn oil level to steers grazing endophyte-free tall fescue on fatty acid composition of LM, stearoyl CoA desaturase (SCD) activity and expression as well as cellularity in s.c. adipose. Corn oil was supplemented (g/kg of BW) at 0 (none), 0.75 (medium), and 1.5 (high). Cottonseed hulls were used as a carrier for the corn oil and were supplemented according to pasture availability (0.7 to 1% of BW). Steers were finished on a rotationally grazed, tall fescue pasture for 116 d. Fatty acid composition of LM, s.c. adipose, and diet was determined by GLC. Total linoleic acid intake increased linearly (P < 0.01) with corn oil supplementation (90.7, 265.1, and 406.7 g in none, medium, and high, respectively). Oil supplementation linearly reduced (P < 0.05) myristic, palmitic, and linolenic acid percentage in LM and s.c. adipose. Vaccenic acid (C18:1 t11; VA) percentage was 46 and 32% greater (linear, P = 0.02; quadratic, P = 0.01) for medium and high, respectively, than none, regardless of tissue. Effect of oil supplementation on CLA cis-9, trans-11 was affected by type of adipose tissue (P < 0.01). In the LM, CLA cis-9, trans-11 isomer was 25% greater for medium than for none and intermediate for high, whereas CLA cis-9, trans-11 CLA isomer was 48 and 33% greater in s.c. adipose tissue for medium and high than for none, respectively. Corn oil linearly increased (P Oil supplementation did not change (P > 0.05) the percentage of total SFA, MUFA, or PUFA but linearly increased (P = 0.03) n-6:n-3 ratio from 2.4 to 2.9 in none and high, respectively. Among tissues, total SFA and MUFA were greater in s.c. adipose than LM, whereas total PUFA, n-6, and n-3 fatty acids and the n-6:n-3 ratio were lower. Trans-10 octadecenoic acid, VA, and CLA trans-10, cis-12 were greater (P

  2. Alterations in Lipid Mediated Signaling and Wnt/β-Catenin Signaling in DMH Induced Colon Cancer on Supplementation of Fish Oil

    PubMed Central

    Kansal, Shevali; Vaiphei, Kim

    2014-01-01

    Ceramide mediates inhibition of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) which catalyzes formation of prostaglandin further activating peroxisome proliferator-activated receptorγ (PPARγ) and Wnt/β-catenin pathway; and hence plays a critical role in cancer. Therefore, in current study, ceramide, COX-2, 15-deoxy prostaglandin J2(15-deoxy PGJ2), PPARγ, and β-catenin were estimated to evaluate the effect of fish oil on lipid mediated and Wnt/β-catenin signaling in colon carcinoma. Male Wistar rats in Group I received purified diet while Groups II and III received modified diet supplemented with FO : CO(1 : 1) and FO : CO(2.5 : 1), respectively. These were further subdivided into controls receiving ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid and treated groups receiving dimethylhydrazine dihydrochloride (DMH)/week for 4 weeks. Animals sacrificed 48 hours after last injection constituted initiation phase and those sacrificed after 16 weeks constituted postinitiation phase. Decreased ceramide and increased PPARγ were observed in postinitiation phase only. On receiving FO+CO(1 : 1)+DMH and FO+CO(2.5 : 1)+DMH in both phases, ceramide was augmented whereas COX-2, 15-deoxy PGJ2, and nuclear translocation of β-catenin were reduced with respect to cancerous animals. Decrease was more significant in postinitiation phase with FO+CO(2.5 : 1)+DMH. Treatment with oils increased PPARγ in initiation phase but decreased it in postinitiation phase. Hence, fish oil altered lipid mediated signalling in a dose and time dependent manner so as to inhibit progression of colon cancer. PMID:24999478

  3. Influence of soy oil source and dietary supplementation of vitamins E and C on the oxidation status of serum and egg yolk, and the lipid profile of egg yolk.

    PubMed

    Irandoust, H; Ahn, D U

    2015-11-01

    An experiment was conducted to determine the effects of adding vitamins E and C to diets containing 3.5% refined soy oil (SO), recycled soy oil (RSO), or acidulated soy oil soapstocks (ASS) on 1) fatty acid (FA) profile, and cholesterol, triglyceride (TG) and α-tocopherol (α-T) concentrations of yolk, and 2) the oxidation status of serum and yolk. Twelve dietary treatments, using 3 oil sources, 2 levels of vitamin E (0 vs. 250 mg/kg), and 2 levels of vitamin C (0 vs. 250 mg/kg), were prepared. A total of 300 W36 Hy-line laying hens, from 44 to 56 weeks of age, were placed in 60 cages (5 birds/cage) and 5 cages were randomly assigned to one of the 12 diets. Blood samples and eggs were collected after 84 d on trial. No interactions among main effects were found for any of the traits studied. Oil sources had little effects on the FA profile of the yolk, except for C18:3 that was higher (P-value of < 0.01) in the hens fed SO than those fed RSO or ASS. Vitamin E supplementation significantly (P-value of < 0.05) increased the concentration of C16:0, C18:0, and C16:1 but decreased that of C18:2 and C22:6n3 in the yolk. Vitamin C supplementation significantly (P-value of < 0.05) increased C18:0 and C18:3 concentrations in the yolk but decreased the n6 to n3 FA ratio. The concentrations of cholesterol and triglyceride in serum and yolk were not affected by dietary treatment but α-tocopherol concentration increased (P-value of < 0.01) by the dietary vitamin E. Compared with the hens fed the SO diets, malondialdehyde (MDA) concentration in serum was higher with RSO diet but lower with ASS diet. Vitamin E and vitamin C supplementation decreased (P-value of < 0.05) serum MDA. Yolk FA profile was affected not only by the FA profile of the oil source used in diet, but also by the supplementation of vitamin E and C. The results showed that triglyceride profile, but not cholesterol content, of egg was affected by fatty acid profile of the supplemental oil and the vitamin C and E

  4. Pyrolysis Strategies for Effective Utilization of Lignocellulosic and Algal Biomass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maddi, Balakrishna

    Pyrolysis is a processing technique involving thermal degradation of biomass in the absence of oxygen. The bio-oils obtained following the condensation of the pyrolysis vapors form a convenient starting point for valorizing the major components of lignocellulosic as well as algal biomass feed stocks for the production of fuels and value-added chemicals. Pyrolysis can be implemented on whole biomass or on residues left behind following standard fractionation methods. Microalgae and oil seeds predominantly consist of protein, carbohydrate and triglycerides, whereas lignocellulose is composed of carbohydrates (cellulose and hemicellulose) and lignin. The differences in the major components of these two types of biomass will necessitate different pyrolysis strategies to derive the optimal benefits from the resulting bio-oils. In this thesis, novel pyrolysis strategies were developed that enable efficient utilization of the bio-oils (and/or their vapors) from lignocellulose, algae, as well as oil seed feed stocks. With lignocellulosic feed stocks, pyrolysis of whole biomass as well as the lignin residue left behind following well-established pretreatment and saccharification (i.e., depolymerization of cellulose and hemicellulose to their monomeric-sugars) of the biomass was studied with and without catalysts. Following this, pyrolysis of (lipid-deficient) algae and lignocellulosic feed stocks, under similar reactor conditions, was performed for comparison of product (bio-oil, gas and bio-char) yields and composition. In spite of major differences in component bio-polymers, feedstock properties relevant to thermo-chemical conversions, such as overall C, H and O-content, C/O and H/C molar ratio as well as calorific values, were found to be similar for algae and lignocellulosic material. Bio-oil yields from algae and some lignocellulosic materials were similar; however, algal bio-oils were compositionally different and contained several N-compounds (most likely from

  5. Algal Flocculation with Synthetic Organic Polyelectrolytes

    PubMed Central

    Tenney, Mark W.; Echelberger, Wayne F.; Schuessler, Ronald G.; Pavoni, Joseph L.

    1969-01-01

    The feasibility of removing algae from water and wastewater by chemical flocculation techniques was investigated. Mixed cultures of algae were obtained from both continuous- and batch-fed laboratory reactors. Representative cationic, anionic, and nonionic synthetic organic polyelectrolytes were used as flocculants. Under the experimental conditions, chemically induced algal flocculation occurred with the addition of cationic polyelectrolyte, but not with anionic or nonionic polymers, although attachment of all polyelectrolyte species to the algal surface is shown. The mechanism of chemically induced algal flocculation is interpreted in terms of bridging phenomena between the discrete algal cells and the linearly extended polymer chains, forming a three-dimensional matrix that is capable of subsiding under quiescent conditions. The degree of flocculation is shown to be a direct function of the extent of polymer coverage of the active sites on the algal surface, although to induce flocculation by this method requires that the algal surface charge must concurrently be reduced to a level at which the extended polymers can bridge the minimal distance of separation imposed by electrostatic repulsion. The influence of pH, algal concentration, and algal growth phase on the requisite cationic flocculant dose is also reported. PMID:5370666

  6. Algal biosensor array on a single electrode.

    PubMed

    Tatsuma, Tetsu; Yoshida, Yutaka; Shitanda, Isao; Notsu, Hideo

    2009-02-01

    An algal array was prepared on a single transparent electrode, and photosynthetic activity of each algal channel and its inhibition by a toxin were monitored with a single-channel potentiostat by successive light irradiation with a LED array. PMID:19173040

  7. TEXAS HARMFUL ALGAL BLOOM COORDINATION MX964014

    EPA Science Inventory

    Harmful algal blooms (HAB) are an expanding problem in coastal Texas. Nearly � of the known harmful algal blooms along the Texas coast have occurred in the past ten years and have led to significant resource and tourism losses. For example, there are at least two types of toxic...

  8. Hybrid striped bass feeds based on fish oil, beef tallow, and eicosapentaenoic acid/docosahexaenoic acid supplements: Insight regarding fish oil sparing and demand for -3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids.

    PubMed

    Bowzer, J; Jackson, C; Trushenski, J

    2016-03-01

    Previous research suggests that saturated (SFA) and monounsaturated fatty acid (MUFA) rich lipids, including beef tallow, can make utilization or diet-to-tissue transfer of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFA) more efficient. We hypothesized that using beef tallow as an alternative to fish oil may effectively reduce the LC-PUFA demand of hybrid striped bass × and allow for greater fish oil sparing. Accordingly, we evaluated growth performance and tissue fatty acid profiles of juvenile fish (23.7 ± 0.3 g) fed diets containing menhaden fish oil (considered an ideal source of LC-PUFA for this taxon), beef tallow (BEEF ONLY), or beef tallow amended with purified sources of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and/or docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) to achieve levels corresponding to 50 or 100% of those observed in the FISH ONLY feed. Diets were randomly assigned to quadruplicate tanks of fish ( = 4; 10 fish/tank), and fish were fed assigned diets to apparent satiation once daily for 10 wk. Survival (98-100%) was equivalent among treatments, but weight gain (117-180%), specific growth rate (1.1-1.5% BW/d), feed intake (1.4-1.8% BW/d), thermal growth coefficient (0.50-0.70), and feed conversion ratio (FCR; 1.1-1.4, DM basis) varied. Except for FCR, no differences were observed between the FISH ONLY and BEEF ONLY treatments, but performance was generally numerically superior among fish fed the diets containing beef tallow supplemented with DHA at the 100% or both EPA and DHA at the 50% or 100% level. Tissue fatty acid composition was significantly distorted in favor among fish fed the beef tallow-based feeds; however, profile distortion was most overt in peripheral tissues. Results suggest that beef tallow may be used as a primary lipid source in practical diets for hybrid striped bass, but performance may be improved by supplementation with LC-PUFA, particularly DHA. Furthermore, our results suggest that -3 LC-PUFA requirements reported for hybrid striped bass may not be

  9. Determinants of Erythrocyte Omega‐3 Fatty Acid Content in Response to Fish Oil Supplementation: A Dose–Response Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Flock, Michael R.; Skulas‐Ray, Ann C.; Harris, William S.; Etherton, Terry D.; Fleming, Jennifer A.; Kris‐Etherton, Penny M.

    2013-01-01

    Background The erythrocyte membrane content of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), which constitutes the omega‐3 index (O3I), predicts cardiovascular disease mortality. The amount of EPA+DHA needed to achieve a target O3I is poorly defined, as are the determinants of the O3I response to a change in EPA+DHA intake. The objective of this study was to develop a predictive model of the O3I response to EPA+DHA supplementation in healthy adults, specifically identifying factors that determine the response. Methods and Results A randomized, placebo‐controlled, double‐blind, parallel‐group study was conducted in 115 healthy men and women. One of 5 doses (0, 300, 600, 900, 1800 mg) of EPA+DHA was given daily as placebo or fish oil supplements for ≈5 months. The O3I was measured at baseline and at the end of the study. There were no significant differences in the clinical characteristics between the groups at baseline. The O3I increased in a dose‐dependent manner (P<0.0001), with the dose of EPA+DHA alone accounting for 68% (quadratic, P<0.0001) of the variability in the O3I response. Dose adjusted per unit body weight (g/kg) accounted for 70% (linear, P<0.0001). Additional factors that improved prediction of treatment response were baseline O3I, age, sex, and physical activity. Collectively, these explained 78% of the response variability (P<0.0001). Conclusions Our findings validate the O3I as a biomarker of EPA+DHA consumption and identify additional factors, particularly body weight, that can be used to tailor EPA+DHA recommendations to achieve a target O3I. PMID:24252845

  10. Effect of supplementation of mustard oil cake on intake, digestibility and microbial protein synthesis of cattle in a straw-based diet in Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Khandaker, Zahirul Haque; Uddin, Mohammad Mohi; Sultana, Nadira; Peters, Kurt J

    2012-04-01

    The objective of this study was to analyse the effects of different levels of rumen-degradable protein (RDP) on intake, digestibility and microbial protein synthesis by supplementing mustard oil cake (MOC) on rice straw-based diet of cattle (Bos indicus) in Bangladesh. A 4 × 4 Latin square design was applied. Four diets having constant energy (7.0 MJ/kg of dry matter (DM)) with varying levels of RDP (M(0) = 4.1 g/MJ (control), M(1) = 6.3 g/MJ, M(2) = 8.3 g/MJ and M(3) = 12.4 g/MJ of metabolizable energy (ME)) were received by each animal for a period of 28 days. A metabolism trial was conducted for 7 days. Results indicate that with increasing levels of RDP, crude protein (CP) and RDP intake increased significantly (P < 0.01). The significant (P < 0.01) increase in digestibility values are obtained for DM, organic matter, CP and digestible organic matter in the rumen. The digestibility of neutral detergent fibre and acid detergent fibre was also increased significantly (P < 0.05). The total nitrogen (N), ammonia-N and total volatile fatty acids increase significantly (P < 0.01) while the rumen pH increased from M(0) to M(2) and decreased thereafter. The efficiency microbial N intake increased significantly (P < 0.01) but showed a curvilinear response with higher RDP level (12.40 g/RDP/MJ ME). This study concludes that supplementation of RDP from MOC enhances the intake, digestibility and microbial protein synthesis which ultimately increases utilization of low-quality feed resources that can be used for developing cost-effective feeding systems on a straw-based diet in tropical regions. PMID:21915618

  11. Geographic analysis of the feasibility of collocating algal biomass production with wastewater treatment plants.

    PubMed

    Fortier, Marie-Odile P; Sturm, Belinda S M

    2012-10-16

    Resource demand analyses indicate that algal biodiesel production would require unsustainable amounts of freshwater and fertilizer supplies. Alternatively, municipal wastewater effluent can be used, but this restricts production of algae to areas near wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs), and to date, there has been no geospatial analysis of the feasibility of collocating large algal ponds with WWTPs. The goals of this analysis were to determine the available areas by land cover type within radial extents (REs) up to 1.5 miles from WWTPs; to determine the limiting factor for algal production using wastewater; and to investigate the potential algal biomass production at urban, near-urban, and rural WWTPs in Kansas. Over 50% and 87% of the land around urban and rural WWTPs, respectively, was found to be potentially available for algal production. The analysis highlights a trade-off between urban WWTPs, which are generally land-limited but have excess wastewater effluent, and rural WWTPs, which are generally water-limited but have 96% of the total available land. Overall, commercial-scale algae production collocated with WWTPs is feasible; 29% of the Kansas liquid fuel demand could be met with implementation of ponds within 1 mile of all WWTPs and supplementation of water and nutrients when these are limited. PMID:22970803

  12. In vitro sensitivity of poultry Brachyspira intermedia isolates to essential oil components and in vivo reduction of Brachyspira intermedia in rearing pullets with cinnamaldehyde feed supplementation.

    PubMed

    Verlinden, M; Pasmans, F; Mahu, M; Vande Maele, L; De Pauw, N; Yang, Z; Haesebrouck, F; Martel, A

    2013-05-01

    Cecal enteritis due to Brachyspira infections tends to be chronic in laying hens. Limited availability of antimicrobial drugs for use in laying hens emphasizes the need for alternative control measures. A broth microdilution method was used to determine the antimicrobial susceptibility of 20 Brachyspira intermedia field isolates from laying hen flocks to components of essential oils (EO). Minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) distributions, obtained for 8 EO components, were all monomodal. Cinnamaldehyde had the lowest MIC values (40 to 80 mg/L), followed by nerolidol, capsaicin, carvacrol, and thymol (80 to 320 mg/L), eugenol (160 to 640 mg/L), and linalool (320 to 1,280 mg/L). The MIC ranges of piperine were mostly above the test range of 1,280 mg/L. In an in vivo experiment, coated trans-cinnamaldehyde was supplemented to the feed of rearing pullets. A completely randomized experimental design with 4 treatments and 3 replicates each (replicate = group of seven 1-d-old laying hen chickens) was applied. The negative and positive controls received a conventional feed during the whole trial. The positive controls were orally inoculated on 3 consecutive days (d 22, 23, and 24) with 1 mL of 1.0 × 10(8) cfu/mL of a B. intermedia field isolate. Two treatment groups (preventive and curative), identically inoculated, received the coated trans-cinnamaldehyde-supplemented feed (500 mg/kg of trans-cinnamaldehyde), the preventive group from d 1, the curative from d 25. On d 32, ceca were collected for bacteriologic Brachyspira enumeration. The mean enumeration of Brachyspira cells was decreased (P < 0.05) in the curative treated group versus the positive control group. The in vitro results of the present study demonstrate the potential of EO components as antimicrobials against poultry Brachyspira isolates, including isolates with acquired resistance for classic antimicrobial drugs. Reduction of Brachyspira colonization in young pullets was obtained, in a curative way, in

  13. Supplementation of herbal plants differently modulated metabolic profile, insulin sensitivity, and oxidative stress in transition dairy cows fed various extruded oil seeds.

    PubMed

    Hashemzadeh-Cigari, F; Ghorbani, G R; Khorvash, M; Riasi, A; Taghizadeh, A; Zebeli, Q

    2015-01-01

    The study investigated the effects of a mixture of herbal plants (HM) and two sources of unsaturated fatty acids (FA), extruded linseed (LS) and soybean (SB), on metabolic profile, insulin sensitivity, and oxidative status of transition dairy cows. Thirty-two prepartum Holstein cows, blocked by parity and calving day, were randomly assigned to 1 of 4 treatments, in a 2×2 factorial design, starting from 25 days before the expected calving date to 26 days postpartum. The supplementation rates of HM were 150 and 170 g/animal/day at pre- and postpartum, respectively. Blood samples were analyzed for metabolites on day 7.15±1.70 prepartum and on days 1 and 21 postpartum. An intravenous glucose tolerance test (IV-GTT) was conducted on day 25 postpartum. Data showed that cows supplemented with HM had lower serum concentration of NEFA (0.395 vs. 0.602±0.044 mmol/L; P<0.01) and NEFA to insulin ratio (P<0.01) postpartum. Compared to animals fed SB-based diets, cows fed the LS-based diet had greater serum glucose concentration during prepartum (80.7 vs. 71.3±3.32 mg/dL; P=0.06) and postpartum period (86.3 vs. 73.5±3.35 mg/dL; P=0.01), as well as lower NEFA (0.425 vs. 0.572±0.044 mmol/L; P=0.03) and insulin to glucose ratio (P<0.01) postpartum. Revised quantitative insulin-sensitivity check index revealed that supplementing HM in LS-based diet improved insulin sensitivity (0.45 vs. 0.41±0.013; P=0.03) prepartum, whereas after parturition, the HM addition was effective for both oil seeds (0.40 vs. 0.37±0.008; P=0.06) in enhancing insulin sensitivity. Result of IV-GTT indicated that cows fed LS-based diets had higher basal glucose concentration (63.7 vs. 55.7±2.37; mg/dL; P=0.02) and lower glucose area under the curve (995.8 vs. 1529.5±100.7; mg/dL×45 min; P<0.01). Supplementing HM resulted in greater total antioxidant capacity prepartum (0.55 vs. 0.48±0.017 nmol/L; P=0.01) and lower malondialdehyde concentration at prepartum (1.03 vs. 1.96±0.140 μmol/L; P<0.01) and

  14. Rheology and stability of SRC residual fuel oils - storage evaluation. SRC-1 quarterly technical report, October-December 1982. Supplement

    SciTech Connect

    Tewari, K.C.

    1984-06-01

    In Air Products ongoing study to characterize the rheology and stability of various SRC residual oils, single-phase blends of 50 wt % HSRC and TSL SRC in 1:1 mixtures of 1st- and 2nd-stage process solvents were subjected to storage stability tests at 150/sup 0/F in nitrogen and air atmospheres. Using viscosity as an indicator, it was observed that the blends studied increased in viscosity with storage time in an air atmosphere; the viscosity increase began after a 4-week storage period. The increase in HSRC blend viscosity was significantly greater than that of the TSL SRC blend. A 60-day air-stored blend will require a pumping temperature about 10/sup 0/F higher than that specified for an unaged blend in order to have the same viscosity. The viscosity increase under nitrogen storage was relatively insignificant. Nitrogen blanketing appears to be important in maintaining the specified viscosity characteristics of the blends during storage in the 150/sup 0/F storage condition tested. A loss of volatiles undoubtedly occurs during high-temperature storage under laboratory conditions. Such losses contribute to an increase in the viscosity of the blend. In commercial practice, volatile losses are expected to be significantly lower. Solvent extraction data and analysis of separated fractions suggest that during storage under the above conditions, some oxidative polymerization of pentane-soluble oil components forms higher molecular weight pentane insolubles (asphaltenes and benzene insolubles). Asphaltenes are also involved in the increase in viscosity and do chemically change. 1 reference, 8 figures, 27 tables.

  15. Effect of linseed oil dietary supplementation on fatty acid composition and gene expression in adipose tissue of growing goats.

    PubMed

    Ebrahimi, M; Rajion, M A; Goh, Y M; Sazili, A Q; Schonewille, J T

    2013-01-01

    This study was conducted to determine the effects of feeding oil palm frond silage based diets with added linseed oil (LO) containing high α -linolenic acid (C18:3n-3), namely, high LO (HLO), low LO (LLO), and without LO as the control group (CON) on the fatty acid (FA) composition of subcutaneous adipose tissue and the gene expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) α , PPAR- γ , and stearoyl-CoA desaturase (SCD) in Boer goats. The proportion of C18:3n-3 in subcutaneous adipose tissue was increased (P < 0.01) by increasing the LO in the diet, suggesting that the FA from HLO might have escaped ruminal biohydrogenation. Animals fed HLO diets had lower proportions of C18:1 trans-11, C18:2n-6, CLA cis-9 trans-11, and C20:4n-6 and higher proportions of C18:3n-3, C22:5n-3, and C22:6n-3 in the subcutaneous adipose tissue than animals fed the CON diets, resulting in a decreased n-6:n-3 fatty acid ratio (FAR) in the tissue. In addition, feeding the HLO diet upregulated the expression of PPAR- γ (P < 0.05) but downregulated the expression of SCD (P < 0.05) in the adipose tissue. The results of the present study show that LO can be safely incorporated in the diets of goats to enrich goat meat with potential health beneficial FA (i.e., n-3 FA). PMID:23484090

  16. Effect of Linseed Oil Dietary Supplementation on Fatty Acid Composition and Gene Expression in Adipose Tissue of Growing Goats

    PubMed Central

    Ebrahimi, M.; Rajion, M. A.; Goh, Y. M.; Sazili, A. Q.; Schonewille, J. T.

    2013-01-01

    This study was conducted to determine the effects of feeding oil palm frond silage based diets with added linseed oil (LO) containing high α-linolenic acid (C18:3n-3), namely, high LO (HLO), low LO (LLO), and without LO as the control group (CON) on the fatty acid (FA) composition of subcutaneous adipose tissue and the gene expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)α, PPAR-γ, and stearoyl-CoA desaturase (SCD) in Boer goats. The proportion of C18:3n-3 in subcutaneous adipose tissue was increased (P < 0.01) by increasing the LO in the diet, suggesting that the FA from HLO might have escaped ruminal biohydrogenation. Animals fed HLO diets had lower proportions of C18:1 trans-11, C18:2n-6, CLA cis-9 trans-11, and C20:4n-6 and higher proportions of C18:3n-3, C22:5n-3, and C22:6n-3 in the subcutaneous adipose tissue than animals fed the CON diets, resulting in a decreased n-6:n-3 fatty acid ratio (FAR) in the tissue. In addition, feeding the HLO diet upregulated the expression of PPAR-γ (P < 0.05) but downregulated the expression of SCD (P < 0.05) in the adipose tissue. The results of the present study show that LO can be safely incorporated in the diets of goats to enrich goat meat with potential health beneficial FA (i.e., n-3 FA). PMID:23484090

  17. Effects of dietary supplementation with sage (Salvia officinalis L.) essential oil on antioxidant status and duodenal wall integrity of laying strain growers.

    PubMed

    Placha, I; Ryzner, M; Cobanova, K; Faixova, Z; Faix, S

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the influence of four different concentrations of Salvia officinalis essential oil (EO) on animal health. A total of 50 laying strain chicks were randomly divided at the day of hatching into five dietary-treatment groups. Control group was given the basal diet (BD), the other four experimental groups contained BD supplemented with 0.1, 0.25, 0.5, 1.0 g S. officinalis EO/kg diet, respectively. 0.1 g/kg EO increased glutathion peroxidase activity (GPx) in duodenal mucosa, liver and kidney, phagocytic activity in blood (PA), transepithelial electrical resistance (TEER) in duodenal tissue and decreased malondialdehyde (MDA) concentration in plasma and liver. 0.25 g/kg EO increased GPx in liver, total antioxidant status (TAS) in plasma, PA in blood and TEER in duodenal tissue. Our results demonstrate that lower concentrations of EO improve animals' health status, and that it is necessary keep in mind the selection of sufficient concentration of EO used as animal feed additive. PMID:26812815

  18. Effect of dietary starch concentration and fish oil supplementation on milk yield and composition, diet digestibility, and methane emissions in lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Pirondini, M; Colombini, S; Mele, M; Malagutti, L; Rapetti, L; Galassi, G; Crovetto, G M

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of diets with different starch concentrations and fish oil (FO) supplementation on lactation performance, in vivo total-tract nutrient digestibility, N balance, and methane (CH4) emissions in lactating dairy cows. The experiment was conducted as a 4×4 Latin square design with a 2×2 factorial arrangement: 2 concentrations of dietary starch [low vs. high: 23.7 and 27.7% on a dry matter (DM) basis; neutral detergent fiber/starch ratios: 1.47 and 1.12], the presence or absence of FO supplement (0.80% on a DM basis), and their interaction were evaluated. Four Italian Friesian cows were fed 1 of the following 4 diets in 4 consecutive 26-d periods: (1) low starch (LS), (2) low starch plus FO (LSO), (3) high starch (HS), and (4) high starch plus FO (HSO). The diets contained the same amount of forages (corn silage, alfalfa and meadow hays). The starch concentration was balanced using different proportions of corn meal and soybean hulls. The cows were housed in metabolic stalls inside open-circuit respiration chambers to allow measurement of CH4 emission and the collection of separate urine and feces. No differences among treatments were observed for DM intake. We observed a trend for FO to increase milk yield: 29.2 and 27.5kg/d, on average, for diets with and without FO, respectively. Milk fat was affected by the interaction between dietary starch and FO: milk fat decreased only in the HSO diet. Energy-corrected milk (ECM) was affected by the interaction between starch and FO, with a positive effect of FO on the LS diet. Fish oil supplementation decreased the n-6:n-3 ratio of milk polyunsaturated fatty acids. High-starch diets negatively influenced all digestibility parameters measured except starch, whereas FO improved neutral detergent fiber digestibility (41.9 vs. 46.1% for diets without and with FO, respectively, and ether extract digestibility (53.7 vs. 67.1% for diets without and with FO, respectively). We observed

  19. Exploring the Utilization of Complex Algal Communities to Address Algal Pond Crash and Increase Annual Biomass Production for Algal Biofuels

    SciTech Connect

    Hamilton, Cyd E.

    2014-03-25

    This white paper briefly reviews the research literature exploring complex algal communities as a means of increasing algal biomass production via increased tolerance, resilience, and resistance to a variety of abiotic and biotic perturbations occurring within harvesting timescales. This paper identifies what data are available and whether more research utilizing complex communities is needed to explore the potential of complex algal community stability (CACS) approach as a plausible means to increase biomass yields regardless of ecological context and resulting in decreased algal-based fuel prices by reducing operations costs. By reviewing the literature for what we do and do not know, in terms of CACS methodologies, this report will provide guidance for future research addressing pond crash phenomena.

  20. Supplementation with red palm oil increases β-carotene and vitamin A blood levels in patients with cystic fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Sommerburg, Olaf; De Spirt, Silke; Mattern, Annett; Joachim, Cornelia; Langhans, Claus-Dieter; Nesaretnam, Kalanithi; Siems, Werner; Stahl, Wilhelm; Mall, Marcus A

    2015-01-01

    Patients with cystic fibrosis (CF) show decreased plasma concentrations of antioxidants due to malabsorption of lipid soluble vitamins and consumption by chronic pulmonary inflammation. β-Carotene is a major source of retinol and therefore is of particular significance in CF. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of daily intake of red palm oil (RPO) containing high amounts of β-carotene on the antioxidant levels in CF patients. Sixteen subjects were recruited and instructed to enrich their food with 2 to 3 tablespoons of RPO (~1.5 mg of β-carotene) daily over 8 weeks. Carotenoids, retinol, and α-tocopherol were measured in plasma at baseline and after intervention. In addition β-carotene, lycopene, α-tocopherol, and vitamin C were measured in buccal mucosa cells (BMC) to determine the influence of RPO on antioxidant tissue levels. Eleven subjects completed the study properly. Plasma β-carotene, retinol, and α-carotene of these patients increased, but plasma concentrations of other carotenoids and α-tocopherol as well as concentrations of β-carotene, lycopene, α-tocopherol, and vitamin C in BMC remained unchanged. Since RPO on a daily basis did not show negative side effects the data suggest that RPO may be used to elevate plasma β-carotene in CF. PMID:25688177

  1. Radiation pasteurised oil palm empty fruit bunch fermented with Pleurotus sajor-caju as feed supplement to ruminants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Awang, Mat Rasol; Mutaat, Hassan Hamdani; Mahmud, Mohd. Shukri; Wan Husain, Wan Badrin; Osman, Tajuddin; Bakar, Khomsaton Abu; Kassim, Asmahwati; Wan Mahmud, Zal U'yun; Manaf, Ishak; Kume, Tamikazu; Hashimoto, Shoji

    1993-10-01

    In solid state fermentation, Pleurotus sajor-caju has been found to be able to degrade at least 30% oil palm empty Fruit Bunch (EFB) fibre leaving 70 % useful materials. Conditions under which fermentation carried out were investigated. It was found that, in the temperature range between 25- 28 °C, relative ph between 6-8, moisture between 60-70 % and medium composition of CaCO 3: rice bran 2 %: 5 % were the optimum conditions. The results showed in fermented products that, there were substantial reduction in cellulosic component such as Crude Fiber (CF, 18 %); Acid Detergent Fibre (ADF, 45 %), Neutral Detergent Fibre (NDF, 61 %) and Acid Detergent Lignin (ADL, 14 %). However, Crude Protein (CP, 10%) increased resulted from single cell protein enrichment of mycelial microbial mass. The mass reductions of substrate in fermentation process corresponds to the CO 2 released during fermentation. Hence, attributable to the decreased in content of CF, ADF, NDF, and ADL. The digestibility study has also been carried out to determine the useful level of this product to ruminant. Aflatoxin content was detected low in both the initial substrates and products. Based on nutritional value and low content of aflatoxin, the product is useful as a source of roughage to ruminant.

  2. The role of supplemental ultraviolet-B radiation in altering the metabolite profile, essential oil content and composition, and free radical scavenging activities of Coleus forskohlii, an indigenous medicinal plant.

    PubMed

    Takshak, Swabha; Agrawal, S B

    2016-04-01

    The effects of supplemental ultraviolet-B (s-UV-B; 3.6 kJ m(-2) day(-1) above ambient) radiation were investigated on plant metabolite profile, essential oil content and composition, and free radical scavenging capacities of methanolic extracts of Coleus forskohlii (an indigenous medicinal plant) grown under field conditions. Essential oil was isolated using hydrodistillation technique while alterations in metabolite profile and oil composition were determined via gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy (GC-MS). Leaf and root methanolic extracts were investigated via various in vitro assays for their DPPH radical-, superoxide radical-, hydrogen peroxide-, hydroxyl radical-, and nitric oxide radical scavenging activities, ferrous ion chelating activity, and reducing power. Phytochemical analysis revealed the presence of alkaloids, anthocyanins, coumarins, flavonoids, glycosides, phenols, saponins, steroids, tannins, and terpenoids. Oil content was found to be reduced (by ∼7 %) in supplemental UV-B (s-UV-B) treated plants; the composition of the plant extracts as well as essential oil was also considerably altered. Methanolic extracts from treated plant organs showed more potency as free radical scavengers (their EC50 values being lower than their respective controls). Anomalies were observed in Fe(2+) chelating activity for both leaves and roots. The present study concludes that s-UV-B adversely affects oil content in C. forskohlii and also alters the composition and contents of metabolites in both plant extracts and oil. The results also denote that s-UV-B treated plant organs might be more effective in safeguarding against oxidative stress, though further studies are required to authenticate these findings. PMID:26681329

  3. Should You Take Dietary Supplements?

    MedlinePlus

    ... study. These include glucosamine (for joint pain) and herbal supplements such as echinacea (immune health) and flaxseed oil ( ... be fine,” Coates says. “According to the FDA, supplement products most likely ... ingredients are herbal remedies promoted for weight loss and for sexual ...

  4. Effect of long-term dietary supplementation of high-gamma-linolenic canola oil versus borage oil on growth, hematology, serum biochemistry, and N-6 fatty acid metabolism in rats.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jim-Wen; DeMichele, Stephen J; Palombo, John; Chuang, Lu-Te; Hastilow, Christine; Bobik, Emil; Huang, Yung-Sheng

    2004-06-16

    Dietary supplementation of a high-gamma-linolenic acid canola oil (HGCO) containing approximately 36% (w/w) of gamma-linolenic acid (GLA, 18:3n-6) from the seeds of a genetically transformed canola strain, was assessed for its long-term biological effects. Growing Sprague-Dawley rats (n = 30) were fed a purified AIN93G diet containing 5, 10, or 15% (w/w) of HGCO as the fat source. For comparison, a separate group of rats (n = 10) was given the diet containing 15% (w/w) of borage oil (BO), which contained 22% (w/w) of GLA. After 12 weeks of feeding, the growth, relative organ weights, hematology, and serum biochemistry were found to be similar among rats fed the 5, 10, and 15% HGCO diets. The GLA levels in plasma and liver phospholipids (PL) were also similar. However, the levels of GLA in peripheral tissues (muscle PL and adipose triacylglycerols) were significantly higher in rats fed the 10 and 15% HGCO diets than those fed the 5% HGCO diet. When the above biologic parameters were compared between the 15% HGCO and 15% BO dietary groups, there were no significant differences except for lower final body weights and higher tissue levels of GLA, dihomo-gamma-linolenic acid (20:3n-6) and arachidonic acid (20:4n-6) in the 15% HGCO dietary group as compared with the 15% BO dietary group. This is due to a higher GLA content and possibly a more favorable stereospecific distribution of GLA in HGCO. Overall, long-term (12-week) feeding with diets containing up to 15% HGCO resulted in no adverse effects on growth, organ weight, hematology and serum biochemistry as compared to the diet containing 15% BO, suggesting that HGCO may be a safe alternative source of GLA. PMID:15186123

  5. High Frequency Monitoring for Harmful Algal Blooms

    EPA Science Inventory

    Harmful algal blooms (HABs) are increasingly becoming a significant ecologic, economic, and social driver in the use of water resources. Cyanobacteria and their toxins play an important role in management decisions for drinking water utilities and public health officials. Online ...

  6. Eukaryotic algal phytochromes span the visible spectrum.

    PubMed

    Rockwell, Nathan C; Duanmu, Deqiang; Martin, Shelley S; Bachy, Charles; Price, Dana C; Bhattacharya, Debashish; Worden, Alexandra Z; Lagarias, J Clark

    2014-03-11

    Plant phytochromes are photoswitchable red/far-red photoreceptors that allow competition with neighboring plants for photosynthetically active red light. In aquatic environments, red and far-red light are rapidly attenuated with depth; therefore, photosynthetic species must use shorter wavelengths of light. Nevertheless, phytochrome-related proteins are found in recently sequenced genomes of many eukaryotic algae from aquatic environments. We examined the photosensory properties of seven phytochromes from diverse algae: four prasinophyte (green algal) species, the heterokont (brown algal) Ectocarpus siliculosus, and two glaucophyte species. We demonstrate that algal phytochromes are not limited to red and far-red responses. Instead, different algal phytochromes can sense orange, green, and even blue light. Characterization of these previously undescribed photosensors using CD spectroscopy supports a structurally heterogeneous chromophore in the far-red-absorbing photostate. Our study thus demonstrates that extensive spectral tuning of phytochromes has evolved in phylogenetically distinct lineages of aquatic photosynthetic eukaryotes. PMID:24567382

  7. Direct conversion of algal biomass to biofuel

    DOEpatents

    Deng, Shuguang; Patil, Prafulla D; Gude, Veera Gnaneswar

    2014-10-14

    A method and system for providing direct conversion of algal biomass. Optionally, the method and system can be used to directly convert dry algal biomass to biodiesels under microwave irradiation by combining the reaction and combining steps. Alternatively, wet algae can be directly processed and converted to fatty acid methyl esters, which have the major components of biodiesels, by reacting with methanol at predetermined pressure and temperature ranges.

  8. Optimization of microwave-assisted transesterification of dry algal biomass using response surface methodology.

    PubMed

    Patil, Prafulla D; Gude, Veera Gnaneswar; Mannarswamy, Aravind; Cooke, Peter; Munson-McGee, Stuart; Nirmalakhandan, Nagamany; Lammers, Peter; Deng, Shuguang

    2011-01-01

    The effect of microwave irradiation on the simultaneous extraction and transesterification (in situ transesterification) of dry algal biomass to biodiesel was investigated. A high degree of oil/lipid extraction from dry algal biomass and an efficient conversion of the oils/lipids to biodiesel were demonstrated in a set of well-designed experimental runs. A response surface methodology (RSM) was used to analyze the influence of the process variables (dry algae to methanol (wt/vol) ratio, catalyst concentration, and reaction time) on the fatty acid methyl ester conversion. Based on the experimental results and RSM analysis, the optimal conditions for this process were determined as: dry algae to methanol (wt/vol) ratio of around 1:12, catalyst concentration about 2 wt.%, and reaction time of 4 min. The algal biodiesel samples were analyzed with GC-MS and thin layer chromatography (TLC) methods. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) images of the algal biomass samples before and after the extraction/transesterification reaction are also presented. PMID:20933395

  9. Algal and fungal diversity in Antarctic lichens.

    PubMed

    Park, Chae Haeng; Kim, Kyung Mo; Elvebakk, Arve; Kim, Ok-Sun; Jeong, Gajin; Hong, Soon Gyu

    2015-01-01

    The composition of lichen ecosystems except mycobiont and photobiont has not been evaluated intensively. In addition, recent studies to identify algal genotypes have raised questions about the specific relationship between mycobiont and photobiont. In the current study, we analyzed algal and fungal community structures in lichen species from King George Island, Antarctica, by pyrosequencing of eukaryotic large subunit (LSU) and algal internal transcribed spacer (ITS) domains of the nuclear rRNA gene. The sequencing results of LSU and ITS regions indicated that each lichen thallus contained diverse algal species. The major algal operational taxonomic unit (OTU) defined at a 99% similarity cutoff of LSU sequences accounted for 78.7-100% of the total algal community in each sample. In several cases, the major OTUs defined by LSU sequences were represented by two closely related OTUs defined by 98% sequence similarity of ITS domain. The results of LSU sequences indicated that lichen-associated fungi belonged to the Arthoniomycetes, Eurotiomycetes, Lecanoromycetes, Leotiomycetes, and Sordariomycetes of the Ascomycota, and Tremellomycetes and Cystobasidiomycetes of the Basidiomycota. The composition of major photobiont species and lichen-associated fungal community were mostly related to the mycobiont species. The contribution of growth forms or substrates on composition of photobiont and lichen-associated fungi was not evident. PMID:25105247

  10. Genotoxicity and subchronic toxicity studies of DHA-rich oil in rats.

    PubMed

    Blum, René; Kiy, Thomas; Tanaka, Satohiro; Wong, Andrea W; Roberts, Ashley

    2007-12-01

    Polyunsaturated fatty acids, including docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), are natural constituents of the human diet. DHA-algal oil is produced through the use of the non-toxigenic and non-pathogenic marine protist, Ulkenia sp. The safety of DHA-algal oil was assessed in a subchronic toxicity study and in genotoxicity studies. In a 90-day study, rats were orally administered water or DHA-algal oil at concentrations of 0, 500, 1000, and 2000 mg/kg in combination with 2000, 1500, 1000 or 0 mg/kg DHA-containing fish oil, respectively. Additional animals were administered water, 2000 mg/kg DHA-algal oil, or 2000 mg/kg fish oil for 90 days, followed by a 4-week recovery phase. No treatment-related effects were observed in clinical observations, food and water consumption, mortality, gross pathology, and histopathology. Increased body weights and liver weights in oil-treated groups were attributed to the large lipid load and were not regarded as toxicologically significant. Furthermore, no treatment-related differences in the measured parameters between the DHA-algal oil and fish oil groups were detected. In genotoxicity experiments, DHA-algal oil exerted no mutagenic activity in various bacterial strains, nor did it induce chromosomal aberrations in Chinese hamster fibroblast cells. These results support the safety of DHA-algal oil as a dietary source of DHA. PMID:17933446

  11. Effect of dietary fish oil supplementation on ram semen freeze ability and fertility using soybean lecithin- and egg yolk-based extenders.

    PubMed

    Masoudi, R; Sharafi, M; Zare Shahneh, A; Towhidi, A; Kohram, H; Zhandi, M; Esmaeili, V; Shahverdi, A

    2016-10-01

    Ram semen cryopreservation is not efficient for artificial insemination in commercial herds. Beneficial effects of dietary fish oil have been evaluated for cryopreservation of ram semen in soybean lecithin (SL) and egg yolk (EY)-based extenders. A factorial study (two diets × two extenders) was used to analyze the effects of two diets supplemented with fish oil (n-3 fatty acid) or palm oil (saturated fatty acids; [SFAs]) to freeze ram semen in two extenders containing SL or EY. Motility characteristics, membrane integrity, abnormal morphology, mitochondria activity, acrosome integrity, apoptotic status, and fertilizing ability were assessed after freeze-thawing. Although diet had significant (P ≤ 0.05) effects on the quality parameters of frozen-thawed sperm, effects of extenders on these traits were not significant (P > 0.05). The higher significant (P ≤ 0.05) percentage of total motility and progressive motility were observed in n-3/SL (44.83 ± 1.56 and 28.33 ± 1.4) and n-3/EY (43.33 ± 1.56 and 28.50 ± 1.4) than SFA/SL (32.16 ± 1.56 and 14.00 ± 1.4) and SFA/EY (31.66 ± 1.56 and 12.66 ± 1.4) groups. Moreover, n-3/SL and n-3/EY produced the higher significant (P ≤ 0.05) percentage of membrane integrity of sperm (39.83 ± 1.4 and 37.33 ± 1.4) than SFA/SL and SFA/EY (29.83 ± 1.4 and 28.5 ± 1.4). For viability results, the higher significant percentage of live sperm was observed in n-3/SL and n-3/EY (43.16 ± 1.38 and 45.66 ± 1.38) than SFA/SL and SFA/EY (28.66 ± 1.38 and 27.5 ± 1.38). For fertility trials, n-3-based diets (n-3/SL and n-3/EY) improved significantly (P ≤ 0.05) pregnancy rate (44% and 46%), parturition rate (42% and 42%), and lambing rate (46% and 44%) compared with the SFA-based diets (SFA/SL and SFA/EY). No interaction effects have been found between diets and extenders (P > 0.05). It seems that dietary fish oil can improve the semen performance after freezing-thawing process and

  12. Microflotation performance for algal separation.

    PubMed

    Hanotu, James; Bandulasena, H C Hemaka; Zimmerman, William B

    2012-07-01

    The performance of microflotation, dispersed air flotation with microbubble clouds with bubble size about 50 µm, for algae separation using fluidic oscillation for microbubble generation is investigated. This fluidic oscillator converts continuous air supply into oscillatory flow with a regular frequency to generate bubbles of the scale of the exit pore. Bubble characterization results showed that average bubble size generated under oscillatory air flow state was 86 µm, approximately twice the size of the diffuser pore size of 38 µm. In contrast, continuous air flow at the same rate through the same diffusers yielded an average bubble size of 1,059 µm, 28 times larger than the pore size. Following microbubble generation, the separation of algal cells under fluidic oscillator generated microbubbles was investigated by varying metallic coagulant types, concentration and pH. Best performances were recorded at the highest coagulant dose (150 mg/L) applied under acidic conditions (pH 5). Amongst the three metallic coagulants studied, ferric chloride yielded the overall best result of 99.2% under the optimum conditions followed closely by ferric sulfate (98.1%) and aluminum sulfate with 95.2%. This compares well with conventional dissolved air flotation (DAF) benchmarks, but has a highly turbulent flow, whereas microflotation is laminar with several orders of magnitude lower energy density. PMID:22290221

  13. Sterol phylogenesis and algal evolution

    SciTech Connect

    Nes, W.D.; Norton, R.A.; Crumley, F.G. ); Madigan, S.J.; Katz, E.R. )

    1990-10-01

    The stereochemistry of several sterol precursors and end products synthesized by two fungal-like microorganisms Prototheca wickerhamii (I) and Dictyostelium discoideum (II) have been determined by chromatographic (TLC, GLC, and HPLC) and spectral (UV, MS, and {sup 1}H NMR) methods. From I and II the following sterols were isolated from the cells: cycloartenol, cyclolaudenol, 24(28)-methylenecy-cloartanol, ergosterol, protothecasterol, 4{alpha}-methylergostanol, 4{alpha}-methylclionastanol, clionastanol, 24{beta}-ethylcholesta-8,22-enol, and dictyosterol. In addition, the mechanism of C-24 methylation was investigated in both organisms by feeding to I (2-{sup 3}H)lanosterol, (2-{sup 3}H)cycloartenol, (24{sup 3}H)lanosterol, and (methyl-{sup 2}H{sub 3})methionine and by feeding to II (methyl-{sup 2}H{sub 3})methionine. The results demonstrate that the 24{beta} configuration is formed by different alkylation routes in I and II. The authors conclude that Prototheca is an apoplastic Chlorella (i.e., an alga) and that Dictyostelium as well as the other soil amoebae that synthesize cycloartenol evolved from algal rather than fungal ancestors.

  14. Towards developing algal synthetic biology.

    PubMed

    Scaife, Mark Aden; Smith, Alison Gail

    2016-06-15

    The genetic, physiological and metabolic diversity of microalgae has driven fundamental research into photosynthesis, flagella structure and function, and eukaryotic evolution. Within the last 10 years these organisms have also been investigated as potential biotechnology platforms, for example to produce high value compounds such as long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids, pigments and antioxidants, and for biodiesel precursors, in particular triacylglycerols (TAGs). Transformation protocols, molecular tools and genome sequences are available for a number of model species including the green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii and the diatom Phaeodactylum tricornutum, although for both species there are bottlenecks to be overcome to allow rapid and predictable genetic manipulation. One approach to do this would be to apply the principles of synthetic biology to microalgae, namely the cycle of Design-Build-Test, which requires more robust, predictable and high throughput methods. In this mini-review we highlight recent progress in the areas of improving transgene expression, genome editing, identification and design of standard genetic elements (parts), and the use of microfluidics to increase throughput. We suggest that combining these approaches will provide the means to establish algal synthetic biology, and that application of standard parts and workflows will avoid parallel development and capitalize on lessons learned from other systems. PMID:27284033

  15. Influences of a diet supplemented with linseed oil and antioxidants on quality of equine semen after cooling and cryopreservation during winter.

    PubMed

    Schmid-Lausigk, Yvonne; Aurich, Christine

    2014-04-15

    Seasonal changes in the reproductive physiology of stallions contribute to a decrease in the quality of frozen-thawed semen during late winter. Changes in the lipid composition of the sperm plasma membrane may contribute to this phenomenon. In the present study, we have, therefore, investigated the effects of adding linseed oil (LO) in combination with antioxidants to the diet of breeding stallions on the motility and membrane integrity of cooled-stored and cryopreserved semen. Starting in November, the diet of LO stallions (n = 6) but not control (C) stallions (n = 5) was supplemented with LO (100 mL once daily) plus an antioxidant (Myostem Protect; Audevard, Clichy, France) for a total of 84 days. Before (November) and at the end of this period (February), ejaculates were processed for cryopreservation (n = 3 ejaculates per stallion) and cooled shipping at 5 °C. Frozen-thawed and cooled-shipped semen was sent to the laboratory for computer-assisted semen analysis of total motility, progressive motility, and velocity parameters (average path velocity [VAP], curved line velocity [VCL], and straight-line velocity [VSL]) and evaluation of membrane integrity. The quality of frozen-thawed semen decreased (P < 0.05) from November (e.g., total motility LO 69 ± 3% and C 67 ± 3%) to February (total motility: LO 55 ± 4% and C 59 ± 3%) independent of treatment (P > 0.05). A decrease in the velocity parameters VAP, VCL, and VSL was more pronounced in LO stallions than in C stallions (e.g., VSL: November LO 67 ± 1 μm/s, C 64 ± 2 μm/s; February LO 59 ± 2 μm/s, C 63 ± 2 μm/s; interaction month by treatment, P < 0.05). In cooled-stored semen, total motility, progressive motility, and membrane integrity were lower in February than in November (P < 0.001 for all parameters). Supplementation of the diet with LO and antioxidants attenuated this decrease (e.g., Day 1 of cooled storage = 24 hours after semen collection: total motility in November LO 88 ± 1% and C 87

  16. Multiple differences between patients who initiate fish oil supplementation post-myocardial infarction and those who do not: the TRIUMPH Study.

    PubMed

    Harris, William S; Kennedy, K F; Maddox, T M; Kutty, S; Spertus, J A

    2016-01-01

    The utility of fish oil supplements (FOS) in patients who survive an acute myocardial infarction (MI) remains controversial, with randomized trials showing less benefit than observational studies would suggest. The differences in the characteristics of MI patients who use FOS in routine clinical care are unknown but may help explain this discrepancy. We used data from a 24-site registry study in which extensive information was available on 4340 MI patients at admission and 1, 6, and 12 months postdischarge. After excluding those using FOS at admission (n = 651), those who died before the 1-month follow-up visit (n = 63), and those with missing data at 1 month (n = 1228), 2398 remained. Of them, 377 (16%) started FOS within 1 month of their MI. We analyzed 53 patient characteristics associated with FOS use. We observed differences (P < .001) in 20 demographic, socioeconomic, treatment, disease severity, and health status domains. The FOS users were more likely than nonusers to be white, married, financially secure, highly educated, and eating fish. They also had a higher ejection fraction at discharge, were more likely to have had in-hospital percutaneous coronary interventions, and were more likely to have participated in cardiac rehabilitation programs. The FOS users were less likely to have a history of diabetes, alcohol abuse, stroke, MI, and angina. In conclusion, post-MI patients who initiate FOS within 1 month of discharge in routine clinical practice differ substantially from those who do not. These differences are strongly associated with a better post-MI prognosis and may illuminate several sources of unmeasured confounding in observational studies. PMID:26773782

  17. Raman spectroscopy for the characterization of algal cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samek, Ota; Jonáš, Alexandr; Pilát, Zdeněk; Zemánek, Pavel; Nedbal, Ladislav; Tříska, Jan; Kotas, Petr; Trtílek, Martin

    2010-12-01

    Raman spectroscopy can elucidate fundamental questions about intercellular variability and what governs it. Moreover, knowing the metabolic response on single cell level this can significantly contribute to the study and use of microalgae in systems biology and biofuel technology. Raman spectroscopy is capable to measure nutrient dynamics and metabolism in vivo, in real-time, label free making it possible to monitor/evaluate population variability. Also, degree of unsaturation of the algae oil (iodine value) can be measured using Raman spectra obtained from single microalgae. The iodine value is the determination of the amount of unsaturation contained in fatty acids (in the form of double bonds). Here we demonstrate the capacity of the spatially resolved Raman microspectroscopy to determine the effective iodine value in lipid storage bodies of individual living algal cells. We employed the characteristic peaks in the Raman scattering spectra at 1,656 cm-1 (cis C=C stretching mode) and 1,445 cm-1 (CH2 scissoring mode) as the markers defining the ratio of unsaturated-to-saturated carbon-carbon bonds of the fatty acids in the algal lipids.

  18. Algal and microbial exopolysaccharides: new insights as biosurfactants and bioemulsifiers.

    PubMed

    Paniagua-Michel, José de Jesús; Olmos-Soto, Jorge; Morales-Guerrero, Eduardo Roberto

    2014-01-01

    Currently, efforts are being made to utilize more natural biological systems as alternatives as a way to replace fossil forms of carbon. There is a growing concern at global level to have nontoxic, nonhazardous surface-active agents; contrary to synthetic surfactants, their biological counterparts or biosurfactants play a primary function, facilitating microbial presence in environments dominated by hydrophilic-hydrophobic interfaces. Algal and microbial biosurfactants/bioemulsifiers from marine and deep-sea environments are attracting major interest due to their structural and functional diversity as molecules actives of surface and an alternative biomass to replace fossil forms of carbon. Algal and microbial surfactants are lipid in nature and classified as glycolipids, phospholipids, lipopeptides, natural lipids, fatty acids, and lipopolysaccharides. These metabolic bioactive products are applicable in a number of industries and processes, viz., food processing, pharmacology, and bioremediation of oil-polluted environments. This chapter presents an update of the progress and potentialities of the principal producers of exopolysaccharide (EPS)-type biosurfactants and bioemulsifiers, viz., macro- and microalgae (cyanobacteria and diatoms) and bacteria from marine and extreme environments. Particular interest is centered into new sources and applications, viz., marine and deep-sea environments and promissory uses of these EPSs as biosurfactants/emulsifiers and other polymeric roles. The enormous benefits of these molecules encourage their discovery, exploitation, and development of new microbial EPSs that could possess novel industrial importance and corresponding innovations. PMID:25300549

  19. Algal Supply System Design - Harmonized Version

    SciTech Connect

    Abodeely, Jared; Stevens, Daniel; Ray, Allison; Newby, Deborah; Schaller, Kastli

    2013-03-01

    The objective of this design report is to provide an assessment of current technologies used for production, dewatering, and converting microalgae cultivated in open-pond systems to biofuel. The original draft design was created in 2011 and has subsequently been brought into agreement with the DOE harmonized model. The design report extends beyond this harmonized model to discuss some of the challenges with assessing algal production systems, including the ability to (1) quickly assess alternative algal production system designs, (2) assess spatial and temporal variability, and (3) perform large-scale assessments considering multiple scenarios for thousands of potential sites. The Algae Logistics Model (ALM) was developed to address each of these limitations of current modeling efforts to enable assessment of the economic feasibility of algal production systems across the United States. The (ALM) enables (1) dynamic assessments using spatiotemporal conditions, (2) exploration of algal production system design configurations, (3) investigation of algal production system operating assumptions, and (4) trade-off assessments with technology decisions and operating assumptions. The report discusses results from the ALM, which is used to assess the baseline design determined by harmonization efforts between U.S. DOE national laboratories. Productivity and resource assessment data is provided by coupling the ALM with the Biomass Assessment Tool developed at PNNL. This high-fidelity data is dynamically passed to the ALM and used to help better understand the impacts of spatial and temporal constraints on algal production systems by providing a cost for producing extracted algal lipids annually for each potential site.

  20. Process Design and Economics for the Conversion of Algal Biomass to Hydrocarbons: Whole Algae Hydrothermal Liquefaction and Upgrading

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, Susanne B.; Zhu, Yunhua; Anderson, Daniel B.; Hallen, Richard T.; Elliott, Douglas C.; Schmidt, Andrew J.; Albrecht, Karl O.; Hart, Todd R.; Butcher, Mark G.; Drennan, Corinne; Snowden-Swan, Lesley J.; Davis, Ryan; Kinchin, Christopher

    2014-03-20

    This report provides a preliminary analysis of the costs associated with converting whole wet algal biomass into primarily diesel fuel. Hydrothermal liquefaction converts the whole algae into an oil that is then hydrotreated and distilled. The secondary aqueous product containing significant organic material is converted to a medium btu gas via catalytic hydrothermal gasification.

  1. Bacilysin from Bacillus amyloliquefaciens FZB42 Has Specific Bactericidal Activity against Harmful Algal Bloom Species

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Liming; Wu, Huijun; Chen, Lina; Xie, Shanshan; Zang, Haoyu; Borriss, Rainer

    2014-01-01

    Harmful algal blooms, caused by massive and exceptional overgrowth of microalgae and cyanobacteria, are a serious environmental problem worldwide. In the present study, we looked for Bacillus strains with sufficiently strong anticyanobacterial activity to be used as biocontrol agents. Among 24 strains, Bacillus amyloliquefaciens FZB42 showed the strongest bactericidal activity against Microcystis aeruginosa, with a kill rate of 98.78%. The synthesis of the anticyanobacterial substance did not depend on Sfp, an enzyme that catalyzes a necessary processing step in the nonribosomal synthesis of lipopeptides and polyketides, but was associated with the aro gene cluster that is involved in the synthesis of the sfp-independent antibiotic bacilysin. Disruption of bacB, the gene in the cluster responsible for synthesizing bacilysin, or supplementation with the antagonist N-acetylglucosamine abolished the inhibitory effect, but this was restored when bacilysin synthesis was complemented. Bacilysin caused apparent changes in the algal cell wall and cell organelle membranes, and this resulted in cell lysis. Meanwhile, there was downregulated expression of glmS, psbA1, mcyB, and ftsZ—genes involved in peptidoglycan synthesis, photosynthesis, microcystin synthesis, and cell division, respectively. In addition, bacilysin suppressed the growth of other harmful algal species. In summary, bacilysin produced by B. amyloliquefaciens FZB42 has anticyanobacterial activity and thus could be developed as a biocontrol agent to mitigate the effects of harmful algal blooms. PMID:25261512

  2. A study of algal biomass potential in selected Canadian regions.

    SciTech Connect

    Passell, Howard David; Roach, Jesse Dillon; Klise, Geoffrey T.

    2011-11-01

    A dynamic assessment model has been developed for evaluating the potential algal biomass and extracted biocrude productivity and costs, using nutrient and water resources available from waste streams in four regions of Canada (western British Columbia, Alberta oil fields, southern Ontario, and Nova Scotia). The purpose of this model is to help identify optimal locations in Canada for algae cultivation and biofuel production. The model uses spatially referenced data across the four regions for nitrogen and phosphorous loads in municipal wastewaters, and CO{sub 2} in exhaust streams from a variety of large industrial sources. Other data inputs include land cover, and solar insolation. Model users can develop estimates of resource potential by manipulating model assumptions in a graphic user interface, and updated results are viewed in real time. Resource potential by location can be viewed in terms of biomass production potential, potential CO{sub 2} fixed, biocrude production potential, and area required. The cost of producing algal biomass can be estimated using an approximation of the distance to move CO{sub 2} and water to the desired land parcel and an estimation of capital and operating costs for a theoretical open pond facility. Preliminary results suggest that in most cases, the CO{sub 2} resource is plentiful compared to other necessary nutrients (especially nitrogen), and that siting and prospects for successful large-scale algae cultivation efforts in Canada will be driven by availability of those other nutrients and the efficiency with which they can be used and re-used. Cost curves based on optimal possible siting of an open pond system are shown. The cost of energy for maintaining optimal growth temperatures is not considered in this effort, and additional research in this area, which has not been well studied at these latitudes, will be important in refining the costs of algal biomass production. The model will be used by NRC-IMB Canada to identify

  3. Production of algal-based biofuel using non-fresh water sources.

    SciTech Connect

    Sun, Amy Cha-Tien; Reno, Marissa Devan

    2007-09-01

    The goal of this LDRD involves development of a system dynamics model to understand the interdependencies between water resource availability and water needs for production of biofuels. Specifically, this model focuses on availability and feasibility of non-traditional water sources from dairy wastewater, produced water from crude oil production and from coal-bed methane gas extraction for the production of algal-based biofuel. The conceptual simulation framework and historical data are based on two locales within New Mexico, the San Juan basin in the northwest and the Permian basin in the southeast, where oil and gas drilling have increased considerably in the last ten years. The overall water balance ignores both transportation options and water chemistry and is broken down by county level. The resulting model contains an algal growth module, a dairy module, an oil production module, and a gas production module. A user interface is also created for controlling the adjustable parameters in the model. Our preliminary investigation indicates a cyclical demand for non-fresh water due to the cyclical nature of algal biomass production and crop evapotranspiration. The wastewater from the dairy industry is not a feasible non-fresh water source because the agricultural water demand for cow's dry feed far exceeds the amount generated at the dairy. The uncertainty associated with the water demand for cow's dry matter intake is the greatest in this model. The oil- and gas-produced water, ignoring the quality, provides ample supply for water demand in algal biomass production. There remains work to address technical challenges associated with coupling the appropriate non-fresh water source to the local demand.

  4. Experimental Protocol for Biodiesel Production with Isolation of Alkenones as Coproducts from Commercial Isochrysis Algal Biomass.

    PubMed

    O'Neil, Gregory W; Williams, John R; Wilson-Peltier, Julia; Knothe, Gerhard; Reddy, Christopher M

    2016-01-01

    The need to replace petroleum fuels with alternatives from renewable and more environmentally sustainable sources is of growing importance. Biomass-derived biofuels have gained considerable attention in this regard, however first generation biofuels from edible crops like corn ethanol or soybean biodiesel have generally fallen out of favor. There is thus great interest in the development of methods for the production of liquid fuels from domestic and superior non-edible sources. Here we describe a detailed procedure for the production of a purified biodiesel from the marine microalgae Isochrysis. Additionally, a unique suite of lipids known as polyunsaturated long-chain alkenones are isolated in parallel as potentially valuable coproducts to offset the cost of biodiesel production. Multi-kilogram quantities of Isochrysis are purchased from two commercial sources, one as a wet paste (80% water) that is first dried prior to processing, and the other a dry milled powder (95% dry). Lipids are extracted with hexanes in a Soxhlet apparatus to produce an algal oil ("hexane algal oil") containing both traditional fats (i.e., triglycerides, 46-60% w/w) and alkenones (16-25% w/w). Saponification of the triglycerides in the algal oil allows for separation of the resulting free fatty acids (FFAs) from alkenone-containing neutral lipids. FFAs are then converted to biodiesel (i.e., fatty acid methyl esters, FAMEs) by acid-catalyzed esterification while alkenones are isolated and purified from the neutral lipids by crystallization. We demonstrate that biodiesel from both commercial Isochrysis biomasses have similar but not identical FAME profiles, characterized by elevated polyunsaturated fatty acid contents (approximately 40% w/w). Yields of biodiesel were consistently higher when starting from the Isochrysis wet paste (12% w/w vs. 7% w/w), which can be traced to lower amounts of hexane algal oil obtained from the powdered Isochrysis product. PMID:27404113

  5. Platy algal banks: Modern and ancient

    SciTech Connect

    Brinton, L. )

    1990-05-01

    Plaly algal banks and associated cycles in the lower Ismay zone of the Paradox Formation are exposed along the walls of the San Juan River canyon, southeastern Utah. These complexes closely resemble algal bank reservoirs in the lower Ismay zone of Ismay and Cache, and possibly other Paradox basin fields. Similarities include facies relationships, lateral and vertical textural variations, and early diagenesis. Extensive algal banks exposed along the San Juan canyon generally have flat bases and mound and swale topographic surfaces, and are separated by interbank channels. The surficial mounds have a regular amplitude and wavelength suggesting a hydrologic rather than biologic influence on topography. The banks themselves, however, are believed to be thick, predominantly in-situ accumulations of platy algae. Distribution of algal banks can be mapped on a field scale; mound and swale topographic features may be identified in core on the basis of depositional and early diagenetic characteristics. Halimeda bioherms (Holocene) cover large areas behind the Great Barrier Reef, developing adjacent to the deep passes that separate the individual reefs. These large in-situ accumulations (20-50 m deep) display similar bank geometries, interbank features, topographic features, vertical textural sequence (including porosity type and distribution), and facies relationships to algal banks observed in the outcropping and subsurface Paradox Formation. Although the hydrodynamic and paleobathymetric settings differ markedly between these two examples, analogies between the mounds themselves are very close. The resemblance lends relevance to exploration and development drilling.

  6. Thermochemical conversion of raw and defatted algal biomass via hydrothermal liquefaction and slow pyrolysis.

    PubMed

    Vardon, Derek R; Sharma, Brajendra K; Blazina, Grant V; Rajagopalan, Kishore; Strathmann, Timothy J

    2012-04-01

    Thermochemical conversion is a promising route for recovering energy from algal biomass. Two thermochemical processes, hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL: 300 °C and 10-12 MPa) and slow pyrolysis (heated to 450 °C at a rate of 50 °C/min), were used to produce bio-oils from Scenedesmus (raw and defatted) and Spirulina biomass that were compared against Illinois shale oil. Although both thermochemical conversion routes produced energy dense bio-oil (35-37 MJ/kg) that approached shale oil (41 MJ/kg), bio-oil yields (24-45%) and physico-chemical characteristics were highly influenced by conversion route and feedstock selection. Sharp differences were observed in the mean bio-oil molecular weight (pyrolysis 280-360 Da; HTL 700-1330 Da) and the percentage of low boiling compounds (bp<400 °C) (pyrolysis 62-66%; HTL 45-54%). Analysis of the energy consumption ratio (ECR) also revealed that for wet algal biomass (80% moisture content), HTL is more favorable (ECR 0.44-0.63) than pyrolysis (ECR 0.92-1.24) due to required water volatilization in the latter technique. PMID:22285293

  7. Increasing algal biofuel production using Nannocholropsis oculata cultivated with anaerobically and aerobically treated swine wastewater.

    PubMed

    Wu, Pei-Fen; Teng, Jui-Chin; Lin, Yun-Huin; Hwang, Sz-Chwun John

    2013-04-01

    For mass production of Nannocholropsis oculata, a cheap nutrition source such as swine wastewater is required. The use of a combination of anaerobically/aerobically treated swine wastewater (AnATSW) was compared to artificial 3×f/2 medium in terms of algal growth rate and oil content. For microalgae cultured in 0-50% (v/v) AnATSW, a biomass of 0.94-3.22 g L(-1) was reached in 5 days. For microalgae cultured in 3×f/2 medium with vitamins, the lipid productivity was 0.122 g L(-1) d(-1) although its oil content reached 48.9%. Culturing N. oculata in 0-50% AnATSW resulted in an optimal lipid productivity of 0.035-0.177 g L(-1) d(-1). Only vitamins improved algal production of more oxidatively stable compositions of unsaturated oils. These oils were similar to the chemical structure of rapeseed oil based on analysis of the bis-allylic-position-equivalent value (30.64-46.13) and the iodine value (90.5-117.46). These oils were similar to coal based on the calculated low-heating-value of 17.6-22.9 MJ/kg. PMID:23422305

  8. Critical evaluation and modeling of algal harvesting using dissolved air flotation. DAF Algal Harvesting Modeling

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Zhang, Xuezhi; Hewson, John C.; Amendola, Pasquale; Reynoso, Monica; Sommerfeld, Milton; Chen, Yongsheng; Hu, Qiang

    2014-07-14

    In our study, Chlorella zofingiensis harvesting by dissolved air flotation (DAF) was critically evaluated with regard to algal concentration, culture conditions, type and dosage of coagulants, and recycle ratio. Harvesting efficiency increased with coagulant dosage and leveled off at 81%, 86%, 91%, and 87% when chitosan, Al3+, Fe3+, and cetyl trimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) were used at dosages of 70, 180, 250, and 500 mg g-1, respectively. The DAF efficiency-coagulant dosage relationship changed with algal culture conditions. In evaluating the influence of the initial algal concentration and recycle ratio revealed that, under conditions typical for algal harvesting, we found that itmore » is possible that the number of bubbles is insufficient. A DAF algal harvesting model was developed to explain this observation by introducing mass-based floc size distributions and a bubble limitation into the white water blanket model. Moreover, the model revealed the importance of coagulation to increase floc-bubble collision and attachment, and the preferential interaction of bubbles with larger flocs, which limited the availability of bubbles to the smaller sized flocs. The harvesting efficiencies predicted by the model agree reasonably with experimental data obtained at different Al3+ dosages, algal concentrations, and recycle ratios. Based on this modeling, critical parameters for efficient algal harvesting were identified.« less

  9. Critical evaluation and modeling of algal harvesting using dissolved air flotation. DAF Algal Harvesting Modeling

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Xuezhi; Hewson, John C.; Amendola, Pasquale; Reynoso, Monica; Sommerfeld, Milton; Chen, Yongsheng; Hu, Qiang

    2014-07-14

    In our study, Chlorella zofingiensis harvesting by dissolved air flotation (DAF) was critically evaluated with regard to algal concentration, culture conditions, type and dosage of coagulants, and recycle ratio. Harvesting efficiency increased with coagulant dosage and leveled off at 81%, 86%, 91%, and 87% when chitosan, Al3+, Fe3+, and cetyl trimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) were used at dosages of 70, 180, 250, and 500 mg g-1, respectively. The DAF efficiency-coagulant dosage relationship changed with algal culture conditions. In evaluating the influence of the initial algal concentration and recycle ratio revealed that, under conditions typical for algal harvesting, we found that it is possible that the number of bubbles is insufficient. A DAF algal harvesting model was developed to explain this observation by introducing mass-based floc size distributions and a bubble limitation into the white water blanket model. Moreover, the model revealed the importance of coagulation to increase floc-bubble collision and attachment, and the preferential interaction of bubbles with larger flocs, which limited the availability of bubbles to the smaller sized flocs. The harvesting efficiencies predicted by the model agree reasonably with experimental data obtained at different Al3+ dosages, algal concentrations, and recycle ratios. Based on this modeling, critical parameters for efficient algal harvesting were identified.

  10. Dietary Supplements

    MedlinePlus

    Dietary supplements are vitamins, minerals, herbs, and many other products. They can come as pills, capsules, powders, drinks, and energy bars. Supplements do not have to go through the testing that drugs do. Some ...

  11. Dietary Supplements

    MedlinePlus

    Dietary supplements are vitamins, minerals, herbs, and many other products. They can come as pills, capsules, powders, drinks, ... possible Tell your health care provider about any dietary supplements you use Do not take a bigger dose ...

  12. Relation of fish oil supplementation to markers of atherothrombotic risk in patients with cardiovascular disease not receiving lipid-lowering therapy.

    PubMed

    Franzese, Christopher J; Bliden, Kevin P; Gesheff, Martin G; Pandya, Shachi; Guyer, Kirk E; Singla, Anand; Tantry, Udaya S; Toth, Peter P; Gurbel, Paul A

    2015-05-01

    Fish oil supplementation (FOS) is known to have cardiovascular benefits. However, the effects of FOS on thrombosis are incompletely understood. We sought to determine if the use of FOS is associated with lower indices of atherothrombotic risk in patients with suspected coronary artery disease (sCAD). This is a subgroup analysis of consecutive patients with sCAD (n=600) enrolled in the Multi-Analyte, Thrombogenic, and Genetic Markers of Atherosclerosis study. Patients on FOS were compared with patients not on FOS. Lipid profile was determined by vertical density gradient ultracentrifugation (n=520), eicosapentaenoic acid+docosahexaenoic acid was measured by gas chromatography (n=437), and AtherOx testing was performed by immunoassay (n=343). Thromboelastography (n=419), ADP- and collagen-induced platelet aggregation (n=137), and urinary 11-dehydrothromboxane B2 levels (n=259) were performed immediately before elective coronary angiography. In the total population, FOS was associated with higher eicosapentaenoic acid+docosahexaenoic acid content (p<0.001), lower triglycerides (p=0.04), total very low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (p=0.002), intermediate-density lipoprotein cholesterol (p=0.02), and AtherOx levels (p=0.02) but not in patients on lipid-lowering therapy. Patients not on lipid-lowering therapy taking FOS had lower very low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, intermediate-density lipoprotein cholesterol, remnant lipoproteins, triglycerides, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, AtherOx levels, collagen-induced platelet aggregation, thrombin-induced platelet-fibrin clot strength, and shear elasticity (p<0.03 for all). In clopidogrel-treated patients, there was no difference in ADP-induced aggregation between FOS groups. Patients on FOS had lower urinary 11-dehydrothromboxane B2 levels regardless of lipid-lowering therapy (p<0.04). In conclusion, the findings of this study support the potential benefit of FOS for atherothrombotic risk reduction in sCAD with

  13. Methane and nitrous oxide emissions affect the life-cycle analysis of algal biofuels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frank, Edward D.; Han, Jeongwoo; Palou-Rivera, Ignasi; Elgowainy, Amgad; Wang, Michael Q.

    2012-03-01

    Researchers around the world are developing sustainable plant-based liquid transportation fuels (biofuels) to reduce petroleum consumption and greenhouse gas emissions. Algae are attractive because they promise large yields per acre compared to grasses, grains and trees, and because they produce oils that might be converted to diesel and gasoline equivalents. It takes considerable energy to produce algal biofuels with current technology; thus, the potential benefits of algal biofuels compared to petroleum fuels must be quantified. To this end, we identified key parameters for algal biofuel production using GREET, a tool for the life-cycle analysis of energy use and emissions in transportation systems. The baseline scenario produced 55 400 g CO2 equivalent per million BTU of biodiesel compared to 101 000 g for low-sulfur petroleum diesel. The analysis considered the potential for greenhouse gas emissions from anaerobic digestion processes commonly used in algal biofuel models. The work also studied alternative scenarios, e.g., catalytic hydrothermal gasification, that may reduce these emissions. The analysis of the nitrogen recovery step from lipid-extracted algae (residues) highlighted the importance of considering the fate of the unrecovered nitrogen fraction, especially that which produces N2O, a potent greenhouse gas with global warming potential 298 times that of CO2.

  14. Development of algal interspecies correlation estimation models for chemical hazard assessment.

    PubMed

    Brill, Jessica L; Belanger, Scott E; Chaney, Joel G; Dyer, Scott D; Raimondo, Sandy; Barron, Mace G; Pittinger, Charles A

    2016-09-01

    Web-based Interspecies Correlation Estimation (ICE) is an application developed to predict the acute toxicity of a chemical from 1 species to another taxon. Web-ICE models use the acute toxicity value for a surrogate species to predict effect values for other species, thus potentially filling in data gaps for a variety of environmental assessment purposes. Web-ICE has historically been dominated by aquatic and terrestrial animal prediction models. Web-ICE models for algal species were essentially absent and are addressed in the present study. A compilation of public and private sector-held algal toxicity data were compiled and reviewed for quality based on relevant aspects of individual studies. Interspecies correlations were constructed from the most commonly tested algal genera for a broad spectrum of chemicals. The ICE regressions were developed based on acute 72-h and 96-h endpoint values involving 1647 unique studies on 476 unique chemicals encompassing 40 genera and 70 species of green, blue-green, and diatom algae. Acceptance criteria for algal ICE models were established prior to evaluation of individual models and included a minimum sample size of 3, a statistically significant regression slope, and a slope estimation parameter ≥0.65. A total of 186 ICE models were possible at the genus level, with 21 meeting quality criteria; and 264 ICE models were developed at the species level, with 32 meeting quality criteria. Algal ICE models will have broad utility in screening environmental hazard assessments, data gap filling in certain regulatory scenarios, and as supplemental information to derive species sensitivity distributions. Environ Toxicol Chem 2016;35:2368-2378. Published 2016 Wiley Periodicals Inc. on behalf of SETAC. This article is a US government work and, as such, is in the public domain in the United States of America. PMID:26792236

  15. 40 CFR 797.1050 - Algal acute toxicity test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...) Algistatic means having the property of inhibiting algal growth. (3) ECx means the experimentally derived chemical concentration that is calculated to effect X percent of the test criterion. (4) Growth means a relative measure of the viability of an algal population based on the number and/or weight of algal...

  16. 40 CFR 797.1050 - Algal acute toxicity test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...) Algistatic means having the property of inhibiting algal growth. (3) ECx means the experimentally derived chemical concentration that is calculated to effect X percent of the test criterion. (4) Growth means a relative measure of the viability of an algal population based on the number and/or weight of algal...

  17. 40 CFR 797.1050 - Algal acute toxicity test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...) Algistatic means having the property of inhibiting algal growth. (3) ECx means the experimentally derived chemical concentration that is calculated to effect X percent of the test criterion. (4) Growth means a relative measure of the viability of an algal population based on the number and/or weight of algal...

  18. Linseed oil supplementation to dairy cows fed diets based on red clover silage or corn silage: Effects on methane production, rumen fermentation, nutrient digestibility, N balance, and milk production.

    PubMed

    Benchaar, C; Hassanat, F; Martineau, R; Gervais, R

    2015-11-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the effect of linseed oil (LO) supplementation to red clover silage (RCS)- or corn silage (CS)-based diets on enteric CH4 emissions, ruminal fermentation characteristics, nutrient digestibility, N balance, and milk production. Twelve rumen-cannulated lactating cows were used in a replicated 4×4 Latin square design (35-d periods) with a 2×2 factorial arrangement of treatments. Cows were fed (ad libitum) RCS- or CS-based diets [forage:concentrate ratio 60:40; dry matter (DM) basis] without or with LO (4% of DM). Supplementation of LO to the RCS-based diet reduced enteric CH4 production (-9%) and CH4 energy losses (-11%) with no adverse effects on DM intake, digestion, ruminal fermentation characteristics, protozoa numbers, or milk production. The addition of LO to the CS-based diet caused a greater decrease in CH4 production (-26%) and CH4 energy losses (-23%) but was associated with a reduction in DM intake, total-tract fiber digestibility, protozoa numbers, acetate:propionate ratio, and energy-corrected milk yield. Urinary N excretion (g/d) decreased with LO supplementation to RCS- and CS-based diets, suggesting reduced potential of N2O emissions. Results from this study show that the depressive effect of LO supplementation on enteric CH4 production is more pronounced with the CS- than with the RCS-based diet. However, because of reduced digestibility with the CS-based diet, the reduction in enteric CH4 production may be offset by higher CH4 emissions from manure storage. Thus, the type of forage of the basal diet should be taken into consideration when using fat supplementation as a dietary strategy to reduce enteric CH4 production from dairy cows. PMID:26298755

  19. The potential for improving physiological, behavioural and immunological responses in the neonatal lamb by trace element and vitamin supplementation of the ewe.

    PubMed

    Rooke, J A; Dwyer, C M; Ashworth, C J

    2008-04-01

    Neonatal lamb mortality represents both a welfare issue (due to the considerable suffering and distress) and an important production inefficiency. In lambs, approximately 80% of mortality can be attributed to the starvation-mismothering-exposure complex and occurs in the first 3 days after birth. It was the object of this review to determine the micronutrient(s) most likely to have a positive effect on neonatal lamb survival when included above the requirement for that micronutrient. Micronutrients discussed were Co, Cu, I, Fe, Mn, Se, Zn, vitamins A and E and n-3 fatty acids. For Co, Fe, Mn and Zn, there was no evidence of positive responses to supplementation. Cu and I had toxicity thresholds that were sufficiently close to requirement that supplementing above requirement presented a risk of inducing toxicity. In the case of vitamin A, while serum concentrations indicated that sub-optimal status did exist, long-term buffering from liver stores (from grazing) makes experimentation difficult and practical benefits to supplementation unlikely. Therefore, the most likely candidates for supplementation were Se, vitamin E and fatty acids. Fatty acid supplementation with fish oils or docosahexaenoic acid-containing algal biomass consistently improved lamb vigour but it is unlikely that supplementation will be economic. Positive responses to Se supplementation throughout gestation were recorded. However, in many studies the Se status of control ewes was marginal and there is a need for more studies where control ewes are clearly adequate in Se. Positive responses to vitamin E supplementation above requirement in the last-third of gestation were observed but the optimum dietary inclusion of vitamin E and period of feeding during pregnancy still require clarification. PMID:22443565

  20. Treatment of dairy manure effluent using freshwater algae: algal productivity and recovery of manure nutrients using pilot-scale algal turf scrubbers.

    PubMed

    Mulbry, Walter; Kondrad, Shannon; Pizarro, Carolina; Kebede-Westhead, Elizabeth

    2008-11-01

    Cultivating algae on nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) in animal manure effluents presents an alternative to the current practice of land application. The objective of this study was to determine values for productivity, nutrient content, and nutrient recovery using filamentous green algae grown in outdoor raceways at different loading rates of raw and anaerobically digested dairy manure effluent. Algal turf scrubber raceways (30m2 each) were operated in central Maryland for approximately 270 days each year (roughly April 1-December 31) from 2003 to 2006. Algal biomass was harvested every 4-12 days from the raceways after daily additions of manure effluent corresponding to loading rates of 0.3 to 2.5g total N (TN) and 0.08 to 0.42g total P (TP) m(-2)d(-1). Mean algal productivity values increased from approximately 2.5g DW m(-2)d(-1) at the lowest loading rate (0.3g TN m(-2)d(-1)) to 25g DW m(-2)d(-1) at the highest loading rate (2.5g TN m(-2)d(-1)). Mean N and P contents in the dried biomass increased 1.5-2.0-fold with increasing loading rate up to maximums of 7% N and 1% P (dry weight basis). Although variable, algal N and P accounted for roughly 70-90% of input N and P at loading rates below 1g TN, 0.15g TP m(-2)d(-1). N and P recovery rates decreased to 50-80% at higher loading rates. There were no significant differences in algal productivity, algal N and P content, or N and P recovery values from raceways with carbon dioxide supplementation compared to values from raceways without added carbon dioxide. Projected annual operational costs are very high on a per animal basis ($780 per cow). However, within the context of reducing nutrient inputs in sensitive watersheds such as the Chesapeake Bay, projected operational costs of $11 per kgN are well below the costs cited for upgrading existing water treatment plants. PMID:18487042

  1. Resolving Mixed Algal Species in Hyperspectral Images

    PubMed Central

    Mehrubeoglu, Mehrube; Teng, Ming Y.; Zimba, Paul V.

    2014-01-01

    We investigated a lab-based hyperspectral imaging system's response from pure (single) and mixed (two) algal cultures containing known algae types and volumetric combinations to characterize the system's performance. The spectral response to volumetric changes in single and combinations of algal mixtures with known ratios were tested. Constrained linear spectral unmixing was applied to extract the algal content of the mixtures based on abundances that produced the lowest root mean square error. Percent prediction error was computed as the difference between actual percent volumetric content and abundances at minimum RMS error. Best prediction errors were computed as 0.4%, 0.4% and 6.3% for the mixed spectra from three independent experiments. The worst prediction errors were found as 5.6%, 5.4% and 13.4% for the same order of experiments. Additionally, Beer-Lambert's law was utilized to relate transmittance to different volumes of pure algal suspensions demonstrating linear logarithmic trends for optical property measurements. PMID:24451451

  2. AL HARMFUL ALGAL BLOOM (HAB) INFORMATION EXCHANGE

    EPA Science Inventory

    This project proposes to implement an integrated web site that will serve as an Alabama Harmful Algal Bloom (HAB) Information Exchange Network. This network will be a stand-alone site where HAB data from all agencies and research efforts in the State of Alabama will be integrate...

  3. Using hyperspectral imagery to monitor algal persence

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, J.M.; Monk, J.; Yan, Gu; Brignal, W.

    1997-08-01

    This paper illustrates how an inexpensive and easily deployable imaging spectrometer can be used to monitor and identify algal blooms at short notice, thus making practical the addition of airborne data to the usual in-situ measurements. Two examples are described, one in the Irish Sea and the other in a reservoir system in the London area.

  4. Algal production in wastewater treatment high rate algal ponds for potential biofuel use.

    PubMed

    Park, J B K; Craggs, R J

    2011-01-01

    Wastewater treatment High Rate Algal Ponds with CO2 addition could provide cost-effective and efficient tertiary-level wastewater treatment with the co-benefit of algal biomass production for biofuel use. Wastewater grown algal biomass can have a lipid content of 10-30% of dry weight, which could be used to make biodiesel. This research investigated algal biomass and total lipid production by two pilot-scale wastewater treatment HRAP(S) (4-day HRT) with and without CO2 addition under New Zealand mid summer (Nov-Jan) conditions. The influence of CO2 addition on wastewater treatment performance was also determined. CO2 was added to one of the HRAPs (the HRAP(E)) by maintaining the maximum pH of the pond below 8. Measurements of HRAP influent and effluent water qualities, total lipid content and algal biomass production were made twice a week over the experimental period. Both HRAP(S) achieved high levels of organic compound and nutrient removal, with >85% SBOD5, >92 NH4(+)-N and >70% DRP removal. Algal/bacterial biomass production in the HRAP(E) (15.2 g/m2/d) was improved by CO2 addition by approximately 30% compared with that of the control HRAP(W) (10.6 g/m2/d). Total lipid content of the biomass grown on both HRAP(S) was slightly reduced (from 25% to 20%) with CO2 addition and the maximum total lipid content of approximately 40% was observed in the HRAP(W) when low NH4(+)-N concentration (<0.5 mg/L) and high maximum pH (>10.0) occurred. Total lipid content of the biomass increased by approximately 15% under nitrogen limiting conditions, however, overall algal/bacterial biomass production was reduced by half during the period of nitrogen limitation. More research is required to maintain algal production under near nitrogen-limiting conditions. PMID:21977667

  5. Algal toxins alter copepod feeding behavior.

    PubMed

    Hong, Jiarong; Talapatra, Siddharth; Katz, Joseph; Tester, Patricia A; Waggett, Rebecca J; Place, Allen R

    2012-01-01

    Using digital holographic cinematography, we quantify and compare the feeding behavior of free-swimming copepods, Acartia tonsa, on nutritional prey (Storeatula major) to that occurring during exposure to toxic and non-toxic strains of Karenia brevis and Karlodinium veneficum. These two harmful algal species produce polyketide toxins with different modes of action and potency. We distinguish between two different beating modes of the copepod's feeding appendages-a "sampling beating" that has short durations (<100 ms) and involves little fluid entrainment and a longer duration "grazing beating" that persists up to 1200 ms and generates feeding currents. The durations of both beating modes have log-normal distributions. Without prey, A. tonsa only samples the environment at low frequency. Upon introduction of non-toxic food, it increases its sampling time moderately and the grazing period substantially. On mono algal diets for either of the toxic dinoflagellates, sampling time fraction is high but the grazing is very limited. A. tonsa demonstrates aversion to both toxic algal species. In mixtures of S. major and the neurotoxin producing K. brevis, sampling and grazing diminish rapidly, presumably due to neurological effects of consuming brevetoxins while trying to feed on S. major. In contrast, on mixtures of cytotoxin producing K. veneficum, both behavioral modes persist, indicating that intake of karlotoxins does not immediately inhibit the copepod's grazing behavior. These findings add critical insight into how these algal toxins may influence the copepod's feeding behavior, and suggest how some harmful algal species may alter top-down control exerted by grazers like copepods. PMID:22629336

  6. Short-Term, High-Dose Fish Oil Supplementation Increases the Production of Omega-3 Fatty Acid–Derived Mediators in Patients With Peripheral Artery Disease (the OMEGA-PAD I Trial)

    PubMed Central

    Grenon, S Marlene; Owens, Christopher D; Nosova, Emily V; Hughes-Fulford, Millie; Alley, Hugh F; Chong, Karen; Perez, Sandra; Yen, Priscilla K; Boscardin, John; Hellmann, Jason; Spite, Matthew; Conte, Michael S

    2015-01-01

    Background Patients with peripheral artery disease (PAD) experience significant morbidity and mortality. The OMEGA-PAD I Trial, a randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled trial, addressed the hypothesis that short-duration, high-dose n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA) oral supplementation improves endothelial function and inflammation in PAD. Methods and Results Eighty patients with stable claudication received 4.4 g of fish oil or placebo for 1 month. The primary end point was endothelial function as measured by brachial artery flow-mediated vasodilation. Secondary end points included biomarkers of inflammation, n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids metabolome changes, lipid profile, and walking impairment questionnaires. Although there was a significant increase in FMD in the fish oil group following treatment (0.7±1.8% increase from baseline, P=0.04), this response was not different then the placebo group (0.6±2.5% increase from baseline, P=0.18; between-group P=0.86) leading to a negative finding for the primary endpoint. There was, however, a significant reduction in triglycerides (fish oil: −34±46 mg/dL, P<0.001; placebo −10±43 mg/dL, P=0.20; between-group differential P-value: 0.02), and an increase in the omega-3 index of 4±1% (P<0.001) in the fish oil group (placebo 0.1±0.9%, P=0.49; between-group P<0.0001). We observed a significant increase in the production of pathway markers of specialized pro-resolving mediators generated from n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in the fish oil group. Conclusions High-dose, short-duration fish oil supplementation did not lead to a different response in the primary end point of endothelial function between the treatment and placebo group, but improved serum triglycerides and increased the production of downstream n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids–derived products and mediators in patients with PAD. Clinical Trial Registration URL: https://www.clinicaltrials.gov/. Unique identifier: NCT01310270. PMID

  7. No effect of 12 weeks' supplementation with 1 g DHA-rich or EPA-rich fish oil on cognitive function or mood in healthy young adults aged 18-35 years.

    PubMed

    Jackson, Philippa A; Deary, Michael E; Reay, Jonathon L; Scholey, Andrew B; Kennedy, David O

    2012-04-01

    The n-3 PUFA are a unique class of fatty acids that cannot be manufactured by the body, and must be acquired via dietary sources. In the UK, as well as in other Western nations, these 'essential' fatty acids are consumed in quantities that fall below government guidelines. The present study explored the effects of 12 weeks' dietary supplementation with 1 g/d of two types of fish oil (FO; DHA-rich and EPA-rich) in 159 healthy young adults aged 18-35 years. An assessment of performance on a battery of computerised cognitive tasks and mood measures took place before and following the 12-week treatment regimen. Venous blood samples were also supplied by participants at both time points which were later analysed for serum fatty acid concentrations. Despite good adherence to the study protocol - as reflected in increased concentrations of n-3 serum fatty acids - compared with placebo, the observed effects of both active treatments were minimal. The only finding of note revealed that supplementation with EPA-rich FO may reduce subjective mental fatigue at times of high cognitive demand, although further investigation is required. These findings, taken together with other recent reports of null effects, suggest that dietary supplementation with n-3 PUFA in healthy, normally developing and impairment-free populations is unlikely to result in cognitive enhancement. PMID:21864417

  8. Seasonal Variation in 25(OH)D at Aberdeen (57°N) and Bone Health Indicators– Could Holidays in the Sun and Cod Liver Oil Supplements Alleviate Deficiency?

    PubMed Central

    Mavroeidi, Alexandra; Aucott, Lorna; Black, Alison J.; Fraser, William D.; Reid, David M.; Macdonald, Helen M.

    2013-01-01

    Vitamin D has been linked with many health outcomes. The aim of this longitudinal study, was to assess predictors of seasonal variation of 25-hydroxy-vitamin D (25(OH)D) (including use of supplements and holidays in sunny destinations) at a northerly latitude in the UK (57°N) in relation to bone health indicators. 365 healthy postmenopausal women (mean age 62.0 y (SD 1.4)) had 25(OH)D measurements by immunoassay, serum C-telopeptide (CTX), estimates of sunlight exposure (badges of polysulphone film), information regarding holidays in sunny destinations, and diet (from food diaries, including use of supplements such as cod liver oil (CLO)) at fixed 3-monthly intervals over 15 months (subject retention 88%) with an additional 25(OH)D assessment in spring 2008. Bone mineral density (BMD) at the lumbar spine (LS) and dual hip was measured in autumn 2006 and spring 2007 (Lunar I-DXA). Deficiency prevalence (25(OH)D<25 nmol/L) was reduced in women who went on holiday to sunny destinations 3 months prior to their visit, compared to women who did not go on holidays [5.4% vs. 24.6% in Spring (p<0.001) and 3.8% vs. 25.6% in Winter (p = 0.001), respectively]. Similarly deficiency was lower amongst those who took CLO supplements compared to women that did not consume these supplements [2.0% vs. 23.7% in Spring (p = 0.001) and 4.5% vs. 24.8% in winter (p = 0.005), respectively]. There was no seasonal variation in CTX; 25(OH)D predicted a small proportion (1.8% variation) of LS BMD in spring 2007 [unstandardized β (SE): 0.039 (0.016), p = 0.017]. Seasonal variation of 25(OH)D had little effect on BMD and no effect on CTX. It appears that small increments in vitamin D (e.g. those that can be achieved by cod liver oil supplements of 5 µg/day) are sufficient to ensure that 25(OH)D is above 25 nmol/L for most people throughout the year. Similarly, holidays in sunny destinations show benefit. PMID:23308207

  9. Seasonal variation in 25(OH)D at Aberdeen (57°N) and bone health indicators--could holidays in the sun and cod liver oil supplements alleviate deficiency?

    PubMed

    Mavroeidi, Alexandra; Aucott, Lorna; Black, Alison J; Fraser, William D; Reid, David M; Macdonald, Helen M

    2013-01-01

    Vitamin D has been linked with many health outcomes. The aim of this longitudinal study, was to assess predictors of seasonal variation of 25-hydroxy-vitamin D (25(OH)D) (including use of supplements and holidays in sunny destinations) at a northerly latitude in the UK (57°N) in relation to bone health indicators. 365 healthy postmenopausal women (mean age 62.0 y (SD 1.4)) had 25(OH)D measurements by immunoassay, serum C-telopeptide (CTX), estimates of sunlight exposure (badges of polysulphone film), information regarding holidays in sunny destinations, and diet (from food diaries, including use of supplements such as cod liver oil (CLO)) at fixed 3-monthly intervals over 15 months (subject retention 88%) with an additional 25(OH)D assessment in spring 2008. Bone mineral density (BMD) at the lumbar spine (LS) and dual hip was measured in autumn 2006 and spring 2007 (Lunar I-DXA). Deficiency prevalence (25(OH)D<25 nmol/L) was reduced in women who went on holiday to sunny destinations 3 months prior to their visit, compared to women who did not go on holidays [5.4% vs. 24.6% in Spring (p<0.001) and 3.8% vs. 25.6% in Winter (p = 0.001), respectively]. Similarly deficiency was lower amongst those who took CLO supplements compared to women that did not consume these supplements [2.0% vs. 23.7% in Spring (p = 0.001) and 4.5% vs. 24.8% in winter (p = 0.005), respectively]. There was no seasonal variation in CTX; 25(OH)D predicted a small proportion (1.8% variation) of LS BMD in spring 2007 [unstandardized β (SE): 0.039 (0.016), p = 0.017]. Seasonal variation of 25(OH)D had little effect on BMD and no effect on CTX. It appears that small increments in vitamin D (e.g. those that can be achieved by cod liver oil supplements of 5 µg/day) are sufficient to ensure that 25(OH)D is above 25 nmol/L for most people throughout the year. Similarly, holidays in sunny destinations show benefit. PMID:23308207

  10. Norwegian remote sensing spectrometry for mapping and monitoring of algal blooms and pollution - NORSMAP-89

    SciTech Connect

    Pettersson, L.H.; Johannessen, O.M.; Frette, O. )

    1990-01-09

    During the late spring of 1988 an extensive bloom of the toxic algae Chrysocromulina polylepis occurred in the Skagerrak region influencing most life in the upper 30 meter of the ocean. The algal front was advected northward with the Norwegian Coastal Current along the coast of southern Norway, where it became a severe threat to the Norwegian seafarming industry. An ad-hoc expert team was established to monitor and forecast the movement of the algae front. Remote sensing of sea surface temperature from the operational US NOAA satellites monitored the movement of the algal front, consistent with a warm ocean front. The lack of any optical remote sensing instrumentation was recognized as a major de-efficiency during this algal bloom. To prepare for similar events in the future Nansen Remote Sensing Center initiated a three week pilot study in the Oslofjord and Skagerrak region, during May 1989. The Canadian Compact Airborne Spectrographic Imager (CASI) was installed in the surveillance aircraft. Extensive in situ campaigns was also carried out by the Norwegian Institute for Water Research and Institute of Marine Research. A ship-borne non-imaging spectrometer was operated from the vessels participating in the field campaign. As a contribution from a joint campaign (EISAC '89) between the Joint Research Centre (JRC) of the European Community and the European Space Agency (ESA) both the Canadian Fluorescence Line Imager (FLI) and the US 64-channel GER scanner was operated simultaneously at the NORSMAP 89 test site. Regions of different biological and physical conditions were covered during the pilot study and preliminary analysis are obtained from oil slicks, suspended matter from river, as well as minor algal bloom. The joint analysis of the data collected during the NORSMAP 89 campaign and conclussions will be presented, as well as suggestions for future utilization of airborne spectroscopy systems for operational monitoring of algal bloom and water pollution.

  11. Fish oil supplementation of maternal rats on an n-3 fatty acid-deficient diet prevents depletion of maternal brain regional docosahexaenoic acid levels and has a postpartum anxiolytic effect.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hui-Feng; Su, Hui-Min

    2012-03-01

    Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and arachidonic acid (AA) are the major polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) in the neuronal membrane. Most DHA and AA accumulation in the brain occurs during the perinatal period via placenta and milk. This study examined whether maternal brain levels of DHA and AA are depleted during pregnancy and lactation due to meeting the high demand of the developing nervous system in the offspring and evaluated the effects of the reproductive cycle on serotonin metabolism and of fish oil (FO) on postpartum anxiety. Pregnant rats were fed during pregnancy and lactation with a sunflower oil-based n-3 PUFA-deficient diet without or with FO supplementation, which provided 0.37% of the energy source as n-3 PUFA, and the age-matched virgin rats were fed the same diets for 41 days. In both sets of postpartum rats, decreased DHA levels compared to those in virgin females were seen in the hypothalamus, hippocampus, frontal cortex, cerebellum, olfactory bulb and retina, while AA depletion was seen only in the hypothalamus, hippocampus and frontal cortex. Serotonin levels were decreased and turnover increased in the brainstem and frontal cortex in postpartum rats compared to virgin rats. FO supplementation during pregnancy and lactation prevented the decrease in maternal brain regional DHA levels, inhibited monoamine oxidase-A activity in the brainstem and decreased anxiety-like behavior. We propose that the reproductive cycle depletes maternal brain DHA levels and modulates maternal brain serotonin metabolism to cause postpartum anxiety and suggest that FO supplementation may be beneficial for postpartum anxiety in women on an n-3 PUFA-deficient diet. PMID:21543216

  12. In vivo Reconstitution of Algal Triacylglycerol Production in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Hung, Chun-Hsien; Kanehara, Kazue; Nakamura, Yuki

    2016-01-01

    The current fascination with algal biofuel production stems from a high lipid biosynthetic capacity and little conflict with land plant cultivation. However, the mechanisms which enable algae to accumulate massive oil remain elusive. An enzyme for triacylglycerol (TAG) biosynthesis in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, CrDGTT2, can produce a large amount of TAG when expressed in yeast or higher plants, suggesting a unique ability of CrDGTT2 to enhance oil production in a heterologous system. Here, we performed metabolic engineering in Saccharomyces cerevisiae by taking advantage of CrDGTT2. We suppressed membrane phospholipid biosynthesis at the log phase by mutating OPI3, enhanced TAG biosynthetic pathway at the stationary phase by overexpressing PAH1 and CrDGTT2, and suppressed TAG hydrolysis on growth resumption from the stationary phase by knocking out DGK1. The resulting engineered yeast cells accumulated about 70-fold of TAG compared with wild type cells. Moreover, TAG production was sustainable. Our results demonstrated the enhanced and sustainable TAG production in the yeast synthetic platform. PMID:26913021

  13. An Energy-limited Model of Algal Biofuels Production: Towards the Next Generation of Advanced Biofuels

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Dunlop, Eric

    2013-01-01

    Algal biofuels are increasingly important as a source of renewable energy. The absence of reliable thermodynamic and other property data, and the large amount of kinetic data that would normally be required have created a major barrier to simulation. Additionally, the absence of a generally accepted flowsheet for biofuel production means that detailed simulation of the wrong approach is a real possibility. This model of algal biofuel production estimates the necessary data and places it into a heuristic model using a commercial simulator that back-calculates the process structure required. Furthermore, complex kinetics can be obviated for now by putting themore » simulator into energy limitation and forcing it to solve for the missing design variables, such as bioreactor surface area, productivity, and oil content. The model does not attempt to prescribe a particular approach, but provides a guide towards a sound engineering approach to this challenging and important problem.« less

  14. An Energy-limited Model of Algal Biofuels Production: Towards the Next Generation of Advanced Biofuels

    SciTech Connect

    Dunlop, Eric

    2013-01-01

    Algal biofuels are increasingly important as a source of renewable energy. The absence of reliable thermodynamic and other property data, and the large amount of kinetic data that would normally be required have created a major barrier to simulation. Additionally, the absence of a generally accepted flowsheet for biofuel production means that detailed simulation of the wrong approach is a real possibility. This model of algal biofuel production estimates the necessary data and places it into a heuristic model using a commercial simulator that back-calculates the process structure required. Furthermore, complex kinetics can be obviated for now by putting the simulator into energy limitation and forcing it to solve for the missing design variables, such as bioreactor surface area, productivity, and oil content. The model does not attempt to prescribe a particular approach, but provides a guide towards a sound engineering approach to this challenging and important problem.

  15. Effects of calcium soap of rice bran oil fatty acids supplementation alone and with DL-α-tocopherol acetate in lamb diets on performance, digestibility, ruminal parameters and meat quality.

    PubMed

    Bhatt, R S; Sahoo, A; Karim, S A; Agrawal, A R

    2016-06-01

    Thirty-six Malpura lambs (28 day old and 6.7 ± 0.25 kg BW) were distributed equally in three groups having six males and six female. They were ad libitum fed individually three different experimental diets containing calcium soap of fatty acids (CA-FA) at 0 (T1 ) and 40 (T2 and T3 ) g/kg concentrate up to six months of age. Animals in T3 were supplemented additionally with 40 mg DL-α-tocopherol acetate/kg of concentrate. The roughage moiety included ad libitum dry Prosopis cineraria and fresh Azadirachata indica leaves. All the lambs were allowed to suckle from their dam up to weaning (90 day of age). Supplementation of Ca-FA improved weight gain and feed conversion ratio during both pre- (28-90 days) and post-weaning (91-180 days) phases; however, no effect of DL-α-tocopherol was observed. Metabolic parameters during post-weaning phase revealed non-significant effect on digestibility but improved nitrogen balance in the test groups. The effect on biochemical attributes did not show any significant alteration in ruminal parameters, blood biochemicals and urinary purine derivatives. Carcass traits revealed higher (p < 0.05) dressing yield and loin eye area with Ca-FA supplementation. The value of thiobarbituric reactive substances for nuggets prepared from frozen carcasses revealed significant (p < 0.05) reduction in T3 compared to the other dietary groups. Fatty acid profile of adipose tissue revealed higher (p < 0.001) 9-octadecanoic, 9-12-octadecadienoic, polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), higher ratio of PUFA/saturated fatty acids (SFA), ω-6/ω-3 and lower SFA in Ca-FA-supplemented groups. It is concluded that supplementation of 40 g/kg calcium soap prepared from industrial grade rice bran oil in lamb ration provided additional energy intake, improved N utilization, gain and feed conversion ratio besides improving dressing yield and meat quality with CLA enriched fatty acid profile. DL-α-tocopherol acetate when supplemented at 40

  16. Effects of dietary enrichment with a marine oil-based n-3 LCPUFA supplement in sows with predicted birth weight phenotypes on growth performance and carcass quality of offspring.

    PubMed

    Smit, M N; Spencer, J D; Patterson, J L; Dyck, M K; Dixon, W T; Foxcroft, G R

    2015-05-01

    Effects of a marine oil-based n-3 LCPUFA supplement (mLCPUFA) fed from weaning until the end of the next lactation to sows with a predicted low litter birth weight (LBW) phenotype on growth performance and carcass quality of litters born to these sows were studied, based on the hypothesis that LBW litters would benefit most from mLCPUFA supplementation. Sows were allocated to be fed either standard corn/soybean meal-based gestation and lactation diets (CON), or the same diets enriched with 0.5% of the mLCPUFA supplement at the expense of corn. The growth performance from birth until slaughter of the litters with the lowest average birth weight in each treatment (n=24 per treatment) is reported in this paper. At weaning, each litter was split between two nursery pens with three to six pigs per pen. At the end of the 5-week nursery period, two barrows and two gilts from each litter that had individual birth weights closest to their litter average birth weight, were moved to experimental grow-finish pens (barn A), where they were housed as two pigs per pen, sorted by sex within litter. Remaining pigs in each litter were moved to another grow-finish barn (barn B) and kept in mixed-sex pens of up to 10 littermates. After 8 weeks, one of the two pigs in each pen in barn A was relocated to the pens holding their respective littermates in barn B. The remaining barrows and gilts were individually housed in the pens in barn A until slaughter. Maternal mLCPUFA supplementation increased docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) concentration in the brain, liver and Semitendinosus muscle of stillborn pigs (P<0.01), did not affect eicosapentaenoic acid and DHA concentrations in sow serum at the end of lactation, and did not affect average daily gain, average daily feed intake or feed utilization efficiency of the offspring. BW was higher (P<0.01) in the second half of the grow-finish phase in pigs from mLCPUFA sows compared with controls in barn A, where space and competition for feed was

  17. Effect of algal extract on H2 production by a photosynthetic bacterium Rhodobium marinum A-501: analysis of stimulating effect using a kinetic model.

    PubMed

    Kawaguchi, Hideo; Nagase, Hiroyasu; Hashimoto, Kyoko; Kimata, Shiho; Doi, Mikio; Hirata, Kazumasa; Miyamoto, Kazuhisa

    2002-01-01

    We have established a system for hydrogen (H2) production from algal starch via lactic acid using a mixed culture of a lactic acid bacterium, Lactobacillus amylovorus, and a photosynthetic bacterium, Rhodobium marinum A-501. We found that the H2 production from lactate was stimulated in the presence of algal extract, which was obtained from algal biomass homogenate used as a substrate in the system by removing settleable solids including starch. To analyze the stimulating effect of algal extract on H2 production, we developed a kinetic model for H2 production by R. marinum A-501. The model revealed that approximately 20% of lactate was consumed for cell mass production, and the remaining portion was a source of reducing power to drive hydrogen production or other cellular processes. In the presence of algal extract, the model indicated that the conversion efficiency from lactate to the reducing power increased from 0.56 to 0.80 and nitrogenase activity increased up to twofold, resulting in the increase in yield of hydrogen from lactate from 29% to 48%. These results suggest that algal extract can attenuate the limitation process in lactate catabolism by which the supplementation of reducing power to drive H2 production was suppressed. PMID:16233271

  18. Dietary supplements.

    PubMed

    Maughan, Ron J; King, Doug S; Lea, Trevor

    2004-01-01

    For the athlete training hard, nutritional supplements are often seen as promoting adaptations to training, allowing more consistent and intensive training by promoting recovery between training sessions, reducing interruptions to training because of illness or injury, and enhancing competitive performance. Surveys show that the prevalence of supplement use is widespread among sportsmen and women, but the use of few of these products is supported by a sound research base and some may even be harmful to the athlete. Special sports foods, including energy bars and sports drinks, have a real role to play, and some protein supplements and meal replacements may also be useful in some circumstances. Where there is a demonstrated deficiency of an essential nutrient, an increased intake from food or from supplementation may help, but many athletes ignore the need for caution in supplement use and take supplements in doses that are not necessary or may even be harmful. Some supplements do offer the prospect of improved performance; these include creatine, caffeine, bicarbonate and, perhaps, a very few others. There is no evidence that prohormones such as androstenedione are effective in enhancing muscle mass or strength, and these prohormones may result in negative health consequences, as well as positive drug tests. Contamination of supplements that may cause an athlete to fail a doping test is widespread. PMID:14971436

  19. Control of algal production in a high rate algal pond: investigation through batch and continuous experiments.

    PubMed

    Derabe Maobe, H; Onodera, M; Takahashi, M; Satoh, H; Fukazawa, T

    2014-01-01

    For decades, arid and semi-arid regions in Africa have faced issues related to water availability for drinking, irrigation and livestock purposes. To tackle these issues, a laboratory scale greywater treatment system based on high rate algal pond (HRAP) technology was investigated in order to guide the operation of the pilot plant implemented in the 2iE campus in Ouagadougou (Burkina Faso). Because of the high suspended solids concentration generally found in effluents of this system, the aim of this study is to improve the performance of HRAPs in term of algal productivity and removal. To determine the selection mechanism of self-flocculated algae, three sets of sequencing batch reactors (SBRs) and three sets of continuous flow reactors (CFRs) were operated. Despite operation with the same solids retention time and the similarity of the algal growth rate found in these reactors, the algal productivity was higher in the SBRs owing to the short hydraulic retention time of 10 days in these reactors. By using a volume of CFR with twice the volume of our experimental CFRs, the algal concentration can be controlled during operation under similar physical conditions in both reactors. PMID:24960016

  20. Responses of Growth Performance and Proinflammatory Cytokines Expression to Fish Oil Supplementation in Lactation Sows' and/or Weaned Piglets' Diets

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Jie; Huang, Feiruo; Xiao, Chenglin; Fang, Zhengfeng; Peng, Jian; Jiang, Siwen

    2013-01-01

    The study was conducted to investigate whether dietary fish oil could influence growth of piglets via regulating the expression of proinflammatory cytokines. A split-plot experimental design was used with sow diet effect in the main plots and differing piglet diet effect in the subplot. The results showed that suckling piglets from fish oil fed dams grew rapidly (P < 0.05) than control. It was also observed that these piglets had higher ADG, feed intake, and final body weight (P < 0.05) during postweaning than those piglets from lard fed dams. Furthermore, there was a significant decrease (P < 0.01) in the expression of interleukin 6 and tumor necrosis factor-α in longissimus dorsi muscle. In contrast, there was a tendency (P < 0.10) towards lower ADG and higher feed : gain in weaned piglets receiving fish oil compared with those receiving lard. Meanwhile, splenic proinflammatory cytokines expression was increased (P < 0.01) in piglets receiving fish oil during postweaning period. The results suggested that 7% fish oil addition to sows' diets alleviated inflammatory response via decreasing the proinflammatory cytokines expression in skeletal muscle and accelerated piglet growth. However, 7% fish oil addition to weaned piglets' diets might decrease piglet growth via increasing splenic proinflammatory cytokines expression. PMID:24078926

  1. Algal taxonomy: a road to nowhere?

    PubMed

    De Clerck, Olivier; Guiry, Michael D; Leliaert, Frederik; Samyn, Yves; Verbruggen, Heroen

    2013-04-01

    The widespread view of taxonomy as an essentially retrogressive and outmoded science unable to cope with the current biodiversity crisis stimulated us to analyze the current status of cataloguing global algal diversity. Contrary to this largely pessimistic belief, species description rates of algae through time and trends in the number of active taxonomists, as revealed by the web resource AlgaeBase, show a much more positive picture. More species than ever before are being described by a large community of algal taxonomists. The lack of any decline in the rate at which new species and genera are described, however, is indicative of the large proportion of undiscovered diversity and bears heavily on any prediction of global algal species diversity and the time needed to catalogue it. The saturation of accumulation curves of higher taxa (family, order, and classes) on the other hand suggest that at these taxonomic levels most diversity has been discovered. This reasonably positive picture does not imply that algal taxonomy does not face serious challenges in the near future. The observed levels of cryptic diversity in algae, combined with the shift in methods used to characterize them, have resulted in a rampant uncertainty about the status of many older species. As a consequence, there is a tendency in phycology to move gradually away from traditional names to a more informal system whereby clade-, specimen- or strain-based identifiers are used to communicate biological information. Whether these informal names for species-level clades represent a temporary situation stimulated by the lag between species discovery and formal description, or an incipient alternative or parallel taxonomy, will be largely determined by how well we manage to integrate historical collections into modern taxonomic research. Additionally, there is a pressing need for a consensus about the organizational framework to manage the information about algal species names. An eventual strategy

  2. Hydrolysate of lipid extracted microalgal biomass residue: An algal growth promoter and enhancer.

    PubMed

    Maurya, Rahulkumar; Paliwal, Chetan; Chokshi, Kaumeel; Pancha, Imran; Ghosh, Tonmoy; Satpati, Gour Gopal; Pal, Ruma; Ghosh, Arup; Mishra, Sandhya

    2016-05-01

    The present study demonstrates the utilization of the algal hydrolysate (AH) prepared from lipid extracted residual harmful bloom-forming cyanobacteria Lyngbya majuscula biomass, as a growth supplement for the cultivation of green microalgae Chlorella vulgaris. BG-11 replacements with AH in different proportions significantly affects the cell count, dry cell weight (DCW), biomass productivity (BP) and pigments concentration. Among all, 25% AH substitution in BG11 media was found to be optimum which enhanced DCW, BP and pigments content by 39.13%, 40.81% and 129.47%, respectively, compared to control. The lipid content (31.95%) was also significantly higher in the 25% AH replacement. The volumetric productivity of neutral lipids (ideal for biodiesel) and total protein content of the cells significantly increased in all AH substitutions. Thus, lipid extracted microalgal biomass residue (LMBR) hydrolysate can be a potential growth stimulating supplement for oleaginous microalgae C. vulgaris. PMID:26890794

  3. Protective role of n6/n3 PUFA supplementation with varying DHA/EPA ratios against atherosclerosis in mice.

    PubMed

    Liu, Liang; Hu, Qinling; Wu, Huihui; Xue, Yihong; Cai, Liang; Fang, Min; Liu, Zhiguo; Yao, Ping; Wu, Yongning; Gong, Zhiyong

    2016-06-01

    The effects of n3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) on cardiovascular disease are controversial. We currently explored the effects of various ratios of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) on high-fat-induced atherosclerosis. In model apoE(-/-) mice, high-fat diets (HFD) were partially replaced with fish and algal oils (DHA/EPA 2:1, 1:1 and 1:2) and/or plant oils enriched in linoleic and alpha-linolenic acids with an n6/n3 ratio of 4:1. PUFA supplementation significantly reduced the atherosclerotic plaque area, serum lipid profile, inflammatory response, aortic ROS production, proinflammatory factors and scavenger receptor expression as compared to those in the HFD group. However, plant oils did not have a significant effect on the following: serum HDL-C level; aortic ABCA1, ABCG1 and LAL mRNA expression; and CD36 and LOX-1 protein expression. Compared to the plant-oil-treated group, the DHA/EPA 1:1 group had a smaller atherosclerotic plaque area, higher serum HDL-C levels and lesser CD36 and MSR-1 mRNA expression; the DHA/EPA 2:1 group had lower serum TC, LDL-C and TNF-α levels and lower aortic ROS levels. Our study suggested that n3 PUFA from animals had more potent atheroprotective effects than that from plants. Supplementation involving higher DHA/EPA ratios and an n6/n3 ratio of 4:1 was beneficial for reducing serum "bad cholesterol" and a 1:1 DHA/EPA ratio with an n6/n3 ratio of 4:1 was beneficial for improving serum "good cholesterol" and inhibiting ox-LDL uptake. Our results suggest that achieving an n6/n3 ratio of 4:1 in the diet is also important in addition to having an optimal DHA/EPA ratio. PMID:27142749

  4. Dietary Supplementation of Benzoic Acid and Essential Oil Compounds Affects Buffering Capacity of the Feeds, Performance of Turkey Poults and Their Antioxidant Status, pH in the Digestive Tract, Intestinal Microbiota and Morphology

    PubMed Central

    Giannenas, I.; Papaneophytou, C. P.; Tsalie, E.; Pappas, I.; Triantafillou, E.; Tontis, D.; Kontopidis, G. A.

    2014-01-01

    Three trials were conducted to evaluate the effect of supplementation of a basal diet with benzoic acid or thymol or a mixture of essential oil blends (MEO) or a combination of benzoic acid with MEO (BMEO) on growth performance of turkey poults. Control groups were fed a basal diet. In trial 1, benzoic acid was supplied at levels of 300 and 1,000 mg/kg. In trial 2, thymol or the MEO were supplied at levels of 30 mg/kg. In trial 3, the combination of benzoic acid with MEO was evaluated. Benzoic acid, MEO and BMEO improved performance, increased lactic acid bacteria populations and decreased coliform bacteria in the caeca. Thymol, MEO and BMEO improved antioxidant status of turkeys. Benzoic acid and BMEO reduced the buffering capacity compared to control feed and the pH values of the caecal content. Benzoic acid and EOs may be suggested as an effective alternative to AGP in turkeys. PMID:25049947

  5. 40 CFR 797.1050 - Algal acute toxicity test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... and sterilization. New test containers may contain substances which inhibit growth of algae. They.... (A) Formulation and sterilization of nutrient medium used for algal culture and preparation of...

  6. Optimizing algal cultivation & productivity : an innovative, multidiscipline, and multiscale approach.

    SciTech Connect

    Murton, Jaclyn K.; Hanson, David T.; Turner, Tom; Powell, Amy Jo; James, Scott Carlton; Timlin, Jerilyn Ann; Scholle, Steven; August, Andrew; Dwyer, Brian P.; Ruffing, Anne; Jones, Howland D. T.; Ricken, James Bryce; Reichardt, Thomas A.

    2010-04-01

    Progress in algal biofuels has been limited by significant knowledge gaps in algal biology, particularly as they relate to scale-up. To address this we are investigating how culture composition dynamics (light as well as biotic and abiotic stressors) describe key biochemical indicators of algal health: growth rate, photosynthetic electron transport, and lipid production. Our approach combines traditional algal physiology with genomics, bioanalytical spectroscopy, chemical imaging, remote sensing, and computational modeling to provide an improved fundamental understanding of algal cell biology across multiple cultures scales. This work spans investigations from the single-cell level to ensemble measurements of algal cell cultures at the laboratory benchtop to large greenhouse scale (175 gal). We will discuss the advantages of this novel, multidisciplinary strategy and emphasize the importance of developing an integrated toolkit to provide sensitive, selective methods for detecting early fluctuations in algal health, productivity, and population diversity. Progress in several areas will be summarized including identification of spectroscopic signatures for algal culture composition, stress level, and lipid production enabled by non-invasive spectroscopic monitoring of the photosynthetic and photoprotective pigments at the single-cell and bulk-culture scales. Early experiments compare and contrast the well-studied green algae chlamydomonas with two potential production strains of microalgae, nannochloropsis and dunnaliella, under optimal and stressed conditions. This integrated approach has the potential for broad impact on algal biofuels and bioenergy and several of these opportunities will be discussed.

  7. Calcium supplements

    MedlinePlus

    ... TYPES OF CALCIUM SUPPLEMENTS Forms of calcium include: Calcium carbonate: Over-the-counter (OTC) antacid products, such as Tums and Rolaids, contain calcium carbonate. These sources of calcium do not cost much. ...

  8. Dietary Supplements

    MedlinePlus

    ... are not intended to treat, diagnose, prevent, or cure diseases. Do not take supplements instead of your ... Partners Women's Health Topics Mammography Women and Diabetes HPV, HIV, Birth Control Heart Health for Women Pregnancy ...

  9. Nepali Supplements.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peace Corps, Washington, DC.

    This volume is intended as a supplement to Nepali language instruction. It contains songs, numerals, dialogues in Devanagari script, a Nepali-English, English-Nepali glossary, and an English-Nepali surveyor technical glossary. (AM)

  10. Dietary Supplements

    MedlinePlus

    ... take these supplements off the market. The Federal Trade Commission looks into reports of ads that might ... 504-5414 http://fnic.nal.usda.gov Federal Trade Commission 600 Pennsylvania Avenue, NW Washington, DC 20580 ...

  11. Fish oil supplementation associated with decreased cellular degeneration and increased cellular proliferation 6 weeks after middle cerebral artery occlusion in the rat.

    PubMed

    Pascoe, Michaela C; Howells, David W; Crewther, David P; Carey, Leeanne M; Crewther, Sheila G

    2015-01-01

    Anti-inflammatory long-chain omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3-LC-PUFAs) are both neuroprotective and have antidepressive effects. However the influence of dietary supplemented n-3-LC-PUFAs on inflammation-related cell death and proliferation after middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAo)-induced stroke is unknown. We have previously demonstrated that anxiety-like and hyperactive locomotor behaviors are reduced in n-3-LC-PUFA-fed MCAo animals. Thus in the present study, male hooded Wistar rats were exposed to MCAo or sham surgeries and examined behaviorally 6 weeks later, prior to euthanasia and examination of lesion size, cell death and proliferation in the dentate gyrus, cornu ammonis region of the hippocampus of the ipsilesional hemispheres, and the thalamus of the ipsilesional and contralesional hemispheres. Markers of cell genesis and cell degeneration in the hippocampus or thalamus of the ipsilesional hemisphere did not differ between surgery and diet groups 6 weeks post MCAo. Dietary supplementation with n-3-LC-PUFA decreased cell degeneration and increased cell proliferation in the thalamic region of the contralesional hemisphere. MCAo-associated cell degeneration in the hippocampus and thalamus positively correlated with anxiety-like and hyperactive locomotor behaviors previously reported in these animals. These results suggest that anti-inflammatory n-3-LC-PUFA supplementation appears to have cellular protective effects after MCAo in the rat, which may affect behavioral outcomes. PMID:25609971

  12. Fish oil supplementation associated with decreased cellular degeneration and increased cellular proliferation 6 weeks after middle cerebral artery occlusion in the rat

    PubMed Central

    Pascoe, Michaela C; Howells, David W; Crewther, David P; Carey, Leeanne M; Crewther, Sheila G

    2015-01-01

    Anti-inflammatory long-chain omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3-LC-PUFAs) are both neuroprotective and have antidepressive effects. However the influence of dietary supplemented n-3-LC-PUFAs on inflammation-related cell death and proliferation after middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAo)-induced stroke is unknown. We have previously demonstrated that anxiety-like and hyperactive locomotor behaviors are reduced in n-3-LC-PUFA-fed MCAo animals. Thus in the present study, male hooded Wistar rats were exposed to MCAo or sham surgeries and examined behaviorally 6 weeks later, prior to euthanasia and examination of lesion size, cell death and proliferation in the dentate gyrus, cornu ammonis region of the hippocampus of the ipsilesional hemispheres, and the thalamus of the ipsilesional and contralesional hemispheres. Markers of cell genesis and cell degeneration in the hippocampus or thalamus of the ipsilesional hemisphere did not differ between surgery and diet groups 6 weeks post MCAo. Dietary supplementation with n-3-LC-PUFA decreased cell degeneration and increased cell proliferation in the thalamic region of the contralesional hemisphere. MCAo–associated cell degeneration in the hippocampus and thalamus positively correlated with anxiety-like and hyperactive locomotor behaviors previously reported in these animals. These results suggest that anti-inflammatory n-3-LC-PUFA supplementation appears to have cellular protective effects after MCAo in the rat, which may affect behavioral outcomes. PMID:25609971

  13. Algal biomass conversion to bioethanol - a step-by-step assessment.

    PubMed

    Harun, Razif; Yip, Jason W S; Thiruvenkadam, Selvakumar; Ghani, Wan A W A K; Cherrington, Tamara; Danquah, Michael K

    2014-01-01

    The continuous growth in global population and the ongoing development of countries such as China and India have contributed to a rapid increase in worldwide energy demand. Fossil fuels such as oil and gas are finite resources, and their current rate of consumption cannot be sustained. This, coupled with fossil fuels' role as pollutants and their contribution to global warming, has led to increased interest in alternative sources of energy production. Bioethanol, presently produced from energy crops, is one such promising alternative future energy source and much research is underway in optimizing its production. The economic and temporal constraints that crop feedstocks pose are the main downfalls in terms of the commercial viability of bioethanol production. As an alternative to crop feedstocks, significant research efforts have been put into utilizing algal biomass as a feedstock for bioethanol production. Whilst the overall process can vary, the conversion of biomass to bioethanol usually contains the following steps: (i) pretreatment of feedstock; (ii) hydrolysis; and (iii) fermentation of bioethanol. This paper reviews different technologies utilized in the pretreatment and fermentation steps, and critically assesses their applicability to bioethanol production from algal biomass. Two different established fermentation routes, single-stage fermentation and two-stage gasification/fermentation processes, are discussed. The viability of algal biomass as an alternative feedstock has been assessed adequately, and further research optimisation must be guided toward the development of cost-effective scalable methods to produce high bioethanol yield under optimum economy. PMID:24227697

  14. Algal Attributes: An Autecological Classification of Algal Taxa Collected by the National Water-Quality Assessment Program

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Porter, Stephen D.

    2008-01-01

    Algae are excellent indicators of water-quality conditions, notably nutrient and organic enrichment, and also are indicators of major ion, dissolved oxygen, and pH concentrations and stream microhabitat conditions. The autecology, or physiological optima and tolerance, of algal species for various water-quality contaminants and conditions is relatively well understood for certain groups of freshwater algae, notably diatoms. However, applications of autecological information for water-quality assessments have been limited because of challenges associated with compiling autecological literature from disparate sources, tracking name changes for a large number of algal species, and creating an autecological data base from which algal-indicator metrics can be calculated. A comprehensive summary of algal autecological attributes for North American streams and rivers does not exist. This report describes a large, digital data file containing 28,182 records for 5,939 algal taxa, generally species or variety, collected by the U.S. Geological Survey?s National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Program. The data file includes 37 algal attributes classified by over 100 algal-indicator codes or metrics that can be calculated easily with readily available software. Algal attributes include qualitative classifications based on European and North American autecological literature, and semi-quantitative, weighted-average regression approaches for estimating optima using regional and national NAWQA data. Applications of algal metrics in water-quality assessments are discussed and national quartile distributions of metric scores are shown for selected indicator metrics.

  15. Plasma and hepatic cholesterol-lowering in hamsters by tomato pomace, tomato seed oil and defatted tomato seed supplemented in high fat diets

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We determined the cholesterol-lowering effects of tomato pomace (TP), a byproduct of tomato processing, and its components such as tomato seed oil (TSO) and defatted tomato seed (DTS) in hamsters, a widely used animal model for cholesterol metabolism. Male Syrian Golden hamsters were fed high-fat di...

  16. US Department of Energy Naval Petroleum and Oil Shale Reserves combined financial statements and management overview and supplemental financial and management information, September 30, 1995 and 1994

    SciTech Connect

    1996-02-15

    This report presents the results of the independent certified public accountant`s audit of the Department of Energy`s (Department) Naval Petroleum and Oil Shale Reserves (NPOSR) financial statements as of September 30, 1995. The auditors have expressed an unqualified opinion on the 1995 statements. Their reports on the NPOSR internal control structure and compliance with laws and regulations are also provided.

  17. Addressing the challenges for sustainable production of algal biofuels: I. Algal strains and nutrient supply.

    PubMed

    Abdelaziz, Ahmed E M; Leite, Gustavo B; Hallenbeck, Patrick C

    2013-01-01

    Microalgae hold promise for the production of sustainable replacement of fossil fuels due to their high growth rates, ability to grow on non-arable land and their high content, under the proper conditions, of high energy compounds that can be relatively easily chemically converted to fuels using existing technology. However, projected large-scale algal production raises a number of sustainability concerns concerning land use, net energy return, water use and nutrient supply. The state-of-the-art of algal production of biofuels is presented with emphasis on some possible avenues to provide answers to the sustainability questions that have been raised. Here, issues concerning algal strains and supply of nutrients for large-scale production are discussed. Since sustainability concerns necessitate the use of wastewaters for supply of bulk nutrients, emphasis is placed on the composition and suitability of different wastewater streams. At the same time, algal cultivation has proven useful in waste treatment processes, and thus this aspect is also treated in some detail. PMID:24350435

  18. 30 CFR 256.12 - Supplemental sales.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Supplemental sales. 256.12 Section 256.12 Mineral Resources MINERALS MANAGEMENT SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE LEASING OF SULPHUR OR OIL AND GAS IN THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF Outer Continental Shelf Oil, Gas, and Sulphur...

  19. Accelerating Commercialization of Algal Biofuels Through Partnerships (Brochure)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2011-10-01

    This brochure describes National Renewable Energy Laboratory's (NREL's) algal biofuels research capabilities and partnership opportunities. NREL is accelerating algal biofuels commercialization through: (1) Advances in applied biology; (2) Algal strain development; (3) Development of fuel conversion pathways; (4) Techno-economic analysis; and (5) Development of high-throughput lipid analysis methodologies. NREL scientists and engineers are addressing challenges across the algal biofuels value chain, including algal biology, cultivation, harvesting and extraction, and fuel conversion. Through partnerships, NREL can share knowledge and capabilities in the following areas: (1) Algal Biology - A fundamental understanding of algal biology is key to developing cost-effective algal biofuels processes. NREL scientists are experts in the isolation and characterization of microalgal species. They are identifying genes and pathways involved in biofuel production. In addition, they have developed a high-throughput, non-destructive technique for assessing lipid production in microalgae. (2) Cultivation - NREL researchers study algal growth capabilities and perform compositional analysis of algal biomass. Laboratory-scale photobioreactors and 1-m2 open raceway ponds in an on-site greenhouse allow for year-round cultivation of algae under a variety of conditions. A bioenergy-focused algal strain collection is being established at NREL, and our laboratory houses a cryopreservation system for long-term maintenance of algal cultures and preservation of intellectual property. (3) Harvesting and Extraction - NREL is investigating cost-effective harvesting and extraction methods suitable for a variety of species and conditions. Areas of expertise include cell wall analysis and deconstruction and identification and utilization of co-products. (4) Fuel Conversion - NREL's excellent capabilities and facilities for biochemical and thermochemical conversion of biomass to biofuels are being

  20. Strategies for optimizing algal biology for enhanced biomass production

    SciTech Connect

    Barry, Amanda N.; Starkenburg, Shawn R.; Sayre, Richard T.

    2015-02-02

    One of the most environmentally sustainable ways to produce high-energy density (oils) feed stocks for the production of liquid transportation fuels is from biomass. Photosynthetic carbon capture combined with biomass combustion (point source) and subsequent carbon capture and sequestration has also been proposed in the intergovernmental panel on climate change report as one of the most effective and economical strategies to remediate atmospheric greenhouse gases. To maximize photosynthetic carbon capture efficiency and energy-return-on-investment, we must develop biomass production systems that achieve the greatest yields with the lowest inputs. Numerous studies have demonstrated that microalgae have among the greatest potentials for biomass production. This is in part due to the fact that all alga cells are photoautotrophic, they have active carbon concentrating mechanisms to increase photosynthetic productivity, and all the biomass is harvestable unlike plants. All photosynthetic organisms, however, convert only a fraction of the solar energy they capture into chemical energy (reduced carbon or biomass). To increase aerial carbon capture rates and biomass productivity, it will be necessary to identify the most robust algal strains and increase their biomass production efficiency often by genetic manipulation. We review recent large-scale efforts to identify the best biomass producing strains and metabolic engineering strategies to improve aerial productivity. In addition, these strategies include optimization of photosynthetic light-harvesting antenna size to increase energy capture and conversion efficiency and the potential development of advanced molecular breeding techniques. To date, these strategies have resulted in up to twofold increases in biomass productivity.

  1. One-generation reproductive toxicity study of DHA-rich oil in rats.

    PubMed

    Blum, René; Kiy, Thomas; Waalkens-Berendsen, Ine; Wong, Andrea W; Roberts, Ashley

    2007-12-01

    Polyunsaturated fatty acids, including docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), are natural constituents of the human diet. DHA-algal oil is produced through the use of the marine protist, Ulkenia sp. The reproductive toxicity of DHA-algal oil was assessed in a one-generation study. Rats were provided diets containing DHA-algal oil at concentrations of 1.5, 3.0, or 7.5%, and the control group received a diet containing 7.5% corn oil. Males and females were treated for 10 weeks prior to mating and during mating. Females continued to receive test diets during gestation and lactation. In parental animals, clinical observations, mortality, fertility, and reproductive performance were unaffected by treatment. Differences in food consumption, body weight, and liver weight in the treated groups were not considered to be due to an adverse effect of DHA-algal oil. Spleen weight increases in treated animals were associated with extramedullary hematopoiesis. Yellow discoloration of abdominal adipose tissue was observed in rats from the high-dose group, and histological examination revealed steatitis in all treated parental groups. Exposure to DHA-algal oil did not influence the physical development of F(1) animals. These results demonstrate that DHA-algal oil at dietary concentrations of up to 7.5% in rats does not affect reproductive capacity or pup development. PMID:17976878

  2. 40 CFR 797.1050 - Algal acute toxicity test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Algal acute toxicity test. 797.1050 Section 797.1050 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT (CONTINUED) ENVIRONMENTAL EFFECTS TESTING GUIDELINES Aquatic Guidelines § 797.1050 Algal acute toxicity test. (a) Purpose. The...

  3. What is causing the harmful algal blooms in Lake Erie?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Harmful and nuisance algal blooms have been increasing in size and extent since about 2000. In recent years, the release of the algal toxin microcystin has become a growing concern and has resulted in the inability to use water from Lake Erie as a drinking water source to the 400,000 residents of T...

  4. COMPARISON OF LARGE RIVER SAMPLING METHODS ON ALGAL METRICS

    EPA Science Inventory

    We compared the results of four methods used to assess the algal communities at 60 sites distributed among four rivers. Based on Principle Component Analysis of physical habitat data collected concomitantly with the algal data, sites were separated into those with a mean thalweg...

  5. Algal Lipid Extraction and Upgrading to Hydrocarbons Technology Pathway

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, R.; Biddy, M.; Jones, S.

    2013-03-01

    This technology pathway case investigates the cultivation of algal biomass followed by further lipid extraction and upgrading to hydrocarbon biofuels. Technical barriers and key research needs have been assessed in order for the algal lipid extraction and upgrading pathway to be competitive with petroleum-derived gasoline-, diesel-, and jet-range hydrocarbon blendstocks.

  6. EFFECTS OF MARINE ALGAL TOXINS ON THERMOREGULATION IN MICE.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Hypothermia is often seen in mice and rats exposed acutely to marine algal toxins, but the mechanism of action of these toxins on thermoregulation is not well understood. Our laboratory has assessed the thermoregulatory mechanisms of two marine algal toxins, maitotoxin and brevet...

  7. Near- and mid-infrared spectroscopic determination of algal composition

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this study was to investigate the feasibility of using near-infrared reflectance spectroscopy (NIRS) and mid-infrared reflectance spectroscopy (MIRS) to determine the composition of algal samples. We assayed a set of algal biomass samples (n=117), collected from algae turf scrubber...

  8. Method and system of culturing an algal mat

    SciTech Connect

    Das, Keshav C; Cannon, Benjamin R; Bhatnagar, Ashish; Chinnasamy, Senthil

    2014-05-13

    A system and method for culturing algae are presented. The system and method utilize a fog of growth medium that is delivered to an algal mat generator along with a stream of CO.sub.2 to promote growth of algal cells contained in the generator.

  9. Luminescent Solar Concentrators in the Algal Industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hellier, Katie; Corrado, Carley; Carter, Sue; Detweiler, Angela; Bebout, Leslie

    2013-03-01

    Today's industry for renewable energy sources and highly efficient energy management systems is rapidly increasing. Development of increased efficiency Luminescent Solar Concentrators (LSCs) has brought about new applications for commercial interests, including greenhouses for agricultural crops. This project is taking first steps to explore the potential of LSCs to enhance production and reduce costs for algae and cyanobacteria used in biofuels and nutraceuticals. This pilot phase uses LSC filtered light for algal growth trials in greenhouses and laboratory experiments, creating specific wavelength combinations to determine effects of discrete solar light regimes on algal growth and the reduction of heating and water loss in the system. Enhancing the optimal spectra for specific algae will not only increase production, but has the potential to lessen contamination of large scale production due to competition from other algae and bacteria. Providing LSC filtered light will reduce evaporation and heating in regions with limited water supply, while the increased energy output from photovoltaic cells will reduce costs of heating and mixing cultures, thus creating a more efficient and cost effective production system.

  10. Mechanical algal disruption for efficient biodiesel extraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krehbiel, Joel David

    Biodiesel from algae provides several benefits over current biodiesel feedstocks, but the energy requirements of processing algae into a useable fuel are currently so high as to be prohibitive. One route to improving this is via disruption of the cells prior to lipid extraction, which can significantly increase energy recovery. Unfortunately, several obvious disruption techniques require more energy than can be gained. This dissertation examines the use of microbubbles to improve mechanical disruption of algal cells using experimental, theoretical, and computational methods. New laboratory experiments show that effective ultrasonic disruption of algae is achieved by adding microbubbles to an algal solution. The configuration studied flows the solution through a tube and insonifies a small section with a high-pressure ultrasound wave. Previous biomedical research has shown effective cell membrane damage on animal cells with similar methods, but the present research is the first to extend such study to algal cells. Results indicate that disruption increases with peak negative pressure between 1.90 and 3.07 MPa and with microbubble concentration up to 12.5 x 107 bubbles/ml. Energy estimates of this process suggest that it requires only one-fourth the currently most-efficient laboratory-scale disruption process. Estimates of the radius near each bubble that causes disruption (i.e. the disruption radius) suggest that it increases with peak negative pressure and is near 9--20 microm for all cases tested. It is anticipated that these procedures can be designed for better efficiency and efficacy, which will be facilitated by identifying the root mechanisms of the bubble-induced disruption. We therefore examine whether bubble expansion alone creates sufficient cell deformation for cell rupture. The spherically-symmetric Marmottant model for bubble dynamics allows estimation of the flow regime under experimental conditions. Bubble expansion is modeled as a point source of

  11. Effects of dietary supplementation of coriander oil, in canola oil diets, on the metabolism of [1-(14)C] 18:3n-3 and [1-(14)C] 18:2n-6 in rainbow trout hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Randall, K M; Drew, M D; Øverland, M; Østbye, T-K; Bjerke, M; Vogt, G; Ruyter, B

    2013-09-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of petroselinic acid, found in coriander oil, on the ability of rainbow trout hepatocytes to increase the production of eicosapentaenoic acid (20:5n-3; EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (22:6n-3; DHA) from [1-(14)C] α-linolenic acid (18:3n-3; ALA) and to reduce the production of arachidonic acid (20:4n-6; ARA) from [1-(14)C] 18:2n-6. Addition of coriander oil increased the production of 22:6n-3, from [1-(14)C] 18:3n-3, at the 0.5 and 1.0% inclusion levels and reduced the conversion of [1-(14)C] 18:2n-6 to 20:4n-6. β-Oxidation was significantly increased at the 1.5% inclusion level for [1-(14)C] 18:2n-6, however β-oxidation for [1-(14)C] 18:3n-3 only showed an increasing trend. Acetate, a main breakdown product of fatty acids (FA) via peroxisomal β-oxidation, decreased three-fold for [1-(14)C] 18:2n-6 and nearly doubled for [1-(14)C] 18:3n-3 when coriander was added at a 1.5% inclusion level. Acyl coenzyme A oxidase (ACO) enzyme activity showed no significant differences between treatments. Relative gene expression of ∆6 desaturase decreased with addition of coriander oil compared to the control. The addition of petroselinic acid via coriander oil to vegetable oil (VO) based diets containing no fishmeal (FM) or fish oil (FO), significantly increased the production of anti-inflammatory precursor 22:6n-3 (P=0.011) and decreased pro-inflammatory precursor 20:4n-6 (P=0.023) in radiolabelled hepatocytes of rainbow trout. PMID:23867781

  12. Naval Petroleum and Oil Shale Reserves Combined Financial Statements September 30, 1994 and 1993 and Management Overview and Supplemental Financial and Management Information

    SciTech Connect

    1994-12-31

    This report presents the results of the independent certified public accountant`s audit of the Department of Energy`s (Department) Naval Petroleum and Oil Shale Reserves (NPOSR) financial statements as of September 30, 1994. The auditors have expressed an unqualified opinion on the 1994 statements. Their reports on the NPOSR internal control structure and on compliance with laws and regulations, and management letter on addressing needed improvements are also provided. NPOSR consists of petroleum reserves in California and Wyoming, and oil shale reserves in Colorado and Utah. The Government`s interests in NPOSR are managed by the Department through its headquarters office in Washington, D.C. In addition, the Department has site offices in both California and Wyoming that are responsible for contractor oversight functions. Daily operations are conducted under contract by two management and operating contractors. By law, NPOSR was authorized to produce crude oil at the maximum efficient rate for six years. The law allowed production to be extended for three year periods, provided that the President of the United States certified that continued maximum production was in the best interest of the nation. The current three year period ends on April 5, 1997. Additional information about NPOSR is provided in the overview and notes to the financial statements.

  13. Mechanical algal disruption for efficient biodiesel extraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krehbiel, Joel David

    Biodiesel from algae provides several benefits over current biodiesel feedstocks, but the energy requirements of processing algae into a useable fuel are currently so high as to be prohibitive. One route to improving this is via disruption of the cells prior to lipid extraction, which can significantly increase energy recovery. Unfortunately, several obvious disruption techniques require more energy than can be gained. This dissertation examines the use of microbubbles to improve mechanical disruption of algal cells using experimental, theoretical, and computational methods. New laboratory experiments show that effective ultrasonic disruption of algae is achieved by adding microbubbles to an algal solution. The configuration studied flows the solution through a tube and insonifies a small section with a high-pressure ultrasound wave. Previous biomedical research has shown effective cell membrane damage on animal cells with similar methods, but the present research is the first to extend such study to algal cells. Results indicate that disruption increases with peak negative pressure between 1.90 and 3.07 MPa and with microbubble concentration up to 12.5 x 107 bubbles/ml. Energy estimates of this process suggest that it requires only one-fourth the currently most-efficient laboratory-scale disruption process. Estimates of the radius near each bubble that causes disruption (i.e. the disruption radius) suggest that it increases with peak negative pressure and is near 9--20 microm for all cases tested. It is anticipated that these procedures can be designed for better efficiency and efficacy, which will be facilitated by identifying the root mechanisms of the bubble-induced disruption. We therefore examine whether bubble expansion alone creates sufficient cell deformation for cell rupture. The spherically-symmetric Marmottant model for bubble dynamics allows estimation of the flow regime under experimental conditions. Bubble expansion is modeled as a point source of

  14. Evaluation of anticoagulant activity of two algal polysaccharides.

    PubMed

    Faggio, C; Pagano, M; Dottore, A; Genovese, G; Morabito, M

    2016-09-01

    Marine algae are important sources of phycocolloids like agar, carrageenans and alginates used in industrial applications. Algal polysaccharides have emerged as an important class of bioactive products showing interesting properties. The aim of our study was to evaluate the potential uses as anticoagulant drugs of algal sulphate polysaccharides extracted from Ulva fasciata (Chlorophyta) and Agardhiella subulata (Rhodophyta) collected in Ganzirri Lake (Cape Peloro Lagoon, north-eastern Sicily, Italy). Toxicity of algal extracts through trypan blue test and anticoagulant action measured by activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT), prothrombin time (PT) test has been evaluated. Algal extracts showed to prolong the PT and APTT during the coagulation cascade and to avoid the blood coagulation of samples. Furthermore, the algal extracts lack toxic effects towards cellular metabolism and their productions are relatively at low cost. This permits to consider the algae as the biological source of the future. PMID:26360806

  15. Uniform algal growth in photobioreactors using surface scatterers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahsan, Syed S.; Pereyra, Brandon; Erickson, David

    2014-03-01

    Cultures of algae, such as cyanobacteria, are a promising source of renewable energy. However, algal growth is highly dependent on light intensity and standard photobioreactors do a poor job of distributing light uniformly for algal utilization due to shading effects in dense algal cultures. Engineered scattering schemes are already employed in current slab-waveguide technologies, like edge-lit LEDs. Stacking such slab-waveguides that uniformly distribute light could potentially yield photobioreactors to overcome the shading effect and grow extremely high densities of algal cultures that would lower monetary and energetic costs. Here, we characterize and design a scattering scheme for specific application within photobioreactors which employs a gradient distribution of surface scatterers with uniform lateral scattering intensity. This uniform scattering scheme is shown to be superior for algal cultivation.

  16. ALGAL NUTRIENT AVAILABILITY AND LIMITATION IN LAKE ONTARIO DURING IFYGL. PART III. ALGAL NUTRIENT LIMITATION IN LAKE ONTARIO DURING IFYGL

    EPA Science Inventory

    This study was conducted on the potential significance of nitrogen, phosphorus and micronutrients in limiting planktonic algal growth in Lake Ontario and its major tributaries. Standard algal assay procedures were used. Samples of the open waters of Lake Ontario and Niagara River...

  17. Glutamine supplementation.

    PubMed

    Wernerman, Jan

    2011-01-01

    Intravenous glutamine supplementation is standard care when parenteral nutrition is given for critical illness. There are data of a reduced mortality when glutamine supplementation is given. In addition, standard commercial products for parenteral nutrition do not contain any glutamine due to glutamine instability in aqueous solutions. For the majority of critical ill patients who are fed enterally, the available evidence is insufficient to recommend glutamine supplementation. Standard formulation of enteral nutrition contains some glutamine: 2-4 g/L. However, this dose is insufficient to normalize glutamine plasma concentration.Plasma concentration of glutamine is low in many patients with critical illness and a low level is an independent risk factor for mortality. A low plasma glutamine concentration is the best indicator of glutamine depletion. Data are emerging about how the endogenous production of glutamine is regulated. We know that skeletal muscle is the major producer of glutamine and that a part of the profound depletion of skeletal muscle seen in critical illness is a reflection of the need to produce glutamine.Glutamine is utilized in rapidly dividing cells in the splanchnic area. Quantitatively most glutamine is oxidized, but the availability of glutamine in surplus is important for the de novo synthesis of nucleotides and necessary for cell division and protein synthesis. More knowledge about the regulation of the endogenous production of glutamine is needed to outline better guidelines for glutamine supplementation in the future. PMID:21906372

  18. Sports Supplements

    MedlinePlus

    ... specialist. The doc will be able to offer alternatives to supplements based on your body and sport. Reviewed by: Mary L. Gavin, MD Date reviewed: January 2015 previous 1 • 2 • 3 For Teens For Kids For Parents MORE ON THIS TOPIC Sports Center Energy Drinks and Food Bars: Power or Hype? A ...

  19. Calcium supplements

    MedlinePlus

    ... SHOULD TAKE CALCIUM SUPPLEMENTS? Calcium is an important mineral for the human body. It helps build and protect your teeth ... absorb calcium. You can get vitamin D from sunlight exposure to your skin and from your diet. Ask your provider whether ...

  20. Genome-wide identification of mononuclear cell DNA methylation sites potentially affected by fish oil supplementation in young infants: A pilot study.

    PubMed

    Lind, M V; Martino, D; Harsløf, L B S; Kyjovska, Z O; Kristensen, M; Lauritzen, L

    2015-10-01

    Recent evidence suggests that the effects of n-3LCPUFA might be mediated through epigenetic mechanisms, especially DNA-methylation, during pregnancy and early life. A randomized trial was conducted in 133 9-mo-old, infants who received 3.8g/day of fish oil (FO) or sunflower oil (SO) for 9 mo. In a subset of 12 children, buffy-coat DNA was extracted before and after intervention and analyzed on Illumina-Human-Methylation 450-arrays to explore genome-wide differences between the FO and SO groups. Genome-wide-methylation analysis did not reveal significant differences between groups after adjustment for multiple testing. However, analysis of the top-ranked CpG-sites revealed 43 CpG׳s that appear modified with an absolute difference in methylation of ≥10%. Methylation levels at these sites were associated with phenotypic changes mainly in blood pressure. In conclusion, our analyses suggest potential epigenome effects that might be associated with functional outcomes, yet the effect sizes were small and should be verified by additional investigation. PMID:26254087

  1. A krill oil supplemented diet reduces the activities of the mitochondrial tricarboxylate carrier and of the cytosolic lipogenic enzymes in rats.

    PubMed

    Ferramosca, A; Conte, L; Zara, V

    2012-04-01

    The mitochondrial tricarboxylate carrier supplies cytosol with the carbon units necessary for hepatic lipogenesis. The activities of cytosolic acetyl-CoA carboxylase and fatty acid synthetase are therefore strictly connected to the function of mitochondrial tricarboxylate carrier. Dietary polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) are potent modulators of hepatic lipogenesis. In rats fed with a diet enriched with 2.5% krill oil (KO), a novel source of dietary n-3 PUFA, a time-dependent decrease in the activities of the mitochondrial tricarboxylate carrier and of the lipogenic enzymes was found. The KO induced inhibition of hepatic lipogenesis was more pronounced than that found in fish oil (FO)-fed rats, at least at short feeding times. The decrease in the activity of the mitochondrial tricarboxylate carrier caused by KO was due to a reduced expression of the protein. Furthermore, in the KO-fed animals a greater reduction in the levels of hepatic triglycerides and cholesterol was found in comparison to FO-fed rats. PMID:21429045

  2. Algal productivity modeling: a step toward accurate assessments of full-scale algal cultivation.

    PubMed

    Béchet, Quentin; Chambonnière, Paul; Shilton, Andy; Guizard, Guillaume; Guieysse, Benoit

    2015-05-01

    A new biomass productivity model was parameterized for Chlorella vulgaris using short-term (<30 min) oxygen productivities from algal microcosms exposed to 6 light intensities (20-420 W/m(2)) and 6 temperatures (5-42 °C). The model was then validated against experimental biomass productivities recorded in bench-scale photobioreactors operated under 4 light intensities (30.6-74.3 W/m(2)) and 4 temperatures (10-30 °C), yielding an accuracy of ± 15% over 163 days of cultivation. This modeling approach addresses major challenges associated with the accurate prediction of algal productivity at full-scale. Firstly, while most prior modeling approaches have only considered the impact of light intensity on algal productivity, the model herein validated also accounts for the critical impact of temperature. Secondly, this study validates a theoretical approach to convert short-term oxygen productivities into long-term biomass productivities. Thirdly, the experimental methodology used has the practical advantage of only requiring one day of experimental work for complete model parameterization. The validation of this new modeling approach is therefore an important step for refining feasibility assessments of algae biotechnologies. PMID:25502920

  3. Harmful Algal Blooms and Public Health

    PubMed Central

    Grattan, Lynn M.; Holobaugh, Sailor; Morris, J. Glenn

    2015-01-01

    The five most commonly recognized Harmful Algal Bloom related illnesses include Ciguatera poisoning, Paralytic Shellfish poisoning, Neurotoxin Shellfish poisoning, Diarrheic Shellfish Poisoning and Amnesic Shellfish poisoning. Although they are each the product of different toxins, toxin assemblages or HAB precursors these clinical syndromes have much in common. Exposure occurs through the consumption of fish or shellfish; routine clinical tests are not available for diagnosis; there is no known antidote for exposure; and the risk of these illnesses can negatively impact local fishing and tourism industries. Thus, illness prevention is of paramount importance to minimize human and public health risks. To accomplish this, close communication and collaboration is needed among HAB scientists, public health researchers and local, state and tribal health departments at academic, community outreach, and policy levels. PMID:27616971

  4. Extreme Algal Bloom Detection with MERIS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amin, R.; Gilerson, A.; Gould, R.; Arnone, R.; Ahmed, S.

    2009-05-01

    Harmful Algal Blooms (HAB's) are a major concern all over the world due to their negative impacts on the marine environment, human health, and the economy. Their detection from space still remains a challenge particularly in turbid coastal waters. In this study we propose a simple reflectance band difference approach for use with Medium Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MERIS) data to detect intense plankton blooms. For convenience we label this approach as the Extreme Bloom Index (EBI) which is defined as EBI = Rrs (709) - Rrs (665). Our initial analysis shows that this band difference approach has some advantages over the band ratio approaches, particularly in reducing errors due to imperfect atmospheric corrections. We also do a comparison between the proposed EBI technique and the Maximum Chlorophyll Index (MCI) Gower technique. Our preliminary result shows that both the EBI and MCI indeces detect intense plankton blooms, however, MCI is more vulnerable in highly scattering waters, giving more positive false alarms than EBI.

  5. Stability of alginate-immobilized algal cells

    SciTech Connect

    Dainty, A.L.; Goulding, K.H.; Robinson, P.K.; Simpkins, I; Trevan, M.D.

    1986-01-01

    Investigations were carried out using immobilized Chlorella cells to determine the diameter, compressibility, tolerance to phosphate chelation, and ability to retain algal cells during incubation of various alginate beads. These physical bead-characteristics were affected by a variety of interactive factors, including multivalent cation type (hardening agent) and cell, cation, and alginate concentration, the latter exhibiting a predominant influence. The susceptibility of alginate beads to phosphate chelation involved a complex interaction of cation type, concentration, and pH of phosphate solution. A scale of response ranging from gel swelling to gel shrinking was observed for a range of conditions. However, stable Ca alginate beads were maintained in incubation media with a pH of 5.5 and a phosphate concentration of 5 micro M. A preliminary investigation into cell leakage from the beads illustrated the importance of maintaining a stable gel structure and limiting cell growth to reduce leakage.

  6. 14 CFR 121.239 - Oil valves.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Oil valves. 121.239 Section 121.239..., FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Special Airworthiness Requirements § 121.239 Oil valves. (a) Each oil... oil shutoff means must not prevent feathering the propeller, unless equivalent safety provisions...

  7. 14 CFR 121.239 - Oil valves.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Oil valves. 121.239 Section 121.239..., FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Special Airworthiness Requirements § 121.239 Oil valves. (a) Each oil... oil shutoff means must not prevent feathering the propeller, unless equivalent safety provisions...

  8. 14 CFR 121.239 - Oil valves.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Oil valves. 121.239 Section 121.239..., FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Special Airworthiness Requirements § 121.239 Oil valves. (a) Each oil... oil shutoff means must not prevent feathering the propeller, unless equivalent safety provisions...

  9. 14 CFR 121.239 - Oil valves.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Oil valves. 121.239 Section 121.239..., FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Special Airworthiness Requirements § 121.239 Oil valves. (a) Each oil... oil shutoff means must not prevent feathering the propeller, unless equivalent safety provisions...

  10. 14 CFR 121.239 - Oil valves.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Oil valves. 121.239 Section 121.239..., FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Special Airworthiness Requirements § 121.239 Oil valves. (a) Each oil... oil shutoff means must not prevent feathering the propeller, unless equivalent safety provisions...

  11. Using wastewater and high-rate algal ponds for nutrient removal and the production of bioenergy and biofuels.

    PubMed

    Batten, David; Beer, Tom; Freischmidt, George; Grant, Tim; Liffman, Kurt; Paterson, David; Priestley, Tony; Rye, Lucas; Threlfall, Greg

    2013-01-01

    This paper projects a positive outcome for large-scale algal biofuel and energy production when wastewater treatment is the primary goal. Such a view arises partly from a recent change in emphasis in wastewater treatment technology, from simply oxidising the organic matter in the waste (i.e. removing the biological oxygen demand) to removing the nutrients - specifically nitrogen and phosphorus - which are the root cause of eutrophication of inland waterways and coastal zones. A growing need for nutrient removal greatly improves the prospects for using new algal ponds in wastewater treatment, since microalgae are particularly efficient in capturing and removing such nutrients. Using a spreadsheet model, four scenarios combining algae biomass production with the making of biodiesel, biogas and other products were assessed for two of Australia's largest wastewater treatment plants. The results showed that super critical water reactors and anaerobic digesters could be attractive pathway options, the latter providing significant savings in greenhouse gas emissions. Combining anaerobic digestion with oil extraction and the internal economies derived from cheap land and recycling of water and nutrients on-site could allow algal oil to be produced for less than US$1 per litre. PMID:23306273

  12. Effects of dietary enrichment with a marine oil-based n-3 LCPUFA supplement in sows with predicted birth weight phenotypes on birth litter quality and growth performance to weaning.

    PubMed

    Smit, M N; Spencer, J D; Patterson, J L; Dyck, M K; Dixon, W T; Foxcroft, G R

    2015-03-01

    The effects of a marine oil-based n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid (mLCPUFA) supplement fed to the sow from weaning, through the rebreeding period, during gestation and until end of lactation on litter characteristics from birth until weaning were studied in sows with known litter birth weight phenotypes. It was hypothesized that low birth weight (LBW) litters would benefit more from mLCPUFA supplementation than high birth weight litters. A total of 163 sows (mean parity=4.9 ± 0.9) were rebred after weaning. Sows were pair-matched by parity and litter average birth weight of the previous three litters. Within pairs, sows were allocated to be fed either standard corn/soyabean meal-based gestation and lactation diets (CON), or the same diets enriched with 0.5% of the mLCPUFA supplement at the expense of corn. Each litter between 9 and 16 total pigs born was classified as LBW or medium/high average birth weight (MHBW) litter and there was a significant correlation (P<0.001) between litter average birth weight of the current and previous litters within sows (r=0.49). Sow serum was harvested at day 113 of gestation for determination of immunoglobulin G (IgG) concentrations. The number of pigs born total and alive were lower (P=0.01) in mLCPUFA than CON sows, whereas the number of stillborn and mummified pigs were similar between treatments. Number of stillborns (trend) and mummies (P<0.01) were higher in LBW than MHBW litters. Tissue weights and brain : tissue weight ratios were similar between treatments, but LBW litters had decreased tissue weights and increased brain : tissue weight ratios compared with MHBW litters. Placental weight was lower (P=0.01) in LBW than MHBW litters, but was not different between treatments. Average and total litter weight at day 1 was similar between treatments. mLCPUFA increased weaning weight (P=0.08) and average daily gain (P<0.05) in MHBW litters, but not in LBW litters. Pre-weaning mortality was similar between treatments

  13. Production of biofuel using molluscan pseudofeces derived from algal cells

    SciTech Connect

    Das, Keshav C.; Chinnasamy, Senthil; Shelton, James; Wilde, Susan B.; Haynie, Rebecca S.; Herrin, James A.

    2012-08-28

    Embodiments of the present disclosure provide for novel strategies to harvest algal lipids using mollusks which after feeding algae from the growth medium can convert algal lipids into their biomass or excrete lipids in their pseudofeces which makes algae harvesting energy efficient and cost effective. The bioconverter, filter-feeding mollusks and their pseudofeces can be harvested and converted to biocrude using an advanced thermochemical liquefaction technology. Methods, systems, and materials are disclosed for the harvest and isolation of algal lipids from the mollusks, molluscan feces and molluscan pseudofeces.

  14. Insights into the evolution of vitamin B12 auxotrophy from sequenced algal genomes.

    PubMed

    Helliwell, Katherine E; Wheeler, Glen L; Leptos, Kyriacos C; Goldstein, Raymond E; Smith, Alison G

    2011-10-01

    Vitamin B(12) (cobalamin) is a dietary requirement for humans because it is an essential cofactor for two enzymes, methylmalonyl-CoA mutase and methionine synthase (METH). Land plants and fungi neither synthesize or require cobalamin because they do not contain methylmalonyl-CoA mutase, and have an alternative B(12)-independent methionine synthase (METE). Within the algal kingdom, approximately half of all microalgal species need the vitamin as a growth supplement, but there is no phylogenetic relationship between these species, suggesting that the auxotrophy arose multiple times through evolution. We set out to determine the underlying cellular mechanisms for this observation by investigating elements of B(12) metabolism in the sequenced genomes of 15 different algal species, with representatives of the red, green, and brown algae, diatoms, and coccolithophores, including both macro- and microalgae, and from marine and freshwater environments. From this analysis, together with growth assays, we found a strong correlation between the absence of a functional METE gene and B(12) auxotrophy. The presence of a METE unitary pseudogene in the B(12)-dependent green algae Volvox carteri and Gonium pectorale, relatives of the B(12)-independent Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, suggest that B(12) dependence evolved recently in these lineages. In both C. reinhardtii and the diatom Phaeodactylum tricornutum, growth in the presence of cobalamin leads to repression of METE transcription, providing a mechanism for gene loss. Thus varying environmental conditions are likely to have been the reason for the multiple independent origins of B(12) auxotrophy in these organisms. Because the ultimate source of cobalamin is from prokaryotes, the selective loss of METE in different algal lineages will have had important physiological and ecological consequences for these organisms in terms of their dependence on bacteria. PMID:21551270

  15. Strategies for optimizing algal biology for enhanced biomass production

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Barry, Amanda N.; Starkenburg, Shawn R.; Sayre, Richard T.

    2015-02-02

    One of the most environmentally sustainable ways to produce high-energy density (oils) feed stocks for the production of liquid transportation fuels is from biomass. Photosynthetic carbon capture combined with biomass combustion (point source) and subsequent carbon capture and sequestration has also been proposed in the intergovernmental panel on climate change report as one of the most effective and economical strategies to remediate atmospheric greenhouse gases. To maximize photosynthetic carbon capture efficiency and energy-return-on-investment, we must develop biomass production systems that achieve the greatest yields with the lowest inputs. Numerous studies have demonstrated that microalgae have among the greatest potentials formore » biomass production. This is in part due to the fact that all alga cells are photoautotrophic, they have active carbon concentrating mechanisms to increase photosynthetic productivity, and all the biomass is harvestable unlike plants. All photosynthetic organisms, however, convert only a fraction of the solar energy they capture into chemical energy (reduced carbon or biomass). To increase aerial carbon capture rates and biomass productivity, it will be necessary to identify the most robust algal strains and increase their biomass production efficiency often by genetic manipulation. We review recent large-scale efforts to identify the best biomass producing strains and metabolic engineering strategies to improve aerial productivity. In addition, these strategies include optimization of photosynthetic light-harvesting antenna size to increase energy capture and conversion efficiency and the potential development of advanced molecular breeding techniques. To date, these strategies have resulted in up to twofold increases in biomass productivity.« less

  16. Biomass recycle as a means to improve the energy efficiency of CELSS algal culture systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Radmer, R.; Cox, J.; Lieberman, D.; Behrens, P.; Arnett, K.

    1987-01-01

    Algal cultures can be very rapid and efficient means to generate biomass and regenerate the atmosphere for closed environmental life support systems. However, as in the case of most higher plants, a significant fraction of the biomass produced by most algae cannot be directly converted to a useful food product by standard food technology procedures. This waste biomass will serve as an energy drain on the overall system unless it can be efficiently recycled without a significant loss of its energy content. Experiments are reported in which cultures of the alga Scenedesmus obliquus were grown in the light and at the expense of an added carbon source, which either replaced or supplemented the actinic light. As part of these experiments, hydrolyzed waste biomass from these same algae were tested to determine whether the algae themselves could be made part of the biological recycling process. Results indicate that hydrolyzed algal (and plant) biomass can serve as carbon and energy sources for the growth of these algae, suggesting that the efficiency of the closed system could be significantly improved using this recycling process.

  17. Algal carbohydrates affect polyketide synthesis of the lichen-forming fungus Cladonia rangiferina.

    PubMed

    Elshobary, Mostafa E; Osman, Mohamed E; Abo-Shady, Atef M; Komatsu, Emy; Perreault, Hélène; Sorensen, John; Piercey-Normore, Michele D

    2016-01-01

    Lichen secondary metabolites (polyketides) are produced by the fungal partner, but the role of algal carbohydrates in polyketide biosynthesis is not clear. This study examined whether the type and concentration of algal carbohydrate explained differences in polyketide production and gene transcription by a lichen fungus (Cladonia rangiferina). The carbohydrates identified from a free-living cyanobacterium (Spirulina platensis; glucose), a lichen-forming alga (Diplosphaera chodatii; sorbitol) and the lichen alga that associates with C. rangiferina (Asterochloris sp.; ribitol) were used in each of 1%, 5% and 10% concentrations to enrich malt yeast extract media for culturing the mycobiont. Polyketides were determined by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), and polyketide synthase (PKS) gene transcription was measured by quantitative PCR of the ketosynthase domain of four PKS genes. The lower concentrations of carbohydrates induced the PKS gene expression where ribitol up-regulated CrPKS1 and CrPKS16 gene transcription and sorbitol up-regulated CrPKS3 and CrPKS7 gene transcription. The HPLC results revealed that lower concentrations of carbon sources increased polyketide production for three carbohydrates. One polyketide from the natural lichen thallus (fumarprotocetraric acid) also was produced by the fungal culture in ribitol supplemented media only. This study provides a better understanding of the role of the type and concentration of the carbon source in fungal polyketide biosynthesis in the lichen Cladonia rangiferina. PMID:27091386

  18. Airborne Monitoring of Harmful Algal Blooms over Lake Erie

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tokars, Roger; Lekki, John

    2013-01-01

    The Hyperspectral Imager mounted to an aircraft was used to develop a remote sensing capability to detect the pigment Phycocyanin, an indicator of Microcystis, in low concentration as an early indicator of harmful algal bloom prediction.

  19. ORGANOHALIDE FORMATION ON CHLORINATION OF ALGAL EXTRACELLULAR PRODUCTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    When certain chemical and physical parameters were controlled during chlorination of algal extracellular products (ECP), organohalide formation was modified. In general, decreases in temperature and contact time decreased the generation of purgeable (POX), nonpurgeable (NPOX), an...

  20. A seasnake's colour affects its susceptibility to algal fouling

    PubMed Central

    Shine, R.; Brischoux, F.; Pile, A. J.

    2010-01-01

    Evolutionary transitions from terrestrial to aquatic life modify selective forces on an animal's coloration. For example, light penetrates differently through water than air, and a new suite of predators and visual backgrounds changes the targets of selection. We suggest that an aquatic animal's coloration may also affect its susceptibility to algal fouling. In a colour-polymorphic field population of seasnakes (Emydocephalus annulatus) in New Caledonia, black individuals supported higher algal cover than did banded conspecifics. In experimental tests, black snake models (plastic tubes) accumulated more algae than did banded models. Algal cover substantially reduced snake activity (in the field) and swimming speeds (in the laboratory). Effects of algal cover on a snake's hydrodynamic efficiency and/or its rate of cutaneous gas exchange thus may impose selection on the colours of aquatic organisms. PMID:20375055

  1. Algal Biofuels R&D at NREL (Brochure)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2012-09-01

    An overview of NREL's algal biofuels projects, including U.S. Department of Energy-funded work, projects with U.S. and international partners, and Laboratory Directed Research and Development projects.

  2. Oligotrophic Bacteria Enhance Algal Growth under Iron-Deficient Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Keshtacher-Liebso..., E.; Hadar, Y.; Chen, Y.

    1995-01-01

    A Halomonas sp., a marine halophilic and oligotrophic bacterium, was grown on exudates of Dunaliella bardawil. The bacteria increased the solubility of Fe, thereby enhancing its availability to the algae. As a result, the algal growth rate increased. Because of these syntrophic relations, growth of the marine alga D. bardawil was facilitated at Fe levels that would otherwise induce Fe deficiency and inhibit algal growth. PMID:16535058

  3. Application of Silver Ion High-Performance Liquid Chromatography for Quantitative Analysis of Selected n-3 and n-6 PUFA in Oil Supplements.

    PubMed

    Czajkowska-Mysłek, Anna; Siekierko, Urszula; Gajewska, Magdalena

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study was to develop a simple method for simultaneous determination of selected cis/cis PUFA-LNA (18:2), ALA (18:3), GLA (18:3), EPA (20:5), and DHA (22:6) by silver ion high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to a diode array detector (Ag-HPLC-DAD). The separation was performed on three Luna SCX Silver Loaded columns connected in series maintained at 10 °C with isocratic elution by 1% acetonitrile in n-hexane. The applied chromatographic system allowed a baseline separation of standard mixture of n-3 and n-6 fatty acid methyl esters containing LNA, DHA, and EPA and partial separation of ALA and GLA positional isomers. The method was validated by means of linearity, precision, stability, and recovery. Limits of detection (LOD) for considered PUFA standard solutions ranged from 0.27 to 0.43 mg L(-1). The developed method was used to evaluate of n-3 and n-6 fatty acids contents in plant and fish softgel oil capsules, results were compared with reference GC-FID based method. PMID:26939680

  4. Environmental assessment of a firetube boiler firing coal/oil/water mixtures. Volume 2. Data supplement. Final report, February 1981-November 1983

    SciTech Connect

    DeRosier, R.

    1984-09-01

    This volume is a compendium of detailed emission and test data from field tests of a firetube industrial boiler burning a coal/oil/water (COW) mixture. The boiler was tested while burning COW fuel, and COW with soda ash added (COW+SA) to serve as an SO/sub 2/ sorbent. The test data include: preliminary equipment calibration data, boiler operating data for both tests, fuel analysis results, and complete flue gas emission measurement and laboratory analysis results. Flue gas emission measurements included: continuous monitoring for criteria gas pollutants; gas chromatography (GC) of gas grab samples for volatile organics (C1-C6); EPA Method 5 for particulate; controlled condensation system for SO2 emissions; and source assessment sampling system (SASS) for total organics in two boiling point ranges (100 to 300 C and > 300 C), organic compound category information using infrared spectrometry (IR) and low resolution mass spectrometry (LRMS), specific quantitation of the semivolatile organic priority pollutants using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS), liquid chromatography (LC) separation of organic extracts into seven polarity fractions with total organic and IR analyses of eluted fractions, flue gas concentrations of trace elements by spark source mass spectrometry (SSMS) and atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS), and biological assays of organic extracts.

  5. Cost structures and life cycle impacts of algal biomass and biofuel production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christiansen, Katrina Lea

    2011-12-01

    three algal production and fuel conversion scenarios, and then to estimate the improvement to cost and environmental impacts of proposed solutions to the pinch-points. These results illuminated significant opportunities to improve the economics and environmental impacts from producing algal biofuels produced in ORP, PBR, and PBR-ORPs. No single solution examined appeared to be sufficient to reduce the cost of fuel energy from algae to a competitive level with current petroleum diesel prices (4.20 /gal, ca. 28/GJ). However, if multiple pinch-points are overcome, e.g., simultaneous increases in (1) radiation use efficiency and (2) oil content or simultaneous decreases in (3) irrigation, (4) harvesting, (5) labor and (6)PBR costs are achieved then low Fuel Energy Costs (the ratio of total production and conversion costs to total energy available in the fuel) and low Total Energy Costs (the ratio of total production and conversion costs to total energy available in the fuel and co-products) are possible; with estimates ranging from 48 to 11 $/GJ.

  6. The algal lift: Buoyancy-mediated sediment transport

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mendoza-Lera, Clara; Federlein, Laura L.; Knie, Matthias; Mutz, Michael

    2016-01-01

    The role of benthic algae as biostabilizers of sediments is well-known, however, their potential to lift and transport sediments remains unclear. Under low-flow conditions, matured algal mats may detach from the bed and may lift up sediment, thereby causing disturbance to the uppermost streambed sediment. We tested the potential of algal mats to lift sediments in 12 indoor flumes filled with sand (0.2 - 0.8 mm), gravel (2 - 8 mm) or a sand-gravel mixture (25/75% mass). After four weeks, the algal mats covered about 50% of the flumes area. Due to the accumulation of oxygen gas bubbles in the mats, that developed from high primary production at 4.5 weeks, about half of the algal mats detached from the bed carrying entangled sediments. Both the area covered by algal mats and detached area were similar among sediment types, but the amount of sediment transported tended to be higher for sand and sand-gravel mixture compared to gravel. Our results reveal that biologically mediated sediment transport mainly depends on the development of a dense filamentous algal matrix, that traps gas bubbles, increasing the mats buoyancy. This novel mechanism of sediment transport will occur in shallow ecosystems during low-flow periods, with the highest impact for sandy sediments.

  7. Biogas production from anaerobic digestion of Spirulina maxima algal biomass

    SciTech Connect

    Samson, R.; LeDuy, A.

    1982-08-01

    The photosynthetic spectrum of solar energy could be exploited for the production of chemical energy of methane through the combined algal-bacterial process. In this process, the algae are mass produced from light and from carbon in the first step. The algal biomass is then used as a nutrient for feeding the anaerobic digester, in the second step, for the production of methane by anaerobic bacteria. The carbon source for the production of algal biomass could be either organic carbon from wastewaters (for eucaryotic algae), or carbon dioxide from the atmosphere or from the combustion exhaust gases (for both prokaryotic and eukaryotic algae). The technical feasibility data on the anaerobic digestion of algal biomass have been reported for many species of algae including macroscopic algae and microscopic algae. Research being conducted in the authors' laboratory consists of using the semimicroscopic blue-green alga Spirulina maxima as the sole substrate for this combined algal-bacterial process. This species of alga is very attractive for the process because of its capability of using the atmospheric carbon dioxide as carbon source and its simple harvesting methods. Furthermore, it appeared that the fermentability of S. maxima is significantly higher than other microscopic algae. This communication presents the results on the anaerobic inoculum development by the adaptation technique. This inoculum was then used for the semicontinuous anaerobic digestion of S. maxima algal biomass. The evolutions of biogas production and composition, biogas yield, total volatile fatty acids, alkalinity, ammonia nitrogen, pH, and electrode potential were followed.

  8. The ins and outs of algal metal transport

    PubMed Central

    Blaby-Haas, Crysten E.; Merchant, Sabeeha S.

    2012-01-01

    Metal transporters are a central component in the interaction of algae with their environment. They represent the first line of defense to cellular perturbations in metal concentration, and by analyzing algal metal transporter repertoires, we gain insight into a fundamental aspect of algal biology. The ability of individual algae to thrive in environments with unique geochemistry, compared to non-algal species commonly used as reference organisms for metal homeostasis, provides an opportunity to broaden our understanding of biological metal requirements, preferences and trafficking. Chlamydomonas reinhardtii is the best developed reference organism for the study of algal biology, especially with respect to metal metabolism; however, the diversity of algal niches necessitates a comparative genomic analysis of all sequenced algal genomes. A comparison between known and putative proteins in animals, plants, fungi and algae using protein similarity networks has revealed the presence of novel metal metabolism components in Chlamydomonas including new iron and copper transporters. This analysis also supports the concept that, in terms of metal metabolism, algae from similar niches are more related to one another than to algae from the same phylogenetic clade. PMID:22569643

  9. Harmful algal bloom smart device application: using image analysis and machine learning techniques for early classification of harmful algal blooms

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Ecological Stewardship Institute at Northern Kentucky University and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency are collaborating to optimize a harmful algal bloom detection algorithm that estimates the presence and count of cyanobacteria in freshwater systems by image analysis...

  10. A randomized controlled study of the efficacy of six-month supplementation with concentrated fish oil rich in omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in first episode schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Pawełczyk, Tomasz; Grancow-Grabka, Marta; Kotlicka-Antczak, Magdalena; Trafalska, Elżbieta; Pawełczyk, Agnieszka

    2016-02-01

    Short-term clinical trials of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA) as add-on therapy in patients with schizophrenia revealed mixed results. The majority of these studies used an 8- to 12-week intervention based on ethyl-eicosapentaenoic acid. A randomized placebo-controlled trial was designed to compare the efficacy of 26-week intervention, composed of either 2.2 g/day of n-3 PUFA, or olive oil placebo, with regard to symptom severity in first-episode schizophrenia patients. Seventy-one patients (aged 16-35) were enrolled in the study and randomly assigned to the study arms. The primary outcome measure of the clinical evaluation was schizophrenia symptom severity change measured by the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS). Mixed models repeated measures analysis revealed significant differences between the study arms regarding total PANSS score change favouring n-3 PUFA (p = 0.016; effect size (ES) = 0.29). A fifty-percent improvement in symptom severity was achieved significantly more frequently in the n-3 PUFA group than in the placebo group (69.4 vs 40.0%; p = 0.017). N-3 PUFA intervention was also associated with an improvement in general psychopathology, measured by means of PANSS (p = 0.009; ES = 0.32), depressive symptoms (p = 0.006; ES = 0.34), the level of functioning (p = 0.01; ES = 0.31) and clinical global impression (p = 0.046; ES = 0.29). The findings suggest that 6-month intervention with n-3 PUFA may be a valuable add-on therapy able to decrease the intensity of symptoms and improve the level of functioning in first-episode schizophrenia patients. PMID:26679763

  11. Origin of crude oil in eastern Gulf Coast

    SciTech Connect

    Sassen, R.

    1988-01-01

    Analysis of rock and crude oil samples suggests that three source rocks have given rise to most crude oil in reservoirs of the eastern Gulf Coast. Carbonate source rocks of the Jurassic Smackover Formation are characterized by algal-derived kerogen preserved in an anoxic and hypersaline environment, resulting in crude oils with distinct compositions. Migration commenced during the Cretaceous, explaining the emplacement of Smackover-derived crude oil in Jurassic and in some Cretaceous reservoirs. Upper Cretaceous clastic and carbonate source rocks are also present. Much crude oil in Upper Cretaceous reservoirs has been derived from organic-rich marine shales of the Tuscaloosa Formation. These shales are characterized by algal and higher plant kerogen, resulting in distinct crude oil compositions. Migration commenced during the Tertiary, but was mostly focused to Upper Cretaceous reservoirs. Lower Tertiary shales, including those of the Wilcox Formation, are quite organic-rich and include downdip marine facies characterized by both algal and higher plant kerogen. Crude oils in lower Tertiary reservoirs are dissimilar to crude oils from deeper and older source rocks. Migration from lower Tertiary shales commenced during the late Tertiary and charged Tertiary reservoirs. Although most crude oil in the eastern Gulf Coast has been emplaced by short-range migration, often with a strong vertical component, some long-range lateral migration (>100 km) has occurred along Tertiary sands.

  12. Oxidative stability of fish and algae oils containing long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids in bulk and in oil-in-water emulsions.

    PubMed

    Frankel, Edwin N; Satué-Gracia, Teresa; Meyer, Anne S; German, J Bruce

    2002-03-27

    The oxidative stability of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)-containing fish and algae oils varies widely according to their fatty acid composition, the physical and colloidal states of the lipids, the contents of tocopherols and other antioxidants, and the presence and activity of transition metals. Fish and algal oils were initially much more stable to oxidation in bulk systems than in the corresponding oil-in-water emulsions. The oxidative stability of emulsions cannot, therefore, be predicted on the basis of stability data obtained with bulk long-chain PUFA-containing fish oils and DHA-containing algal oils. The relatively high oxidative stability of an algal oil containing 42% DHA was completely lost after chromatographic purification to remove tocopherols and other antioxidants. Therefore, this evidence does not support the claim that DHA-rich oils from algae are unusually stable to oxidation. Addition of ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) prevented oxidation of both fish and algal oil emulsions without added iron and at low iron:EDTA molar concentrations. EDTA, however, promoted the oxidation of the corresponding emulsions that contained high iron:EDTA ratios. Therefore, to be effective as a metal chelator, EDTA must be added at molar concentrations higher than that of iron to inhibit oxidation of foods containing long-chain PUFA from either fish or algae and fortified with iron. PMID:11902962

  13. Diabetes and Dietary Supplements

    MedlinePlus

    ... R S T U V W X Y Z Diabetes and Dietary Supplements: In Depth Share: On This ... health product or practice. Are dietary supplements for diabetes safe? Some dietary supplements may have side effects, ...

  14. Krill oil for cardiovascular risk prevention: is it for real?

    PubMed

    Backes, James M; Howard, Patricia A

    2014-11-01

    Omega-3 fatty acids play an important role in cardiovascular health. Although it is suggested that individuals obtain these nutrients through diet, many prefer to rely on supplements. Fish oil supplements are widely used, yet large capsule sizes and tolerability make them less than ideal. Recently, krill oil has emerged as a potential alternative for omega-3 supplementation. This article will discuss what is known about krill oil and its potential use in cardiovascular risk prevention. PMID:25477562

  15. Krill Oil for Cardiovascular Risk Prevention: Is It for Real?

    PubMed Central

    Backes, James M.; Howard, Patricia A.

    2014-01-01

    Omega-3 fatty acids play an important role in cardiovascular health. Although it is suggested that individuals obtain these nutrients through diet, many prefer to rely on supplements. Fish oil supplements are widely used, yet large capsule sizes and tolerability make them less than ideal. Recently, krill oil has emerged as a potential alternative for omega-3 supplementation. This article will discuss what is known about krill oil and its potential use in cardiovascular risk prevention. PMID:25477562

  16. Comparative study of tissue deposition of omega-3 fatty acids from polar-lipid rich oil of the microalgae Nannochloropsis oculata with krill oil in rats.

    PubMed

    Kagan, Michael L; Levy, Aharon; Leikin-Frenkel, Alicia

    2015-01-01

    Long-chain omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC n-3 PUFA) exert health benefits which are dependent upon their incorporation into blood, cells and tissues. Plasma and tissue deposition of LC n-3 PUFA from oils extracted from the micro-algae Nannochloropsis oculata and from krill were compared in rats. The algal oil provides eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) partly conjugated (15%) to phospholipids and glycolipids but no docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), whereas krill oil provides both EPA and DHA conjugated in part (40%) to phospholipids. Rats fed a standard diet received either krill oil or polar-lipid rich algal oil by gavage daily for 7 days (5 ml oil per kg body weight each day). Fatty acid concentrations were analyzed in plasma, brain and liver, and two adipose depots since these represent transport, functional and storage pools of fatty acids, respectively. When measuring total LC n-3 PUFA (sum of EPA, docosapentaenoic acid (DPA) and DHA), there was no statistically significant difference between the algal oil and krill oil for plasma, brain, liver and gonadal adipose tissue. Concentrations of LC n-3 PUFA were higher in the retroperitoneal adipose tissue from the algal oil group. Tissue uptake of LC n-3 PUFA from an algal oil containing 15% polar lipids (glycolipids and phospholipids) was found to be equivalent to krill oil containing 40% phospholipids. This may be due to glycolipids forming smaller micelles during ingestive hydrolysis than phospholipids. Ingestion of fatty acids with glycolipids may improve bioavailability, but this needs to be further explored. PMID:25360534

  17. Biodegradation of bisphenol A by an algal-bacterial system.

    PubMed

    Eio, Er Jin; Kawai, Minako; Niwa, Chiaki; Ito, Masato; Yamamoto, Shuichi; Toda, Tatsuki

    2015-10-01

    The degradation of bisphenol A (BPA) by Chlorella sorokiniana and BPA-degrading bacteria was investigated. The results show that BPA was partially removed by a monoculture of C. sorokiniana, but the remaining BPA accounted for 50.2, 56.1, and 60.5 % of the initial BPA concentrations of 10, 20, and 50 mg L(-1), respectively. The total algal BPA adsorption and accumulation were less than 1 %. C. sorokiniana-bacterial system effectively removed BPA with photosynthetic oxygen provided by the algae irrespective of the initial BPA concentration. The growth of C. sorokiniana in the algal system was inhibited by BPA concentrations of 20 and 50 mg L(-1), but not in the algal-bacterial system. This observation indicates that bacterial growth in the algal-bacterial system reduced the BPA-inhibiting effect on algae. A total of ten BPA biodegradation intermediates were identified by GC-MS. The concentrations of the biodegradation intermediates decreased to a low level at the end of the experiment. The hypothetical carbon mass balance analysis showed that the amounts of oxygen demanded by the bacteria are insufficient for effective BPA degradation. However, adding an external carbon source could compensate for the oxygen shortage. This study demonstrates that the algal-bacterial system has the potential to remove BPA and its biodegradation intermediates. PMID:26013738

  18. 76 FR 53485 - Notice of Availability of the Supplement to the Draft Environmental Impact Statement for the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-26

    ... other parts of the country. The Reasonable Foreseeable Development (RFD) scenario for oil and gas on the... next 15 years. The supplement analyzes the consequences of the new development projections for oil and... for public review and comment. The supplement only contains new information about oil and gas...

  19. Comprehensive techno-economic analysis of wastewater-based algal biofuel production: A case study.

    PubMed

    Xin, Chunhua; Addy, Min M; Zhao, Jinyu; Cheng, Yanling; Cheng, Sibo; Mu, Dongyan; Liu, Yuhuan; Ding, Rijia; Chen, Paul; Ruan, Roger

    2016-07-01

    Combining algae cultivation and wastewater treatment for biofuel production is considered the feasible way for resource utilization. An updated comprehensive techno-economic analysis method that integrates resources availability into techno-economic analysis was employed to evaluate the wastewater-based algal biofuel production with the consideration of wastewater treatment improvement, greenhouse gases emissions, biofuel production costs, and coproduct utilization. An innovative approach consisting of microalgae cultivation on centrate wastewater, microalgae harvest through flocculation, solar drying of biomass, pyrolysis of biomass to bio-oil, and utilization of co-products, was analyzed and shown to yield profound positive results in comparison with others. The estimated break even selling price of biofuel ($2.23/gallon) is very close to the acceptable level. The approach would have better overall benefits and the internal rate of return would increase up to 18.7% if three critical components, namely cultivation, harvest, and downstream conversion could achieve breakthroughs. PMID:27039331

  20. Algal cell disruption using microbubbles to localize ultrasonic energy for biofuel extraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krehbiel, Joel; Sch, Lance; King, Daniel; Freund, Jonathan

    2014-11-01

    Cell disruption is a critical step in the production of algal-based biofuels, but current mechanical disruption methods require significant energy, typically more than actually available in the cell's oil. We propose and investigate an ultrasound disruption process using ultrasound contrast agents to localize the delivered energy. Experiments in a flow cell with focused ultrasound show a significant benefit. The degree of disruption increases with increasing peak rarefactional ultrasound pressure for pressures between 1.90 and 3.07 MPa and increasing microbubble concentration up to 12 . 5 ×107 bubbles/ml. Estimates suggest the energy of this method is less than one fourth of the energy of other industrial mechanical disruption techniques and comparable with theoretical disruption estimates. The increase in efficiency would make this technique viable for bioenergy applications.

  1. Design of algal film photobioreactors: material surface energy effects on algal film productivity, colonization and lipid content.

    PubMed

    Genin, Scott N; Stewart Aitchison, J; Grant Allen, D

    2014-03-01

    A parallel plate air lift reactor was used to examine the growth kinetics of mixed culture algal biofilms grown on various materials (acrylic, glass, polycarbonate, polystyrene and cellulose acetate). The growth kinetics of the algal biofilms were non-linear overall and their overall productivities ranged from 1.10-2.08g/m(2)day, with those grown on cellulose acetate having the highest productivity. Overall algal biofilm productivity was largely explained by differences in the colonization time which in turn was strongly correlated to the polar surface energy of the material, but weakly correlated to water-material contact angle. When colonization time was taken into account, the productivity for all materials except acrylic was not significantly different at approximately 2g/m(2)/day. Lipid content of the algal biofilms ranged from 6% to 8% (w/w) and was not correlated to water-material contact angle or polar surface energy. The results have potential application for selecting appropriate materials for algal film photobioreactors. PMID:24441594

  2. Consortium for Algal Biofuel Commercialization (CAB-COMM) Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Mayfield, Stephen P.

    2015-12-04

    The Consortium for Algal Biofuel Commercialization (CAB-Comm) was established in 2010 to conduct research to enable commercial viability of alternative liquid fuels produced from algal biomass. The main objective of CAB-Comm was to dramatically improve the viability of algae as a source of liquid fuels to meet US energy needs, by addressing several significant barriers to economic viability. To achieve this goal, CAB-Comm took a diverse set of approaches on three key aspects of the algal biofuels value chain: crop protection; nutrient utilization and recycling; and the development of genetic tools. These projects have been undertaken as collaboration between six academic institutions and two industrial partners: University of California, San Diego; Scripps Institution of Oceanography; University of Nebraska, Lincoln; Rutgers University; University of California, Davis; Johns Hopkins University; Sapphire Energy; and Life Technologies.

  3. Algal lectins as promising biomolecules for biomedical research.

    PubMed

    Singh, Ram Sarup; Thakur, Shivani Rani; Bansal, Parveen

    2015-02-01

    Lectins are natural bioactive ubiquitous proteins or glycoproteins of non-immune response that bind reversibly to glycans of glycoproteins, glycolipids and polysaccharides possessing at least one non-catalytic domain causing agglutination. Some of them consist of several carbohydrate-binding domains which endow them with the properties of cell agglutination or precipitation of glycoconjugates. Lectins are rampant in nature from plants, animals and microorganisms. Among microorganisms, algae are the potent source of lectins with unique properties specifically from red algae. The demand of peculiar and neoteric biologically active substances has intensified the developments on isolation and biomedical applications of new algal lectins. Comprehensively, algal lectins are used in biomedical research for antiviral, antinociceptive, anti-inflammatory, anti-tumor activities, etc. and in pharmaceutics for the fabrication of cost-effective protein expression systems and nutraceutics. In this review, an attempt has been made to collate the information on various biomedical applications of algal lectins. PMID:23855360

  4. Marine algal toxins: origins, health effects, and their increased occurrence.

    PubMed

    Van Dolah, F M

    2000-03-01

    Certain marine algae produce potent toxins that impact human health through the consumption of contaminated shellfish and finfish and through water or aerosol exposure. Over the past three decades, the frequency and global distribution of toxic algal incidents appear to have increased, and human intoxications from novel algal sources have occurred. This increase is of particular concern, since it parallels recent evidence of large-scale ecologic disturbances that coincide with trends in global warming. The extent to which human activities have contributed to their increase therefore comes into question. This review summarizes the origins and health effects of marine algal toxins, as well as changes in their current global distribution, and examines possible causes for the recent increase in their occurrence. PMID:10698729

  5. Energy evaluation of algal cell disruption by high pressure homogenisation.

    PubMed

    Yap, Benjamin H J; Dumsday, Geoff J; Scales, Peter J; Martin, Gregory J O

    2015-05-01

    The energy consumption of high pressure homogenisation (HPH) was analysed to determine the feasibility of rupturing algal cells for biodiesel production. Experimentally, the processing capacity (i.e. flow rate), power draw and cell disruption efficiency of HPH were independent of feed concentration (for Nannochloropsis sp. up to 25%w/w solids). Depending on the homogenisation pressure (60-150 MPa), the solids concentration (0.25-25%w/w), and triacylglyceride (TAG) content of the harvested algal biomass (10-30%), the energy consumed by HPH represented between 6% and 110-times the energy density of the resulting biodiesel. Provided the right species (weak cell wall and high TAG content) is selected and the biomass is processed at a sufficiently high solids concentration, HPH can consume a small fraction of the energy content of the biodiesel produced. This study demonstrates the feasibility of process-scale algal cell disruption by HPH based on its energy requirement. PMID:25435068

  6. Marine algal toxins: origins, health effects, and their increased occurrence.

    PubMed Central

    Van Dolah, F M

    2000-01-01

    Certain marine algae produce potent toxins that impact human health through the consumption of contaminated shellfish and finfish and through water or aerosol exposure. Over the past three decades, the frequency and global distribution of toxic algal incidents appear to have increased, and human intoxications from novel algal sources have occurred. This increase is of particular concern, since it parallels recent evidence of large-scale ecologic disturbances that coincide with trends in global warming. The extent to which human activities have contributed to their increase therefore comes into question. This review summarizes the origins and health effects of marine algal toxins, as well as changes in their current global distribution, and examines possible causes for the recent increase in their occurrence. Images Figure 2 Figure 3 PMID:10698729

  7. A Comparative study of microwave-induced pyrolysis of lignocellulosic and algal biomass.

    PubMed

    Wang, Nan; Tahmasebi, Arash; Yu, Jianglong; Xu, Jing; Huang, Feng; Mamaeva, Alisa

    2015-08-01

    Microwave (MW) pyrolysis of algal and lignocellulosic biomass samples were studied using a modified domestic oven. The pyrolysis temperature was recorded continuously by inserting a thermocouple into the samples. Temperatures as high as 1170 and 1015°C were achieved for peanut shell and Chlorella vulgaris. The activation energy for MW pyrolysis was calculated by Coats-Redfern method and the values were 221.96 and 214.27kJ/mol for peanut shell and C. vulgaris, respectively. Bio-oil yields reached to 27.7wt.% and 11.0wt.% during pyrolysis of C. vulgaris and peanut shell, respectively. The bio-oil samples from pyrolysis were analyzed by a gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Bio-oil from lignocellulosic biomass pyrolysis contained more phenolic compounds while that from microalgae pyrolysis contained more nitrogen-containing species. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) analysis results showed that concentration of OH, CH, CO, OCH3, and CO functional groups in char samples decreased significantly after pyrolysis. PMID:25935388

  8. Small herbivores suppress algal accumulation on Agatti atoll, Indian Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cernohorsky, Nicole H.; McClanahan, Timothy R.; Babu, Idrees; Horsák, Michal

    2015-12-01

    Despite large herbivorous fish being generally accepted as the main group responsible for preventing algal accumulation on coral reefs, few studies have experimentally examined the relative importance of herbivore size on algal communities. This study used exclusion cages with two different mesh sizes (1 × 1 cm and 6 × 6 cm) to investigate the impact of different-sized herbivores on algal accumulation rates on the shallow (<2 m) back-reef of Agatti atoll, Lakshadweep. The fine-mesh cages excluded all visible herbivores, which had rapid and lasting effects on the benthic communities, and, after 127 d of deployment, there was a visible and significant increase in algae (mainly macroalgae) with algal volume being 13 times greater than in adjacent open areas. The coarse-mesh cages excluded larger fishes (>8 cm body depth) while allowing smaller fishes to access the plots. In contrast to the conclusions of most previous studies, the exclusion of large herbivores had no significant effect on the accumulation of benthic algae and the amount of algae present within the coarse-mesh cages was relatively consistent throughout the experimental period (around 50 % coverage and 1-2 mm height). The difference in algal accumulation between the fine-mesh and coarse-mesh cages appears to be related to the actions of small individuals from 12 herbivorous fish species (0.17 ind. m-2 and 7.7 g m-2) that were able to enter through the coarse mesh. Although restricted to a single habitat, these results suggest that when present in sufficient densities and diversity, small herbivorous fishes can prevent the accumulation of algal biomass on coral reefs.

  9. Role of gas vesicles and intra-colony spaces during the process of algal bloom formation.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yongsheng; Zheng, Binghui; Jiang, Xia; Zheng, Hao

    2013-06-01

    Aggregation morphology, vertical distribution, and algal density were analyzed during the algal cell floating process in three environments. The role of gas vesicles and intra-colony spaces was distinguished by algal blooms treated with ultrasonic waves and high pressure. Results demonstrated that the two buoyancy providers jointly provide buoyancy for floating algal cells. The results were also confirmed by force analysis. In the simulation experiment, the buoyancy acting on algal cells was greater than its gravity at sample ports 2 and 3 of a columnar-cultivated cell vessel, and intra-colony spaces were not detected. In Taihu Lake, gas vesicle buoyancy was notably less than total algal cell gravity. Buoyancy provided by intra-colony spaces exceeded total algal cell gravity at the water surface, but not at other water depths. In the Daning River, total buoyancies provided by the two buoyancy providers were less than total algal cell gravity at different water depths. PMID:23833817

  10. Efficacy of algal metrics for assessing nutrient and organic enrichment in flowing waters

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Porter, S.D.; Mueller, D.K.; Spahr, N.E.; Munn, M.D.; Dubrovsky, N.M.

    2008-01-01

    4. Although algal species tolerance to nutrient and organic enrichment is well documented, additional taxonomic and autecological research on sensitive, endemic algal species would further enhance water-quality assessments.

  11. Cardiovascular effects of edible oils: a comparison between four popular edible oils.

    PubMed

    Bester, D; Esterhuyse, A J; Truter, E J; van Rooyen, J

    2010-12-01

    Edible oils form an essential part of the modern diet. These oils play a role as an energy source, and provide the diet with many beneficial micronutrients. Although a popular conception may be that fat should be avoided, certain edible oils as a dietary supplement may play an important role in the improvement of cardiovascular health. CVD has become one of the leading causes of death worldwide. Dietary supplementation with different oils may have beneficial effects on cardiovascular health. While olive oil and sunflower-seed oil are known to reduce serum cholesterol, fish oil has become well known for reducing potentially fatal cardiac arrhythmias. Recently, red palm oil research has shown beneficial effects on cardiac recovery from ischaemia-reperfusion injury. It is clear that dietary supplementation with edible oils may play a vital role in reducing the mortality rate due to heart disease. The specific benefits and disadvantages of these oils should, however, be explored in greater depth. The present review will attempt to identify the benefits and shortcomings of four popular edible oils, namely olive oil, sunflower-seed oil, fish oil and palm oil. Additionally the present review will aim to reveal potential areas of research which could further enhance our understanding of the effects of edible oils on cardiovascular health. PMID:20849681

  12. A simple model for forecast of coastal algal blooms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wong, Ken T. M.; Lee, Joseph H. W.; Hodgkiss, I. J.

    2007-08-01

    In eutrophic sub-tropical coastal waters around Hong Kong and South China, algal blooms (more often called red tides) due to the rapid growth of microscopic phytoplankton are often observed. Under favourable environmental conditions, these blooms can occur and subside over rather short time scales—in the order of days to a few weeks. Very often, these blooms are observed in weakly flushed coastal waters under calm wind conditions—with or without stratification. Based on high-frequency field observations of harmful algal blooms at two coastal mariculture zones in Hong Kong, a mathematical model has been developed to forecast algal blooms. The model accounts for algal growth, decay, settling and vertical turbulent mixing, and adopts the same assumptions as the classical Riley, Stommel and Bumpus model (Riley, G.A., Stommel, H., Bumpus, D.F., 1949. Quantitative ecology of the plankton of the western North Atlantic. Bulletin of the Bingham Oceanographic Collection Yale University 12, 1-169). It is shown that for algal blooms to occur, a vertical stability criterion, E < 4 μl2/ π2, must be satisfied, where E, μ, l are the vertical turbulent diffusivity, algal growth rate, and euphotic layer depth respectively. In addition, a minimum nutrient threshold concentration must be reached. Moreover, with a nutrient competition consideration, the type of bloom (caused by motile or non-motile species) can be classified. The model requires as input simple and readily available field measurements of water column transparency and nutrient concentration, and representative maximum algal growth rate of the motile and non-motile species. In addition, with the use of three-dimensional hydrodynamic circulation models, simple relations are derived to estimate the vertical mixing coefficient as a function of tidal range, wind speed, and density stratification. The model gives a quick assessment of the likelihood of algal bloom occurrence, and has been validated against field

  13. Mexico-U.S. Harmful Algal Bloom Monitoring Efforts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Chuanmin; Muller-Karger, Frank E.

    2008-06-01

    Workshop on Taxonomy of Harmful Algal Blooms; Veracruz, Mexico, 18-22 February 2008; A workshop on harmful algal bloom (HAB) taxonomy, sponsored by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the Department of Health of the state of Veracruz, Mexico, was held at the Aquarium of Veracruz and focused on standardizing methods to detect HABs that affect coastal waters in the Gulf of Mexico. This binational effort was established under the umbrella of the Gulf of Mexico Alliance (GOMA), initially formed in 2004 by the five U.S. Gulf states (Florida, Alabama, Mississippi, Louisiana, and Texas) with participation from U.S. federal agencies and other stakeholders.

  14. Safety assessment of EPA-rich polar lipid oil produced from the microalgae Nannochloropsis oculata.

    PubMed

    Kagan, Michael L; Sullivan, Dexter W; Gad, Shayne C; Ballou, Corey M

    2014-01-01

    Almega PL is an eicosapentaenoic acid-rich ω-3 oil that is isolated from Nannochloropsis oculata algae and developed as a dietary supplement. The safety of the algal oil was evaluated in 14- and 90-day studies in Sprague-Dawley rats by oral gavage at dose levels of 0, 250, 500, and 2500 mg/kg/d and 0, 200, 400, and 2000 mg/kg/d, respectively. No mortalities occurred and no signs of toxicity were observed during the studies. No treatment-related effects were seen for body weight, food consumption, ophthalmology, neurological effects, urinalysis, clinical pathology, gross pathology, organ weights, or histopathology. Although statistically significant effects were noted for some end points, none were considered to be of toxicological significance. The no observed adverse effect level for Almega PL was 2000 mg/kg/d. Additionally, Almega PL was not mutagenic in Salmonella typhimurium or Escherichia coli, did not induce chromosome aberrations in Chinese hamster ovary cells, and did not induce genotoxic effects in vivo in rat bone marrow erythrocytes. PMID:25305242

  15. Multispectral image analysis for algal biomass quantification.

    PubMed

    Murphy, Thomas E; Macon, Keith; Berberoglu, Halil

    2013-01-01

    This article reports a novel multispectral image processing technique for rapid, noninvasive quantification of biomass concentration in attached and suspended algae cultures. Monitoring the biomass concentration is critical for efficient production of biofuel feedstocks, food supplements, and bioactive chemicals. Particularly, noninvasive and rapid detection techniques can significantly aid in providing delay-free process control feedback in large-scale cultivation platforms. In this technique, three-band spectral images of Anabaena variabilis cultures were acquired and separated into their red, green, and blue components. A correlation between the magnitude of the green component and the areal biomass concentration was generated. The correlation predicted the biomass concentrations of independently prepared attached and suspended cultures with errors of 7 and 15%, respectively, and the effect of varying lighting conditions and background color were investigated. This method can provide necessary feedback for dilution and harvesting strategies to maximize photosynthetic conversion efficiency in large-scale operation. PMID:23554374

  16. Fossil fuel energy resources of Ethiopia: Oil shale deposits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolela, Ahmed

    2006-10-01

    The energy crisis affects all countries in the world. Considering the price scenarios, many countries in Africa have begun to explore various energy resources. Ethiopia is one of the countries that depend upon imported petroleum products. To overcome this problem, geological studies suggest a significant occurrence of oil shale deposits in Ethiopia. The Inter-Trappean oil shale-bearing sediments are widely distributed on the South-Western Plateau of Ethiopia in the Delbi-Moye, Lalo-Sapo, Sola, Gojeb-Chida and Yayu Basins. The oil shale-bearing sediments were deposited in fluviatile and lacustrine environments. The oil shales contain mixtures of algal, herbaceous and higher plant taxa. They are dominated by algal-derived liptinite with minor amounts of vitrinite and inertinite. The algal remains belong to Botryococcus and Pediastrum. Laboratory results confirm that the Ethiopian oil shales are dominated by long-chain aliphatic hydrocarbons and have a low sulphur content. Type-II and Type-I kerogen dominated the studied oil shales. Type-II and Type-I are good source rocks for oil and gas generation. Hydrogen index versus Tmax value plots indicated that most of the oil shale samples fall within the immature-early mature stage for hydrocarbon generation, consistent with the Ro values that range from 0.3% to 0.64%. Pyrolysis data of the oil shales sensu stricto indicate excellent source rocks with up to 61.2% TOC values. Calorific value ranges from 400 to 6165 cal/g. Palynological studies confirmed that the oil shale-bearing sediments of Ethiopia range from Eocene to Miocene in age. A total of about 253,000,000 ton of oil shale is registered in the country. Oil shale deposits in Ethiopia can be used for production of oil and gas.

  17. Remote sensing of harmful algal blooms in the Mississippi Sound and Mobile Bay: Modelling and algorithm formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holiday, Dan Martin

    of 510 nm/555 nm, creating a new data product for use in harmful algal bloom prediction. The capacity of satellite data for rapid, synoptic coverage shows great promise in supplementing future efforts to monitor and predict harmful algal bloom events in the increasingly eutrophic waters of Mobile Bay and the Mississippi Sound.

  18. Turbulence and nutrient interactions that control benthic algal production in an engineered cultivation raceway

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Flow turbulence can be a controlling factor to the growth of benthic algae, but few studies have quantified this relationship in engineered cultivation systems. Experiments were performed to understand the limiting role of turbulence to algal productivity in an algal turf scrubber for benthic algal...

  19. Summative Mass Analysis of Algal Biomass - Integration of Analytical Procedures: Laboratory Analytical Procedure (LAP)

    SciTech Connect

    Laurens, L. M. L.

    2013-12-01

    This procedure guides the integration of laboratory analytical procedures to measure algal biomass constituents in an unambiguous manner and ultimately achieve mass balance closure for algal biomass samples. Many of these methods build on years of research in algal biomass analysis.

  20. Algal bloom-associated disease outbreaks among users of freshwater lakes-United States, 2009 - 2010

    EPA Science Inventory

    Algal blooms’ are local abundances of phytoplankton – microscopic photosynthesizing aquatic organisms found in surface waters worldwide; blooms are variable temporally and spatially and frequently produce a visible algal scum on the water. Harmful algal blooms (HABs) are abundan...

  1. Effects of algal hydrolysate as reaction medium on enzymatic hydrolysis of lignocelluloses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Algal biomass has been proposed as a source of lipids and sugars for biofuel productions. However, a substantial portion of potentially valuable algal material remains as a liquid hydrolysate after sugar and lipid extractions. This study examined the effects of an algal hydrolysate on the enzymatic...

  2. Algal turf scrubber (ATS) floways on the Great Wicomico River, Chesapeake Bay: productivity, algal community structure, substrate and chemistry(1).

    PubMed

    Adey, Walter H; Laughinghouse, H Dail; Miller, John B; Hayek, Lee-Ann C; Thompson, Jesse G; Bertman, Steven; Hampel, Kristin; Puvanendran, Shanmugam

    2013-06-01

    Two Algal Turf Scrubber (ATS) units were deployed on the Great Wicomico River (GWR) for 22 months to examine the role of substrate in increasing algal productivity and nutrient removal. The yearly mean productivity of flat ATS screens was 15.4 g · m(-2)  · d(-1) . This was elevated to 39.6 g · m(-2)  · d(-1) with a three-dimensional (3-D) screen, and to 47.7 g · m(-2)  · d(-1) by avoiding high summer harvest temperatures. These methods enhanced nutrient removal (N, P) in algal biomass by 3.5 times. Eighty-six algal taxa (Ochrophyta [diatoms], Chlorophyta [green algae], and Cyan-obacteria [blue-green algae]) self-seeded from the GWR and demonstrated yearly cycling. Silica (SiO2 ) content of the algal biomass ranged from 30% to 50% of total biomass; phosphorus, nitrogen, and carbon content of the total algal biomass ranged from 0.15% to 0.21%, 2.13% to 2.89%, and 20.0% to 25.7%, respectively. Carbohydrate content (at 10%-25% of AFDM) was dominated by glucose. Lipids (fatty acid methyl ester; FAMEs) ranged widely from 0.5% to 9% AFDM, with Omega-3 fatty acids a consistent component. Mathematical modeling of algal produ-ctivity as a function of temperature, light, and substrate showed a proportionality of 4:3:3, resp-ectively. Under landscape ATS operation, substrate manipulation provides a considerable opportunity to increase ATS productivity, water quality amelioration, and biomass coproduction for fertilizers, fermentation energy, and omega-3 products. Based on the 3-D prod-uctivity and algal chemical composition demonstrated, ATS systems used for nonpoint source water treat-ment can produce ethanol (butanol) at 5.8× per unit area of corn, and biodiesel at 12.0× per unit area of soy beans (agricultural production US). PMID:27007038

  3. Development and optimization of biofilm based algal cultivation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gross, Martin Anthony

    This dissertation describes research done on biofilm based algal cultivation systems. The system that was developed in this work is the revolving algal biofilm cultivation system (RAB). A raceway-retrofit, and a trough-based pilot-scale RAB system were developed and investigated. Each of the systems significantly outperformed a control raceway pond in side-by-side tests. Furthermore the RAB system was found to require significantly less water than the raceway pond based cultivation system. Lastly a TEA/LCA analysis was conducted to evaluate the economic and life cycle of the RAB cultivation system in comparison to raceway pond. It was found that the RAB system was able to grow algae at a lower cost and was shown to be profitable at a smaller scale than the raceway pond style of algal cultivation. Additionally the RAB system was projected to have lower GHG emissions, and better energy and water use efficiencies in comparison to a raceway pond system. Furthermore, fundamental research was conducted to identify the optimal material for algae to attach on. A total of 28 materials with a smooth surface were tested for initial cell colonization and it was found that the tetradecane contact angle of the materials had a good correlation with cell attachment. The effects of surface texture were evaluated using mesh materials (nylon, polypropylene, high density polyethylene, polyester, aluminum, and stainless steel) with openings ranging from 0.05--6.40 mm. It was found that both surface texture and material composition influence algal attachment.

  4. Autonomous benthic algal cultivator under feedback control of ecosystem metabolism

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An autonomous and internally-controlled techno-ecological hybrid was developed that controls primary production of algae in a laboratory-scale cultivator. The technoecosystem is based on an algal turf scrubber (ATS) system that combines engineered feedback control programming with internal feedback...

  5. Automatic identification of algal community from microscopic images.

    PubMed

    Santhi, Natchimuthu; Pradeepa, Chinnaraj; Subashini, Parthasarathy; Kalaiselvi, Senthil

    2013-01-01

    A good understanding of the population dynamics of algal communities is crucial in several ecological and pollution studies of freshwater and oceanic systems. This paper reviews the subsequent introduction to the automatic identification of the algal communities using image processing techniques from microscope images. The diverse techniques of image preprocessing, segmentation, feature extraction and recognition are considered one by one and their parameters are summarized. Automatic identification and classification of algal community are very difficult due to various factors such as change in size and shape with climatic changes, various growth periods, and the presence of other microbes. Therefore, the significance, uniqueness, and various approaches are discussed and the analyses in image processing methods are evaluated. Algal identification and associated problems in water organisms have been projected as challenges in image processing application. Various image processing approaches based on textures, shapes, and an object boundary, as well as some segmentation methods like, edge detection and color segmentations, are highlighted. Finally, artificial neural networks and some machine learning algorithms were used to classify and identifying the algae. Further, some of the benefits and drawbacks of schemes are examined. PMID:24151424

  6. Studies of the effect of gibberellic acid on algal growth.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Evans, W. K.; Sorokin, C.

    1971-01-01

    The effect of gibberellic acid on exponential growth rate of four strains of Chlorella was investigated under variety of experimental conditions. In concentrations from 10 ppm to 100 ppm, gibberellic acid was shown to have no effect on Chlorella growth. In concentration of 200 ppm, gibberellic acid exerted some unfavorable effect on algal growth.

  7. Numerical simulation of an algal bloom in Dianshan Lake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yizhong; Lin, Weiqing; Zhu, Jianrong; Lu, Shiqiang

    2016-01-01

    A hydrodynamic model and an aquatic ecology model of Dianshan Lake, Shanghai, were built using a hydrodynamic simulation module and the water quality simulation module of Delft3D, which is an integrated modelling suite offered by Deltares. The simulated water elevation, current velocity, and direction were validated with observed data to ensure the reliability of hydrodynamic model. The seasonal growth of different algae was analyzed with consideration of observed and historical data, as well as simulated results. In 2008, the dominant algae in Dianshan Lake was Bacillariophyta from February to March, while it was Chlorophyta from April to May, and Cyanophyta from July to August. In summer, the biomass of Cyanophyta grew quickly, reaching levels much higher than the peaks of Bacillariophyta and Chlorophyta. Algae blooms primarily occurred in the stagnation regions. This phenomenon indicates that water residence time can influence algal growth significantly. A longer water residence time was associated with higher algal growth. Two conclusions were drawn from several simulations: reducing the nutrients inflow had little effect on algal blooms in Dianshan Lake; however, increasing the discharge into Dianshan Lake could change the flow field characteristic and narrow the range of stagnation regions, resulting in inhibition of algal aggregation and propagation and a subsequent reduction in areas of high concentration algae.

  8. Harmful Algal Blooms and Drinking Water Treatment Research

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA has been conducting algal bloom research at multiple facilities around Lake Erie over the past few years to help communities confront the challenge of keeping cyanobacterial toxins from reaching consumers’ taps, while minimizing the financial burden. The first goal of this re...

  9. Effects of marine algal toxins on thermoregulation in mice.

    PubMed

    Gordon, Christopher J; Ramsdell, John S

    2005-01-01

    Hypothermia is often seen in mice and rats exposed acutely to marine algal toxins, but the mechanism of action of these toxins on thermoregulation is not well understood. Our laboratory has assessed the thermoregulatory mechanisms of two marine algal toxins, maitotoxin and brevetoxin in the mouse. Radiotelemetry was used to measure core temperature in the unrestrained mouse while it was housed in a temperature gradient allowing the exhibition of thermoregulatory behavior. Both maitotoxin (338 ng/kg) and brevetoxin (180 microg/kg) were shown to elicit profound hypothermic responses accompanied by a preference for cooler ambient temperatures in the gradient. This behavioral response would suggest that the toxins alter the central neural control of body temperature, resulting in a regulated reduction in body temperature. Following recovery from the acute hypothermic effects of brevetoxin, mice developed an elevation in their daytime core temperature that persisted for several days after exposure. This fever-like response may represent a delayed toxicological effect of the marine algal toxins that is manifested through the thermoregulatory system. Overall, algal toxins have acute and delayed effects on temperature regulation in the mouse. A better understanding of the mechanisms of action of the toxins on thermoregulation should lead to improved methods for treating victims of ciguatera and other toxin exposures. PMID:16111859

  10. Toward on-line measurement of algal properties

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Algai is a potential soruce of large amounts of lipids for conversion to hydrocarbon fuels. Industria-scale algai production requires process control, which further requires sensors to measure critical algal properties. One of the principal properties that needs to be measured in algae production is...

  11. Mechanism of algal aggregation by Bacillus sp. strain RP1137.

    PubMed

    Powell, Ryan J; Hill, Russell T

    2014-07-01

    Alga-derived biofuels are one of the best alternatives for economically replacing liquid fossil fuels with a fungible renewable energy source. Production of fuel from algae is technically feasible but not yet economically viable. Harvest of dilute algal biomass from the surrounding water remains one of the largest barriers to economic production of algal biofuel. We identified Bacillus sp. strain RP1137 in a previous study and showed that this strain can rapidly aggregate several biofuel-producing algae in a pH- and divalent-cation-dependent manner. In this study, we further characterized the mechanism of algal aggregation by RP1137. We show that aggregation of both algae and bacteria is optimal in the exponential phase of growth and that the density of ionizable residues on the RP1137 cell surface changes with growth stage. Aggregation likely occurs via charge neutralization with calcium ions at the cell surface of both algae and bacteria. We show that charge neutralization occurs at least in part through binding of calcium to negatively charged teichoic acid residues. The addition of calcium also renders both algae and bacteria more able to bind to hydrophobic beads, suggesting that aggregation may occur through hydrophobic interactions. Knowledge of the aggregation mechanism may enable engineering of RP1137 to obtain more efficient algal harvesting. PMID:24771029

  12. Effects of solar ultraviolet radiation on tropical algal communities

    SciTech Connect

    Santas, R.

    1989-01-01

    This study assessed some of the effects of solar ultraviolet (UV) radiation ion coral reef algal assemblages. The first part of the investigation was carried out under controlled laboratory conditions in the coral reef microcosm at the National Museum of Natural History in Washington, D.C., while a field counterpart was completed at the Smithsonian Institution's marine station on Grand Turk, Turks and Caicos Islands, in the eastern Caribbean. The study attempted to separate the effects of UV-A from those of UV-B. In the laboratory, algal turf assemblages exposed to simulated solar UV radiation produced 55.1% less biomass than assemblages that were not exposed to UV. Assemblages not exposed to UV were dominated by Ectocarpus rhodochondroides, whereas in the assemblage developing under high UV radiation, Enteromorpha prolifera and eventually Schizothrix calcicola dominated. Lower UV-B irradiances caused a proportional reduction in biomass production and had less pronounced effects on species composition. UV-A did not have any significant effects on either algal turf productivity or community structure. In the field, assemblages exposed to naturally occurring solar UV supported a biomass 40% lower than that of assemblages protected from UV-B exposure. Once again, UV-A did not inhibit algal turf productivity.

  13. Mechanism of Algal Aggregation by Bacillus sp. Strain RP1137

    PubMed Central

    Powell, Ryan J.

    2014-01-01

    Alga-derived biofuels are one of the best alternatives for economically replacing liquid fossil fuels with a fungible renewable energy source. Production of fuel from algae is technically feasible but not yet economically viable. Harvest of dilute algal biomass from the surrounding water remains one of the largest barriers to economic production of algal biofuel. We identified Bacillus sp. strain RP1137 in a previous study and showed that this strain can rapidly aggregate several biofuel-producing algae in a pH- and divalent-cation-dependent manner. In this study, we further characterized the mechanism of algal aggregation by RP1137. We show that aggregation of both algae and bacteria is optimal in the exponential phase of growth and that the density of ionizable residues on the RP1137 cell surface changes with growth stage. Aggregation likely occurs via charge neutralization with calcium ions at the cell surface of both algae and bacteria. We show that charge neutralization occurs at least in part through binding of calcium to negatively charged teichoic acid residues. The addition of calcium also renders both algae and bacteria more able to bind to hydrophobic beads, suggesting that aggregation may occur through hydrophobic interactions. Knowledge of the aggregation mechanism may enable engineering of RP1137 to obtain more efficient algal harvesting. PMID:24771029

  14. Biofertilizers from Algal Treatment of Dairy and Swine Manure Effluents: Characterization of Algal Biomass as a Slow Release Fertilizer

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An alternative practice to land spreading of manure effluents is to grow crops of algae on the nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) present in these liquid slurries. The overall environmental and economic values of this approach depend, in part, on the use and value of the resulting algal byproduct. Am...

  15. Distribution, behavior, and condition of herbivorous fishes on coral reefs track algal resources.

    PubMed

    Tootell, Jesse S; Steele, Mark A

    2016-05-01

    Herbivore distribution can impact community structure and ecosystem function. On coral reefs, herbivores are thought to play an important role in promoting coral dominance, but how they are distributed relative to algae is not well known. Here, we evaluated whether the distribution, behavior, and condition of herbivorous fishes correlated with algal resource availability at six sites in the back reef environment of Moorea, French Polynesia. Specifically, we tested the hypotheses that increased algal turf availability would coincide with (1) increased biomass, (2) altered foraging behavior, and (3) increased energy reserves of herbivorous fishes. Fish biomass and algal cover were visually estimated along underwater transects; behavior of herbivorous fishes was quantified by observations of focal individuals; fish were collected to assess their condition; and algal turf production rates were measured on standardized tiles. The best predictor of herbivorous fish biomass was algal turf production, with fish biomass increasing with algal production. Biomass of herbivorous fishes was also negatively related to sea urchin density, suggesting competition for limited resources. Regression models including both algal turf production and urchin density explained 94 % of the variation in herbivorous fish biomass among sites spread over ~20 km. Behavioral observations of the parrotfish Chlorurus sordidus revealed that foraging area increased as algal turf cover decreased. Additionally, energy reserves increased with algal turf production, but declined with herbivorous fish density, implying that algal turf is a limited resource for this species. Our findings support the hypothesis that herbivorous fishes can spatially track algal resources on coral reefs. PMID:26271287

  16. Swine manure-based pilot-scale algal biomass production system for fuel production and wastewater treatment--a case study.

    PubMed

    Min, Min; Hu, Bing; Mohr, Michael J; Shi, Aimin; Ding, Jinfeng; Sun, Yong; Jiang, Yongcheng; Fu, Zongqiang; Griffith, Richard; Hussain, Fida; Mu, Dongyan; Nie, Yong; Chen, Paul; Zhou, Wenguang; Ruan, Roger

    2014-02-01

    Integration of wastewater treatment with algae cultivation is one of the promising ways to achieve an economically viable and environmentally sustainable algal biofuel production on a commercial scale. This study focused on pilot-scale algal biomass production system development, cultivation process optimization, and integration with swine manure wastewater treatment. The areal algal biomass productivity for the cultivation system that we developed ranged from 8.08 to 14.59 and 19.15-23.19 g/m(2) × day, based on ash-free dry weight and total suspended solid (TSS), respectively, which were higher than or comparable with those in literature. The harvested algal biomass had lipid content about 1.77-3.55%, which was relatively low, but could be converted to bio-oil via fast microwave-assisted pyrolysis system developed in our lab. The lipids in the harvested algal biomass had a significantly higher percentage of total unsaturated fatty acids than those grown in lab conditions, which may be attributed to the observed temperature and light fluctuations. The nutrient removal rate was highly correlated to the biomass productivity. The NH₃-N, TN, COD, and PO₄-P reduction rates for the north-located photo-bioreactor (PBR-N) in July were 2.65, 3.19, 7.21, and 0.067 g/m(2) × day, respectively, which were higher than those in other studies. The cultivation system had advantages of high mixotrophic growth rate, low operating cost, as well as reduced land footprint due to the stacked-tray bioreactor design used in the study. PMID:24203276

  17. Time to Talk: What You Should Know about 5 Popular Herbs (Evening Primrose Oil, St. John's Wort, Fenugreek, Echinacea, ....

    MedlinePlus

    ... brought people to our site are evening primrose oil , St. John’s wort , fenugreek , echinacea , and aloe vera . ... tips about these popular herbal supplements: Evening Primrose Oil. Although evening primrose oil has been used as ...

  18. Are those in need taking dietary supplements? A survey of 21 923 adults.

    PubMed

    Harrison, R A; Holt, D; Pattison, D J; Elton, P J

    2004-04-01

    Many people take dietary supplements, but information on characteristics associated with their use is lacking. The relationship between lifestyle behaviours, morbidity and use of dietary supplements has not been examined and earlier studies have limited applicability to a general population. These issues were addressed in the current study. Information was obtained by postal questionnaire sent to a sample of the general population. The questionnaire was completed by 70.5 % of the sample (15 465 from a total sample of 21 923), with at least one-third (35.5 %) taking dietary supplements. In adjusted analyses, supplement users were more likely to be women, white, home-owners, non-smokers and physically active. Use of vitamin, mineral and/or antioxidant supplements was associated with eating more fruits and vegetables, and taking fish-oil supplements was associated with eating oil-rich fish. A history of CVD or risk factors for CVD reduced the risk of taking vitamins, minerals and/or antioxidants or fish-oil supplements. Those reporting musculoskeletal disorders such as arthritis were more likely to take fish-oil supplements For the first time, we have shown that dietary supplement use is related to different types of morbidity. In particular, people at risk of primary or secondary CVD seem less likely to use dietary supplements, despite possible benefits shown in clinical trials. Public health organisations need to develop guidelines for the public and health professionals regarding the uncontrolled use of dietary supplements in the community. PMID:15035689

  19. A Simple and Rapid Protocol for Measuring Neutral Lipids in Algal Cells Using Fluorescence

    PubMed Central

    Storms, Zachary J.; Cameron, Elliot; de la Hoz Siegler, Hector; McCaffrey, William C.

    2014-01-01

    Algae are considered excellent candidates for renewable fuel sources due to their natural lipid storage capabilities. Robust monitoring of algal fermentation processes and screening for new oil-rich strains requires a fast and reliable protocol for determination of intracellular lipid content. Current practices rely largely on gravimetric methods to determine oil content, techniques developed decades ago that are time consuming and require large sample volumes. In this paper, Nile Red, a fluorescent dye that has been used to identify the presence of lipid bodies in numerous types of organisms, is incorporated into a simple, fast, and reliable protocol for measuring the neutral lipid content of Auxenochlorella protothecoides, a green alga. The method uses ethanol, a relatively mild solvent, to permeabilize the cell membrane before staining and a 96 well micro-plate to increase sample capacity during fluorescence intensity measurements. It has been designed with the specific application of monitoring bioprocess performance. Previously dried samples or live samples from a growing culture can be used in the assay. PMID:24961928

  20. A simple and rapid protocol for measuring neutral lipids in algal cells using fluorescence.

    PubMed

    Storms, Zachary J; Cameron, Elliot; de la Hoz Siegler, Hector; McCaffrey, William C

    2014-01-01

    Algae are considered excellent candidates for renewable fuel sources due to their natural lipid storage capabilities. Robust monitoring of algal fermentation processes and screening for new oil-rich strains requires a fast and reliable protocol for determination of intracellular lipid content. Current practices rely largely on gravimetric methods to determine oil content, techniques developed decades ago that are time consuming and require large sample volumes. In this paper, Nile Red, a fluorescent dye that has been used to identify the presence of lipid bodies in numerous types of organisms, is incorporated into a simple, fast, and reliable protocol for measuring the neutral lipid content of Auxenochlorella protothecoides, a green alga. The method uses ethanol, a relatively mild solvent, to permeabilize the cell membrane before staining and a 96 well micro-plate to increase sample capacity during fluorescence intensity measurements. It has been designed with the specific application of monitoring bioprocess performance. Previously dried samples or live samples from a growing culture can be used in the assay. PMID:24961928

  1. Supplemental information concerning a survey of Alaskan subsistence fish, marine mammal, and invertebrate samples collected 1989-91 for exposure to oil spilled from the Exxon Valdez. Technical memo

    SciTech Connect

    Varanasi, U.; Brown, D.W.; Hom, T.; Burrows, D.G.; Sloan, C.A.

    1993-10-01

    The EXXON Valdez ran aground on Bligh Reef, Prince William Sound, Alaska on March 24, 1989, spilling millions of gallons of Prudhoe Bay crude oil (PBCO). During the weeks following the spill, large amounts of oil flowed towards southwestern Prince William Sound, and as a result, many shorelines were oiled. The spreading of spilled oil raised concerns of native Alaskans that their subsistence seafoods (fish, marine mammals, and invertebrate organisms) were contaminated by the spilled petroleum. In the study, edible flesh of fish, marine mammals, and shellfish from 22 native subsistence food collection areas and from two reference areas (Angoon and Yakutat) were analyzed for aromatic compounds (ACs).

  2. Fuel oil effect on the population growth, species diversity and chlorophyll (a) content of freshwater microalgae.

    PubMed

    El-Dib, M A; Abou-Waly, H F; El-Naby, A H

    2001-06-01

    Fresh water algae were subjected to different concentrations (0.03, 0.07, 0.12, 0.25 and 0.5 g x l(-1)) of aqueous extract of reference fuel oil (EPA, USA, API Oil No. 2, 38% aromatic, 1274). Significant decrease in Chlorophyll. (a) was observed as the concentration of fuel oil was increased. The EC50 value of fuel oil after 7 days was 0.29 g x l(-1). Total algal counts and growth rate decreased in response to the studied fuel oil. High diversity values in diatoms were observed in all treated aqueous cultures. High concentrations of fuel oil significantly decreased carbohydrate and protein contents of algal cells. PMID:11382351

  3. Connecting Florida Bay algal blooms to freshwater nutrient sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blakey, T.; Melesse, A. M.

    2013-12-01

    In this study, monthly water quality data collected in the Everglades by the Southeast Environmental Research Center (SERC) and the South Florida Water Management District (SFWMD) from 1991 to 2008 at 28 sampling stations distributed across Florida Bay was analyzed within the context of local geomorphology and seasonal wind and current regimes in order to evaluate the feasibility of the various purported nutrient sources for reoccurring algal blooms. The in situ chlorophyll-a (chl-a) measurements from the SERC dataset were evaluated as the indicator of algal biomass. Significant differences in average monthly chl-a concentrations at stations indicated a seasonality of algal blooms in the north central and west areas that is not evidenced in stations exhibiting low levels of chl-a throughout the typical year. Tukey's pairwise comparisons of monthly chl-a indicated, at the 95% confidence level, peak algal biomass occurs in October and November at the end of the wet season with minimums occurring between February and August depending on the location of the station. By month comparison of chl-a levels across stations suggest seasonal trends in the geographic focus and extent of blooms. Significant differences from Tukey's pairwise comparisons at the 95% confidence level showed stations to the west as having higher levels of chl-a in March through May with north central stations dominating from June to January. The month of February shows no significant difference in chl-a levels across this area. The results support hypotheses centering on a western source of nutrients that are delivered to the bay over the course of the rainy season. Mapping water quality sampling station locations on top of the bathymetry of Florida Bay illustrates the importance of considering coastal morphology in explaining trends in estuarine algal blooms. Coastal geomorphology along with seasonal changes in the direction of winds and magnitude of rains are demonstrated to be the predominant

  4. Multivitamin/Mineral Supplements

    MedlinePlus

    ... Nutrient recommendations: Dietary Reference Intakes (DRI) Online DRI tool Daily Value (DV) tables For more advice on buying dietary supplements: Office of Dietary Supplements Frequently Asked Questions: Which brand(s) ...

  5. Children and Dietary Supplements

    MedlinePlus

    ... NCCIH Clinical Digest for health professionals Children and Dietary Supplements Share: September 2012 © Matthew Lester Research has shown that many children use herbs and other dietary supplements. However, there are little data available on their ...

  6. A hetero-photoautotrophic two-stage cultivation process to improve wastewater nutrient removal and enhance algal lipid accumulation.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Wenguang; Min, Min; Li, Yecong; Hu, Bing; Ma, Xiaochen; Cheng, Yanling; Liu, Yuhuan; Chen, Paul; Ruan, Roger

    2012-04-01

    A hetero-photoautotrophic algal growth model was studied for improved wastewater treatment and low cost algal biofuel feedstock production. The microalga, Auxenochlorella protothecoides UMN280, was grown heterotrophically on concentrated municipal wastewater and then autotrophically with CO(2) supplementation (air, 1% and 5%, respectively). Strain UMN280 was harvested by self-sedimentation after the heterotrophic stage and the supernatant was aerated with different levels of CO(2) to facilitate autotrophic growth in the second stage. The maximal biomass concentration and lipid content at the first and second stages reached 1.12g/L and 28.90%, and 1.16g/L and 33.22%, respectively. The nutrient removal efficiencies for total phosphorus, ammonia, nitrogen and chemical oxygen demand at the end of the two-stage cultivation were 98.48%, 100%, 90.60% and 79.10%, respectively. The above process can be used to treat organic-rich wastewaters (e.g. industrial and animal manure wastewaters) to achieve the dual purpose of low-cost wastewater treatment and biofuel feedstock production. PMID:22326332

  7. Unraveling algal lipid metabolism: Recent advances in gene identification.

    PubMed

    Khozin-Goldberg, Inna; Cohen, Zvi

    2011-01-01

    Microalgae are now the focus of intensive research due to their potential as a renewable feedstock for biodiesel. This research requires a thorough understanding of the biochemistry and genetics of these organisms' lipid-biosynthesis pathways. Genes encoding lipid-biosynthesis enzymes can now be identified in the genomes of various eukaryotic microalgae. However, an examination of the predicted proteins at the biochemical and molecular levels is mandatory to verify their function. The essential molecular and genetic tools are now available for a comprehensive characterization of genes coding for enzymes of the lipid-biosynthesis pathways in some algal species. This review mainly summarizes the novel information emerging from recently obtained algal gene identification. PMID:20709142

  8. Didymosphenia geminata: Algal blooms in oligotrophic streams and rivers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sundareshwar, P. V.; Upadhayay, S.; Abessa, M.; Honomichl, S.; Berdanier, B.; Spaulding, S. A.; Sandvik, C.; Trennepohl, A.

    2011-05-01

    In recent decades, the diatom Didymosphenia geminata has emerged as nuisance species in river systems around the world. This periphytic alga forms large “blooms” in temperate streams, presenting a counterintuitive result: the blooms occur primarily in oligotrophic streams and rivers, where phosphorus (P) availability typically limits primary production. The goal of this study is to examine how high algal biomass is formed under low P conditions. We reveal a biogeochemical process by which D. geminata mats concentrate P from flowing waters. First, the mucopolysaccaride stalks of D. geminata adsorb both iron (Fe) and P. Second, enzymatic and bacterial processes interact with Fe to increase the biological availability of P. We propose that a positive feedback between total stalk biomass and high growth rate is created, which results in abundant P for cell division. The affinity of stalks for Fe in association with iron-phosphorus biogeochemistry suggest a resolution to the paradox of algal blooms in oliogotrophic streams and rivers.

  9. Algal Lipid Extraction and Upgrading to Hydrocarbons Technology Pathway

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, Ryan; Biddy, Mary J.; Jones, Susanne B.

    2013-03-31

    In support of the Bioenergy Technologies Office, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) are undertaking studies of biomass conversion technologies to identify barriers and target research toward reducing conversion costs. Process designs and preliminary economic estimates for each of these pathway cases were developed using rigorous modeling tools (Aspen Plus and Chemcad). These analyses incorporated the best information available at the time of development, including data from recent pilot and bench-scale demonstrations, collaborative industrial and academic partners, and published literature and patents. This technology pathway case investigates the cultivation of algal biomass followed by further lipid extraction and upgrading to hydrocarbon biofuels. Technical barriers and key research needs have been assessed in order for the algal lipid extraction and upgrading pathway to be competitive with petroleum-derived gasoline, diesel and jet range hydrocarbon blendstocks.

  10. Phenolic content and antioxidant capacity in algal food products.

    PubMed

    Machu, Ludmila; Misurcova, Ladislava; Ambrozova, Jarmila Vavra; Orsavova, Jana; Mlcek, Jiri; Sochor, Jiri; Jurikova, Tunde

    2015-01-01

    The study objective was to investigate total phenolic content using Folin-Ciocalteu's method, to assess nine phenols by HPLC, to determine antioxidant capacity of the water soluble compounds (ACW) by a photochemiluminescence method, and to calculate the correlation coefficients in commercial algal food products from brown (Laminaria japonica, Eisenia bicyclis, Hizikia fusiformis, Undaria pinnatifida) and red (Porphyra tenera, Palmaria palmata) seaweed, green freshwater algae (Chlorella pyrenoidosa), and cyanobacteria (Spirulina platensis). HPLC analysis showed that the most abundant phenolic compound was epicatechin. From spectrophotometry and ACW determination it was evident that brown seaweed Eisenia bicyclis was the sample with the highest phenolic and ACW values (193 mg·g-1 GAE; 7.53 µmol AA·g-1, respectively). A linear relationship existed between ACW and phenolic contents (r = 0.99). Some algal products seem to be promising functional foods rich in polyphenols. PMID:25587787

  11. Export of algal biomass from the melting Arctic sea ice.

    PubMed

    Boetius, Antje; Albrecht, Sebastian; Bakker, Karel; Bienhold, Christina; Felden, Janine; Fernández-Méndez, Mar; Hendricks, Stefan; Katlein, Christian; Lalande, Catherine; Krumpen, Thomas; Nicolaus, Marcel; Peeken, Ilka; Rabe, Benjamin; Rogacheva, Antonina; Rybakova, Elena; Somavilla, Raquel; Wenzhöfer, Frank

    2013-03-22

    In the Arctic, under-ice primary production is limited to summer months and is restricted not only by ice thickness and snow cover but also by the stratification of the water column, which constrains nutrient supply for algal growth. Research Vessel Polarstern visited the ice-covered eastern-central basins between 82° to 89°N and 30° to 130°E in summer 2012, when Arctic sea ice declined to a record minimum. During this cruise, we observed a widespread deposition of ice algal biomass of on average 9 grams of carbon per square meter to the deep-sea floor of the central Arctic basins. Data from this cruise will contribute to assessing the effect of current climate change on Arctic productivity, biodiversity, and ecological function. PMID:23413190

  12. A Taste of Algal Genomes from the Joint Genome Institute

    SciTech Connect

    Kuo, Alan; Grigoriev, Igor

    2012-06-17

    Algae play profound roles in aquatic food chains and the carbon cycle, can impose health and economic costs through toxic blooms, provide models for the study of symbiosis, photosynthesis, and eukaryotic evolution, and are candidate sources for bio-fuels; all of these research areas are part of the mission of DOE's Joint Genome Institute (JGI). To date JGI has sequenced, assembled, annotated, and released to the public the genomes of 18 species and strains of algae, sampling almost all of the major clades of photosynthetic eukaryotes. With more algal genomes cu