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Sample records for algan barrier layer

  1. Improved characteristics of ultraviolet AlGaN multiple-quantum-well laser diodes with step-graded quantum barriers close to waveguide layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cai, Xuefen; Li, Shuping; Kang, Junyong

    2016-09-01

    Ultraviolet AlGaN multiple-quantum-well laser diodes (LDs) with step-graded quantum barriers (QBs) instead of conventional first and last QBs close to waveguide layers are proposed. The characteristics of this type of laser diodes are numerically investigated by using the software PICS3D and it is found that the performances of these LDs are greatly improved. The results indicates that the structure with step-graded QBs exhibits higher output light power, slope efficiency and emission intensity, as well as lower series resistance and threshold current density under the identical condition, compared with conventional LD structure.

  2. Persistent photoconductivity in AlGaN/GaN heterojunction channels caused by the ionization of deep levels in the AlGaN barrier layer

    SciTech Connect

    Murayama, H.; Akiyama, Y.; Niwa, R.; Sakashita, H.; Sakaki, H.; Kachi, T.; Sugimoto, M.

    2013-12-04

    Time-dependent responses of drain current (I{sub d}) in an AlGaN/GaN HEMT under UV (3.3 eV) and red (2.0 eV) light illumination have been studied at 300 K and 250 K. UV illumination enhances I{sub d} by about 10 %, indicating that the density of two-dimensional electrons is raised by about 10{sup 12} cm{sup −2}. When UV light is turned off at 300 K, a part of increased I{sub d} decays quickly but the other part of increment is persistent, showing a slow decay. At 250 K, the majority of increment remains persistent. It is found that such a persistent increase of I{sub d} at 250 K can be partially erased by the illumination of red light. These photo-responses are explained by a simple band-bending model in which deep levels in the AlGaN barrier get positively charged by the UV light, resulting in a parabolic band bending in the AlGaN layer, while some potion of those deep levels are neutralized by the red light.

  3. Performance improvement of GaN-based near-UV LEDs with InGaN/AlGaN superlattices strain relief layer and AlGaN barrier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jia, Chuanyu; Yu, Tongjun; Feng, Xiaohui; Wang, Kun; Zhang, Guoyi

    2016-09-01

    The carrier confinement effect and piezoelectric field-induced quantum-confined stark effect of different GaN-based near-UV LED samples from 395 nm to 410 nm emission peak wavelength were investigated theoretically and experimentally. It is found that near-UV LEDs with InGaN/AlGaN multiple quantum wells (MQWs) active region have higher output power than those with InGaN/GaN MQWs for better carrier confinement effect. However, as emission peak wavelength is longer than 406 nm, the output power of the near-UV LEDs with AlGaN barrier is lower than that of the LEDs with GaN barrier due to more serious spatial separation of electrons and holes induced by the increase of piezoelectric field. The N-doped InGaN/AlGaN superlattices (SLs) were adopted as a strain relief layer (SRL) between n-GaN and MQWs in order to suppress the polarization field. It is demonstrated the output power of near-UV LEDs is increased obviously by using SLs SRL and AlGaN barrier for the discussed emission wavelength range. Besides, the forward voltage of near-UV LEDs with InGaN/AlGaN SLs SRL is lower than that of near-UV LEDs without SRL.

  4. Performance enhancement of AlGaN deep-ultraviolet light-emitting diodes with varied superlattice barrier electron blocking layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Songqing; Ye, Chunya; Cai, Xuefen; Li, Shuping; Lin, Wei; Kang, Junyong

    2016-05-01

    The AlGaN-based deep-UV LEDs with specific design of varied superlattice barrier electron blocking layer (EBL) has been investigated numerically by APSYS software. The proposed structure exhibits significant improvement in the light output power, internal quantum efficiency, current-voltage curve and electroluminescence intensity. After analyzing the profiles of energy band diagrams, carriers concentration and radiative recombination rate, we find the main advantages of proposed structure are ascribed to higher barrier suppressing electron leakage and reduced barrier for hole injection. Thus, compared with reference sample, the proposed EBL design may be a good method for improving the whole performance of UV LEDs.

  5. Improved performance in vertical GaN Schottky diode assisted by AlGaN tunneling barrier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Y.; Chu, R.; Li, R.; Chen, M.; Williams, A. J.

    2016-03-01

    In a vertical GaN Schottky barrier diode, the free electron concentration n in the 6-μm-thick drift layer was found to greatly impact the diode reverse leakage current, which increased from 2.1 × 10-7 A to 3.9 × 10-4 A as n increased from 7.5 × 1014 cm-3 to 6.3 × 1015 cm-3 at a reverse bias of 100 V. By capping the drift layer with an ultrathin 5-nm graded AlGaN layer, reverse leakage was reduced by more than three orders of magnitude with the same n in the drift layer. We attribute this to the increased Schottky barrier height with the AlGaN at the surface. Meanwhile, the polarization field within the graded AlGaN effectively shortened the depletion depth, which led to the formation of tunneling current at a relatively small forward bias. The turn-on voltage in the vertical Schottky diodes was reduced from 0.77 V to 0.67 V—an advantage in reducing conduction loss in power switching applications.

  6. Analysis of HVPE grown AlGaN layers on honeycomb patterned sapphire

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fleischmann, Simon; Mogilatenko, Anna; Hagedorn, Sylvia; Richter, Eberhard; Goran, Daniel; Schäfer, Peter; Zeimer, Ute; Weyers, Markus; Tränkle, Günther

    2015-03-01

    Thick AlxGa1-xN layers were grown by hydride vapor phase epitaxy on hexagonally patterned sapphire substrates. Non-c-planar growth is found inside the etched honeycombs which in part hinders coalescence of the c-plane AlGaN layer growing on top of the ridges. From X-ray diffraction, electron backscatter diffraction and scanning electron microscopy, the orientations of the parasitic crystallites were identified as {11-22} and {1-103} AlGaN growing on m-plane sapphire sidewalls as well as c-plane oriented AlGaN growing on n-plane sidewall facets which are located in the corners of the combs. According to the geometry of parasitic crystallites, it is further observed, that the semipolar growth occurring on sapphire m-plane sidewalls does not hinder the coalescence of c-plane AlGaN growing on top of the ridges, whereas fast propagation of parasitic crystallites nucleating on n-plane sidewall facets leads to delayed layer coalescence.

  7. Improved efficiency of near-ultraviolet LEDs using a novel p-type AlGaN hole injection layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Mingsheng; Zhou, Quanbin; Zhang, Heng; Wang, Hong; Zhang, Xichun

    2016-06-01

    We investigate a novel near-ultraviolet light-emitting diode (NUV-LED) with a p-type AlGaN (pAlGaN) hole injection layer to replace the conventional p-type GaN layer. The optical properties are studied numerically with simulations. Our calculated results indicate that a pAlGaN layer can significantly improve both light output power and internal quantum efficiency of a NUV-LED. The light power of NUV-LED with constant and gradually increasing Al content of the pAlGaN layer increases by 215% and 266% compared to a conventional LED. We also find that the elimination of the interface barrier and suppression of the polarization field are the key factors that lead to the improved NUV-LED performance.

  8. An extrinsic fmax > 100 GHz InAlN/GaN HEMT with AlGaN back barrier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bo, Liu; Zhihong, Feng; Shaobo, Dun; Xiongwen, Zhang; Guodong, Gu; Yuangang, Wang; Peng, Xu; Zezhao, He; Shujun, Cai

    2013-04-01

    We report the DC and RF performance of InAlN/GaN high-electron mobility transistors with AlGaN back barrier grown on SiC substrates. These presented results confirm the high performance that is reachable by InAlN-based technology. The InAlN/GaN HEMT sample showed a high 2DEG mobility of 1550 cm2/(V·s) at a 2DEG density of 1.7 × 1013 cm-2. DC and RF measurements were performed on the unpassivated device with 0.2 μm “T“ gate. The maximum drain current density at VGS = 2 V is close to 1.05 A/mm in a reproducible way. The reduction in gate leakage current helps to increase the frequency performance of AlGaN back barrier devices. The power gain cut-off frequency of a transistor with an AlGaN back barrier is 105 GHz, which is much higher than that of the device without an AlGaN back barrier at the same gate length. These results indicate InAlN/GaN HEMT is a promising candidate for millimeter-wave application.

  9. Strain and defects in Si-doped (Al)GaN epitaxial layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Forghani, Kamran; Schade, Lukas; Schwarz, Ulrich T.; Lipski, Frank; Klein, Oliver; Kaiser, Ute; Scholz, Ferdinand

    2012-11-01

    Si is the most common dopant in (Al)GaN based devices acting as a donor. It has been observed that Si induces tensile strain in (Al)GaN films, which leads to an increasing tendency for cracking of such films with the increase of Si content and/or the increase of Al content. Based on x-ray investigations, the Si-doped films have a larger in-plane lattice constant than their undoped buffer layers, indicating involvement of a mechanism other than the change of lattice constants expected from an alloying effect. In this work, we present a model about Si dislocation interaction while debating other proposed models in the literature. According to our model, Si atoms are attracted to the strain dipole of edge-type dislocations in (Al)GaN films. It is expected that Si is more incorporated on that side of the dislocation, which is under compression leading to the formation of off-balanced dipoles with reduced compressive component. In response to such off-balanced dipoles—appearing as tensile dominant strain dipoles—the dislocation lines climb in order to accommodate the excess tensile strain. However, this dislocation climb mechanism is hindered by forces exerted by vacancies created due to the climb process. Accordingly, we have observed a lower strain level in our Si doped layers when they contain fewer dislocations. These findings were further supported by x-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, and micro-photoluminescence investigations.

  10. Anisotropic optical properties of semipolar AlGaN layers grown on m-plane sapphire

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feneberg, Martin; Winkler, Michael; Klamser, Juliane; Stellmach, Joachim; Frentrup, Martin; Ploch, Simon; Mehnke, Frank; Wernicke, Tim; Kneissl, Michael; Goldhahn, Rüdiger

    2015-05-01

    The valence band order of AlxGa 1 -x N is investigated experimentally by analyzing the anisotropic dielectric functions of semipolar (11 2 ¯ 2 ) AlGaN thin films grown on m-plane Al2O3. Point-by-point fitted dielectric functions are obtained by spectroscopic ellipsometry and corresponding inter-band transition energies are extracted. The known strain situation of the sample layers is used to correct for the small strain-induced energy shifts within k . p perturbation theory. It also is used to identify transitions related to the three valence bands. Transitions with E ⊥ c from the Γ9 valence band verify an inter-band bowing parameter of b =0.9 eV . The transitions with E || c allow determining the crystal field splitting energy which can be described by a linear interpolation between the values for GaN and AlN satisfactorily.

  11. Impedance analysis of nano thickness layered AlGaN acoustic sensor deposited by thermionic vacuum arc

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Özen, Soner; Bilgiç, Eyüp; Gülmez, Gülay; Şenay, Volkan; Pat, Suat; Korkmaz, Şadan; Mohammadigharehbagh, Reza

    2016-03-01

    In this study, AlGaN acoustic sensor was deposited on aluminum metal substrate by thermionic vacuum arc (TVA) method for the first time. Gallium materials are used in many applications for optoelectronic device and semiconductor technology. Thermionic vacuum arc is the deposition technology for the variously materials and applications field. The thickness of the acoustic sensor is in deposited as nano layer. Impedance analyses were realized. Also, TVA production parameters and some properties of the deposited layers were investigated. TVA is a fast deposition technology for the gallium compounds and doped gallium compounds. Obtained results show that AlGaN materials are very promising materials. Moreover, these acoustic sensors have been produced by TVA technology.

  12. Strain-compensated AlGaN /GaN/InGaN cladding layers in homoepitaxial nitride devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Czernecki, R.; Krukowski, S.; Targowski, G.; Prystawko, P.; Sarzynski, M.; Krysko, M.; Kamler, G.; Grzegory, I.; Leszczynski, M.; Porowski, S.

    2007-12-01

    One of the most important problems in III-nitride violet laser diode technology is the lattice mismatch between the AlGaN cladding layers and the rest of the epitaxial structure. For efficiently working devices, it is necessary to have both a high Al content and thick claddings. This leads, however, to severe sample bowing and even cracking of the upper layer. In this work, we propose a cladding structure of strain-compensated AlGaN /GaN/InGaN superlattice grown by metal-organic vapor phase epitaxy on bulk GaN substrates. Various thicknesses and compositions of the layers were employed. We measured the radius of bowing, lattice mismatches, aluminum and indium contents, and densities of threading dislocations. The proposed cladding structures suppress bowing and cracking, which are the two parasitic effects commonly experienced in laser diodes with bulk AlGaN claddings. The suppression of cracking and bowing is shown to occur due to modified strain energy distribution of the superlattices structure.

  13. Enhancement of blue InGaN light-emitting diodes by using AlGaN increased composition-graded barriers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Lei; Zhiqiang, Liu; Miao, He; Xiaoyan, Yi; Junxi, Wang; Jinmin, Li; Shuwen, Zheng; Shuti, Li

    2015-05-01

    The characteristics of nitride-based blue light-emitting diodes (LEDs) with AlGaN composition-graded barriers are analyzed numerically. The carrier concentrations in the quantum wells (QWs), the energy band diagrams, the electrostatic fields, and the light output power are investigated by APSYS software. The simulation results show that the LED with AlGaN composition-graded barriers has a better performance than its AlGaN/InGaN counterpart owing to the increase of hole injection and the enhancement of electron confinement. The simulation results also suggest that the output power is enhanced significantly and the efficiency droop is markedly improved when the AlGaN barriers are replaced by AlGaN composition-graded barriers. Project supported by the National High Technology Program of China (Nos. 2011AA03A105, 2013AA03A101), the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Nos. 61306051, 61306050, 11474105), the Beijing Municipal Science and Technology Project (No. D12110300140000), the National Basic Research Program of China (No. 2011CB301902), the Industry-Academia-Research Union Special Fund of Guangdong Province of China (No. 2012B091000169), the Science & Technology Innovation Platform of Industry-Academia-Research Union of Guangdong Province-Ministry Cooperation Special Fund of China (No. 2012B090600038), the Specialized Research Fund for the Doctoral Program of Higher Education (No. 20134407110008), and the Science research innovation foundation of South China Normal University of China (No. 2013kyjj041).

  14. Composition dependent valence band order in c-oriented wurtzite AlGaN layers

    SciTech Connect

    Neuschl, B. Helbing, J.; Knab, M.; Lauer, H.; Madel, M.; Thonke, K.; Feneberg, M.

    2014-09-21

    The valence band order of polar wurtzite aluminum gallium nitride (AlGaN) layers is analyzed for a dense series of samples, grown heteroepitaxially on sapphire substrates, covering the complete composition range. The excitonic transition energies, found by temperature dependent photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy, were corrected to the unstrained state using input from X-ray diffraction. k∙p theory yields a critical relative aluminum concentration x{sub c}=(0.09±0.05) for the crossing of the uppermost two valence bands for strain free material, shifting to higher values for compressively strained samples, as supported by polarization dependent PL. The analysis of the strain dependent valence band crossing reconciles the findings of other research groups, where sample strain was neglected. We found a bowing for the energy band gap to the valence band with Γ₉ symmetry of b{sub Γ₉}=0.85eV, and propose a possible bowing for the crystal field energy of b{sub cf}=-0.12eV. A comparison of the light extraction efficiency perpendicular and parallel to the c axis of Al{sub x}Ga{sub 1-x}N/Al{sub y}Ga{sub 1-y}N quantum well structures is discussed for different compositions.

  15. The influence of growth conditions on the surface morphology and development of mechanical stresses in Al(Ga)N layers during metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lundin, W. V.; Zavarin, E. E.; Brunkov, P. N.; Yagovkina, M. A.; Troshkov, S. I.; Sakharov, A. V.; Nikolaev, A. E.; Tsatsulnikov, A. F.

    2016-04-01

    We have studied the influence of technological parameters on the surface morphology and development of mechanical stresses in Al(Ga)N layers during their growth by metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy (MOVPE) on sapphire substrates. Minimization of tensile stresses under conditions of a retained atomically smooth surface can be achieved by using a combination of factors including (i) nitridation of substrate in ammonia flow, (ii) formation of two-layer AlN-Al(Ga)N structures by introducing a small amount (several percent) of Ga after growth of a thin AlN layer, and (iii) reduction of ammonia flow during growth of an Al(Ga)N layer.

  16. Modeling of high composition AlGaN channel high electron mobility transistors with large threshold voltage

    SciTech Connect

    Bajaj, Sanyam Hung, Ting-Hsiang; Akyol, Fatih; Nath, Digbijoy; Rajan, Siddharth

    2014-12-29

    We report on the potential of high electron mobility transistors (HEMTs) consisting of high composition AlGaN channel and barrier layers for power switching applications. Detailed two-dimensional (2D) simulations show that threshold voltages in excess of 3 V can be achieved through the use of AlGaN channel layers. We also calculate the 2D electron gas mobility in AlGaN channel HEMTs and evaluate their power figures of merit as a function of device operating temperature and Al mole fraction in the channel. Our models show that power switching transistors with AlGaN channels would have comparable on-resistance to GaN-channel based transistors for the same operation voltage. The modeling in this paper shows the potential of high composition AlGaN as a channel material for future high threshold enhancement mode transistors.

  17. Effects of Si-doping on structural, electrical, and optical properties of polar and non-polar AlGaN epi-layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Hongquan; Zhang, Xiong; Wang, Shuchang; Wang, Yi; Luan, Huakai; Dai, Qian; Wu, Zili; Zhao, Jianguo; Cui, Yiping

    2016-08-01

    The polar (0001)-oriented c-plane and non-polar (11 2 bar 0) -oriented a-plane wurtzite AlGaN epi-layers were successfully grown on polar (0001)-oriented c-plane and semi-polar (1 1 bar 02) -oriented r-plane sapphire substrates, respectively with various Si-doping levels in a low pressure metal organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) system. The morphological, structural, electrical, and optical properties of the polar and non-polar AlGaN epi-layers were studied with scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Hall effect, and Raman spectroscopy. The characterization results show that Si dopants incorporated into the polar and non-polar AlGaN films induced a relaxation of compressive residual strain and a generation of biaxial tensile strain on the surface in consequence of the dislocation climbing. In particular, it was found that the Si-induced compressive strain relaxation in the non-polar AlGaN samples can be promoted by the structural anisotropy as compared with the polar counterparts. The gradually increased relaxation of compressive residual strain in both polar and non-polar AlGaN samples with increasing Si-doping level was attributed to the Si-induced enhancement in the opportunity for the dislocations to interact and annihilate. This implies that the crystal quality for both polar and non-polar AlGaN epi-layers can be remarkably improved by Si-doping.

  18. In situ atomic layer deposition half cycle study of Al2O3 growth on AlGaN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brennan, Barry; Qin, Xiaoye; Dong, Hong; Kim, Jiyoung; Wallace, Robert M.

    2012-11-01

    The atomic layer deposition (ALD) of Al2O3 on the native oxide and hydrofluoric acid treated Al0.25Ga0.75 N surface was studied using in situ X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), after each individual "half cycle" of the ALD process. Initially, Al2O3, Ga2O3, and N-O states were detected on both surfaces at differing concentrations. During the course of the deposition process, the N-O bonds are seen to decrease to within XPS detection limits, as well as a small decrease in the Ga2O3 concentration. The Al2O3 growth rate initially is seen to be very low, indication of low reactivity between the trimethyl-aluminum molecule and the AlGaN surface.

  19. Effect of surface pretreatment on interfacial chemical bonding states of atomic layer deposited ZrO{sub 2} on AlGaN

    SciTech Connect

    Ye, Gang; Arulkumaran, Subramaniam; Ng, Geok Ing; Li, Yang; Ang, Kian Siong; Wang, Hong; Liu, Zhi Hong

    2015-09-15

    Atomic layer deposition (ALD) of ZrO{sub 2} on native oxide covered (untreated) and buffered oxide etchant (BOE) treated AlGaN surface was analyzed by utilizing x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy. Evidenced by Ga–O and Al–O chemical bonds by XPS, parasitic oxidation during deposition is largely enhanced on BOE treated AlGaN surface. Due to the high reactivity of Al atoms, more prominent oxidation of Al atoms is observed, which leads to thicker interfacial layer formed on BOE treated surface. The results suggest that native oxide on AlGaN surface may serve as a protecting layer to inhibit the surface from further parasitic oxidation during ALD. The findings provide important process guidelines for the use of ALD ZrO{sub 2} and its pre-ALD surface treatments for high-k AlGaN/GaN metal–insulator–semiconductor high electron mobility transistors and other related device applications.

  20. New Al0.25Ga0.75N/GaN high electron mobility transistor with partial etched AlGaN layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Song; Duan, Baoxing; Yuan, Xiaoning; Cao, Zhen; Guo, Haijun; Yang, Yintang

    2016-05-01

    In this letter, a new Al0.25Ga0.75N/GaN high electron mobility transistor (HEMT) with the AlGaN layer is partial etched is reported for the first time. The two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG) density in the HEMTs is changed by partially etching the AlGaN layer. A new electric field peak is introduced along the interface between the AlGaN layer and the GaN buffer by the electric field modulation effect. The high electric field near the gate in the proposed Al0.25Ga0.75N/GaN HEMT is effectively decreased, which makes the surface electric field more uniform. Compared with the conventional structure, the breakdown voltage can be improved by 58% for the proposed Al0.25Ga0.75N/GaN HEMT and the current collapse can be reduced resulting from the more uniform surface electric field.

  1. Improved mobility of AlGaN channel heterojunction material using an AlGaN/GaN composite buffer layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wen, Hui-Juan; Zhang, Jin-Cheng; Lu, Xiao-Li; Wang, Zhi-Zhe; Ha, Wei; Ge, Sha-Sha; Cao, Rong-Tao; Hao, Yue

    2014-03-01

    The quality of an AlGaN channel heterojunction on a sapphire substrate is massively improved by using an AlGaN/GaN composite buffer layer. We demonstrate an Al0.4Ga0.5N/Al0.18Ga0.82N heterojunction with a state-of-the-art mobility of 815 cm2/(V·s) and a sheet resistance of 890 Ω/□ under room temperature. The crystalline quality and the electrical properties of the AlGaN heterojunction material are analyzed by atomic force microscopy, high-resolution X-ray diffraction, and van der Pauw Hall and capacitance—voltage (C—V) measurements. The results indicate that the improved electrical properties should derive from the reduced surface roughness and low dislocation density.

  2. Impact of post-deposition annealing on interfacial chemical bonding states between AlGaN and ZrO{sub 2} grown by atomic layer deposition

    SciTech Connect

    Ye, Gang; Arulkumaran, Subramaniam; Ng, Geok Ing; Li, Yang; Ang, Kian Siong; Wang, Hong; Liu, Zhi Hong

    2015-03-02

    The effect of post-deposition annealing on chemical bonding states at interface between Al{sub 0.5}Ga{sub 0.5}N and ZrO{sub 2} grown by atomic layer deposition (ALD) is studied by angle-resolved x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy. It has been found that both of Al-O/Al 2p and Ga-O/Ga 3d area ratio decrease at annealing temperatures lower than 500 °C, which could be attributed to “clean up” effect of ALD-ZrO{sub 2} on AlGaN. Compared to Ga spectra, a much larger decrease in Al-O/Al 2p ratio at a smaller take-off angle θ is observed, which indicates higher effectiveness of the passivation of Al-O bond than Ga-O bond through “clean up” effect near the interface. However, degradation of ZrO{sub 2}/AlGaN interface quality due to re-oxidation at higher annealing temperature (>500 °C) is also found. The XPS spectra clearly reveal that Al atoms at ZrO{sub 2}/AlGaN interface are easier to get oxidized as compared with Ga atoms.

  3. Quantitative study for surface properties of AlGaN epi-layers by ARXPS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Hongquan; Zhang, Xiong; Wang, Shuchang; Zhu, Min; Cui, Yiping

    2015-11-01

    The surface chemical properties of AlxGa1-xN (x=0.35, 0.47, 0.60) epi-layers grown on c-plane sapphire substrates by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) were quantitatively characterized by angle-resolved X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (ARXPS). The results suggested that the Ga Auger peak for the AlxGa1-xN epi-layers was greatly suppressed with increasing Al composition since the amount of N-Ga bonds were dramatically decreased. Moreover, more Al-O bonds were found near the surfaces of the AlxGa1-xN epi-layers with relatively high Al composition due to the large chemical affinity of aluminum to oxygen. In addition, the Al composition in the AlxGa1-xN epi-layers was showed to be non-uniform because Al atom has higher oxidizability and lower mobility than Ga atom, especially for the AlxGa1-xN epi-layers with relatively high Al composition. Our work should be very helpful to further investigation of the surface properties for making Al-containing III-nitrides optoelectronic devices.

  4. Two coexisting mechanisms of dislocation reduction in an AlGaN layer grown using a thin GaN interlayer

    SciTech Connect

    Bai, J.; Wang, T.; Parbrook, P. J.; Wang, Q.; Lee, K. B.; Cullis, A. G.

    2007-09-24

    A significant dislocation reduction is achieved in an AlGaN layer grown on an AlN buffer by introducing a thin GaN interlayer. The mechanisms for the dislocation reduction are explored by transmission electron microscopy, energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy, and micro-Raman spectroscopy. The GaN interlayer grown on the AlN takes the form of platelets. The mechanisms of dislocation reduction in the platelet area and the area between the platelets are different. In the GaN platelets, due to the large misfit strain, the threading dislocations (TDs) in the AlN layer migrate into the interface and annihilate with each other. However, the GaN between the platelets is highly strained so that a higher density of TDs from AlN is incorporated into the upper layer. The coalescing of the platelets induced by the AlGaN growth makes the TDs in the areas between the platelets assemble and annihilate, resulting in additional dislocation reduction.

  5. Digitally Alloyed Modulated Precursor Flow Epitaxial Growth of Ternary AlGaN with Binary AlN and GaN Sub-Layers and Observation of Compositional Inhomogeneity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Hee Jin; Choi, Suk; Yoo, Dongwon; Ryou, Jae-Hyun; Hawkridge, Michael E.; Liliental-Weber, Zuzanna; Dupuis, Russell D.

    2010-05-01

    We report the growth of ternary aluminum gallium nitride (AlGaN) layers on AlN/sapphire template/substrates by digitally alloyed modulated precursor flow epitaxial growth (DA-MPEG), which combined an MPEG AlN sub-layer with a conventional metalorganic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD)-grown GaN sub-layer. The overall composition in DA-MPEG Al x Ga1- x N was controlled by adjustment of the growth time (i.e., the thickness) of the GaN sub-layer. As the GaN sub-layer growth time increased, the Al composition in AlGaN decreased to 50%, but the surface morphology of the AlGaN layer became rough, and a three-dimensional structure with islands appeared for the DA-MPEG AlGaN with relatively thick GaN sub-layers, possibly resulting from the Ga adatom surface migration behavior and/or the strain built up from lattice mismatch between AlN and GaN sub-layers with increasing GaN sub-layer growth time. Through strain analysis by high-resolution x-ray diffraction, reciprocal space mapping, and scanning transmission electron microscopy, it was found that there was compositional inhomogeneity in the DA-MPEG AlGaN with AlN and GaN binary sub-layers for the case of the layer with relatively thick GaN sub-layers.

  6. Inhomogeneous distribution of defect-related emission in Si-doped AlGaN epitaxial layers with different Al content and Si concentration

    SciTech Connect

    Kurai, Satoshi Ushijima, Fumitaka; Yamada, Yoichi; Miyake, Hideto; Hiramatsu, Kazumasa

    2014-02-07

    The spatial distribution of luminescence in Si-doped AlGaN epitaxial layers that differ in Al content and Si concentration has been studied by cathodoluminescence (CL) mapping in combination with scanning electron microscopy. The density of surface hillocks increased with decreasing Al content and with increasing Si concentration. The mechanisms giving rise to those hillocks are likely different. The hillocks induced surface roughening, and the compositional fluctuation and local donor-acceptor-pair (DAP) emission at hillock edges in AlGaN epitaxial layers were enhanced irrespective of the origin of the hillocks. The intensity of local DAP emission was related to Si concentration, as well as to hillock density. CL observation revealed that DAP emission areas were present inside the samples and were likely related to dislocations concentrated at hillock edges. Possible candidates for acceptors in the observed DAP emission that are closely related in terms of both Si concentration and hillock edges with large deformations are a V{sub III}-Si{sub III} complex and Si{sub N}, which are unfavorable in ordinary III-nitrides.

  7. Improving hole injection and carrier distribution in InGaN light-emitting diodes by removing the electron blocking layer and including a unique last quantum barrier

    SciTech Connect

    Cheng, Liwen Chen, Haitao; Wu, Shudong

    2015-08-28

    The effects of removing the AlGaN electron blocking layer (EBL), and using a last quantum barrier (LQB) with a unique design in conventional blue InGaN light-emitting diodes (LEDs), were investigated through simulations. Compared with the conventional LED design that contained a GaN LQB and an AlGaN EBL, the LED that contained an AlGaN LQB with a graded-composition and no EBL exhibited enhanced optical performance and less efficiency droop. This effect was caused by an enhanced electron confinement and hole injection efficiency. Furthermore, when the AlGaN LQB was replaced with a triangular graded-composition, the performance improved further and the efficiency droop was lowered. The simulation results indicated that the enhanced hole injection efficiency and uniform distribution of carriers observed in the quantum wells were caused by the smoothing and thinning of the potential barrier for the holes. This allowed a greater number of holes to tunnel into the quantum wells from the p-type regions in the proposed LED structure.

  8. Microscopic potential fluctuations in Si-doped AlGaN epitaxial layers with various AlN molar fractions and Si concentrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurai, Satoshi; Miyake, Hideto; Hiramatsu, Kazumasa; Yamada, Yoichi

    2016-01-01

    Nanoscopic potential fluctuations of Si-doped AlGaN epitaxial layers with the AlN molar fraction varying from 0.42 to 0.95 and Si-doped Al0.61Ga0.39N epitaxial layers with Si concentrations of 3.0-37 × 1017 cm-3 were investigated by cathodoluminescence (CL) imaging combined with scanning electron microscopy. The spot CL linewidths of AlGaN epitaxial layers broadened as the AlN molar fraction was increased to 0.7, and then narrowed at higher AlN molar fractions. The experimental linewidths were compared with the theoretical prediction from the alloy broadening model. The trends displayed by our spot CL linewidths were consistent with calculated results at AlN molar fractions of less than about 0.60, but the spot CL linewidths were markedly broader than the calculated linewidths at higher AlN molar fractions. The dependence of the difference between the spot CL linewidth and calculated line broadening on AlN molar fraction was found to be similar to the dependence of reported S values, indicating that the vacancy clusters acted as the origin of additional line broadening at high AlN molar fractions. The spot CL linewidths of Al0.61Ga0.39N epitaxial layers with the same Al concentration and different Si concentrations were nearly constant in the entire Si concentration range tested. From the comparison of reported S values, the increase of VAl did not contribute to the linewidth broadening, unlike the case of the VAl clusters.

  9. Fixed interface charges between AlGaN barrier and gate stack composed of in situ grown SiN and Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} in AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistors with normally off capability

    SciTech Connect

    Capriotti, M. Alexewicz, A.; Fleury, C.; Gavagnin, M.; Bethge, O.; Wanzenböck, H. D.; Bertagnolli, E.; Pogany, D.; Strasser, G.; Visalli, D.; Derluyn, J.

    2014-03-17

    Using a generalized extraction method, the fixed charge density N{sub int} at the interface between in situ deposited SiN and 5 nm thick AlGaN barrier is evaluated by measurements of threshold voltage V{sub th} of an AlGaN/GaN metal insulator semiconductor high electron mobility transistor as a function of SiN thickness. The thickness of the originally deposited 50 nm thick SiN layer is reduced by dry etching. The extracted N{sub int} is in the order of the AlGaN polarization charge density. The total removal of the in situ SiN cap leads to a complete depletion of the channel region resulting in V{sub th} = +1 V. Fabrication of a gate stack with Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} as a second cap layer, deposited on top of the in situ SiN, is not introducing additional fixed charges at the SiN/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} interface.

  10. On the importance of AlGaN electron blocking layer design for GaN-based light-emitting diodes

    SciTech Connect

    Sheng Xia, Chang Simon Li, Z. M.; Sheng, Yang

    2013-12-02

    There has been confusion regarding the usefulness of AlGaN electron blocking layer (EBL) in GaN-based light-emitting diodes (LEDs) with some published experimental data indicating that the LEDs without EBL performed better than those with it. InGaN/GaN LEDs have been investigated numerically to analyze its actual effect in these devices. Simulation results show that hole blocking effect of EBL mainly determines the effectiveness of using it which is more sensitive to its Al composition, band offset ratio, and polarization charges. It is found that the choice of Al composition is critical for EBL to improve the optical performance of GaN-based LEDs.

  11. Multi-layer waste containment barrier

    DOEpatents

    Smith, Ann Marie; Gardner, Bradley M.; Nickelson, David F.

    1999-01-01

    An apparatus for constructing an underground containment barrier for containing an in-situ portion of earth. The apparatus includes an excavating device for simultaneously (i) excavating earthen material from beside the in-situ portion of earth without removing the in-situ portion and thereby forming an open side trench defined by opposing earthen sidewalls, and (ii) excavating earthen material from beneath the in-situ portion of earth without removing the in-situ portion and thereby forming a generally horizontal underground trench beneath the in-situ portion defined by opposing earthen sidewalls. The apparatus further includes a barrier-forming device attached to the excavating device for simultaneously forming a side barrier within the open trench and a generally horizontal, multi-layer barrier within the generally horizontal trench. The multi-layer barrier includes at least a first layer and a second layer.

  12. Low temperature p-type doping of (Al)GaN layers using ammonia molecular beam epitaxy for InGaN laser diodes

    SciTech Connect

    Malinverni, M. Lamy, J.-M.; Martin, D.; Grandjean, N.; Feltin, E.; Dorsaz, J.; Castiglia, A.; Rossetti, M.; Duelk, M.; Vélez, C.

    2014-12-15

    We demonstrate state-of-the-art p-type (Al)GaN layers deposited at low temperature (740 °C) by ammonia molecular beam epitaxy (NH{sub 3}-MBE) to be used as top cladding of laser diodes (LDs) with the aim of further reducing the thermal budget on the InGaN quantum well active region. Typical p-type GaN resistivities and contact resistances are 0.4 Ω cm and 5 × 10{sup −4} Ω cm{sup 2}, respectively. As a test bed, we fabricated a hybrid laser structure emitting at 400 nm combining n-type AlGaN cladding and InGaN active region grown by metal-organic vapor phase epitaxy, with the p-doped waveguide and cladding layers grown by NH{sub 3}-MBE. Single-mode ridge-waveguide LD exhibits a threshold voltage as low as 4.3 V for an 800 × 2 μm{sup 2} ridge dimension and a threshold current density of ∼5 kA cm{sup −2} in continuous wave operation. The series resistance of the device is 6 Ω and the resistivity is 1.5 Ω cm, confirming thereby the excellent electrical properties of p-type Al{sub 0.06}Ga{sub 0.94}N:Mg despite the low growth temperature.

  13. Method for forming a barrier layer

    DOEpatents

    Weihs, Timothy P.; Barbee, Jr., Troy W.

    2002-01-01

    Cubic or metastable cubic refractory metal carbides act as barrier layers to isolate, adhere, and passivate copper in semiconductor fabrication. One or more barrier layers of the metal carbide are deposited in conjunction with copper metallizations to form a multilayer characterized by a cubic crystal structure with a strong (100) texture. Suitable barrier layer materials include refractory transition metal carbides such as vanadium carbide (VC), niobium carbide (NbC), tantalum carbide (TaC), chromium carbide (Cr.sub.3 C.sub.2), tungsten carbide (WC), and molybdenum carbide (MoC).

  14. Enhanced Densification of SDC Barrier Layers

    SciTech Connect

    Hardy, John S.; Templeton, Jared W.; Lu, Zigui; Stevenson, Jeffry W.

    2011-09-12

    This technical report explores the Enhanced Densification of SCD Barrier Layers A samaria-doped ceria (SDC) barrier layer separates the lanthanum strontium cobalt ferrite (LSCF) cathode from the yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) electrolyte in a solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) to prevent the formation of electrically resistive interfacial SrZrO{sub 3} layers that arise from the reaction of Sr from the LSCF with Zr from the YSZ. However, the sintering temperature of this SDC layer must be limited to {approx}1200 C to avoid extensive interdiffusion between SDC and YSZ to form a resistive CeO{sub 2}-ZrO{sub 2} solid solution. Therefore, the conventional SDC layer is often porous and therefore not as impervious to Sr-diffusion as would be desired. In the pursuit of improved SOFC performance, efforts have been directed toward increasing the density of the SDC barrier layer without increasing the sintering temperature. The density of the SDC barrier layer can be greatly increased through small amounts of Cu-doping of the SDC powder together with increased solids loading and use of an appropriate binder system in the screen print ink. However, the resulting performance of cells with these barrier layers did not exhibit the expected increase in accordance with that achieved with the prototypical PLD SDC layer. It was determined by XRD that increased sinterability of the SDC also results in increased interdiffusivity between the SDC and YSZ, resulting in formation of a highly resistive solid solution.

  15. Growth of high quality and uniformity AlGaN/GaN heterostructures on Si substrates using a single AlGaN layer with low Al composition.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Jianpeng; Yang, Xuelin; Sang, Ling; Guo, Lei; Zhang, Jie; Wang, Jiaming; He, Chenguang; Zhang, Lisheng; Wang, Maojun; Xu, Fujun; Tang, Ning; Qin, Zhixin; Wang, Xinqiang; Shen, Bo

    2016-01-01

    By employing a single AlGaN layer with low Al composition, high quality and uniformity AlGaN/GaN heterostructures have been successfully grown on Si substrates by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD). The heterostructures exhibit a high electron mobility of 2150 cm(2)/Vs with an electron density of 9.3 × 10(12) cm(-2). The sheet resistance is 313 ± 4 Ω/◻ with ±1.3% variation. The high uniformity is attributed to the reduced wafer bow resulting from the balance of the compressive stress induced and consumed during the growth, and the thermal tensile stress induced during the cooling down process. By a combination of theoretical calculations and in situ wafer curvature measurements, we find that the compressive stress consumed by the dislocation relaxation (~1.2 GPa) is comparable to the value of the thermal tensile stress (~1.4 GPa) and we should pay more attention to it during growth of GaN on Si substrates. Our results demonstrate a promising approach to simplifying the growth processes of GaN-on-Si to reduce the wafer bow and lower the cost while maintaining high material quality. PMID:26960730

  16. Growth of high quality and uniformity AlGaN/GaN heterostructures on Si substrates using a single AlGaN layer with low Al composition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Jianpeng; Yang, Xuelin; Sang, Ling; Guo, Lei; Zhang, Jie; Wang, Jiaming; He, Chenguang; Zhang, Lisheng; Wang, Maojun; Xu, Fujun; Tang, Ning; Qin, Zhixin; Wang, Xinqiang; Shen, Bo

    2016-03-01

    By employing a single AlGaN layer with low Al composition, high quality and uniformity AlGaN/GaN heterostructures have been successfully grown on Si substrates by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD). The heterostructures exhibit a high electron mobility of 2150 cm2/Vs with an electron density of 9.3 × 1012 cm‑2. The sheet resistance is 313 ± 4 Ω/◻ with ±1.3% variation. The high uniformity is attributed to the reduced wafer bow resulting from the balance of the compressive stress induced and consumed during the growth, and the thermal tensile stress induced during the cooling down process. By a combination of theoretical calculations and in situ wafer curvature measurements, we find that the compressive stress consumed by the dislocation relaxation (~1.2 GPa) is comparable to the value of the thermal tensile stress (~1.4 GPa) and we should pay more attention to it during growth of GaN on Si substrates. Our results demonstrate a promising approach to simplifying the growth processes of GaN-on-Si to reduce the wafer bow and lower the cost while maintaining high material quality.

  17. Growth of high quality and uniformity AlGaN/GaN heterostructures on Si substrates using a single AlGaN layer with low Al composition

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Jianpeng; Yang, Xuelin; Sang, Ling; Guo, Lei; Zhang, Jie; Wang, Jiaming; He, Chenguang; Zhang, Lisheng; Wang, Maojun; Xu, Fujun; Tang, Ning; Qin, Zhixin; Wang, Xinqiang; Shen, Bo

    2016-01-01

    By employing a single AlGaN layer with low Al composition, high quality and uniformity AlGaN/GaN heterostructures have been successfully grown on Si substrates by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD). The heterostructures exhibit a high electron mobility of 2150 cm2/Vs with an electron density of 9.3 × 1012 cm−2. The sheet resistance is 313 ± 4 Ω/◻ with ±1.3% variation. The high uniformity is attributed to the reduced wafer bow resulting from the balance of the compressive stress induced and consumed during the growth, and the thermal tensile stress induced during the cooling down process. By a combination of theoretical calculations and in situ wafer curvature measurements, we find that the compressive stress consumed by the dislocation relaxation (~1.2 GPa) is comparable to the value of the thermal tensile stress (~1.4 GPa) and we should pay more attention to it during growth of GaN on Si substrates. Our results demonstrate a promising approach to simplifying the growth processes of GaN-on-Si to reduce the wafer bow and lower the cost while maintaining high material quality. PMID:26960730

  18. Alternating-Composition Layered Ceramic Barrier Coatings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, Robert A.; Zhu, Dongming

    2008-01-01

    Ceramic thermal and environmental barrier coatings (T/EBCs) that contain multiple layers of alternating chemical composition have been developed as improved means of protecting underlying components of gas-turbine and other heat engines against both corrosive combustion gases and high temperatures.

  19. Barrier layer technology for flexible displays

    SciTech Connect

    Graff, Gordon L.; Burrows, Paul E.; Williford, Ralph E.; Praino, Robert F.

    2005-05-01

    This chapter will briefly summarize the development of thin-film barrier layers in various applications, and more concisely describe the OLED vapor barrier technical requirements (Section 4.2). This is followed, in Section 4.3, by a brief summary of relevant experimental methods used to measure gas permeation in thin-films. Attempts are made to delineate the advantages and disadvantages of each measurement technique. In Section 4.4 we describe some of the historical analytical/modeling approaches that have been invoked to explain the measured analytical results, and discuss some of the more important shortcomings of those modeling concepts. This is followed in Section 4.5 by presentation of an approach suitable to describe gas diffusion in multilayer thin-film structures. Transient permeation measurements are used to extract physically reasonable values for the in-situ effective diffusivity and solubility of the various polymer and oxide layers, as well as estimates of defect size and spatial density consistent with those parameters. The implications of these results are that lag times for permeant breakthrough in multilayered barrier systems are extremely long and are likely to dominate many of the results reported to date, rather than the commonly measured steady state flux. These findings are then discussed in relation to practical OLED encapsulation in Section 4.6, along with the need for new techniques for further improving the barrier quality. Section 4.7 contains the conclusions of the paper.

  20. On the increased efficiency in InGaN-based multiple quantum wells emitting at 530-590 nm with AlGaN interlayers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koleske, D. D.; Fischer, A. J.; Bryant, B. N.; Kotula, P. G.; Wierer, J. J.

    2015-04-01

    InGaN/AlGaN/GaN-based multiple quantum wells (MQWs) with AlGaN interlayers (ILs) are investigated, specifically to examine the fundamental mechanisms behind their increased radiative efficiency at wavelengths of 530-590 nm. The AlzGa1-zN (z~0.38) IL is ~1-2 nm thick, and is grown after and at the same growth temperature as the ~3 nm thick InGaN quantum well (QW). This is followed by an increase in temperature for the growth of a ~10 nm thick GaN barrier layer. The insertion of the AlGaN IL within the MQW provides various benefits. First, the AlGaN IL allows for growth of the InxGa1-xN QW well below typical growth temperatures to achieve higher x (up to~0.25). Second, annealing the IL capped QW prior to the GaN barrier growth improves the AlGaN IL smoothness as determined by atomic force microscopy, improves the InGaN/AlGaN/GaN interface quality as determined from scanning transmission electron microscope images and x-ray diffraction, and increases the radiative efficiency by reducing non-radiative defects as determined by time-resolved photoluminescence measurements. Finally, the AlGaN IL increases the spontaneous and piezoelectric polarization induced electric fields acting on the InGaN QW, providing an additional red-shift to the emission wavelength as determined by Schrodinger-Poisson modeling and fitting to the experimental data. The relative impact of increased indium concentration and polarization fields on the radiative efficiency of MQWs with AlGaN ILs is explored along with implications to conventional longer wavelength emitters.

  1. Efficiency droop enhancement in AlGaN deep ultraviolet light-emitting diodes by making whole barriers but the bottom Mg doped

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Jie; Sun, Huiqing; Yi, Xinyan; Yang, Xian; Fan, Xuancong; Zhang, Cheng; Zhang, Zhuding; Guo, Zhiyou

    2016-09-01

    Ultra violet light-emitting diodes (UVLEDs) with different types of Mg-doped barriers have been studied. The energy band diagrams, internal quantum efficiency, total output power and radiative recombination rate are investigated by APSYS software. The simulation results show that the UVLED with only a p-doped top barrier get little enhancement comparing to the conventional one, on the contrary the structure with p-doping in all but the bottom barriers has a much better optical and electrical properties due to enhancement of the holes' injection and the electrons' confinement. The efficiency droop is significantly alleviated and the light output power is greatly enhanced. To avoid forming a PN junction by the bottom barrier and the n-AlGaN in the proposed structure, therefore, the bottom barrier isn't p-doped. Then structures with different hole densities in the Mg-doped barriers have been studied numerically and that confirmed the best.

  2. Multilayer article having stabilized zirconia outer layer and chemical barrier layer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Kang N. (Inventor); Bansal, Narottam P. (Inventor)

    2004-01-01

    A multilayer article includes a substrate that includes at least one of a ceramic compound and a Si-containing metal alloy. An outer layer includes stabilized zirconia. Intermediate layers are located between the outer layer and the substrate and include a mullite-containing layer and a chemical barrier layer. The mullite-containing layer includes 1) mullite or 2) mullite and an alkaline earth metal aluminosilicate. The chemical barrier layer is located between the mullite-containing layer and the outer layer. The chemical barrier layer includes at least one of mullite, hafnia, hafnium silicate and rare earth silicate (e.g., at least one of RE.sub.2 SiO.sub.5 and RE.sub.2 Si.sub.2 O.sub.7 where RE is Sc or Yb). The multilayer article is characterized by the combination of the chemical barrier layer and by its lack of a layer consisting essentially of barium strontium aluminosilicate between the mullite-containing layer and the chemical barrier layer. Such a barium strontium aluminosilicate layer may undesirably lead to the formation of a low melting glass or unnecessarily increase the layer thickness with concomitant reduced durability of the multilayer article. In particular, the chemical barrier layer may include at least one of hafnia, hafnium silicate and rare earth silicate.

  3. Polarization engineering of back-illuminated separate absorption and multiplication AlGaN avalanche photodiodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Guofeng; Wang, Fuxue

    2016-08-01

    The back-illuminated separate absorption and multiplication AlGaN avalanche photodiodes (APDs) with a p-type graded AlGaN layer have been designed to investigate the polarization engineering on the performance of the devices. The calculated results show that the APD with p-graded AlGaN layer exhibits lower avalanche breakdown voltage and increased maximum multiplication gain compared to the structure with conventional p-type AlGaN layer. The improved performance of the designed APD is numerically explained by the polarization-assisted enhancement of the ionization electric field in the multiplication region and polarization doping effect caused by the p-type graded layer.

  4. Influence of layer type and order on barrier properties of multilayer PECVD barrier coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bahroun, K.; Behm, H.; Mitschker, F.; Awakowicz, P.; Dahlmann, R.; Hopmann, Ch

    2014-01-01

    Due to their macromolecular structure, plastics are limited in their scope of application whenever high barrier functionality against oxygen and water vapour permeation is required. One solution is the deposition of thin silicon oxide coatings in plasma-enhanced chemical vapour deposition (PECVD) processes. A way to improve performance of barrier coatings is the use of multilayer structures built from dyad layers, which combine an inorganic barrier layer and an organic intermediate layer. In order to investigate the influence of type and number of dyads on the barrier performance of coated 23 µm PET films, different dyad setups are chosen. The setups include SiOCH interlayers and SiOx-barrier layers deposited using the precursor hexamethyldisiloxane (HMDSO). A single reactor setup driven in pulsed microwave plasma (MW) mode as well as capacitively coupled plasma (CCP) mode is chosen. In this paper the effects of a variation in intermediate layer recipe and stacking order using dyad setups on the oxygen barrier properties of multilayer coatings are discussed with regard to the chemical structure, morphology and activation energy of the permeation process. Changes in surface nano-morphology of intermediate layers have a strong impact on the barrier properties of subsequent glass-like coatings. Even a complete failure of the barrier is observed. Therefore, when depositing multilayer barrier coatings, stacking order has to be considered.

  5. Amorphous silicon Schottky barrier solar cells incorporating a thin insulating layer and a thin doped layer

    DOEpatents

    Carlson, David E.

    1980-01-01

    Amorphous silicon Schottky barrier solar cells which incorporate a thin insulating layer and a thin doped layer adjacent to the junction forming metal layer exhibit increased open circuit voltages compared to standard rectifying junction metal devices, i.e., Schottky barrier devices, and rectifying junction metal insulating silicon devices, i.e., MIS devices.

  6. Capillary barrier effect from underlying coarser soil layer

    SciTech Connect

    Stormont, J.C.; Anderson, C.E.

    1999-08-01

    Infiltration tests were conducted on soil columns of silty sand over pea gravel, concrete sand over pea gravel, and silty sand over concrete sand to investigate the capillary barrier effect of an underlying coarser soil layer. Water movement across the interface occurred when the suction head at the interface reached the breakthrough head of the coarser lower soil layer, defined as the suction head at which the coarser layer first became conductive, regardless of infiltration rate or the properties of the overlying finer soil layer. Thus, the coarser lower soil layer controlled breakthrough in this study. After infiltration was terminated, the suction head near the interface increased above the breakthrough head and the barrier was restored. The breakthrough head did not change substantially after eight test cycles of breakthrough and restoration for a capillary barrier with a pea gravel as the coarser lower soil layer. The barrier formed with the concrete sand as the coarser layer permitted breakthrough at a greater suction head than did the barrier with the pea gravel, indicating that the more uniform and coarse the lower soil layer is, the more effective the capillary barrier.

  7. Silicon based substrate with environmental/thermal barrier layer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eaton, Jr., Harry Edwin (Inventor); Allen, William Patrick (Inventor); Jacobson, Nathan S. (Inventor); Bansal, Narottam P. (Inventor); Opila, Elizabeth J. (Inventor); Smialek, James L. (Inventor); Lee, Kang N. (Inventor); Spitsberg, Irene T. (Inventor); Wang, Hongyu (Inventor); Meschter, Peter Joel (Inventor)

    2002-01-01

    A barrier layer for a silicon containing substrate which inhibits the formation of gaseous species of silicon when exposed to a high temperature aqueous environment comprises a barium-strontium alumino silicate.

  8. Silicon based substrate with environmental/ thermal barrier layer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eaton, Jr., Harry Edwin (Inventor); Allen, William Patrick (Inventor); Jacobson, Nathan S. (Inventor); Bansal, Nanottam P. (Inventor); Opila, Elizabeth J. (Inventor); Smialek, James L. (Inventor); Lee, Kang N. (Inventor); Spitsberg, Irene T. (Inventor); Wang, Hongyu (Inventor); Meschter, Peter Joel (Inventor)

    2002-01-01

    A barrier layer for a silicon containing substrate which inhibits the formation of gaseous species of silicon when exposed to a high temperature aqueous environment comprises a barium-strontium alumino silicate.

  9. Silicon based substrate with calcium aluminosilicate/thermal barrier layer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eaton, Jr., Harry Edwin (Inventor); Allen, William Patrick (Inventor); Miller, Robert Alden (Inventor); Jacobson, Nathan S. (Inventor); Smialek, James L. (Inventor); Opila, Elizabeth J. (Inventor); Lee, Kang N. (Inventor); Nagaraj, Bangalore A. (Inventor); Wang, Hongyu (Inventor); Meschter, Peter Joel (Inventor)

    2001-01-01

    A barrier layer for a silicon containing substrate which inhibits the formation of gaseous species of silicon when exposed to a high temperature aqueous environment comprises a calcium alumino silicate.

  10. Monitoring and Controlling of Strain During MOCVD of AlGaN for UV Optoelectronics

    SciTech Connect

    Han, J.; Crawford, M.H.; Shul, R.J.; Hearne, S.J.; Chason, E.; Figiel, J.J.; Banas, M.

    1999-01-14

    The grown-in tensile strain, due to a lattice mismatch between AlGaN and GaN, is responsible for the observed cracking that seriously limits the feasibility of nitride-based ultraviolet (UV) emitters. We report in-situ monitoring of strain/stress during MOCVD of AlGaN based on a wafer-curvature measurement technique. The strain/stress measurement confirms the presence of tensile strain during growth of AlGaN pseudomorphically on a thick GaN layer. Further growth leads to the onset of stress relief through crack generation. We find that the growth of AlGaN directly on low-temperature (LT) GaN or AlN buffer layers results in a reduced and possibly controllable strain.

  11. Room Temperature Magnetic Barrier Layers in Magnetic Tunnel Junctions

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson-Cheeseman, B. B.; Wong, F. J.; Chopdekar, R. V.; Arenholz, E.; Suzuki, Y.

    2010-03-09

    We investigate the spin transport and interfacial magnetism of magnetic tunnel junctions with highly spin polarized LSMO and Fe3O4 electrodes and a ferrimagnetic NiFe2O4 (NFO) barrier layer. The spin dependent transport can be understood in terms of magnon-assisted spin dependent tunneling where the magnons are excited in the barrier layer itself. The NFO/Fe3O4 interface displays strong magnetic coupling, while the LSMO/NFO interface exhibits clear decoupling as determined by a combination of X-ray absorption spectroscopy and X-ray magnetic circular dichroism. This decoupling allows for distinct parallel and antiparallel electrode states in this all-magnetic trilayer. The spin transport of these devices, dominated by the NFO barrier layer magnetism, leads to a symmetric bias dependence of the junction magnetoresistance at all temperatures.

  12. Leakage mechanism in GaN and AlGaN Schottky interfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hashizume, Tamotsu; Kotani, Junji; Hasegawa, Hideki

    2004-06-01

    Based on detailed temperature-dependent current-voltage (I-V-T) measurements the mechanism of leakage currents through GaN and AlGaN Schottky interfaces is discussed. The experiments were compared to calculations based on thin surface barrier model in which the effects of surface defects were taken into account. Our simulation method reproduced the experimental I-V-T characteristics of the GaN and AlGaN Schottky diodes, and gave excellent fitting results to the reported Schottky I-V curves in GaN for both forward and reverse biases at different temperatures. The present results indicate that the barrier thinning caused by unintentional surface-defect donors enhances the tunneling transport processes, leading to large leakage currents through GaN and AlGaN Schottky interfaces.

  13. Super Gas Barrier Thin Films via Layer-by-Layer Assembly of Polyelectrolytes and Clay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Priolo, Morgan; Gamboa, Daniel; Grunlan, Jaime

    2010-03-01

    Thin composite films of branched polyethylenimine (PEI), polyacrylic acid (PAA) and sodium montmorillonite clay (MMT) platelets were prepared using layer-by-layer assembly. Film thickness, mass deposited per layer, and barrier were shown to increase exponentially with the number of deposition cycles. After 32 layers (i.e., eight PEI/PAA/PEI/MMT quadlayers) are deposited, the resulting transparent film exhibits an oxygen transmission rate below the detection limit of commercial instrumentation (< 0.005 cm^3/m^2 . day). This level of oxygen barrier is believed to be due to a nano-brick wall microstructure comprised of exfoliated clay bricks in polymeric mortar, where the enhanced spacing between MMT layers, provided by PEI and PAA, creates channels perpendicular concentration gradient that delay the permeating molecule. These films are good candidates for flexible electronics, food, and pharmaceutical packaging due to their transparency, super gas barrier (that rivals SiOx) and lack of metal.

  14. Parametric study of unsaturated drainage layers in a capillary barrier

    SciTech Connect

    Morris, C.E.; Stormont, J.C.

    1999-12-01

    Unsaturated drainage layers (UDLs) have been demonstrated to greatly increase the lateral diversion capacity of capillary barriers. The inclusion of a UDL allows native soils suitable for vegetation growth to be used as the finer soil as lateral drainage properties of the layer no longer need to be considered. A comprehensive numerical study was conducted to investigate the influence of the interface slope and the UDL material on the system's ability to laterally divert downward moving moisture. A capillary barrier system with and without a UDL was simulated for 10 years using daily varying climatic data for three locations in the US. Three different sands were simulated as the UDL and were modeled at slopes of 5, 10, and 20%. The numerical results confirm that the inclusion of an unsaturated drainage layer at the fine/coarse interface of a capillary barrier can provide significant improvements in the performance of the cover system by laterally draining water. This improvement in performance may allow the system to be successfully implemented in climates wetter than previously were thought suitable. The diversion length (the distance water is diverted laterally with no downward flow through the fine/coarse interface) of a capillary barrier with a UDL was found to be proportional to the slope of the fine/coarse interface. In addition, a relationship between lateral diversion lengths in a capillary barrier and the UDL material was developed and found to be dependent on the unsaturated flow characteristics of the UDL. These relationships allow the performance of a variety capillary barrier UDL designs to be calculated knowing the behavior of one system for a given location.

  15. Electrical properties of n-type AlGaN with high Si concentration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takeda, Kunihiro; Iwaya, Motoaki; Takeuchi, Tetsuya; Kamiyama, Satoshi; Akasaki, Isamu

    2016-05-01

    The electrical properties of Si-doped AlGaN layers (AlN molar fractions: 0.03-0.06) with the donor concentrations (N D) from 8.8 × 1017 to 4.5 × 1020 cm-3 were investigated by variable-temperature Hall effect measurement using the van der Pauw method. A minimum resistivity of 3.6 × 10-4 Ω cm was obtained for Si-doped AlGaN with a smooth surface at room temperature. We found that the activation energy of the Si donor is affected by the Coulomb interaction in the AlGaN layer with N D values from 8.8 × 1017 to 2.5 × 1020 cm-3. In several AlGaN layers, the free-electron concentration did not vary with sample temperature, as expected in the case of degeneracy. The localization of GaN in the AlGaN layer was speculated as a cause of degeneracy of samples.

  16. Effects of plasma spray parameters on two layer thermal barrier

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stecura, S.

    1981-01-01

    The power level and the type of arc gas used during plasma spraying of a two layer thermal barrier system (TBS) were found to affect the life of the system. Life at 1095 C in a cyclic furnace test was improved by about 140 percent by increasing the power during plasma spray applications of the bond and thermal barrier coatings. This improvement is due to increases in the densities of the bond and thermal barrier coatings by 3 and 5 percent, respectively. These increases in densities are equivalent to about 45 and 30 percent reduction in mean porosities, respectively. The addition of hydrogen to the argon arc gas had the same effect as the reduction in power level and caused a reduction in TBS life.

  17. Investigation of the thickness effect to impedance analysis results AlGaN acoustic sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Özen, Soner; Bilgiç, Eyüp; Gülmez, Gülay; Şenay, Volkan; Pat, Suat; Korkmaz, Şadan; Mohammadigharehbagh, Reza

    2016-03-01

    In this study, AlGaN acoustic sensors were deposited on aluminum metal substrate by thermionic vacuum arc (TVA) method, for the first time. Impedance analyses of the fabricated acoustic sensors were investigated for the determining of effect of the nano layer thickness. Thickness values are very close to each others. Fabricated sensors have been fabricated from AlGaN deposited on aluminum substrates. Gallium materials are used in many applications for optoelectronic device and semiconductor technology. Thermionic vacuum arc is the deposition technology for the variously materials and applications field. TVA production parameters and some properties of the deposited layers were investigated. TVA is the fast deposition technology for the gallium compounds and doped gallium compounds. Obtained results that AlGaN layer are very promising material for an acoustic sensor but also TVA is proper fast technology for the production.

  18. Multilayer barrier films comprising nitrogen spacers between free-standing barrier layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Granstrom, Jimmy Erik

    The air sensitivity of organic electronic devices has delayed the broad commercialization of the printed "plastics" electronics technology. The vacuum deposition methods used to fabricate multi-layers which fulfill the encapsulation requirements for plastic electronic devices are complex and expensive. Fully printed "plastic" electronics requires the development of encapsulation architectures which comprise solution deposited barriers and/or low-cost free-standing barrier films based on polymers, e.g. poly ethylene terephthalate (PET). One way to reach this goal is the insertion of contaminant-free (e.g. pure N2) gas-phase spacers between free-standing barrier films in a multilayer structure. The spacers themselves do not exhibit any barrier properties (diffusion of gas permeants in a gas phase is orders of magnitude faster than in a solid), but they delay the attainment of steady state. The spacer also reduces the chemical potential gradient across downstream barrier layers during the transient regime, reducing permeation rate to the device. Furthermore, if sorption is not fully equilibrated and introduces a kinetic barrier to transport, the additional sorption and desorption steps needed for permeant to reach the device may also slow the steady-state permeation rate. Encapsulation architectures utilizing both single-matrix (without nitrogen spacers) and multiple-matrix structures (with nitrogen spacers) were fabricated in this study, including Russian Doll structures utilizing pairs of free-standing barrier films and epoxy seals separated by nitrogen spacers. This structure enables the use of low-cost epoxy to attach two or more free-standing barrier films to a substrate with improved barrier performance. The performance of various Russian Doll encapsulations was evaluated with the calcium thin film optical transmission test, showing improved performance of the Russian doll configuration relative to a non-nested barrier/spacer architecture, and demonstrating that

  19. nBn and pBp infrared detectors with graded barrier layer, graded absorption layer, or chirped strained layer super lattice absorption layer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gunapala, Sarath D. (Inventor); Ting, David Z. (Inventor); Hill, Cory J. (Inventor); Bandara, Sumith V. (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    An nBn detector is described where for some embodiments the barrier layer has a concentration gradient, for some embodiments the absorption layer has a concentration gradient, and for some embodiments the absorption layer is a chirped strained layer super lattice. The use of a graded barrier or absorption layer, or the use of a chirped strained layer super lattice for the absorption layer, allows for design of the energy bands so that the valence band may be aligned across the device. Other embodiments are described and claimed.

  20. Piezoelectric domains in the AlGaN hexagonal microrods: Effect of crystal orientations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sivadasan, A. K.; Mangamma, G.; Bera, Santanu; Kamruddin, M.; Dhara, Sandip

    2016-05-01

    Presently, the piezoelectric materials are finding tremendous applications in the micro-mechanical actuators, sensors, and self-powered devices. In this context, the studies pertaining to piezoelectric properties of materials in the different size ranges are very important for the scientific community. The III-nitrides are exceptionally important, not only for optoelectronic but also for their piezoelectric applications. In the present study, we synthesized AlGaN via self-catalytic vapor-solid mechanism by atmospheric pressure chemical vapor deposition technique on AlN base layer over intrinsic Si(100) substrate. The growth process is substantiated using X-ray diffraction and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The Raman and photoluminescence studies reveal the formation of AlGaN microrods in the wurtzite phase and ensure the high optical quality of the crystalline material. The single crystalline, direct wide band gap and hexagonally shaped AlGaN microrods are studied for understanding the behavior of the crystallites under the application of constant external electric field using the piezoresponse force microscopy. The present study is mainly focused on understanding the behavior of induced polarization for the determination of piezoelectric coefficient of AlGaN microrod along the c-axis and imaging of piezoelectric domains in the sample originating because of the angular inclination of AlGaN microrods with respect to its AlN base layers.

  1. Engineering the Carrier Dynamics of InGaN Nanowire White Light-Emitting Diodes by Distributed p-AlGaN Electron Blocking Layers

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Hieu Pham Trung; Djavid, Mehrdad; Woo, Steffi Y.; Liu, Xianhe; Connie, Ashfiqua T.; Sadaf, Sharif; Wang, Qi; Botton, Gianluigi A.; Shih, Ishiang; Mi, Zetian

    2015-01-01

    We report on the demonstration of a new type of axial nanowire LED heterostructures, with the use of self-organized InGaN/AlGaN dot-in-a-wire core-shell nanowire arrays. The large bandgap AlGaN shell is spontaneously formed on the sidewall of the nanowire during the growth of AlGaN barrier of the quantum dot active region. As such, nonradiative surface recombination, that dominates the carrier dynamics of conventional axial nanowire LED structures, can be largely eliminated, leading to significantly increased carrier lifetime from ~0.3 ns to 4.5 ns. The luminescence emission is also enhanced by orders of magnitude. Moreover, the p-doped AlGaN barrier layers can function as distributed electron blocking layers (EBLs), which is found to be more effective in reducing electron overflow, compared to the conventional AlGaN EBL. The device displays strong white-light emission, with a color rendering index of ~95. An output power of >5 mW is measured for a 1 mm × 1 mm device, which is more than 500 times stronger than the conventional InGaN axial nanowire LEDs without AlGaN distributed EBLs. PMID:25592057

  2. Engineering the Carrier Dynamics of InGaN Nanowire White Light-Emitting Diodes by Distributed p-AlGaN Electron Blocking Layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguyen, Hieu Pham Trung; Djavid, Mehrdad; Woo, Steffi Y.; Liu, Xianhe; Connie, Ashfiqua T.; Sadaf, Sharif; Wang, Qi; Botton, Gianluigi A.; Shih, Ishiang; Mi, Zetian

    2015-01-01

    We report on the demonstration of a new type of axial nanowire LED heterostructures, with the use of self-organized InGaN/AlGaN dot-in-a-wire core-shell nanowire arrays. The large bandgap AlGaN shell is spontaneously formed on the sidewall of the nanowire during the growth of AlGaN barrier of the quantum dot active region. As such, nonradiative surface recombination, that dominates the carrier dynamics of conventional axial nanowire LED structures, can be largely eliminated, leading to significantly increased carrier lifetime from ~0.3 ns to 4.5 ns. The luminescence emission is also enhanced by orders of magnitude. Moreover, the p-doped AlGaN barrier layers can function as distributed electron blocking layers (EBLs), which is found to be more effective in reducing electron overflow, compared to the conventional AlGaN EBL. The device displays strong white-light emission, with a color rendering index of ~95. An output power of >5 mW is measured for a 1 mm × 1 mm device, which is more than 500 times stronger than the conventional InGaN axial nanowire LEDs without AlGaN distributed EBLs.

  3. Wafer-scale crack-free AlGaN on GaN through two-step selective-area growth for optically pumped stimulated emission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ko, Young-Ho; Bae, Sung-Bum; Kim, Sung-Bock; Kim, Dong Churl; Leem, Young Ahn; Cho, Yong-Hoon; Nam, Eun-Soo

    2016-07-01

    Crack-free AlGaN template has been successfully grown over entire 2-in. wafer by using 2-step selective-area growth (SAG). The GaN truncated structure was obtained by vertical growth mode with low growth temperature. AlGaN of second step was grown under lateral growth mode. Low pressure enhanced the relative ratio of lateral to vertical growth rate as well as absolute overall growth rate. High V/III ratio was favorable for lateral growth mode. Crack-free planar AlGaN was obtained under low pressure of 30 Torr and high V/III ratio of 4400. The AlGaN was crack-free over entire 2-in. wafer and had quite uniform Al-mole fraction. The dislocation density of the AlGaN with 20% Al-composition was as low as ~7.6×108 /cm2, measured by cathodoluminescence. GaN/AlGaN multi-quantum well (MQW) with cladding and waveguide layers were grown on the crack-free AlGaN template with low dislocation density. It was confirmed that the MQW on the AlGaN template emitted the stimulated emission at 355.5 nm through optical pumping experiment. The AlGaN obtained by 2-step SAG would provide high crystal quality for highly-efficient optoelectronic devices as well as the ultraviolet laser diode.

  4. Mixing Layer Excitation by Dielectric Barrier Discharge Plasma Actuators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ely, Richard; Little, Jesse

    2012-11-01

    The response of a mixing layer with velocity ratio 0.28 to perturbations near the high-speed side (U2=11 m/s, ReL = 0.26 × 106) of its origin from dielectric barrier discharge plasma actuators is studied experimentally. Both alternating current (ac) and nanosecond (ns) pulse driven plasma are investigated in an effort to clarify the mechanisms associated with each technique as well as the more general physics associated with flow control via momentum-based versus thermal actuation. Ac-DBD plasma actuators, which function through electrohydrodynamic effects, are found to generate an increase in mixing layer momentum thickness that is strongly dependent on forcing frequency. Results are qualitatively similar to previous archival literature on the topic employing oscillating flaps. Ns-DBD plasma, which is believed to function through thermal effects, has no measureable influence on the mixing layer profile at similar forcing conditions. In the context of previous archival literature, these results suggest different physical mechanisms govern active control via ac- and ns-DBD plasma actuation and more generally, momentum versus thermal perturbations. Further investigation of these phenomena will be provided through variation of the boundary/mixing layer properties and forcing parameters in the context of spatially and temporally resolved experimental data. Supported by: AFOSR and Raytheon Missile Systems.

  5. Role of barrier layer on dielectric function of graphene double layer system at finite temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patel, Digish K.; Ambavale, Sagar K.; Prajapati, Ketan; Sharma, A. C.

    2016-05-01

    We have theoretically investigated the static dielectric function of graphene double layer system (GDLS) at finite temperatures within the random phase approximation. GDLS has been suspended on a substrate and barrier layer of three different materials; h-BN, Al2O3 and HfO2 has been introduced between two graphene sheets of GDLS. We have reported dependence of the overall dielectric function of GDLS on interlayer distance and the effect of the dielectric environment at finite temperatures. Results show close relation between changing environment and behavior of dielectric constant of GDLS.

  6. Barrier layer for a MCrAlY basecoat superalloy combination

    DOEpatents

    Sabol, Stephen M.; Goedjen, John G.; Vance, Steven J.

    2001-01-01

    A turbine component contains a substrate (22) such as a superalloy, a basecoat (24) of the type MCrAlY, and a continuous barrier layer (28) between the substrate and basecoat, where the barrier layer (28) is made of an alloy of (Re, Ta, Ru, Os)X, where X can be Ni, Co or their mixture, where the barrier layer is at least 2 micrometers thick and substantially prevents materials from both the basecoat and substrate from migrating through it.

  7. Predominant growth of non-polar a-plane (Al,Ga)N on patterned c-plane sapphire by hydride vapor phase epitaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mogilatenko, A.; Hagedorn, S.; Richter, E.; Zeimer, U.; Goran, D.; Weyers, M.; Tränkle, G.

    2013-03-01

    We report for the first time on predominant growth of non-polar a-plane (Al,Ga)N layers on patterned c-plane AlN/sapphire templates with ridges oriented along the [11¯00]Al2O3 direction. The layers were grown by hydride vapor phase epitaxy. During the first stages of the growth (Al,Ga)N nucleates simultaneously on top of the ridges, inside the trenches and on the trench sidewalls. As a result, two different (Al,Ga)N orientations are formed with respect to the horizontal growth front: c-plane (Al,Ga)N on the c-plane ridges as well as inside the trenches and a-plane (Al,Ga)N on the trench sidewalls. The growth rate of a-plane (Al,Ga)N exceeds that of c-plane regions, which leads to the complete overgrowth of c-plane (Al,Ga)N by the a-plane oriented material.

  8. Effect of an Opaque Reflecting Layer on the Thermal Behavior of a Thermal Barrier Coating

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spuckler, Charles M.

    2007-01-01

    A parametric study using a two-flux approximation of the radiative transfer equation was performed to examine the effects of an opaque reflective layer on the thermal behavior of a typical semitransparent thermal barrier coating on an opaque substrate. Some ceramic materials are semitransparent in the wavelength ranges where thermal radiation is important. Even with an opaque layer on each side of the semitransparent thermal barrier coating, scattering and absorption can have an effect on the heat transfer. In this work, a thermal barrier coating that is semitransparent up to a wavelength of 5 micrometers is considered. Above 5 micrometers wavelength, the thermal barrier coating is opaque. The absorption and scattering coefficient of the thermal barrier was varied. The thermal behavior of the thermal barrier coating with an opaque reflective layer is compared to a thermal barrier coating without the reflective layer. For a thicker thermal barrier coating with lower convective loading, which would be typical of a combustor liner, a reflective layer can significantly decrease the temperature in the thermal barrier coating and substrate if the scattering is weak or moderate and for strong scattering if the absorption is large. The layer without the reflective coating can be about as effective as the layer with the reflective coating if the absorption is small and the scattering strong. For low absorption, some temperatures in the thermal barrier coating system can be slightly higher with the reflective layer. For a thin thermal barrier coating with high convective loading, which would be typical of a blade or vane that sees the hot sections of the combustor, the reflective layer is not as effective. The reflective layer reduces the surface temperature of the reflective layer for all conditions considered. For weak and moderate scattering, the temperature of the TBC-substrate interface is reduced but for strong scattering, the temperature of the substrate is increased

  9. Advantages of the AlGaN spacer in InAlN high-electron-mobility transistors grown using metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamada, Atsushi; Ishiguro, Tetsuro; Kotani, Junji; Tomabechi, Shuichi; Nakamura, Norikazu; Watanabe, Keiji

    2016-05-01

    We demonstrate the advantages of an AlGaN spacer layer in an InAlN high-electron-mobility transistor (HEMT). We investigated the effects of the growth parameters of the spacer layer on electron mobility in InAlN HEMTs grown by metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy, focusing on the surface roughness of the spacer layer and sharpness of the interface with the GaN channel layer. The electron mobility degraded, as evidenced by the formation of a graded AlGaN layer at the top of the GaN channel layer and the surface roughness of the AlN spacer layer. We believe that the short migration length of aluminum atoms is responsible for the observed degradation. An AlGaN spacer layer was employed to suppress the formation of the graded AlGaN layer and improve surface morphology. A high electron mobility of 1550 cm2 V‑1 s‑1 and a low sheet resistance of 211 Ω/sq were achieved for an InAlN HEMT with an AlGaN spacer layer.

  10. Low-Temperature Plasma-Assisted Atomic Layer Deposition of Silicon Nitride Moisture Permeation Barrier Layers.

    PubMed

    Andringa, Anne-Marije; Perrotta, Alberto; de Peuter, Koen; Knoops, Harm C M; Kessels, Wilhelmus M M; Creatore, Mariadriana

    2015-10-14

    Encapsulation of organic (opto-)electronic devices, such as organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs), photovoltaic cells, and field-effect transistors, is required to minimize device degradation induced by moisture and oxygen ingress. SiNx moisture permeation barriers have been fabricated using a very recently developed low-temperature plasma-assisted atomic layer deposition (ALD) approach, consisting of half-reactions of the substrate with the precursor SiH2(NH(t)Bu)2 and with N2-fed plasma. The deposited films have been characterized in terms of their refractive index and chemical composition by spectroscopic ellipsometry (SE), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The SiNx thin-film refractive index ranges from 1.80 to 1.90 for films deposited at 80 °C up to 200 °C, respectively, and the C, O, and H impurity levels decrease when the deposition temperature increases. The relative open porosity content of the layers has been studied by means of multisolvent ellipsometric porosimetry (EP), adopting three solvents with different kinetic diameters: water (∼0.3 nm), ethanol (∼0.4 nm), and toluene (∼0.6 nm). Irrespective of the deposition temperature, and hence the impurity content in the SiNx films, no uptake of any adsorptive has been observed, pointing to the absence of open pores larger than 0.3 nm in diameter. Instead, multilayer development has been observed, leading to type II isotherms that, according to the IUPAC classification, are characteristic of nonporous layers. The calcium test has been performed in a climate chamber at 20 °C and 50% relative humidity to determine the intrinsic water vapor transmission rate (WVTR) of SiNx barriers deposited at 120 °C. Intrinsic WVTR values in the range of 10(-6) g/m2/day indicate excellent barrier properties for ALD SiNx layers as thin as 10 nm, competing with that of state-of-the-art plasma-enhanced chemical vapor-deposited SiNx layers of a few hundred

  11. The generation of misfit dislocations in facet-controlled growth of AlGaN /GaN films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cherns, D.; Sahonta, S.-L.; Liu, R.; Ponce, F. A.; Amano, H.; Akasaki, I.

    2004-11-01

    The relaxation of tensile stresses in AlGaN layers grown on GaN /(0001)sapphire by facet-controlled epitaxial lateral overgrowth is reported. It is shown that a-type misfit dislocations are introduced at inclined {112¯2} AlGaN /GaN interfaces, with strong evidence for a half-loop nucleation and glide mechanism driven by shear stresses present on the (0001) slip plane. In addition to relieving misfit stresses, these dislocations introduce grain rotations of up to 10-2rad across the AlGaN /GaN boundaries, leading to tilt boundaries at the meeting front between laterally growing wings and between regions growing in the lateral and [0001] directions. The effects of these processes on the defect density in subsequent layers are examined.

  12. Radiation Hard AlGaN Detectors and Imager

    SciTech Connect

    2012-05-01

    Radiation hardness of AlGaN photodiodes was tested using a 65 MeV proton beam with a total proton fluence of 3x10{sup 12} protons/cm{sup 2}. AlGaN Deep UV Photodiode have extremely high radiation hardness. These new devices have mission critical applications in high energy density physics (HEDP) and space explorations. These new devices satisfy radiation hardness requirements by NIF. NSTec is developing next generation AlGaN optoelectronics and imagers.

  13. Recent Advances in Gas Barrier Thin Films via Layer-by-Layer Assembly of Polymers and Platelets.

    PubMed

    Priolo, Morgan A; Holder, Kevin M; Guin, Tyler; Grunlan, Jaime C

    2015-05-01

    Layer-by-layer (LbL) assembly has emerged as the leading non-vacuum technology for the fabrication of transparent, super gas barrier films. The super gas barrier performance of LbL deposited films has been demonstrated in numerous studies, with a variety of polyelectrolytes, to rival that of metal and metal oxide-based barrier films. This Feature Article is a mini-review of LbL-based multilayer thin films with a 'nanobrick wall' microstructure comprising polymeric mortar and nano-platelet bricks that impart high gas barrier to otherwise permeable polymer substrates. These transparent, water-based thin films exhibit oxygen transmission rates below 5 × 10(-3) cm(3) m(-2) day(-1) atm(-1) and lower permeability than any other barrier material reported. In an effort to put this technology in the proper context, incumbent technologies such as metallized plastics, metal oxides, and flake-filled polymers are briefly reviewed. PMID:25800245

  14. Low resistance barrier layer for isolating, adhering, and passivating copper metal in semiconductor fabrication

    DOEpatents

    Weihs, Timothy P.; Barbee, Jr., Troy W.

    2002-01-01

    Cubic or metastable cubic refractory metal carbides act as barrier layers to isolate, adhere, and passivate copper in semiconductor fabrication. One or more barrier layers of the metal carbide are deposited in conjunction with copper metallizations to form a multilayer characterized by a cubic crystal structure with a strong (100) texture. Suitable barrier layer materials include refractory transition metal carbides such as vanadium carbide (VC), niobium carbide (NbC), tantalum carbide (TaC), chromium carbide (Cr.sub.3 C.sub.2), tungsten carbide (WC), and molybdenum carbide (MoC).

  15. Influence of substrate miscut angle on surface morphology and luminescence properties of AlGaN

    SciTech Connect

    Kusch, Gunnar Edwards, Paul R.; Bruckbauer, Jochen; Martin, Robert W.; Li, Haoning; Parbrook, Peter J.; Sadler, Thomas C.

    2014-03-03

    The influence of substrate miscut on Al{sub 0.5}Ga{sub 0.5} N layers was investigated using cathodoluminescence (CL) hyperspectral imaging and secondary electron imaging in an environmental scanning electron microscope. The samples were also characterized using atomic force microscopy and high resolution X-ray diffraction. It was found that small changes in substrate miscut have a strong influence on the morphology and luminescence properties of the AlGaN layers. Two different types are resolved. For low miscut angle, a crack-free morphology consisting of randomly sized domains is observed, between which there are notable shifts in the AlGaN near band edge emission energy. For high miscut angle, a morphology with step bunches and compositional inhomogeneities along the step bunches, evidenced by an additional CL peak along the step bunches, are observed.

  16. Tailoring of polarization in electron blocking layer for electron confinement and hole injection in ultraviolet light-emitting diodes

    SciTech Connect

    Lu, Yu-Hsuan; Pilkuhn, Manfred H.; Fu, Yi-Keng; Chu, Mu-Tao; Huang, Shyh-Jer E-mail: totaljer48@gmail.com; Su, Yan-Kuin E-mail: totaljer48@gmail.com; Wang, Kang L.

    2014-03-21

    The influence of the AlGaN electron blocking layer (EBL) with graded aluminum composition on electron confinement and hole injection in AlGaN-based ultraviolet light-emitting diodes (LEDs) are investigated. The light output power of LED with graded AlGaN EBL was markedly improved, comparing to LED with conventional EBL. In experimental results, a high increment of 86.7% can be obtained in light output power. Simulation analysis shows that via proper modification of the barrier profile from the last barrier of the active region to EBL, not only the elimination of electron overflow to p-type layer can be achieved but also the hole injection into the active region can be enhanced, compared to a conventional LED structure. The dominant factor to the performance improvement is shown to be the modulation of polarization field by the graded Al composition in EBL.

  17. Group-III nitride based high electron mobility transistor (HEMT) with barrier/spacer layer

    DOEpatents

    Chavarkar, Prashant; Smorchkova, Ioulia P.; Keller, Stacia; Mishra, Umesh; Walukiewicz, Wladyslaw; Wu, Yifeng

    2005-02-01

    A Group III nitride based high electron mobility transistors (HEMT) is disclosed that provides improved high frequency performance. One embodiment of the HEMT comprises a GaN buffer layer, with an Al.sub.y Ga.sub.1-y N (y=1 or y 1) layer on the GaN buffer layer. An Al.sub.x Ga.sub.1-x N (0.ltoreq.x.ltoreq.0.5) barrier layer on to the Al.sub.y Ga.sub.1-y N layer, opposite the GaN buffer layer, Al.sub.y Ga.sub.1-y N layer having a higher Al concentration than that of the Al.sub.x Ga.sub.1-x N barrier layer. A preferred Al.sub.y Ga.sub.1-y N layer has y=1 or y.about.1 and a preferred Al.sub.x Ga.sub.1-x N barrier layer has 0.ltoreq.x.ltoreq.0.5. A 2DEG forms at the interface between the GaN buffer layer and the Al.sub.y Ga.sub.1-y N layer. Respective source, drain and gate contacts are formed on the Al.sub.x Ga.sub.1-x N barrier layer. The HEMT can also comprising a substrate adjacent to the buffer layer, opposite the Al.sub.y Ga.sub.1-y N layer and a nucleation layer between the Al.sub.x Ga.sub.1-x N buffer layer and the substrate.

  18. Silicon based substrate with calcium aluminosilicate environmental/thermal barrier layer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eaton, Jr., Harry Edwin (Inventor); Allen, William Patrick (Inventor); Miller, Robert Alden (Inventor); Jacobson, Nathan S. (Inventor); Smialek, James L. (Inventor); Opila, Elizabeth J. (Inventor); Lee, Kang N. (Inventor); Nagaraj, Bangalore A. (Inventor); Wang, Hongyu (Inventor); Meschter, Peter Joel (Inventor)

    2001-01-01

    A barrier layer for a silicon containing substrate which inhibits the formation of gaseous species of silicon when exposed to a high temperature aqueous environment comprises a calcium alumino silicate.

  19. Preparation and characterization of TiO2 barrier layers for dye-sensitized solar cells.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Yichen; Klankowski, Steven; Yang, Yiqun; Li, Jun

    2014-07-01

    A TiO2 barrier layer is critical in enhancing the performance of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). Two methods to prepare the TiO2 barrier layer on fluorine-doped tin dioxide (FTO) surface were systematically studied in order to minimize electron-hole recombination and electron backflow during photovoltaic processes of DSSCs. The film structure and materials properties were correlated with the photovoltaic characteristics and electrochemical properties. In the first approach, a porous TiO2 layer was deposited by wet chemical treatment of the sample with TiCl4 solution for time periods varying from 0 to 60 min. The N719 dye molecules were found to be able to insert into the porous barrier layers. The 20 min treatment formed a nonuniform but intact TiO2 layer of ∼100-300 nm in thickness, which gave the highest open-circuit voltage VOC, short-circuit photocurrent density JSC, and energy conversion efficiency. But thicker TiO2 barrier layers by this method caused a decrease in JSC, possibly limited by lower electrical conductance. In the second approach, a compact TiO2 barrier layer was created by sputter-coating 0-15 nm Ti metal films on FTO/glass and then oxidizing them into TiO2 with thermal treatment at 500 °C in the air for 30 min. The dye molecules were found to only attach at the outer surface of the barrier layer and slightly increased with the layer thickness. These two kinds of barrier layer showed different characteristics and may be tailored for different DSSC studies. PMID:24927111

  20. Wavevector filtering through single-layer and bilayer graphene with magnetic barrier structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masir, M. Ramezani; Vasilopoulos, P.; Peeters, F. M.

    2008-12-01

    We show that the angular range of the transmission through magnetic barrier structures can be efficiently controlled in single-layer and bilayer graphenes and this renders the structure's efficient wavevector filters. As the number of magnetic barriers increases, this range shrinks, the gaps in the transmission versus energy become wider, and the conductance oscillates with the Fermi energy.

  1. Functional barrier in two-layer recycled PP films for food packaging applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scarfato, P.; Di Maio, L.; Milana, M. R.; Feliciani, R.; Denaro, M.; Incarnato, L.

    2014-05-01

    A preliminary study on bi-layer virgin/contaminated polypropylene co-extruded films was performed in order to evaluate the possibility to realize an effective functional barrier in PP-based multi-layer systems. In particular, the specific migration in 10% v/v aqueous ethanol of two surrogate contaminants (phenyl-cyclohexane and benzophenone) contained in the contaminated layer across the PP functional barrier was measured at different times and the results were compared with those obtained from a contaminated mono-layer polypropylene film. Moreover, the thermal and mechanical performances of the produced films were investigated.

  2. Co-Rolled U10Mo/Zirconium-Barrier-Layer Monolithic Fuel Foil Fabrication Process

    SciTech Connect

    G. A. Moore; M. C. Marshall

    2010-01-01

    Integral to the current UMo fuel foil processing scheme being developed at Idaho National Laboratory (INL) is the incorporation of a zirconium barrier layer for the purpose of controlling UMo-Al interdiffusion at the fuel-meat/cladding interface. A hot “co-rolling” process is employed to establish a ~25-µm-thick zirconium barrier layer on each face of the ~0.3-mm-thick U10Mo fuel foil.

  3. Improvement of Electrical Properties of Silicon Quantum Dot Superlattice Solar Cells with Diffusion Barrier Layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamada, Shigeru; Kurokawa, Yasuyoshi; Miyajima, Shinsuke; Konagai, Makoto

    2013-04-01

    We investigate the effects of a niobium-doped titanium dioxide (TiO2:Nb) diffusion barrier layer on the performance of silicon quantum dot superlattice (Si-QDSL) solar cells. The insertion of a 2-nm-thick TiO2:Nb layer significantly reduces phosphorus diffusion from a highly doped n-type layer into a Si-QDSL layer during thermal annealing at 900 °C. The phosphorous concentration in the Si-QDSL layer of the solar cell with the TiO2:Nb diffusion barrier layer was found to be less than 1018 cm-3, which is approximately two orders of magnitude lower than that of the solar cell without the diffusion barrier layer. The reduction in phosphorous concentration leads to the improvement of photo-generated carrier collection in the Si-QDSL layer. The short circuit current density of the solar cell with the diffusion barrier layer was dramatically improved to 1.6 mA/cm2 without the degradation of open circuit voltage and fill factor.

  4. A novel hybrid inorganic-organic single layer barrier for organic light-emitting diodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mandlik, Prashant

    Organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) suffer rapid degradation upon exposure to moisture or oxygen and require a permeation barrier to extend their lifetime. The goal of this project was to prepare an ultra-hermetic encapsulation barrier for OLEDs that can be prepared by a simple, environmentally friendly process. The approach was to employ plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PE-CVD) of hexamethyl disiloxane (HMDSO, a non-toxic and inexpensive organo-siloxane) and O2, to grow thin SiO2-like barrier films directly on OLEDs. The encapsulation barrier discovered during the project is a flexible, homogeneous, single-layer barrier film grown in a single PE-CVD chamber. The barrier material is a single-phase hybrid with part-inorganic and part-polymeric character. The OLEDs coated with this barrier film were stored at 65°C in 85% relative humidity, an accelerated environmental test. These OLEDs keep functioning after more than one year of accelerated storage tests, surpassing any existing encapsulation barrier including the glass plate encapsulation. Barrier film when deposited on a steel foil substrate can be flexed between 1-2% tensile strains. Infrared absorption, wetting contact angle of water, indentation hardness, Young's modulus, and atomic force micrographs reflect the barrier as a homogeneous SiO2-like film with residual silicone character. The permeation through the bulk of the barrier film is so slow that it exposes two secondary modes of moisture permeation. A relatively rapid degradation associated with particulate inclusions in the barrier, and the very slow degradation caused by permeation along barrier-substrate interfaces. Even though it is prepared by a simple and inexpensive process, this film has shown superior barrier performance than multilayer barrier (alternate inorganic-polymeric films), the current encapsulation technology, which requires a complicated and costly process.

  5. Relaxation of compressively strained AlGaN by inclined threading dislocations.

    SciTech Connect

    Follstaedt, David Martin; Lee, Stephen Roger; Crawford, Mary Hagerott; Provencio, Paula Polyak; Allerman, Andrew Alan; Floro, Jerrold Anthony

    2005-06-01

    Transmission electron microscopy and x-ray diffraction were used to assess the microstructure and strain of Al{sub x}Ga{sub 1?x}N(x = 0.61-0.64) layers grown on AlN. The compressively-strained AlGaN is partially relaxed by inclined threading dislocations, similar to observations on Si-doped AlGaN by P. Cantu, F. Wu, P. Waltereit, S. Keller, A. E. Romanov, U. K. Mishra, S. P. DenBaars, and J. S. Speck [Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 674 (2003) ]; however, in our material, the dislocations bend before the introduction of any Si. The bending may be initiated by the greater lattice mismatch or the lower dislocation density of our material, but the presence of Si is not necessarily required. The relaxation by inclined dislocations is quantitatively accounted for with the model of A. E. Romanov and J. S. Speck [Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 2569 (2003)], and we demonstrate the predicted linear dependence of relaxation on layer thickness. Notably, such relaxation was not found in tensile strained AlGaN grown on GaN [J. A. Floro, D. M. Follstaedt, P. Provencio, S. J. Hearne, and S. R. Lee, J. Appl. Phys. 96, 7087 (2004)], even though the same mechanism appears applicable.

  6. Deviations from Electroneutrality in Membrane Barrier Layers: A Possible Mechanism Underlying High Salt Rejections.

    PubMed

    Yaroshchuk, Andriy; Zhu, Yan; Bondarenko, Mykola; Bruening, Merlin L

    2016-03-22

    Reverse osmosis and nanofiltration (NF) employ composite membranes whose ultrathin barrier layers are significantly more permeable to water than to salts. Although solution-diffusion models of salt transport through barrier layers typically assume ubiquitous electroneutrality, in the case of ultrathin selective skins and low ion partition coefficients, space-charge regions may occupy a significant fraction of the membrane barrier layer. This work investigates the implications of these deviations from electroneutrality on salt transport. Both immobile external surface charge and unequal cation and anion solvation energies in the barrier layer lead to regions with excess mobile charge, and the size of these regions increases with decreasing values of either feed concentrations or ion partition coefficients. Moreover, the low concentration of the more excluded ion in the space-charge region can greatly increase resistance to salt transport to enhance salt rejection during NF. These effects are especially pronounced for membranes with a fixed external surface charge density whose sign is the same as that of the more excluded ion in a salt. Because of the space-charge regions, the barrier-layer resistance to salt transport initially rises rapidly with increasing barrier thickness and then plateaus or even declines within a certain thickness range. This trend in resistance implies that thin, defect-free barrier layers will exhibit higher salt rejections than thicker layers during NF at a fixed transmembrane pressure. Deviations from electroneutrality are consistent with both changes in NF salt rejections that occur upon changing the sign of the membrane fixed external surface charge, and CaCl2 rejections that in some cases may first decrease, then increase and then decrease again with increasing CaCl2 concentrations in NF feed solutions. PMID:26894470

  7. Schottky barriers based on metal nanoparticles deposited on InP epitaxial layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grym, Jan; Yatskiv, Roman

    2013-04-01

    Fabrication of high-quality Schottky barriers on InP epitaxial layers prepared by liquid-phase epitaxy from rare-earth treated melts is reported. The Schottky structures are based on metal nanoparticles and a graphite layer deposited from colloidal solutions onto epitaxial layers with varying carrier concentration. The structures have notably high values of the barrier height and of the rectification ratio giving evidence of a small degree of the Fermi-level pinning. Electrical characteristics of these diodes are shown to be extremely sensitive to the exposure of gas mixtures with small hydrogen content.

  8. Porous thin film barrier layers from 2,3-dicarboxylic acid cellulose nanofibrils for membrane structures.

    PubMed

    Visanko, Miikka; Liimatainen, Henrikki; Sirviö, Juho Antti; Haapala, Antti; Sliz, Rafal; Niinimäki, Jouko; Hormi, Osmo

    2014-02-15

    To fabricate a strong hydrophilic barrier layer for ultrafiltration (UF) membranes, 2,3-dicarboxylic acid cellulose nanofibrils with high anionic surface charge density (1.2 mekv/g at pH 7) and a width of 22 ± 4 nm were used. A simple vacuum filtration method combined with a solvent exchange procedure resulted in a porous layer with a thickness of ∼ 0.85 μm. The fabricated membranes reached high rejection efficiencies (74-80%) when aqueous dextrans up to 35-45 kDa were filtrated to evaluate the molecular weight cut-offs (MWCO). A linear correlation between the barrier layer thickness and the flux rate was observed in all tested cases. Further optimization of the barrier layer thickness can lead to an even more effective structure. PMID:24507322

  9. Ultrathin cobalt-alloyed barrier layers for copper metallization by a new seeding and electroless-deposition process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Sung-Te; Liu, Yuan-Yu; Chen, Giin-Shan

    2015-11-01

    Pioneering activation-seeding processes grow catalytic particles with sizes exceeding 10 nm due to agglomeration, and thus are unable to act as a template for electroless deposition of a barrier layer with a thickness of 10 nm or less, which is desperately needed for the incoming ULSI copper interconnecting technology. In this work, the capacity of a seeding process to grow a continuous Co-P barrier layer of 8-nm thickness on thermally oxidized SiO2 layers using electroless deposition will be demonstrated. The Co-P barrier layer works effectively in retarding (a) Cu agglomeration and (b) Cu diffusion into the dielectric layer subjected to thermal annealing. Evidently, thermal stability of the Cu film on SiO2 is markedly strengthened by interposing the 8-nm-thick barrier layer. The mechanism of the interposed barrier layer in enhancing thermal stability of the metallization layer is currently under investigation.

  10. Two-layer thermal barrier coating for turbine airfoils - furnace and burner rig test results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stecura, S.

    1976-01-01

    A simple, two-layer plasma-sprayed thermal barrier coating system was developed which has the potential for protecting high temperature air-cooled gas turbine components. Of those coatings initially examined, the most promising system consisted of a Ni-16Cr-6Al-0.6Y (in wt%) thermal barrier coating (about 0.005 to 0.010 cm thick) and a ZrO2-12Y2O3 (in wt%) thermal barrier coating (about 0.025 to 0.064 cm thick). This thermal barrier substantially lowered the metal temperature of an air-cooled airfoil. The coating withstood 3,200 cycles (80 sec at 1,280 C surface temperature) and 275 cycles (1 hr at 1,490 C surface temperature) without cracking or spalling. No separation of the thermal barrier from the bond coating or the bond coating from the substrate was observed.

  11. Improvement in Device Performances of InP-Based HEMTs by Thinning a Barrier Layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hara, Naoki; Takahashi, Tsuyoshi; Makiyama, Kozo; Ohki, Tosihiro

    The dependences of source resistance, Rs, transconductance, gm, gate capacitance, Cgs, Cgd, and cutoff frequency, fT, of InP-based HEMTs on an InAlAs barrier layer thickness, d, were investigated. We divided Rs into 4 elements and analyzed the effect of thinning a barrier layer. The resistance originated from the large band discontinuity between InAlAs and InGaAs decreased by thinning a barrier layer, while the resistance in the gate-recessed region increased. As a result, InP-based HEMT with d=10 nm showed lowest Rs. On the other hand, gm increased monotonically with d, due to the reduction of the gate to channel distance, and gmint reached to 2.6 S/mm at d=5 nm. We also estimated fT by using small-signal measurements. fT increased with the reduction of d, which results in the improvement in noise characteristics.

  12. Low-Cost Protective Layer Coatings on Thermal Barrier Coatings via CCVD. Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Hendrick, Michelle

    2003-09-18

    MicroCoating Technologies, Inc., investigated the use of the Combustion Chemical Vapor Deposition (CCVD) process to deposit oxygen or sintering barrier coatings for thermal barrier coating (TBC) applications. In addition, it looked at the use of its nanopowders by the NanoSpray process for developing smoothing layers on TBCs. Testing and analysis of coated substrates included heat treatments, scanning electron microscopy, x-ray diffraction and profilometry. Coatings on TBC-coated superalloy coupons were tested by an outside collaborator. Results from the investigations indicated that the thin film coatings were not well-suited as barrier layers on the rough bond coat or TBC. Subsequent investigations considered smoothing layers on the TBC, as suggested by the collaborator, using nanopowder-based coatings. Smoothing of substrate surfaces by 50% was observed by profilometry.

  13. Confinement of electromigration induced void propagation in Cu interconnect by a buried Ta diffusion barrier layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, M. Y.; Tu, K. N.; Vairagar, A. V.; Mhaisalkar, S. G.; Krishnamoorthy, Ahila

    2005-12-01

    Direct observation, by means of in situ scanning electron microscopy, of void heterogeneous nucleation and migration controlled electromigration failure mechanism in Cu dual damascene interconnect structures has been recently reported [A. V. Vairagar, S. G. Mhaisalkar, A. Krishnamoorthy, K. N. Tu, A. M. Gusak, M. A. Meyer, and E. Zschech, Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 2502 (2004)] In the present study, a dual damascene structure with an additional 25nm Ta diffusion barrier embedded into the upper Cu layer was fabricated. This thin layer of diffusion barrier blocked voids from propagating into the via, thus eliminating the previously reported failure mechanism. With this structure, a lifetime improvement of at least 40 times was achieved. Analysis on failed samples suggested that failures in samples with the embedded Ta barrier layer occurred at the bottom of the via, which were caused by void migration along the bottom of the Cu lines.

  14. Radiation damage resistance of AlGaN detectors for applications in the extreme-ultraviolet spectral range

    SciTech Connect

    Barkusky, Frank; Peth, Christian; Bayer, Armin; Mann, Klaus; John, Joachim; Malinowski, Pawel E.

    2009-09-15

    We report on the fabrication of aluminum gallium nitride (AlGaN) Schottky-photodiode-based detectors. AlGaN layers were grown using metal-organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) on Si(111) wafers. The diodes were characterized at a wavelength of 13.5 nm using a table-top extreme-ultraviolet (EUV) radiation source, consisting of a laser-produced xenon plasma and a Schwarzschild objective. The responsivity of the diodes was tested between EUV energies ranging from 320 nJ down to several picojoules. For low fluences, a linear responsivity of 7.14 mAs/J could be determined. Saturation starts at approximately 1 nJ, merging into a linear response of 0.113 mAs/J, which could be attributed to the photoeffect on the Au electrodes on top of the diode. Furthermore, degradation tests were performed up to an absolute dose of 3.3x10{sup 19} photons/cm{sup 2}. AlGaN photodiodes were compared to commercially available silicon-based photodetectors. For AlGaN diodes, responsivity does not change even for the highest EUV dose, whereas the response of the Si diode decreases linearly to {approx}93% after 2x10{sup 19} photons/cm{sup 2}.

  15. Investigation of Diffusion Barrier Layers for Bi-Doped Mg2(Si,Ge) Thermoelectric Legs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prahoveanu, Codrin; Laversenne, Laetitia; de Vaulx, Cédric; Bès, Alexandre; Azzouz, Kamel; Lacoste, Ana

    2016-08-01

    The performance of thermoelectric (TE) modules is governed not only by the thermoelectric materials whose properties are capitalized, but also on the quality of the electrical contacts which are ubiquitous in the design of the device. To ensure the necessary stability of the interfaces between the TE materials and the electrodes, diffusion barriers are generally used. In this study, attempts are presented in finding diffusion barriers that would be suitable for Mg2(Si,Ge) TE materials. These involved the deposition by microwave plasma-assisted co-sputtering of intermediate gradient layers starting from Mg and Si, ending up with a Ni layer, or the deposition of metallic layers (Ti, Cr, W and Ta). The effectiveness of the deposited layers as diffusion barriers is assessed after the legs were subjected to a brazing process, with the results favoring the use of gradient layers with a thick Ni layer and metallic layers based on Ta and Cr, despite some adherence issues for the latter.

  16. As-Al recoil implantation through Si 3N 4 barrier layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Godignon, P.; Morvan, E.; Montserrat, J.; Jordà, X.; Flores, D.; Rebollo, J.

    1999-01-01

    Al recoil implantation have been shown to be a possible alternative to direct Al ion implantation to avoid usual problems linked with Al sources. Poor efficiency of the recoil + annealing process is observed if no barrier or an oxyde screen layers are used. This problem can be solved using a Si 3N 4 screen layer. Then, P-N and N +/P/N structures can be obtained with deep low doped P-well with reduced thermal budget.

  17. High-flux Thin-film Nanofibrous Composite Ultrafiltration Membranes Containing Cellulose Barrier Layer

    SciTech Connect

    Ma, H.; Yoon, K; Rong, L; Mao, Y; Mo, Z; Fang, D; Hollander, Z; Gaiteri, J; Hsiao , B; Chu, B

    2010-01-01

    A novel class of thin-film nanofibrous composite (TFNC) membrane consisting of a cellulose barrier layer, a nanofibrous mid-layer scaffold, and a melt-blown non-woven substrate was successfully fabricated and tested as an ultrafiltration (UF) filter to separate an emulsified oil and water mixture, a model bilge water for on-board ship bilge water purification. Two ionic liquids: 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride and 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate, were chosen as the solvent to dissolve cellulose under mild conditions. The regenerated cellulose barrier layer exhibited less crystallinity (determined by wide-angle X-ray diffraction, WAXD) than the original cotton linter pulps, but good thermal stability (determined by thermal gravimetric analysis, TGA). The morphology, water permeation, and mechanical stability of the chosen TFNCmembranes were thoroughly investigated. The results indicated that the polyacrylonitrile (PAN) nanofibrous scaffold was partially imbedded in the cellulose barrier layer, which enhanced the mechanical strength of the top barrier layer. The permeation flux of the cellulose-based TFNCmembrane was significantly higher (e.g. 10x) than comparable commercial UFmembranes (PAN10 and PAN400, Sepro) with similar rejection ratios for separation of oil/water emulsions. The molecular weight cut-off (MWCO) of TFNC membranes with cellulose barrier layer was evaluated using dextran feed solutions. The rejection was found to be higher than 90% with a dextran molecular weight of 2000 KDa, implying that the nominal pore size of the membrane was less than 50 nm. High permeation flux was also observed in the filtration of an emulsified oil/water mixture as well as of a sodium alginate aqueous solution, while high rejection ratio (above 99.5%) was maintained after prolonged operation. A variation of the barrier layer thickness could dramatically affect the permeation flux and the rejection ratio of the TFNCmembranes, while different sources of cellulose

  18. Tunable green oxygen barrier through layer-by-layer self-assembly of chitosan and cellulose nanocrystals.

    PubMed

    Li, Fei; Biagioni, Paolo; Finazzi, Marco; Tavazzi, Silvia; Piergiovanni, Luciano

    2013-02-15

    We address the oxygen-barrier properties of a nanocomposite created by layer-by-layer assembly of two biopolymers, chitosan (CS) and cellulose, in nanocrystals form (CNs), on an amorphous PET substrate. We systematically investigated the oxygen permeability, morphology, and thickness of the nanocomposite grown under two different pH combinations and with different number of deposition cycles, up to 30 bilayers. Noticeably, the thickness of each deposited bilayer can be largely tuned by the pH value of the solution, from ~7 up to ~26 nm in the tested conditions. By our analysis, it is reliably concluded that such CS/CNs nanocomposite holds promises for gas barrier applications in food and drug packaging as a clear coating on plastic films and tridimensional objects, improving performance and sustainability of the final packages. PMID:23399267

  19. Effect of nickel-rich barrier layer on improvement of hot-dip zinc coating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shibli, S. M. A.; Manu, R.; Dilimon, V. S.

    2005-05-01

    Performances of hot-dip galvanized coatings not only depend on composition of the bath or the coating but significantly on the structure too. Nickel has been reported to have significant role in the improvement of the process but there is lack of sufficient reported detailed evidences. As it has already been reported that a nickel-rich barrier layer is formed during galvanization, and that the layer efficiently suppresses pitting, the present study focuses on investigating the role of nickel on the performance of hot-dip zinc coating. The structural influence due to the presence of nickel in galvanized substrates is discussed in this paper. Influence of nickel-rich barrier layer is identified as the cause for substantial improvement of the coating performance. Nickel content in the galvanic coating was analyzed layer-by-layer. Different techniques like OCP measurement and anodic polarizations were adopted to investigate and study the correlation between the structural change and the galvanic performance of the coating. The formation of nickel-rich barrier inner layer has a key role in improving the galvanic performance of the coating.

  20. Transparent conductive gas-permeation barriers on plastics by atomic layer deposition.

    PubMed

    Chou, Chun-Ting; Yu, Pei-Wei; Tseng, Ming-Hung; Hsu, Che-Chen; Shyue, Jing-Jong; Wang, Ching-Chiun; Tsai, Feng-Yu

    2013-03-25

    A mixed-deposition atomic layer deposition process produces Hf:ZnO films with uniform dopant distribution and high electrical conductivity (resistivity = 4.5 × 10(-4) W cm), optical transparency (>85% from 400-1800 nm), and moisture-barrier property (water vapor transmission rate = 6.3 × 10(-6) g m(-2) day(-1)). PMID:23386315

  1. Significance of thermal contact resistance in two-layer, thermal-barrier-coated turbine vanes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liebert, C. H.; Gaugler, E.

    1980-01-01

    The paper studies calculated and measured metal wall temperatures of uncoated vanes and the same vanes coated with a thermal barrier coating system of NiCrAlY bond and yttria-stabilized zirconia ceramic. It is shown that thermal contact between layers is negligible. The significance of data scatter and of published ceramic thermal conductivity values is discussed.

  2. Solar-blind AlGaN 256x256 p-i-n detectors and focal plane arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reine, M. B.; Hairston, A.; Lamarre, P.; Wong, K. K.; Tobin, S. P.; Sood, A. K.; Cooke, C.; Pophristic, M.; Guo, S.; Peres, B.; Singh, R.; Eddy, C. R., Jr.; Chowdhury, U.; Wong, M. M.; Dupuis, R. D.; Li, T.; DenBaars, S. P.

    2006-02-01

    This paper reports the development of aluminum-gallium nitride (AlGaN or Al xGa 1-xN) photodiode technology for high-operability 256×256 hybrid Focal Plane Arrays (FPAs) for solar-blind ultraviolet (UV) detection in the 260-280 nm spectral region. These hybrid UV FPAs consist of a 256×256 back-illuminated AlGaN p-i-n photodiode array, operating at zero bias voltage, bump-mounted to a matching 256×256 silicon CMOS readout integrated circuit (ROIC) chip. The unit cell size is 30×30 μm2. The photodiode arrays were fabricated from multilayer AlGaN films grown by MOCVD on 2" dia. UV-transparent sapphire substrates. Improvements in AlGaN material growth and device design enabled high quantum efficiency and extremely low leakage current to be achieved in high-operability 256×256 p-i-n photodiode arrays with cuton and cutoff wavelengths of 260 and 280 nm, placing the response in the solar-blind wavelength region (less than about 280 nm) where solar radiation is heavily absorbed by the ozone layer. External quantum efficiencies (at V=0, 270 nm, no antireflection coating) as high as 58% were measured in backilluminated devices. A number of 256×256 FPAs, with the AlGaN arrays fabricated from films grown at three different facilities, achieved response operabilities as high as 99.8%, response nonuniformities (σ/μ) as low as 2.5%, and zero-bias resistance median values as high as 1×10 16 ohm, corresponding to R 0A products of 7×10 10 ohm-cm2. Noise Equivalent Irradiance (NEI) data were measured on these FPAs. Median NEI values at 1 Hz are 250-500 photons/pixel-s, with best-element values as low as 90 photons/pixel-s at 1 Hz.

  3. A Biodegradable Trilayered Barrier Membrane Composed of Sponge and Electrospun Layers: Hemostasis and Antiadhesion.

    PubMed

    Xia, Qinghua; Liu, Ziwen; Wang, Chenhong; Zhang, Zixin; Xu, Shanshan; Han, Charles C

    2015-09-14

    Placing a physical barrier between the injured site and the adjacent tissues is a very common and highly effective approach to prevent abdominal adhesions in these days. A biodegradable trilayered barrier was fabricated to prevent formation of abdominal adhesions, in which a poly(lactide-co-glycolide)/poly(lactide)-b-poly(ethylene glycol) (PLGA/PLA-b-PEG) electrospun layer was sandwiched between layers of carboxymethyl chitosan (CMCS) sponge. The hydrophilic CMCS sponge layers with glycerin (GL) could adhere to the surface of wound easily, and present great hemostatic capability. The mechanism of the formation of adhesion related to blood clots acting with fibroblast cells was evaluated in detail. The blood clot acted as a "medium" inducing the fibroblast cells growth and proliferation, but had no special attraction on epithelial cells. CMCS sponge layer took away the blood clots during the swelling and dissolution stages. The electrospun layer promoted the growth of epithelial cells, but exhibited inhibition on the adhesion and spread of fibroblast cells, which ensured excellent effect of adhesion prevention. Evaluated by a rat model of sidewall defect-bowel abrasion, significant reductions of postoperative adhesion in its level and occurrence were observed in animals treated by the trilayered barrier. PMID:26305870

  4. Development of Barrier Layers for the Protection of Candidate Alloys in the VHTR

    SciTech Connect

    Levi, Carlos G.; Jones, J. Wayne; Pollock, Tresa M.; Was, Gary S.

    2015-01-22

    The objective of this project was to develop concepts for barrier layers that enable leading candi- date Ni alloys to meet the longer term operating temperature and durability requirements of the VHTR. The concepts were based on alpha alumina as a primary surface barrier, underlay by one or more chemically distinct alloy layers that would promote and sustain the formation of the pro- tective scale. The surface layers must possess stable microstructures that provide resistance to oxidation, de-carburization and/or carburization, as well as durability against relevant forms of thermo-mechanical cycling. The system must also have a self-healing ability to allow endurance for long exposure times at temperatures up to 1000°C.

  5. Surface barrier height for different Al compositions and barrier layer thicknesses in AlGaN/GaN heterostructure field effect transistors

    SciTech Connect

    Goyal, Nitin Fjeldly, Tor A.; Iniguez, Benjamin

    2013-12-04

    In this paper, we present a physics based analytical model for the calculation of surface barrier height for given values of barrier layer thicknesses and Al mole fractions. An explicit expression for the two dimensional electron gas density is also developed incorporating the change in polarization charges for different Al mole fractions.

  6. Electrical and materials characterization of tungsten-titanium diffusion barrier layers and alloyed silver metallization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhagat, Shekhar Kumar

    With the constant miniaturization of semiconductor devices, research is always ongoing to obtain the best materials and/or materials systems which fulfill all the requirements of an ideal interconnect. Silver (Ag) and silver based alloys are front runners among other metals and alloys being investigated. Ag has a low electrical resistivity (1.59 micro-ohm-centimeters for bulk), very high thermal conductivity (4.25 Watt per centimeters per Kelvin), and has better electromigration resistance than aluminum (Al). In the pure form, however, it has several drawbacks (e.g., a tendency to diffuse in silicon substrate at higher temperatures, inadequate adhesion to silicon dioxide, poor corrosion resistance, and agglomeration at higher temperatures). These drawbacks can be circumvented by the addition of diffusion barrier layers and/or alloying in silver. The present study investigates both routes to make silver a legitimate interconnect material. Initially this study focuses on thermal stability and behavior of tungsten-titanium (W-Ti) barrier layers for Ag metallization. It is shown that Ag thin films are thermally stable up to 650 degrees centigrade with the presence of W-Ti under layers. The effect of a W-Ti layer on the {111} texture formation in Ag thin film is also evaluated in detail. Insertion of a thin W-Ti over layer on Ag thin films is investigated with respect to their thermal stability. This research also evaluates the diffusion of Ag into silicon dioxide and W-Ti barriers. This project shows that W-Ti is an effective barrier layer for silver metallization. Later, the study investigates the effect of Cu addition in silver metallization and its impact on electromigration resistance. It is shown that Cu addition enhances the electromigration lifetime for silver metallization.

  7. Assembly of phosphonic acids on GaN and AlGaN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simpkins, B. S.; Hong, S.; Stine, R.; Mäkinen, A. J.; Theodore, N. D.; Mastro, M. A.; Eddy, C. R., Jr.; Pehrsson, P. E.

    2010-01-01

    Self-assembled monolayers of octadecylphosphonic acid and 16-phosphonohexadecanoic acid (PHDA) were formed on the semiconductor substrates gallium nitride (GaN) and aluminium gallium nitride (AlGaN). The presence of the molecular layers was verified through x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy. Structural information was acquired with infrared spectroscopy which verified the bonding orientation of the carboxyl-containing PHDA. The impact of the molecular layers on the channel conductivity and the surface electronic structure of an AlGaN/GaN heterostructure was measured. Our results indicate that pinning of the surface Fermi level prohibits modification of the channel conductivity by the layer. However, a surface dipole of ~0.8 eV is present and associated with both phosphonic acid layers. These results are of direct relevance to field-effect-based biochemical sensors and metal-semiconductor contact formation for this system and provide a fundamental basis for further applications of GaN and AlGaN technology in the fields of biosensing and microelectronics.

  8. Low temperature plasma-enhanced atomic layer deposition of thin vanadium nitride layers for copper diffusion barriers

    SciTech Connect

    Rampelberg, Geert; Devloo-Casier, Kilian; Deduytsche, Davy; Detavernier, Christophe; Blasco, Nicolas

    2013-03-18

    Thin vanadium nitride (VN) layers were grown by atomic layer deposition using tetrakis(ethylmethylamino)vanadium and NH{sub 3} plasma at deposition temperatures between 70 Degree-Sign C and 150 Degree-Sign C on silicon substrates and polymer foil. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy revealed a composition close to stoichiometric VN, while x-ray diffraction showed the {delta}-VN crystal structure. The resistivity was as low as 200 {mu}{Omega} cm for the as deposited films and further reduced to 143 {mu}{Omega} cm and 93 {mu}{Omega} cm by annealing in N{sub 2} and H{sub 2}/He/N{sub 2}, respectively. A 5 nm VN layer proved to be effective as a diffusion barrier for copper up to a temperature of 720 Degree-Sign C.

  9. Determination of the Schottky barrier height of ferromagnetic contacts to few-layer phosphorene

    SciTech Connect

    Anugrah, Yoska; Robbins, Matthew C.; Koester, Steven J.; Crowell, Paul A.

    2015-03-09

    Phosphorene, the 2D analogue of black phosphorus, is a promising material for studying spin transport due to its low spin-orbit coupling and its ½ nuclear spin, which could allow the study of hyperfine effects. In this work, the properties of permalloy (Py) and cobalt (Co) contacts to few-layer phosphorene are presented. The Schottky barrier height was extracted and determined as a function of gate bias. Flat-band barrier heights, relative to the valence band edge, of 110 meV and 200 meV were determined for Py and Co, respectively. These results are important for future studies of spin transport in phosphorene.

  10. Ceramic barrier layers for flexible thin film solar cells on metallic substrates: a laboratory scale study for process optimization and barrier layer properties.

    PubMed

    Delgado-Sanchez, Jose-Maria; Guilera, Nuria; Francesch, Laia; Alba, Maria D; Lopez, Laura; Sanchez, Emilio

    2014-11-12

    Flexible thin film solar cells are an alternative to both utility-scale and building integrated photovoltaic installations. The fabrication of these devices over electrically conducting low-cost foils requires the deposition of dielectric barrier layers to flatten the substrate surface, provide electrical isolation between the substrate and the device, and avoid the diffusion of metal impurities during the relatively high temperatures required to deposit the rest of the solar cell device layers. The typical roughness of low-cost stainless-steel foils is in the hundred-nanometer range, which is comparable or larger than the thin film layers comprising the device and this may result in electrical shunts that decrease solar cell performance. This manuscript assesses the properties of different single-layer and bilayer structures containing ceramics inks formulations based on Al2O3, AlN, or Si3N4 nanoparticles and deposited over stainless-steel foils using a rotogravure printing process. The best control of the substrate roughness was achieved for bilayers of Al2O3 or AlN with mixed particle size, which reduced the roughness and prevented the diffusion of metals impurities but AlN bilayers exhibited as well the best electrical insulation properties. PMID:25296706

  11. 1-nm-thick graphene tri-layer as the ultimate copper diffusion barrier

    SciTech Connect

    Nguyen, Ba-Son; Lin, Jen-Fin

    2014-02-24

    We demonstrate the thinnest ever reported Cu diffusion barrier, a 1-nm-thick graphene tri-layer. X-ray diffraction patterns and Raman spectra show that the graphene is thermally stable at up to 750 °C against Cu diffusion. Transmission electron microscopy images show that there was no inter-diffusion in the Cu/graphene/Si structure. Raman analyses indicate that the graphene may have degraded into a nanocrystalline structure at 750 °C. At 800 °C, the perfect carbon structure was damaged, and thus the barrier failed. The results of this study suggest that graphene could be the ultimate Cu interconnect diffusion barrier.

  12. Alumina Paste Layer as a Sublimation Suppression Barrier for Yb14MnSb11

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paik, Jong-Ah; Caillat, Thierry

    2010-01-01

    Sublimation is a major cause of degradation of thermoelectric power generation systems. Most thermoelectric materials tend to have peak values at the temperature where sublimation occurs. A sublimation barrier is needed that is stable at operating temperatures, inert against thermoelectric materials, and able to withstand thermal cycling stress. A porous alumina paste layer is suitable as a sublimation barrier for Yb14MnSb11. It can accommodate stress generated by the thermal expansion discrepancy between the suppression layer and thermoelectric materials. Sublimation suppression is achieved by filling pores naturally with YbO2, a natural byproduct of sublimation. YbO2 generated during the sublimation of Yb14MnSb11 fills the porous structure of the alumina paste, causing sublimation to decrease with time as the pores become filled.

  13. Low-temperature integration of lead-based ferroelectric capacitors on Si with diffusion barrier layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, B. T.; Maki, K.; Aggarwal, S.; Nagaraj, B.; Nagarajan, V.; Salamanca-Riba, L.; Ramesh, R.; Dhote, A. M.; Auciello, O.

    2002-05-01

    Ferroelectric lead zirconate titanate thin films have been integrated on silicon substrates using Ti-Al-based conducting diffusion barriers produced by sputter deposition. The microstructure of the Ti-Al barrier layer was systematically altered through changes in the sputtering conditions, specifically the power density and deposition pressure. We find that the crystallinity of the Ti-Al film strongly correlates with sputtering power density and ambient i.e., it is amorphous at low power density and/or high deposition pressure, and polycrystalline at high power density and/or low deposition pressure. Electron energy loss spectroscopy studies demonstrate that the amorphous Ti-Al (a-Ti-Al) films contain a higher concentration of dissolved oxygen than crystalline Ti-Al. A low temperature sol-gel process has been used to prepare Pb(Zr,Ti)O3 PZT films at 450 °C on conducting Si wafers with a-Ti-Al conducting barrier layer and La-Sr-Co-O top and bottom electrodes. The excellent ferroelectric properties obtained with the a-Ti-Al barrier provide a promising approach for integration of PZT-based capacitors with silicon transistor technology for the fabrication of nonvolatile ferroelectric memories.

  14. Mechanisms governing the interfacial delamination of thermal barrier coating system with double ceramic layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Rong; Fan, Xueling; Wang, T. J.

    2016-05-01

    A systematic study of factors affecting the interfacial delamination of thermal barrier coating system (TBCs) with double ceramic layers (DCL) is presented. Crack driving forces for delaminations at two weak interfaces are examined. The results show that a thicker outermost ceramic layer can induce dramatic increase in crack driving force and make the interface between two ceramic coatings become more prone to delamination. The behavior is shown to be more prominent in TBCs with stiffer outmost coating. The thickness ratio of two ceramic layers is an important parameter for controlling the failure mechanisms and determining the lifetime of DCL TBCs under inservice condition. By accounting for the influences of thickness ratio of two ceramic layers and interfacial fracture toughnesses of two involved interfaces, the fracture mechanism map of DCL TBCs has been constructed, in which different failure mechanisms are identified. The results quanlitatively agree with the aviliable experimental data.

  15. Suitability of polystyrene as a functional barrier layer in coloured food contact materials.

    PubMed

    Genualdi, Susan; Addo Ntim, Susana; Begley, Timothy

    2015-01-01

    Functional barriers in food contact materials (FCMs) are used to prevent or reduce migration from inner layers in multilayer structures to food. The effectiveness of functional barrier layers was investigated in coloured polystyrene (PS) bowls due to their intended condition of use with hot liquids such as soups or stew. Migration experiments were performed over a 10-day period using USFDA-recommended food simulants (10% ethanol, 50% ethanol, corn oil and Miglyol) along with several other food oils. At the end of the 10 days, solvent dyes had migrated from the PS bowls at 12, 1 and 31,000 ng cm(-)(2) into coconut oil, palm kernel oil and Miglyol respectively, and in coconut oil and Miglyol the colour change was visible to the human eye. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) images revealed that the functional barrier was no longer intact for the bowls exposed to coconut oil, palm kernel oil, Miglyol, 10% ethanol, 50% ethanol and goat's milk. Additional tests showed that 1-dodecanol, a lauryl alcohol derived from palm kernel oil and coconut oil, was present in the PS bowls at an average concentration of 11 mg kg(-1). This compound is likely to have been used as a dispersing agent for the solvent dye and aided the migration of the solvent dye from the PS bowl into the food simulant. The solvent dye was not found in the 10% ethanol, 50% ethanol and goat's milk food simulants above their respective limits of detection, which is likely to be due to its insolubility in aqueous solutions. A disrupted barrier layer is of concern because if there are unregulated materials in the inner layers of the laminate, they may migrate to food, and therefore be considered unapproved food additives resulting in the food being deemed adulterated under the Federal Food Drug and Cosmetic Act. PMID:25569333

  16. Thick growing multilayer nanobrick wall thin films: super gas barrier with very few layers.

    PubMed

    Guin, Tyler; Krecker, Michelle; Hagen, David Austin; Grunlan, Jaime C

    2014-06-24

    Recent work with multilayer nanocoatings composed of polyelectrolytes and clay has demonstrated the ability to prepare super gas barrier layers from water that rival inorganic CVD-based films (e.g., SiOx). In an effort to reduce the number of layers required to achieve a very low oxygen transmission rate (OTR (<0.01 cc/m(2)·day·atm)) in these nanocoatings, buffered cationic chitosan (CH) and vermiculite clay (VMT) were deposited using layer-by-layer (LbL) assembly. Buffering the chitosan solution and its rinse with 50 mM Trizma base increased the thickness of these films by an order of magnitude. The OTR of a 1.6-μm-thick, six-bilayer film was 0.009 cc/m(2)·day·atm, making this the best gas barrier reported for such a small number of layers. This simple modification to the LbL process could likely be applied more universally to produce films with the desired properties much more quickly. PMID:24914613

  17. Morphological instability of Ag films caused by phase transition in the underlying Ta barrier layer

    SciTech Connect

    Mardani, Shabnam Vallin, Örjan; Wätjen, Jörn Timo; Norström, Hans; Olsson, Jörgen; Zhang, Shi-Li

    2014-08-18

    Wide-bandgap (WBG) semiconductor technologies are maturing and may provide increased device performance in many fields of applications, such as high-temperature electronics. However, there are still issues regarding the stability and reliability of WBG devices. Of particular importance is the high-temperature stability of interconnects for electronic systems based on WBG-semiconductors. For metallization without proper encapsulation, morphological degradation can occur at elevated temperatures. Sandwiching Ag films between Ta and/or TaN layers in this study is found to be electrically and morphologically stabilize the Ag metallization up to 800 °C, compared to 600 °C for uncapped films. However, the barrier layer plays a key role and TaN is found to be superior to Ta, resulting in the best achieved stability, whereas the difference between Ta and TaN caps is negligible. The β-to-α phase transition in the underlying Ta barrier layer is identified as the major cause responsible for the morphological instability observed above 600 °C. It is shown that this phase transition can be avoided using a stacked Ta/TaN barrier.

  18. Laboratory-based observations of capillary barriers and preferential flow in layered snow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Avanzi, F.; Hirashima, H.; Yamaguchi, S.; Katsushima, T.; De Michele, C.

    2015-12-01

    Several evidences are nowadays available that show how the effects of capillary gradients and preferential flow on water transmission in snow may play a more important role than expected. To observe these processes and to contribute in their characterization, we performed observations on the development of capillary barriers and preferential flow patterns in layered snow during cold laboratory experiments. We considered three different layering (all characterized by a finer-over-coarser texture in grain size) and three different water input rates. Nine samples of layered snow were sieved in a cold laboratory, and subjected to a constant supply of dyed tracer. By means of visual inspection, horizontal sectioning and liquid water content measurements, the processes of ponding and preferential flow were characterized as a function of texture and water input rate. The dynamics of each sample were replicated using the multi-layer physically-based SNOWPACK model. Results show that capillary barriers and preferential flow are relevant processes ruling the speed of liquid water in stratified snow. Ponding is associated with peaks in LWC at the boundary between the two layers equal to ~ 33-36 vol. % when the upper layer is composed by fine snow (grain size smaller than 0.5 mm). The thickness of the ponding layer at the textural boundary is between 0 and 3 cm, depending on sample stratigraphy. Heterogeneity in water transmission increases with grain size, while we do not observe any clear dependency on water input rate. The extensive comparison between observed and simulated LWC profiles by SNOWPACK (using an approximation of Richards Equation) shows high performances by the model in estimating the LWC peak over the boundary, while water speed in snow is underestimated by the chosen water transport scheme.

  19. Free energy barriers for escape of water molecules from protein hydration layer.

    PubMed

    Roy, Susmita; Bagchi, Biman

    2012-03-01

    Free energy barriers separating interfacial water molecules from the hydration layer at the surface of a protein to the bulk are obtained by using the umbrella sampling method of free energy calculation. We consider hydration layer of chicken villin head piece (HP-36) which has been studied extensively by molecular dynamics simulations. The free energy calculations reveal a strong sensitivity to the secondary structure. In particular, we find a region near the junction of first and second helix that contains a cluster of water molecules which are slow in motion, characterized by long residence times (of the order of 100 ps or more) and separated by a large free energy barrier from the bulk water. However, these "slow" water molecules constitute only about 5-10% of the total number of hydration layer water molecules. Nevertheless, they play an important role in stabilizing the protein conformation. Water molecules near the third helix (which is the important helix for biological function) are enthalpically least stable and exhibit the fastest dynamics. Interestingly, barrier height distributions of interfacial water are quite broad for water surrounding all the three helices (and the three coils), with the smallest barriers found for those near the helix-3. For the quasi-bound water molecules near the first and second helices, we use well-known Kramers' theory to estimate the residence time from the free energy surface, by estimating the friction along the reaction coordinate from the diffusion coefficient by using Einstein relation. The agreement found is satisfactory. We discuss the possible biological function of these slow, quasi-bound (but transient) water molecules on the surface. PMID:22288939

  20. The role of ultrathin AlN barrier in the reduction in the hot electron and self-heating effects for GaN-based double-heterojunction high electron mobility transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, L.; Hu, W. D.; Chen, X. S.; Lu, W.

    2010-09-01

    We propose an AlN/GaN/InGaN/GaN double-heterojunction high electron mobility transistor (DH-HEMT) structure with a 4 nm thin AlN barrier layer. The performance of the DH-HEMT device is investigated by using two-dimensional numerical simulation. The conduction band profile is obtained by using the Poisson's equation and Fermi-Dirac statistics in combination with the polarization charges. Due to large conduction-band offset of the AlN/GaN interface and strong polarization of AlN, the minor channel at GaN/InGaN interface can be eliminated. Further, the hot electron and self-heating effects on the transport properties of this DH-HEMT are investigated by using hydrodynamic model. In comparison with the AlGaN barrier DH-HEMT and conventional HEMT, this kind of DH-HEMT can effectively reduce the hot electron effect under high voltage. The reason is that the maximum field strength is far below the critical value for the existence of the hot electron effect in the AlGaN barrier DH-HEMTs and conventional HEMTs with the same voltage 6 V. The simulation results also show that the ultrathin AlN barrier layer can significantly reduce thermal impedance, and then lower the self-heating effect. Furthermore, the passivation layer has significant role in the self-heating effect of the ultrathin barrier DH-HEMTs.

  1. Significance of thermal contact resistance in two-layer thermal-barrier-coated turbine vanes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liebert, C. H.; Gaugler, R. E.

    1980-01-01

    The importance of thermal contact resistance between layers in heat transfer through two layer, plasma sprayed, thermal barrier coatings applied to turbine vanes was investigated. Results obtained with a system of NiCrAlY bond and yttria stabilized zirconia ceramic show that thermal contact resistance between layers is negligible. These results also verified other studies which showed that thermal contact resistance is negligible for a different coating system of NiCr bond calcia stabilized zirconia ceramic. The zirconia stabilized ceramic thermal conductivity data scatter presented in the literature is ?20 to -10 percent about a curve fit of the data. More accurate predictions of heat transfer and metal wall temperatures are obtained when the thermal conductivity values are used at the ?20 percent level.

  2. Enhancement in the photovoltaic performance of a dye-sensitized solar cell by an optimized ZnO barrier layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seo, Hyunwoong; Son, Min-Kyu; Kim, Jin-Kyoung; Shin, Inyoung; Prabakar, K.; Kim, Hee-Je

    2010-05-01

    A dye-sensitized solar cell (DSC) has been considered as a strong alternative to conventional photovoltaic devices based on semiconductors such as silicon or compound semiconductors. The barrier layer functioned by the use of an electrode consisting of two different conduction band potentials is very effective in increasing the photovoltaic performance of a DSC. Especially, zinc oxide (ZnO) is very effective as a barrier layer because it has a higher energy level of the conduction band than TiO2and good contact with TiO2 and dye molecules. We tried to fabricate the ZnO barrier layer using zinc acetate aqueous solution by the dip-coating method, although ZnO film is usually fabricated by chemical vapor deposition or sputter deposition. The experimental parameters were optimized to achieve an effective ZnO barrier layer. The electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and x-ray diffraction pattern were measured to analyze the ZnO layer. The photovoltaic performance of a completed DSC with an optimized ZnO barrier layer was measured and compared with that of a conventional DSC. Consequently, a DSC with a ZnO barrier layer had an increased VOC up to 0.85 V and an enhanced efficiency of 4.05%.

  3. Effect of V/III ratio on the growth of (11 2 bar 2) AlGaN by metalorganic vapour phase epitaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dinh, Duc V.; Alam, S. N.; Parbrook, P. J.

    2016-02-01

    The effect of V/III ratio on the growth and properties of AlGaN layers grown on (112bar2) AlN templates grown on (101bar0) sapphire by metalorganic vapour phase epitaxy was studied. The surface morphology of the (112bar2) AlGaN layers and the (112bar2) AlN templates showed an undulation along [ 1 1 bar 00 ] AlGaN , AlN. The Al-content and thickness of the layers increased with decreasing V/III ratio due to a reduction in the parasitic reactions of the precursors. The Al-content of the (112bar2) layers was found to be in the range of 29.5-47.9%, which is lower than the composition of the simultaneously grown (0001) reference layers (30.4-58.0%). This was attributed to a higher density of cation (nitrogen) dangling bonds on the (112bar2) surface. Low temperature photoluminescence measurements of the (112bar2) layers showed an emission wavelength that shifts gradually from 273 nm to 306 nm with increasing V/III ratio. A decreased PL intensity of the layers with decreasing V/III ratio was attributed to an increase in cation vacancies. The Stokes-shift of the (112bar2) layers was estimated to be about 60-194 meV, and this shift increases with increasing Al-content (decreasing V/III ratio) correlated to an increased exciton localization.

  4. Investigation of Barrier-Layer Materials for Mg2Si/Ni Interfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakamoto, Tatsuya; Taguchi, Yutaka; Kutsuwa, Takeshi; Ichimi, Kiyohide; Kasatani, Shinichi; Inada, Minoru

    2016-03-01

    The durability of Ni electrodes, which are often used for Mg2Si thermoelectric chips, is poor at high working temperatures because of deposition of Mg at the Mg2Si/Ni interface and on the surface. Hence, a "Mg2Si/barrier material/Ni" structure was adopted instead of direct adhesion of Ni to Mg2Si. Ti, TiSi2, and TiN were selected as candidate materials for the barrier layer between Mg2Si and Ni, and the barrier effect, adhesion, and contact resistance of each of these materials were evaluated. After the samples had been annealed at 873 K for 1 h, Mg appeared on the Ti surface and TiSi2 deposited on Mg2Si; however, no Mg was detected on the surface of TiN or in the inner part of the Ni electrode. Continuous, low contact resistance was also observed for Mg2Si/TiN/Ni samples. TiN does not adhere strongly to Mg2Si but is a promising barrier material for Mg2Si/Ni interfaces.

  5. Improvement in mechanical and barrier properties of polyethylene blown films using atomic layer deposition

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Gyeong Beom; Hak Song, Seung; Wook Moon, Sung; Woo Kim, Jun; Hyung Shim, Joon; Choi, Byoung-Ho; Moo Heo, Young

    2014-01-15

    Recently, thin films deposited on polymer substrates have been widely utilized as encapsulation barriers in electronic applications such as flexible displays, packaging films, and organic light-emitting diodes. The barrier and mechanical properties of these films are critical aspects when using them for protecting the inner modules of electronic devices from environmental factors such as moisture, oxygen, and sunlight. In particular, polymers can be degraded or decomposed more easily than other materials under such environmental conditions. Therefore, polymer films can be deposited using thin functional materials; however, suitable deposition methods for polymers are scarce owing to many limitations such as low melting/glass transition temperature, thermal degradation, and oxidation. In this study, a thin alumina oxide film was deposited on a high-density polyethylene blown film by using atomic layer deposition. The mechanical and barrier properties of the alumina oxide film deposited on the polyethylene film were characterized by a microtensile test and water vapor transmission rate test. Process conditions such as process temperature, plasma surface treatment, and number of cycles were varied to ascertain the reliability of the thin alumina oxide film deposited on the high-density polyethylene blown film. The results showed that the barrier property of the deposited film improved upon the application of plasma surface treatment, and that its mechanical properties varied under different process conditions.

  6. The effect of a tin barrier layer on the permeability of hydrogen through mild steel and ferritic stainless steel

    SciTech Connect

    Bowker, J.; Piercy, G.R.

    1984-11-01

    Experiments were performed to measure the effectiveness of a commercially electroplated tin layer as a barrier to hydrogen, and to see how this altered when the tin layer was converted to FeSn. The authors measured the permeability of hydrogen through AISI 410 ferritic stainless steel and determined the effectiveness of tin as a surface barrier on it. The measured values for the permeability of hydrogen in iron and ferritic stainless steel are shown.

  7. Barrier enhancement of Ge MSM IR photodetector with Ge layer optimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asar, Tarık; Özçelik, Süleyman

    2015-12-01

    Germanium thin films were deposited on n-type Silicon substrates with three different sputter power by using DC magnetron sputtering system at room temperature. The structural and morphological properties of the samples have been obtained by means of X-ray diffraction and atomic force microscopy measurements. Then, Germanium metal-semiconductor-metal infrared photodetectors were fabricated on these structures. The carrier recombination lifetime and the diffusion length of the devices were also calculated by using the carrier density and mobility data was obtained from the room temperature Hall Effect measurements. The dark current-voltage measurements of devices were achieved at room temperature. The electrical parameters such as ideality factor, Schottky barrier height, saturation current and series resistance were extracted from dark current-voltage characteristics. Finally, it has been shown that the barrier enhancement of Ge MSM IR photodetector can be achieved by Ge layer optimization.

  8. Surface-barrier photoconverters with graded-gap layers in the space-charge region

    SciTech Connect

    Bobrenko, Yu. N.; Pavelets, S. Yu. Pavelets, A. M.; Semikina, T. V.; Yaroshenko, N. V.

    2015-04-15

    A novel possibility of controlling the parameters of p-Cu{sub 1.8}S-n-II-VI surface-barrier structures by embedding a thin graded-gap layer into a photoconverter space-charge region (SCR) is implemented. The feature of quasi-electric fields built in the SCR, i.e., the fact that an increase in the drift field for minority carriers can be accompanied by a decrease in the potential barrier for majority carriers, is considered. The proper choice of the parameters of the Cd{sub x}Zn{sub 1−x}S graded-gap layer embedded in the Cu{sub 1.8}S-ZnS structure SCR made it possible to double the quantum efficiency in the ultraviolet spectral region. For Cu{sub 1.8}S-CdS photoconverters with a (CdS){sub x}(ZnSe){sub 1−x} intermediate layer, dark diode currents are decreased by three orders of magnitude while retaining a high quantum efficiency.

  9. Properties of barrier contacts with nanosize TiB{sub x} layers to InP

    SciTech Connect

    Arsentyev, I. N. Bobyl, A. V.; Tarasov, I. S.; Boltovets, N. S. Ivanov, V. N.; Belyaev, A. E.; Kamalov, A. B.; Konakova, R. V. Kudryk, Ya. Ya.; Lytvyn, O. S.; Milenin, V. V.; Russu, E. V.

    2008-07-15

    Structural and electrical properties of Au-TiB{sub x}-nn{sup +}n{sup ++}-InP and TiB{sub x}-nn{sup +}n{sup ++}-InP multilayer barrier structures on standard ('rigid') and soft ('porous')n{sup ++}-InP substrates have been studied, with the semiconductor layers deposited by vapor-phase epitaxy, metallic layers formed by magnetron sputtering, and porous substrates fabricated by electrochemical etching of the standard InP. Samples on porous substrates have the following advantages: leakage currents in their reverse current-voltage characteristics are ten times lower; the range of the exponential rise in current in the forward characteristics is an order of magnitude wider; the changes in the ideality factor and the Schottky barrier height, observed as the contact area varies by a factor of 100, are three and {approx}10 times smaller, respectively; and the structure of the layers is more stable in annealing at up to 800{sup o}C.

  10. Onset of surface stimulated emission at 260 nm from AlGaN multiple quantum wells

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Xiaohang E-mail: dupuis@gatech.edu; Xie, Hongen; Ponce, Fernando A.; Ryou, Jae-Hyun; Detchprohm, Theeradetch; Dupuis, Russell D. E-mail: dupuis@gatech.edu

    2015-12-14

    We demonstrated onset of deep-ultraviolet (DUV) surface stimulated emission (SE) from c-plane AlGaN multiple-quantum well (MQW) heterostructures grown on a sapphire substrate by optical pumping at room temperature. The onset of SE became observable at a pumping power density of 630 kW/cm{sup 2}. Spectral deconvolution revealed superposition of a linearly amplified spontaneous emission peak at λ ∼ 257.0 nm with a full width at half maximum (FWHM) of ∼12 nm and a superlinearly amplified SE peak at λ ∼ 260 nm with a narrow FWHM of less than 2 nm. In particular, the wavelength of ∼260 nm is the shortest wavelength of surface SE from III-nitride MQW heterostructures to date. Atomic force microscopy and scanning transmission electron microscopy measurements were employed to investigate the material and structural quality of the AlGaN heterostructures, showing smooth surface and sharp layer interfaces. This study offers promising results for AlGaN heterostructures grown on sapphire substrates for the development of DUV vertical cavity surface emitting lasers (VCSELs)

  11. Fabrication of metallic single electron transistors featuring plasma enhanced atomic layer deposition of tunnel barriers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karbasian, Golnaz

    The continuing increase of the device density in integrated circuits (ICs) gives rise to the high level of power that is dissipated per unit area and consequently a high temperature in the circuits. Since temperature affects the performance and reliability of the circuits, minimization of the energy consumption in logic devices is now the center of attention. According to the International Technology Roadmaps for Semiconductors (ITRS), single electron transistors (SETs) hold the promise of achieving the lowest power of any known logic device, as low as 1x10-18 J per switching event. Moreover, SETs are the most sensitive electrometers to date, and are capable of detecting a fraction of an electron charge. Despite their low power consumption and high sensitivity for charge detection, room temperature operation of these devices is quite challenging mainly due to lithographical constraints in fabricating structures with the required dimensions of less than 10 nm. Silicon based SETs have been reported to operate at room temperature. However, they all suffer from significant variation in batch-to-batch performance, low fabrication yield, and temperature-dependent tunnel barrier height. In this project, we explored the fabrication of SETs featuring metal-insulator-metal (MIM) tunnel junctions. While Si-based SETs suffer from undesirable effect of dopants that result in irregularities in the device behavior, in metal-based SETs the device components (tunnel barrier, island, and the leads) are well-defined. Therefore, metal SETs are potentially more predictable in behavior, making them easier to incorporate into circuits, and easier to check against theoretical models. Here, the proposed fabrication method takes advantage of unique properties of chemical mechanical polishing (CMP) and plasma enhanced atomic layer deposition (PEALD). Chemical mechanical polishing provides a path for tuning the dimensions of the tunnel junctions, surpassing the limits imposed by electron beam

  12. Role of atomic layer deposited aluminum oxide as oxidation barrier for silicon based materials

    SciTech Connect

    Fiorentino, Giuseppe Morana, Bruno; Forte, Salvatore; Sarro, Pasqualina Maria

    2015-01-15

    In this paper, the authors study the protective effect against oxidation of a thin layer of atomic layer deposited (ALD) aluminum oxide (Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}). Nitrogen doped silicon carbide (poly-SiC:N) based microheaters coated with ALD Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} are used as test structure to investigate the barrier effect of the alumina layers to oxygen and water vapor at very high temperature (up to 1000 °C). Different device sets have been fabricated changing the doping levels, to evaluate possible interaction between the dopants and the alumina layer. The as-deposited alumina layer morphology has been evaluated by means of AFM analysis and compared to an annealed sample (8 h at 1000 °C) to estimate the change in the grain structure and the film density. The coated microheaters are subjected to very long oxidation time in dry and wet environment (up to 8 h at 900 and 1000 °C). By evaluating the electrical resistance variation between uncoated reference devices and the ALD coated devices, the oxide growth on the SiC is estimated. The results show that the ALD alumina coating completely prevents the oxidation of the SiC up to 900 °C in wet environment, while an oxide thickness reduction of 50% is observed at 1000 °C compared to uncoated devices.

  13. High temperature and low pressure chemical vapor deposition of silicon nitride on AlGaN: Band offsets and passivation studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reddy, Pramod; Washiyama, Shun; Kaess, Felix; Hayden Breckenridge, M.; Hernandez-Balderrama, Luis H.; Haidet, Brian B.; Alden, Dorian; Franke, Alexander; Sarkar, Biplab; Kohn, Erhard; Collazo, Ramon; Sitar, Zlatko

    2016-04-01

    In this work, we employed X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy to determine the band offsets and interface Fermi level at the heterojunction formed by stoichiometric silicon nitride deposited on AlxGa1-xN (of varying Al composition "x") via low pressure chemical vapor deposition. Silicon nitride is found to form a type II staggered band alignment with AlGaN for all Al compositions (0 ≤ x ≤ 1) and present an electron barrier into AlGaN even at higher Al compositions, where Eg(AlGaN) > Eg(Si3N4). Further, no band bending is observed in AlGaN for x ≤ 0.6 and a reduced band bending (by ˜1 eV in comparison to that at free surface) is observed for x > 0.6. The Fermi level in silicon nitride is found to be at 3 eV with respect to its valence band, which is likely due to silicon (≡Si0/-1) dangling bonds. The presence of band bending for x > 0.6 is seen as a likely consequence of Fermi level alignment at Si3N4/AlGaN hetero-interface and not due to interface states. Photoelectron spectroscopy results are corroborated by current-voltage-temperature and capacitance-voltage measurements. A shift in the interface Fermi level (before band bending at equilibrium) from the conduction band in Si3N4/n-GaN to the valence band in Si3N4/p-GaN is observed, which strongly indicates a reduction in mid-gap interface states. Hence, stoichiometric silicon nitride is found to be a feasible passivation and dielectric insulation material for AlGaN at any composition.

  14. A three-terminal ultraviolet photodetector constructed on a barrier-modulated triple-layer architecture.

    PubMed

    Ye, Daqian; Mei, Zengxia; Liang, Huili; Liu, Lishu; Zhang, Yonghui; Li, Junqiang; Liu, Yaoping; Gu, Changzhi; Du, Xiaolong

    2016-01-01

    We report a novel three-terminal device fabricated on MgZnO/ZnO/MgZnO triple-layer architecture. Because of the combined barrier modulation effect by both gate and drain biases, the device shows an unconventional I-V characteristics compared to a common field effect transistor. The photoresponse behavior of this unique device was also investigated and applied in constructing a new type ultraviolet (UV) photodetector, which may be potentially used as an active element in a UV imaging array. More significantly, the proper gate bias-control offers a new pathway to overcome the common persistent photoconductivity (PPC) effect problem. Additionally, the MgZnO:F as a channel layer was chosen to optimize the photoresponse properties, and the spectrum indicated a gate bias-dependent wavelength-selectable feature for different response peaks, which suggests the possibility to build a unique dual-band UV photodetector with this new architecture. PMID:27181255

  15. A three-terminal ultraviolet photodetector constructed on a barrier-modulated triple-layer architecture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ye, Daqian; Mei, Zengxia; Liang, Huili; Liu, Lishu; Zhang, Yonghui; Li, Junqiang; Liu, Yaoping; Gu, Changzhi; Du, Xiaolong

    2016-05-01

    We report a novel three-terminal device fabricated on MgZnO/ZnO/MgZnO triple-layer architecture. Because of the combined barrier modulation effect by both gate and drain biases, the device shows an unconventional I–V characteristics compared to a common field effect transistor. The photoresponse behavior of this unique device was also investigated and applied in constructing a new type ultraviolet (UV) photodetector, which may be potentially used as an active element in a UV imaging array. More significantly, the proper gate bias-control offers a new pathway to overcome the common persistent photoconductivity (PPC) effect problem. Additionally, the MgZnO:F as a channel layer was chosen to optimize the photoresponse properties, and the spectrum indicated a gate bias-dependent wavelength-selectable feature for different response peaks, which suggests the possibility to build a unique dual-band UV photodetector with this new architecture.

  16. A three-terminal ultraviolet photodetector constructed on a barrier-modulated triple-layer architecture

    PubMed Central

    Ye, Daqian; Mei, Zengxia; Liang, Huili; liu, Lishu; Zhang, Yonghui; Li, Junqiang; Liu, Yaoping; Gu, Changzhi; Du, Xiaolong

    2016-01-01

    We report a novel three-terminal device fabricated on MgZnO/ZnO/MgZnO triple-layer architecture. Because of the combined barrier modulation effect by both gate and drain biases, the device shows an unconventional I–V characteristics compared to a common field effect transistor. The photoresponse behavior of this unique device was also investigated and applied in constructing a new type ultraviolet (UV) photodetector, which may be potentially used as an active element in a UV imaging array. More significantly, the proper gate bias-control offers a new pathway to overcome the common persistent photoconductivity (PPC) effect problem. Additionally, the MgZnO:F as a channel layer was chosen to optimize the photoresponse properties, and the spectrum indicated a gate bias-dependent wavelength-selectable feature for different response peaks, which suggests the possibility to build a unique dual-band UV photodetector with this new architecture. PMID:27181255

  17. High efficiency yellow organic light-emitting diodes with optimized barrier layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mu, Ye; Zhang, Shiming; Yue, Shouzhen; Wu, Qingyang; Zhao, Yi

    2015-12-01

    High efficiency Iridium (III) bis (4-phenylthieno [3,2-c] pyridinato-N,C2‧) acetylacetonate (PO-01) based yellow organic light-emitting devices are fabricated by employing multiple emission layers. The efficiency of the device using 4,4‧,4″-tris(N-carbazolyl) triphenylamine (TCTA) as potential barrier layer (PBL) outperforms those devices based on other PBLs and detailed analysis is carried out to reveal the mechanisms. A forward-viewing current efficiency (CE) of 65.21 cd/A, which corresponds to a maximum total CE of 110.85 cd/A is achieved at 335.8 cd/m2 in the optimized device without any outcoupling enhancement structures.

  18. Single-Layer Graphene as a Barrier Layer for Intense UV Laser-Induced Damages for Silver Nanowire Network.

    PubMed

    Das, Suprem R; Nian, Qiong; Saei, Mojib; Jin, Shengyu; Back, Doosan; Kumar, Prashant; Janes, David B; Alam, Muhammad A; Cheng, Gary J

    2015-11-24

    Single-layer graphene (SLG) has been proposed as the thinnest protective/barrier layer for wide applications involving resistance to oxidation, corrosion, atomic/molecular diffusion, electromagnetic interference, and bacterial contamination. Functional metallic nanostructures have lower thermal stability than their bulk forms and are therefore susceptible to high energy photons. Here, we demonstrate that SLG can shield metallic nanostructures from intense laser radiation that would otherwise ablate them. By irradiation via a UV laser beam with nanosecond pulse width and a range of laser intensities (in millions of watt per cm(2)) onto a silver nanowire network, and conformally wrapping SLG on top of the nanowire network, we demonstrate that graphene "extracts and spreads" most of the thermal energy away from nanowire, thereby keeping it damage-free. Without graphene wrapping, the radiation would fragment the wires into smaller pieces and even decompose them into droplets. A systematic molecular dynamics simulation confirms the mechanism of SLG shielding. Consequently, particular damage-free and ablation-free laser-based nanomanufacturing of hybrid nanostructures might be sparked off by application of SLG on functional surfaces and nanofeatures. PMID:26447828

  19. A finite difference analysis of the field present behind an acoustically impenetrable two-layer barrier.

    PubMed

    Hurrell, Andrew M

    2008-06-01

    The interaction of an incident sound wave with an acoustically impenetrable two-layer barrier is considered. Of particular interest is the presence of several acoustic wave components in the shadow region of this barrier. A finite difference model capable of simulating this geometry is validated by comparison to the analytical solution for an idealized, hard-soft barrier. A panel comprising a high air-content closed cell foam backed with an elastic (metal) back plate is then examined. The insertion loss of this panel was found to exceed the dynamic range of the measurement system and was thus acoustically impenetrable. Experimental results from such a panel are shown to contain artifacts not present in the diffraction solution, when acoustic waves are incident upon the soft surface. A finite difference analysis of this experimental configuration replicates the presence of the additional field components. Furthermore, the simulated results allow the additional components to be identified as arising from the S(0) and A(0) Lamb modes traveling in the elastic plate. These Lamb mode artifacts are not found to be present in the shadow region when the acoustic waves are incident upon the elastic surface. PMID:18537372

  20. CaCu3Ti4O12: One-step internal barrier layer capacitor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sinclair, Derek C.; Adams, Timothy B.; Morrison, Finlay D.; West, Anthony R.

    2002-03-01

    There has been much recent interest in a so-called "giant-dielectric phenomenon" displayed by an unusual cubic perovskite-type material, CaCu3Ti4O12; however, the origin of the high permittivity has been unclear [M. A. Subramanian, L. Dong, N. Duan, B. A. Reisner, and A. W. Sleight, J. Solid State Chem. 151, 323 (2000); C. C. Homes, T. Vogt, S. M. Shapiro, S. Wakimoto, and A. P. Ramirez, Science 293, 673 (2001); A. P. Ramirez, M. A. Subramanian, M. Gardel, G. Blumberg, D. Li, T. Vogt, and S. M. Shapiro, Solid State Commun. 115, 217 (2000)]. Impedance spectroscopy on CaCu3Ti4O12 ceramics demonstrates that they are electrically heterogeneous and consist of semiconducting grains with insulating grain boundaries. The giant-dielectric phenomenon is therefore attributed to a grain boundary (internal) barrier layer capacitance (IBLC) instead of an intrinsic property associated with the crystal structure. This barrier layer electrical microstructure with effective permittivity values in excess of 10 000 can be fabricated by single-step processing in air at ˜1100 °C. CaCu3Ti4O12 is an attractive option to the currently used BaTiO3-based materials which require complex, multistage processing routes to produce IBLCs of similar capacity.

  1. Atomic and electronic structure of ultrathin fluoride barrier layers at the oxide/Si interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pasquali, L.; Montecchi, M.; Nannarone, S.; Boscherini, F.

    2011-09-01

    A SrF2 ultrathin barrier layer on Si(001) is used to form a sharp interface and block reactivity and intermixing between the semiconductor and a Yb2O3 overlayer. Yb2O3/Si(001) and Yb2O3/SrF2/Si(001) interfaces grown in ultra high vacuum by molecular beam epitaxy are studied by photoemission and x-ray absorption fine structure. Without the fluoride interlayer, Yb2O3/Si(001) presents an interface reacted region formed by SiOx and/or silicate compounds, which is about 9 Å thick and increases up to 14-15 Å after annealing at 500-700 °C. A uniform single layer of SrF2 molecules blocks intermixing and reduces the oxidized Si region to 2.4 Å after deposition and to 3.5 Å after annealing at 500 °C. In both cases we estimate a conduction band offset and a valence band offset of ~ 1.7 eV and 2.4 eV between the oxide and Si, respectively. X-ray absorption fine structure measurements at the Yb LIII edge suggest that the Yb oxide films exhibit a significant degree of static disorder with and without the fluoride barrier. Sr K edge measurements indicate that the ultrathin fluoride films are reacted, with the formation of bonds between Si and Sr; the Sr-Sr and Sr-F interatomic distances in the ultrathin fluoride barrier film are relaxed to the bulk value.

  2. Effect of interaction between periodic δ-doping in both well and barrier layers on modulation of superlattice band structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Huaizhe; Yan, Qiqi; Wang, Tianmin

    2007-08-01

    The modulation of superlattice band structure via periodic δ-doping in both well and barrier layers have been theoretically investigated, and the importance of interaction between the δ-function potentials in the well layers and those in the barrier layers on SL band structure have been revealed. It is pointed out that the energy dispersion relation Eq. (3) given in [G. Ihm, S.K. Noh, J.I. Lee, J.-S. Hwang, T.W. Kim, Phys. Rev. B 44 (1991) 6266] is an incomplete one, as the interaction between periodic δ-doping in both well and barrier layers had been overlooked. Finally, we have shown numerically that the electron states of a GaAs/Ga0.7Al0.3As superlattice can be altered more efficiently by intelligent tuning the two δ-doping's positions and heights.

  3. Ga0.5In0.5P Barrier Layer for Wet Oxidation of AlAs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Shih-Chang; Lee, Wei-I

    2000-05-01

    We study the stability of Ga0.5In0.5P and Al0.4Ga0.6As barrier layers for wet thermal oxidation of AlAs on GaAs. Samples with a Ga0.5In0.5P or Al0.4Ga0.6As barrier layer are oxidized in a water vapor environment under various oxidation conditions. The results of photoluminescence and secondary-ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) depth profile measurements indicate that the Ga0.5In0.5P barrier layer is more stable than the Al0.4Ga0.6As layer at higher oxidation temperatures and longer periods of oxidation time.

  4. Effect of a multi-layer infection control barrier on the micro-hardness of a composite resin

    PubMed Central

    HWANG, In-Nam; HONG, Sung-Ok; LEE, Bin-Na; HWANG, Yun-Chan; OH, Won-Mann; CHANG, Hoon-Sang

    2012-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of multiple layers of an infection control barrier on the micro-hardness of a composite resin. Material and Methods One, two, four, and eight layers of an infection control barrier were used to cover the light guides of a high-power light emitting diode (LED) light curing unit (LCU) and a low-power halogen LCU. The composite specimens were photopolymerized with the LCUs and the barriers, and the micro-hardness of the upper and lower surfaces was measured (n=10). The hardness ratio was calculated by dividing the bottom surface hardness of the experimental groups by the irradiated surface hardness of the control groups. The data was analyzed by two-way ANOVA and Tukey's HSD test. Results The micro-hardness of the composite specimens photopolymerized with the LED LCU decreased significantly in the four- and eight-layer groups of the upper surface and in the two-, four-, and eight-layer groups of the lower surface. The hardness ratio of the composite specimens was <80% in the eight-layer group. The micro-hardness of the composite specimens photopolymerized with the halogen LCU decreased significantly in the eight-layer group of the upper surface and in the two-, four-, and eight-layer groups of the lower surface. However, the hardness ratios of all the composite specimens photopolymerized with barriers were <80%. Conclusions The two-layer infection control barrier could be used on high-power LCUs without decreasing the surface hardness of the composite resin. However, when using an infection control barrier on the low-power LCUs, attention should be paid so as not to sacrifice the polymerization efficiency. PMID:23138746

  5. Solar-blind AlGaN 256×256 p-i-n detectors and focal plane arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reine, M. B.; Hairston, A.; Lamarre, P.; Wong, K. K.; Tobin, S. P.; Sood, A. K.; Cooke, C.; Pophristic, M.; Guo, S.; Peres, B.; Singh, R.; Eddy, C. R. _Jr., Jr.; Chowdhury, U.; Wong, M. M.; Dupuis, R. D.; Li, T.; DenBaars, S. P.

    2006-02-01

    This paper reports the development of aluminum-gallium nitride (AlGaN or Al xGa 1-xN) photodiode technology for high-operability 256×256 hybrid Focal Plane Arrays (FPAs) for solar-blind ultraviolet (UV) detection in the 260-280 nm spectral region. These hybrid UV FPAs consist of a 256×256 back-illuminated AlGaN p-i-n photodiode array, operating at zero bias voltage, bump-mounted to a matching 256×256 silicon CMOS readout integrated circuit (ROIC) chip. The unit cell size is 30×30 μm2. The photodiode arrays were fabricated from multilayer AlGaN films grown by MOCVD on 2" dia. UV-transparent sapphire substrates. Improvements in AlGaN material growth and device design enabled high quantum efficiency and extremely low leakage current to be achieved in high-operability 256×256 p-i-n photodiode arrays with cuton and cutoff wavelengths of 260 and 280 nm, placing the response in the solar-blind wavelength region (less than about 280 nm) where solar radiation is heavily absorbed by the ozone layer. External quantum efficiencies (at V=0, 270 nm, no antireflection coating) as high as 58% were measured in back-illuminated devices. A number of 256×256 FPAs, with the AlGaN arrays fabricated from films grown at three different facilities, achieved response operabilities as high as 99.8%, response nonuniformities (σ/μ) as low as 2.5%, and zero-bias resistance median values as high as 1×10 16 ohm, corresponding to R0A products of 7×10 10 ohm-cm2. Noise Equivalent Irradiance (NEI) data were measured on these FPAs. Median NEI values at 1 Hz are 250-500 photons/pixel-s, with best-element values as low as 90 photons/pixel-s at 1 Hz.

  6. Gas Diffusion Barriers Using Atomic Layer Deposition: A New Calcium Test and Polymer Substrate Effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bertrand, Jacob Andrew

    The increasing demand on available energy resources has led to a desire for more energy efficient devices. The wide use of displays in consumer electronics, such as televisions, cell phones, cameras and computers makes them an ideal target for improvement. Organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) are a good candidate to replace traditional Si based devices. However, the low work function metals typically used as electrodes in OLEDs are very reactive with water and oxygen. Ultralow permeability gas diffusion barriers with water vapor transmission rates (WVTRs) as low as <10-6g/(m2*day) are required on the polymers used to fabricate organic electronic and thin film photovoltaic devices. Atomic Layer Deposition (ALD) uses self-limiting surface reactions to deposit thin conformal films. ALD is capable of depositing thin, conformal, high quality barriers. WVTR values as low as ˜5 x 10-5 g/(m2*day) have been measured for Al2O3 ALD films at 38 °C/85% RH using the Ca test with optical transmission probing. The Ca test is a technique with very high sensitivity to measure ultralow WVTRs. This test relies on measuring the oxidation of a Ca metal film by monitoring the change in its optical or electrical properties. However, glass lid control experiments have indicated that the WVTRs measured by the Ca test are limited by H2O permeability through the epoxy seals. Varying results have been reported in the literature using the electrical conductance of Ca to measure permeation. In this work, two approaches were applied to overcome the epoxy edge seal limitations. The first approach was to deposit Al2O 3 ALD barriers directly on Ca metal. While the Al 2O3 ALD barriers were successfully deposited, the measurement of an accurate WVTR was limited by barrier pinholes. The presence of pinholes in the Al2O3 ALD barrier on Ca results in the localized oxidation of the Ca sensor. Heterogeneous degradation of the Ca causes inaccuracies in the conductance of the film. As oxidation regions

  7. Novel high-current density GaN-based normally off transistor with tensile-strained quaternary InAlGaN barrier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kajitani, Ryo; Tanaka, Kenichiro; Ogawa, Masahiro; Ishida, Hidetoshi; Ishida, Masahiro; Ueda, Tetsuzo

    2015-04-01

    A GaN-based normally off heterostructure field effect transistor (HFET) with high current density and with a quaternary InAlGaN barrier instead of an AlGaN barrier is investigated. It is difficult to obtain both high-current operation and normally off operation in the GaN-based HFET because of the need to control the polarization-induced charge. In order to obtain a normally off operation using quaternary InAlGaN barrier, the InAlGaN barrier is selectively removed and the p-AlGaN layer is formed as the gate electrode. The obtained threshold voltage of the InAlGaN-based HFET is +1.1 V. The maximum drain current reaches as high as 0.73 A/mm, which is almost twice that of a conventional AlGaN-based normally off gate injection transistor (GIT).

  8. Investigation of Thickness Dependence of Metal Layer in Al/Mo/4H-SiC Schottky Barrier Diodes.

    PubMed

    Lee, Seula; Lee, Jinseon; Kang, Tai-Young; Kyoung, Sinsu; Jung, Eun Sik; Kim, Kyung Hwan

    2015-11-01

    In this paper, we present the preparation and characterization of Schottky barrier diodes based on silicon carbide with various Schottky metal layer thickness values. In this structure, molybdenum and aluminum were employed as the Schottky barrier metal and top electrode, respectively. Schottky metal layers were deposited with thicknesses ranging from 1000 to 3000 Å, and top electrodes were deposited with thickness as much as 3000 Å. The deposition of both metal layers was performed using the facing target sputtering (FTS) method, and the fabricated samples were annealed with the tubular furnace at 300 degrees C under argon ambient for 10 min. The Schottky barrier height, series resistance, and ideality factor was calculated from the forward I-V characteristic curve using the methods proposed by Cheung and Cheung, and by Norde. For as-deposited Schottky diodes, we observed an increase of the threshold voltage (V(T)) as the thickness of the Schottky metal layer increased. After the annealing, the Schottky barrier heights (SBHs) of the diodes, including Schottky metal layers of over 2000 Å, increased. In the case of the Schottky metal layer deposited to 1000 Å, the barrier heights decreased due to the annealing process. This may have been caused by the interfacial penetration phenomenon through the Schottky metal layer. For variations of V(T), the SBH changed with a similar tendency. The ideality factor and series resistance showed no significant changes before or after annealing. This indicates that this annealing condition is appropriate for Mo SiC structures. Our results confirm that it is possible to control V(T) by adjusting the thickness of the Schottky metal layer. PMID:26726688

  9. Dielectric Barrier Discharge Ionization in Characterization of Organic Compounds Separated on Thin-Layer Chromatography Plates

    PubMed Central

    Cegłowski, Michał; Smoluch, Marek; Babij, Michał; Gotszalk, Teodor; Silberring, Jerzy; Schroeder, Grzegorz

    2014-01-01

    A new method for on-spot detection and characterization of organic compounds resolved on thin layer chromatography (TLC) plates has been proposed. This method combines TLC with dielectric barrier discharge ionization (DBDI), which produces stable low-temperature plasma. At first, the compounds were separated on TLC plates and then their mass spectra were directly obtained with no additional sample preparation. To obtain good quality spectra the center of a particular TLC spot was heated from the bottom to increase volatility of the compound. MS/MS analyses were also performed to additionally characterize all analytes. The detection limit of proposed method was estimated to be 100 ng/spot of compound. PMID:25170762

  10. Electrical Properties of Recessed Algan/Gan Schottky Diodes Under off-State Stress

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Florovič, Martin; Kováč, Jaroslav; Benko, Peter; Chvála, Aleš; Škriniarová, Jaroslava; Kordó, Peter

    2014-09-01

    Electrical properties of recessed and non-recessed AlGaN/GaN Schottky diodes under off-state stress were investigated. The samples were consecutively stressed by the stepped negative bias (-60 V). Before and after the stress I-V and C-V characteristics were evaluated to verify the device degradation process. Finally, the degradation mechanism and the influence of AlGaN recessed layer thickness on the electrical properties of the Schottky diodes were analysed. It was found that the short time stress influence on I-V characteristics was most negligible for the non-recessed sample. Shallow and deep recessed samples exhibited initial trap filling and reverse current decrease. Generally it was found that the stress voltage near 60 V caused recoverable device degradation

  11. Observations of barrier layer in southeastern Arabian Sea using Argo observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, Rashmi; Agarwal, Neeraj; Sarkar, Abhijit

    2006-12-01

    We present in this work composite relationships among Barrier Layer (BL) depth, and various other parameters either directly responsible for its formation or the sequence of events which follow once it is formed. Underlying mechanisms responsible for the development of the BL depth, its sustenance and annihilation are examined in the southeastern Arabian Sea (SEAS) in the north Indian Ocean using primarily ARGO floats observations along with ancillary data from various satellites and surface currents from ocean model. All the available Argo floats observations of temperature and salinity as of December 2005 have been analyzed to evaluate the seasonal characteristics of barrier layer (BL) in this warm pool region of Arabian Sea. The annual average BL thickness in this region varies from 20 to 70 m, with larger values towards coast. The standard deviation is also high (15-30 m) in this region showing a strong seasonal variation. In a complete seasonal characteristic studied with the use of observations, BL thickness shows a primary peak (~ 50 m) in January and a secondary peak in September (~ 35 m). While the former is remotely forced, the later owes its generation to the local forcing via precipitation. TMI observations show a lag of 3 months in the SST warming with respect to the maximum BL thickness observed during January. Peak warming in SST during April immediately follows by rise in integrated water vapour. Interestingly, following the secondary maxima of BL, SST does not show any warming signature, possibly due to the overcast condition, preventing the surface from heating up.

  12. The Influence of Unconformities Along the Layer Interface on Capillary Barrier Flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wohnlich, S.; Dallery, M.; Lesón, M.; Bitomsky, K.

    2008-12-01

    Under unsaturated conditions the water flow in sediments is largely influenced by capillary forces. Especially if layers of fine grained sand overlay coarser layers of sand and gravel. The fine soil layer stores infiltrating water (capillary forces), acts like a drainage layer in sloping systems and thus is used to divert laterally the water under unsaturated conditions. This effect is used in waste technology as a barrier to downward flow. By far most of the present experiments with this respect were investigating undisturbed, straight construction of the interface between the two layers. Sedimentological unconformities in natural soils or uneven settlements of underlying waste are disturbing this distinct construction. These unconformities along the layer interface may change the flow pattern and cause vertical breakthrough. The experiments presented here are aimed to quantify the influence of interface discontinuities on the capillary flow. In the experimental set up a capillary layer (0.35 m sand) and capillary block (0.18 m gravel) were placed in an experimental tank of 6 m length, 1 m high, and 0.6 m width, with a slope of 11.3°. The tank is subdivided in 12 separately measurable drainage compartments, which enables the identification and quantification of local breakthrough. Inflow, outflow at all 14 segments, soil water tension (13 tensiometers), soil moisture (4 TDR probes) were automatically monitored. In addition tracers (NaCl and Amidorhodamine G) were used to visualize the flow pattern and determine hydraulic parameters. In a first set of experiments (3) the interface between sand and gravel were partially covered by a plastic membrane with variable openings. The second setup included two pillows filled with water, which were placed in the gravel during the construction each on the left and the right side of the tank, in a distance of 0.42 m from the upper end. In all setups the inflow rate was stepwise increased until reaching the lateral drainage

  13. Design, installation, and performance of a multi-layered permeable reactive barrier, Los Alamos National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Kaszuba, J. P.; Longmire, P. A.; Strietelmeier, E. A.; Taylor, T. P.; Den-Baars, P. S.

    2004-01-01

    A multi-layered permeable reactive barrier (PRB) has been installed in Mortandad Canyon, on the Pajarito Plateau in the north-central part of LANL, to demonstrate in-situ treatment of a suite of contaminants with dissimilar geochemical properties. The PRB will also mitigate possible vulnerabilities from downgradient contaminant movement within alluvial and deeper perched groundwater. Mortandad Canyon was selected as the location for this demonstration project because the flow of alluvial groundwater is constrained by the geology of the canyon, a large network of monitoring wells already were installed along the canyon reach, and the hydrochemistry and contaminant history of the canyon is well-documented. The PRB uses a funnel-and-gate system with a series of four reactive media cells to immobilize or destroy contaminants present in alluvial groundwater, including strontium-90, plutonium-238,239,240, americium-241, perchlorate, and nitrate. The four cells, ordered by sequence of contact with the groundwater, consist of gravel-sized scoria (for colloid removal); phosphate rock containing apatite (for metals and radionuclides); pecan shells and cotton seed admixed with gravel (bio-barrier, to deplete dissolved oxygen and destroy potential RCRA organic compounds, nitrate and perchlorate); and limestone (pH buffering and anion adsorption). Design elements of the PRB are based on laboratory-scale treatability studies and on a field investigation of hydrologic, geochemical, and geotechnical parameters. The PRB was designed with the following criteria: 1-day residence time within the biobarrier, 10-year lifetime, minimization of surface water infiltration and erosion, optimization of hydraulic capture, and minimization of excavated material requiring disposal. Each layer has been equipped with monitoring wells or ports to allow sampling of groundwater and reactive media, and monitor wells are located immediately adjacent to the up- and down-gradient perimeter of the

  14. Enhanced Barrier Performance of Engineered Paper by Atomic Layer Deposited Al2O3 Thin Films.

    PubMed

    Mirvakili, Mehr Negar; Van Bui, Hao; van Ommen, J Ruud; Hatzikiriakos, Savvas G; Englezos, Peter

    2016-06-01

    Surface modification of cellulosic paper is demonstrated by employing plasma assisted atomic layer deposition. Al2O3 thin films are deposited on paper substrates, prepared with different fiber sizes, to improve their barrier properties. Thus, a hydrophobic paper is created with low gas permeability by combining the control of fiber size (and structure) with atomic layer deposition of Al2O3 films. Papers are prepared using Kraft softwood pulp and thermomechanical pulp. The cellulosic wood fibers are refined to obtain fibers with smaller length and diameter. Films of Al2O3, 10, 25, and 45 nm in thickness, are deposited on the paper surface. The work demonstrates that coating of papers prepared with long fibers efficiently reduces wettability with slight enhancement in gas permeability, whereas on shorter fibers, it results in significantly lower gas permeability. Wettability studies on Al2O3 deposited paper substrates have shown water wicking and absorption over time only in papers prepared with highly refined fibers. It is also shown that there is a certain fiber size at which the gas permeability assumes its minimum value, and further decrease in fiber size will reverse the effect on gas permeability. PMID:27165172

  15. Barrier performance optimization of atomic layer deposited diffusion barriers for organic light emitting diodes using x-ray reflectivity investigations

    SciTech Connect

    Singh, Aarti Schröder, Uwe; Klumbies, Hannes; Müller-Meskamp, Lars; Leo, Karl; Geidel, Marion; Knaut, Martin; Hoßbach, Christoph; Albert, Matthias; Mikolajick, Thomas

    2013-12-02

    The importance of O{sub 3} pulse duration for encapsulation of organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs) with ultra thin inorganic atomic layer deposited Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} layers is demonstrated for deposition temperatures of 50 °C. X-ray reflectivity (XRR) measurements show that O{sub 3} pulse durations longer than 15 s produce dense and thin Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} layers. Correspondingly, black spot growth is not observed in OLEDs encapsulated with such layers during 91 days of aging under ambient conditions. This implies that XRR can be used as a tool for process optimization of OLED encapsulation layers leading to devices with long lifetimes.

  16. Degradation of a two-layer thermal barrier coating under thermal cycling. [for superalloys of aircraft turbine engine blades

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maier, R. D.; Scheuermann, C. M.; Andrews, C. W.

    1981-01-01

    A two-layer plasma-sprayed thermal barrier coating on a directionally solidified nickel-base eutectic alloy substrate was characterized prior to and after thermal cycling to 1095 C in an accelerated furnace test. The coating was comprised of an inner layer of Ni-16.4Cr-5.1Al-0.15Y (wt%) bond coat and an outer layer of ZrO2-7.9Y2O3 (wt%) thermal barrier. Characterization of the bond coat revealed that substantial amounts of yttrium and aluminum were oxidized during plasma-spraying in air. The oxidation of these elements reduced the protective capacity of the bond coat so that, on thermal exposure, severe degradation of the bond coat resulted and large amounts of nickel oxide formed. This nickel oxide was demonstrated to grow outward into the thermal barrier, which appears to have increased the stresses in the thermal barrier and contributed to its failure near the thermal barrier-bond coat interface.

  17. Effects of Ga-Te interface layer on the potential barrier height of CdTe/GaAs heterointerface.

    PubMed

    Xi, Shouzhi; Jie, Wanqi; Zha, Gangqiang; Yuan, Yanyan; Wang, Tao; Zhang, Wenhua; Zhu, Junfa; Xu, Lingyan; Xu, Yadong; Su, Jie; Zhang, Hao; Gu, Yaxu; Li, Jiawei; Ren, Jie; Zhao, Qinghua

    2016-01-28

    The interface layer has great significance on the potential barrier height of the CdTe/GaAs heterointerface. In this study, the electronic properties of the CdTe/GaAs heterostructure prepared by molecular beam epitaxy was investigated in situ by synchrotron radiation photoemission spectroscopy for CdTe thicknesses ranging from 3.5 to 74.6 Å. During CdTe deposition, an As-Te and Ga-Te interface reaction occurred, which caused the out diffusion of Ga. As a result a stable GaTe interface dipole layer (more than 30 Å) was formed, which reduced the potential barrier height by 0.38 eV. The potential barrier height was in proportion to the chemical bonding density and thickness of the Ga-Te interface layer. These results provide a more fundamental understanding of the influencing mechanism of the interface layer on the potential barrier height of the CdTe/GaAs heterointerface. PMID:26699197

  18. Surface-layer damage and responsivity in sputtered-ITO/p-GaN Schottky-barrier photodiodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pulfrey, D. L.; Parish, G.; Wee, D.; Nener, B. D.

    2005-12-01

    It is postulated that donor-like nitrogen vacancies, caused by the sputtering of a Schottky-barrier metal onto p-type gallium nitride, diffuse into the GaN and form a surface layer in which both the minority-carrier lifetime and mobility are drastically reduced. Such a damaged surface layer is shown to reduce the responsivity of p-GaN Schottky-barrier photodiodes, thereby offering an explanation for the responsivity values in the range of 0.03-0.04 A/W that have been measured in experimental ITO/p-GaN devices. On making allowance for the damaged surface layer, an electron diffusion length of around 300 nm can be inferred for the undamaged p-GaN region.

  19. Growth of AlGaN on silicon substrates: a novel way to make back-illuminated ultraviolet photodetectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McClintock, Ryan; Razeghi, Manijeh

    2015-08-01

    AlGaN, with its tunable wide-bandgap is a good choice for the realization of ultraviolet photodetectors. AlGaN films tend to be grown on foreign substrates such as sapphire, which is the most common choice for back-illuminated devices. However, even ultraviolet opaque substrates like silicon holds promise because, silicon can be removed by chemical treatment to allow back-illumination,1 and it is a very low-cost substrate which is available in large diameters up to 300 mm. However, Implementation of silicon as the solar-blind PD substrates requires overcoming the lattice-mismatch (17%) with the AlxGa1-xN that leads to high density of dislocation and crack-initiating stress. In this talk, we report the growth of thick crack-free AlGaN films on (111) silicon substrates through the use of a substrate patterning and mask-less selective area regrowth. This technique is critical as it decouples the epilayers and the substrate and allows for crack-free growth; however, the masking also helps to reduce the dislocation density by inclining the growth direction and encouraging dislocations to annihilate. A back-illuminated p-i-n PD structure is subsequently grown on this high quality template layer. After processing and hybridizing the device we use a chemical process to selectively remove the silicon substrate. This removal has minimal effect on the device, but it removes the UV-opaque silicon and allows back-illumination of the photodetector. We report our latest results of back-illuminated solar-blind photodetectors growth on silicon.

  20. Thin-film Nanofibrous Composite Membranes Containing Cellulose or Chitin Barrier Layers Fabricated by Ionic Liquids

    SciTech Connect

    H Ma; B Hsiao; B Chu

    2011-12-31

    The barrier layer of high-flux ultrafiltration (UF) thin-film nanofibrous composite (TFNC) membranes for purification of wastewater (e.g., bilge water) have been prepared by using cellulose, chitin, and a cellulose-chitin blend, regenerated from an ionic liquid. The structures and properties of regenerated cellulose, chitin, and a cellulose-chitin blend were analyzed with thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and wide-angle X-ray diffraction (WAXD). The surface morphology, pore size and pore size distribution of TFNC membranes were determined by SEM images and molecular weight cut-off (MWCO) methods. An oil/water emulsion, a model of bilge water, was used as the feed solution, and the permeation flux and rejection ratio of the membranes were investigated. TFNC membranes based on the cellulose-chitin blend exhibited 10 times higher permeation flux when compared with a commercial UF membrane (PAN10, Sepro) with a similar rejection ratio after filtration over a time period of up to 100 h, implying the practical feasibility of such membranes for UF applications.

  1. The Barrier Layer of the Atlantic Warmpool: Formation Mechanism and Influence on the Mean Climate

    SciTech Connect

    Balaguru, Karthik; Chang, P.; Saravanan, R.; Jang, C. J.

    2012-04-20

    Many Coupled General Circulation Models (CGCMs) tend to overestimate the salinity in the Atlantic warm pool or the Northwestern Tropical Atlantic (NWTA) and underestimate the surface salinity in the subtropical salinity maxima region. Most of these models also suffer from a sea-surface temperature (SST) bias in the NWTA region, leading to suggestions that the upper ocean salinity stratification may need to be improved in order to improve the Barrier Layer (BL) simulations and thus the SST through BL-SST-Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ) feedbacks. In the present study, we use a CGCM to perform a set of idealized numerical experiments to test and understand the sensitivity of the BL and consequently SST in the NWTA region to freshwater flux and hence the upper ocean salinity stratification. We find that the BL of the NWTA is sensitive to upper ocean salinity changes in the Amazon river discharge region and the subtropical salinity maxima region. The BL phenomenon is further manifested by the formation of winter temperature inversions in our model simulations, the maximum magnitude of inversions being about 0.20 C. The atmo- spheric response causes a statistically significant reduction of mean precipitation and SST in the equatorial Atlantic region and helps improve the respective biases by 10-15 %. In the region of improved BL simulation, the SST change is positive and in the right direction of bias correction, albeit weak.

  2. Growth and Structure of Metallic Barrier Layer and Interconnect Films I: Experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Baumann, F.H.; Gilmer, G.H.; O'Sullivan, P.L.; Sapjeta, J.; Torre, J.D.; Windt, D.L.

    1999-04-05

    We present experimented results directed at understanding the growth and structure of metallic barrier layer and interconnect films. Numerical simulation results associated with this experimental work are presented in an accompanying paper in these proceedings. Here, thin films of Al, Ti, Cu and Ta have been grown by magnetron sputtering onto oxidized Si substrates. Using a specially-constructed substrate holder, the orientation of the substrate with respect to the growth direction was varied from horizontal to vertical. Films were grown at both low and high argon pressure; in the case of Ta, the cathode power was varied as well. The film structure and in particular the surface roughness was measured by X-ray reflectance and also by atomic force microscopy. We find that the surface roughness increases markedly with orientation angle in the case of Ta and Cu films, and in Ti films grown at high argon pressure. At low pressure, however, the Ti film surface roughness remains constant for all substrate orientations. No variation in roughness with either orientation angle or argon pressure was observed in the Al films. These results suggest that, under certain circumstances, shadowing effects and/or grain orientation (i.e., texture) competition during growth can give rise to lower density, more porous (and thus more rough) films, particularly at large orientation angles, as on sidewalls in sub-micron trenches.

  3. Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} multi-density layer structure as a moisture permeation barrier deposited by radio frequency remote plasma atomic layer deposition

    SciTech Connect

    Jung, Hyunsoo; Jeon, Heeyoung; Choi, Hagyoung; Ham, Giyul; Shin, Seokyoon; Jeon, Hyeongtag

    2014-02-21

    Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} films deposited by remote plasma atomic layer deposition have been used for thin film encapsulation of organic light emitting diode. In this study, a multi-density layer structure consisting of two Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} layers with different densities are deposited with different deposition conditions of O{sub 2} plasma reactant time. This structure improves moisture permeation barrier characteristics, as confirmed by a water vapor transmission rate (WVTR) test. The lowest WVTR of the multi-density layer structure was 4.7 × 10{sup −5} gm{sup −2} day{sup −1}, which is one order of magnitude less than WVTR for the reference single-density Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} layer. This improvement is attributed to the location mismatch of paths for atmospheric gases, such as O{sub 2} and H{sub 2}O, in the film due to different densities in the layers. This mechanism is analyzed by high resolution transmission electron microscopy, elastic recoil detection, and angle resolved X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. These results confirmed that the multi-density layer structure exhibits very good characteristics as an encapsulation layer via location mismatch of paths for H{sub 2}O and O{sub 2} between the two layers.

  4. Dual Band Deep Ultraviolet AlGaN Photodetectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aslam, S.; Miko, L.; Stahle, C.; Franz, D.; Pugel, D.; Guan, B.; Zhang, J. P.; Gaska, R.

    2007-01-01

    We report on the design, fabrication and characterization of a back-illuminated voltage bias selectable dual-band AlGaN UV photodetector. The photodetector can separate UVA and W-B band radiation by bias switching a two terminal n-p-n homojunction structure that is fabricated in the same pixel. When a forward bias is applied between the top and bottom electrodes, the detector can sense UV-A and reject W-B band radiation. Alternatively, under reverse bias, the photodetector can sense UV-B and reject UV-A band radiation.

  5. Remodeling of Tight Junctions and Enhancement of Barrier Integrity of the CACO-2 Intestinal Epithelial Cell Layer by Micronutrients

    PubMed Central

    Valenzano, Mary Carmen; DiGuilio, Katherine; Mercado, Joanna; Teter, Mimi; To, Julie; Ferraro, Brendan; Mixson, Brittany; Manley, Isabel; Baker, Valerissa; Moore, Beverley A.; Wertheimer, Joshua; Mullin, James M.

    2015-01-01

    The micronutrients zinc, quercetin, butyrate, indole and berberine were evaluated for their ability to induce remodeling of epithelial tight junctions (TJs) and enhance barrier integrity in the CACO-2 gastrointestinal epithelial cell culture model. All five of these chemically very diverse micronutrients increased transepithelial electrical resistance (Rt) significantly, but only berberine also improved barrier integrity to the non-electrolyte D-mannitol. Increases of Rt as much as 200% of untreated controls were observed. Each of the five micronutrients also induced unique, signature-like changes in TJ protein composition, suggesting multiple pathways (and TJ arrangements) by which TJ barrier function can be enhanced. Decreases in abundance by as much as 90% were observed for claudin-2, and increases of over 300% could be seen for claudins -5 and -7. The exact effects of the micronutrients on barrier integrity and TJ protein composition were found to be highly dependent on the degree of differentiation of the cell layer at the time it was exposed to the micronutrient. The substratum to which the epithelial layer adheres was also found to regulate the response of the cell layer to the micronutrient. The implications of these findings for therapeutically decreasing morbidity in Inflammatory Bowel Disease are discussed. PMID:26226276

  6. Plasma-Enhanced Atomic Layer Deposition of Ruthenium-Titanium Nitride Mixed-Phase Layers for Direct-Plate Liner and Copper Diffusion Barrier Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gildea, Adam James

    Current interconnect networks in semiconductor processing utilize a sputtered TaN diffusion barrier, Ta liner, and Cu seed to improve the adhesion, microstructure, and electromigration resistance of electrochemically deposited copper that fills interconnect wires and vias. However, as wire/via widths shrink due to device scaling, it becomes increasingly difficult to have the volume of a wire/via be occupied with ECD Cu which increases line resistance and increases the delay in signal propagation in IC chips. A single layer that could serve the purpose of a Cu diffusion barrier and ECD Cu adhesion promoter could allow ECD Cu to occupy a larger volume of a wire/via, leading to a decrease in line resistance and decrease in signal delay. Previous work has shown RuTaN, RuWCN, and RuCo films can act as Cu diffusion barriers and be directly platable to thickness of 2-3nm. However, other material selections may prove as effective or possibly better. Mixed-phase films of ruthenium titanium nitride grown by atomic layer deposition (ALD) were investigated for their performance as a Cu diffusion barrier and as a surface for the direct plating of ECD Cu. All Ru was deposited by plasma-enhanced atomic layer deposition (PEALD) while TiN was deposited by either thermal ALD or PEALD. RuTiN, films with thermal ALD TiN and a Ru:Ti of 20:1 showed barrier performance comparable to PVD TaN at 3-4 nm thickness and 15 nm planar films were directly platable. Follow up work is certainly needed for this material set, yet initial results indicate RuTiN could serve as an effective direct plate liner for Cu interconnects.

  7. High reflectance Cr/V multilayer with B(4)C barrier layer for water window wavelength region.

    PubMed

    Huang, Qiushi; Fei, Jiani; Liu, Yang; Li, Pin; Wen, Mingwu; Xie, Chun; Jonnard, Philippe; Giglia, Angelo; Zhang, Zhong; Wang, Kun; Wang, Zhanshan

    2016-02-15

    To develop the high reflectance mirror for the short wavelength range of the water window region (λ=2.42-2.73  nm), Cr/V multilayers with B4C barrier layers are studied. The grazing incidence x-ray reflectometry results show that the multilayer interface widths are significantly reduced down to 0.21-0.31 nm, after the introduction of 0.1 nm B4C barrier layers at both interfaces. The [B4C/Cr/B4C/V] multilayer with a large number of bilayers of N=300 maintains the same small interface widths while the surface roughness is only 0.2 nm. According to the transmission electron microscope measurements, the layer structure improvement with barrier layers can be attributed to the suppression of the crystallization of vanadium inside the structure. Using the interface engineered multilayer, a maximum soft x-ray reflectance of 24.3% is achieved at λ=2.441  nm, under the grazing incidence of 42°. PMID:26872167

  8. Ultraviolet-enhanced light emitting diode employing individual ZnO microwire with SiO{sub 2} barrier layers

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, Yingtian; Xu, Li; Dai, Jun; Ma, Yan; Chu, Xianwei; Zhang, Yuantao; Du, Guotong; Zhang, Baolin; Yin, Jingzhi

    2015-05-25

    This paper details the fabrication of n-ZnO single microwire (SMW)-based high-purity ultraviolet light-emitting diodes (UV-LEDs) with an added SiO{sub 2} barrier layer on the p-Si substrate. However, the current-voltage (I-V) curve exhibited non-ideal rectifying characteristics. Under forward bias, both UV and visible emissions could be detected by electroluminescence (EL) measurement. When bias voltage reached 60 V at room temperature, a UV emission spike occurred at 390 nm originating from the n-ZnO SMW. Compared with the EL spectrum of the n-ZnO SMW/p-Si heterojunction device without the SiO{sub 2} barrier layer, we saw improved UV light extraction efficiency from the current-blocking effect of the SiO{sub 2} layer. The intense UV emission in the n-ZnO SMW/SiO{sub 2}/p-Si heterojunction indicated that the SiO{sub 2} barrier layer can restrict the movement of electrons as expected and result in effective electron-hole recombination in ZnO SMW.

  9. Controlled aluminum-induced crystallization of an amorphous silicon thin film by using an oxide-layer diffusion barrier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hwang, Ji-Hyun; Kwak, Hyunmin; Kwon, Myeung Hoi

    2014-03-01

    Aluminum-induced crystallization (AIC) of amorphous silicon with an Al2O3 diffusion barrier was investigated for controlling Si crystallization and preventing layer exchange during the annealing process. An Al2O3 layer was deposited between the a-Si and the Al films (a-Si/Al2O3/Al/Glass) and was blasted with an air spray gun with alumina beads to form diffusion channels between the Si and the Al layers. During the annealing process, small grain Si x Al seeds were formed at the channels. Then, the Al2O3 diffusion barrier was restructured to close the channels and prevent further diffusion of Al atoms into the a-Si layer. A polycrystalline Si film with (111), (220) and (311) crystallization peaks in the X-ray diffraction pattern was formed by annealing at 560 °C in a conventional furnace. That film showed a p-type semiconducting behavior with good crystallinity and a large grain size of up to 14.8 µm. No layer conversion occurred between the Si and the Al layers, which had been the fundamental obstacle to the applications in the crystallization of a-Si films by using the AIC method.

  10. Optimal deposition conditions of TiN barrier layers for the growth of vertically aligned carbon nanotubes onto metallic substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    García-Céspedes, J.; Álvarez-García, J.; Zhang, X.; Hampshire, J.; Bertran, E.

    2009-05-01

    Plasma enhanced chemical deposition (PECVD) has proven over the years to be the preferred method for the growth of vertically aligned carbon nanotubes and nanofibres (VACNTs and VACNFs, respectively). In particular, carbon nanotubes (CNTs) grown on metallic surfaces present a great potential for high power applications, including low resistance electrical contacts, high power switches, electron guns or supercapacitors. Nevertheless, the deposition of CNTs onto metallic substrates is challenging, due to the intrinsic incompatibility between such substrates and the metallic precursor layers required to promote the growth of CNTs. In particular, the formation of CNT films is assisted by the presence of a nanometric (10-100 nm) monolayer of catalyst clusters, which act as nucleation sites for CNTs. The nanometric character of the precursor layer, together with the high growth temperature involved during the PECVD process (~700 °C), strongly favours the in-diffusion of the catalyst nanoclusters into the bulk of the metallic substrate, which results in a dramatic reduction in the nucleation of CNTs. In order to overcome this problem, it is necessary to coat the metallic substrate with a diffusion barrier layer, prior to the growth of the catalyst precursor. Unlike other conventional ceramic barrier layers, TiN provides high electrical conductivity, thus being a promising candidate for use as barrier material in applications involving low resistance contacts. In this work we investigate the anti-diffusion properties of TiN sputtered coatings and its potential applicability to the growth of CNTs onto copper substrates, using Fe as catalyst material. The barrier and catalyst layers were deposited by magnetron sputtering. Auger electron spectroscopy was used to determine the diffusivity of Fe into TiN. Morphological characterization of the CNTs coatings was performed on scanning and transmission electron microscopes. Raman spectroscopy and x-ray diffraction were employed to

  11. Enhancement of optical polarization degree of AlGaN quantum wells by using staggered structure.

    PubMed

    Wang, Weiying; Lu, Huimin; Fu, Lei; He, Chenguang; Wang, Mingxing; Tang, Ning; Xu, Fujun; Yu, Tongjun; Ge, Weikun; Shen, Bo

    2016-08-01

    Staggered AlGaN quantum wells (QWs) are designed to enhance the transverse-electric (TE) polarized optical emission in deep ultraviolet (DUV) light- emitting diodes (LED). The optical polarization properties of the conventional and staggered AlGaN QWs are investigated by a theoretical model based on the k·p method as well as polarized photoluminescence (PL) measurements. Based on an analysis of the valence subbands and momentum matrix elements, it is found that AlGaN QWs with step-function-like Al content in QWs offers much stronger TE polarized emission in comparison to that from conventional AlGaN QWs. Experimental results show that the degree of the PL polarization at room temperature can be enhanced from 20.8% of conventional AlGaN QWs to 40.2% of staggered AlGaN QWs grown by MOCVD, which is in good agreement with the theoretical simulation. It suggests that polarization band engineering via staggered AlGaN QWs can be well applied in high efficiency AlGaN-based DUV LEDs. PMID:27505782

  12. INVESTIGATION OF Ta/Ni-Al INTEGRATED FILM USED AS A DIFFUSION BARRIER LAYER BETWEEN Cu AND Si

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Lim; Wang, Shi Jie; Huo, Ji Chuan; Li, Xiao Hong; Guo, Jian Xin; Dai, Xiu Hong; Ma, Lian Xi; Zhang, Xiang Yi; Liu, Bao Ting

    2014-09-01

    Ta (3.3 nm)/Ni-Al (3.3 nm) integrated films deposited on Si substrates by magnetron sputtering, annealed at various temperatures in a ultra-high vacuum, have been studied as diffusion barrier layers between Cu and Si for application in Cu interconnection. The images of transmission electron microscopy (TEM) prove that the cross-sectional interfaces of Cu/Ta/Ni-Al/Si sample annealed at 600°C are clear and sharp. No Cu-silicide peaks can be found from the X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns of the 850°C annealed sample, but the sheet resistance of the sample increases abruptly. Moreover, large grooves are found from the image of atomic force microscopy (AFM) for the 850°C annealed sample, implying the failure of the diffusion barrier. The integrated Ta/Ni-Al barrier layer retains thermally stable nature up to at least 800°C, indicating that the Ta/Ni-Al integrated film is an excellent diffusion barrier between Cu and Si.

  13. An electrically injected AlGaN nanowire laser operating in the ultraviolet-C band

    SciTech Connect

    Zhao, S.; Liu, X.; Kang, J.; Mi, Z.; Woo, S. Y.; Botton, G. A.

    2015-07-27

    We have investigated the molecular beam epitaxial growth and characterization of nearly defect-free AlGaN nanowire heterostructures grown directly on Si substrate. By exploiting the Anderson localization of light, we have demonstrated electrically injected AlGaN nanowire lasers that can operate at 262.1 nm. The threshold current density is 200 A/cm{sup 2} at 77 K. The relatively low threshold current is attributed to the high Q-factor of the random cavity and the three-dimensional quantum confinement offered by the atomic-scale composition modulation in self-organized AlGaN nanowires.

  14. Efficient charge carrier injection into sub-250 nm AlGaN multiple quantum well light emitting diodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mehnke, Frank; Kuhn, Christian; Guttmann, Martin; Reich, Christoph; Kolbe, Tim; Kueller, Viola; Knauer, Arne; Lapeyrade, Mickael; Einfeldt, Sven; Rass, Jens; Wernicke, Tim; Weyers, Markus; Kneissl, Michael

    2014-08-01

    The design and Mg-doping profile of AlN/Al0.7Ga0.3N electron blocking heterostructures (EBH) for AlGaN multiple quantum well (MQW) light emitting diodes (LEDs) emitting below 250 nm was investigated. By inserting an AlN electron blocking layer (EBL) into the EBH, we were able to increase the quantum well emission power and significantly reduce long wavelength parasitic luminescence. Furthermore, electron leakage was suppressed by optimizing the thickness of the AlN EBL while still maintaining sufficient hole injection. Ultraviolet (UV)-C LEDs with very low parasitic luminescence (7% of total emission power) and external quantum efficiencies of 0.19% at 246 nm have been realized. This concept was applied to AlGaN MQW LEDs emitting between 235 nm and 263 nm with external quantum efficiencies ranging from 0.002% to 0.93%. After processing, we were able to demonstrate an UV-C LED emitting at 234 nm with 14.5 μW integrated optical output power and an external quantum efficiency of 0.012% at 18.2 A/cm2.

  15. Efficient charge carrier injection into sub-250 nm AlGaN multiple quantum well light emitting diodes

    SciTech Connect

    Mehnke, Frank Kuhn, Christian; Guttmann, Martin; Reich, Christoph; Kolbe, Tim; Rass, Jens; Wernicke, Tim; Kueller, Viola; Knauer, Arne; Lapeyrade, Mickael; Einfeldt, Sven; Weyers, Markus; Kneissl, Michael

    2014-08-04

    The design and Mg-doping profile of AlN/Al{sub 0.7}Ga{sub 0.3}N electron blocking heterostructures (EBH) for AlGaN multiple quantum well (MQW) light emitting diodes (LEDs) emitting below 250 nm was investigated. By inserting an AlN electron blocking layer (EBL) into the EBH, we were able to increase the quantum well emission power and significantly reduce long wavelength parasitic luminescence. Furthermore, electron leakage was suppressed by optimizing the thickness of the AlN EBL while still maintaining sufficient hole injection. Ultraviolet (UV)-C LEDs with very low parasitic luminescence (7% of total emission power) and external quantum efficiencies of 0.19% at 246 nm have been realized. This concept was applied to AlGaN MQW LEDs emitting between 235 nm and 263 nm with external quantum efficiencies ranging from 0.002% to 0.93%. After processing, we were able to demonstrate an UV-C LED emitting at 234 nm with 14.5 μW integrated optical output power and an external quantum efficiency of 0.012% at 18.2 A/cm{sup 2}.

  16. Efficient, air-stable colloidal quantum dot solar cells encapsulated using atomic layer deposition of a nanolaminate barrier

    SciTech Connect

    Ip, Alexander H.; Labelle, André J.; Sargent, Edward H.

    2013-12-23

    Atomic layer deposition was used to encapsulate colloidal quantum dot solar cells. A nanolaminate layer consisting of alternating alumina and zirconia films provided a robust gas permeation barrier which prevented device performance degradation over a period of multiple weeks. Unencapsulated cells stored in ambient and nitrogen environments demonstrated significant performance losses over the same period. The encapsulated cell also exhibited stable performance under constant simulated solar illumination without filtration of harsh ultraviolet photons. This monolithically integrated thin film encapsulation method is promising for roll-to-roll processed high efficiency nanocrystal solar cells.

  17. Low frequency noise in asymmetric double barrier magnetic tunnel junctions with a top thin MgO layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Hui-Qiang; Tang, Wei-Yue; Liu, Liang; Wei, Jian; Li, Da-Lai; Feng, Jia-Feng; Han, Xiu-Feng

    2015-07-01

    Low frequency noise has been investigated at room temperature for asymmetric double barrier magnetic tunnel junctions (DBMTJs), where the coupling between the top and middle CoFeB layers is antiferromagnetic with a 0.8-nm thin top MgO barrier of the CoFeB/MgO/CoFe/CoFeB/MgO/CoFeB DBMTJ. At enough large bias, 1/f noise dominates the voltage noise power spectra in the low frequency region, and is conventionally characterized by the Hooge parameter αmag. With increasing external field, the top and bottom ferromagnetic layers are aligned by the field, and then the middle free layer rotates from antiparallel state (antiferromagnetic coupling between top and middle ferromagnetic layers) to parallel state. In this rotation process αmag and magnetoresistance-sensitivity-product show a linear dependence, consistent with the fluctuation dissipation relation. With the magnetic field applied at different angles (θ) to the easy axis of the free layer, the linear dependence persists while the intercept of the linear fit satisfies a cos(θ) dependence, similar to that for the magnetoresistance, suggesting intrinsic relation between magnetic losses and magnetoresistance. Project supported by the National Basic Research Program of China (Grant Nos. 2011CBA00106, 2012CB927400, 2010CB934401, and 2014AA032904), the National High Technology Research and Development Program of China (Grant No. 2014AA032904), and the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 11434014 and 11104252).

  18. On statistical properties of transport barriers in magnetospheric and laboratory boundary layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Savin, Sergey; Budaev, Viacheslav; Zeleniy, Lev; Amata, Ermanno; Kozak, Lyudmila; Buechner, Joerg; Romanov, Stanislav; Blecki, Jan; Balikhin, Michael A.; Lezhen, Liudmila

    Transport barriers at outer magnetospheric boundaries have a dualistic feature: being effec-tive in limitation of the momentum transfer and serving as an effective obstacle, they display the super-diffusive statistical properties and provide partial exchange of plasmas. In tokamaks namely the statistical properties of transport barriers look to control the high and low heating modes, while small size of the barriers prevents their detailed studies. We tend to use magne-tospheric multi-spacecraft data to improve understanding of common physics in the transport barriers. We show examples from Interball-1 and Cluster with quiet solar wind. The inherently turbulent crossings in this equilibrium cases demonstrate ion heating namely in the transport barrier. It agrees with the kinetic energy transformation into the thermal one inside the barrier -the turbulent dissipation of the magnetosheath kinetic energy -as simultaneously with the ion temperature rise, the general velocity component drops from its model prediction. In sense of the momentum transfer the transport turbulent barriers effectively isolate the high-alti-tude cusp from fast-flowing magnetosheath. Contrary to that, several examples from different missions and different plasma parameters demonstrate the super-diffusive transport character. The individual coherent structures inside the barriers, which we call Alfvenic 'collapsons', have similar scale chains to that of high kinetic plasma pressure jets, showing mutual interaction features. We think that the interacting jets and barriers, accompanying by classic and/ or micro-reconnection, have rather general importance for the plasma physics, and for understanding of turbulence and mechanisms of magnetic field generation. These coherent, nonlinear interacting structures, most probably, provide intermittency a long-range correlations inside the transport barriers (c.f. blobs and flow spikes in fusion devices). We recall that very high-amplitude turbulence in

  19. Enhancement of the barrier performance in organic/inorganic multilayer thin-film structures by annealing of the parylene layer

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Namsu; Graham, Samuel; Hwang, Kyung-Jun

    2014-10-15

    Highlights: • High performance thin-film barrier structure for encapsulation was fabricated. • By annealing parylene in encapsulation structure, the barrier performance was improved. • The effective water vapor transmission rate is 7.2 ± 3.0 × 10{sup −6} g/m{sup 2}/day. - Abstract: A multilayered barrier structure was fabricated by chemical vapor deposition of parylene and subsequent plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition of SiO{sub x} or SiN{sub x}. The barrier performance against water vapor ingress was significantly improved by annealing the parylene layer before the deposition of either SiO{sub x} or SiN{sub x}. The mechanism of this enhancement was investigated using atomic force microscopy, Raman spectroscopy, and X-ray diffraction. The surface roughness of the parylene before the deposition of either SiO{sub x} or SiN{sub x} was found to correlate closely with the barrier performance of the multilayered structures. In addition, removing absorbed water vapor in the film by annealing results in a lower water vapor transmission rate in the transient region and a longer lag time. Annealing the parylene leads to a large decrease in the effective water vapor transmission rate, which reaches 7.2 ± 3.0 × 10{sup −6} g/m{sup 2}/day.

  20. Helicobacter pylori in vivo causes structural changes in the adherent gastric mucus layer but barrier thickness is not compromised

    PubMed Central

    Newton, J; Jordan, N; Oliver, L; Strugala, V; Pearson, J; James, O; Allen, A

    1998-01-01

    Background—It has been proposed that a pathogenic effect of Helicobacter pylori is a weakening of the protective mucus barrier; however, this remains controversial. 
Aims—To clarify the effects of H pylori infection on the mucus gel barrier in vivo. 
Methods—Mucus gel polymeric structure and the thickness of the adherent mucus barrier were measured in endoscopic biopsy samples in subjects with and without H pylori infection. 
Results—There was a significant 18% reduction in the proportion of polymeric gel forming mucin in the adherent mucus layer in H pylori positive compared with negative subjects. There was no change in the adherent mucus thickness between H pylori positive and negative subjects without gastric atrophy (mean (SD): 104(26) µm, 106 (30) µm respectively). There was however a significant reduction in mucus thickness in those H pylori positive subjects with underlying gastric atrophy (84 (13) µm, p=0.03) compared with those without atrophy. 
Conclusions—A partial breakdown in gel forming structure of the gastric mucus barrier does occur in H pylori infection per se but this is insufficient to cause a collapse of the mucus barrier. 

 Keywords: Helicobacter pylori; gastric mucus PMID:9824571

  1. Electroless nickel alloy deposition on SiO2 for application as a diffusion barrier and seed layer in 3D copper interconnect technology.

    PubMed

    Kim, Tae-Yoo; Son, Hwa-Jin; Lim, Seung-Kyu; Song, Young-Il; Park, Hwa-Sun; Suh, Su-Jeong

    2014-12-01

    Electroless Ni-P films were investigated with the aim of application as barrier and seed layers in 3D interconnect technology. Different shapes of blind-via holes were fabricated with a deep reactive ion etcher and SiO2 formed on these holes as an insulating layer. The surface of the substrate has been made hydrophilic by O2 plasma treatment with 100 W of power for 20 min. Electroless Ni-P films were deposited as both a diffusion barrier and a seed layer for Cu filling process. Prior to plating, substrates were activated in a palladium chloride solution after sensitization in a tin chloride solution with various conditions in order to deposit uniform films in TSV. After the formation of the electroless barrier layer, electro Cu was plated directly on the barrier layer. Ni-P films fabricated in blind-via holes were observed by scanning electron microscope. Energy dispersive spectroscopy line scanning was carried out for evaluating the diffusion barrier properties of the Ni-P films. The electroless Ni-P layer worked well as a Cu diffusion barrier until 300 degrees C. However, Cu ions diffused into barrier layer when the annealing temperature increases over 400 degrees C. PMID:25971093

  2. Research Update: Reactively sputtered nanometer-thin ZrN film as a diffusion barrier between Al and boron layers for radiation detector applications

    SciTech Connect

    Golshani, Negin Mohammadi, V.; Schellevis, H.; Beenakker, C. I. M.; Ishihara, R.

    2014-10-01

    In this paper, optimization of the process flow for PureB detectors is investigated. Diffusion barrier layers between a boron layer and the aluminum interconnect can be used to enhance the performance and visual appearance of radiation detectors. Few nanometers-thin Zirconium Nitride (ZrN) layer deposited by reactive sputtering in a mixture of Ar/N{sub 2}, is identified as a reliable diffusion barrier with better fabrication process compatibility than others. The barrier properties of this layer have been tested for different boron layers deposited at low and high temperatures with extensive optical microscopy analyses, electron beam induced current, SEM, and electrical measurements. This study demonstrated that spiking behavior of pure Al on Si can be prevented by the thin ZrN layer thus improving the performance of the radiation detectors fabricated using boron layer.

  3. Electrical and optical properties of Fe doped AlGaN grown by molecular beam epitaxy

    SciTech Connect

    Polyakov, A. Y.; Smirnov, N. B.; Govorkov, A. V.; Kozhukhova, E. A.; Dabiran, A. M.; Chow, P. P.; Wowchak, A. M.; Pearton, S. J.

    2010-01-15

    Electrical and optical properties of AlGaN grown by molecular beam epitaxy were studied in the Al composition range 15%-45%. Undoped films were semi-insulating, with the Fermi level pinned near E{sub c}-0.6-0.7 eV. Si doping to (5-7)x10{sup 17} cm{sup -3} rendered the 15% Al films conducting n-type, but a large portion of the donors were relatively deep (activation energy 95 meV), with a 0.15 eV barrier for capture of electrons giving rise to strong persistent photoconductivity (PPC) effects. The optical threshold of this effect was {approx}1 eV. Doping with Fe to a concentration of {approx}10{sup 17} cm{sup -3} led to decrease in concentration of uncompensated donors, suggesting compensation by Fe acceptors. Addition of Fe strongly suppressed the formation of PPC-active centers in favor of ordinary shallow donors. For higher Al compositions, Si doping of (5-7)x10{sup 17} cm{sup -3} did not lead to n-type conductivity. Fe doping shifted the bandedge luminescence by 25-50 meV depending on Al composition. The dominant defect band in microcathodoluminescence spectra was the blue band near 3 eV, with the energy weakly dependent on composition.

  4. A comparison of the 60Co gamma radiation hardness, breakdown characteristics and the effect of SiN x capping on InAlN and AlGaN HEMTs for space applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, M. D.; O'Mahony, D.; Vitobello, F.; Muschitiello, M.; Costantino, A.; Barnes, A. R.; Parbrook, P. J.

    2016-02-01

    Electrical performance and stability of InAlN and AlGaN high electron mobility transistors (HEMTs) subjected 9.1 mrad of 60Co gamma radiation and off-state voltage step-stressing until breakdown are reported. Comparison with commercially available production-level AlGaN HEMT devices, which showed negligible drift in DC performance throughout all experiments, suggests degradation mechanisms must be managed and suppressed through development of advanced epitaxial and surface passivation techniques in order to fully exploit the robustness of the III-nitride material system. Of the research level devices without dielectric layer surface capping, InAlN HEMTs exhibited the greater stability compared with AlGaN under off-state bias stressing and gamma irradiation in terms of their DC characteristics, although AlGaN HEMTs had significantly higher breakdown voltages. The effect of plasma-enhanced chemical vapour deposition SiN x surface capping is explored, highlighting the sensitivity of InAlN HEMT performance to surface passivation techniques. InAlN-SiN x HEMTs suffered more from trap related degradation than AlGaN-SiN x devices in terms of radiation hardness and step-stress characteristics, attributed to an increased capturing of carriers in traps at the InAlN/SiN x interface.

  5. Physical and numerical modeling of an inclined three-layer (silt/gravelly sand/clay) capillary barrier cover system under extreme rainfall.

    PubMed

    Ng, Charles W W; Liu, Jian; Chen, Rui; Xu, Jie

    2015-04-01

    As an extension of the two-layer capillary barrier, a three-layer capillary barrier landfill cover system is proposed for minimizing rainfall infiltration in humid climates. This system consists of a compacted clay layer lying beneath a conventional cover with capillary barrier effects (CCBE), which is in turn composed of a silt layer sitting on top of a gravelly sand layer. To explore the effectiveness of the new system in minimizing rainfall infiltration, a flume model (3.0 m × 1.0 m × 1.1 m) was designed and set up in this study. This physical model was heavily instrumented to monitor pore water pressure, volumetric water content, surface runoff, infiltration and lateral drainage of each layer, and percolation of the cover system. The cover system was subjected to extreme rainfall followed by evaporation. The experiment was also back-analyzed using a piece of finite element software called CODE_BRIGHT to simulate transient water flows in the test. Based on the results obtained from various instruments, it was found that breakthrough of the two upper layers occurred for a 4-h rainfall event having a 100-year return period. Due to the presence of the newly introduced clay layer, the percolation of the three-layer capillary barrier cover system was insignificant because the clay layer enabled lateral diversion in the gravelly sand layer above. In other words, the gravelly sand layer changed from being a capillary barrier in a convention CCBE cover to being a lateral diversion passage after the breakthrough of the two upper layers. Experimental and back-analysis results confirm that no infiltrated water seeped through the proposed three-layer barrier system. The proposed system thus represents a promising alternative landfill cover system for use in humid climates. PMID:25582391

  6. Analysis of Al diffusion processes in TiN barrier layers for the application in silicon solar cell metallization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumm, J.; Samadi, H.; Chacko, R. V.; Hartmann, P.; Wolf, A.

    2016-07-01

    An evaporated Al layer is known as an excellent rear metallization for highly efficient solar cells, but suffers from incompatibility with a common solder process. To enable solar cell-interconnection and module integration, in this work the Al layer is complemented with a solder stack of TiN/Ti/Ag or TiN/NiV/Ag, in which the TiN layer acts as an Al diffusion barrier. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy measurements prove that diffusion of Al through the stack and the formation of an Al2O3 layer on the stack's surface are responsible for a loss of solderability after a strong post-metallization anneal, which is often mandatory to improve contact resistance and passivation quality. An optimization of the reactive TiN sputter process results in a densification of the TiN layer, which improves its barrier quality against Al diffusion. However, measurements with X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy show that small grains with vertical grain boundaries persist, which still offer fast diffusion paths. Therefore, the concept of stuffing is introduced. By incorporating oxygen into the grain boundaries of the sputtered TiN layer, Al diffusion is strongly reduced as confirmed by secondary ion mass spectroscopy profiles. A quantitative analysis reveals a one order of magnitude lower Al diffusion coefficient for stuffed TiN layers. This metallization system maintains its solderability even after strong post-metallization annealing at 425 °C for 15 min. This paper thus presents an industrially feasible, conventionally solderable, and long-term stable metallization scheme for highly efficient silicon solar cells.

  7. Double-Layer Gadolinium Zirconate/Yttria-Stabilized Zirconia Thermal Barrier Coatings Deposited by the Solution Precursor Plasma Spray Process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Chen; Jordan, Eric H.; Harris, Alan B.; Gell, Maurice; Roth, Jeffrey

    2015-08-01

    Advanced thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) with lower thermal conductivity, increased resistance to calcium-magnesium-aluminosilicate (CMAS), and improved high-temperature capability, compared to traditional yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) TBCs, are essential to higher efficiency in next generation gas turbine engines. Double-layer rare-earth zirconate/YSZ TBCs are a promising solution. From a processing perspective, solution precursor plasma spray (SPPS) process with its unique and beneficial microstructural features can be an effective approach to obtaining the double-layer microstructure. Previously durable low-thermal-conductivity YSZ TBCs with optimized layered porosity, called the inter-pass boundaries (IPBs) were produced using the SPPS process. In this study, an SPPS gadolinium zirconate (GZO) protective surface layer was successfully added. These SPPS double-layer TBCs not only retained good cyclic durability and low thermal conductivity, but also demonstrated favorable phase stability and increased surface temperature capabilities. The CMAS resistance was evaluated with both accumulative and single applications of simulated CMAS in isothermal furnaces. The double-layer YSZ/GZO exhibited dramatic improvement in the single application, but not in the continuous one. In addition, to explore their potential application in integrated gasification combined cycle environments, double-layer TBCs were tested under high-temperature humidity and encouraging performance was recorded.

  8. Accuracy of Young's Modulus of Thermal Barrier Coating Layer Determined by Bending Resonance of a Multilayered Specimen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waki, Hiroyuki; Takizawa, Kensuke; Kato, Masahiko; Takahashi, Satoru

    2016-04-01

    The Young's modulus of individual layer in thermal barrier coating (TBC) system is an important mechanical property because it allows determining the parameters of materials mechanics in the TBC system. In this study, we investigated the accuracy of the evaluation method for the Young's modulus of a TBC layer according to the first bending resonance of a multilayered specimen comprising a substrate, bond coating, and TBC. First, we derived a closed-form solution for the Young's modulus of the TBC layer using the equation of motion for the bending vibration of a composite beam. The solution for the three-layered model provided the Young's modulus of the TBC layer according to the measured resonance frequency and the known values for the dimensions, mass, and Young's moduli of all the other layers. Next, we analyzed the sensitivity of these input errors to the evaluated Young's modulus and revealed the important inputs for accurate evaluation. Finally, we experimentally confirmed that the Young's modulus of the TBC layer was obtained accurately by the developed method.

  9. Development of Thermal Barrier Coating System with Superior Thermal Cyclic Properties with an Intermediate Layer Containing MoSi2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sonoya, Keiji; Tobe, Shogo

    The authors have developed a method of improving the thermal cyclic resistance of the thermal barrier coating system that is deposited on gas turbine components. A conventional thermal barrier coating consists of a duplex system: a top coating and a bond coating. The developed system has a protective intermediate layer of MoSi2 which prevents oxidation of the bond coating. The conventional duplex plasma -sprayed coating was delaminated after 20 thermal cycles. On the other hand, the developed triple-layered coating system was not delaminated after 60 cycles. The reason for the enhanced resistance to thermal cycles of the developed triple-layered coating system is that the MoSi2 layer between the top coating and the bond coating has a self-repairing property. MoSi2 oxidizes to form SiO2, which seals the cracks and pores formed between the top coating and the bond coating. Thus, the formation of a thermally grown oxide(TGO), which causes the delamination of the coating, is prevented and the thermal cyclic resistance is improved.

  10. MOCVD growth of AlGaN UV LEDs

    SciTech Connect

    Han, J.; Crawford, M.H.

    1998-09-01

    Issues related to the MOCVD growth of AlGaN, specifically the gas-phase parasitic reactions among TMG, TMA, and NH{sub 3}, are studied using an in-situ optical reflectometer. It is observed that the presence of the well-known gas phase adduct (TMA: NH{sub 3}) could seriously hinder the incorporation behavior of TMGa. Relatively low reactor pressures (30--50 Torr) are employed to grow an AlGaN/GaN SCH QW p-n diode structure. The UV emission at 360 nm (FWHM {approximately} 10 nm) represents the first report of LED operation from an indium-free GaN QW diode.

  11. Ultrafast optical studies of diffusion barriers between ferromagnetic Ga(Mn)As layers and non-magnetic quantum wells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schulz, R.; Korn, T.; Stich, D.; Wurstbauer, U.; Schuh, D.; Wegscheider, W.; Schüller, C.

    2008-04-01

    In recent years, ferromagnetic Ga(Mn)As has emerged as a highly interesting material for semiconductor spintronics. One possible application is to use Ga(Mn)As as an injector layer to inject spin-polarized carriers into a non-magnetic semiconductor heterostructure. As Ga(Mn)As layers are typically grown at much lower substrate temperatures than high-mobility GaAs heterostructures, a combination of both requires that the ferromagnetic layer is grown last. We have prepared samples by molecular beam epitaxy which consist of two quantum wells (QWs) of different widths grown at high substrate temperature. The upper QW is separated by a thin barrier (few nm) from a ferromagnetic Ga(Mn)As layer grown at low substrate temperature, while the lower QW is widely separated (more than 100 nm) from the Ga(Mn)As. We observe that the photoluminescence of the upper QW is red-shifted and partially quenched as compared to a control sample without a Ga(Mn)As layer, and time-resolved Faraday rotation measurements reveal that the spin lifetime in the upper QW is up to 50 times longer than the one in the lower QW. We attribute these observations to Mn back-diffusion into the upper QW during sample growth. Both, the PL and the Faraday rotation technique, are highly sensitive to small quantities (below 0.05%) of Mn and allow us to study the effectiveness of different types (e.g., a short-period superlattice) and thicknesses of barrier layers in suppressing Mn diffusion.

  12. TlGaInNAs/GaAs double quantum well structures: Effect of barrier layers and substrate orientation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krishnamurthy, D.; Matsumoto, T.; Fujiwara, A.; Hasegawa, S.; Asahi, H.

    2007-04-01

    The quinary TlGaInNAs-based double quantum well (DQW) structures were grown on GaAs substrates by electron cyclotron resonance (ECR)-MBE and the samples were probed by secondary ion mass spectroscopy (SIMS). Light emitting diodes (LEDs) were fabricated using these DQW wafers and their electroluminescence (EL) behaviors were studied at different temperatures. The effects of different barrier layers and substrate orientations on the amount of Tl incorporation and on the temperature dependency of the EL peak wavelengths of the LEDs were studied. Higher incorporation of Tl into the quantum well (QW) region and the ensuing change in the temperature dependency of the peak wavelengths owing to the TlGaAs barrier layer are reported. GaAs substrates having (3 1 1)B orientation were found to allow more Tl incorporation as compared to (1 0 0) and (3 1 1)A oriented substrates. The LEDs fabricated out of the TlGaInNAs/TlGaAs/(3 1 1)B GaAs DQW structures showed the least temperature dependency of the EL peak wavelengths exemplifying the usefulness of Tl in the QW as well as barrier region.

  13. Diffusion barrier and adhesion properties of SiO(x)N(y) and SiO(x) layers between Ag/polypyrrole composites and Si substrates.

    PubMed

    Horváth, Barbara; Kawakita, Jin; Chikyow, Toyohiro

    2014-06-25

    This paper describes the interface reactions and diffusion between silver/polypyrrole (Ag/PPy) composite and silicon substrate. This composite material can be used as a novel technique for 3D-LSI (large-scale integration) by the fast infilling of through-silicon vias (TSV). By immersion of the silicon wafer with via holes into the dispersed solution of Ag/PPy composite, the holes are filled with the composite. It is important to develop a layer between the composite and the Si substrate with good diffusion barrier and adhesion characteristics. In this paper, SiOx and two types of SiOxNy barrier layers with various thicknesses were investigated. The interface structure between the Si substrate, the barrier, and the Ag/PPy composite was characterized by transmission electron microscopy. The adhesion and diffusion properties of the layers were established for Ag/PPy composite. Increasing thickness of SiOx proved to permit less Ag to transport into the Si substrate. SiOxNy barrier layers showed very good diffusion barrier characteristics; however, their adhesion depended strongly on their composition. A barrier layer composition with good adhesion and Ag barrier properties has been identified in this paper. These results are useful for filling conductive metal/polymer composites into TSV. PMID:24869419

  14. Effect of Layer-Graded Bond Coats on Edge Stress Concentration and Oxidation Behavior of Thermal Barrier Coatings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhu, Dongming; Ghosn, Louis J.; Miller, Robert A.

    1998-01-01

    Thermal barrier coating (TBC) durability is closely related to design, processing and microstructure of the coating Z, tn systems. Two important issues that must be considered during the design of a thermal barrier coating are thermal expansion and modulus mismatch between the substrate and the ceramic layer, and substrate oxidation. In many cases, both of these issues may be best addressed through the selection of an appropriate bond coat system. In this study, a low thermal expansion and layer-graded bond coat system, that consists of plasma-sprayed FeCoNiCrAl and FeCrAlY coatings, and a high velocity oxyfuel (HVOF) sprayed FeCrAlY coating, is developed to minimize the thermal stresses and provide oxidation resistance. The thermal expansion and oxidation behavior of the coating system are also characterized, and the strain isolation effect of the bond coat system is analyzed using the finite element method (FEM). Experiments and finite element results show that the layer-graded bond coat system possesses lower interfacial stresses. better strain isolation and excellent oxidation resistance. thus significantly improving the coating performance and durability.

  15. Electrically Tunable and Negative Schottky Barriers in Multi-layered Graphene/MoS2 Heterostructured Transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiu, Dongri; Kim, Eun Kyu

    2015-09-01

    We fabricated multi-layered graphene/MoS2 heterostructured devices by positioning mechanically exfoliated bulk graphite and single-crystalline 2H-MoS2 onto Au metal pads on a SiO2/Si substrate via a contamination-free dry transfer technique. We also studied the electrical transport properties of Au/MoS2 junction devices for systematic comparison. A previous work has demonstrated the existence of a positive Schottky barrier height (SBH) in the metal/MoS2 system. However, analysis of the SBH indicates that the contacts of the multi-layered graphene/MoS2 have tunable negative barriers in the range of 300 to -46 meV as a function of gate voltage. It is hypothesized that this tunable SBH is responsible for the modulation of the work function of the thick graphene in these devices. Despite the large number of graphene layers, it is possible to form ohmic contacts, which will provide new opportunities for the engineering of highly efficient contacts in flexible electronics and photonics.

  16. Silica-sol-based spin-coating barrier layer against phosphorous diffusion for crystalline silicon solar cells

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    The phosphorus barrier layers at the doping procedure of silicon wafers were fabricated using a spin-coating method with a mixture of silica-sol and tetramethylammonium hydroxide, which can be formed at the rear surface prior to the front phosphorus spin-on-demand (SOD) diffusion and directly annealed simultaneously with the front phosphorus layer. The optimization of coating thickness was obtained by changing the applied spin-coating speed; from 2,000 to 8,000 rpm. The CZ-Si p-type silicon solar cells were fabricated with/without using the rear silica-sol layer after taking the sheet resistance measurements, SIMS analysis, and SEM measurements of the silica-sol material evaluations into consideration. For the fabrication of solar cells, a spin-coating phosphorus source was used to form the n+ emitter and was then diffused at 930°C for 35 min. The out-gas diffusion of phosphorus could be completely prevented by spin-coated silica-sol film placed on the rear side of the wafers coated prior to the diffusion process. A roughly 2% improvement in the conversion efficiency was observed when silica-sol was utilized during the phosphorus diffusion step. These results can suggest that the silica-sol material can be an attractive candidate for low-cost and easily applicable spin-coating barrier for any masking purpose involving phosphorus diffusion. PMID:25520602

  17. Electrically Tunable and Negative Schottky Barriers in Multi-layered Graphene/MoS2 Heterostructured Transistors

    PubMed Central

    Qiu, Dongri; Kim, Eun Kyu

    2015-01-01

    We fabricated multi-layered graphene/MoS2 heterostructured devices by positioning mechanically exfoliated bulk graphite and single-crystalline 2H-MoS2 onto Au metal pads on a SiO2/Si substrate via a contamination-free dry transfer technique. We also studied the electrical transport properties of Au/MoS2 junction devices for systematic comparison. A previous work has demonstrated the existence of a positive Schottky barrier height (SBH) in the metal/MoS2 system. However, analysis of the SBH indicates that the contacts of the multi-layered graphene/MoS2 have tunable negative barriers in the range of 300 to −46 meV as a function of gate voltage. It is hypothesized that this tunable SBH is responsible for the modulation of the work function of the thick graphene in these devices. Despite the large number of graphene layers, it is possible to form ohmic contacts, which will provide new opportunities for the engineering of highly efficient contacts in flexible electronics and photonics. PMID:26333680

  18. Silica-sol-based spin-coating barrier layer against phosphorous diffusion for crystalline silicon solar cells.

    PubMed

    Uzum, Abdullah; Fukatsu, Ken; Kanda, Hiroyuki; Kimura, Yutaka; Tanimoto, Kenji; Yoshinaga, Seiya; Jiang, Yunjian; Ishikawa, Yasuaki; Uraoka, Yukiharu; Ito, Seigo

    2014-01-01

    The phosphorus barrier layers at the doping procedure of silicon wafers were fabricated using a spin-coating method with a mixture of silica-sol and tetramethylammonium hydroxide, which can be formed at the rear surface prior to the front phosphorus spin-on-demand (SOD) diffusion and directly annealed simultaneously with the front phosphorus layer. The optimization of coating thickness was obtained by changing the applied spin-coating speed; from 2,000 to 8,000 rpm. The CZ-Si p-type silicon solar cells were fabricated with/without using the rear silica-sol layer after taking the sheet resistance measurements, SIMS analysis, and SEM measurements of the silica-sol material evaluations into consideration. For the fabrication of solar cells, a spin-coating phosphorus source was used to form the n(+) emitter and was then diffused at 930°C for 35 min. The out-gas diffusion of phosphorus could be completely prevented by spin-coated silica-sol film placed on the rear side of the wafers coated prior to the diffusion process. A roughly 2% improvement in the conversion efficiency was observed when silica-sol was utilized during the phosphorus diffusion step. These results can suggest that the silica-sol material can be an attractive candidate for low-cost and easily applicable spin-coating barrier for any masking purpose involving phosphorus diffusion. PMID:25520602

  19. Silica-sol-based spin-coating barrier layer against phosphorous diffusion for crystalline silicon solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uzum, Abdullah; Fukatsu, Ken; Kanda, Hiroyuki; Kimura, Yutaka; Tanimoto, Kenji; Yoshinaga, Seiya; Jiang, Yunjian; Ishikawa, Yasuaki; Uraoka, Yukiharu; Ito, Seigo

    2014-12-01

    The phosphorus barrier layers at the doping procedure of silicon wafers were fabricated using a spin-coating method with a mixture of silica-sol and tetramethylammonium hydroxide, which can be formed at the rear surface prior to the front phosphorus spin-on-demand (SOD) diffusion and directly annealed simultaneously with the front phosphorus layer. The optimization of coating thickness was obtained by changing the applied spin-coating speed; from 2,000 to 8,000 rpm. The CZ-Si p-type silicon solar cells were fabricated with/without using the rear silica-sol layer after taking the sheet resistance measurements, SIMS analysis, and SEM measurements of the silica-sol material evaluations into consideration. For the fabrication of solar cells, a spin-coating phosphorus source was used to form the n+ emitter and was then diffused at 930°C for 35 min. The out-gas diffusion of phosphorus could be completely prevented by spin-coated silica-sol film placed on the rear side of the wafers coated prior to the diffusion process. A roughly 2% improvement in the conversion efficiency was observed when silica-sol was utilized during the phosphorus diffusion step. These results can suggest that the silica-sol material can be an attractive candidate for low-cost and easily applicable spin-coating barrier for any masking purpose involving phosphorus diffusion.

  20. Perpendicular magnetic tunnel junctions with double barrier and single or synthetic antiferromagnetic storage layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cuchet, Léa; Rodmacq, Bernard; Auffret, Stéphane; Sousa, Ricardo C.; Prejbeanu, Ioan L.; Dieny, Bernard

    2015-06-01

    The magnetic properties of double tunnel junctions with perpendicular anisotropy were investigated. Two synthetic antiferromagnetic references are used, while the middle storage magnetic layer can be either a single ferromagnetic or a synthetic antiferromagnetic FeCoB-based layer, with a critical thickness as large as 3.0 nm. Among the different achievable magnetic configurations in zero field, those with either antiparallel references, and single ferromagnetic storage layer, or parallel references, and synthetic antiferromagnetic storage layer, are of particular interest since they allow increasing the efficiency of spin transfer torque writing and the thermal stability of the stored information as compared to single tunnel junctions. The latter configuration can be preferred when stray fields would favour a parallel orientation of the reference layers. In this case, the synthetic antiferromagnetic storage layer is also less sensitive to residual stray fields.

  1. Perpendicular magnetic tunnel junctions with double barrier and single or synthetic antiferromagnetic storage layer

    SciTech Connect

    Cuchet, Léa; Rodmacq, Bernard; Auffret, Stéphane; Sousa, Ricardo C.; Prejbeanu, Ioan L.; Dieny, Bernard

    2015-06-21

    The magnetic properties of double tunnel junctions with perpendicular anisotropy were investigated. Two synthetic antiferromagnetic references are used, while the middle storage magnetic layer can be either a single ferromagnetic or a synthetic antiferromagnetic FeCoB-based layer, with a critical thickness as large as 3.0 nm. Among the different achievable magnetic configurations in zero field, those with either antiparallel references, and single ferromagnetic storage layer, or parallel references, and synthetic antiferromagnetic storage layer, are of particular interest since they allow increasing the efficiency of spin transfer torque writing and the thermal stability of the stored information as compared to single tunnel junctions. The latter configuration can be preferred when stray fields would favour a parallel orientation of the reference layers. In this case, the synthetic antiferromagnetic storage layer is also less sensitive to residual stray fields.

  2. Fabrication of stable electrode/diffusion barrier layers for thermoelectric filled skutterudite devices

    DOEpatents

    Jie, Qing; Ren, Zhifeng; Chen, Gang

    2015-12-08

    Disclosed are methods for the manufacture of n-type and p-type filled skutterudite thermoelectric legs of an electrical contact. A first material of CoSi.sub.2 and a dopant are ball-milled to form a first powder which is thermo-mechanically processed with a second powder of n-type skutterudite to form a n-type skutterudite layer disposed between a first layer and a third layer of the doped-CoSi.sub.2. In addition, a plurality of components such as iron, and nickel, and at least one of cobalt or chromium are ball-milled form a first powder that is thermo-mechanically processed with a p-type skutterudite layer to form a p-type skutterudite layer "second layer" disposed between a first and a third layer of the first powder. The specific contact resistance between the first layer and the skutterudite layer for both the n-type and the p-type skutterudites subsequent to hot-pressing is less than about 10.0 .mu..OMEGA.cm.sup.2.

  3. Formation and investigation of ultrathin layers of Co2FeSi ferromagnetic alloy synthesized on silicon covered with a CaF2 barrier layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grebenyuk, G. S.; Gomoyunova, M. V.; Pronin, I. I.; Vyalikh, D. V.; Molodtsov, S. L.

    2016-03-01

    Ultrathin (∼2 nm) films of Co2FeSi ferromagnetic alloy were formed on silicon by solid-phase epitaxy and studied in situ. Experiments were carried out in an ultrahigh vacuum (UHV) using substrates of Si(1 1 1) single crystals covered with a 5 nm thick CaF2 barrier layer. The elemental and phase composition as well as the magnetic properties of the synthesized films were analyzed by photoelectron spectroscopy using synchrotron radiation and by magnetic linear dichroism in photoemission of Fe 3p and Co 3p electrons. The study shows that the synthesis of the Co2FeSi ferromagnetic alloy occurs in the temperature range of 200-400 °C. At higher temperatures, the films become island-like and lose their ferromagnetic properties, as the CaF2 barrier layer is unable to prevent a mass transfer between the film and the Si substrate, which violates the stoichiometry of the alloy.

  4. Schottky barrier contrasts in single and bi-layer graphene contacts for MoS2 field-effect transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Du, Hyewon; Kim, Taekwang; Shin, Somyeong; Kim, Dahye; Kim, Hakseong; Sung, Ji Ho; Lee, Myoung Jae; Seo, David H.; Lee, Sang Wook; Jo, Moon-Ho; Seo, Sunae

    2015-12-01

    We have investigated single- and bi-layer graphene as source-drain electrodes for n-type MoS2 transistors. Ti-MoS2-graphene heterojunction transistors using both single-layer MoS2 (1M) and 4-layer MoS2 (4M) were fabricated in order to compare graphene electrodes with commonly used Ti electrodes. MoS2-graphene Schottky barrier provided electron injection efficiency up to 130 times higher in the subthreshold regime when compared with MoS2-Ti, which resulted in VDS polarity dependence of device parameters such as threshold voltage (VTH) and subthreshold swing (SS). Comparing single-layer graphene (SG) with bi-layer graphene (BG) in 4M devices, SG electrodes exhibited enhanced device performance with higher on/off ratio and increased field-effect mobility (μFE) due to more sensitive Fermi level shift by gate voltage. Meanwhile, in the strongly accumulated regime, we observed opposing behavior depending on MoS2 thickness for both SG and BG contacts. Differential conductance (σd) of 1M increases with VDS irrespective of VDS polarity, while σd of 4M ceases monotonic growth at positive VDS values transitioning to ohmic-like contact formation. Nevertheless, the low absolute value of σd saturation of the 4M-graphene junction demonstrates that graphene electrode could be unfavorable for high current carrying transistors.

  5. All AlGaN epitaxial structure solar-blind avalanche photodiodes with high efficiency and high gain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Hualong; Wu, Weicong; Zhang, Hongxian; Chen, Yingda; Wu, Zhisheng; Wang, Gang; Jiang, Hao

    2016-05-01

    Solar-blind avalanche photodiodes were fabricated with an all AlGaN-based epitaxial structure on sapphire by metal–organic chemical vapor deposition. The devices demonstrate a maximum responsivity of 114.1 mA/W at 278 nm and zero bias, corresponding to an external quantum efficiency (EQE) of 52.7%. The EQE improves to 64.8% under a bias of ‑10 V. Avalanche gain higher than 2 × 104 was obtained at a bias of ‑140 V. The high performance is attributed to the all AlGaN-based p–i–n structure comprised of undoped and Si-doped n-type Al0.4Ga0.6N on a high quality AlN layer and highly conductive p-type AlGaN grown with In-surfactant-assisted Mg-delta doping.

  6. Dependence of radiative and nonradiative recombination on carrier density and Al content in thick AlGaN epilayers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Podlipskas, Ž.; Aleksiejūnas, R.; Kadys, A.; Mickevičius, J.; Jurkevičius, J.; Tamulaitis, G.; Shur, M.; Shatalov, M.; Yang, J.; Gaska, R.

    2016-04-01

    Dynamics of radiative and nonradiative recombination of non-equilibrium carriers is investigated in thick AlGaN epitaxial layers with Al content ranging from 0.11 to 0.71. The internal quantum efficiency (IQE) in the epilayers was obtained using two approaches: either estimated from PL measurements or calculated using the recombination coefficients of a simple ABC model, retrieved by fitting the kinetics of light induced transient gratings (LITG). At photoexcited carrier densities below ~1019 cm-3, both approaches provided similar IQE values indicating that the simple ABC model is applicable to analyze carrier recombination at such carrier densities. The increase in IQE at higher carrier densities slowed down for the values extracted from PL considerably faster than for those obtained from LITG transients. This discrepancy is explained in terms of the mixed nature of the rate coefficient B caused by the onset of the density-activated nonradiative recombination at high carrier densities.

  7. Catalytic activity of enzymes immobilized on AlGaN /GaN solution gate field-effect transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baur, B.; Howgate, J.; von Ribbeck, H.-G.; Gawlina, Y.; Bandalo, V.; Steinhoff, G.; Stutzmann, M.; Eickhoff, M.

    2006-10-01

    Enzyme-modified field-effect transistors (EnFETs) were prepared by immobilization of penicillinase on AlGaN /GaN solution gate field-effect transistors. The influence of the immobilization process on enzyme functionality was analyzed by comparing covalent immobilization and physisorption. Covalent immobilization by Schiff base formation on GaN surfaces modified with an aminopropyltriethoxysilane monolayer exhibits high reproducibility with respect to the enzyme/substrate affinity. Reductive amination of the Schiff base bonds to secondary amines significantly increases the stability of the enzyme layer. Electronic characterization of the EnFET response to penicillin G indicates that covalent immobilization leads to the formation of an enzyme (sub)monolayer.

  8. Measurement and simulation of top- and bottom-illuminated solar-blind AlGaN metal-semiconductor-metal photodetectors with high external quantum efficiencies

    SciTech Connect

    Brendel, Moritz Helbling, Markus; Knigge, Andrea; Brunner, Frank; Weyers, Markus

    2015-12-28

    A comprehensive study on top- and bottom-illuminated Al{sub 0.5}Ga{sub 0.5}N/AlN metal-semiconductor-metal (MSM) photodetectors having different AlGaN absorber layer thickness is presented. The measured external quantum efficiency (EQE) shows pronounced threshold and saturation behavior as a function of applied bias voltage up to 50 V reaching about 50% for 0.1 μm and 67% for 0.5 μm thick absorber layers under bottom illumination. All experimental findings are in very good accordance with two-dimensional drift-diffusion modeling results. By taking into account macroscopic polarization effects in the hexagonal metal-polar +c-plane AlGaN/AlN heterostructures, new insights into the general device functionality of AlGaN-based MSM photodetectors are obtained. The observed threshold/saturation behavior is caused by a bias-dependent extraction of photoexcited holes from the Al{sub 0.5}Ga{sub 0.5}N/AlN interface. While present under bottom illumination for any AlGaN layer thickness, under top illumination this mechanism influences the EQE-bias characteristics only for thin layers.

  9. Preparation of low-sulfur platinum and platinum aluminide layers in thermal barrier coatings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spitsberg, Irene T. (Inventor); Walston, William S. (Inventor); Schaeffer, Jon C. (Inventor)

    2003-01-01

    A method for preparing a coated nickel-base superalloy article reduces the sulfur content of the surface region of the metallic coating layers to low levels, thereby improving the adhesion of the coating layers to the article. The method includes depositing a first layer of platinum overlying the surface of a substrate, depositing a second layer of aluminum over the platinum, and final desulfurizing the article by heating the article to elevated temperature, preferably in hydrogen, and removing a small amount of material from the surface that was exposed during the step of heating. A ceramic layer may be deposited over the desulfurized article. The article may also be similarly desulfurized at other points in the fabrication procedure.

  10. Improved p-type conductivity in Al-rich AlGaN using multidimensional Mg-doped superlattices.

    PubMed

    Zheng, T C; Lin, W; Liu, R; Cai, D J; Li, J C; Li, S P; Kang, J Y

    2016-01-01

    A novel multidimensional Mg-doped superlattice (SL) is proposed to enhance vertical hole conductivity in conventional Mg-doped AlGaN SL which generally suffers from large potential barrier for holes. Electronic structure calculations within the first-principle theoretical framework indicate that the densities of states (DOS) of the valence band nearby the Fermi level are more delocalized along the c-axis than that in conventional SL, and the potential barrier significantly decreases. Hole concentration is greatly enhanced in the barrier of multidimensional SL. Detailed comparisons of partial charges and decomposed DOS reveal that the improvement of vertical conductance may be ascribed to the stronger pz hybridization between Mg and N. Based on the theoretical analysis, highly conductive p-type multidimensional Al0.63Ga0.37N/Al0.51Ga0.49N SLs are grown with identified steps via metalorganic vapor-phase epitaxy. The hole concentration reaches up to 3.5 × 10(18) cm(-3), while the corresponding resistivity reduces to 0.7 Ω cm at room temperature, which is tens times improvement in conductivity compared with that of conventional SLs. High hole concentration can be maintained even at 100 K. High p-type conductivity in Al-rich structural material is an important step for the future design of superior AlGaN-based deep ultraviolet devices. PMID:26906334

  11. Improved p-type conductivity in Al-rich AlGaN using multidimensional Mg-doped superlattices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, T. C.; Lin, W.; Liu, R.; Cai, D. J.; Li, J. C.; Li, S. P.; Kang, J. Y.

    2016-02-01

    A novel multidimensional Mg-doped superlattice (SL) is proposed to enhance vertical hole conductivity in conventional Mg-doped AlGaN SL which generally suffers from large potential barrier for holes. Electronic structure calculations within the first-principle theoretical framework indicate that the densities of states (DOS) of the valence band nearby the Fermi level are more delocalized along the c-axis than that in conventional SL, and the potential barrier significantly decreases. Hole concentration is greatly enhanced in the barrier of multidimensional SL. Detailed comparisons of partial charges and decomposed DOS reveal that the improvement of vertical conductance may be ascribed to the stronger pz hybridization between Mg and N. Based on the theoretical analysis, highly conductive p-type multidimensional Al0.63Ga0.37N/Al0.51Ga0.49N SLs are grown with identified steps via metalorganic vapor-phase epitaxy. The hole concentration reaches up to 3.5 × 1018 cm-3, while the corresponding resistivity reduces to 0.7 Ω cm at room temperature, which is tens times improvement in conductivity compared with that of conventional SLs. High hole concentration can be maintained even at 100 K. High p-type conductivity in Al-rich structural material is an important step for the future design of superior AlGaN-based deep ultraviolet devices.

  12. Improved p-type conductivity in Al-rich AlGaN using multidimensional Mg-doped superlattices

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, T. C.; Lin, W.; Liu, R.; Cai, D. J.; Li, J. C.; Li, S. P.; Kang, J. Y.

    2016-01-01

    A novel multidimensional Mg-doped superlattice (SL) is proposed to enhance vertical hole conductivity in conventional Mg-doped AlGaN SL which generally suffers from large potential barrier for holes. Electronic structure calculations within the first-principle theoretical framework indicate that the densities of states (DOS) of the valence band nearby the Fermi level are more delocalized along the c-axis than that in conventional SL, and the potential barrier significantly decreases. Hole concentration is greatly enhanced in the barrier of multidimensional SL. Detailed comparisons of partial charges and decomposed DOS reveal that the improvement of vertical conductance may be ascribed to the stronger pz hybridization between Mg and N. Based on the theoretical analysis, highly conductive p-type multidimensional Al0.63Ga0.37N/Al0.51Ga0.49N SLs are grown with identified steps via metalorganic vapor-phase epitaxy. The hole concentration reaches up to 3.5 × 1018 cm−3, while the corresponding resistivity reduces to 0.7 Ω cm at room temperature, which is tens times improvement in conductivity compared with that of conventional SLs. High hole concentration can be maintained even at 100 K. High p-type conductivity in Al-rich structural material is an important step for the future design of superior AlGaN-based deep ultraviolet devices. PMID:26906334

  13. Reduction of aerodynamic friction drag of moving bodies using a Microwave-Dielectric-Barrier-Discharge actuator controlling the boundary layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pierre, Thiery

    2015-11-01

    A new plasma device named M-DBD (Microwave Dielectric Barrier Discharge) is used for controlling the boundary layer in order to reduce the drag force. A compact resonant UHF structure comprising a resonant element in the form of a quarter-wave antenna creates a mini-plasma insulated from the UHF electrodes by mica sheets. Additional electrodes induce an electric field in the plasma and transiently move the ions of the plasma. The high collision rate with the neutral molecules induce the global transient flow of the neutral gas. The temporal variation of the applied electric field is chosen in order to obtain a modification of the local boundary layer. First tests using an array of M-DBD plasma actuators are underway (see Patent ref. WO 2014111469 A1).

  14. Low-temperature gas-barrier films by atomic layer deposition for encapsulating organic light-emitting diodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tseng, Ming-Hung; Yu, Hui-Huan; Chou, Kun-Yi; Jou, Jwo-Huei; Lin, Kung-Liang; Wang, Chin-Chiun; Tsai, Feng-Yu

    2016-07-01

    Dependences of gas-barrier performance on the deposition temperature of atomic-layer-deposited (ALD) Al2O3, HfO2, and ZnO films were studied to establish low-temperature ALD processes for encapsulating organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs). By identifying and controlling the key factors, i.e. using H2O2 as an oxidant, laminating Al2O3 with HfO2 or ZnO layers into AHO or AZO nanolaminates, and extending purge steps, OLED-acceptable gas-barrier performance (water vapor transmission rates ∼ 10‑6 g m‑2 d‑1) was achieved for the first time at a low deposition temperature of 50 °C in a thermal ALD mode. The compatibility of the low-temperature ALD process with OLEDs was confirmed by applying the process to encapsulate different types of OLED devices, which were degradation-free upon encapsulation and showed adequate lifetime during accelerated aging tests (pixel shrinkage <5% after 240 h at 60 °C/90% RH).

  15. In Situ XPS Chemical Analysis of MnSiO3 Copper Diffusion Barrier Layer Formation and Simultaneous Fabrication of Metal Oxide Semiconductor Electrical Test MOS Structures.

    PubMed

    Byrne, Conor; Brennan, Barry; McCoy, Anthony P; Bogan, Justin; Brady, Anita; Hughes, Greg

    2016-02-01

    Copper/SiO2/Si metal-oxide-semiconductor (MOS) devices both with and without a MnSiO3 barrier layer at the Cu/SiO2 interface have been fabricated in an ultrahigh vacuum X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) system, which allows interface chemical characterization of the barrier formation process to be directly correlated with electrical testing of barrier layer effectiveness. Capacitance voltage (CV) analysis, before and after tube furnace anneals of the fabricated MOS structures showed that the presence of the MnSiO3 barrier layer significantly improved electric stability of the device structures. Evidence of improved adhesion of the deposited copper layer to the MnSiO3 surface compared to the clean SiO2 surface was apparent both from tape tests and while probing the samples during electrical testing. Secondary ion mass spectroscopy (SIMS) depth profiling measurements of the MOS test structures reveal distinct differences of copper diffusion into the SiO2 dielectric layers following the thermal anneal depending on the presence of the MnSiO3 barrier layer. PMID:26732185

  16. Effect of Capping on Electrical and Optical Properties of GaN Layers Grown by HVPE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reshchikov, M. A.; Usikov, A.; Helava, H.; Makarov, Yu.; Puzyk, M. V.; Papchenko, B. P.

    2016-04-01

    Gallium nitride, grown by hydride vapor phase epitaxy and capped with a thin AlGaN layer, was studied by photoluminescence (PL) methods. The concentration of free electrons in GaN was found from the time-resolved PL data, and the concentrations of point defects were estimated from the steady-state PL measurements. The intensity of PL from GaN decreases moderately after capping it with Si-doped AlGaN, and it decreases dramatically after capping with Mg-doped AlGaN. At the same time, the concentration of free electrons and the concentrations of main radiative defects in GaN are not affected by the AlGaN capping. We demonstrate that PL is a powerful tool for nondestructive characterization of semiconductor layers buried under overlying device structures.

  17. Diffusion barriers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nicolet, M. A.

    1983-01-01

    The choice of the metallic film for the contact to a semiconductor device is discussed. One way to try to stabilize a contact is by interposing a thin film of a material that has low diffusivity for the atoms in question. This thin film application is known as a diffusion barrier. Three types of barriers can be distinguished. The stuffed barrier derives its low atomic diffusivity to impurities that concentrate along the extended defects of a polycrystalline layer. Sacrificial barriers exploit the fact that some (elemental) thin films react in a laterally uniform and reproducible fashion. Sacrificial barriers have the advantage that the point of their failure is predictable. Passive barriers are those most closely approximating an ideal barrier. The most-studied case is that of sputtered TiN films. Stuffed barriers may be viewed as passive barriers whose low diffusivity material extends along the defects of the polycrystalline host.

  18. Application Of Ti-Based Self-Formation Barrier Layers To Cu Dual-Damascene Interconnects

    SciTech Connect

    Ito, Kazuhiro; Kohama, Kazuyuki; Ohmori, Kazuyuki; Mori, Kenichi; Maekawa, Kazuyoshi; Asai, Koyu; Murakami, Masanori

    2010-11-24

    Cu interconnects have been used extensively in ULSI devices. However, large resistance-capacitance delay and poor device reliability have been critical issues as the device feature size has reduced to nanometer scale. In order to achieve low resistance and high reliability of Cu interconnects, we have applied a thin Ti-based self-formed barrier (SFB) using Cu(Ti) alloy seed to 45nm-node dual damascene interconnects and evaluated its performance. The line resistance and via resistance decreased significantly, compared with those of conventional Ta/TaN barriers. The stress migration performance was also drastically improved using the SFB process. A performance of time dependent dielectric breakdown revealed superior endurance. These results suggest that the Ti-based SFB process is one of the most promising candidates for advanced Cu interconnects. TEM and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy observations for characterization of the Ti-based SFB structure were also performed. The Ti-based SFB consisted of mainly amorphous Ti oxides. Amorphous or crystalline Ti compounds such as TiC, TiN, and TiSi formed beneath Cu alloy films, and the formation varied with dielectric.

  19. Plasma-Assisted ALD of an Al2O3 Permeation Barrier Layer on Plastic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lei, Wenwen; Li, Xingcun; Chen, Qiang; Wang, Zhengduo

    2012-02-01

    Atomic layer deposition (ALD) technique is used in the preparation of organic/inorganic layers, which requires uniform surfaces with their thickness down to several nanometers. For film with such thickness, the growth mode defined as the arrangement of clusters on the surface during the growth is of significance. In this work, Al2O3 thin film was deposited on various interfacial species of pre-treated polyethylene terephthalate (PET, 12 μm) by plasma assisted atomic layer deposition (PA-ALD), where trimethyl aluminium was used as the Al precursor and O2 as the oxygen source. The interfacial species, -NH3, -OH, and -COOH as well as SiCHO (derived from monomer of HMDSO plasma), were grafted previously by plasma and chemical treatments. The growth mode of PA-ALD Al2O3 was then investigated in detail by combining results from in-situ diagnosis of spectroscopic ellipsometry (SE) and ex-situ characterization of as-deposited layers from the morphologies scanned by atomic force microscopy (AFM). In addition, the oxygen transmission rates (OTR) of the original and treated plastic films were measured. The possible reasons for the dependence of the OTR values on the surface species were explored.

  20. Evaluation of a barrier to inhibit lesser mealworm (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) and dermestidae movement in high-rise, caged-layer poultry facilities.

    PubMed

    Kaufman, Phillip E; Reasor, Colleen; Murray, Kathleen D; Waldron, J Keith; Rutz, Donald A

    2005-10-01

    An evaluation of a mechanical barrier to prevent movement of adult and larval lesser mealworm, Alphitobius diaperinus (Panzer); larder beetle, Dermestes lardarius L.; and hide beetle, Dermestes maculatus De Geer was conducted in caged-layer poultry facilities in New York and Maine. The barrier, a plastic collar wrapped around building support posts, proved highly effective at preventing movement of adult lesser mealworms. Significantly more lesser mealworm larvae were recovered from cardboard collar beetle traps placed below both washed and unwashed barriers than from traps placed above washed and unwashed barriers. Similarly, significantly more adult Dermestes were recovered from traps placed below washed barriers than from above both washed and unwashed barriers. The level of fly specking on the barrier was found to have no significant impact on the numbers of adult lesser mealworms and adult and larval Dermestes recovered either above or below barriers. Fly specking level did significantly impact the numbers of lesser mealworm larvae recovered above the barrier. Although washed barriers provided the greatest deterrent to adult lesser mealworms, the presence of the barrier, regardless of the level of fly specking, provided a significant deterrent to beetle climbing success. Washed barriers further reduced climbing success by lesser mealworm larvae by 17%, Dermestes adults by 7-28%, and Dermestes larvae by 33-38%. The high level of climbing observed by adult lesser mealworms suggests that the impact of adult beetle movement toward birds should be considered in its importance in building damage, disease transmission, feed infestation, and bird productivity and health. Observations on cost and maintenance of the barrier are discussed. PMID:16334349

  1. Iridium: An Oxygen Diffusion Barrier and a Conductive Seed Layer for RABiTS-Based Coated Conductors

    SciTech Connect

    Aytug, Tolga; Paranthaman, Mariappan Parans; Zhai, Hong-Ying; Leonard, Keith J; Gapud, Albert Agcaoili; Thompson, James R; Martin, Patrick M; Goyal, Amit; Christen, David K

    2005-01-01

    For power applications of YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7-{delta}} (YBCO) coated conductors, it is necessary to electrically stabilize the conductor. An economic way to achieve this, which also benefits the engineering J{sub E}, is to grow conductive buffer layers directly on textured Cu or Ni metal surfaces. However, due to poor oxidation resistance and high reactivity/diffusivity of Cu or Ni, an insulating oxide layer usually forms at the metal/substrate interface, degrading the electrical connectivity of the entire architecture. To overcome this problem, we have developed a new conductive, nonmagnetic buffer layer architecture of La{sub 0.7}Sr{sub 0.3}MnO{sub 3}/Ir on textured Ni-based tapes. This structure serves as a barrier to both inward diffusion of oxygen and outward diffusion of metal cations. Using PLD to grow YBCO, we demonstrate ideal electrical coupling to the metal substrate. Critical current (I{sub c}) values for 1 {mu}m thick YBCO coatings exceed 100 A/cm-width at 77 K on a Ni-W RABiTS template.

  2. Argo profiles variability of barrier layer in the tropical Indian Ocean and its relationship with the Indian Ocean Dipole

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiu, Yun; Cai, Wenju; Li, Li; Guo, Xiaogang

    2012-04-01

    Interannual variability of the barrier layer (BL) in the southeastern tropical Indian Ocean (SETIO) is examined using temperature and salinity profiles derived from Argo floats since 2004. We show that a quasi-permanent BL exists off Sumatra with a semi-annual cycle and a maximum in November. Further, interannual variability of the BL is closely related to the Indian Ocean Dipole (IOD) with the IOD leading the BL by one month. During the 2006 positive IOD (pIOD) season, equatorial easterly-induced upwelling Kelvin waves raise the isothermal layer (IL) off Sumatra; a salinity-stratified mixed layer (ML) shoals due to a reduced eastward salty water transport by a weaker Wyrtki Jet, despite an offset by a reduced freshwater flux. Consequently, thinning of the BL is dominated by thinning of the IL. During the 2010 negative IOD (nIOD), similar processes operate but in an opposite direction. As thinning of the BL during a pIOD enhances the thermocline-ML coupling, our results reveal that an IOD-induced co-varying BL in turn enhances the IOD positive feedbacks.

  3. Prostate specific antigen detection using AlGaN /GaN high electron mobility transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, B. S.; Wang, H. T.; Lele, T. P.; Tseng, Y.; Ren, F.; Pearton, S. J.; Johnson, J. W.; Rajagopal, P.; Roberts, J. C.; Piner, E. L.; Linthicum, K. J.

    2007-09-01

    Antibody-functionalized Au-gated AlGaN /GaN high electron mobility transistors (HEMTs) were used to detect prostate specific antigen (PSA). The PSA antibody was anchored to the gate area through the formation of carboxylate succinimdyl ester bonds with immobilized thioglycolic acid. The AlGaN /GaN HEMT drain-source current showed a rapid response of less than 5s when target PSA in a buffer at clinical concentrations was added to the antibody-immobilized surface. The authors could detect a wide range of concentrations from 10pg/mlto1μg/ml. The lowest detectable concentration was two orders of magnitude lower than the cutoff value of PSA measurements for clinical detection of prostate cancer. These results clearly demonstrate the promise of portable electronic biological sensors based on AlGaN /GaN HEMTs for PSA screening.

  4. An analysis of temperature dependent piezoelectric Franz-Keldysh effect in AlGaN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hou, Y. T.; Teo, K. L.; Li, M. F.; Uchida, Kazuo; Tokunaga, Hiroki; Akutsu, Nakao; Matsumoto, Koh

    2000-02-01

    Strong Franz-Keldysh oscillations near the band gap of AlGaN are observed in the contactless electroreflectance (CER) studies of a GaN/InGaN/AlGaN multilayer structure. The line shape analysis of the CER spectra at different temperatures provides an accurate determination of the AlGaN band gap energies and the built-in electric fields. Using the existing data of the thermal expansion coefficients of GaN and sapphire, and the piezoelectric constants of AlGaN, the temperature dependence of the electric field is estimated and is in good agreement with the experimental results between 15 and 300 K. We attribute such electric field to the piezoelectric strain effect.

  5. Utilizing a paper sludge barrier layer in a municipal landfill cover in New York

    SciTech Connect

    Moo-Young, H.K. Jr.; Zimmie, T.F.

    1997-12-31

    This paper evaluates the use of paper sludges from the Hudson River Mill as the impermeable barrier in a landfill cover in Corinth, NY. Paper mill sludges are characterized by a high water content, low specific gravity, and high organic content in comparison to clays. In spite of a high water content, the paper sludges from the Hudson River Mill were compacted to a low hydraulic conductivity. The permeability and compressibility of the paper sludges are influenced by the water content and organic content. Although a paper sludge cover system may not initially meet the regulatory requirement for permeability when constructed at the natural water content, the change in void ratio that results from consolidation and dewatering under a low effective stress can reduce the hydraulic conductivity to an acceptable value. The Corinth landfill cover was instrumented to measure the depth of frost penetration into the cover system.

  6. Investigation of the Galvanic Effect between RuN Barriers and Cu Seed Layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Chia-Yang; Lee, Wen-Hsi; Chang, Shih-Chieh; Wang, Ying-Lang

    2011-12-01

    In this study, we investigated the galvanic effect between the Cu metals and ruthenium nitride (RuNx) films that were deposited at various nitrogen (N2) gas flow rates in chemical mechanical polishing slurries. It was found that the galvanic corrosion of the RuNx films was inhibited with increasing N2 gas flow ratio, whereas the galvanic corrosion of the Cu seed layers was enhanced. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy showed that the galvanic corrosion resistance of RuNx increased and that of the ruthenium oxide layer decreased as N2 flow ratio increased. This was because the increase in the N content in the RuNx films inhibited the corrosion and oxidation of the Ru metals.

  7. On the optimization of asymmetric barrier layers in InAlGaAs/AlGaAs laser heterostructures on GaAs substrates

    SciTech Connect

    Zhukov, A. E.; Asryan, L. V.; Semenova, E. S.; Zubov, F. I.; Kryzhanovskaya, N. V.; Maximov, M. V.

    2015-07-15

    Band offsets at the heterointerface are calculated for various combinations of InAlGaAs/AlGaAs heteropairs that can be synthesized on GaAs substrates in the layer-by-layer pseudomorphic growth mode. Patterns which make it possible to obtain an asymmetric barrier layer providing the almost obstruction-free transport of holes and the highest possible barrier height for electrons are found. The optimal compositions of both compounds (In{sup 0.232}Al{sup 0.594}Ga{sup 0.174}As/Al{sup 0.355}Ga{sup 0.645}As) at which the flux of electrons across the barrier is at a minimum are determined with consideration for the critical thickness of the indium-containing quaternary solid solution.

  8. Annual layers revealed by GPR in the subsurface of a prograding coastal barrier, southwest Washington, U.S.A

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Moore, L.J.; Jol, H.M.; Kruse, S.; Vanderburgh, S.; Kaminsky, G.M.

    2004-01-01

    The southwest Washington coastline has experienced extremely high rates of progradation during the late Holocene. Subsurface stratigraphy, preserved because of progradation and interpreted using ground-penetrating radar (GPR), has previously been used successfully to document coastal response to prehistoric storm and earthquake events. New GPR data collected at Ocean Shores, Washington, suggest that the historic stratigraphy of the coastal barrier in this area represents a higher resolution record of coastal behavior than previously thought. GPR records for this location at 200 MHz reveal a series of gently sloping, seaward-dipping reflections with slopes similar to the modern beach and spacings on the order of 20-45 cm. Field evidence and model results suggest that thin (1-10 cm), possibly magnetite-rich, heavy-mineral lags or low-porosity layers left by winter storms and separated by thick (20-40 cm) summer progradational sequences are responsible for generating the GPR reflections. These results indicate that a record of annual progradation is preserved in the subsurface of the prograding barrier and can be quantified using GPR. Such records of annual coastal behavior, where available, will be invaluable in understanding past coastal response to climatic and tectonic forcing. ?? 2004.

  9. Nanometer-thick amorphous-SnO2 layer as an oxygen barrier coated on a transparent AZO electrode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Hee Sang; Woo, Seong Ihl

    2016-07-01

    It is necessary for transparent conducting electrodes used in dye-sensitized or perovskite solar cells to have high thermal stability which is required when TiO2 is coated on the electrode. AZO films with their low-cost and good TCO properties are unfortunately unstable above 300 °C in air because of adsorbed oxygen. In this paper, the thermal stability of AZO films is enhanced by depositing an oxygen barrier on AZO films to block the oxygen. As the barrier material, SnO2 is used due to its high heat stability, electrical conductivity, and transmittance. Moreover, when the SnO2 is grown as amorphous phase, the protective effect become greater than the crystalline phase. The thermal stability of the amorphous-SnO2/AZO films varies depending on the thickness of the amorphous SnO2 layer. Because of the outstanding oxygen blocking properties of amorphous SnO2, its optimal thickness is very thin and it results in only a slight decrease in transmittance. The sheet resistance of the amorphous-SnO2/AZO film is 5.4 Ω sq-1 after heat treatment at 500 °C for 30 min in air and the average transmittance in the visible region is 83.4%. The results show that the amorphous-SnO2/AZO films have thermal stability with excellent electrical and optical properties. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  10. AlGaN Channel Transistors for Power Management and Distribution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    VanHove, James M.

    1996-01-01

    Contained within is the Final report of a Phase 1 SBIR program to develop AlGaN channel junction field effect transistors (JFET). The report summarizes our work to design, deposit, and fabricate JFETS using molecular beam epitaxy growth AlGaN. Nitride growth is described using a RF atomic nitrogen plasma source. Processing steps needed to fabricate the device such as ohmic source-drain contacts, reactive ion etching, gate formation, and air bride fabrication are documented. SEM photographs of fabricated power FETS are shown. Recommendations are made to continue the effort in a Phase 2 Program.

  11. Large-Format AlGaN PIN Photodiode Arrays for UV Images

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aslam, Shahid; Franz, David

    2010-01-01

    A large-format hybridized AlGaN photodiode array with an adjustable bandwidth features stray-light control, ultralow dark-current noise to reduce cooling requirements, and much higher radiation tolerance than previous technologies. This technology reduces the size, mass, power, and cost of future ultraviolet (UV) detection instruments by using lightweight, low-voltage AlGaN detectors in a hybrid detector/multiplexer configuration. The solar-blind feature eliminates the need for additional visible light rejection and reduces the sensitivity of the system to stray light that can contaminate observations.

  12. Enhancing rectification of a nano-swimmer system by multi-layered asymmetric barriers.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yen-Fu; Xiao, Song; Chen, Hsuan-Yi; Sheng, Yu-Jane; Tsao, Heng-Kwong

    2015-10-21

    The rectification of nano-swimmers in two chambers separated by a strip of funnel gates is explored by dissipative particle dynamics simulations. According to the trajectories of active colloids across the funnel zone, two rectification mechanisms are identified: geometry-assisted diffusion and trap-hindered diffusion. In general, geometry-assisted diffusion dominates at a small active force (Fa) and run time (τ) while trap-hindered diffusion governs at a large Fa and τ. The rectification ratio is affected by the funnel shape and various geometries are considered: open/closed triangular, circular and rectangular funnels. The rectification ratio of open funnels is always greater than that of closed funnels. Moreover, the open circular funnel has the best performance while the triangular one has the worst. Rectification can be enhanced as the number of funnel layers is increased. It is found that the rectification ratio of self-propelled colloids can be dramatically augmented by triple-layered funnels to be as high as 30. Our simulation study offers an efficient approach for rectification enhancement. PMID:26394906

  13. Enhancing rectification of a nano-swimmer system by multi-layered asymmetric barriers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yen-Fu; Xiao, Song; Chen, Hsuan-Yi; Sheng, Yu-Jane; Tsao, Heng-Kwong

    2015-10-01

    The rectification of nano-swimmers in two chambers separated by a strip of funnel gates is explored by dissipative particle dynamics simulations. According to the trajectories of active colloids across the funnel zone, two rectification mechanisms are identified: geometry-assisted diffusion and trap-hindered diffusion. In general, geometry-assisted diffusion dominates at a small active force (Fa) and run time (τ) while trap-hindered diffusion governs at a large Fa and τ. The rectification ratio is affected by the funnel shape and various geometries are considered: open/closed triangular, circular and rectangular funnels. The rectification ratio of open funnels is always greater than that of closed funnels. Moreover, the open circular funnel has the best performance while the triangular one has the worst. Rectification can be enhanced as the number of funnel layers is increased. It is found that the rectification ratio of self-propelled colloids can be dramatically augmented by triple-layered funnels to be as high as 30. Our simulation study offers an efficient approach for rectification enhancement.

  14. The mucus layer is critical in protecting against ischemia-reperfusion-mediated gut injury and in the restitution of gut barrier function.

    PubMed

    Qin, Xiaofa; Sheth, Sharvil U; Sharpe, Susan M; Dong, Wei; Lu, Qi; Xu, Dazhong; Deitch, Edwin A

    2011-03-01

    It is well documented that the gut injury plays a critical role in the development of systemic inflammation and distant organ injury in conditions associated with splanchnic ischemia. Consequently, understanding the mechanisms leading to gut injury is important. In this context, recent work suggests a protective role for the intestinal mucus layer and an injury-inducing role for luminal pancreatic proteases. Thus, we explored the role of the mucus layer in gut barrier function by observing how the removal of the mucus layer affects ischemia-reperfusion-mediated gut injury in rats as well as the potential role of luminal pancreatic proteases in the pathogenesis of gut injury. Ischemia was induced by the ligation of blood vessels to segments of the ileum for 45 min, followed by up to 3 h of reperfusion. The ileal segments were divided into five groups. These included a nonischemic control, ischemic segments exposed to saline, the mucolytic N-acetylcysteine (NAC), pancreatic proteases, or NAC + pancreatic proteases. Changes in gut barrier function were assessed by the permeation of fluorescein isothiocyanate dextran (molecular weight, 4,000 d) in ileal everted sacs. Gut injury was measured morphologically and by the luminal content of protein, DNA, and hemoglobin. The mucus layer was assessed functionally by measuring its hydrophobicity and morphologically. Gut barrier function was promptly and effectively reestablished during reperfusion, which was accompanied by the restoration of the mucus layer. In contrast, treatment of the gut with the mucolytic NAC for 10 min during ischemia resulted in a failure of mucus restitution and further increases in gut permeability and injury. The presence of digestive proteases by themselves did not exacerbate gut injury, but in combination with NAC, they caused an even greater increase in gut injury and permeability. These results suggest that the mucus layer not only serves as a barrier between the luminal contents and gut surface

  15. A new RHQT Nb3Al superconducting wire with a Ta/Cu/Ta three-layer filament-barrier structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takeuchi, Takao; Tsuchiya, Kiyosumi; Nakagawa, Kazuhiko; Nimori, Shigeki; Banno, Nobuya; Iijima, Yasuo; Kikuchi, Akihiro; Nakamoto, Tatsushi

    2012-06-01

    To suppress the low-magnetic-field instability (flux jumps in low magnetic fields) of a rapid-heating, quenching and transformation (RHQT) processed Nb3Al superconductor, we had previously modified the cross-sectional design of an RHQT Nb3Al by adopting a Ta filament-barrier structure. Unlike Nb barriers, Ta barriers are not superconducting in magnetic fields at 4.2 K so that they electromagnetically decouple filaments. However, small flux jumps still occurred at 1.8 K, which is a typical operating temperature for the magnets used in high-energy particle accelerators. Furthermore, poor bonding at the Ta/Ta interface between neighboring Ta-coated jelly-roll (JR) filaments frequently caused precursor wires to break during drawing. To overcome these problems, we fabricated a new RHQT Nb3Al wire with a Ta/Cu/Ta three-layer filament-barrier structure for which an internal stabilization technique (Cu rods encased in Ta are dispersed in the wire cross section) was extended. Removing the Ta/Ta interface in the interfilamentary barrier (JR filament/Ta/Cu/Ta/JR filament) allowed precursor wires to be drawn without breaking. Furthermore, the Cu filament barrier electromagnetically decoupled filaments to suppress flux jumps at 1.8 K. The ductile Cu layer also improved the bending strain tolerance of RHQT Nb3Al.

  16. Aluminum incorporation efficiencies in A- and C-plane AlGaN grown by MOVPE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong-Yue, Han; Hui-Jie, Li; Gui-Juan, Zhao; Hong-Yuan, Wei; Shao-Yan, Yang; Lian-Shan, Wang

    2016-04-01

    The aluminum incorporation efficiencies in nonpolar A-plane and polar C-plane AlGaN films grown by metalorganic vapour phase epitaxy (MOVPE) are investigated. It is found that the aluminum content in A-plane AlGaN film is obviously higher than that in the C-plane sample when the growth temperature is above 1070 °C. The high aluminum incorporation efficiency is beneficial to fabricating deep ultraviolet optoelectronic devices. Moreover, the influences of the gas inlet ratio, the V/III ratio, and the chamber pressure on the aluminum content are studied. The results are important for growing the AlGaN films, especially nonpolar AlGaN epilayers. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 61504128, 61504129, 61274041, and 11275228), the National Basic Research Program of China (Grant No. 2012CB619305), the National High Technology Research and Development Program of China (Grant Nos. 2014AA032603, 2014AA032609, and 2015AA010801), and the Guangdong Provincial Scientific and Technologic Planning Program, China (Grant No. 2014B010119002).

  17. Effect of stress on the Al composition evolution in AlGaN grown using metal organic vapor phase epitaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Chenguang; Qin, Zhixin; Xu, Fujun; Zhang, Lisheng; Wang, Jiaming; Hou, Mengjun; Zhang, Shan; Wang, Xinqiang; Ge, Weikun; Shen, Bo

    2016-05-01

    Two series of AlGaN samples with different stresses were designed to investigate the effect of stress on the Al composition. X-ray diffraction reciprocal space mapping (XRD RSM) demonstrated that the AlGaN epilayers with different stresses have large Al composition differences despite the same growth conditions. The largest Al composition difference reached up to 21.3%, which was also confirmed using secondary ion mass spectroscopy (SIMS). This result is attributed to a large stress discrepancy in the AlGaN epilayers. Finally, the dependences of the solid-phase Al composition on the gas-phase Al composition under different stresses were systematically analyzed.

  18. Integration of molecular-layer-deposited aluminum alkoxide interlayers into inorganic nanolaminate barriers for encapsulation of organic electronics with improved stress resistance

    SciTech Connect

    Hossbach, Christoph Fischer, Dustin; Albert, Matthias; Bartha, Johann W.; Nehm, Frederik Klumbies, Hannes; Müller-Meskamp, Lars; Leo, Karl; Singh, Aarti; Richter, Claudia; Schroeder, Uwe; Mikolajick, Thomas

    2015-01-15

    Diffusion barrier stacks for the encapsulation of organic electronics made from inorganic nanolaminates of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} and TiO{sub 2} with aluminum alkoxide interlayers have been deposited by atomic layer deposition (ALD) and molecular layer deposition (MLD). As a part of the MLD process development, the deposition of aluminum alkoxide with low a density of about 1.7 g/cm{sup 3} was verified. The ALD/MLD diffusion barrier stack is meant to be deposited either on a polymer film, creating a flexible barrier substrate, or on top of a device on glass, creating a thin-film encapsulation. In order to measure the water vapor transmission rate (WVTR) through the barrier, the device is replaced by a calcium layer acting as a water sensor in an electrical calcium test. For the barrier stack applied as thin-film encapsulation on glass substrates, high resolution scanning electron microscopy investigations indicate that the inorganic nanolaminates without MLD interlayers are brittle as they crack easily upon the stress induced by the corroding calcium below. The introduction of up to three MLD interlayers of 12 nm each into the 48 nm barrier film laminate successfully mitigates stress issues and prevents the barrier from cracking. Using the three MLD interlayer configurations on glass, WVTRs of as low as 10{sup −5} g/m{sup 2}/d are measured at 38 °C and 32% relative humidity. On polymer barrier substrates, the calcium is evaporated onto the barrier stack and encapsulated with a cavity glass. In this configuration, the corroding calcium has space for expansion and gas release without affecting the underlying barrier film. In consequence, a WVTR of about 3 × 10{sup −3} g/m{sup 2}/d is measured for all samples independently of the number of MLD interlayers. In conclusion, a stabilization and preservation of the ALD barrier film against mechanical stress is achieved by the introduction of MLD interlayers into the inorganic nanolaminate.

  19. Multilayer moisture barrier

    DOEpatents

    Pankow, Joel W; Jorgensen, Gary J; Terwilliger, Kent M; Glick, Stephen H; Isomaki, Nora; Harkonen, Kari; Turkulainen, Tommy

    2015-04-21

    A moisture barrier, device or product having a moisture barrier or a method of fabricating a moisture barrier having at least a polymer layer, and interfacial layer, and a barrier layer. The polymer layer may be fabricated from any suitable polymer including, but not limited to, fluoropolymers such as polyethylene terephthalate (PET) or polyethylene naphthalate (PEN), or ethylene-tetrafluoroethylene (ETFE). The interfacial layer may be formed by atomic layer deposition (ALD). In embodiments featuring an ALD interfacial layer, the deposited interfacial substance may be, but is not limited to, Al.sub.2O.sub.3, AlSiO.sub.x, TiO.sub.2, and an Al.sub.2O.sub.3/TiO.sub.2 laminate. The barrier layer associated with the interfacial layer may be deposited by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD). The barrier layer may be a SiO.sub.xN.sub.y film.

  20. Silicon diffusion control in atomic-layer-deposited Al2O3/La2O3/Al2O3 gate stacks using an Al2O3 barrier layer.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xing; Liu, Hong-Xia; Fei, Chen-Xi; Yin, Shu-Ying; Fan, Xiao-Jiao

    2015-01-01

    In this study, the physical and electrical characteristics of Al2O3/La2O3/Al2O3/Si stack structures affected by the thickness of an Al2O3 barrier layer between Si substrate and La2O3 layer are investigated after a rapid thermal annealing (RTA) treatment. Time of flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (TOF-SIMS) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) tests indicate that an Al2O3 barrier layer (15 atomic layer deposition (ALD) cycles, approximately 1.5 nm) plays an important role in suppressing the diffusion of silicon atoms from Si substrate into the La2O3 layer during the annealing process. As a result, some properties of La2O3 dielectric degenerated by the diffusion of Si atoms are improved. Electrical measurements (C-V, J-V) show that the thickness of Al2O3 barrier layer can affect the shift of flat band voltage (V FB) and the magnitude of gate leakage current density. PMID:25897303

  1. Strongly transverse-electric-polarized emission from deep ultraviolet AlGaN quantum well light emitting diodes

    SciTech Connect

    Reich, Christoph Guttmann, Martin; Wernicke, Tim; Mehnke, Frank; Kuhn, Christian; Feneberg, Martin; Goldhahn, Rüdiger; Rass, Jens; Kneissl, Michael; Lapeyrade, Mickael; Einfeldt, Sven; Knauer, Arne; Kueller, Viola; Weyers, Markus

    2015-10-05

    The optical polarization of emission from ultraviolet (UV) light emitting diodes (LEDs) based on (0001)-oriented Al{sub x}Ga{sub 1−x}N multiple quantum wells (MQWs) has been studied by simulations and electroluminescence measurements. With increasing aluminum mole fraction in the quantum well x, the in-plane intensity of transverse-electric (TE) polarized light decreases relative to that of the transverse-magnetic polarized light, attributed to a reordering of the valence bands in Al{sub x}Ga{sub 1−x}N. Using k ⋅ p theoretical model calculations, the AlGaN MQW active region design has been optimized, yielding increased TE polarization and thus higher extraction efficiency for bottom-emitting LEDs in the deep UV spectral range. Using (i) narrow quantum wells, (ii) barriers with high aluminum mole fractions, and (iii) compressive growth on patterned aluminum nitride sapphire templates, strongly TE-polarized emission was observed at wavelengths as short as 239 nm.

  2. Enhanced water vapor barrier properties for biopolymer films by polyelectrolyte multilayer and atomic layer deposited Al 2 O 3 double-coating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirvikorpi, Terhi; Vähä-Nissi, Mika; Harlin, Ali; Salomäki, Mikko; Areva, Sami; Korhonen, Juuso T.; Karppinen, Maarit

    2011-09-01

    Commercial polylactide (PLA) films are coated with a thin (20 nm) non-toxic polyelectrolyte multilayer (PEM) film made from sodium alginate and chitosan and additionally with a 25-nm thick atomic layer deposited (ALD) Al 2O 3 layer. The double-coating of PEM + Al 2O 3 is found to significantly enhance the water vapor barrier properties of the PLA film. The improvement is essentially larger compared with the case the PLA film being just coated with an ALD-grown Al 2O 3 layer. The enhanced water vapor barrier characteristics of the PEM + Al 2O 3 double-coated PLA films are attributed to the increased hydrophobicity of the surface of these films.

  3. Understanding and Shaping the Morphology of the Barrier Layer of Supported Porous Anodized Alumina on Gold Underlayers.

    PubMed

    Berger, Nele; Es-Souni, Mohammed

    2016-07-12

    Large-area ordered nanorod (NR) arrays of various functional materials can be easily and cost-effectively processed using on-substrate anodized porous aluminum oxide (PAO) films as templates. However, reproducibility in the processing of PAO films is still an issue because they are prone to delamination, and control of fabrication parameters such as electrolyte type and concentration and anodizing time is critical for making robust templates and subsequently mechanically reliable NR arrays. In the present work, we systematically investigate the effects of the fabrication parameters on pore base morphology, devise a method to avoid delamination, and control void formation under the barrier layer of PAO films on gold underlayers. Via systematic control of the anodization parameters, particularly the anodization current density and time, we follow the different stages of void development and discuss their formation mechanisms. The practical aspect of this work demonstrates how void size can be controlled and how void formation can be utilized to control the shape of NR bases for improving the mechanical stability of the NRs. PMID:27315420

  4. Seasonal variations in the barrier layer in the South China Sea: characteristics, mechanisms and impact of warming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeng, Lili; Wang, Dongxiao

    2016-06-01

    A new observational dataset, the South China Sea Physical Oceanographic Dataset 2014, is examined to investigate the seasonal characteristics, formation mechanisms, and warming effects of the barrier layer (BL) in the South China Sea (SCS). Statistical analysis reveals that the BL is thicker and occurs more frequently during summer and early autumn, while in winter it often coexists with temperature inversions. The formation mechanisms are discussed from the perspective of the controlling regime and the net turbulent energy required for BL evolution. In the initial stage (March-May), the BL is absent due to weak mixing, scarce rainfall and surface warming. In the formation and maintenance stage (June-September), the BL grows in summer and persists into the transition season. The BLs can be classified into three regimes: the flux regime (in the Luzon Strait), the combined regime (in the eastern basin) and the wind regime (southeast of Vietnam). In the attenuation stage (October-February), associated with the winter monsoon, the BL mainly occurs in the combined regime (along the path of western boundary current) and the flux regime (in the southeast corner). The characteristics and generation mechanisms of the temperature inversions near the south Chinese coast, east of Vietnam, and in the Gulf of Thailand are also discussed. Our analysis further demonstrates that the BL has a significant warming effect on upper ocean temperature and heat content in the SCS.

  5. Corrosion barriers for silver-based telescope mirrors: comparative study of plasma-enhanced atomic layer deposition and reactive evaporation of aluminum oxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fryauf, David M.; Phillips, Andrew C.; Kobayashi, Nobuhiko P.

    2015-10-01

    Astronomical telescopes continue to demand high-endurance high-reflectivity silver (Ag) mirrors that can withstand years of exposure in Earth-based observatory environments. We present promising results of improved Ag mirror robustness using plasma-enhanced atomic layer deposition (PEALD) of aluminum oxide (AlOx) as a top barrier layer. Transparent AlOx is suitable for many optical applications; therefore, it has been the initial material of choice for this study. Two coating recipes developed with electron beam ion-assisted deposition (e-beam IAD) of materials including yttrium fluoride, titanium nitride, oxides of yttrium, tantalum, and silicon are used to provide variations in basic Ag mirror structures to compare the endurance of reactive e-beam IAD barriers with PEALD barriers. Samples undergo high temperature/high humidity environmental testing in a controlled environment of 80% humidity at 80°C for 10 days. Environmental testing shows visible results suggesting that the PEALD AlOx barrier offers robust protection against chemical corrosion and moisture permeation. Ag mirror structures were further characterized by reflectivity/absorption before and after deposition of AlOx barriers.

  6. Precise control of Schottky barrier height in SrTiO3/SrRuO3 heterojunctions using ultrathin interface polar layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sampath Kumar, V.; Niranjan, Manish K.

    2016-06-01

    Control of Schottky barrier height using a polar interface layer at oxide heterointerfaces offers interesting and promising applications in oxide-based electronics. Using ab initio density functional theory, the Schottky barrier heights are determined in SrRuO3 /SrTiO3(0 0 1) heterojunctions with interfacial polar layers such as (LaO)+, (AlO2)‑, etc. The Schottky barriers at these heterointerfaces are found to modulate significantly depending on the charge of the interface layer. Large shifts in Schottky barrier height due to polar layer insertions are explained using a micro-capacitor model. Further, the ionic and electronic contributions to the Schottky barrier height at the SrRuO3/SrTiO3 interface are determined and analyzed vis-à-vis basic assumptions of empirical models based on metal-induced gap states (MIGS) and bond polarization theory. In addition, the interface electronic structure and distribution of interface MIGS in SrRuO3/SrTiO3 heterostructures are determined. Furthermore, the electronic structures for SrO- and RuO2-terminated SrRuO3(0 0 1) and SrO- and TiO2-terminated SrTiO3(0 0 1) surfaces are explored and compared to those for SrRuO3/SrTiO3 heterostructures. The modulations in workfunctions of SrO- and RuO2-terminated SrRuO3(0 0 1) surfaces due to polar (LaO)+ and (AlO2)‑ surface monolayers are also examined and discussed.

  7. Damage-free back channel wet-etch process in amorphous indium-zinc-oxide thin-film transistors using a carbon-nanofilm barrier layer.

    PubMed

    Luo, Dongxiang; Zhao, Mingjie; Xu, Miao; Li, Min; Chen, Zikai; Wang, Lang; Zou, Jianhua; Tao, Hong; Wang, Lei; Peng, Junbiao

    2014-07-23

    Amorphous indium-zinc-oxide thin film transistors (IZO-TFTs) with damage-free back channel wet-etch (BCE) process were investigated. A carbon (C) nanofilm was inserted into the interface between IZO layer and source/drain (S/D) electrodes as a barrier layer. Transmittance electron microscope images revealed that the 3 nm-thick C nanofilm exhibited a good corrosion resistance to a commonly used H3PO4-based etchant and could be easily eliminated. The TFT device with a 3 nm-thick C barrier layer showed a saturated field effect mobility of 14.4 cm(2) V(-1) s(-1), a subthreshold swing of 0.21 V/decade, an on-to-off current ratio of 8.3 × 10(10), and a threshold voltage of 2.0 V. The favorable electrical performance of this kind of IZO-TFTs was due to the protection of the inserted C to IZO layer in the back-channel-etch process. Moreover, the low contact resistance of the devices was proved to be due to the graphitization of the C nanofilms after annealing. In addition, the hysteresis and thermal stress testing confirmed that the usage of C barrier nanofilms is an effective method to fabricate the damage-free BCE-type devices with high reliability. PMID:24969359

  8. Composition and Physiological Function of the Wax Layers Coating Arabidopsis Leaves: β-Amyrin Negatively Affects the Intracuticular Water Barrier1[W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Buschhaus, Christopher; Jetter, Reinhard

    2012-01-01

    Plants prevent dehydration by coating their aerial, primary organs with waxes. Wax compositions frequently differ between species, organs, and developmental stages, probably to balance limiting nonstomatal water loss with various other ecophysiological roles of surface waxes. To establish structure-function relationships, we quantified the composition and transpiration barrier properties of the gl1 mutant leaf waxes of Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) to the necessary spatial resolution. The waxes coating the upper and lower leaf surfaces had distinct compositions. Moreover, within the adaxial wax, the epicuticular layer contained more wax and a higher relative quantity of alkanes, whereas the intracuticular wax had a higher percentage of alcohols. The wax formed a barrier against nonstomatal water loss, where the outer layer contributed twice as much resistance as the inner layer. Based on this detailed description of Arabidopsis leaf waxes, structure-function relationships can now be established by manipulating one cuticle component and assessing the effect on cuticle functions. Next, we ectopically expressed the triterpenoid synthase gene AtLUP4 (for lupeol synthase4 or β-amyrin synthase) to compare water loss with and without added cuticular triterpenoids in Arabidopsis leaf waxes. β-Amyrin accumulated solely in the intracuticular wax, constituting up to 4% of this wax layer, without other concomitant changes of wax composition. This triterpenoid accumulation caused a significant reduction in the water barrier effectiveness of the intracuticular wax. PMID:22885935

  9. [ACTIVITY OF ANTIMICROBIAL NANOSTRUCTURED BARRIER LAYERS BASED ON POLYETHYLENETEREPHTHALATE IN RELATION TO CLINICAL STRAINES OF MICROORGANISMS FOR SICK PERSONS OF GASTROENTEROLOGICAL PROFILE].

    PubMed

    Elinson, V M; Rusanova, E V; Vasilenko, I A; Lyamin, A N; Kostyuchenko, L N

    2015-01-01

    Homeostasis transgressions of enteral medium including disbiotic ones are often accompanying deseases of digestive tract. Espessially it touches upon sick persons connected with probe nourishing. One of the way for solving this problem is normalization of digestion microflore by means of wares with nanotechnological modifications of walls (probes, stomic tubes) which provide them antimicrobial properties and assist to normalization of digestive microbiotis and enteral homeostasis completely. The aim to study is research of antimicrobial activity of of nanostructured barrier layers based on polyethyleneterephthalate (PET) in relation to clinical straines of microorganisms. For barrier layer creation the approach on the base of methods of ion-plasma technology was used including ion-plasma treatment (nanostructuring) of the surface by ions noble and chemically active gases and following formation nanodimensional carbon films on the surface/ For the study of antimicrobial activity in relation to clinical straines of microorganisms we used the technique which allowed to establish the influence of parting degree of microorganisms suspension and time for samples exposing and microorganisms adsorbed on the surface. In experiment clinical straines obtained from different materials were used: Staphylococcus Hly+ and Calbicans--from pharyngeal mucosa, E. coli--from feces, K.pneumoniae--from urine. Sharing out and species identification of microorganisms were fulfilled according with legasy documents. In results of the study itwas obtained not only the presence of staticticaly confirmed antimicrobial activity of PET samples with nanostructured barrier layers in relation to different stimulators of nosocomical infections but also the influence of different factors connected with formation of nanostructured layers and consequently based with them physicochemical characteristics such as, in particular, surface energy, surface relief parameters, surface charg and others, as well

  10. Seasonal-to-interannual variability of the barrier layer in the western Pacific warm pool associated with ENSO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xidong; Liu, Hailong

    2016-07-01

    This study investigates the seasonal-to-interannual variability of the barrier layer (BL) associated with El Niño/Southern Oscillation (ENSO) using in situ temperature-salinity observations and simple ocean assimilation data (SODA). The comparisons with the BL derived from the in situ observations show that SODA successfully captures the variability of the BL in the Pacific warm pool. On seasonal timescale, based on the empirical orthogonal function (EOF) analysis, we identify that three seasonal leading modes of the BL along the equatorial Pacific are closely associated with the transition, resurgence and onset of ENSO, respectively. We also confirm that two interannual leading modes of the BL are related to different flavors of ENSO events. EOF1 mainly embodies a combined response to the central and east Pacific ENSO events while EOF2 is related to the central Pacific ENSO events. We especially focus on the contrast of the BL between east Pacific El Niño (EPEN) and central Pacific El Niño (CPEN). During EPEN, the abnormally thick BL appears in the east of the dateline. It follows the sea surface salinity front to shift zonally with the evolution of EPEN event, and propagates toward the central Pacific. It can be attributed to horizontal ocean advection, heavy precipitation and the downwelling Kelvin waves. In contrast, during CPEN, the abnormally thick BL is confined to the region between 160°E and 180°E around the SSS front without significant west-east displacement. It is mainly dominated by the local processes including Ekman pumping, precipitation, and zonal ocean advection. Different from the BL in the EPEN events, it has no evident basin-scale propagating signal.

  11. Synthesis, morphology and optical properties of GaN and AlGaN semiconductor nanostructures

    SciTech Connect

    Kuppulingam, B. Singh, Shubra Baskar, K.

    2014-04-24

    Hexagonal Gallium Nitride (GaN) and Aluminum Gallium Nitride (AlGaN) nanoparticles were synthesized by sol-gel method using Ethylene Diamine Tetra Acetic acid (EDTA) complex route. Powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD) analysis confirms the hexagonal wurtzite structure of GaN and Al{sub 0.25}Ga{sub 0.75}N nanoparticles. Surface morphology and elemental analysis were carried out by Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) and Energy Dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX). The room temperature Photoluminescence (PL) study shows the near band edge emission for GaN at 3.35 eV and at 3.59 eV for AlGaN nanoparticles. The Aluminum (Al) composition of 20% has been obtained from PL emission around 345 nm.

  12. Bias Selectable Dual Band AlGaN Ultra-violet Detectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yan, Feng; Miko, Laddawan; Franz, David; Guan, Bing; Stahle, Carl M.

    2007-01-01

    Bias selectable dual band AlGaN ultra-violet (UV) detectors, which can separate UV-A and UV-B using one detector in the same pixel by bias switching, have been designed, fabricated and characterized. A two-terminal n-p-n photo-transistor-like structure was used. When a forward bias is applied between the top electrode and the bottom electrode, the detectors can successfully detect W-A and reject UV-B. Under reverse bias, they can detect UV-B and reject UV-A. The proof of concept design shows that it is feasible to fabricate high performance dual-band UV detectors based on the current AlGaN material growth and fabrication technologies.

  13. High growth rate of AlGaN for buffer structures for GaN on Si to increase throughput

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsumoto, Koh; Ubukata, Akinori; Ikenaga, Kazutada; Naito, Kazuki; Yamamoto, Jun; Yano, Yoshiki; Tabuchi, Toshiya; Yamaguchi, Akira; Ban, Yuzaburo; Uchiyama, Kosuke

    2012-03-01

    Throughput requirement of the epitaxial process of GaN on Si is described. The impact of the growth rate of AlGaN for the buffer layer of GaN on Si is highlighted. In the attempt of growing GaN on Si, we have tested a production scale high flow speed MOVPE reactor (TAIYO NIPPON SANSO UR25k) for 6 inch X 7 wafers. Al0.58Ga0.42N was grown with the growth rate of 1.85μm/hr at 30 kPa. AlN was grown with the growth rate of 1.4μm/hr at 13kPa. AlN/GaN SLS (5nm/20nm) was also grown at the growth rate of 1.4μm/hr. An excellent uniformity of aluminum concentration of less than 0.5% was also obtained for Al0.58Ga0.42N. The challenge which we are facing to further increase of the throughput is summarized.

  14. Normally-Off AlGaN/GaN High Electron Mobility Transistors with Thin and High Al Composition Barrier Layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Kai; Mi, Minhan; Chen, Yonghe; Cao, Mengyi; Wang, Chong; Ma, Xiaohua; Zhang, Jincheng; Hao, Yue

    2013-11-01

    A GaN-based enhancement-mode high electron mobility transistor (HEMT) with a 1.5 nm GaN/9 nm Al0.65Ga0.35N thin barrier was reported. Without any treatment on barrier layer under the gate, the as-grown HEMTs exhibited a threshold voltage of 0.3 V, a maximum drain current density of 441 mA/mm at VGS = 3 V and a peak extrinsic transconductance of 204 mS/mm at VGS = 1.1 V. At the same time, both a low Schottky leakage current and an insignificant surface defects induced current dispersion were observed. Moreover, drain induction barrier lower (DIBL) effect was determined to be merely 3.28 mV/V at 1 mA/mm for a gate length of 0.5 µm. Additionally, post-gate annealing experiment at step temperatures up to 450 °C was implemented, only causing a minor shift in threshold voltage. These results demonstrated the substantial potential of thin and high Al composition barrier layers for high-voltage and highly reliable enhancement mode operation.

  15. Improved conversion efficiency of Ag2S quantum dot-sensitized solar cells based on TiO2 nanotubes with a ZnO recombination barrier layer

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    We improve the conversion efficiency of Ag2S quantum dot (QD)-sensitized TiO2 nanotube-array electrodes by chemically depositing ZnO recombination barrier layer on plain TiO2 nanotube-array electrodes. The optical properties, structural properties, compositional analysis, and photoelectrochemistry properties of prepared electrodes have been investigated. It is found that for the prepared electrodes, with increasing the cycles of Ag2S deposition, the photocurrent density and the conversion efficiency increase. In addition, as compared to the Ag2S QD-sensitized TiO2 nanotube-array electrode without the ZnO layers, the conversion efficiency of the electrode with the ZnO layers increases significantly due to the formation of efficient recombination layer between the TiO2 nanotube array and electrolyte. PMID:21777458

  16. Gas-Barrier Hybrid Coatings by the Assembly of Novel Poly(vinyl alcohol) and Reduced Graphene Oxide Layers through Cross-Linking with Zirconium Adducts.

    PubMed

    Yan, Ning; Capezzuto, Filomena; Buonocore, Giovanna G; Lavorgna, Marino; Xia, Hesheng; Ambrosio, Luigi

    2015-10-14

    Gas-barrier materials obtained by coating poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) substrates have already been studied in the recent literature. However, because of the benefits of using cheaper, biodegradable, and nonpolar polymers, multilayered hybrid coatings consisting of alternate layers of reduced graphene oxide (rGO) nanosheets and a novel high amorphous vinyl alcohol (HAVOH) with zirconium (Zr) adducts as binders were successfully fabricated through a layer-by-layer (LbL) assembly approach. Atomic force microscopy analysis showed that rGO nanoplatelets were uniformly dispersed over the HAVOH polymer substrate. Scanning and transmission electron microscopies revealed that multilayer (HAVOH/Zr/rGO)n hybrid coatings exhibited a brick-wall structure with HAVOH and rGO as buildings blocks. It has been shown that 40 layers of HAVOH/Zr/rGO ultrathin films deposited on PET substrates lead to a decrease of 1 order of magnitude of oxygen permeability with respect to the pristine PET substrate. This is attributed to the effect of zirconium polymeric adducts, which enhance the assembling efficiency of rGO and compact the layers, as confirmed by NMR characterization, resulting in a significant increment of the oxygen-transport pathways. Because of their high barrier properties and high flexibility, these films are promising candidates in a variety of applications such as packaging, selective gas films, and protection of flexible electronics. PMID:26406566

  17. Impact of the TiN barrier layer on the positive bias temperature instabilities of high-k/metal-gate field effect transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Da-Cheng; Gong, Jeng; Huang, Chih-Fang; Chung, Steve S.

    2015-04-01

    This study examined the impact of positive bias temperature instability (PBTI) on n-channel metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistor (n-MOSFET) with TiN barrier layer sandwiched between metal gate electrode and HfO2 dielectric. The experimental results clearly demonstrate that the diffusion mechanism of oxygen and nitrogen as a result of the post metallization treatment was the root cause of the PBTI. In this mechanism, the oxygen during the post metallization annealing (PMA) was diffused into TiN layer and replaced the nitrogen in the TiN layer. Subsequently, these replaced nitrogens were diffused into the HfO2, from which these replaced nitrogen atoms were used to passivate the defects in the HfO2. Results show that by increasing the thickness of TiN barrier layer, the driving current and the PBTI of n-MOSFET can be greatly improved. The larger the thickness of the TiN layer is, the better the PBTI reliability becomes.

  18. The mucus layer is critical in protecting against ischemia/reperfusion-mediated gut injury and in the restitution of gut barrier function

    PubMed Central

    Qin, Xiaofa; Sheth, Sharvil U.; Sharpe, Susan M.; Dong, Wei; Lu, Qi; Xu, Dazhong; Deitch, Edwin A.

    2011-01-01

    It is well documented that the gut injury plays a critical role in the development of systemic inflammation and distant organ injury in conditions associated with splanchnic ischemia. Consequently understanding the mechanisms leading to gut injury is important. In this context, recent work suggests a protective role for the intestinal mucus layer and an injury-inducing role for luminal pancreatic proteases. Thus, we explored the role of the mucus layer in gut barrier function by observing how the removal of the mucus layer affects ischemia/reperfusion-mediated gut injury in rats as well as the potential role of luminal pancreatic proteases in the pathogenesis of gut injury. Ischemia was induced by the ligation of blood vessels to segments of the ileum for 45 min, followed by up to three hours of reperfusion. The ileal segments were divided into 5 groups. These included a non-ischemic control, ischemic segments exposed to saline, the mucolytic N-acetylcholine (NAC), pancreatic proteases or NAC plus pancreatic proteases. Changes in gut barrier function were assessed by the permeation of fluorescein isothiocyanate dextran (MW 4000 Da; FD4) in ileal everted sacs. Gut injury was measured morphologically and by the luminal content of protein, DNA and hemoglobin. The mucus layer was assessed functionally by measuring its hydrophobicity and morphologically. Gut barrier function was promptly and effectively re-established during reperfusion, which was accompanied by the restoration of the mucus layer. In contrast, treatment of the gut with the mucolytic NAC for 10 min during ischemia resulted in a failure of mucus restitution and further increases in gut permeability and injury. The presence of digestive proteases by themselves did not exacerbate gut injury but in combination with NAC, they caused an even greater increase in gut injury and permeability. These results suggest that the mucus layer not only serves as a barrier between the luminal contents and gut surface

  19. Tuning the interfacial hole injection barrier between p-type organic materials and Co using a MoO{sub 3} buffer layer

    SciTech Connect

    Wang Yuzhan; Wee, Andrew T. S.; Cao Liang; Qi Dongchen; Chen Wei; Gao Xingyu

    2012-08-01

    We demonstrate that the interfacial hole injection barrier {Delta}{sub h} between p-type organic materials (i.e., CuPc and pentacene) and Co substrate can be tuned by the insertion of a MoO{sub 3} buffer layer. Using ultraviolet photoemission spectroscopy, it was found that the introduction of MoO{sub 3} buffer layer effectively reduces the hole injection barrier from 0.8 eV to 0.4 eV for the CuPc/Co interface, and from 1.0 eV to 0.4 eV for the pentacene/Co interface, respectively. In addition, by varying the thickness of the buffer, the tuning effect of {Delta}{sub h} is shown to be independent of the thickness of MoO{sub 3} interlayer at both CuPc/Co and pentacene/Co interfaces. This Fermi level pinning effect can be explained by the integer charge-transfer model. Therefore, the MoO{sub 3} buffer layer has the potential to be applied in p-type organic spin valve devices to improve the device performance via reducing the interfacial hole injection barrier.

  20. Growth of AlGaN epilayers related gas-phase reactions using TPIS-MOCVD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Sunwoon; Seo, Junho; Lee, Kyuhan; Lee, Haeseok; Park, Keunseop; Kim, Younghoon; Kim, Chang-Soo

    2002-11-01

    AlGaN epilayers on GaN/sapphire were successfully grown under various growth conditions using a thermally pre-cracked ion-supplied metalorganic chemical vapor deposition. The Al composition in the solid was affected by the gas-phase parasitic reaction between NH 3 and trimethylaluminum (TMAl). As the operating pressure decreased, the Al composition in the solid increased over the ideal incorporation efficiency. This is due to a scavenging effect and a site-blocking effect. As the TMAl flow rate increased with fixed flow rates of NH 3 and trimethylgallium (TMGa), the Al concentration in the solid increased but started to saturate. As the TMGa flow rate decreased, the solid Al composition increased linearly, which means different parasitic reactions between TMGa:NH 3 and TMAl:NH 3. In addition, we found that the separating plate that was inserted to the reactor in front of the heated susceptor to separate ammonia gas flow from MO source input played an important role in the AlGaN growth. Particularly, the separating plate was more attractive under high operating pressure. When it was inserted, a white crystalline solid formed by the adduct (TMAl:NH 3) of parasitic reaction in the gas phase disappeared. It also increased the Al concentration in the solid. SEM images of AlGaN epilayer's surface showed many small islands due to the lack of surface mobility of adatoms.

  1. Growth of AlGaN alloys exhibiting enhanced luminescence efficiency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sampath, A. V.; Garrett, G. A.; Collins, C. J.; Sarney, W. L.; Readinger, E. D.; Newman, P. G.; Shen, H.; Wraback, M.

    2006-04-01

    Interest in developing ultraviolet emitters using the III-Nitride family of semiconductors has sparked considerable effort in fabricating AlGaN alloys that exhibit enhanced luminescence based on strong carrier localization, similar to their InGaN brethren. In this paper, we report on the growth of such alloys by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy (PA-MBE) without the use of indium. This enhancement is attributed to the presence of nanoscale compositional inhomogeneities (NCIs) in these materials. The emission wavelength in these materials has been tuned between 275 nm and 340 nm by varying growth conditions. The effects of dislocations on double heterostructures (DHs) that employ an NCI AlGaN active region has been investigated, with an internal quantum efficiency as high as 32% obtained for the lowest dislocation density samples (3×1010 cm-2). Prototype DH-ultraviolet light emitting diodes (DH-UVLEDs) emitting at 324 nm were fabricated employing an NCI AlGaN alloy as the active region.

  2. High-efficiency blue LEDs with thin AlGaN interlayers in InGaN/GaN MQWs grown on Si (111) substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kimura, Shigeya; Yoshida, Hisashi; Ito, Toshihide; Okada, Aoi; Uesugi, Kenjiro; Nunoue, Shinya

    2016-02-01

    We demonstrate high-efficiency blue light-emitting diodes (LEDs) with thin AlGaN interlayers in InGaN/GaN multiquantum wells (MQWs) grown on Si (111) substrates. The peak external quantum efficiency (EQE) ηEQE of 82% at room temperature and the hot/cold factor (HCF) of 94% have been obtained by using the functional thin AlGaN interlayers in the MQWs in addition to reducing threading dislocation densities (TDDs) in the blue LEDs. An HCF is defined as ηEQE(85°C)/ηEQE(25°C). The blue LED structures were grown by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition on Si (111) substrates. The MQWs applied as an active layer have 8- pairs of InGaN/AlyGa1-yN/GaN (0<=y<=1) heterostructures. Thinfilm LEDs were fabricated by removing the Si (111) substrates from the grown layers. It is observed by high-resolution transmission electron microscopy and three-dimensional atom probe analysis that the 1 nm-thick AlyGa1-yN interlayers, whose Al content is y=0.3 or less, are continuously formed. EQE and the HCFs of the LEDs with thin Al0.15Ga0.85N interlayers are enhanced compared with those of the samples without the interlayers in the low-current-density region. We consider that the enhancement is due to both the reduction of the nonradiative recombination centers and the increase of the radiative recombination rate mediated by the strain-induced hole carriers indicated by the simulation of the energy band diagram.

  3. Process and performance of hot dip zinc coatings containing ZnO and Ni-P under layers as barrier protection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamid, Z. Abdel; Aal, A. Abdel; Hassan, H. B.; Shaaban, A.

    2010-04-01

    A new coating system of under layer for hot dip zinc coating was explored as an effective coating for steel especially for application in relatively high aggressive environments. The influence of different barrier layers formed prior to hot dip galvanization was investigated to optimize high performance protective galvanic coatings. The deposition of ZnO and Ni-P inner layers and characteristics of hotdip zinc coatings were explored in this study. The coating morphology was characterized by scanning electron microscope (SEM) analysis. The hot dip zinc coatings containing under layer showed substantial improvement in their properties such as good adhesion, and high hardness. In addition, a decrease in the thickness of the coating layer and an enhancement of the corrosion resistance were found. Open circuit potential (OCP) of different galvanized layers in different corrosive media viz. 5% NaCl and 0.5 M H 2SO 4 solutions at 25 ± 1 °C was measured as a function of time. A nobler OCP was exhibited for samples treated with ZnO and Ni than sample of pure Zn; this indicates a dissolution process followed by passivation due to the surface oxide formation. The high negative OCP can be attributed to the better alloying reaction between Zn and Fe and to the sacrificial nature of the top pure zinc layer.

  4. Controlling phase transition for single-layer MTe2 (M = Mo and W): modulation of the potential barrier under strain.

    PubMed

    Huang, H H; Fan, Xiaofeng; Singh, David J; Chen, Hong; Jiang, Q; Zheng, W T

    2016-02-01

    Using first-principles DFT calculations, the pathway and the energy barrier of phase transition between 2H and 1T' have been investigated for MoTe2 and WTe2 monolayers. The Phase transition is controlled by the simultaneous movement of metal atoms and Te atoms in their plane without the intermediate phase 1T. The energy barrier (less than 0.9 eV per formula cell) is not so high that the phase transition is dynamically possible. The relative stability of both 2H and 1T' phases and the energy barrier for phase transition can be modulated by the biaxial and uniaxial strain. The dynamic energy barrier is decreased by applying the strain. The phase transition between 2H and 1T' controlled by the strain can be used to modulate the electronic properties of MoTe2 and WTe2. PMID:26778806

  5. Radiolysis products and sensory properties of electron-beam-irradiated high-barrier food-packaging films containing a buried layer of recycled low-density polyethylene.

    PubMed

    Chytiri, S D; Badeka, A V; Riganakos, K A; Kontominas, M G

    2010-04-01

    The aim was to study the effect of electron-beam irradiation on the production of radiolysis products and sensory changes in experimental high-barrier packaging films composed of polyamide (PA), ethylene-vinyl alcohol (EVOH) and low-density polyethylene (LDPE). Films contained a middle buried layer of recycled LDPE, while films containing 100% virgin LDPE as the middle buried layer were taken as controls. Irradiation doses ranged between zero and 60 kGy. Generally, a large number of radiolysis products were produced during electron-beam irradiation, even at the lower absorbed doses of 5 and 10 kGy (approved doses for food 'cold pasteurization'). The quantity of radiolysis products increased with irradiation dose. There were no significant differences in radiolysis products identified between samples containing a recycled layer of LDPE and those containing virgin LDPE (all absorbed doses), indicating the 'functional barrier' properties of external virgin polymer layers. Sensory properties (mainly taste) of potable water were affected after contact with irradiated as low as 5 kGy packaging films. This effect increased with increasing irradiation dose. PMID:20127544

  6. Assessment of interannual sea surface salinity variability and its effects on the barrier layer in the equatorial Pacific using BNU-ESM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhi, Hai; Zhang, Rong-Hua; Zheng, Fei; Lin, Pengfei; Wang, Lanning; Yu, Peng

    2016-03-01

    As salinity stratification is necessary to form the barrier layer (BL), the quantification of its role in BL interannual variability is crucial. This study assessed salinity variability and its effect on the BL in the equatorial Pacific using outputs from Beijing Normal University Earth System Model (BNU-ESM) simulations. A comparison between observations and the BNU-ESM simulations demonstrated that BNU-ESM has good capability in reproducing most of the interannual features observed in nature. Despite some discrepancies in both magnitude and location of the interannual variability centers, the displacements of sea surface salinity (SSS), barrier layer thickness (BLT), and SST simulated by BNU-ESM in the equatorial Pacific are realistic. During El Ni˜no, for example, the modeled interannual anomalies of BLT, mixed layer depth, and isothermal layer depth, exhibit good correspondence with observations, including the development and decay of El Ni˜no in the central Pacific, whereas the intensity of the interannual variabilities is weaker relative to observations. Due to the bias in salinity simulations, the SSS front extends farther west along the equator, whereas BLT variability is weaker in the central Pacific than in observations. Further, the BNU-ESM simulations were examined to assess the relative effects of salinity and temperature variability on BLT. Consistent with previous observation-based analyses, the interannual salinity variability can make a significant contribution to BLT relative to temperature in the western-central equatorial Pacific.

  7. Penetration resistant barrier

    DOEpatents

    Hoover, William R.; Mead, Keith E.; Street, Henry K.

    1977-01-01

    The disclosure relates to a barrier for resisting penetration by such as hand tools and oxy-acetylene cutting torches. The barrier comprises a layer of firebrick, which is preferably epoxy impregnated sandwiched between inner and outer layers of steel. Between the firebrick and steel are layers of resilient rubber-like filler.

  8. Puncture detecting barrier materials

    DOEpatents

    Hermes, Robert E.; Ramsey, David R.; Stampfer, Joseph F.; Macdonald, John M.

    1998-01-01

    A method and apparatus for continuous real-time monitoring of the integrity of protective barrier materials, particularly protective barriers against toxic, radioactive and biologically hazardous materials has been developed. Conductivity, resistivity or capacitance between conductive layers in the multilayer protective materials is measured by using leads connected to electrically conductive layers in the protective barrier material. The measured conductivity, resistivity or capacitance significantly changes upon a physical breach of the protective barrier material.

  9. Puncture detecting barrier materials

    DOEpatents

    Hermes, R.E.; Ramsey, D.R.; Stampfer, J.F.; Macdonald, J.M.

    1998-03-31

    A method and apparatus for continuous real-time monitoring of the integrity of protective barrier materials, particularly protective barriers against toxic, radioactive and biologically hazardous materials has been developed. Conductivity, resistivity or capacitance between conductive layers in the multilayer protective materials is measured by using leads connected to electrically conductive layers in the protective barrier material. The measured conductivity, resistivity or capacitance significantly changes upon a physical breach of the protective barrier material. 4 figs.

  10. Hafnium dioxide as a passivating layer and diffusive barrier in ZnO/Ag Schottky junctions obtained by atomic layer deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krajewski, Tomasz A.; Luka, Grzegorz; Gieraltowska, Sylwia; Zakrzewski, Adam J.; Smertenko, Petro S.; Kruszewski, Piotr; Wachnicki, Lukasz; Witkowski, Bartlomiej S.; Lusakowska, Elzbieta; Jakiela, Rafal; Godlewski, Marek; Guziewicz, Elzbieta

    2011-06-01

    This paper reports on ZnO/Ag Schottky junctions obtained by the low temperature atomic layer deposition process. Introducing the thin (from 1.25 to 7.5 nm) layer of hafnium dioxide between the ZnO layer and evaporated Ag Schottky contact improves the rectification ratio to about 105 at 2V. For the ZnO/Ag junctions without the HfO2 interlayer, the rectification ratio is only 102. We assign this effect to the passivation of ZnO surface accumulation layer that is reported for ZnO thin films.

  11. A Study on the Adhesion Properties of Reactive Sputtered Molybdenum Thin Films with Nitrogen Gas on Polyimide Substrate as a Cu Barrier Layer.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hong Sik; Kim, Byoung O; Seo, Jong Hyun

    2015-11-01

    NiCr, Mo, and Mo-N thin copper diffusion barrier films are deposited on 200 um thick polyimide films spin-coated on glass substrates by dc reactive magnetron sputtering. The adhesion forces for three systems are measured by micro-scratch test analysis depending on oxygen plasma pretreatment, sputtering power density, moisture contents, and post annealing treatment. The values of adhesion forces for the three systems are linearly proportional to the oxygen plasma treatment time. As deposition power density increases, measured adhesion forces also increase. The existence of moisture adsorbed in the polymer substrate prior to initiating the sputtering process significantly reduces the adhesion force for all systems. Post annealing treatment at 150 degrees C for 12 hours after sputtering also deteriorates the adhesion between the barrier films and polymer substrate. Auger electron spectroscopy reveals that adhesion forces are significantly dependent on the types of compounds formed at the barrier layer/polymer interface. Changes in the adhesion properties of the MoN system as a function of the nitrogen content are explained in terms of the mechanical stability of the MoN(x)O(y) interface layer on the polymer substrate. PMID:26726588

  12. Selective Silicidation of Co Using Silane or Disilane for Anti-Oxidation Barrier Layer in Cu Metallization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noda, Suguru; Hirai, Rika; Komiyama, Hiroshi; Shimogaki, Yukihiro

    2004-09-01

    Aiming to realize a conductive passivation layer for copper interconnection, the solid-gas reactions of cobalt films with silane and with disilane to form cobalt silicides are experimentally investigated. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy revealed that cobalt silicides layers of up to 6 nm thickness can be selectively formed in the reaction at 473-673 K within 5 min without detectable silicon deposition on silicon dioxide, a common inter-metal dielectric layer. Rapid thermal oxidation experiments revealed that the silicided cobalt layers had better anti-oxidation performance than untreated cobalt layers, and the effect of silicidation was to suppress copper out-diffusion through the cobalt layers. Because cobalt-based alloys can be selectively electroless-plated on copper, selective silicidation of cobalt layers will be easily incorporated into device processing.

  13. Vacuum barrier for excimer lasers

    DOEpatents

    Shurter, Roger P.

    1992-01-01

    A barrier for separating the vacuum area of a diode from the pressurized gas area of an excimer laser. The barrier is a composite material comprising layers of a metal such as copper, along with layers of polyimide, and a matrix of graphite fiber yarns impregnated with epoxy. The barrier is stronger than conventional foil barriers, and allows greater electron throughput.

  14. Vacuum barrier for excimer lasers

    DOEpatents

    Shurter, R.P.

    1992-09-15

    A barrier for separating the vacuum area of a diode from the pressurized gas area of an excimer laser. The barrier is a composite material comprising layers of a metal such as copper, along with layers of polyimide, and a matrix of graphite fiber yarns impregnated with epoxy. The barrier is stronger than conventional foil barriers, and allows greater electron throughput. 3 figs.

  15. High-voltage 4H-SiC trench MOS barrier Schottky rectifier with low forward voltage drop using enhanced sidewall layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cho, Doohyung; Sim, Seulgi; Park, Kunsik; Won, Jongil; Kim, Sanggi; Kim, Kwangsoo

    2015-12-01

    In this paper, a 4H-SiC trench MOS barrier Schottky (TMBS) rectifier with an enhanced sidewall layer (ESL) is proposed. The proposed structure has a high doping concentration at the trench sidewall. This high doping concentration improves both the reverse blocking and forward characteristics of the structure. The ESL-TMBS rectifier has a 7.4% lower forward voltage drop and a 24% higher breakdown voltage. However, this structure has a reverse leakage current that is approximately three times higher than that of a conventional TMBS rectifier owing to the reduction in energy barrier height. This problem is solved when ESL is used partially, since its use provides a reverse leakage current that is comparable to that of a conventional TMBS rectifier. Thus, the forward voltage drop and breakdown voltage improve without any loss in static and dynamic characteristics in the ESL-TMBS rectifier compared with the performance of a conventional TMBS rectifier.

  16. Multilayer thermal barrier coating systems

    DOEpatents

    Vance, Steven J.; Goedjen, John G.; Sabol, Stephen M.; Sloan, Kelly M.

    2000-01-01

    The present invention generally describes multilayer thermal barrier coating systems and methods of making the multilayer thermal barrier coating systems. The thermal barrier coating systems comprise a first ceramic layer, a second ceramic layer, a thermally grown oxide layer, a metallic bond coating layer and a substrate. The thermal barrier coating systems have improved high temperature thermal and chemical stability for use in gas turbine applications.

  17. Mechanism of stress-driven composition evolution during hetero-epitaxy in a ternary AlGaN system

    PubMed Central

    He, Chenguang; Qin, Zhixin; Xu, Fujun; Zhang, Lisheng; Wang, Jiaming; Hou, Mengjun; Zhang, Shan; Wang, Xinqiang; Ge, Weikun; Shen, Bo

    2016-01-01

    Two AlGaN samples with different strain were designed to investigate mechanism of stress-driven composition evolution. It is discovered that AlGaN grown on AlN or (AlN/GaN superlattices (SLs))/GaN both consist of two distinct regions with different compositions: transition region and uniform region, which is attributed to the compositional pulling effect. The formation of the transition region is due to the partial stress release caused by the generation of misfit dislocations near the hetero-interface. And the Al composition in the uniform region depends on the magnitude of residual strain. The difference in relaxation degree is 80.5% for the AlGaN epilayers grown on different underlayers, leading to a large Al composition difference of 22%. The evolutionary process of Al composition along [0001] direction was investigated in detail. PMID:27112969

  18. Laser diodes with 353 nm wavelength enabled by reduced-dislocation-density AlGaN templates

    SciTech Connect

    Crawford, Mary H.; Allerman, Andrew A.; Armstrong, Andrew M.; Smith, Michael L.; Cross, Karen C.

    2015-10-30

    We fabricated optically pumped and electrically injected ultraviolet (UV) lasers on reduced-threading-dislocation-density (reduced-TDD) AlGaN templates. The overgrowth of sub-micron-wide mesas in the Al0.32Ga0.68N templates enabled a tenfold reduction in TDD, to (2–3) × 108 cm–2. Optical pumping of AlGaN hetero-structures grown on the reduced-TDD templates yielded a low lasing threshold of 34 kW/cm2 at 346 nm. Room-temperature pulsed operation of laser diodes at 353 nm was demonstrated, with a threshold of 22.5 kA/cm2. Furthermore, reduced-TDD templates have been developed across the entire range of AlGaN compositions, presenting a promising approach for extending laser diodes into the deep UV.

  19. Mechanism of stress-driven composition evolution during hetero-epitaxy in a ternary AlGaN system.

    PubMed

    He, Chenguang; Qin, Zhixin; Xu, Fujun; Zhang, Lisheng; Wang, Jiaming; Hou, Mengjun; Zhang, Shan; Wang, Xinqiang; Ge, Weikun; Shen, Bo

    2016-01-01

    Two AlGaN samples with different strain were designed to investigate mechanism of stress-driven composition evolution. It is discovered that AlGaN grown on AlN or (AlN/GaN superlattices (SLs))/GaN both consist of two distinct regions with different compositions: transition region and uniform region, which is attributed to the compositional pulling effect. The formation of the transition region is due to the partial stress release caused by the generation of misfit dislocations near the hetero-interface. And the Al composition in the uniform region depends on the magnitude of residual strain. The difference in relaxation degree is 80.5% for the AlGaN epilayers grown on different underlayers, leading to a large Al composition difference of 22%. The evolutionary process of Al composition along [0001] direction was investigated in detail. PMID:27112969

  20. Mechanism of stress-driven composition evolution during hetero-epitaxy in a ternary AlGaN system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Chenguang; Qin, Zhixin; Xu, Fujun; Zhang, Lisheng; Wang, Jiaming; Hou, Mengjun; Zhang, Shan; Wang, Xinqiang; Ge, Weikun; Shen, Bo

    2016-04-01

    Two AlGaN samples with different strain were designed to investigate mechanism of stress-driven composition evolution. It is discovered that AlGaN grown on AlN or (AlN/GaN superlattices (SLs))/GaN both consist of two distinct regions with different compositions: transition region and uniform region, which is attributed to the compositional pulling effect. The formation of the transition region is due to the partial stress release caused by the generation of misfit dislocations near the hetero-interface. And the Al composition in the uniform region depends on the magnitude of residual strain. The difference in relaxation degree is 80.5% for the AlGaN epilayers grown on different underlayers, leading to a large Al composition difference of 22%. The evolutionary process of Al composition along [0001] direction was investigated in detail.

  1. Laser diodes with 353 nm wavelength enabled by reduced-dislocation-density AlGaN templates

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Crawford, Mary H.; Allerman, Andrew A.; Armstrong, Andrew M.; Smith, Michael L.; Cross, Karen C.

    2015-10-30

    We fabricated optically pumped and electrically injected ultraviolet (UV) lasers on reduced-threading-dislocation-density (reduced-TDD) AlGaN templates. The overgrowth of sub-micron-wide mesas in the Al0.32Ga0.68N templates enabled a tenfold reduction in TDD, to (2–3) × 108 cm–2. Optical pumping of AlGaN hetero-structures grown on the reduced-TDD templates yielded a low lasing threshold of 34 kW/cm2 at 346 nm. Room-temperature pulsed operation of laser diodes at 353 nm was demonstrated, with a threshold of 22.5 kA/cm2. Furthermore, reduced-TDD templates have been developed across the entire range of AlGaN compositions, presenting a promising approach for extending laser diodes into the deep UV.

  2. Persistent photoconductivity study in AlGaN superlattice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Li-wei; Xu, Jin-tong; Wang, Nili; Xu, Peng-xiao; Li, Xiangyang

    2014-11-01

    The transport properties of GaN and its alloys are attracting increasing interest due to the potential application of these materials for solar blind photodetectors and high mobility transistors. Because of the large band gap, the applications of AlxGa1-xN are extensive, such as for visible-blind ultraviolet detectors, laser diodes, and short-wave light emitting diodes (LEDs). However, the persistent photoconductivity (PPC) of GaN based photoconductive devices affects its applications. In order to study the origin of PPC, we designed solar blind ultraviolet photoconductive detector, which consists of n - Al0.65Ga0.35N top contact layer (100nm), n-Al0.42Ga0.58N/i-Al0.65Ga0.35N superlattice layers (200nm), i- Al0.65Ga0.35N layer (600nm), AlN buffer layer and double polished sapphire substrate. Moreover, there are photoconductive devices with different photosensitive areas. Investigations of electric-field effects and thermal effects on PPC in n-Al0.42Ga0.58N/i-Al0.65Ga0.35N superlattice are presented. We have observed that, by applying a high-voltage pulse, the course of PPC was effectively accelerated: With the same pulse width and different voltage, in the appropriate range, the higher of the voltage, the course of PPC was more effectively accelerated; with the same voltage and different pulse width, in the appropriate range, the wider of the pulse width, the course of PPC was more effectively accelerated. And PPC effect strongly depends on the temperature. The decay time of the PPC depend on the temperature and become longer with a decreasing temperature.

  3. Impact of InGaN back barrier layer on performance of AIInN/AlN/GaN MOS-HEMTs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swain, Sanjit Kumar; Adak, Sarosij; Pati, Sudhansu Kumar; Sarkar, Chandan Kumar

    2016-09-01

    In the present work, we have discussed the effect of InGaN back barrier on device performances of 100 nm gate length AlInN/AlN/GaN metal oxide semiconductor high electron mobility transistor (MOS-HEMT) device and a wide comparison is made with respect to without considering the back barrier layer. The InGaN layer is introduced in the intension to raise the conduction band of GaN buffer with respect to GaN channel so that there is an improvement in the carrier confinement and at the same time witnessed excellent high frequency performance. The simulations are carried out using 2D Sentaurus TCAD simulator using Hydrodynamic mobility model by taking interface traps into consideration. Due to high value of two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG) density and mobility in AlInN/AlN/GaN MOS-HEMT device, higher drain current density is achieved. Simulation are carried out for different device parameters such as transfer characteristic (Id-Vg), transconductance factor (gm), drain induced barrier lowering (DIBL), Subthreshold slope (SS), conduction band energy, transconductance generation factor (gm/Id) and electric field. We have also examined the RF performance such as, total gate capacitance (Cgg), current gain cutoff frequency (fT) and power gain cutoff frequency (fmax) of the proposed devices. Use of InGaN back barrier tends to increase threshold voltage towards more positive value, reduced DIBL, and improves SS and significant growth in (gm/Id) by 5.5%. It also helps to achieve better frequency response like substantial increase in fT up to 91 GHz with current gain 60 dB as compare to 67 GHz with 56 dB for the device without considering back barrier and increase in fmax up to 112 GHz with respect 94 GHz. These results evident that use of InGaN back barrier in such devices can be better solution for future analog and RF applications.

  4. Tailoring morphology in free-standing anodic aluminium oxide: control of barrier layer opening down to the sub-10 nm diameter.

    PubMed

    Gong, Jie; Butler, William H; Zangari, Giovanni

    2010-05-01

    Free-standing, highly ordered porous aluminium oxide templates were fabricated by three-step anodization in oxalic, sulfuric or phosphoric acid solutions, followed by dissolution of the aluminium substrate in HgCl(2). Opening of the pore bottoms on the barrier layer side of these templates was carried out by using chemical or ion beam etching. Chemical etching is capable of achieving full pore opening, but partial pore opening occurs inhomogeneously. On the contrary, ion beam etching enables homogeneous and reproducible partial pore opening, with the pore size controlled through the etching time. By this method, pore openings as small as 5 nm can reliably be obtained. PMID:20648324

  5. Extreme Radiation Hardness and Space Qualification of AlGaN Optoelectronic Devices

    SciTech Connect

    Sun, Ke-Xun; Balakrishnan, Kathik; Hultgren, Eric; Goebel, John; Bilenko, Yuri; Yang, Jinwei; Sun, Wenhong; Shatalov, Max; Hu, Xuhong; Gaska, Remis

    2010-09-21

    Unprecedented radiation hardness and environment robustness are required in the new generation of high energy density physics (HEDP) experiments and deep space exploration. National Ignition Facility (NIF) break-even shots will have a neutron yield of 1015 or higher. The Europa Jupiter System Mission (EJSM) mission instruments will be irradiated with a total fluence of 1012 protons/cm2 during the space journey. In addition, large temperature variations and mechanical shocks are expected in these applications under extreme conditions. Hefty radiation and thermal shields are required for Si and GaAs based electronics and optoelectronics devices. However, for direct illumination and imaging applications, shielding is not a viable option. It is an urgent task to search for new semiconductor technologies and to develop radiation hard and environmentally robust optoelectronic devices. We will report on our latest systematic experimental studies on radiation hardness and space qualifications of AlGaN optoelectronic devices: Deep UV Light Emitting Diodes (DUV LEDs) and solarblind UV Photodiodes (PDs). For custom designed AlGaN DUV LEDs with a central emission wavelength of 255 nm, we have demonstrated its extreme radiation hardness up to 2x1012 protons/cm2 with 63.9 MeV proton beams. We have demonstrated an operation lifetime of over 26,000 hours in a nitrogen rich environment, and 23,000 hours of operation in vacuum without significant power drop and spectral shift. The DUV LEDs with multiple packaging styles have passed stringent space qualifications with 14 g random vibrations, and 21 cycles of 100K temperature cycles. The driving voltage, current, emission spectra and optical power (V-I-P) operation characteristics exhibited no significant changes after the space environmental tests. The DUV LEDs will be used for photoelectric charge management in space flights. For custom designed AlGaN UV photodiodes with a central response wavelength of 255 nm, we have demonstrated

  6. Quantum chemical mechanism in parasitic reaction of AlGaN alloys formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Makino, Osamu; Nakamura, Koichi; Tachibana, Akitomo; Tokunaga, Hiroki; Akutsu, Nakao; Matsumoto, Koh

    2000-06-01

    The mechanism of parasitic reactions among trimethylaluminum (TMA), trimethylgallium (TMG), and NH 3 in atmospheric pressure (AP) MOVPE for growth of AlGaN is theoretically studied using the quantum chemical method. The calculations show that metal-nitrogen chain growth reaction easily proceeds through the successive reactions of 'complex formation with NH 3' and 'CH 4 elimination by the bimolecular mechanism'. Additionally, a parasitic reaction in APMOVPE using other raw material is also investigated. The calculated result shows that small change of raw material raises activation energy of parasitic reaction, and, thus, the parasitic reaction is suppressed. This result suggests a way to improve APMOVPE by a suitable choice of substituent.

  7. Observations of Surface Energy Fluxes and Boundary-Layer Structure Over Heron Reef, Great Barrier Reef, Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MacKellar, Mellissa C.; McGowan, Hamish A.; Phinn, Stuart R.; Soderholm, Joshua S.

    2013-02-01

    Over warm, shallow coral reefs the surface radiation and energy fluxes differ from those of the open ocean and result in modification to the marine atmospheric boundary layer via the development of convective internal boundary layers. The complex interrelationships between the surface energy balance and boundary-layer characteristics influence local weather (wind, temperature, humidity) and hydrodynamics (water temperature and currents), as well as larger scale processes, including cloud field properties and precipitation. The nature of these inter-relationships has not been accurately described for coral reef environments. This study presents the first measurements of the surface energy balance, radiation budget and boundary layer thermodynamics made over a coral reef using an eddy-covariance system and radiosonde aerological profiling of the lower atmosphere. Results show that changes in surface properties and the associated energetics across the ocean-reef boundary resulted in modification to the marine atmospheric boundary layer during the Austral winter and summer. Internal convective boundary layers developed within the marine atmospheric boundary layer over the reef and were found to be deeper in the summer, yet more unstable during the winter when cold and drier flow from the mainland enhances heat and moisture fluxes to the atmosphere. A mixed layer was identified in the marine atmospheric boundary layer varying from 375 to 1,200 m above the surface, and was deeper during the summer, particularly under stable anticyclonic conditions. Significant cloud cover and at times rain resulted in the development of a stable stratified atmosphere over the reef. Our findings show that, for Heron Reef, a lagoonal platform reef, there was a horizontal discontinuity in surface energy fluxes across the ocean-reef boundary, which modified the marine atmospheric boundary layer.

  8. Adhesive flexible barrier film, method of forming same, and organic electronic device including same

    DOEpatents

    Blizzard, John Donald; Weidner, William Kenneth

    2013-02-05

    An adhesive flexible barrier film comprises a substrate and a barrier layer disposed on the substrate. The barrier layer is formed from a barrier composition comprising an organosilicon compound. The adhesive flexible barrier film also comprises an adhesive layer disposed on the barrier layer and formed from an adhesive composition. A method of forming the adhesive flexible barrier film comprises the steps of disposing the barrier composition on the substrate to form the barrier layer, disposing the adhesive composition on the barrier layer to form the adhesive layer, and curing the barrier layer and the adhesive layer. The adhesive flexible barrier film may be utilized in organic electronic devices.

  9. Influence of PEDOT:PSS on the effectiveness of barrier layers prepared by atomic layer deposition in organic light emitting diodes

    SciTech Connect

    Wegler, Barbara; Schmidt, Oliver; Hensel, Bernhard

    2015-01-15

    Organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs) are well suited for energy saving lighting applications, especially when thinking about highly flexible and large area devices. In order to avoid the degradation of the organic components by water and oxygen, OLEDs need to be encapsulated, e.g., by a thin sheet of glass. As the device is then no longer flexible, alternative coatings are required. Atomic layer deposition (ALD) is a very promising approach in this respect. The authors studied OLEDs that were encapsulated by 100 nm Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} deposited by ALD. The authors show that this coating effectively protects the active surface area of the OLEDs from humidity. However, secondary degradation processes still occur at sharp edges of the OLED stack where the extremely thin encapsulation layer does not provide perfect coverage. Particularly, the swelling of poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) mixed with poly(styrenesulfonate), which is a popular choice for the planarization of the bottom electrode and at the same time acts as a hole injection layer, affects the effectiveness of the encapsulation layer.

  10. Methods for improved growth of group III nitride buffer layers

    DOEpatents

    Melnik, Yurity; Chen, Lu; Kojiri, Hidehiro

    2014-07-15

    Methods are disclosed for growing high crystal quality group III-nitride epitaxial layers with advanced multiple buffer layer techniques. In an embodiment, a method includes forming group III-nitride buffer layers that contain aluminum on suitable substrate in a processing chamber of a hydride vapor phase epitaxy processing system. A hydrogen halide or halogen gas is flowing into the growth zone during deposition of buffer layers to suppress homogeneous particle formation. Some combinations of low temperature buffers that contain aluminum (e.g., AlN, AlGaN) and high temperature buffers that contain aluminum (e.g., AlN, AlGaN) may be used to improve crystal quality and morphology of subsequently grown group III-nitride epitaxial layers. The buffer may be deposited on the substrate, or on the surface of another buffer. The additional buffer layers may be added as interlayers in group III-nitride layers (e.g., GaN, AlGaN, AlN).

  11. Comparative simulations of a two-layer landfill barrier using the HELP Version 2. 0 and UNSAT-H Version 2. 0 computer codes

    SciTech Connect

    Nichols, W.E.

    1991-01-01

    This report documents the results of a simulation of the performance of a two-layer infiltration barrier for a nonradioactive dangerous waste landfill (NRDWL) at the US Department of Energy's Hanford Site in semi-arid southeast Washington State. The performance of the barrier was simulated for a period of 10 years using the UNSAT-H version 2.0 groundwater flow computer code. Pacific Northwest Laboratory performed this simulation to compare results using UNSAT-H 2.0 with those of the US Environmental Protection Agency's Hydrologic Evaluation of Landfill Performance (HELP) version 2.0 code. A conceptualization of the actual landfill barrier design was modeled using both codes. This model was simulated using 10 years of daily meteorological data collected at the Hanford Meteorological Station from 1979 through 1988. The intent of the comparison was to demonstrate that HELP conservatively predicts deep percolation of meteoric water at the Hanford Site. This demonstration required that the two codes be used to simulate the same conceptual model using identical, or at least essentially equivalent, input data. Comparing the results of the 10-year simulations showed that for the meteorological data and soil properties modeled the HELP 2.0 code was more conservative than the UNSAT-H code. HELP predicted a net drainage or deep percolation of 0.3592 cm (0.1556 in.) from the barrier for the 10-year period simulated. None to the UNSAT-H simulations predicted any deep percolation. HELP also predicted a greater proportion of precipitation returned to the atmosphere through evapotranspiration than did the UNSAT-H simulations in spite of the larger precipitation values being provided to HELP through an apparent data entry error. 14 refs., 11 figs., 8 tabs.

  12. Radio frequency plasma power dependence of the moisture permeation barrier characteristics of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} films deposited by remote plasma atomic layer deposition

    SciTech Connect

    Jung, Hyunsoo; Samsung Display Co. Ltd., Tangjeong, Chungcheongnam-Do 336-741 ; Choi, Hagyoung; Lee, Sanghun; Jeon, Heeyoung; Jeon, Hyeongtag; Department of Nano-scale Semiconductor Engineering, Hanyang University, Seoul 133-791

    2013-11-07

    In the present study, we investigated the gas and moisture permeation barrier properties of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} films deposited on polyethersulfone films (PES) by capacitively coupled plasma (CCP) type Remote Plasma Atomic Layer Deposition (RPALD) at Radio Frequency (RF) plasma powers ranging from 100 W to 400 W in 100 W increments using Trimethylaluminum [TMA, Al(CH{sub 3}){sub 3}] as the Al source and O{sub 2} plasma as the reactant. To study the gas and moisture permeation barrier properties of 100-nm-thick Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} at various plasma powers, the Water Vapor Transmission Rate (WVTR) was measured using an electrical Ca degradation test. WVTR decreased as plasma power increased with WVTR values for 400 W and 100 W of 2.6 × 10{sup −4} gm{sup −2}day{sup −1} and 1.2 × 10{sup −3} gm{sup −2}day{sup −1}, respectively. The trends for life time, Al-O and O-H bond, density, and stoichiometry were similar to that of WVTR with improvement associated with increasing plasma power. Further, among plasma power ranging from 100 W to 400 W, the highest power of 400 W resulted in the best moisture permeation barrier properties. This result was attributed to differences in volume and amount of ion and radical fluxes, to join the ALD process, generated by O{sub 2} plasma as the plasma power changed during ALD process, which was determined using a plasma diagnosis technique called the Floating Harmonic Method (FHM). Plasma diagnosis by FHM revealed an increase in ion flux with increasing plasma power. With respect to the ALD process, our results indicated that higher plasma power generated increased ion and radical flux compared with lower plasma power. Thus, a higher plasma power provides the best gas and moisture permeation barrier properties.

  13. Simplified 2DEG carrier concentration model for composite barrier AlGaN/GaN HEMT

    SciTech Connect

    Das, Palash Biswas, Dhrubes

    2014-04-24

    The self consistent solution of Schrodinger and Poisson equations is used along with the total charge depletion model and applied with a novel approach of composite AlGaN barrier based HEMT heterostructure. The solution leaded to a completely new analytical model for Fermi energy level vs. 2DEG carrier concentration. This was eventually used to demonstrate a new analytical model for the temperature dependent 2DEG carrier concentration in AlGaN/GaN HEMT.

  14. CBED study of grain misorientations in AlGaN epilayers.

    PubMed

    Sahonta, S-L; Cherns, D; Liu, R; Ponce, F A; Amano, H; Akasaki, I

    2005-04-01

    Large angle convergent beam electron diffraction (LACBED) has been used to examine AlGaN epilayers grown by facet-controlled epitaxial lateral overgrowth on GaN/(0001) sapphire substrates in prototype UV laser structures. The substrates, defined by masks with seed openings along a <10-10> stripe direction, had GaN seed columns with {11-22} surfaces. Studies were carried out on cross-sectional samples cut perpendicular to the stripe axis. An LACBED analysis of the orientation of (000 2) planes, and of the (11-20) planes parallel to the stripe axis, revealed that the AlGaN wings were both rotated by angles of 1-2 x 10(-2)radians about the 10-10 stripe axis with respect to the underlying GaN, and distorted due to misfit strains. It is shown that the results are consistent with the observed structure of the AlGaN/GaN and the wing/wing boundaries, and with a new model for the generation of a-type misfit dislocations at the AlGaN/GaN interface. PMID:15777597

  15. Simulation for spectral response of solar-blind AlGaN based p-i-n photodiodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xue, Shiwei; Xu, Jintong; Li, Xiangyang

    2015-04-01

    In this article, we introduced how to build a physical model of refer to the device structure and parameters. Simulations for solar-blind AlGaN based p-i-n photodiodes spectral characteristics were conducted in use of Silvaco TCAD, where device structure and parameters are comprehensively considered. In simulation, the effects of polarization, Urbach tail, mobility, saturated velocities and lifetime in AlGaN device was considered. Especially, we focused on how the concentration-dependent Shockley-Read-Hall (SRH) recombination model affects simulation results. By simulating, we analyzed the effects in spectral response caused by TAUN0 and TAUP0, and got the values of TAUN0 and TAUP0 which can bring a result coincides with test results. After that, we changed their values and made the simulation results especially the part under 255 nm performed better. In conclusion, the spectral response between 200 nm and 320 nm of solar-blind AlGaN based p-i-n photodiodes were simulated and compared with test results. We also found that TAUN0 and TAUP0 have a large impact on spectral response of AlGaN material.

  16. Schottky barrier contrasts in single and bi-layer graphene contacts for MoS{sub 2} field-effect transistors

    SciTech Connect

    Du, Hyewon; Kim, Taekwang; Shin, Somyeong; Kim, Dahye; Seo, Sunae; Kim, Hakseong; Lee, Sang Wook; Sung, Ji Ho; Jo, Moon-Ho; Lee, Myoung Jae; Seo, David H.

    2015-12-07

    We have investigated single- and bi-layer graphene as source-drain electrodes for n-type MoS{sub 2} transistors. Ti-MoS{sub 2}-graphene heterojunction transistors using both single-layer MoS{sub 2} (1M) and 4-layer MoS{sub 2} (4M) were fabricated in order to compare graphene electrodes with commonly used Ti electrodes. MoS{sub 2}-graphene Schottky barrier provided electron injection efficiency up to 130 times higher in the subthreshold regime when compared with MoS{sub 2}-Ti, which resulted in V{sub DS} polarity dependence of device parameters such as threshold voltage (V{sub TH}) and subthreshold swing (SS). Comparing single-layer graphene (SG) with bi-layer graphene (BG) in 4M devices, SG electrodes exhibited enhanced device performance with higher on/off ratio and increased field-effect mobility (μ{sub FE}) due to more sensitive Fermi level shift by gate voltage. Meanwhile, in the strongly accumulated regime, we observed opposing behavior depending on MoS{sub 2} thickness for both SG and BG contacts. Differential conductance (σ{sub d}) of 1M increases with V{sub DS} irrespective of V{sub DS} polarity, while σ{sub d} of 4M ceases monotonic growth at positive V{sub DS} values transitioning to ohmic-like contact formation. Nevertheless, the low absolute value of σ{sub d} saturation of the 4M-graphene junction demonstrates that graphene electrode could be unfavorable for high current carrying transistors.

  17. Momentum transfer in the boundary layer when there is acceleration and combustion of ethanol as it evaporates behind a barrier

    SciTech Connect

    Boyarshinov, B.F.; Titkov, V.I.; Fedorov, S.Yu.

    2010-08-15

    Experimental data have been gathered on the local parameters of a boundary layer gas flow with ethanol combustion behind a 3 mm-high rib. These parameters include averaged velocities, temperatures, concentrations of stable substances and OH radicals and mass fluxes on the wall. The temperature and composition of the gases were studied with probe methods (thermocouple and chromatography). To measure the velocity and concentration of radicals, we applied the laser optical measurement methods of LDA and LIF. We propose a way of processing the obtained data utilizing balances in the continuity and motion equations. The influence of incident flow acceleration on the viscous and turbulent shear stresses at the wall and in the volume of the boundary layer has been analyzed to determine the acceleration parameters to be K = (0, 0.7, 1.3, and 4.1) x 10{sup -6}. It is shown that without a longitudinal pressure gradient (K = 0) on the combustion that is behind the rib, OH radicals accumulate with their highest concentrations existing in areas that do not coincide with the flame front and are shifted toward the oxidizer. The main mechanism of momentum transfer is connected to the boundary layer separation. In the presence of acceleration caused by a negative longitudinal pressure gradient, the detachment area does not show up (in experiments with K > 0.7 x 10{sup -6}); shear stresses increase substantially and reach one percent of the dynamic pressure. The general level of turbulent stresses in the reacting boundary layer becomes higher than in the case without acceleration. The incident airflow is also accelerated by the reacting boundary layer in which the maximum velocity is formed. (author)

  18. Growth of ultrahigh-Sn-content Ge1- x Sn x epitaxial layer and its impact on controlling Schottky barrier height of metal/Ge contact

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suzuki, Akihiro; Nakatsuka, Osamu; Shibayama, Shigehisa; Sakashita, Mitsuo; Takeuchi, Wakana; Kurosawa, Masashi; Zaima, Shigeaki

    2016-04-01

    We examined the epitaxial growth of an ultrahigh-Sn-content Ge1- x Sn x layer on a Ge substrate and investigated the impact of a Ge1- x Sn x interlayer on the Schottky barrier height (SBH) of the metal/Ge contact. In this study, we considered guidelines of the strain energy and growth temperature to realize a high-Sn-content Ge1- x Sn x layer while keeping the epitaxial growth and suppressing the Sn precipitation. By reducing the film thickness and keeping a low growth temperature, we formed an atomically flat and uniform Ge1- x Sn x epitaxial layer with a Sn content up to 46% on a Ge(001) substrate. We also performed the current density-voltage measurement for Al/Ge1- x Sn x /n-Ge Schottky diodes to estimate the SBH. We found that the SBH of Al/Ge1- x Sn x /n-Ge contact decreases with increasing Sn content in the Ge1- x Sn x interlayer. The shift of the pinning position towards the conduction band edge of Ge is one of the reasons for the SBH reduction of Al/Ge1- x Sn x /n-Ge contact because the valence band edge of Ge1- x Sn x would rise as the Sn content increases.

  19. Improving the efficiency of cadmium sulfide-sensitized titanium dioxide/indium tin oxide glass photoelectrodes using silver sulfide as an energy barrier layer and a light absorber

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Cadmium sulfide (CdS) and silver sulfide (Ag2S) nanocrystals are deposited on the titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanocrystalline film on indium tin oxide (ITO) substrate to prepare CdS/Ag2S/TiO2/ITO photoelectrodes through a new method known as the molecular precursor decomposition method. The Ag2S is interposed between the TiO2 nanocrystal film and CdS nanocrystals as an energy barrier layer and a light absorber. As a consequence, the energy conversion efficiency of the CdS/Ag2S/TiO2/ITO electrodes is significantly improved. Under AM 1.5 G sunlight irradiation, the maximum efficiency achieved for the CdS(4)/Ag2S/TiO2/ITO electrode is 3.46%, corresponding to an increase of about 150% as compared to the CdS(4)/TiO2/ITO electrode without the Ag2S layer. Our experimental results show that the improved efficiency is mainly due to the formation of Ag2S layer that may increase the light absorbance and reduce the recombination of photogenerated electrons with redox ions from the electrolyte. PMID:25411566

  20. Remediation of nitrate-nitrogen contaminated groundwater using a pilot-scale two-layer heterotrophic-autotrophic denitrification permeable reactive barrier with spongy iron/pine bark.

    PubMed

    Huang, Guoxin; Huang, Yuanying; Hu, Hongyan; Liu, Fei; Zhang, Ying; Deng, Renwei

    2015-07-01

    A novel two-layer heterotrophic-autotrophic denitrification (HAD) permeable reactive barrier (PRB) was proposed for remediating nitrate-nitrogen contaminated groundwater in an oxygen rich environment, which has a packing structure of an upstream pine bark layer and a downstream spongy iron and river sand mixture layer. The HAD PRB involves biological deoxygenation, heterotrophic denitrification, hydrogenotrophic denitrification, and anaerobic Fe corrosion. Column and batch experiments were performed to: (1) investigate the NO3(-)-N removal and inorganic geochemistry; (2) explore the nitrogen transformation and removal mechanisms; (3) identify the hydrogenotrophic denitrification capacity; and (4) evaluate the HAD performance by comparison with other approaches. The results showed that the HAD PRB could maintain constant high NO3(-)-N removal efficiency (>91%) before 38 pore volumes (PVs) of operation (corresponding to 504d), form little or even negative NO2(-)-N during the 45 PVs, and produce low NH4(+)-N after 10 PVs. Aerobic heterotrophic bacteria played a dominant role in oxygen depletion via aerobic respiration, providing more CO2 for hydrogenotrophic denitrification. The HAD PRB significantly relied on heterotrophic denitrification. Hydrogenotrophic denitrification removed 10-20% of the initial NO3(-)-N. Effluent total organic carbon decreased from 403.44mgL(-1) at PV 1 to 9.34mgL(-1) at PV 45. Packing structure had a noticeable effect on its denitrification. PMID:25747301

  1. The Outermost Stratum Corneum Layer is an Effective Barrier Against Dermal Uptake of Topically Applied Micronized Titanium Dioxide.

    PubMed

    Pflücker, F; Hohenberg, H; Hölzle, E; Will, T; Pfeiffer, S; Wepf, R; Diembeck, W; Wenck, H; Gers-Barlag, H

    1999-12-01

    In order to help clarify the controversially discussed dermal uptake properties of micronized titanium dioxide (TiO _ 2), we conducted extensive in vitro dermal absorption studies with 'Franz-type' diffusion cells on excised porcine skin. After biopsies and chemical fixation, the overall localization of TiO _ 2 in the skin was analyzed by means of transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The lateral and vertical distribution of TiO _ 2 within the stratum corneum (SC) was investigated by tape stripping and subsequent scanning electron microscopy (SEM) in combination with energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDXA). TiO _ 2 was found exclusively on the outermost SC layer. The surface deposit, as displayed by TEM, featured clearly distinguishable agglomerates as well as single particles with a characteristic cubic shape and a primary particle size of about 20-50 nm. Concurrently, SEM/EDXA micrographs first showed an even distribution of TiO _ 2 on the skin surface. After 10-fold stripping, however, TiO _ 2 was found to be localized only in the furrows and not on the partially removed ridges of the skin surface. SEM/EDXA micrographs of the adhesive tape strips revealed a characteristic pattern of stripped material and free regions. This pattern was an imprint of the skin's topography. Hence, tape stripping initially removed TiO _ 2 and SC layers only from the ridges and not from the deeper furrows. Continued stripping increasingly yielded material from the deeper contours of the SC surface. TiO _ 2 was found only in traces in the upper part of the follicle without any evidence of uptake into the follicular epithelium. This indicates that there is not any relevant penetration via the follicular route. We conclude that due to the microtopography of the skin, the strip number normally does not reflect the SC layer number. Accordingly, tape stripping results should always be interpreted with care, especially in the case of topically applied particles, as even higher numbers of

  2. Resistance switching memory characteristics of CaF2/Si/CaF2 resonant-tunneling quantum-well heterostructures sandwiched by nanocrystalline Si secondary barrier layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuwata, Yuya; Suda, Keita; Watanabe, Masahiro

    2016-07-01

    A novel resistance switching memory using CaF2/Si/CaF2 resonant-tunneling quantum well heterostructures sandwiched by nanocrystalline Si (nc-Si) as secondary barrier layers has been proposed and the room temperature current–voltage characteristics of the basic resistance switching memory operation have been demonstrated. A resistance switching voltage of 1.0 V, a peak current density of approximately 42 kA/cm2, and an ON/OFF ratio of 2.8 were observed. In particular, more than 28000 write-read-erase cyclic memory operations have been demonstrated by applying pulsed input voltage sequences, which suggests better endurance than the device using a CaF2/CdF2/CaF2 heterostructure.

  3. Use of weathered and fresh bottom ash mix layers as a subbase in road constructions: environmental behavior enhancement by means of a retaining barrier.

    PubMed

    Del Valle-Zermeño, R; Chimenos, J M; Giró-Paloma, J; Formosa, J

    2014-12-01

    The presence of neoformed cement-like phases during the weathering of non-stabilized freshly quenched bottom ash favors the development of a bound pavement material with improved mechanical properties. Use of weathered and freshly quenched bottom ash mix layers placed one over the other allowed the retention of leached heavy metals and metalloids by means of a reactive percolation barrier. The addition of 50% of weathered bottom ash to the total subbase content diminished the release of toxic species to below environmental regulatory limits. The mechanisms of retention and the different processes and factors responsible of leaching strongly depended on the contaminant under concern as well as on the chemical and physical factors. Thus, the immediate reuse of freshly quenched bottom ash as a subbase material in road constructions is possible, as both the mechanical properties and long-term leachability are enhanced. PMID:25180484

  4. CoFe alloy as middle layer for strong spin dependent quantum well resonant tunneling in double barrier magnetic tunnel junctions

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, R. S.; Yang, See-Hun; Jiang, Xin; Zhang, Xiaoguang; Rice, Philip M.; Canali, Carlo M.; Parkin, S. S. P.

    2013-01-01

    We report the spin-dependent quantum well resonant tunneling effect in CoFe/MgO/CoFe/MgO/CoFeB (CoFe) double barrier magnetic tunnel junctions. The dI/dV spectra reveal clear resonant peaks for the parallel magnetization configurations, which can be matched to quantum well resonances obtained from calculation. The differential TMR exhibits an oscillatory behavior with a sign change due to the formation of the spin-dependent QW states in the middle CoFe layer. Also, we observe pronounced TMR enhancement at resonant voltages at room temperature, suggesting that it is very promising to achieve high TMR using the spin-dependent QW resonant tunneling effect.

  5. Investigation of the release of Si from SiO{sub 2} during the formation of manganese/ruthenium barrier layers

    SciTech Connect

    McCoy, A. P.; Casey, P.; Bogan, J.; Byrne, C.; Hughes, G.

    2013-05-20

    The thermodynamic and structural stability of ruthenium-manganese diffusion barriers on SiO{sub 2} is assessed. A {approx}2 nm film composed of partially oxidized manganese (MnO{sub x} where x < 1) was deposited on a 3 nm thick Ru film and the Mn-MnO{sub x}/Ru/SiO{sub 2} structure was subsequently thermally annealed. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and secondary ion mass spectroscopy studies suggest the release and upward diffusion of Si from the dielectric substrate as a result of manganese-silicate formation at the Ru/SiO{sub 2} interface. The migration of Si up through the Ru film results in further manganese-silicate formation upon its interaction with the Mn-MnO{sub x} deposited layer.

  6. Chemical and structural investigations of the incorporation of metal manganese into ruthenium thin films for use as copper diffusion barrier layers

    SciTech Connect

    McCoy, A. P.; Casey, P.; Bogan, J.; Hughes, G.; Lozano, J. G.; Nellist, P. D.

    2012-12-03

    The incorporation of manganese into a 3 nm ruthenium thin-film is presented as a potential mechanism to improve its performance as a copper diffusion barrier. Manganese ({approx}1 nm) was deposited on an atomic layer deposited Ru film, and the Mn/Ru/SiO{sub 2} structure was subsequently thermally annealed. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy studies reveal the chemical interaction of Mn with the SiO{sub 2} substrate to form manganese-silicate (MnSiO{sub 3}), implying the migration of the metal through the Ru film. Electron energy loss spectroscopy line profile measurements of the intensity of the Mn signal across the Ru film confirm the presence of Mn at the Ru/SiO{sub 2} interface.

  7. Gate-modulated conductance of few-layer WSe{sub 2} field-effect transistors in the subgap regime: Schottky barrier transistor and subgap impurity states

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Junjie; Feng, Simin; Rhodes, Daniel; Balicas, Luis; Nguyen, Minh An T.; Watanabe, K.; Taniguchi, T.; Mallouk, Thomas E.; Terrones, Mauricio; Zhu, J.

    2015-04-13

    Two key subjects stand out in the pursuit of semiconductor research: material quality and contact technology. The fledging field of atomically thin transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDCs) faces a number of challenges in both efforts. This work attempts to establish a connection between the two by examining the gate-dependent conductance of few-layer (1-5L) WSe{sub 2} field effect devices. Measurements and modeling of the subgap regime reveal Schottky barrier transistor behavior. We show that transmission through the contact barrier is dominated by thermionic field emission (TFE) at room temperature, despite the lack of intentional doping. The TFE process arises due to a large number of subgap impurity states, the presence of which also leads to high mobility edge carrier densities. The density of states of such impurity states is self-consistently determined to be approximately 1–2 × 10{sup 13}/cm{sup 2}/eV in our devices. We demonstrate that substrate is unlikely to be a major source of the impurity states and suspect that lattice defects within the material itself are primarily responsible. Our experiments provide key information to advance the quality and understanding of TMDC materials and electrical devices.

  8. Current transient spectroscopy for trapping analysis on Au-free AlGaN/GaN Schottky barrier diode

    SciTech Connect

    Hu, J. Groeseneken, G.; Stoffels, S.; Lenci, S.; Venegas, R.; Decoutere, S.; Bakeroot, B.

    2015-02-23

    This paper presents a combined technique of high voltage off-state stress and current transient measurements to investigate the trapping/de-trapping characteristics of Au-free AlGaN/GaN Schottky barrier diodes. The device features a symmetric three-terminal structure with a central anode contact surrounded by two separate cathodes. Under the diode off-state stress conditions, the two separate cathodes were electrically shorted. The de-trapping dynamics was studied by monitoring the recovery of the two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG) current at different temperatures by applying 0.5 V at cathode 2 while grounding cathode 1. During the recovery, the anode contact acts as a sensor of changes in diode leakage current. This leakage variation was found to be mainly due to the barrier height variation. With this method, the energy level and capture cross section of different traps in the AlGaN/GaN Schottky barrier diode can be extracted. Furthermore, the physical location of different trapping phenomena is indicated by studying the variation of the diode leakage current during the recovery. We have identified two distinct trapping mechanisms: (i) electron trapping at the AlGaN surface in the vicinity of the Schottky contact which results in the leakage reduction (barrier height ϕ{sub B} increase) together with R{sub ON} degradation; (ii) the electron trapping in the GaN channel layer which partially depletes the 2DEG. The physical origin of the two different traps is discussed in the text.

  9. Long-term effects of multiply pulsed dielectric barrier discharges in air on thin water layers over tissue: stationary and random streamers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, Wei; Kushner, Mark J.

    2015-12-01

    Tissue covered by thin liquid layers treated by atmospheric pressure plasmas for biomedical applications ultimately requires a reproducible protocol for human healthcare. The desired outcomes of wet tissue treatment by dielectric barrier discharges (DBDs) depend on the plasma dose which determines the integral fluence of radicals, ions, electric fields and UV/VUV photons incident onto the tissue. These fluences are controlled by power, frequency and treatment time. To first order, these parameters determine the energy deposition (J cm-2) onto the tissue. However, energy deposition may not be the only parameter that determines the fluences of reactants to the underlying tissue. In this paper, we report on a computational investigation of multipulse DBDs interacting with wet tissue. The DBDs were simulated for 100 pulses at different repetition rates and liquid thicknesses followed by 10 s or more of afterglow. Two schemes were investigated—stationary and random. In the stationary scheme, the DBD plasma streamer continues to strike at the same location on the liquid layer, whereas in the random scheme the plasma streamer strikes at random locations on the liquid layer. These differences in streamer locations strongly affect the spatial distribution of solvated species such as OHaq and H2O2aq (‘aq’ represents an aqueous species), which have high rates of solvation. The spatial distribution of species such as NOaq, which have low rates of solvation, are less affected by the location of the streamer due to the remediating effects of diffusion in the air. The end result is that fluences to the tissue are sensitive to the spatial location of the streamer due to the ensuing reactions in the liquid between species that have low and high rates of solvation. These reactions can be controlled not only through location of the streamer, but also by repetition rate and thickness of the liquid layer.

  10. Improving corn silage quality in the top layer of farm bunker silos through the use of a next-generation barrier film with high impermeability to oxygen.

    PubMed

    Borreani, G; Tabacco, E

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the effect on the fermentation, chemical, and microbiological quality of corn silage covered with a new-generation high oxygen barrier film (HOB) made with a special grade of ethylene-vinyl alcohol (EVOH) compared with a standard polyethylene film (PE). Two bunkers (farms 1 and 2) were divided into 2 parts lengthwise so that half of the silo would be covered with PE film and the other with HOB film. Plastic net bags with fresh chopped corn were buried in the upper layer (close to and far from the wall) and in the central part of the bunkers. During spring-summer consumption, the bags were unloaded, weighed, and subsampled to analyze the dry matter (DM) content, neutral detergent fiber and starch contents, pH, lactic and monocarboxylic acids, yeast and mold counts, aerobic and anaerobic spore-former counts, and aerobic stability. We also determined the economic benefit of applying the novel covering. The top layer of silage conserved under the HOB film had a higher lactic acid content and lower pH; lower counts of yeasts, molds, and aerobic and anaerobic spore-formers; higher aerobic stability; and lower DM losses than the silage conserved under the PE film. The use of the HOB film prevented almost all of the silage in the upper layer from spoiling; only 2 out of 32 samples had a mold count >6log10 cfu/g. This led to a net economic gain when the HOB film was used on both farms due to the increased DM recovery and reduced labor time required to clean the upper layer, even though the HOB film cost about 2.3 times more than the PE film. Furthermore, use of the HOB film, which ensures a longer shelf life of silage during consumption, reduced the detrimental effect of yeasts, molds, and aerobic and anaerobic spore-formers on the nutritional and microbiological quality of the unloaded silage. PMID:24565321

  11. Deep ultraviolet photoluminescence of Tm-doped AlGaN alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Nepal, N.; Zavada, J. M.; Lee, D. S.; Steckl, A. J.; Sedhain, A.; Lin, J. Y.; Jiang, H. X.

    2009-03-16

    The ultraviolet (UV) photoluminescence (PL) properties of Tm-doped Al{sub x}Ga{sub 1-x}N (0.39{<=}x{<=}1) alloys grown by solid-source molecular beam epitaxy were probed using above-bandgap excitation from a laser source at 197 nm. The PL spectra show dominant UV emissions at 298 and 358 nm only for samples with x=1 and 0.81. Temperature dependence of the PL intensities of these emission lines reveals exciton binding energies of 150 and 57 meV, respectively. The quenching of these UV emissions appears related to the thermal activation of the excitons bound to rare-earth structured isovalent (RESI) charge traps, which transfer excitonic energy to Tm{sup 3+} ions resulting in the UV emissions. A model of the RESI trap levels in AlGaN alloys is presented.

  12. Determination of gain in AlGaN cladding free nitride laser diodes

    SciTech Connect

    Muziol, G.; Turski, H.; Wolny, P.

    2013-08-05

    The optical gain spectra of InGaN-based multiple-quantum-well (MQW) laser diodes (LDs) grown by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy are compared for different emission wavelengths. Two AlGaN cladding free LDs with similar epitaxial structures but with different In compositions in MQW were grown to study the dependence of material gain on lasing wavelength. As the emission wavelength increased from 432 to 458 nm, the differential modal gain decreased from 5.7 to 4.7 cm/kA, and the optical losses increased from 40 to 46 cm{sup −1} resulting in an increase in threshold current density. This dependence is attributed to lower optical mode confinement of LD emitting at longer wavelength. We found a strong decrease of confinement factor with increasing wavelength.

  13. Bulk-barrier transistor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mader, H.; Mueller, R.; Beinvogl, W.

    1983-10-01

    Experimental and theoretical results are presented on a bulk-barrier transistor (BBT). In this device the charge-carrier transportation is determined by an energy barrier, which is located inside a semiconductor. The barrier is the result of a space-charge region in a three-layered n-p-n or p-n-p structure with a very thin middle layer. The height of the energy barrier, which is adjustable by technological parameters, can be controlled by an external voltage.

  14. Flexible thin-layer dielectric barrier discharge plasma treatment of pork butt and beef loin: effects on pathogen inactivation and meat-quality attributes.

    PubMed

    Jayasena, Dinesh D; Kim, Hyun Joo; Yong, Hae In; Park, Sanghoo; Kim, Kijung; Choe, Wonho; Jo, Cheorun

    2015-04-01

    The effects of a flexible thin-layer dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) plasma system using a sealed package on microbial inactivation and quality attributes of fresh pork and beef were tested. Following a 10-min treatment, the microbial-load reductions of Listeria monocytogenes, Escherichia coli O157:H7, and Salmonella Typhimurium were 2.04, 2.54, and 2.68 Log CFU/g in pork-butt samples and 1.90, 2.57, and 2.58 Log CFU/g in beef-loin samples, respectively. Colorimetric analysis showed that DBD-plasma treatment did not significantly affect L* values (lightness) of pork and beef samples, but lowered a* values (redness) significantly after 5- and 7.5-min exposures. The plasma treatment significantly influenced lipid oxidation only after a 10-min exposure. The texture of both types of meat was unaffected by plasma treatment. All sensory parameters of treated and non-treated samples were comparable except for taste, which was negatively influenced by the plasma treatment (P < 0.05). This thin-layer DBD-plasma system can be applied to inactivate foodborne pathogens. The observed minor deterioration of meat quality might be prevented by the use of hurdle technology. PMID:25475266

  15. High-performance enhancement-mode AlGaN/GaN MOS-HEMTs with fluorinated stack gate dielectrics and thin barrier layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tao, Gao; Ruimin, Xu; Kai, Zhang; Yuechan, Kong; Jianjun, Zhou; Cen, Kong; Xinxin, Yu; Xun, Dong; Tangsheng, Chen

    2016-06-01

    We present high-performance enhancement-mode AlGaN/GaN metal—oxide—semiconductor high-electron mobility transistors (MOS-HEMTs) by a fluorinated gate dielectric technique. A nanolaminate of an Al2O3/La x Al1‑x O 3/Al2O3 stack (x≈0.33) grown by atomic layer deposition is employed to avoid fluorine ions implantation into the scaled barrier layer. Fabricated enhancement-mode MOS-HEMTs exhibit an excellent performance as compared to those with the conventional dielectric-last technique, delivering a large maximum drain current of 916 mA/mm and simultaneously a high peak transconductance of 342 mS/mm. The balanced DC characteristics indicate that advanced gate stack dielectrics combined with buffered fluorine ions implantation have a great potential for high speed GaN E/D-mode integrated circuit applications. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Nos. 61504125, 61474101, 61106130 61076120, 61505181), and the Natural Science Foundation of Jiangsu Province of China (Nos. BK20131072, BE2012007, BK2012516).

  16. Self-forming Al oxide barrier for nanoscale Cu interconnects created by hybrid atomic layer deposition of Cu–Al alloy

    SciTech Connect

    Park, Jae-Hyung; Han, Dong-Suk; Kang, You-Jin; Shin, So-Ra; Park, Jong-Wan

    2014-01-15

    The authors synthesized a Cu–Al alloy by employing alternating atomic layer deposition (ALD) surface reactions using Cu and Al precursors, respectively. By alternating between these two ALD surface chemistries, the authors fabricated ALD Cu–Al alloy. Cu was deposited using bis(1-dimethylamino-2-methyl-2-butoxy) copper as a precursor and H{sub 2} plasma, while Al was deposited using trimethylaluminum as the precursor and H{sub 2} plasma. The Al atomic percent in the Cu–Al alloy films varied from 0 to 15.6 at. %. Transmission electron microscopy revealed that a uniform Al-based interlayer self-formed at the interface after annealing. To evaluate the barrier properties of the Al-based interlayer and adhesion between the Cu–Al alloy film and SiO{sub 2} dielectric, thermal stability and peel-off adhesion tests were performed, respectively. The Al-based interlayer showed similar thermal stability and adhesion to the reference Mn-based interlayer. Our results indicate that Cu–Al alloys formed by alternating ALD are suitable seed layer materials for Cu interconnects.

  17. High-barrier Schottky contact on n-type 4H-SiC epitaxial layer and studies of defect levels by deep level transient spectroscopy (DLTS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguyen, Khai V.; Pak, Rahmi O.; Oner, Cihan; Mannan, Mohammad A.; Mandal, Krishna C.

    2015-08-01

    High barrier Schottky contact has been fabricated on 50 μm n-type 4H-SiC epitaxial layers grown on 350 μm thick substrate 8° off-cut towards the [11̅20] direction. The 4H-SiC epitaxial wafer was diced into 10 x 10 mm2 samples. The metal-semiconductor junctions were fabricated by photolithography and dc sputtering with ruthenium (Ru). The junction properties were characterized through current-voltage (I-V) and capacitance-voltage (C-V) measurements. Detectors were characterized by alpha spectroscopy measurements in terms of energy resolution and charge collection efficiency using a 0.1 μCi 241Am radiation source. It was found that detectors fabricated from high work function rare transition metal Ru demonstrated very low leakage current and significant improvement of detector performance. Defect characterization of the epitaxial layers was conducted by deep level transient spectroscopy (DLTS) to thoroughly investigate the defect levels in the active region. The presence of a new defect level induced by this rare transition metal-semiconductor interface has been identified and characterized.

  18. The modulation of multi-domain and harmonic wave in a GaN planar Gunn diode by recess layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Ying; Yang, Lin'an; Wang, Zhizhe; Ao, Jinping; Hao, Yue

    2016-02-01

    In this paper, a novel structure of a gallium nitride (GaN) planar Gunn diode with isosceles trapezoidal recess layers in the aluminum gallium nitride (AlGaN) barrier layer is proposed to enhance the harmonic components of Gunn oscillation waveforms. Numerical simulations demonstrate that the oscillation frequency rises from 99.1 GHz up to 300.4 GHz with the recess number increasing from one to four, at which the maximum radio frequency (RF) output power and conversion efficiency are obtained. The output performance of the diode enhances at high harmonic frequencies and is mainly due to the multiple recess layer structure that can trigger the formation of multiple Gunn domains in the two-dimensional electron gas channel of the GaN planar Gunn diode. This indicates that the long channel GaN Gunn diode has the ability to output the available RF power associated with the device operating in a submillimeter-wave and terahertz (THz) regime.

  19. Influence of source and drain contacts on the properties of indium-gallium-zinc-oxide thin-film transistors based on amorphous carbon nanofilm as barrier layer.

    PubMed

    Luo, Dongxiang; Xu, Hua; Zhao, Mingjie; Li, Min; Xu, Miao; Zou, Jianhua; Tao, Hong; Wang, Lei; Peng, Junbiao

    2015-02-18

    Amorphous indium-gallium-zinc-oxide thin film transistors (α-IGZO TFTs) with damage-free back channel wet-etch (BCE) process were achieved by introducing a carbon nanofilm as a barrier layer. We investigate the effects of different source-and-drain (S/D) materials on TFT performance. We find the TFT with Ti/C S/D electrodes exhibits a superior performance with higher output current, lower threshold voltage, and higher effective electron mobility compared to that of Mo/C S/D electrodes. Transmittance electron microscopy (TEM) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) are employed to analysis the interfacial interaction between S/D metal/C/α-IGZO layers. The results indicate that the better performance of TFTs with Ti/C electrodes should be attributed to the formations of Ti-C and Ti-O at the Ti/C-contact regions, which lead to a lower contact resistance, whereas Mo film is relatively stable and does not react easily with C nanofilm, resulting in a nonohmic contact behavior between Mo/C and α-IGZO layer. However, both kinds of α-IGZO TFTs show good stability under thermal bias stress, indicating that the inserted C nanofilms could avoid the impact on the α-IGZO channel regions during S/D electrodes formation. Finally, we successfully fabricated a high-definition active-matrix organic lighting emitting diode prototype driven by α-IGZO TFTs with Ti/C electrodes in a pilot line. PMID:25619280

  20. Free standing TiO2 nanotube array electrodes with an ultra-thin Al2O3 barrier layer and TiCl4 surface modification for highly efficient dye sensitized solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Xianfeng; Guan, Dongsheng; Huo, Jingwan; Chen, Junhong; Yuan, Chris

    2013-10-01

    Dye sensitized solar cells were fabricated with free standing TiO2 nanotube (TNT) array films, which were prepared by template assisted atomic layer deposition (ALD) with precise wall thickness control. Efforts to improve the photovoltaic performance were made by using Al2O3 barrier layer coating in conjunction with TiCl4 surface modification. An Al2O3 thin layer was deposited on the TNT electrode by ALD to serve as the charge recombination barrier, but it suffers from the drawback of decreasing the photoelectron injection from dye into TiO2 when the barrier layer became too thick. With the TiCl4 treatment in combination with optimal thickness coating, this problem could be avoided. The co-surface treated electrode presents superior surface property with low recombination rate and good electron transport property. A high conversion efficiency of 8.62% is obtained, which is about 1.8 times that of the device without surface modifications.Dye sensitized solar cells were fabricated with free standing TiO2 nanotube (TNT) array films, which were prepared by template assisted atomic layer deposition (ALD) with precise wall thickness control. Efforts to improve the photovoltaic performance were made by using Al2O3 barrier layer coating in conjunction with TiCl4 surface modification. An Al2O3 thin layer was deposited on the TNT electrode by ALD to serve as the charge recombination barrier, but it suffers from the drawback of decreasing the photoelectron injection from dye into TiO2 when the barrier layer became too thick. With the TiCl4 treatment in combination with optimal thickness coating, this problem could be avoided. The co-surface treated electrode presents superior surface property with low recombination rate and good electron transport property. A high conversion efficiency of 8.62% is obtained, which is about 1.8 times that of the device without surface modifications. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: UV-Vis spectra of desorbed N719 dyes from

  1. AlGaN Channel High Electron Mobility Transistors: Device Performance and Power-Switching Figure of Merit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raman, Ajay; Dasgupta, Sansaptak; Rajan, Siddharth; Speck, James S.; Mishra, Umesh K.

    2008-05-01

    In this paper, AlGaN channels for high electron mobility transistors (HEMTs) have been evaluated based on a power device figure of merit. AlGaN-channel HEMTs grown on SiC substrates by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy (PAMBE) were fabricated. Maximum saturation current of 0.55 A/mm was obtained at VGS=1 V. Current-gain cutoff ( ft) and power-gain cutoff ( fmax) frequencies obtained from small signal measurements were ft=13.2 GHz and fmax=41 GHz. Pulsed current-voltage (I-V) measurements at 200 ns showed no dispersion in I-V curves. Large signal continuous wave (CW) measurement yielded an output power density of 4.5 W/mm with power added efficiency (PAE) of 59% at 4 GHz. This work demonstrates the potential of AlGaN channel HEMTs for high voltage switching and microwave power applications.

  2. Joint assimilation of Aquarius-derived sea surface salinity and AVHRR-derived sea surface temperature in an ocean general circulation model using SEEK filter: Implication for mixed layer depth and barrier layer thickness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chakraborty, Abhisek; Sharma, Rashmi; Kumar, Raj; Basu, Sujit

    2015-10-01

    Sea surface salinity (SSS) from Aquarius mission and sea surface temperature (SST) from Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) for the years 2012-2014 are assimilated into the global Massachusetts Institute of Technology General Circulation Model (MITGCM). Investigation of the impact of assimilation of these two data sets on simulated mixed layer depth (MLD) and barrier layer thickness (BLT) forms the core of our study. The method of assimilation is the Singular Evolutive Extended Kalman (SEEK) filter. Several assimilation runs are performed. Single-parameter assimilation, as well as joint assimilation, is conducted. To begin with, the model simulated SST and SSS are compared with independent Argo observations of these two parameters. Use of latitudinally varying error variances, which is a novel feature of our study, gives rise to the significant improvement in the simulation of SSS and SST. The best result occurs when joint assimilation is performed. Afterward, simulated MLD and BLT are compared with the same parameters derived from Argo observations forming an independent validation data set. Comparisons are performed both in temporal and spatial domains. Significant positive impact of assimilation is found in all the cases studied, and joint assimilation is found to outperform single-parameter assimilation in each of the cases considered. It is found that simulations of MLD and BLT improve up to 24% and 29%, respectively, when a joint assimilation of SSS and SST is carried out.

  3. Performance of two-layer thermal barrier systems on directionally solidified Ni-Al-Mo and comparative effects of alloy thermal expansion on system life

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stecura, S.

    1980-01-01

    A promising two-layer thermal barrier coating system (TBS), Ni-16.4Cr-5.1A1-0.15Y/ZrO2-6.1Y2O3 (all in weight percent), was identified for directionally solidified Ni-Al-Mo (gamma/gamma' alpha). In cyclic furnace tests at 1095 C this system on gamma/gamma' alpha was better than Ni-16. 4Cr-5.1Al-0.15Y/ZrO2-7.8Y2O3 by about 50 percent. In natural gas - oxygen torch rig tests at 1250 C the ZrO2-6.1Y2O3 coating was better than the ZrO2-7.8Y2O3 coating by 95 percent, on MAR-M509 substrates and by 60 percent on gamma/gamma' alpha substrates. Decreasing the coefficient of thermal expansion of the substrate material from 17-18x10 to the -6 power/C (MAR-M200 + Hf and MAR-M509) to 11x10 to the -6 power/C (gamma/gamma' alpha) also resulted in improved TBS life. For example, in natural gas - oxygen torch rig tests at 1250 C, the life of Ni-16.4Cr-5.1Al-0.15Y/ZrO26.1Y2O3 was about 30 percent better on gamma/gamma' alpha than on MAR-M509 substrates. Thus compositional changes in the bond and thermal barrier coatings were shown to have a greater effect on TBS life than does the coefficient of thermal expansion.

  4. Cu diffusion in single-crystal and polycrystalline TiN barrier layers: A high-resolution experimental study supported by first-principles calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mühlbacher, Marlene; Bochkarev, Anton S.; Mendez-Martin, Francisca; Sartory, Bernhard; Chitu, Livia; Popov, Maxim N.; Puschnig, Peter; Spitaler, Jürgen; Ding, Hong; Schalk, Nina; Lu, Jun; Hultman, Lars; Mitterer, Christian

    2015-08-01

    Dense single-crystal and polycrystalline TiN/Cu stacks were prepared by unbalanced DC magnetron sputter deposition at a substrate temperature of 700 °C and a pulsed bias potential of -100 V. The microstructural variation was achieved by using two different substrate materials, MgO(001) and thermally oxidized Si(001), respectively. Subsequently, the stacks were subjected to isothermal annealing treatments at 900 °C for 1 h in high vacuum to induce the diffusion of Cu into the TiN. The performance of the TiN diffusion barrier layers was evaluated by cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy in combination with energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometry mapping and atom probe tomography. No Cu penetration was evident in the single-crystal stack up to annealing temperatures of 900 °C, due to the low density of line and planar defects in single-crystal TiN. However, at higher annealing temperatures when diffusion becomes more prominent, density-functional theory calculations predict a stoichiometry-dependent atomic diffusion mechanism of Cu in bulk TiN, with Cu diffusing on the N sublattice for the experimental N/Ti ratio. In comparison, localized diffusion of Cu along grain boundaries in the columnar polycrystalline TiN barriers was detected after the annealing treatment. The maximum observed diffusion length was approximately 30 nm, yielding a grain boundary diffusion coefficient of the order of 10-16 cm2 s-1 at 900 °C. This is 10 to 100 times less than for comparable underdense polycrystalline TiN coatings deposited without external substrate heating or bias potential. The combined numerical and experimental approach presented in this paper enables the contrasting juxtaposition of diffusion phenomena and mechanisms in two TiN coatings, which differ from each other only in the presence of grain boundaries.

  5. Selective dual-purpose photocatalysis for simultaneous H2 evolution and mineralization of organic compounds enabled by a Cr2O3 barrier layer coated on Rh/SrTiO3.

    PubMed

    Cho, Young-Jin; Moon, Gun-Hee; Kanazawa, Tomoki; Maeda, Kazuhiko; Choi, Wonyong

    2016-08-11

    Dual-functional photocatalysis for H2 evolution with the simultaneous mineralization of 4-chlorophenol was achieved under de-aerated conditions using a Cr2O3/Rh/SrTiO3 photocatalyst which has Rh nanoparticles covered with a thin Cr2O3 barrier layer to selectively control and maximize the dual-functional photocatalytic activity. PMID:27384472

  6. Underground waste barrier structure

    DOEpatents

    Saha, Anuj J.; Grant, David C.

    1988-01-01

    Disclosed is an underground waste barrier structure that consists of waste material, a first container formed of activated carbonaceous material enclosing the waste material, a second container formed of zeolite enclosing the first container, and clay covering the second container. The underground waste barrier structure is constructed by forming a recessed area within the earth, lining the recessed area with a layer of clay, lining the clay with a layer of zeolite, lining the zeolite with a layer of activated carbonaceous material, placing the waste material within the lined recessed area, forming a ceiling over the waste material of a layer of activated carbonaceous material, a layer of zeolite, and a layer of clay, the layers in the ceiling cojoining with the respective layers forming the walls of the structure, and finally, covering the ceiling with earth.

  7. Effect of La2O3 addition on interface chemistry between 4YSZ top layer and Ni based alloy bond coat in thermal barrier coating by EB PVD.

    PubMed

    Park, Chan-Young; Yang, Young-Hwan; Kim, Seong-Won; Lee, Sung-Min; Kim, Hyung-Tae; Jang, Byung-Koog; Lim, Dae-Soon; Oh, Yoon-Suk

    2014-11-01

    The effect of a 5 mol% La2O3 addition on the forming behavior and compositional variation at interface between a 4 mol% Yttria (Y2O3) stabilized ZrO2 (4YSZ) top coat and bond coat (NiCrAlY) as a thermal barrier coating (TBC) has been investigated. Top coats were deposited by electron beam physical vapor deposition (EB PVD) onto a super alloy (Ni-Cr-Co-Al) substrate without pre-oxidation of the bond coat. Top coats are found to consist of dense columnar grains with a thin interdiffusion layer between metallic bond coats. In the as-received 4YSZ coating, a thin interdiffusion zone at the interface between the top and bond coats was found to consist of a Ni-Zr intermetallic compound with a reduced quantity of Y, Al or O elements. On the other hand, in the case of an interdiffusion area of 5 mol% La2O3-added 4YSZ coating, it was found that the complicated composition and structure with La-added YSZ and Ni-Al rich compounds separately. The thermal conductivity of 5 mol% La2O3-added 4YSZ coating (- 1.6 W/m x k at 1100 degrees C) was lower than a 4YSZ coating (- 3.2 W/m x k at 1100 degrees C) alone. PMID:25958580

  8. Fabrication of Very High Efficiency 5.8 GHz Power Amplifiers using AlGaN HFETs on SiC Substrates for Wireless Power Transmission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sullivan, Gerry

    2001-01-01

    For wireless power transmission using microwave energy, very efficient conversion of the DC power into microwave power is extremely important. Class E amplifiers have the attractive feature that they can, in theory, be 100% efficient at converting, DC power to RF power. Aluminum gallium nitride (AlGaN) semiconductor material has many advantageous properties, relative to silicon (Si), gallium arsenide (GaAs), and silicon carbide (SiC), such as a much larger bandgap, and the ability to form AlGaN/GaN heterojunctions. The large bandgap of AlGaN also allows for device operation at higher temperatures than could be tolerated by a smaller bandgap transistor. This could reduce the cooling requirements. While it is unlikely that the AlGaN transistors in a 5.8 GHz class E amplifier can operate efficiently at temperatures in excess of 300 or 400 C, AlGaN based amplifiers could operate at temperatures that are higher than a GaAs or Si based amplifier could tolerate. Under this program, AlGaN microwave power HFETs have been fabricated and characterized. Hybrid class E amplifiers were designed and modeled. Unfortunately, within the time frame of this program, good quality HFETs were not available from either the RSC laboratories or commercially, and so the class E amplifiers were not constructed.

  9. Effect of AlGaN/GaN strained layer superlattice period on InGaN MQW laser diodes[Multiple Quantum Wells

    SciTech Connect

    Hansen, M.; Abare, A.C.; Kozodoy, P.; Katona, T.M.; Craven, M.D.; Speck, J.S.; Mishra, U.K.; Coldren, L.A.; DenBaars, S.P.

    2000-07-01

    AlGaN/GaN strained layer superlattices have been employed in the cladding layers of InGaN multi-quantum well laser diodes grown by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD). Superlattices have been investigated for strain relief of the cladding layer, as well as an enhanced hole concentration, which is more than ten times the value obtained for bulk AlGaN films. Laser diodes with strained layer superlattices as cladding layers were shown to have superior structural and electrical properties compared to laser diodes with bulk AlGaN cladding layers. As the period of the strained layer superlattices is decreased, the threshold voltage, as well as the threshold current density, is decreased. The resistance to vertical conduction through p-type superlattices with increasing superlattice period is not offset by the increase in hole concentration for increasing superlattice spacing, resulting in higher voltages.

  10. Cu diffusion in single-crystal and polycrystalline TiN barrier layers: A high-resolution experimental study supported by first-principles calculations

    SciTech Connect

    Mühlbacher, Marlene; Bochkarev, Anton S.; Mendez-Martin, Francisca; Schalk, Nina; Mitterer, Christian; Sartory, Bernhard; Chitu, Livia; Popov, Maxim N.; Spitaler, Jürgen; Puschnig, Peter; Ding, Hong; Lu, Jun; Hultman, Lars

    2015-08-28

    Dense single-crystal and polycrystalline TiN/Cu stacks were prepared by unbalanced DC magnetron sputter deposition at a substrate temperature of 700 °C and a pulsed bias potential of −100 V. The microstructural variation was achieved by using two different substrate materials, MgO(001) and thermally oxidized Si(001), respectively. Subsequently, the stacks were subjected to isothermal annealing treatments at 900 °C for 1 h in high vacuum to induce the diffusion of Cu into the TiN. The performance of the TiN diffusion barrier layers was evaluated by cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy in combination with energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometry mapping and atom probe tomography. No Cu penetration was evident in the single-crystal stack up to annealing temperatures of 900 °C, due to the low density of line and planar defects in single-crystal TiN. However, at higher annealing temperatures when diffusion becomes more prominent, density-functional theory calculations predict a stoichiometry-dependent atomic diffusion mechanism of Cu in bulk TiN, with Cu diffusing on the N sublattice for the experimental N/Ti ratio. In comparison, localized diffusion of Cu along grain boundaries in the columnar polycrystalline TiN barriers was detected after the annealing treatment. The maximum observed diffusion length was approximately 30 nm, yielding a grain boundary diffusion coefficient of the order of 10{sup −16} cm{sup 2} s{sup −1} at 900 °C. This is 10 to 100 times less than for comparable underdense polycrystalline TiN coatings deposited without external substrate heating or bias potential. The combined numerical and experimental approach presented in this paper enables the contrasting juxtaposition of diffusion phenomena and mechanisms in two TiN coatings, which differ from each other only in the presence of grain boundaries.

  11. Deep ultraviolet detection dynamics of AlGaN based devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mazzeo, G.; Conte, G.; Reverchon, J.-L.; Dussaigne, A.; Duboz, J.-Y.

    2006-11-01

    The photoconductive response of AlGaN based UV detectors to 193nm excimer laser radiation is presented. Two devices have been tested: a metal-semiconductor-metal (MSM) planar structure and a Schottky diode. The transient response of the MSM device closely follows the laser pulses, with a photoconductive decay time constant shorter than 3ns. Conversely, the Schottky diode shows a slower photoconductive rise and decay kinetics due to the material series resistance coupled with the junction capacitance. Moreover, a longer time constant tail is also evident in this case with a characteristic time of about 40ns, due to the presence of trap states localized at 0.2-0.3eV from the band edge. The detection dynamics has been evaluated by changing the beam energy density between 2×10-5 and 0.2mJ/mm2. The signal increases linearly in the case of the MSM device up to 0.001mJ/mm2, whereas, for a further intensity rise, the response shows a sublinear behavior. On the contrary, the Schottky diode showed a linear trend inside the reduced 2×10-3-1.5×10-2mJ/mm2 range.

  12. Light emission and microstructure of Mg-doped AlGaN grown on patterned sapphire

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bell, A.; Liu, R.; Ponce, F. A.; Amano, H.; Akasaki, I.; Cherns, D.

    2003-01-01

    Distinct crystalline and optical properties have been observed in Mg-doped Al0.03Ga0.97N grown on a patterned sapphire substrate; the pattern consisting of etched trenches along the sapphire <112¯0> direction. The epilayer has two distinct regions: one grown directly onto the sapphire mesa and the other an epitaxial lateral overgrowth (ELO) region that overhangs the trench. Transmission electron microscopy shows the presence of pyramidal defects as well as large dislocation densities in the region grown directly on sapphire. In contrast, the ELO region is defect free and contains no Mg-related pyramidal defects. Cathodoluminescence measurements show superior near-band-edge emission in the ELO region, suggesting that the emission is susceptible to nonradiative centers caused by the high defect density in the rest of the sample. The Mg-related donor-acceptor-pair emission is fairly uniform throughout the film, indicating that it is not affected by the nonradiative centers. These optical and structural properties of AlGaN are closely related to the direction of the growth front.

  13. Detection of halide ions with AlGaN /GaN high electron mobility transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, B. S.; Ren, F.; Kang, M. C.; Lofton, C.; Tan, Weihong; Pearton, S. J.; Dabiran, A.; Osinsky, A.; Chow, P. P.

    2005-04-01

    AlGaN /GaN high electron mobility transistors (HEMTs) both with and without a Au gate are found to exhibit significant changes in channel conductance upon exposing the gate region to various halide ions. The polar nature of the halide ions leads to a change of surface charge in the gate region on the HEMT, producing a change in the surface potential at the semiconductor/liquid interface. HEMTs with a Au-gate electrode not only doubled the sensitivity of changing the channel conductance as compared to gateless HEMT, but also showed the opposite conductance behavior. When anions adsorbed on the Au, they produced a counter charge for electrovalence. These anions drag some counter ions from the bulk solution or create an image positive charge on the metal for the required neutrality. The gateless HEMTs can be used as sensors for a range of chemicals through appropriate modification with covalently bonded halide functional groups on the Au surface. This creates many possibilities to functionalize the surface for a wide range of integrated biological, chemical, and fluid monitoring sensors.

  14. Electrical defects in AlGaN and InAlN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnstone, D.; Leach, Jacob H.; Kovalskii, Vladimir A.; Fan, Qian; Xie, Jingqiao; Morkoç, Hadis

    2009-02-01

    Compound semiconductors based on GaN have multiple functional applications. Useful compositions include GaN, and ternary and quaternary compositions of (AlGaIn)N. Defects arising from lattice mismatch, point defects, or impurities may act as electrical trapping centers and degrade device efficiency. Current-voltage, capacitance-voltage, thermal admittance spectroscopy (TAS), and deep level transient spectroscopy (DLTS) measurements are applied to characterize the defects in Al0.40Ga0.80N and In0.18Al0.82N in this report. Broad peaks with a shoulder at high temperature dominate the DLTS spectra in each of the materials. An acceptor trap associated with a dislocation appears at 340 K in AlGaN. The defect has an energy of 0.2 eV and capture cross section of 10-21 cm2. A second trap at 0.35 eV, 10-14 cm2 appears in the TAS measurements in addition to the trap at 0.2 eV. Defects in InAlN are dominated by a peak near 150 K. Two traps appear in the TAS measurements. Both traps in the InAlN are acceptors, based on a lack of field dependent emission rates using double pulse DLTS (DDLTS). The two energy levels in InAlN appear to be coupled, with only one state occupied at a time.

  15. Barrier Formation

    PubMed Central

    Lyaruu, D.M.; Medina, J.F.; Sarvide, S.; Bervoets, T.J.M.; Everts, V.; DenBesten, P.; Smith, C.E.; Bronckers, A.L.J.J.

    2014-01-01

    Enamel fluorosis is an irreversible structural enamel defect following exposure to supraoptimal levels of fluoride during amelogenesis. We hypothesized that fluorosis is associated with excess release of protons during formation of hypermineralized lines in the mineralizing enamel matrix. We tested this concept by analyzing fluorotic enamel defects in wild-type mice and mice deficient in anion exchanger-2a,b (Ae2a,b), a transmembrane protein in maturation ameloblasts that exchanges extracellular Cl− for bicarbonate. Defects were more pronounced in fluorotic Ae2a,b−/− mice than in fluorotic heterozygous or wild-type mice. Phenotypes included a hypermineralized surface, extensive subsurface hypomineralization, and multiple hypermineralized lines in deeper enamel. Mineral content decreased in all fluoride-exposed and Ae2a,b−/− mice and was strongly correlated with Cl−. Exposure of enamel surfaces underlying maturation-stage ameloblasts to pH indicator dyes suggested the presence of diffusion barriers in fluorotic enamel. These results support the concept that fluoride stimulates hypermineralization at the mineralization front. This causes increased release of protons, which ameloblasts respond to by secreting more bicarbonates at the expense of Cl− levels in enamel. The fluoride-induced hypermineralized lines may form barriers that impede diffusion of proteins and mineral ions into the subsurface layers, thereby delaying biomineralization and causing retention of enamel matrix proteins. PMID:24170372

  16. Application of Analytical Heat Transfer Models of Multi-layered Natural and Engineered Barriers in Potential High-Level Nuclear Waste Repositories - 12435

    SciTech Connect

    Greenberg, Harris R.; Blink, James A.; Fratoni, Massimiliano; Sutton, Mark; Ross, Amber D.

    2012-07-01

    A combination of transient heat transfer analytical solutions for a finite line source, a series of point sources, and a series of parallel infinite line sources were combined with a quasi-steady-state multi-layered cylindrical solution to simulate the temperature response of a deep geologic radioactive waste repository with multi-layered natural and engineered barriers. This evaluation was performed to provide information to scientists and decision makers to compare candidate geologic media for a repository (crystalline rock [granite], clay, salt, and deep borehole), and to provide input for the future evaluation of the trade-off between pre-emplacement surface storage time, waste package size, and repository footprint. This approach was selected in favor of the finite element solution typically used to analyze the temperature response because it allowed rapid comparison of a large number of alternative disposal options and design configurations. More than 100 combinations of waste form, geologic environment, repository design configuration, and surface storage times were analyzed and compared. The analytical solution approach used to analyze the repository temperature response allowed rapid comparison of a large number of alternative disposal options and design configurations. More than 100 combinations of waste form, geologic environment, repository design configuration, and surface storage times were analyzed and compared. This approach allowed investigation of the sensitivity of the results to combinations of parameters that show that there is much flexibility to be gained in terms of spent fuel management options by varying a few key parameters. This initial analysis used representative design concepts and thermal constraints based on international design concepts, and it also included waste forms representing future fuel cycles with high burnup fuels. Unlike repository designs with large open tunnels and pre-closure ventilation, all of the disposal concepts

  17. Ultraviolet light-emitting diodes with polarization-doped p-type layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Wenxiao; Qin, Ping; Song, Weidong; Zhang, Chongzhen; Wang, Rupeng; Zhao, Liangliang; Xia, Chao; Yuan, Songyang; Yin, Yian; Li, Shuti

    2016-09-01

    We report ultraviolet light emitting diode (LEDs) with polarization doped p-type layer. Fabricated LEDs with polarization doped p-type layer exhibited reduced forward voltage and enhanced light output power, compared to those with traditional p-type AlGaN layer. The improvement is attributed to improved hole concentration and the smooth valence band by the polarization enhanced p-type doping. Our simulated results reveal that this p-type layer can further enhance the performance of ultraviolet LEDs by removing the electron blocking layer (EBL).

  18. Complementary Barrier Infrared Detector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ting, David Z.; Bandara, Sumith V.; Hill, Cory J.; Gunapala, Sarath D.

    2009-01-01

    The complementary barrier infrared detector (CBIRD) is designed to eliminate the major dark current sources in the superlattice infrared detector. The concept can also be applied to bulk semiconductor- based infrared detectors. CBIRD uses two different types of specially designed barriers: an electron barrier that blocks electrons but not holes, and a hole barrier that blocks holes but not electrons. The CBIRD structure consists of an n-contact, a hole barrier, an absorber, an electron barrier, and a p-contact. The barriers are placed at the contact-absorber junctions where, in a conventional p-i-n detector structure, there normally are depletion regions that produce generation-recombination (GR) dark currents due to Shockley-Read- Hall (SRH) processes. The wider-bandgap complementary barriers suppress G-R dark current. The barriers also block diffusion dark currents generated in the diffusion wings in the neutral regions. In addition, the wider gap barriers serve to reduce tunneling dark currents. In the case of a superlattice-based absorber, the superlattice itself can be designed to suppress dark currents due to Auger processes. At the same time, the barriers actually help to enhance the collection of photo-generated carriers by deflecting the photo-carriers that are diffusing in the wrong direction (i.e., away from collectors) and redirecting them toward the collecting contacts. The contact layers are made from materials with narrower bandgaps than the barriers. This allows good ohmic contacts to be made, resulting in lower contact resistances. Previously, THALES Research and Technology (France) demonstrated detectors with bulk InAsSb (specifically InAs0.91Sb0.09) absorber lattice-matched to GaSb substrates. The absorber is surrounded by two wider bandgap layers designed to minimize impedance to photocurrent flow. The wide bandgap materials also serve as contacts. The cutoff wavelength of the InAsSb absorber is fixed. CBIRD may be considered as a modified

  19. Characteristics of WN{sub x}C{sub y} films deposited using remote plasma atomic layer deposition with ({sup Me}Cp)W(CO){sub 2}(NO) for Cu diffusion barrier

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Hyunjung; Park, Jingyu; Jeon, Heeyoung; Jang, Woochool; Jeon, Hyeongtag; Yuh, Junhan

    2015-09-15

    Diffusion barrier characteristics of tungsten–nitride–carbide (WN{sub x}C{sub y}) thin films interposed between Cu and SiO{sub 2} layers were studied. The WN{sub x}C{sub y} films were deposited by remote plasma atomic layer deposition (RPALD) using a metal organic source, ({sup Me}Cp)W(CO){sub 2}(NO), and ammonia. Auger electron spectroscopy analysis indicated the WN{sub x}C{sub y} films consisted of tungsten, nitrogen, carbon, and oxygen. X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis showed that the film deposited at 350 °C was nanocrystalline. The resistivity of WN{sub x}C{sub y} film deposited by RPALD was very low compared to that in previous research because of the lower nitrogen content and different crystal structures of the WN{sub x}C{sub y}. To verify the diffusion barrier characteristics of the WN{sub x}C{sub y} film, Cu films were deposited by physical vapor deposition after WN{sub x}C{sub y} film was formed by RPALD on Si substrate. The Cu/WN{sub x}C{sub y}/Si film stack was annealed in a vacuum by rapid thermal annealing at 500 °C. Cu diffusion through the barrier layer was verified by XRD. Stable film properties were observed up to 500 °C, confirming that WN{sub x}C{sub y} film is suitable as a Cu diffusion barrier in microelectronic circuits.

  20. Schottky barrier solar cell

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stirn, R. J.; Yeh, Y. C. M. (Inventor)

    1981-01-01

    A method of fabricating a Schottky barrier solar cell is described. The cell consists of a thin substrate of low cost material with at least the top surface of the substrate being electrically conductive. A thin layer of heavily doped n-type polycrystalling germanium is deposited on the substrate after a passivation layer is deposited to prevent migration of impurities into the polycrystalline germanium. The polycrystalline germanium is recrystallized to increase the crystal sizes to serve as a base layer on which a thin layer of gallium arsenide is vapor-epitaxilly grown followed by a thermally-grown oxide layer. A metal layer is deposited on the oxide layer and a grid electrode is deposited to be in electrical contact with the top surface of the metal layer.

  1. Schottky barrier solar cell

    SciTech Connect

    Stirn, R.J.; Yeh, Y.C.M.

    1981-07-01

    A method of fabricating a Schottky barrier solar cell is described. The cell consists of a thin substrate of low cost material with at least the top surface of the substrate being electrically conductive. A thin layer of heavily doped n-type polycrystalling germanium is deposited on the substrate after a passivation layer is deposited to prevent migration of impurities into the polycrystalline germanium. The polycrystalline germanium is recrystallized to increase the crystal sizes to serve as a base layer on which a thin layer of gallium arsenide is vapor-epitaxilly grown followed by a thermally-grown oxide layer. A metal layer is deposited on the oxide layer and a grid electrode is deposited to be in electrical contact with the top surface of the metal layer. Official Gazette of the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office

  2. Catalytic thermal barrier coatings

    DOEpatents

    Kulkarni, Anand A.; Campbell, Christian X.; Subramanian, Ramesh

    2009-06-02

    A catalyst element (30) for high temperature applications such as a gas turbine engine. The catalyst element includes a metal substrate such as a tube (32) having a layer of ceramic thermal barrier coating material (34) disposed on the substrate for thermally insulating the metal substrate from a high temperature fuel/air mixture. The ceramic thermal barrier coating material is formed of a crystal structure populated with base elements but with selected sites of the crystal structure being populated by substitute ions selected to allow the ceramic thermal barrier coating material to catalytically react the fuel-air mixture at a higher rate than would the base compound without the ionic substitutions. Precious metal crystallites may be disposed within the crystal structure to allow the ceramic thermal barrier coating material to catalytically react the fuel-air mixture at a lower light-off temperature than would the ceramic thermal barrier coating material without the precious metal crystallites.

  3. High internal quantum efficiency in AlGaN multiple quantum wells grown on bulk AlN substrates

    SciTech Connect

    Bryan, Zachary Bryan, Isaac; Sitar, Zlatko; Collazo, Ramón; Xie, Jinqiao; Mita, Seiji

    2015-04-06

    The internal quantum efficiency (IQE) of Al{sub 0.55}Ga{sub 0.45}N/AlN and Al{sub 0.55}Ga{sub 0.45}N/Al{sub 0.85}Ga{sub 0.15}N UVC MQW structures was analyzed. The use of bulk AlN substrates enabled us to undoubtedly distinguish the effect of growth conditions, such as V/III ratio, on the optical quality of AlGaN based MQWs from the influence of dislocations. At a high V/III ratio, a record high IQE of ∼80% at a carrier density of 10{sup 18 }cm{sup −3} was achieved at ∼258 nm. The high IQE was correlated with the decrease of the non-radiative coefficient A and a reduction of midgap defect luminescence, all suggesting that, in addition to dislocations, point defects are another major factor that strongly influences optical quality of AlGaN MQW structures.

  4. Optically confined polarized resonance Raman studies in identifying crystalline orientation of sub-diffraction limited AlGaN nanostructure

    SciTech Connect

    Sivadasan, A. K. Patsha, Avinash; Dhara, Sandip

    2015-04-27

    An optical characterization tool of Raman spectroscopy with extremely weak scattering cross section tool is not popular to analyze scattered signal from a single nanostructure in the sub-diffraction regime. In this regard, plasmonic assisted characterization tools are only relevant in spectroscopic studies of nanoscale object in the sub-diffraction limit. We have reported polarized resonance Raman spectroscopic (RRS) studies with strong electron-phonon coupling to understand the crystalline orientation of a single AlGaN nanowire of diameter ∼100 nm. AlGaN nanowire is grown by chemical vapor deposition technique using the catalyst assisted vapor-liquid-solid process. The results are compared with the high resolution transmission electron microscopic analysis. As a matter of fact, optical confinement effect due to the dielectric contrast of nanowire with respect to that of surrounding media assisted with electron-phonon coupling of RRS is useful for the spectroscopic analysis in the sub-diffraction limit of 325 nm (λ/2N.A.) using an excitation wavelength (λ) of 325 nm and near ultraviolet 40× far field objective with a numerical aperture (N.A.) value of 0.50.

  5. Thermal Barrier Coatings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    In order to reduce heat transfer between a hot gas heat source and a metallic engine component, a thermal insulating layer of material is placed between them. This thermal barrier coating is applied by plasma spray processing the thin films. The coating has been successfully employed in aerospace applications for many years. Lewis Research Center, a leader in the development engine components coating technology, has assisted Caterpillar, Inc. in applying ceramic thermal barrier coatings on engines. Because these large engines use heavy fuels containing vanadium, engine valve life is sharply decreased. The barrier coating controls temperatures, extends valve life and reduces operating cost. Additional applications are currently under development.

  6. AlGaN UV LED and Photodiodes Radiation Hardness and Space Qualifications and Their Applications in Space Science and High Energy Density Physics

    SciTech Connect

    Sun, K. X.

    2011-05-31

    This presentation provides an overview of robust, radiation hard AlGaN optoelectronic devices and their applications in space exploration & high energy density physics. Particularly, deep UV LED and deep UV photodiodes are discussed with regard to their applications, radiation hardness and space qualification. AC charge management of UV LED satellite payload instruments, which were to be launched in late 2012, is covered.

  7. Optimization of barrier layer thickness in MgSe/CdSe quantum wells for intersubband devices in the near infrared region

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Guopeng; Shen, Aidong; Tamargo, Maria C.

    2015-10-28

    The authors report the optimization of MgSe barrier thickness in CdSe/MgSe multiple quantum well structures and its effect on structural, optical qualities and intersubband (ISB) transition characteristics. Three samples with the MgSe thicknesses of 2 nm, 3 nm, and 4 nm were grown on InP substrates by molecular beam epitaxy. X-ray diffraction and photoluminescence measurements showed that the thinner the MgSe barrier thickness the better the structural quality. However, ISB absorption was only observed in the sample with a MgSe thickness of 3 nm. Failing to observe ISB absorption in the sample with a thicker MgSe barrier (≥4 nm) is due to the deteriorated material quality while the missing of ISB transition in the sample with thinner barrier (≤2 nm) is due to the tunneling of electrons out of the CdSe wells. The optimized MgSe barrier thickness of around 3 nm is found to be able to suppress the electron tunneling while maintaining a good material quality of the overall structure.

  8. Temperature-dependent capacitance-voltage and current-voltage characteristics of Pt/Ga2O3 (001) Schottky barrier diodes fabricated on n--Ga2O3 drift layers grown by halide vapor phase epitaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Higashiwaki, Masataka; Konishi, Keita; Sasaki, Kohei; Goto, Ken; Nomura, Kazushiro; Thieu, Quang Tu; Togashi, Rie; Murakami, Hisashi; Kumagai, Yoshinao; Monemar, Bo; Koukitu, Akinori; Kuramata, Akito; Yamakoshi, Shigenobu

    2016-03-01

    We investigated the temperature-dependent electrical properties of Pt/Ga2O3 Schottky barrier diodes (SBDs) fabricated on n--Ga2O3 drift layers grown on single-crystal n+-Ga2O3 (001) substrates by halide vapor phase epitaxy. In an operating temperature range from 21 °C to 200 °C, the Pt/Ga2O3 (001) Schottky contact exhibited a zero-bias barrier height of 1.09-1.15 eV with a constant near-unity ideality factor. The current-voltage characteristics of the SBDs were well-modeled by thermionic emission in the forward regime and thermionic field emission in the reverse regime over the entire temperature range.

  9. Analyses of 2-DEG characteristics in GaN HEMT with AlN/GaN super-lattice as barrier layer grown by MOCVD

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    GaN-based high-electron mobility transistors (HEMTs) with AlN/GaN super-lattices (SLs) (4 to 10 periods) as barriers were prepared on (0001) sapphire substrates. An innovative method of calculating the concentration of two-dimensional electron gas (2-DEG) was brought up when AlN/GaN SLs were used as barriers. With this method, the energy band structure of AlN/GaN SLs was analyzed, and it was found that the concentration of 2-DEG is related to the thickness of AlN barrier and the thickness of the period; however, it is independent of the total thickness of the AlN/GaN SLs. In addition, we consider that the sheet carrier concentration in every SL period is equivalent and the 2-DEG concentration measured by Hall effect is the average value in one SL period. The calculation result fitted well with the experimental data. So, we proposed that our method can be conveniently applied to calculate the 2-DEG concentration of HEMT with the AlN/GaN SL barrier. PMID:22348545

  10. Analysis and optimisation of ohmic contact resistance and surface morphology of a Ta-based diffusion barrier layer in AlGaN/GaN HEMTs on Si (1 1 1) substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cho, Sung-Jin; Wang, Cong; Kim, Nam-Young

    2013-11-01

    Various rapid thermal annealing (RTA) conditions for the Ti/Al/Ta/Au ohmic contact process and the resulting surface analysis have been investigated to characterise AlGaN/GaN high-electron-mobility transistors (HEMTs) on Si (1 1 1) substrates. The use of Ta as an effective diffusion barrier in Ti/Al/metal/Au ohmic metallisation yields better ohmic contacts than other metal formations. To achieve low ohmic contact resistance (Rc) and good surface morphology, we tested different Ta layer thicknesses (20, 40, 60, and 80 nm) in a deoxidation process with smooth O2/H2 plasma-etching pre-treatments comprised of five annealing temperatures (700, 750, 800, 850, and 900 °C) and two annealing times (15 and 30 s). The best ohmic resistance, 0.03 Ω mm (7.27 × 10-7 Ω cm2), is obtained for a Ta barrier layer thickness of 40 nm, annealing temperature of 850 °C and annealing time of 30 s. In atomic force microscopy (AFM) images, nano-scale surface morphology with a root-mean-square (RMS) deviation of 6.9 nm is observed. Through comparative energy dispersive spectrometry (EDS) analysis of the surface morphologies at the bulge and sunken areas at 800 °C annealing temperature, we found that the surface degradation phenomenon is easily generated at 800 °C annealing temperature by a significant reaction of the Au-Al alloy. As a result, Au and Al are diffused into the Ta barrier layer, and a bulge and sunken are generated on the ohmic contact surface. From the EDS spectra, the Au ratio continually decreases from the optimised area (63%) to the sunken area (32%) due to the diffusion of Au through the Ta barrier layer. Conversely, the Au ratio continually increases from the optimised area (63%) to the bulged area (90%) due to the inability of Au to diffuse downward; Al diffuses upward and causes the Au bulge.

  11. Thermal barrier coating

    DOEpatents

    Bowker, Jeffrey Charles; Sabol, Stephen M.; Goedjen, John G.

    2001-01-01

    A thermal barrier coating for hot gas path components of a combustion turbine based on a zirconia-scandia system. A layer of zirconium scandate having the hexagonal Zr.sub.3 Sc.sub.4 O.sub.12 structure is formed directly on a superalloy substrate or on a bond coat formed on the substrate.

  12. Stimulated emission and optical gain in AlGaN heterostructures grown on bulk AlN substrates

    SciTech Connect

    Guo, Wei Bryan, Zachary; Kirste, Ronny; Bryan, Isaac; Hussey, Lindsay; Bobea, Milena; Haidet, Brian; Collazo, Ramón; Sitar, Zlatko; Xie, Jinqiao; Mita, Seiji; Gerhold, Michael

    2014-03-14

    Optical gain spectra for ∼250 nm stimulated emission were compared in three different AlGaN-based structures grown on single crystalline AlN substrates: a single AlGaN film, a double heterostructure (DH), and a Multiple Quantum Well (MQW) structure; respective threshold pumping power densities of 700, 250, and 150 kW/cm{sup 2} were observed. Above threshold, the emission was transverse-electric polarized and as narrow as 1.8 nm without a cavity. The DH and MQW structures showed gain values of 50–60 cm{sup −1} when pumped at 1 MW/cm{sup 2}. The results demonstrated the excellent optical quality of the AlGaN-based heterostructures grown on AlN substrates and their potential for realizing electrically pumped sub-280 nm laser diodes.

  13. Schottky barrier height reduction for metal/n-InP by inserting ultra-thin atomic layer deposited high-k dielectrics

    SciTech Connect

    Zheng, Shan; Yang, Wen; Sun, Qing-Qing E-mail: linchen@fudan.edu.cn; Zhou, Peng; Wang, Peng-Fei; Wei Zhang, David; Chen, Lin; Xiao, Fei

    2013-12-23

    Fermi level pinning at metal/n-InP interface and effective Schottky barrier height (Φ{sub B,eff}) were optimized by inserting ultrathin dielectrics in this work. Comparing the inserted monolayer and bilayer high-k dielectrics, we demonstrated that the introduction of bilayer dielectrics can further reduce Φ{sub B,eff} (from 0.49 eV to 0.22 eV) than the monolayer dielectric (from 0.49 eV to 0.32 eV) even though the overall dielectric thickness was thicker. The additional dipole formed at high-k/high-k interfaces could be used to expound the mechanism. This work proposed an effective solution to reduce resistance contacts for InP based transistors and Schottky barrier transistors.

  14. A study of the effects of thermal barrier coating surface roughness on the boundary layer characteristics of gas-turbine aerofoils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watt, R. M.; Allen, J. L.; Baines, N. C.; Simons, J. P.; George, M.

    1987-05-01

    The effect of thermal barrier coating surface roughness on the aerodynamic performance of gas-turbine aerofoils has been investigated for the case of a profile typical of current first-stage nozzle guide vane design. Cascade tests indicate a potential for significant extra loss, depending on Reynolds number, due to thermal barrier coating in its 'as-sprayed' state. In this situation polishing coated vanes is shown to be largely effective in restoring their performance. The measurements also suggest a critical low Reynolds number below which the range of roughness tested has no effect on cascade efficiency. Transition detection involved a novel use of thin-film anemometers painted and fired onto the TBC surfaces.

  15. Guided bone regeneration by poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) grafted hyaluronic acid bi-layer films for periodontal barrier applications.

    PubMed

    Park, Jung Kyu; Yeom, Junseok; Oh, Eun Ju; Reddy, Mallikarjuna; Kim, Jong Young; Cho, Dong-Woo; Lim, Hyun Pil; Kim, Nam Sook; Park, Sang Won; Shin, Hong-In; Yang, Dong Jun; Park, Kwang Bum; Hahn, Sei Kwang

    2009-11-01

    A novel protocol for the synthesis of biocompatible and degradation controlled poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) grafted hyaluronic acid (HA-PLGA) was successfully developed for periodontal barrier applications. HA was chemically modified with adipic acid dihydrazide (ADH) in the mixed solvent of water and ethanol, which resulted in a high degree of HA modification up to 85 mol.%. The stability of HA-ADH to enzymatic degradation by hyaluronidase increased with ADH content in HA-ADH. When the ADH content in HA-ADH was higher than 80 mol.%, HA-ADH became soluble in dimethyl sulfoxide and could be grafted to the activated PLGA with N,N'-dicyclohexyl carbodiimide and N-hydroxysuccinimide. The resulting HA-PLGA was used for the preparation of biphasic periodontal barrier membranes in chloroform. According to in vitro hydrolytic degradation tests in phosphate buffered saline, HA-PLGA/PLGA blend film with a weight ratio of 1/2 degraded relatively slowly compared to PLGA film and HA coated PLGA film. Four different samples of a control, OSSIX(TM) membrane, PLGA film, and HA-PLGA/PLGA film were assessed as periodontal barrier membranes for the calvarial critical size bone defects in SD rats. Histological and histomorphometric analyses revealed that HA-PLGA/PLGA film resulted in the most effective bone regeneration compared to other samples with a regenerated bone area of 63.1% covering the bone defect area. PMID:19477304

  16. Y0.08Sr0.88TiO3-CeO2 composite as a diffusion barrier layer for stainless-steel supported solid oxide fuel cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Kun Joong; Kim, Sun Jae; Choi, Gyeong Man

    2016-03-01

    A new diffusion barrier layer (DBL) is proposed for solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) supported on stainless-steel where DBL prevents inter-diffusion of atoms between anode and stainless steel (STS) support during fabrication and operation of STS-supported SOFCs. Half cells consisting of dense yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) electrolyte, porous Ni-YSZ anode layer, and ferritic STS support, with or without Y0.08Sr0.88TiO3-CeO2 (YST-CeO2) composite DBL, are prepared by tape casting and co-firing at 1250 and 1350 °C, respectively, in reducing (H2) atmosphere. The porous YST-CeO2 layer (t ∼ 60 μm) blocks inter-diffusion of Fe and Ni, and captures the evaporated Cr during cell fabrication (1350 °C). The cell with DBL and La0.6Sr0.4Co0.2Fe0.8O3-δ (LSCF) cathode achieved a maximum power density of ∼220 mW cm-2 which is stable at 700 °C. In order to further improve the power performance, Ni coarsening in anode during co-firing must be prevented or alternative anode which is resistive to coarsening is suggested. This study demonstrates that the new YST-CeO2 layer is a promising as a DBL for stainless-steel-supported SOFCs fabricated with co-firing process.

  17. Improvement of AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistor structures by in situ deposition of a Si3N4 surface layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Derluyn, J.; Boeykens, S.; Cheng, K.; Vandersmissen, R.; Das, J.; Ruythooren, W.; Degroote, S.; Leys, M. R.; Germain, M.; Borghs, G.

    2005-09-01

    We have made AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistors with a Si3N4 passivation layer that was deposited in situ in our metal-organic chemical-vapor deposition reactor in the same growth sequence as the rest of the layer stack. The Si3N4 is shown to be of high quality and stoichiometric in composition. It reduces the relaxation, cracking, and surface roughness of the AlGaN layer. It also neutralizes the charges at the top AlGaN interface, which leads to a higher two-dimensional electron-gas density. Moreover, it protects the surface during processing and improves the Ohmic source and drain contacts. This leads to devices with greatly improved characteristics.

  18. Measuring the depth profiles of strain/composition in AlGaN-graded layer by high-resolution x-ray diffraction

    SciTech Connect

    Kuchuk, A. V.; Stanchu, H. V.; Kladko, V. P.; Belyaev, A. E.; Li, Chen; Ware, M. E.; Mazur, Yu. I.; Salamo, G. J.

    2014-12-14

    Here, we demonstrate X-ray fitting through kinematical simulations of the intensity profiles of symmetric reflections for epitaxial compositionally graded layers of AlGaN grown by molecular beam epitaxy pseudomorphically on [0001]-oriented GaN substrates. These detailed simulations depict obvious differences between changes in thickness, maximum concentration, and concentration profile of the graded layers. Through comparison of these simulations with as-grown samples, we can reliably determine these parameters, most important of which are the profiles of the concentration and strain which determine much of the electrical properties of the film. In addition to learning about these parameters for the characterization of thin film properties, these fitting techniques create opportunities to calibrate growth rates and control composition profiles of AlGaN layers with a single growth rather than multiple growths as has been done traditionally.

  19. Vehicle barrier

    DOEpatents

    Hirsh, Robert A.

    1991-01-01

    A vehicle security barrier which can be conveniently placed across a gate opening as well as readily removed from the gate opening to allow for easy passage. The security barrier includes a barrier gate in the form of a cable/gate member in combination with laterally attached pipe sections fixed by way of the cable to the gate member and lateral, security fixed vertical pipe posts. The security barrier of the present invention provides for the use of cable restraints across gate openings to provide necessary security while at the same time allowing for quick opening and closing of the gate areas without compromising security.

  20. The light-matter interaction of a single semiconducting AlGaN nanowire and noble metal Au nanoparticles in the sub-diffraction limit.

    PubMed

    Sivadasan, A K; Madapu, Kishore K; Dhara, Sandip

    2016-08-24

    Near field scanning optical microscopy (NSOM) is not only a tool for imaging of sub-diffraction limited objects but also a prominent characteristic tool for understanding the intrinsic properties of nanostructures. In order to understand light-matter interactions in the near field regime using a NSOM technique with an excitation of 532 nm (2.33 eV), we selected an isolated single semiconducting AlGaN nanowire (NW) of diameter ∼120 nm grown via a vapor liquid solid (VLS) mechanism along with a metallic Au nanoparticle (NP) catalyst. The role of electronic transitions from different native defect related energy states of AlGaN is discussed in understanding the NSOM images for the semiconducting NW. The effect of strong surface plasmon resonance absorption of an excitation laser on the NSOM images for Au NPs, involved in the VLS growth mechanism of NWs, is also observed. PMID:27511614

  1. Angular distribution of polarized light and its effect on light extraction efficiency in AlGaN deep-ultraviolet light-emitting diodes.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xinjuan; Ji, Cheng; Xiang, Yong; Kang, Xiangning; Shen, Bo; Yu, Tongjun

    2016-05-16

    Angular distribution of polarized light and its effect on light extraction efficiency (LEE) in AlGaN deep-ultraviolet (DUV) light-emitting diodes (LEDs) are investigated in this paper. A united picture is presented to describe polarized light's emission and propagation processes. It is found that the electron-hole recombinations in AlGaN multiple quantum wells produce three kinds of angularly distributed polarized emissions and propagation process can change their intensity distributions. By investigation the change of angular distributions in 277nm and 215nm LEDs, this work reveals that LEE can be significantly enhanced by modulating the angular distributions of polarized light of DUV LEDs. PMID:27409966

  2. Traps and defects in pre- and post-proton irradiated AlGaN-GaN high electron mobility transistors and AlGaN Schottky diodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sin, Yongkun; Foran, Brendan; Presser, Nathan; LaLumondiere, Stephen; Lotshaw, William; Moss, Steven C.

    2013-03-01

    High electron mobility transistors (HEMTs) based on AlGaN-GaN hetero-structures are promising for both commercial and military applications that require high voltage, high power, and high efficiency operation. Study of reliability and radiation effects of AlGaN-GaN HEMTs is necessary before solid state power amplifiers based on GaN HEMT technology are successfully deployed in satellite communication systems. Several AlGaN HEMT manufacturers have recently reported encouraging reliability data, but long-term reliability of these devices in the space environment still remains a major concern because a large number of traps and defects are present both in the bulk as well as at the surface leading to undesirable characteristics. This study is to investigate the effects of the AlGaN-GaN HEMTs and AlGaN Schottky diodes irradiated with protons.

  3. Corrosion-resistant ceramic thermal barrier coating

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hodge, P. E.; Levine, S. R.; Miller, R. A.

    1980-01-01

    Two-layer thermal barrier coating, consisting of metal-CrA1Y bond coating and calcium silicate ceramic outer layer, greatly improves resistance of turbine parts to hot corrosion from fuel and air impurities. Both layers can be plasma sprayed, and ceramic layer may be polished to reduce frictional losses. Ceramic provides thermal barrier, so parts operate cooler metal temperatures, coolant flow can be reduced, or gas temperatures increased. Lower grade fuels also can be used.

  4. Hydrogen-isotope permeation barrier

    DOEpatents

    Maroni, Victor A.; Van Deventer, Erven H.

    1977-01-01

    A composite including a plurality of metal layers has a Cu-Al-Fe bronze layer and at least one outer layer of a heat and corrosion resistant metal alloy. The bronze layer is ordinarily intermediate two outer layers of metal such as austenitic stainless steel, nickel alloys or alloys of the refractory metals. The composite provides a barrier to hydrogen isotopes, particularly tritium that can reduce permeation by at least about 30 fold and possibly more below permeation through equal thicknesses of the outer layer material.

  5. Polyelectrolyte/Graphene Oxide Barrier Film for Flexible OLED.

    PubMed

    Yang, Seung-Yeol; Park, Jongwhan; Kim, Yong-Seog

    2015-10-01

    Ultra-thin flexible nano-composite barrier layer consists of graphene oxide and polyelectrolyte was prepared using the layer-by-layer processing method. Microstructures of the barrier layer was optimized via modifying coating conditions and inducing chemical reactions. Although the barrier layer consists of hydrophilic polyelectrolyte was not effective in blocking the water vapor permeation, the chemical reduction of graphene oxide as well as conversion of polyelectrolyte to hydrophobic nature were very effective in reducing the permeation. PMID:26726415

  6. Anisotropic capillary barrier for waste site surface covers

    DOEpatents

    Stormont, J.C.

    1996-08-27

    Waste sites are capped or covered upon closure. The cover structure incorporates a number of different layers each having a contributory function. One such layer is the barrier layer. Traditionally the barriers have been compacted soil and geosynthetics. These types of barriers have not been successfully implemented in unsaturated ground conditions like those found in dry climates. Capillary barriers have been proposed as barrier layers in dry environments, but the divergence length of these barriers has been found to be inadequate. An alternative to the capillary barrier is a anisotropic capillary barrier. An anisotropic capillary barrier has an increased divergence length which results in more water being diverted laterally preventing the majority of water from percolating in a downward direction through the barrier. 10 figs.

  7. Anisotropic capillary barrier for waste site surface covers

    DOEpatents

    Stormont, John C.

    1996-01-01

    Waste sites are capped or covered upon closure. The cover structure incorporates a number of different layers each having a contributory function. One such layer is the barrier layer. Traditionally the barriers have been compacted soil and geosynthetics. These types of barriers have not been successfully implemented in unsaturated ground conditions like those found in dry climates. Capillary barriers have been proposed as barrier layers in dry environments, but the divergence length of these barriers has been found to be inadequate. An alternative to the capillary barrier is a anisotropic capillary barrier. An anisotropic capillary barrier has an increased divergence length which results in more water being diverted laterally preventing the majority of water from percolating in a downward direction through the barrier.

  8. Deformation potentials in AlGaN and InGaN alloys and their impact on optical polarization properties of nitride quantum wells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Łepkowski, S. P.; Gorczyca, I.; Stefańska-Skrobas, K.; Christensen, N. E.; Svane, A.

    2013-08-01

    The deformation potentials acz-D1, act-D2, D3, D4, and D5 are determined for random AlGaN and InGaN alloys using electronic band structure calculations based on the density functional theory. A sublinear composition dependence is obtained for acz-D1 and D3 in AlGaN, and D3 in InGaN, whereas superlinear behavior on composition is found for act-D2, D4, and D5 in AlGaN, and act-D2 and D5 in InGaN. The optical polarization properties of nitride quantum wells are very well described by the k·p method when the obtained deformation potentials are included. In m-plane AlGaN/AlN and InGaN/GaN quantum wells, the difference between the interband transition energies for light polarized parallel and orthogonal to the crystalline c axis compares more favorably to experimental data, than when deformation potentials previously reported in literature are used.

  9. Analysis of an m = 1 electrostatic barrier scrape-off layer as a technique for reducing and controlling the particle and energy losses on the large major radius edge of tokamak

    SciTech Connect

    LaBombard, B.; Conn, R.W.

    1988-12-01

    It is observed in many tokamaks that particle and heat fluxes from the core region are poloidally asymmetric, favoring higher cross field transport on the large major radius edge of the torus. We propose a novel technique that may allow one to control this asymmetric flux into the tokamak boundary plasma. The scheme principally involves the formation of a mobility limited transport layer or 'electrostatic barrier' to inhibit the flow of plasma into the boundary layer at large major radii, forcing plasma to exit on the small major radius side of the torus instead. At the same time, the technique produces an 'ExB divertor' effect, efficiently exhausting plasma and impurities within the boundary layer. The implications of such a scheme are potentially important. By forcing plasma to exit on the inside half of the torus where the intrinsic cross-field transport is lower, the overall confinement characteristics of the central plasma may be improved. Furthermore, scrape-off plasma fluxes, subsequent recycling conditions, and their asymmetries at limiter, divertor, and wall structures can be actively controlled. An important feature of the technique is that it may be employed in both limiter and divertor configurations. The first-order response of the scrape-off layer plasma to the applied bias is estimated in this report using a simple two fluid transport model which includes cross-field diffusion and mobility. It is shown that the influence of an applied bias on the scrape-of layer density e-folding length depends only on the relative magnitudes of cross-field ion and electron mobilities. 17 refs., 6 figs.

  10. Segmented Thermal Barrier Coating

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smialek, James L. (Inventor)

    2001-01-01

    The article has a macro-segmented thermal barrier coating due to the presence of a pattern of three-dimensional features. The features may be a series of raised ribs formed on the substrate surface and being spaced from 0.05 inches to 0.30 apart. The ribs have a width ranging from 0.005 inches to 0.02 inches, and a height ranging from 25% to 100% of the thickness of the barrier coating. Alternately, the features may be a similar pattern of grooves formed in the surface of the substrate. Other embodiments provide segmentation by grooves or ribs in the bond coat or alternately grooves formed in the thermal barrier layer.

  11. Effect of GaAsP barrier layers on the parameters of InGaAs/AlGaAs laser diodes emitting in the 1050-1100-nm spectral range

    SciTech Connect

    Duraev, V P; Marmalyuk, Aleksandr A; Padalitsa, A A; Petrovskii, A V; Ryaboshtan, Yu L; Sumarokov, M A; Sukharev, A V

    2005-10-31

    To improve the parameters of laser diodes emitting in the 1000-1070-nm spectral range and develop highly efficient laser diodes emitting in the 1070-1100-nm range, it is proposed to introduce GaAsP barrier layers into the active region of the quantum-well InGaAs/AlGaAs heterostructure, which compensate for enhanced mechanical stresses. This considerably improves the luminescence characteristics of heterostructures and changes conditions for generating misfit dislocations. The long-wavelength lasing at 1100 nm becomes possible due to an increase in the thickness of quantum wells and in the molar fraction of InAs in them. The manufactured laser diodes emitting in the 1095-1100-nm range have low threshold currents, the high output power and high reliability. (lasers)

  12. GaN barrier layer dependence of critical thickness in GaInN/GaN superlattice on GaN characterized by in situ X-ray diffraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osumi, Junya; Ishihara, Koji; Yamamoto, Taiji; Iwaya, Motoaki; Takeuchi, Tetsuya; Kamiyama, Satoshi; Akasaki, Isamu

    2016-05-01

    We investigated the critical thickness dependence on the GaN barrier layer thickness in a GaInN/GaN superlattice (SL). The characterization was done by combining an in situ X-ray diffraction (XRD) system attached to a metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy rector and ex situ analyses such as scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. The critical thickness required for the introduction of a + c-type misfit dislocations (MDs) in the GaInN/GaN SL was determined by analyzing the full width at half maximum of the in situ XRD spectrum from a GaInN/GaN SL as a function of SL periods, and we successfully found the critical thicknesses of specific different SLs.

  13. Origin(s) of the apparent high permittivity in CaCu3Ti4O12 ceramics: clarification on the contributions from internal barrier layer capacitor and sample-electrode contact effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Ming; Shen, Zhijian; Nygren, Mats; Feteira, Antonio; Sinclair, Derek C.; West, Anthony R.

    2009-11-01

    CaCu3Ti4O12 ceramics with a range of resistivities have been prepared using both conventional sintering and spark plasma sintering. For all cases, the high effective permittivity is associated primarily with an internal barrier layer capacitor mechanism. Additional polarization associated with the electrode-sample interface may appear but its visibility depends on the grain boundary resistivity (Rgb) of the ceramic. If the Rgb is large, the electrode polarization is obscured by sample-related effects; if the Rgb is small, a separate impedance associated with the electrode polarization may be seen. Discrepancies in the literature regarding the magnitude and origin of the high effective permittivity are attributed to a combination of differences in processing conditions, electrode contact material and measuring frequency range.

  14. Growth of tantalum nitride film as a Cu diffusion barrier by plasma-enhanced atomic layer deposition from bis((2-(dimethylamino)ethyl)(methyl)amido)methyl(tert-butylimido)tantalum complex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Jeong Hwan; Kim, Hyo Yeon; Lee, Sang Chan; Kim, Da Hye; Park, Bo Keun; Park, Jin-Seong; Jeon, Dong Ju; Chung, Taek-Mo; Kim, Chang Gyoun

    2016-01-01

    A new bis((2-(dimethylamino)ethyl)(methyl)amido)methyl(tert-butylimido)tantalum complex was synthesized for plasma-enhanced atomic layer deposition (PEALD) of tantalum nitride (TaN) film. Using the synthesized Ta compound, PEALD of TaN was conducted at growth temperatures of 150-250 °C in combination with NH3 plasma. The TaN PEALD showed a saturated growth rate of 0.062 nm/cycle and a high film density of 9.1-10.3 g/cm3 at 200-250 °C. Auger depth profiling revealed that the deposited TaN film contained low carbon and oxygen impurity levels of approximately 3-4%. N-rich amorphous TaN films were grown at all growth temperatures and showed highly resistive characteristic. The Cu barrier performance of the TaN film was evaluated by annealing of Cu/TaN (0-6 nm)/Si stacks at 400-800 °C, and excellent Cu diffusion barrier properties were observed even with ultrathin 2 nm-thick TaN film.

  15. Structural and optical investigations of AlGaN MQWs grown on a relaxed AlGaN buffer on AlN templates for emission at 280 nm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, X.; Le Gac, G.; Bouchoule, S.; El Gmili, Y.; Patriarche, G.; Sundaram, S.; Disseix, P.; Réveret, F.; Leymarie, J.; Streque, J.; Genty, F.; Salvestrini, J.-P.; Dupuis, R. D.; Li, X.-H.; Voss, P. L.; Ougazzaden, A.

    2015-12-01

    10-period Al0.57Ga0.43N/Al0.38Ga0.62N multi-quantum wells (MQWs) were grown on a relaxed Al0.58Ga0.42N buffer on AlN templates on sapphire. The threading dislocations and V-pits were characterized and their origin is discussed. The influence of V-pits on the structural quality of the MQWs and on optical emission at 280 nm was analyzed. It was observed that near-surface V-pits were always associated with grain boundaries consisting of edge threading dislocations originating from the AlN/Al2O3 interface. Although the high density of V-pits disrupted MQWs growth, it did not affect the internal quantum efficiency which was measured to be ~1% at room temperature even when V-pit density was increased from 7×107 cm-2 to 2×109 cm-2. The results help to understand the origin, propagation and influences of the typical defects in AlGaN MQWs grown on AlN/Al2O3 templates which may lead to further improvement of the performance of DUV devices.

  16. Fatigue properties of atomic-layer-deposited alumina ultra-barriers and their implications for the reliability of flexible organic electronics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baumert, E. K.; Pierron, O. N.

    2012-12-01

    The fatigue degradation properties of atomic-layer-deposited alumina, with thickness ranging from 4.2 to 50 nm, were investigated using a silicon micro-resonator on which the coatings were deposited and strained in a static or cyclic manner, with strain amplitudes up to 2.2%, in controlled environments. Based on the measured resonant frequency evolution, post-test scanning electron microscopy observations, and finite element models, it is shown that cracks in the alumina nucleate and propagate under cyclic loading, and that the crack growth rates scale with the strain energy release rates for crack channeling. The implications for the reliability of flexible electronics are discussed.

  17. Fatigue properties of atomic-layer-deposited alumina ultra-barriers and their implications for the reliability of flexible organic electronics

    SciTech Connect

    Baumert, E. K.; Pierron, O. N.

    2012-12-17

    The fatigue degradation properties of atomic-layer-deposited alumina, with thickness ranging from 4.2 to 50 nm, were investigated using a silicon micro-resonator on which the coatings were deposited and strained in a static or cyclic manner, with strain amplitudes up to 2.2%, in controlled environments. Based on the measured resonant frequency evolution, post-test scanning electron microscopy observations, and finite element models, it is shown that cracks in the alumina nucleate and propagate under cyclic loading, and that the crack growth rates scale with the strain energy release rates for crack channeling. The implications for the reliability of flexible electronics are discussed.

  18. Micro heat barrier

    DOEpatents

    Marshall, Albert C.; Kravitz, Stanley H.; Tigges, Chris P.; Vawter, Gregory A.

    2003-08-12

    A highly effective, micron-scale micro heat barrier structure and process for manufacturing a micro heat barrier based on semiconductor and/or MEMS fabrication techniques. The micro heat barrier has an array of non-metallic, freestanding microsupports with a height less than 100 microns, attached to a substrate. An infrared reflective membrane (e.g., 1 micron gold) can be supported by the array of microsupports to provide radiation shielding. The micro heat barrier can be evacuated to eliminate gas phase heat conduction and convection. Semi-isotropic, reactive ion plasma etching can be used to create a microspike having a cusp-like shape with a sharp, pointed tip (<0.1 micron), to minimize the tip's contact area. A heat source can be placed directly on the microspikes. The micro heat barrier can have an apparent thermal conductivity in the range of 10.sup.-6 to 10.sup.-7 W/m-K. Multiple layers of reflective membranes can be used to increase thermal resistance.

  19. A Study on the Growth Behavior and Stability of Molecular Layer Deposited Alucone Films Using Diethylene Glycol and Trimethyl Aluminum Precursors, and the Enhancement of Diffusion Barrier Properties by Atomic Layer Deposited Al2O3 Capping.

    PubMed

    Choi, Dong-Won; Yoo, Mi; Lee, Hyuck Mo; Park, Jozeph; Kim, Hyun You; Park, Jin-Seong

    2016-05-18

    As a route to the production of organic-inorganic hybrid multilayers, the growth behavior of molecular layer deposited (MLD) alucone and atomic layer deposited (ALD) Al2O3 films on top of each other was examined. MLD alucone films were prepared using trimethyl aluminum and diethylene glycol precursors, the latter resulting in faster growth rates than ethylene glycol precursors. The sensitivity of individual alucone films with respect to ambient exposure was found to be related to moisture permeation and hydration reactions, of which the mechanism is studied by density functional theory calculations. Deleterious effects such as thickness reduction over time could be suppressed by applying a protective Al2O3 layer on top of alucone. A preliminary nucleation period was required in the ALD process of Al2O3 films on alucone surfaces, prior to reaching a linear regime where the thickness increases linearly with respect to the number of ALD cycles. The same behavior was observed for alucone growing on Al2O3. The protective Al2O3 films were found to effectively suppress moisture permeation, thus isolating the underlying alucone from the surrounding environment. The water vapor transmission rate was greatly reduced when an Al2O3/alucone/Al2O3 multilayer stack was formed, which suggests that proper combinations of organic/inorganic hybrid structures may provide chemically stable platforms, especially for mechanically flexible applications. PMID:27117392

  20. An elegant route to overcome fundamentally-limited light extraction in AlGaN deep-ultraviolet light-emitting diodes: Preferential outcoupling of strong in-plane emission

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jong Won; Kim, Dong Yeong; Park, Jun Hyuk; Schubert, E. Fred; Kim, Jungsub; Lee, Jinsub; Kim, Yong-Il; Park, Youngsoo; Kim, Jong Kyu

    2016-01-01

    While there is an urgent need for semiconductor-based efficient deep ultraviolet (DUV) sources, the efficiency of AlGaN DUV light-emitting diodes (LEDs) remains very low because the extraction of DUV photons is significantly limited by intrinsic material properties of AlGaN. Here, we present an elegant approach based on a DUV LED having multiple mesa stripes whose inclined sidewalls are covered by a MgF2/Al omni-directional mirror to take advantage of the strongly anisotropic transverse-magnetic polarized emission pattern of AlGaN quantum wells. The sidewall-emission-enhanced DUV LED breaks through the fundamental limitations caused by the intrinsic properties of AlGaN, thus shows a remarkable improvement in light extraction as well as operating voltage. Furthermore, an analytic model is developed to understand and precisely estimate the extraction of DUV photons from AlGaN DUV LEDs, and hence to provide promising routes for maximizing the power conversion efficiency. PMID:26935402

  1. An elegant route to overcome fundamentally-limited light extraction in AlGaN deep-ultraviolet light-emitting diodes: Preferential outcoupling of strong in-plane emission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Jong Won; Kim, Dong Yeong; Park, Jun Hyuk; Schubert, E. Fred; Kim, Jungsub; Lee, Jinsub; Kim, Yong-Il; Park, Youngsoo; Kim, Jong Kyu

    2016-03-01

    While there is an urgent need for semiconductor-based efficient deep ultraviolet (DUV) sources, the efficiency of AlGaN DUV light-emitting diodes (LEDs) remains very low because the extraction of DUV photons is significantly limited by intrinsic material properties of AlGaN. Here, we present an elegant approach based on a DUV LED having multiple mesa stripes whose inclined sidewalls are covered by a MgF2/Al omni-directional mirror to take advantage of the strongly anisotropic transverse-magnetic polarized emission pattern of AlGaN quantum wells. The sidewall-emission-enhanced DUV LED breaks through the fundamental limitations caused by the intrinsic properties of AlGaN, thus shows a remarkable improvement in light extraction as well as operating voltage. Furthermore, an analytic model is developed to understand and precisely estimate the extraction of DUV photons from AlGaN DUV LEDs, and hence to provide promising routes for maximizing the power conversion efficiency.

  2. An elegant route to overcome fundamentally-limited light extraction in AlGaN deep-ultraviolet light-emitting diodes: Preferential outcoupling of strong in-plane emission.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jong Won; Kim, Dong Yeong; Park, Jun Hyuk; Schubert, E Fred; Kim, Jungsub; Lee, Jinsub; Kim, Yong-Il; Park, Youngsoo; Kim, Jong Kyu

    2016-01-01

    While there is an urgent need for semiconductor-based efficient deep ultraviolet (DUV) sources, the efficiency of AlGaN DUV light-emitting diodes (LEDs) remains very low because the extraction of DUV photons is significantly limited by intrinsic material properties of AlGaN. Here, we present an elegant approach based on a DUV LED having multiple mesa stripes whose inclined sidewalls are covered by a MgF2/Al omni-directional mirror to take advantage of the strongly anisotropic transverse-magnetic polarized emission pattern of AlGaN quantum wells. The sidewall-emission-enhanced DUV LED breaks through the fundamental limitations caused by the intrinsic properties of AlGaN, thus shows a remarkable improvement in light extraction as well as operating voltage. Furthermore, an analytic model is developed to understand and precisely estimate the extraction of DUV photons from AlGaN DUV LEDs, and hence to provide promising routes for maximizing the power conversion efficiency. PMID:26935402

  3. Ultralow-threshold electrically injected AlGaN nanowire ultraviolet lasers on Si operating at low temperature.

    PubMed

    Li, K H; Liu, X; Wang, Q; Zhao, S; Mi, Z

    2015-02-01

    Ultraviolet laser radiation has been adopted in a wide range of applications as diverse as water purification, flexible displays, data storage, sterilization, diagnosis and bioagent detection. Success in developing semiconductor-based, compact ultraviolet laser sources, however, has been extremely limited. Here, we report that defect-free disordered AlGaN core-shell nanowire arrays, formed directly on a Si substrate, can be used to achieve highly stable, electrically pumped lasers across the entire ultraviolet AII (UV-AII) band (∼320-340 nm) at low temperatures. The laser threshold is in the range of tens of amps per centimetre squared, which is nearly three orders of magnitude lower than those of previously reported quantum-well lasers. This work also reports the first demonstration of electrically injected AlGaN-based ultraviolet lasers monolithically grown on a Si substrate, and offers a new avenue for achieving semiconductor lasers in the ultraviolet B (UV-B) (280-320 nm) and ultraviolet C (UV-C) (<280 nm) bands. PMID:25599190

  4. Ultralow-threshold electrically injected AlGaN nanowire ultraviolet lasers on Si operating at low temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, K. H.; Liu, X.; Wang, Q.; Zhao, S.; Mi, Z.

    2015-02-01

    Ultraviolet laser radiation has been adopted in a wide range of applications as diverse as water purification, flexible displays, data storage, sterilization, diagnosis and bioagent detection. Success in developing semiconductor-based, compact ultraviolet laser sources, however, has been extremely limited. Here, we report that defect-free disordered AlGaN core-shell nanowire arrays, formed directly on a Si substrate, can be used to achieve highly stable, electrically pumped lasers across the entire ultraviolet AII (UV-AII) band (˜320-340 nm) at low temperatures. The laser threshold is in the range of tens of amps per centimetre squared, which is nearly three orders of magnitude lower than those of previously reported quantum-well lasers. This work also reports the first demonstration of electrically injected AlGaN-based ultraviolet lasers monolithically grown on a Si substrate, and offers a new avenue for achieving semiconductor lasers in the ultraviolet B (UV-B) (280-320 nm) and ultraviolet C (UV-C) (<280 nm) bands.

  5. Environmental barrier material for organic light emitting device and method of making

    DOEpatents

    Graff, Gordon L [West Richland, WA; Gross, Mark E [Pasco, WA; Affinito, John D [Kennewick, WA; Shi, Ming-Kun [Richland, WA; Hall, Michael [West Richland, WA; Mast, Eric [Richland, WA

    2003-02-18

    An encapsulated organic light emitting device. The device includes a first barrier stack comprising at least one first barrier layer and at least one first polymer layer. There is an organic light emitting layer stack adjacent to the first barrier stack. A second barrier stack is adjacent to the organic light emitting layer stack. The second barrier stack has at least one second barrier layer and at least one second polymer layer. A method of making the encapsulated organic light emitting device is also provided.

  6. Barrier infrared detector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ting, David Z. (Inventor); Khoshakhlagh, Arezou (Inventor); Soibel, Alexander (Inventor); Hill, Cory J. (Inventor); Gunapala, Sarath D. (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    A superlattice-based infrared absorber and the matching electron-blocking and hole-blocking unipolar barriers, absorbers and barriers with graded band gaps, high-performance infrared detectors, and methods of manufacturing such devices are provided herein. The infrared absorber material is made from a superlattice (periodic structure) where each period consists of two or more layers of InAs, InSb, InSbAs, or InGaAs. The layer widths and alloy compositions are chosen to yield the desired energy band gap, absorption strength, and strain balance for the particular application. Furthermore, the periodicity of the superlattice can be "chirped" (varied) to create a material with a graded or varying energy band gap. The superlattice based barrier infrared detectors described and demonstrated herein have spectral ranges covering the entire 3-5 micron atmospheric transmission window, excellent dark current characteristics operating at least 150K, high yield, and have the potential for high-operability, high-uniformity focal plane arrays.

  7. Language barriers

    PubMed Central

    Ngwakongnwi, Emmanuel; Hemmelgarn, Brenda R.; Musto, Richard; King-Shier, Kathryn M.; Quan, Hude

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Objective To assess use of regular medical doctors (RMDs), as well as awareness and use of telephone health lines or telehealth services, by official language minorities (OLMs) in Canada. Design Analysis of data from the 2006 postcensal survey on the vitality of OLMs. Setting Canada. Participants In total, 7691 English speakers in Quebec and 12 376 French speakers outside Quebec, grouped into those who experienced language barriers and those with no language barriers. Main outcome measures Health services utilization (HSU) by the presence of language barriers; HSU measures included having an RMD, use of an RMD’s services, and awareness of and use of telephone health lines or telehealth services. Multivariable models examined the associations between HSU and language barriers. Results After adjusting for age and sex, English speakers residing in Quebec with limited proficiency in French were less likely to have RMDs (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] 0.66, 95% CI 0.50 to 0.87) and to use the services of their RMDs (AOR 0.65, 95% CI 0.50 to 0.86), but were more likely to be aware of the existence of (AOR 1.50, 95% CI 1.16 to 1.93) and to use (AOR 1.43, 95% CI 0.97 to 2.11) telephone health lines or telehealth services. This pattern of having and using RMDs and telehealth services was not observed for French speakers residing outside of Quebec. Conclusion Overall we found variation in HSU among the language barrier populations, with lower use observed in Quebec. Age older than 45 years, male sex, being married or in common-law relationships, and higher income were associated with having RMDs for OLMs. PMID:23242902

  8. Complementary Barrier Infrared Detector (CBIRD) Contact Methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ting, David Z.; Hill, Cory J.; Gunapala, Sarath D.

    2013-01-01

    The performance of the CBIRD detector is enhanced by using new device contacting methods that have been developed. The detector structure features a narrow gap adsorber sandwiched between a pair of complementary, unipolar barriers that are, in turn, surrounded by contact layers. In this innovation, the contact adjacent to the hole barrier is doped n-type, while the contact adjacent to the electron barrier is doped p-type. The contact layers can have wider bandgaps than the adsorber layer, so long as good electrical contacts are made to them. If good electrical contacts are made to either (or both) of the barriers, then one could contact the barrier(s) directly, obviating the need for additional contact layers. Both the left and right contacts can be doped either n-type or ptype. Having an n-type contact layer next to the electron barrier creates a second p-n junction (the first being the one between the hole barrier and the adsorber) over which applied bias could drop. This reduces the voltage drop over the adsorber, thereby reducing dark current generation in the adsorber region.

  9. Selectivity control of photosensitivity of Ag-GaP and Ag- AlGaN structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lamkin, I. A.; Tarasov, S. A.; Solomonov, A. V.; Andreev, M. Y.; Kurin, S. Yu

    2015-12-01

    Design, growth and studies of photosensitive structures based on Ag-GaP and Ag- AlxGa1-xN contacts are reported. Methods for structure selectivity control, which allow changing the sensitivity spectrum half-width in a range of 11-210 nm were worked out. By varying the metal layer thickness, a set of Ag-GaP short-wavelength photodetectors (PD) was fabricated. The set includes PDs from broadband (spectrum half-width Δλ=210 nm, sensitivity SI = 0,19 A/W) to visible-blind (Δλ=15 nm, SI = 0,034 A/W). The use of Ag-AlxGa1-xN structures provided increased sensitivity (SI = 0,071 A/W) and Δλ reduced to 11 nm due to special selection of solid solution composition.

  10. Free-Energy Barriers and Reaction Mechanisms for the Electrochemical Reduction of CO on the Cu(100) Surface, Including Multiple Layers of Explicit Solvent at pH 0.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Tao; Xiao, Hai; Goddard, William A

    2015-12-01

    The great interest in the photochemical reduction from CO2 to fuels and chemicals has focused attention on Cu because of its unique ability to catalyze formation of carbon-containing fuels and chemicals. A particular goal is to learn how to modify the Cu catalysts to enhance the production selectivity while reducing the energy requirements (overpotential). To enable such developments, we report here the free-energy reaction barriers and mechanistic pathways on the Cu(100) surface, which produces only CH4 (not C2H4 or CH3OH) in acid (pH 0). We predict a threshold potential for CH4 formation of -0.52 V, which compares well to experiments at low pH, -0.45 to -0.50 V. These quantum molecular dynamics simulations included ∼5 layers of explicit water at the water/electrode interface using enhanced sampling methodology to obtain the free energies. We find that that chemisorbed hydroxyl-methylene (CH-OH) is the key intermediate determining the selectivity for methane over methanol. PMID:26562750

  11. A study of electrically active traps in AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Jie; Cui, Sharon; Ma, T. P.; Hung, Ting-Hsiang; Nath, Digbijoy; Krishnamoorthy, Sriram; Rajan, Siddharth

    2013-10-01

    We have studied electron conduction mechanisms and the associated roles of the electrically active traps in the AlGaN layer of an AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistor structure. By fitting the temperature dependent I-V (Current-Voltage) curves to the Frenkel-Poole theory, we have identified two discrete trap energy levels. Multiple traces of I-V measurements and constant-current injection experiment all confirm that the main role of the traps in the AlGaN layer is to enhance the current flowing through the AlGaN barrier by trap-assisted electron conduction without causing electron trapping.

  12. Demonstration of transverse-magnetic deep-ultraviolet stimulated emission from AlGaN multiple-quantum-well lasers grown on a sapphire substrate

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Xiao-Hang E-mail: dupuis@gatech.edu; Kao, Tsung-Ting; Satter, Md. Mahbub; Shen, Shyh-Chiang; Yoder, P. Douglas; Detchprohm, Theeradetch; Dupuis, Russell D. E-mail: dupuis@gatech.edu; Wei, Yong O.; Wang, Shuo; Xie, Hongen; Fischer, Alec M.; Ponce, Fernando A.

    2015-01-26

    We demonstrate transverse-magnetic (TM) dominant deep-ultraviolet (DUV) stimulated emission from photo-pumped AlGaN multiple-quantum-well lasers grown pseudomorphically on an AlN/sapphire template by means of photoluminescence at room temperature. The TM-dominant stimulated emission was observed at wavelengths of 239, 242, and 243 nm with low thresholds of 280, 250, and 290 kW/cm{sup 2}, respectively. In particular, the lasing wavelength of 239 nm is shorter compared to other reports for AlGaN lasers grown on foreign substrates including sapphire and SiC. The peak wavelength difference between the transverse-electric (TE)-polarized emission and TM-polarized emission was approximately zero for the lasers in this study, indicating the crossover of crystal-field split-off hole and heavy-hole valence bands. The rapid variation of polarization between TE- and TM-dominance versus the change in lasing wavelength from 243 to 249 nm can be attributed to a dramatic change in the TE-to-TM gain coefficient ratio for the sapphire-based DUV lasers in the vicinity of TE-TM switch.

  13. High-performance AlGaN metal-semiconductor-metal solar-blind ultraviolet photodetectors by localized surface plasmon enhancement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Wei; Xu, Jin; Ye, Wei; Li, Yang; Qi, Zhiqiang; Dai, Jiangnan; Wu, Zhihao; Chen, Changqing; Yin, Jun; Li, Jing; Jiang, Hao; Fang, Yanyan

    2015-01-01

    AlGaN-based solar-blind ultraviolet photodetectors have attractive potential applications in the fields of missile plume detection, biochemical sensing, solar astronomy, etc. In this work, significant deep ultraviolet detection enhancement is demonstrated on AlGaN-based metal-semiconductor-metal (MSM) solar-blind ultraviolet photodetectors by introducing the coupling of localized surface plasmon from Al nanoparticles with the high-Al-content AlGaN epilayer. The size-controlled Al nanoparticle arrays fabricated by nanosphere lithography can not only reduce the detectors' dark current but also bring about greatly enhanced responsivity. The peak responsivity of AlGaN-based MSM solar-blind ultraviolet photodetectors with Al nanoparticles can reach 2.34 A/W at 269 nm under 20 V bias, enhanced more than 25 times than that without Al nanoparticles. Our approach shows an efficient fabrication technique of high-performance and low-cost plasmonic enhanced AlGaN solar-blind MSM ultraviolet photodetectors.

  14. Strain dependence on polarization properties of AlGaN and AlGaN-based ultraviolet lasers grown on AlN substrates

    SciTech Connect

    Bryan, Zachary Bryan, Isaac; Sitar, Zlatko; Collazo, Ramón; Mita, Seiji; Tweedie, James

    2015-06-08

    Since the band ordering in AlGaN has a profound effect on the performance of UVC light emitting diodes (LEDs) and even determines the feasibility of surface emitting lasers, the polarization properties of emitted light from c-oriented AlGaN and AlGaN-based laser structures were studied over the whole composition range, as well as various strain states, quantum confinements, and carrier densities. A quantitative relationship between the theoretical valence band separation, determined using k•p theory, and the experimentally measured degree of polarization is presented. Next to composition, strain was found to have the largest influence on the degree of polarization while all other factors were practically insignificant. The lowest crossover point from the transverse electric to transverse magnetic polarized emission of 245 nm was found for structures pseudomorphically grown on AlN substrates. This finding has significant implications toward the efficiency and feasibility of surface emitting devices below this wavelength.

  15. Plastic Schottky barrier solar cells

    DOEpatents

    Waldrop, James R.; Cohen, Marshall J.

    1984-01-24

    A photovoltaic cell structure is fabricated from an active medium including an undoped, intrinsically p-type organic semiconductor comprising polyacetylene. When a film of such material is in rectifying contact with a magnesium electrode, a Schottky-barrier junction is obtained within the body of the cell structure. Also, a gold overlayer passivates the magnesium layer on the undoped polyacetylene film.

  16. Resilient thermal barrier for high temperatures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frye, J. A.

    1977-01-01

    Abrasion-resistant thermal barrier, consisting of two layers of woven fabric or braided sleeving with bulk insulation sandwiched between, shows excellent resilience even after compression at temperatures above 980C.

  17. Thermal barrier coating for alloy systems

    DOEpatents

    Seals, Roland D.; White, Rickey L.; Dinwiddie, Ralph B.

    2000-01-01

    An alloy substrate is protected by a thermal barrier coating formed from a layer of metallic bond coat and a top coat formed from generally hollow ceramic particles dispersed in a matrix bonded to the bond coat.

  18. Thermal barrier coatings

    DOEpatents

    Alvin, Mary Anne

    2010-06-22

    This disclosure addresses the issue of providing a metallic-ceramic overlay coating that potentially serves as an interface or bond coat layer to provide enhanced oxidation resistance to the underlying superalloy substrate via the formation of a diffusion barrier regime within the supporting base material. Furthermore, the metallic-ceramic coating is expected to limit the growth of a continuous thermally grown oxide (TGO) layer that has been primarily considered to be the principal cause for failure of existing TBC systems. Compositional compatibility of the metallic-ceramic with traditional yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) top coats is provided to further limit debond or spallation of the coating during operational use. A metallic-ceramic architecture is disclosed wherein enhanced oxidation resistance is imparted to the surface of nickel-based superalloy or single crystal metal substrate, with simultaneous integration of the yttria stabilized zirconia (YSZ) within the metallic-ceramic overlayer.

  19. Overcoming Barriers.

    PubMed

    Neal-Boylan, Leslie; Schmidt, Kari L

    2015-01-01

    Dr. Neal-Boylan's program of scholarship has always focused on nurse workforce issues. She recently published two books related to how nurses work. One (The Nurse's Reality Gap: Overcoming Barriers Between Academic Achievement and Clinical Success; Neal-Boylan, 2013) focused on the experience of new graduates from baccalaureate, master's, and doctoral programs. The second book, The Nurse's Reality Shift: Using Our History to Transform Our Future (Neal-Boylan, 2014), focuses on the problems nursing continues to face throughout our history and has failed to correct. PMID:26200309

  20. Metallic seal for thermal barrier coating systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, Robert A. (Inventor)

    1990-01-01

    The invention is particularly concerned with sealing thermal barrier coating systems of the type in use and being contemplated for use in diesel and other internal combustion engines. The invention also would find application in moderately high temperature regions of gas turbine engines and any other application employing a thermal barrier coating at moderate temperatures. Ni-35Cr-6Al-1Y, Ni-35Cr-6Al-1Yb, or other metallic alloy denoted as MCrAlx is applied over a zirconia-based thermal barrier overlayer. The close-out layer is glass-bead preened to densify its surface. This seals and protects the thermal barrier coating system.

  1. Microstructures of mixed group III-nitride epitaxial layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Westmeyer, Andrew Nathan

    InGaN and AlGaN epitaxial layers were deposited by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition on sapphire substrates with GaN buffer layers. For the growth of InGaN at a given temperature, the trimethylgallium flow rate has the greatest influence on the In incorporation, whereas the trimethylindium flow rate has little influence. These effects are attributed to the suppression of In desorption by increasing the growth rate and the saturation of the surface with In adatoms, respectively. If the growth temperature is increased by 2.4°C, then the In content is lowered by 1% for the investigated temperature range of 785--845°C. For the growth of AlGaN, the solid fraction of Al has a sub-linear dependence on the gas composition. This was attributed to the composition pulling effect, in which incoming species are rejected in order to reduce the strain with the underlying buffer layer. A strain analysis was performed on all samples by X-ray diffraction in order to determine the composition and degree of relaxation. These values were compared to those obtained by Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy. By this method the varied reported values for elastic constants were evaluated to ascertain which set provided the best correlation. Transmission electron microscopy was performed. Plan-view images of InGaN contain domains differing in the direction of the modulations. Zone-axis diffraction patterns reveal sidebands adjacent to several Bragg reflections. These observations can be explained by diffraction effects resulting from periodic composition modulations, which are an intermediate stage in the process of phase separation. Since Young's modulus for the nitrides is isotropic in the (0001) plane, no particular direction is favored for the modulations based on strain energy considerations. In the case of AlGaN, periodic composition modulations are observed not in the growth plane (0001) but in the growth direction [0001]. Satellites in diffraction patterns are aligned in this

  2. Simulation study of HEMT structures with HfO{sub 2} cap layer for mitigating inverse piezoelectric effect related device failures

    SciTech Connect

    Nagulapally, Deepthi; Joshi, Ravi P.; Pradhan, Aswini

    2015-01-15

    The Inverse Piezoelectric Effect (IPE) is thought to contribute to possible device failure of GaN High Electron Mobility Transistors (HEMTs). Here we focus on a simulation study to probe the possible mitigation of the IPE by reducing the internal electric fields and related elastic energy through the use of high-k materials. Inclusion of a HfO{sub 2} “cap layer” above the AlGaN barrier particularly with a partial mesa structure is shown to have potential advantages. Simulations reveal even greater reductions in the internal electric fields by using “field plates” in concert with high-k oxides.

  3. In situ plasma enhanced atomic layer deposition half cycle study of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} on AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistors

    SciTech Connect

    Qin, Xiaoye; Wallace, Robert M.

    2015-08-24

    A half cycle study of plasma enhanced atomic layer deposited (PEALD) Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} on AlGaN is investigated using in situ X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, low energy ion scattering, and ex situ electrical characterizations. A faster nucleation or growth is detected from PEALD relative to purely thermal ALD using an H{sub 2}O precursor. The remote O{sub 2} plasma oxidizes the AlGaN surface slightly at the initial stage, which passivates the surface and reduces the OFF-state leakage. This work demonstrates that PEALD is a useful strategy for Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} growth on AlGaN/GaN devices.

  4. Photoluminescence efficiency of BGaN epitaxial layers with high boron content

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jurkevičius, J.; Mickevičius, J.; Kadys, A.; Kolenda, M.; Tamulaitis, G.

    2016-07-01

    High-boron-content epitaxial layers of BGaN intended for lattice-matching with AlGaN in UV light emitters were grown on SiC substrate and GaN and AlN templates on sapphire. Photoluminescence (PL) of these layers was studied under quasi-steady-state conditions by varying temperature and excitation intensity. The PL spectra in the samples with different boron content and their dynamics evidence formation of boron-rich regions occupying a small fraction of the total layer volume and acting as the emission killers. The room-temperature PL efficiency of the BGaN epilayers was estimated and shown to drastically decrease at increasing boron content with no significant correlation with either the type of substrate/template or technological conditions of the layer deposition.

  5. Pulsed growth techniques in plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy of AlxGa1-xN layers with medium Al content (x=0.4-0.6)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nechaev, D. V.; Brunkov, P. N.; Troshkov, S. I.; Jmerik, V. N.; Ivanov, S. V.

    2015-09-01

    Paper presents the comparative analysis of Metal Modulated Epitaxy (MME) and Droplet Elimination by Thermal Annealing (DETA) techniques in the low-temperature plasma-assisted MBE of thick AlxGa1-xN layers with the medium Al content (x=0.4-0.6) grown under the highly metal-rich conditions. Atomically smooth surface with RMS of about 0.4 nm across the area of 2×2 μm2 has been achieved for AlGaN layers grown at FIII/FN flux ratio of 2.5 and substrate temperature of 700 °C by using DETA. The MME growth of AlGaN epilayers leads to their cracking due to the tensile stress introduced by relaxed GaN interlayers which are formed during the nitrogen exposure of the Ga-enriched AlGaN surface. A new technique based on IR-pyrometry measurements has been developed to monitor in situ metal accumulation and depletion on the growth surface.

  6. Outer brain barriers in rat and human development

    PubMed Central

    Brøchner, Christian B.; Holst, Camilla B.; Møllgård, Kjeld

    2015-01-01

    Complex barriers at the brain's surface, particularly in development, are poorly defined. In the adult, arachnoid blood-cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) barrier separates the fenestrated dural vessels from the CSF by means of a cell layer joined by tight junctions. Outer CSF-brain barrier provides diffusion restriction between brain and subarachnoid CSF through an initial radial glial end feet layer covered with a pial surface layer. To further characterize these interfaces we examined embryonic rat brains from E10 to P0 and forebrains from human embryos and fetuses (6–21st weeks post-conception) and adults using immunohistochemistry and confocal microscopy. Antibodies against claudin-11, BLBP, collagen 1, SSEA-4, MAP2, YKL-40, and its receptor IL-13Rα2 and EAAT1 were used to describe morphological characteristics and functional aspects of the outer brain barriers. Claudin-11 was a reliable marker of the arachnoid blood-CSF barrier. Collagen 1 delineated the subarachnoid space and stained pial surface layer. BLBP defined radial glial end feet layer and SSEA-4 and YKL-40 were present in both leptomeningeal cells and end feet layer, which transformed into glial limitans. IL-13Rα2 and EAAT1 were present in the end feet layer illustrating transporter/receptor presence in the outer CSF-brain barrier. MAP2 immunostaining in adult brain outlined the lower border of glia limitans; remnants of end feet were YKL-40 positive in some areas. We propose that outer brain barriers are composed of at least 3 interfaces: blood-CSF barrier across arachnoid barrier cell layer, blood-CSF barrier across pial microvessels, and outer CSF-brain barrier comprising glial end feet layer/pial surface layer. PMID:25852456

  7. Influence of optical polarization on the improvement of light extraction efficiency from reflective scattering structures in AlGaN ultraviolet light-emitting diodes

    SciTech Connect

    Wierer, J. J. Allerman, A. A.; Montaño, I.; Moseley, M. W.

    2014-08-11

    The improvement in light extraction efficiency from reflective scattering structures in AlGaN ultraviolet light-emitting diodes (UVLEDs) emitting at ∼270 nm is shown to be influenced by optical polarization. Three UVLEDs with different reflective scattering structures are investigated and compared to standard UVLEDs without scattering structures. The optical polarization and therefore the direction of light propagation within the various UVLEDs are altered by changes in the quantum well (QW) thickness. The improvement in light extraction efficiency of the UVLEDs with reflective scattering structures increases, compared to the UVLEDs without scattering structures, as the fraction of emitted light propagating parallel to the QW plane increases. Additionally, the light extraction efficiency increases as the average distance to the reflective scattering structures decreases.

  8. Migration enhanced lateral epitaxial overgrowth of AlN and AlGaN for high reliability deep ultraviolet light emitting diodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jain, R.; Sun, W.; Yang, J.; Shatalov, M.; Hu, X.; Sattu, A.; Lunev, A.; Deng, J.; Shturm, I.; Bilenko, Y.; Gaska, R.; Shur, M. S.

    2008-08-01

    We report on the growth of low-defect thick films of AlN and AlGaN on trenched AlGaN/sapphire templates using migration enhanced lateral epitaxial overgrowth. Incoherent coalescence-related defects were alleviated by controlling the tilt angle of growth fronts and by allowing Al adatoms sufficient residence time to incorporate at the most energetically favorable lattice sites. Deep ultraviolet light emitting diode structures (310nm) deposited over fully coalesced thick AlN films exhibited cw output power of 1.6mW at 50mA current with extrapolated lifetime in excess of 5000hours. The results demonstrate substantial improvement in the device lifetime, primarily due to the reduced density of growth defects.

  9. Thermal barrier coating life prediction model development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Demasi, J. T.; Sheffler, K. D.

    1986-01-01

    The objective of this program is to establish a methodology to predict Thermal Barrier Coating (TBC) life on gas turbine engine components. The approach involves experimental life measurement coupled with analytical modeling of relevant degradation modes. The coating being studied is a flight qualified two layer system, designated PWA 264, consisting of a nominal ten mil layer of seven percent yttria partially stabilized zirconia plasma deposited over a nominal five mil layer of low pressure plasma deposited NiCoCrAlY. Thermal barrier coating degradation modes being investigated include: thermomechanical fatigue, oxidation, erosion, hot corrosion, and foreign object damage.

  10. Oxygen-Barrier Coating for Titanium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clark, Ronald K.; Unnam, Jalaiah

    1987-01-01

    Oxygen-barrier coating for titanium developed to provide effective and low-cost means for protecting titanium alloys from oxygen in environment when alloys used in high-temperature mechanical or structural applications. Provides protective surface layer, which reduces extent of surface oxidation of alloy and forms barrier to diffusion of oxygen, limiting contamination of substrate alloy by oxygen. Consists of submicron layer of aluminum deposited on surface of titanium by electron-beam evaporation, with submicron layer of dioxide sputtered onto aluminum to form coat.

  11. Barrier mechanisms in the Drosophila blood-brain barrier

    PubMed Central

    Hindle, Samantha J.; Bainton, Roland J.

    2014-01-01

    The invertebrate blood-brain barrier (BBB) field is growing at a rapid pace and, in recent years, studies have shown a physiologic and molecular complexity that has begun to rival its vertebrate counterpart. Novel mechanisms of paracellular barrier maintenance through G-protein coupled receptor signaling were the first demonstrations of the complex adaptive mechanisms of barrier physiology. Building upon this work, the integrity of the invertebrate BBB has recently been shown to require coordinated function of all layers of the compound barrier structure, analogous to signaling between the layers of the vertebrate neurovascular unit. These findings strengthen the notion that many BBB mechanisms are conserved between vertebrates and invertebrates, and suggest that novel findings in invertebrate model organisms will have a significant impact on the understanding of vertebrate BBB functions. In this vein, important roles in coordinating localized and systemic signaling to dictate organism development and growth are beginning to show how the BBB can govern whole animal physiologies. This includes novel functions of BBB gap junctions in orchestrating synchronized neuroblast proliferation, and of BBB secreted antagonists of insulin receptor signaling. These advancements and others are pushing the field forward in exciting new directions. In this review, we provide a synopsis of invertebrate BBB anatomy and physiology, with a focus on insights from the past 5 years, and highlight important areas for future study. PMID:25565944

  12. Sprache als Barriere (Language as a Barrier)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mattheier, Klaus

    1974-01-01

    The concept of language barrier has its derivations in the fields of dialectology, sociology and psychology. In contemporary usage however, the concept has two meanings i.e. regional-cultural barrier and socio-cultural barrier. (Text is in German.) (DS)

  13. Polarization-matched quaternary superlattice electron blocking layer in blue InGaN light-emitting diodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuo, Yen-Kuang; Chen, Fang-Ming; Chang, Jih-Yuan; Lin, Bing-Cheng

    2016-05-01

    The effect of polarization-matched AlInGaN/AlGaN superlattice (SL) electron blocking layer (EBL) on the physical characteristics of blue InGaN light-emitting diodes (LEDs) is investigated numerically. Simulation results show that the optical performance of the LEDs with polarization-matched SL EBL can be markedly improved due to the effectively suppressed polarization effect, enhanced hole injection efficiency, and reduced electron overflow. Comparing to the LEDs with conventional AlGaN EBL, an improvement of 53% in light output power is achieved for the proposed LED structure.

  14. Numerical simulations of capillary barrier field tests

    SciTech Connect

    Morris, C.E.; Stormont, J.C.

    1997-12-31

    Numerical simulations of two capillary barrier systems tested in the field were conducted to determine if an unsaturated flow model could accurately represent the observed results. The field data was collected from two 7-m long, 1.2-m thick capillary barriers built on a 10% grade that were being tested to investigate their ability to laterally divert water downslope. One system had a homogeneous fine layer, while the fine soil of the second barrier was layered to increase its ability to laterally divert infiltrating moisture. The barriers were subjected first to constant infiltration while minimizing evaporative losses and then were exposed to ambient conditions. The continuous infiltration period of the field tests for the two barrier systems was modelled to determine the ability of an existing code to accurately represent capillary barrier behavior embodied in these two designs. Differences between the field test and the model data were found, but in general the simulations appeared to adequately reproduce the response of the test systems. Accounting for moisture retention hysteresis in the layered system will potentially lead to more accurate modelling results and is likely to be important when developing reasonable predictions of capillary barrier behavior.

  15. Controlling the stress of growing GaN on 150-mm Si (111) in an AlN/GaN strained layer superlattice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Po-Jung; Huang, Shih-Yung; Wang, Wei-Kai; Chen, Che-Lin; Chung, Bu-Chin; Wuu, Dong-Sing

    2016-01-01

    For growing a thicker GaN epilayer on a Si substrate, generally, a larger wafer bowing with tensile stress caused by the mismatch of thermal expansion coefficients between GaN and Si easily generates a cracked surface during cool down. In this work, wafer bowing was investigated to control stress by changing the thickness of a GaN layer from 18.6 to 27.8 nm in a 80-paired AlN/GaN strained layer superlattice (SLS) grown on a 150-mm Si (111) substrate. The results indicated that wafer bowing was inversely proportional to the total thickness of epilayer and the thickness of the GaN layer in the AlN/GaN SLS, since higher compressive stress caused by a thicker GaN layer during SLS growth could compensate for the tensile stress generated during cool down. After returning to room temperature, the stress of the AlN/GaN SLS was still compressive and strained in the a-axis. This is due to an unintended AlGaN grading layer was formed in the AlN/GaN SLS. This AlGaN layer reduced the lattice mismatch between AlN and GaN and efficiently accumulated stress without causing relaxation.

  16. Homoepitaxial graphene tunnel barriers for spin transport

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Friedman, Adam

    Tunnel barriers are key elements for both charge-and spin-based electronics, offering devices with reduced power consumption and new paradigms for information processing. Such devices require mating dissimilar materials, raising issues of heteroepitaxy, interface stability, and electronic states that severely complicate fabrication and compromise performance. Graphene is the perfect tunnel barrier. It is an insulator out-of-plane, possesses a defect-free, linear habit, and is impervious to interdiffusion. Nonetheless, true tunneling between two stacked graphene layers is not possible in environmental conditions (magnetic field, temperature, etc.) usable for electronics applications. However, two stacked graphene layers can be decoupled using chemical functionalization. We demonstrate successful tunneling, charge, and spin transport with a fluorinated graphene tunnel barrier on a graphene channel. We show that while spin transport stops short of room temperature, spin polarization efficiency values are the highest of any graphene spin devices. We also demonstrate that hydrogenation of graphene can also be used to create a tunnel barrier. We begin with a four-layer stack of graphene and hydrogenate the top few layers to decouple them from the graphene transport channel beneath. We demonstrate successful tunneling by measuring non-linear IV curves and a weakly temperature dependent zero-bias resistance. We demonstrate lateral transport of spin currents in non-local spin-valve structures and determine spin lifetimes with the non-local Hanle effect to be commensurate with previous studies. The measured spin polarization efficiencies for hydrogenated graphene are higher than most oxide tunnel barriers on graphene, but not as high as with fluorinated graphene tunnel barriers. However, here we show that spin transport persists up to room temperature. Our results for the hydrogenated graphene tunnel barriers are compared with fluorinated tunnel barriers and we discuss the

  17. Oxygen diffusion barrier coating

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Unnam, Jalaiah (Inventor); Clark, Ronald K. (Inventor)

    1987-01-01

    A method for coating a titanium panel or foil with aluminum and amorphous silicon to provide an oxygen barrier abrogating oxidation of the substrate metal is developed. The process is accomplished with known inexpensive procedures common in materials research laboratories, i.e., electron beam deposition and sputtering. The procedures are conductive to treating foil gage titanium and result in submicron layers which virtually add no weight to the titanium. There are no costly heating steps. The coatings blend with the substrate titanium until separate mechanical properties are subsumed by those of the substrate without cracking or spallation. This method appreciably increases the ability of titanium to mechanically perform in high thermal environments such as those witnessed on structures of space vehicles during re-entry

  18. Thermal barrier coating resistant to sintering

    DOEpatents

    Subramanian, Ramesh; Sabol, Stephen M.

    2001-01-01

    A device (10) having a ceramic thermal barrier coating layer (16) characterized by a microstructure having gaps (18) with a sintering inhibiting material (22) disposed on the columns (20) within the gaps (18). The sintering resistant material (22) is stable over the range of operating temperatures of the device (10) and is not soluble with the underlying ceramic layer (16). For a YSZ ceramic layer (16) the sintering resistant layer (22) may preferably be aluminum oxide or yttrium aluminum oxide, deposited as a continuous layer or as nodules.

  19. Permeability Barrier Generation in the Martian Lithosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schools, Joe; Montési, Laurent

    2015-11-01

    Permeability barriers develop when a magma produced in the interior of a planet rises into the cooler lithosphere and crystallizes more rapidly than the lithosphere can deform (Sparks and Parmentier, 1991). Crystallization products may then clog the porous network in which melt is propagating, reducing the permeability to almost zero, i.e., forming a permeability barrier. Subsequent melts cannot cross the barrier. Permeability barriers have been useful to explain variations in crustal thickness at mid-ocean ridges on Earth (Magde et al., 1997; Hebert and Montési, 2011; Montési et al., 2011). We explore here under what conditions permeability barriers may form on Mars.We use the MELTS thermodynamic calculator (Ghiorso and Sack, 1995; Ghiorso et al., 2002; Asimow et al., 2004) in conjunction with estimated Martian mantle compositions (Morgan and Anders, 1979; Wänke and Dreibus, 1994; Lodders and Fegley, 1997; Sanloup et al., 1999; Taylor 2013) to model the formation of permeability barriers in the lithosphere of Mars. In order to represent potential past and present conditions of Mars, we vary the lithospheric thickness, mantle potential temperature (heat flux), oxygen fugacity, and water content.Our results show that permeability layers can develop in the thermal boundary layer of the simulated Martian lithosphere if the mantle potential temperature is higher than ~1500°C. The various Martian mantle compositions yield barriers in the same locations, under matching variable conditions. There is no significant difference in barrier location over the range of accepted Martian oxygen fugacity values. Water content is the most significant influence on barrier development as it reduces the temperature of crystallization, allowing melt to rise further into the lithosphere. Our lower temperature and thicker lithosphere model runs, which are likely the most similar to modern Mars, show no permeability barrier generation. Losing the possibility of having a permeability

  20. Alloy inhomogeneity and carrier localization in AlGaN sections and AlGaN/AlN nanodisks in nanowires with 240–350 nm emission

    SciTech Connect

    Himwas, C.; Hertog, M. den; Dang, Le Si; Songmuang, R.; Monroy, E.

    2014-12-15

    We present structural and optical studies of AlGaN sections and AlGaN/AlN nanodisks (NDs) in nanowires grown by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy. The Al-Ga intermixing at Al(Ga)N/GaN interfaces and the chemical inhomogeneity in AlGaN NDs evidenced by scanning transmission electron microscopy are attributed to the strain relaxation process. This interpretation is supported by the three-dimensional strain distribution calculated by minimizing the elastic energy in the structure. The alloy inhomogeneity increases with the Al content, leading to enhanced carrier localization signatures in the luminescence characteristics, i.e., red shift of the emission, s-shaped temperature dependence, and linewidth broadening. Despite these effects, the emission energy of AlGaN/AlN NDs can be tuned in the 240–350 nm range with internal quantum efficiencies around 30%.

  1. Probiotic bacteria and intestinal epithelial barrier function.

    PubMed

    Ohland, Christina L; Macnaughton, Wallace K

    2010-06-01

    The intestinal tract is a diverse microenvironment where more than 500 species of bacteria thrive. A single layer of epithelium is all that separates these commensal microorganisms and pathogens from the underlying immune cells, and thus epithelial barrier function is a key component in the arsenal of defense mechanisms required to prevent infection and inflammation. The epithelial barrier consists of a dense mucous layer containing secretory IgA and antimicrobial peptides as well as dynamic junctional complexes that regulate permeability between cells. Probiotics are live microorganisms that confer benefit to the host and that have been suggested to ameliorate or prevent diseases including antibiotic-associated diarrhea, irritable bowel syndrome, and inflammatory bowel disease. Probiotics likely function through enhancement of barrier function, immunomodulation, and competitive adherence to the mucus and epithelium. This review summarizes the evidence about effects of the many available probiotics with an emphasis on intestinal barrier function and the mechanisms affected by probiotics. PMID:20299599

  2. Thermal barrier research

    SciTech Connect

    Moses, K.G.

    1990-03-07

    The thermal barrier region in the TARA device is a complex arrangement combining ion-plugging by sloshing ions with an ECRH-generated thermal barrier plasma. An axisymmetric, high-mirror-ratio magnetic field, adjacent to the central cell, provides the confinement of the thermal barrier plasma and sloshing ions. This paper discusses research being done in this thermal barrier region.

  3. Multilayer coatings for flexible high-barrier materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vaško, Karol; Noller, Klaus; Mikula, Milan; Amberg-Schwab, Sabine; Weber, Ulrike

    2009-06-01

    A multilayer, flexible, and transparent high-barrier system based on flexible plastic foils, polyethyleneterephthalate (PET) and ethylene-tetrafluoroethylene-copolymer (ETFE), combined with vacuum-deposited, inorganic SiOx layers and hybrid ORMOCER® varnish layers were prepared in different orders on a semiproduction level. Barrier properties of prepared systems, as water vapour transmission (WVTR) and oxygen transmission (OTR), were measured and studied in connection with surface energy, surface topography, and water vapour adsorption properties. Correlations among layers sequence, barrier properties, and other parameters are presented, including some basic principles of permeation of substances through multilayer barrier systems. A combination of several inorganic and hybrid varnish layers is necessary to achieve the technological demands from a barrier standpoint. It is easier to suppress the oxygen transport than the water transport, due to the additional active penetration of water through hydrogen bonds and silanol creations at oxide interfaces, capillary condensation, and swelling with high internal pressure, leading to new defects.

  4. Multilayer coatings for flexible high-barrier materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vaško, Karol; Noller, Klaus; Mikula, Milan; Amberg-Schwab, Sabine; Weber, Ulrike

    2009-06-01

    A multilayer, flexible, and transparent high-barrier system based on flexible plastic foils, polyethyleneterephthalate (PET) and ethylene-tetrafluoroethylene-copolymer (ETFE), combined with vacuum-deposited, inorganic SiOx layers and hybrid ORMOCER® varnish layers were prepared in different orders on a semiproduction level. Barrier properties of prepared systems, as water vapour transmission (WVTR) and oxygen transmission (OTR), were measured and studied in connection with surface energy, surface topography, and water vapour adsorption properties. Correlations among layers sequence, barrier properties, and other parameters are presented, including some basic principles of permeation of substances through multilayer barrier systems. A combination of several inorganic and hybrid varnish layers is necessary to achieve the technological demands from a barrier standpoint. It is easier to suppress the oxygen transport than the water transport, due to the additional active penetration of water through hydrogen bonds and silanol creations at oxide interfaces, capillary condensation, and swelling with high internal pressure, leading to new defects.

  5. [Recent studies on corneal epithelial barrier function].

    PubMed

    Liu, F F; Li, W; Liu, Z G; Chen, W S

    2016-08-01

    Corneal epithelium, the outermost layer of eyeball, is the main route for foreign materials to enter the eye. Under physiological conditions, the corneal epithelial superficial cells form a functionally selective permeability barrier. Integral corneal epithelial barrier function not only ensures the enrolling of nutrients which is required for regular metabolism, but also prevents foreign bodies, or disease-causing microorganism invasion. Recently, a large number of clinical and experimental studies have shown that abnormal corneal epithelial barrier function is the pathological basis for many ocular diseases. In addition, some study found that corneal epithelial barrier constitutes a variety of proteins involved in cell proliferation, differentiation, apoptosis, and a series of physiological and pathological processes. This paper reviewed recent studies specifically on the corneal epithelial barrier, highlights of its structure, function and influence factors. (Chin J Ophthalmol, 2016, 52: 631-635). PMID:27562284

  6. Field study plan for alternate barriers

    SciTech Connect

    Freeman, H.D.; Gee, G.W.; Relyea, J.F.

    1989-05-01

    Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) is providing technical assistance in selecting, designing, evaluating, and demonstrating protective barriers. As part of this technical assistance effort, asphalt, clay, and chemical grout will be evaluated for use as alternate barriers. The purpose of the subsurface layer is to reduce the likelihood that extreme events (i.e., 100-year maximum storms, etc.) will cause significant drainage through the barrier. The tests on alternate barriers will include laboratory and field analysis of the subsurface layer performance. This field test plan outlines the activities required to test and design subsurface moisture barriers. The test plan covers activities completed in FY 1988 and planned through FY 1992 and includes a field-scale test of one or more of the alternate barriers to demonstrate full-scale application techniques and to provide performance data on a larger scale. Tests on asphalt, clay, and chemical grout were initiated in FY 1988 in small (30.5 cm diameter) tube-layer lysimeters. The parameters used for testing the materials were different for each one. The tests had to take into account the differences in material characteristics and response to change in conditions, as well as information provided by previous studies. 33 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab.

  7. Model assessment of protective barrier designs

    SciTech Connect

    Fayer, M.J.; Conbere, W.; Heller, P.R.; Gee, G.W.

    1985-11-01

    A protective barrier is being considered for use at the Hanford site to enhance the isolation of previously disposed radioactive wastes from infiltrating water, and plant and animal intrusion. This study is part of a research and development effort to design barriers and evaluate their performance in preventing drainage. A fine-textured soil (the Composite) was located on the Hanford site in sufficient quantity for use as the top layer of the protective barrier. A number of simulations were performed by Pacific Northwest Laboratory to analyze different designs of the barrier using the Composite soil as well as the finer-textured Ritzville silt loam and a slightly coarser soil (Coarse). Design variations included two rainfall rates (16.0 and 30.1 cm/y), the presence of plants, gravel mixed into the surface of the topsoil, an impermeable boundary under the topsoil, and moving the waste form from 10 to 20 m from the barrier edge. The final decision to use barriers for enhanced isolation of previously disposed wastes will be subject to decisions resulting from the completion of the Hanford Defense Waste Environmental Impact Statement, which addresses disposal of Hanford defense high-level and transuranic wastes. The one-dimensional simulation results indicate that each of the three soils, when used as the top layer of the protective barrier, can prevent drainage provided plants are present. Gravel amendments to the upper 30 cm of soil (without plants) reduced evaporation and allowed more water to drain.

  8. Richards Barrier LA Reference Design Feature Evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    N.E. Kramer

    1999-11-17

    The Richards Barrier is one of the design features of the repository to be considered for the License Application (LA), Richards was a soil scientist who first described the diversion of moisture between two materials with different hydrologic properties. In this report, a Richards Barrier is a special type of backfill with a fine-grained material (such as sand) overlaying a coarse-grained material (such as gravel). Water that enters an emplacement drift will first encounter the fine-grained material and be transported around the coarse-grained material covering the waste package, thus protecting the waste package from contact with most of the groundwater. The objective of this report is to discuss the benefits and liabilities to the repository by the inclusion of a Richards Barrier type backfill in emplacement drifts. The Richards Barrier can act as a barrier to water flow, can reduce the waste package material dissolution rate, limit mobilization of the radionuclides, and can provide structural protection for the waste package. The scope of this report is to: (1) Analyze the behavior of barrier materials following the intrusion of groundwater for influxes of 1 to 300 mm per year. The report will demonstrate diversion of groundwater intrusions into the barrier over an extended time period when seismic activity and consolidation may cause the potential for liquefaction and settlement of the Richards Barrier. (2) Review the thermal effects of the Richards Barrier on material behavior. (3) Analyze the effect of rockfall on the performance of the Richards Barrier and the depth of the barrier required to protect waste packages under the barrier. (4) Review radiological and heating conditions on placement of multiple layers of the barrier. Subsurface Nuclear Safety personnel will perform calculations to determine the radiation reduction-time relationship and shielding capacity of the barrier. (5) Evaluate the effects of ventilation on cooling of emplacement drifts and

  9. Combination Thermal Barrier And Wear Coatings For Engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weingart, Mike; Moller, Paul

    1995-01-01

    Thermal-barrier layers covered with self-lubricating surface layers. Zirconia thermal-barrier coat applied to surface of combustion chamber in engine by plasma-arc spraying. Then PS-200 plasma-arc sprayed onto zirconia. Self-lubricating coat prevents sliding contact between thermal barrier and piston ring, effectively preventing both wear and production of additional heat via friction. Other combinations of thermal-barrier and self-lubricating, wear-resistant coating materials used as long as two materials adhere to each other, applied by use of similar or compatible processes, have similar coefficients of thermal expansion, sufficiently strong at high temperatures, and affordable.

  10. Pratt & Whitney thermal barrier coatings

    SciTech Connect

    Bornstein, N.; Marcin, J.

    1995-10-01

    The objective of the Advanced Turbine Systems (ATS) Program is to develop ultra-high efficient, environmentally superior, and cost competitive gas turbine systems. The operating profiles of these industrial gas turbines are long, less cyclic with fewer transients-compared with those for aircraft gas turbine engines. Therefore, creep rather than thermal fatigue, becomes primary life-limiting for hot section components. Thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) will be used to achieve the objectives of the program. TBCs allow surface temperatures to increase without compromising the structural properties of the alloy. TBCs typically consist of a ceramic insulating layer, deposited onto the substrate with an intervening metallic layer, which imparts oxidation protection to the substrate and provides a surface to which the ceramic layer can adhere.

  11. Search for Spin Filtering By Electron Tunneling Through Ferromagnetic EuS Barriers in Pbs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Figielski, T.; Morawski, A.; Wosinski, T.; Wrotek, S.; Makosa, A.; Lusakowska, E.; Story, T.; Sipatov, A. Yu.; Szczerbakow, A.; Grasza, K.; Curreri, Peter A. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Perpendicular transport through single- and double-barrier heterostructures consisting of ferromagnetic EuS layers embedded into PbS matrix was investigated. Manifestations of both resonant tunneling and spin filtering through EuS barrier have been observed.

  12. Planar doped barrier subharmonic mixers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, T. H.; East, J. R.; Haddad, G. I.

    1992-01-01

    The Planar Doped Barrier (PDB) diode is a device consisting of a p(+) doping spike between two intrinsic layers and n(+) ohmic contacts. This device has the advantages of controllable barrier height, diode capacitance and forward to reverse current ratio. A symmetrically designed PDB has an anti-symmetric current vs. voltage characteristic and is ideal for use as millimeter wave subharmonic mixers. We have fabricated such devices with barrier heights of 0.3, 0.5 and 0.7 volts from GaAs and InGaAs using a multijunction honeycomb structure with junction diameters between one and ten microns. Initial RF measurements are encouraging. The 0.7 volt barrier height 4 micron GaAs devices were tested as subharmonic mixers at 202 GHz with an IF frequency of 1 GHz and had 18 dB of conversion loss. The estimated mismatch loss was 7 dB and was due to higher diode capacitance. The LO frequency was 100.5 GHz and the pump power was 8 mW.

  13. Barrier Integrity of Electroless Diffusion Barriers and Organosilane Monolayer against Copper Diffusion under Bias Temperature Stress

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitsumori, Akiyoshi; Fujishima, Shota; Ueno, Kazuyoshi

    2012-05-01

    Barrier integrity of electroless NiB and CoWP/NiB thin layers against copper (Cu) diffusion was evaluated by time-dependent dielectric breakdown (TDDB) under bias temperature stress (BTS) using metal oxide semiconductor (MOS) test structures. The BTS tests were carried out also for an approximately 2.2-nm-thick organosilane monolayer (OSML), which has been used as the underlayer of the electroless barrier layers (EBLs). It was found that the barrier integrity of the EBLs was NiB 40 nm > NiB 10 nm > CoWP/NiB 40 nm = CoWP/NiB 10 nm in this order. The field acceleration parameter of the TDDB lifetime was almost the same for all EBLs. Initial failures and wide lifetime distributions were observed for CoWP/NiB when the NiB catalyst layer for CoWP was not thick enough, which is considered to be due to the large surface roughness. In addition, the OSML was found to have some barrier properties. Although the reliability of OSML was inferior to electroless NiB and CoWP/NiB barrier layers, it is considered that the barrier integrity of the EBLs was partially supported by the OSML.

  14. Interface control technologies for high-power GaN transistors: Self-stopping etching of p-GaN layers utilizing electrochemical reactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sato, Taketomo; Kumazaki, Yusuke; Edamoto, Masaaki; Akazawa, Masamichi; Hashizume, Tamotsu

    2016-02-01

    The selective and low-damaged etching of p-type GaN or AlGaN layer is inevitable process for AlGaN/GaN high-power transistors. We have investigated an electrochemical etching of p-GaN layer grown on AlGaN/GaN heterostructures, consisting of an anodic oxidation of p-GaN surface and a subsequent dissolution of the resulting oxide. The p-GaN layer was electrochemically etched by following the pattern of the SiO2 film that acted as an etching mask. Etching depth was linearly controlled by cycle number of triangular waveform at a rate of 25 nm/cycle. The AFM, TEM and μ-AES results showed that the top p-GaN layer was completely removed after 5 cycles applied, and the etching reaction was automatically sopped on the AlGaN surface. I-V and C-V measurements revealed that no significant damages were induced in the AlGaN/GaN heterostructures.

  15. Holographic recording medium employing a photoconductive layer and a low molecular weight microcrystalline polymeric layer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gange, Robert Allen (Inventor)

    1977-01-01

    A holographic recording medium comprising a conductive substrate, a photoconductive layer and an electrically alterable layer of a linear, low molecular weight hydrocarbon polymer has improved fatigue resistance. An acrylic barrier layer can be interposed between the photoconductive and electrically alterable layers.

  16. Rocket Motor Joint Construction Including Thermal Barrier

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steinetz, Bruce M. (Inventor); Dunlap, Patrick H., Jr. (Inventor)

    2002-01-01

    A thermal barrier for extremely high temperature applications consists of a carbon fiber core and one or more layers of braided carbon fibers surrounding the core. The thermal barrier is preferably a large diameter ring, having a relatively small cross-section. The thermal barrier is particularly suited for use as part of a joint structure in solid rocket motor casings to protect low temperature elements such as the primary and secondary elastomeric O-ring seals therein from high temperature gases of the rocket motor. The thermal barrier exhibits adequate porosity to allow pressure to reach the radially outward disposed O-ring seals allowing them to seat and perform the primary sealing function. The thermal barrier is disposed in a cavity or groove in the casing joint, between the hot propulsion gases interior of the rocket motor and primary and secondary O-ring seals. The characteristics of the thermal barrier may be enhanced in different applications by the inclusion of certain compounds in the casing joint, by the inclusion of RTV sealant or similar materials at the site of the thermal barrier, and/or by the incorporation of a metal core or plurality of metal braids within the carbon braid in the thermal barrier structure.

  17. Surface-plasmon-enhanced deep-UV light emitting diodes based on AlGaN multi-quantum wells

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Na; Huang, Kai; Li, Jinchai; Li, Shuping; Yang, Xu; Kang, Junyong

    2012-01-01

    We report the development of complete structural AlGaN-based deep-ultraviolet light-emitting diodes with an aluminum thin layer for increasing light extraction efficiency. A 217% enhancement in peak photoluminescence intensity at 294 nm is observed. Cathodoluminescence measurement demonstrates that the internal quantum efficiency of the deep-UV LEDs coated with Al layer is not enhanced. The emission enhancement of deep-UV LEDs is attributed to the higher LEE by the surface plasmon-transverse magnetic wave coupling. When the proportion of the TM wave to the Al layer increases with the Al content in the AlxGa1-xN multiple quantum wells, i.e., the band edge emission energy, the enhancement ratio of the Al-coated deep-UV LEDs increases. PMID:23150780

  18. Psoriasis genetics: breaking the barrier

    PubMed Central

    Roberson, Elisha D.O.; Bowcock, Anne M.

    2010-01-01

    Psoriasis is a common incurable inflammatory skin disease affecting 2–3% of the European population. Psoriatic skin contains large numbers of immune cells which produce many cytokines, chemokines and inflammatory molecules. The epidermis divides much faster than normal and has a defective outer layer or barrier which under normal circumstances protects from infection and dehydration. Psoriatic skin is characterized by a distinct set of inflammation and epidermal proliferation and differentiation markers, and it has not been clear if the genetic basis of psoriasis is due to defects of the immune system or the skin. One genetic determinant lies within the major histocompatibility complex class 1 region. Genome-wide association studies have revealed genetic susceptibility factors that play a role in the formation of immune cells found in psoriasis lesions. Others affect epidermal proliferation and the formation of the skin’s barrier. Hence, genetic components of both the immune system and the epidermis predispose to disease. PMID:20692714

  19. Thermodynamic Stability and Redistribution of Charges in Ternary AlGaN, InGaN, and InAlN Alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Deibuk, V.G.; Voznyi, A.V.

    2005-06-15

    A model of the delta lattice parameter is used to study the thermodynamics of AlGaN, InGaN, and InAlN alloys. The phase diagrams obtained indicate that Al{sub x}Ga{sub 1-x}N is stable in the entire range of x, whereas the miscibility gap corresponds to 0.2 < x < 0.69 for In{sub x}Ga{sub 1-x}N and to 0.16 < x < 0.7 for In{sub x}Al{sub 1-x}N at 1000 K. Biaxial stresses lower the critical temperature and narrow the miscibility gap. The charge-density distribution is analyzed using the pseudopotential method to obtain an approximation of 32-atom supercells. The results of the analysis show that the stability of these alloys is controlled by the competition between the destabilizing contribution of strains related to the mismatch between the lattice constants and a stabilizing charge exchange between various chemical bonds. Biaxial stress reduces the charge redistribution caused by strains and thus increases the stability of an alloy.

  20. Low-ohmic-contact-resistance V-based electrode for n-type AlGaN with high AlN molar fraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mori, Kazuki; Takeda, Kunihiro; Kusafuka, Toshiki; Iwaya, Motoaki; Takeuchi, Tetsuya; Kamiyama, Satoshi; Akasaki, Isamu; Amano, Hiroshi

    2016-05-01

    We investigated a V-based electrode for the realization of low ohmic-contact resistivity in n-type AlGaN with a high AlN molar fraction characterized by the circular transmission line model. The contact resistivity of n-type Al0.62Ga0.38N prepared using the V/Al/Ni/Au electrode reached 1.13 × 10‑6 Ω cm2. Using this electrode, we also demonstrated the fabrication of UV light-emitting diodes (LEDs) with an emission wavelength of approximately 300 nm. An operating voltage of LED prepared using a V/Al/Ni/Au electrode was 1.6 V lower at 100 mA current injection than that prepared using a Ti/Al/Ti/Au electrode, with a specific contact resistance of approximately 2.36 × 10‑4 Ω cm2 for n-type Al0.62Ga0.38N.

  1. Self-Formed Barrier with Cu-Mn alloy Metallization and its Effects on Reliability

    SciTech Connect

    Koike, J.; Wada, M.; Usui, T.; Nasu, H.; Takahashi, S.; Shimizu, N.; Yoshimaru, M.; Shibata, H.

    2006-02-07

    Advancement of semiconductor devices requires the realization of an ultra-thin (less than 5 nm thick) diffusion barrier layer between Cu interconnect and insulating layers. Self-forming barrier layers have been considered as an alternative barrier structure to the conventional Ta/TaN barrier layers. The present work investigated the possibility of the self-forming barrier layer using Cu-Mn alloy thin films deposited directly on SiO2. After annealing at 450 deg. C for 30 min, an amorphous oxide layer of 3-4 nm in thickness was formed uniformly at the interface. The oxide formation was accompanied by complete expulsion of Mn atoms from the Cu-Mn alloy, leading to a drastic decrease in resistivity of the film. No interdiffusion was observed between Cu and SiO2, indicating an excellent diffusion-barrier property of the interface oxide.

  2. Thermal barrier coating resistant to sintering

    DOEpatents

    Subramanian, Ramesh; Seth, Brij B.

    2004-06-29

    A device (10) is made, having a ceramic thermal barrier coating layer (16) characterized by a microstructure having gaps (18) with a sintering inhibiting material (22) disposed on the columns (20) within the gaps (18). The sintering resistant material (22) is stable over the range of operating temperatures of the device (10), is not soluble with the underlying ceramic layer (16) and is applied by a process that is not an electron beam physical vapor deposition process.

  3. Vision-based calibration of parallax barrier displays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ranieri, Nicola; Gross, Markus

    2014-03-01

    Static and dynamic parallax barrier displays became very popular over the past years. Especially for single viewer applications like tablets, phones and other hand-held devices, parallax barriers provide a convenient solution to render stereoscopic content. In our work we present a computer vision based calibration approach to relate image layer and barrier layer of parallax barrier displays with unknown display geometry for static or dynamic viewer positions using homographies. We provide the math and methods to compose the required homographies on the fly and present a way to compute the barrier without the need of any iteration. Our GPU implementation is stable and general and can be used to reduce latency and increase refresh rate of existing and upcoming barrier methods.

  4. Ocean Barrier Layers’ Effect on Tropical Cyclone Intensification

    SciTech Connect

    Balaguru, Karthik; Chang, P.; Saravanan, R.; Leung, Lai-Yung R.; Xu, Zhao; Li, M.; Hsieh, J.

    2012-09-04

    Improving a tropical cyclone's forecast and mitigating its destructive potential requires knowledge of various environmental factors that influence the cyclone's path and intensity. Herein, using a combination of observations and model simulations, we systematically demonstrate that tropical cyclone intensification is significantly affected by salinity-induced barrier layers, which are 'quasi-permanent' features in the upper tropical oceans. When tropical cyclones pass over regions with barrier layers, the increased stratification and stability within the layer reduce storm-induced vertical mixing and sea surface temperature cooling. This causes an increase in enthalpy flux from the ocean to the atmosphere and, consequently, an intensification of tropical cyclones. On average, the tropical cyclone intensification rate is nearly 50% higher over regions with barrier layers, compared to regions without. Our finding, which underscores the importance of observing not only the upper-ocean thermal structure but also the salinity structure in deep tropical barrier layer regions, may be a key to more skillful predictions of tropical cyclone intensities through improved ocean state estimates and simulations of barrier layer processes. As the hydrological cycle responds to global warming, any associated changes in the barrier layer distribution must be considered in projecting future tropical cyclone activity.

  5. Prediction of tilted capillary barrier performance

    SciTech Connect

    Webb, S.W.; McCord, J.T.; Dwyer, S.F.

    1997-04-01

    Capillary barriers, consisting of tilted fine-over-coarse layers under unsaturated conditions, have been suggested as landfill covers to divert water infiltration away from sensitive underground regions, especially for arid and semi-arid regions. The Hydrological Evaluation of Landfill Performance (HELP) computer code is an evaluation tool for landfill covers used by designers and regulators. HELP is a quasi-two-dimensional model that predicts moisture movement into and through the underground soil and waste layers. Processes modeled within HELP include precipitation, runoff, evapotranspiration, unsaturated vertical drainage, saturated lateral drainage, and leakage through liners. Unfortunately, multidimensional unsaturated flow phenomena that are necessary for evaluating tilted capillary barriers are not included in HELP. Differences between the predictions of the HELP and those from a multidimensional unsaturated flow code are presented to assess the two different approaches. Comparisons are presented for the landfill covers including capillary barrier configurations at the Alternative Landfill Cover Demonstration (ALCD) being conducted at Sandia.

  6. Thick thermal barrier coatings for diesel components

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yonushonis, T. M.

    1991-01-01

    An engineered thick thermal barrier coating consisting of multiple layers of zirconia and CoCrAlY with a zirconia top layer and having a system thermal conductance less than 410 w/m(exp 2)K exceeded the 100 hour engine durability goals set forth in this program. The thermal barrier coatings were intact at the test conclusion. Back to back single cylinder research engine tests were conducted with watercooled, metal hardware and oil-cooled, thermal barrier coating insulated hardware to determine apparent heat release and fuel economy. Apparent heat release data revealed that the insulated engine had a shorter ignition delay and a longer combustion duration than the metal engine. The insulated engine fuel economy was approximately two percent worse on average for this series of tests. There was no attempt to optimize engine efficiency of the insulated engine by modifying the engine timing, coating, or other techniques.

  7. Comparing barrier algorithms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arenstorf, Norbert S.; Jordan, Harry F.

    1987-01-01

    A barrier is a method for synchronizing a large number of concurrent computer processes. After considering some basic synchronization mechanisms, a collection of barrier algorithms with either linear or logarithmic depth are presented. A graphical model is described that profiles the execution of the barriers and other parallel programming constructs. This model shows how the interaction between the barrier algorithms and the work that they synchronize can impact their performance. One result is that logarithmic tree structured barriers show good performance when synchronizing fixed length work, while linear self-scheduled barriers show better performance when synchronizing fixed length work with an imbedded critical section. The linear barriers are better able to exploit the process skew associated with critical sections. Timing experiments, performed on an eighteen processor Flex/32 shared memory multiprocessor, that support these conclusions are detailed.

  8. Comparing barrier algorithms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arenstorf, Norbert S.; Jordan, Harry F.

    1989-01-01

    A barrier is a method for synchronizing a large number of concurrent computer processes. After considering some basic synchronization mechanisms, a collection of barrier algorithms with either linear or logarithmic depth are presented. A graphical model is described that profiles the execution of the barriers and other parallel programming constructs. This model shows how the interaction between the barrier algorithms and the work that they synchronize can impact their performance. One result is that logarithmic tree structured barriers show good performance when synchronizing fixed length work, while linear self-scheduled barriers show better performance when synchronizing fixed length work with an imbedded critical section. The linear barriers are better able to exploit the process skew associated with critical sections. Timing experiments, performed on an eighteen processor Flex/32 shared memory multiprocessor that support these conclusions, are detailed.

  9. Method Producing an SNS Superconducting Junction with Weak Link Barrier

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hunt, Brian D. (Inventor)

    1999-01-01

    A method of producing a high temperature superconductor Josephson element and an improved SNS weak link barrier element is provided. A YBaCuO superconducting electrode film is deposited on a substrate at a temperature of approximately 800 C. A weak link barrier layer of a nonsuperconducting film of N-YBaCuO is deposited over the electrode at a temperature range of 520 C. to 540 C. at a lower deposition rate. Subsequently a superconducting counter-electrode film layer of YBaCuO is deposited over the weak link barrier layer at approximately 800 C. The weak link barrier layer has a thickness of approximately 50 A and the SNS element can be constructed to provide an edge geometry junction.

  10. Hanford Permanent Isolation Barrier Program: Asphalt technology test plan

    SciTech Connect

    Freeman, H.D.; Romine, R.A.

    1994-05-01

    The Hanford Permanent Isolation Barriers use engineered layers of natural materials to create an integrated structure with backup protective features. The objective of current designs is to develop a maintenance-free permanent barrier that isolates wastes for a minimum of 1000 years by limiting water drainage to near-zero amounts. Asphalt is being used as an impermeable water diversion layer to provide a redundant layer within the overall barrier design. Data on asphalt barrier properties in a buried environment are not available for the required 100-year time frame. The purpose of this test plan is to outline the activities planned to obtain data with which to estimate performance of the asphalt layers.

  11. Skin barrier in atopic dermatitis: beyond filaggrin*

    PubMed Central

    Zaniboni, Mariana Colombini; Samorano, Luciana Paula; Orfali, Raquel Leão; Aoki, Valéria

    2016-01-01

    Atopic dermatitis is a chronic inflammatory skin disease with a complex pathogenesis, where changes in skin barrier and imbalance of the immune system are relevant factors. The skin forms a mechanic and immune barrier, regulating water loss from the internal to the external environment, and protecting the individual from external aggressions, such as microorganisms, ultraviolet radiation and physical trauma. Main components of the skin barrier are located in the outer layers of the epidermis (such as filaggrin), the proteins that form the tight junction (TJ) and components of the innate immune system. Recent data involving skin barrier reveal new information regarding its structure and its role in the mechanic-immunological defense; atopic dermatitis (AD) is an example of a disease related to dysfunctions associated with this complex. PMID:27579743

  12. Skin barrier in atopic dermatitis: beyond filaggrin.

    PubMed

    Zaniboni, Mariana Colombini; Samorano, Luciana Paula; Orfali, Raquel Leão; Aoki, Valéria

    2016-01-01

    Atopic dermatitis is a chronic inflammatory skin disease with a complex pathogenesis, where changes in skin barrier and imbalance of the immune system are relevant factors. The skin forms a mechanic and immune barrier, regulating water loss from the internal to the external environment, and protecting the individual from external aggressions, such as microorganisms, ultraviolet radiation and physical trauma. Main components of the skin barrier are located in the outer layers of the epidermis (such as filaggrin), the proteins that form the tight junction (TJ) and components of the innate immune system. Recent data involving skin barrier reveal new information regarding its structure and its role in the mechanic-immunological defense; atopic dermatitis (AD) is an example of a disease related to dysfunctions associated with this complex. PMID:27579743

  13. Compositionally graded relaxed AlGaN buffers on semipolar GaN for mid-ultraviolet emission

    SciTech Connect

    Young, Erin C.; Wu Feng; Haeger, Daniel A.; Nakamura, Shuji; Denbaars, Steven P.; Cohen, Daniel A.; Speck, James S.; Romanov, Alexey E.

    2012-10-01

    In this Letter, we report on the growth and properties of relaxed, compositionally graded Al{sub x}Ga{sub 1-x}N buffer layers on freestanding semipolar (2021) GaN substrates. Continuous and step compositional grades with Al concentrations up to x = 0.61 have been achieved, with emission wavelengths in the mid-ultraviolet region as low as 265 nm. Coherency stresses were relaxed progressively throughout the grades by misfit dislocation generation via primary (basal) slip and secondary (non-basal) slip systems. Threading dislocation densities in the final layers of the grades were less than 10{sup 6}/cm{sup 2} as confirmed by plan-view transmission electron microscopy and cathodoluminescence studies.

  14. Water-retaining barrier and method of construction

    DOEpatents

    Adams, Melvin R.; Field, Jim G.

    1996-01-01

    An agricultural barrier providing a medium for supporting plant life in an arid or semi-arid land region having a ground surface, the barrier being disposed on native soil of the region, the barrier including: a first layer composed of pieces of basalt, the first layer being porous and being in contact with the native soil; a porous second layer of at least one material selected from at least one of sand and gravel, the second layer being less porous than, and overlying, the first layer; and a porous third layer containing soil which favors plant growth, the third layer being less porous than, and overlying, the second layer and having an exposed upper surface, wherein the porosities of the second and third layers differ from one another by an amount which impedes transport of soil from the first layer into the second layer. Soil for the third layer may be provided by washing salinated or contaminated soil with water and using the washed soil for the third layer.

  15. Water-retaining barrier and method of construction

    DOEpatents

    Adams, M.R.; Field, J.G.

    1996-02-20

    An agricultural barrier is disclosed which provides a medium for supporting plant life in an arid or semi-arid land region having a ground surface. The barrier is disposed on native soil of the region. The barrier includes a first porous layer composed of pieces of basalt, and is in contact with the native soil. There is a less porous second layer of at least one material selected from at least one of sand and gravel. The second layer overlies the first layer. A third layer, less porous than the second layer, contains soil which favors plant growth. The third layer overlies the second layer and has an exposed upper surface. The porosities of the second and third layers differ from one another by an amount which impedes transport of soil from the first layer into the second layer. Soil for the third layer may be provided by washing salinated or contaminated soil with water and using the washed soil for the third layer. 2 figs.

  16. Surface barrier research at the Hanford Site

    SciTech Connect

    Gee, G.W.; Ward, A.L.; Fayer, M.J.

    1997-12-31

    At the DOE Hanford Site, a field-scale prototype surface barrier was constructed in 1994 over an existing waste site as a part of a CERCLA treatability test. The above-grade barrier consists of a fine-soil layer overlying coarse layers of sands, gravels, basalt rock (riprap), and a low permeability asphalt layer. Two sideslope configurations, clean-fill gravel on a 10:1 slope and basalt riprap on a 2:1 slope, were built and are being tested. Design considerations included: constructability; drainage and water balance monitoring, wind and water erosion control and monitoring; surface revegetation and biotic intrusion; subsidence and sideslope stability, and durability of the asphalt layer. The barrier is currently in the final year of a three-year test designed to answer specific questions related to stability and long-term performance. One half of the barrier is irrigated such that the total water applied, including precipitation, is 480 mm/yr (three times the long-term annual average). Each year for the past two years, an extreme precipitation event (71 mm in 8 hr) representing a 1,000-yr return storm was applied in late March, when soil water storage was at a maximum. While the protective sideslopes have drained significant amounts of water, the soil cover (2-m of silt-loam soil overlying coarse sand and rock) has never drained. During the past year there was no measurable surface runoff or wind erosion. This is attributed to extensive revegetation of the surface. In addition, the barrier elevation has shown a small increase of 2 to 3 cm that is attributed to a combination of root proliferation and freeze/thaw activity. Testing will continue through September 1997. Performance data from the prototype barrier will be used by DOE in site-closure decisions at Hanford.

  17. Intestinal inflammation and mucosal barrier function.

    PubMed

    Sánchez de Medina, Fermín; Romero-Calvo, Isabel; Mascaraque, Cristina; Martínez-Augustin, Olga

    2014-12-01

    Intestinal mucosal barrier function is the capacity of the intestine to provide adequate containment of luminal microorganisms and molecules while preserving the ability to absorb nutrients. The central element is the epithelial layer, which physically separates the lumen and the internal milieu and is in charge of vectorial transport of ions, nutrients, and other substances. The secretion of mucus-forming mucins, sIgA, and antimicrobial peptides reinforces the mucosal barrier on the extraepithelial side, while a variety of immune cells contributes to mucosal defense in the inner side. Thus, the mucosal barrier is of physical, biochemical, and immune nature. In addition, the microbiota may be viewed as part of this system because of the mutual influence occurring between the host and the luminal microorganisms. Alteration of the mucosal barrier function with accompanying increased permeability and/or bacterial translocation has been linked with a variety of conditions, including inflammatory bowel disease. Genetic and environmental factors may converge to evoke a defective function of the barrier, which in turn may lead to overt inflammation of the intestine as a result of an exacerbated immune reaction toward the microbiota. According to this hypothesis, inflammatory bowel disease may be both precipitated and treated by either stimulation or downregulation of the different elements of the mucosal barrier, with the outcome depending on timing, the cell type affected, and other factors. In this review, we cover briefly the elements of the barrier and their involvement in functional defects and the resulting phenotype. PMID:25222662

  18. High Operating Temperature Barrier Infrared Detector with Tailorable Cutoff Wavelength

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ting, David Z. (Inventor); Hill, Cory J. (Inventor); Seibel, Alexander (Inventor); Bandara, Sumith Y. (Inventor); Gunapala, Sarath D. (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    A barrier infrared detector with absorber materials having selectable cutoff wavelengths and its method of manufacture is described. A GaInAsSb absorber layer may be grown on a GaSb substrate layer formed by mixing GaSb and InAsSb by an absorber mixing ratio. A GaAlAsSb barrier layer may then be grown on the barrier layer formed by mixing GaSb and AlSbAs by a barrier mixing ratio. The absorber mixing ratio may be selected to adjust a band gap of the absorber layer and thereby determine a cutoff wavelength for the barrier infrared detector. The absorber mixing ratio may vary along an absorber layer growth direction. Various contact layer architectures may be used. In addition, a top contact layer may be isolated into an array of elements electrically isolated as individual functional detectors that may be used in a detector array, imaging array, or focal plane array.

  19. Self-Aligned Guard Rings For Schottky-Barrier Diodes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lin, True-Lon

    1990-01-01

    Proposed self-aligned guard ring increases active area of Schottky-barrier infrared detector. Concept developed for silicide Schottky-barrier diodes in which platinum silicide or iridium silicide Schottky-contacts provide cutoff wavelengths of about 6 or 10 micrometers. Grid of silicon dioxide doped with phosphorus etched on silicon wafer, and phosphorus from grid diffused into substrate, creating n-type guard rings. Silicide layers formed in open areas of grid. Overlap of guard rings and silicide layers small.

  20. Method of making dense, conformal, ultra-thin cap layers for nanoporous low-k ILD by plasma assisted atomic layer deposition

    DOEpatents

    Jiang, Ying-Bing; Cecchi, Joseph L.; Brinker, C. Jeffrey

    2011-05-24

    Barrier layers and methods for forming barrier layers on a porous layer are provided. The methods can include chemically adsorbing a plurality of first molecules on a surface of the porous layer in a chamber and forming a first layer of the first molecules on the surface of the porous layer. A plasma can then be used to react a plurality of second molecules with the first layer of first molecules to form a first layer of a barrier layer. The barrier layers can seal the pores of the porous material, function as a diffusion barrier, be conformal, and/or have a negligible impact on the overall ILD k value of the porous material.

  1. In-situ formation of multiphase deposited thermal barrier coatings

    DOEpatents

    Subramanian, Ramesh

    2004-01-13

    A multiphase ceramic thermal barrier coating is provided. The coating is adapted for use in high temperature applications in excess of about 1200.degree. C., for coating superalloy components of a combustion turbine engine. The coating comprises a ceramic single or two oxide base layer disposed on the substrate surface; and a ceramic oxide reaction product material disposed on the base layer, the reaction product comprising the reaction product of the base layer with a ceramic single or two oxide overlay layer.

  2. Thermo-piezo-electro-mechanical simulation of AlGaN (aluminum gallium nitride) / GaN (gallium nitride) High Electron Mobility Transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stevens, Lorin E.

    Due to the current public demand of faster, more powerful, and more reliable electronic devices, research is prolific these days in the area of high electron mobility transistor (HEMT) devices. This is because of their usefulness in RF (radio frequency) and microwave power amplifier applications including microwave vacuum tubes, cellular and personal communications services, and widespread broadband access. Although electrical transistor research has been ongoing since its inception in 1947, the transistor itself continues to evolve and improve much in part because of the many driven researchers and scientists throughout the world who are pushing the limits of what modern electronic devices can do. The purpose of the research outlined in this paper was to better understand the mechanical stresses and strains that are present in a hybrid AlGaN (Aluminum Gallium Nitride) / GaN (Gallium Nitride) HEMT, while under electrically-active conditions. One of the main issues currently being researched in these devices is their reliability, or their consistent ability to function properly, when subjected to high-power conditions. The researchers of this mechanical study have performed a static (i.e. frequency-independent) reliability analysis using powerful multiphysics computer modeling/simulation to get a better idea of what can cause failure in these devices. Because HEMT transistors are so small (micro/nano-sized), obtaining experimental measurements of stresses and strains during the active operation of these devices is extremely challenging. Physical mechanisms that cause stress/strain in these structures include thermo-structural phenomena due to mismatch in both coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) and mechanical stiffness between different materials, as well as stress/strain caused by "piezoelectric" effects (i.e. mechanical deformation caused by an electric field, and conversely voltage induced by mechanical stress) in the AlGaN and GaN device portions (both

  3. A double barrier memristive device

    PubMed Central

    Hansen, M.; Ziegler, M.; Kolberg, L.; Soni, R.; Dirkmann, S.; Mussenbrock, T.; Kohlstedt, H.

    2015-01-01

    We present a quantum mechanical memristive Nb/Al/Al2O3/NbxOy/Au device which consists of an ultra-thin memristive layer (NbxOy) sandwiched between an Al2O3 tunnel barrier and a Schottky-like contact. A highly uniform current distribution for the LRS (low resistance state) and HRS (high resistance state) for areas ranging between 70 μm2 and 2300 μm2 were obtained, which indicates a non-filamentary based resistive switching mechanism. In a detailed experimental and theoretical analysis we show evidence that resistive switching originates from oxygen diffusion and modifications of the local electronic interface states within the NbxOy layer, which influences the interface properties of the Au (Schottky) contact and of the Al2O3 tunneling barrier, respectively. The presented device might offer several benefits like an intrinsic current compliance, improved retention and no need for an electric forming procedure, which is especially attractive for possible applications in highly dense random access memories or neuromorphic mixed signal circuits. PMID:26348823

  4. Pressure Study of Photoluminescence in GaN/InGaN/ AlGaN Quantum Wells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perlin, Piotr; Iota, V.; Weinstein, B. A.; Wisniewski, P.; Osinski, M.; Eliseev, P. G.

    1997-03-01

    We have studied the photoluminescence (PL) from two commercial high brightness single quantum well light emitting diodes (Nichia Chem. Industs.) with In_xGa_1-x N (x=0.45 and 0.2) as the active layers under hydrostatic pressures up to 7 GPa. These diodes are the best existing light emitters at short wavelengths, having the emission wavelengths of 430 nm and 530 nm depending on the content of indium in the 30 Åthick quantum wells. Although these devices show a remarkable quality and efficiency (luminosity as high as 12 cd), the mechanism of recombination remains obscure. We discovered that the pressure coefficient for each of the observed PL peaks is dramatically (2-3 times) lower than that of the energy gap of its InGaN active layer. These observations, in conjunction with the fact that the observed emission occurs below the energy gap of the quantum well material, and also considering the anomalous temperature behavior of the emission (peak energy increasing with temperature) suggest the involvement of localized states and exclude a simple band-to-band recombination picture. These localized states may be tentatively attributed to the presence of band tails in the gap which stem from composition fluctuations in the InGaN alloy. (figures)

  5. Permanent isolation surface barrier development plan

    SciTech Connect

    Wing, N.R.

    1994-01-01

    The exhumation and treatment of wastes may not always be the preferred alternative in the remediation of a waste site. In-place disposal alternatives, under certain circumstances, may be the most desirable alternatives to use in the protection of human health and the environment. The implementation of an in-place disposal alternative will likely require some type of protective covering that will provide long-term isolation of the wastes from the accessible environment. Even if the wastes are exhumed and treated, a long-term barrier may still be needed to adequately dispose of the treated wastes or any remaining waste residuals. Currently, no {open_quotes}proven{close_quotes} long-term barrier is available. The Hanford Site Permanent Isolation Surface Barrier Development Program (BDP) was organized to develop the technology needed to provide a long-term surface barrier capability for the Hanford Site. The permanent isolation barrier technology also could be used at other sites. Permanent isolation barriers use engineered layers of natural materials to create an integrated structure with redundant protective features. Drawings of conceptual permanent isolation surface barriers are shown. The natural construction materials (e.g., fine soil, sand, gravel, riprap, asphalt) have been selected to optimize barrier performance and longevity. The objective of current designs is to use natural materials to develop a maintenance-free permanent isolation surface barrier that isolates wastes for a minimum of 1,000 years by limiting water drainage to near-zero amounts; reducing the likelihood of plant, animal, and human intrusion; controlling the exhalation of noxious gases; and minimizing erosion-related problems.

  6. Surface stability test plan for protective barriers

    SciTech Connect

    Ligotke, M.W.

    1989-01-01

    Natural-material protective barriers for long-term isolation of buried waste have been identified as integral components of a plan to isolate a number of Hanford defense waste sites. Standards currently being developed for internal and external barrier performance will mandate a barrier surface layer that is resistant to the eolian erosion processes of wind erosion (deflation) and windborne particle deposition (formation of sand dunes). Thus, experiments are needed to measure rates of eolian erosion processes impacting those surfaces under different surface and climatological conditions. Data from these studies will provide information for use in the evaluation of selected surface layers as a means of providing stable cover over waste sites throughout the design life span of protective barriers. The multi-year test plan described in this plan is directed at understanding processes of wind erosion and windborne particle deposition, providing measurements of erosion rates for models, and suggesting construction materials and methods for reducing the effect of long-term eolian erosion on the barrier. Specifically, this plan describes possible methods to measure rates of eolian erosion, including field and laboratory procedure. Advantages and disadvantages of laboratory (wind tunnel) tests are discussed, and continued wind tunnel tests are recommended for wind erosion studies. A comparison between field and wind tunnel erosive forces is discussed. Plans for testing surfaces are described. Guidance is also presented for studying the processes controlling sand dune and blowout formation. 24 refs., 7 figs., 3 tabs.

  7. Planar varactor frequency multiplier devices with blocking barrier

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lieneweg, Udo (Inventor); Frerking, Margaret A. (Inventor); Maserjian, Joseph (Inventor)

    1994-01-01

    The invention relates to planar varactor frequency multiplier devices with a heterojunction blocking barrier for near millimeter wave radiation of moderate power from a fundamental input wave. The space charge limitation of the submillimeter frequency multiplier devices of the BIN(sup +) type is overcome by a diode structure comprising an n(sup +) doped layer of semiconductor material functioning as a low resistance back contact, a layer of semiconductor material with n-type doping functioning as a drift region grown on the back contact layer, a delta doping sheet forming a positive charge at the interface of the drift region layer with a barrier layer, and a surface metal contact. The layers thus formed on an n(sup +) doped layer may be divided into two isolated back-to-back BNN(sup +) diodes by separately depositing two surface metal contacts. By repeating the sequence of the drift region layer and the barrier layer with the delta doping sheet at the interfaces between the drift and barrier layers, a plurality of stacked diodes is formed. The novelty of the invention resides in providing n-type semiconductor material for the drift region in a GaAs/AlGaAs structure, and in stacking a plurality of such BNN(sup +) diodes stacked for greater output power with and connected back-to-back with the n(sup +) GaAs layer as an internal back contact and separate metal contact over an AlGaAs barrier layer on top of each stack.

  8. Coarse-Grained Modeling of Mucus Barrier Properties

    PubMed Central

    Gniewek, Pawel; Kolinski, Andrzej

    2012-01-01

    We designed a simple coarse-grained model of the glycocalyx layer, or adhesive mucus layer (AML), covered by mucus gel (luminal mucus layer) using a polymer lattice model and stochastic sampling (replica exchange Monte Carlo) for canonical ensemble simulations. We assumed that mucin MUC16 is responsible for the structural properties of the AML. Other mucins that are much smaller in size and less relevant for layer structure formation were not included. We further assumed that the system was in quasi-equilibrium. For systems with surface coverage and concentrations of model mucins mimicking physiological conditions, we determined the equilibrium distribution of inert nanoparticles within the mucus layers using an efficient replica exchange Monte Carlo sampling procedure. The results show that the two mucus layers penetrate each other only marginally, and the bilayer imposes a strong barrier for nanoparticles, with the AML layer playing a crucial role in the mucus barrier. PMID:22339855

  9. Kinetics of AlGaN metal–organic vapor phase epitaxy for deep-UV applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lobanova, Anna; Yakovlev, Eugene; Jeschke, Joerg; Knauer, Arne; Weyers, Markus

    2016-05-01

    Al x Ga1‑ x N layers with high aluminum content of x ∼ 0.68–0.73 were grown in an 11 × 2-in. AIX 2400 G3 HT planetary reactor by metal–organic vapor phase epitaxy. Growth trends are analyzed by reaction-transport modeling in a wide range of growth conditions. Gas-phase nucleation resulting in both Al and Ga consumption into nanoparticles is a major mechanism affecting the growth efficiencies of AlN and GaN. Process windows suitable to grow multiple quantum wells (MQWs) for deep UV applications are found for a range of pressures, temperatures, and V/III ratios.

  10. Electrical insulator assembly with oxygen permeation barrier

    DOEpatents

    Van Der Beck, R.R.; Bond, J.A.

    1994-03-29

    A high-voltage electrical insulator for electrically insulating a thermoelectric module in a spacecraft from a niobium-1% zirconium alloy wall of a heat exchanger filled with liquid lithium while providing good thermal conductivity between the heat exchanger and the thermoelectric module. The insulator has a single crystal alumina layer (SxAl[sub 2]O[sub 3], sapphire) with a niobium foil layer bonded thereto on the surface of the alumina crystal facing the heat exchanger wall, and a molybdenum layer bonded to the niobium layer to act as an oxygen permeation barrier to preclude the oxygen depleting effects of the lithium from causing undesirable niobium-aluminum intermetallic layers near the alumina-niobium interface. 3 figures.

  11. Electrical insulator assembly with oxygen permeation barrier

    DOEpatents

    Van Der Beck, Roland R.; Bond, James A.

    1994-01-01

    A high-voltage electrical insulator (21) for electrically insulating a thermoelectric module (17) in a spacecraft from a niobium-1% zirconium alloy wall (11) of a heat exchanger (13) filled with liquid lithium (16) while providing good thermal conductivity between the heat exchanger and the thermoelectric module. The insulator (21) has a single crystal alumina layer (SxAl.sub.2 O.sub.3, sapphire) with a niobium foil layer (32) bonded thereto on the surface of the alumina crystal (26) facing the heat exchanger wall (11), and a molybdenum layer (31) bonded to the niobium layer (32) to act as an oxygen permeation barrier to preclude the oxygen depleting effects of the lithium from causing undesirable niobium-aluminum intermetallic layers near the alumina-niobium interface.

  12. Biointrusion test plan for the Permanent Isolation Surface Barrier Prototype

    SciTech Connect

    Link, S.O.; Cadwell, L.L.; Brandt, C.A.; Downs, J.L.; Rossi, R.E.; Gee, G.W.

    1994-04-01

    This document provides a testing and monitoring plan for the biological component of the prototype barrier slated for construction at the Hanford Site. The prototype barrier is an aboveground structure engineered to demonstrate the basic features of an earthen cover system. It is designed to permanently isolate waste from the biosphere. The features of the barrier include multiple layers of soil and rock materials and a low-permeability asphalt sublayer. The surface of the barrier consists of silt loam soil, covered with plants. The barrier sides are reinforced with rock or coarse earthen-fill to protect against wind and water erosion. The sublayers inhibit plant and animal intrusion and percolation of water. A series of tests will be conducted on the prototype barrier over the next several years to evaluate barrier performance under extreme climatic conditions. Plants and animals will play a significant role in the hydrologic and water and wind erosion characteristics of the prototype barrier. Studies on the biological component of the prototype barrier will include work on the initial revegetation of the surface, continued monitoring of the developing plant community, rooting depth and dispersion in the context of biointrusion potential, the role of plants in the hydrology of the surface and toe regions of the barrier, the role of plants in stabilizing the surface against water and wind erosion, and the role of burrowing animals in the hydrology and water and wind erosion of the barrier.

  13. Microlaminate composites as thermal barrier coatings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Radhakrishna, M. C.; Doerr, H. J.; Deshpandey, C. V.; Bunshah, R. F.

    1988-01-01

    Thick multiple-layered Ni/NiCoCrAlY and Ti/CoCrAlY microlaminate composites are explored as thermal barrier coatings. The method of fabrication of these laminates and the measurement technique used to determine thermal diffusivity and thermal conductivity of these coatings are discussed. Results indicate that the thermal conductivity of the laminate composite perpendicular to the laminate plane decreases with increasing number of interfaces; the drop in thermal conductivity is likely to be associated with interfaces which act as a barrier to the transfer of heat across them; the variation in thermal conductivity with the number of interfaces is not linear.

  14. Effect of high-temperature annealing for single-Ni-layer gate in AlGaN/GaN high-electron-mobility transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nanjo, Takuma; Imai, Akifumi; Kurahashi, Kenichiro; Matsuda, Takashi; Suita, Muneyoshi; Yagyu, Eiji

    2016-05-01

    AlGaN/GaN high-electron-mobility transistors (HEMTs) with Schottky gate contacts are strong candidates for high-power applications with high-frequency operation. The existence of interfacial traps between Schottky gate contacts and an AlGaN surface is one of the issues causing relatively high gate leakage current in these HEMTs. High-temperature gate annealing, which reduces the density of traps owing to the interfacial reaction between Schottky gate contacts and an AlGaN surface, was investigated using a single-Ni-layer gate structure to prevent the alloying of conventional stacked metal layers such as Ni/Au and Pt/Au. As a result, a strong gate annealing temperature dependence of Schottky characteristics was observed and this dependence also caused drain current collapse. In addition, it was confirmed that 700 °C is the optimal gate annealing temperature for improving both the Schottky characteristics and drain current collapse. These results are attributed to the change in the density of interfacial trap states.

  15. Assessing barriers to immunization.

    PubMed

    Niederhauser, Victoria; Ferris, Catherine

    2016-05-01

    Parental barriers to childhood immunizations vary among countries, states and communities. There is a plethora of studies that exist to examine barriers to immunizations including many intervention studies designed to improve immunization rates in children. Often, intervention studies designed to minimize barriers and increase immunization uptake among children lack the inclusion of a standardized instrument to measure accurately parental barriers to childhood immunizations before and after interventions. The Searching for Hardships and Obstacles To Shots (SHOTS) survey is a standardized survey instrument to measure parental barriers to childhood immunizations. In several studies, the SHOTS survey has demonstrated consistent reliability and has been validated in diverse populations. The inclusion of the SHOTS survey instrument in studies to examine barriers to childhood immunization will provide researchers and clinicians with a better understanding of parents' individualized barriers to immunizations. Furthermore, use of the SHOTS survey instrument to collect information about parental barriers to immunizations can lead to targeted interventions to minimize these obstacles at the individual and community level and to help us to achieve our national, state and community childhood immunization goals. PMID:26810618

  16. Liquid metal hydrogen barriers

    DOEpatents

    Grover, George M.; Frank, Thurman G.; Keddy, Edward S.

    1976-01-01

    Hydrogen barriers which comprise liquid metals in which the solubility of hydrogen is low and which have good thermal conductivities at operating temperatures of interest. Such barriers are useful in nuclear fuel elements containing a metal hydride moderator which has a substantial hydrogen dissociation pressure at reactor operating temperatures.

  17. Enhancing the performance of blue GaN-based light emitting diodes with double electron blocking layers

    SciTech Connect

    Guo, Yao; Liang, Meng; Fu, Jiajia; Liu, Zhiqiang E-mail: lzq@semi.ac.cn; Yi, Xiaoyan E-mail: lzq@semi.ac.cn; Wang, Junxi; Wang, Guohong; Li, Jinmin

    2015-03-15

    In this work, novel double Electron Blocking Layers for InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells light-emitting diodes were proposed to mitigate the efficiency droop at high current density. The band diagram and carriers distributions were investigated numerically. The results indicate that due to a newly formed holes stack in the p-GaN near the active region, the hole injection has been improved and an uniform carriers distribution can be achieved. As a result, in our new structure with double Electron Blocking Layers, the efficiency droop has been reduced to 15.5 % in comparison with 57.3 % for the LED with AlGaN EBL at the current density of 100 A/cm{sup 2}.

  18. Improvement of process uniformity in recessed gate AlGaN/GaN HFET by selective etching of in-situ SixNy on AlGaN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ko, Hwa-Young; Park, Jinhong; Lee, Hojung; Jo, Youngje; Song, Misun; Jang, T.

    2014-01-01

    The effects of in-situ SixNy etching were investigated by comparing the uniformity of threshold voltage on recessed gate AlGaN/GaN heterostructure field effect transistor (HFET) devices with in-situ grown SixNy passivation. By varying O2 ratio in total gas flow, etch rate and selectivity of SixNy and AlGaN were changed significantly. The etch rate of AlGaN was reduced by adding O2 in gas mixture, which caused the formation of AlOx and GaOx on the surface during etching process. The etch rate of in-situ SixNy was decreased with increasing O2 ratio. By this relationship, the highest selectivity was obtained with 30% O2 ratio in total gas flow and selectivity was increased from 5 : 1 to 100 : 1. Using this optimized etching condition, the standard deviation of threshold voltage on AlGaN/GaN recess gate HFET was improved from 0.60 to 0.18 on 6-in. processed wafer.

  19. Assessment of an active dry barrier for a landfill cover system

    SciTech Connect

    Stormont, J.C.; Ankeny, M.D.; Burkhard, M.E.; Tansey, M.K.; Kelsey, J.A.

    1994-03-01

    A dry barrier is a layer of geologic material that is dried by air flow. An active dry barrier system can be designed, installed, and operated as part of a landfill cover system. An active system uses blowers and fans to move air through a high-permeability layer within the cover system. Depending principally on the air-flow rate, it is possible for a dry barrier to remove enough water to substantially reduce the likelihood of water percolating through the cover system. If a material with a relatively great storage capacity, such as processed tuff, is used as the coarse layer, then the efficiency of the dry barrier will be increased.

  20. Schottky barrier amorphous silicon solar cell with thin doped region adjacent metal Schottky barrier

    DOEpatents

    Carlson, David E.; Wronski, Christopher R.

    1979-01-01

    A Schottky barrier amorphous silicon solar cell incorporating a thin highly doped p-type region of hydrogenated amorphous silicon disposed between a Schottky barrier high work function metal and the intrinsic region of hydrogenated amorphous silicon wherein said high work function metal and said thin highly doped p-type region forms a surface barrier junction with the intrinsic amorphous silicon layer. The thickness and concentration of p-type dopants in said p-type region are selected so that said p-type region is fully ionized by the Schottky barrier high work function metal. The thin highly doped p-type region has been found to increase the open circuit voltage and current of the photovoltaic device.

  1. Hanford protective barriers program: Status of asphalt barrier studies - FY 1989

    SciTech Connect

    Freeman, H.D.; Gee, G.W.

    1989-11-01

    The Hanford Protective Barrier Program is evaluating alternate barriers to provide a means of meeting stringent water infiltration requirements. One type of alternate barrier being considered is an asphalt-based layer, 1.3 to 15 cm thick. Evaluations of these barriers were initiated in FY 1988, and, based on laboratory studies, two asphalt formulations were selected for further testing in small-tube lysimeters: a hot rubberized asphalt and an admixture of cationic asphalt emulsion and concrete sand containing 24 wt% residual asphalt. Eight lysimeters containing asphalt seals were installed as part of the Small Tube Lysimeter Test Facility on the Hanford Site. Two control lysimeters containing Hanford sand with a surface gravel treatment were also installed for comparison. 5 refs., 13 figs., 1 tab.

  2. High voltage, high current Schottky barrier solar cell

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stirn, R. J. (Inventor)

    1977-01-01

    A Schottky barrier solar cell was described, which consists of a layer of wide band gap semiconductor material on which a very thin film of semitransparent metal was deposited to form a Schottky barrier. The layer of the wide band gap semiconductor material is on top of a layer of narrower band gap semiconductor material, to which one of the cell's contacts may be attached directly or through a substrate. The cell's other contact is a grid structure which is deposited on the thin metal film.

  3. High-Quality Crystal Growth and Characteristics of AlGaN-Based Solar-Blind Distributed Bragg Reflectors with a Tri-layer Period Structure.

    PubMed

    Chang, Jianjun; Chen, Dunjun; Yang, Lianhong; Liu, Yanli; Dong, Kexiu; Lu, Hai; Zhang, Rong; Zheng, Youdou

    2016-01-01

    To realize AlGaN-based solar-blind ultraviolet distributed Bragg reflectors (DBRs), a novel tri-layer AlGaN/AlInN/AlInGaN periodical structure that differs from the traditional periodically alternating layers of high- and low-refractive-index materials was proposed and grown on an Al0.5Ga0.5N template via metal-organic chemical vapour deposition. Because of the intentional design of the AlInGaN strain transition layer, a state-of-the-art DBR structure with atomic-level-flatness interfaces was achieved using an AlGaN template. The fabricated DBR exhibits a peak reflectivity of 86% at the centre wavelength of 274 nm and a stopband with a full-width at half-maximum of 16 nm. PMID:27381651

  4. High-Quality Crystal Growth and Characteristics of AlGaN-Based Solar-Blind Distributed Bragg Reflectors with a Tri-layer Period Structure

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Jianjun; Chen, Dunjun; Yang, Lianhong; Liu, Yanli; Dong, Kexiu; Lu, Hai; Zhang, Rong; Zheng, Youdou

    2016-01-01

    To realize AlGaN-based solar-blind ultraviolet distributed Bragg reflectors (DBRs), a novel tri-layer AlGaN/AlInN/AlInGaN periodical structure that differs from the traditional periodically alternating layers of high- and low-refractive-index materials was proposed and grown on an Al0.5Ga0.5N template via metal-organic chemical vapour deposition. Because of the intentional design of the AlInGaN strain transition layer, a state-of-the-art DBR structure with atomic-level-flatness interfaces was achieved using an AlGaN template. The fabricated DBR exhibits a peak reflectivity of 86% at the centre wavelength of 274 nm and a stopband with a full-width at half-maximum of 16 nm. PMID:27381651

  5. High-Quality Crystal Growth and Characteristics of AlGaN-Based Solar-Blind Distributed Bragg Reflectors with a Tri-layer Period Structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Jianjun; Chen, Dunjun; Yang, Lianhong; Liu, Yanli; Dong, Kexiu; Lu, Hai; Zhang, Rong; Zheng, Youdou

    2016-07-01

    To realize AlGaN-based solar-blind ultraviolet distributed Bragg reflectors (DBRs), a novel tri-layer AlGaN/AlInN/AlInGaN periodical structure that differs from the traditional periodically alternating layers of high- and low-refractive-index materials was proposed and grown on an Al0.5Ga0.5N template via metal-organic chemical vapour deposition. Because of the intentional design of the AlInGaN strain transition layer, a state-of-the-art DBR structure with atomic-level-flatness interfaces was achieved using an AlGaN template. The fabricated DBR exhibits a peak reflectivity of 86% at the centre wavelength of 274 nm and a stopband with a full-width at half-maximum of 16 nm.

  6. Vehicle barrier systems

    SciTech Connect

    Sena, P.A.

    1986-01-01

    The ground vehicle is one of the most effective tools available to an adversary force. Vehicles can be used to penetrate many types of perimeter barriers, transport equipment and personnel rapidly over long distances, and deliver large amounts of explosives directly to facilities in suicide missions. The function of a vehicle barrier system is to detain or disable a defined threat vehicle at a selected distance from a protected facility. Numerous facilities are installing, or planning to install, vehicle barrier systems and many of these facilities are requesting guidance to do so adequately. Therefore, vehicle barriers are being evaluated to determine their stopping capabilities so that systems can be designed that are both balanced and capable of providing a desired degree of protection. Equally important, many of the considerations that should be taken into account when establishing a vehicle barrier system have been identified. These considerations which pertain to site preparation, barrier selection, system integration and operation, and vehicle/barrier interaction, are discussed in this paper. 2 tabs.

  7. Vehicle barrier systems

    SciTech Connect

    Sena, P.A.

    1986-01-01

    The ground vehicle is one of the most effective tools available to an adversary force. Vehicles can be used to penetrate many types of perimeter barriers, transport equipment, and personnel rapidly over long distances, and deliver large amounts of explosives directly to facilities in suicide missions. The function of a vehicle barrier system is to detain or disable a defined threat vehicle at a selected distance from a protected facility. Numerous facilities are installing, or planning to install, vehicle barrier systems and many of these facilities are requesting guidance to do so adequately. Therefore, vehicle barriers are being evaluated to determine their stopping capabilities so that systems can be designed that are both balanced and capable of providing a desired degree of protection. Equally important, many of the considerations that should be taken into account when establishing a vehicle barrier system have been identified. These considerations which pertain to site preparation, barrier selection, system integration and operation, and vehicle/barrier interaction, are discussed in this paper.

  8. Vehicle barrier systems

    SciTech Connect

    Sena, P.A.

    1986-01-01

    The ground vehicle is one of the most effective tools available to an adversary force. Vehicles can be used to penetrate many types of perimeter barriers, transport equipment and personnel rapidly over long distances, and deliver large amounts of explosives directly to facilities in suicide missions. The function of a vehicle barrier system is to detain or disable a defined threat vehicle at a selected distance from a protected facility. Numerous facilities are installing, or planning to install, vehicle barrier systems and many of these facilities are requesting guidance to do so adequately. Therefore, vehicle barriers are being evaluated to determine their stopping capabilities so that systems can be designed that are both balanced and capable of providing a desired degree of protection. Equally important, many of the considerations that should be taken into account when establishing a vehicle barrier system have been identified. These considerations which pertain to site preparation, barrier selection, system integration and operation, and vehicle/barrier interaction, are discussed in this paper.

  9. Retractable barrier strip

    DOEpatents

    Marts, Donna J.; Barker, Stacey G.; Wowczuk, Andrew; Vellenoweth, Thomas E.

    2002-01-01

    A portable barrier strip having retractable tire-puncture spikes for puncturing a vehicle tire. The tire-puncture spikes have an armed position for puncturing a tire and a retracted position for not puncturing a tire. The strip comprises a plurality of barrier blocks having the tire-puncture spikes removably disposed in a shaft that is rotatably disposed in each barrier block. The plurality of barrier blocks hare hingedly interconnected by complementary hinges integrally formed into the side of each barrier block which allow the strip to be rolled for easy storage and retrieval, but which prevent irregular or back bending of the strip. The shafts of adjacent barrier blocks are pivotally interconnected via a double hinged universal joint to accommodate irregularities in a roadway surface and to transmit torsional motion of the shaft from block to block. A single flexshaft cable is connected to the shaft of an end block to allow a user to selectively cause the shafts of a plurality of adjacently connected barrier blocks to rotate the tire-puncture spikes to the armed position for puncturing a vehicle tire, and to the retracted position for not puncturing the tire. The flexshaft is provided with a resiliently biased retracting mechanism, and a release latch for allowing the spikes to be quickly retracted after the intended vehicle tire is punctured.

  10. Controlled Thermal Expansion Coat for Thermal Barrier Coatings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brindley, William J. (Inventor); Miller, Robert A. (Inventor); Aikin, Beverly J. M. (Inventor)

    1999-01-01

    A improved thermal barrier coating and method for producing and applying such is disclosed herein. The thermal barrier coating includes a high temperature substrate, a first bond coat layer applied to the substrate of MCrAlX, and a second bond coat layer of MCrAlX with particles of a particulate dispersed throughout the MCrAlX and the preferred particulate is Al2O3. The particles of the particulate dispersed throughout the second bond coat layer preferably have a diameter of less then the height of the peaks of the second bond coat layer, or a diameter of less than 5 microns. The method of producing the second bond coat layer may either include the steps of mechanical alloying of particles throughout the second bond coat layer, attrition milling the particles of the particulate throughout the second bond coat layer, or using electrophoresis to disperse the particles throughout the second bond coat layer. In the preferred embodiment of the invention, the first bond coat layer is applied to the substrate, and then the second bond coat layer is thermally sprayed onto the first bond coat layer. Further, in a preferred embodiment of die invention, a ceramic insulating layer covers the second bond coat layer.

  11. Antimicrobial Peptides, Infections and the Skin Barrier.

    PubMed

    Clausen, Maja-Lisa; Agner, Tove

    2016-01-01

    The skin serves as a strong barrier protecting us from invading pathogens and harmful organisms. An important part of this barrier comes from antimicrobial peptides (AMPs), which are small peptides expressed abundantly in the skin. AMPs are produced in the deeper layers of the epidermis and transported to the stratum corneum, where they play a vital role in the first line of defense against potential pathogens. Numerous AMPs exist, and they have a broad antibiotic-like activity against bacteria, fungi and viruses. They also act as multifunctional effector molecules, linking innate and adaptive immune responses. AMPs play an essential part in maintaining an optimal and functional skin barrier - not only by direct killing of pathogens, but also by balancing immune responses and interfering in wound healing, cell differentiation, reepithelialization and their synergistic interplay with the skin microflora. PMID:26844896

  12. Highway noise barrier perceived benefit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    May, D. N.; Osman, M. M.

    1980-05-01

    A laboratory experiment was performed in which 82 subjects judged the benefit of a noise barrier by listening to tape recordings of before-barrier and after-barrier traffic noise. These perceived benefit judgments were related by regression analysis to the barrier attenuation, the before-barrier traffic sound level, and a music background level, all of which were varied over the course of the experiment. Prediction equations were developed for barrier benefit in terms of these sound levels, their purpose being to provide a model for barrier benefit that can be used in barrier site selection and design. An unexpected finding was that barrier benefit was highest when before-barrier sound levels were lowest: i.e., subjects preferred a noise barrier that solved a moderate noise problem over an equally-attenuating barrier that only partially solved a more severe noise problem.

  13. Complementary barrier infrared detector (CBIRD)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ting, David Z. (Inventor); Bandara, Sumith V. (Inventor); Hill, Cory J. (Inventor); Gunapala, Sarath D. (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    An infrared detector having a hole barrier region adjacent to one side of an absorber region, an electron barrier region adjacent to the other side of the absorber region, and a semiconductor adjacent to the electron barrier.

  14. Recycler barrier RF buckets

    SciTech Connect

    Bhat, C.M.; /Fermilab

    2011-03-01

    The Recycler Ring at Fermilab uses a barrier rf systems for all of its rf manipulations. In this paper, I will give an overview of historical perspective on barrier rf system, the longitudinal beam dynamics issues, aspects of rf linearization to produce long flat bunches and methods used for emittance measurements of the beam in the RR barrier rf buckets. Current rf manipulation schemes used for antiproton beam stacking and longitudinal momentum mining of the RR beam for the Tevatron collider operation are explained along with their importance in spectacular success of the Tevatron luminosity performance.

  15. Gut barrier in health and disease: focus on childhood.

    PubMed

    Viggiano, D; Ianiro, G; Vanella, G; Bibbò, S; Bruno, G; Simeone, G; Mele, G

    2015-01-01

    The gut barrier is a functional unit, organized as a multi-layer system, made up of two main components: a physical barrier surface, which prevents bacterial adhesion and regulates paracellular diffusion to the host tissues, and a deep functional barrier, that is able to discriminate between pathogens and commensal microorganisms, organizing the immune tolerance and the immune response to pathogens. Other mechanisms, such as gastric juice and pancreatic enzymes (which both have antibacterial properties) participate in the luminal integrity of the gut barrier. From the outer layer to the inner layer, the physical barrier is composed of gut microbiota (that competes with pathogens to gain space and energy resources, processes the molecules necessary to mucosal integrity and modulates the immunological activity of deep barrier), mucus (which separates the intraluminal content from more internal layers and contains antimicrobial products and secretory IgA), epithelial cells (which form a physical and immunological barrier) and the innate and adaptive immune cells forming the gut-associated lymphoid tissue (which is responsible for antigen sampling and immune responses). Disruption of the gut barrier has been associated with many gastrointestinal diseases, but also with extra-intestinal pathological condition, such as type 1 diabetes mellitus, allergic diseases or autism spectrum disorders. The maintenance of a healthy intestinal barrier is therefore of paramount importance in children, for both health and economic reasons. Many drugs or compounds used in the treatment of gastrointestinal disorders act through the restoration of a normal intestinal permeability. Several studies have highlighted the role of probiotics in the modulation and reduction of intestinal permeability, considering the strong influence of gut microbiota in the modulation of the function and structure of gut barrier, but also on the immune response of the host. To date, available weapons for the

  16. The role of plants on isolation barrier systems

    SciTech Connect

    Link, S.O.; Downs, J.L.; Waugh, W.J.

    1994-11-01

    Surface barriers are used to isolate buried wastes from the environment. Most have been built for short-term isolation. The need to isolate radioactive wastes from the environment requires that the functional integrity of a barrier be maintained for thousands of years. Barrier function strongly depends on vegetation. Plants reduce wind and water erosion and minimize drainage, but may transport contaminants if roots extend into buried wastes. Our review of the function of plants on surface barriers focuses on the role of plants across mesic to arid environments and gives special consideration to studies done at Hanford. The Hanford Barrier Development Program was created to design and test an earthen cover system to inhibit water infiltration, plant and animal intrusion, and wind and water erosion, while isolating buried wastes for at least 1000 years. Studies at the Hanford have shown that plants will significantly interact with the barrier. Plants transpire soil water back into the atmosphere. Deep-rooted perennials best recycle water; soil water may drain through the root zone of shallow-rooted annuals. Lysimeter studies indicate that a surface layer of fine soil with deep-rooted plants precludes drainage even with three times normal precipitation. The presence of vegetation greatly reduces water and wind erosion, but deep-rooted plants pose a threat of biointrusion and contaminant transport. The Hanford barrier includes a buried rock layer and asphalt layer to prevent biointrusion.

  17. Intestinal barrier in inflammatory bowel disease

    PubMed Central

    Antoni, Lena; Nuding, Sabine; Wehkamp, Jan; Stange, Eduard F

    2014-01-01

    A complex mucosal barrier protects as the first line of defense the surface of the healthy intestinal tract from adhesion and invasion by luminal microorganisms. In this review, we provide an overview about the major components of this protective system as for example an intact epithelium, the synthesis of various antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) and the formation of the mucus layer. We highlight the crucial importance of their correct functioning for the maintenance of a proper intestinal function and the prevention of dysbiosis and disease. Barrier disturbances including a defective production of AMPs, alterations in thickness or composition of the intestinal mucus layer, alterations of pattern-recognition receptors, defects in the process of autophagy as well as unresolved endoplasmic reticulum stress result in an inadequate host protection and are thought to play a crucial role in the pathogenesis of the inflammatory bowel diseases Crohn’s disease and ulcerative colitis. PMID:24574793

  18. Homoepitaxial graphene tunnel barriers for spin transport

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Friedman, Adam L.; van't Erve, Olaf M. J.; Robinson, Jeremy T.; Whitener, Keith E.; Jonker, Berend T.

    2016-05-01

    Tunnel barriers are key elements for both charge-and spin-based electronics, offering devices with reduced power consumption and new paradigms for information processing. Such devices require mating dissimilar materials, raising issues of heteroepitaxy, interface stability, and electronic states that severely complicate fabrication and compromise performance. Graphene is the perfect tunnel barrier. It is an insulator out-of-plane, possesses a defect-free, linear habit, and is impervious to interdiffusion. Nonetheless, true tunneling between two stacked graphene layers is not possible in environmental conditions usable for electronics applications. However, two stacked graphene layers can be decoupled using chemical functionalization. Here, we demonstrate that hydrogenation or fluorination of graphene can be used to create a tunnel barrier. We demonstrate successful tunneling by measuring non-linear IV curves and a weakly temperature dependent zero-bias resistance. We demonstrate lateral transport of spin currents in non-local spin-valve structures, and determine spin lifetimes with the non-local Hanle effect. We compare the results for hydrogenated and fluorinated tunnel and we discuss the possibility that ferromagnetic moments in the hydrogenated graphene tunnel barrier affect the spin transport of our devices.

  19. Thermal barrier coating having high phase stability

    DOEpatents

    Subramanian, Ramesh

    2002-01-01

    A device (10) comprising a substrate (22) having a deposited ceramic thermal barrier coating characterized by a microstructure having gaps (28) where the thermal barrier coating comprises a first thermal barrier layer (40), and a second thermal barrier layer (30) with a pyrochlore crystal structure having a chemical formula of A.sup.n+.sub.2-x B.sup.m+.sub.2+x O.sub.7-y, where A is selected from the group of elements consisting of La, Ce, Pr, Nd, Sm, Eu, Gd, Tb, Dy, Ho, Er, Tm, Yb, and mixtures thereof, where B is selected from the group of elements consisting of Zr, Hf, Ti and mixtures thereof, where n and m are the valence of A and B respectively, and for -0.5.ltoreq.x.ltoreq.0.5, ##EQU1## and excluding the following combinations for x=0, y=0: A=La and B=Zr; A=La and B=Hf; A=Gd and B=Hf; and A=Yb and B=Ti.

  20. Information barriers and authentication.

    SciTech Connect

    MacArthur, D. W.; Wolford, J. K.

    2001-01-01

    Acceptance of nuclear materials into a monitoring regime is complicated if the materials are in classified shapes or have classified composition. An attribute measurement system with an information barrier can be emplo,yed to generate an unclassified display from classified measurements. This information barrier must meet two criteria: (1) classified information cannot be released to the monitoring party, and (2) the monitoring party must be convinced that the unclassified output accurately represents the classified input. Criterion 1 is critical to the host country to protect the classified information. Criterion 2 is critical to the monitoring party and is often termed the 'authentication problem.' Thus, the necessity for authentication of a measurement system with an information barrier stems directly from the description of a useful information barrier. Authentication issues must be continually addressed during the entire development lifecycle of the measurement system as opposed to being applied only after the system is built.