Science.gov

Sample records for algal organic matter

  1. Dissolved organic matter reduces algal accumulation of methylmercury

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Luengen, Allison C.; Fisher, Nicholas S.; Bergamaschi, Brian A.

    2012-01-01

    Dissolved organic matter (DOM) significantly decreased accumulation of methylmercury (MeHg) by the diatom Cyclotella meneghiniana in laboratory experiments. Live diatom cells accumulated two to four times more MeHg than dead cells, indicating that accumulation may be partially an energy-requiring process. Methylmercury enrichment in diatoms relative to ambient water was measured by a volume concentration factor (VCF). Without added DOM, the maximum VCF was 32 x 104, and the average VCF (from 10 to 72 h) over all experiments was 12.6 x 104. At very low (1.5 mg/L) added DOM, VCFs dropped by approximately half. At very high (20 mg/L) added DOM, VCFs dropped 10-fold. Presumably, MeHg was bound to a variety of reduced sulfur sites on the DOM, making it unavailable for uptake. Diatoms accumulated significantly more MeHg when exposed to transphilic DOM extracts than hydrophobic ones. However, algal lysate, a labile type of DOM created by resuspending a marine diatom in freshwater, behaved similarly to a refractory DOM isolate from San Francisco Bay. Addition of 67 μM L-cysteine resulted in the largest drop in VCFs, to 0.28 x 104. Although the DOM composition influenced the availability of MeHg to some extent, total DOM concentration was the most important factor in determining algal bioaccumulation of MeHg.

  2. Biodegradability of algal-derived organic matter in a large artificial lake by using stable isotope tracers.

    PubMed

    Lee, Yeonjung; Lee, Bomi; Hur, Jin; Min, Jun-Oh; Ha, Sun-Yong; Ra, Kongtae; Kim, Kyung-Tae; Shin, Kyung-Hoon

    2016-05-01

    In order to understand the biodegradability of algal-derived organic matter, biodegradation experiments were conducted with (13)C and (15)N-labeled natural phytoplankton and periphytic algal populations in experimental conditions for 60 days. Qualitative changes in the dissolved organic matter were also determined using parallel factor analysis and the stable carbon isotopic composition of the hydrophobic dissolved organic matter through the experimental period. Although algal-derived organic matter is considered to be easily biodegradable, the initial amounts of total organic carbon newly produced by phytoplankton and periphytic algae remained approximately 16 and 44 % after 60 days, respectively, and about 22 and 43 % of newly produced particulate nitrogen remained. Further, the dissolved organic carbon derived from both algal populations increased significantly after 60 days. Although the dissolved organic matter gradually became refractory, the contributions of the algal-derived organic matter to the dissolved organic matter and hydrophobic dissolved organic matter increased. Our laboratory experimental results suggest that algal-derived organic matter produced by phytoplankton and periphytic algae could contribute significantly to the non-biodegradable organic matter through microbial transformations. PMID:26780057

  3. Bioavailability of organic matter in a highly disturbed Estuary: The role of detrital and algal resources

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sobczak, W.V.; Cloern, J.E.; Jassby, A.D.; Muller-Solger, A. B.

    2002-01-01

    The importance of algal and detrital food supplies to the planktonic food web of a highly disturbed, estuarine ecosystem was evaluated in response to declining zooplankton and fish populations. We assessed organic matter bioavailability among a diversity of habitats and hydrologic inputs over 2 years in San Francisco Estuary's Sacramento-San Joaquin River Delta. Results show that bioavailable dissolved organic carbon from external riverine sources supports a large component of ecosystem metabolism. However, bioavailable particulate organic carbon derived primarily from internal phytoplankton production is the dominant food supply to the planktonic food web. The relative importance of phytoplankton as a food source is surprising because phytoplankton production is a small component of the ecosystem's organic-matter mass balance. Our results indicate that management plans aimed at modifying the supply of organic matter to riverine, estuarine, and coastal food webs need to incorporate the potentially wide nutritional range represented by different organic matter sources.

  4. Bioavailability of organic matter in a highly disturbed estuary: The role of detrital and algal resources

    PubMed Central

    Sobczak, William V.; Cloern, James E.; Jassby, Alan D.; Müller-Solger, Anke B.

    2002-01-01

    The importance of algal and detrital food supplies to the planktonic food web of a highly disturbed, estuarine ecosystem was evaluated in response to declining zooplankton and fish populations. We assessed organic matter bioavailability among a diversity of habitats and hydrologic inputs over 2 years in San Francisco Estuary's Sacramento–San Joaquin River Delta. Results show that bioavailable dissolved organic carbon from external riverine sources supports a large component of ecosystem metabolism. However, bioavailable particulate organic carbon derived primarily from internal phytoplankton production is the dominant food supply to the planktonic food web. The relative importance of phytoplankton as a food source is surprising because phytoplankton production is a small component of the ecosystem's organic-matter mass balance. Our results indicate that management plans aimed at modifying the supply of organic matter to riverine, estuarine, and coastal food webs need to incorporate the potentially wide nutritional range represented by different organic matter sources. PMID:12060756

  5. Characterisation of algal organic matter produced by bloom-forming marine and freshwater algae.

    PubMed

    Villacorte, L O; Ekowati, Y; Neu, T R; Kleijn, J M; Winters, H; Amy, G; Schippers, J C; Kennedy, M D

    2015-04-15

    Algal blooms can seriously affect the operation of water treatment processes including low pressure (micro- and ultra-filtration) and high pressure (nanofiltration and reverse osmosis) membranes mainly due to accumulation of algal-derived organic matter (AOM). In this study, the different components of AOM extracted from three common species of bloom-forming algae (Alexandrium tamarense, Chaetoceros affinis and Microcystis sp.) were characterised employing various analytical techniques, such as liquid chromatography - organic carbon detection, fluorescence spectroscopy, fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, alcian blue staining and lectin staining coupled with laser scanning microscopy to indentify its composition and force measurement using atomic force microscopy to measure its stickiness. Batch culture monitoring of the three algal species illustrated varying characteristics in terms of growth pattern, cell concentration and AOM release. The AOM produced by the three algal species comprised mainly biopolymers (e.g., polysaccharides and proteins) but some refractory compounds (e.g., humic-like substances) and other low molecular weight acid and neutral compounds were also found. Biopolymers containing fucose and sulphated functional groups were found in all AOM samples while the presence of other functional groups varied between different species. A large majority (>80%) of the acidic polysaccharide components (in terms of transparent exopolymer particles) were found in the colloidal size range (<0.4 μm). The relative stickiness of AOM substantially varied between algal species and that the cohesion between AOM-coated surfaces was much stronger than the adhesion of AOM on AOM-free surfaces. Overall, the composition as well as the physico-chemical characteristics (e.g., stickiness) of AOM will likely dictate the severity of fouling in membrane systems during algal blooms. PMID:25682049

  6. Characteristic changes in algal organic matter derived from Microcystis aeruginosa in microbial fuel cells.

    PubMed

    Wang, Huan; Lu, Lu; Liu, Dongmei; Cui, Fuyi; Wang, Peng

    2015-11-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate behavior of algal organic matter (AOM) during bioelectrochemical oxidation in microbial fuel cell in terms of compositions and structures. Study revealed that the AOM derived from blue-green algae Microcystis aeruginosa could be degraded more completely (82% COD removal) in microbial fuel cells (MFCs) than by anaerobic fermentation (24% COD removal) in a control reactor without closed-circuit electrode and electricity was produced simultaneously. A variety of techniques were used to characterize the changes in AOM compositions and structures during bioelectrochemical oxidation. The presence of syntrophic interactions between electrochemical active bacteria and fermentative bacteria to degrade large molecular organics into small molecular substances, which could be oxidized by electrode but not by fermentation. The dominant tryptophan protein-like substances, humic acid-like substances and Chlorophyll a in AOM were highly degraded during MFC treatment. PMID:26081162

  7. Inhibition of Alkaline Flocculation by Algal Organic Matter for Chlorella vulgaris

    SciTech Connect

    Vandamme, Dries; Beuckels, Annelies; Vadelius, Eric; Depraetere, Orily; Noppe, Wim; Dutta, Abhishek; Foubert, Imogen; Laurens, Lieve; Muylaert, Koenraad

    2016-01-01

    Alkaline flocculation is a promising strategy for the concentration of microalgae for bulk biomass production. However, previous studies have shown that biological changes during the cultivation negatively affect flocculation efficiency. The influence of changes in cell properties and in the quality and composition of algal organic matter (AOM) were studied using Chlorella vulgaris as a model species. In batch cultivation, flocculation was increasingly inhibited over time and mainly influenced by changes in medium composition, rather than biological changes at the cell surface. Total carbohydrate content of the organic matter fraction sized bigger than 3 kDa increased over time and this fraction was shown to be mainly responsible for the inhibition of alkaline flocculation. The monosaccharide identification of this fraction mainly showed the presence of neutral and anionic monosaccharides. An addition of 30–50 mg L-1 alginic acid, as a model for anionic carbohydrate polymers containing uronic acids, resulted in a complete inhibition of flocculation. Furthermore, these results suggest that inhibition of alkaline flocculation was caused by interaction of anionic polysaccharides leading to an increased flocculant demand over time.

  8. Inhibition of alkaline flocculation by algal organic matter for Chlorella vulgaris.

    PubMed

    Vandamme, Dries; Beuckels, Annelies; Vadelius, Eric; Depraetere, Orily; Noppe, Wim; Dutta, Abhishek; Foubert, Imogen; Laurens, Lieve; Muylaert, Koenraad

    2016-01-01

    Alkaline flocculation is a promising strategy for the concentration of microalgae for bulk biomass production. However, previous studies have shown that biological changes during the cultivation negatively affect flocculation efficiency. The influence of changes in cell properties and in the quality and composition of algal organic matter (AOM) were studied using Chlorella vulgaris as a model species. In batch cultivation, flocculation was increasingly inhibited over time and mainly influenced by changes in medium composition, rather than biological changes at the cell surface. Total carbohydrate content of the organic matter fraction sized bigger than 3 kDa increased over time and this fraction was shown to be mainly responsible for the inhibition of alkaline flocculation. The monosaccharide identification of this fraction mainly showed the presence of neutral and anionic monosaccharides. The addition of 30-50 mg L(-1) alginic acid, as a model for anionic carbohydrate polymers containing uronic acids, resulted in a complete inhibition of flocculation. These results suggest that inhibition of alkaline flocculation was caused by interaction of anionic polysaccharides leading to an increased flocculant demand over time. PMID:26512808

  9. Contrasting UV-Vis Spectra of Terrestrial and Algal Derived Dissolved Organic Matter.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adams, Jessica; Tipping, Edward; Scholefield, Paul; Feuchtmayr, Heidrun; Carter, Heather; Keenan, Patrick

    2016-04-01

    Dissolved organic matter (DOM) is an important freshwater component. It controls aquatic ecological and biochemical cycling, and can be problematic in industrial water treatment. Thus, the demand for effective and reliable monitoring is growing. The heterogeneity of the spectroscopic properties of DOM are such that measurements of absorbance at a single wavelength cannot provide accurate predictions of [DOC]. Previous construction of a two-component model, based on the combination of absorbance at two wavelengths and a constant accountable for non-absorbing DOM, resulted in good predictions of [DOC] across approximately 1800 different freshwater systems (R2=0.99). However, there were isolated cases where the model appreciably underestimated [DOC], including shallow lakes and reservoirs in the Yangtze basin, China where waters were deemed to be highly eutrophic. Here, we used a revised series of samples, from small scale algal dominated microcosms, mesocosms and catchment scale field samples to explore the capability of the two component model in situations where algae may be the dominant producer of aquatic DOC. Absorbances were measured using a laboratory based UV-Vis spectrometer and subsamples were also analysed through combustion and infra-red detection. In both the microcosms and mesocosms, the model failed to provide a reliable fit, and [DOC] was considerably underestimated. At the field scale, analysis of 55 samples from a combination of reservoirs, arable ponds, streams and rivers produced mostly reliable predictions of [DOC] (R2=0.96), which can be attributed to the dominant input of terrestrial DOM. Samples of shallow, enclosed meres from the North-West of the UK showed hints of similar behaviour to that of the Chinese lakes, suggesting some influences from algal DOM. Our results therefore provide evidence that algae may produce complex forms of DOM that harbour different spectroscopic properties to terrestrially derived material, in the UV spectral range.

  10. CHROMOPHORIC DISSOLVED ORGANIC MATTER (CDOM) DERIVED FROM DECOMPOSITION OF VARIOUS VASCULAR PLANT AND ALGAL SOURCES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Chromophoric dissolved organic (CDOM) in aquatic environments is derived from the microbial decomposition of terrestrial and microbial organic matter. Here we present results of studies of the spectral properties and photoreactivity of the CDOM derived from several organic matter...

  11. Algal exudates and stream organic matter influence the structure and function of denitrifying bacterial communities.

    PubMed

    Kalscheur, Kathryn N; Rojas, Miguel; Peterson, Christopher G; Kelly, John J; Gray, Kimberly A

    2012-11-01

    Within aquatic ecosystems, periphytic biofilms can be hot spots of denitrification, and previous work has suggested that algal taxa within periphyton can influence the species composition and activity of resident denitrifying bacteria. This study tested the hypothesis that algal species composition within biofilms influences the structure and function of associated denitrifying bacterial communities through the composition of organic exudates. A mixed population of bacteria was incubated with organic carbon isolated from one of seven algal species or from one of two streams that differed in anthropogenic inputs. Pyrolysis-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (Py-GC/MS) revealed differences in the organic composition of algal exudates and stream waters, which, in turn, selected for distinct bacterial communities. Organic carbon source had a significant effect on potential denitrification rates (DNP) of the communities, with organics isolated from a stream with high anthropogenic inputs resulting in a bacterial community with the highest DNP. There was no correlation between DNP and numbers of denitrifiers (based on nirS copy numbers), but there was a strong relationship between the species composition of denitrifier communities (as indicated by tag pyrosequencing of nosZ genes) and DNP. Specifically, the relative abundance of Pseudomonas stutzeri-like nosZ sequences across treatments correlated significantly with DNP, and bacterial communities incubated with organic carbon from the stream with high anthropogenic inputs had the highest relative abundance of P. stutzeri-like nosZ sequences. These results demonstrate a significant relationship between bacterial community composition and function and provide evidence of the potential impacts of anthropogenic inputs on the structure and function of stream microbial communities. PMID:22828897

  12. Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS) coupled to XAD fractionation: Method to algal organic matter characterization.

    PubMed

    Nicolau, Rudy; Leloup, Maud; Lachassagne, Delphine; Pinault, Emilie; Feuillade-Cathalifaud, Geneviève

    2015-05-01

    This work is focused on the development of an analytical procedure for the improvement of the Organic Matter structure characterization, particularly the algal matter. Two fractions of algal organic matter from laboratory cultures of algae (Euglena gracilis) and cyanobacteria (Microcystis aeruginosa) were extracted with XAD resins. The fractions were studied using laser desorption ionization (LDI) and Matrix-Assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF). A comparison with the natural organic matter characteristics from commercial humic acids and fulvic acids extracted from Suwannee River was performed. Results show that algal and natural organic matters have unique quasi-polymeric structures. Significant repeating patterns were identified. Different fractions extracted from organic matter with common origin had common structures. Thus, 44, 114 and 169Da peaks separation for fractions from E. gracilis organic matter and 28, 58 and 100Da for M. aeruginosa ones were clearly observed. Using the developed protocol, a structural scheme and organic matter composition were obtained. The range 600-2000Da contained more architectural composition differences than the range 100-600Da, suggesting that organic matter is composed of an assembly of common small molecules. Associated to specific monomers, particular patterns were common to all samples but assembly and resulting structure were unique for each organic matter. Thus, XAD fractionation coupled to mass spectroscopy allowed determining a specific fingerprint for each organic matter. PMID:25702991

  13. Impact of algal organic matter released from Microcystis aeruginosa and Chlorella sp. on the fouling of a ceramic microfiltration membrane.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiaolei; Devanadera, Ma Catriona E; Roddick, Felicity A; Fan, Linhua; Dalida, Maria Lourdes P

    2016-10-15

    Algal blooms lead to the secretion of algal organic matter (AOM) from different algal species into water treatment systems, and there is very limited information regarding the impact of AOM from different species on the fouling of ceramic microfiltration (MF) membranes. The impact of soluble AOM released from Microcystis aeruginosa and Chlorella sp. separately and together in feedwater on the fouling of a tubular ceramic microfiltration membrane (alumina, 0.1 μm) was studied at lab scale. Multi-cycle MF tests operated in constant pressure mode showed that the AOM (3 mg DOC L(-1)) extracted from the cultures of the two algae in early log phase of growth (12 days) resulted in less flux decline compared with the AOM from stationary phase (35 days), due to the latter containing significantly greater amounts of high fouling potential components (protein and humic-like substances). The AOM released from Chlorella sp. at stationary phase led to considerably greater flux decline and irreversible fouling resistance compared with that from M. aeruginosa. The mixture of the AOM (1:1, 3 mg DOC L(-1)) from the two algal species showed more similar flux decline and irreversible fouling resistance to the AOM from M. aeruginosa than Chlorella sp. This was due to the characteristics of the AOM mixture being more similar to those for M. aeruginosa than Chlorella sp. The extent of the flux decline for the AOM mixture after conventional coagulation with aluminium chlorohydrate or alum was reduced by 70%. PMID:27486951

  14. Assessing Transformations of Algal Organic Matter in the Long-Term: Impacts of Humification-Like Processes.

    PubMed

    Leloup, Maud; Pallier, Virginie; Nicolau, Rudy; Feuillade-Cathalifaud, Geneviève

    2015-01-01

    Algae and cyanobacteria are important contributors to the natural organic matter (NOM) of eutrophic water resources. The objective of this work is to increase knowledge on the modifications of algal organic matter (AOM) properties in the long term to anticipate blooms footprint in such aquatic environments. The production of AOM from an alga (Euglena gracilis) and a cyanobacteria (Microcystis aeruginosa) was followed up and characterized during the stationary phase and after one year and four months of cultivation, in batch experiments. Specific UV absorbance (SUVA) index, organic matter fractionation according to hydrophobicity and apparent molecular weight were combined to assess the evolution of AOM. A comparison between humic substances (HS) mainly derived from allochthonous origins and AOM characteristics was performed to hypothesize impacts of AOM transformation processes on the water quality of eutrophic water resources. Each AOM fraction underwent a specific evolution pattern, depending on its composition. Impacts of humification-like processes were predominant over release of biopolymers due to cells decay and led to an increase in the hydrophobic compounds part and molecular weights over time. However, the hydrophilic fraction remained the major fraction whatever the growth stage. Organic compounds generated by maturation of these precursors corresponded to large and aliphatic structures. PMID:26251898

  15. Assessing Transformations of Algal Organic Matter in the Long-Term: Impacts of Humification-Like Processes

    PubMed Central

    Leloup, Maud; Pallier, Virginie; Nicolau, Rudy; Feuillade-Cathalifaud, Geneviève

    2015-01-01

    Algae and cyanobacteria are important contributors to the natural organic matter (NOM) of eutrophic water resources. The objective of this work is to increase knowledge on the modifications of algal organic matter (AOM) properties in the long term to anticipate blooms footprint in such aquatic environments. The production of AOM from an alga (Euglena gracilis) and a cyanobacteria (Microcystis aeruginosa) was followed up and characterized during the stationary phase and after one year and four months of cultivation, in batch experiments. Specific UV absorbance (SUVA) index, organic matter fractionation according to hydrophobicity and apparent molecular weight were combined to assess the evolution of AOM. A comparison between humic substances (HS) mainly derived from allochthonous origins and AOM characteristics was performed to hypothesize impacts of AOM transformation processes on the water quality of eutrophic water resources. Each AOM fraction underwent a specific evolution pattern, depending on its composition. Impacts of humification-like processes were predominant over release of biopolymers due to cells decay and led to an increase in the hydrophobic compounds part and molecular weights over time. However, the hydrophilic fraction remained the major fraction whatever the growth stage. Organic compounds generated by maturation of these precursors corresponded to large and aliphatic structures. PMID:26251898

  16. PHOTOREACTIVITY OF CHROMOPHORIC DISSOLVED ORGANIC MATTER (CDOM) DERIVED FROM DECOMPOSITION OF VARIOUS VASCULAR PLANT AND ALGAL SOURCES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM) in aquatic environments is derived from the microbial decomposition of terrestrial and microbial organic matter. Here we present results of studies of the spectral properties and photoreactivity of the CDOM derived from several organi...

  17. Effect of nitrogen/phosphorus concentration on algal organic matter generation of the diatom Nitzschia palea: Total indicators and spectroscopic characterization.

    PubMed

    Han, Linlin; Xu, Bingbing; Qi, Fei; Chen, Zhonglin

    2016-09-01

    Critical algal blooms in great lakes increase the level of algal organic matters (AOMs), significantly altering the composition of natural organic matters (NOMs) in freshwater of lake. This study examined the AOM's characteristics of Nitzschia palea (N. palea), one kind of the predominant diatom and an important biomarker of water quality in the great lakes of China, to investigate the effect of AOMs on the variation of NOMs in lakes and the process of algal energy. Excitation-emission matrix fluorescence (EEM) spectroscopy, synchronous fluorescence (SF) spectroscopy and deconvolution UV-vis (D-UV) spectroscopy were utilized to characterize AOMs to study the effects of nutrient loading on the composition change of AOMs. From results, it was revealed that the phosphorus is the limiting factor for N. palea's growth and the generation of both total organic carbon and amino acids but the nitrogen is more important for the generation of carbohydrates and proteins. EEM spectra revealed differences in the composition of extracellular organic matter and intracellular organic matter. Regardless of the nitrogen and phosphorus concentrations, aromatic proteins and soluble microbial products were the main components, but the nitrogen concentration had a significant impact on their composition. The SF spectra were used to study the AOMs for the first time and identified that the protein-like substances were the major component of AOMs, creating as a result of aromatic group condensation. The D-UV spectra showed carboxylic acid and esters were the main functional groups in the EOMs, with -OCH3, -SO2NH2, -CN, -NH2, -O- and -COCH3 functional groups substituting into benzene rings. PMID:27593280

  18. Impact of pre-ozonation on disinfection by-product formation and speciation from chlor(am)ination of algal organic matter of Microcystis aeruginosa.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Mingqiu; Gao, Naiyun; Chu, Wenhai; Zhou, Shiqing; Zhang, Zhengde; Xu, Yaqun; Dai, Qi

    2015-10-01

    The increasing use of algal-impacted source waters is increasing concerns over exposure to disinfection byproducts (DBPs) in drinking water disinfection, due to the higher concentrations of DBP precursors in these waters. The impact of pre-ozonation on the formation and speciation of DBPs during subsequent chlorination and chloramination of algal organic matter (AOM), including extracellular organic matter (EOM) and intracellular organic matter (IOM), was investigated. During subsequent chlorination, ozonation pretreatment reduced the formation of haloacetonitriles from EOM, but increased the yields of trihalomethanes, dihaloacetic acid and trichloronitromethane from both EOM and IOM. While in chloramination, pre-ozonation remarkably enhanced the yields of several carbonaceous DBPs from IOM, and significantly minimized the nitrogenous DBP precursors. Also, the yield of 1,1-dichloro-2-propanone from IOM was decreased by 24.0% after pre-ozonation during chloramination. Both increases and decreases in the bromine substitution factors (BSF) of AOM were observed with ozone pretreatment at the low bromide level (50μg/L). However, pre-ozonation played little impact on the bromide substitution in DBPs at the high bromide level (500μg/L). This information was used to guide the design and practical operation of pre-ozonation in drinking water treatment plants using algae-rich waters. PMID:26093107

  19. Prechlorination of algae-laden water: The effects of transportation time on cell integrity, algal organic matter release, and chlorinated disinfection byproduct formation.

    PubMed

    Qi, Jing; Lan, Huachun; Liu, Ruiping; Miao, Shiyu; Liu, Huijuan; Qu, Jiuhui

    2016-10-01

    The prechlorination-induced algal organic matter (AOM) released from Microcystis aeruginosa (M. aeruginosa) cells has been reported to serve as a source of precursors for chlorinated disinfection byproducts (DBPs). However, previous studies have mainly focused on the precursors either extracted directly from the cell suspension or derived immediately after algal suspension prechlorination. This study aims to investigate the impacts of water transportation time after algal suspension prechlorination on cell integrity, AOM release, and DBP formation during the dissolved phase chlorination. The damage to cell integrity after prechlorination was indicated to depend not only on chlorine dose but also on transportation time. The highest dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and dissolved organic nitrogen (DON) values were observed at 2 mg/L chlorine preoxidation before transportation, but were obtained at 0.4 mg/L chlorine after 480-min simulated transportation. The variation of DON with transportation time was indicated to be mainly influenced by the small molecular weight nitrogenous organic compounds, such as amino acids. Additionally, formation of the corresponding chlorinated carbonaceous disinfection byproducts (C-DBPs) and nitrogenous disinfection byproducts (N-DBPs) during the dissolved phase chlorination showed the same variation tendency as DOC and DON respectively. The highest C-DBP (98.4 μg/L) and N-DBP (5.5 μg/L) values were obtained at 0.4 mg/L chlorine preoxidation after 480-min simulated transportation. Therefore, when prechlorination is applied for algae-laden water pretreatment, not only chlorine dose but also transportation time needs to be considered with regard to their effects on cell integrity, AOM release, and chlorinated DBP formation. PMID:27348194

  20. Harmful algal blooms (HABs), dissolved organic matter (DOM), and planktonic microbial community dynamics at a near-shore and a harbour station influenced by upwelling (SW Iberian Peninsula)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loureiro, Sofia; Reñé, Albert; Garcés, Esther; Camp, Jordi; Vaqué, Dolors

    2011-05-01

    The surface microalgal community, including harmful species, dissolved organic matter (DOM), and bacterial and viral populations were studied during an annual cycle (November 2007-October 2008) in a Near-shore (NS) and a Harbour (H) station located in an upwelling area (Sagres, SW Iberian Peninsula). The higher water residence time, water stability and shallowness of harbours in comparison with open waters likely contributed to the differences found between stations regarding chemical variables, statistical correlations and harmful algal proliferations. Also, several differences were noticed from a previous assessment ( Loureiro et al., 2005) including higher SST, lower nitrate and chlorophyll a concentrations, along with a shift in the microplankton community structure from diatom to nanoflagellate predominance. These variations feasibly reflect the response of this dynamic system to regional environmental modifications contributing to the understanding of common patterns in environmental change trends. The division of the sampling period into (1) non-upwelling (Non-Uw), (2) "spin-up" of upwelling (SU-Uw), and (3) "spin-down" and relaxation-downwelling (SD-Rel) stages allowed the identification of natural groupings of microplankton samples by Multi Dimensional Scaling (MDS) analysis. Dissolved organic nitrogen (DON) and viruses were the most significant abiotic and biotic variables, respectively, contributing to the dissimilarities between these stages (SIMPER analysis) and, therefore, potentially affecting the microplankton community structure. Harmful algal species and a stable viral community appeared to be favoured by SD-Rel conditions. Data seem to indicate that both Gymnodinium catenatum and Heterosigma akashiwo, the most abundant potentially harmful species, have been imported into the sampling area. Also, the H location, together with potential retention sites developing around the Cabo de São Vicente upwelling centre, may contribute to the local

  1. Algal Flocculation with Synthetic Organic Polyelectrolytes

    PubMed Central

    Tenney, Mark W.; Echelberger, Wayne F.; Schuessler, Ronald G.; Pavoni, Joseph L.

    1969-01-01

    The feasibility of removing algae from water and wastewater by chemical flocculation techniques was investigated. Mixed cultures of algae were obtained from both continuous- and batch-fed laboratory reactors. Representative cationic, anionic, and nonionic synthetic organic polyelectrolytes were used as flocculants. Under the experimental conditions, chemically induced algal flocculation occurred with the addition of cationic polyelectrolyte, but not with anionic or nonionic polymers, although attachment of all polyelectrolyte species to the algal surface is shown. The mechanism of chemically induced algal flocculation is interpreted in terms of bridging phenomena between the discrete algal cells and the linearly extended polymer chains, forming a three-dimensional matrix that is capable of subsiding under quiescent conditions. The degree of flocculation is shown to be a direct function of the extent of polymer coverage of the active sites on the algal surface, although to induce flocculation by this method requires that the algal surface charge must concurrently be reduced to a level at which the extended polymers can bridge the minimal distance of separation imposed by electrostatic repulsion. The influence of pH, algal concentration, and algal growth phase on the requisite cationic flocculant dose is also reported. PMID:5370666

  2. The role of planktonic Flavobacteria in processing algal organic matter in coastal East Antarctica revealed using metagenomics and metaproteomics.

    PubMed

    Williams, Timothy J; Wilkins, David; Long, Emilie; Evans, Flavia; DeMaere, Mathew Z; Raftery, Mark J; Cavicchioli, Ricardo

    2013-05-01

    Heterotrophic marine bacteria play key roles in remineralizing organic matter generated from primary production. However, far more is known about which groups are dominant than about the cellular processes they perform in order to become dominant. In the Southern Ocean, eukaryotic phytoplankton are the dominant primary producers. In this study we used metagenomics and metaproteomics to determine how the dominant bacterial and archaeal plankton processed bloom material. We examined the microbial community composition in 14 metagenomes and found that the relative abundance of Flavobacteria (dominated by Polaribacter) was positively correlated with chlorophyll a fluorescence, and the relative abundance of SAR11 was inversely correlated with both fluorescence and Flavobacteria abundance. By performing metaproteomics on the sample with the highest relative abundance of Flavobacteria (Newcomb Bay, East Antarctica) we defined how Flavobacteria attach to and degrade diverse complex organic material, how they make labile compounds available to Alphaproteobacteria (especially SAR11) and Gammaproteobacteria, and how these heterotrophic Proteobacteria target and utilize these nutrients. The presence of methylotrophic proteins for archaea and bacteria also indicated the importance of metabolic specialists. Overall, the study provides functional data for the microbial mechanisms of nutrient cycling at the surface of the coastal Southern Ocean. PMID:23126454

  3. Chromophoric dissolved organic matter of black waters in a highly eutrophic Chinese lake: Freshly produced from algal scums?

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yongqiang; Jeppesen, Erik; Zhang, Yunlin; Niu, Cheng; Shi, Kun; Liu, Xiaohan; Zhu, Guangwei; Qin, Boqiang

    2015-12-15

    Field campaigns and an incubation experiment were conducted to evaluate the sources of chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM) in black water spots in highly polluted regions of the Chinese Lake Taihu. A significant positive correlation (p<0.0001) was found between chlorophyll a (Chl-a) and the CDOM absorption coefficient a(350), indicating that algae degradation was likely the primary source of CDOM in black waters. This is supported by our field results that Chl-a, a(350) and the spectral slope ratio (SR) were significantly higher in the black water samples than in the regular samples (p<0.001). Our incubation experiment further substantiated the primary significance of biological CDOM source where a(350) increased with decreasing Chl-a concentrations. After seven days' incubation, a 72.2% decrease and a 74.9% increase were recorded for Chl-a and a(350), respectively, relative to the initial values. Parallel factor analysis identified five fluorescent components. The maximal fluorescence intensity (Fmax) of tryptophan-like C1 and microbial humic-like C3 of black water samples was significantly higher than in the regular water samples (p<0.0005). This is consistent with incubation experiment results showing a rapid increase in Fmax of the two components, emphasizing the priority of the in situ biological CDOM source in black water spots. PMID:26125526

  4. Characteristics of C-, N-DBPs formation from algal organic matter: role of molecular weight fractions and impacts of pre-ozonation.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Shiqing; Zhu, Shumin; Shao, Yisheng; Gao, Naiyun

    2015-04-01

    Extracellular organic matter (EOM) and intracellular organic matter (IOM) of Microcystis aeruginosa have been reported to contribute to the formation of carbonaceous disinfection by-products (C-DBPs) and nitrogenous disinfection by-products (N-DBPs). Little is known about DBPs formation from different molecular weight (MW) fractions, especially for N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA). This study fractionated EOM and IOM into several MW fractions using a series of ultrafiltration membranes and is the first to report on the C-DBPs and N-DBPs formation from chlorination and chloramination of different MW fractions. Results showed that EOM and IOM were mainly distributed in low-MW (<1 KDa) and high-MW (>100 KDa) fractions. Additionally, the low-MW and high-MW fractions of EOM and IOM generally took an important part in forming C-DBPs and N-DBPs, either in chlorination or in chloramination. Furthermore, the effects of pre-ozonation on the formation of DBPs in subsequent chlorination and chloramination were also investigated. It was found that ozone shifted the high-MW fractions of EOM and IOM into lower MW fractions and increased the C-DBPs and N-DBPs yields to different degrees. As low-MW fractions are more difficult to remove than high-MW fractions by conventional treatment processes, therefore, activated carbon adsorption, nanofiltration (NF) and biological treatment processes can be ideal to remove the low-MW fractions and minimize the formation potential of C-DBPs and N-DBPs. Moreover, the use of ozone should be carefully considered in the treatment of algal-rich water. PMID:25479708

  5. Influence of alumina coating on characteristics and effects of SiO2 nanoparticles in algal growth inhibition assays at various pH and organic matter contents.

    PubMed

    Van Hoecke, Karen; De Schamphelaere, Karel A C; Ramirez-Garcia, Sonia; Van der Meeren, Paul; Smagghe, Guy; Janssen, Colin R

    2011-08-01

    Silica nanoparticles (NPs) belong to the industrially most important NP types. In a previous study it was shown that amorphous SiO(2) NPs of 12.5 and 27.0 nm are stable in algal growth inhibition assays and that their ecotoxic effects are related to NP surface area. Here, it was hypothesized and demonstrated that an alumina coating completely alters the particle-particle, particle-test medium and particle-algae interactions of SiO(2) NPs. Therefore, stability and surface characteristics, dissolution, nutrient adsorption and effects on algal growth rate of both alumina coated SiO(2) NPs and bare SiO(2) NPs in OECD algal test medium as a function of pH (6.0-8.6) and natural organic matter (NOM) contents (0-12 mg C/l) were investigated. Alumina coated SiO(2) NPs aggregated in all media and adsorbed phosphate depending on pH and NOM concentration. On the other hand, no aggregation or nutrient adsorption was observed for the bare SiO(2) NPs. Due to their positive surface charge, alumina coated SiO(2) NPs agglomerated with Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata. Consequently, algal cell density measurements based on cell counts were unreliable and hence fluorescent detection of extracted chlorophyll was the preferred method. Alumina coated SiO(2) NPs showed lower toxicity than bare SiO(2) NPs at concentrations ≥46 mg/l, except at pH 6.0. At low concentrations, no clear pH effect was observed for alumina coated SiO(2) NPs, while at higher concentrations phosphate deficiency could have contributed to the higher toxicity of those particles at pH 6.0-6.8 compared to higher pH values. Bare SiO(2) NPs were not toxic at pH 6.0 up to 220 mg/l. Addition of NOM decreased toxicity of both particles. For SiO(2) NPs the 48 h 20% effect concentration of 21.8 mg/l increased 2.6-21 fold and a linear relationship was observed between NOM concentration and effective concentrations. No effect was observed for alumina coated SiO(2) NPs in presence of NOM up to 1000 mg/l. All experiments point

  6. Hydrogen Isotopic Ratios of Lacustrine Algal and Terrestrial Organic Matter as a Quantitative Proxy for the Reconstruction of Relative Humidity and Source Water Composition in Continental Settings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cross, E.; Hollander, D.; Huang, Y.; Vanvleet, E.

    2004-12-01

    Sedimentary studies have indicated that hydrologic conditions in low latitude continental environments have varied significantly during the late Quaternary and throughout the mid to late Holocene in association with sea level variations and major climatic phenomena such as the migration and mean position of the ITCZ. However, a quantitative approach to understanding hydrologic variability (i.e. variations in source water composition and relative humidity) is needed to accurately reconstruct changes in moisture balance and paleoclimatic conditions. Lake Tulane, located in Central Florida, is a subtropical, groundwater-fed acidic lake with a high sedimentation rate and well-preserved organic matter. This study utilizes the hydrogen isotopic composition (dD) of organic molecules (fatty acids) associated with algal (C16) and terrestrial (C28) materials in a lacustrine system to provide a modern calibration that quantifies the isotopic behavior associated with 1) changes in the chemistry of source waters and 2) variability in relative humidity. Over an annual cycle, the dDC16 of modern algal material shows little variability reflecting a constant dD of lake water coincident with the groundwater-fed nature of the lake and relatively constant dD of precipitation. Terrestrial biomass shows a seasonal variability of ~15% with more enriched values occurring in winter when higher rates of evapotranspiration lead to isotopic enrichment. Seasonal variations in the magnitude of isotopic offset between the algae and terrestrial markers, (DdD(C16-C28) ), removes the variations in the source waters and, is quantitatively related to seasonal changes (~6%) in the relative humidity. Together, dDC16 and dDCc16-c28) from lacustrine archives can serve as proxies for the quantitative reconstruction of source water composition and relative humidity from sedimentary records preserved in continental settings. These newly developed dD molecular-hydrologic proxies are applied to the

  7. Algal extracellular release in river-floodplain dissolved organic matter: response of extracellular enzymatic activity during a post-flood period

    PubMed Central

    Sieczko, Anna; Maschek, Maria; Peduzzi, Peter

    2015-01-01

    River-floodplain systems are susceptible to rapid hydrological events. Changing hydrological connectivity of the floodplain generates a broad range of conditions, from lentic to lotic. This creates a mixture of allochthonously and autochthonously derived dissolved organic matter (DOM). Autochthonous DOM, including photosynthetic extracellular release (PER), is an important source supporting bacterial secondary production (BSP). Nonetheless, no details are available regarding microbial extracellular enzymatic activity (EEA) as a response to PER under variable hydrological settings in river-floodplain systems. To investigate the relationship between bacterial and phytoplankton components, we therefore used EEA as a tool to track the microbial response to non-chromophoric, but reactive and ecologically important DOM. The study was conducted in three floodplain subsystems with distinct hydrological regimes (Danube Floodplain National Park, Austria). The focus was on the post-flood period. Enhanced %PER (up to 48% of primary production) in a hydrologically isolated subsystem was strongly correlated with β-glucosidase, which was related to BSP. This shows that—in disconnected floodplain backwaters with high terrestrial input—BSP can also be driven by autochthonous carbon sources (PER). In a semi-isolated section, in the presence of fresh labile material from primary producers, enhanced activity of phenol oxidase was observed. In frequently flooded river-floodplain systems, BSP was mainly driven by enzymatic degradation of particulate primary production. Our research demonstrates that EEA measurements are an excellent tool to describe the coupling between bacteria and phytoplankton, which cannot be deciphered when focusing solely on chromophoric DOM. PMID:25741326

  8. Algal extracellular release in river-floodplain dissolved organic matter: response of extracellular enzymatic activity during a post-flood period.

    PubMed

    Sieczko, Anna; Maschek, Maria; Peduzzi, Peter

    2015-01-01

    River-floodplain systems are susceptible to rapid hydrological events. Changing hydrological connectivity of the floodplain generates a broad range of conditions, from lentic to lotic. This creates a mixture of allochthonously and autochthonously derived dissolved organic matter (DOM). Autochthonous DOM, including photosynthetic extracellular release (PER), is an important source supporting bacterial secondary production (BSP). Nonetheless, no details are available regarding microbial extracellular enzymatic activity (EEA) as a response to PER under variable hydrological settings in river-floodplain systems. To investigate the relationship between bacterial and phytoplankton components, we therefore used EEA as a tool to track the microbial response to non-chromophoric, but reactive and ecologically important DOM. The study was conducted in three floodplain subsystems with distinct hydrological regimes (Danube Floodplain National Park, Austria). The focus was on the post-flood period. Enhanced %PER (up to 48% of primary production) in a hydrologically isolated subsystem was strongly correlated with β-glucosidase, which was related to BSP. This shows that-in disconnected floodplain backwaters with high terrestrial input-BSP can also be driven by autochthonous carbon sources (PER). In a semi-isolated section, in the presence of fresh labile material from primary producers, enhanced activity of phenol oxidase was observed. In frequently flooded river-floodplain systems, BSP was mainly driven by enzymatic degradation of particulate primary production. Our research demonstrates that EEA measurements are an excellent tool to describe the coupling between bacteria and phytoplankton, which cannot be deciphered when focusing solely on chromophoric DOM. PMID:25741326

  9. Efficacy of algal metrics for assessing nutrient and organic enrichment in flowing waters

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Porter, S.D.; Mueller, D.K.; Spahr, N.E.; Munn, M.D.; Dubrovsky, N.M.

    2008-01-01

    4. Although algal species tolerance to nutrient and organic enrichment is well documented, additional taxonomic and autecological research on sensitive, endemic algal species would further enhance water-quality assessments.

  10. Fatty acid and stable isotope characteristics of sea ice and pelagic particulate organic matter in the Bering Sea: tools for estimating sea ice algal contribution to Arctic food web production.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shiway W; Budge, Suzanne M; Gradinger, Rolf R; Iken, Katrin; Wooller, Matthew J

    2014-03-01

    We determined fatty acid (FA) profiles and carbon stable isotopic composition of individual FAs (δ(13)CFA values) from sea ice particulate organic matter (i-POM) and pelagic POM (p-POM) in the Bering Sea during maximum ice extent, ice melt, and ice-free conditions in 2010. Based on FA biomarkers, differences in relative composition of diatoms, dinoflagellates, and bacteria were inferred for i-POM versus p-POM and for seasonal succession stages in p-POM. Proportions of diatom markers were higher in i-POM (16:4n-1, 6.6-8.7%; 20:5n-3, 19.6-25.9%) than in p-POM (16:4n-1, 1.2-4.0%; 20:5n-3, 5.5-14.0%). The dinoflagellate marker 22:6n-3/20:5n-3 was highest in p-POM. Bacterial FA concentration was higher in the bottom 1 cm of sea ice (14-245 μg L(-1)) than in the water column (0.6-1.7 μg L(-1)). Many i-POM δ(13)C(FA) values were higher (up to ~10‰) than those of p-POM, and i-POM δ(13)C(FA) values increased with day length. The higher i-POM δ(13)C(FA) values are most likely related to the reduced dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) availability within the semi-closed sea ice brine channel system. Based on a modified Rayleigh equation, the fraction of sea ice DIC fixed in i-POM ranged from 12 to 73%, implying that carbon was not limiting for primary productivity in the sympagic habitat. These differences in FA composition and δ(13)C(FA) values between i-POM and p-POM will aid efforts to track the proportional contribution of sea ice algal carbon to higher trophic levels in the Bering Sea and likely other Arctic seas. PMID:24276772

  11. soil organic matter fractionation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osat, Maryam; Heidari, Ahmad

    2010-05-01

    Carbon is essential for plant growth, due to its effects on other soil properties like aggregation. Knowledge of dynamics of organic matter in different locations in the soil matrix can provide valuable information which affects carbon sequestration and soil the other soil properties. Extraction of soil organic matter (SOM) fractions has been a long standing approach to elucidating the roles of soil organic matter in soil processes. Several kind fractionation methods are used and all provide information on soil organic matter function. Physical fractionation capture the effects on SOM dynamics of the spatial arrangement of primary and secondary organomineral particles in soil while chemical fractionation can not consider the spatial arrangement but their organic fractions are suitable for advanced chemical characterization. Three method of physical separation of soil have been used, sieving, sedimentation and densitometry. The distribution of organic matter within physical fractions of the soil can be assessed by sieving. Sieving separates soil particles based strictly on size. The study area is located on north central Iran, between 35° 41'- 36° 01' N and 50° 42'- 51° 14' E. Mean annual precipitation about 243.8 mm and mean annual air temperature is about 14.95 °C. The soil moisture and temperature regime vary between aridic-thermic in lower altitudes to xeric-mesic in upper altitudes. More than 36 surface soil samples (0-20 cm) were collected according to land-use map units. After preliminary analyzing of samples 10 samples were selected for further analyses in five size fractions and three different time intervals in September, January and April 2008. Fractionation carried out by dry sieving in five classes, 1-2 mm, 0.5-1 mm, 270 μm-0.5mm, 53-270 μm and <53 μm. Organic matter and C/N ratio were determined for all fractions at different time intervals. Chemical fractionation of organic matter also carried out according to Tan (2003), also Mineralogical

  12. Is old organic matter simple organic matter?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nunan, Naoise; Lerch, Thomas; Pouteau, Valérie; Mora, Philippe; Changey, Fréderique; Kätterer, Thomas; Herrmann, Anke

    2016-04-01

    Bare fallow soils that have been deprived of fresh carbon inputs for prolonged periods contain mostly old, stable organic carbon. In order to shed light on the nature of this carbon, the functional diversity profiles (MicroResp™, Biolog™ and enzyme activity spectra) of the microbial communities of long-term barefallow soils were analysed and compared with those of the microbial communities from their cultivated counterparts. The study was based on the idea that microbial communities adapt to their environment and that therefore the catabolic and enzymatic profiles would reflect the type of substrates available to the microbial communities. The catabolic profiles suggested that the microbial communities in the long-term bare-fallow soil were exposed to a less diverse range of substrates and that these substrates tended to be of simpler molecular forms. Both the catabolic and enzyme activity profiles suggested that the microbial communities from the long-term bare-fallow soils were less adapted to using polymers. These results do not fit with the traditional view of old, stable carbon being composed of complex, recalcitrant polymers. An energetics analysis of the substrate use of the microbial communities for the different soils suggested that the microbial communities from the long-term bare-fallow soils were better adapted to using readily oxidizable,although energetically less rewarding, substrates. Microbial communities appear to adapt to the deprivation of fresh organic matter by using substrates that require little investment.

  13. Arctic River organic matter transport

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raymond, Peter; Gustafsson, Orjan; Vonk, Jorien; Spencer, Robert; McClelland, Jim

    2016-04-01

    Arctic Rivers have unique hydrology and biogeochemistry. They also have a large impact on the Arctic Ocean due to the large amount of riverine inflow and small ocean volume. With respect to organic matter, their influence is magnified by the large stores of soil carbon and distinct soil hydrology. Here we present a recap of what is known of Arctic River organic matter transport. We will present a summary of what is known of the ages and sources of Arctic River dissolved and particulate organic matter. We will also discuss the current status of what is known about changes in riverine organic matter export due to global change.

  14. Estrone degradation: does organic matter (quality), matter?

    PubMed

    Tan, David T; Temme, Hanna R; Arnold, William A; Novak, Paige J

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the parameters that drive E1 degradation is necessary to improve existing wastewater treatment systems and evaluate potential treatment options. Organic matter quality could be an important parameter. Microbial communities grown from activated sludge seeds using different dissolved organic matter sources were tested for E1 degradation rates. Synthetic wastewater was aged, filter-sterilized, and used as a carbon and energy source to determine if recalcitrant organic carbon enhances E1 degradation. Higher E1 degradation was observed by biomass grown on 8 d old synthetic wastewater compared to biomass grown on fresh synthetic wastewater (P = 0.033) despite much lower concentrations of bacteria. Minimal or no E1 degradation was observed in biomass grown on 2 d old synthetic wastewater. Organic carbon analyses suggest that products of cell lysis or microbial products released under starvation stress stimulate E1 degradation. Additional water sources were also tested: lake water, river water, and effluents from a municipal wastewater treatement plant and a treatment wetland. E1 degradation was only observed in biomass grown in treatment effluent. Nitrogen, dissolved organic carbon, and trace element concentrations were not causative factors for E1 degradation. In both experiments, spectrophotometric analyses reveal degradation of E1 is associated with microbially derived organic carbon but not general recalcitrance. PMID:25454582

  15. Mercury dilution by autochthonous organic matter in a fertilized mangrove wetland.

    PubMed

    Machado, Wilson; Sanders, Christian J; Santos, Isaac R; Sanders, Luciana M; Silva-Filho, Emmanoel V; Luiz-Silva, Wanilson

    2016-06-01

    A dated sediment core from a highly-fertilized mangrove wetland located in Cubatão (SE Brazil) presented a negative correlation between mercury (Hg) and organic carbon contents. This is an unusual result for a metal with well-known affinity to organic matter. A dilution of Hg concentrations by autochthonous organic matter explained this observation, as revealed by carbon stable isotopes signatures (δ(13)C). Mercury dilution by the predominant mangrove-derived organic matter counterbalanced the positive influences of algal-derived organic matter and clay contents on Hg levels, suggesting that deleterious effects of Hg may be attenuated. Considering the current paradigm on the positive effect of organic matter on Hg concentrations in coastal sediments and the expected increase in mangrove organic matter burial due to natural and anthropogenic stimulations of primary production, predictions on the influences of organic matter on Hg accumulation in mangrove wetlands deserve caution. PMID:26874872

  16. Interstellar organic matter in meteorites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yang, J.; Epstein, S.

    1983-01-01

    Deuterium-enriched hydrogen is present in organic matter in such meteorites as noncarbonaceous chondrites. The majority of the unequilibrated primitive meteorites contain hydrogen whose D/H ratios are greater than 0.0003, requiring enrichment (relative to cosmic hydrogen) by isotope exchange reactions taking place below 150 K. The D/H values presented are the lower limits for the organic compounds derived from interstellar molecules, since all processes subsequent to their formation, including terrestrial contamination, decrease their D/H ratios. In contrast, the D/H ratios of hydrogen associated with hydrated silicates are relatively uniform for the meteorites analyzed. The C-13/C-12 ratios of organic matter, irrespective of D/H ratio, lie well within those observed for the earth. Present findings suggest that other interstellar material, in addition to organic matter, is preserved and is present in high D/H ratio meteorites.

  17. Bromination of marine particulate organic matter through oxidative mechanisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leri, Alessandra C.; Mayer, Lawrence M.; Thornton, Kathleen R.; Ravel, Bruce

    2014-10-01

    Although bromine (Br) is considered conservative in seawater, it exhibits a well established correlation with organic carbon in marine sediments. This carbon-bromine association was recently attributed to covalent bonding, with organobromine in sinking particulates providing a putative link between sedimentary organobromine and organic matter cycling in surface waters. We hypothesized that phytoplankton detritus, a major precursor of sedimentary organic matter, would be susceptible to bromination through oxidative attack. Through a series of model experiments, we demonstrate incorporation of Br into algal particulate detritus through peroxidative and photochemical mechanisms. Peroxidative bromination was enhanced by addition of exogenous bromoperoxidase, but the enzyme was not required for the reaction. Fenton-like reaction conditions also promoted bromination, especially under solar irradiation, implicating radical mechanisms in the euphotic zone as another abiotic source of brominated particulates. These reactions produced aliphatic and aromatic forms of organobromine, suggesting that lipid- and protein-rich components of algal membranes provide suitable substrates for bromination. Biogenic organobromines in certain genera of phytoplankton also appeared in both aliphatic and aromatic forms. Experimental evidence and samples from oceanic midwater sediment traps imply that the aromatic fraction is more stable than the aliphatic. These experiments establish Br as a versatile oxidant in the transformation of planktonic organic matter through both enzymatic and abiotic mechanisms. Organobromine may serve as a marker of oxidative breakdown of marine organic detritus, with the metastable component providing a short-lived indicator of early-stage oxidation. By altering the stability of aliphatic and aromatic moieties, bromination may affect the availability of organic matter to organisms, with consequences for the preservation and degradation of marine organic carbon.

  18. Subcritical water extraction of organic matter from sedimentary rocks.

    PubMed

    Luong, Duy; Sephton, Mark A; Watson, Jonathan S

    2015-06-16

    Subcritical water extraction of organic matter containing sedimentary rocks at 300°C and 1500 psi produces extracts comparable to conventional solvent extraction. Subcritical water extraction of previously solvent extracted samples confirms that high molecular weight organic matter (kerogen) degradation is not occurring and that only low molecular weight organic matter (free compounds) are being accessed in analogy to solvent extraction procedures. The sedimentary rocks chosen for extraction span the classic geochemical organic matter types. A type I organic matter-containing sedimentary rock produces n-alkanes and isoprenoidal hydrocarbons at 300°C and 1500 psi that indicate an algal source for the organic matter. Extraction of a rock containing type II organic matter at the same temperature and pressure produces aliphatic hydrocarbons but also aromatic compounds reflecting the increased contributions from terrestrial organic matter in this sample. A type III organic matter-containing sample produces a range of non-polar and polar compounds including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and oxygenated aromatic compounds at 300°C and 1500 psi reflecting a dominantly terrestrial origin for the organic materials. Although extraction at 300°C and 1500 psi produces extracts that are comparable to solvent extraction, lower temperature steps display differences related to organic solubility. The type I organic matter produces no products below 300°C and 1500 psi, reflecting its dominantly aliphatic character, while type II and type III organic matter contribute some polar components to the lower temperature steps, reflecting the chemical heterogeneity of their organic inventory. The separation of polar and non-polar organic compounds by using different temperatures provides the potential for selective extraction that may obviate the need for subsequent preparative chromatography steps. Our results indicate that subcritical water extraction can act as a suitable

  19. Changes in River Organic Matter Through Time.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hudson, N.; Baker, A.; Ward, D.

    2006-12-01

    Samples of river water from central England were collected during the summer base-flow period. They were analysed for BOD and filtered at 1.2μm and 0.1μm increments to obtain i) the colloidal and dissolved, and ii) dissolved filter sterilized fractions. Each filtered fraction was plated up for microbiological cell counts and the agar plates and water samples were stored under a range of environmental conditions (4° C dark, 11° C light/ dark, 11° C dark, and 20° C dark) for 26 days. Absorbance, fluorescence, pH, conductivity and total organic carbon (TOC) were measured and colony forming units (CFU) counted on days 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 12, 19 and 26. The fluorescence intensity was recorded for 5 commonly studied regions: protein like fluorescence, indicative of microbial activity, represented by the fluorescent amino acids tyrosine and tryptophan (which has two clear fluorescence regions) and humic and fulvic acids derived from the break down of terrestrial and aquatic plant material. Humic and fulvic-like fluorescence increased in all samples under all storage conditions suggesting that peaks A and C probably include a microbial element, either a product of the living community or as dead cell material in all fraction sizes including <0.1μm. Tryptophan and tyrosine-like fluorescence intensities demonstrated less clear trends which may be reflective of the intrinsic variation in natural samples. Tryptophan-like fluorescence generally decreased or showed minimal change, except in samples exposed to light in which an increase was observed in line with algal growth. A decrease in intensity may relate to the use of the tryptophan-like material as a microbial substrate. The increase in tryptophan-like fluorescence intensity suggests that this fluorescent material is being produced, either by algae, or bacterial activity associated with algal growth. It may also occur as a result of changing water chemistry causing a change in molecular conformation, and resulting

  20. Sludge-grown algae for culturing aquatic organisms: Part I. Algal growth in sludge extracts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hung, K. M.; Chiu, S. T.; Wong, M. H.

    1996-05-01

    This project is aimed at studying the feasibility of using sewage sludge to prepare culture media for microalgae ( Chlorella-HKBU) and the use of the sludge-grown algae as a feed for some aquatic organisms. Part I of the project included results on preparing sludge extracts and their use on algal culture. By comparing two culturing techniques, “aeration” and “shaking,” it was noted that both lag and log phases were shortened in the aeration system. A subsequent experiment noted that algal growth subject to aeration rates of 1.0 and 1.5 liters/min had similar lag and log phases. In addition, both aeration rates had a significantly higher ( P < 0.05) final cell density than that of 0.5 liters/min. A detailed study on the variation of growth conditions on the algal growth was done. The results indicated that pH values of all the cultures declined below 5 at day 12. The removal rates of ammonia N ranged from 62% to 70%. The sludge-grown algae contained a rather substantial amount of heavy metals (µg/g): Zn 289 581, Cu 443 682, Ni 310 963, Mn 96 126, Cr 25 118, and Fe 438 653. This implied that the rather high levels of heavy metals may impose adverse effects on higher trophic organisms.

  1. A marine sink for chlorine in natural organic matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leri, Alessandra C.; Mayer, Lawrence M.; Thornton, Kathleen R.; Northrup, Paul A.; Dunigan, Marisa R.; Ness, Katherine J.; Gellis, Austin B.

    2015-08-01

    Chloride--the most abundant ion in sea water--affects ocean salinity, and thereby seawater density and ocean circulation. Its lack of reactivity gives it an extremely long residence time. Other halogens are known to be incorporated into marine organic matter. However, evidence of similar transformations of seawater chloride is lacking, aside from emissions of volatile organochlorine by marine algae. Here we report high organochlorine concentrations from 180 to 700 mg kg-1 in natural particulate organic matter that settled into sediment traps at depths between 800 and 3,200 m in the Arabian Sea, taken between 1994 and 1995. X-ray spectromicroscopic imaging of chlorine bonding reveals that this organochlorine exists primarily in concentrated aliphatic forms consistent with lipid chlorination, along with a more diffuse aromatic fraction. High aliphatic organochlorine in particulate material from cultured phytoplankton suggests that primary production is a source of chlorinated organic matter. We also found that particulate algal detritus can act as an organic substrate for abiotic reactions involving Fe2+, H2O2 or light that incorporate chlorine into organic matter at levels up to several grams per kilogram. We conclude that transformations of marine chloride to non-volatile organochlorine through biological and abiotic pathways represent an oceanic sink for this relatively unreactive element.

  2. Sequential removal of heavy metals ions and organic pollutants using an algal-bacterial consortium.

    PubMed

    Muñoz, Raul; Alvarez, Maria Teresa; Muñoz, Adriana; Terrazas, Enrique; Guieysse, Benoit; Mattiasson, Bo

    2006-05-01

    The residual algal-bacterial biomass from photosynthetically supported, organic pollutant biodegradation processes, in enclosed photobioreactors, was tested for its ability to accumulate Cu(II), Ni(II), Cd(II), and Zn(II). Salicylate was chosen as a model contaminant. The algal-bacterial biomass combined the high adsorption capacity of microalgae with the low cost of the residual biomass, which makes it an attractive biosorbent for environmental applications. Cu(II) was preferentially taken-up from the medium when the metals were present both separately and in combination. There was no observed competition for adsorption sites, which suggested that Cu(II), Ni(II), Cd(II), and Zn(II) bind to different sites and that active Ni(II), Cd(II) and Zn(II) binding groups were present at very low concentrations. Therefore, special focus was given to Cu(II) biosorption. Cu(II) biosorption by the algal-bacterial biomass was characterized by an initial fast cell surface adsorption followed by a slower metabolically driven uptake. pH, Cu(II), and algal-bacterial concentration significantly affected the biosorption capacity for Cu(II). Maximum Cu(II) adsorption capacities of 8.5+/-0.4 mg g-1 were achieved at an initial Cu(II) concentration of 20 mg l-1 and at pH 5 for the tested algal-bacterial biomass. These are consistent with values reported for other microbial sorbents under similar conditions. The desorption of Cu(II) from saturated biomass was feasible by elution with a 0.0125 M HCl solution. Simultaneous Cu(II) and salicylate removal in a continuous stirred tank photobioreactor was not feasible due to the high toxicity of Cu(II) towards the microbial culture. The introduction of an adsorption column, packed with the algal-bacterial biomass, prior to the photobioreactor reduced Cu(II) concentration, thereby allowing the subsequent salicylate biodegradation in the photobioreactor. PMID:16307789

  3. Extraterrestrial organic matter: a review.

    PubMed

    Irvine, W M

    1998-10-01

    We review the nature of the widespread organic material present in the Milky Way Galaxy and in the Solar System. Attention is given to the links between these environments and between primitive Solar System objects and the early Earth, indicating the preservation of organic material as an interstellar cloud collapsed to form the Solar System and as the Earth accreted such material from asteroids, comets and interplanetary dust particles. In the interstellar medium of the Milky Way Galaxy more than 100 molecular species, the bulk of them organic, have been securely identified, primarily through spectroscopy at the highest radio frequencies. There is considerable evidence for significantly heavier organic molecules, particularly polycyclic aromatics, although precise identification of individual species has not yet been obtained. The so-called diffuse interstellar bands are probably important in this context. The low temperature kinetics in interstellar clouds leads to very large isotopic fractionation, particularly for hydrogen, and this signature is present in organic components preserved in carbonaceous chondritic meteorites. Outer belt asteroids are the probable parent bodies of the carbonaceous chondrites, which may contain as much as 5% organic material, including a rich variety of amino acids, purines, pyrimidines, and other species of potential prebiotic interest. Richer in volatiles and hence less thermally processed are the comets, whose organic matter is abundant and poorly characterized. Cometary volatiles, observed after sublimation into the coma, include many species also present in the interstellar medium. There is evidence that most of the Earth's volatiles may have been supplied by a 'late' bombardment of comets and carbonaceous meteorites, scattered into the inner Solar System following the formation of the giant planets. How much in the way of intact organic molecules of potential prebiotic interest survived delivery to the Earth has become an

  4. Extraterrestrial organic matter: a review

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Irvine, W. M.

    1998-01-01

    We review the nature of the widespread organic material present in the Milky Way Galaxy and in the Solar System. Attention is given to the links between these environments and between primitive Solar System objects and the early Earth, indicating the preservation of organic material as an interstellar cloud collapsed to form the Solar System and as the Earth accreted such material from asteroids, comets and interplanetary dust particles. In the interstellar medium of the Milky Way Galaxy more than 100 molecular species, the bulk of them organic, have been securely identified, primarily through spectroscopy at the highest radio frequencies. There is considerable evidence for significantly heavier organic molecules, particularly polycyclic aromatics, although precise identification of individual species has not yet been obtained. The so-called diffuse interstellar bands are probably important in this context. The low temperature kinetics in interstellar clouds leads to very large isotopic fractionation, particularly for hydrogen, and this signature is present in organic components preserved in carbonaceous chondritic meteorites. Outer belt asteroids are the probable parent bodies of the carbonaceous chondrites, which may contain as much as 5% organic material, including a rich variety of amino acids, purines, pyrimidines, and other species of potential prebiotic interest. Richer in volatiles and hence less thermally processed are the comets, whose organic matter is abundant and poorly characterized. Cometary volatiles, observed after sublimation into the coma, include many species also present in the interstellar medium. There is evidence that most of the Earth's volatiles may have been supplied by a 'late' bombardment of comets and carbonaceous meteorites, scattered into the inner Solar System following the formation of the giant planets. How much in the way of intact organic molecules of potential prebiotic interest survived delivery to the Earth has become an

  5. Photodissolution of soil organic matter

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mayer, L.M.; Thornton, K.R.; Schick, L.L.; Jastrow, J.D.; Harden, J.W.

    2012-01-01

    Sunlight has been shown to enhance loss of organic matter from aquatic sediments and terrestrial plant litter, so we tested for similar reactions in mineral soil horizons. Losses of up to a third of particulate organic carbon occurred after continuous exposure to full-strength sunlight for dozens of hours, with similar amounts appearing as photodissolved organic carbon. Nitrogen dissolved similarly, appearing partly as ammonium. Modified experiments with interruption of irradiation to include extended dark incubation periods increased loss of total organic carbon, implying remineralization by some combination of light and microbes. These photodissolution reactions respond strongly to water content, with reaction extent under air-dry to fully wet conditions increasing by a factor of 3-4 fold. Light limitation was explored using lamp intensity and soil depth experiments. Reaction extent varied linearly with lamp intensity. Depth experiments indicate that attenuation of reaction occurs within the top tens to hundreds of micrometers of soil depth. Our data allow only order-of-magnitude extrapolations to field conditions, but suggest that this type of reaction could induce loss of 10-20% of soil organic carbon in the top 10. cm horizon over a century. It may therefore have contributed to historical losses of soil carbon via agriculture, and should be considered in soil management on similar time scales. ?? 2011 Elsevier B.V.

  6. Carbon isotope fractionation of sapropelic organic matter during early diagenesis

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Spiker, E. C.; Hatcher, P.G.

    1984-01-01

    Study of an algal, sapropelic sediment from Mangrove Lake, Bermuda shows that the mass balance of carbon and stable carbon isotopes in the major organic constituents is accounted for by a relatively straightforward model of selective preservation during diagenesis. The loss of 13C-enriched carbohydrates is the principal factor controlling the intermolecular mass balance of 13C in the sapropel. Results indicate that labile components are decomposed leaving as a residual concentrate in the sediment an insoluble humic substance that may be an original biochemical component of algae and associated bacteria. An overall decrease of up to about 4??? in the ?? 13C values of the organic matter is observed as a result of early diagenesis. ?? 1984.

  7. The contentious nature of soil organic matter.

    PubMed

    Lehmann, Johannes; Kleber, Markus

    2015-12-01

    The exchange of nutrients, energy and carbon between soil organic matter, the soil environment, aquatic systems and the atmosphere is important for agricultural productivity, water quality and climate. Long-standing theory suggests that soil organic matter is composed of inherently stable and chemically unique compounds. Here we argue that the available evidence does not support the formation of large-molecular-size and persistent 'humic substances' in soils. Instead, soil organic matter is a continuum of progressively decomposing organic compounds. We discuss implications of this view of the nature of soil organic matter for aquatic health, soil carbon-climate interactions and land management. PMID:26595271

  8. Controlling silver nanoparticle exposure in algal toxicity testing – A matter of timing

    PubMed Central

    Baun, Anders

    2015-01-01

    The aquatic ecotoxicity testing of nanoparticles is complicated by unstable exposure conditions resulting from various transformation processes of nanoparticles in aqueous suspensions. In this study, we investigated the influence of exposure timing on the algal test response to silver nanoparticles (AgNPs), by reducing the incubation time and by aging the AgNPs in algal medium prior to testing. The freshwater green algae Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata were exposed to AgNO3, NM-300 K (a representative AgNP) and citrate stabilized AgNPs from two different manufacturers (AgNP1 and AgNP2) in a standard algal growth inhibition test (ISO 8692:2004) for 48 h and a short-term (2 h) 14C-assimilation test. For AgNO3, similar responses were obtained in the two tests, whereas freshly prepared suspensions of citrate stabilized AgNPs were less toxic in the 2-h tests compared to the 48-h tests. The 2-h test was found applicable for dissolved silver, but yielded non-monotonous concentration–response relationships and poor reproducibility for freshly prepared AgNP suspensions. However, when aging AgNPs in algal medium 24 h prior to testing, clear concentration–response patterns emerged and reproducibility increased. Prolonged aging to 48 h increased toxicity in the 2-h tests whereas aging beyond 48 h reduced toxicity. Our results demonstrate that the outcome of algal toxicity testing of AgNPs is highly influenced not only by the test duration, but also by the time passed from the moment AgNPs are added to the test medium. This time-dependency should be considered when nanomaterial dispersion protocols for ecotoxicity testing are developed. PMID:24842597

  9. Controlling silver nanoparticle exposure in algal toxicity testing--a matter of timing.

    PubMed

    Sørensen, Sara Nørgaard; Baun, Anders

    2015-03-01

    The aquatic ecotoxicity testing of nanoparticles is complicated by unstable exposure conditions resulting from various transformation processes of nanoparticles in aqueous suspensions. In this study, we investigated the influence of exposure timing on the algal test response to silver nanoparticles (AgNPs), by reducing the incubation time and by aging the AgNPs in algal medium prior to testing. The freshwater green algae Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata were exposed to AgNO3, NM-300 K (a representative AgNP) and citrate stabilized AgNPs from two different manufacturers (AgNP1 and AgNP2) in a standard algal growth inhibition test (ISO 8692:2004) for 48 h and a short-term (2 h) (14)C-assimilation test. For AgNO3, similar responses were obtained in the two tests, whereas freshly prepared suspensions of citrate stabilized AgNPs were less toxic in the 2-h tests compared to the 48-h tests. The 2-h test was found applicable for dissolved silver, but yielded non-monotonous concentration-response relationships and poor reproducibility for freshly prepared AgNP suspensions. However, when aging AgNPs in algal medium 24 h prior to testing, clear concentration-response patterns emerged and reproducibility increased. Prolonged aging to 48 h increased toxicity in the 2-h tests whereas aging beyond 48 h reduced toxicity. Our results demonstrate that the outcome of algal toxicity testing of AgNPs is highly influenced not only by the test duration, but also by the time passed from the moment AgNPs are added to the test medium. This time-dependency should be considered when nanomaterial dispersion protocols for ecotoxicity testing are developed. PMID:24842597

  10. Biogenic gradients in algal density affect the emergent properties of spatially self-organized mussel beds

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Quan-Xing; Weerman, Ellen J.; Gupta, Rohit; Herman, Peter M. J.; Olff, Han; van de Koppel, Johan

    2014-01-01

    Theoretical models highlight that spatially self-organized patterns can have important emergent effects on the functioning of ecosystems, for instance by increasing productivity and affecting the vulnerability to catastrophic shifts. However, most theoretical studies presume idealized homogeneous conditions, which are rarely met in real ecosystems. Using self-organized mussel beds as a case study, we reveal that spatial heterogeneity, resulting from the large-scale effects of mussel beds on their environment, significantly alters the emergent properties predicted by idealized self-organization models that assume homogeneous conditions. The proposed model explicitly considers that the suspended algae, the prime food for the mussels, are supplied by water flow from the seaward boundary of the bed, which causes in combination with consumption a gradual depletion of algae over the simulated domain. Predictions of the model are consistent with properties of natural mussel patterns observed in the field, featuring a decline in mussel biomass and a change in patterning. Model analyses reveal a fundamental change in ecosystem functioning when this self-induced algal depletion gradient is included in the model. First, no enhancement of secondary productivity of the mussels comparing with non-patterns states is predicted, irrespective of parameter setting; the equilibrium amount of mussels is entirely set by the input of algae. Second, alternate stable states, potentially present in the original (no algal gradient) model, are absent when gradual depletion of algae in the overflowing water layer is allowed. Our findings stress the importance of including sufficiently realistic environmental conditions when assessing the emergent properties of self-organized ecosystems. PMID:24759542

  11. Priming of native soil organic matter by pyrogenic organic matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DeCiucies, Silene; Dharmakeerthi, Saman; Whitman, Thea; Woolf, Dominic; Lehmann, Johannes

    2015-04-01

    Priming, in relation to pyrogenic organic matter (PyOM), describes the change in mineralization rate of non-pyrogenic ("native") soil organic matter (nSOM) due to the addition of PyOM. Priming may be 'positive', in that the addition of pyC increases the mineralization rate of native SOM, or 'negative', in that the mineralization rate of nSOM is decreased. Reasons for increased mineralization may include: (i) co-metabolism: microbial decomposition of labile C-additions increases microbial activity, and facilitates additional decomposition of npSOC by active enzymes; (ii) stimulation: substrate additions result in lifted pH, nutrient, oxygen, or water constraints resulting in increased microbial activity. Decreased mineralization may be a result of: (i) inhibition: the opposite of stimulation whereby constraints are aggravated by substrate addition. Substrate addition may also cause inhibition by interfering with enzymes or signaling compounds; (ii) preferential substrate utilization: labile fraction of PyOM additions are preferentially used up by microbes thus causing a decrease in nSOC decomposition; (iii) sorption: organic compounds are adsorbed onto PyOM surfaces, decreasing their rate of mineralization; (iv) stabilization: formation of organo-mineral associations forms stable SOC pools. We have conducted a suite of experiments to investigate these potential interactions. In a seven year long incubation study, PyOM additions increased total OM mineralization for the first 2.5 years, was equal to control after 6.2 years, and was 3% lower after 7.1 years. Cumulative nSOM mineralization was 23% less with the PyOM additions than without, and over 60% of the added PyOM was present in the labile soil fraction after the 7.1 year incubation. Two additional incubation studies, one with and without plants, showed greater nSOM mineralization in the short term and lower nSOM mineralization over the long term. Increased nSOC mineralization due to the presence of plants was

  12. Differentiating the degradation dynamics of algal and terrestrial carbon within complex natural dissolved organic carbon in temperate lakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guillemette, François; McCallister, S. Leigh; Giorgio, Paul A.

    2013-07-01

    It has often been hypothesized that the dissolved organic carbon (DOC) pool of algal origin in lakes is more bioavailable than its terrestrial counterpart, but this hypothesis has seldom been directly tested. Here we test this hypothesis by tracking the production and isotopic signature of bacterial respiratory CO2 in 2 week lake water incubations and use the resulting data to reconstruct and model the bacterial consumption dynamics of algal and terrestrial DOC. The proportion of algal DOC respired decreased systematically over time in all experiments, suggesting a rapid consumption and depletion of this substrate. Our results further show that the algal DOC pool was used in proportions and at rates twice and 10 times as high as the terrestrial DOC pool, respectively. On the other hand, the absolute amount of labile terrestrial DOC was on average four times higher than labile algal DOC, accounting for almost the entire long-term residual C metabolism, but also contributing to short-term bacterial C consumption. The absolute amount of labile algal DOC increased with chlorophyll a concentrations, whereas total phosphorus appeared to enhance the amount of terrestrial DOC that bacteria could consume, suggesting that the degradation of these pools is not solely governed by their respective chemical properties, but also by interactions with nutrients. Our study shows that there is a highly reactive pool of terrestrial DOC that is processed in parallel to algal DOC, and because of interactions with nutrients, terrestrial DOC likely supports high levels of bacterial metabolism and CO2 production even in more productive lakes.

  13. Soil Organic Matter in Agricultural Systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In agricultural systems, soil organic matter (SOM) has been recognized as an important source of nutrients and maintains favorable soil structure. Organic matter is considered a major binding agent that stabilizes soil aggregates. Soil aggregates especially, water stable aggregates, are important i...

  14. Environmental factors regulating soil organic matter chlorination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Svensson, Teresia; Montelius, Malin; Reyier, Henrik; Rietz, Karolina; Karlsson, Susanne; Lindberg, Cecilia; Andersson, Malin; Danielsson, Åsa; Bastviken, David

    2016-04-01

    Natural chlorination of organic matter is common in soils. Despite the widespread abundance of soil chlorinated soil organic matter (SOM), frequently exceeding soil chloride abundance in surface soils, and a common ability of microorganisms to produce chlorinated SOM, we lack fundamental knowledge about dominating processes and organisms responsible for the chlorination. To take one step towards resolving the terrestrial chlorine (Cl) puzzle, this study aims to analyse how environmental factors influence chlorination of SOM. Four factors were chosen for this study: soil moisture (W), nitrogen (N), chloride (Cl) and organic matter quality (C). These factors are all known to be important for soil processes. Laboratory incubations with 36Cl as a Cl tracer were performed in a two soil incubation experiments. It was found that addition of chloride and nitrogen seem to hamper the chlorination. For the C treatment, on the other hand, the results show that chlorination is enhanced by increased availability of labile organic matter (glucose and maltose). Even higher chlorination was observed when nitrogen and water were added in combination with labile organic matter. The effect that more labile organic matter strongly stimulated the chlorination rates was confirmed by the second separate experiment. These results indicate that chlorination was not primarily a way to cut refractory organic matter into digestible molecules, representing one previous hypothesis, but is related with microbial metabolism in other ways that will be further discussed in our presentation.

  15. Environmental Feedbacks and Engineered Nanoparticles: Mitigation of Silver Nanoparticle Toxicity to Chlamydomonas reinhardtii by Algal-Produced Organic Compounds

    PubMed Central

    Stevenson, Louise M.; Dickson, Helen; Klanjscek, Tin; Keller, Arturo A.; McCauley, Edward; Nisbet, Roger M.

    2013-01-01

    The vast majority of nanotoxicity studies measures the effect of exposure to a toxicant on an organism and ignores the potentially important effects of the organism on the toxicant. We investigated the effect of citrate-coated silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) on populations of the freshwater alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii at different phases of batch culture growth and show that the AgNPs are most toxic to cultures in the early phases of growth. We offer strong evidence that reduced toxicity occurs because extracellular dissolved organic carbon (DOC) compounds produced by the algal cells themselves mitigate the toxicity of AgNPs. We analyzed this feedback with a dynamic model incorporating algal growth, nanoparticle dissolution, bioaccumulation of silver, DOC production and DOC-mediated inactivation of nanoparticles and ionic silver. Our findings demonstrate how the feedback between aquatic organisms and their environment may impact the toxicity and ecological effects of engineered nanoparticles. PMID:24086348

  16. Chemodestructive fractionation of soil organic matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Popov, A. I.; Rusakov, A. V.

    2016-06-01

    The method of chemodestructive fractionation is suggested to assess the composition of soil organic matter. This method is based on determination of the resilience of soil organic matter components and/or different parts of organic compounds to the impact of oxidizing agents. For this purpose, a series of solutions with similar concentration of the oxidant (K2Cr2O7), but with linearly increasing oxidative capacity was prepared. Chemodestructive fractionation showed that the portion of easily oxidizable (labile) organic matter in humus horizons of different soil types depends on the conditions of soil formation. It was maximal in hydromorphic soils of the taiga zone and minimal in automorphic soils of the dry steppe zone. The portion of easily oxidizable organic matter in arable soils increased with an increase in the rate of organic fertilizers application. The long-lasting agricultural use of soils and burying of the humus horizons within the upper one-meter layer resulted in the decreasing content of easily oxidizable organic matter. It was found that the portion of easily oxidizable organic matter decreases by the mid-summer or fall in comparison with the spring or early summer period.

  17. Molecular insights into the microbial formation of marine dissolved organic matter: recalcitrant or labile?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koch, B. P.; Kattner, G.; Witt, M.; Passow, U.

    2014-02-01

    The degradation of marine dissolved organic matter (DOM) is an important control variable in the global carbon cycle and dependent on the DOM composition. For our understanding of the kinetics of organic matter cycling in the ocean, it is therefore crucial to achieve a mechanistic and molecular understanding of its transformation processes. A long-term microbial experiment was performed to follow the production of non-labile DOM by marine bacteria. Two different glucose concentrations and dissolved algal exudates were used as substrates. We monitored the bacterial abundance, concentrations of dissolved and particulate organic carbon (DOC, POC), nutrients, amino acids, and transparent exopolymer particles (TEP) for two years. Ultrahigh resolution Fourier Transform Ion Cyclotron Resonance Mass Spectrometry (FT-ICR-MS) allowed the molecular characterization of extracted DOM after 70 days and after ∼2 years of incubation. Although glucose was quickly degraded, a DOC background was generated in glucose incubations. Only 20% of the organic carbon from algal exudate was degraded within the 2 years of incubation. TEP, which are released by micro-organisms, were produced during glucose degradation but decreased within less than three weeks back to half of the maximum concentration and were below detection in all treatments after 2 years. The molecular analysis demonstrated that DOM generated during glucose degradation differed appreciably from DOM produced during the degradation of the algal exudates. Our results led to several conclusions: (i) Higher substrate levels result in a higher level of non-labile DOC which is an important prerequisite for carbon sequestration in the ocean; (ii) TEP are generated by bacteria but are also degraded rapidly, thus limiting their potential contribution to carbon sequestration; (iii) The molecular signatures of DOM derived from algal exudates or glucose after 70 days of incubation differed strongly from refractory DOM. After 2 years

  18. ENVIRONMENTAL PHOTOPROCESSES INVOLVING NATURAL ORGANIC MATTER

    EPA Science Inventory

    Current research is reviewed on the photoreactions that occur when sunlight interacts with soil and aquatic organic matter. The primary focus is on photoprocesses involving humic substances. Investigations of the direct photoreactions of humic substances are discussed, with empha...

  19. Algal sludge from Taihu Lake can be utilized to create novel PGPR-containing bio-organic fertilizers.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Miao; Li, Rong; Cao, Liangliang; Shi, Juanjuan; Liu, Hongjun; Huang, Yan; Shen, Qirong

    2014-01-01

    Large amounts of refloated algal sludge from Taihu Lake result in secondary environmental pollution due to annual refloatation. This study investigated the possibility to produce bio-organic fertilizer (BIO) using algal sludge as a solid-state fermentation (SSF) medium. Results showed that addition of algal sludge contributed to efficient SFF by a plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) strain SQR9 and improved the nutrient contents in the novel BIO. The optimum water content and initial inoculation size were 45% and 5%, respectively. After 6 days of SSF, the biomass of strain SQR9 was increased to a cell density of more than 5 × 10(7) CFU g(-1). Microcystins were rapidly degraded, and a high germination index value was observed. Plant growth experiments showed that the produced BIO efficiently promoted plant growth. Additional testing showed that the novel SSF process was also suitable for other PGPR strains. This study provides a novel way of high-value utilization of algal sludge from Taihu Lake by producing low-cost but high-quality BIOs. PMID:24321283

  20. Ionic Liquid Extractions of Soil Organic Matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patti, Antonio; Macfarlane, Douglas; Clarke, Michael

    2010-05-01

    A large range of ionic liquids with the ability to dissolve different classes of natural biopolymers (e.g. cellulose, lignin, protein) have been reported in the literature. These have the potential to isolate different fractions of soil organic matter, thus yielding novel information that is not available through other extraction procedures. The ionic liquids dimethylammonium dimethylcarbamate (DIMCARB), alkylbenzenesulfonate and 1-butyl-3methylimidazolium chloride (Bmim Cl) can solubilise selected components of soil organic matter. Soil extractions with these materials showed that the organic matter recovered showed chemical properties that were consistent with humic substances. These extracts had a slightly different organic composition than the humic acids extracted using the traditional International Humic Substances Society (IHSS) method. The ionic liquids also solubilised some inorganic matter from the soil. Humic acids recovered with alkali were also partially soluble in the ionic liquids. DIMCARB appeared to chemically interfere with organic extract, increasing the level of nitrogen in the sample. It was concluded that the ionic liquid Bmim Cl may function as a useful solvent for SOM, and may be used to recover organic matter of a different character to that obtained with alkali

  1. Organic carbon, influent microbial diversity and temperature strongly influence algal diversity and biomass in raceway ponds treating raw municipal wastewater.

    PubMed

    Cho, Dae-Hyun; Ramanan, Rishiram; Heo, Jina; Kang, Zion; Kim, Byung-Hyuk; Ahn, Chi-Yong; Oh, Hee-Mock; Kim, Hee-Sik

    2015-09-01

    Algae based wastewater treatment coupled to biofuel production has financial benefits and practical difficulties. This study evaluated the factors influencing diversity and growth of indigenous algal consortium cultivated on untreated municipal wastewater in a high rate algal pond (HRAP) for a period of 1 year using multivariate statistics. Diversity analyses revealed the presence of Chlorophyta, Cyanophyta and Bacillariophyta. Dominant microalgal genera by biovolume in various seasons were Scenedesmus sp., Microcystis sp., and Chlorella sp. Scenedesmus sp., persisted throughout the year but none of three strains co-dominated with the other. The most significant factors affecting genus dominance were temperature, inflow cyanophyta and organic carbon concentration. Cyanophyta concentration affected microalgal biomass and diversity, whereas temperature impacted biomass. Preferred diversity of microalgae is not sustained in wastewater systems but is obligatory for biofuel production. This study serves as a guideline to sustain desired microalgal consortium in wastewater treatment plants for biofuel production. PMID:25746593

  2. Characterization of organic matter in lake sediments from Minnesota and Yellowstone National Park

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dean, Walter E.

    2006-01-01

    Samples of sediment from lakes in Minnesota and Yellowstone National Park (YNP) were analyzed for organic carbon (OC), hydrogen richness by Rock-Eval pyrolysis, and stable carbon- and nitrogen-isotope composition of bulk organic matter. Values of delta 13C of lake plankton tend to be around -28 to -32 parts per thousand (0/00). Organic matter with values of delta 13C in the high negative 20s overlap with those of organic matter derived from C3 higher terrestrial plants but are at least 10 0/00 more depleted in 13C than organic matter derived from C4 terrestrial plants. If the organic matter is produced mainly by photosynthetic plankton and is not oxidized in the water column, there may be a negative correlation between H-richness (Rock-Eval pyrolysis H-index) and delta 13C, with more H-rich, algal organic matter having lower values of delta 13C. However, if aquatic organic matter is oxidized in the water column, or if the organic matter is a mixture of terrestrial and aquatic organic matter, then there may be no correlation between H-richness and carbon-isotopic composition. Values of delta 13C lower than about -28 0/00 probably indicate a contribution of bacterial biomass produced in the hypolimnion by chemoautotrophy or methanotrophy. In highly eutrophic lakes in which large amounts of 13C-depleted organic matter is continually removed from the epilimnion by photosynthesis throughout the growing season, the entire carbon reservoir in the epilimnion may become severely 13C-enriched so that 13C-enriched photosynthetic organic matter may overprint 13C-depleted chemosynthetic bacterial organic matter produced in the hypolimnon. Most processes involved with the nitrogen cycle in lakes, such as production of ammonia and nitrate, tend to produce 15N-enriched values of delta 15N. Most Minnesota lake sediments are 15N-enriched. However, some of the more OC-rich sediments have delta 15N values close to zero (delta 15N of air), suggesting that organic matter production is

  3. Organic Matter Loading Affects Lodgepole Pine Seedling Growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Xiaohua; Li, Qinglin; Waterhouse, M. J.; Armleder, H. M.

    2012-06-01

    Organic matter plays important roles in returning nutrients to the soil, maintaining forest productivity and creating habitats in forest ecosystems. Forest biomass is in increasing demand for energy production, and organic matter has been considered as a potential supply. Thus, an important management question is how much organic matter should be retained after forest harvesting to maintain forest productivity. To address this question, an experimental trial was established in 1996 to evaluate the responses of lodgepole pine seedling growth to organic matter loading treatments. Four organic matter loading treatments were randomly assigned to each of four homogeneous pine sites: removal of all organic matter on the forest floor, organic matter loading quantity similar to whole-tree-harvesting residuals left on site, organic matter loading quantity similar to stem-only-harvesting residuals, and organic matter loading quantity more similar to what would be found in disease- or insect-killed stands. Our 10-year data showed that height and diameter had 29 and 35 % increase, respectively, comparing the treatment with the most organic matter loading to the treatment with the least organic matter loading. The positive response of seedling growth to organic matter loading may be associated with nutrients and/or microclimate change caused by organic matter, and requires further study. The dynamic response of seedling growth to organic matter loading treatments highlights the importance of long-term studies. Implications of those results on organic matter management are discussed in the context of forest productivity sustainability.

  4. Enhanced energy conversion efficiency from high strength synthetic organic wastewater by sequential dark fermentative hydrogen production and algal lipid accumulation.

    PubMed

    Ren, Hong-Yu; Liu, Bing-Feng; Kong, Fanying; Zhao, Lei; Xing, Defeng; Ren, Nan-Qi

    2014-04-01

    A two-stage process of sequential dark fermentative hydrogen production and microalgal cultivation was applied to enhance the energy conversion efficiency from high strength synthetic organic wastewater. Ethanol fermentation bacterium Ethanoligenens harbinense B49 was used as hydrogen producer, and the energy conversion efficiency and chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal efficiency reached 18.6% and 28.3% in dark fermentation. Acetate was the main soluble product in dark fermentative effluent, which was further utilized by microalga Scenedesmus sp. R-16. The final algal biomass concentration reached 1.98gL(-1), and the algal biomass was rich in lipid (40.9%) and low in protein (23.3%) and carbohydrate (11.9%). Compared with single dark fermentation stage, the energy conversion efficiency and COD removal efficiency of two-stage system remarkably increased 101% and 131%, respectively. This research provides a new approach for efficient energy production and wastewater treatment using a two-stage process combining dark fermentation and algal cultivation. PMID:24582427

  5. HEALTH ASSESSMENT DOCUMENT FOR POLYCYCLIC ORGANIC MATTER

    EPA Science Inventory

    The document responds to Section 122 of the Clean Air Act as Amended August 1977, which requires the Administrator to decide whether atmospheric emissions of polycyclic organic matter (POM) potentially endanger public health. This document reviews POM data on chemical and physica...

  6. Organic matter of urban soils: A review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vodyanitskii, Yu. N.

    2015-08-01

    Urban environment exerts an ambiguous effect on the organic pool of soils; it may decrease (as compared to the background values) in some parts of a city and increase in other parts. The organic matter accumulation in urban soils is promoted by the input of aerial organic pollutants; slowed down mineralization of plant residues under the influence of contamination; and increased productivity of the plants owing to elevated temperatures, high content of carbon dioxide in the air, and maintenance of green zones (sodding of vast areas in cities, application of peat, irrigation and drainage of soils.)

  7. Organic matters: investigating the sources, transport, and fate of organic matter in Fanno Creek, Oregon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sobieszczyk, Steven; Keith, Mackenzie; Goldman, Jami H.; Rounds, Stewart A.

    2015-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with Clean Water Services, recently completed an investigation into the sources, transport, and fate of organic matter in the Fanno Creek watershed. The information provided by this investigation will help resource managers to implement strategies aimed at decreasing the excess supply of organic matter that contributes to low dissolved-oxygen levels in Fanno Creek and downstream in the Tualatin River during summer. This fact sheet summarizes the findings of the investigation.

  8. Organic matter and sandstone-type uranium deposits: a primer

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Leventhal, Joel S.

    1979-01-01

    Organic material is intimately associated with sandstone-type uranium deposits in the western United States.. This report gives details of the types of organic matter and their possible role in producing a uranium deposit. These steps include mobilization of uranium from igneous rocks, transportation from the surface, concentration by organic matter, reduction by organic matter, and preservation of the uranium deposit.

  9. Isotopic analysis of cometary organic matter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kerridge, John F.

    1991-01-01

    Carbon isotope ratios have been measured for CN in the coma of Comet Halley and for several CHON particles emitted by Halley. Of these, only the CHON-particle data may be reasonably related to organic matter in the cometary nucleus, but the true range of (C-13)/(C-12) values in those particles is quite uncertain. The D/H ratio in H2O in the Halley coma resembles that in Titan/Uranus.

  10. Analysis of Organic matter from cloud particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bank, Shelton; Castillo, Raymond

    1987-03-01

    Organic matter collected from filtration of two separate cloud events was analysed by Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy. Particles collected from different size filters were separated by color and each type of particle gave rise to a characteristic spectrum. The major constituents were identified as complex proteins and cellulose. Additionally, some degraded material (likely protein) and an unidentified orange-brown material were present. Finally some trace components were identified as wax, oil, silicon oil, polyvinyl chloride, calcium carbonate, clay, sand and polyethylene.

  11. Organic matter matters for ice nuclei of agricultural soil origin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tobo, Y.; DeMott, P. J.; Hill, T. C. J.; Prenni, A. J.; Swoboda-Colberg, N. G.; Franc, G. D.; Kreidenweis, S. M.

    2014-04-01

    Heterogeneous ice nucleation is a~crucial process for forming ice-containing clouds and subsequent ice-induced precipitation. The importance for ice nucleation of airborne desert soil dusts composed predominantly of minerals is relatively well understood. On the other hand, the potential influence of agricultural soil dusts on ice nucleation has been poorly recognized, despite recent estimates that they may account for up to ∼25% of the global atmospheric dust load. We have conducted freezing experiments with various dusts, including agricultural soil dusts derived from the largest dust source region in North America. Here we show evidence for the significant role of soil organic matter (SOM) in particles acting as ice nuclei (IN) under mixed-phase cloud conditions. We find that the ice nucleating ability of the agricultural soil dusts is similar to that of desert soil dusts, but is reduced to almost the same level as that of clay minerals (e.g., kaolinite) after either H2O2 digestion or dry heating to 300 °C. In addition, based on chemical composition analysis, we show that organic-rich particles are more important than mineral particles for the ice nucleating ability of the agricultural soil dusts at temperatures warmer than about -36 °C. Finally, we suggest that such organic-rich particles of agricultural origin (namely, SOM particles) may contribute significantly to the ubiquity of organic-rich IN in the global atmosphere.

  12. Organic matter matters for ice nuclei of agricultural soil origin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tobo, Y.; DeMott, P. J.; Hill, T. C. J.; Prenni, A. J.; Swoboda-Colberg, N. G.; Franc, G. D.; Kreidenweis, S. M.

    2014-08-01

    Heterogeneous ice nucleation is a crucial process for forming ice-containing clouds and subsequent ice-induced precipitation. The importance for ice nucleation by airborne desert soil dusts composed predominantly of minerals is widely acknowledged. However, the potential influence of agricultural soil dusts on ice nucleation has been poorly recognized, despite recent estimates that they may account for up to 20-25% of the global atmospheric dust load. We have conducted freezing experiments with various dusts, including agricultural soil dusts derived from the largest dust-source region in North America. Here we show evidence for the significant role of soil organic matter (SOM) in particles acting as ice nuclei (IN) under mixed-phase cloud conditions. We find that the ice-nucleating ability of the agricultural soil dusts is similar to that of desert soil dusts, but is clearly reduced after either H2O2 digestion or dry heating to 300 °C. In addition, based on chemical composition analysis, we demonstrate that organic-rich particles are more important than mineral particles for the ice-nucleating ability of the agricultural soil dusts at temperatures warmer than about -36 °C. Finally, we suggest that such organic-rich particles of agricultural origin (namely, SOM particles) may contribute significantly to the ubiquity of organic-rich IN in the global atmosphere.

  13. Isolation and chemical characterization of dissolved and colloidal organic matter

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Aiken, G.; Leenheer, J.

    1993-01-01

    Commonly used techniques for the concentration and isolation of organic matter from water, such as preparative chromatography, ultrafiltration and reverse osmosis, and the methods used to analyze the organic matter obtained by these methods are reviewed. The development of methods to obtain organic matter that is associated with fractions of the dissolved organic carbon other than humic substances, such as organic bases, hydrophilic organic acids and colloidal organic matter are discussed. Methods specifically used to study dissolved organic nitrogen and dissolved organic phosphorous are also discussed. -from Authors

  14. Abiotic Bromination of Soil Organic Matter.

    PubMed

    Leri, Alessandra C; Ravel, Bruce

    2015-11-17

    Biogeochemical transformations of plant-derived soil organic matter (SOM) involve complex abiotic and microbially mediated reactions. One such reaction is halogenation, which occurs naturally in the soil environment and has been associated with enzymatic activity of decomposer organisms. Building on a recent finding that naturally produced organobromine is ubiquitous in SOM, we hypothesized that inorganic bromide could be subject to abiotic oxidations resulting in bromination of SOM. Through lab-based degradation treatments of plant material and soil humus, we have shown that abiotic bromination of particulate organic matter occurs in the presence of a range of inorganic oxidants, including hydrogen peroxide and assorted forms of ferric iron, producing both aliphatic and aromatic forms of organobromine. Bromination of oak and pine litter is limited primarily by bromide concentration. Fresh plant material is more susceptible to bromination than decayed litter and soil humus, due to a labile pool of mainly aliphatic compounds that break down during early stages of SOM formation. As the first evidence of abiotic bromination of particulate SOM, this study identifies a mechanistic source of the natural organobromine in humic substances and the soil organic horizon. Formation of organobromine through oxidative treatments of plant material also provides insights into the relative stability of aromatic and aliphatic components of SOM. PMID:26468620

  15. Saltcedar (Tamarix ramosissima) invasion alters organic matter dynamics in a desert stream

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kennedy, T.A.; Hobbie, S.E.

    2004-01-01

    1. We investigated the impacts of saltcedar invasion on organic matter dynamics in a spring-fed stream (Jackrabbit Spring) in the Mojave Desert of southern Nevada, U.S.A., by experimentally manipulating saltcedar abundance. 2. Saltcedar heavily shaded Jackrabbit Spring and shifted the dominant organic matter inputs from autochthonous production that was available throughout the year to allochthonous saltcedar leaf litter that was strongly pulsed in the autumn. Specifically, reaches dominated by saltcedar had allochthonous litter inputs of 299 g ash free dry mass (AFDM) m-2 year-1, macrophyte production of 15 g AFDM m-2 year-1 and algal production of 400 g AFDM m-2 year-1, while reaches dominated by native riparian vegetation or where saltcedar had been experimentally removed had allochthonous litter inputs of 7-34 g AFDM m -2 year-1, macrophyte production of 118-425 g AFDM m -2 year-1 and algal production of 640-900 g AFDM m -2 year-1. 3. A leaf litter breakdown study indicated that saltcedar also altered decomposition in Jackrabbit Spring, mainly through its influence on litter quality rather than by altering the environment for decomposition. Decomposition rates for saltcedar were lower than for ash (Fraxinus velutina), the dominant native allochthonous litter type, but faster than for bulrush (Scirpus americanus), the dominant macrophyte in this system.

  16. Soil organic matter composition affected by potato cropping managements

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Organic matter is a small but important soil component. As a heterogeneous mixture of geomolecules and biomolecules, soil organic matter (SOM) can be fractionated into distinct pools with different solubility and lability. Water extractable organic matter (WEOM) fraction is the most labile and mobil...

  17. Molecular insights into the microbial formation of marine dissolved organic matter: recalcitrant or labile?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koch, B. P.; Kattner, G.; Witt, M.; Passow, U.

    2014-08-01

    The degradation of marine dissolved organic matter (DOM) is an important control variable in the global carbon cycle. For our understanding of the kinetics of organic matter cycling in the ocean, it is crucial to achieve a mechanistic and molecular understanding of its transformation processes. A long-term microbial experiment was performed to follow the production of non-labile DOM by marine bacteria. Two different glucose concentrations and dissolved algal exudates were used as substrates. We monitored the bacterial abundance, concentrations of dissolved and particulate organic carbon (DOC, POC), nutrients, amino acids and transparent exopolymer particles (TEP) for 2 years. The molecular characterization of extracted DOM was performed by ultrahigh resolution Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (FT-ICR MS) after 70 days and after ∼2 years of incubation. Although glucose quickly degraded, a non-labile DOC background (5-9% of the initial DOC) was generated in the glucose incubations. Only 20% of the organic carbon from the algal exudate degraded within the 2 years of incubation. The degradation rates for the non-labile DOC background in the different treatments varied between 1 and 11 μmol DOC L-1 year-1. Transparent exopolymer particles, which are released by microorganisms, were produced during glucose degradation but decreased back to half of the maximum concentration within less than 3 weeks (degradation rate: 25 μg xanthan gum equivalents L-1 d-1) and were below detection in all treatments after 2 years. Additional glucose was added after 2 years to test whether labile substrate can promote the degradation of background DOC (co-metabolism; priming effect). A priming effect was not observed but the glucose addition led to a slight increase of background DOC. The molecular analysis demonstrated that DOM generated during glucose degradation differed appreciably from DOM transformed during the degradation of the algal exudates. Our

  18. Soil organic matter prediction using environmental factors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oueslati, I.; Allamano, P.; Claps, P.; Bonifacio, E.

    2009-04-01

    Organic matter is one of the most important properties affecting soil chemical and physical fertility, but it influences also soil hydrologic parameters. It is easily measured by chemical analyses, but in large scale studies its prediction is desirable. This study aims at predicting the spatial distribution of the soil organic matter concentration (SOM) in forest topsoils in Piedmont (North West Italy) using continuous predictors (in forms of auxiliary maps). As predictors we selected: the digital elevation model (DEM, 50 meter resolution), the mean annual precipitation, the soil dryness index and normal difference vegetation index (NDVI, 1 km resolution). Using the Geographic Information System SAGA, the terrain attributes were computed from the DEM, namely are: elevation, slope, aspect and mean curvature associated with hydrological parameters namely, the compound topographic index (CTI) and stream power index (SPI). From the long term monthly average of NDVI the mean annual value and the coefficient of variation (CV) were also derived. This data set was used to estimate the SOM concentration by regression analysis. To test the relationship between the SOM and the environmental variables, 66 soil profiles were used. Several variables were found to be significantly correlated with SOM concentration: elevation, slope, mean NDVI, CV(NDVI), precipitation and dryness index, with correlation coefficients, r, of the linear regressions ranging from 0.12 to 0.63. However, only precipitation and mean NDVI were retained when a stepwise multiple regression was used. Although these two predictors contribute only partially to explain SOM variability (R2=0.42). The importance of vegetation is clearly depicted by the significant effect of NDVI, while the precipitation may contribute to the explanation in a less direct way because of the complex links between climate and organic matter transformation in soils.

  19. Mapping Soil Organic Matter with Hyperspectral Imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moni, Christophe; Burud, Ingunn; Flø, Andreas; Rasse, Daniel

    2014-05-01

    Soil organic matter (SOM) plays a central role for both food security and the global environment. Soil organic matter is the 'glue' that binds soil particles together, leading to positive effects on soil water and nutrient availability for plant growth and helping to counteract the effects of erosion, runoff, compaction and crusting. Hyperspectral measurements of samples of soil profiles have been conducted with the aim of mapping soil organic matter on a macroscopic scale (millimeters and centimeters). Two soil profiles have been selected from the same experimental site, one from a plot amended with biochar and another one from a control plot, with the specific objective to quantify and map the distribution of biochar in the amended profile. The soil profiles were of size (30 x 10 x 10) cm3 and were scanned with two pushbroomtype hyperspectral cameras, one which is sensitive in the visible wavelength region (400 - 1000 nm) and one in the near infrared region (1000 - 2500 nm). The images from the two detectors were merged together into one full dataset covering the whole wavelength region. Layers of 15 mm were removed from the 10 cm high sample such that a total of 7 hyperspectral images were obtained from the samples. Each layer was analyzed with multivariate statistical techniques in order to map the different components in the soil profile. Moreover, a 3-dimensional visalization of the components through the depth of the sample was also obtained by combining the hyperspectral images from all the layers. Mid-infrared spectroscopy of selected samples of the measured soil profiles was conducted in order to correlate the chemical constituents with the hyperspectral results. The results show that hyperspectral imaging is a fast, non-destructive technique, well suited to characterize soil profiles on a macroscopic scale and hence to map elements and different organic matter quality present in a complete pedon. As such, we were able to map and quantify biochar in our

  20. The fate of airborne polycyclic organic matter.

    PubMed Central

    Nielsen, T; Ramdahl, T; Bjørseth, A

    1983-01-01

    Biological tests have shown that a significant part of the mutagenicity of organic extracts of collected airborne particulate matter is not due to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH). It is possible that part of these unknown compounds are transformation products of PAH. This survey focuses on the reaction of PAH in the atmosphere with other copollutants, such as nitrogen oxides, sulfur oxides, ozone and free radicals and their reaction products. Photochemically induced reactions of PAH are also included. The reactivity of particle-associated PAH is discussed in relation to the chemical composition and the physical properties of the carrier. Recommendations for future work are given. PMID:6825615

  1. Characterization of organic matter source in the sediment of Lake Soyang, in view of land uses.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, Su Jin; Kim, Jung-Hyun; Gal, Jong Ku; Lee, Dong Hun; Lee, Won-Seok; Choi, Jong-Woo; Shin, Kyung Hoon

    2015-04-01

    Stable isotope analysis is applied to surface and core sediment from artificial deep reservoir Soyang, Korea for the identification of sources of organic matters. Carbon and nitrogen stable isotopes of POM(>20μm), the soils of forest area and alpine agriculture area were also analyzed as estimated sources.δ13C of surface sediment were -26.88˜-26.28‰. δ15N were increased from downstream to upstream(2.5˜4.63‰). C/N ratio at downstream were 8˜10, and 16˜22 at upstream. These results indicate that dominance input of the terrestrial organic matters in upstream area. It might be caused by huge delivery of the soil and terrestrial higher plant residue through the turbid current runoff from alpine agriculture area. In contrast, surface sediment of downstream relatively seems to be influenced by algal organic matter. In core sediment collected from the central area of downstream near by a dam, δ13C and δ15N of below 15cm were around -26‰ and 3‰ respectively. However, above the 15cm, δ13C and δ15N trend were increased up to -24.6‰, 5.8‰ respectively. These results demonstrate that forest origin organic matter could be dominant below the 15cm. However, turbid current input has been increased due to the enlarged alpine agriculture area since 1990s. Therefore the soil organic matter derived from alpine agriculture regions should be predominant in the upper sediment of the core. Consequently, in this study, organic matter distribution and its origin in Lake Soyang can be clarified using carbon and nitrogen stable isotope values in additional to lipid biomarker analysis.

  2. Lipid composition in particulate and dissolved organic matter in the Delaware Estuary: Sources and diagenetic patterns

    SciTech Connect

    Mannino, A.; Harvey, H.R.

    1999-08-01

    Dissolved organic matter (DOM) was isolated from surface waters of Delaware Bay along a transect from freshwater to the coastal ocean and fractionated by tangential flow ultrafiltration into high (1--30 kDa; HDOM) and very high (30 kDa--0.2 {micro}m; VHDOM) nominal molecular mass fractions. Carbon content, stable carbon isotopes, and lipid composition were measured for each DOM fraction, and particles collected in parallel. Lipids, excluding hydrocarbons, comprised up to 0.33% of HDOM organic carbon, 1.6% of VHDOM carbon, and 10% of POC, the majority of which were fatty acids. Although lipids comprised a small fraction of HDOM, fatty acids and sterols provided valuable information on the origins of DOM. Molecular composition of particulate and dissolved lipids and bulk stable carbon isotopes demonstrated differences in organic sources along the estuarine gradient with distinct terrestrial signals in the river and turbid middle estuary and an algal signal in the lower estuary and coastal ocean. Both particulate organic matter and VHDOM samples were enriched in lipids on a carbon basis compared to the HDOM fraction, which suggests that the HDOM fraction was less labile than particulate organic matter or VHDOM. Selective degradation of labile lipids by the microbial community can account for the depletions of unsaturated fatty acids, sterols, and phytol within HDOM relative to particles.

  3. Organic Matter in the Outer Solar System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cruiskshank, Dale P.; DeVincenzi, Donald L. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    Many solid bodies in the outer Solar System are covered with ices of various compositions, including water, carbon dioxide, methane, nitrogen, and other molecules that are solid at the low temperatures that prevail there. These ices have all been detected by remote sensing observations made with telescopes on Earth, or more recently, spacecraft in orbit (notably Galileo at Jupiter). The data also reveal other solid materials that could be minerals or complex carbon-bearing organic molecules. A study in progress using large ground-based telescopes to acquire infrared spectroscopic data, and laboratory results on the optical properties of complex organic matter, seeks to identify the non-icy materials on several satellites of Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune. The work on the satellites of Saturn is in part preparatory to the Cassini spacecraft investigation of the Saturn system, which will begin in 2004 and extend for four years.

  4. Soil organic matter mineralization in frozen soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harrysson Drotz, S.; Sparrman, T.; Schleucher, J.; Nilsson, M.; Öquist, M. G.

    2009-12-01

    Boreal forest soils are frozen for a large part of the year and soil organic matter mineralization during this period has been shown to significantly influence the C balance of boreal forest ecosystems. Mineralization proceeds through heterotrophic microbial activity, but the understanding of the environmental controls regulating soil organic matter mineralization under frozen conditions is poor. Through a series of investigations we have addressed this issue in order to elucidate to what extent a range of environmental factors control mineralization processes in frozen soils and also the microbial communities potential to oxidize organic substrates and grow under such conditions. The unfrozen water content in the frozen soils was shown to be an integral control on the temperature response of biogenic CO2 production across the freezing point of bulk soil water. We found that osmotic potential was an important contributor to the total water potential and, hence, the unfrozen water content of frozen soil. From being low and negligible in an unfrozen soil, the osmotic potential was found to contribute up to 70% of the total water potential in frozen soil, greatly influencing the volume of liquid water. The specific factors of how soil organic matter composition affected the unfrozen water content and CO2 production of frozen soil were studied by CP-MAS NMR. We concluded that abundance of aromatics and recalcitrant compounds showed a significant positive correlation with unfrozen water content and these were also the major soil organic fractions that similarly correlated with the microbial CO2 production of the frozen soils. Thus, the hierarchy of environmental factors controlling SOM mineralization changes as soils freeze and environmental controls elucidated from studies of unfrozen systems can not be added on frozen conditions. We have also investigated the potential activity of soil microbial communities under frozen conditions in order to elucidate temperature

  5. Stability of Ferrihydrite and Organic Matter in Ferrihydrite-Organic Matter Associations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eusterhues, K.; Totsche, K. U.

    2015-12-01

    Iron oxides can bind particularly large amounts of organic matter (OM) and seem to be an important control on OM storage in many soils. To better understand the interactions between Fe oxides and OM, we produced ferrihydrite-OM associations by adsorption and coprecipitation in laboratory experiments. Because ferrihydrites are often formed in OM-rich solutions, we assume that coprecipitation is a common process in nature. In contrast to adsorption on pre-existing ferrihydrite surfaces, coprecipitation involves adsorption, occlusion (physical entrapment of OM), formation of Fe-OM complexes, and poisoning of ferrihydrite growth. The reactivity of coprecipitates may therefore differ from ferriydrites with adsorbed OM. Incubation experiments with an inoculum extracted from a Podzol forest-floor were carried out to quantify the mineralization of the adsorbed and coprecipitated organic matter. These experiments showed that the association with ferrihydrite stabilized the associated organic matter, but that differences in the degradability of adsorbed and coprecipitated organic matter were small. We therefore conclude that coprecipitation does not lead to a significant formation of microbial inaccessible organic matter domains. Microbial reduction experiments were performed using Geobacter bremensis. We observed that increasing amounts of associated OM led to decreasing initial reaction rates and a decreasing degree of dissolution. Reduction of coprecipitated ferrihydrites was faster than reduction of ferrihydrites with adsorbed OM. Our data demonstrate that the association with ferrihydrite can effectively stabilize labile polysaccharides. Vice versa, these polysaccharides may protect ferrihydrite from reduction by Geobacter-like bacteria. However, a challenge for future studies will be to link formation and degradation of mineral-organic associations to natural porous systems, that is, to the complex interplay of mass transport and microbial distribution in the

  6. National Algal Biofuels Technology Roadmap

    SciTech Connect

    Ferrell, John; Sarisky-Reed, Valerie

    2010-05-01

    The framework for National Algal Biofuels Technology Roadmap was constructed at the Algal Biofuels Technology Roadmap Workshop, held December 9-10, 2008, at the University of Maryland-College Park. The Workshop was organized by the Biomass Program to discuss and identify the critical challenges currently hindering the development of a domestic, commercial-scale algal biofuels industry. This Roadmap presents information from a scientific, economic, and policy perspectives that can support and guide RD&D investment in algal biofuels. While addressing the potential economic and environmental benefits of using algal biomass for the production of liquid transportation fuels, the Roadmap describes the current status of algae RD&D. In doing so, it lays the groundwork for identifying challenges that likely need to be overcome for algal biomass to be used in the production of economically viable biofuels.

  7. Spectral fingerprinting of soil organic matter composition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cecillon, L.; Certini, G.; Lange, H.; Forte, C.; Strand, L. T.

    2009-04-01

    The determination of soil organic matter (SOM) composition relies on a variety of chemical and physical methods, most of them time consuming and expensive. Hitherto, such methodological limitations have hampered the use of detailed SOM composition in process-based models of SOM dynamics, which usually include only three poorly defined carbon pools. Here we show a novel approach merging both near and mid infrared spectroscopy into a single fingerprint for an expeditious prediction of the molecular composition of organic materials in soil, as inferred from a molecular mixing model (MMM) based on 13C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), which describes SOM as a mixture of common biologically derived polymers. Infrared and solid-state 13C NMR spectroscopic measurements were performed on a set of mineral and organic soil samples presenting a wide range of organic carbon content (2 to 500 g kg-1), collected in a boreal heathland (Storgama, Norway). The implementation of the MMM using 13C NMR spectra allowed the calculation of five main biochemical components (carbohydrate, protein, lignin, lipids and black carbon) for each sample. Partial least squares regression models were developed for the five biopolymers using outer product analysis of near and mid infrared spectra (Infrared-OPA). All models reached ratios of performance to deviation (RPD) above 2 and specific infrared wavenumbers associated to each biochemical component were identified. Our results demonstrate that Infrared-OPA provides a robust and cost-effective fingerprint of SOM composition that could be useful for the routine assessment of soil carbon pools.

  8. Relating dissolved organic matter fluorescence to functional properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tipping, E.; Baker, A.; Thacker, S.; Gondar, D.

    2007-12-01

    The fluorescence excitation emission matrix properties of dissolved organic matter from three rivers and one lake in NW England are analysed. Sites are sampled in duplicate and for some sites seasonally to cover variations in dissolved organic matter composition, river flow, and carbon isotopic (13C, 14C) variability. Results are compared to the functional properties of the dissolved organic matter, the functional assays provide quantitative information on light absorption, fluorescence, photochemical fading, pH buffering, copper binding, benzo[a]pyrene binding, hydrophilicity and adsorption to alumina. Fluorescence characterization of the dissolved organic matter samples demonstrates that peak C fluorescence emission wavelength, the ratio of peak T to peak C fluorescence intensity, and the fluorescence : absorbance ratio best differentiate different dissolved organic matter samples. These parameters correspond to dissolved organic matter aromaticity, the ratio of labile to recalcitrant organic matter, and dissolved organic matter molecular weight. Peak C fluorescence emission wavelength, the ratio of peak T to peak C fluorescence intensity, and the fluorescence : absorbance ratio fluorescence parameters also have strong correlations with several of the functional assays, in particular the extinction coefficients, benzo(a)pyrene binding and alumina adsorption, and buffering capacity. In many cases, regression equations with a correlation coefficient >0.9 are obtained, suggesting that dissolved organic matter functional character can be predicted from DOM fluorescence properties. For one site, the relationship between dissolved organic matter source, fluorescence, function and carbon isotopic composition is discussed.

  9. How reservoirs alter drinking water quality: Organic matter sources, sinks, and transformations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kraus, Tamara E.C.; Bergamaschi, Brian A.; Hernes, Peter J.; Doctor, Daniel H.; Kendall, Carol; Downing, Bryan D.; Losee, Richard F.

    2011-01-01

    Within reservoirs, production, transformation, and loss of dissolved organic matter (DOM) occur simultaneously. While the balance between production and loss determines whether a reservoir is a net sink or source of DOM, changes in chemical composition are also important because they affect DOM reactivity with respect to disinfection by-product (DBP) formation. The composition of the DOM pool also provides insight into DOM sources and processing, which can inform reservoir management. We examined the concentration and composition of DOM in San Luis Reservoir, a large off-stream impoundment of the California State Water Project. We used a wide array of DOM chemical tracers including dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentration, trihalomethane and haloacetic acid formation potentials (THMFP and HAAFP, respectively), absorbance properties, isotopic composition, lignin phenol content, and structural groupings determined by 13C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). There were periods when the reservoir was a net source of DOC due to the predominance of algal production (summer), a net sink due to the predominance of degradation (fall–winter), and balanced between production and consumption (spring). Despite only moderate variation in bulk DOC concentration (3.0–3.6 mg C/L), changes in DOM composition indicated that terrestrial-derived material entering the reservoir was being degraded and replaced by aquatic-derived DOM produced within the reservoir. Substantial changes in the propensity of the DOM pool to form THMs and HAAs illustrate that the DBP precursor pool was not directly coupled to bulk DOC concentration and indicate that algal production is an important source of DBP precursors. Results suggest reservoirs have the potential to attenuate DOM amount and reactivity with respect to DBP precursors via degradative processes; however, these benefits can be decreased or even negated by the production of algal-derived DOM.

  10. Photochemical dissolution of organic matter from resuspended sediments: Impact of source and diagenetic state on photorelease

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Helms, J. R.; Glinski, D. A.; Mead, R. N.; Southwell, M.; Avery, G. B., Jr.; Kieber, R. J.; Skrabal, S. A.

    2015-12-01

    Resuspended sediments exposed to simulated solar radiation release dissolved organic carbon (DOC). However, it is unclear how the provenance of sedimentary organic matter (OM) impacts this photorelease. In the first geographically extensive study of this phenomenon, twenty three size fractionated, fine grained sediments (< ca. 10-20 μm) from a variety of drainage basins were resuspended (at suspended solid loading of 29- 255 mg/l) and exhibited a net photochemical DOC release ranging from 2 to 178 μmol/g/h. There was a logarithmic increase in photoreleased DOC vs. the proportion of sedimentary OC (%), most likely due to photon limitation at high sedimentary OC loading (i.e. high mass-specific absorption limiting light penetration). Sediment source and quality - determined using lipid biomarkers - had a significant effect on DOC photorelease. The fatty acid terrestrial aquatic ratio (TARFA) indicated that terrestrially derived sediments exhibited relatively greater DOC photorelease. The long chain carbon preference index (CPI24-34) indicated that diagenetically unaltered terrestrial OM photoreleased more DOC than diagenetically altered terrestrial OM. The short chain carbon preference index (CPI14-22) demonstrated that sediments containing diagenetically altered planktonic or algal derived OM had a greater photorelease rate of DOC than fresh algal OM. This suggests that humic substances (humus and/or adsorbed humic and fulvic acids) play an important role in the photochemical dissolution of OC regardless of whether or not they are imported from upstream (i.e. terrestrial humics) or generated within the depositional or sedimentary environment (i.e. humification of algal dissolved OM).

  11. Molecular and structural characterization of dissolved organic matter during and post cyanobacterial bloom in Taihu by combination of NMR spectroscopy and FTICR mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Fenfen; Harir, Mourad; Moritz, Franco; Zhang, Jing; Witting, Michael; Wu, Ying; Schmitt-Kopplin, Philippe; Fekete, Agnes; Gaspar, Andras; Hertkorn, Norbert

    2014-06-15

    Seasonal molecular changes in dissolved organic matter (DOM) isolated from Tai Lake (Taihu) both during (June) and following (November) an algal bloom event in 2007 were characterized by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR) and Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance (FTICR) mass spectrometry. Considerable biosignatures were present in summer DOM, yet with a near absence of algal extract compounds. Extensive molecular alteration resulting from multistep and massively parallel biotic and subordinated abiotic transformations of algal biomass to DOM included loss and synthesis of carbohydrates, fundamental changes of aromatic compounds and progressive formation of carboxyl-rich alicyclic compounds (CRAM). The DOM transformation from summer to fall resulted in smaller molecules, increased abundance of CHNO continuous molecular series and overall molecular diversity. Analysis of MS-derived compositional networks placed summer DOM in-between the algal extract and fall DOM. Metabolic pathway annotation by means of high-resolution mass analysis provided a wide range of pathways associated with secondary metabolites in DOM and more basic ones like carbohydrate metabolism characteristic of algal extract compounds. Overall, the time-dependent molecular signature of Taihu DOM was likely dominated by microbial metabolism rather than abiotic chemical transformations. Results from this study indicate that high-resolution organic structural spectroscopy resolves meaningful structural detail out of complex environmental mixtures and has the potential to contribute significantly to future functional biodiversity studies. PMID:24727497

  12. Potential Marine Organisms Affecting Airborne Primary Organic Matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aller, J. Y.; Alpert, P. A.; Knopf, D. A.

    2012-12-01

    The oceans cover 70% of earth with the marine environment contributing ~50% of the global biomass. Particularly during periods of high biological activity associated with phytoplankton blooms, primary emitted aerosol particles dominated by organic compounds in the submicron size range, are ejected from surface waters increasing in concentration exponentially with overlying wind speeds. This is significant for clouds and climate particularly over nutrient rich polar seas, where seawater concentrations of biogenic particles can reach 109 cells per ml during spring phytoplankton blooms, and even 106 cells per ml in winter when empty frustules and fragments of diatoms are resuspensed from shallow shelf sediments by strong winds, and mix with living pico- and nanoplankton in surface sea waters. This organic aerosol fraction can have a significant impact on the ability of ocean derived aerosol to act as cloud condensation nuclei. It has been shown that small insoluble organic particles are aerosolized from the sea surface microlayer (SML) via bubble bursting. The exact composition and complexity of the SML varies spatially and temporally but includes phytoplankton cells, microorganisms, organic debris, and a complex mixture of proteins, polysaccharides, humic-type material and waxes, microgels and colloidal nanogels, and strong surface active lipids. The specific chemical composition is dependent on the fractionation of organic matter which originates from in-situ production, from underlying water and even from atmospheric deposition. These conditions will most likely determine the nature of the organic and biogenic material. Here we review the types, sizes, and properties of ocean-derived particles and organic material which present potential candidates for airborne biogenic and organic particles.

  13. Early diagenesis of organic matter in a Sawgrass peat from the Everglades, Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Orem, W.H.; Hatcher, P.G.

    1987-01-01

    The transformation of plant biopolymers to humic substances in peats during early diagenesis is a critical but poorly understood step in the formation of coal. This paper presents results concerning the structural interrelationships among various fractions of the organic matter in peat and the dissolved organic matter in the pore water from a site in The Everglades, relying primarily on elemental analysis and 13C nuclear magnetic resonance for structural elucidation. Our goal was to obtaine some insight into the sequence of steps involved in the formation of humic substances. Results show that the major change occurring in the whole peat during diagenesis is loss of carbohydrates. The components of the peat which are more resistant to microbial degradation become concentrated in the humin fraction. This resistant fraction of the organic matter includes aliphatic and aromatic components. The aromatic components are thought to be derived from lignin while the aliphatic moieties may represent decomposed algal remains. The carbohydrates lost from the whole peat appear to be concentrated in the fulvic acids and the dissolved organic matter in the pore water. The humic acids consist predominantly of aromatic and aliphatic structures, and may represent partially degraded lignin-like structures and aliphatic compounds from algae. The data presented here suggest that humic and fulvic acids are the partially degraded fractions of the peat while the humin contains the resistant or preserved portion of the organic matter. The proposition that humic substances are formed by the condensation of amino acids and sugars is not supported by the results of this study. ?? 1987.

  14. Microbial and long-range terrestrial contributions of organic matter to Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antony, R.; Grannas, A. M.; Priest, A. S.; Sleighter, R. L.; Meloth, T.; Hatcher, P.

    2012-12-01

    Composition and cycling of dissolved organic matter in glacial systems is important because of its great significance to global carbon dynamics, snow photochemistry, and air-snow exchange processes. But, due to the trace nature of specific organic components in Polar ice sheets, detecting and studying these species in molecular level detail has been an analytical challenge. Electrospray ionization coupled with Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (ESI FT-ICR MS) enabled the elucidation of molecular level details of natural organic matter in snow samples collected along a coast to inland transect from the Princesses Elizabeth Land, East Antarctica. Thousands of distinct molecular species comprising of different compound classes were identified providing clues to the nature and sources of organic carbon in Antarctic snow. The major biochemical classes of compounds detected were lignins, tannins, carbohydrates, proteins, amino sugars, lipids, unsaturated hydrocarbons and condensed aromatics. Specifically, lignin molecules comprising up to 50% and compounds derived from algal and microbial biomass comprising up to 45% of the total assigned formulas dominated the organic carbon pool. The identification of a variety of lignin compounds demonstrates substantial input of vascular plant-derived materials to the identified molecular species, presumably from long range atmospheric transport and deposition. The detection of proteins, lipids and amino sugars suggests that a large proportion of the identified supraglacial organic matter likely originates from in situ microbial activity. This corroborates well with the presence of significant numbers of bacteria, picoplankton and microalgae in these samples. These results suggest that organic matter in the supraglacial environments have both a microbial and terrestrial provenance.

  15. Chemical characterization of high molecular weight dissolved organic matter in fresh and marine waters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Repeta, Daniel J.; Quan, Tracy M.; Aluwihare, Lihini I.; Accardi, AmyMarie

    2002-03-01

    The high molecular weight fraction of dissolved organic matter in a suite of lakes, rivers, seawater, and marine sediment interstitial water samples was collected by ultrafiltration and characterized by molecular level and spectroscopic techniques. Proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectra of all samples show a high degree of similarity, with major contributions from carbohydrates, bound acetate, and lipids. Molecular level analyses of neutral sugars show seven monosaccharides, rhamnose, fucose, arabinose, xylose, mannose, glucose, and galactose, to be abundant, and to occur in comparable relative amounts in each sample. Previous studies have emphasized the distinctive composition of dissolved humic substances in fresh and marine waters, and have attributed these differences to sources and transformations of organic matter unique to each environment. In contrast we find a large fraction of freshwater high molecular weight dissolved organic matter (HMWDOM; > 1kD) to be indistinguishable from marine HMWDOM in bulk and molecular-level chemical properties. Aquatic HMWDOM is similar in chemical composition to biologically derived acylated heteropolysaccharides isolated from marine algal cultures, suggesting a biological source for some fraction of persistent HMWDOM. High molecular weight DOC contributes 51 ± 26% of the total DOC, and monosaccharides 18 ± 8% of the total HMWDOC in our freshwater samples. These contributions are on average higher and more variable, but not significantly different than for surface seawater (30% and 16% respectively). Biogeochemical processes that produce, accumulate, and recycle DOM may therefore share important similarities and be broadly comparable across a range of environmental settings.

  16. The contribution of mycosporine-like amino acids, chromophoric dissolved organic matter and particles to the UV protection of sea-ice organisms in the Baltic Sea.

    PubMed

    Piiparinen, Jonna; Enberg, Sara; Rintala, Janne-Markus; Sommaruga, Ruben; Majaneva, Markus; Autio, Riitta; Vähätalo, Anssi V

    2015-05-01

    The effects of ultraviolet radiation (UVR) on the synthesis of mycosporine-like amino acids (MAAs) in sea-ice communities and on the other UV-absorption properties of sea ice were studied in a three-week long in situ experiment in the Gulf of Finland, Baltic Sea in March 2011. The untreated snow-covered ice and two snow-free ice treatments, one exposed to wavelengths > 400 nm (PAR) and the other to full solar spectrum (PAR + UVR), were analysed for MAAs and absorption coefficients of dissolved (aCDOM) and particulate (ap) fractions, the latter being further divided into non-algal (anap) and algal (aph) components. Our results showed that the diatom and dinoflagellate dominated sea-ice algal community responded to UVR down to 25-30 cm depth by increasing their MAA : chlorophyll-a ratio and by extending the composition of MAA pool from shinorine and palythine to porphyra-334 and an unknown compound with absorption peaks at ca. 335 and 360 nm. MAAs were the dominant absorbing components in algae in the top 10 cm of ice, and their contribution to total absorption became even more pronounced under UVR exposure. In addition to MAAs, the high absorption by chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM) and by deposited atmospheric particles provided UV-protection for sea-ice organisms in the exposed ice. Efficient UV-protection will especially be of importance under the predicted future climate conditions with more frequent snow-free conditions. PMID:25837523

  17. Sensitivity of soil organic matter in anthropogenically disturbed organic soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Säurich, Annelie; Tiemeyer, Bärbel; Bechtold, Michel; Don, Axel; Freibauer, Annette

    2016-04-01

    Drained peatlands are hotspots of carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions from agriculture. However, the variability of CO2 emissions increases with disturbance, and little is known on the soil properties causing differences between seemingly similar sites. Furthermore the driving factors for carbon cycling are well studied for both genuine peat and mineral soil, but there is a lack of information concerning soils at the boundary between organic and mineral soils. Examples for such soils are both soils naturally relatively high in soil organic matter (SOM) such as Humic Gleysols and former peat soils with a relative low SOM content due to intensive mineralization or mixing with underlying or applied mineral soil. The study aims to identify drivers for the sensitivity of soil organic matter and therefore for respiration rates of anthropogenically disturbed organic soils, especially those near the boundary to mineral soils. Furthermore, we would like to answer the question whether there are any critical thresholds of soil organic carbon (SOC) concentrations beyond which the carbon-specific respiration rates change. The German agricultural soil inventory samples all agricultural soils in Germany in an 8x8 km² grid following standardized protocols. From this data and sample base, we selected 120 different soil samples from more than 80 sites. As reference sites, three anthropogenically undisturbed peatlands were sampled as well. We chose samples from the soil inventory a) 72 g kg-1 SOC and b) representing the whole range of basic soil properties: SOC (72 to 568 g kg-1), total nitrogen (2 to 29 g kg-1), C-N-ratio (10 to 80) bulk density (0.06 to 1.41 g/cm³), pH (2.5 to 7.4), sand (0 to 95 %) and clay (2 to 70 %) content (only determined for samples with less than 190 g kg-1 SOC) as well as the botanical origin of the peat (if determinable). Additionally, iron oxides were determined for all samples. All samples were sieved (2 mm) and incubated at standardized water content and

  18. Soil Organic Matter and Management of Plant-Parasitic Nematodes

    PubMed Central

    Widmer, T. L.; Mitkowski, N. A.; Abawi, G. S.

    2002-01-01

    Organic matter and its replenishment has become a major component of soil health management programs. Many of the soil's physical, chemical, and biological properties are a function of organic matter content and quality. Adding organic matter to soil influences diverse and important biological activities. The diversity and number of free-living and plant-parasitic nematodes are altered by rotational crops, cover crops, green manures, and other sources of organic matter. Soil management programs should include the use of the proper organic materials to improve soil chemical, physical, and biological parameters and to suppress plant-parasitic nematodes and soilborne pathogens. It is critical to monitor the effects of organic matter additions on activities of major and minor plant-parasitic nematodes in the production system. This paper presents a general review of information in the literature on the effects of crop rotation, cover crops, and green manures on nematodes and their damage to economic crops. PMID:19265946

  19. Soil organic matter and management of plant-parasitic nematodes.

    PubMed

    Widmer, T L; Mitkowski, N A; Abawi, G S

    2002-12-01

    Organic matter and its replenishment has become a major component of soil health management programs. Many of the soil's physical, chemical, and biological properties are a function of organic matter content and quality. Adding organic matter to soil influences diverse and important biological activities. The diversity and number of free-living and plant-parasitic nematodes are altered by rotational crops, cover crops, green manures, and other sources of organic matter. Soil management programs should include the use of the proper organic materials to improve soil chemical, physical, and biological parameters and to suppress plant-parasitic nematodes and soilborne pathogens. It is critical to monitor the effects of organic matter additions on activities of major and minor plant-parasitic nematodes in the production system. This paper presents a general review of information in the literature on the effects of crop rotation, cover crops, and green manures on nematodes and their damage to economic crops. PMID:19265946

  20. Influence of organic matter generated by Chlorella vulgaris on five different modes of flocculation.

    PubMed

    Vandamme, Dries; Foubert, Imogen; Fraeye, Ilse; Muylaert, Koenraad

    2012-11-01

    Microalgae excrete relatively large amounts of algal organic matter (AOM) that may interfere with flocculation. The influence of AOM on flocculation of Chlorella vulgaris was studied using five different flocculation methods: aluminum sulfate, chitosan, cationic starch, pH-induced flocculation and electro-coagulation-flocculation (ECF). The presence of AOM was found to inhibit flocculation for all flocculation methods resulting in an increase of dosage demand. For pH-induced flocculation, the dosage required to achieve 85% flocculation increased only 2-fold when AOM was present, while for chitosan, this dosage increased 9-fold. For alum, ECF and cationic starch flocculation, the dosage increased 5-6-fold. Interference by AOM is an important parameter to consider in the assessment of flocculation-based harvesting of microalgae. PMID:23010213

  1. The evolution of organic matter in space.

    PubMed

    Ehrenfreund, Pascale; Spaans, Marco; Holm, Nils G

    2011-02-13

    Carbon, and molecules made from it, have already been observed in the early Universe. During cosmic time, many galaxies undergo intense periods of star formation, during which heavy elements like carbon, oxygen, nitrogen, silicon and iron are produced. Also, many complex molecules, from carbon monoxide to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, are detected in these systems, like they are for our own Galaxy. Interstellar molecular clouds and circumstellar envelopes are factories of complex molecular synthesis. A surprisingly high number of molecules that are used in contemporary biochemistry on the Earth are found in the interstellar medium, planetary atmospheres and surfaces, comets, asteroids and meteorites and interplanetary dust particles. Large quantities of extra-terrestrial material were delivered via comets and asteroids to young planetary surfaces during the heavy bombardment phase. Monitoring the formation and evolution of organic matter in space is crucial in order to determine the prebiotic reservoirs available to the early Earth. It is equally important to reveal abiotic routes to prebiotic molecules in the Earth environments. Materials from both carbon sources (extra-terrestrial and endogenous) may have contributed to biochemical pathways on the Earth leading to life's origin. The research avenues discussed also guide us to extend our knowledge to other habitable worlds. PMID:21220279

  2. Aerobic methane production from organic matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vigano, I.

    2010-01-01

    Methane, together with H2O, CO2 and N2O, is an important greenhouse gas in th e Earth’s atmosphere playing a key role in the radiative budget. It has be en known for decades that the production of the reduced compound CH4 is possible almost exclusively in anoxic environments per opera of one of the most importan t class of microorganisms which form the Archaea reign. Methane can be produced also from incomplete combustion of organic material. The generation of CH4 in an oxygenated environment under near-ambient conditions is a new discovery made in 2006 by Keppler et. al where surprisingly they measured emissions of this green house gas from plants incubated in chambers with air containing 20% of oxygen. A lthough the estimates on a global scale are still object of an intensive debate, the results presented in this thesis clearly show the existence of methane prod uction under oxic conditions for non living plant material. Temperature and UV l ight are key factors that drive the generation of CH4 from plant matter in a wel l oxygenated environment.

  3. TILLAGE AND RESIDUE MANAGEMENT EFFECTS ON SOIL ORGANIC MATTER

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This college-level textbook is designed to help students and researchers understand the complexity of how to manage soil organic matter in a diversity of agroecosystems. This chapter describes the current state of knowledge on how tillage and residue management affect soil organic matter. Types of t...

  4. Complexation of trace metals by adsorbed natural organic matter

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Davis, J.A.

    1984-01-01

    The adsorption behavior and solution speciation of Cu(II) and Cd(II) were studied in model systems containing colloidal alumina particles and dissolved natural organic matter. At equilibrium a significant fraction of the alumina surface was covered by adsorbed organic matter. Cu(II) was partitioned primarily between the surface-bound organic matter and dissolved Cu-organic complexes in the aqueous phase. Complexation of Cu2+ with the functional groups of adsorbed organic matter was stronger than complexation with uncovered alumina surface hydroxyls. It is shown that the complexation of Cu(II) by adsorbed organic matter can be described by an apparent stability constant approximately equal to the value found for solution phase equilibria. In contrast, Cd(II) adsorption was not significantly affected by the presence of organic matter at the surface, due to weak complex formation with the organic ligands. The results demonstrate that general models of trace element partitioning in natural waters must consider the presence of adsorbed organic matter. ?? 1984.

  5. Kinetics of desorption of organic compounds from dissolved organic matter.

    PubMed

    Kopinke, Frank-Dieter; Ramus, Ksenia; Poerschmann, Juergen; Georgi, Anett

    2011-12-01

    This study presents a new experimental technique for measuring rates of desorption of organic compounds from dissolved organic matter (DOM) such as humic substances. The method is based on a fast solid-phase extraction of the freely dissolved fraction of a solute when the solution is flushed through a polymer-coated capillary. The extraction interferes with the solute-DOM sorption equilibrium and drives the desorption process. Solutes which remain sorbed to DOM pass through the extraction capillary and can be analyzed afterward. This technique allows a time resolution for the desorption kinetics from subseconds up to minutes. It is applicable to the study of interaction kinetics between a wide variety of hydrophobic solutes and polyelectrolytes. Due to its simplicity it is accessible for many environmental laboratories. The time-resolved in-tube solid-phase microextraction (TR-IT-SPME) was applied to two humic acids and a surfactant as sorbents together with pyrene, phenanthrene and 1,2-dimethylcyclohexane as solutes. The results give evidence for a two-phase desorption kinetics: a fast desorption step with a half-life of less than 1 s and a slow desorption step with a half-life of more than 1 min. For aliphatic solutes, the fast-desorbing fraction largely dominates, whereas for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons such as pyrene, the slowly desorbing, stronger-bound fraction is also important. PMID:22035249

  6. Dissolved Organic Matter and Emerging Contaminants in Urban Stream Ecosystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaushal, S. S.; Findlay, S.; Groffman, P.; Belt, K.; Delaney, K.; Sides, A.; Walbridge, M.; Mayer, P.

    2009-05-01

    We investigated the effects of urbanization on the sources, bioavailability and forms of natural and anthropogenic organic matter found in streams located in Maryland, U.S.A. We found that the abundance, biaoavailability, and enzymatic breakdown of dissolved organic carbon (DOC), dissolved organic nitrogen (DON), and dissolved organic phosphorus (DOP) increased in streams with increasing watershed urbanization suggesting that organic nutrients may represent a growing form of nutrient loading to coastal waters associated with land use change. Organic carbon, nitrogen, and phosphorus in urban streams were elevated several-fold compared to forest and agricultural streams. Enzymatic activities of stream microbes in organic matter decomposition were also significantly altered across watershed land use. Chemical characterization suggested that organic matter in urban streams originated from a variety of sources including terrestrial, sewage, and in-stream transformation. In addition, a characterization of emerging organic contaminants (polyaromatic cyclic hydrocarbons, organochlorine pesticides, and polybrominated diphenyl ether flame retardents), showed that organic contaminants and dissolved organic matter increase with watershed urbanization and fluctuate substantially with changing climatic conditions. Elucidating the emerging influence of urbanization on sources, transport, and in-stream transformation of organic nutrients and contaminants will be critical in unraveling the changing role of organic matter in urban degraded and restored stream ecosystems.

  7. Molecular characterization of dissolved organic matter in contrasted freshwater environments by electrospray ionization mass spectrometry and EEM-PARAFAC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parot, Jérémie; Parlanti, Edith; Guéguen, Céline

    2015-04-01

    Dissolved organic matter (DOM) is a key parameter in the fate, transport and mobility of inorganic and organic pollutants in natural waters. Excitation emission matrix (EEM) spectra coupled to parallel factor analysis (PARAFAC) provide insights on the main fluorescent DOM constituents. However, the molecular structures associated with PARAFAC DOM remain poorly understood. In this study, DOM from rivers, marshes and algal culture was characterized by EEM-PARAFAC and electrospray ionization Fourier transform mass spectrometry (ESI-FT-MS, Orbitrap Q Exactive). The high resolution of the Orbitrap (i.e. 140,000) allowed us to separate unique molecular species from the complex DOM mixtures. The majority of chemical species were found within the mass to charge ratio (m/z) 200 to 400. Weighted averages of neutral mass were 271.254, 236.480, 213.992Da for river, marsh and algal-derived DOM, respectively, congruent with previous studies. The assigned formula were dominated by CHO in humic-rich river waters whereas N- and S-containing compounds were predominant in marsh and algal samples. Marsh consisted of N and S-containing compounds, which were presumed to be linear alkylbenzene sulfonates. And the double bond equivalent (DBE) was higher in the marsh and in comparison was lower in the algal culture. Kendrick masses, used to identify homologous compounds differing only by a number of base units in high resolution mass spectra, and Van Krevelen diagrams, plot of molar ratio of hydrogen to carbon (H/C) versus oxygen to carbon (O/C), will be discussed in relation to PARAFAC components to further discriminate freshwater systems based on the origin and maturity of DOM. Together, these results showed that ESI-FT-MS has a great potential to distinguish freshwater DOM at the molecular level without any fractionation.

  8. Degradation of natural organic matter: A thermodynamic analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    LaRowe, Douglas E.; Van Cappellen, Philippe

    2011-04-01

    The oxidative degradation of organic matter is a key process in the biogeochemical functioning of the earth system. Quantitative models of organic matter degradation are therefore essential for understanding the chemical state and evolution of the Earth's near-surface environment, and to forecast the biogeochemical consequences of ongoing regional and global change. The complex nature of biologically produced organic matter represents a major obstacle to the development of such models, however. Here, we compare the energetics of the oxidative degradation of a large number of naturally occurring organic compounds. By relating the Gibbs energies of half reactions describing the complete mineralization of the compounds to their average nominal carbon oxidation state, it becomes possible to estimate the energetic potential of the compounds based on major element (C, H, N, O, P, S) ratios. The new energetic description of organic matter can be combined with bioenergetic theory to rationalize observed patterns in the decomposition of natural organic matter. For example, the persistence of cell membrane derived compounds and complex organics in anoxic settings is consistent with their limited catabolic potential under these environmental conditions. The proposed approach opens the way to include the thermodynamic properties of organic compounds in kinetic models of organic matter degradation.

  9. Spatial Complexity of Soil Organic Matter Forms at Nanometre Scales

    SciTech Connect

    Lehmann,J.; Solomon, D.; Kinyangi, J.; Dathe, L.; Wirick, S.; Jacobsen, C.

    2008-01-01

    Organic matter in soil has been suggested to be composed of a complex mixture of identifiable biopolymers1 rather than a chemically complex humic material2. Despite the importance of the spatial arrangement of organic matter forms in soil3, its characterization has been hampered by the lack of a method for analysis at fine scales. X-ray spectromicroscopy has enabled the identification of spatial variability of organic matter forms, but was limited to extracted soil particles4 and individual micropores within aggregates5, 6. Here, we use synchrotron-based near-edge X-ray spectromicroscopy7 of thin sections of entire and intact free microaggregates6 to demonstrate that on spatial scales below 50 nm resolution, highly variable yet identifiable organic matter forms, such as plant or microbial biopolymers, can be found in soils at distinct locations of the mineral assemblage. Organic carbon forms detected at this spatial scale had no similarity to organic carbon forms of total soil. In contrast, we find that organic carbon forms of total soil were remarkably similar between soils from several temperate and tropical forests with very distinct vegetation composition and soil mineralogy. Spatial information on soil organic matter forms at the scale provided here could help to identify processes of organic matter cycling in soil, such as carbon stability or sequestration and responses to a changing climate.

  10. Deformation behaviors of peat with influence of organic matter.

    PubMed

    Yang, Min; Liu, Kan

    2016-01-01

    Peat is a kind of special material rich in organic matter. Because of the high content of organic matter, it shows different deformation behaviors from conventional geotechnical materials. Peat grain has a non-negligible compressibility due to the presence of organic matter. Biogas can generate from peat and can be trapped in form of gas bubbles. Considering the natural properties of peat, a special three-phase composition of peat is described which indicates the existence of organic matter and gas bubbles in peat. A stress-strain-time model is proposed for the compression of organic matter, and the surface tension effect is considered in the compression model of gas bubbles. Finally, a mathematical model has been developed to simulate the deformation behavior of peat considering the compressibility of organic matter and entrapped gas bubbles. The deformation process is the coupling of volume variation of organic matter, gas bubbles and water drainage. The proposed model is used to simulate a series of peat laboratory oedometer tests, and the model can well capture the test results with reasonable model parameters. Effects of model parameters on deformation of peat are also analyzed. PMID:27247870

  11. The role of dissolved organic matter (DOM) quality in the growth enhancement of Alexandrium fundyense (Dinophyceae) in laboratory culture(1).

    PubMed

    Cawley, Kaelin M; Koerfer, Verena; McKnight, Diane M

    2013-06-01

    Several algal species responsible for harmful algal blooms (HABs), such as Alexandrium fundyense, are mixotrophic under certain environmental conditions. The ability to switch between photosynthetic and heterotrophic modes of growth may play a role in the development of HABs in coastal regions. We examined the influence of humic dissolved organic matter (HDOM) derived from terrestrial (plant/soil) and microbial sources on the growth of A. fundyense. We found that a terrestrially derived HDOM, Suwannee River humic acid (SRHA), did enhance A. fundyense growth; however, a microbially derived HDOM, Pony Lake fulvic acid (PLFA) did not enhance growth. A. fundyense grows in association with bacteria in culture and we observed that bacterial cell densities were much lower in A. fundyense cultures than in bacteria-only cultures, consistent with bacterial grazing by A. fundyense in culture. In bacteria-only cultures with added algal exudates (EX), the addition of PLFA and SRHA resulted in a slight increase in bacterial cell density compared to cultures without HDOM added. Changes over time in the chemical quality of the HDOM in the A. fundyense cultures reflected contributions of microbially derived material with similar characteristics as the PLFA. Overall, these results suggest that the chemical differences between SRHA and PLFA are responsible for the greater effect of SRHA on A. fundyense growth, and that the differential effect is not a result of an effect on the growth of associated bacteria. PMID:27007043

  12. Occurrence and potential combined toxicity of dissolved organic contaminants in the Forth estuary and Firth of Forth, Scotland assessed using passive samplers and an algal toxicity test.

    PubMed

    Emelogu, Emmanuel S; Pollard, Pat; Dymond, Peter; Robinson, Craig D; Webster, Lynda; McKenzie, Craig; Dobson, Judy; Bresnan, Eileen; Moffat, Colin F

    2013-09-01

    As an alternative procedure to conventional water quality assessment, the presence and combined toxicity of dissolved organic contaminants in water at five sites in the Forth estuary and the Firth of Forth, Scotland, United Kingdom was investigated using silicone rubber passive sampling devices (SR-PSDs) and an algal growth inhibition bioassay. SR-PSDs were deployed in water at the five sites for ~2 months. Following retrieval, extracts from the deployed SR-PSDs were assessed for both algal growth inhibition and the occurrence of a wide range of organic contaminants, including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and a variety of plant protection products (PPPs; commonly referred to collectively as 'pesticides'). The 72 h algal growth inhibition test was performed using a native marine phytoplankton (Diacronema lutheri) in 24 well microplates. Freely dissolved (e.g. bioavailable) concentrations of PAHs and PCBs were determined using performance reference compounds (PRCs). The algal toxicity tests exhibited varied effects at the five sites indicating the presence of, and exposure to, phytotoxic compounds and their potential toxicity in the Forth. The individual and total dissolved concentrations of 40 PAHs and 32 PCBs measured in the study were relatively low and showed input of petrogenic, atmospheric and sewage related sources. Several pesticides of diverse polarities were identified in the water suggesting sources from both riverine input and direct discharges. The study thus illustrates the value of combining bioassays and chemical analysis (with effective sampling technique) for a realistic and rapid assessment of organic contaminants in the aquatic environment. PMID:23728064

  13. Spectral band selection for classification of soil organic matter content

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Henderson, Tracey L.; Szilagyi, Andrea; Baumgardner, Marion F.; Chen, Chih-Chien Thomas; Landgrebe, David A.

    1989-01-01

    This paper describes the spectral-band-selection (SBS) algorithm of Chen and Landgrebe (1987, 1988, and 1989) and uses the algorithm to classify the organic matter content in the earth's surface soil. The effectiveness of the algorithm was evaluated comparing the results of classification of the soil organic matter using SBS bands with those obtained using Landsat MSS bands and TM bands, showing that the algorithm was successful in finding important spectral bands for classification of organic matter content. Using the calculated bands, the probabilities of correct classification for climate-stratified data were found to range from 0.910 to 0.980.

  14. Interstellar chemistry recorded in organic matter from primitive meteorites.

    PubMed

    Busemann, Henner; Young, Andrea F; Alexander, Conel M O'd; Hoppe, Peter; Mukhopadhyay, Sujoy; Nittler, Larry R

    2006-05-01

    Organic matter in extraterrestrial materials has isotopic anomalies in hydrogen and nitrogen that suggest an origin in the presolar molecular cloud or perhaps in the protoplanetary disk. Interplanetary dust particles are generally regarded as the most primitive solar system matter available, in part because until recently they exhibited the most extreme isotope anomalies. However, we show that hydrogen and nitrogen isotopic compositions in carbonaceous chondrite organic matter reach and even exceed those found in interplanetary dust particles. Hence, both meteorites (originating from the asteroid belt) and interplanetary dust particles (possibly from comets) preserve primitive organics that were a component of the original building blocks of the solar system. PMID:16675696

  15. Pyrogenic organic matter can alter microbial communication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masiello, Caroline; Gao, Xiaodong; Cheng, Hsiao-Ying; Silberg, Jonathan

    2016-04-01

    Soil microbes communicate with each other to manage a large range of processes that occur more efficiently when microbes are able to act simultaneously. This coordination occurs through the continuous production of signaling compounds that are easily diffused into and out of cells. As the number of microbes in a localized environment increases, the internal cellular concentration of these signaling compounds increases, and when a threshold concentration is reached, gene expression shifts, leading to altered (and coordinated) microbial behaviors. Many of these coordinated behaviors have biogeochemically important outcomes. For example, methanogenesis, denitrification, biofilm formation, and the development of plant-rhizobial symbioses are all regulated by a simple class of cell-cell signaling molecules known as acyl homoserine lactones (AHLs). Pyrogenic organic matter in soils can act to disrupt microbial communication through multiple pathways. In the case of AHLs, charcoal's very high surface area can sorb these signaling compounds, preventing microbes from detecting each others' presence (Masiello et al., 2014). In addition, the lactone ring in AHLs is vulnerable to pH increases accompanying PyOM inputs, with soil pH values higher than 7-8 leading to ring opening and compound destabilization. Different microbes use different classes of signaling compounds, and not all microbial signaling compounds are pH-vulnerable. This implies that PyOM-driven pH increases may trigger differential outcomes for Gram negative bacteria vs fungi, for example. A charcoal-driven reduction in microbes' ability to detect cell-cell communication compounds may lead to a shift in the ability of microbes to participate in key steps of C and N cycling. For example, an increase in an archaeon-specific AHL has been shown to lead to a cascade of metabolic processes that eventually results in the upregulation of CH4 production (Zhang et al., 2012). Alterations in similar AHL compounds leads to

  16. Organic matter diagenesis in shallow water carbonate sediments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ingalls, Anitra E.; Aller, Robert C.; Lee, Cindy; Wakeham, Stuart G.

    2004-11-01

    Muddy carbonate deposits near the Dry Tortugas, Florida, are characterized by high organic carbon remineralization rates. However, approximately half of the total sedimentary organic matter potentially supporting remineralization is occluded in CaCO 3 minerals (intracrystalline). While a portion of nonintracrystalline organic matter appears to cycle rapidly, intracrystalline organic matter has an approximately constant concentration with depth, suggesting that as long as its protective mineral matrix is intact, it is not readily remineralized. Organic matter in excess of intracrystalline organic matter that is preserved may have a variety of mineral associations (e.g., intercrystalline, adsorbed or detrital). In surface sediment, aspartic acid contributed ˜22 mole % and ˜50 mole % to nonintracrystalline and intracrystalline pools, respectively. In deeper sediment (1.6-1.7m), the composition of hydrolyzable amino acids in both pools was similar (aspartic acid ˜40 mole %). Like amino acids, intracrystalline and nonintracrystalline fatty acids have different compositions in surface sediments, but are indistinguishable at depth. These data suggest that preserved organic matter in the nonintracrystalline pool is stabilized by its interactions with CaCO 3. Neutral lipids are present in very low abundances in the intracrystalline pool and are extensively degraded in both the intracrystalline and nonintracrystalline pools, suggesting that mineral interactions do not protect these compounds from degradation. The presence of chlorophyll- a, but absence of phytol, in the intracrystalline lipid pool demonstrates that chloropigments are present only in the nonintracrystalline pool. Sedimentary chloropigments decrease with depth at similar rates in Dry Tortugas sediments as found in alumino-silicate sediments from the Long Island Sound, suggesting that chloropigment degradation is largely unaffected by mineral interactions. Overall, however, inclusion and protection of

  17. Spatio-Temporal Distribution of Particulate and Dissolved Organic Matter in the Mississippi River Bight From Optical Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DSa, E. J.; Miller, R. L.; DelCastillo, C.

    2003-01-01

    The Mississippi River Bight is a highly dynamic region influenced by the seasonally variable outflow from the Mississippi River. In an effort to characterize the distribution of particulate and dissolved organic matter in the region, we conducted a two-year field program in the spring and fall (high and low flow river discharge) of 2000 and 2002. We collected a comprehensive set of bio-optical measurements consisting of vertical profiles (absorption, scattering, chlorophyll fluorescence and radiometry) and discrete measurements (pigment concentrations, particulate and CDOM absorption) that enabled us to obtain better insight into the seasonal and spatial variability of some important biogeochemical parameters. Our field measurements generally showed higher phytoplankton clorophyll concentrations in the plume waters (associated with lower surface salinities) and confirmed the high biological activity abserved in other studies. The seasonal flow of river discharge and advective currents due to wind forcing exerted a strong influence on the biological and optical properties of the region. An examination of absorption at 440 nm by the algal and non-algal fraction of the particulate pool and of CDOM revealed that at nearshore stations, contributions by the non-algal particles were high (about 40%) and decresed with increasing salinities. While CDOM absorption exhibited conservative mixing, its relative contribution to the total absorption was variable. Surface waters at most stations had lower salinities that generalliy increased with dept. Particulate matter and CDOM also decreased with depth as evidenced by absorption and scattering measurements. Good correlations in surface waters between concentrations of particulate and dissolved matter, the inherent optical properties of absorption and ackscattering and remote sensing reflectance values has allowed the development of robust empirical algorithms for phytoplankton chlorophyll and CDOM absorption.

  18. Investigation of the organic matter in inactive nuclear tank liquids

    SciTech Connect

    Schenley, R.L.; Griest, W.H.

    1990-08-01

    Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) methodology for regulatory organics fails to account for the organic matter that is suggested by total organic carbon (TOC) analysis in the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) inactive nuclear waste-tank liquids and sludges. Identification and measurement of the total organics are needed to select appropriate waste treatment technologies. An initial investigation was made of the nature of the organics in several waste-tank liquids. This report details the analysis of ORNL wastes.

  19. Geochemistry of the alginite and amorphous organic matter from type II-S kerogens

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stankiewicz, B.A.; Kruge, M.A.; Mastalerz, Maria; Salmon, G.L.

    1996-01-01

    Maceral fractions of the Type II-S kerogens from the Monterey Formation (Miocene. California. U.S.A.) and Duwi Formation (Campanian/Maastrichtian, Egypt) were separated by density gradient centrifugation. The Monterey Fm. kerogen sample was comprised chiefly of light red-fluorescing amorphous organic matter (AOM), the flash pyrolyzate of which was characterized by a predominance of alkylbenzenes, alkylthiophenes and alkylpyrroles. In contrast, the pyrolyzates of its alginite concentrate showed a highly aliphatic character, typical of this maceral, with the series of n-alkenes and n-alkanes (C6- C26) predominating. The pyrolyzate of the dominant light brown-fluorescing AOM of the Duwi Fm. kerogen had a relatively high concentration of alkylbenzenes and alkylthiophenes, while its elginite concentrate showed a more aliphatic character upon pyrolysis. There was a marked enrichment of thiophenic sulfur in the light-colored AOM of both samples (and also pyrrolic nitrogen in the case of the Monterey) relative to the alginite. The results support a bacterially-mediated, degradative origin for Type II-S amorphous organic matter, with algal remains as the primary source of the kerogen.

  20. Biogeochemical controls on reaction of sedimentary organic matter and aqueous sulfides in holocene sediments of Mud Lake, Florida

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Filley, Timothy R.; Freeman, Katherine H.; Wilkin, Rick T.; Hatcher, Patrick G.

    2002-03-01

    The distribution and quantity of organic sulfur and iron sulfur species were determined in the Holocene sediments from Mud Lake, Florida. The sediments of this shallow, sinkhole lake are characterized by high sulfur and organic carbon contents as well as active sulfate reduction. They record a shift from a basal peat (below 2 m) comprised of water lily-dominated organic matter to the present cyanobacterial/algal-dominated lake deposit (upper 1 m). This shift in depositional environment and subsequent organic matter source was accompanied by variation in the amount of reactive iron delivered to the sediments, which in turn influenced the type and extent of organic matter sulfurization. Extractable intramolecular organic sulfur is principally found as C 25 highly branched isoprenoid (HBI) thiolanes. Extractable polysulfide-linked lipids, determined by selective chemical cleavage with MeLi/MeI and analyzed as methylthioethers (MTE), are dominated by n-alkanes with sulfur attachments at position 1 and 2, as well as lower amounts of C 25 HBI-MTE. The δ 13C values and carbon-chain length distribution of both series of n-alkylMTE indicate that they are derived from distinct biological precursors. Among the n-alkylMTE with sulfur attachment at position 1 there are three homologous series: one saturated and two with both cis and trans enethiol isomers. The identification of the enethiol in the sulfur-linked macromolecules indicates that n-alkylaldehydes are precursors lipids. The intervals of high concentration of bulk organic sulfur and sulfurized lipids coincide with the intervals of high mineral sulfur content (acid volatile sulfide and chromium reducible sulfur). We suggest that the main control on the enhanced addition of sulfur to the organic matter in Mud Lake was the increased formation of polysulfides during the reduction of iron hydroxides and the subsequent reaction of those polysulfides with mildly oxidized sedimentary organic matter.

  1. Characterizing Variability In Ohio River Natural Organic Matter

    EPA Science Inventory

    Surface water contains natural organic matter (NOM) which reacts with disinfectants creating disinfection byproducts (DBPs), some of which are USEPA regulated contaminants. Characterizing NOM can provide important insight on DBP formation and water treatment process adaptation t...

  2. Ectomycorrhizal fungi - potential organic matter decomposers, yet not saprotrophs.

    PubMed

    Lindahl, Björn D; Tunlid, Anders

    2015-03-01

    Although hypothesized for many years, the involvement of ectomycorrhizal fungi in decomposition of soil organic matter remains controversial and has not yet been fully acknowledged as an important factor in the regulation of soil carbon (C) storage. Here, we review recent findings, which support the view that some ectomycorrhizal fungi have the capacity to oxidize organic matter, either by 'brown-rot' Fenton chemistry or using 'white-rot' peroxidases. We propose that ectomycorrhizal fungi benefit from organic matter decomposition primarily through increased nitrogen mobilization rather than through release of metabolic C and question the view that ectomycorrhizal fungi may act as facultative saprotrophs. Finally, we discuss how mycorrhizal decomposition may influence organic matter storage in soils and mediate responses of ecosystem C sequestration to environmental changes. PMID:25524234

  3. UV-induced photochemical heterogeneity of dissolved and attached organic matter associated with cyanobacterial blooms in a eutrophic freshwater lake.

    PubMed

    Xu, Huacheng; Jiang, Helong

    2013-11-01

    Cyanobacterial blooms represent a significant ecological and human health problem worldwide. In aquatic environments, cyanobacterial blooms are actually surrounded by dissolved organic matter (DOM) and attached organic matter (AOM) that bind with algal cells. In this study, DOM and AOM fractionated from blooming cyanobacteria in a eutrophic freshwater lake (Lake Taihu, China) were irradiated with a polychromatic UV lamp, and the photochemical heterogeneity was investigated using fluorescence excitation-emission matrix (EEM)-parallel factor (PARAFAC) analysis and synchronous fluorescence (SF)-two dimensional correlation spectroscopy (2DCOS). It was shown that a 6-day UV irradiation caused more pronounced mineralization for DOM than AOM (59.7% vs. 41.9%). The EEM-PARAFAC analysis identified one tyrosine-, one humic-, and two tryptophan-like components in both DOM and AOM, and high component photodegradation rates were observed for DOM versus AOM (k > 0.554 vs. <0.519). Moreover, SF-2DCOS found that the photodegradation of organic matters followed the sequence of tyrosine-like > humic-like > tryptophan-like substances. Humic-like substances promoted the indirect photochemical reactions, and were responsible for the higher photochemical rate for DOM. The lower photodegradation of AOM benefited the integrality of cells in cyanobacterial blooms against the negative impact of UV irradiation. Therefore, the photochemical behavior of organic matter was related to the adaptation of enhanced-duration cyanobacterial blooms in aquatic environments. PMID:24041526

  4. Pelagic and sympagic contribution of organic matter to zooplankton and vertical export in the Barents Sea marginal ice zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tamelander, Tobias; Reigstad, Marit; Hop, Haakon; Carroll, Michael L.; Wassmann, Paul

    2008-10-01

    The structure and function of the marine food web strongly regulate the cycling of organic matter derived from primary production by phytoplankton and ice algae in Arctic shelf seas. Improved knowledge of trophic relationships and export of organic matter from the surface layer is needed to better understand how the Arctic marine ecosystem may respond to climate-related changes in distribution of sea ice, water masses, and associated primary production regimes. Pelagic and sympagic inputs of organic matter to dominant meso- and macrozooplankton species and vertical export were investigated in the northern Barents Sea by means of stable carbon and nitrogen isotopes (δ 13C and δ 15N). Samples were collected during spring and summer (2003-2005) from a total of 13 stations with different ice conditions, abundances of ice algae, and phytoplankton bloom phases. δ 13C signatures were different in organic matter of phytoplankton (mean -24.3‰) and ice algal origin (mean -20.0‰). Stable carbon isotope compositions showed that most of the energy assimilated by zooplankton originated from pelagic primary production, but at times ice algae also contributed to zooplankton diets. Trophic level (TL) estimates of copepods ( Calanus glacialis and Calanus hyperboreus) and krill ( Thysanoessa inermis and Thysanoessa longicaudata), calculated based on δ 15N values, varied among stations from 1.3 to 2.7 and from 1.5 to 3.1, for respective taxa. TL in C. glacialis was significantly and inversely related to the depth-integrated phytoplankton chlorophyll a concentration. A similar trend, although weaker, also was observed for the other species. This relationship indicates that copepods graze primarily on the abundant autotrophic biomass during the peak bloom phase. At stations with lower chlorophyll a concentration, the TL of Calanus spp. was 1.0 higher, indicating omnivory outside the peak bloom phase in response to changed food availability. The majority of organic matter

  5. Characterization of dissolved and particulate natural organic matter (NOM) in Neversink Reservoir, New York

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wershaw, Robert L.; Leenheer, Jerry A.; Cox, Larry G.

    2005-01-01

    Natural organic matter (NOM) was isolated from the water of the Neversink Reservoir, part of the New York City water supply, located in the Catskill Mountains of New York. The NOM was fractionated into the following nine different fractions by the isolation procedure: (1) coarse particulates, (2) fine-particulate organics, (3) solvent-extractable organics, (4) hydrophobic neutrals (HPON fraction), (5) dissolved colloids, (6) bases, (7) hydrophobic acids (HPOA), (8) transphilic acids + neutrals (TPI-A+N), and (9) hydrophilic acids + neutrals (HPI-A+N). Each of these fractions, with exception of the first and the third which were too small for the complete series of analyses, was characterized by elemental, carbohydrate, and amino acid analyses, and by nuclear magnetic resonance and infrared spectrometry. The data obtained from these analyses indicate (1) that the fine-particulate organics and colloids are mainly composed of peptidoglycans, and lipopolysaccharides derived from algal, bacterial, and fungal cell walls, (2) that the HPO-N fraction most likely consists of a mixture of alicyclic terpenes and carbohydrates, (3) that the HPOA fraction consists mainly of lignin components conjugated to carbohydrates, (4) that the TPI-A+N and the HPI-A+N fractions most likely represent complex mixtures of relatively low molecular weight carboxylic acids derived from terpenes, carbohydrates, and peptides, and (5) that the base fraction is composed of free amino acids, browning reaction products, and peptide fragments.

  6. The effect of natural organic matter on bioaccumulation and toxicity of chlorobenzenes to green algae.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Shuai; Lin, Daohui; Wu, Fengchang

    2016-07-01

    The effect of natural organic matter (NOM) on toxicity and bioavailability of hydrophobic organic contaminants (HOCs) to aquatic organisms has been investigated with conflicting results and undefined mechanisms, and few studies have been conducted on volatile HOCs. In this study, six volatile chlorobenzenes (CBs) with 1-6 chlorine substitutions were investigated for their bioaccumulation in an acute toxicity to a green alga (Chlorella pyrenoidosa) in the presence/absence of Suwannee River NOM (SRNOM). The fluorescence quenching efficiency of SRNOM increased as the number of chlorine substitutions of CBs increased. SRNOM increased the cell-surface hydrophobicity of algae and decreased the release rates of algae-accumulated CBs, thus increasing the concentration factor (CF) and accumulation of the CBs in the algae. SRNOM increased the toxicity of monochlorobenzene and 1,2-dichlorobenzene, decreased the toxicity of pentachlorobenzene and hexachlorobenzene, and had no significant effect on the toxicity of 1,2,3-trichlorobenzene and 1,2,3,4-tetrachlorobenzene. Relationships between the 96h CF/IC50 (i.e., the CB concentration leading to a 50% algal growth reduction compared with the control) and physicochemical properties of CBs with/without SRNOM were established, providing reasonable explanations for the experimental results. These findings will help with the accurate assessment of ecological risks of organic pollutants in the presence of NOM. PMID:26989981

  7. Composition and reactivity of ferrihydrite-organic matter associations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eusterhues, Karin; Hädrich, Anke; Neidhardt, Julia; Küsel, Kirsten; Totsche, Kai

    2014-05-01

    The formation of organo-mineral associations affects many soil forming processes. On the one hand, it will influence soil organic matter composition and development, because the complex organic matter mixtures usually fractionate during their association with mineral surfaces. Whereas the associated fraction is supposed to be stabilized, the non-associated fraction remains mobile and available to degradation by microorganisms. On the other hand, the organic coating will completely change the interface properties of Fe oxides such as solubility, charge and hydrophobicity. This in turn will strongly influence their reactivity towards nutrients and pollutants, the adsorption of new organic matter, and the availability of ferric Fe towards microorganisms. To better understand such processes we produced ferrihydrite-organic matter associations by adsorption and coprecipitation in laboratory experiments. As a surrogate for dissolved soil organic matter we used the water-extractable fraction of a Podzol forest-floor layer under spruce. Sorptive fractionation of the organic matter was investigated by 13C NMR and FTIR. Relative to the original forest-floor extract, the ferrihydrite-associated OM was enriched in polysaccharides but depleted in aliphatic C and carbonyl C, especially when adsorption took place. Liquid phase incubation experiments were carried out with an inoculum extracted from the podzol forest-floor under oxic conditions at pH 4.8 to quantify the mineralization of the adsorbed and coprecipitated organic matter. These experiments showed that the association with ferrihydrite stabilized the associated organic matter, but that differences in the degradability of adsorbed and coprecipitated organic matter were small. We therefore conclude that coprecipitation does not lead to a significant formation of microbial inaccessible organic matter domains. Microbial reduction experiments were performed using Geobacter bremensis. We observed that increasing amounts of

  8. The search for indigenous lunar organic matter.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sagan, C.

    1972-01-01

    It is argued that the absence of organic compounds from returned lunar samples is to be expected even for a lunar history rich in primordial organics. The sites most likely to yield lunar organic compounds have not been investigated, and there may be an area of investigation conceivably critical to problems in prebiological chemistry and the early history of the solar system awaiting continued lunar exploration, manned or unmanned.

  9. Organic Matter in Space (IAU S251)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwok, Sun; Sanford, Scott

    2009-01-01

    Preface; From the local organising committee; Organising committee; Conference participants; Opening address of Symposium 251 C. Cesarsky; Session I. Observations of organic compounds beyond the Solar System William Irvine, Ewine van Dishoeck, Yvonne Pendleton and Hans Olofsson; Session II. Organic compounds within the Solar System Scott Sandford, Ernst Zinner and Dale Cruikshank; Session III. Laboratory analogues of organic compounds in space Max Bernstein and Thomas Henning; Banquet speech; Author index; Object index.

  10. Organic Matter in Space (IAU S251)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwok, Sun; Sanford, Scott

    2008-10-01

    Preface; From the local organising committee; Organising committee; Conference participants; Opening address of Symposium 251 C. Cesarsky; Session I. Observations of organic compounds beyond the Solar System William Irvine, Ewine van Dishoeck, Yvonne Pendleton and Hans Olofsson; Session II. Organic compounds within the Solar System Scott Sandford, Ernst Zinner and Dale Cruikshank; Session III. Laboratory analogues of organic compounds in space Max Bernstein and Thomas Henning; Banquet speech; Author index; Object index.

  11. High dimensional reflectance analysis of soil organic matter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Henderson, T. L.; Baumgardner, M. F.; Franzmeier, D. P.; Stott, D. E.; Coster, D. C.

    1992-01-01

    Recent breakthroughs in remote-sensing technology have led to the development of high spectral resolution imaging sensors for observation of earth surface features. This research was conducted to evaluate the effects of organic matter content and composition on narrowband soil reflectance across the visible and reflective infrared spectral ranges. Organic matter from four Indiana agricultural soils, ranging in organic C content from 0.99 to 1.72 percent, was extracted, fractionated, and purified. Six components of each soil were isolated and prepared for spectral analysis. Reflectance was measured in 210 narrow bands in the 400- to 2500-nm wavelength range. Statistical analysis of reflectance values indicated the potential of high dimensional reflectance data in specific visible, near-infrared, and middle-infrared bands to provide information about soil organic C content, but not organic matter composition. These bands also responded significantly to Fe- and Mn-oxide content.

  12. Modeling organic matter stabilization during windrow composting of livestock effluents.

    PubMed

    Oudart, D; Paul, E; Robin, P; Paillat, J M

    2012-01-01

    Composting is a complex bioprocess, requiring a lot of empirical experiments to optimize the process. A dynamical mathematical model for the biodegradation of the organic matter during the composting process has been developed. The initial organic matter expressed by chemical oxygen demand (COD) is decomposed into rapidly and slowly degraded compartments and an inert one. The biodegradable COD is hydrolysed and consumed by microorganisms and produces metabolic water and carbon dioxide. This model links a biochemical characterization of the organic matter by Van Soest fractionating with COD. The comparison of experimental and simulation results for carbon dioxide emission, dry matter and carbon content balance showed good correlation. The initial sizes of the biodegradable COD compartments are explained by the soluble, hemicellulose-like and lignin fraction. Their sizes influence the amplitude of the carbon dioxide emission peak. The initial biomass is a sensitive variable too, influencing the time at which the emission peak occurs. PMID:23393964

  13. Fluorescence Characterization of Dissolved Organic Matter Isolates from Sediments and the Association with Phenanthrene Binding Affinity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hur, Jin; Lee, Bo-Mi; Shin, Kyung-Hoon

    2014-05-01

    In this study, selected spectroscopic characteristics of sediment organic matter (SOM) were compared and discussed with respect to their different isolation methods, the source discrimination capabilities, and the association with the extent of phenanthrene binding. A total of 16 sediments were collected from three categorized locations including a costal lake, industrial areas, and the upper streams, each of which is likely influenced by the organic sources of algal production, industrial effluent, and terrestrial input, respectively. The spectroscopic properties related to aromatic structures and terrestrial humic acids were more pronounced for alkaline extractable organic matter (AEOM) isolates than for the SOM isolates based on water soluble extracts and porewater. The three categorized sampling locations were the most differentiated in the AEOM isolates, suggesting AEOM may be the most representative SOM isolates in describing the chemical properties and the organic sources of SOM. Parallel factor analysis (PARAFAC) based on fluorescence excitation-emission matrix (EEM) showed that a combination of four fluorescent groups could represent all the fluorescence features of SOM. The three categorized sampling locations were well discriminated by the percent distributions of terrestrial and microbial humic-like fluorescent groups of the AEOM isolates. The relative distribution of terrestrial humic-like fluorophores was highly correlated with the extent of phenanthrene binding (r=0.676; p<0.01), suggesting that the presence of terrestrial humic acids in SOM may contribute to the enhancement of binding with hydrophobic organic contaminants in sediments. Principal component analysis (PCA) further demonstrated that the extent of SOM's binding affinity might be affected by the degree of biological transformation in SOM as well as the abundance of aromatic carbon structures.

  14. Defining the quality of soil organic matter

    EPA Science Inventory

    Soils represent the largest terrestrial pool of carbon (C) and hold approximately two-thirds of all C held in these ecosystems. However, not all C in soils is of equal quality. Some fractions of the organic forms, i.e., soil organic carbon (SOC) have long residence times while ...

  15. Effects of anodic oxidation of a substoichiometric titanium dioxide reactive electrochemical membrane on algal cell destabilization and lipid extraction.

    PubMed

    Hua, Likun; Guo, Lun; Thakkar, Megha; Wei, Dequan; Agbakpe, Michael; Kuang, Liyuan; Magpile, Maraha; Chaplin, Brian P; Tao, Yi; Shuai, Danmeng; Zhang, Xihui; Mitra, Somenath; Zhang, Wen

    2016-03-01

    Efficient algal harvesting, cell pretreatment and lipid extraction are the major steps challenging the algal biofuel industrialization. To develop sustainable solutions for economically viable algal biofuels, our research aims at devising innovative reactive electrochemical membrane (REM) filtration systems for simultaneous algal harvesting and pretreatment for lipid extraction. The results in this work particularly demonstrated the use of the Ti4O7-based REM in algal pretreatment and the positive impacts on lipid extraction. After REM treatment, algal cells exhibited significant disruption in morphology and photosynthetic activity due to the anodic oxidation. Cell lysis was evidenced by the changes of fluorescent patterns of dissolved organic matter (DOM) in the treated algal suspension. The lipid extraction efficiency increased from 15.2 ± 0.6 g-lipidg-algae(-1) for untreated algae to 23.4 ± 0.7 g-lipidg-algae(-1) for treated algae (p<0.05), which highlights the potential to couple algal harvesting with cell pretreatment in an integrated REM filtration process. PMID:26722810

  16. Roles of organic matter in sediment diagenesis

    SciTech Connect

    Gautier, D.L.

    1986-01-01

    This book is a collection of papers presented at a 1984 symposium of the Society of Economic Paleontologists and Mineralogists (SEPM). It purpose, in the words of its editor, is to bring to the attention of the sedimentological community the importance of interaction of organic compounds with the inorganic sedimentary system and the degree to which organic compounds drive diagenetic systems. Its 16 papers cover topics ranging from laboratory carbonate dissolution to hydrocarbon source-rock evaluation. It contains an excellent group of papers on the role of organic-inorganic interactions in porosity enhancement. An excellent contribution is the paper on organic and inorganic diagenesis in the Shinjo oil field of Japan. At the other end of the scale, however, are several theoretical papers that present greatly oversimplified and/or underedited thermodynamic and mass-transfer models. Nearly all of the papers contribute to the dialogue between organic and inorganic sedimentologists. Because much of this interchange has occurred in support of petroleum exploration, the dialogue has waxed and waned with the ups and downs of the oil market. However, hydrocarbon prospects do not necessarily present the best opportunities for unraveling the complex interrelations between organic and inorganic diagenesis. These interrelations are important in a wide range of diagenetic settings, including early diagenesis in low-organic sediments that have little or no hydrocarbon potential. It is hoped that this book will pave the way for expanded basic research in one of the most important aspects of sediment diagenesis.

  17. Effects of Crayfish on Quality of Fine Particulate Organic Matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montemarano, J. J.; Kershner, M. W.; Leff, L. G.

    2005-05-01

    The origin and ontogeny of detritus often determines its bioavailability. Crayfish shred and consume detrital organic matter, influencing fine particulate organic matter (FPOM) availability, composition and quality. Given consumption of FPOM by many invertebrates, crayfish can indirectly affect these organisms by altering FPOM bioavailability through organic matter fragmentation, biofilm disturbance, and defecation. These effects may or may not vary among coarse particulate organic matter (CPOM) from different leaf species. To assess crayfish effects on FPOM quality, crayfish were fed stream-conditioned maple or oak leaves in hanging 1-mm mesh-bottom baskets in aquaria. After 12 h, crayfish and remaining leaves were removed. FPOM fragments that fell through the mesh were vacuum filtered and analyzed for percent organic matter, C:N ratio, and bacterial abundance. The same analyses were conducted on crayfish feces collected using finger cots encasing crayfish abdomens. C:N ratios did not differ between feces and maple leaf CPOM, but were lower in FPOM produced through fragmentation and disturbance (P = 0.023). Overall, crayfish alter the ontogeny of detritus, which may, in turn, affect stream FPOM dynamics.

  18. Organic Matter Application Can Reduce Copper Toxicity in Tomato Plants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, Brian

    2010-01-01

    Copper fungicides and bactericides are often used in tomato cultivation and can cause toxic Cu levels in soils. In order to combat this, organic matter can be applied to induce chelation reactions and form a soluble complex by which much of the Cu can leach out of the soil profile or be taken up safely by plants. Organic acids such as citric,…

  19. Black Carbon in Estuarine and Coastal Ocean Dissolved Organic Matter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mannino, Antonio; Harvey, H. Rodger

    2003-01-01

    Analysis of high-molecular-weight dissolved organic matter (DOM) from two estuaries in the northwest Atlantic Ocean reveals that black carbon (BC) is a significant component of previously uncharacterized DOM, suggesting that river-estuary systems are important exporters of recalcitrant dissolved organic carbon to the ocean.

  20. Pedogenesis evolution of mine technosols: focus onto organic matter implication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grégoire, Pascaud; Marilyne, Soubrand; Laurent, Lemee; Husseini Amelène, El-Mufleh Al; Marion, Rabiet; Emmanuel, Joussein

    2014-05-01

    Keywords: Mine technosols, pedogenesis, organic matter, environmental impact, pyr-GC-MS Technosols include soils subject to strong anthropogenic pressure and particularly to soil influenced by human transformed materials. In this context, abandoned mine sites contain a large amount of transformed waste materials often enriched with metals and/or metalloids. The natural evolution of technosols (pedogenesis) may induces the change in contaminants behaviour in term of stability of bearing phases, modification of pH oxydo-reduction conditions, organic matter turnover, change in permeability, or influence of vegetation cover. The fate of these elements in the soil can induce major environmental problems (contamination of biosphere and water resource). This will contribute to a limited potential use of these soils, which represent yet a large area around the world. The initial contamination of the parental material suggests that the pedological cover would stabilize the soil; however, the chemical reactivity must be taken in consideration particularly with respect to potential metal leachings. In this case, it is quite important to understand the development of soil in this specific context. Consequently, the global aims of this study are to understand the functioning of mine Technosols focusing onto the organic matter implication in their pedogenesis. Indeed, soil organic matter constitutes an heterogeneous fraction of organic compounds that plays an important role in the fate and the transport of metals and metalloids in soils. Three different soil profiles were collected representative to various mining context (contamination, time, climat), respectively to Pb-Ag, Sn and Au exploitations. Several pedological parameters were determined like CEC, pH, %Corg, %Ntot, C/N ratio, grain size distribution and chemical composition. The evolution of the nature of organic matter in Technosol was studied by elemental analyses and thermochemolysis was realized on the total and

  1. GROUNDWATER TRANSPORT OF HYDROPHOBIC ORGANIC COMPOUNDS IN THE PRESENCE OF DISSOLVED ORGANIC MATTER

    EPA Science Inventory

    The effects of dissolved organic matter (DOM) on the transport of hydrophobic organic compounds in soil columns were investigated. Three compounds (naphthalene, phenanthrene and DDT) that spanned three orders of magnitude in water solubility were used. Instead of humic matter, mo...

  2. Towards the standardization of nanoecotoxicity testing: Natural organic matter 'camouflages' the adverse effects of TiO2 and CeO2 nanoparticles on green microalgae.

    PubMed

    Cerrillo, Cristina; Barandika, Gotzone; Igartua, Amaya; Areitioaurtena, Olatz; Mendoza, Gemma

    2016-02-01

    In the last few years, the emission of CeO2 and TiO2 nanoparticles (NPs) into the environment has been raising concerns about their potential adverse effects on wildlife and human health. Aquatic organisms constitute one of the most important pathways for the entrance of these NPs and transfer throughout the food web, but divergences exist in the experimental data published on their aquatic toxicity. The pressing need for standardization of methods to analyze their ecotoxicity requires aquatic media representing realistic environmental conditions. The present study aimed to determine the usefulness of Suwannee River natural organic matter (SR-NOM) in the assessment of the agglomeration kinetics and ecotoxicity of CeO2 and TiO2 NPs towards green microalgae Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata. SR-NOM alleviated the adverse effects of NPs on algal growth, completely in the case of TiO2 NPs and partially in the case of CeO2 NPs, suggesting a 'camouflage' of toxicity. This behavior has been observed also for other algal species and types of natural organic matter in the literature. Furthermore, SR-NOM markedly increased the stability of the NPs in algal medium, which led to a better reproducibility of the toxicity test results, and provided an electrophoretic mobility similar to that previously reported in various river and groundwaters. Thus, SR-NOM can be a representative sample of what is found in many different ecosystems, and the observed 'camouflage' of the effects of CeO2 and TiO2 NPs on algal cells might be considered as a natural interaction occurring in their standardized ecotoxicological assessment. PMID:26580731

  3. Interstellar and Solar System Organic Matter Preserved in Interplanetary Dust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Messenger, Scott R.; Nakamura-Messenger, Keiko

    2015-08-01

    Interplanetary dust particles (IDPs) collected in the Earth’s stratosphere derive from collisions among asteroids and by the disruption and outgassing of short-period comets. Chondritic porous (CP) IDPs are among the most primitive Solar System materials. CP-IDPs have been linked to cometary parent bodies by their mineralogy, textures, C-content, and dynamical histories. CP-IDPs are fragile, fine-grained (< um) assemblages of anhydrous amorphous and crystalline silicates, oxides and sulfides bound together by abundant carbonaceous material. Ancient silicate, oxide, and SiC stardust grains exhibiting highly anomalous isotopic compositions are abundant in CP-IDPs, constituting 0.01 - 1 % of the mass of the particles. The organic matter in CP-IDPs is isotopically anomalous, with enrichments in D/H reaching 50x the terrestrial SMOW value and 15N/14N ratios up to 3x terrestrial standard compositions. These anomalies are indicative of low T (10-100 K) mass fractionation in cold molecular cloud or the outermost reaches of the protosolar disk. The organic matter shows distinct morphologies, including sub-um globules, bubbly textures, featureless, and with mineral inclusions. Infrared spectroscopy and mass spectrometry studies of organic matter in IDPs reveals diverse species including aliphatic and aromatic compounds. The organic matter with the highest isotopic anomalies appears to be richer in aliphatic compounds. These materials also bear similarities and differences with primitive, isotopically anomalous organic matter in carbonaceous chondrite meteorites. The diversity of the organic chemistry, morphology, and isotopic properties in IDPs and meteorites reflects variable preservation of interstellar/primordial components and Solar System processing. One unifying feature is the presence of sub-um isotopically anomalous organic globules among all primitive materials, including IDPs, meteorites, and comet Wild-2 samples returned by the Stardust mission. We will present

  4. Compartmental model for organic matter digestion in facultative ponds.

    PubMed

    Giraldo, E; Garzón, A

    2002-01-01

    A model has been developed for the digestion of organic matter in facultative ponds in tropical regions. Complete mixing has been assumed for the aerobic and anaerobic compartments. Settling, aerobic layer oxidation, and anaerobic layer methanogenesis are the main processes for organic matter removal in the water column. Exchange processes between layers are dispersive or soluble exchange, solubilization and transport of organic matter from sediments to water column are also taken into account. Degradation of organic matter in the sediments produces gaseous emissions to the water column. The exchange between bubbles ascending and the water column was measured. The model was calibrated with data obtained from a pilot facultative pond built in Muña Reservoir in Bogotá. The pond was sampled during 4 months to compare data between its water hyacinth covered section and uncovered section. The results clearly show the relative importance of different BOD removal processes in facultative ponds and suggest modifications to further improve performance. The results from the model suggest that internal loadings to facultative ponds due to solubilization and return of organic matter from the sediments to the aerobic layer greatly influence the soluble BOD effluent concentration. Aerobic degradation activity in the facultative pond does not affect significantly the effluent concentration. Anaerobic degradation activity in the facultative pond can more easily achieve increases in the removal efficiencies of BOD. PMID:11833730

  5. Black carbon and organic matter stabilization in soil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lehmann, J.; Liang, B.; Sohi, S.; Gaunt, J.

    2007-12-01

    Interaction with minerals is key to stabilization of organic matter in soils. Stabilization is commonly perceived to occur due to entrapment in pore spaces, encapsulation within aggregates or interaction with mineral surfaces. Typically only interactions between organic matter and minerals are considered in such a model. Here we demonstrate that black carbon may act very similar to minerals in soil in that it enhances the stabilization of organic matter. Mineralization of added organic matter was slower and incorporation into intra-aggregate fractions more rapid in the presence of black carbon. Added double-labeled organic matter was recovered in fractions with high amounts of black carbon. Synchrotron-based near-edge x-ray fine structure (NEXAFS) spectroscopy coupled to scanning transmission x-ray microscopy (STXM) suggested a possible interaction of microorganisms with black carbon surfaces and metabolization of residues. These findings suggest a conceptual model that includes carbon-carbon interactions and by-passing for more rapid stabilization of litter into what is commonly interpreted as stable carbon pools.

  6. Formation of organic chloramines during chlor(am)ination and UV/chlor(am)ination of algae organic matter in drinking water.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Tian-Yang; Lin, Yi-Li; Xu, Bin; Cheng, Tuo; Xia, Sheng-Ji; Chu, Wen-Hai; Gao, Nai-Yun

    2016-10-15

    Surface water are frequently subjected to problems of algal blooms and release of algae organic matter (AOM) from the algae cells, which cause many water quality issues. This study investigated the formation of organic chloramines and nitrogenous disinfection by-products (N-DBPs) during chlor(am)ination and UV/chlor(am)ination of AOM in drinking water. AOM caused higher organic chloramine formation than humic acid and fulvic acid during chlor(am)ination. The formation of organic chloramines increased first and then decreased with the increase of free chlorine dosage, but kept increasing with the increase of NH2Cl dosage. During AOM chlorination, the formation of organic chloramines kept decreasing as the reaction time went by, and the maximum organic chloramine proportion (79.1%) in total chlorine occurred at 8 h. However, during AOM chloramination, the formation of organic chloramines increased first, decreased in the following and then increased again as the reaction time went by, and the maximum organic chloramine proportion (22.1%) in total chlorine occurred at 24 h. UV irradiation pretreatment did not effectively influence organic chloramine formation during AOM chlor(am)ination, but accelerated the degradation of organic chloramines during chloramination. Besides, UV pretreatment enhanced the formation of N-DBPs during the subsequent chlor(am)ination of AOM, especially dichloroacetonitrile. PMID:27455415

  7. Characterizing algogenic organic matter (AOM) and evaluating associated NF membrane fouling.

    PubMed

    Her, Namguk; Amy, Gary; Park, Hyoung-Ryun; Song, Myoungsuk

    2004-03-01

    Occasional algal blooms, comprised of blue-green algae and/or green algae, cause significant challenges in drinking water treatment due to the release of algogenic organic matter (AOM) into water extracellularly and, upon cell lysis, intracellularly. AOM has been extracted from blue-green algae (cyanobacteria) by various means and analyzed by UV absorbance scanning, HPSEC-UV-fluorescence-DOC, UV absorbance ratio index (URI), FTIR, and fluorescence excitation emission matrix (EEM). AOM extracted in water as a solvent exhibited a high hydrophilic fraction (57.3%) with a low SUVA (1.0 L/m-mg). The molecular weight (MW) distribution showed a significant heterogeneity (high value of polydispersivity) and high protein content (as indicated by specific fluorescence). Significant amounts of proteinaceous components such as mycosporine-like amino acids (MAAs, UV-screening components) and phycobilins (light-harvesting pigment) were detected by UV/visible absorption. The presence of proteins was confirmed by FTIR (at 1661 and 1552 cm(-1)), EEM spectra (EX:278-282 nm and EM:304-353 nm), and high URI values (3.1-6.0). A bench-scale cross-flow unit, employing a flat-sheet membrane specimen, was used to examine nanofiltration (NF) membrane fouling and removal of natural organic matter (NOM) derived from different blends of Suwannee River humic acid (SRHA) and AOM: SRHA 10 mgC/L, AOM 3mg C/L + SRHA 7 mgC/L, AOM 7 mgC/L + SRHA 3 mgC/L, and AOM 10 mgC/L. The study focused mainly on the effects of two different sources of organic matter on NF (NF 200) membrane fouling under otherwise similar conditions. Flux decline and organic matter rejection as a function of delivered DOC (cumulative mass of feed DOC per unit area) showed significantly different results depending on the organic matter composition of samples even though the test conditions were the same (organic matter concentration, pH, temperature, inorganic salt composition and concentration, and recovery). A higher flux decline

  8. Removal of dissolved organic matter by anion exchange: Effect of dissolved organic matter properties

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Boyer, T.H.; Singer, P.C.; Aiken, G.R.

    2008-01-01

    Ten isolates of aquatic dissolved organic matter (DOM) were evaluated to determine the effect that chemical properties of the DOM, such as charge density, aromaticity, and molecular weight, have on DOM removal by anion exchange. The DOM isolates were characterized asterrestrial, microbial, or intermediate humic substances or transphilic acids. All anion exchange experiments were conducted using a magnetic ion exchange (MIEX) resin. The charge density of the DOM isolates, determined by direct potentiometric titration, was fundamental to quantifying the stoichiometry of the anion exchange mechanism. The results clearly show that all DOM isolates were removed by anion exchange; however, differences among the DOM isolates did influence their removal by MIEX resin. In particular, MIEX resin had the greatest affinity for DOM with high charge density and the least affinity for DOM with low charge density and low aromaticity. This work illustrates that the chemical characteristics of DOM and solution conditions must be considered when evaluating anion exchange treatment for the removal of DOM. ?? 2008 American Chemical Society.

  9. Organic matter on asteroid 130 Elektra

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cruikshank, D. P.; Brown, R. H.

    1987-01-01

    Infrared absorption spectra of a low-albedo water-rich asteroid appear to show a weak 3.4-micrometer carbon-hydrogen stretching mode band, which suggests the presence of hydrocarbons on asteroid 130 Elektra. The organic extract from the primitive carbonaceous chondritic Murchison meteorite shows similar spectral bands.

  10. Organic matter in the Saturn system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sagan, C.; Khare, B. N.; Lewis, J. S.

    1984-01-01

    Theoretical and experimental predictions of the formation (and outgassing) of organic molecules in the outer solar system are compared with Voyager IRIS spectral data for the Titan atmosphere. The organic molecules of Titan are of interest because the species and processes within the atmosphere of that moon may have had analogs in the early earth atmosphere 4 Gyr ago. The spacecraft data confirmed the presence of alkanes, ethane, propane, ethylene, alkynes, acetylene, butadiene, methylacetylene, nitriles, hydrogen cyanide, cyanoacetylene, and cyanogen, all heavier than the dominant CH4. Experimental simulation of the effects of UV photolysis, alpha and gamma ray irradiation, electrical discharges and proton and electron bombardment of similar gas mixtures has shown the best promise for modeling the reactions producing the Titan atmosphere chemicals.

  11. Linkages between flood, aquatic organic matter, and food web processes in the Okavango Delta, Botswana

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mladenov, N.; Murray-Hudson, M.; Mosepele, K.; Lindholm, M.

    2004-12-01

    The Okavango Delta of Botswana is a pristine but threatened wetland that ranges in size from 15,000 - 28,000 km2. Previous research has shown that an annual flooding event exerts controls on the quantity and chemical quality of aquatic organic matter (OM) at the Delta scale. In permanently-inundated areas, the perennial water supply maintains low dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentrations and more microbial sources of OM, as evidenced by low specific UV absorbance and high fluorescence index values. In seasonally-inundated areas, the annual flood causes a pulse of DOC (over 5 mg C/L) and a shift to vegetation-derived DOC, as a result of the inundation of vegetation and soils. Because seasonal floodplains, which encompass 10,000 - 12,000 km2 of the Okavango Delta, become productive grazing areas after the flood and because a dominant portion of fish biomass production takes place in seasonal floodplains, the productivity of these areas is significant for higher trophic levels. Planned water developments upstream of the Delta may shorten/flatten the hydrological pulse and impact the transport and mobilization of organic matter within the Delta. The impacts of reduced flows on extent and duration of flooding have been examined. However, the secondary effects on biological productivity have received less attention. We hypothesize that varying sources of OM, controlled by the hydrologic regime of the Delta, and OM transformations from bacterial and UV degradation exert an influence on floodplain productivity. This study presents results of leaching and photodegradation experiments and observations of changes in algal populations and floodplain standing stock to demonstrate important linkages between biological, ecological, and hydrological processes in the Okavango Delta. Our results support that the DOC that is mobilized by the flood supports heterotrophic microbial populations which, in turn, support the biological productivity of seasonal floodplains.

  12. Do soils loose phosphorus with dissolved organic matter?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaiser, K.; Brödlin, D.; Hagedorn, F.

    2014-12-01

    During ecosystem development and soil formation, primary mineral sources of phosphorus are becoming increasingly depleted. Inorganic phosphorus forms tend to be bound strongly to or within secondary minerals, thus, are hardly available to plants and are not leached from soil. What about organic forms of phosphorus? Since rarely studied, little is known on the composition, mobility, and bioavailability of dissolved organic phosphorus. There is some evidence that plant-derived compounds, such as phytate, bind strongly to minerals as well, while microbial compounds, such as nucleotides and nucleic acids, may represent more mobile fractions of soil phosphorus. In some weakly developed, shallow soils, leaching losses of phosphorus seem to be governed by mobile organic forms. Consequently, much of the phosphorus losses observed during initial stages of ecosystem development may be due to the leaching of dissolved organic matter. However, the potentially mobile microbial compounds are enzymatically hydrolysable. Forest ecosystems on developed soils already depleted in easily available inorganic phosphorus are characterized by rapid recycling of organic phosphors. That can reduce the production of soluble forms of organic phosphorus as well as increase the enzymatic hydrolysis and subsequent plant uptake of phosphorus bound within dissolved organic matter. This work aims at giving an outlook to the potential role of dissolved organic matter in the cycling of phosphorus within developing forest ecosystems, based on literature evidence and first results of ongoing research.

  13. Detection of organic matter in interstellar grains.

    PubMed

    Pendleton, Y J

    1997-06-01

    Star formation and the subsequent evolution of planetary systems occurs in dense molecular clouds, which are comprised, in part, of interstellar dust grains gathered from the diffuse interstellar medium (DISM). Radio observations of the interstellar medium reveal the presence of organic molecules in the gas phase and infrared observational studies provide details concerning the solid-state features in dust grains. In particular, a series of absorption bands have been observed near 3.4 microns (approximately 2940 cm-1) towards bright infrared objects which are seen through large column densities of interstellar dust. Comparisons of organic residues, produced under a variety of laboratory conditions, to the diffuse interstellar medium observations have shown that aliphatic hydrocarbon grains are responsible for the spectral absorption features observed near 3.4 microns (approximately 2940 cm-1). These hydrocarbons appear to carry the -CH2- and -CH3 functional groups in the abundance ratio CH2/CH3 approximately 2.5, and the amount of carbon tied up in this component is greater than 4% of the cosmic carbon available. On a galactic scale, the strength of the 3.4 microns band does not scale linearly with visual extinction, but instead increases more rapidly for objects near the Galactic Center. A similar trend is noted in the strength of the Si-O absorption band near 9.7 microns. The similar behavior of the C-H and Si-O stretching bands suggests that these two components may be coupled, perhaps in the form of grains with silicate cores and refractory organic mantles. The ubiquity of the hydrocarbon features seen in the near infrared near 3.4 microns throughout out Galaxy and in other galaxies demonstrates the widespread availability of such material for incorporation into the many newly forming planetary systems. The similarity of the 3.4 microns features in any organic material with aliphatic hydrocarbons underscores the need for complete astronomical observational

  14. Isotopic composition of hydrogen in insoluble organic matter from cherts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krishnamurthy, R. V.; Epstein, S.

    1991-01-01

    Robert (1989) reported the presence of unusually enriched hydrogen in the insoluble HF-HCl residue extracted from two chert samples of Eocene and Pliocene ages. Since the presence of heavy hydrogen might be due to the incorporation of extraterrestrial materials, we desired to reexamine the same samples to isolate the D-rich components. Our experiments did not reveal any D-rich components, but the hydrogen isotope composition of the insoluble residue of the two chert samples was well within the range expected for terrestrial organic matter. We also describe a protocol that needs to be followed in the hydrogen isotope analysis of any insoluble organic matter.

  15. Andic soils : mineralogical effect onto organic matter dynamics, organic matter effect onto mineral dynamics, or both?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basile-Doelsch, Isabelle; Amundson, Ronald; Balesdent, Jérome; Borschneck, Daniel; Bottero, Jean-Yves; Colin, Fabrice; de Junet, Alexis; Doelsch, Emmanuel; Legros, Samuel; Levard, Clément; Masion, Armand; Meunier, Jean-Dominique; Rose, Jérôme

    2014-05-01

    From a strictly mineralogical point of view, weathering of volcanic glass produces secondary phases that are short range ordered alumino-silicates (SRO-AlSi). These are imogolite tubes (2 to 3 nm of diameter) and allophane supposedly spheres (3.5 to 5 nm). Their local structure is composed of a curved gibbsite Al layer and Si tetrahedra in the vacancies (Q0). Proto-imogolites have the same local structure but are roof-shape nanoparticles likely representing the precursors of imogolite and allophanes (Levard et al. 2010). These structures and sizes give to the SRO-AlSi large specific surfaces and high reactivities. In some natural sites, imogolites and allophanes are formed in large quantities. Aging of these phases may lead to the formation of more stable minerals (halloysite, kaolinite and gibbsite) (Torn et al 1997). In natural environments, when the weathering of volcanic glass is associated with the establishment of vegetation, the soils formed are generally andosols. These soils are particularly rich in organic matter (OM), which is explained by the high ability of SRO-AlSi mineral phases to form bonds with organic compounds. In a first order "bulk" approach, it is considered that these bonds strongly stabilize the organic compounds as their mean age can reach more than 10 kyrs in some studied sites (Basile-Doelsch et al. 2005; Torn et al. 1997). However, the structure of the mineral phases present in andosols deserves more attention. Traditionally, the presence in the SRO-AlSi andosols was shown by selective dissolution approaches by oxalate and pyrophosphate. Using spectroscopic methods, mineralogical analysis of SRO-AlSi in andosols samples showed that these mineral phases were neither imogolites nor allophanes as originally supposed, but only less organized structures remained in a state of proto-imogolites (Basile-Doelsch al. 2005 ; Levard et al., 2012). The presence of OM would have an inhibitory effect on the formation of secondary mineral phases, by

  16. Composition of dissolved organic matter in groundwater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Longnecker, Krista; Kujawinski, Elizabeth B.

    2011-05-01

    Groundwater constitutes a globally important source of freshwater for drinking water and other agricultural and industrial purposes, and is a prominent source of freshwater flowing into the coastal ocean. Therefore, understanding the chemical components of groundwater is relevant to both coastal and inland communities. We used electrospray ionization coupled with Fourier-transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (ESI FT-ICR MS) to examine dissolved organic compounds in groundwater prior to and after passage through a sediment-filled column containing microorganisms. The data revealed that an unexpectedly high proportion of organic compounds contained nitrogen and sulfur, possibly due to transport of surface waters from septic systems and rain events. We matched 292 chemical features, based on measured mass:charge ( m/z) values, to compounds stored in the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG). A subset of these compounds (88) had only one structural isomer in KEGG, thus supporting tentative identification. Most identified elemental formulas were linked with metabolic pathways that produce polyketides or with secondary metabolites produced by plants. The presence of polyketides in groundwater is notable because of their anti-bacterial and anti-cancer properties. However, their relative abundance must be quantified with appropriate analyses to assess any implications for public health.

  17. Interstellar and Solar System Organic Matter Preserved in Interplanetary Dust

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Messenger, Scott; Nakamura-Messenger, Keiko

    2015-01-01

    Interplanetary dust particles (IDPs) collected in the Earth's stratosphere derive from collisions among asteroids and by the disruption and outgassing of short-period comets. Chondritic porous (CP) IDPs are among the most primitive Solar System materials. CP-IDPs have been linked to cometary parent bodies by their mineralogy, textures, C-content, and dynamical histories. CP-IDPs are fragile, fine-grained (less than um) assemblages of anhydrous amorphous and crystalline silicates, oxides and sulfides bound together by abundant carbonaceous material. Ancient silicate, oxide, and SiC stardust grains exhibiting highly anomalous isotopic compositions are abundant in CP-IDPs, constituting 0.01 - 1 % of the mass of the particles. The organic matter in CP-IDPs is isotopically anomalous, with enrichments in D/H reaching 50x the terrestrial SMOW value and 15N/14N ratios up to 3x terrestrial standard compositions. These anomalies are indicative of low T (10-100 K) mass fractionation in cold molecular cloud or the outermost reaches of the protosolar disk. The organic matter shows distinct morphologies, including sub-um globules, bubbly textures, featureless, and with mineral inclusions. Infrared spectroscopy and mass spectrometry studies of organic matter in IDPs reveals diverse species including aliphatic and aromatic compounds. The organic matter with the highest isotopic anomalies appears to be richer in aliphatic compounds. These materials also bear similarities and differences with primitive, isotopically anomalous organic matter in carbonaceous chondrite meteorites. The diversity of the organic chemistry, morphology, and isotopic properties in IDPs and meteorites reflects variable preservation of interstellar/primordial components and Solar System processing. One unifying feature is the presence of sub-um isotopically anomalous organic globules among all primitive materials, including IDPs, meteorites, and comet Wild-2 samples returned by the Stardust mission.

  18. Caracterisation of anthropogenic contribution to the coastal fluorescent organic matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El Nahhal, Ibrahim; Nouhi, Ayoub; Mounier, Stéphane

    2015-04-01

    It is known that most of the coastal fluorescent organic matter is of a terrestrial origin (Parlanti, 2000; Tedetti, Guigue, & Goutx, 2010). However, the contribution of the anthropogenic organic matter to this pool is not well defined and evaluated. In this work the monitoring of little bay (Toulon Bay, France) was done in the way to determine the organic fluorescent response during a winter period. The sampling campaign consisted of different days during the month of December, 2014 ( 12th, 15th, 17th, 19th) on 21 different sampling sites for the fluorescence measurements (without any filtering of the samples) and the whole month of December for the bacterial and the turbidity measurements. Excitation Emission Matrices (EEMs) of fluorescence (from 200 to 400 nm and 220 to 420 nm excitation and emission range) were treated by parallel factor analysis (PARAFAC).The parafac analysis of the EEM datasets was conducted using PROGMEEF software in Matlab langage. On the same time that the turbidity and bacterial measurement (particularly the E.Coli concentration) were determined. The results gives in a short time range, information on the the contribution of the anthropogenic inputs to the coastal fluorescent organic matter. In addition, the effect of salinity on the photochemical degradation of the anthropogenic organic matter (especially those from wastewater treatment plants) will be studied to investigate their fate in the water end member by the way of laboratory experiments. Parlanti, E. (2000). Dissolved organic matter fluorescence spectroscopy as a tool to estimate biological activity in a coastal zone submitted to anthropogenic inputs. Organic Geochemistry, 31(12), 1765-1781. doi:10.1016/S0146-6380(00)00124-8 Tedetti, M., Guigue, C., & Goutx, M. (2010). Utilization of a submersible UV fluorometer for monitoring anthropogenic inputs in the Mediterranean coastal waters. Marine Pollution Bulletin, 60(3), 350-62. doi:10.1016/j.marpolbul.2009.10.018

  19. Adsorption combined with ultrafiltration to remove organic matter from seawater.

    PubMed

    Tansakul, Chatkaew; Laborie, Stéphanie; Cabassud, Corinne

    2011-12-01

    Organic fouling and biofouling are the major severe types of fouling of reverse osmosis (RO) membranes in seawater (SW) desalination. Low pressure membrane filtration such as ultrafiltration (UF) has been developed as a pre-treatment before reverse osmosis. However, UF alone may not be an effective enough pre-treatment because of the existence of low-molecular weight dissolved organic matter in seawater. Therefore, the objective of the present work is to study a hybrid process, powdered activated carbon (PAC) adsorption/UF, with real seawater and to evaluate its performance in terms of organic matter removal and membrane fouling. The effect of different PAC types and concentrations is evaluated. Stream-activated wood-based PAC addition increased marine organic matter removal by up to 70% in some conditions. Moreover, coupling PAC adsorption with UF decreased UF membrane fouling and the fouling occurring during short-term UF was totally reversible. It can be concluded that the hybrid PAC adsorption/UF process performed in crossflow filtration mode is a relevant pre-treatment process before RO desalination, allowing organic matter removal of 75% and showing no flux decline for short-term experiments. PMID:21996607

  20. Examining the relationship between mercury and organic matter in lake sediments along a latitudinal transect in subarctic Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galloway, Jennifer M.; Sanei, Hamed; Parsons, Michael; Swindles, Graeme T.; Macumber, Andrew L.; Patterson, R. Timothy; Palmer, Michael; Falck, Hendrik

    2016-04-01

    The accumulation of Hg in aquatic environments at both high and low latitudes can be controlled by organic matter through algal scavenging, thus complicating the interpretation of historical Hg profiles in lake sediments1,2,3. However, other recent studies suggest that algal scavenging is not important in governing Hg flux to sediments4, in some cases because of dilution by inorganic materials5. This study examines relationships between Hg and organic matter (OM) in over 100 lakes located between 60.5 and 65.4 °N and crossing the latitudinal tree-line in subarctic Canada. The latitudinal gradient approach in our study offers an opportunity to better understand climate and environmental controls on OM accumulation and its role in influencing Hg deposition in subarctic lacustrine environments. We used Rock Eval 6 pyrolysis to determine total organic carbon (TOC%), S1 (soluble OM consisting of degradable lipids and algal pigments), S2 (OM derived from highly aliphatic biomacromolecule structure of algal cell walls), and S3 (OM dominated by carbohydrates, lignins, and plant materials). Total Hg in sediments was measured using thermal decomposition, amalgamation, and atomic absorption spectrophotometry. In these lake sediments, S2 composes the majority of TOC (Pearson's r = 0.978, p<0.01) and is negatively correlated with latitude (r = -0.475, p<0.01). S1 and TOC are also negatively correlated with latitude (r = -0.237 and -0.452, respectively, p<0.01). These associations are interpreted to reflect less autochthonous OM production and proportionally higher allochthonous OM input to more northern lakes (oxygen index vs. latitude r = 0.371, p<0.01). Similar to previous studies1,2,3 Mercury displays a significant positive association with S1 (r = 0.556, p<0.01), S2 (r = 0.518, p<0.01), and TOC (r = 0.504, p<0.01),supporting the hypothesis that OM influences Hg accumulation in subarctic lake sediments. References 1Sanei, H., Goodarzi, F. 2006. Relationship between organic

  1. Processing of Atmospheric Organic Matter by California Radiation Fogs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collett, J. L.; Youngster, S. B.; Lee, T.; Chang, H.; Herckes, P.

    2005-12-01

    In many environments, organic compounds account for a significant fraction of fine particle mass. Because the lifetimes of accumulation mode aerosol particles are governed largely by interactions with clouds, it is important to understand how organic aerosol particles are processed by clouds and fogs. Recently we have examined the organic composition of radiation fogs in central California as well as how these fogs process organic aerosol particles and soluble organic trace gases. Observations indicate that organic matter is a significant component of the fog droplets, comprising approximately one-third of the total solute mass concentration. Concentrations of total organic carbon (TOC) range from approximately 2 to 41 ppmC. Approximately three-fourths of organic matter is typically found in solution as dissolved organic carbon (DOC). A variety of efforts have been made to characterize the composition of the fog organic matter, including analyses by GC/MS, HPLC, IC, NMR and IR. The most abundant species are typically low molecular weight carboxylic acids, small carbonyls and dicarbonyls, and sugar anhydrides. These species have been observed collectively to account for roughly 20-30 percent of the fog DOC. Dicarboxylic acids, frequently used as model compounds for organic CCN, typically account for only a few percent of the organic carbon, with oxalic acid the most important contributor. A significant portion of the fog DOC appears to be comprised of high molecular weight compounds (> 500 Da). Analyses also reveal the presence of organic molecular markers associated with particles produced by various combustion processes. Comparisons of pre-fog and interstitial aerosol samples reveal differences in the relative particle scavenging efficiencies of the fog drops between organic and elemental carbon and between different types of organic carbon. Measurements using a two-stage fog water collector reveal that organic matter tends to be enriched in smaller fog droplets

  2. Analysis of the Organic Matter in Interplanetary Dust Particles: Clues to the Organic Matter in Comets, Asteroids, and Interstellar Grains

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Flynn, G. J.; Keller, L. P.

    2003-01-01

    Reflection spectroscopy suggests the C- , P-, and D-types of asteroids contain abundant carbon, but these Vis-nearIR spectra are featureless, providing no information on the type(s) of carbonaceous matter. Infrared spectroscopy demonstrates that organic carbon is a significant component in comets and as grains or grain coatings in the interstellar medium. Most of the interplanetary dust particles (IDPs) recovered from the Earth s stratosphere are believed to be fragments from asteroids or comets, thus characterization of the carbon in IDPs provides the opportunity to determine the type(s) and abundance of organic matter in asteroids and comets. Some IDPs exhibit isotopic excesses of D and N-15, indicating the presence of interstellar material. The characterization of the carbon in these IDPs, and particularly any carbon spatially associated with the isotopic anomalies, provides the opportunity to characterize interstellar organic matter.

  3. Aggregation of organic matter by pelagic tunicates

    SciTech Connect

    Pomeroy, L.R.; Deibel, D.

    1980-07-01

    Three genera of pelagic tunicates were fed concentrates of natural seston and an axenic diatom culture. Fresh and up to 4-day-old feces resemble flocculent organic aggregates containing populations of microorganisms, as described from highly productive parts of the ocean, and older feces resemble the nearly sterile flocculent aggregates which are ubiquitous in surface waters. Fresh feces consist of partially digested phytoplankton and other inclusions in an amorphous gelatinous matrix. After 18 to 36 h, a population of large bacteria develops in the matrix and in some of the remains of phytoplankton contained in the feces. From 48 to 96 h, protozoan populations arise which consume the bacteria and sometimes the remains of the phytoplankton in the feces. Thereafter only a sparse population of microorganisms remains, and the particles begin to fragment. Water samples taken in or below dense populations of salps and doliolids contained greater numbers of flocculent aggregates than did samples from adjacent stations.

  4. Search for Organic Matter in Leonid Meteoroids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rairden, Richard L.; Jenniskens, Peter; Laux, Christophe O.; DeVincenzi, Donald L. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    Near-ultraviolet 300-410 nm spectra of Leonid meteors were obtained in an effort to measure the strong B to X emission band of the radical CN in Leonid meteor spectra at 387 nm. CN is an expected product of ablation of nitrogen containing organic carbon in the meteoroids as well as a possible product of the aerothermochemistry induced by the kinetic energy of the meteor. A slitless spectrograph with objective grating was deployed on FISTA during the 1999 Leonid Multi-Instrument Aircraft Campaign. Fifteen first-order UV spectra were captured near the 02:00 UT meteor storm peak on November 18. It is found that neutral iron lines dominate the spectrum, with no clear sign of the CN band. The meteor plasma contains less than one CN molecule per three Fe atoms at the observed altitude of about 100 km.

  5. Ultrathin organic semiconductor films--soft matter effect.

    PubMed

    Wang, Tong; Yan, Donghang

    2014-05-01

    The growth of organic semiconductor thin films has been a crucial issue in organic electronics, especially the growth at the early stages. The thin-film phase has been found to be a common phenomenon in many organic semiconductor thin films, which is closely related with the weak van der Waals interaction between organic molecules, the long-range interaction between organic molecules and the substrate, as well as the soft matter characteristics of ultrathin films. The growth behavior and soft matter characteristics of the thin-film phase have great effects on thin film morphology and structure, for example, the formation and coalescence of grain boundaries, which further influences the performance of organic electronic devices. The understanding of thin-film phase and its intrinsic quality is necessary for fabricating large-size, highly ordered, continuous and defect-free ultrathin films. This review will focus on the growth behavior of organic ultrathin films, i.e., the level of the first several molecular layers, and provide an overview of the soft matter characteristics. PMID:24548597

  6. The Relationship Between Dissolved Organic Matter Composition and Organic Matter Optical Properties in Freshwaters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aiken, G.; Spencer, R. G.; Butler, K.

    2010-12-01

    Dissolved organic matter (DOM) chemistry and flux are potentially useful, albeit, underutilized, indicators of watershed characteristics, climate influences on watershed hydrology and soils, and changes associated with resource management. Source materials, watershed geochemistry, oxidative processes and hydrology exert strong influences on the nature and reactivity of DOM in aquatic systems. The molecules that comprise DOM, in turn, control a number of environmental processes important for ecosystem function including light penetration and photochemistry, microbial activity, mineral dissolution/precipitation, and the transport and reactivity of hydrophobic compounds and metals (e.g. Hg). In particular, aromatic molecules derived from higher plants exert strong controls on aquatic photochemistry, and on the transport and biogeochemistry of metals. Assessment of DOM composition and transport, therefore, can provide a basis for understanding watershed processes and biogeochemistry of rivers and streams. Here we present results of multi-year studies designed to assess the seasonal and spatial variability of DOM quantity and quality for 57 North American Rivers. DOM concentrations and composition, based on DOM fractionation on XAD resins, ultraviolet (UV)/visible absorption and fluorescence spectroscopic analyses, and specific compound analyses, varied greatly both between sites and seasonally within a given site. DOM in these rivers exhibited a wide range of concentration (<80 to >4000 µM C* L-1) and specific ultra-violet absorbance at 254 nm (SUVA254) (0.6 to 5 L *mg C-1 *m-1), an optical measurement that is an indicator of aromatic carbon content. In almost all systems, UV absorbance measured at specific wavelengths (e.g. 254 nm) correlated strongly with DOM and hydrophobic organic acid (HPOA) content (aquatic humic substances). The relationships between dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentration and absorbance for the range of systems were quite variable due to

  7. Relating Soil Organic Matter Dynamics to its Molecular Structure

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Our understanding of the dynamics of soil organic matter (SOM) must be integrated with a sound knowledge of it biochemical complexity. The molecular structure of SOM was determined in 98% sand soils to eliminate the known protective effects of clay on the amount and turnover rate of the SOM constitu...

  8. Calculation of the enthalpy of formation of coal organic matter

    SciTech Connect

    A.M. Gyul'maliev; M.Ya. Shpirt

    2008-10-15

    The enthalpy of formation for the organic matter of coals in the coal rank series was calculated from the heat of the complete combustion reaction. Three variants were considered in which the experimental heating values and the values found from the correlation equation or calculated using the Mendeleev formula were taken as the heat of the complete combustion of coals.

  9. SOURCES OF FINE PARTICLE ORGANIC MATTER IN BOISE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Ambient concentrations of fine particle extracted organic matter (EOM) measured at the Elm Grove Park and Fire Station sites in Boise have been apportioned to their two principal sources, woodsmoke and motor vehicle emissions. A multiple linear regression method using lead and po...

  10. Lyophilization and Reconstitution of Reverse Osmosis Concentrated Natural Organic Matter

    EPA Science Inventory

    Disinfection by-product (DBP) research can be complicated by difficulties in shipping large water quantities and changing natural organic matter (NOM) characteristics over time. To overcome these issues, it is advantageous to have a reliable method for concentrating and preservin...

  11. Forms and Bioavailability of Phosphorus Associated With Natural Organic Matter

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Natural organic matter (NOM) is an important ingredient in soil which can improve physical, chemical, and biological properties of soils and nutrient supplies. In this study, we investigated the spectral features and potential availability of phosphorus (P) in the IHSS Elliott Soil humic acid standa...

  12. Organic Matter Balance: Managing for Soil Protection and Bioenergy Production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soils are an important natural resource allowing the production of food, feed, fiber and fuel. The growing demand for these services or products requires we protect the soil resource. Many characteristics of high quality soils can be related to the quantity and quality of soil organic matter (organi...

  13. Quenching and Sensitizing Fullerene Photoreactions by Natural Organic Matter

    EPA Science Inventory

    Effects of natural organic matter (NOM) on the photoreaction kinetics of fullerenes (i.e., C60 and fullerenol) were investigated using simulated sunlight and monochromatic radiation (365 nm). NOM from several sources quenched (slowed) the photoreaction of C60 aggregates in water ...

  14. Organic matter in a coal ball: Peat or coal?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hatcher, P.G.; Lyons, P.C.; Thompson, C.L.; Brown, F.W.; Maciel, G.E.

    1982-01-01

    Chemical analyses of morphologically preserved organic matter in a Carboniferous coal ball reveal that the material is coalified to a rank approximately equal to that of the surrounding coal. Hence, the plant tissues in the coal ball were chemically altered by coalification processes and were not preserved as peat. Copyright ?? 1982 AAAS.

  15. Photoproduction of Carbon Monoxide from Natural Organic Matter

    EPA Science Inventory

    Pioneering studies by Valentine provided early kinetic results that used carbon monoxide (CO) production to evaluate the photodecomposition of aquatic natural organic matter (NOM) . (ES&T 1993 27 409-412). Comparatively few kinetic studies have been conducted of the photodegradat...

  16. Protection of Organic Matter from Enzyme Degradation by Mineral Mesopores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zimmerman, A. R.; Chorover, J. D.; Brantley, S. L.

    2003-12-01

    Mineral mesopores (2-50 nm diameter) may sequester organic matter (natural and pollutant) and protect it from microbial and fungal enzymatic degradation in soils and sediments. Synthetic mesoporous alumina and silica minerals with uniform pore sizes and shapes were used to test the role of mesopores in protecting organic matter from enzymatic degradation. A model humic compound, L-3-4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (L-DOPA), was sorbed to the internal surfaces of mesoporous alumina (8.2 nm diameter pores) and mesoporous silica (3.4 nm diameter pores) as well as to the external surfaces of nonporous alumina and silica analogues. A fungal derived enzyme, laccase, was added to these sorbate-sorbent pairs in aqueous solution and activity was monitored by oxygen consumption. Though enzyme activity was suppressed in both cases by mineral-enzyme interaction (enzyme inhibition likely due to adsorption of the enzyme), both the rate and total extent of enzyme-mediated degradation of mesopore-sorbed L-DOPA was 3-40 times lower than that of the externally-sorbed analogue. These results provide, for the first time, direct evidence for the viability of the proposed mesopore protection mechanism for the sequestration and preservation of sedimentary organic matter and organic contaminants. Mesopore adsorption/desorption phenomena may also help explain the slow degradation of organic contaminants in soil and sediment and may prove useful as delivery vehicles for organic compounds to agricultural, medical or environmental systems.

  17. Organic and Inorganic Matter in Louisiana Coastal Waters: Vermilion, Atchafalaya, Terrebonne, Barataria, and Mississippi Regions.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM) spectral absorption, dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentration, and the particulate fraction of inorganic (PIM) and organic matter (POM) were measured in Louisiana coastal waters at Vermilion, Atchafalaya, Terrebonne, Barataria, and...

  18. Molecular characterization of soil organic matter: a historic overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kögel-Knabner, Ingrid; Rumpel, Cornelia

    2014-05-01

    The characterization of individual molecular components of soil organic matter started in the early 19th century, but proceeded slowly. The major focus at this time was on the isolation and differentiation of different humic and fulvic acid fractions, which were considered to have a defined chemical composition and structure. The isolation and structural anlysis of specific individual soil organic matter components became more popular in the early 20th century. In 1936 40 different individual compounds had been isolated and a specific chemical strucutre had been attributed. These structural attributions were confirmed later for some, but not all of these individual compounds. In the 1950 much more individual compounds could be isolated and characterized, using complicated and time consuming chromatography. It became obvious that soil also contains a number of compounds of microbial origin, such as e.g., amino sugars and lipids. With the improvement of chrmoatographic separation techniques and the use of gas chromatography in combination with thin layerchromatography in the 1960 hundreds of individual compounds have been isolated and identified, most of them after chemical degradation of humic or fulvic acids. The chemical degradative techniques were amended with analytical pyrolysis in the 1970s. More and more, bulk soil organic matter was analyzed with these techniques and the advent of solid-stae 13C NMR spectroscopy around the 1980s allowed for the characterization of the composition of bulk soil organic matter. The gas chromatographic separation of organic matter can nowadays be combined with specific detectors, such that specific attributes ofindividual molecules can be analyzed, e.g. the radiocarbon content or the stable isotope composition.

  19. Cumulative effects of biochar, mineral and organic fertilizers on soil organic matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plaza, César; López-de-Sá, Esther G.; Gascó, Gabriel; Méndez, Ana; Zaccone, Claudio

    2016-04-01

    We investigated the effect of three consecutive annual applications of biochar at rates of 0 and 20 t ha-1, in a factorial combination with a mineral fertilizer (NPK and nitrosulfate) and two types of organic amendment (municipal solid waste compost and sewage sludge), on soil organic matter in a field experiment under Mediterranean conditions. Biochar increased significantly soil organic C content and C/N ratio. In biochar-amended soils, soil organic C increased significantly with the addition of municipal solid waste compost and sewage sludge. To capture organic matter protection mechanisms related to aggregation and mineral interaction, the soil samples will be fractionated into free (unprotected), intra-macroaggregate, intra-microaggregate, and mineral-associated organic matter pools, and the isolated fractions will be subjected to further chemical and spectroscopic analysis.

  20. Relationship of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons with algae-derived organic matter in sediment cores from a subtropical region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duan, Dandan; Huang, Youda; Cheng, Hefa; Ran, Yong

    2015-11-01

    The influence of algae-derived organic matter (AOM) and climate warming on the historical record of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the subtropical reservoir sediments was investigated. The profiles of PAH concentrations and AOM contents at the eutrophic and meso-eutrophic reservoirs are significantly elevated and show good correlations with increasing mean air temperature during the past 60 years, suggesting that increasing temperature plays a significant role in increase of algal productivity and PAH deposition. Temperature-mediated AOM is suggested to enhance the deposition and accumulation of pyrogenic PAHs in the sediment cores, also implying an inaccurate estimation on the historical record for atmospheric deposition of PAHs in eutrophic and meso-eutrophic reservoirs. For an oligotrophic reservoir, PAHs decrease as the sediment depth decreases and are less significantly related to AOM. As the oligotrophic reservoir is phosphorus limited and its AOM is significantly oxidized, the effect of increasing temperature on AOM and PAHs is insignificant.

  1. Temporal succession of putative glycolate-utilizing bacterioplankton tracks changes in dissolved organic matter in a high-elevation lake.

    PubMed

    Paver, Sara F; Nelson, Craig E; Kent, Angela D

    2013-03-01

    Shifts in the composition of dissolved organic matter (DOM) may be a principal factor effecting changes in bacterial community composition. Emerald Lake, a high-elevation lake with DOM dominated by terrestrial sources in the spring with increasing phytoplankton-derived inputs throughout the ice-free season, provided a natural experiment with which to investigate the importance of resource-mediated drivers. Glycolate-utilizing bacteria, a subset of the bacterial community able to use algal exudates, were characterized using DNA analysis of glycolate oxidase subunit D (glcD) genes from Emerald Lake samples collected approximately biweekly from ice-cover (June) through fall turnover (September). glcD genes were not detected in early-season samples when the lake was ice-covered and phytoplankton-derived resources were scarce. Following this period, glcD gene composition exhibited significant changes through time, which were strongly correlated with the combination of fluorescence index, an indicator of the proportion of lake vs. terrestrially derived DOM, and dissolved inorganic nitrate + nitrite. These results suggest that seasonal shifts in DOM source and environmental variables that affect the composition of algal-derived dissolved resources drive changes in the relative abundance and composition of putative glycolate-utilizing bacteria. These findings strengthen the evidence for shifts in DOM structuring bacterial communities. PMID:22984851

  2. Removal of dissolved organic matter in water-hyacinth waste-water treatment lagoons

    SciTech Connect

    Victoria-Rueda, C.H.

    1991-01-01

    Secondary treatment of domestic wastewater in water hyacinth lagoons was evaluated under experimental conditions to assess the role of the roots' bacterial biofilm in the removal of dissolved organic matter (DOM). Research was conducted to (1) quantify removal rates by the biofilm as a function of bulk DOM concentration, (2) formulate an analytical model of DOM removal incorporating biofilm activity, and (3) test the model response to variable organic loads in a pilot-scale plant. Removal of DOM by the biofilm was quantified in continuous-flow water hyacinth tanks at ten concentrations ranging from 45 to 330 g COD m {sup {minus}3} . Total DOM removal in the denitrifying, acetate-based experimental system was measured and partitioned into two fractions associated with the activity of biofilm and suspended bacteria. Calculated DOM removal by the biofilm was adjusted for the release of organic compounds by debris decomposition. Values of DOM removal were used to calculate oxygen transfer rates from the water hyacinth roots. A model of DOM removal in water hyacinth lagoons was formulated. The model, composed of four differential equations, was solved at steady-state conditions and the validity of its simulation results was tested in pilot-scale tanks. Hydraulic detection times ranging from 2 to 28 days were evaluated using biofilm density and concentrations of DOM and particulate organics as monitoring parameters of the model response. The observed decrease of suspended bacterial biomass along the tank was correctly simulated by the model, but predictions of effluent concentrations were not always consistent. Predicted values of biofilm bacterial mass were similar to those measured in the tanks, except when large algal populations were present in the film.

  3. Microbial Communities and Organic Matter Composition in Surface and Subsurface Sediments of the Helgoland Mud Area, North Sea

    PubMed Central

    Oni, Oluwatobi E.; Schmidt, Frauke; Miyatake, Tetsuro; Kasten, Sabine; Witt, Matthias; Hinrichs, Kai-Uwe; Friedrich, Michael W.

    2015-01-01

    The role of microorganisms in the cycling of sedimentary organic carbon is a crucial one. To better understand relationships between molecular composition of a potentially bioavailable fraction of organic matter and microbial populations, bacterial and archaeal communities were characterized using pyrosequencing-based 16S rRNA gene analysis in surface (top 30 cm) and subsurface/deeper sediments (30–530 cm) of the Helgoland mud area, North Sea. Fourier Transform Ion Cyclotron Resonance Mass Spectrometry (FT-ICR MS) was used to characterize a potentially bioavailable organic matter fraction (hot-water extractable organic matter, WE-OM). Algal polymer-associated microbial populations such as members of the Gammaproteobacteria, Bacteroidetes, and Verrucomicrobia were dominant in surface sediments while members of the Chloroflexi (Dehalococcoidales and candidate order GIF9) and Miscellaneous Crenarchaeota Groups (MCG), both of which are linked to degradation of more recalcitrant, aromatic compounds and detrital proteins, were dominant in subsurface sediments. Microbial populations dominant in subsurface sediments (Chloroflexi, members of MCG, and Thermoplasmata) showed strong correlations to total organic carbon (TOC) content. Changes of WE-OM with sediment depth reveal molecular transformations from oxygen-rich [high oxygen to carbon (O/C), low hydrogen to carbon (H/C) ratios] aromatic compounds and highly unsaturated compounds toward compounds with lower O/C and higher H/C ratios. The observed molecular changes were most pronounced in organic compounds containing only CHO atoms. Our data thus, highlights classes of sedimentary organic compounds that may serve as microbial energy sources in methanic marine subsurface environments. PMID:26635758

  4. Bacterial biomarkers thermally released from dissolved organic matter

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Greenwood, P.F.; Leenheer, J.A.; McIntyre, C.; Berwick, L.; Franzmann, P.D.

    2006-01-01

    Hopane biomarker products were detected using microscale sealed vessel (MSSV) pyrolysis gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis of dissolved organic matter from natural aquatic systems colonised by bacterial populations. MSSV pyrolysis can reduce the polyhydroxylated alkyl side chain of bacteriohopanepolyols, yielding saturated hopane products which are more amenable to GC-MS detection than their functionalised precursors. This example demonstrates how the thermal conditions of MSSV pyrolysis can reduce the biologically-inherited structural functionality of naturally occurring organic matter such that additional structural fragments can be detected using GC methods. This approach complements traditional analytical pyrolysis methods by providing additional speciation information useful for establishing the structures and source inputs of recent or extant organic material. ?? 2006.

  5. Pre-biotic organic matter from comets and asteroids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anders, Edward

    1989-01-01

    Only meteoritic fragments small enough to be gently decelerated by the atmosphere (10 to the -12th g to 10 to the -6th g) can deliver organic matter intact. The amount of such 'soft-landed' organic carbon can be estimated from data for the infall rate of meteoritic matter. At present rates, only about 0.0006 g/sq cm intact organic carbon would accumulate in 100 million years, but at the higher rates of about four billion yr ago, about 20 g/sq cm may have accumulated in the few hundred million years between the last cataclysmic impact and the beginning of life. It may have included some biologically important compounds that did not form by abiotic synthesis on earth.

  6. Terpenoids as major precursors of dissolved organic matter in landfill leachates, surface water, and groundwater.

    PubMed

    Leenheer, Jerry A; Nanny, Mark A; McIntyre, Cameron

    2003-06-01

    13C NMR analyses of hydrophobic dissolved organic matter (DOM) fractions isolated from a landfill leachate contaminated groundwater near Norman, OK; the Colorado River aqueduct near Los Angeles, CA; Anaheim Lake, an infiltration basin for the Santa Ana River in Orange County, CA; and groundwater from the Tomago Sand Beds, near Sydney, Australia, found branched methyl groups and quaternary aliphatic carbon structures that are indicative of terpenoid hydrocarbon precursors. Significant amounts of lignin precursors, commonly postulated to be the major source of DOM, were found only in trace quantities by thermochemolysis/gas chromatography/mass spectrometry of the Norman Landfill and Tomago Sand Bed hydrophobic DOM fractions. Electrospray/tandem mass spectrometry of the Tomago Sand Bed hydrophobic acid DOM found an ion series differing by 14 daltons, which is indicative of aliphatic and aryl-aliphatic polycarboxylic acids. The product obtained from ozonation of the resin acid, abietic acid, gave a similar ion series. Terpenoid precursors of DOM are postulated to be derived from resin acid paper sizing agents in the Norman Landfill, algal and bacterial terpenoids in the Colorado River and Anaheim Lake, and terrestrial plant terpenoids in the Tomago Sand Beds. PMID:12831012

  7. Mercury and organic matter: Linkages and breakdowns across the California Delta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fleck, J.; Alpers, C. N.; Marvin-DiPasquale, M. C.; Windham-Myers, L.; Stephenson, M.; Gill, G. A.; Krabbenhoft, D. P.; Bergamaschi, B. A.

    2011-12-01

    Wetlands provide many important functions for ecosystems, but they are also known sites for the formation of methylmercury (MeHg), which poses a threat to human and ecosystem health. The formation and concentration of MeHg has been linked to organic matter (OM) concentration and quality in a wide variety of natural systems. Because of this biogeochemical coupling, understanding the linkages across OM and MeHg cycling can provide insights into the processes controlling MeHg in the water column. Over the past five years, the USGS and partners have collected concurrent measurements of aqueous OM, mercury (Hg) and MeHg in a wide range of wetlands within the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta ecosystem including tidal wetlands, impounded flow-through wetlands, seasonal and permanent ponds, shore-bird ponds and rice fields. Although OM and MeHg were tightly coupled across the range of natural wetlands examined, relationships were widely poor and variable within and across managed wetlands. Causes for the poor relationships were attributed to several mechanisms including spatial and temporal decoupling of OM and MeHg production, differing degradation rates and processes, differences in algal activity and structure, and differences in the diffusive and advective exchange across the sediment-water interface. The information gathered through these studies provides insights into the processes controlling MeHg production and transport in wetland systems and suggests simple management actions may be utilized to minimize Hg and MeHg exports to the greater aquatic system.

  8. Terpenoids as major precursors of dissolved organic matter in landfill leachates, surface water, and groundwater

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Leenheer, J.A.; Nanny, M.A.; McIntyre, C.

    2003-01-01

    13C NMR analyses of hydrophobic dissolved organic matter (DOM) fractions isolated from a landfill leachate contaminated groundwater near Norman, OK; the Colorado River aqueduct near Los Angeles, CA; Anaheim Lake, an infiltration basin for the Santa Ana River in Orange County, CA; and groundwater from the Tomago Sand Beds, near Sydney, Australia, found branched methyl groups and quaternary aliphatic carbon structures that are indicative of terpenoid hydrocarbon precursors. Significant amounts of lignin precursors, commonly postulated to be the major source of DOM, were found only in trace quantities by thermochemolysis/gas chromatography/mass spectrometry of the Norman Landfill and Tomago Sand Bed hydrophobic DOM fractions. Electrospray/tandem mass spectrometry of the Tomago Sand Bed hydrophobic acid DOM found an ion series differing by 14 daltons, which is indicative of aliphatic and aryl-aliphatic polycarboxylic acids. The product obtained from ozonation of the resin acid, abietic acid, gave a similar ion series. Terpenoid precursors of DOM are postulated to be derived from resin acid paper sizing agents in the Norman Landfill, algal and bacterial terpenoids in the Colorado River and Anaheim Lake, and terrestrial plant terpenoids in the Tomago Sand Beds.

  9. Seasonal Response of Stream Biofilm Communities to Dissolved Organic Matter and Nutrient Enrichments

    PubMed Central

    Olapade, Ola A.; Leff, Laura G.

    2005-01-01

    Dissolved organic matter (DOM) and inorganic nutrients may affect microbial communities in streams, but little is known about the impact of these factors on specific taxa within bacterial assemblages in biofilms. In this study, nutrient diffusing artificial substrates were used to examine bacterial responses to DOM (i.e., glucose, leaf leachate, and algal exudates) and inorganic nutrients (nitrate and phosphate singly and in combination). Artificial substrates were deployed for five seasons, from summer 2002 to summer 2003, in a northeastern Ohio stream. Differences were observed in the responses of bacterial taxa examined to various DOM and inorganic nutrient treatments, and the response patterns varied seasonally, indicating that resources that limit the bacterial communities change over time. Overall, the greatest responses were to labile, low-molecular-weight DOM (i.e., glucose) at times when chlorophyll a concentrations were low due to scouring during significant storm events. Different types of DOM and inorganic nutrients induced various responses among bacterial taxa in the biofilms examined, and these responses would not have been apparent if they were examined at the community level or if seasonal changes were not taken into account. PMID:15870312

  10. Effects of the fungicide pyrimethanil on biofilm and organic matter processing in outdoor lentic mesocosms.

    PubMed

    Abelho, Manuela; Martins, Tiago Fortunato; Shinn, Cândida; Moreira-Santos, Matilde; Ribeiro, Rui

    2016-01-01

    The effect of the fungicide pyrimethanil (0.7 mg L(−1)) on biofilm development and alder leaf litter decomposition in aquatic ecosystems was assessed in outdoor lentic mesocosms immediately and 274 days after pyrimethanil application. Pyrimethanil decreased ergosterol concentrations (an indicator of fungal biomass) and the abundance and richness of the macroinvertebrate community associated with decomposing leaves. However, because neither fungi nor macroinvertebrates were main factors contributing to decomposition in this particular system, organic matter processing rates were not affected. After 274 days, pyrimethanil concentration in the water column was ≤0.004 mg L(−1) but richness, biomass and composition of the invertebrate community associated with decomposing leaf-litter still showed the effect. The comparison of ergosterol (a molecule existing on both algae and fungal cell membranes), with chlorophyll (an indicator of algal biomass) associated with biofilm suggests that pyrimethanil may decrease fungal biomass and alter the relative abundance of algae and fungi on biofilm developing in control- and treated-mesocosms. PMID:26496930

  11. Variation in stable carbon isotopes in organic matter from the Gunflint Iron Formation. [Precambrian rock analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barghoorn, E. S.; Knoll, A. H.; Dembicki, H., Jr.; Meinschein, W. G.

    1977-01-01

    Results are presented for an isotopic analysis of the kerogen separated from 15 samples of the Gunflint Iron Formation, Ontario, and the conformably overlying Rove Formation. Reasons for which the Gunflint Iron Formation is suitable for such a study of a single Precambrian formation are identified. The general geology of the formation is outlined along with sample selection, description, and preparation. Major conclusions are that the basal Gunflint algal chert and shale facies are depleted in C-13 relative to the chert-carbonate and taconite facies, that differences in the delta C-13 values between Gunflint facies correlate with marked differences in their biological source materials as evidenced by their respective microbiotas, that the anthraxolites are anomalously depleted in C-13 relative to the kerogen of their encompassing cherts and shales, and that the effects of igneous intrusion and concomitant thermal alteration are shown by a marked loss of C-12 at the contact. The demonstration that not all kerogens are isotopically alike stresses the importance of facies data to the interpretation of C-13/C-12 ratios of ancient organic matter.

  12. Evalution of soil organic matter contents using spectral inhance indeces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faghih, Athar; Heidari, Ahmad

    2010-05-01

    Topography composed of elevation, slope, and aspect, that through the influence microclimate and chemical and physical properties of land affects the amount of organic carbon. Because of the height difference between hydrology and temperature regime in mountainous regions are collaborating and that difference has led to differences in the composition and distribution patterns of vegetation, the soil and organic matter decomposition rate is. Effect of climate change on soil organic carbon storage and its distribution is different in different regions, and the main factors creating differences, temperature and rainfall levels are on the order and the growth rate plant species and organic carbon mineralization rate impact.to evaluate these factors first ETM+ satellite images of 2002 North range lands, Karaj river basin prepared, then image processing and image classification as supervision and unsupervision was done. Then NDVI, TNDVI, VI, IR/R, Square IR/R indices obtained for study area and on the basis of these indices study area units was specified. Digital elevation model (DEM) using the region as a 1:50000 topographic map was produced before. Using Arc- GIS image and maps physiographic, location sampling based physiographic units changes and temperature change with the opposite slope directions sample have been made. By using GPS, 24 positions for surface samples and 4 pedons determined and sampled. Physical and chemical sample properties have based on size and by using dry sieve and OC, N and C/N ratio respectively specified in them. Then, using Exel software existing relationships between different parameters were studied. The results showed that, with increases. In the slope of the north and west due to the ability to maintain more moisture, have organic matter, more than the southern and eastern slopes. Correlation coefficients obtained included: correlation coefficient between organic matter and elevation 0.84, correlation coefficient between organic matter

  13. Molecular formulae of marine and terrigenous dissolved organic matter detected by electrospray ionization Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koch, Boris P.; Witt, Matthias; Engbrodt, Ralph; Dittmar, Thorsten; Kattner, Gerhard

    2005-07-01

    The chemical structure of refractory marine dissolved organic matter (DOM) is still largely unknown. Electrospray ionization Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (ESI FT-ICR-MS) was used to resolve the complex mixtures of DOM and provide valuable information on elemental compositions on a molecular scale. We characterized and compared DOM from two sharply contrasting aquatic environments, algal-derived DOM from the Weddell Sea (Antarctica) and terrigenous DOM from pore water of a tropical mangrove area in northern Brazil. Several thousand molecular formulas in the mass range of 300-600 Da were identified and reproduced in element ratio plots. On the basis of molecular elemental composition and double-bond equivalents (DBE) we calculated an average composition for marine DOM. O/C ratios in the marine samples were lower (0.36 ± 0.01) than in the mangrove pore-water sample (0.42). A small proportion of chemical formulas with higher molecular mass in the marine samples were characterized by very low O/C and H/C ratios probably reflecting amphiphilic properties. The average number of unsaturations in the marine samples was surprisingly high (DBE = 9.9; mangrove pore water: DBE = 9.4) most likely due to a significant contribution of carbonyl carbon. There was no significant difference in elemental composition between surface and deep-water DOM in the Weddell Sea. Although there were some molecules with unique marine elemental composition, there was a conspicuous degree of similarity between the terrigenous and algal-derived end members. Approximately one third of the molecular formulas were present in all marine as well as in the mangrove samples. We infer that different forms of microbial degradation ultimately lead to similar structural features that are intrinsically refractory, independent of the source of the organic matter and the environmental conditions where degradation took place.

  14. Pathways of organic matter through food webs of diverse habitats in the regulated Nakdong River estuary (Korea)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choy, Eun Jung; An, Soonmo; Kang, Chang-Keun

    2008-06-01

    The benthic macroinvertebrates of the Nakdong River estuary were sampled at three different habitats: two salt marsh ( Scirpus triqueter and Phragmites australis) beds and a bare intertidal flat. Fishes were sampled in the main channel. The trophic importance of marsh vascular plants, microphytobenthos, and riverine and channel particulate organic matter to macroinvertebrate and fish production was studied using stable carbon and nitrogen isotope tracers. There was a dramatic change in coverage of macrophytes (salt marshes and seagrass) after the construction of an estuarine barrage in 1987 in the Nakdong River estuary, with the S. triqueter bed increasing, the P. australis bed decreasing, and Zostera marina habitats being nearly lost. Although the invertebrate δ 13C were within a narrower range than those of the primary producers, the values varied considerably among consumers in these habitats. However, the isotope signatures of consumers showed similarities among different habitats. Cluster analysis based on their isotopic similarity suggested that the isotope variability among species was related more to functional feeding groups than to habitats or taxonomic groups. While δ 13C values of suspension feeders were close to that of the channel POM (mainly phytoplankton), other benthic feeders and predators had δ 13C similar to that of microphytobenthos. Isotopic mixing model estimates suggest that algal sources, including microphytobenthos and phytoplankton, play an important role in supporting the benthic food web. Despite the huge productivity of emergent salt marshes, the contribution of the marsh-derived organic matter to the estuarine food webs appears to be limited to some nutrition for some invertebrates just within marsh habitats, with little on the bare intertidal flats or in the channel fish communities. Isotope signatures of the channel fishes also confirm that algal sources are important in supporting fish nutrition. Our findings suggest that

  15. Loss of organic matter from riverine particles in deltas

    SciTech Connect

    Keil, R.G.; Quay, P.D.; Richey, J.E.

    1997-04-01

    In order to examine the transport and burial of terrigenous organic matter along the coastal zones of large river systems, we assessed organic matter dynamics in coupled river/delta systems using mineral surface area as a conservative tracer for discharged riverine particulate organic matter (POM). Most POM in the rivers studied (n = 6) is tightly associated with suspended mineral materiaL e.g., it is sorbed to mineral surfaces. Average organic loadings in the Amazon River (0.67 - 0.14 Mg C m{sup -2}), the river for which we have the largest dataset, are approximately twice that of sedimentary minerals from the Amazon Delta (-0.35 mg C m{sup -2}). Stable carbon isotope analysis indicate that approximately two-thirds of the total carbon on the deltaic particles is terrestrial. The combined surface-normalized, isotope-distinguished estimate is that >70% of the Amazon fluvial POM is not buried in the delta consistent with other independent evidence. Losses of terrestrial POM have also been quantified for the river/delta systems of Columbia in the USA, Fly in New Guinea. and Huange-He in China. If the losses of riverine POM observed in these river/delta systems are representative of rivers worldwide, then the surface-constrained analyses point toward a global loss of fluvial POM in delta regions of {approximately}0.1 x 10{sup 15} g C y{sup -1}. 28 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  16. Rare earth elements and neodymium isotopes in sedimentary organic matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freslon, Nicolas; Bayon, Germain; Toucanne, Samuel; Bermell, Sylvain; Bollinger, Claire; Chéron, Sandrine; Etoubleau, Joel; Germain, Yoan; Khripounoff, Alexis; Ponzevera, Emmanuel; Rouget, Marie-Laure

    2014-09-01

    We report rare earth element (REE) and neodymium (Nd) isotope data for the organic fraction of sediments collected from various depositional environments, i.e. rivers (n = 25), estuaries (n = 18), open-ocean settings (n = 15), and cold seeps (n = 12). Sedimentary organic matter (SOM) was extracted using a mixed hydrogen peroxide/nitric acid solution (20%-H2O2-0.02 M-HNO3), after removal of carbonate and oxy-hydroxide phases with dilute hydrochloric acid (0.25 M-HCl). A series of experimental tests indicate that extraction of sedimentary organic compounds using H2O2 may be complicated occasionally by partial dissolution of sulphide minerals and residual carbonates. However, this contamination is expected to be minor for REE because measured concentrations in H2O2 leachates are about two-orders of magnitude higher than in the above mentioned phases. The mean REE concentrations determined in the H2O2 leachates for samples from rivers, estuaries, coastal seas and open-ocean settings yield relatively similar levels, with ΣREE = 109 ± 86 ppm (mean ± s; n = 58). The organic fractions leached from cold seep sediments display even higher concentration levels (285 ± 150 ppm; mean ± s; n = 12). The H2O2 leachates for most sediments exhibit remarkably similar shale-normalized REE patterns, all characterized by a mid-REE enrichment compared to the other REE. This suggests that the distribution of REE in leached sedimentary organic phases is controlled primarily by biogeochemical processes, rather than by the composition of the source from which they derive (e.g. pore, river or sea-water). The Nd isotopic compositions for organic phases leached from river sediments are very similar to those for the corresponding detrital fractions. In contrast, the SOM extracted from marine sediments display εNd values that typically range between the εNd signatures for terrestrial organic matter (inferred from the analysis of the sedimentary detrital fractions) and marine organic matter

  17. Distribution and sources of organic matter in surface sediments of Bohai Sea near the Yellow River Estuary, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Dongyan; Li, Xin; Emeis, Kay-Christian; Wang, Yujue; Richard, Pierre

    2015-11-01

    Total organic carbon (TOC) and total nitrogen (TN) concentrations and C and N stable isotope compositions in 64 surface sediment samples from the mouth of the Yellow River (YR) and from the Bohai Sea (BS) outline the distribution and sources (terrestrial and marine) of sediment organic matter. Comparatively high TOC (0.5-0.9%) and TN (0.07-0.11%) concentrations in the Central BS correlate with fine-grained sediments that contain high concentrations of algal-derived organic carbon (AOC) and biogenic silica (BSi). Together, they indicate a dominant contribution of autochthonous organic matter from marine primary production. Low TOC (<0.2%) and TN (<0.03%) contents characterize surface sediments in the Bohai Strait and are typically associated with coarse-grained sediments of low AOC and BSi contents. δ13C values (-21 to -22‰) are characteristic of marine-derived organic carbon in the Central BS and the Bohai Strait, whereas a significant terrigenous contribution of 40-50% is indicated by lower values (<-23‰) near the YR mouth. The spatial pattern of rising δ13C from the YR mouth to offshore areas indicates rapid sedimentation of fluvial suspensions within the vicinity of the river mouth and in Laizhou Bay, so that only approximately 10-20% of YR-derived sediments are transported to and deposited in the Central BS and/or the Bohai Strait. At most sites, δ15N values are in the typical range of marine organic matter produced from assimilation of marine nitrate by phytoplankton (5-5.5‰), but some relatively high values (6-7.28‰) mark the southern area of the Laizhou Bay as a significant sink of anthropogenic nitrogen.

  18. Removal of organic matter from surface water during coagulation with sludge flotation and rapid filtration - a full-scale technological investigation.

    PubMed

    Pruss, Alina

    2015-01-01

    Coagulation with sludge flotation and rapid filtration was selected as a surface water treatment technology to be optimised with a full-scale investigation, which was carried out in Poland between August and October 2013. The river water treated was characterized by low alkalinity, high-temperature variability and a high organic matter content. In the course of technological studies, the processes of coagulation with sludge flotation and rapid filtration were analysed. The studies were performed in the most adverse conditions for the applied technology i.e. during the period of algal bloom and subsequent decomposition of dead plankton. Throughout the study, the river water contained mainly dissolved organic matter, with occasional increases in the concentration of the undissolved fraction during algal bloom. The undissolved total organic carbon (TOC) fraction was effectively removed through coagulation while small doses of ClO₂added prior to coagulation enhanced the process. The process of coagulation using high-coagulant doses at pH = 6.5 did not provide a reduction in the TOC value below the level of 4 mg C/L required for treated water. The effect was achieved by adding powdered activated carbon (PAC) before the filters. The coagulation products were characterised by low-hydraulic resistance which should be taken into account at the stage of water delivery to the filters, after flotation. PMID:25746659

  19. Sources and composition of organic matter for bacterial growth in a large European river floodplain system (Danube, Austria)

    PubMed Central

    Besemer, Katharina; Luef, Birgit; Preiner, Stefan; Eichberger, Birgit; Agis, Martin; Peduzzi, Peter

    2010-01-01

    Dissolved and particulate organic matter (DOM and POM) distribution, lignin phenol signatures, bulk elemental compositions, fluorescence indices and microbial plankton (algae, bacteria, viruses) in a temperate river floodplain system were monitored from January to November 2003. We aimed to elucidate the sources and compositions of allochthonous and autochthonous organic matter (OM) in the main channel and a representative backwater in relation to the hydrological regime. Additionally, bacterial secondary production was measured to evaluate the impact of organic carbon source on heterotrophic prokaryotic productivity. OM properties in the backwater tended to diverge from those in the main channel during phases without surface water connectivity; this was likely enhanced due to the exceptionally low river discharge in 2003. The terrestrial OM in this river floodplain system was largely derived from angiosperm leaves and grasses, as indicated by the lignin phenol composition. The lignin signatures exhibited significant seasonal changes, comparable to the seasonality of plankton-derived material. Microbially-derived material contributed significantly to POM and DOM, especially during periods of low discharge. High rates of bacterial secondary production (up to 135 μg C L−1 d−1) followed algal blooms and suggested that autochthonous OM significantly supported heterotrophic microbial productivity. PMID:21151814

  20. Problems related to water quality and algal control in Lopez Reservoir, San Luis Obispo County, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fuller, Richard H.; Averett, Robert C.; Hines, Walter G.

    1975-01-01

    A study to determine the present enrichment status of Liopez Reservoir in San Luis Obispo county, California, and to evaluate copper sulfate algal treatment found that stratification in the reservoir regulates nutrient release and that algal control has been ineffective. Nuisance algal blooms, particularly from March to June, have been a problem in the warm multipurpose reservoir since it was initially filled following intense storms in 1968-69. The cyanophyte Anabaena unispora has been dominant; cospecies are the diatoms Stephanodiscus astraea and Cyclotella operculata, and the chlorophytes Pediastrum deplex and Sphaerocystis schroeteri. During an A. unispora bloom in May 1972 the total lake surface cell count was nearly 100,000 cells/ml. Thermal stratification from late spring through autumn results in oxygen deficiency in the hypolimnion and metalimnion caused by bacterial oxidation of organic detritus. The anaerobic conditions favor chemical reduction of organic matter, which constitute 10-14% of the sediment. As algae die, sink to the bottom, and decompose, nutrients are released to the hypolimnion , and with the autumn overturn are spread to the epilimnion. Algal blooms not only hamper recreation, but through depletion of dissolved oxygen in the epilimnion may have caused periodic fishkills. Copper sulfate mixed with sodium citrate and applied at 1.10-1.73 lbs/acre has not significantly reduced algal growth; a method for determining correct dosage is presented. (Lynch-Wisconsin)

  1. Photochemical Degradation of Persistent Organic Pollutants: A Study of Ice Photochemistry Mediated by Dissolved Organic Matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bobby, R.; Pagano, L.; Grannas, A. M.

    2012-12-01

    It is well established that ice is a reactive medium in the environment and that active photochemistry occurs in frozen systems. Snow and ice contain a number of absorbing species including nitrate, peroxide and organic matter. Upon irradiation, they can generate a variety of reactive intermediates such as hydroxyl radical and singlet oxygen. It has been shown that dissolved organic matter is a ubiquitous component of snow and ice and plays an important role in overall light absorption properties of the sample. Additionally, the reactive intermediates produced can further react with contaminants present and alter their fate in the environment. Unfortunately, the role of dissolved organic matter in ice photochemistry has received little attention. Here we present results from laboratory-based studies aimed at elucidating the role of dissolved organic matter photochemistry on contaminant degradation in ice. Aqueous samples of our target pollutant, aldrin (20 μg/L), in liquid and frozen phases, were irradiated under Q-Panel 340 lamps to simulate the UV radiation profile of natural sunlight. Results indicated that frozen samples degraded more quickly than liquid samples and that the addition of dissolved organic matter increases the aldrin degradation rate significantly. Both terrestrial (Suwannee River, U.S.) and microbial sources (Pony Lake, Antarctica) of DOM were able to sensitize aldrin loss in ice. Scavengers of singlet oxygen, such as furfuryl alcohol and β-carotene, were also added to DOM solutions. Based on the type of organic matter present, the scavengers had different effects on the photochemical degradation of aldrin. Our results indicate that natural organic matter present in ice is an important component of ice photochemical processes.

  2. Phytopigments and fatty acids as molecular markers for the quality of near-bottom particulate organic matter in the North Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boon, A. R.; Duineveld, G. C. A.

    1996-06-01

    In February, May and August 1994, four stations in the North Sea (viz. at the Broad Fourteens, Frisian Front, German Bight and Skagerrak) were visited to sample near-bottom particulate organic matter. Samples, taken by means of a pump, a sediment trap and a sediment recorder, were analysed on organic carbon, total nitrogen, phytopigments and fatty acids. These molecular markers were used to describe the nature and quality of the organic particles in the near-bottom water. Principal component analysis showed chlorophyll a, phaeopigments and fatty acids to be useful markers for the quality of organic matter and yield complementary information. The quality of the near-bottom particles appeared to be related to the local hydrography and depositional circumstances. The Broad Fourteens station, a non-depositional sandy site along the Dutch coast, showed organic particles to be relatively fresh, little influenced by resuspended sedimentary material. Near-bottom organic particles on this site contained relatively high shares of chlorophyll a and polyunsaturated fatty acids, characteristic of algal matter. On the other hand the particulate organic material on the two depositional locations, the Frisian Front and the German Bight stations, was influenced by resuspension of sedimentary organic particles poor in pigments and fatty acids. Amounts of carbon trapped in the near-bottom environment at the Skagerrak station were lower than expected from the literature.

  3. Oxytetracycline sorption to organic matter by metal-bridging.

    PubMed

    MacKay, Allison A; Canterbury, Brian

    2005-01-01

    The sorption of oxytetracycline to metal-loaded ion exchange resin and to natural organic matter by the formation of ternary complexes between polyvalent metal cations and sorbent- and sorbate ligand groups was investigated. Oxytetracycline (OTC) sorption to Ca- and Cu-loaded Chelex-100 resin increased with increasing metal/sorbate ratio at pH 7.6 (OTC speciation: 55% zwitterion, 45% anion). Greater sorption to Cu- than Ca-loaded resin was observed, consistent with the greater stability constants of Cu with both the resin sites and with OTC. Oxytetracycline sorption to organic matter was measured at pH 5.5 (OTC speciation: 1% cation, 98% zwitterion, 1% anion). No detectable sorption was measured for cellulose or lignin sorbents that contain few metal-complexing ligand groups. Sorption to Aldrich humic acid increased from "clean" < "dirty" (no cation exchange pretreatment) < Al-amended < Fe(III)-amended clean humic acid with K(d) values of 5500, 32000, 48000, and 250000 L kg(-1) C, respectively. Calcium amendments of clean humic acid suggested that a portion of the sorbed OTC was interacting by cation exchange. Oxytetracycline sorption coefficients for all humic acid sorbents were well-correlated with the total sorbed Al-plus-Fe(III) concentrations (r(2) = 0.87, log-log plot), suggesting that sorption by ternary complex formation with humic acid is important. Results of this research indicate that organic matter may be an important sorbent phase in soils and sediments for pharmaceutical compounds that can complex metals by the formation of ternary complexes between organic matter ligand groups and pharmaceutical ligand groups. PMID:16221815

  4. Organic matter and benthic metabolism in Lake Illawarra, Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qu, Wenchuan; Morrison, R. J.; West, R. J.; Su, Chenwei

    2006-10-01

    Carbon and nitrogen contents (total organic carbon and total nitrogen), chlorophyll-a concentrations in surface sediments and benthic sediment-water fluxes of oxygen and carbon dioxide were investigated at five stations in Lake Illawarra (Australia) to compare the sources/quality of sedimentary organic matter and the characteristics of diagenesis and benthic biogeochemical processes for different primary producers (e.g., seagrass, microphytobenthos and macroalgae) and/or sediment types (sand or mud). The unvegetated sediments showed lower C/N ratios (with the lowest value occurring in the deep organic-rich muddy site) than the seagrass ( Ruppia or Zostera) beds, which may be due to the contribution of microalgae (mainly diatoms) to the sedimentary organic matter pool. This was also supported by the detection of microalgal pigments in the bare sediments. On an annual basis, seagrass beds exhibited the highest gross primary productivity (O 2 or TCO 2 fluxes), while the lowest rates occurred in the deep central basin of the Lake. Seasonally, there was a general trend of highest production in spring or summer, and lowest production in winter or autumn. Organic carbon oxidation scenarios, evaluated by either calcium carbonate dissolution or sulfate reduction models, indicated that both models can explain organic matter mineralization. Trophic status was evaluated using different indices including benthic trophic state index, net O 2 fluxes and P/ R ratios for Lake Illawarra, which led to similar trophic classifications in general, and also the same trends in spatial and seasonal variations. Overall, these data indicated that the Lake was heterotrophic on an annual basis, as the total community carbon respiration exceeded production, and this supported an earlier LOICZ mass balance/stoichiometric modelling conclusion.

  5. Temperature sensitivity of organic-matter decay in tidal marshes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kirwan, Matthew L.; Guntenspergen, Glenn R.; Langley, J.A.

    2014-01-01

    Approximately half of marine carbon sequestration takes place in coastal wetlands, including tidal marshes, where organic matter contributes to soil elevation and ecosystem persistence in the face of sea-level rise. The long-term viability of marshes and their carbon pools depends, in part, on how the balance between productivity and decay responds to climate change. Here, we report the sensitivity of labile soil organic-matter decay in tidal marshes to seasonal and latitudinal variations in temperature measured over a 3-year period. We find a moderate increase in decay rate at warmer temperatures (3-6% per °C, Q10 = 1.3-1.5). Despite the profound differences between microbial metabolism in wetlands and uplands, our results indicate a strong conservation of temperature sensitivity. Moreover, simple comparisons with organic-matter production suggest that elevated atmospheric CO2 and warmer temperatures will accelerate carbon accumulation in marsh soils, and potentially enhance their ability to survive sea-level rise.

  6. Flocculation of Clay and Organic Matter in Turbid Salt Water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reed, A. H.; Yin, H.; Zhang, G.; Tan, X.; Furukawa, Y.

    2010-12-01

    Sediment transport and deposition in estuaries and tidal flats are often dominated by the aggregation of clay and organic matter into composite particles or “flocs”. The stability of the flocs is important in determining the distance over which the sediment is transported and the areas to which the sediment is deposited. During floc transport from riverine to oceanic environments, stability is determined by suspended sediment concentrations, sediment types, organic matter type, fluid flow rates and small scale turbulence. In a series of laboratory experiments, interactions between clay sediments and organic matter were evaluated within a flow column that was filled with saline water. The focus of this investigation was on changes in floc size, density and strength as flow velocities and turbulent stresses were altered. Significant changes in the floc shape, consolidation, density and behavior were determined for flow rates and Reynolds numbers that are common to riverine environments. The variability in floc composition was also shown to influence bulk sediment properties: heat transport, acoustic propagation and shear strength, while sediments were entrained in high-density suspensions and low-density deposits.

  7. Methylmercury production in estuarine sediments: role of organic matter

    PubMed Central

    Schartup, Amina T.; Mason, Robert P.; Balcom, Prentiss H.; Hollweg, Terill A.; Chen, Celia Y.

    2013-01-01

    Methylmercury (MeHg) affects wildlife and human health mainly through marine fish consumption. In marine systems, MeHg is formed from inorganic mercury (HgII) species primarily in sediments then accumulates and biomagnifies in the food web. Most of the fish consumed in the US are from estuarine and marine systems highlighting the importance of understanding MeHg formation in these productive regions. Sediment organic matter has been shown to limit mercury methylation in estuarine ecosystems, as a result it is often described as the primary control over MeHg production. In this paper, we explore the role of organic matter by looking at the effects of its changing sediment concentrations on the methylation rates across multiple estuaries. We measured sedimentary MeHg production at eleven estuarine sites that were selected for their contrasting biogeochemical characteristics, mercury (Hg) content, and location in the Northeastern US (ME, NH, CT, NY, and NJ). Sedimentary total Hg concentrations ranged across five orders of magnitude, increasing in concentration from the pristine, sandy sediments of Wells (ME), to industrially contaminated areas like Portsmouth (NH) and Hackensack (NJ). We find that methylation rates are the highest at locations with high Hg content (relative to carbon), and that organic matter does not hinder mercury methylation in estuaries. PMID:23194318

  8. Organic matter in meteorites and comets - Possible origins

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anders, Edward

    1991-01-01

    At least six extraterrestrial environments may have contributed organic compounds to meteorites and comets: solar nebula, giant-planet subnebulae, asteroid interiors containing liquid water, carbon star atmospheres, and diffuse or dark interstellar clouds. The record in meteorites is partly obscured by pervasive reheating that transformed much of the organic matter to kerogen; nonetheless, it seems that all six formation sites contributed. For comets, the large abundance of HCHO, HCN, and unsaturated hydrocarbons suggests an interstellar component of 50 percent or more, but the contributions of various interstellar processes, and of a solar-nebula component, are hard to quantify. A research program is outlined that may help reduce these uncertainties.

  9. Comments on D/H ratios in chondritic organic matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, J. W.; Rigby, D.

    1981-06-01

    D/H ratios in chondritic organic matter are investigated. Demineralized organic residues obtained from previous experiments were dried in a quartz reaction vessel under vacuum for 60 minutes at 250-300 C and then combusted in oxygen for 20 minutes at 850 C. The apparatus is described and the results of the experiments such as D/H ratios in water and measurements on total carbon dioxide are given. Atomic H/C ratios calculated directly from the quantities of carbon dioxide and water recovered, are reported according to Standard Mean Ocean Water and Pee Dee Belemnite, using the customary notation.

  10. Carbon isotopic studies of organic matter in Precambrian rocks.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oehler, D. Z.; Schopf, J. W.; Kvenvolden, K. A.

    1972-01-01

    A survey has been undertaken of the carbon composition of the total organic fraction of a suite of Precambrian sediments to detect isotopic trends possibly correlative with early evolutionary events. Early Precambrian cherts of the Fig Tree and upper and middle Onverwacht groups of South Africa were examined for this purpose. Reduced carbon in these cherts was found to be isotopically similar to photosynthetically produced organic matter of younger geological age. Reduced carbon in lower Onverwacht cherts was found to be anomalously heavy; it is suggested that this discontinuity may reflect a major event in biological evolution.

  11. Characterization of oil source strata organic matter of Jurassic age and its contribution to the formation of oil and gas deposits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pronin, Nikita; Nosova, Fidania; Plotnikova, Irina

    2013-04-01

    Within the frames of this work we carried out comprehensive geochemical study of high-carbon rocks samples taken from the three segments of the Jurassic system - from the lower (Kotuhtinskaya suite), from the medium (Tyumenskaya suite) and from the upper (Vasyuganskaya, Georgievskaya and the Bazhenovskaya suites), all within the north-eastern part of the Surgut oil and gas region. Altogether we investigated 27 samples. The complex study of the organic matter (OM) of these strata included the following: chloroform extraction of bitumen, the determination of the group and element composition, gas chromatography (GC) and gas chromatomass-spectrometry (GC/MS). These methods allow giving high quality assessments of the potential oil and gas source strata and thus identifying the possible oil and gas generating strata among them, ie, those strata that could be involved in the formation of oil and gas within the area. As a result of this work we identified various biomarkers that allow characterizing each oil and gas source strata under the study in the open-cast of the Jurassic system: 1. Kotuhtinskaya Suite. The build-up of this suite took place in the coastal marine weakly reducing conditions. In their composition these deposits contain some highly transformed humus organic matter (gradation of catagenesis MK3). 2. Tyumenskaya Suite. Accumulation of OM in these deposits occured mainly in the coastal marine environment with the influx of a large number of terrestrial vegetation in the basin of deposition. As for the type of agents - it is a humus or sapropel-humus OM with a rich content of continental organics. Source type of this OM is mixed - bacterial and algal. OM of the rocks of Tyumenskaya suite is situated in the area of high maturity (stage of catagenesis at MK3 level). 3. Vasyuganskaya Suite. In this case the accumulation of OM occurred mainly in the laguna (lake-delta) weak-reduction close to oxidative conditions with the influx of bacterial matter and the

  12. Flood Pulse Influence on Export of Terrestrial Organic Matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dalzell, B. J.; Harbor, J. M.; Filley, T. R.

    2004-12-01

    While much attention has been placed on characterizing Terrestrial Organic Matter (TOM) export from large rivers, recent research has shown that in-stream processing of TOM in smaller streams and rivers over shorter time scales can be an important upland component of regional carbon budgets not detected at the outlets of large rivers. With predictions of climate change accompanied by more intense rainfall patterns in some areas, it is important to understand the linkage between flood events and watershed export of TOM. To this end, we have collected water samples from Big Pine Creek watershed, an 850km2 watershed located in west central Indiana. Organic carbon in dissolved, colloidal, and particulate size fractions has been described with molecular and stable carbon isotope techniques to track source, quantity, and compositional changes of TOM over changing flow conditions. Results from these samples show that flood conditions export dramatically more TOM; not only from increases in discharge, but also from increases in concentration of terrestrial organic carbon to all size fractions. While molecular biomarkers show increases in terrestrial organic matter, bulk stable carbon isotope values show that the sources of TOM do not remain constant. Rather, relative contributions from C4 plants (corn in this study area) increase during flood conditions by up to 40 percent. Finally, increases in rainfall intensity are likely to disproportionately increase organic carbon export from terrestrial systems, especially from smaller watersheds where short duration and high intensity flow events dominate annual discharge.

  13. Why dissolved organic matter (DOM) enhances photodegradation of methylmercury

    SciTech Connect

    Qian, Yun; Yin, Xiangping Lisa; Brooks, Scott C; Liang, Liyuan; Gu, Baohua

    2014-01-01

    Methylmercury (MeHg) is known to degrade photochemically, but it remains unclear what roles naturally dissolved organic matter (DOM) and complexing organic ligands play in MeHg photodegradation. Here we investigate the rates and mechanisms of MeHg photodegradation using DOM samples with varying oxidation states and origins as well as organic ligands with known molecular structures. All DOM and organic ligands increased MeHg photodegradation under solar irradiation, but the first-order rate constants varied depending on the oxidation state of DOM and the type and concentration of the ligands. Compounds containing both thiols and aromatics (e.g., thiosalicylate and reduced DOM) increased MeHg degradation rates far greater than those containing only aromatic or thiol functional groups (e.g., salicylate or glutathione). Our results suggest that, among other factors, the synergistic effects of thiolate and aromatic moieties in DOM greatly enhance MeHg photodegradation.

  14. SOIL NITROGEN TRANSFORMATIONS AND ROLE OF LIGHT FRACTION ORGANIC MATTER IN FOREST SOILS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Depletion of soil organic matter through cultivation may alter substrate availability for microbes, altering the dynamic balance between nitrogen (N) immobilization and mineralization. Soil light fraction (LF) organic matter is an active pool that decreases upon cultivation, and...

  15. Soil Quality of Restinga Forest: Organic Matter and Aluminum Saturation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodrigues Almeida Filho, Jasse; Casagrande, José Carlos; Martins Bonilha, Rodolfo; Soares, Marcio Roberto; Silva, Luiz Gabriel; Colato, Alexandre

    2013-04-01

    The restinga vegetation (sand coastal plain vegetation) consists of a mosaic of plant communities, which are defined by the characteristics of the substrates, resulting from the type and age of the depositional processes. This mosaic complex of vegetation types comprises restinga forest in advanced (high restinga) and medium regeneration stages (low restinga), each with particular differentiating vegetation characteristics. Of all ecosystems of the Atlantic Forest, restinga is the most fragile and susceptible to anthropic disturbances. The purpose of this study was evaluating the organic matter and aluminum saturation effects on soil quality index (SQI). Two locations were studied: State Park of the Serra do Mar, Picinguaba, in the city of Ubatuba (23°20' e 23°22' S / 44°48' e 44°52' W), and State Park of Cardoso Island in the city of Cananéia (25°03'05" e 25°18'18" S / 47°53'48" e 48° 05'42" W). The soil samples were collect at a depth of 0-10 cm, where concentrate 70% of vegetation root system. Was studied an additive model to evaluate soil quality index. The shallow root system development occurs due to low calcium levels, whose disability limits their development, but also can reflect on delay, restriction or even in the failure of the development vegetation. The organic matter is kept in the soil restinga ecosystem by high acidity, which reduces the decomposition of soil organic matter, which is very poor in nutrients. The base saturation, less than 10, was low due to low amounts of Na, K, Ca and Mg, indicating low nutritional reserve into the soil, due to very high rainfall and sandy texture, resulting in high saturation values for aluminum. Considering the critical threshold to 3% organic matter and for aluminum saturation to 40%, the IQS ranged from 0.95 to 0.1 as increased aluminum saturation and decreased the soil organic matter, indicating the main limitation to the growth of plants in this type of soil, when deforested.

  16. Influence of vegetation changes on soil organic matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nørnberg, Per

    In a heath region at Hjelm Hede in Denmark oak trees are invading a Calluna/Empetrum vegetation. In less than a century the oak invasion has caused considerable changes in the soil: what was once an O-horizon under Calluna has changed to an A-horizon under oak; the Calluna E-horizon has lost its distinct appearance; and the sharp boundary between E and Bh has been obliterated. The directly visible changes are associated with a rise in pH of about one unit in the top horizon under the oaks, an increasing content of organic matter in the E-horizon, a decreasing content of organic matter in the Bh-horizon, and a fall in the C/N ratio. In order to estimate the total microbiological activity, cotton strips were placed in the upper soil horizons. The loss in tensile strength during two summer months was 10-15% under Calluna, but more than 50% under oaks. Initial attempts to find differences in the type and content of organic matter showed that the most abundant low-molecular organic acids extracted from the Of-horizons were 3,4-dihydroxybenzoic acid (protocatechuic acid), 4-hydroxybenzoic acid and 4-hydroxy-3-methoxybenzoic acid (vanillic acid). The extraction was done in 0.1 M sodium pyrophosphate at pH 10.2. The organic compounds were determined by HPLC. The 3,4-dihydroxybenzoic acid was relatively the most important compound under the Calluna heath, whereas 4-hydroxy-3-methoxybenzoic acid was most important under oaks. Extractions were performed on water samples from field lysimeter experiments to determine whether the substituted benzoic acids in the soil water arose under transport. These extractions exposed a ppm concentration of 2,4-dichlorobenzoic acid, a compound believed to originate from microbial decomposition of lysimeter material.

  17. Soil organic matter regulates molybdenum storage and mobility in forests

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Marks, Jade A; Perakis, Steven; King, Elizabeth K; Pett-Ridge, Julie

    2015-01-01

    The trace element molybdenum (Mo) is essential to a suite of nitrogen (N) cycling processes in ecosystems, but there is limited information on its distribution within soils and relationship to plant and bedrock pools. We examined soil, bedrock, and plant Mo variation across 24 forests spanning wide soil pH gradients on both basaltic and sedimentary lithologies in the Oregon Coast Range. We found that the oxidizable organic fraction of surface mineral soil accounted for an average of 33 %of bulk soil Mo across all sites, followed by 1.4 % associated with reducible Fe, Al, and Mn-oxides, and 1.4 % in exchangeable ion form. Exchangeable Mo was greatest at low pH, and its positive correlation with soil carbon (C) suggests organic matter as the source of readily exchangeable Mo. Molybdenum accumulation integrated over soil profiles to 1 m depth (τMoNb) increased with soil C, indicating that soil organic matter regulates long-term Mo retention and loss from soil. Foliar Mo concentrations displayed no relationship with bulk soil Mo, and were not correlated with organic horizon Mo or soil extractable Mo, suggesting active plant regulation of Mo uptake and/or poor fidelity of extractable pools to bioavailability. We estimate from precipitation sampling that atmospheric deposition supplies, on average, over 10 times more Mo annually than does litterfall to soil. In contrast, bedrock lithology had negligible effects on foliar and soil Mo concentrations and on Mo distribution among soil fractions. We conclude that atmospheric inputs may be a significant source of Mo to forest ecosystems, and that strong Mo retention by soil organic matter limits ecosystem Mo loss via dissolution and leaching pathways.

  18. Isotopic constraints on the origin of meteoritic organic matter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kerridge, J. F.

    1991-01-01

    Salient features of the isotopic distribution of H, C and N in the organic material found in carbonaceous meteorites are noted. Most organic fractions are strongly enriched in D with respect to the D/H ratio characteristic of H2 in the protosolar system; substantial variations in C-13/C-12 ratio are found among different molecular species, with oxidised species tending to be C-13 enriched relative to reduced species; some homologous series reveal systematic decrease in C-13/C-12 with increasing C number; considerable variation in N-15/N-14 ratio is observed within organic matter, though no systematic pattern to its distribution has yet emerged; no interelement correlations have been observed between isotope enrichments for the different biogenic elements. The isotopic complexity echoes the molecular diversity observed in meteoritic organic matter and suggests that the organic matter was formed by multiple processes and/or from multiple sources. However, existence of a few systematic patterns points towards survival of isotopic signatures characteristic of one or more specific processes. The widespread D enrichment implies either survival of many species of interstellar molecule or synthesis from a reservoir containing a significant interstellar component. Several of the questions raised above can be addressed by more detailed determination of the distribution of the H, C and N isotopes among different well-characterized molecular fractions. Thus, the present study is aimed at discovering whether the different amino acids have comparable D enrichments, which would imply local synthesis from a D-enriched reservoir, or very viable D enrichments, which would imply survival of some interstellar amino acids. The same approach is also being applied to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Because the analytical technique employed (secondary ion mass spectrometry) can acquire data for all three isotopic systems from each molecular fraction, any presently obscured interelement

  19. The composition and degradability of upland dissolved organic matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moody, Catherine; Worrall, Fred; Clay, Gareth

    2016-04-01

    In order to assess controls on the degradability of DOM in stream water, samples of dissolved organic matter (DOM) and particulate organic matter (POM) were collected every month for a period of 24 months from an upland, peat-covered catchment in northern England. Each month the degradability of the DOM was assessed by exposing river water to light for up to 24 hours, and the change in the dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentration in the water was measured. To provide context for the analysis of DOM and its degradability, samples of peat, vegetation, and litter were also taken from the same catchment and analysed. The organic matter samples were analysed by several methods including: elemental analysis (CHN and O), bomb calorimetry, thermogravimetric analysis, pyrolysis GC/MS, ICP-OES, stable isotope analysis (13C and 15N) and 13C solid state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). The water samples were analysed for pH, conductivity, absorbance at 400nm, anions, cations, particulate organic carbon (POC) and DOC concentrations. River flow conditions and meteorology were also recorded at the site and included in the analysis of the composition and degradability of DOM. The results of multiple regression models showed that the rates of DOC degradation were affected by the N-alkyl, O-alkyl, aldehyde and aromatic relative intensities, gross heat, OR and C:N. Of these, the N-alkyl relative intensity had the greatest influence, and this in turn was found to be dependent on the rainfall and soil temperature in the week before sampling.

  20. Using Riverine Natural Organic Matter to Test the Hypothesis that Soil Organic Matter is Modified by Contact with Sodium Hydroxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perdue, E. Michael; Driver, Shamus; Hertkorn, Norbert; Harir, Mourad; Schmitt-Kopplin, Philippe

    2016-04-01

    It has been postulated by some scientists that soil humic acids and fulvic acids are an artifact of alkaline extractions of soil. Riverine natural organic matter (NOM) is obtained in part by dissolution and transport of organic matter from soils by meteoric waters at acidic to circumneutral pH. The NOM may be fractionated into humic acid (HA), fulvic acid (FA), and hydrophilic NOM by adsorption of HA and FA onto XAD-8 resin at pH < 2, followed by their desorption with NaOH at pH 13. Alternatively, riverine NOM may be concentrated using reverse osmosis (RO) and desalted by cation exchange. Several properties of Suwannee River NOM prior to its isolation, after concentration by RO, and after the XAD-8 process are compared to detect modifications that might have resulted from exposure of the sample to low and high pH.

  1. Is organic matter found in glaciers similar to soil organic matter? A detailed molecular-level investigation of organic matter found in cryoconite holes on the Athabasca Glacier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simpson, M. J.; Xu, Y.; Eyles, N.; Simpson, A. J.; Baer, A.

    2009-04-01

    Cryoconite is a dark-coloured, dust-like material found on the surfaces of glaciers. Cryoconite has received much interest recently because cryoconite holes, which are produced by accelerated ice melt, act as habitats for microbes on glacier surfaces and accelerate ice melt. To the best of our knowledge, cyroconite organic matter (COM) has not yet been chemically characterized at the molecular level. In this study, organic matter biomarkers and a host of Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) techniques were used to characterize COM from the Athabasca Glacier in the Canadian Rocky Mountains. The research questions that were targeted by this study include: 1) what are the sources of COM on the Athabasca Glacier; 2) are there any biomarker and/or NMR evidence for microbial community activity in the cryoconite holes; and 3) is the COM structurally similar to terrestrial OM? Solvent extracts contained large quantities of fatty acids, n-alkanols, n-alkanes, wax esters and sterols. A large contribution of C23, C25 and C27 relative to C29 and C31 n-alkanes suggests that allochthonous COM is mainly from lower order plants (mosses, lichens). This is confirmed by the absence of lignin phenols (after copper (II) oxidation) in extracts and NMR analyses of COM. Solution-state 1H NMR reveals prominent signals from microbial components, while solid-state 13C Cross Polarization Magic Angle Spinning NMR analysis shows an atypically high alkyl/O-alkyl ratio, suggesting that COM is unique compared to organic matter found in nearby soils. The NMR results suggest that COM is dominated by microbial-derived compounds which were confirmed by phospholipid fatty acid analysis, which showed a significant microbial contribution, primarily from bacteria and minor microeukaryotes. Both biomarker and NMR data suggest that COM likely supports active microbial communities on the Athabasca Glacier and that COM composition is uniquely different than that found in terrestrial environments. Our data

  2. An analysis of the chemical character of dissolved organic matter and soluble soil organic matter within the same catchment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gabor, R. S.; Russell, N.; McKnight, D. M.

    2010-12-01

    Trends of increasing dissolved organic matter (DOM) concentrations have been reported in many parts of the world. To better understand how organic matter is transported throughout and used within watersheds, it is important to measure not only how much there is, but to also its chemical character. In this study, spectroscopic techniques were used to analyze the DOM from Boulder Creek in Colorado, as well as the soluble organic matter in soil from a smaller catchment within the watershed. Samples from the creek were taken at regular intervals for several years and the DOM quantity and quality was analyzed to determine both seasonal impacts and the affect of Barker Dam halfway up the watershed. Observed trends followed similar patterns to that seen in other alpine ecosystems, with a peak in microbial DOM just before snowmelt, followed by increasing terrestrial input. However, the storage in the reservoir made the signal less clear below the dam. Soil organic matter samples were taken with an aim to observing both spatial and temporal patterns. A large number of both surface and deep samples were taken in one time snapshot, and surface samples were taken from the same plots over several months beginning during snowmelt and reaching the end of the growing season. Surface samples displayed a stronger correlation with DOM in the stream than samples taken at depth, indicating much of the DOM comes from overland flow. However, strong microbial signals from samples at depth indicated the possibility that microbes may be using OM as an electron acceptor during bedrock weathering processes. Little variation was shown temporally in surface samples, although there was some seen in the riparian zone during snowmelt.

  3. Organic matter oxidation and aragonite diagenesis in a coral reef

    SciTech Connect

    Tribble, G.W. Univ. of Hawaii, Honolulu )

    1993-05-01

    A combination of field and theoretical work is used to study controls on the saturation state of aragonite inside a coral-reef framework. A closed-system ion-speciation model is used to evaluate the effect of organic-matter oxidation on the saturation state of aragonite. The aragonite saturation state initially drops below 1 but becomes oversaturated during sulfate reduction. The C:N ratio of the organic matter affects the degree of oversaturation with N-poor organic material resulting in a system more corrosive to aragonite. Precipitation of sulfide as FeS strongly affects the aragonite saturation state, and systems with much FeS formation will have a stronger tendency to become oversaturated with respect to aragonite. Both precipitation and dissolution of aragonite are predicted at different stages of the organic reaction pathway if the model system is maintained at aragonite saturation. Field data from a coral-reef framework indicate that the system maintains itself at aragonite saturation, and model-predicted changes in dissolved calcium follow those observed in the interstitial waters of the reef. Aragonite probably acts as a solid-phase buffer in regulating the pH of interstitial waters. Because interstitial water in the reef has a short residence time, the observed equilibration suggests rapid kinetics.

  4. Photochemical flocculation of terrestrial dissolved organic matter and iron

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Helms, John R.; Mao, Jingdong; Schmidt-Rohr, Klaus; Abdulla, Hussain; Mopper, Kenneth

    2013-11-01

    Dissolved organic matter (DOM) rich water samples (Great Dismal Swamp, Virginia) were 0.1-μm filtered and UV-irradiated in a solar simulator for 30 days. During the irradiation, pH increased, particulate organic matter (POM) and particulate iron formed. After 30 days, 7% of the dissolved organic carbon (DOC) was converted to POC while 75% was remineralized. Approximately 87% of the iron was removed from the dissolved phase after 30 days, but iron did not flocculate until a major fraction of DOM was removed by photochemical degradation and flocculation (>10 days); thus, during the initial 10 days, there were sufficient organic ligands present or the pH was low enough to keep iron in solution. Nuclear magnetic resonance and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopies indicated that photochemically flocculated POM was more aliphatic than the residual non-flocculated DOM. Photochemically flocculated POM was also enriched in amide functionality, while carbohydrate-like material was resistant to both photochemical degradation and flocculation. Abiotic photochemical flocculation likely removes a significant fraction of terrestrial DOM from the upper water column between headwaters and the ocean, but has previously been ignored. Preliminary evidence suggests that this process may significantly impact the transport of DOM and POM in ocean margin environments including estuaries.

  5. Mechanisms of browning development in aggregates of marine organic matter formed under anoxic conditions: A study by mid-infrared and near-infrared spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mecozzi, Mauro; Acquistucci, Rita; Nisini, Laura; Conti, Marcelo Enrique

    2014-03-01

    In this paper we analyze some chemical aspects concerning the browning development associated to the aggregation of marine organic matter (MOM) occurring in anoxic conditions. Organic matter samples obtained by the degradation of different algal samples were daily taken to follow the evolution of the aggregation process and the associated browning process. These samples were examined by Fourier transform mid infrared (FTIR) and Fourier transform near infrared (FTNIR) spectroscopy and the colour changes occurring during the above mentioned aggregation process were measured by means of Colour Indices (CIs). Spectral Cross Correlation Analysis (SCCA) was applied to correlate changes in CI values to the structural changes of MOM observed by FTIR and FTNIR spectra which were also submitted to Two-Dimensional Hetero Correlation Analysis (2HDCORR). SCCA results showed that all biomolecules present in MOM aggregates such as carbohydrates, proteins and lipids are involved in the browning development. In particular, SCCA results of algal mixtures suggest that the observed yellow-brown colour can be linked to the development of non enzymatic (i.e. Maillard) browning reactions. SCCA results for MOM furthermore suggest that aggregates coming from brown algae also showed evidence of browning related to enzymatic reactions. In the end 2HDCORR results indicate that hydrogen bond interactions among different molecules of MOM can play a significant role in the browning development.

  6. Formation of soil organic matter via biochemical and physical pathways of litter mass loss

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cotrufo, M. Francesca; Soong, Jennifer L.; Horton, Andrew J.; Campbell, Eleanor E.; Haddix, Michelle L.; Wall, Diana H.; Parton, William J.

    2015-10-01

    Soil organic matter is the largest terrestrial carbon pool. The pool size depends on the balance between formation of soil organic matter from decomposition of plant litter and its mineralization to inorganic carbon. Knowledge of soil organic matter formation remains limited and current C numerical models assume that stable soil organic matter is formed primarily from recalcitrant plant litter. However, labile components of plant litter could also form mineral-stabilized soil organic matter. Here we followed the decomposition of isotopically labelled above-ground litter and its incorporation into soil organic matter over three years in a grassland in Kansas, USA, and used laboratory incubations to determine the decay rates and pool structure of litter-derived organic matter. Early in decomposition, soil organic matter formed when non-structural compounds were lost from litter. Soil organic matter also formed at the end of decomposition, when both non-structural and structural compounds were lost at similar rates. We conclude that two pathways yield soil organic matter efficiently. A dissolved organic matter-microbial path occurs early in decomposition when litter loses mostly non-structural compounds, which are incorporated into microbial biomass at high rates, resulting in efficient soil organic matter formation. An equally efficient physical-transfer path occurs when litter fragments move into soil.

  7. Remote monitoring of organic matter in the ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niccolai, Filippo; Bazzani, Marco; Cecchi, Giovanna; Innamorati, Mario; Massi, Luca; Nuccio, Caterina; Santoleri, Rosalia

    1999-12-01

    The monitoring of organic matter, suspended or dissolved in the water column, is relevant for the study of the aquatic environment. Actually, the Dissolved Organic Matter (DOM) represents a major reservoir of reactive carbon in the global carbon cycle, thus influencing significantly the marine ecosystem. Due to the strong absorption in the near ultraviolet, DOM reduces considerably the extinction path of solar light in the water column, affecting phytoplankton population and its vertical distribution. The measurement of the DOM absorption coefficient has to be regarded as a good parameter for the monitoring of water quality. This paper deals with the measurements carried out during the oceanographic campaign 'Marine Fronts,' which took place in the Western Mediterranean Sea and Atlantic Ocean from July 14 to August 5, 1998. In this measurement campaign, a high spectral resolution fluorescence lidar (FLIDAR) was installed on the rear-deck of the O/V 'Urania,' acquiring remote fluorescence spectra both in ship motion and in stations. A particular attention was devoted to the monitoring of DOM distribution in the different water masses in marine frontal areas. The lidar data were compared and integrated with SST satellite data and biological samplings. The results show that FLIDAR data agree with satellite imagery, particularly for marine front detection. The comparison with water sample data gave indications for retrieving the DOM absorption coefficient directly from fluorescence remote spectra. In addition, a protein like fluorescence band was detected in the measurements carried out on total suspended matter filtered from the water samplings.

  8. Competitive Sorption and Desorption of Chlorinated Organic Solvents (DNAPLs) in Engineered Natural Organic Matter

    SciTech Connect

    Tang, Jixin; Weber, Walter J., Jr.

    2004-03-31

    The effects of artificially accelerated geochemical condensation and maturation of natural organic matter on the sorption and desorption of trichloroethylene (TCE) and tetrachloroethylene (PCE) were studied. The sorption and desorption of TCE in the presence and absence of the competing PCE and 1,2-dichlorobenzene (DCB) were also examined. A sphagnum peat comprising geologically young organic matter was artificially ''aged'' using superheated water, thus increasing the aromaticity and the degree of condensation of its associated organic matter. The sorption of all solutes tested were increased remarkably and their respective desorptions reduced, by the aged peat. The sorption capacities and isotherm nonlinearities of the peat for both TCE and PCE were found to increase as treatment temperature increased. In the competitive sorption studies, both PCE and DCB were found to depress TCE sorption, with PCE having greater effects than DCB, presumably because the molecular structure o f the former is more similar to that of TCE.

  9. Solid-state 13C NMR studies of dissolved organic matter in pore waters from different depositional environments

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Orem, W.H.; Hatcher, P.G.

    1987-01-01

    Dissolved organic matter (DOM) in pore waters from sediments of a number of different depositional environments was isolated by ultrafiltration using membranes with a nominal molecular weight cutoff of 500. This > 500 molecular weight DOM represents 70-98% of the total DOM in these pore waters. We determined the gross chemical structure of this material using both solid-state 13C nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and elemental analysis. Our results show that the DOM in these pore waters appears to exist as two major types: one type dominated by carbohydrates and paraffinic structures and the second dominated by paraffinic and aromatic structures. We suggest that the dominance of one or the other structural type of DOM in the pore water depends on the relative oxidizing/reducing nature of the sediments as well as the source of the detrital organic matter. Under dominantly anaerobic conditions carbohydrates in the sediments are degraded by bacteria and accumulate in the pore water as DOM. However, little or no degradation of lignin occurs under these conditions. In contrast, sediments thought to be predominantly aerobic in character have DOM with diminished carbohydrate and enhanced aromatic character. The aromatic structures in the DOM from these sediments are thought to arise from the degradation of lignin. The large amounts of paraffinic structures in both types of DOM may be due to the degradation of unidentified paraffinic materials in algal or bacterial remains. ?? 1987.

  10. Molecular and isotopic characterization of the particulate organic matter from an eutrophic coastal bay in SE Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalas, Francine A.; Carreira, Renato S.; Macko, Stephen A.; Wagener, Angela L. R.

    2009-10-01

    The present work aimed at studying the origin of particulate organic matter in Guanabara Bay and in some rivers of the Guanabara basin by using elemental composition, isotopic ratios (δ 13C and δ 15N) and molecular markers (sterols) in samples collected in two periods (winter and summer). Elemental and isotopic compositions were determined by dry combustion and mass spectrometry, respectively, while sterols were investigated by GC-FID and GC-MS. Higher sterol concentrations were present in the north-western part of the bay in winter (5.10-23.5 μg L -1). The high abundance of algal sterols (26-57% of total sterols), the elemental composition (C/N=6-8) and the isotopic signatures (δ 13C=-21.3‰ to -15.1‰ and δ 15N=+7.3‰ to +11.1‰) suggested the predominance of autochthonous organic matter, as expected for an eutrophic bay, although seasonal variation in phytoplankton activity was observed. Coprostanol concentration (fecal sterol) was at least one order of magnitude higher in the particulate material from fluvial samples (4.65-55.98 μg L -1) than in the bay waters (<0.33 μg L -1). This could be ascribed to a combination of factors including efficient particle removal to sediments in the estuarine transition zone, dilution with bay water and bacterial degradation during particle transport in the water column.

  11. Photochemical production of singlet oxygen from particulate organic matter.

    PubMed

    Appiani, Elena; McNeill, Kristopher

    2015-03-17

    Dissolved organic matter is established as one of the most relevant photosensitizers in aquatic environments, producing singlet oxygen (1O2) alongside other photochemically produced reactive intermediates. While the production of 1O2 from DOM has been well studied, the relative importance of particulate organic matter (POM) to the overall 1O2 production is less well understood. POM is known to play an important role in pollutant fate through the sorption and transport of hydrophobic pollutants. If POM is directly involved in 1O2 production, sorbed molecules would be expected to undergo enhanced photodegradation. In this work, synthetic POM was prepared by coating silica particles with commercial humic acid. The photochemical behavior of these POM samples was compared to dissolved commercial humic acids (DOM). Suspended natural sediment was also studied to test the environmental relevance of the synthetic POM model. Synthetic POM particles appear to simulate well the 1O2-production of suspended sediment. The 1O2 concentrations experienced by POM-sorbed probe molecules was up to 30% higher than experienced by DOM-sorbed ones, even though the aqueous concentration of 1O2 in irradiated POM suspensions was much lower than the analogous DOM solutions. These results were interpreted with a reaction-diffusion model, which suggested that the production rate of 1O2 by POM is lower than DOM, but the loss of 1O2 from the POM-phase is also lower than DOM. Based on the experimental results of this study, calculations were conducted to estimate the impact of removing POM on 1O2-mediated processes. These calculations indicate that compounds with a log Koc value near 4 will be most affected by removal of POM and that the magnitude of the effect is proportional to the fraction of the total organic matter represented by POM. This study demonstrates that particles can play an important role in the degradation of organic compounds via aquatic photochemistry. PMID:25674663

  12. Organic speciation of size-segregated atmospheric particulate matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tremblay, Raphael

    Particle size and composition are key factors controlling the impacts of particulate matter (PM) on human health and the environment. A comprehensive method to characterize size-segregated PM organic content was developed, and evaluated during two field campaigns. Size-segregated particles were collected using a cascade impactor (Micro-Orifice Uniform Deposit Impactor) and a PM2.5 large volume sampler. A series of alkanes and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were solvent extracted and quantified using a gas chromatograph coupled with a mass spectrometer (GC/MS). Large volume injections were performed using a programmable temperature vaporization (PTV) inlet to lower detection limits. The developed analysis method was evaluated during the 2001 and 2002 Intercomparison Exercise Program on Organic Contaminants in PM2.5 Air Particulate Matter led by the US National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST). Ambient samples were collected in May 2002 as part of the Tampa Bay Regional Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment (BRACE) in Florida, USA and in July and August 2004 as part of the New England Air Quality Study - Intercontinental Transport and Chemical Transformation (NEAQS - ITCT) in New Hampshire, USA. Morphology of the collected particles was studied using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Smaller particles (one micrometer or less) appeared to consist of solid cores surrounded by a liquid layer which is consistent with combustion particles and also possibly with particles formed and/or coated by secondary material like sulfate, nitrate and secondary organic aerosols. Source apportionment studies demonstrated the importance of stationary sources on the organic particulate matter observed at these two rural sites. Coal burning and biomass burning were found to be responsible for a large part of the observed PAHs during the field campaigns. Most of the measured PAHs were concentrated in particles smaller than one micrometer and linked to combustion sources

  13. Missing links in the root-soil organic matter continuum.

    SciTech Connect

    O'Brien, S. L.; Iversen, C. M.; Biosciences Division; ORNL

    2009-01-01

    The soil environment remains one of the most complex and poorly understood research frontiers in ecology. Soil organic matter (SOM), which spans a continuum from fresh detritus to highly processed, mineral-associated organic matter, is the foundation of sustainable terrestrial ecosystems. Heterogeneous SOM pools are fueled by inputs from living and dead plants, driven by the activity of micro- and mesofauna, and are shaped by a multitude of abiotic factors (Fig. 1). The specialization required to measure unseen processes that occur on a wide range of spatial and temporal scales has led to the partitioning of soil ecology research across several disciplines. In the organized oral session 'Missing links in the root-soil organic matter continuum' at the annual Ecological Society of America meeting in Albuquerque, NM, USA, we joined the call for greater communication and collaboration among ecologists who work at the root-soil interface (e.g. Coleman, 2008). Our goal was to bridge the gap between scientific disciplines and to synthesize disconnected pieces of knowledge from root-centric and soil-centric studies into an integrated understanding of belowground ecosystem processes. We focused this report around three compelling themes that arose from the session: (1) the influence of the rhizosphere on SOM cycling, (2) the role of soil heterotrophs in driving the transformation of root detritus to SOM, and (3) the controlling influence of the soil environment on SOM dynamics. We conclude with a discussion of new approaches for gathering data to bridge gaps in the root-SOM continuum and to inform the next generation of ecosystem models.

  14. Modelling of organic matter dynamics during the composting process.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Y; Lashermes, G; Houot, S; Doublet, J; Steyer, J P; Zhu, Y G; Barriuso, E; Garnier, P

    2012-01-01

    Composting urban organic wastes enables the recycling of their organic fraction in agriculture. The objective of this new composting model was to gain a clearer understanding of the dynamics of organic fractions during composting and to predict the final quality of composts. Organic matter was split into different compartments according to its degradability. The nature and size of these compartments were studied using a biochemical fractionation method. The evolution of each compartment and the microbial biomass were simulated, as was the total organic carbon loss corresponding to organic carbon mineralisation into CO(2). Twelve composting experiments from different feedstocks were used to calibrate and validate our model. We obtained a unique set of estimated parameters. Good agreement was achieved between the simulated and experimental results that described the evolution of different organic fractions, with the exception of some compost because of a poor simulation of the cellulosic and soluble pools. The degradation rate of the cellulosic fraction appeared to be highly variable and dependent on the origin of the feedstocks. The initial soluble fraction could contain some degradable and recalcitrant elements that are not easily accessible experimentally. PMID:21978424

  15. Soil dissolved organic matter export to coastal temperate rainforest streams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edwards, R. T.; D'Amore, D. V.; Hood, E.; Johnson, A.

    2006-12-01

    The north coastal temperate rainforest is a dynamic area of biogeochemical exchange between terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems. Wetlands and poorly drained soils dominate the landscape, where wetlands alone comprise 30% of the watersheds. The region is experiencing warming with potentially profound impacts on soil processes, forest structure, stream productivity, and the large and valuable salmon fishery. There are few data on stream chemistry, biological productivity, or discharge among soils and streams in the region. To predict the impact of climate change, management practices or land use on streams we need better baseline data on soil-stream interactions in temperate rainforest watersheds. We measured weekly export of dissolved organic matter from 3 dominant soil vegetation communities (peat bogs, forested wetlands and mineral soil uplands) during spring through fall of 2006. Three replicate sites for each soil type were gauged with weirs and fluxes of major forms of carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus measured. Discharge dominated the seasonal flux dynamics but major differences in export and area-specific export emphasized differences in soil-specific transformations on nutrient export potential. Export per unit soil area varied from 0.01 to 25 kg C/ha/day. Peat bogs exported 2-5 times as much per unit area as the other two soils. Forested wetlands were intermediate between bogs and uplands in export per unit area. Mean daily carbon fluxes from gauged subcatchments ranged from 0.01 to 75 kg C/day. Because they are larger than bogs, forested wetlands exported the greatest amount of DOC at our study locations, with uplands exporting intermediate amounts during spring floods. Uplands and bogs exported far less than forested wetlands during normal flow conditions. Total nitrogen fluxes were dominated by organic forms and seasonal trends closely followed the patterns observed for DOC. Although wetlands of either type export more organic matter per unit area, the

  16. The Influences of Riverine Dissolved Organic Matter in the Gulf of Maine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aiken, G.; Cao, X.; Mao, J.; Spencer, R. G.; Balch, W. M.; Huntington, T. G.

    2014-12-01

    Dissolved organic matter (DOM) exported from the Gulf of St. Lawrence and by rivers in Maine, Nova Scotia, and New Brunswick is being studied to quantify and characterize optical proxies in the receiving waters of the Gulf of Maine (GoM). Measurements of DOC concentrations, absorption coefficients (254nm, 350 nm and 412 nm), specific ultraviolet absorbance (SUVA254), spectral slope, and fluorescence, and DOC fractionation and isotopic analyses were used to determine the amount and nature of DOM from major inflowing rivers, marine waters, and the GoM. In addition, lignin phenols, 14C-age, 13C-NMR and FTICR-MS analyses were performed on the hydrophobic (HPOA) and transphilic organic acid fractions of the DOM isolated using XAD resins for a smaller subset of samples from the Penobscot River, Penobscot Bay, GoM waters in the Eastern Maine Coastal Current (EMCC), a sample from the eastern portion of the GoM (Scotian Shelf waters), and the Pacific Ocean. These samples provide detailed DOM compositional data in support of the more easily collected concentration and optical data obtained from discrete samples, optical data obtained by in situ glider, and remotely sensed satellite observations. Optical measurements, 13C-NMR, and lignin phenol analyses showed that DOM associated with inflowing rivers to the GoM is rich in aromatic compounds resulting in a large flux of terrestrially derived chromophoric DOM (CDOM). As a result, GoM DOM is more aromatic and younger than open ocean samples collected from the Sargasso Sea and from the Pacific Ocean near Hawaii. This observation is consistent with isotopic data that indicated δ 13C values for the HPOA fractions from the Gulf samples (δ 13C= -27‰ and -25‰) were considerably depleted in comparison to the whole DOM sample (δ 13C = -19‰; which also includes algal-produced DOM) and are more similar to those from the terrestrial sources. Samples from the EMCC were the most heavily influenced by terrestrial sources. While NMR

  17. ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH BRIEF: CHARACTERIZATION OF ORGANIC MATTER IN SOIL AND AQUIFER SOLIDS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The focus of this work was the evaluation of analytical methods to determine and characterize fractions of subsurface organic matter. Major fractions of total organic carbon (TOC) include: particulate organic carbon (POC) in aquifer material, dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and ...

  18. Processing of atmospheric organic matter by California radiation fogs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collett, Jeffrey L., Jr.; Herckes, Pierre; Youngster, Sarah; Lee, Taehyoung

    2008-03-01

    Considerable effort has been put into characterizing the ionic composition of fogs and clouds over the past twenty-five years. Recently it has become evident that clouds and fogs often contain large concentrations of organic material as well. Here we report findings from a series of studies examining the organic composition of radiation fogs in central California. Organic compounds in these fogs comprise a major fraction of total solute mass, with total organic carbon sometimes reaching levels of several tens of mg/L. This organic matter is comprised of a wide variety of compounds, ranging from low molecular weight organic acids to high molecular weight compounds with molecular masses approaching several hundred to a thousand g/mole. The most abundant individual compounds are typically formic acid, acetic acid, and formaldehyde. High concentrations are also observed of some dicarboxylic acids (e.g., oxalate) and dicarbonyls (e.g., glyoxal and methylglyoxal) and of levoglucosan, an anhydrosugar characteristically emitted by biomass combustion. Many other compounds have been identified in fog water by GC/MS, including long chain n-alkanoic acids, n-alkanes, PAH, and others, although these compounds typically comprise a total of only a few percent of fog TOC. Measurements of fog scavenging of organic and elemental carbon reveal preferential scavenging of organic carbon. Tracking of individual organic compounds utilized as source type markers suggests the fogs differentially scavenge carbonaceous particles from different source types, with more active processing of wood smoke than vehicle exhaust. Observations of high deposition velocities of fog-borne organic carbon, in excess of 1 cm/s, indicate that fogs in the region represent an important mechanism for cleansing the atmosphere of pollution.

  19. Organic matter compositions and loadings in soils and sediments along the Fly River, Papua New Guinea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goñi, Miguel A.; Moore, Eric; Kurtz, Andrew; Portier, Evan; Alleau, Yvan; Merrell, David

    2014-09-01

    The compositions and loadings of organic matter in soils and sediments from a diverse range of environments along the Fly River system were determined to investigate carbon transport and sequestration in this region. Soil horizons from highland sites representative of upland sources have organic carbon contents (%OC) that range from 0.3 to 25 wt%, carbon:nitrogen ratios (OC/N) that range from 7 to 25 mol/mol, highly negative stable carbon isotopic compositions (δ13Corg < -26‰) and variable concentrations of lignin phenols (1 < LP < 5 mg/100 mg OC). These compositions reflect inputs from local vegetation, with contributions from bedrock carbon in the deeper mineral horizons. Soils developed on the levees of active floodplains receive inputs of allochthonous materials by overbank deposition as well as autochthonous inputs from local vegetation. In the forested upper floodplain reaches, %OC contents are lower than upland soils (0.8-1.5 wt%) as are OC/N ratios (9-15 mol/mol) while δ13Corg (-25 to -28‰) and LP (2-6 mg/100 mg OC) values are comparable to upland soils. These results indicate that organic matter present in these active floodplain soils reflect local (primarily C3) vegetation inputs mixed with allochthonous organic matter derived from eroded bedrock. In the lower reaches of the floodplain, which are dominated by swamp grass vegetation, isotopic compositions were less negative (δ13Corg > -25‰) and non-woody vegetation biomarkers (cinnamyl phenols and cutin acids) more abundant relative to upper floodplain sites. Soils developed on relict Pleistocene floodplain terraces, which are typically not flooded and receive little sediment from the river, were characterized by low %OC contents (<0.6 wt%), low OC/N ratios (<9 mol/mol), more positive δ13Corg signatures (>-21‰) and low LP concentrations (∼3 mg/100 mg OC). These relict floodplain soils contain modern carbon that reflects primarily local (C3 or C4) vegetation sources. Total suspended solids

  20. Soft X-Ray Photoionizing Organic Matter from Comet Wild 2: Evidence for the Production of Organic Matter by Impact Processes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zolensky, Michael E.; Wirick, S.; Flynn, G. J.; Jacobsen, C.; Na

    2011-01-01

    The Stardust mission collected both mineral and organic matter from Comet Wild 2 [1,2,3,4]. The organic matter discovered in Comet Wild 2 ranges from aromatic hydrocarbons to simple aliphatic chains and is as diverse and complex as organic matter found in carbonaceous chondrites and interplanetary dust particles.[3,5,6,7,8,9]. Compared to insoluble organic matter from carbonaceous chondrites the organic matter in Comet Wild 2 more closely resembles organic matter found in the IDPS both hydrous and anhydrous. Common processes for the formation of organic matter in space include: Fischer-Tropsch, included with this aqueous large body and moderate heating alterations; UV irradiation of ices; and; plasma formation and collisions. The Fischer-Tropsch could only occur on large bodies processes, and the production of organic matter by UV radiation is limited by the penetration depth of UV photons, on the order of a few microns or less for most organic matter, so once organic matter coats the ices it is formed from, the organic production process would stop. Also, the organic matter formed by UV irradiation would, by the nature of the process, be in-sensitive to photodissocation from UV light. The energy of soft X-rays, 280-300 eV occur within the range of extreme ultraviolet photons. During the preliminary examination period we found a particle that nearly completely photoionized when exposed to photons in the energy range 280-310eV. This particle experienced a long exposure time to the soft x-ray beam which caused almost complete mass loss so little chemical information was obtain. During the analysis of our second allocation we have discovered another particle that photoionized at these energies but the exposure time was limited and more chemical information was obtained.

  1. Unraveling the chemical space of terrestrial and meteoritic organic matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmitt-Kopplin, Philippe; Harir, Mourad; Hertkorn, Norbert; Kanawati, Basem; Ruf, Alexander; Quirico, Eric; Bonal, Lydie; Beck, Pierre; Gabelica, Zelimir

    2015-04-01

    In terrestrial environments natural organic matter (NOM) occurs in soils, freshwater and marine environments, in the atmosphere and represents an exceedingly complex mixture of organic compounds that collectively exhibits a nearly continuous range of properties (size-reactivity continuum). In these materials, the "classical" biogeosignatures of the (biogenic and geogenic) precursor molecules, like lipids, lignins, proteins and natural products have been attenuated, often beyond recognition, during a succession of biotic and abiotic (e.g. photo- and redox chemistry) reactions. Because of this loss of biochemical signature, these materials can be designated non-repetitive complex systems. The access to extra-terrestrial organic matter is given i.e. in the analysis of meteoritic materials. Numerous descriptions of organic molecules present in organic chondrites have improved our understanding of the early interstellar chemistry that operated at or just before the birth of our solar system. However, many molecular analyses are so far targeted toward selected classes of compounds with a particular emphasis on biologically active components in the context of prebiotic chemistry. Here we demonstrate that a non-targeted ultrahigh-resolution molecular analysis of the solvent-accessible organic fraction of meteorite extracted under mild conditions allows one to extend its indigenous chemical diversity to tens of thousands of different molecular compositions and likely millions of diverse structures. The description of the molecular complexity provides hints on heteroatoms chronological assembly, shock and thermal events and revealed recently new classes of thousands of novel organic, organometallic compounds uniquely found in extra-terrestrial materials and never described in terrestrial systems. This high polymolecularity suggests that the extraterrestrial chemodiversity is high compared to terrestrial relevant biological and biogeochemical-driven chemical space. (ultra

  2. Growing Algae Alter Spectroscopic Characteristics and Chlorine Reactivity of Dissolved Organic Matter from Thermally-Altered Forest Litters.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Kuo-Pei; Chow, Alex T

    2016-08-01

    Previous studies demonstrated that wildfires alter spectroscopic characteristics of terrestrial dissolved organic matter (DOM) and increase specific disinfection byproduct formation potential (SDBP-FP). However, it is unclear whether characteristics of thermally altered DOM (TA-DOM) are altered by biogeochemical processes (e.g., transformed by growing algae) before entering water treatment facilities. The freshwater green algae Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata and blue-green algae Microcystis aeruginosa were separately incubated in the mixture of cultural medium and pine (Pinus palustris) litter-derived TA-DOMs (50 °C, 250 °C, and 400 °C) over 7 days to demonstrate the effects of algal growth on alterations in SDBP-FP. TA-DOM optical characteristics and SDBP-FP were quantified by absorption and fluorescence spectroscopy and chlorination-based DBP-FP experiments. After the inoculation with P. subcapitata, TA-DOM aromaticity (indicated by SUVA254) increased from 1.19 to 1.90 L/mg/m for 50 °C-extract but decreased from 4.95 to 3.75 L/mg/m for 400 °C-extract. The fraction of tyrosine-like components decreased from 25.9 to 9.3% for 50 °C-extract but increased from 0.9 to 1.3% for 400 °C-extract. Same patterns were also observed for M. aeruginosa. Growing algae generally increased chlorine reactivities and formations of trihalomethanes, haloacetonitriles, chloral hydrate, and haloketones. Our data suggest that the biodegradable dissolved organic carbon in TA-DOM decreases as fire intensity (i.e., temperature) increases. Postfire algal blooms can increase chlorine reactivity of fire-affected terrestrial DOM for DBP formation. PMID:27366813

  3. Organic Matter as an Indicator of Soil Degradation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romero Diaz, Asuncion; Damian Ruiz Sinoga, Jose

    2010-05-01

    Numerous and expensive physical-chemical tests are often carried out to determine the level of soil degration. This study was to find one property, as Organic Matter, which is usually analyzed for determine the soil degradation status. To do this 19 areas in the south and southeast of the Iberian Peninsula (provinces of Málaga, Granada, Almería y Murcia) were selected and a wide sampling process was carried out. Sampling points were spread over a wide pluviometric gradient (from 1100 mm/yr to 232 mm/yr) covering the range from Mediterranean wet to dry. 554 soil surface samples were taken from soil (0-10 cm) and the following properties were analyzed: Texture, Organic Matter (OM), Electric Conductivity (EC), Aggregate Stability (AE) y Cation Exchange Capacity (CEC). These properties were intercorrelated and also with rainfall and the K factor of soil erosion, calculated for each sampling point. Los results obtained by applying the Pearson correlation coefficient to the database shows how as rainfall increases so does OM content (0,97) and la CEC (0,89), but K factor (-0,80) reacts inversely. The content of OM in the soil is related to its biological activity and this in turn is the result of available wáter within the system and, consequently, rainfall. This is specially important in fragile and complex ecogeomorphological systems as is the case of the Mediterranean, where greater or lesser rainfall is similarly reflected in the levels of increase or decrease of soil organic matter. This affirmation is reinforced by linking the organic matter of the soil with other indicative properties such as CEC and erosion, as has been shown by various authors (Imeson y Vis, 1984; De Ploey & Poesen, 1985; Le Bissonnais, 1996; Boix-Fayos et al., 2001; Cammeraat y Imeson, 1998; Cerdá, 1998). As has been stated, there is a direct relationship between rainfall, organic matter content, cation exchange capacity, structural stability, and the resistence to soil erosion factor

  4. Effects of Dissolved Organic Matter Source on Wetland Bacterial Metabolism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ward, A. K.

    2005-05-01

    Wetlands are rich environments for organic matter production from a variety of wetland plant types. Investigations of the Talladega Wetland Ecosystem (TWE) in the southeastern U.S. show that bacterioplankton productivity is driven by dissolved organic carbon derived from wetland plants. The TWE is formed from a small coastal plain stream that has been dammed by beaver activity and resides in a forested catchment. In this study, bacterioplankton communities sampled from the wetland were amended with leachate from two different plants common in the TWE, the soft rush, Juncus effusus, and hazel alder, Alnus serrulata, and compared to unamended controls. The bacterioplankton response was examined by measuring bacterial carbon productivity and by an array of fluorescent microscope techniques used to distinguish metabolically active and non-active cells. Both plant leachates elicited rapid and significant increases in productivity and numbers of metabolically active bacterial cells. However, the timeframe of response, the magnitude of response, and the bacterial morphotypes varied depending on the leachate source. This study suggests that wetland bacterial communities contain different sub-component populations that may generally occur in low numbers, but that can adapt and respond rapidly to different sources of organic matter native to the wetland.

  5. Complexation of lead by organic matter in Luanda Bay, Angola.

    PubMed

    Leitão, Anabela; Santos, Ana Maria; Boaventura, Rui A R

    2015-10-01

    Speciation is defined as the distribution of an element among different chemical species. Although the relation between speciation and bioavailability is complex, the metal present as free hydrated ion, or as weak complexes able to dissociate, is usually more bioavailable than the metal incorporated in strong complexes or adsorbed on colloidal or particulate matter. Among the analytical techniques currently available, anodic stripping voltammetry (ASV) has been one of the most used in the identification and quantification of several heavy metal species in aquatic systems. This work concerns the speciation study of lead, in original (natural, non-filtered) and filtered water samples and in suspensions of particulate matter and sediments from Luanda Bay (Angola). Complexes of lead with organics were identified and quantified by differential pulse anodic stripping voltammetry technique. Each sample was progressively titrated with a Pb(II) standard solution until complete saturation of the organic ligands. After each addition of Pb(II), the intensity, potential and peak width of the voltammetric signal were measured. The results obtained in this work show that more than 95 % of the lead in the aquatic environment is bound in inert organic complexes, considering all samples from different sampling sites. In sediment samples, the lead is totally (100 %) complexed with ligands adsorbed on the particles surface. Two kinds of dominant lead complexes, very strong (logK >11) and strong to moderately strong (8< logK <11), were found, revealing the lead affinity for the stronger ligands. PMID:27624745

  6. Lead sequestration and species redistribution during soil organic matter decomposition

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schroth, A.W.; Bostick, B.C.; Kaste, J.M.; Friedland, A.J.

    2008-01-01

    The turnover of soil organic matter (SOM) maintains a dynamic chemical environment in the forest floor that can impact metal speciation on relatively short timescales. Here we measure the speciation of Pb in controlled and natural organic (O) soil horizons to quantify changes in metal partitioning during SOM decomposition in different forest litters. We provide a link between the sequestration of pollutant Pb in O-horizons, estimated by forest floor Pb inventories, and speciation using synchrotron-based X-ray fluorescence and X-ray absorption spectroscopy. When Pb was introduced to fresh forest Oi samples, it adsorbed primarily to SOM surfaces, but as decomposition progressed over two years in controlled experiments, up to 60% of the Pb was redistributed to pedogenic birnessite and ferrihydrite surfaces. In addition, a significant fraction of pollutant Pb in natural soil profiles was associated with similar mineral phases (???20-35%) and SOM (???65-80%). Conifer forests have at least 2-fold higher Pb burdens in the forest floor relative to deciduous forests due to more efficient atmospheric scavenging and slower organic matter turnover. We demonstrate that pedogenic minerals play an important role in surface soil Pb sequestration, particularly in deciduous forests, and should be considered in any assessment of pollutant Pb mobility. ?? 2008 American Chemical Society.

  7. Lead Sequestration and Species Redistribution During Soil Organic Matter Decomposition

    SciTech Connect

    Schroth,A.; Bostick, B.; Kaste, J.; Friedland, A.

    2008-01-01

    The turnover of soil organic matter (SOM) maintains a dynamic chemical environment in the forest floor that can impact metal speciation on relatively short timescales. Here we measure the speciation of Pb in controlled and natural organic (O) soil horizons to quantify changes in metal partitioning during SOM decomposition in different forest litters. We provide a link between the sequestration of pollutant Pb in O-horizons, estimated by forest floor Pb inventories, and speciation using synchrotron-based X-ray fluorescence and X-ray absorption spectroscopy. When Pb was introduced to fresh forest Oi samples, it adsorbed primarily to SOM surfaces, but as decomposition progressed over two years in controlled experiments, up to 60% of the Pb was redistributed to pedogenic birnessite and ferrihydrite surfaces. In addition, a significant fraction of pollutant Pb in natural soil profiles was associated with similar mineral phases ({approx}20-35%) and SOM ({approx}65-80%). Conifer forests have at least 2-fold higher Pb burdens in the forest floor relative to deciduous forests due to more efficient atmospheric scavenging and slower organic matter turnover. We demonstrate that pedogenic minerals play an important role in surface soil Pb sequestration, particularly in deciduous forests, and should be considered in any assessment of pollutant Pb mobility.

  8. Lead Sequestration And Species Redistribution During Soil Organic Matter Decomposition

    SciTech Connect

    Schroth, A.W.; Bostick, B.C.; Kaste, J.M.; Friedland, A.J.

    2009-05-27

    The turnover of soil organic matter (SOM) maintains a dynamic chemical environment in the forest floor that can impact metal speciation on relatively short timescales. Here we measure the speciation of Pb in controlled and natural organic (O) soil horizons to quantify changes in metal partitioning during SOM decomposition in different forest litters. We provide a link between the sequestration of pollutant Pb in O-horizons, estimated by forest floor Pb inventories, and speciation using synchrotron-based X-rayfluorescence and X-ray absorption spectroscopy. When Pb was introduced to fresh forest O{sub i} samples, it adsorbed primarily to SOM surfaces, but as decomposition progressed over two years in controlled experiments, up to 60% of the Pb was redistributed to pedogenic birnessite and ferrihydrite surfaces. In addition, a significant fraction of pollutant Pb in natural soil profiles was associated with similar mineral phases ({approx}20--35%) and SOM ({approx}65--80%). Conifer forests have at least 2-fold higher Pb burdens in the forest floor relative to deciduous forests due to more efficient atmospheric scavenging and slower organic matter turnover. We demonstrate that pedogenic minerals play an important role in surface soil Pb sequestration, particularly in deciduous forests, and should be considered in any assessment of pollutant Pb mobility.

  9. Missing links in the root-soil organic matter continuum

    SciTech Connect

    O'Brien, Sarah L.; Iversen, Colleen M

    2009-01-01

    The soil environment remains one of the most complex and poorly understood research frontiers in ecology. Soil organic matter (SOM), which spans a continuum from fresh detritus to highly processed, mineral-associated organic matter, is the foundation of sustainable terrestrial ecosystems. Heterogeneous SOM pools are fueled by inputs from living and dead plants, driven by the activity of micro- and mesofauna, and are shaped by a multitude of abiotic factors. The specialization required to measure unseen processes that occur on a wide range of spatial and temporal scales has led to the partitioning of soil ecology research across several disciplines. In the organized oral session 'Missing links in the root-soil organic matter continuum' at the annual Ecological Society of America meeting in Albuquerque, NM, USA, we joined the call for greater communication and collaboration among ecologists who work at the root-soil interface (e.g. Coleman, 2008). Our goal was to bridge the gap between scientific disciplines and to synthesize disconnected pieces of knowledge from root-centric and soil-centric studies into an integrated understanding of belowground ecosystem processes. We focused this report around three compelling themes that arose from the session: (1) the influence of the rhizosphere on SOM cycling, (2) the role of soil heterotrophs in driving the transformation of root detritus to SOM, and (3) the controlling influence of the soil environment on SOM dynamics. We conclude with a discussion of new approaches for gathering data to bridge gaps in the root-SOM continuum and to inform the next generation of ecosystem models. Although leaf litter has often been considered to be the main source of organic inputs to soil, Ann Russell synthesized a convincing body of work demonstrating that roots, rather than surface residues, control the accumulation of SOM in a variety of ecosystems. Living roots, which are chemically diverse and highly dynamic, also influence a wide

  10. Relating changes of organic matter composition of two German peats to climatic conditions during peat formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knicker, Heike; Nikolova, Radoslava; Rumpel, Cornelia; González-Vila, Francisco, J.; Drösler, Matthias

    2010-05-01

    Peatlands have been recognized as an important factor within the global C-cycle, since they store about one-third of the global terrestrial C-pool. Furthermore, peat deposits have the potential to record detailed paleoclimatic and - vegetational changes. They are formed in peculiar paleoecosystems where the slow biodegradation of plant residues depends on a series of pedo-climatic and hydromorphic factors leading to a progressive accumulation of organic matter stabilized in different evolutionary stages. Thus, its chemical composition should be applicable as a fingerprint of former prevailing environmental conditions and vegetation configurations. The aim of the present work was to identify this fingerprint in the cores of two German fens, one derived from the Havelland close to Berlin (Großer Bolchow) and the other derived from the alpine region of Bavaria (Kendlmühlfilzen) by investigating the organic matter transformation as a function of peat depths. The C/N ratios and δ13C values revealed several distinctive trends in the two profiles related to prevailing peat forming conditions. Compared to the other layers, at depths of 14-85 cm and 132-324 cm in the Kendlmühlfilzen fen, high C/N ratios and less depleted δ13C values, indicated that the accumulation of these two layers occurred during a humid and cold period. In the case of the "Großer Bolchow", algal contributions were clearly detected using δ13C values. Solid-state 13C NMR spectroscopy demonstrated loss of celluloses and accumulation of lipids and lignin derivatives during peatification, confirming that under the mostly O2-depleted conditions in peats, decomposition was selective. The results obtained by pyrolysis-GC/MS were in good agreement with the NMR data showing that processes ascribed to gradual biotransformation of the lignin occurred in both peats. However, the "Großer Bolchow" peat revealed a more advanced decomposition stage then the "Kendlmühlfilzen" peat, which is in agreement with

  11. Priming of soil organic matter decomposition in cryoturbated Arctic soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richter, A.; Wild, B.; Schnecker, J.; Rusalimova, O.

    2012-12-01

    The Arctic is subjected to particularly high rates of warming, with profound consequences for the carbon cycle: on the one hand plant productivity and C storage in plant biomass have been shown to increase strongly in many parts of the Arctic, on the other hand, increasing rates of soil organic matter (SOM) decomposition have been reported. One of the possibilities that could reconcile these observations is, that increased plant growth may lead to increased root exudation rates, which are known to stimulate microbial turnover of organic matter under certain circumstances, in a process termed "priming" of SOM. Two mechanisms have been brought forward that may be responsible for priming: first, easily assimilable material exuded by plant roots may help microbes to overcome their energy limitation and second, this input of labile carbon could lead to a nitrogen limitation of the microbial community and lead to nitrogen mining, i.e. decomposition of N-rich SOM. We here report on an incubation study with arctic soil investigating potential priming of SOM decomposition in organic topsoil horizons, cryoturbated organic matter and subsoil mineral horizons of tundra soil from the Taymyr peninsula in Siberia. We used arctic soils, that are characterized by cryoturbation (mixing of soil layers due to freezing and thawing), for this study. Turbated cryosols store more than 580 Gt C globally, a significant proportion of which is stored in the cryoturbated organic matter. We hypothesized that an increased availability of labile compounds would increase SOM decomposition rates, and that this effect would be strongest in horizons with a low natural availability of labile C, i.e. in the mineral subsoil. We amended soils with 13C labelled glucose, cellulose, amino acids or proteins, and measured the mineralization of SOM C as well as microbial community composition and potential activities of extracellular enzymes. Our results demonstrate that topsoil organic, cryoturbated and

  12. Persistence of soil organic matter as an ecosystem property

    SciTech Connect

    Schmidt, M.W.; Torn, M. S.; Abiven, S.; Dittmar, T.; Guggenberger, G.; Janssens, I.A.; Kleber, M.; Kögel-Knabner, I.; Lehmann, J.; Manning, D.A.C.; Nannipieri, P.; Rasse, D.P.; Weiner, S.; Trumbore, S.E.

    2011-08-15

    Globally, soil organic matter (SOM) contains more than three times as much carbon as either the atmosphere or terrestrial vegetation. Yet it remains largely unknown why some SOM persists for millennia whereas other SOM decomposes readily—and this limits our ability to predict how soils will respond to climate change. Recent analytical and experimental advances have demonstrated that molecular structure alone does not control SOM stability: in fact, environmental and biological controls predominate. Here we propose ways to include this understanding in a new generation of experiments and soil carbon models, thereby improving predictions of the SOM response to global warming.

  13. Persistence of soil organic matter as an ecosystem property.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Michael W I; Torn, Margaret S; Abiven, Samuel; Dittmar, Thorsten; Guggenberger, Georg; Janssens, Ivan A; Kleber, Markus; Kögel-Knabner, Ingrid; Lehmann, Johannes; Manning, David A C; Nannipieri, Paolo; Rasse, Daniel P; Weiner, Steve; Trumbore, Susan E

    2011-10-01

    Globally, soil organic matter (SOM) contains more than three times as much carbon as either the atmosphere or terrestrial vegetation. Yet it remains largely unknown why some SOM persists for millennia whereas other SOM decomposes readily--and this limits our ability to predict how soils will respond to climate change. Recent analytical and experimental advances have demonstrated that molecular structure alone does not control SOM stability: in fact, environmental and biological controls predominate. Here we propose ways to include this understanding in a new generation of experiments and soil carbon models, thereby improving predictions of the SOM response to global warming. PMID:21979045

  14. Aquatic Organic Matter Fluorescence - from phenomenon to application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reynolds, Darren

    2014-05-01

    The use of fluorescence to quantify and characterise aquatic organic matter in river, ocean, ground water and drinking and waste waters has come along way since its discovery as a phenomenon in the early 20th century. For example, there are over 100 papers published each year in international peer reviewed journals, an order of magnitude increase since a decade ago (see Figure taken from ISI database from 1989 to 2007 for publications in the fields of river water and waste water). Since then it has been extensively used as a research tool since the 1990's by scientists and is currently used for a wide variety of applications within a number of sectors. Universities, organisations and companies that research into aquatic organic matter have either recently readily use appropriate fluorescence based techniques and instrumentation. In industry and government, the technology is being taken up by environmental regulators and water and wastewater companies. This keynote presentation will give an overview of aquatic organic matter fluorescence from its conception as a phenomenon through to its current use in a variety of emerging applications within the sectors concerned with understanding, managing and monitoring the aquatic environment. About the Speaker Darren Reynolds pioneered the use of fluorescence spectroscopy for the analysis of wastewaters in the 1990's. He currently leads a research group within the Centre for Research in Biosciences and sits on the Scientific Advisory Board for the Institute of Bio-Sensing Technology at the University of the West of England, Bristol. He is a multidisciplinary scientist concerned with the development of technology platforms for applications in the fields of environment/agri-food and health. His current research interests include the development of optical technologies and techniques for environmental and biological sensing and bio-prospecting applications. He is currently involved in the development and use of synthetic biology

  15. Are lake sediments mere archives of degraded organic matter? - evidence of rapid biotic changes tracked in sediments of pre-alpine Lake Lunz, Austria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hollaus, Lisa-Maria; Khan, Samiullah; Schelker, Jakob; Ejarque, Elisabet; Battin, Tom; Kainz, Martin

    2016-04-01

    Lake sediments are used as sentinels of changes in organic matter composition and dynamics within lakes and their catchments. In an effort to investigate how past and recent hydrological extreme events have affected organic matter composition in lake sediments, we investigated the biogeochemical composition of sediment cores and settling particles, using sediment traps in the pre-alpine, oligotrophic Lake Lunz, Austria. We assessed annual sedimentation rates using 137Cs and 210Pb, time integrated loads of settling particles, analyze stable carbon (δ13C) and nitrogen (δ15N) isotopes to track changes of carbon sources and trophic compositions, respectively, and use source-specific fatty acids as indicators of allochthonous, bacterial, and algal-derived organic matter. Preliminary results indicate that settling particles of Lake Lunz (33 m depth) contain high algae-derived organic matter, as assessed by long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFA), indicating low degradation of such labile organic matter within the water column of this lake. However, LC-PUFA decreased rapidly in sediment cores below the sediment-water interface. Concentrations of phosphorous remained stable throughout the sediment cores (40 cm), suggesting that past changes in climatic forcing did not alter the load of this limiting nutrient in lakes. Ongoing work reveals dramatic biotic changes within the top layers of the sediment cores as evidenced by high numbers of small-bodied cladocerans (e.g., Bosmina) and large-bodied zooplankton (e.g., Daphnia) are only detected at lower sediment layers. Current research on these lake sediments is aimed at investigating how organic matter sources changed during the past century as a result of recorded weather changes.

  16. Conservative or reactive? Mechanistic chemical perspectives on organic matter stability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koch, Boris

    2016-04-01

    Carbon fixation by terrestrial and marine primary production has a fundamental seasonal effect on the atmospheric carbon content and it profoundly contributes to long-term carbon storage in form of organic matter (OM) in soils, water, and sediments. The efficacy of this sequestration process strongly depends on the degree of OM persistence. Therefore, one of the key issues in dissolved and particulate OM research is to assess the stability of reservoirs and to quantify their contribution to global carbon fluxes. Incubation experiments are helpful to assess OM stability during the first, early diagenetic turnover induced by sunlight or microbes. However, net carbon fluxes within the global carbon cycle also act on much longer time scales, which are not amenable in experiments. It is therefore critical to improve our mechanistic understanding to be able to assess potential future changes in the organic matter cycle. This session contribution highlights some achievements and open questions in the field. An improved mechanistic understanding of OM turnover particularly depends on the molecular characterization of biogeochemical processes and their kinetics: (i) in soils and sediments, aggregation/disaggregation of OM is primarily controlled by its molecular composition. Hence, the chemical composition determines the transfer of organic carbon from the large particulate to the small dissolved organic matter reservoir - an important substrate for microbial metabolism. (ii) In estuaries, dissolved organic carbon gradients usually suggest conservative behavior, whereas molecular-level studies reveal a substantial chemical modification of terrestrial DOM along the land-ocean interface. (iii) In the ocean, previous studies have shown that the recalcitrance of OM depends on bulk concentration and energy yield. However, ultrahigh resolution mass spectrometry in combination with radiocarbon analyses also emphasized that stability is tightly connected to molecular composition

  17. Do organic matter matter? Contribution of organic matter on scavenging and fractionation of natural radionuclides in the Oceanic Flux Program (OFP) site of Bermuda

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chuang, C.; Santschi, P. H.; Conte, M. H.; Schumann, D.; Ayranov, M.

    2012-12-01

    Natural particle-reactive radionuclides, 234Th, 233Pa, 210Po, 210Pb and 7Be, have been used for estimating particulate organic carbon (POC) export flux in the ocean for decades. However, by simply relying on empirically determined isotope ratios to POC and other parameters, sometimes results from field studies are puzzling and become controversial (e.g., one is summarized in Li, 2005). The picture becomes clearer when it was noticed that a missing fraction, e.g., natural organic matter, could be the cause. For example, a series of field and lab studies demonstrated that biopolymers excreted by marine micro-organisms are likely carrier molecules for a number of these isotopes (e.g., Guo et al., 2002; Quigley et al., 2002; Santschi et al., 2003; Roberts et al., 2009; Hung et al., 2010; Xu et al., 2011; Hung et al., 2012; Yang et al., 2012). To examine the effect of organic composition of the particle on the scavenging and fractionation of selected natural radionuclides (e.g., Th, Pa, Pb, Po, Be), organic composition (e.g., protein, polysaccharides, uronic acid, siderophore and amino acid contents, and etc.) and particle-water partition coefficients (Kd) were determined for sediment trap material collected in the Oceanic Flux Program (OFP) site of Bermuda (500, 1500 and 3200 m). Results showed that different organic components contribute differently to the fractionation of different radionuclides from the three depths. We conclude that natural organic matter control on the particle-water partition coefficients cannot be ignored.

  18. Algal blooms and public health

    SciTech Connect

    Epstein, P.R. . Harvard Medical School)

    1993-06-01

    Alterations in coastal ecology are expanding the geographic extent, frequency, magnitude, and species complexity'' of algal blooms throughout the world, increasing the threat of fish and shellfish poisonings, anoxia in marine nurseries, and of cholera. The World Health Organization and members of the medical profession have described the potential health effects of global climate change. They warn of the consequences of increased ultraviolet-B (UV-B) rays and of warming: the possible damage to agriculture and nutrition, and the impact on habitats which may alter the distribution of vector-borne and water-based infectious diseases. Algal growth due to increased nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) and warming are already affecting marine microflora and aquatic plants; and there is now clear evidence that marine organisms are a reservoir for enteric pathogens. The pattern of cholera in the Western Hemisphere suggests that environmental changes have already begun to influence the epidemiology of this infectious disease. 106 refs.

  19. Maturation of organic matter during experimental simulation of carbonate diagenesis

    SciTech Connect

    Ferguson, J.; Bush, P.R.; Clarke, B.A. )

    1989-09-01

    An earlier investigation involving the simulation of the early stages of diagenesis of carbonate ooids has been extended to include skeletal carbonates and carbonate mud. The experiments, lasting up to 70 days at elevated hydrostatic pressure and temperatures of 180{degree}-210{degree}C, used natural sea water and recent calcitic and aragonitic carbonate materials collected from Florida Bay and the Bahamas. The results give insight into the processes of maturation and diagenesis of the organic and inorganic fractions. Analysis of the organic fraction, both before and after the experiments, gives indicates of possible pathways of maturation during early diagenesis. A small amount of data is also available on the fate of sugars and amino acids in the system. Overall, the experiments closely approximate the natural system. Reactions occurring in the inorganic components are closely allied to those in the organic fraction. Indeed, two of the critical factors in early carbonate diagenesis are the amount and quality of organic matter and the shape, size, and nature of the carbonate grains. Changes in the carbonate fraction taking place during and after the experiments have been deduced by monitoring the pore fluid chemistry and by analyzing the final solid product. These results are discussed briefly and related to changes in the organic phase.

  20. The abiotic degradation of soil organic matter to oxalic acid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Studenroth, Sabine; Huber, Stefan; Schöler, H. F.

    2010-05-01

    The abiotic degradation of soil organic matter to volatile organic compounds was studied intensely over the last years (Keppler et al., 2000; Huber et al., 2009). It was shown that soil organic matter is oxidised due to the presence of iron (III), hydrogen peroxide and chloride and thereby produces diverse alkyl halides, which are emitted into the atmosphere. The formation of polar halogenated compounds like chlorinated acetic acids which are relevant toxic environmental substances was also found in soils and sediments (Kilian et al., 2002). The investigation of the formation of other polar halogenated and non-halogenated compounds like diverse mono- and dicarboxylic acids is going to attain more and more importance. Due to its high acidity oxalic acid might have impacts on the environment e.g., nutrient leaching, plant diseases and negative influence on microbial growth. In this study, the abiotic formation of oxalic acid in soil is examined. For a better understanding of natural degradation processes mechanistic studies were conducted using the model compound catechol as representative for structural elements of the humic substances and its reaction with iron (III) and hydrogen peroxide. Iron is one of the most abundant elements on earth and hydrogen peroxide is produced by bacteria or through incomplete reduction of oxygen. To find suitable parameters for an optimal reaction and a qualitative and quantitative analysis method the following reaction parameters are varied: concentration of iron (III) and hydrogen peroxide, time dependence, pH-value and influence of chloride. Analysis of oxalic acid was performed employing an ion chromatograph equipped with a conductivity detector. The time dependent reaction shows a relatively fast formation of oxalic acid, the optimum yield is achieved after 60 minutes. Compared to the concentration of catechol an excess of hydrogen peroxide as well as a low concentration of iron (III) are required. In absence of chloride the

  1. Release of biodegradable dissolved organic matter from ancient sedimentary rocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schillawski, Sarah; Petsch, Steven

    2008-09-01

    Sedimentary rocks contain the largest mass of organic carbon on Earth, yet these reservoirs are not well integrated into modern carbon budgets. Here we describe the release of dissolved organic matter (DOM) from OM-rich sedimentary rocks under simulated weathering conditions. Results from column experiments demonstrate slow, sustained release of DOM from ancient sedimentary rocks under simulated weathering conditions. 1H-NMR analysis of shale-derived DOM reveals a highly aliphatic, carbohydrate-poor material distinct from other natural DOM pools. Shale-derived DOM is rapidly assimilated and biodegraded by aerobic heterotrophic bacteria. Consequently, no compositional signature of shale-derived DOM other than 14C-depletion is likely to persist in rivers or other surface reservoirs. Combined, these efforts show that dissolution provides a mechanism for the conversion of refractory kerogen into labile biomass, linking rock weathering with sedimentary OM oxidation and the delivery of aged OM to rivers and ocean margins.

  2. Nature and transformation of dissolved organic matter in treatment wetlands

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barber, L.B.; Leenheer, J.A.; Noyes, T.I.; Stiles, E.A.

    2001-01-01

    This investigation into the occurrence, character, and transformation of dissolved organic matter (DOM) in treatment wetlands in the western United States shows that (i) the nature of DOM in the source water has a major influence on transformations that occur during treatment, (ii) the climate factors have a secondary effect on transformations, (iii) the wetlands receiving treated wastewater can produce a net increase in DOM, and (iv) the hierarchical analytical approach used in this study can measure the subtle DOM transformations that occur. As wastewater treatment plant effluent passes through treatment wetlands, the DOM undergoes transformation to become more aromatic and oxygenated. Autochthonous sources are contributed to the DOM, the nature of which is governed by the developmental stage of the wetland system as well as vegetation patterns. Concentrations of specific wastewaterderived organic contaminants such as linear alkylbenzene sulfonate, caffeine, and ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid were significantly attenuated by wetland treatment and were not contributed by internal loading.

  3. Morphological Study of Insoluble Organic Matter Residues from Primitive

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Changela, H. G.; Stroud, R. M.; Peeters, Z.; Nittler, L. R.; Alexander, C. M. O'D.; DeGregorio, B. T.; Cody, G. D.

    2012-01-01

    Insoluble organic matter (IOM) constitutes a major proportion, 70-99%, of the total organic carbon found in primitive chondrites [1, 2]. One characteristic morphological component of IOM is nanoglobules [3, 4]. Some nanoglobules exhibit large N-15 and D enrichments relative to solar values, indicating that they likely originated in the ISM or the outskirts of the protoplanetary disk [3]. A recent study of samples from the Tagish Lake meteorite with varying levels of hydrothermal alteration suggest that nanoglobule abundance decreases with increasing hydrothermal alteration [5]. The aim of this study is to further document the morphologies of IOM from a range of primitive chondrites in order to determine any correlation of morphology with petrographic grade and chondrite class that could constrain the formation and/or alteration mechanisms.

  4. Literature review of organic matter transport from marshes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dow, D. D.

    1982-01-01

    A conceptual model for estimating a transport coefficient for the movement of nonliving organic matter from wetlands to the adjacent embayments was developed in a manner that makes it compatible with the Earth Resources Laboratory's Productive Capacity Model. The model, which envisages detritus movement from wetland pixels to the nearest land-water boundary followed by movement within the water column from tidal creeks to the adjacent embayment, can be transposed to deal with only the interaction between tidal water and the marsh or to estimate the transport from embayments to the adjacent coastal waters. The outwelling hypothesis postulated wetlands as supporting coastal fisheries either by exporting nutrients, such as inorganic nitrogen, which stimulated the plankton-based grazing food chain in the water column, or through the export of dissolved and particulate organic carbon which provided a benthic, detritus-based food web which provides the food source for the grazing food chain in a more indirect fashion.

  5. Terrestrial and marine perspectives on modeling organic matter degradation pathways.

    PubMed

    Burd, Adrian B; Frey, Serita; Cabre, Anna; Ito, Takamitsu; Levine, Naomi M; Lønborg, Christian; Long, Matthew; Mauritz, Marguerite; Thomas, R Quinn; Stephens, Brandon M; Vanwalleghem, Tom; Zeng, Ning

    2016-01-01

    Organic matter (OM) plays a major role in both terrestrial and oceanic biogeochemical cycles. The amount of carbon stored in these systems is far greater than that of carbon dioxide (CO2 ) in the atmosphere, and annual fluxes of CO2 from these pools to the atmosphere exceed those from fossil fuel combustion. Understanding the processes that determine the fate of detrital material is important for predicting the effects that climate change will have on feedbacks to the global carbon cycle. However, Earth System Models (ESMs) typically utilize very simple formulations of processes affecting the mineralization and storage of detrital OM. Recent changes in our view of the nature of this material and the factors controlling its transformation have yet to find their way into models. In this review, we highlight the current understanding of the role and cycling of detrital OM in terrestrial and marine systems and examine how this pool of material is represented in ESMs. We include a discussion of the different mineralization pathways available as organic matter moves from soils, through inland waters to coastal systems and ultimately into open ocean environments. We argue that there is strong commonality between aspects of OM transformation in both terrestrial and marine systems and that our respective scientific communities would benefit from closer collaboration. PMID:26015089

  6. Synergy of fresh and accumulated organic matter to bacterial growth.

    PubMed

    Farjalla, Vinicius F; Marinho, Claudio C; Faria, Bias M; Amado, André M; Esteves, Francisco de A; Bozelli, Reinaldo L; Giroldo, Danilo

    2009-05-01

    The main goal of this research was to evaluate whether the mixture of fresh labile dissolved organic matter (DOM) and accumulated refractory DOM influences bacterial production, respiration, and growth efficiency (BGE) in aquatic ecosystems. Bacterial batch cultures were set up using DOM leached from aquatic macrophytes as the fresh DOM pool and DOM accumulated from a tropical humic lagoon. Two sets of experiments were performed and bacterial growth was followed in cultures composed of each carbon substrate (first experiment) and by carbon substrates combined (second experiment), with and without the addition of nitrogen and phosphorus. In both experiments, bacterial production, respiration, and BGE were always higher in cultures with N and P additions, indicating a consistent inorganic nutrient limitation. Bacterial production, respiration, and BGE were higher in cultures set up with leachate DOM than in cultures set up with humic DOM, indicating that the quality of the organic matter pool influenced the bacterial growth. Bacterial production and respiration were higher in the mixture of substrates (second experiment) than expected by bacterial production and respiration in single substrate cultures (first experiment). We suggest that the differences in the concentration of some compounds between DOM sources, the co-metabolism on carbon compound decomposition, and the higher diversity of molecules possibly support a greater bacterial diversity which might explain the higher bacterial growth observed. Finally, our results indicate that the mixture of fresh labile and accumulated refractory DOM that naturally occurs in aquatic ecosystems could accelerate the bacterial growth and bacterial DOM removal. PMID:18985269

  7. Photosensitizing properties of water-extractable organic matter from soils.

    PubMed

    Nkhili, Ezzhora; Boguta, Patrycja; Bejger, Romualda; Guyot, Ghislain; Sokołowska, Zofia; Richard, Claire

    2014-01-01

    Water-extractable organic matter (WEOM) was extracted using pure water from two black soils and from the Elliott reference soil of the International Humic Substances Society (IHSS). WEOMs were characterized by chemical and spectroscopic methods. The apparent quantum yields of singlet oxygen, triplet excited states and hydroxyl radicals formation upon irradiation within the wavelength range 290-450 nm were determined using chemical probes and compared to those of standard Elliott humic substances. In general, the aromatic content, as measured by the SUVA value, was close in WEOMs and humic substances, while the E2/E3 was higher and the humification index lower in the former. Quantum yield values measured for WEOMs fell within the range of those found for basic medium extracted humic substances or were even higher in one case. Thus, water soluble aromatic moiety of the soil organic matter, especially those with low humification degree, is important for the photosensitizing properties. We also found that WEOMs sensitized the bisphenol A phototransformation with rates of the same order of magnitude for all the samples. PMID:24083904

  8. Wastewater disinfection and organic matter removal using ferrate (VI) oxidation.

    PubMed

    Bandala, Erick R; Miranda, Jocelyn; Beltran, Margarita; Vaca, Mabel; López, Raymundo; Torres, Luis G

    2009-09-01

    The use of iron in a +6 valence state, (Fe (VI), as FeO4(-2)) was tested as a novel alternative for wastewater disinfection and decontamination. The removal of organic matter (OM) and index microorganisms present in an effluent of a wastewater plant was determined using FeO4(-2) without any pH adjustment. It was observed that concentrations of FeO4(-2) ranging between 5 and 14 mg l(-1) inactivated up to 4-log of the index microorganisms (initial concentration c.a. 10(6) CFU/100 ml) and achieved OM removal up to almost 50%. The performance of FeO4(-2) was compared with OM oxidation and disinfection using hypochlorite. It was observed that hypochlorite was less effective in OM oxidation and coliform inactivation than ferrate. Results of this work suggest that FeO4(-2) could be an interesting oxidant able to deactivate pathogenic microorganisms in water with high OM content and readily oxidize organic matter without jeopardizing its efficiency on microorganism inactivation. PMID:19491501

  9. Photochemical and Nonphotochemical Transformations of Cysteine with Dissolved Organic Matter.

    PubMed

    Chu, Chiheng; Erickson, Paul R; Lundeen, Rachel A; Stamatelatos, Dimitrios; Alaimo, Peter J; Latch, Douglas E; McNeill, Kristopher

    2016-06-21

    Cysteine (Cys) plays numerous key roles in the biogeochemistry of natural waters. Despite its importance, a full assessment of Cys abiotic transformation kinetics, products and pathways under environmental conditions has not been conducted. This study is a mechanistic evaluation of the photochemical and nonphotochemical (dark) transformations of Cys in solutions containing chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM). The results show that Cys underwent abiotic transformations under both dark and irradiated conditions. Under dark conditions, the transformation rates of Cys were moderate and were highly pH- and temperature-dependent. Under UVA or natural sunlight irradiations, Cys transformation rates were enhanced by up to two orders of magnitude compared to rates under dark conditions. Product analysis indicated cystine and cysteine sulfinic acid were the major photooxidation products. In addition, this study provides an assessment of the contributions of singlet oxygen, hydroxyl radical, hydrogen peroxide, and triplet dissolved organic matter to the CDOM-sensitized photochemical oxidation of Cys. The results suggest that another unknown pathway was dominant in the CDOM-sensitized photodegradation of Cys, which will require further study to identify. PMID:27172378

  10. Organic matter turnover in subsoils: current knowledge and future challenges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marschner, Bernd

    2014-05-01

    In the past, carbon flux measurements and modelling have mostly considered the topsoil where C-concentrations, root densities and microbial activities are generally highest. However, depending on climate zone and land use, this soil compartment contains only 30-50% of the C-stocks of the first meter. If the deeper subsoil down to 3 m is also considered, the contribution of topsoil carbon stocks to total soil C-pools is only 20-40%. Another distinct property of subsoil organic matter is its high apparent 14C age. The 14C age of bulk soil organic matter below 30 cm depth generally increases continuously indicating mean residence times of several 103 to 104 years. Large pool size and high radiocarbon age suggest that subsoil OM has accumulated at very low rates over very long time periods and therefore appears to be very stable. In this review, several hypotheses for explaining why subsoil SOM is so seemingly old and inert are presented. These questions are being addressed in a recently granted German research unit consisting of 9 subprojects from all soil science disciplines using field measurements of C-fluxes, 14C analyses and conducting field and lab experiments.

  11. An enhanced capillary electrophoresis method for characterizing natural organic matter.

    PubMed

    Cottrell, Barbara A; Cheng, Wei Ran; Lam, Buuan; Cooper, William J; Simpson, Andre J

    2013-02-21

    Natural organic matter (NOM) is ubiquitous and is one of the most complex naturally occurring mixtures. NOM plays an essential role in the global carbon cycle; atmospheric and natural water photochemistry; and the long-range transport of trace compounds and contaminants. There is a dearth of separation techniques capable of resolving this highly complex mixture. To our knowledge, this is the first reported use of ultrahigh resolution counterbalance capillary electrophoresis to resolve natural organic matter. The new separation strategy uses a low pH, high concentration phosphate buffer to reduce the capillary electroosmotic flow (EOF). Changing the polarity of the electrodes reverses the EOF to counterbalance the electrophoretic mobility. Sample stacking further improves the counterbalance separation. The combination of these conditions results in an electropherogram comprised up to three hundred peaks superimposed on the characteristic "humic hump" of NOM. Fraction collection, followed by three-dimensional emission excitation spectroscopy (EEMs) and UV spectroscopy generated a distinct profile of fluorescent and UV absorbing components. This enhanced counterbalance capillary electrophoresis method is a potentially powerful technique for the characterization and separation of NOM and complex environmental mixtures in general. PMID:23289095

  12. Land Application of Wastes: An Educational Program. Organic Matter - Module 17, Objectives, and Script.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clarkson, W. W.; And Others

    This module sketches out the impact of sewage organic matter on soils. For convenience, that organic matter is separated into the readily decomposable compounds and the more resistant material (volatile suspended solids, refractory organics, and sludges). The fates of those organics are reviewed along with loading rates and recommended soil…

  13. Sulfur species behavior in soil organic matter during decomposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schroth, Andrew W.; Bostick, Benjamin C.; Graham, Margaret; Kaste, James M.; Mitchell, Myron J.; Friedland, Andrew J.

    2007-12-01

    Soil organic matter (SOM) is a primary reservoir of terrestrial sulfur (S), but its role in the global S cycle remains poorly understood. We examine S speciation by X-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) spectroscopy to describe S species behavior during SOM decomposition. Sulfur species in SOM were best represented by organic sulfide, sulfoxide, sulfonate, and sulfate. The highest fraction of S in litter was organic sulfide, but as decomposition progressed, relative fractions of sulfonate and sulfate generally increased. Over 6-month laboratory incubations, organic sulfide was most reactive, suggesting that a fraction of this species was associated with a highly labile pool of SOM. During humification, relative concentrations of sulfoxide consistently decreased, demonstrating the importance of sulfoxide as a reactive S phase in soil. Sulfonate fractional abundance increased during humification irrespective of litter type, illustrating its relative stability in soils. The proportion of S species did not differ systematically by litter type, but organic sulfide became less abundant in conifer SOM during decomposition, while sulfate fractional abundance increased. Conversely, deciduous SOM exhibited lesser or nonexistent shifts in organic sulfide and sulfate fractions during decomposition, possibly suggesting that S reactivity in deciduous litter is coupled to rapid C mineralization and independent of S speciation. All trends were consistent in soils across study sites. We conclude that S reactivity is related to speciation in SOM, particularly in conifer forests, and S species fractions in SOM change during decomposition. Our data highlight the importance of intermediate valence species (sulfoxide and sulfonate) in the pedochemical cycling of organic bound S.

  14. Sulfur species behavior in soil organic matter during decomposition

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schroth, A.W.; Bostick, B.C.; Graham, M.; Kaste, J.M.; Mitchell, M.J.; Friedland, A.J.

    2007-01-01

    Soil organic matter (SOM) is a primary re??servoir of terrestrial sulfur (S), but its role in the global S cycle remains poorly understood. We examine S speciation by X-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) spectroscopy to describe S species behavior during SOM decomposition. Sulfur species in SOM were best represented by organic sulfide, sulfoxide, sulfonate, and sulfate. The highest fraction of S in litter was organic sulfide, but as decomposition progressed, relative fractions of sulfonate and sulfate generally increased. Over 6-month laboratory incubations, organic sulfide was most reactive, suggesting that a fraction of this species was associated with a highly labile pool of SOM. During humification, relative concentrations of sulfoxide consistently decreased, demonstrating the importance of sulfoxide as a reactive S phase in soil. Sulfonate fractional abundance increased during humification irrespective of litter type, illustrating its relative stability in soils. The proportion of S species did not differ systematically by litter type, but organic sulfide became less abundant in conifer SOM during decomposition, while sulfate fractional abundance increased. Conversely, deciduous SOM exhibited lesser or nonexistent shifts in organic sulfide and sulfate fractions during decomposition, possibly suggesting that S reactivity in deciduous litter is coupled to rapid C mineralization and independent of S speciation. All trends were consistent in soils across study sites. We conclude that S reactivity is related to spqciation in SOM, particularly in conifer forests, and S species fractions in SOM change, during decomposition. Our data highlight the importance of intermediate valence species (sulfoxide and sulfonate) in the pedochemical cycling of organic bound S. Copyright 2007 by the American Geophysical Union.

  15. Potential enzyme activities in cryoturbated organic matter of arctic soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schnecker, J.; Wild, B.; Rusalimova, O.; Mikutta, R.; Guggenberger, G.; Richter, A.

    2012-12-01

    An estimated 581 Gt organic carbon is stored in arctic soils that are affected by cryoturbtion, more than in today's atmosphere (450 Gt). The high amount of organic carbon is, amongst other factors, due to topsoil organic matter (OM) that has been subducted by freeze-thaw processes. This cryoturbated OM is usually hundreds to thousands of years old, while the chemical composition remains largely unaltered. It has therefore been suggested, that the retarded decomposition rates cannot be explained by unfavourable abiotic conditions in deeper soil layers alone. Since decomposition of soil organic material is dependent on extracellular enzymes, we measured potential and actual extracellular enzyme activities in organic topsoil, mineral subsoil and cryoturbated material from three different tundra sites, in Zackenberg (Greenland) and Cherskii (North-East Siberia). In addition we analysed the microbial community structure by PLFAs. Hydrolytic enzyme activities, calculated on a per gram dry mass basis, were higher in organic topsoil horizons than in cryoturbated horizons, which in turn were higher than in mineral horizons. When calculated on per gram carbon basis, the activity of the carbon acquiring enzyme exoglucanase was not significantly different between cryoturbated and topsoil organic horizons in any of the three sites. Oxidative enzymes, i.e. phenoloxidase and peroxidase, responsible for degradation of complex organic substances, showed higher activities in topsoil organic and cryoturbated horizons than in mineral horizons, when calculated per gram dry mass. Specific activities (per g C) however were highest in mineral horizons. We also measured actual cellulase activities (by inhibiting microbial uptake of products and without substrate addition): calculated per g C, the activities were up to ten times as high in organic topsoil compared to cryoturbated and mineral horizons, the latter not being significantly different. The total amount of PLFAs, as a proxy for

  16. Iron traps terrestrially derived dissolved organic matter at redox interfaces

    PubMed Central

    Riedel, Thomas; Zak, Dominik; Biester, Harald; Dittmar, Thorsten

    2013-01-01

    Reactive iron and organic carbon are intimately associated in soils and sediments. However, to date, the organic compounds involved are uncharacterized on the molecular level. At redox interfaces in peatlands, where the biogeochemical cycles of iron and dissolved organic matter (DOM) are coupled, this issue can readily be studied. We found that precipitation of iron hydroxides at the oxic surface layer of two rewetted fens removed a large fraction of DOM via coagulation. On aeration of anoxic fen pore waters, >90% of dissolved iron and 27 ± 7% (mean ± SD) of dissolved organic carbon were rapidly (within 24 h) removed. Using ultra-high-resolution MS, we show that vascular plant-derived aromatic and pyrogenic compounds were preferentially retained, whereas the majority of carboxyl-rich aliphatic acids remained in solution. We propose that redox interfaces, which are ubiquitous in marine and terrestrial settings, are selective yet intermediate barriers that limit the flux of land-derived DOM to oceanic waters. PMID:23733946

  17. Chemical mapping of proterozoic organic matter at submicron spatial resolution.

    PubMed

    Oehler, Dorothy Z; Robert, François; Mostefaoui, Smail; Meibom, Anders; Selo, Madeleine; McKay, David S

    2006-12-01

    A NanoSIMS ion microprobe was used to map the submicron-scale distributions of carbon, nitrogen, sulfur, silicon, and oxygen in organic microfossils and laminae in a thin section of the approximately 0.85 billion year old Bitter Springs Formation of Australia. The data provide clues about the original chemistry of the microfossils, the silicification process, and the biosignatures of specific microorganisms and microbial communities. Chemical maps of fossil unicells and filaments revealed distinct wall- and sheath-like structures enriched in C, N, and S, consistent with their accepted biological origin. Surprisingly, organic laminae, previously considered to be amorphous, also exhibited filamentous and apparently compressed spheroidal structures defined by strong enrichments in C, N, and S. By analogy to NanoSIMS data from the well-preserved microfossils, these structures were interpreted as being of biological origin, most likely representing densely packed remnants of microbial mats. Given that the preponderance of organic matter in Precambrian sediments is similarly "amorphous," our findings indicate that a re-evaluation of ancient specimens via in situ structural, chemical, and isotopic study is warranted. Our analyses have led us to propose new criteria for assessing the biogenicity of problematic kerogenous materials, and, thus, these criteria can be applied to assessments of poorly preserved or fragmentary organic residues in early Archean sediments and any that might occur in meteorites or other extraterrestrial samples. PMID:17155884

  18. Molecular composition of organic fine particulate matter in Houston, TX

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fraser, M. P.; Yue, Z. W.; Tropp, R. J.; Kohl, S. D.; Chow, J. C.

    Organic fine particulate matter collected in Houston, TX between March 1997 and March 1998 was analyzed to determine the concentration of individual organic compounds. Samples from four sites were analyzed including two industrial locations (Houston Regional Monitoring Corporation (HRM-3) site in Channelview and Clinton Drive site near the Ship Channel Turning Basin), one suburban location (Bingle Drive site in Northwest Houston) and one background site (Galveston Island). At the three urban locations, samples were divided into three seasonal sample aggregates (spring, summer and winter), while at the background site a single annual average sample pool was used. Between 10 and 16 individual samples were pooled to get aggregate samples with enough organic carbon mass for analysis. Overall, 82 individual organic compounds were quantified. These include molecular markers which are compounds unique to specific fine particle sources and can be used to track the relative contribution of source emissions to ambient fine particle levels. The differences both spatially and temporally in these tracers can be used to evaluate the variability in emission source strengths.

  19. DETOXIFICATION OF OUTFALL WATER USING NATURAL ORGANIC MATTER

    SciTech Connect

    Halverson, N.; Looney, B.; Millings, M.; Nichols, R.; Noonkester, J.; Payne, B.

    2010-07-13

    To protect stream organisms in an ephemeral stream at the Savannah River Site, a proposed National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permit reduced the copper limit from 25 {micro}g/l to 6 {micro}g/l at Outfall H-12. Efforts to reduce copper in the wastewater and stormwater draining to this outfall did not succeed in bringing copper levels below this limit. Numerous treatment methods were considered, including traditional methods such as ion exchange and natural treatment alternatives such as constructed wetlands and peat beds, all of which act to remove copper. However, the very low target metal concentration and highly variable outfall conditions presented a significant challenge for these treatment technologies. In addition, costs and energy use for most of these alternatives were high and secondary wastes would be generated. The Savannah River National Laboratory developed an entirely new 'detoxification' approach to treat the outfall water. This simple, lower-cost detoxification system amends outfall water with natural organic matter to bind up to 25 {micro}g/l copper rather than remove it, thereby mitigating its toxicity and protecting the sensitive species in the ecosystem. The amendments are OMRI (Organic Materials Review Institute) certified commercial products that are naturally rich in humic acids and are commonly used in organic farming.

  20. Iron traps terrestrially derived dissolved organic matter at redox interfaces.

    PubMed

    Riedel, Thomas; Zak, Dominik; Biester, Harald; Dittmar, Thorsten

    2013-06-18

    Reactive iron and organic carbon are intimately associated in soils and sediments. However, to date, the organic compounds involved are uncharacterized on the molecular level. At redox interfaces in peatlands, where the biogeochemical cycles of iron and dissolved organic matter (DOM) are coupled, this issue can readily be studied. We found that precipitation of iron hydroxides at the oxic surface layer of two rewetted fens removed a large fraction of DOM via coagulation. On aeration of anoxic fen pore waters, >90% of dissolved iron and 27 ± 7% (mean ± SD) of dissolved organic carbon were rapidly (within 24 h) removed. Using ultra-high-resolution MS, we show that vascular plant-derived aromatic and pyrogenic compounds were preferentially retained, whereas the majority of carboxyl-rich aliphatic acids remained in solution. We propose that redox interfaces, which are ubiquitous in marine and terrestrial settings, are selective yet intermediate barriers that limit the flux of land-derived DOM to oceanic waters. PMID:23733946

  1. Significance of Isotopically Labile Organic Hydrogen in Thermal Maturation of Organic Matter

    SciTech Connect

    Arndt Schimmelmann; Maria Mastalerz

    2010-03-30

    Isotopically labile organic hydrogen in fossil fuels occupies chemical positions that participate in isotopic exchange and in chemical reactions during thermal maturation from kerogen to bitumen, oil and gas. Carbon-bound organic hydrogen is isotopically far less exchangeable than hydrogen bound to nitrogen, oxygen, or sulfur. We explore why organic hydrogen isotope ratios express a relationship with organic nitrogen isotope ratios in kerogen at low to moderate maturity. We develop and apply new techniques to utilize organic D/H ratios in organic matter fractions and on a molecular level as tools for exploration for fossil fuels and for paleoenvironmental research. The scope of our samples includes naturally and artificially matured substrates, such as coal, shale, oil and gas.

  2. Nanoscale Structure Of Organic Matter Explain Its Recalcitrance To Degradation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spagnol, M.; Salati, S.; Papa, G.; Tambone, F.; Adani, F.

    2009-04-01

    Recalcitrance can be defined as the natural resistance of organic matter (OM) to microbial and enzymatic deconstruction (Himmel et al., 2007). The nature of OM recalcitrance remained not completely understood and more studies need above all to elucidate the role of the chemical topography of the OM at nanometer scale. Hydrolytic enzymes responsible of OM degradation have a molecular weight of 20-25 kD, corresponding to a size of about 4 nm, hardly penetrate into micropores (i.e. the pore having a diameter < 2 nm) and small mesopores (i.e. pores having a diameter 2 < 50 nm) of OM structures, so that their activities are confined only to a portion of the total surface (Zimmerman et al., 2004; Chesson, 1997; Adani et al., 2006). As consequence of that the characterization of the organic matter at nano-scale became interesting in view to explain OM recalcitrance. The aim of this work was to asses the effect of the nano-scale structure of OM versus its recalcitrance. The evolution of organic matter of organic matrices was studied in two systems: plant residue-soil system and simulated landfill system. Plant residues were incubated in soil for one year and recalcitrant fraction, i.e. humic acid, was isolated and studied. Laboratory simulated landfill considered organic fraction of municipal solid waste sampled at different stages of evolution from a full scale plant and incubated under anaerobic condition for one year. In addition the nano-scale structure of fossilized OM (leonardite, chair coal and graphite) was detected as used as model of recalcitrant OM. Nano-scale structures were detected by using meso and microporosity detection. In particular microporosity was determined by adsorption method using CO2 at 273 K and Non Local Density Functional Theory (NLDFT) method was applied to measure the CO2 adsorption isotherms. On the other hand mesoporosity was detected by using N2 adsorption method at 77 K. The BET (Brunauer-Emmett-Teller) equation and the BJH (Barret

  3. Measuring Organic Matter with COSIMA on Board Rosetta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Briois, C.; Baklouti, D.; Bardyn, A.; Cottin, H.; Engrand, C.; Fischer, H.; Fray, N.; Godard, M.; Hilchenbach, M.; von Hoerner, H.; Höfner, H.; Hornung, K.; Kissel, J.; Langevin, Y.; Le Roy, L.; Lehto, H.; Lehto, K.; Orthous-Daunay, F. R.; Revillet, C.; Rynö, J.; Schulz, R.; Silen, J. V.; Siljeström, S.; Thirkell, L.

    2014-12-01

    Comets are believed to contain the most pristine material of our Solar System materials and therefore to be a key to understand the origin of the Solar System, and the origin of life. Remote sensing observations have led to the detection of more than twenty simple organic molecules (Bockelée-Morvan et al., 2004; Mumma and Charnley, 2011). Experiments on-board in-situ exploration missions Giotto and Vega and the recent Stardust sample return missions have shown that a significant fraction of the cometary grains consists of organic matter. Spectra showed that both the gaseous (Mitchell et al., 1992) and the solid phase (grains) (Kissel and Krueger, 1987) contained organic molecules with higher masses than those of the molecules detected by remote sensing techniques in the gaseous phase. Some of the grains analyzed in the atmosphere of comet 1P/Halley seem to be essentially made of a mixture of carbon, hydrogen, oxygen and nitrogen (CHON grains, Fomenkova, 1999). Rosetta is an unparalleled opportunity to make a real breakthrough into the nature of cometary matter, both in the gas and in the solid phase. The dust mass spectrometer COSIMA on Rosetta will analyze organic and inorganic phases in the dust. The organic phases may be refractory, but some organics may evaporate with time from the dust and lead to an extended source in the coma. Over the last years, we have prepared the cometary rendezvous by the analysis of various samples with the reference model of COSIMA. We will report on this calibration data set and on the first results of the in-situ analysis of cometary grains as captured, imaged and analyzed by COSIMA. References : Bockelée-Morvan, D., et al. 2004. (Eds.), Comets II. the University of Arizona Press, Tucson, USA, pp. 391-423 ; Fomenkova, M.N., 1999. Space Science Reviews 90, 109-114 ; Kissel, J., Krueger, F.R., 1987. Nature 326, 755-760 ; Mitchell, et al. 1992. Icarus 98, 125-133 ; Mumma, M.J., Charnley, S.B., 2011. Annual Review of Astronomy and

  4. Organic matter loss from cultivated peat soils in Sweden

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berglund, Örjan; Berglund, Kerstin

    2015-04-01

    The degradation of drained peat soils in agricultural use is an underestimated source of loss of organic matter. Oxidation (biological degradation) of agricultural peat soils causes a loss of organic matter (OM) of 11 - 22 t ha-1 y-1 causing a CO2 emission of 20 - 40 t ha-1 y-1. Together with the associated N2O emissions from mineralized N this totals in the EU to about 98.5 Mton CO2 eq per year. Peat soils are very prone to climate change and it is expected that at the end of this century these values are doubled. The degradation products pollute surface waters. Wind erosion of peat soils in arable agriculture can cause losses of 3 - 30 t ha-1 y-1 peat also causing air pollution (fine organic particles). Subsidence rates are 1 - 2 cm per year which leads to deteriorating drainage effect and make peat soils below sea or inland water levels prone to flooding. Flooding agricultural peat soils is in many cases not possible without high costs, high GHG emissions and severe water pollution. Moreover sometimes cultural and historic landscapes are lost and meadow birds areas are lost. In areas where the possibility to regulate the water table is limited the mitigation options are either to increase biomass production that can be used as bioenergy to substitute some fossil fuel, try to slow down the break-down of the peat by different amendments that inhibit microbial activity, or permanent flooding. The negative effects of wind erosion can be mitigated by reducing wind speed or different ways to protect the soil by crops or fiber sheets. In a newly started project in Sweden a typical peat soil with and without amendment of foundry sand is cropped with reed canary grass, tall fescue and timothy to investigate the yield and greenhouse gas emissions from the different crops and how the sand effect the trafficability and GHG emissions.

  5. Molecular simulation of a model of dissolved organic matter

    SciTech Connect

    Sutton, Rebecca; Sposito, Garrison; Diallo, Mamadou S.; Schulten,Hans-Rolf

    2004-11-08

    A series of atomistic simulations was performed to assess the ability of the Schulten dissolved organic matter (DOM) molecule, a well-established model humic molecule, to reproduce the physical and chemical behavior of natural humic substances. The unhydrated DOM molecule had a bulk density value appropriate to humic matter, but its Hildebrand solubility parameter was lower than the range of current experimental estimates. Under hydrated conditions, the DOM molecule went through conformational adjustments that resulted in disruption of intramolecular hydrogen bonds (H-bonds), although few water molecules penetrated the organic interior. The radius of gyration of the hydrated DOM molecule was similar to those measured for aquatic humic substances. To simulate humic materials under aqueous conditions with varying pH levels, carboxyl groups were deprotonated, and hydrated Na{sup +} or Ca{sup 2+} were added to balance the resulting negative charge. Because of intrusion of the cation hydrates, the model metal- humic structures were more porous, had greater solvent-accessible surface areas, and formed more H-bonds with water than the protonated, hydrated DOM molecule. Relative to Na{sup +}, Ca{sup 2+} was both more strongly bound to carboxylate groups and more fully hydrated. This difference was attributed to the higher charge of the divalent cation. The Ca-DOM hydrate, however, featured fewer H-bonds than the Na-DOM hydrate, perhaps because of the reduced orientational freedom of organic moieties and water molecules imposed by Ca{sup 2+}. The present work is, to our knowledge, the first rigorous computational exploration regarding the behavior of a model humic molecule under a range of physical conditions typical of soil and water systems.

  6. SNC Meteorites, Organic Matter and a New Look at Viking

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Warmflash, David M.; Clemett, Simon J.; McKay, David S.

    2001-01-01

    Recently, evidence has begun to grow supporting the possibility that the Viking GC-MS would not have detected certain carboxylate salts that could have been present as metastable oxidation products of high molecular weight organic species. Additionally, despite the instrument's high sensitivity, the possibility had remained that very low levels of organic matter, below the instrument's detection limit, could have been present. In fact, a recent study indicates that the degradation products of several million microorganisms per gram of soil on Mars would not have been detected by the Viking GC-MS. Since the strength of the GC-MS findings was considered enough to dismiss the biology packet, particularly the LR results, any subsequent evidence suggesting that organic molecules may in fact be present on the Martian surface necessitates a re-evaluation of the Viking LR data. In addition to an advanced mass spectrometer to look for isotopic signatures of biogenic processes, future lander missions will include the ability to detect methane produced by methanogenic bacteria, as well as techniques based on biotechnology. Meanwhile, the identification of Mars samples already present on Earth in the form of the SNC meteorites has provided us with the ability to study samples of the Martian upper crust a decade or more in advance of any planned sample return missions. While contamination issues are of serious concern, the presence of indigenous organic matter in the form of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons has been detected in the Martian meteorites ALH84001 and Nakhla, while there is circumstantial evidence for carbonaceous material in Chassigny. The radiochronological ages of these meteorites are 4.5 Ga, 1.3 Ga, and 165 Ma respectively representing a span of time in Earth history from the earliest single-celled organisms to the present day. Given this perspective on organic material, a biological interpretation to the Viking LR results can no longer be ruled out. In the LR

  7. Quality of fresh organic matter affects priming of soil organic matter and substrate utilization patterns of microbes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Hui; Boutton, Thomas W.; Xu, Wenhua; Hu, Guoqing; Jiang, Ping; Bai, Edith

    2015-05-01

    Changes in biogeochemical cycles and the climate system due to human activities are expected to change the quantity and quality of plant litter inputs to soils. How changing quality of fresh organic matter (FOM) might influence the priming effect (PE) on soil organic matter (SOM) mineralization is still under debate. Here we determined the PE induced by two 13C-labeled FOMs with contrasting nutritional quality (leaf vs. stalk of Zea mays L.). Soils from two different forest types yielded consistent results: soils amended with leaf tissue switched faster from negative PE to positive PE due to greater microbial growth compared to soils amended with stalks. However, after 16 d of incubation, soils amended with stalks had a higher PE than those amended with leaf. Phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) results suggested that microbial demand for carbon and other nutrients was one of the major determinants of the PE observed. Therefore, consideration of both microbial demands for nutrients and FOM supply simultaneously is essential to understand the underlying mechanisms of PE. Our study provided evidence that changes in FOM quality could affect microbial utilization of substrate and PE on SOM mineralization, which may exacerbate global warming problems under future climate change.

  8. Quality of fresh organic matter affects priming of soil organic matter and substrate utilization patterns of microbes.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hui; Boutton, Thomas W; Xu, Wenhua; Hu, Guoqing; Jiang, Ping; Bai, Edith

    2015-01-01

    Changes in biogeochemical cycles and the climate system due to human activities are expected to change the quantity and quality of plant litter inputs to soils. How changing quality of fresh organic matter (FOM) might influence the priming effect (PE) on soil organic matter (SOM) mineralization is still under debate. Here we determined the PE induced by two (13)C-labeled FOMs with contrasting nutritional quality (leaf vs. stalk of Zea mays L.). Soils from two different forest types yielded consistent results: soils amended with leaf tissue switched faster from negative PE to positive PE due to greater microbial growth compared to soils amended with stalks. However, after 16 d of incubation, soils amended with stalks had a higher PE than those amended with leaf. Phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) results suggested that microbial demand for carbon and other nutrients was one of the major determinants of the PE observed. Therefore, consideration of both microbial demands for nutrients and FOM supply simultaneously is essential to understand the underlying mechanisms of PE. Our study provided evidence that changes in FOM quality could affect microbial utilization of substrate and PE on SOM mineralization, which may exacerbate global warming problems under future climate change. PMID:25960162

  9. Quality of fresh organic matter affects priming of soil organic matter and substrate utilization patterns of microbes

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Hui; Boutton, Thomas W.; Xu, Wenhua; Hu, Guoqing; Jiang, Ping; Bai, Edith

    2015-01-01

    Changes in biogeochemical cycles and the climate system due to human activities are expected to change the quantity and quality of plant litter inputs to soils. How changing quality of fresh organic matter (FOM) might influence the priming effect (PE) on soil organic matter (SOM) mineralization is still under debate. Here we determined the PE induced by two 13C-labeled FOMs with contrasting nutritional quality (leaf vs. stalk of Zea mays L.). Soils from two different forest types yielded consistent results: soils amended with leaf tissue switched faster from negative PE to positive PE due to greater microbial growth compared to soils amended with stalks. However, after 16 d of incubation, soils amended with stalks had a higher PE than those amended with leaf. Phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) results suggested that microbial demand for carbon and other nutrients was one of the major determinants of the PE observed. Therefore, consideration of both microbial demands for nutrients and FOM supply simultaneously is essential to understand the underlying mechanisms of PE. Our study provided evidence that changes in FOM quality could affect microbial utilization of substrate and PE on SOM mineralization, which may exacerbate global warming problems under future climate change. PMID:25960162

  10. Influence of land use on soil organic matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rogeon, H.; Lemée, L.; Chabbi, A.; Ambles, A.

    2009-04-01

    Soil organic matter (SOM) is actually of great environmental interest as the amount of organic matter stored in soils represents one of the largest reservoirs of organic carbon on the global scale [1]. Indeed, soil carbon storage capacity represents 1500 to 2000 Gt for the first meter depth, which is twice the concentration of atmospheric CO2 [2]. Furthermore, human activities, such as deforestation (which represents a flux of 1.3 Gt C/year), contribute to the increase in atmospheric CO2 concentration for about one percent a year [3]. Therefore, carbon dioxide sequestration in plant and carbon storage in soil and biomass could be considered as a complementary solution against climate change. The stock of carbon in soils is greatly influenced by land use (ca 70 Gt for a forest soil or a grassland against 40 Gt for an arable land). Furthermore the molecular composition of SOM should be also influenced by vegetation. In this context, four horizons taken between 0-120 cm from the same profile of a soil under grassland and forest located in the vicinity of Poitiers (INRA Lusignan, ORE Prairie) were compared. For the surface horizon, the study is improved with the results from the cultivated soil from INRA Versailles. Soil organic matter was characterized using IR spectroscopy, elemental analysis and thermal analysis. Granulometric fractionation into sand (50-2000 μm), silt (2-50 μm) and clay (<2 μm) was conducted. The organic matter associated with the mineral fractions was thus characterized using thermochemolysis coupled with gas chromatography and mass spectrometry (Py-GC/MS). The total lipidic fractions were extracted with CH2Cl2/MeOH using an accelerated solvent extraction (ASE). In the three soils, lipids are concentrated into the superficial horizon (0-30 cm) which indicates a low mobilisation. Lipids from the superficial horizon are more abundant for the arable soil (1010 ppm) than for the two other (400 ppm). Lipids from the forest and the grassland were

  11. Storage and turnover of organic matter in soil

    SciTech Connect

    Torn, M.S.; Swanston, C.W.; Castanha, C.; Trumbore, S.E.

    2008-07-15

    Historically, attention on soil organic matter (SOM) has focused on the central role that it plays in ecosystem fertility and soil properties, but in the past two decades the role of soil organic carbon in moderating atmospheric CO{sub 2} concentrations has emerged as a critical research area. This chapter will focus on the storage and turnover of natural organic matter in soil (SOM), in the context of the global carbon cycle. Organic matter in soils is the largest carbon reservoir in rapid exchange with atmospheric CO{sub 2}, and is thus important as a potential source and sink of greenhouse gases over time scales of human concern (Fischlin and Gyalistras 1997). SOM is also an important human resource under active management in agricultural and range lands worldwide. Questions driving present research on the soil C cycle include: Are soils now acting as a net source or sink of carbon to the atmosphere? What role will soils play as a natural modulator or amplifier of climatic warming? How is C stabilized and sequestered, and what are effective management techniques to foster these processes? Answering these questions will require a mechanistic understanding of how and where C is stored in soils. The quantity and composition of organic matter in soil reflect the long-term balance between plant carbon inputs and microbial decomposition, as well as other loss processes such as fire, erosion, and leaching. The processes driving soil carbon storage and turnover are complex and involve influences at molecular to global scales. Moreover, the relative importance of these processes varies according to the temporal and spatial scales being considered; a process that is important at the regional scale may not be critical at the pedon scale. At the regional scale, SOM cycling is influenced by factors such as climate and parent material, which affect plant productivity and soil development. More locally, factors such as plant tissue quality and soil mineralogy affect

  12. Size fractionated characterization of freshwater organic matter fluorescence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baker, A.; Lead, J.; Elliott, S.; Demomi, A.; Liu, R.; Seredynska-Sobecka, B.; Hudson, N. J.

    2006-12-01

    We employ a range of optical (fluorescence, absorbance) techniques to freshwater organic matter, focusing on samples from urban catchments and using both traditional (filtration, cross flow ultrafiltration) and novel (split cell thin flow (SPLITT)) fractionation techniques to investigate the fluorescence characteristics of both dissolved and colloidal organic matter and to probe different fractions of the size range. We find: (1) As with previous studies, urban freshwaters have high tryptophan-like fluorescence in comparison to humic-like fluorescence. (2) After conventional filtration, our samples demonstrate that humic-like fluorescence is predominantly within the <25 nm fraction and pH dependent, suggesting that it is predominantly `dissolved'. Tryptophan-like fluorescence is associated with either dissolved, colloidal and particulate fractions, and is less pH dependent, depending on the sample, suggesting a variety of sources that are known to include microbial and biological cells and their exudates and the products of decomposition and feeding. (3) When the thermal quenching of fluorescence is investigated at different filter fractions, humic-like fluorescence quenching does not vary with filter fraction, whereas tryptophan-like fluorescence quenching exhibits a size dependency. This confirms at least two sources of tryptophan-like fluorescence that have different sizes and different thermal quenching properties. (4) SPLITT also shows that tryptophan-like fluorescence intensity is found mainly in the particulate material and is not pH dependent, while humic-like fluorescence intensities are dependent on pH but not on size. However, humic-like fluorescence intensity normalised to absorbance, related to fluorescence efficiency and molar mass, varies with size in the SPLITT samples. (5) Cross flow ultrafiltration confirms that, compared with tryptophan standards, freshwater tryptophan-like fluorescence is not dissolved and `free'. However, it is related to the

  13. Root Mediation of Soil Organic Matter Feedbacks to Climate Change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pendall, E.; Carrillo, Y.; Nie, M.; Osanai, Y.; Nelson, L. C.; Sanderman, J.; Baldock, J.; Hovenden, M.

    2014-12-01

    The importance of plant roots in carbon cycling and especially soil organic matter (SOM) formation and decomposition has been recently recognized. Up to eighty percent of net primary production may be allocated to roots in ecosystems such as grasslands, where they contribute substantially to SOM formation. On the other hand, root induced priming of SOM decomposition has been implicated in the loss of soil C stocks. Thus, the accurate prediction of climate change impacts on C sequestration in soils largely depends upon improved understanding of root-mediated SOM formation and loss in the rhizosphere. This presentation represents an initial attempt to synthesize belowground observations from free-air CO2 enrichment and warming experiments in two grassland ecosystems. We found that the chemical composition of root carbon is similar to particulate organic matter (POM), but not to mineral associated organic matter (MOM), suggesting less microbial modification during formation of POM than MOM. While root biomass and production rates increased under elevated CO2, POM and MOM fractions did not increase proportionally. We also observed increased root decomposition with elevated CO2, which was likely due to increased soil water and substrate availability, since root C quality (determined by NMR) and decomposition (in laboratory incubations) were unaltered. Further, C quality and decomposition rates of roots differed between C3 and C4 functional types. Changes in root morphology with elevated CO2 have altered root functioning. Increased root surface area and length per unit mass allow increased exploration for nutrients, and potentially enhanced root exudation, rhizodeposition, and priming of SOM decomposition. Controlled chamber experiments demonstrated that uptake of N from SOM was linearly correlated with specific root length. Taken together, these results indicate that root morphology, chemistry and function all play roles in affecting soil C storage and loss, and that

  14. Algal blooms and "Marine snow": Mechanisms that enhance preservation of organic carbon in ancient fine-grained sediments

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Macquaker, J.H.S.; Keller, M.A.; Davies, S.J.

    2010-01-01

    Combined petographic and geochemical methods are used to investigate the microfabrics present in thin sections prepared from representative organic carbon-rich mudstones collected from three successions (the Kimmeridge Clay Formation, the Jet Rock Member of the Whitby Mudstone Formation, and the pebble shale and Hue Shale). This study was initiated to determine how organic carbon-rich materials were being delivered to the sediment-water interface, and what happened to them after deposition, prior to deep burial. Analyses of the fabrics present shows that they exhibit many common attributes. In particular they are all: (1) highly heterogeneous on the scale of a thin section, (2) organized into thin beds (< 10 mm thick) composed mainly of mineral mixtures of fine-grained siliciclastic detritus and carbonate materials, and (3) contain significant concentrations of organic carbon, much of which is organized into laminasets that contain abundant organomineralic aggregates and pellets. In addition, framboidal pyrite (range of sizes from < 20 urn to < 1 ??m) and abundant agglutinated foraminifers are present in some units. The individual beds are commonly sharp-based and overlain by thin, silt lags. The tops of many of the beds have been homogenized and some regions of the pelleted laminasets contain small horizontal burrows. The organomineralic aggregates present in these mudstones are interpreted to be ancient examples of marine snow. This marine snow likely formed in the water column, particularly during phytoplankton blooms, and was then transported rapidly to the seafloor. The existence of the thin beds with homogenized tops and an in-situ infauna indicates that between blooms there was sufficient oxygen and time for a mixed layer to develop as a result of sediment colonization by diminutive organisms using either aerobic or dysaerobic metabolic pathways. These textures suggest that the constituents of these mudstones were delivered neither as a continuous rain of

  15. Relevance of wet deposition of organic matter for alpine ecosystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mladenov, N.; Williams, M. W.; Schmidt, S. K.; Goss, N. R.; Reche, I.

    2011-12-01

    In barren, alpine environments, carbon inputs from atmospheric deposition may be very important for ecological processes. Recent findings suggest that atmospheric deposition influences the quality of dissolved organic matter (DOM) in alpine lakes on a global scale. Here, we evaluate the inputs of DOM in atmospheric wet deposition to alpine terrestrial ecosystems, in terms of both quantity and quality. We show that at the Niwot Ridge Long Term Ecological Research Station (Colorado, USA) wet deposition represents a seasonally variable (Figure 1) mass input of organic carbon, depositing on average 6 kg C/ha/yr or roughly 1500 kg C to the Green Lake 4 watershed at Niwot Ridge. Wet deposition is, therefore, a substantial input of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) to the catchment when compared to the annual DOC yield from Green Lake 4, estimated at just over 1800 kg C. In terms of DOM bioavailability for alpine microorganisms, our optical spectroscopic results showing high amounts of amino acid-like fluorescence and low aromaticity suggest that DOM in wet deposition may be particularly labile, especially in the summer months. The heterotrophic processing of this organic carbon input has important implications for the cycling of other nutrients, such as nitrogen, in alpine environments. We have also shown that the sources of DOM in wet deposition include bioaerosols, such as pollen, which represent much of the summer DOC loading. However, relationships with inorganic N and sulfate also suggest that organic pollutants in the atmosphere may have an equally important influence on DOM in wet deposition. Additionally, the quality of wet deposition DOM in the spring is similar to that of dust deposition observed near the Sahara and may be influenced by dust events, as shown from air mass trajectories originating in or near the Colorado Plateau. The seasonality of DOM quality appears to be related to these varying sources and is, therefore, a critical topic for future research.

  16. Sources, Ages, and Alteration of Organic Matter in Estuaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Canuel, Elizabeth A.; Hardison, Amber K.

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the processes influencing the sources and fate of organic matter (OM) in estuaries is important for quantifying the contributions of carbon from land and rivers to the global carbon budget of the coastal ocean. Estuaries are sites of high OM production and processing, and understanding biogeochemical processes within these regions is key to quantifying organic carbon (Corg) budgets at the land-ocean margin. These regions provide vital ecological services, including nutrient filtration and protection from floods and storm surge, and provide habitat and nursery areas for numerous commercially important species. Human activities have modified estuarine systems over time, resulting in changes in the production, respiration, burial, and export of Corg. Corg in estuaries is derived from aquatic, terrigenous, and anthropogenic sources, with each source exhibiting a spectrum of ages and lability. The complex source and age characteristics of Corg in estuaries complicate our ability to trace OM along the river-estuary-coastal ocean continuum. This review focuses on the application of organic biomarkers and compound-specific isotope analyses to estuarine environments and on how these tools have enhanced our ability to discern natural sources of OM, trace their incorporation into food webs, and enhance understanding of the fate of Corg within estuaries and their adjacent waters.

  17. Sources, Ages, and Alteration of Organic Matter in Estuaries.

    PubMed

    Canuel, Elizabeth A; Hardison, Amber K

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the processes influencing the sources and fate of organic matter (OM) in estuaries is important for quantifying the contributions of carbon from land and rivers to the global carbon budget of the coastal ocean. Estuaries are sites of high OM production and processing, and understanding biogeochemical processes within these regions is key to quantifying organic carbon (Corg) budgets at the land-ocean margin. These regions provide vital ecological services, including nutrient filtration and protection from floods and storm surge, and provide habitat and nursery areas for numerous commercially important species. Human activities have modified estuarine systems over time, resulting in changes in the production, respiration, burial, and export of Corg. Corg in estuaries is derived from aquatic, terrigenous, and anthropogenic sources, with each source exhibiting a spectrum of ages and lability. The complex source and age characteristics of Corg in estuaries complicate our ability to trace OM along the river-estuary-coastal ocean continuum. This review focuses on the application of organic biomarkers and compound-specific isotope analyses to estuarine environments and on how these tools have enhanced our ability to discern natural sources of OM, trace their incorporation into food webs, and enhance understanding of the fate of Corg within estuaries and their adjacent waters. PMID:26407145

  18. Modeling of natural organic matter transport processes in groundwater.

    PubMed Central

    Yeh, T C; Mas-Pla, J; McCarthy, J F; Williams, T M

    1995-01-01

    A forced-gradient tracer test was conducted at the Georgetown site to study the transport of natural organic matter (NOM) in groundwater. In particular, the goal of this experiment was to investigate the interactions between NOM and the aquifer matrix. A detailed three-dimensional characterization of the hydrologic conductivity heterogeneity of the site was obtained using slug tests. The transport of a conservative tracer (chloride) was successfully reproduced using these conductivity data. Despite the good simulation of the flow field, NOM breakthrough curves could not be reproduced using a two-site sorption model with spatially constant parameters. Preliminary results suggest that different mechanisms for the adsorption/desorption processes, as well as their spatial variability, may significantly affect the transport and fate of NOM. PMID:7621798

  19. [Dissolved organic matter (DOM) dynamics in karst aquifer systems].

    PubMed

    Yao, Xin; Zou, Sheng-Zhang; Xia, Ri-Yuan; Xu, Dan-Dan; Yao, Min

    2014-05-01

    Dissolved organic matter (DOM) and nutrients have a unique way of producing, decomposing and storing in southwest karst water systems. To understand the biogeochemical cycle of DOM in karst aquifer systems, we investigated the behavioral changes of DOM fluorescence components in Zhaidi karst river system. Two humic-like components (C1 and C2), and one autochthonous tyrosine-like component (C4) were identified using the parallel factor analysis (PARAFAC) model. Compared with the traditional physical and chemical indicators, spatial heterogeneity of DOM was more obvious, which can reflect the subtle changes in groundwater system. Traditional indicators mainly reflect the regional characteristics of karst river system, while DOM fluorescence components reflect the attribute gaps of sampling types. PMID:25055664

  20. Impact of natural organic matter (NOM) on freshwater amphipods.

    PubMed

    Timofeyev, Maxim A; Wiegand, Claudia; Kent Burnison, B; Shatilina, Zhanna M; Pflugmacher, Stephan; Steinberg, Christian E W

    2004-02-01

    Natural organic matter (NOM) isolated from the eutrophic Sanctuary Pond (Point Pelee National Park, Canada) has an adverse impact on amphipod species (Gammarus tigrinus and Chaetogammarus ischnus from Lake Müggelsee, Germany, and Eulimnogammarus cyaneus, from Lake Baikal, Russia). Increases in amphipod mortality, changes in peroxidase activity and increases of heat shock protein (hsp70) expression were observed upon exposure to NOM. The highest resistance to the adverse impact of NOM was observed with the endemic Baikalian amphipod E. cyaneus. However, the mechanisms behind this finding remains obscure. If differences in the sensitivity of the hsp70 antibody may be excluded, different modes of action may be postulated: because the adverse impact of NOM may be caused by reactive oxygen species (ROS) and the NOM itself, the observed differences may be due to the action of ROS alone (with E. cyaneus) and a combination of both adverse modes of action (European species). PMID:14967505

  1. Systematic approaches to comprehensive analyses of natural organic matter

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Leenheer, Jerry A.

    2009-01-01

    The more that is learned of the chemistry of aquatic natural organic matter (NOM) the greater is the scientific appreciation of the vast complexity of this subject. This complexity is due not only to a multiplicity of precursor molecules in any environment but to their associations with each other and with other components of local environments such as clays, mineral acids and dissolved metals. In addition, this complex system is subject to constant change owing to environmental variables and microbial action. Thus, there is a good argument that no two NOM samples are exactly the same even from the same source at nearly the same time. When ubiquity of occurrence, reaction with water treatment chemicals, and subsequent human exposure are added to the list of NOM issues, one can understand the appeal that this subject holds for a wide variety of environmental scientists.

  2. A search for presolar organic matter in meteorite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yang, J.; Epstein, S.

    1985-01-01

    The D/H ratios and the C-13/C-12 ratios of acid-insoluble organic matter of 4 meteorites, Ochansk (H4), Plainview (H5), Gladstone (H6) and Odessa (IA), were measured. delta-D values for hydrogen extracted by stepwise combustion were negative, down to -280 deg/infinity. delta-C-13 values were also negative except in the case of the carbon coming off at the highest temperature steps for Plainview and Odessa meteorites. The concentrations of C-13-rich carbon were 3-5 orders of magnitude smaller than those found in Murchison meteorite, suggesting that relic grains of stellar condensates were mostly destroyed in the meteorites examined.

  3. Grown organic matter as a fuel raw material resource

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roller, W. L.; Keener, H. M.; Kline, R. D.; Mederski, H. J.; Curry, R. B.

    1975-01-01

    An extensive search was made on biomass production from the standpoint of climatic zones, water, nutrients, costs and energy requirements for many species. No exotic species were uncovered that gave hope for a bonanza of biomass production under culture, location, and management markedly different from those of existing agricultural concepts. A simulation analysis of biomass production was carried out for six species using conventional production methods, including their production costs and energy requirements. These estimates were compared with data on food, fiber, and feed production. The alternative possibility of using residues from food, feed, or lumber was evaluated. It was concluded that great doubt must be cast on the feasibility of producing grown organic matter for fuel, in competition with food, feed, or fiber. The feasibility of collecting residues may be nearer, but the competition for the residues for return to the soil or cellulosic production is formidable.

  4. Soil Organic Matter Feedback to changes in soil moisture regimes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuhn, N. J.; Strunk, R.

    2012-04-01

    The reaction of the soil organic matter (SOM) pool to climate change is largely assessed based on simple models linking temperature and soil moisture, in more sophisticated models also Net Primary Productivity (NPP), to Carbon (C) stocks. Experiments on the sensitivity of vegetation growth and soil properties also mostly consider only temperature as a driver for NPP and thus SOM turnover in soils, while keeping moisture either constant or not distinguishing between moisture and temperature effects. All approaches ignore the feedback of secondary soil properties such aggregation and pore size distribution, to changes in rainfall regime and litter input. In this study, we present an experiment which is designed specifically to identifying the long-term effects of contrasting soil moisture regimes on NPP, soil C stocks and secondary soil properties such as aggregate stability and porosity. In addition, soil respiration as well as SOM quantity and quality are analyzed.

  5. Measuring and modeling continuous quality distributions of soil organic matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bruun, S.; Gren, G. I. Ã.; Christensen, B. T.; Jensen, L. S.

    2010-01-01

    An understanding of the dynamics of soil organic matter (SOM) is important for our ability to develop management practices that preserve soil quality and sequester carbon. Most SOM decomposition models represent the heterogeneity of organic matter by a few discrete compartments with different turnover rates, while other models employ a continuous quality distribution. To make the multi-compartment models more mechanistic in nature, it has been argued that the compartments should be related to soil fractions actually occurring and having a functional role in the soil. In this paper, we make the case that fractionation methods that can measure continuous quality distributions should be developed, and that the temporal development of these distributions should be incorporated into SOM models. The measured continuous SOM quality distributions should hold valuable information not only for model development, but also for direct interpretation. Measuring continuous distributions requires that the measurements along the quality variable are so frequent that the distribution approaches the underlying continuum. Continuous distributions lead to possible simplifications of the model formulations, which considerably reduce the number of parameters needed to describe SOM turnover. A general framework for SOM models representing SOM across measurable quality distributions is presented and simplifications for specific situations are discussed. Finally, methods that have been used or have the potential to be used to measure continuous quality SOM distributions are reviewed. Generally, existing fractionation methods will have to be modified to allow measurement of distributions or new fractionation techniques will have to be developed. Developing the distributional models in concert with the fractionation methods to measure the distributions will be a major task. We hope the current paper will help generate the interest needed to accommodate this.

  6. Measuring and modelling continuous quality distributions of soil organic matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bruun, S.; Gren, G. I.; Christensen, B. T.; Jensen, L. S.

    2009-09-01

    An understanding of the dynamics of soil organic matter (SOM) is important for our ability to develop management practices that preserve soil quality and sequester carbon. Most SOM decomposition models represent the heterogeneity of organic matter by a few discrete compartments with different turnover rates, while other models employ a continuous quality distribution. To make the multi-compartment models more mechanistic in nature, it has been argued that the compartments should be related to soil fractions actually occurring and having a functional role in the soil. In this paper, we make the case that fractionation methods that can measure continuous quality distributions should be developed, and that the temporal development of these distributions should be incorporated into SOM models. The measured continuous SOM quality distributions should hold valuable information not only for model development, but also for direct interpretation. Measuring continuous distributions requires that the measurements along the quality variable are so frequent that the distribution is approaching the underlying continuum. Continuous distributions leads to possible simplifications of the model formulations, which considerably reduce the number of parameters needed to describe SOM turnover. A general framework for SOM models representing SOM across measurable quality distributions is presented and simplifications for specific situations are discussed. Finally, methods that have been used or have the potential to be used to measure continuous quality SOM distributions are reviewed. Generally, existing fractionation methods have to be modified to allow measurement of distributions or new fractionation techniques will have to be developed. Developing the distributional models in concert with the fractionation methods to measure the distributions will be a major task. We hope the current paper will help spawning the interest needed to accommodate this.

  7. Priming-induced Changes in Permafrost Soil Organic Matter Decomposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pegoraro, E.; Schuur, E.; Bracho, R. G.

    2015-12-01

    Warming of tundra ecosystems due to climate change is predicted to thaw permafrost and increase plant biomass and litter input to soil. Additional input of easily decomposable carbon can alter microbial activity by providing a much needed energy source, thereby accelerating soil organic matter decomposition. This phenomenon, known as the priming effect, can increase CO2 flux from soil to the atmosphere. However, the extent to which this mechanism can decrease soil carbon stocks in the Arctic is unknown. This project assessed priming effects on permafrost soil collected from a moist acidic tundra site in Healy, Alaska. We hypothesized that priming would increase microbial activity by providing microbes with a fresh source of carbon, thereby increasing decomposition of old and slowly decomposing carbon. Soil from surface and deep layers were amended with multiple pulses of uniformly 13C labeled glucose and cellulose, and samples were incubated at 15° C to quantify whether labile substrate addition increased carbon mineralization. We quantified the proportion of old carbon mineralization by measuring 14CO2. Data shows that substrate addition resulted in higher respiration rates in amended soils; however, priming was only observed in deep layers, where 30% more soil-derived carbon was respired compared to control samples. This suggests that microbes in deep layers are limited in energy, and the addition of labile carbon increases native soil organic matter decomposition, especially in soil with greater fractions of slowly decomposing carbon. Priming in permafrost could exacerbate the effects of climate change by increasing mineralization rates of carbon accumulated over the long-term in deep layers. Therefore, quantifying priming effect in permafrost soils is imperative to understanding the dynamics of carbon turnover in a warmer world.

  8. Ocean Warming–Acidification Synergism Undermines Dissolved Organic Matter Assembly

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Chi-Shuo; Anaya, Jesse M.; Chen, Eric Y-T; Farr, Erik; Chin, Wei-Chun

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the influence of synergisms on natural processes is a critical step toward determining the full-extent of anthropogenic stressors. As carbon emissions continue unabated, two major stressors—warming and acidification—threaten marine systems on several scales. Here, we report that a moderate temperature increase (from 30°C to 32°C) is sufficient to slow— even hinder—the ability of dissolved organic matter, a major carbon pool, to self-assemble to form marine microgels, which contribute to the particulate organic matter pool. Moreover, acidification lowers the temperature threshold at which we observe our results. These findings carry implications for the marine carbon cycle, as self-assembled marine microgels generate an estimated global seawater budget of ~1016 g C. We used laser scattering spectroscopy to test the influence of temperature and pH on spontaneous marine gel assembly. The results of independent experiments revealed that at a particular point, both pH and temperature block microgel formation (32°C, pH 8.2), and disperse existing gels (35°C). We then tested the hypothesis that temperature and pH have a synergistic influence on marine gel dispersion. We found that the dispersion temperature decreases concurrently with pH: from 32°C at pH 8.2, to 28°C at pH 7.5. If our laboratory observations can be extrapolated to complex marine environments, our results suggest that a warming–acidification synergism can decrease carbon and nutrient fluxes, disturbing marine trophic and trace element cycles, at rates faster than projected. PMID:25714090

  9. Effects of warming on stream biofilm organic matter use capabilities.

    PubMed

    Ylla, Irene; Canhoto, Cristina; Romaní, Anna M

    2014-07-01

    The understanding of ecosystem responses to changing environmental conditions is becoming increasingly relevant in the context of global warming. Microbial biofilm communities in streams play a key role in organic matter cycling which might be modulated by shifts in flowing water temperature. In this study, we performed an experiment at the Candal stream (Portugal) longitudinally divided into two reaches: a control half and an experimental half where water temperature was 3 °C above that of the basal stream water. Biofilm colonization was monitored during 42 days in the two stream halves. Changes in biofilm function (extracellular enzyme activities and carbon substrate utilization profiles) as well as chlorophyll a and prokaryote densities were analyzed. The biofilm in the experimental half showed a higher capacity to decompose cellulose, hemicellulose, lignin, and peptidic compounds. Total leucine-aminopeptidase, cellobiohydrolase and β-xylosidase showed a respective 93, 66, and 61% increase in activity over the control; much higher than would be predicted by only the direct temperature physical effect. In contrast, phosphatase and lipase activity showed the lowest sensitivity to temperature. The biofilms from the experimental half also showed a distinct functional fingerprint and higher carbon usage diversity and richness, especially due to a wider use of polymers and carbohydrates. The changes in the biofilm functional capabilities might be indirectly affected by the higher prokaryote and chlorophyll density measured in the biofilm of the experimental half. The present study provides evidence that a realistic stream temperature increase by 3 °C changes the biofilm metabolism to a greater decomposition of polymeric complex compounds and peptides but lower decomposition of lipids. This might affect stream organic matter cycling and the transfer of carbon to higher trophic levels. PMID:24633338

  10. Molecular characterization of dissolved organic matter (DOM): a critical review.

    PubMed

    Nebbioso, Antonio; Piccolo, Alessandro

    2013-01-01

    Advances in water chemistry in the last decade have improved our knowledge about the genesis, composition, and structure of dissolved organic matter, and its effect on the environment. Improvements in analytical technology, for example Fourier-transform ion cyclotron (FT-ICR) mass spectrometry (MS), homo and hetero-correlated multidimensional nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, and excitation emission matrix fluorimetry (EEMF) with parallel factor (PARAFAC) analysis for UV-fluorescence spectroscopy have resulted in these advances. Improved purification methods, for example ultrafiltration and reverse osmosis, have enabled facile desalting and concentration of freshly collected DOM samples, thereby complementing the analytical process. Although its molecular weight (MW) remains undefined, DOM is described as a complex mixture of low-MW substances and larger-MW biomolecules, for example proteins, polysaccharides, and exocellular macromolecules. There is a general consensus that marine DOM originates from terrestrial and marine sources. A combination of diagenetic and microbial processes contributes to its origin, resulting in refractory organic matter which acts as carbon sink in the ocean. Ocean DOM is derived partially from humified products of plants decay dissolved in fresh water and transported to the ocean, and partially from proteinaceous and polysaccharide material from phytoplankton metabolism, which undergoes in-situ microbial processes, becoming refractory. Some of the DOM interacts with radiation and is, therefore, defined as chromophoric DOM (CDOM). CDOM is classified as terrestrial, marine, anthropogenic, or mixed, depending on its origin. Terrestrial CDOM reaches the oceans via estuaries, whereas autochthonous CDOM is formed in sea water by microbial activity; anthropogenic CDOM is a result of human activity. CDOM also affects the quality of water, by shielding it from solar radiation, and constitutes a carbon sink pool. Evidence in support

  11. Response of Dissolved Organic Matter to Warming and Nitrogen Addition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, J. H.; Nguyen, H.

    2014-12-01

    Dissolved Organic Matter (DOM) is a ubiquitous mixture of soluble organic components. Since DOM is produced from the terrestrial leachate of various soil types, soil may influence the chemistry and biology of freshwater through the input of leachate and run-off. The increased temperature by climate change could dramatically change the DOM characteristics of soils through enhanced decomposition rate and losses of carbon from soil organic matter. In addition, the increase in the N-deposition affects DOM leaching from soils by changing the carbon cycling and decomposition rate of soil decay. In this study, we conducted growth chamber experiments using two types of soil (wetland and forest) under the conditions of temperature increase and N-deposition in order to investigate how warming and nitrogen addition influence the characteristics of the DOM leaching from different soil types. This leachate controls the quantity and quality of DOM in surface water systems. After 10 months of incubation, the dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentrations decreased for almost samples in the range of 7.6 to 87.3% (ANOVA, p<0.05). The specific UV absorption (SUVA) values also decreased for almost samples after the first 3 months and then increased gradually afterward in range of 3.3 to 108.4%. Both time and the interaction between time and the temperature had the statistically significant effects on the SUVA values (MANOVA, p<0.05). Humification index (HIX) showed the significant increase trends during the duration of incubation and temperature for almost the samples (ANOVA, p<0.05). Higher decreases in the DOC values and increases in HIX were observed at higher temperatures, whereas the opposite trend was observed for samples with N-addition. The PARAFAC results showed that three fluorescence components: terrestrial humic (C1), microbial humic-like (C2), and protein-like (C3), constituted the fluorescence matrices of soil samples. During the experiment, labile DOM from the soils was

  12. Geochemical drivers of organic matter decomposition in Arctic tundra soils

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Herndon, Elizabeth M.; Yang, Ziming; Graham, David E.; Wullschleger, Stan D.; Gu, Baohua; Liang, Liyuan; Bargar, John; Janot, Noemie; Regier, Tom Z.

    2015-12-07

    Climate change is warming tundra ecosystems in the Arctic, resulting in the decomposition of previously-frozen soil organic matter (SOM) and release of carbon (C) to the atmosphere; however, the processes that control SOM decomposition and C emissions remain highly uncertain. In this study, we evaluate geochemical factors that influence anaerobic production of carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4) in the active layers of four ice-wedge polygons. Surface and soil pore waters were collected during the annual thaw season over a two-year period in an area containing waterlogged, low-centered polygons and well-drained, high-centered polygons. We report spatial and seasonal patterns ofmore » dissolved gases in relation to the geochemical properties of Fe and organic C as determined using spectroscopic and chromatographic techniques. Iron was present as Fe(II) in soil solution near the permafrost boundary but enriched as Fe(III) in the middle of the active layer, similar to dissolved aromatic-C and organic acids. Dissolved CH4 increased relative to dissolved CO2 with depth and varied with soil moisture in the middle of the active layer in patterns that were positively correlated with the proportion of dissolved Fe(III) in transitional and low-centered polygon soils but negatively correlated in the drier flat- and high-centered polygons. These results suggest that microbial-mediated Fe oxidation and reduction influence respiration/fermentation of SOM and production of substrates (e.g., low-molecular-weight organic acids) for methanogenesis. As a result, we infer that geochemical differences induced by water saturation dictate microbial products of SOM decomposition, and Fe geochemistry is an important factor regulating methanogenesis in anoxic tundra soils.« less

  13. Geochemical drivers of organic matter decomposition in Arctic tundra soils

    SciTech Connect

    Herndon, Elizabeth M.; Yang, Ziming; Graham, David E.; Wullschleger, Stan D.; Gu, Baohua; Liang, Liyuan; Bargar, John; Janot, Noemie; Regier, Tom Z.

    2015-12-07

    Climate change is warming tundra ecosystems in the Arctic, resulting in the decomposition of previously-frozen soil organic matter (SOM) and release of carbon (C) to the atmosphere; however, the processes that control SOM decomposition and C emissions remain highly uncertain. In this study, we evaluate geochemical factors that influence anaerobic production of carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4) in the active layers of four ice-wedge polygons. Surface and soil pore waters were collected during the annual thaw season over a two-year period in an area containing waterlogged, low-centered polygons and well-drained, high-centered polygons. We report spatial and seasonal patterns of dissolved gases in relation to the geochemical properties of Fe and organic C as determined using spectroscopic and chromatographic techniques. Iron was present as Fe(II) in soil solution near the permafrost boundary but enriched as Fe(III) in the middle of the active layer, similar to dissolved aromatic-C and organic acids. Dissolved CH4 increased relative to dissolved CO2 with depth and varied with soil moisture in the middle of the active layer in patterns that were positively correlated with the proportion of dissolved Fe(III) in transitional and low-centered polygon soils but negatively correlated in the drier flat- and high-centered polygons. These results suggest that microbial-mediated Fe oxidation and reduction influence respiration/fermentation of SOM and production of substrates (e.g., low-molecular-weight organic acids) for methanogenesis. As a result, we infer that geochemical differences induced by water saturation dictate microbial products of SOM decomposition, and Fe geochemistry is an important factor regulating methanogenesis in anoxic tundra soils.

  14. Partition of nonpolar organic pollutants from water to soil and sediment organic matters

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chiou, C.T.

    1995-01-01

    The partition coefficients (Koc) of carbon tetrachloride and 1,2-dichlorobenzene between normal soil/sediment organic matter and water have been determined for a large set of soils, bed sediments, and suspended solids from the United States and the People's Republic of China. The Koc values for both solutes are quite invariant either for the soils or for the bed sediments; the values on bed sediments are about twice those on soils. The similarity of Koc values between normal soils and between normal bed sediments suggests that natural organic matters in soils (or sediments) of different geographic origins exhibit comparable polarities and possibly comparable compositions. The results also suggest that the process that converts eroded soils into bed sediments brings about a change in the organic matter property. The difference between soil and sediment Koc values provides a basis for identifying the source of suspended solids in river waters. The very high Koc values observed for some special soils and sediments are diagnostic of severe anthropogenic contamination.

  15. The origin and biogeochemistry of organic matter in surface sediments of Lake Shihwa and Lake Hwaong

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Won, Eun-Ji; Cho, Hyen-Goo; Shin, Kyung-Hoon

    2007-12-01

    To understand the origin and biogeochemistry of the organic matter in surface sediments of Lake Shihwa and Lake Hwaong, organic nitrogen, inorganic nitrogen, labile organic carbon, and residual organic carbon contents as well as stable isotope ratios for carbon and nitrogen were determined by KOBr-KOH treatment. Ratios of organic carbon to organic nitrogen (Corg/Norg) (mean = 24) were much higher than ratios of organic carbon to total nitrogen (Corg/Ntot) (mean=12), indicating the presence of significant amounts of inorganic nitrogen in the surface sediments of both lakes. Stable isotope ratios for organic nitrogen were, on average, 5.2‰ heavier than ratios of inorganic nitrogen in Lake Shihwa, but those same ratios were comparable in Lake Hwaong. This might be due to differences in the origin or the degree of degradation of sedimentary organic matter between the two lakes. In addition, stable isotope ratios for labile organic carbon were, on average, 1.4‰ heavier than those for residual organic carbon, reflecting the preferential oxidation of13C-enriched organic matter. The present study demonstrates that KOBr-KOH treatment of sedimentary organic matter can provide valuable information for understanding the origin and degradation state of organic matter in marine and brackish sediments. This also suggests that the ratio of Corg/Norg and stable isotope ratios for organic nitrogen can be used as indexes of the degree of degradation of organic matter.

  16. PHOTOREACTIVITY OF CHROMOPHORIC DISSOLVED ORGANIC MATTER (CDOM) DERIVED FROM DECOMPOSITION OF VARIOUS VASCULAR PLANT AND ALGAL SOURCES. (R826939)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The perspectives, information and conclusions conveyed in research project abstracts, progress reports, final reports, journal abstracts and journal publications convey the viewpoints of the principal investigator and may not represent the views and policies of ORD and EPA. Concl...

  17. Global effects of agriculture on fluvial dissolved organic matter

    PubMed Central

    Graeber, Daniel; Boëchat, Iola G.; Encina-Montoya, Francisco; Esse, Carlos; Gelbrecht, Jörg; Goyenola, Guillermo; Gücker, Björn; Heinz, Marlen; Kronvang, Brian; Meerhoff, Mariana; Nimptsch, Jorge; Pusch, Martin T.; Silva, Ricky C. S.; von Schiller, Daniel; Zwirnmann, Elke

    2015-01-01

    Agricultural land covers approximately 40% of Earth’s land surface and affects hydromorphological, biogeochemical and ecological characteristics of fluvial networks. In the northern temperate region, agriculture also strongly affects the amount and molecular composition of dissolved organic matter (DOM), which constitutes the main vector of carbon transport from soils to fluvial networks and to the sea, and is involved in a large variety of biogeochemical processes. Here, we provide first evidence about the wider occurrence of agricultural impacts on the concentration and composition of fluvial DOM across climate zones of the northern and southern hemispheres. Both extensive and intensive farming altered fluvial DOM towards a more microbial and less plant-derived composition. Moreover, intensive farming significantly increased dissolved organic nitrogen (DON) concentrations. The DOM composition change and DON concentration increase differed among climate zones and could be related to the intensity of current and historical nitrogen fertilizer use. As a result of agriculture intensification, increased DON concentrations and a more microbial-like DOM composition likely will enhance the reactivity of catchment DOM emissions, thereby fuelling the biogeochemical processing in fluvial networks, and resulting in higher ecosystem productivity and CO2 outgassing. PMID:26541809

  18. Precipitates in landfill leachate mediated by dissolved organic matters.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhenze; Xue, Qiang; Liu, Lei; Li, Jiangshan

    2015-04-28

    Clogging of landfill leachate collection system is so ubiquitous that it causes problems to landfills. Although precipitations of calcite and other minerals have been widely observed, the mechanism of precipitation remains obscure. We examined the clog composition, dissolved organic matters, leachate chemical compositions and the correlation of these variables in view of the precipitation process. It is shown that Dissolved Organic Carbon (DOC) inhibits precipitation of landfill leachate. Using the advanced NICA-Donnan model, the analysis of aqueous chemical reactions between Mg-Ca-DOC-CO2 suggests a good agreement with experimental observations. Calcite and dolomite are both found to be oversaturated in most of the landfill leachate samples. DOC is found to preferentially bind with Mg than Ca, leading to more likely precipitation of Calcite than dolomite from landfill leachate. The NICA-Donnan model gives a reasonable estimation of dolomite saturation index in a wide range of DOC. Modeling confirms the major precipitation mechanism in terms of alkaline earth metal carbonate. Uncertainties in model parameters are discussed with particular focus on DOC composition, functional group types and density concentration and the influential factors. PMID:25661175

  19. Removal of bromide and natural organic matter by anion exchange.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Susan; Singer, Philip C

    2010-04-01

    Bromide removal by anion exchange was explored for various water qualities, process configurations, and resin characteristics. Simulated natural waters containing different amounts of natural organic matter (NOM), bicarbonate, chloride, and bromide were treated with a polyacrylate-based magnetic ion exchange (MIEX) resin on a batch basis to evaluate the effectiveness of the resin for removal of bromide. While bromide removal was achieved to some degree, alkalinity (bicarbonate), dissolved organic carbon (DOC), and chloride were shown to inhibit bromide removal in waters with bromide concentrations of 100 and 300 microg/L. Water was also treated using a two-stage batch MIEX process. Two-stage treatment resulted in only a slight improvement in bromide removal compared to single-stage treatment, presumably due to competition with the high concentration of chloride which is present along with bromide in natural waters. In view of the relatively poor bromide removal results for the MIEX resin, a limited set of experiments was performed using polystyrene resins. DOC and bromide removal were compared by treating model waters with MIEX and two polystyrene resins, Ionac A-641 and Amberlite IRA910. The two polystyrene resins were seen to be more effective for bromide removal, while the MIEX resin was more effective at removing DOC. PMID:20045170

  20. Role of dissolved organic matter in ice photochemistry.

    PubMed

    Grannas, Amanda M; Pagano, Lisa P; Pierce, Brittany C; Bobby, Rachel; Fede, Alexis

    2014-09-16

    In this study, we provide evidence that dissolved organic matter (DOM) plays an important role in indirect photolysis processes in ice, producing reactive oxygen species (ROS) and leading to the efficient photodegradation of a probe hydrophobic organic pollutant, aldrin. Rates of DOM-mediated aldrin loss are between 2 and 56 times faster in ice than in liquid water (depending on DOM source and concentration), likely due to a freeze-concentration effect that occurs when the water freezes, providing a mechanism to concentrate reactive components into smaller, liquid-like regions within or on the ice. Rates of DOM-mediated aldrin loss are also temperature dependent, with higher rates of loss as temperature decreases. This also illustrates the importance of the freeze-concentration effect in altering reaction kinetics for processes occurring in environmental ices. All DOM source types studied were able to mediate aldrin loss, including commercially available fulvic and humic acids and an authentic Arctic snow DOM sample isolated by solid phase extraction, indicating the ubiquity of DOM in indirect photochemistry in environmental ices. PMID:25157605

  1. Effects of agricultural practices on organic matter degradation in ditches

    PubMed Central

    Hunting, Ellard R.; Vonk, J. Arie; Musters, C.J.M.; Kraak, Michiel H.S.; Vijver, Martina G.

    2016-01-01

    Agricultural practices can result in differences in organic matter (OM) and agricultural chemical inputs in adjacent ditches, but its indirect effects on OM composition and its inherent consequences for ecosystem functioning remain uncertain. This study determined the effect of agricultural practices (dairy farm grasslands and hyacinth bulb fields) on OM degradation by microorganisms and invertebrates with a consumption and food preference experiment in the field and in the laboratory using natural OM collected from the field. Freshly cut grass and hyacinths were also offered to control for OM composition and large- and small mesh-sizes were used to distinguish microbial decomposition and invertebrate consumption. Results show that OM decomposition by microorganisms and consumption by invertebrates was similar throughout the study area, but that OM collected from ditches adjacent grasslands and freshly cut grass and hyacinths were preferred over OM collected from ditches adjacent to a hyacinth bulb field. In the case of OM collected from ditches adjacent hyacinth bulb fields, both microbial decomposition and invertebrate consumption were strongly retarded, likely resulting from sorption and accumulation of pesticides. This outcome illustrates that differences in agricultural practices can, in addition to direct detrimental effects on aquatic organisms, indirectly alter the functioning of adjacent aquatic ecosystems. PMID:26892243

  2. Quenching of excited triplet states by dissolved natural organic matter.

    PubMed

    Wenk, Jannis; Eustis, Soren N; McNeill, Kristopher; Canonica, Silvio

    2013-11-19

    Excited triplet states of aromatic ketones and quinones are used as proxies to assess the reactivity of excited triplet states of the dissolved organic matter ((3)DOM*) in natural waters. (3)DOM* are crucial transients in environmental photochemistry responsible for contaminant transformation, production of reactive oxygen species, and potentially photobleaching of DOM. In recent photochemical studies aimed at clarifying the role of DOM as an inhibitor of triplet-induced oxidations of organic contaminants, aromatic ketones have been used in the presence of DOM, and the question of a possible interaction between their excited triplet states and DOM has emerged. To clarify this issue, time-resolved laser spectroscopy was applied to measure the excited triplet state quenching of four different model triplet photosensitizers induced by a suite of DOM from various aquatic and terrestrial sources. While no quenching for the anionic triplet sensitizers 4-carboxybenzophenone (CBBP) and 9,10-anthraquinone-2,6-disulfonic acid (2,6-AQDS) was detected, second-order quenching rate constants with DOM for the triplets of 2-acetonaphthone (2AN) and 3-methoxyacetophenone (3MAP) in the range of 1.30-3.85 × 10(7) L mol(C)(-1) s(-1) were determined. On the basis of the average molecular weight of DOM molecules, the quenching for these uncharged excited triplet molecules is nearly diffusion-controlled, but significant quenching (>10%) in aerated water is not expected to occur below DOM concentrations of 22-72 mg(C) L(-1). PMID:24083647

  3. Benthic bacterial biomass supported by streamwater dissolved organic matter.

    PubMed

    Bott, T L; Kaplan, L A; Kuserk, F T

    1984-12-01

    Bacterial biomass in surface sediments of a headwater stream was measured as a function of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) flux and temperature. Bacterial biomass was estimated using epifluorescence microscopic counts (EMC) and ATP determinations during exposure to streamwater containing 1,788μg DOC/liter and after transfer to groundwater containing 693μg DOC/liter. Numbers of bacteria and ATP concentrations averaged 1.36×10(9) cells and 1,064 ng per gram dry sediment, respectively, under initial DOC exposure. After transfer to low DOC water, biomass estimates dropped by 53 and 55% from EMC and ATP, respectively. The decline to a new steady state occurred within 4 days from ATP assays and within 11 days from EMC measures. A 4°C difference during these exposures had little effect on generation times. The experiment indicated that 27.59 mg/hour of natural DOC supported a steady state bacterial biomass of approximately 10μg C/g dry weight of sediment (from EMC determinations). Steady state bacterial biomass estimates on sediments that were previously muffled to remove organic matter were approximately 20-fold lower. The ratio of GTP∶ATP indicated differences in physiological condition or community composition between natural and muffled sediments. PMID:24221176

  4. Mineral surface-organic matter interactions: basics and applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valdrè, G.; Moro, D.; Ulian, G.

    2012-03-01

    The ability to control the binding of biological and organic molecules to a crystal surface is central in several fields; for example, in biotechnology, catalysis, molecular microarrays, biosensors preparation and environmental sciences. The nano-morphology and nanostructure at the surface may have physico-chemical properties that are very different from those of the underlying mineral substrate. Recent developments in scanning probe microscopy (SPM) have widened the spectrum of possible investigations that can be performed at the nanometric level on the surface of minerals. They range from the study of physical properties such as surface potential, electric field topological determination, Brønsted-Lowry site distributions, to chemical and spectroscopic analysis in air, in liquid or in gaseous environments. After an introduction to SPM modes of operation and new SPM-based technological developments, we will present recent examples of applications in the study of interactions between organic matter and mineral surface and report on the advances in knowledge that have been made by the use of scanning probe microscopy.

  5. Global effects of agriculture on fluvial dissolved organic matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graeber, Daniel; Boëchat, Iola G.; Encina-Montoya, Francisco; Esse, Carlos; Gelbrecht, Jörg; Goyenola, Guillermo; Gücker, Björn; Heinz, Marlen; Kronvang, Brian; Meerhoff, Mariana; Nimptsch, Jorge; Pusch, Martin T.; Silva, Ricky C. S.; von Schiller, Daniel; Zwirnmann, Elke

    2015-11-01

    Agricultural land covers approximately 40% of Earth’s land surface and affects hydromorphological, biogeochemical and ecological characteristics of fluvial networks. In the northern temperate region, agriculture also strongly affects the amount and molecular composition of dissolved organic matter (DOM), which constitutes the main vector of carbon transport from soils to fluvial networks and to the sea, and is involved in a large variety of biogeochemical processes. Here, we provide first evidence about the wider occurrence of agricultural impacts on the concentration and composition of fluvial DOM across climate zones of the northern and southern hemispheres. Both extensive and intensive farming altered fluvial DOM towards a more microbial and less plant-derived composition. Moreover, intensive farming significantly increased dissolved organic nitrogen (DON) concentrations. The DOM composition change and DON concentration increase differed among climate zones and could be related to the intensity of current and historical nitrogen fertilizer use. As a result of agriculture intensification, increased DON concentrations and a more microbial-like DOM composition likely will enhance the reactivity of catchment DOM emissions, thereby fuelling the biogeochemical processing in fluvial networks, and resulting in higher ecosystem productivity and CO2 outgassing.

  6. Molecular-level dynamics of refractory dissolved organic matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niggemann, J.; Gerdts, G.; Dittmar, T.

    2012-04-01

    Refractory dissolved organic matter (DOM) accounts for most of the global oceanic organic carbon inventory. Processes leading to its formation and factors determining its stability are still largely unknown. We hypothesize that refractory DOM carries a universal molecular signature. Characterizing spatial and temporal variability in this universal signature is a key to understanding dynamics of refractory DOM. We present results from a long-term study of the DOM geo-metabolome in the open North Sea. Geo-metabolomics considers the entity of DOM as a population of compounds, each characterized by a specific function and reactivity in the cycling of energy and elements. Ten-thousands of molecular formulae were identified in DOM by ultrahigh resolution mass spectrometry analysis (FT-ICR-MS, Fourier-Transform Ion Cyclotron Resonance Mass Spectrometry). The DOM pool in the North Sea was influenced by a complex interplay of processes that produced, transformed and degraded dissolved molecules. We identified a stable fraction in North Sea DOM with a molecular composition similar to deep ocean DOM. Molecular-level changes in this stable fraction provide novel information on dynamics and interactions of refractory DOM.

  7. Toward an experimental synthesis of the chondritic insoluble organic matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biron, Kasia; Derenne, Sylvie; Robert, FrançOis; Rouzaud, Jean-NoëL.

    2015-08-01

    Based on the statistical model proposed for the molecular structure of the insoluble organic matter (IOM) isolated from the Murchison meteorite, it was recently proposed that, in the solar T-Tauri disk regions where (photo)dissociation of gaseous molecules takes place, aromatics result from the cyclization/aromatization of short aliphatics. This hypothesis is tested in this study, with n-alkanes being submitted to high-frequency discharge at low pressure. The contamination issue was eliminated using deuterated precursor. IOM was formed and studied using solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance, pyrolysis coupled to gas chromatography and mass spectrometry, RuO4 oxidation, and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy. It exhibits numerous similarities at the molecular level with the hydrocarbon backbone of the natural IOM, reinforcing the idea that the initial precursors of the IOM were originally chains in the gas. Moreover, a fine comparison between the chemical structure of several meteorite IOM suggests either that (i) the meteorite IOMs share a common precursor standing for the synthetic IOM or that (ii) the slight differences between the meteorite IOMs reflect differences in their environment at the time of their formation i.e., related to plasma temperature that, in turn, dictates the dissociation-recombination rates of organic fragments.

  8. Contaminant-mediated photobleaching of wetland chromophoric dissolved organic matter.

    PubMed

    Langlois, Maureen C; Weavers, Linda K; Chin, Yu-Ping

    2014-09-20

    Photolytic transformation of organic contaminants in wetlands can be mediated by chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM), which in turn can lose its reactivity from photobleaching. We collected water from a small agricultural wetland (Ohio), Kawai Nui Marsh (Hawaii), the Everglades (Florida), and Okefenokee Swamp (Georgia) to assess the effect of photobleaching on the photofate of two herbicides, acetochlor and isoproturon. Analyte-spiked water samples were irradiated using a solar simulator and monitored for changes in CDOM light absorbance and dissolved oxygen. Photobleaching did not significantly impact the indirect photolysis rates of either herbicide over 24 hours of irradiation. Surprisingly, the opposite effect was observed with isoproturon, which accelerated DOM photobleaching. This phenomenon was more pronounced in higher-CDOM waters, and we believe that the redox pathway between triplet-state CDOM and isoproturon may be responsible for our observations. By contrast, acetochlor indirect photolysis was dependent on reaction with the hydroxyl radical and did not accelerate photobleaching of wetland water as much as isoproturon. Finally, herbicide indirect photolysis rate constants did not correlate strongly to any one chemical or optical property of the sampled waters. PMID:24828085

  9. Effects of agricultural practices on organic matter degradation in ditches.

    PubMed

    Hunting, Ellard R; Vonk, J Arie; Musters, C J M; Kraak, Michiel H S; Vijver, Martina G

    2016-01-01

    Agricultural practices can result in differences in organic matter (OM) and agricultural chemical inputs in adjacent ditches, but its indirect effects on OM composition and its inherent consequences for ecosystem functioning remain uncertain. This study determined the effect of agricultural practices (dairy farm grasslands and hyacinth bulb fields) on OM degradation by microorganisms and invertebrates with a consumption and food preference experiment in the field and in the laboratory using natural OM collected from the field. Freshly cut grass and hyacinths were also offered to control for OM composition and large- and small mesh-sizes were used to distinguish microbial decomposition and invertebrate consumption. Results show that OM decomposition by microorganisms and consumption by invertebrates was similar throughout the study area, but that OM collected from ditches adjacent grasslands and freshly cut grass and hyacinths were preferred over OM collected from ditches adjacent to a hyacinth bulb field. In the case of OM collected from ditches adjacent hyacinth bulb fields, both microbial decomposition and invertebrate consumption were strongly retarded, likely resulting from sorption and accumulation of pesticides. This outcome illustrates that differences in agricultural practices can, in addition to direct detrimental effects on aquatic organisms, indirectly alter the functioning of adjacent aquatic ecosystems. PMID:26892243

  10. Molecular trickery in soil organic matter: hidden lignin.

    PubMed

    Hernes, Peter J; Kaiser, Klaus; Dyda, Rachael Y; Cerli, Chiara

    2013-08-20

    Binding to minerals is one mechanism crucial toward the accumulation and stabilization of organic matter (OM) in soils. Of the various biochemicals produced by plants, lignin-derived phenols are among the most surface-reactive compounds. However, it is not known to what extent mineral-bound lignin-derived phenols can be analytically assessed by alkaline CuO oxidation. We tested the potential irreversible binding of lignin from three litters (blue oak, foothill pine, annual grasses) to five minerals (ferrihydrite, goethite, kaolinite, illite, montmorillonite) using the CuO-oxidation technique, along with bulk organic carbon (OC) sorption. Up to 56% of sorbed lignin could not be extracted from the minerals with the CuO-oxidation technique. The composition of the irreversibly bound lignin component differed markedly between minerals and from that of the parent litter leachates, indicating different bonding strengths related to individual monomers and conformations. The difference in extractability of individual phenols suggests that abiotic processes, such as sorption/desorption, should be taken into account when using CuO oxidation data for assessing lignin turnover in mineral matrixes. However, given the apparent relationship between aromaticity as indicated by carbon-specific UV absorbance (SUVA) and bulk OC sorption, it is likely that irreversible sorption is a concern for any technique that addresses the broad class of aromatic/phenolic compounds in soils and sediments. PMID:23875737

  11. Global effects of agriculture on fluvial dissolved organic matter.

    PubMed

    Graeber, Daniel; Boëchat, Iola G; Encina-Montoya, Francisco; Esse, Carlos; Gelbrecht, Jörg; Goyenola, Guillermo; Gücker, Björn; Heinz, Marlen; Kronvang, Brian; Meerhoff, Mariana; Nimptsch, Jorge; Pusch, Martin T; Silva, Ricky C S; von Schiller, Daniel; Zwirnmann, Elke

    2015-01-01

    Agricultural land covers approximately 40% of Earth's land surface and affects hydromorphological, biogeochemical and ecological characteristics of fluvial networks. In the northern temperate region, agriculture also strongly affects the amount and molecular composition of dissolved organic matter (DOM), which constitutes the main vector of carbon transport from soils to fluvial networks and to the sea, and is involved in a large variety of biogeochemical processes. Here, we provide first evidence about the wider occurrence of agricultural impacts on the concentration and composition of fluvial DOM across climate zones of the northern and southern hemispheres. Both extensive and intensive farming altered fluvial DOM towards a more microbial and less plant-derived composition. Moreover, intensive farming significantly increased dissolved organic nitrogen (DON) concentrations. The DOM composition change and DON concentration increase differed among climate zones and could be related to the intensity of current and historical nitrogen fertilizer use. As a result of agriculture intensification, increased DON concentrations and a more microbial-like DOM composition likely will enhance the reactivity of catchment DOM emissions, thereby fuelling the biogeochemical processing in fluvial networks, and resulting in higher ecosystem productivity and CO2 outgassing. PMID:26541809

  12. Annual Cycling of Dissolved Organic Matter in an Alpine Stream

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gabor, R. S.; McLoughlin, R.; McKnight, D. M.

    2009-12-01

    Boulder Creek, an alpine stream in the Colorado Front Range, runs through glacially-scoured landscapes and various alpine ecosystems from its headwaters at around 12,500 ft to the city of Boulder at around 6,000 ft. The flow in the lower potions of the creek is controlled by Barker Reservoir. As part of the Boulder Creek Critical Zone Observatory, water samples were collected from several sites along Boulder Creek at regular time intervals since May 2008. The concentration and quality of the Dissolved Organic Matter (DOM) in these samples was analyzed to understand the response to seasonal changes and variations in flow rates. Filtered samples were fractionated to isolate the humic material and both whole water and fulvic acid fractions were analyzed for dissolved organic carbon concentration as well as with fluorescence and UV-VIS spectroscopy. DOM concentration reached a maximum just before peak stream flow, likely due to dilution from the reservoir release. Near the end of summer, as flow slowed down and the dilution impact was minimized, the concentration began to rise again. In addition, the fluorescence index (FI), which can represent variations in DOM source, indicated a much higher microbial source during early snowmelt, likely due to microbial communities growing beneath the ice in the reservoir and lack of terrestrial runoff during the winter. The FI showed a slowly increasing terrestrial input throughout the summer as snowmelt and runoff from the watershed entered the stream. During late summer and fall the FI shifted back to a predominately microbial signal, indicative of less runoff and a greater percentage of DOM created in situ. In addition to stream measurements, surface soil samples along several transects were collected from a section of the watershed, as well as deeper samples from soil pits on both north-facing and south-facing slopes. DOM from these samples was leached with potassium sulfate and analyzed using the same techniques as the stream

  13. Natural Organic Matter and the Event Horizon of Mass Spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hertkorn, N.; Frommberger, M.; Witt, M.; Koch, B. P.; Schmitt-Kopplin, P.; Perdue, E. M.

    2009-05-01

    Soils, sediments, freshwaters and marine waters contain natural organic matter (NOM) - an exceedingly complex mixture of organic compounds that collectively exhibit a nearly continuous range of properties (size- reactivity continuum). NOM is composed mainly of carbon, hydrogen and oxygen, with minor contributions from heteroatoms such as sulphur and phosphorus. Suwannee River fulvic acid (SuwFA) is a fraction of NOM that is relatively depleted in heteroatoms. Ultrahigh resolution Fourier transform ion cyclotron (FTICR) mass spectra of SuwFA reveal several thousand molecular formulae, corresponding in turn to several hundred thousand distinct chemical environments of carbon even without accountancy of isomers. The mass difference m among adjoining C,H,O-molecules between and within clusters of nominal mass is inversely related to molecular dissimilarity: any decrease of m imposes an ever growing mandatory difference in molecular composition. Molecular formulae that are expected for likely biochemical precursor molecules are notably absent from these spectra, indicating that SuwFA is the product of diagenetic reactions that have altered the major components of biomass beyond the point of recognition. The degree of complexity of SuwFA can be brought into sharp focus through comparison with the theoretical limits of chemical complexity, as constrained and quantized by the fundamentals of chemical binding. The theoretical C,H,O-compositional space denotes the isomer-filtered complement of the entire, very vast space of molecular structures composed solely of carbon, hydrogen and oxygen. The molecular formulae within SuwFA occupy a sizable proportion of the theoretical C,H,O-compositional space. A one-hundred percent coverage of the theoretically feasible C,H,O-compositional space by SuwFA molecules is attained throughout a sizable range of mass, H/C and O/C elemental ratios. The substantial differences between (and complementarity of) the SuwFA molecular formulae that

  14. Organic matter in the ancient Alpine Tethyan Ocean Continental Transition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mateeva, Tsvetomila; Wolff, George; Kusznir, Nick; Wheeler, John; Manataschal, Gianreto

    2016-04-01

    Studies of hydrothermal vents in modern ocean settings suggest that methane produced by serpentinization can support methanotrophic bio-systems. Are such bio-systems locally restricted to hydrothermal vents or are more pervasive, being linked with the geology of serpentinized mantle in the subsurface? Answering this question has implications for our understanding of the global importance of hidden sub-surface bio-systems, the fate of methane and the carbon cycle. The ocean-continent transition (OCT) of magma-poor rifted continental margins, exhumed within mountain belts by continent collision, provides an opportunity to investigate this question. Initial data from the Totalp unit in the Eastern Swiss Alps, representing exhumed OCT of the Alpine Tethyan rifted continental margin, shows the presence of various hydrocarbons (Mateeva et al., in prep.). Samples from other Tethyan OCT locations, consisting of the Tasna nappe and Platta unit of the Eastern Swiss Alps and Chenaillet in the Western Alps, have also been analysed to investigate the presence or absence of methanotrophic biosystems within serpentinized exhumed mantle and associated ophicalcite and syn-rift sediments. Samples from these remnant Tethyan OCT locations are characterized by low and varied organic carbon concentrations that reflect the large lithological diversity of this area. The samples contain hydrocarbons in the form of n-alkanes mostly in the range C20 - C32, polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and various biomarkers (e.g. steranes, hopanes). A typical sample from the hydrothermal system in Platta shows the lithological characteristics of a black smoker, but with no indication of a more developed biosystem. Preliminary results from the examined Tethyan OCT locations (Tasna, Platta, Chenaillet) show evidence for the preservation of marine organic matter in the serpentinized mantle and overlying sediments, although there is no unequivocal indication that the organic matter is generated from

  15. Do Long-Term Changes in Organic Matter Inputs to Forest Soils Affect Dissolved Organic Matter Chemistry and Export?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lajtha, K.; Strid, A.; Lee, B. S.

    2014-12-01

    Dissolved organic matter (DOM) production and transport play an important role in regulating organic matter (OM) distribution through a soil profile and ultimately, OM stabilization or export to aquatic systems. The contributions of varying OM inputs to the quality and amount of DOM as it passes through a soil profile remain relatively unknown. The Detrital Input and Removal Treatment (DIRT) site at the H. J. Andrews Experimental Forest in Oregon has undergone 17 years of litter, wood and root input manipulations and allows us to guage shifts in DOM chemistry induced by long-term changes to aboveground and belowground OM additions and exclusions. Using fluorescence and UV spectroscopy to characterize fluorescent properties, extent of decomposition, and sources of DOM in streams and soil solutions collected with lysimeters and soil extractions, we have assessed the importance of fresh OM inputs to DOM chemistry. Soil extracts from DIRT plots had a higher fluorescence index (FI) than lysimeter solutions or stream water. A high FI in surface water is generally interpreted as indicative of a high proportion of microbially-derived DOM. However, we suspect that the high FI in soil extracts is due to a higher proportion of non-aromatic DOM from fresh soil that microorganisms consume in transit through the soil profile to lysimeters or to streams. High redox index (RI) values were observed in lysimeters from the April 2014 sampling compared with the November 2013 sampling. These RI values show evidence of more reducing conditions at the end of the rainy season in the spring compared to the onset of the rainy season in the fall. Lysimeter water collected in No Input, No Litter, and No Root treatments contained high proportions of protein, suggesting the absence of carbon inputs changes activities of the microbial community. Observed variations reflect the viability of using fluorescent properties to explore the terrestrial-aquatic interface.

  16. Biogeochemistry of dissolved organic matter in an anoxic intertidal creek bank

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seidel, Michael; Beck, Melanie; Riedel, Thomas; Waska, Hannelore; Suryaputra, I. G. N. A.; Schnetger, Bernhard; Niggemann, Jutta; Simon, Meinhard; Dittmar, Thorsten

    2014-09-01

    Seawater circulation in permeable coastal sediments is driven by tidal changes in hydraulic gradients. The resulting submarine groundwater discharge is a source of nutrients and dissolved organic matter (DOM) to the water column. Yet, little is known about the cycling of DOM within tidal sediments, because the molecular DOM characterization remains analytically challenging. One technique that can dissect the multitude of molecules in DOM is ultrahigh-resolution Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (FT-ICR-MS). To aim at a high resolution DOM analysis we study the seasonal turnover and marine and terrestrial sources of DOM in an intertidal creek bank of the southern North Sea down to 3 m depth and link the biogeochemical processes to FT-ICR-MS data and the analyses of inorganic porewater chemistry, δ13C of solid-phase extracted dissolved organic carbon (SPE-DOC), dissolved black carbon (DBC) and dissolved carbohydrates (DCHO). Increasing concentrations of dissolved Fe, Mn, P, total alkalinity, dissolved nitrogen, DOC and a concomitant decrease of sulfate along the seawater circulation path from the upper tidal flat to the tidal flat margin indicate continuous microbial activity. The relative increase of Si concentrations, unsaturated aliphatics, peptide molecular formulae and isotopically more 13C-enriched SPE-DOC towards the tidal flat margin suggests that remineralization processes mobilize DOM from buried algal (diatoms) and microbial biomass. Porewater in sediments <100 cm depth contains 13C-depleted SPE-DOC and highly unsaturated compounds which are probably derived from eroded peats, suggesting rapid removal of bioavailable marine DOM such as DCHO from the water column and selective enrichment of terrestrial DOM. DBC concentrations are highest in the discharging porewater close to the tidal creek suggesting that the intertidal flat is an important DBC source to the coastal ocean. Porewater DOM accumulating at the low water line is

  17. Do aggregate stability and soil organic matter content increase following organic inputs?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lehtinen, Taru; Gísladóttir, Guðrún; van Leeuwen, Jeroen P.; Bloem, Jaap; Steffens, Markus; Vala Ragnarsdóttir, Kristin

    2014-05-01

    Agriculture is facing several challenges such as loss of soil organic matter (SOM); thus, sustainable farming management practices are needed. Organic farming is growing as an alternative to conventional farming; in Iceland approximately 1% and in Austria 16% of utilized agricultural area is under organic farming practice. We analyzed the effect of different farming practices (organic, and conventional) on soil physicochemical and microbiological properties in grassland soils in Iceland and cropland soils in Austria. Organic farms differed from conventional farms by absence of chemical fertilizers and pesticide use. At these farms, we investigated soil physicochemical (e.g. soil texture, pH, CAL-extractable P and K) and microbiological properties (fungal and bacterial biomass and activity). The effects of farming practices on soil macroaggregate stability and SOM quantity, quality and distribution between different fractions were studied following a density fractionation. In Iceland, we sampled six grassland sites on Brown (BA) and Histic (HA) Andosols; two sites on extensively managed grasslands, two sites under organic and two sites under conventional farming practice. In Austria, we sampled four cropland sites on Haplic Chernozems; two sites under organic and two sites under conventional farming practice. We found significantly higher macroaggregate stability in the organic compared to the conventional grasslands in Iceland. In contrast, slightly higher macroaggregation in conventional compared to the organic farming practice was found in croplands in Austria, although the difference was not significant. Macroaggregates were positively correlated with fungal biomass in Iceland, and with Feo and fungal activity in Austria. In Austria, SOM content and nutrient status (except for lower CAL-extractable P at one site) were similar between organic and conventional farms. Our results show that the organic inputs may have enhanced macroaggregation in organic farming

  18. Key soil functional properties affected by soil organic matter - evidence from published literature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murphy, Brian

    2015-07-01

    The effect of varying the amount of soil organic matter on a range of individual soil properties was investigated using a literature search of published information largely from Australia, but also included relevant information from overseas. Based on published pedotransfer functions, soil organic matter was shown to increase plant available water by 2 to 3 mm per 10 cm for each 1% increase in soil organic carbon, with the largest increases being associated with sandy soils. Aggregate stability increased with increasing soil organic carbon, with aggregate stability decreasing rapidly when soil organic carbon fell below 1.2 to 1.5 5%. Soil compactibility, friability and soil erodibility were favourably improved by increasing the levels of soil organic carbon. Nutrient cycling was a major function of soil organic matter. Substantial amounts of N, P and S become available to plants when the soil organic matter is mineralised. Soil organic matter also provides a food source for the microorganisms involved in the nutrient cycling of N, P, S and K. In soils with lower clay contents, and less active clays such as kaolinites, soil organic matter can supply a significant amount of the cation exchange capacity and buffering capacity against acidification. Soil organic matter can have a cation exchange capacity of 172 to 297 cmol(+)/kg. As the cation exchange capacity of soil organic matter varies with pH, the effectiveness of soil organic matter to contribute to cation exchange capacity below pH 5.5 is often minimal. Overall soil organic matter has the potential to affect a range of functional soil properties.

  19. Harmful Algal Blooms (HABs)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Topics Eighth Annual National Conference on Health Communication, Marketing & Media August 19-21, 2014 Atlanta, GA Harmful Algal Blooms Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir On this Page What's the ...

  20. Soil organic matter on citrus plantation in Eastern Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cerdà, Artemi; Pereira, Paulo; Novara, Agata; Prosdocimi, Massimo

    2015-04-01

    Citrus plantations in Eastern Spain are the main crop and Valencia region is the largest world exporter. The traditional plantation are located on flood irrigated areas and the new plantation are located on slopes were drip irrigation is the source of the wetting. It has been demonstrate that the citrus plantations contribute to high erosion rates on slopes (Cerdà et al., 2009b) as it is usual on agriculture land (Cerdà et al., 2009a), but when organic farming is present the soil erosion is much lower (Cerdà and Jurgensen, 2008; Cerdà et al., 2009; Cerdà and Jurgensen, 2011). This is a worldwide phenomenon (Wu et al., 2007; Wu et al., 2011; Xu et al., 2010; Xu et al., 2012a; Xu et al., 2012b), which are a key factor of the high erosion rates in rural areas (García Orenes et al., 2009: García Orenes et al., 20010; García Orenes et al., 2012; Haregewyn et al., 2013; Zhao et al., 2013). The key factor of the contrasted response of soils to the rain in citrus is the organic matter cover. This is why the Soil Erosion and Degradation Research Team developed a survey to determine the soil erosion rates on citrus orchards under different managements. A hundred of samples were collected in a citrus plantation on slope under conventional management (Chemical management), one on organic farming, one on traditional flood irrigated organic farming and one on traditional chemical flooding farm. The organic farming soils were treated with 10000 Kg ha-1 of manure yearly. The results show that the mean soil organic matter content was 1.24 %, 3.54%, 5,43% and 2.1% respectively, which show a clear impact of organic farming in the recovery of the soil organic matter. meanwhile the on the slopes and the flood-irrigated soils are Acknowledgements The research projects GL2008-02879/BTE, LEDDRA 243857 and PREVENTING AND REMEDIATING DEGRADATION OF SOILS IN EUROPE THROUGH LAND CARE (RECARE)FP7- ENV-2013- supported this research. References Cerdà, A., Flanagan, D.C., le Bissonnais

  1. The flux of organic matter through a peatland ecosystem - evidence from thermogravimetric analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Worrall, Fred; Moody, Catherine; Clay, Gareth

    2016-04-01

    Carbon budgets of peatlands are now common and studies have considered nitrogen, oxygen and energy budgets, but no study has considered the whole composition of the organic matter as it transfers through and into a peatland. Organic matter samples were taken from each organic matter reservoir found in and each fluvial flux from a peatland and analysed the samples by thermogravimetric analysis. The samples analysed were: aboveground, belowground, heather, mosses and sedges, litter layer, a peat core, and monthly samples of particulate and dissolved organic matter. All organic matter samples were taken from a 100% peat catchment within Moor House National Nature Reserve in the North Pennines, UK, and collected samples were compared to standards of lignin, cellulose, humic acid and plant protein. Results showed that the thermogravimetric trace of the sampled organic matter were distinctive with the DOM traces being marked out by very low thermal stability relative other organic matter types. The peat profile shows a significant trend with depth from vegetation- to lignin-like composition. When all traces are weighted according to the observed dry matter and carbon budgets for the catchment then it is possible to judge what has been lost in the transition through and into the ecosystem. By plotting this "lost" trace it possible to assess its composition which is either 97% cellulose and 3% humic acid or 92% and 8% lignin. This has important implications for what controls the organic matter balance of peatlands and it suggests that the oxidation state (OR) of peatland is less than 1.

  2. Vehicular emissions of organic particulate matter in Sao Paulo, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oyama, B. S.; Andrade, M. F.; Herckes, P.; Dusek, U.; Röckmann, T.; Holzinger, R.

    2015-12-01

    Vehicular emissions have a strong impact on air pollution in big cities. Many factors affect these emissions: type of vehicle, type of fuel, cruising velocity, and brake use. This study focused on emissions of organic compounds by Light (LDV) and Heavy (HDV) duty vehicle exhaust. The study was performed in the city of Sao Paulo, Brazil, where vehicles run on different fuels: gasoline with 25 % ethanol (called gasohol), hydrated ethanol, and diesel (with 5 % of biodiesel). The vehicular emissions are an important source of pollutants and the principal contribution to fine particulate matter (smaller than 2.5 μm, PM2.5) in Sao Paulo. The experiments were performed in two tunnels: Janio Quadros (TJQ) where 99 % of the vehicles are LDV, and Rodoanel Mario Covas (TRA) where up to 30 % of the fleet was HDV. The PM2.5 samples were collected on quartz filters in May and July 2011 at TJQ and TRA, respectively, using two samplers operating in parallel. The samples were analyzed by Thermal-Desorption Proton-Transfer-Reaction Mass-Spectrometry (TD-PTR-MS), and by Thermal-Optical Transmittance (TOT). The organic aerosol (OA) desorbed at TD-PTR-MS represented around 30 % of the OA estimated by the TOT method, mainly due to the different desorption temperatures, with a maximum of 870 and 350 °C for TOT and TD-PTR-MS, respectively. Average emission factors (EF) organic aerosol (OA) and organic carbon (OC) were calculated for HDV and LDV fleet. We found that HDV emitted more OA and OC than LDV, and that OC emissions represented 36 and 43 % of total PM2.5 emissions from LDV and HDV, respectively. More than 700 ions were identified by TD-PTR-MS and the EF profiles obtained from HDV and LDV exhibited distinct features. Nitrogen-containing compounds measured in the desorbed material up to 350 °C contributed around 20 % to the EF values for both types of vehicles, possibly associated with incomplete fuel burning. Additionally, 70 % of the organic compounds measured from the aerosol

  3. Chemical composition of dissolved organic matter draining permafrost soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ward, Collin P.; Cory, Rose M.

    2015-10-01

    Northern circumpolar permafrost soils contain roughly twice the amount of carbon stored in the atmosphere today, but the majority of this soil organic carbon is perennially frozen. Climate warming in the arctic is thawing permafrost soils and mobilizing previously frozen dissolved organic matter (DOM) from deeper soil layers to nearby surface waters. Previous studies have reported that ancient DOM draining deeper layers of permafrost soils was more susceptible to degradation by aquatic bacteria compared to modern DOM draining the shallow active layer of permafrost soils, and have suggested that DOM chemical composition may be an important control for the lability of DOM to bacterial degradation. However, the compositional features that distinguish DOM drained from different depths in permafrost soils are poorly characterized. Thus, the objective of this study was to characterize the chemical composition of DOM drained from different depths in permafrost soils, and relate these compositional differences to its susceptibility to biological degradation. DOM was leached from the shallow organic mat and the deeper permafrost layer of soils within the Imnavait Creek watershed on the North Slope of Alaska. DOM draining both soil layers was characterized in triplicate by coupling ultra-high resolution mass spectrometry, 13C solid-state NMR, and optical spectroscopy methods with multi-variate statistical analyses. Reproducibility of replicate mass spectra was high, and compositional differences resulting from interfering species or isolation effects were significantly smaller than differences between DOM drained from each soil layer. All analyses indicated that DOM leached from the shallower organic mat contained higher molecular weight, more oxidized, and more unsaturated aromatic species compared to DOM leached from the deeper permafrost layer. Bacterial production rates and bacterial efficiencies were significantly higher for permafrost compared to organic mat DOM

  4. Stabilization of ancient organic matter in deep buried paleosols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marin-Spiotta, E.; Chaopricha, N. T.; Mueller, C.; Diefendorf, A. F.; Plante, A. F.; Grandy, S.; Mason, J. A.

    2012-12-01

    Buried soils representing ancient surface horizons can contain large organic carbon reservoirs that may interact with the atmosphere if exposed by erosion, road construction, or strip mining. Paleosols in long-term depositional sites provide a unique opportunity for studying the importance of different mechanisms on the persistence of organic matter (OM) over millennial time-scales. We report on the chemistry and bioavailability of OM stored in the Brady soil, a deeply buried (7 m) paleosol in loess deposits of southwestern Nebraska, USA. The Brady Soil developed 9,000-13,500 years ago during a time of warming and drying. The Brady soil represents a dark brown horizon enriched in C relative to loess immediately above and below. Spanning much of the central Great Plains, this buried soil contains large C stocks due to the thickness of its A horizon (0.5 to 1 m) and wide geographic extent. Our research provides a unique perspective on long-term OM stabilization in deep soils using multiple analytical approaches. Soils were collected from the Brady soil A horizon (at 7 m depth) and modern surface A horizons (0-15 cm) at two sites for comparison. Soils were separated by density fractionation using 1.85 g ml-1 sodium polytungstate into: free particulate organic matter (fPOM) and aggregate-occluded (oPOM) of two size classes (large: >20 μm, and small: < 20 μm). The remaining dense fraction was separated into sand, silt, and clay size fractions. The distribution and age of C among density and particle-size fractions differed between surface and Brady soils. We isolated the source of the characteristic dark coloring of the Brady soil to the oPOM-small fraction, which also contained 20% of the total organic C pool in the Brady soil. The oPOM-small fraction and the bulk soil in the middle of the Brady A horizon had 14C ages of 10,500-12,400 cal yr BP, within the time that the soil was actively forming at the land surface. Surface soils showed modern ages. Lipid analyses of

  5. Influence of environmental factors on spectral characteristics of chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM) in Inner Mongolia Plateau, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wen, Z. D.; Song, K. S.; Zhao, Y.; Du, J.; Ma, J. H.

    2016-02-01

    Spectral characteristics of chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM) were examined in conjunction with environmental factors in the waters of rivers and terminal lakes within the Hulun Buir plateau, northeast China. Dissolved organic carbon (DOC), total nitrogen (TN), and total phosphorous (TP) were significantly higher in terminal lakes than rivers waters (p < 0.01). Principal component analysis (PCA) indicated that non-water light absorption and anthropogenic nutrient disturbances were the likely causes of the diversity of water quality parameters. CDOM absorption in river waters was significantly lower than terminal lakes. Analysis of the ratio of absorption at 250 to 365 nm (E250 : 365), specific ultraviolet (UV) absorbance (SUVA254), and the spectral slope ratio (Sr) indicated that CDOM in river waters had higher aromaticity, molecular weight, and vascular plant contribution than in terminal lakes. Furthermore, results showed that DOC concentration, CDOM light absorption, and the proportion of autochthonous sources of CDOM in plateau waters were all higher than in other freshwater rivers reported in the literature. The strong evapoconcentration, intense ultraviolet irradiance, and landscape features of the Hulun Buir plateau may be responsible for the above phenomenon. Redundancy analysis (RDA) indicated that the environmental variables total suspended matter (TSM), TN, and electrical conductivity (EC) had a strong correlation with light absorption characteristics, followed by total dissolved solid (TDS) and chlorophyll a. In most sampling locations, CDOM was the dominant non-water light-absorbing substance. Light absorption by non-algal particles often exceeded that by phytoplankton in the plateau waters. Study of these optical-physicochemical correlations is helpful in the evaluation of the potential influence of water quality factors on non-water light absorption in cold plateau water environments. The construction of a correlation between DOC

  6. Effects of Natural Organic Matter on Stability, Transport and Deposition of Engineered Nano-particles in Porous Media

    EPA Science Inventory

    The interaction of nano-particles and organic substances, like natural organic matter, could have significant influence on the fate, transport and bioavailability of toxic substances. Natural organic matter (NOM) is a mixture of chemically complex polyelectrolytes with varying m...

  7. Electron Shuttling Capacity of Solid-Phase Organic Matter in Forest Soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patel, A.; Zhao, Q.; Yang, Y.

    2015-12-01

    Soil organic matter, as an electron shuttle, plays an important role in regulating the biogeochemical cycles of metals, especially the redox reactions for iron. Microorganisms can reduce soil organic matter under anaerobic conditions, and biotically-reduced soil organic matter can abiotically donate electrons to ferric oxides. Such soil organic matter-mediated electron transport can facilitate the interactions between microorganisms and insoluble terminal electron acceptors, i.e. iron minerals. Most previous studies have been focused on the electron shuttling processes through dissolved soil organic matter, and scant information is available for solid-phase soil organic matter. In this study, we aim to quantify the electron accepting capacity for solid-phase organic matter in soils collected from four different forests in the United States, including Truckee (CA), Little Valley (NV), Howland (ME) and Hart (MI). We used Shewanella oneidensisMR-1 to biotically reduce soil slurries, and then quantified the electrons transferred to solid-phase and solution-phase organic matter by reacting them with Fe(III)-nitrilotriacetic acid (Fe(III)-NTA). The generation of Fe(II) was measured by a ferrozine assay to calculate the electron accepting capacity of soil organic matter. Our preliminary results showed that the Truckee soil organic matter can accept 0.51±0.07 mM e-/mol carbon. We will measure the electron accepting capacity for four different soils and correlate them to the physicochemical properties of soils. Potential results will provide information about the electron accepting capacity of solid-phase soil organic matter and its governing factors, with broad implication on the coupled biogeochemical cycles of carbon and iron.

  8. Influence of soil organic matter composition on the partition of organic compounds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rutherford, D.W.; Chiou, C.T.; Klle, D.E.

    1992-01-01

    The sorption at room temperature of benzene and carbon tetrachloride from water on three high-organic-content soils (muck, peat, and extracted peat) and on cellulose was determined in order to evaluate the effect of sorbent polarity on the solute partition coefficients. The isotherms are highly linear for both solutes on all the organic matter samples, which is consistent with a partition model. For both solutes, the extracted peat shows the greatest sorption capacity while the cellulose shows the lowest capacity; the difference correlates with the polar-to-nonpolar group ratio [(O + N)/C] of the sorbent samples. The relative increase of solute partition coefficient (Kom) with a decrease of sample polar content is similar for both solutes, and the limiting sorption capacity on a given organic matter sample is comparable between the solutes. This observation suggests that one can estimate the polarity effect of a sample of soil organic matter (SOM) on Kom of various nonpolar solutes by determining the partition coefficient of single nonpolar solute when compositional analysis of the SOM is not available. The observed dependence of Kom on sample polarity is used to account for the variation of Kom values of individual compounds on different soils that results from change in the polar group content of SOM. On the assumption that the carbon content of SOM in "ordinary soils" is 53-63%, the calculated variation of Kom is a factor of ???3. This value is in agreement with the limit of variation of most Kom data with soils of relatively high SOM contents.

  9. Coupled Ocean-Atmosphere Loss of Refractory Marine Dissolved Organic Matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kieber, D. J.; Keene, W. C.; Frossard, A. A.; Long, M. S.; Russell, L. M.; Maben, J. R.; Kinsey, J. D.; Tyssebotn, I. M.; Quinn, P.; Bates, T. S.

    2013-12-01

    Marine aerosol produced in the oceans from bursting bubbles and breaking waves is number dominated by submicron aerosol that are highly enriched in marine organic matter relative to seawater. Recent studies suggest that these organic-rich, submicron aerosol have a major impact on tropospheric chemistry and climate. It has been assumed this marine-derived aerosol organic matter is of recent origin stemming from biological activity in the photic zone. However, we deployed a marine aerosol generator on a recent cruise in the Sargasso Sea with seawater collected from 2500 m and showed that the aerosol generated from this seawater was enriched with organic matter to the same level as observed in surface Sargasso seawater, implying that the marine organic matter flux from the oceans into atmospheric aerosol is partly due to marine organic matter not of recent origin. We propose that marine aerosol production and subsequent physical and photochemical atmospheric evolution is the main process whereby old, refractory organic matter is removed from the oceans, thereby closing the carbon budget in the oceans and solving a long-standing conundrum regarding the removal mechanism for this organic matter in the sea. The implications of this study for couplings in the ocean-atmosphere cycling of organic matter will be discussed.

  10. Mechanical biological treatment of organic fraction of MSW affected dissolved organic matter evolution in simulated landfill.

    PubMed

    Salati, Silvia; Scaglia, Barbara; di Gregorio, Alessandra; Carrera, Alberto; Adani, Fabrizio

    2013-08-01

    The aim of this paper was to study the evolution of DOM during 1 year of observation in simulated landfill, of aerobically treated vs. untreated organic fraction of MSW. Results obtained indicated that aerobic treatment of organic fraction of MSW permitted getting good biological stability so that, successive incubation under anaerobic condition in landfill allowed biological process to continue getting a strong reduction of soluble organic matter (DOM) that showed, also, an aromatic character. Incubation of untreated waste gave similar trend, but in this case DOM decreasing was only apparent as inhibition of biological process in landfill did not allow replacing degraded/leached DOM with new material coming from hydrolysis of fresh OM. PMID:23743423

  11. Variation in assimilable organic carbon formation during chlorination of Microcystis aeruginosa extracellular organic matter solutions.

    PubMed

    Sun, Xingbin; Yuan, Ting; Ni, Huishan; Li, Yanpeng; Hu, Yang

    2016-07-01

    This study investigated the chlorination of Microcystis aeruginosa extracellular organic matter (EOM) solutions under different conditions, to determine how the metabolites produced by these organisms affect water safety and the formation of assimilable organic carbon (AOC). The effects of chlorine dosages, coagulant dosage, reaction time and temperature on the formation of AOC were investigated during the disinfection of M.aeruginosa metabolite solutions. The concentration of AOC followed a decreasing and then increasing pattern with increasing temperature and reaction time. The concentration of AOC decreased and then increased with increasing chlorination dosage, followed by a slight decrease at the highest level of chlorination. However, the concentration of AOC decreased continuously with increasing coagulant dosage. The formation of AOC can be suppressed under appropriate conditions. In this study, chlorination at 4mg/L, combined with a coagulant dose of 40mg/L at 20°C over a reaction time of 12hr, produced the minimum AOC. PMID:27372113

  12. Macroinvertebrate and organic matter export from headwater tributaries of a Central Appalachian stream

    EPA Science Inventory

    Headwater streams export organisms and other materials to their receiving streams and macroinvertebrate drift can shape colonization dynamics in downstream reaches while providing food for downstream consumers. Spring-time macroinvertebrate drift and organic matter export was me...

  13. Sources and Distribution of Organic Matter in Sediments of the Louisiana Continental Shelf

    EPA Science Inventory

    Both riverine and marine sources of organic matter (OM) contribute to sediment organic pools, and either source can contribute significantly to sediment accumulation, burial, and remineralization rates on river dominated continental shelf systems. For the Louisiana continental sh...

  14. The effects of organic matter-mineral interactions and organic matter chemistry on diuron sorption across a diverse range of soils.

    PubMed

    Smernik, Ronald J; Kookana, Rai S

    2015-01-01

    Sorption of non-ionic organic compounds to soil is usually expressed as the carbon-normalized partition coefficient (KOC), because it is assumed that the main factor that influences the amount sorbed is the organic carbon content of the soil. However, KOC can vary by a factor of at least ten across a range of soils. We investigated two potential causes of variation in diuron KOC - organic matter-mineral interactions and organic matter chemistry - for a diverse set of 34 soils from Sri Lanka, representing a wide range of soil types. Treatment with hydrofluoric acid (HF-treatment) was used to concentrate soil organic matter. HF-treatment increased KOC for the majority of soils (average factor 2.4). We attribute this increase to the blocking of organic matter sorption sites in the whole soils by minerals. There was no significant correlation between KOC for the whole soils and KOC for the HF-treated soils, indicating that the importance of organic matter-mineral interactions varied greatly amongst these soils. There was as much variation in KOC across the HF-treated soils as there was across the whole soils, indicating that the nature of soil organic matter is also an important contributor to KOC variability. Organic matter chemistry, determined by solid-state (13)C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, was correlated with KOC for the HF-treated soils. In particular, KOC increased with the aromatic C content (R=0.64, p=1×10(-6)), and decreased with O-alkyl C (R=-0.32, p=0.03) and alkyl C (R=-0.41, p=0.004) content. PMID:24972176

  15. Sorptive stabilization of organic matter by amorphous Al hydroxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schneider, M. P. W.; Scheel, T.; Mikutta, R.; van Hees, P.; Kaiser, K.; Kalbitz, K.

    2010-03-01

    Amorphous Al hydroxides (am-Al(OH) 3) strongly sorb and by this means likely protect dissolved organic matter (OM) against microbial decay in soils. We carried out batch sorption experiments (pH 4.5; 40 mg organic C L -1) with OM extracted from organic horizons under a Norway spruce and a European beech forest. The stabilization of OM by sorption was analyzed by comparing the CO 2 mineralized during the incubation of sorbed and non-sorbed OM. The mineralization of OM was evaluated based in terms of (i) the availability of the am-Al(OH) 3, thus surface OM loadings, (ii) spectral properties of OM, and (iii) the presence of phosphate as a competitor for OM. This was done by varying the solid-to-solution ratio (SSR = 0.02-1.2 g L -1) during sorption. At low SSRs, hence limited am-Al(OH) 3 availability, only small portions of dissolved OM were sorbed; for OM from Oa horizons, the mineralization of the sorbed fraction exceeded that of the original dissolved OM. The likely reason is competition with phosphate for sorption sites favouring the formation of weak mineral-organic bindings and the surface accumulation of N-rich, less aromatic and less complex OM. This small fraction controlled the mineralization of sorbed OM even at higher SSRs. At higher SSRs, i.e., with am-Al(OH) 3 more available, competition of phosphate decreased and aromatic compounds were sorbed selectively, which resulted in pronounced resistance of sorbed OM against decay. The combined OC mineralization of sorbed and non-sorbed OM was 12-65% less than that of the original DOM. Sorbed OM contributed only little to the overall OC mineralization. Stabilization of OC increased in direct proportion to am-Al(OH) 3 availability, despite constant aromatic C (˜30%). The strong stabilization at higher mineral availability is primarily governed by strong Al-OM bonds formed under less competitive conditions. Due to these strong bonds and the resulting strong stabilization, the surface loading, a proxy for the

  16. Sustaining effect of soil warming on organic matter decomposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hou, Ruixing; Ouyang, Zhu; Dorodnikov, Maxim; Wilson, Glenn; Kuzyakov, Yakov

    2015-04-01

    Global warming affects various parts of carbon (C) cycle including acceleration of soil organic matter (SOM) decomposition with strong feedback to atmospheric CO2 concentration. Despite many soil warming studies showed changes of microbial community structure, only very few were focused on sustainability of soil warming on microbial activity associated with SOM decomposition. Two alternative hypotheses: 1) acclimation because of substrate exhaustion and 2) sustaining increase of microbial activity with accelerated decomposition of recalcitrant SOM pools were never proven under long term field conditions. This is especially important in the nowadays introduced no-till crop systems leading to redistribution of organic C at the soil surface, which is much susceptible to warming effects than the rest of the profile. We incubated soil samples from a four-year warming experiment with tillage (T) and no-tillage (NT) practices under three temperatures: 15, 21, and 27 °C, and related the evolved total CO2 efflux to changes of organic C pools. Warmed soils released significantly more CO2 than the control treatment (no warming) at each incubation temperature, and the largest differences were observed under 15 °C (26% increase). The difference in CO2 efflux from NT to T increase with temperature showing high vulnerability of C stored in NT to soil warming. The Q10 value reflecting the sensitivity of SOM decomposition to warming was lower for warmed than non-warmed soil indicating better acclimation of microbes or lower C availability during long term warming. The activity of three extracellular enzymes: β-glucosidase, chitinase, sulphatase, reflecting the response of C, N and S cycles to warming, were significantly higher under warming and especially under NT compared to two other respective treatments. The CO2 released during 2 months of incubation consisted of 85% from recalcitrant SOM and the remaining 15% from microbial biomass and extractable organic C based on the

  17. Priming in the microbial landscape: periphytic algal stimulation of litter-associated microbial decomposers.

    PubMed

    Kuehn, Kevin A; Francoeur, Steven N; Findlay, Robert H; Neely, Robert K

    2014-03-01

    Microbial communities associated with submerged detritus in aquatic ecosystems often comprise a diverse mixture of autotrophic and heterotrophic microbes, including algae, bacteria, protozoa, and fungi. Recent studies have documented increased rates of plant litter mass loss when periphytic algae are present. We conducted laboratory and field experiments to assess potential metabolic interactions between natural autotrophic and heterotrophic microbial communities inhabiting submerged decaying plant litter of Typha angustifolia and Schoenoplectus acutus. In the field, submerged plant litter was either exposed to natural sunlight or placed under experimental canopies that manipulated light availability and growth of periphytic algae. Litter was collected and returned to the laboratory, where algal photosynthesis was manipulated (light/dark incubation), while rates of bacterial and fungal growth and productivity were simultaneously quantified. Bacteria and fungi were rapidly stimulated by exposure to light, thus establishing the potential for algal priming of microbial heterotrophic decay activities. Experimental incubations of decaying litter with 14C- and 13C-bicarbonate established that inorganic C fixed by algal photosynthesis was rapidly transferred to and assimilated by heterotrophic microbial decomposers. Periphytic algal stimulation of microbial heterotrophs, especially fungal decomposers, is an important and largely unrecognized interaction within the detrital microbial landscape, which may transform our current conceptual understanding of microbial secondary production and organic matter decomposition in aquatic ecosystems. PMID:24804458

  18. Estimation of algal and suspended sediment loads (singly and combined) using hyperspectral sensors and integrated mesocosm experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Schalles, J.F.; Schiebe, F.R.; Starks, P.J.

    1997-06-01

    Most remote sensing algorithms for materials in water are based on studies on natural waters with complex and variable optical properties, or of small indoor microcosm containers. We used sunlit, cylindrical, black mesocosm tanks (80m{sup 3}, 3 m depth) and a hyperspectral radiometer to examine reflectances of algal blooms and suspended kaolin white clay. In three integrated experiments, algae and clay levels were carefully manipulated: (1) Algal bloom water in one tank was pumped to a second which began with clear water, and clear make-up water was pumped to the first to obtain a well graded series (Chl. a = 0 - 62 {mu}g/L). (2) White, kaolin clay was added stepwise to clear water, resulting in an organic seston range of 0 - 40 mg/L. (3) Algal bloom water from a single source was divided between two tanks to establish Chi. a loads of 31 and 57 {mu}g/L. Then, identical additions of clay were made to both tanks to achieve a range of 0 - 72 mg/L inorganic matter while conserving the algal loads. The first experiment revealed a strong interplay between algal scattering and absorption. Pigment absorbance dominated below 510 nm, while increasing cell scattering in regions of low pigment activity caused green and NIR peaks to form near 560 and 700 nm. In spite of strong chlorophyll absorbance near 675 nm, this region had small reflectance increases with increased algae. In the second experiment, white clay had high albedo. At seston levels above 40 mg/L, green reflectance exceeded 50% and NIR reflectance at 800 nm exceeded 9%. In the third experiment, algal pigments strongly attenuated clay reflectance in a dose dependent manner, even at green wavelengths. Clay particles greatly amplified but also preserved algal reflectance patterns. Our findings affirm the importance of high spectral resolution at diagnostic wavelengths in turbid Case 2 coastal and inland waters.

  19. Natural organic matter fouling behaviors on superwetting nanofiltration membranes.

    PubMed

    Shan, Linglong; Fan, Hongwei; Guo, Hongxia; Ji, Shulan; Zhang, Guojun

    2016-04-15

    Nanofiltration has been widely recognized as a promising technology for the removal of micro-molecular organic components from natural water. Natural organic matter (NOM), a very important precursor of disinfection by-products, is currently considered as the major cause of membrane fouling. It is necessary to develop a membrane with both high NOM rejection and anti-NOM fouling properties. In this study, both superhydrophilic and superhydrophobic nanofiltration membranes for NOM removal have been fabricated. The fouling behavior of NOM on superwetting nanofiltration membranes has been extensively investigated by using humic acid (HA) as the model foulant. The extended Derjaguin-Landau-Verwey-Overbeek approach and nanoindentor scratch tests suggested that the superhydrophilic membrane had the strongest repulsion force to HA due to the highest positive total interaction energy (ΔG(TOT)) value and the lowest critical load. Excitation emission matrix analyses of natural water also indicated that the superhydrophilic membrane showed resistance to fouling by hydrophobic substances and therefore high removal thereof. Conversely, the superhydrophobic membrane showed resistance to fouling by hydrophilic substances and therefore high removal capacity. Long-term operation suggested that the superhydrophilic membrane had high stability due to its anti-NOM fouling capacity. Based on the different anti-fouling properties of the studied superwetting membranes, a combination of superhydrophilic and superhydrophobic membranes was examined to further improve the removal of both hydrophobic and hydrophilic pollutants. With a combination of superhydrophilic and superhydrophobic membranes, the NOM rejection (RUV254) and DOC removal rates (RDOC) could be increased to 83.6% and 73.3%, respectively. PMID:26900973

  20. Chemodiversity of dissolved organic matter in the Amazon Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonsior, Michael; Valle, Juliana; Schmitt-Kopplin, Philippe; Hertkorn, Norbert; Bastviken, David; Luek, Jenna; Harir, Mourad; Bastos, Wanderley; Enrich-Prast, Alex

    2016-07-01

    Regions in the Amazon Basin have been associated with specific biogeochemical processes, but a detailed chemical classification of the abundant and ubiquitous dissolved organic matter (DOM), beyond specific indicator compounds and bulk measurements, has not yet been established. We sampled water from different locations in the Negro, Madeira/Jamari and Tapajós River areas to characterize the molecular DOM composition and distribution. Ultrahigh-resolution Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (FT-ICR-MS) combined with excitation emission matrix (EEM) fluorescence spectroscopy and parallel factor analysis (PARAFAC) revealed a large proportion of ubiquitous DOM but also unique area-specific molecular signatures. Unique to the DOM of the Rio Negro area was the large abundance of high molecular weight, diverse hydrogen-deficient and highly oxidized molecular ions deviating from known lignin or tannin compositions, indicating substantial oxidative processing of these ultimately plant-derived polyphenols indicative of these black waters. In contrast, unique signatures in the Madeira/Jamari area were defined by presumably labile sulfur- and nitrogen-containing molecules in this white water river system. Waters from the Tapajós main stem did not show any substantial unique molecular signatures relative to those present in the Rio Madeira and Rio Negro, which implied a lower organic molecular complexity in this clear water tributary, even after mixing with the main stem of the Amazon River. Beside ubiquitous DOM at average H / C and O / C elemental ratios, a distinct and significant unique DOM pool prevailed in the black, white and clear water areas that were also highly correlated with EEM-PARAFAC components and define the frameworks for primary production and other aspects of aquatic life.

  1. Soil microstructure and organic matter: keys for chlordecone sequestration.

    PubMed

    Woignier, T; Fernandes, P; Soler, A; Clostre, F; Carles, C; Rangon, L; Lesueur-Jannoyer, M

    2013-11-15

    Past applications of chlordecone, a persistent organochlorine pesticide, have resulted in diffuse pollution of agricultural soils, and these have become sources of contamination of cultivated crops as well as terrestrial and marine ecosystems. Chlordecone is a very stable and recalcitrant molecule, mainly present in the solid phase, and has a strong affinity for organic matter. To prevent consumer and ecosystem exposure, factors that influence chlordecone migration in the environment need to be evaluated. In this study, we measured the impact of incorporating compost on chlordecone sequestration in andosols as a possible way to reduce plant contamination. We first characterized the transfer of chlordecone from soil to plants (radish, cucumber, and lettuce). Two months after incorporation of the compost, soil-plant transfers were reduced by a factor of 1.9-15 depending on the crop. Our results showed that adding compost modified the fractal microstructure of allophane clays thus favoring chlordecone retention in andosols. The complex structure of allophane and the associated low accessibility are important characteristics governing the fate of chlordecone. These results support our proposal for an alternative strategy that is quite the opposite of total soil decontamination: chlordecone sequestration. PMID:24056248

  2. Pyrolysis-combustion 14C dating of soil organic matter

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wang, Hongfang; Hackley, Keith C.; Panno, S.V.; Coleman, D.D.; Liu, J.C.-L.; Brown, J.

    2003-01-01

    Radiocarbon (14C) dating of total soil organic matter (SOM) often yields results inconsistent with the stratigraphic sequence. The onerous chemical extractions for SOM fractions do not always produce satisfactory 14C dates. In an effort to develop an alternative method, the pyrolysis-combustion technique was investigated to partition SOM into pyrolysis volatile (Py-V) and pyrolysis residue (Py-R) fractions. The Py-V fractions obtained from a thick glacigenic loess succession in Illinois yielded 14C dates much younger but more reasonable than the counterpart Py-R fractions for the soil residence time. Carbon isotopic composition (??13C) was heavier in the Py-V fractions, suggesting a greater abundance of carbohydrate- and protein-related constituents, and ??13C was lighter in the Py-R fractions, suggesting more lignin- and lipid-related constituents. The combination of 14C dates and ??13C values indicates that the Py-V fractions are less biodegradation resistant and the Py-R fractions are more biodegradation resistant. The pyrolysis-combustion method provides a less cumbersome approach for 14C dating of SOM fractions. With further study, this method may become a useful tool for analyzing unlithified terrestrial sediments when macrofossils are absent. ?? 2003 University of Washington. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. On the spectral induced polarization signature of soil organic matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwartz, N.; Furman, A.

    2014-01-01

    Although often composing a non-negligible fraction of soil cation exchange capacity (CEC), the impact of soil organic matter (OM) on the electrical properties of soil has not been thoroughly investigated. In this research the impact of soil OM on the spectral induced polarization (SIP) signature of soil was investigated. Electrical and chemical measurements for two experiments using the same soil, one with calcium as the dominant cation and the other with sodium, with different concentration of OM were performed. Our results show that despite the high CEC of OM, a decrease in polarization and an increase in relaxation time with increasing concentration of OM is observed. For the soil with calcium as the dominant cation, the decreases in polarization and the increase in relaxation time were stronger. We explain these non-trivial results by accounting for the interactions between the OM and the soil minerals. We suggest that the formation of organo-mineral complexes reduce ionic mobility, explaining both the decrease in polarization and the increase in relaxation time. These results demonstrate the important role of OM on SIP response of soil, and call for a further research in order to establish a new polarization model that will include the impact of OM on soil polarization.

  4. Spectral Induced Polarization Signature of Soil Organic Matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwartz, Nimrod; Furman, Alex

    2015-04-01

    Although often composing a non-negligible fraction of soil cation exchange capacity (CEC), the impact of soil organic matter (OM) on the electrical properties of soil has not been thoroughly investigated. In this research the impact of soil OM on the spectral induced polarization (SIP) signature of soil was investigated. Electrical and chemical measurements for two experiments using the same soil, one with calcium as the dominant cation and the other with sodium, with different concentration of OM were performed. Our results show that despite the high CEC of OM, a decrease in polarization and an increase in relaxation time with increasing concentration of OM is observed. For the soil with calcium as the dominant cation, the decreases in polarization and the increase in relaxation time were stronger. We explain these non-trivial results by accounting for the interactions between the OM and the soil minerals. We suggest that the formation of organo-mineral complexes reduce ionic mobility, explaining both the decrease in polarization and the increase in relaxation time. These results demonstrate the important role of OM on SIP response of soil, and call for a further research in order to establish a new polarization model that will include the impact of OM on soil polarization.

  5. Natural organic matter enhanced mobility of nano zerovalent iron.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Richard L; Johnson, Graham O'Brien; Nurmi, James T; Tratnyek, Paul G

    2009-07-15

    Column studies showed that the mobility of nanometer-sized zerovalent iron (nZVI) through granular media is greatly increased in the presence of natural organic matter (NOM). At NOM concentrations of 20 mg/L or greater, the nZVI was highly mobile during transport experiments in 0.15-m long columns packed with medium sand. Below 20 mg/L NOM, mobility of the nZVI was less; however, even at 2 mg/L the nZVI showed significantly increased mobility compared to the no-NOM case. Spectrophotometric and aggregation studies of nZVI suspensions in the presence of NOM suggest that sorption of the NOM onto the nZVI, resulting in a reduced sticking coefficient, may be the primary mechanism of enhanced mobility. Modeling the mobility of nZVI in porous media with filtration theory is challenging, but calibration of a simple model with experimental results from the column experiments reported here allows simulation of transport distances during injection. The simulation results show that the increased mobility due to NOM combined with the decrease in mobility due to decreased velocity with distance from an injection well could produce an injection zone that is wide enough to be useful for remediation but small enough to avoid reaching unwanted receptors. PMID:19708381

  6. Chemotaxis toward phytoplankton drives organic matter partitioning among marine bacteria.

    PubMed

    Smriga, Steven; Fernandez, Vicente I; Mitchell, James G; Stocker, Roman

    2016-02-01

    The microenvironment surrounding individual phytoplankton cells is often rich in dissolved organic matter (DOM), which can attract bacteria by chemotaxis. These "phycospheres" may be prominent sources of resource heterogeneity in the ocean, affecting the growth of bacterial populations and the fate of DOM. However, these effects remain poorly quantified due to a lack of quantitative ecological frameworks. Here, we used video microscopy to dissect with unprecedented resolution the chemotactic accumulation of marine bacteria around individual Chaetoceros affinis diatoms undergoing lysis. The observed spatiotemporal distribution of bacteria was used in a resource utilization model to map the conditions under which competition between different bacterial groups favors chemotaxis. The model predicts that chemotactic, copiotrophic populations outcompete nonmotile, oligotrophic populations during diatom blooms and bloom collapse conditions, resulting in an increase in the ratio of motile to nonmotile cells and in the succession of populations. Partitioning of DOM between the two populations is strongly dependent on the overall concentration of bacteria and the diffusivity of different DOM substances, and within each population, the growth benefit from phycospheres is experienced by only a small fraction of cells. By informing a DOM utilization model with highly resolved behavioral data, the hybrid approach used here represents a new path toward the elusive goal of predicting the consequences of microscale interactions in the ocean. PMID:26802122

  7. [Effects of dissolved organic matter on copper absorption by ryegrass].

    PubMed

    Tang, Chao; Wang, Bin; Liu, Man-Qiang; Hu, Feng; Li, Hui-Xin; Jiao, Jia-Guo

    2012-08-01

    In this study, dissolved organic matter (DOM) was extracted from earthworm casts and from the cattle manure with which the earthworms were fed, and a water culture experiment was conducted to study the effects of the DOM on the copper (Cu2+) absorption by ryegrass in the presence of different concentration Cu2+ (0, 5 and 10 mg x L(-1)). With the increasing concentration of Cu2+ in the medium, there was a gradual decrease in the dry mass of ryegrass shoots and roots and in the root length, surface area, volume, and tip number. In the presence of medium Cu2+, DOM increased the biomass of shoots and roots and the root length, surface area, volume, and tip number significantly. DOM reduced the Cu2+ concentration in roots, promoted the Cu2+ translocation from roots to shoots, and significantly increased the Cu2+ accumulation in shoots. The DOM from earthworm casts had better effects than that from cattle manure, and high concentration DOM had better effects than low concentration DOM. PMID:23189712

  8. Results of the 2008 dissolved organic matter fluorescence intercalibration study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murphy, K. R.; Butler, K.; Spencer, R. G.; Boehme, J.; Aiken, G.

    2009-12-01

    In 2008, 20 laboratories around the world participated in an intercalibration study of organic matter fluorescence measurements via Excitation-Emission Matrix Spectroscopy (EEMS). The goal was to assess the variability of fluorescence measurements obtained for identical samples (n = 5 natural samples, Suwanee River Fulvic Acid, quinine sulphate and four Starna Fluorescence Reference cells) by different laboratories, and to examine potential sources of this variability. Operator error was found to be a significant source of variability, with 6 laboratories submitting erroneous EEMs in an initial round. Uncorrected EEMs were significantly different from corrected EEMs, particularly at relatively low and relatively high excitation (λex) and emission (λem) wavelengths. When data from each lab were corrected according to a standard set of algorithms, the variability between EEMs for the same sample measured by different labs was wavelength dependent, with EEMs normalized to raman areas more similar at low λex and λem, and EEMs normalized to quinine sulphate equivalents more similar at higher wavelengths. The results confirm the importance of (1) applying spectral corrections prior to comparing fluorescence data acquired on different instruments, (2) full reporting of correction procedures and implementation according to an agreed standard protocol, and (3) strict implementation of quality assurance protocols prior to reporting EEMs.

  9. Mercury reduction and complexation by natural organic matter

    SciTech Connect

    Gu, Baohua; Bian, Yongrong; Miller, Carrie L; Dong, Wenming; Jiang, Xin; Liang, Liyuan

    2011-01-01

    Mercuric Hg(II) species form complexes with natural dissolved organic matter (DOM) such as humic acid (HA), and this binding is known to affect the chemical and biological transformation and cycling of mercury in aquatic environments. Dissolved elemental mercury, Hg(0), is also widely observed in sediments and water. However, reactions between Hg(0) and DOM have rarely been studied in anoxic environments. Here, under anoxic dark conditions we show strong interactions between reduced HA and Hg(0) through thiol-ligand induced oxidative complexation with an estimated binding capacity of about 3.5 umol Hg(0)/g HA and a partitioning coefficient greater than 10^6 mL/g. We further demonstrate that Hg(II) can be effectively reduced to Hg(0) in the presence of as little as 0.2 mg/L reduced HA, whereas production of purgeable Hg(0) is inhibited by complexation as HA concentration increases. This dual role played by DOM in the reduction and complexation of mercury is likely widespread in anoxic sediments and water and can be expected to significantly influence the mercury species transformations and biological uptake that leads to the formation of toxic methylmercury.

  10. Pyrolysis-combustion 14C dating of soil organic matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Hong; Hackley, Keith C.; Panno, Samuel V.; Coleman, Dennis D.; Liu, Jack Chao-li; Brown, Johnie

    2003-11-01

    Radiocarbon ( 14C) dating of total soil organic matter (SOM) often yields results inconsistent with the stratigraphic sequence. The onerous chemical extractions for SOM fractions do not always produce satisfactory 14C dates. In an effort to develop an alternative method, the pyrolysis-combustion technique was investigated to partition SOM into pyrolysis volatile (Py-V) and pyrolysis residue (Py-R) fractions. The Py-V fractions obtained from a thick glacigenic loess succession in Illinois yielded 14C dates much younger but more reasonable than the counterpart Py-R fractions for the soil residence time. Carbon isotopic composition (δ 13C) was heavier in the Py-V fractions, suggesting a greater abundance of carbohydrate- and protein-related constituents, and δ 13C was lighter in the Py-R fractions, suggesting more lignin- and lipid-related constituents. The combination of 14C dates and δ 13C values indicates that the Py-V fractions are less biodegradation resistant and the Py-R fractions are more biodegradation resistant. The pyrolysis-combustion method provides a less cumbersome approach for 14C dating of SOM fractions. With further study, this method may become a useful tool for analyzing unlithified terrestrial sediments when macrofossils are absent.

  11. The Organic Matter Biogeochemistry of the Congo River

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spencer, R. G.; Hernes, P.; Wabakanghanzi, J.; Bienvenu, D. J.; Six, J.

    2015-12-01

    Organic matter (OM) represents a fundamental link between terrestrial and aquatic carbon cycles and plays an essential role in aquatic ecosystem biogeochemistry. The Congo River, which drains pristine tropical forest and savannah is the second largest exporter of terrestrial carbon to the ocean, and represents a historically understudied basin. Our ongoing projects in the Congo Basin aim to provide pertinent information on transport and emissions of carbon by rivers that need to be incorporated into carbon budgets of terrestrial ecosystems. To date the Congo Basin has seen only limited perturbation but the carbon locked away in the Congo, as in other tropical rainforests is increasingly vulnerable to release into the aquatic system and the atmosphere. However, riverine carbon transport (both of OM to the oceans and release of CO2 to the atmosphere) as a driver of global carbon cycling is still largely overlooked. Here we present data from a multi-season field campaign to quantify the transport fluxes, mineralization fluxes, and chemical character of Congo River OM, and to elucidate how these properties relate to each other and vary seasonally driven by hydrology within the Congo Basin. Existing data demonstrates that although tropical rivers do not experience the seasonal climatic extremes of temperate or northern high-latitude rivers, they all demonstrate similar effects due to changing hydrologic inputs with respect to OM dynamics. Specifically flushing periods appear to warrant further study as maximal export of reactive freshly leached plant material occurs during this time period.

  12. Chemotaxis toward phytoplankton drives organic matter partitioning among marine bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Smriga, Steven; Fernandez, Vicente I.; Mitchell, James G.; Stocker, Roman

    2016-01-01

    The microenvironment surrounding individual phytoplankton cells is often rich in dissolved organic matter (DOM), which can attract bacteria by chemotaxis. These “phycospheres” may be prominent sources of resource heterogeneity in the ocean, affecting the growth of bacterial populations and the fate of DOM. However, these effects remain poorly quantified due to a lack of quantitative ecological frameworks. Here, we used video microscopy to dissect with unprecedented resolution the chemotactic accumulation of marine bacteria around individual Chaetoceros affinis diatoms undergoing lysis. The observed spatiotemporal distribution of bacteria was used in a resource utilization model to map the conditions under which competition between different bacterial groups favors chemotaxis. The model predicts that chemotactic, copiotrophic populations outcompete nonmotile, oligotrophic populations during diatom blooms and bloom collapse conditions, resulting in an increase in the ratio of motile to nonmotile cells and in the succession of populations. Partitioning of DOM between the two populations is strongly dependent on the overall concentration of bacteria and the diffusivity of different DOM substances, and within each population, the growth benefit from phycospheres is experienced by only a small fraction of cells. By informing a DOM utilization model with highly resolved behavioral data, the hybrid approach used here represents a new path toward the elusive goal of predicting the consequences of microscale interactions in the ocean. PMID:26802122

  13. Seasonal dynamics of light absorption by chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM) in the NW Mediterranean Sea (BOUSSOLE site)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Organelli, Emanuele; Bricaud, Annick; Antoine, David; Matsuoka, Atsushi

    2014-09-01

    We analyze a two-year time-series of chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM) light absorption measurements in the upper 400 m of the water column at the BOUSSOLE site in the NW Mediterranean Sea. The seasonal dynamics of the CDOM light absorption coefficients at 440 nm (acdom(440)) is essentially characterized by (i) subsurface maxima forming in spring and progressively reinforcing throughout summer, (ii) impoverishment in the surface layer throughout summer and (iii) vertical homogeneity in winter. Seasonal variations of the spectral dependence of CDOM absorption, as described by the exponential slope value (Scdom), are characterized by highest values in summer and autumn at the surface and low values at the depths of acdom(440) subsurface maxima or just below them. Variations of acdom(440) are likely controlled by microbial digestion of phytoplankton cells, which leads to CDOM production, and by photochemical destruction (photobleaching), which leads to CDOM degradation. Photobleaching is also the main driver of Scdom variations. Consistently with previous observations, acdom(440) for a given chlorophyll a concentration is higher than expected from Case I waters bio-optical models. The total non-water light absorption budget shows that surface waters at the BOUSSOLE site are largely dominated by CDOM during all seasons but the algal bloom in March and April. These results improve the knowledge of CDOM absorption dynamics in the Mediterranean Sea, which is scarcely documented. In addition, they open the way to improved algorithms for the retrieval of CDOM absorption from field or satellite radiometric measurements.

  14. Occurrence and abundance of carbohydrates and amino compounds in sequentially extracted labile soil organic matter fractions.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study aimed to investigate the content of carbohydrates and amino compounds in three labile fraction of soil organic matter (SOM). Soil samples were collected from two agricultural fields in southern Italy and the light fraction (LF), the 500–53-µm particulate organic matter (POM) and the mobil...

  15. FACTORS INFLUENCING PHOTOREACTIONS OF DISSOLVED ORGANIC MATTER IN A COASTAL RIVER OF THE SOUTHEASTERN UNITED STATES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Photoreactions of dissolved organic matter can affect the oxidizing capacity, nutrient dynamics, trace gas exchange, and color of surface waters. This study focuses on factors that affect the photoreactions of the colored dissolved organic matter (CDOM) in the Satilla River, a co...

  16. Advances in understanding the molecular structure of soil organic matter: Implications for interactions in the environment

    EPA Science Inventory

    We take a historic approach to explore how concepts of the chemical and physical nature of soil organic matter have evolved over time. We emphasize conceptual and analytical achievements in organic matter research over the last two decades and demonstrate how these developments h...

  17. Carbon and nitrogen in operationally-defined soil organic matter pools

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Humic substances [humic acid (HA), fulvic acid (FA), and insoluble humin], particulate organic matter (POM), and glomalin comprise the majority (ca 75%) of operationally defined extractable soil organic matter (SOM). The purpose of this work was to compare amounts of carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) in H...

  18. Contribution of plant lignin to the soil organic matter formation and stabilization

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Lignin is the third most abundant plant constituent after cellulose and hemicellulose and thought to be one of the building blocks for soil organic matter formation. Lignin can be used as a predictor for long-term soil organic matter stabilization and C sequestration. Soils and humic acids from fo...

  19. Characterization of Plant-derived Dissolved Organic Matter by Multiple Spectroscopic Techniques

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Dissolved organic matter (DOM) derived from fresh or early-stage decomposing soil amendment materials may play an important role in the process of organic matter accumulation. In this study, eight DOM samples from alfalfa, corn, crimson clover, hairy vetch, lupin, soybean, wheat and dairy manure wer...

  20. Inhibition of Phosphorus Sorption to Goethite, Gibbsite, and Kaolin by Fresh and Decomposed Organic Matter

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The direct effects of dissolved organic matter (DOM) on the sorption of orthophosphate onto gibbsite, goethite, and kaolin were examined using an one-point phosphorus sorption index and the linear Tempkin isotherm model. Dissolved organic matter extracted from fresh and decomposed agricultural resi...

  1. Effects of Agronomic and Conservation Management Practices On Organic Matter and Associated Properties in Claypan Soils

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Organic matter plays several important roles in the biogeochemistry of soil and impacts the sustainability and profitability of agroecosystems. Retention and transformation of soil organic matter (SOM) are affected by agronomic and conservation management practices. The primary objective of this stu...

  2. SUBTERRANEAN TERMITES: REGULATORS OF SOIL ORGANIC MATTER IN THE CHICHUAHUAN DESERT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Soil organic matter and the abundance of subterranean termites were measured at 89 locations spaced at 30-m intervals from the bottom of the top of a small desert watershed. here was no correlation between soil organic matter content and topographic position on the watershed. nal...

  3. Abiotic emissions of methane and reduced organic compounds from organic matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roeckmann, T.; Keppler, F.; Vigano, I.; Derendorp, L.; Holzinger, R.

    2012-12-01

    Recent laboratory studies show that the important greenhouse gas methane, but also other reduced atmospheric trace gases, can be emitted by abiotic processes from organic matter, such as plants, pure organic compounds and soils. It is very difficult to distinguish abiotic from biotic emissions in field studies, but in laboratory experiments this is easier because it is possible to carefully prepare/sterilize samples, or to control external parameters. For example, the abiotic emissions always show a strong increase with temperature when temperatures are increased to 70C or higher, well above the temperature optimum for bacterial activity. UV radiation has also been clearly shown to lead to emission of methane and other reduced gases from organic matter. Interesting information on the production mechanism has been obtained from isotope studies, both at natural abundance and with isotope labeling. For example, the methoxyl groups of pectin were clearly identified to produce methane. However, analysis of the isotopic composition of methane from natural samples clearly indicates that there must be other molecular mechanisms that lead to methane production. Abiotic methane generation could be a ubiquitous process that occurs naturally at low rates from many different sources.

  4. An initial investigation into the organic matter biogeochemistry of the Congo River

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Spencer, Robert G.M.; Hernes, Peter J.; Aufdenkampe, Anthony K.; Baker, Andy; Gulliver, Pauline; Stubbins, Aron; Aiken, George R.; Dyda, Rachael Y.; Butler, Kenna D.; Mwamba, Vincent L.; Mangangu, Arthur M.; Wabakanghanzi, Jose N.; Six, Johan

    2012-01-01

    The Congo River, which drains pristine tropical forest and savannah and is the second largest exporter of terrestrial carbon to the ocean, was sampled in early 2008 to investigate organic matter (OM) dynamics in this historically understudied river basin. We examined the elemental (%OC, %N, C:N), isotopic (δ13C, Δ14C, δ15N) and biochemical composition (lignin phenols) of coarse particulate (>63 μm; CPOM) and fine particulate (0.7–63 μm; FPOM) OM and DOC, δ13C, Δ14C and lignin phenol composition with respect to dissolved OM (14C = -62.2 ± -13.2‰, n = 5) compared to CPOM and DOM (mean Δ14C = 55.7 ± 30.6‰, n = 4 and 73.4 ± 16.1‰, n = 5 respectively). The modern radiocarbon ages for DOM belie a degraded lignin compositional signature (i.e. elevated acid:aldehyde ratios (Ad:Al) relative to CPOM and FPOM), and indicate that the application of OM degradation patterns derived from particulate phase studies to dissolved samples needs to be reassessed: these elevated ratios are likely attributable to fractionation processes during solubilization of plant material. The relatively low DOM carbon-normalized lignin yields (Λ8; 0.67–1.12 (mg(100 mg OC)-1)) could also reflect fractionation processes, however, they have also been interpreted as an indication of significant microbial or algal sources of DOM. CPOM appears to be well preserved higher vascular plant material as evidenced by its modern radiocarbon age, elevated C:N (17.2–27.1) and Λ8 values (4.56–7.59 (mg(100 mg OC)-1)). In relation to CPOM, the aged FPOM fraction (320–580 ybp 14C ages) was comparatively degraded, as demonstrated by its nitrogen enrichment (C:N 11.4–14.3), lower Λ8 (2.80–4.31 (mg(100 mg OC)-1)) and elevated lignin Ad:Al values similar to soil derived OM. In this study we observed little modification of the OM signature from sample sites near the cities of Brazzaville and Kinshasa to the head of the estuary (~350 km) highlighting the potential for future studies to

  5. Soil organic matter on citrus plantation in Eastern Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cerdà, Artemi; Pereira, Paulo; Novara, Agata; Prosdocimi, Massimo

    2015-04-01

    Citrus plantations in Eastern Spain are the main crop and Valencia region is the largest world exporter. The traditional plantation are located on flood irrigated areas and the new plantation are located on slopes were drip irrigation is the source of the wetting. It has been demonstrate that the citrus plantations contribute to high erosion rates on slopes (Cerdà et al., 2009b) as it is usual on agriculture land (Cerdà et al., 2009a), but when organic farming is present the soil erosion is much lower (Cerdà and Jurgensen, 2008; Cerdà et al., 2009; Cerdà and Jurgensen, 2011). This is a worldwide phenomenon (Wu et al., 2007; Wu et al., 2011; Xu et al., 2010; Xu et al., 2012a; Xu et al., 2012b), which are a key factor of the high erosion rates in rural areas (García Orenes et al., 2009: García Orenes et al., 20010; García Orenes et al., 2012; Haregewyn et al., 2013; Zhao et al., 2013). The key factor of the contrasted response of soils to the rain in citrus is the organic matter cover. This is why the Soil Erosion and Degradation Research Team developed a survey to determine the soil erosion rates on citrus orchards under different managements. A hundred of samples were collected in a citrus plantation on slope under conventional management (Chemical management), one on organic farming, one on traditional flood irrigated organic farming and one on traditional chemical flooding farm. The organic farming soils were treated with 10000 Kg ha-1 of manure yearly. The results show that the mean soil organic matter content was 1.24 %, 3.54%, 5,43% and 2.1% respectively, which show a clear impact of organic farming in the recovery of the soil organic matter. meanwhile the on the slopes and the flood-irrigated soils are Acknowledgements The research projects GL2008-02879/BTE, LEDDRA 243857 and PREVENTING AND REMEDIATING DEGRADATION OF SOILS IN EUROPE THROUGH LAND CARE (RECARE)FP7- ENV-2013- supported this research. References Cerdà, A., Flanagan, D.C., le Bissonnais

  6. Changes in dissolved organic matter during stream drying and rewetting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    von Schiller, D.; Acuña, V.; Graeber, D.; Martí, E.; Ribot, M.; Sabater, S.; Timoner, X.; Tockner, K.

    2012-04-01

    Dissolved organic matter (DOM) is a complex mixture of organic compounds, which represents an essential source of carbon (C) and nutrients in aquatic ecosystems. In addition, DOM can play a key ecological role by modifying the optical properties of waters, mediating the availability of metals and influencing trophic food web structure. While the effects of drying and rewetting on DOM dynamics in terrestrial soils is a well studied subject, less is known about its effects in aquatic ecosystems, especially in streams. This is an important gap of knowledge since temporary streams that naturally cease to flow are found worldwide. Moreover, many streams with perennial flow are currently facing flow intermittency due to the effects of water extraction or changes in land-use and climate. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of stream flow intermittency on the spatial and temporal variability of DOM. The study was performed in a 300-m long reach of the Fuirosos stream (Catalonia, NE Spain) during the drying (June to July) and rewetting (October to November) phases. We sampled at several points along the study reach every 3 to 4 days. We assessed DOM amount by measuring the concentration of dissolved organic C and nitrogen (N). We characterized DOM composition using spectroscopic measurements, size-exclusion chromatography and C:N stoichiometry. Results showed two markedly distinct biogeochemical shifts between the drying and the rewetting phases. During the transition from continuous to fragmented flow we observed an increase in the magnitude and spatial variability of DOM concentrations and DOM was dominated by compounds from aquatic origin. After flow recovery, we also observed a pronounced increase in DOM concentration, but during this hydrologic phase DOM was dominated by compounds of terrestrial origin. Taken together, these results emphasize the relevance of flow intermittency in regulating stream DOM dynamics not only in terms of its availability but

  7. Microbial biomass as a significant source of soil organic matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miltner, Anja; Kindler, Reimo; Schweigert, Michael; Achtenhagen, Jan; Bombach, Petra; Fester, Thomas; Kästner, Matthias

    2014-05-01

    Soil organic matter (SOM) plays an important role for soil fertility and in the global carbon cycle. SOM management should be based on knowledge about the chemical composition as well as the spatial distribution of SOM and its individual components in soils. Both parameters strongly depend on the direct precursors of SOM. In the past, microbial biomass has been neglected as a potential source of SOM, mainly because of its small pool size. Recent studies, however, show that a substantial portion of SOM is derived from microbial biomass residues. We therefore investigated the fate of microbial biomass residues in soils by means of incubation experiments with 13C-labelled microbial biomass. For our studies, we selected model organisms representing the three types of soil microorganisms and their characteristic cell wall structures: Escherichia coli (a Gram-negative bacterium), Bacillus subtilis (a Gram-positive bacterium) and Laccaria bicolor (an ectomycorrhizal fungus). We labelled the organisms by growing them on 13C glucose and incubated them in soil. During incubation, we followed the mineralisation of the labelled C, its incorporation into microbial biomass, and its transformation to non-living SOM. We found that 50-65% of the microbial biomass C remained in the soil during incubation. However, only a small part remained in the microbial biomass, the majority was transformed to SOM. In particular, proteins seemed to be rather stable in our experiments. In addition, we used scanning electron microscopy to identify microbial residues in soils and, for comparison, in artificial groundwater microcosms. Scanning electron micrographs showed a low number of intact cells, but mainly fragments of about 200-500 nm size. Similar fragments were found in artificial groundwater microcosms where the only possible origin was microbial biomass residues. Based on the results obtained, we provide a mechanistic model which explains how microbial biomass residues are formed and

  8. Soil Organic Matter Effects on Phosphorus Sorption: a Path Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Kang, J.; Hesterberg, D; Osmond, D

    2009-01-01

    While P sorption in mineral soils has been extensively studied, P sorption behavior in organic-rich soils is less known. This study was conducted to determine the relationships between Langmuir P sorption maxima (S{sub max}) and selected physicochemical properties of soils, with particular emphasis on organic matter (OM) content. The S{sub max} values were determined for 72 soil samples from the North Carolina Coastal Plain, along with pH, clay and OM contents, oxalate-extractable P (P{sub ox}), Al (Al{sub ox}), and Fe (Fe{sub ox}), and Mehlich 3 extractable P (P{sub M3}), Al (Al{sub M3}), and Fe (Fe{sub M3}). Path analysis was used to examine direct and indirect effects of soil properties on S{sub max}. In the oxalate path analysis, the direct effects of clay, Al{sub ox}, and Fe{sub ox} on S{sub max} were significant in the order Al{sub ox} > clay > Fe{sub ox} (P < 0.05). The S{sub max} was highly influenced by the indirect effect of Al{sub ox} and Fe{sub ox} through OM content. A two-piece segmented linear relationship existed between S{sub max} and OM and the regression slope in soils with OM {le} 49 g kg{sup -1} was 10-fold greater than that for soils with OM > 49 g kg{sup -1}. This finding suggested that noncrystalline or organically bound Al and Fe in the soils with OM > 49 g kg{sup -1} is less effective for P sorption than in the soils with lower OM content. In the Mehlich 3 path analysis, the direct effects of clay, OM, and Al{sub M3} on S{sub max} were significant in the order Al{sub M3} > OM > clay (P < 0.05) while the direct effect of Fe{sub M3} on S{sub max} was not significant. Oxalate may be better suited than Mehlich 3 as an extractant for predicting P sorption capacity in the Coastal Plain soils.

  9. Where is DNA preserved in soil organic matter?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaccone, Claudio; Beneduce, Luciano; Plaza, César

    2015-04-01

    Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) consists of long chains of alternating sugar and phosphate residues twisted in the form of a helix. Upon decomposition of plant and animal debris, this nucleic acid is released into the soil, where its fate is still not completely understood. In fact, although DNA is one of the organic compounds from living cells that is apparently broken down rapidly in soils, it is also potentially capable of being incorporated in (or interact with) the precursors of humic molecules. In order to track DNA occurrence in soil organic matter (SOM) fractions, an experiment was set up as a randomized complete block design with two factors, namely biochar addition and organic amendment. In particular, biochar (BC), applied at a rate of 20 t/ha, was combined with municipal solid waste compost (BC+MC) at a rate equivalent to 75 kg/ha of potentially available N, and with sewage sludge (BC+SS) at a rate equivalent to 75 kg/ha of potentially available N. Using a physical fractionation method, free SOM located between aggregates (unprotected C pool; FR), SOM occluded within macroaggregates (C pool weakly protected by physical mechanisms; MA), SOM occluded within microaggregates (C pool strongly protected by physical mechanisms; MI), and SOM associated with the mineral fractions (chemically-protected C pool; MIN) were separated from soil samples. DNA was then isolated from each fraction of the two series, as well as from the unamended soil (C) and from the bulk soils (WS), using Powersoil DNA isolation kit (MoBio, CA, USA) with a modified protocol. Data clearly show that the DNA survived the SOM fractionation, thus suggesting that physical fractionation methods create less artifacts compared to the chemical ones. Moreover, in both BC+MC and BC+SS series, most of the isolated DNA was present in the FR fraction, followed by the MA and the MI fractions. No DNA was recovered from the MIN fraction. This finding supports the idea that most of the DNA occurring in the SOM

  10. Transport of organic contaminants in subsoil horizons and effects of dissolved organic matter related to organic waste recycling practices.

    PubMed

    Chabauty, Florian; Pot, Valérie; Bourdat-Deschamps, Marjolaine; Bernet, Nathalie; Labat, Christophe; Benoit, Pierre

    2016-04-01

    Compost amendment on agricultural soil is a current practice to compensate the loss of organic matter. As a consequence, dissolved organic carbon concentration in soil leachates can be increased and potentially modify the transport of other solutes. This study aims to characterize the processes controlling the mobility of dissolved organic matter (DOM) in deep soil layers and their potential impacts on the leaching of organic contaminants (pesticides and pharmaceutical compounds) potentially present in cultivated soils receiving organic waste composts. We sampled undisturbed soil cores in the illuviated horizon (60-90 cm depth) of an Albeluvisol. Percolation experiments were made in presence and absence of DOM with two different pesticides, isoproturon and epoxiconazole, and two pharmaceutical compounds, ibuprofen and sulfamethoxazole. Two types of DOM were extracted from two different soil surface horizons: one sampled in a plot receiving a co-compost of green wastes and sewage sludge applied once every 2 years since 1998 and one sampled in an unamended plot. Results show that DOM behaved as a highly reactive solute, which was continuously generated within the soil columns during flow and increased after flow interruption. DOM significantly increased the mobility of bromide and all pollutants, but the effects differed according the hydrophobic and the ionic character of the molecules. However, no clear effects of the origin of DOM on the mobility of the different contaminants were observed. PMID:26676540

  11. Algal bloom-associated disease outbreaks among users of freshwater lakes-United States, 2009 - 2010

    EPA Science Inventory

    Algal blooms’ are local abundances of phytoplankton – microscopic photosynthesizing aquatic organisms found in surface waters worldwide; blooms are variable temporally and spatially and frequently produce a visible algal scum on the water. Harmful algal blooms (HABs) are abundan...

  12. Dissolved organic matter in anoxic pore waters from Mangrove Lake, Bermuda

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Orem, W.H.; Hatcher, P.G.; Spiker, E. C.; Szeverenyi, N.M.; Maciel, G.E.

    1986-01-01

    Dissolved organic matter and dissolved inorganic chemical species in anoxic pore water from Mangrove Lake, Bermuda sediments were studied to evaluate the role of pore water in the early diagenesis of organic matter. Dissolved sulphate, titration alkalinity, phosphate, and ammonia concentration versus depth profiles were typical of many nearshore clastic sediments and indicated sulphate reduction in the upper 100 cm of sediment. The dissolved organic matter in the pore water was made up predominantly of large molecules, was concentrated from large quantities of pore water by using ultrafiltration and was extensively tudied by using elemental and stable carbon isotope analysis and high-resolution, solid state 13C nuclear magnetic resonance and infrared spectroscopy. The results indicate that this material has a predominantly polysaccharide-like structure and in addition contains a large amount of oxygen-containing functional groups (e.g., carboxyl groups). The 13C nulcear magnetic resonance spectra of the high-molecular-weight dissolved organic matter resemble those of the organic matter in the surface sediments of Mangrove Lake. We propose that this high-molecular-weight organic matter in pore waters represents the partially degraded, labile organic components of the sedimentary organic matter and that pore waters serve as a conduit for removal of these labile organic components from the sediments. The more refractory components are, thus, selectively preserved in the sediments as humic substances (primarily humin). ?? 1986.

  13. Perchlorate-induced combustion of organic matter with variable molecular weights: Implications for Mars missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sephton, Mark A.; Lewis, James M. T.; Watson, Jonathan S.; Montgomery, Wren; Garnier, Carole

    2014-11-01

    Instruments on the Viking landers and Curiosity rover analyzed samples of Mars and detected carbon dioxide and organic compounds of uncertain origin. Mineral-assisted reactions are leading to uncertainty, particularly those involving perchlorate minerals which thermally decompose to produce chlorine and oxygen which can then react with organic matter to generate organochlorine compounds and carbon dioxide. Although generally considered a problem for interpretation, the release profiles of generated gases can indicate the type of organic matter present. We have performed a set of experiments with perchlorate and organic matter of variable molecular weights. Results indicate that organic susceptibility to thermal degradation and mineral-assisted reactions is related to molecular weight. Low molecular weight organic matter reacts at lower temperatures than its high molecular weight counterparts. The natural occurrence and association of organic matter with differing molecular weights helps to discriminate between contamination (usually low molecular weight organic matter only) and indigenous carbon (commonly low and high molecular weight organic matter together). Our results can be used to provide insights into data returning from Mars.

  14. Alteration of organic matter during infaunal polychaete gut passage and links to sediment organic geochemistry. Part II: Fatty acids and aldoses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woulds, Clare; Middelburg, Jack J.; Cowie, Greg L.

    2014-07-01

    The activities of sediment-dwelling fauna are known to influence the rates of and pathways through which organic matter is cycled in marine sediments, and thus to influence eventual organic carbon burial or decay. However, due to methodological constraints, the role of faunal gut passage in determining the subsequent composition and thus degradability of organic matter is relatively little studied. Previous studies of organic matter digestion by benthic fauna have been unable to detect uptake and retention of specific biochemicals in faunal tissues, and have been of durations too short to fit digestion into the context of longer-term sedimentary degradation processes. Therefore this study aimed to investigate the aldose and fatty acid compositional alterations occurring to organic matter during gut passage by the abundant and ubiquitous polychaetes Hediste diversicolor and Arenicola marina, and to link these to longer-term changes typically observed during organic matter decay. This aim was approached through microcosm experiments in which selected polychaetes were fed with 13C-labelled algal detritus, and organisms, sediments, and faecal pellets were sampled at three timepoints over ∼6 weeks. Samples were analysed for their 13C-labelled aldose and fatty acid contents using GC-MS and GC-IRMS. Compound-selective net accumulation of biochemicals in polychaete tissues was observed for both aldoses and fatty acids, and the patterns of this were taxon-specific. The dominant patterns included an overall loss of glucose and polyunsaturated fatty acids; and preferential preservation or production of arabinose, microbial compounds (rhamnose, fucose and microbial fatty acids), and animal-synthesised fatty acids. These patterns may have been driven by fatty acid essentiality, preferential metabolism of glucose, and A. marina grazing on bacteria. Fatty acid suites in sediments from faunated microcosms showed greater proportions of saturated fatty acids and bacterial markers

  15. Sources and distribution of organic matter in a river-dominated estuary (Winyah Bay, SC, USA)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goñi, Miguel A.; Teixeira, Maria J.; Perkey, David W.

    2003-08-01

    The sources and distribution of organic matter (OM) in surface waters and sediments from Winyah Bay (South Carolina, USA) were investigated using a variety of analytical techniques, including elemental, stable isotope and organic biomarker analyses. Several locations along the estuary salinity gradient were sampled during four different periods of contrasting river discharge and tidal range. The dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentrations of surface waters ranged from 7 mg l -1 in the lower bay stations closest to the ocean to 20 mg l -1 in the river and upper bay samples. There was a general linear relationship between DOC concentrations and salinity in three of the four sampling periods. In contrast, particulate organic carbon (POC) concentrations were significantly lower (0.1-3 mg l -1) and showed no relationship with salinity. The high molecular weight dissolved OM (HMW DOM) isolated from selected water samples collected along the bay displayed atomic carbon:nitrogen ratios ([C/N]a) and stable carbon isotopic compositions of organic carbon ( δ13C OC) that ranged from 10 to 30 and from -28 to -25‰, respectively. Combined, such compositions indicate that in most HMW DOM samples, the majority of the OM originates from terrigenous sources, with smaller contributions from riverine and estuarine phytoplankton. In contrast, the [C/N]a ratios of particulate OM (POM) samples varied significantly among the collection periods, ranging from low values of ˜5 to high values of >20. Overall, the trends in [C/N]a ratios indicated that algal sources of POM were most important during the early and late summer, whereas terrigenous sources dominated in the winter and early spring. In Winyah Bay bottom sediments, the concentrations of the mineral-associated OM were positively correlated with sediment surface area. The [C/N]a ratios and δ13C OC compositions of the bulk sedimentary OM ranged from 5 to 45 and from -28 to -23‰, respectively. These compositions were consistent

  16. Dynamics of dissolved organic matter in fjord ecosystems: Contributions of terrestrial dissolved organic matter in the deep layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamashita, Youhei; McCallister, S. Leigh; Koch, Boris P.; Gonsior, Michael; Jaffé, Rudolf

    2015-06-01

    Annually, rivers and inland water systems deliver a significant amount of terrestrial organic matter (OM) to the adjacent coastal ocean in both particulate and dissolved forms; however, the metabolic and biogeochemical transformations of OM during its seaward transport remains one of the least understood components of the global carbon cycle. This transfer of terrestrial carbon to marine ecosystems is crucial in maintaining trophic dynamics in coastal areas and critical in global carbon cycling. Although coastal regions have been proposed as important sinks for exported terrestrial materials, most of the global carbon cycling data, have not included fjords in their budgets. Here we present distributional patterns on the quantity and quality of dissolved OM in Fiordland National Park, New Zealand. Specifically, we describe carbon dynamics under diverse environmental settings based on dissolved organic carbon (DOC) depth profiles, oxygen concentrations, optical properties (fluorescence) and stable carbon isotopes. We illustrate a distinct change in the character of DOC in deep waters compared to surface and mid-depth waters. Our results suggest that, both, microbial reworking of terrestrially derived plant detritus and subsequent desorption of DOC from its particulate counterpart (as verified in a desorption experiment) are the main sources of the humic-like enriched DOC in the deep basins of the studied fjords. While it has been suggested that short transit times and protection of OM by mineral sorption may ultimately result in significant terrestrial carbon burial and preservation in fjords, our data suggests the existence of an additional source of terrestrial OM in the form of DOC generated in deep, fjord water.

  17. Determining the Origin and Fate of Particulate Plant-Derived Organic Matter in the Rhone River (France) : A Lipid Tracer Review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galeron, M. A.; Amiraux, R.; Charriere, B.; Radakovitch, O.; Raimbault, P.; Garcia, N.; Lagadec, V.; Vaultier, F.; Rontani, J. F.

    2014-12-01

    A number of lipid tracers including fatty acids, hydroxyacids, n-alkanols, sterols and triterpenoids were used to determine the origin and fate of suspended particulate organic matter (POM) collected in the Rhone River (France), with a main focus on phytosterols, such as sitosterol, desmosterol, brassicasterol and cholesterol. This seasonal survey (April 2011 to May 2013) revealed a year-round strong terrigenous contribution to the plant derived particulate organic matter (POM) with significant algal inputs observed in March and attributed to phytoplanktonic blooms likely dominated by diatoms. Specific sitosterol and cholesterol degradation products were quantified and used to estimate the part of biotic and abiotic degradation of POM within the river. Plant-derived organic matter appears to be mainly affected by photo-oxidation and autoxidation (free radical oxidation), while organic matter of human origin, evidenced by the presence of coprostanol, is clearly more prone to bacterial degradation. Despite the involvement of an intense autoxidation inducing homolytic cleavage of peroxy bonds, a significant proportion of hydroperoxides is still intact in higher plant debris. These compounds could play a role in the degradation of terrestrial material by inducing an intense autoxidation upon its arrival at sea. Although sitosterol has been commonly used as a tracer of the terrestrial origin of POM in rivers, we show here that is it also found in phytoplankton, which highlights the need to use different tracers to determine the origin of POM in rivers. As part of the set of tracers we use, we have identified betulin to be an interesting candidate, although limited to a number of angiosperms species. Not only can we trace betulin to an unequivocal terrestrial origin, we also identified its specific degradation products, allowing us to trace the degradation state of angiosperm particulate debris in rivers, as well as the type of degradation undergone.

  18. Determination of organic-matter content of Appalachian Devonian shales from gamma-ray logs.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schmoker, J.W.

    1981-01-01

    The organic-matter content of the Devonian shale of the Appalachian basin is important for assessing natural-gas resources. In most of the western part of the Appalachian basin the organic-matter content of the Devonian shale can be estimated from gamma-ray wire-line logs. Organic-matter contents estimated using these logs are compared with determinations from direct laboratory analyses of organic carbon for 74 intervals of varying thickness from 12 widely separated wells. The cumulative pool of gamma-ray logs for the Devonian shale forms a large and geographically broad data base. The approach may also be applicable to other formations.-from Author

  19. Jellyfish Lake, Palau: early diagenesis of organic matter in sediments of an anoxic marine lake

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Orem, W.H.; Burnett, W.C.; Landing, W.M.; Lyons, W.B.; Showers, W.

    1991-01-01

    The major postdepositional change in the sedimentary organic matter is carbohydrate biodegradation. Lignin and aliphatic substances are preserved in the sediments. Dissolved organic matter in pore waters is primarily composed of carbohydrates, reflecting the degradation of sedimentary carbohydrates. Rate constants for organic carbon degradation and sulfate reduction in sediments of the lake are about 10?? lower than in other anoxic sediments. This may reflect the vascular plant source and partly degraded nature of the organic matter reaching the sediments of the lake. -from Authors

  20. Temperature Dependence of Photodegradation of Dissolved Organic Matter to Dissolved Inorganic Carbon and Particulate Organic Carbon

    PubMed Central

    Porcal, Petr; Dillon, Peter J.; Molot, Lewis A.

    2015-01-01

    Photochemical transformation of dissolved organic matter (DOM) has been studied for more than two decades. Usually, laboratory or “in-situ” experiments are used to determine photodegradation variables. A common problem with these experiments is that the photodegradation experiments are done at higher than ambient temperature. Five laboratory experiments were done to determine the effect of temperature on photochemical degradation of DOM. Experimental results showed strong dependence of photodegradation on temperature. Mathematical modeling of processes revealed that two different pathways engaged in photochemical transformation of DOM to dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) strongly depend on temperature. Direct oxidation of DOM to DIC dominated at low temperatures while conversion of DOM to intermediate particulate organic carbon (POC) prior to oxidation to DIC dominated at high temperatures. It is necessary to consider this strong dependence when the results of laboratory experiments are interpreted in regard to natural processes. Photodegradation experiments done at higher than ambient temperature will necessitate correction of rate constants. PMID:26106898

  1. Algal Attributes: An Autecological Classification of Algal Taxa Collected by the National Water-Quality Assessment Program

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Porter, Stephen D.

    2008-01-01

    Algae are excellent indicators of water-quality conditions, notably nutrient and organic enrichment, and also are indicators of major ion, dissolved oxygen, and pH concentrations and stream microhabitat conditions. The autecology, or physiological optima and tolerance, of algal species for various water-quality contaminants and conditions is relatively well understood for certain groups of freshwater algae, notably diatoms. However, applications of autecological information for water-quality assessments have been limited because of challenges associated with compiling autecological literature from disparate sources, tracking name changes for a large number of algal species, and creating an autecological data base from which algal-indicator metrics can be calculated. A comprehensive summary of algal autecological attributes for North American streams and rivers does not exist. This report describes a large, digital data file containing 28,182 records for 5,939 algal taxa, generally species or variety, collected by the U.S. Geological Survey?s National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Program. The data file includes 37 algal attributes classified by over 100 algal-indicator codes or metrics that can be calculated easily with readily available software. Algal attributes include qualitative classifications based on European and North American autecological literature, and semi-quantitative, weighted-average regression approaches for estimating optima using regional and national NAWQA data. Applications of algal metrics in water-quality assessments are discussed and national quartile distributions of metric scores are shown for selected indicator metrics.

  2. Adsorption of dissolved natural organic matter by modified activated carbons.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Wei; Dastgheib, Seyed A; Karanfil, Tanju

    2005-06-01

    Adsorption of dissolved natural organic matter (DOM) by virgin and modified granular activated carbons (GACs) was studied. DOM samples were obtained from two water treatment plants before (i.e., raw water) and after coagulation/flocculation/sedimentation processes (i.e., treated water). A granular activated carbon (GAC) was modified by high temperature helium or ammonia treatment, or iron impregnation followed by high temperature ammonia treatment. Two activated carbon fibers (ACFs) were also used, with no modification, to examine the effect of carbon porosity on DOM adsorption. Size exclusion chromatography (SEC) and specific ultraviolet absorbance (SUVA(254)) were employed to characterize the DOMs before and after adsorption. Iron-impregnated (HDFe) and ammonia-treated (HDN) activated carbons showed significantly higher DOM uptakes than the virgin GAC. The enhanced DOM uptake by HDFe was due to the presence of iron species on the carbon surface. The higher uptake of HDN was attributed to the enlarged carbon pores and basic surface created during ammonia treatment. The SEC and SUVA(254) results showed no specific selectivity in the removal of different DOM components as a result of carbon modification. The removal of DOM from both raw and treated waters was negligible by ACF10, having 96% of its surface area in pores smaller than 1 nm. Small molecular weight (MW) DOM components were preferentially removed by ACF20H, having 33% of its surface area in 1--3 nm pores. DOM components with MWs larger than 1600, 2000, and 2700 Da of Charleston raw, Charleston-treated, and Spartanburg-treated waters, respectively, were excluded from the pores of ACF20H. In contrast to carbon fibers, DOM components from entire MW range were removed from waters by virgin and modified GACs. PMID:15927230

  3. Concurrent photolytic degradation of aqueous methylmercury and dissolved organic matter.

    PubMed

    Fleck, Jacob A; Gill, Gary; Bergamaschi, Brian A; Kraus, Tamara E C; Downing, Bryan D; Alpers, Charles N

    2014-06-15

    Monomethyl mercury (MeHg) is a potent neurotoxin that threatens ecosystem viability and human health. In aquatic systems, the photolytic degradation of MeHg (photodemethylation) is an important component of the MeHg cycle. Dissolved organic matter (DOM) is also affected by exposure to solar radiation (light exposure) leading to changes in DOM composition that can affect its role in overall mercury (Hg) cycling. This study investigated changes in MeHg concentration, DOM concentration, and the optical signature of DOM caused by light exposure in a controlled field-based experiment using water samples collected from wetlands and rice fields. Filtered water from all sites showed a marked loss in MeHg concentration after light exposure. The rate of photodemethylation was 7.5×10(-3)m(2)mol(-1) (s.d. 3.5×10(-3)) across all sites despite marked differences in DOM concentration and composition. Light exposure also caused changes in the optical signature of the DOM despite there being no change in DOM concentration, indicating specific structures within the DOM were affected by light exposure at different rates. MeHg concentrations were related to optical signatures of labile DOM whereas the percent loss of MeHg was related to optical signatures of less labile, humic DOM. Relationships between the loss of MeHg and specific areas of the DOM optical signature indicated that aromatic and quinoid structures within the DOM were the likely contributors to MeHg degradation, perhaps within the sphere of the Hg-DOM bond. Because MeHg photodegradation rates are relatively constant across freshwater habitats with natural Hg-DOM ratios, physical characteristics such as shading and hydrologic residence time largely determine the relative importance of photolytic processes on the MeHg budget in these mixed vegetated and open-water systems. PMID:23642571

  4. Hydrological controls on rate of organic matter mineralization in peats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghezzehei, Teamrat; Arnold, Chelsea; Asefaw Berhe, Asmeret

    2016-04-01

    The predominant factor that ties together the formation and persistence of peat soils across regions is their dependence on localized hydrology. Hydrology also plays a dominant role in the relative strength of peatlands as sinks for atmospheric carbon dioxide and sources of methane, and thus on peatland net climate impact. Drying of peat soils by climate change and/or drainage is typically followed by reduction in methane emissions. However, this may easily be offset by the increase in carbon dioxide production. Therefore, mechanistic understanding of peatland hydrology and its association with carbon cycling is a prerequisite for assessing vulnerability of peats to disturbances and for incorporating the associated feedbacks in carbon-climate models. We will present physically based model that ties together the structure of peat soils (mainly pore size distribution and mechanical stability) to rates of aerobic and anaerobic decomposition over a wide range of soil water potentials. Peats consist of hierarchical structure with clear separation of the pores into a population of micropores within clumps of organic matter and/or soil aggregates and a group of macropores between clumps and/or aggregates. This essentially partitions the carbon stock in peat soils in to multiple pools that become mineralizable at disparate water potential ranges. While the carbon in macropores can readily be decomposed by aerobic microorganisms when the soil is only slightly drained, the carbon in fine pores remains largely protected from aerobic microbes until the water potential exceeds a threshold that lets in oxygen. In this presentation we will show the mathematical development of the model and illustrative examples that compare projections with data derived from the literature.

  5. Concurrent photolytic degradation of aqueous methylmercury and dissolved organic matter

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fleck, Jacob A.; Gill, Gary W.; Bergamaschi, Brian A.; Kraus, Tamara E.C.; Downing, Bryan D.; Alpers, Charles N.

    2014-01-01

    Monomethyl mercury (MeHg) is a potent neurotoxin that threatens ecosystem viability and human health. In aquatic systems, the photolytic degradation of MeHg (photodemethylation) is an important component of the MeHg cycle. Dissolved organic matter (DOM) is also affected by exposure to solar radiation (light exposure) leading to changes in DOM composition that can affect its role in overall mercury (Hg) cycling. This study investigated changes in MeHg concentration, DOM concentration, and the optical signature of DOM caused by light exposure in a controlled field-based experiment using water samples collected from wetlands and rice fields. Filtered water from all sites showed a marked loss in MeHg concentration after light exposure. The rate of photodemethylation was 7.5 × 10-3 m2 mol-1 (s.d. 3.5 × 10-3) across all sites despite marked differences in DOM concentration and composition. Light exposure also caused changes in the optical signature of the DOM despite there being no change in DOM concentration, indicating specific structures within the DOM were affected by light exposure at different rates. MeHg concentrations were related to optical signatures of labile DOM whereas the percent loss of MeHg was related to optical signatures of less labile, humic DOM. Relationships between the loss of MeHg and specific areas of the DOM optical signature indicated that aromatic and quinoid structures within the DOM were the likely contributors to MeHg degradation, perhaps within the sphere of the Hg-DOM bond. Because MeHg photodegradation rates are relatively constant across freshwater habitats with natural Hg–DOM ratios, physical characteristics such as shading and hydrologic residence time largely determine the relative importance of photolytic processes on the MeHg budget in these mixed vegetated and open-water systems.

  6. Biogeochemical Processes That Produce Dissolved Organic Matter From Wheat Straw

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wershaw, Robert L.; Rutherford, David W.; Leenheer, Jerry A.; Kennedy, Kay R.; Cox, Larry G.; Koci, Donald R.

    2003-01-01

    The chemical reactions that lead to the formation of dissolved organic matter (DOM) in natural waters are poorly understood. Studies on the formation of DOM generally are complicated because almost all DOM isolates have been derived from mixtures of plant species composed of a wide variety of different types of precursor compounds for DOM formation. This report describes a study of DOM derived mainly from bales of wheat straw that had been left in a field for several years. During this period of time, black water from the decomposing wheat straw accumulated in pools in the field. The nuclear magnetic resonance and infrared spectra of the black water DOM indicate that it is composed almost entirely of lignin and carbohydrate polymeric units. Analysis by high-performance size-exclusion chromatography with multi-angle laser-light scattering detection indicates that the number average molecular weight of the DOM is 124,000 daltons. The results presented in this report indicate that the black water DOM is composed of hemicellulose chains cross-linked to lignin oligomers. These types of structures have been shown to exist in the hemicellulose matrix of plant cell walls. The cross-linked lignin-hemicellulose complexes apparently were released from partially degraded wheat-straw cell walls with little alteration. In solution in the black water, these lignin-hemicellulose polymers fold into compact globular particles in which the nonpolar parts of the polymer form the interiors of the particles and the polar groups are on the exterior surfaces of the particles. The tightly folded, compact conformation of these particles probably renders them relatively resistant to microbial degradation. This should be especially the case for the aromatic lignin structures that will be buried in the interiors of the particles.

  7. Nanoscale Structure of Organic Matter Could Explain Litter Decomposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papa, G.; Adani, F.

    2014-12-01

    According to the literature biochemical catalyses are limited in their actions because of the complex macroscopic and, above all, microscopic structures of cell wall that limit mass transportation (i.e. 3D structure). Our study on energy crop showed that plant digestibility increased by modifying the 3D cell wall microstructure. Results obtained were ascribed to the enlargement, such as effectively measured, of the pore spaces between cellulose fibrils. Therefore we postulated that 3 D structure of plant residues drives degradability in soil determining its recalcitrance in short time. Here we focused on the drivers of short-term decomposition of organic matter (plant residues) in soils evaluating the architecture of plant tissues, captured via measurements of the microporosiy of the cell walls. Decomposition rates of a wide variety of biomass types were studied conducting experiments in both aerobic and anaerobic environments. Different analytical approaches were applied in order to characterize biomass at both chemical and physical level. Combined statistical approaches were used to examine the relationships between carbon mineralization and chemical/physical characteristics. The results revealed that degradation was significantly and negatively correlated with the micro-porosity surface (MiS) (surface of pores of 0.3-1.5 nm of diameter). The multiple regressions performed by using partial least square model enabled describing biomass biodegradability under either aerobic and anaerobic condition by using micro-porosity and aromatic-C content (assumed to be representative of lignin) as independent variables (R2 =0.97, R2cv =0.95 for aerobic condition; R2 =0.99, R2cv =0.98 for anaerobic condition, respectively). These results corroborate the hypothesis that plant tissues are physically protected from enzymatic attack by a microporous "sheath" that limit penetration into cell wall, and demonstrate the key role played by aromatic carbon, because of its chemical

  8. Dissolved organic matter kinetically controls mercury bioavailability to bacteria.

    PubMed

    Chiasson-Gould, Sophie A; Blais, Jules M; Poulain, Alexandre J

    2014-03-18

    Predicting the bioavailability of inorganic mercury (Hg) to bacteria that produce the potent bioaccumulative neurotoxin monomethylmercury remains one of the greatest challenges in predicting the environmental fate and transport of Hg. Dissolved organic matter (DOM) affects mercury methylation due to its influence on cell physiology (as a potential nutrient) and its influence on Hg(II) speciation in solution (as a complexing agent), therefore controlling Hg bioavailability. We assessed the role of DOM on Hg(II) bioavailability to a gram-negative bacterium bioreporter under oxic pseudo- and nonequilibrium conditions, using defined media and field samples spanning a wide range of DOM levels. Our results showed that Hg(II) was considerably more bioavailable under nonequilibrium conditions than when DOM was absent or when Hg(II) and DOM had reached pseudoequilibrium (24 h) prior to cell exposure. Under these enhanced uptake conditions, Hg(II) bioavailability followed a bell shaped curve as DOM concentrations increased, both for defined media and natural water samples, consistent with bioaccumulation results in a companion paper (this issue) observed for amphipods. Experiments also suggest that DOM may not only provide shuttle molecules facilitating Hg uptake, but also alter cell wall properties to facilitate the first steps toward Hg(II) internalization. We propose the existence of a short-lived yet critical time window (<24 h) during which DOM facilitates the entry of newly deposited Hg(II) into aquatic food webs, suggesting that the bulk of mercury incorporation in aquatic food webs would occur within hours following its deposition from the atmosphere. PMID:24524696

  9. Effect of polydispersity on natural organic matter transport.

    PubMed

    Seders Dietrich, Lindsay A; McInnis, Daniel P; Bolster, Diogo; Maurice, Patricia A

    2013-05-01

    The mobility of humic-substance dominated natural organic matter (NOM) concentrated from a freshwater wetland by reverse osmosis was examined in sand columns at pH 5-8, in 0.001 M and 0.01 M NaClO4. Greater mobility was observed at higher pH and lower ionic strength, although breakthrough curves (BTCs) for bulk NOM exhibited extensive tailing under all conditions examined. Based on observations from previous batch experiments indicating preferential adsorption of intermediate to high molecular weight (MW) NOM, we postulate that 'adsorptive fractionation' of the NOM pool leads to the observed tailing behavior, and develop a novel approach to assess the effects of polydispersity on transport of NOM and associated contaminants. BTCs for different NOM fractions were constructed by separating column effluent MW distributions determined by high-pressure size exclusion chromatography into five discrete intervals or 'bins' and calculating the mass of NOM within each bin at four sampling times. Observed retardation factors (Ro), reflecting median arrival time relative to that of a nonreactive tracer, ranged from 1.4 to 7.9 for the various bins and generally increased with MW. NOM retarded transport of the contaminant metal Cd (2.5 ppm, in 0.01 M NaClO4) slightly at pH 5 and more substantially at pH 8. Although Cd had little or no effect on bulk NOM transport, retention of the more aromatic, IMW-HMW NOM appeared to be slightly enhanced by Cd. Study results demonstrate that heterogeneity in retardation as a function of MW is likely a major factor contributing to bulk NOM BTC tailing and may have important implications for contaminant transport. PMID:23490097

  10. Photochemical Degradation of Persistent Organic Pollutants: A Study of Ice Photochemistry Mediated by Dissolved Organic Matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pierce, B.; Grannas, A. M.

    2010-12-01

    Contamination and accumulation of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in the Arctic, an area previously considered as pristine and removed from human influence, has become a growing concern. Volatile and semi-volatile contaminants from lower latitudes are transported to the Arctic through a process known as global distillation. The polar regions are unique in that they sit in darkness during the winter until polar sunrise. These conditions allow pollutants to accumulate during winter and then undergo 24-hours of continuous irradiance in sunlit conditions. Photochemical degradation may thus be an important pathway to consider in the spring/summer Arctic season. Additionally, active photochemistry has also been observed in mid-latitude snowpacks. However, the potential photodegradation of anthropogenic contaminants in mid-latitude snow has received little attention in the literature. Aldrin, a once globally distributed pesticide, is of particular environmental concern due to its low solubility in water, known persistence in the environment, and its ability to degrade into environmentally persistent products. To investigate the potential photochemical degradation of aldrin, samples of aqueous aldrin solution (20 µg/L), in liquid and frozen phases, were irradiated under Q-Panel 340 lamps to simulate the UV radiation profile of natural sunlight. Following irradiation, samples were extracted with organic solvent containing an internal standard for GC-ECD analysis. Results indicated that frozen samples degrade more quickly than liquid samples. Photochemical half lives for frozen and liquid samples were found to be approximately 13.5 hours and 45 hours respectively. It was found that the addition of natural organic matter increased the aldrin degradation rate significantly. Ongoing studies will further evaluate the differences in liquid and frozen reactivity and the influence of different sources of natural organic matter.

  11. Influence of environmental factors on spectral characteristic of chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM) in Inner Mongolia Plateau, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wen, Z. D.; Song, K. S.; Zhao, Y.; Du, J.; Ma, J. H.

    2015-06-01

    Spectral characteristics of chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM) were examined in conjunction with environmental factors in the waters of 22 rivers and 26 terminal waters in Hulun Buir plateau, northeast China. Dissolved organic carbon (DOC), total nitrogen (TN), and total phosphorous (TP) were significantly higher in terminal waters than rivers waters (p < 0.01). Principal component analysis (PCA) indicated that non-water light absorption and anthropogenic nutrient disturbances might be the causes of the diversity of water quality parameters in Hulun Buir plateau. CDOM absorption in river waters was significantly lower than terminal waters (p < 0.01). Analysis of ratio of absorption at 250-365 nm (E250 : 365), specific UV absorbance (SUVA254), and spectral slope ratio (Sr) indicated that CDOM in river waters had higher aromaticity, molecular weight, and vascular plant contribution than in terminal waters. Furthermore, results showed that DOC concentration, CDOM light absorption, and the proportion of autochthonous sources of CDOM in plateau waters were all higher than in other freshwater rivers reported in the literature. The strong evapoconcentration, intense ultraviolet irradiance and landscape features of Hulun Buir plateau may be responsible for the above phenomenon. Redundancy analysis (RDA) indicated that the environmental variables TSM, TN, and EC had a strong correlation with light absorption characteristics, followed by TDS and chlorophyll a. In most sampling locations, CDOM was the dominant non-water light-absorbing substance. Light absorption by non-algal particles often exceeded that by phytoplankton in the plateau waters. Study of these optical-physicochemical correlations is helpful in the evaluation of the potential influence of water quality factors on non-water light absorption in cold plateau water environments. And the study on organic carbon in plateau lakes had a vital contribution to global carbon balance estimation.

  12. Dissolved organic matter in newly formed sea ice and surface seawater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Longnecker, Krista

    2015-12-01

    Changes in sea ice in the Arctic will have ramifications on regional and global carbon cycling. Research to date has primarily focused on the regional impacts to biological activity and global impacts on atmospheric processes. The current project considers the molecular-level composition of organic carbon within sea ice compared to the organic matter in seawater. The project revealed that the composition of organic matter within sea ice was more variable than the composition of organic matter within the surface ocean. Furthermore, sea ice samples presented two distinct patterns in the composition of organic matter with a portion of the sea ice samples containing protein-like organic matter. Yet, the samples were collected in the early winter period when little biological activity is expected. Thus, one hypothesis is that physical processes acting during the formation of sea ice selectively transferred organic matter from seawater into sea ice. The present project expands our understanding of dissolved organic matter in sea ice and surface seawater and thereby increases our knowledge of carbon cycling in polar regions.

  13. Algal pigments record shifts in dominant primary productivity through the Holocene in an arctic lake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Florian, C.; Miller, G. H.; Fogel, M. L.

    2011-12-01

    The character and magnitude of primary productivity in arctic lakes is largely controlled by climate. Organic compounds derived from pigments and preserved in lake sediments allow reconstruction of past abundances of algae that do not leave silicious microfossils. Fossil algal pigments are abundant in lake sediment and can be accurately quantified using High Pressure Liquid Chromatography (HPLC). Several groups of algae produce unique pigments that can be used to reconstruct their past abundance. In Qivitu Highlands Lake, eastern central Baffin Island, the ratio of pigments diatoxantin and lutein exhibits coherent changes through the Holocene. Diatoxanthin is produced by diatoms and chrysophytes, whereas lutein is produced by green algae and higher plants. Because these pigments are the dominant carotenoids in the sediment, they serve as proxies for the dominant group of primary producers. During the Holocene Thermal Maximum and the past century, lutein is much more abundant than diatoxanthin. During Neoglacial cooling and into the Little Ice Age, diatoxanthin becomes the dominant carotenoid. This shift reveals that there was a change in not only the magnitude of algal production, but also the most abundant type. The adaptation of aquatic algal assemblages to changing climate suggests that gross changes in primary productivity may not be suitable to track the abundance of one type of algal microfossil (such as diatoms) without considering the other algal groups. Higher plants also produce lutein, and its abundance is additionally influenced by the presence of terrestrial organic matter as well as aquatic macrophyte plants. We hypothesize that the prevalence of lutein during warm summers is due to a longer ice-free season, allowing the development of a greater biomass of green algae and macrophyte plants as well as possible increases of terrestrial higher plant communities. This is part of a larger study where the lutein to diatoxanthin ratio is compared to organic

  14. Colored dissolved organic matter in Tampa Bay, Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chen, Z.; Hu, C.; Conmy, R.N.; Muller-Karger, F.; Swarzenski, P.

    2007-01-01

    Absorption and fluorescence of colored dissolved organic matter (CDOM) and concentrations of dissolved organic carbon (DOC), chlorophyll and total suspended solids in Tampa Bay and its adjacent rivers were examined in June and October of 2004. Except in Old Tampa Bay (OTB), the spatial distribution of CDOM showed a conservative relationship with salinity in June, 2004 (aCDOM(400) = − 0.19 × salinity + 6.78, R2 = 0.98, n = 17, salinity range = 1.1–32.5) with little variations in absorption spectral slope and fluorescence efficiency. This indicates that CDOM distribution was dominated by mixing. In October, 2004, CDOM distribution was nonconservative with an average absorption coefficient (aCDOM(400), ∼ 7.76 m-1) about seven times higher than that in June (∼ 1.11 m-1). The nonconservative behavior was caused largely by CDOM removal at intermediate salinities (e.g., aCDOM(400) removal > 15% at salinity ∼ 13.0), which likely resulted from photobleaching due to stronger stratification. The spatial and seasonal distributions of CDOM in Tampa Bay showed that the two largest rivers, the Alafia River (AR) and Hillsborough River (HR) were dominant CDOM sources to most of the bay. In OTB, however, CDOM showed distinctive differences: lower absorption coefficient, higher absorption spectral slopes, and lower ratios of CDOM absorption to DOC and higher fluorescence efficiency. These differences may have stemmed from (1) changes in CDOM composition by more intensive photobleaching due to the longer residence time of water mass in OTB; (2) other sources of CDOM than the HR/AR inputs, such as local creeks, streams, groundwater, and/or bottom re-suspension. Average CDOM absorption in Tampa Bay at 443 nm, aCDOM(443), was about five times higher in June and about ten times higher in October than phytoplankton pigment absorption, aph(443), indicating that blue light attenuation in the water column was dominated by CDOM rather than by phytoplankton absorption throughout the

  15. The Contribution of Fungal Necromass to Soil Organic Matter Storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schreiner, K. M.; Blair, N. E.; Buiser, A.; Egerton-Warburton, L.

    2013-12-01

    Saprotrophic fungi have the ability to degrade the three most important biopolymers: cellulose, lignin, and chitin, and therefore are key moderators of a globally important flow of carbon. However, little is known about how that carbon is transformed and/or stored in soil organic matter (SOM). Fungi are also known to produce a variety of biopolymers, such as chitin, melanin, glucan, and mucus-like exudates, and it is likely that these compounds contribute to long-term storage of SOM. In fact, recent work with ectomycorrhizal fungi has shown that a portion of the fungal necromass survives after degradation times of a few weeks to one month (e.g. Drigo et al. 2012, Clemmenson et al. 2013). Until now, the potential contribution of other abundant fungi to recalcitrant SOM has been unknown. Soil incubations have been performed with the common saprotrophic fungus, Fusarium avencum. Approximately 80% of the fungal material was found to turnover over on a time period of days, but 15% of the original biomass was left over at the end of the two-month degradation experiment in both laboratory experiments and in situ in the Dixon Prairie of the Chicago Botanic Garden. In both experiments, degradation was performed by a natural soil microbial consortium. Residual fungal material at each point in the decomposition sequence was analyzed using FTIR and thermochemolysis-GCMS with tetramethyl ammonium hydroxide. The recalcitrant fraction contained carbohydrate and amide-linked functional groups, which is consistent with the chitin or chitosan biopolymer. The breakdown of more labile organic carbon (including proteins and ester-linked groups) appears to occur on a more rapid time scale. Additionally, lipid biomarker analyses revealed a succession of microbial degraders in the degradation process. This is the first time a study of this kind has been performed using a widely distributed saprotrophic fungus, and indicates that these fungi are potentially important in long-term C

  16. Quantifying the degradation of organic matter in marine sediments: A review and synthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arndt, Sandra; Jørgensen, B. B.; LaRowe, D. E.; Middelburg, J. J.; Pancost, R. D.; Regnier, P.

    2013-08-01

    Quantifying the rates of biogeochemical processes in marine sediments is essential for understanding global element cycles and climate change. Because organic matter degradation is the engine behind benthic dynamics, deciphering the impact that various forces have on this process is central to determining the evolution of the Earth system. Therefore, recent developments in the quantitative modeling of organic matter degradation in marine sediments are critically reviewed. The first part of the review synthesizes the main chemical, biological and physical factors that control organic matter degradation in sediments while the second part provides a general review of the mathematical formulations used to model these processes and the third part evaluates their application over different spatial and temporal scales. Key transport mechanisms in sedimentary environments are summarized and the mathematical formulation of the organic matter degradation rate law is described in detail. The roles of enzyme kinetics, bioenergetics, temperature and biomass growth in particular are highlighted. Alternative model approaches that quantify the degradation rate constant are also critically compared. In the third part of the review, the capability of different model approaches to extrapolate organic matter degradation rates over a broad range of temporal and spatial scales is assessed. In addition, the structure, functions and parameterization of more than 250 published models of organic matter degradation in marine sediments are analyzed. The large range of published model parameters illustrates the complex nature of organic matter dynamics, and, thus, the limited transferability of these parameters from one site to another. Compiled model parameters do not reveal a statistically significant correlation with single environmental characteristics such as water depth, deposition rate or organic matter flux. The lack of a generic framework that allows for model parameters to be

  17. Effect of water saturation in soil organic matter on the partition of organic compounds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rutherford, D.W.; Chlou, G.T.

    1992-01-01

    The sorption of benzene, trichloroethylene, and carbon tetrachloride at room temperature from water solution and from vapor on two high-organic-content soils (peat and muck) was determined in order to evaluate the effect of water saturation on the solute partition in soil organic matter (SOM). The uptake of water vapor was similarly determined to define the amounts of water in the saturated soil samples. In such high-organic-content soils the organic vapor sorption and the respective solute sorption from water exhibit linear isotherms over a wide range of relative concentrations. This observation, along with the low BET surface areas of the samples, suggests that partition in the SOM of the samples is the dominant process in the uptake of these liquids. A comparison of the sorption from water solution and from vapor phase shows that water saturation reduces the sorption (partition) efficiency of SOM by ?? 42%; the saturated water content is ??38% by weight of dry SOM. This reduction is relatively small when compared with the almost complete suppression by water of organic compound adsorption on soil minerals. While the effect of water saturation on solute uptake by SOM is much expected in terms of solute partition in SOM, the influence of water on the solubility behavior of polar SOM can be explained only qualitatively by regular solution theory. The results suggest that the major effect of water in a drying-wetting cycle on the organic compound uptake by normal low-organic-content soils (and the associated compound's activity) is the suppression of adsorption by minerals rather than the mitigation of the partition effect in SOM.

  18. Practical wet oxidation experiment to determine concentrations of particulate organic matter in seawater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berger, V. Ya.; Mityaev, M. V.; Sukhotin, A. A.

    2016-03-01

    The report presents results of experiments testifying to the possibility of using wet oxidation to determine the concentrations of organic carbon in marine particulate matter. We describe a method for eliminating the measurement error caused by the influence of chlorides on the processes of dichromate oxidation of organic matter. We present an equation to calculate the concentration of organic carbon depending on that of sodium chloride.

  19. Sediment organic matter content as a confounding factor in toxicity tests with Chironomus tentans

    SciTech Connect

    Lacey, R.; Watzin, M.C.; McIntosh, A.W.

    1999-02-01

    Physicochemical characteristics of sediment unrelated to contaminant levels and bioavailability may influence the outcome of toxicity tests. In particular, sediment organic matter content has the potential to be a confounding factor in toxicity tests using the midge larva Chironomus tentans because the larvae are infaunal and feed on organic matter in the sediments. To examine the possibility, the authors conducted a series of tests using formulated sediments with varying organic matter contents following the standard US Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA) 10-day C. tentans growth and survival protocol. Formulated sediments made with peat moss, {alpha}-cellulose, and maple leaves were tested. An organic-rich natural sediment diluted with formulated sediment to achieve a range of organic matter contents was also examined. In a final experiment, sediments containing each of the four organic matter sources at the same concentration were tested against one another. Survival was not greatly affected by concentration of organic matter, except at the lowest concentrations in natural sediment, where survival dipped below 70%. In experiments using peat moss, {alpha}-cellulose, and maple leaves, significant differences in C. tentans growth were found at different organic matter concentrations. In contrast, concentration of organic matter in the natural sediment dilution series had little effect on growth, perhaps because much of this material was highly refractory. In the comparison experiment, growth differed significantly among the four sediments, with best growth achieved with {alpha}-cellulose and leaves. These results suggest that both organic matter quantity and quality can be confounding factors in toxicity tests using C. tentans.

  20. Effect of organic matter on the sorption activity of heavy loamy soils for volatile organic compounds under low moisture conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Breus, I. P.; Mishchenko, A. A.; Shinkarev, A. A.; Neklyudov, S. A.; Breus, V. A.

    2014-12-01

    The diverse effect of the organic matter content on the sorption of vapors of aromatic and aliphatic hydrocarbons in soils under low moisture (<10.5%) has been revealed in sorption experiments using profile samples from two virgin heavy loamy dark gray forest soils characterized by relatively stable contents of finely dispersed mineral components. The decrease of the hydrocarbon sorption with increasing the content of organic matter under dry conditions (in the moisture range from 0 to 5-6%) indicates its lower sorption activity than that of the clay components and the blocking of the sorption sites on soil minerals by organic matter. At moisture contents above 5-6%, the effect of the soil composition on the sorption activity changes radically: it increases with increasing the content of organic matter. This is due to the inversion of the ratio between the activities of the soil components because of the hydrophilization of the surface of the mineral soil component. As a result, the sorption of water on the minerals reduces the mineral sorption activity to hydrocarbons to a lower level than the activity of organic matter. The maximum manifestation of the revealed blocking effect has been observed for the low-humus soils and this effect decreased with the accumulation of soil organic matter.

  1. Sorption of Highly Hydrophobic Organic Chemicals to Organic Matter Relevant for Fish Bioconcentration Studies.

    PubMed

    Böhm, Leonard; Schlechtriem, Christian; Düring, Rolf-Alexander

    2016-08-01

    With regard to a potential underestimation of bioconcentration factors (BCF) in flow-through fish tests, sorption of 11 highly hydrophobic organic chemicals (HOCs) (log KOW 5.5-7.8) from different substance classes was systematically investigated for the first time in the presence of fish feed (FF) and filter residues (FR), the organic matter (OM) most relevant for fish bioconcentration studies. Sorption was investigated in batch-equilibrium experiments by solid-phase microextraction (SPME) resulting in partitioning coefficients of solid-water (Kd), total organic carbon-water (KTOC), and dissolved organic carbon-water (KDOC). Results prove a high affinity of HOCs for FF and FR supporting a significant impact on BCF studies and differing from sorption to Aldrich-humic acid (AHA) utilized as reference sorbent. Sorption is influenced by interactions between HOCs and OM characteristics. For FF, KDOC values were higher than KTOC values. Results help to assess the relevance of interaction of HOCs from different substance classes with OM relevant for BCF studies. PMID:27362743

  2. Organic matter quality of deep permafrost carbon - a study from Arctic Siberia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strauss, J.; Schirrmeister, L.; Mangelsdorf, K.; Eichhorn, L.; Wetterich, S.; Herzschuh, U.

    2014-11-01

    The organic carbon (OC) pool accumulated in Arctic permafrost (perennially frozen ground) equals the carbon stored in the recent atmosphere. To give an idea of how Yedoma region permafrost could respond under future climatic warming, we conducted a study to quantify the organic matter quality for future decomposition of late Pleistocene (Yedoma) and Holocene (thermokarst) deposits on the Buor Khaya Peninsula, northeast Siberia. The objective of this study was to develop a stratigraphic classified organic matter quality characterization. For this purpose the degree of organic matter decomposition was estimated by using a multiproxy approach. We applied sedimentological (grain-size analyses, bulk density, ice content) and geochemical parameters (total OC, stable carbon isotopes (δ13C), carbon : nitrogen (C / N) ratios) as well as lipid biomarkers (n-alkanes, n-fatty acids, hopanes, triterpenoids, and biomarker proxies/indices: average chain length, carbon preference index (CPI), and higher plant fatty acid index (HPFA)). Our results show that the Yedoma and thermokarst organic matter qualities exhibit no obvious degradation - depth trend. The C / N, δ13C, and hop-17(21)-ene values and the HPFA index show a better quality of the organic matter stored in thermokarst deposits compared to Yedoma deposits, but the CPI points in the other direction. As the ranges of the proxies mostly overlap, we interpret this as to indicate similar quality for both kind of deposits with perhaps slightly better thermokarst organic matter quality. Supported by principal component analyses, the sediment parameters and quality proxies of Yedoma and thermokarst deposits could not be clearly separated from each other. This lack of clear quality differences revealed that the organic matter vulnerability is heterogeneous, independent from radiocarbon age and depends on different decomposition trajectories and the previous decomposition and preservation history. Elucidating this was one of the

  3. Soil aggregates, organic matter turnover and carbon balance in a Mediterranean eroded vineyard

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Novara, Agata; Lo Papa, Giuseppe; Dazzi, Carmelo; Gristina, Luciano; Cerdà, Artemi

    2014-05-01

    :140-147. Novara, A., La Mantia, T., Barbera V., Gristina, L. 2012. Paired-site approach for studying soil organic carbon dynamics in a Mediterranean semiarid environment. Catena, 89 (1): 1-7, doi.org/10.1016/j.catena.2011.09.008 Yan-Gui, S., Xin-Rong, L., Ying-Wu, C., Zhi-Shan, Z., and Yan, L. 2013. Carbon fixaton of cyanobacterial-algal crusts after desert fixation and its implication to soil organic matter accumulation in Desert. Land Degradation & Development, 24: 342- 349. DOI 10.1002/ldr.1131

  4. Algal production in wastewater treatment high rate algal ponds for potential biofuel use.

    PubMed

    Park, J B K; Craggs, R J

    2011-01-01

    Wastewater treatment High Rate Algal Ponds with CO2 addition could provide cost-effective and efficient tertiary-level wastewater treatment with the co-benefit of algal biomass production for biofuel use. Wastewater grown algal biomass can have a lipid content of 10-30% of dry weight, which could be used to make biodiesel. This research investigated algal biomass and total lipid production by two pilot-scale wastewater treatment HRAP(S) (4-day HRT) with and without CO2 addition under New Zealand mid summer (Nov-Jan) conditions. The influence of CO2 addition on wastewater treatment performance was also determined. CO2 was added to one of the HRAPs (the HRAP(E)) by maintaining the maximum pH of the pond below 8. Measurements of HRAP influent and effluent water qualities, total lipid content and algal biomass production were made twice a week over the experimental period. Both HRAP(S) achieved high levels of organic compound and nutrient removal, with >85% SBOD5, >92 NH4(+)-N and >70% DRP removal. Algal/bacterial biomass production in the HRAP(E) (15.2 g/m2/d) was improved by CO2 addition by approximately 30% compared with that of the control HRAP(W) (10.6 g/m2/d). Total lipid content of the biomass grown on both HRAP(S) was slightly reduced (from 25% to 20%) with CO2 addition and the maximum total lipid content of approximately 40% was observed in the HRAP(W) when low NH4(+)-N concentration (<0.5 mg/L) and high maximum pH (>10.0) occurred. Total lipid content of the biomass increased by approximately 15% under nitrogen limiting conditions, however, overall algal/bacterial biomass production was reduced by half during the period of nitrogen limitation. More research is required to maintain algal production under near nitrogen-limiting conditions. PMID:21977667

  5. Dissolved organic carbon and chromophoric dissolved organic matter properties of rivers in the USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Spencer, Robert G.M.; Butler, Kenna D.; Aiken, George R.

    2012-01-01

    Dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentration and chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM) parameters were measured over a range of discharge in 30 U.S. rivers, covering a diverse assortment of fluvial ecosystems in terms of watershed size and landscape drained. Relationships between CDOM absorption at a range of wavelengths (a254, a350, a440) and DOC in the 30 watersheds were found to correlate strongly and positively for the majority of U.S. rivers. However, four rivers (Colorado, Colombia, Rio Grande and St. Lawrence) exhibited statistically weak relationships between CDOM absorption and DOC. These four rivers are atypical, as they either drain from the Great Lakes or experience significant impoundment of water within their watersheds, and they exhibited values for dissolved organic matter (DOM) parameters indicative of autochthonous or anthropogenic sources or photochemically degraded allochthonous DOM and thus a decoupling between CDOM and DOC. CDOM quality parameters in the 30 rivers were found to be strongly correlated to DOM compositional metrics derived via XAD fractionation, highlighting the potential for examining DOM biochemical quality from CDOM measurements. This study establishes the ability to derive DOC concentration from CDOM absorption for the majority of U.S. rivers, describes characteristics of riverine systems where such an approach is not valid, and emphasizes the possibility of examining DOM composition and thus biogeochemical function via CDOM parameters. Therefore, the usefulness of CDOM measurements, both laboratory-based analyses and in situ instrumentation, for improving spatial and temporal resolution of DOC fluxes and DOM dynamics in future studies is considerable in a range of biogeochemical studies.

  6. Dissolved organic carbon and chromophoric dissolved organic matter properties of rivers in the USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spencer, Robert G. M.; Butler, Kenna D.; Aiken, George R.

    2012-09-01

    Dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentration and chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM) parameters were measured over a range of discharge in 30 U.S. rivers, covering a diverse assortment of fluvial ecosystems in terms of watershed size and landscape drained. Relationships between CDOM absorption at a range of wavelengths (a254, a350, a440) and DOC in the 30 watersheds were found to correlate strongly and positively for the majority of U.S. rivers. However, four rivers (Colorado, Colombia, Rio Grande and St. Lawrence) exhibited statistically weak relationships between CDOM absorption and DOC. These four rivers are atypical, as they either drain from the Great Lakes or experience significant impoundment of water within their watersheds, and they exhibited values for dissolved organic matter (DOM) parameters indicative of autochthonous or anthropogenic sources or photochemically degraded allochthonous DOM and thus a decoupling between CDOM and DOC. CDOM quality parameters in the 30 rivers were found to be strongly correlated to DOM compositional metrics derived via XAD fractionation, highlighting the potential for examining DOM biochemical quality from CDOM measurements. This study establishes the ability to derive DOC concentration from CDOM absorption for the majority of U.S. rivers, describes characteristics of riverine systems where such an approach is not valid, and emphasizes the possibility of examining DOM composition and thus biogeochemical function via CDOM parameters. Therefore, the usefulness of CDOM measurements, both laboratory-based analyses and in situ instrumentation, for improving spatial and temporal resolution of DOC fluxes and DOM dynamics in future studies is considerable in a range of biogeochemical studies.

  7. Complexation of trace organic contaminants with fractionated dissolved organic matter: implications for mass spectrometric quantification.

    PubMed

    Ruiz, Selene Hernandez; Wickramasekara, Samanthi; Abrell, Leif; Gao, Xiaodong; Chefetz, Benny; Chorover, Jon

    2013-04-01

    Interaction with aqueous phase dissolved organic matter (DOM) can alter the fate of trace organic contaminants of emerging concern once they enter the water cycle. In order to probe possible DOM binding mechanisms and their consequences for contaminant detection and quantification in natural waters, a set of laboratory experiments was conducted with aqueous solutions containing various operationally-defined "hydrophilic" and "hydrophobic" freshwater DOM fractions isolated by resin adsorption techniques from reference Suwannee River natural organic matter (SROM). Per unit mass of SROM carbon, hydrophobic acids (HoA) comprised the largest C fraction (0.63±0.029), followed by hydrophilic-neutrals (HiN, 0.11±0.01) and acids (HiA, 0.09±0.017). Aqueous solutions comprising 8mgL(-1) DOC of each SROM fraction were spiked with a concentration range (10-1000μgL(-1)) of bisphenol A (BPA), carbamazepine (CBZ), or ibuprofen (IBU) as model target compounds in 24mM NH4HCO3 background electrolyte at pH 7.4. Contaminant interaction with the SROM fractions was probed using fluorescence spectroscopy, and effects on quantitative analysis of the target compounds were measured using direct aqueous-injection liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Total quenching was greater for the hydrophilic fractions of SROM and associations were principally with protein-like and fulvic acid-like constituents. Whereas LC-MS/MS recoveries indicated relatively weak interactions with most SROM factions, an important exception was the HiA fraction, which diminished recovery of CBZ and IBU by ca. 30% and 70%, respectively, indicating relatively strong molecular interactions. PMID:23276460

  8. Microbial Mineralization of Soil Organic Matter: Role of Chemical Composition and Structural Organization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khalaf, M. M. R.; Chilom, G.; Rice, J. A.

    2014-12-01

    The purpose of this study is to quantitatively assess the effect of organic matter self-assembly on its resistance to microbial mineralization. Humic acids isolated from leonardite, two peats and a mineral soil were used as organic matter samples because they provide a broad range of variability in terms of the origin and nature of their organic components. Using a solvent-based fractionation method, humic acid samples were disassembled into a humic-like component and a humic-lipid composite. The humic-lipid composite was further disassembled into an amphiphilic and a lipid component using an alkaline aqueous solution. Mixtures that reproduced the composition of self-assembled samples were prepared by mixing the solid individual fractions in the exact proportions that they were present in the original material. The original humic acids or their corresponding mixtures were added as the sole carbon source in separate aerobic cultures containing a microbial consortium isolated from a mineral soil. After incubation for 125 days mineralization of the self-assembled samples was shown to be higher by as much as 70% compared to their corresponding physical mixtures. The extent of mineralization of the self-assembled samples was not correlated to the material's chemical composition or hydrophobicity index obtained from their 13C solid-state NMR spectra. In contrast, mineralization of the physical mixtures and the individual fractions did vary with chemical composition and was accompanied by preferential mineralization of alkyl carbon. These results suggest the microbial mineralization of humic acids is related to their self-assembly.

  9. Seasonal and interannual variabilities of coccolithophore blooms in the Bay of Biscay and the Celtic Sea observed from a 18-year time-series of non-algal Suspended Particulate Matter images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perrot, Laurie; Gohin, Francis; Ruiz-Pino, Diana; Lampert, Luis

    2016-04-01

    Coccolithophores belong to the nano-phytoplankton size-class and produce CaCO3 scales called coccoliths which form the «shell» of the algae cell. Coccoliths are in the size range of a few μm and can also be detached from the cell in the water. This phytoplankton group has an ubiquitous distribution in all oceans but blooms only in some oceanic regions, like the North East Atlantic ocean and the South Western Atlantic (Patagonian Sea). At a global scale coccolithopore blooms are studied in regard of CaCO3 production and three potential feedback on climate change: albedo modification by the way of dimethylsulfide (DMS) production and atmospheric CO2 source by calcification and a CO2 pump by photosynthesis. As the oceans are more and more acidified by anthropogenic CO2 emissions, coccolithophores generally are expected to be negatively affected. However, recent studies have shown an increase in coccolithophore occurrence in the North Atlantic. A poleward expansion of the coccolithophore Emiliana Huxleyi has also been pointed out. By using a simplified fuzzy method applied to a 18-year time series of SeaWiFS (1998-2002) and MODIS (2003-2015) spectral reflectance, we assessed the seasonal and inter-annual variability of coccolithophore blooms in the vicinity of the shelf break in the Bay of Biscay and the Celtic Sea After identification of the coccolith pixels by applying the fuzzy method, the abundance of coccoliths is assessed from a database of non-algal Suspended Particulate Matter (SPM). Although a regular pattern in the phenology of the blooms is observed, starting south in April in Biscay and moving northwards until July in Ireland, there is a high seasonal and interannual variability in the extent of the blooms. Year 2014 shows very low concentrations of detached coccoliths (twice less than average) from space and anomalies point out the maximum level in 2001. Non-algal SPM, derived from a procedure defined for the continental shelf, appears to be well

  10. PATTERNS AND CONTROLS OF DISSOLVED ORGANIC MATTER EXPORT BY MAJOR RIVERS: A NEW SEASONAL, SPATIALLY EXPLICIT, GLOBAL MODEL

    EPA Science Inventory

    River-derived dissolved organic matter (DOM) influences metabolism, light attenuation, and bioavailability of metals and nutrients in coastal ecosystems. Recent work suggests that DOM concentrations in surface waters vary seasonally because different organic matter pools are mobi...

  11. NITROGEN DEPOSITION AND ORGANIC MATTER MANIPULATIONS AFFECT GROSS AND NET NITROGEN TRANSFORMATIONS IN TWO TEMPERATE FORESTS SOILS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Soil nitrogen transformations are intricately linked to carbon transformations. We utilized two existing organic matter manipulation sites in western Oregon, USA and Hungary to investigate these linkages. Our questions were: 1) Does the quantity and quality of organic matter af...

  12. Role of bacteria in organic matter fluxes in the Southern California Coastal Zone: (Progress report)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-07-01

    The fate of organic matter in the sea, whether produced in situ or introduced from land, is greatly influenced by the metabolic trophic activities of the resident biota. Until recently it was thought that much of the primary production is consumed by the herbivores, making them the main determinants of fate of organic matter. It now appears that the microbial component of marine foodweb also plays a significant role in the decomposition, distribution, and vertical flux of organic material in seawater. The goal of the proposed research is to quantify this role of the microbial foodweb as part of a DOE-sponsored interdisciplinary study. We are testing the hypothesis that organic matter utilization by heterotrophic bacterioplankton represents a major sink for organic matter in the Southern California Coastal Zone.

  13. Effect of organic matter amendment, arsenic amendment and water management regime on rice grain arsenic species.

    PubMed

    Norton, Gareth J; Adomako, Eureka E; Deacon, Claire M; Carey, Anne-Marie; Price, Adam H; Meharg, Andrew A

    2013-06-01

    Arsenic accumulation in rice grain has been identified as a major problem in some regions of Asia. A study was conducted to investigate the effect of increased organic matter in the soil on the release of arsenic into soil pore water and accumulation of arsenic species within rice grain. It was observed that high concentrations of soil arsenic and organic matter caused a reduction in plant growth and delayed flowering time. Total grain arsenic accumulation was higher in the plants grown in high soil arsenic in combination with high organic matter, with an increase in the percentage of organic arsenic species observed. The results indicate that the application of organic matter should be done with caution in paddy soils which have high soil arsenic, as this may lead to an increase in accumulation of arsenic within rice grains. Results also confirm that flooding conditions substantially increase grain arsenic. PMID:23466730

  14. Assessment of Organic Matter Content in Highland Forest Soils in Central Anatolia of Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Göl, C.; Erşahin, S.

    2012-04-01

    Forest soils are important pool for organic carbon worldwide. Global warming is expected to influence forest soils due to that it may alter the balance between addition and decomposition of litter. Orographic effect of climate on organic matter in forest soils may be a good indicator of likely impact of climate change on these forest soils. This study was conducted to assess the relations between organic matter content of forest soils and elevation. Data of organic matter content from previous studies conducted on different elevations in semi-arid regions of Central Anatolia region of Turkey were used. A significant positive correlation occurred between elevation and organic matter content. The relation could be modeled with a fist degree linear regression equation. We concluded that topographic attributes may be used to forecast adequately likely impact of climate change on carbon emissions from forest soils in mountainous regions.

  15. Sustainable Water Supplies:Reducing The Organic Matter Content of Potable Water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sohn, Mary

    2009-07-01

    As freshwater becomes a limiting factor in sustainable development, water treatment processes which can efficiently oxidize both anthropogenic and natural sources of organic matter are becoming crucial. While many anthropogenic organic compounds found in freshwater pose a direct risk to human health, natural organic matter such as humic acids, pose an indirect risk through the production of disinfection byproducts resulting from chlorination. Removal of dissolved natural organic matter before disinfection of potable water is recommended for the production of potable water in water treatment facilities. Several promising developments in dissolved organic matter oxidation are described including hydroxyl radical, advanced oxidation processes and ferrate (VI). The feasibility of applying these processes to water treatment on a large scale is largely dependent on cost.

  16. Spatial distribution and transport of soil organic matter through a semi-arid catchment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cammeraat, L. H.

    2009-04-01

    Soil erosion and deposition plays an important role in the transport and reallocation of organic matter in terrestrial carbon dynamics. This study discusses the production, transport and storage of organic material in semi-arid, semi-natural shrubland and forest ecosystem in SE Spain. Goal is to study the faith of organic matter in these land use systems and to reveal their possible importance within the terrestrial carbon cycle and the importance of the spatial redistribution of organic matter through the landscape. The study was carried out at the Alquería field station in the Guadalentín basin in SE Spain on calcareous soils. Measurements were carried out at plant, plot and (sub-) catchment scale incorporating Stipa tenacissima tussock dominated shrublands, Pinus halepensis open forests and almond and cereal fields. The determination of organic matter was based on the production and presence of organic matter on the soil surface, the amount of organic matter incorporated in the soil as present under and around individual plants and scaled up using high resolution aerial photographs and remote sensing images. The standing biomass was determined as well, using allometric methods and scaled up also using high resolution aerial photographs to estimate total plant cover. The transport of organic matter is determined using organic matter collected in classical unbounded plots that have been monitored also for runoff and sediment yield. Sediment stored in a 60 year old retention basin was also studied to reveal the sediment and organic matter fluxes at broader spatio-temporal scales. Furthermore also soil material accumulated behind bench terraces was evaluated for soil organic carbon. The results will be discussed in the context of the sources and sinks of organic matter as well as to their linkage to erosion and hydrological processes. The spatial heterogeneity of the accumulated and transported organic matter is strongly related to the frequency-magnitude of

  17. Defining organic matter quality in sediment systems: a suggested classification scheme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alderson, Danielle; Evans, Martin; Rothwell, James; Boult, Stephen

    2015-04-01

    The quantity and quality of the mineral component of sediments is a core focus of sedimentological investigation in terrestrial systems. This is not to say that the organic component of collected sediments is simply ignored; the organic component is often scrutinised, but in some fields in a restricted manner, limited to basic characteristics such as the ratio of organic to mineral content derived from loss on ignition. There is no doubt that this information is useful; however, these types of analysis indicate the quantity of organic matter relative to a particular temporal scale or volume, rather than treating the organic fraction as a separate entity worthy of substantial investigation. The quality of the organic component is being increasingly considered in a number of fields, with molecular, thermal, spectroscopic and bulk methods being used. However, models and theories on organic matter processing in a variety of environmental systems, have been developed without clearly defining organic matter quality, because most results do not depend on an outright measure of quality (Bosatta and Agren, 1999). With approaches and techniques varying between fields, there is a need to consider a more systematic approach to the analysis and definition of organic matter quality. The disparities in the definition of the quality of organic matter, and thus how it may be measured have vital implications for the study of carbon cycling, biogeochemical processing, and ultimately ecosystem structure and function. The quality and quantity of organic matter have an influence on the chemistry and biology of systems and may reveal a wealth of past or contemporary environmental information. In this paper we provide a classification of organic matter quality and examples of potential applications and suitable techniques for the analysis of the main classes of organic matter character. A more consistent approach to organic matter characterisation has the potential to aid understanding of

  18. Application of excitation-emission fluorescent matrix spectroscopy in analysis of marine organic matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ulyantsev, A. S.; Ocherednik, V. V.; Romankevich, E. A.

    2015-01-01

    For the first time, on the basis of spectral fluorescent analysis of the surface seawater, we calculated the indices of composition and properties of the dissolved organic matter of the Kara Sea and identified the dominant fluorophors, whose fluorescence intensity quantitatively indicates the supply of terrigenous organic matter. The latter is transformed in various ways in the Ob River estuary and remote areas. The microbial biotransformation is probably the leading process of transformation of terrigenous organic matter actively delivered to the Kara Sea. The areas with an increased content of the humic components caused by formation of the desalinated lens are locally formed in the estuary zone of the Ob River.

  19. An initial investigation into the organic matter biogeochemistry of the Congo River

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spencer, Robert G. M.; Hernes, Peter J.; Aufdenkampe, Anthony K.; Baker, Andy; Gulliver, Pauline; Stubbins, Aron; Aiken, George R.; Dyda, Rachael Y.; Butler, Kenna D.; Mwamba, Vincent L.; Mangangu, Arthur M.; Wabakanghanzi, Jose N.; Six, Johan

    2012-05-01

    The Congo River, which drains pristine tropical forest and savannah and is the second largest exporter of terrestrial carbon to the ocean, was sampled in early 2008 to investigate organic matter (OM) dynamics in this historically understudied river basin. We examined the elemental (%OC, %N, C:N), isotopic (δ13C, Δ14C, δ15N) and biochemical composition (lignin phenols) of coarse particulate (>63 μm; CPOM) and fine particulate (0.7-63 μm; FPOM) OM and DOC, δ13C, Δ14C and lignin phenol composition with respect to dissolved OM (<0.7 μm; DOM) from five sites in the Congo River Basin. At all sample locations the organic carbon load was dominated by the dissolved phase (˜82-89% of total organic carbon) and the total suspended sediment load was principally fine particulate material (˜81-91% fine suspended sediment). Distinct compositional and isotopic differences were observed between all fractions. Congo CPOM, FPOM and DOM all originated from vegetation and soil inputs as evidenced by elemental, isotopic and lignin phenol data, however FPOM was derived from much older carbon pools (mean Δ14C = -62.2 ± -13.2‰, n = 5) compared to CPOM and DOM (mean Δ14C = 55.7 ± 30.6‰, n = 4 and 73.4 ± 16.1‰, n = 5 respectively). The modern radiocarbon ages for DOM belie a degraded lignin compositional signature (i.e. elevated acid:aldehyde ratios (Ad:Al) relative to CPOM and FPOM), and indicate that the application of OM degradation patterns derived from particulate phase studies to dissolved samples needs to be reassessed: these elevated ratios are likely attributable to fractionation processes during solubilization of plant material. The relatively low DOM carbon-normalized lignin yields (Λ8; 0.67-1.12 (mg(100 mg OC)-1)) could also reflect fractionation processes, however, they have also been interpreted as an indication of significant microbial or algal sources of DOM. CPOM appears to be well preserved higher vascular plant material as evidenced by its modern

  20. Metamorphic grade of organic matter in six unequilibrated ordinary chondrites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quirico, E.; Raynal, P. I.; Bourot-Denise, M.

    2003-05-01

    The thermal metamorphism grade of organic matter (OM) trapped in 6 unequilibrated ordinary chondrites (UOCs) (Semarkona [LL 3.0], Bishunpur [L/LL 3.1], Krymka [LL 3.1], Chainpur [LL 3.4], Inman [L/LL 3.4], and Tieschitz [H/L 3.6]) has been investigated with Raman spectroscopy in the region of the first-order carbon bands. The carbonaceous chondrite Renazzo (CR2) was also investigated and used as a reference object for comparison, owing to the fact that previous studies pointed to the OM in this meteorite as being the most pristine among all chondrites. The results show that the OM thermal metamorphic grade: 1) follows the hierarchy Renazzo << Semarkona << other UOCs; 2) is well correlated to the petrographic type of the studied objects; and 3) is also well correlated with the isotopic enrichment 15N. These results are strikingly consistent with earlier cosmochemical studies, in particular, the scenario proposed by Alexander et al. (1998). Thermal metamorphism in the parent body appears as the main evolution process of OM in UOCs, demonstrating that nebular heating was extremely weak and that OM burial results in the destabilization of an initial isotopic composition with high D and 15N. Furthermore, the clear discrimination between Renazzo, Semarkona, and other UOCs shows: 1) Semarkona is a very peculiar UOC--by far the most pristine; and 2) Raman spectroscopy is a valid and valuable tool for deriving petrographic sub-types (especially the low ones) that should be used in the future to complement current techniques. We compare our results with other current techniques, namely, induced thermo-luminescence and opaques petrography. Other results have been obtained. First, humic coals are not strictly valid standard materials for meteoritic OM but are helpful in the study of evolutionary trends due to thermal metamorphism. Second, terrestrial weathering has a huge effect on OM structure, particularly in Inman, which is a find. Finally, the earlier statement that fine

  1. Analytical Determinations of the Phenolic Content of Dissolved Organic Matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pagano, T.; Kenny, J. E.

    2010-12-01

    Indicators suggest that the amount of dissolved organic matter (DOM) in natural waters is increasing. Climate Change has been proposed as a potential contributor to the trend, and under this mechanism, the phenolic content of DOM may also be increasing. We have explored the possibility of assessing the phenolic character of DOM using fluorescence spectroscopy as a more convenient alternative to wet chemistry methods. In this work, parallel factor analysis (PARAFAC) was applied to fluorescence excitation emission matrices (EEMs) of humic samples in an attempt to analyze their phenolic content. The PARAFAC results were correlated with phenol concentrations derived from the Folin-Ciocalteau reagent-based method. The reagent-based method showed that the phenolic content of five International Humic Substance Society (IHSS) DOM samples vary from approximately 5 to 22 ppm Tannic Acid Equivalents (TAE) in phenol concentration. A five-component PARAFAC fit was applied to the EEMs of the IHSS sample dataset and it was determined by PARAFAC score correlations with phenol concentrations from the reagent-based method that components C1 (R2=0.78), C4 (R2=0.82), and C5 (R2=0.88) have the highest probability of containing phenolic groups. Furthermore, when the scores of components C4 and C5 were summed, the correlation improved (R2=0.99). Likewise, when the scores of C1, C4, and C5 were summed, their correlations were stronger than their individual parts (R2=0.89). Since the reagent-based method is providing an indicator of “total phenol” amount, regardless of the exact molecular structure of C1, C4, and C5, it seems reasonable that each of these components individually contributes a portion to the summed “total phenol” profile, and that the sum of their phenol-related spectral parts represents a larger portion of the “total phenol” index. However, when the sum of all five components were plotted against the reagent-based phenol concentrations, due to the considerable

  2. Fluorescence spectroscopy: considerations for highly absorbing dissolved organic matter samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simone, B. E.; Miller, M.; McKnight, D. M.

    2009-12-01

    Fluorescence spectroscopy is a robust method for characterizing organic matter (OM). However, proper collection and correction of spectra are necessary to provide useful data. One important correction is the inner-filter correction, which primarily accounts for the inner-filter effect by adjusting for the wavelength dependent attenuation of emitted light by the solution prior to detection by the fluorometer. The most commonly used correction is based on an assumption that light is emitted at the center of the pathlength. Thus, the inner-filter effect is more pronounced in highly absorbing samples, and has the potential to skew the fluorescence spectra. For this study, the terrestrially derived Suwannee River fulvic acid (SRFA) and microbially derived Pony Lake fulvic acid (PLFA), from the International Humic Substances Society (IHSS), were diluted to incremental absorbances at a wavelength of 254 nm from 0.05 to 1.0 at pH 4 and 7. Three dimensional fluorescence spectra were measured and modeled with the Cory and McKnight (2005) parallel factor analysis (PARAFAC) model which resolves the fluorescence spectra into 13 components, including quinone-like and protein-like components. In the absence of inner-filter effects, plots of absorbance vs. loadings should be linear. Using the data from absorbance of 0.05 to 0.3, where the inner-filter affect is least pronounced, a linear regression was created and used as a baseline to predict component loadings at higher absorbance values in the absence of inner-filter effects. Results indicate that at absorbance values greater than 0.3, the commonly-used inner-filter correction is not able to remove the inner-filter effect. Therefore, in order to obtain reliable component loadings and correctly interpret the spectra, samples should be diluted to absorbance values less than 0.3 at 254 nm prior to collection of three dimensional fluorescence scans. The recommendation of a maximum absorbance of 0.3 agrees with the results of a

  3. Pyrogenic and Fresh Organic Matter Effects on Soil Microbial Communities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whitman, T.; Buckley, D. H.; Lehmann, J.

    2014-12-01

    Soils hold a globally important stock of carbon (C) and can act as both a C source and sink, depending on management and environmental conditions. Pyrogenic organic matter (PyOM) is produced naturally during fires, and contains relatively stable forms of C. Its intentional production has also been proposed as a mechanism for C management (in such cases PyOM is often referred to as "biochar"). However, the impact of natural or anthropogenic PyOM production on soils is complex and depends on many factors. In particular, PyOM additions to soils may have effects on plant growth and on native soil C cycling. The response of the soil microbial community to PyOM additions is likely key to understanding these interactions, but remains poorly characterized. We studied soil C dynamics and soil microbial communities in a field study with 350°C PyOM from 13C-labelled corn stover, a C3-derived soil, and C4 plants (sudangrass). PyOM additions only temporarily increased total soil CO2 fluxes, dramatically less than the increase associated with the addition of corn stover, which likely increased SOC losses. We used high-throughput sequencing of the 16S region on the MiSeq platform to characterize the initial, 12-day and 82-day soil bacterial communiities. We used three-part stable isotopic partitioning after two months to distinguish 334% higher root-derived CO2 fluxes in the plots with PyOM additions than those without, and 45% lower PyOM-C derived CO2 fluxes in the plots with plants present. The 84% increase in estimated cumulative soil CO2 emissions with stover additions was accompanied by a significant shift in the soil bacterial community on days 12 and 82, while the PyOM additions only resulted in significant changes to the overall community on day 82. We investigate which taxa are driving these community shifts, and how they may relate to the soil CO2 fluxes.

  4. Catchment scale molecular composition of hydrologically mobilized dissolved organic matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raeke, Julia; Lechtenfeld, Oliver J.; Oosterwoud, Marieke R.; Bornmann, Katrin; Tittel, Jörg; Reemtsma, Thorsten

    2016-04-01

    Increasing concentrations of dissolved organic matter (DOM) in rivers of temperate catchments in Europe and North Amerika impose new technical challenges for drinking water production. The driving factors for this decadal increase in DOM concentration are not conclusive and changes in annual temperatures, precipitation and atmospheric deposition are intensely discussed. It is known that the majority of DOM is released by few but large hydrologic events, mobilizing DOM from riparian wetlands for export by rivers and streams. The mechanisms of this mobilization and the resulting molecular composition of the released DOM may be used to infer long-term changes in the biogeochemistry of the respective catchment. Event-based samples collected over two years from streams in three temperate catchments in the German mid-range mountains were analyzed after solid-phase extraction of DOM for their molecular composition by ultra-high resolution mass spectrometry (FT-ICR MS). Hydrologic conditions, land use and water chemistry parameters were used to complement the molecular analysis. The molecular composition of the riverine DOM was strongly dependent on the magnitude of the hydrologic events, with unsaturated, oxygen-enriched compounds being preferentially mobilized by large events. This pattern is consistent with an increase in dissolved iron and aluminum concentrations. In contrast, the relative proportions of nitrogen and sulfur bearing compounds increased with an increased agricultural land use but were less affected by the mobilization events. Co-precipitation experiments with colloidal aluminum showed that unsaturated and oxygen-rich compounds are preferentially removed from the dissolved phase. The precipitated compounds thus had similar chemical characteristics as compared to the mobilized DOM from heavy rain events. Radiocarbon analyses also indicated that this precipitated fraction of DOM was of comparably young radiocarbon age. DOM radiocarbon from field samples

  5. Algal Biofuels Fact Sheet

    SciTech Connect

    2009-10-27

    This fact sheet provides information on algal biofuels, which are generating considerable interest around the world. They may represent a sustainable pathway for helping to meet the U.S. biofuel production targets set by the Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007.

  6. On the impacts of phytoplankton-derived organic matter on the properties of the primary marine aerosol - Part 1: Source fluxes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fuentes, E.; Coe, H.; Green, D.; de Leeuw, G.; McFiggans, G.

    2010-10-01

    The effect of biogenic dissolved and colloidal organic matter on the production of submicron primary sea-spray aerosol was investigated via the simulation of bubble bursting in seawater enriched with phytoplankton-released organics. Seawater samples collected along a transect off the West African coast during the RHaMBLe cruise (RRS Discovery cruise D319), conducted as part of the SOLAS UK program, were analysed in order to identify the dominant oceanic algal species in a region of high biological activity. Cultures of microalgal strains representative of the species found in the collected seawater were grown in order to produce natural bioexudate. Colloidal plus dissolved organic fraction in this material remaining after <0.2 μm filtration was employed to prepare organic-enriched seawater proxies for the laboratory production of marine aerosol using a plunging-waterjet system as an aerosol generator. Submicron size distributions of aerosols generated from different organic monolayers and seawater proxies enriched with biogenic exudate were measured and compared with blanks performed with artificial seawater devoid of marine organics. A shift of the aerosol submicron size distribution toward smaller sizes and an increase in the production of particles with dry diameter (Dp0)<100 nm was repeatedly observed with increasing amounts of diatomaceous bioexudate in the seawater proxies used for aerosol generation. The effect was found to be sensitive to the organic carbon concentration in seawater and the algal exudate type. Diatomaceous exudate with organic carbon concentration (OC<0.2 μm) >175 μM was required to observe a significant impact on the size distribution, which implies that effects are expected to be substantial only in high biological activity areas abundant with diatom algal populations. The laboratory findings were in agreement with analogous bubble-bursting experiments conducted with unfiltered oceanic seawater collected during the RHaMBLe cruise

  7. Depletion of 13C in Cretaceous marine organic matter: Source, diagenetic, or environmental sigal?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dean, W.E.; Arthur, M.A.; Claypool, G.E.

    1986-01-01

    Geochemical studies of Cretaceous strata rich in organic carbon (OC) from Deep Sea Drilling Project (DSDP) sites and several land sections reveal several consistent relationships among amount of OC, hydrocarbon generating potential of kerogen (measured by pyrolysis as the hydrogen index, HI), and the isotopic composition of the OC. First, there is a positive correlation between HI and OC in strata that contain more than about 1% OC. Second, percent OC and HI often are negatively correlated with carbon isotopic composition (?? 13C) of kerogen. The relationship between HI and OC indicates that as the amount of organic matter increases, this organic matter tends to be more lipid rich reflecting the marine source of the organic matter. Cretaceous samples that contain predominantly marine organic matter tend to be isotopically lighter than those that contain predominantly terrestrial organic matter. Average ?? 13C values for organic matter from most Cretaceous sites are between -26 and -28???, and values heavier than about -25??? occur at very few sites. Most of the ?? 13C values of Miocene to Holocene OC-rich strata and modern marine plankton are between -16 to -23???. Values of ??13C of modern terrestrial organic matter are mostly between -23 and -33???. The depletion of terrestial OC in 13C relative to marine planktonic OC is the basis for numerous statements in the literature that isotopically light Cretaceous organic matter is of terrestrial origin, even though other organic geochemical and(or) optical indicators show that the organic matter is mainly of marine origin. A difference of about 5??? in ?? 13C between modern and Cretaceous OC-rich marine strata suggests either that Cretaceous marine planktonic organic matter had the same isotopi