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Sample records for algan uv leds

  1. MOCVD growth of AlGaN UV LEDs

    SciTech Connect

    Han, J.; Crawford, M.H.

    1998-09-01

    Issues related to the MOCVD growth of AlGaN, specifically the gas-phase parasitic reactions among TMG, TMA, and NH{sub 3}, are studied using an in-situ optical reflectometer. It is observed that the presence of the well-known gas phase adduct (TMA: NH{sub 3}) could seriously hinder the incorporation behavior of TMGa. Relatively low reactor pressures (30--50 Torr) are employed to grow an AlGaN/GaN SCH QW p-n diode structure. The UV emission at 360 nm (FWHM {approximately} 10 nm) represents the first report of LED operation from an indium-free GaN QW diode.

  2. AlGaN UV LED and Photodiodes Radiation Hardness and Space Qualifications and Their Applications in Space Science and High Energy Density Physics

    SciTech Connect

    Sun, K. X.

    2011-05-31

    This presentation provides an overview of robust, radiation hard AlGaN optoelectronic devices and their applications in space exploration & high energy density physics. Particularly, deep UV LED and deep UV photodiodes are discussed with regard to their applications, radiation hardness and space qualification. AC charge management of UV LED satellite payload instruments, which were to be launched in late 2012, is covered.

  3. Completely transparent ohmic electrode on p-type AlGaN for UV LEDs with core-shell Cu@alloy nanosilk network (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cai, Duanjun; Wang, Huachun; Huang, Youyang; Wu, Chenping; Chen, Xiaohong; Gao, Na; Wei, Tongbo T.; Wang, Junxi; Li, Shuping; Kang, Junyong

    2016-09-01

    Metal nanowire networks hold a great promise, which have been supposed the only alternative to ITO as transparent electrodes for their excellent performance in touch screen, LED and solar cell. It is well known that the difficulty in making transparent ohmic electrode to p-type high-Al-content AlGaN conducting layer has highly constrained the further development of UV LEDs. On the IWN-2014, we reported the ohmic contact to n, p-GaN with direct graphene 3D-coated Cu nanosilk network and the fabrication of complete blue LED. On the ICNS-2015, we reported the ohmic contact to n-type AlGaN conducting layer with Cu@alloy nanosilk network. Here, we further demonstrate the latest results that a novel technique is proposed for fabricating transparent ohmic electrode to high-Al-content AlGaN p-type conducting layer in UV LEDs using Cu@alloy core-shell nanosilk network. The superfine copper nanowires (16 nm) was synthesized for coating various metals such as Ni, Zn, V or Ti with different work functions. The transmittance showed a high transparency (> 90%) over a broad wavelength range from 200 to 3000 nm. By thermal annealing, ohmic contact was achieved on p-type Al0.5Ga0.5N layer with Cu@Ni nanosilk network, showing clearly linear I-V curve. By skipping the p-type GaN cladding layer, complete UV LED chip was fabricated and successfully lit with bright emission at 276 nm.

  4. Performance improvement of GaN-based near-UV LEDs with InGaN/AlGaN superlattices strain relief layer and AlGaN barrier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jia, Chuanyu; Yu, Tongjun; Feng, Xiaohui; Wang, Kun; Zhang, Guoyi

    2016-09-01

    The carrier confinement effect and piezoelectric field-induced quantum-confined stark effect of different GaN-based near-UV LED samples from 395 nm to 410 nm emission peak wavelength were investigated theoretically and experimentally. It is found that near-UV LEDs with InGaN/AlGaN multiple quantum wells (MQWs) active region have higher output power than those with InGaN/GaN MQWs for better carrier confinement effect. However, as emission peak wavelength is longer than 406 nm, the output power of the near-UV LEDs with AlGaN barrier is lower than that of the LEDs with GaN barrier due to more serious spatial separation of electrons and holes induced by the increase of piezoelectric field. The N-doped InGaN/AlGaN superlattices (SLs) were adopted as a strain relief layer (SRL) between n-GaN and MQWs in order to suppress the polarization field. It is demonstrated the output power of near-UV LEDs is increased obviously by using SLs SRL and AlGaN barrier for the discussed emission wavelength range. Besides, the forward voltage of near-UV LEDs with InGaN/AlGaN SLs SRL is lower than that of near-UV LEDs without SRL.

  5. Deep UV LEDs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Jung; Amano, Hiroshi; Schowalter, Leo

    2014-06-01

    Deep ultraviolet (DUV) photons interact strongly with a broad range of chemical and biological molecules; compact DUV light sources could enable a wide range of applications in chemi/bio-sensing, sterilization, agriculture, and industrial curing. The much shorter wavelength also results in useful characteristics related to optical diffraction (for lithography) and scattering (non-line-of-sight communication). The family of III-N (AlGaInN) compound semiconductors offers a tunable energy gap from infrared to DUV. While InGaN-based blue light emitters have been the primary focus for the obvious application of solid state lighting, there is a growing interest in the development of efficient UV and DUV light-emitting devices. In the past few years we have witnessed an increasing investment from both government and industry sectors to further the state of DUV light-emitting devices. The contributions in Semiconductor Science and Technology 's special issue on DUV devices provide an up-to-date snapshot covering many relevant topics in this field. Given the expected importance of bulk AlN substrate in DUV technology, we are pleased to include a review article by Hartmann et al on the growth of AlN bulk crystal by physical vapour transport. The issue of polarization field within the deep ultraviolet LEDs is examined in the article by Braut et al. Several commercial companies provide useful updates in their development of DUV emitters, including Nichia (Fujioka et al ), Nitride Semiconductors (Muramoto et al ) and Sensor Electronic Technology (Shatalov et al ). We believe these articles will provide an excellent overview of the state of technology. The growth of AlGaN heterostructures by molecular beam epitaxy, in contrast to the common organo-metallic vapour phase epitaxy, is discussed by Ivanov et al. Since hexagonal boron nitride (BN) has received much attention as both a UV and a two-dimensional electronic material, we believe it serves readers well to include the

  6. Inverted vertical algan deep ultraviolet leds grown on p-SiC substrates by molecular beam epitaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nothern, Denis Maurice

    Deep ultraviolet light emitting diodes (UV LEDs) are an important emerging technology for a number of applications such as water/air/surface disinfection, communications, and epoxy curing. However, as of yet, deep UV LEDs grown on sapphire substrates are neither efficient enough nor powerful enough to fully serve these and other potential applications. The majority of UV LEDs reported so far in the literature are grown on sapphire substrates and their design consists of AlGaN quantum wells (QWs) embedded in an AlGaN p-i-n junction with the n-type layer on the sapphire. These devices suffer from a high concentration of threading defects originating from the large lattice mismatch between the sapphire substrate and AlGaN alloys. Other issues include the poor doping efficiency of the n- and particularly the p-AlGaN alloys, the extraction of light through the sapphire substrate, and the heat dissipation through the thermally insulating sapphire substrate. These problems have historically limited the internal quantum efficiency (IQE), injection efficiency (IE), and light extraction efficiency (EE) of devices. As a means of addressing these efficiency and power challenges, I have contributed to the development of a novel inverted vertical deep UV LED design based on AlGaN grown on p-SiC substrates. Starting with a p-SiC substrate that serves as the p-type side of the p-i-n junction largely eliminates the necessity for the notoriously difficult p-type doping of AlGaN alloys, and allows for efficient heat dissipation through the highly thermally conductive SiC substrate. UV light absorption in the SiC substrate can be addressed by first growing p-type doped distributed Bragg reflectors (DBRs) on top of the substrate prior to the deposition of the active region of the device. A number of n-AlGaN films, AlGaN/AlGaN multiple quantum wells, and p-type doped AlGaN DBRs were grown by molecular beam epitaxy (MBE). These were characterized in situ by reflected high energy electron

  7. Monitoring and Controlling of Strain During MOCVD of AlGaN for UV Optoelectronics

    SciTech Connect

    Han, J.; Crawford, M.H.; Shul, R.J.; Hearne, S.J.; Chason, E.; Figiel, J.J.; Banas, M.

    1999-01-14

    The grown-in tensile strain, due to a lattice mismatch between AlGaN and GaN, is responsible for the observed cracking that seriously limits the feasibility of nitride-based ultraviolet (UV) emitters. We report in-situ monitoring of strain/stress during MOCVD of AlGaN based on a wafer-curvature measurement technique. The strain/stress measurement confirms the presence of tensile strain during growth of AlGaN pseudomorphically on a thick GaN layer. Further growth leads to the onset of stress relief through crack generation. We find that the growth of AlGaN directly on low-temperature (LT) GaN or AlN buffer layers results in a reduced and possibly controllable strain.

  8. Large-Format AlGaN PIN Photodiode Arrays for UV Images

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aslam, Shahid; Franz, David

    2010-01-01

    A large-format hybridized AlGaN photodiode array with an adjustable bandwidth features stray-light control, ultralow dark-current noise to reduce cooling requirements, and much higher radiation tolerance than previous technologies. This technology reduces the size, mass, power, and cost of future ultraviolet (UV) detection instruments by using lightweight, low-voltage AlGaN detectors in a hybrid detector/multiplexer configuration. The solar-blind feature eliminates the need for additional visible light rejection and reduces the sensitivity of the system to stray light that can contaminate observations.

  9. Status of AlGaN based focal plane arrays for UV solar blind detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reverchon, Jean-Luc; Mazzeo, Giovanni; Dussaigne, Amélie; Duboz, Jean-Yves

    2005-10-01

    The fast development of nitrides has given the opportunity to investigate AlGaN as a material for ultraviolet solar blind detection in competition with technologies based on photocathodes, MCP intensifiers, back thinned CCD or hybrid CMOS focal plane arrays. All of the them must be associated to UV blocking filters. These new detectors present both an intrinsic spectral selectivity and an extremely low dark current at room temperature. First we will present the ultimate properties of the AlGaN based devices. These spectral properties are analysed in regards to the sharp cut off required for solar blind detection around 280nm, and we will quantify how the stringent difficulties to achieve solar blind filters can be reduced. We also investigated the electrical capabilities of Schottky diodes or Metal-Semiconductor-Metal (MSM) technologies to detect extremely low UV signal. We will especially present results from a linear array based on a CCD readout multiplexor.

  10. High Power UV LED Industrial Curing Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Karlicek, Robert, F., Jr; Sargent, Robert

    2012-05-14

    UV curing is a green technology that is largely underutilized because UV radiation sources like Hg Lamps are unreliable and difficult to use. High Power UV LEDs are now efficient enough to replace Hg Lamps, and offer significantly improved performance relative to Hg Lamps. In this study, a modular, scalable high power UV LED curing system was designed and tested, performing well in industrial coating evaluations. In order to achieve mechanical form factors similar to commercial Hg Lamp systems, a new patent pending design was employed enabling high irradiance at long working distances. While high power UV LEDs are currently only available at longer UVA wavelengths, rapid progress on UVC LEDs and the development of new formulations designed specifically for use with UV LED sources will converge to drive more rapid adoption of UV curing technology. An assessment of the environmental impact of replacing Hg Lamp systems with UV LED systems was performed. Since UV curing is used in only a small portion of the industrial printing, painting and coating markets, the ease of use of UV LED systems should increase the use of UV curing technology. Even a small penetration of the significant number of industrial applications still using oven curing and drying will lead to significant reductions in energy consumption and reductions in the emission of green house gases and solvent emissions.

  11. Enhanced light extraction in tunnel junction-enabled top emitting UV LEDs

    DOE PAGES

    Zhang, Yuewei; Allerman, Andrew A.; Krishnamoorthy, Sriram; ...

    2016-04-11

    The efficiency of ultra violet LEDs has been critically limited by the absorption losses in p-type and metal layers. In this work, surface roughening based light extraction structures are combined with tunneling based p-contacts to realize highly efficient top-side light extraction efficiency in UV LEDs. Surface roughening of the top n-type AlGaN contact layer is demonstrated using self-assembled Ni nano-clusters as etch mask. The top surface roughened LEDs were found to enhance external quantum efficiency by over 40% for UV LEDs with a peak emission wavelength of 326 nm. The method described here can enable highly efficient UV LEDs withoutmore » the need for complex manufacturing methods such as flip chip bonding.« less

  12. Enhanced light extraction in tunnel junction-enabled top emitting UV LEDs

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Yuewei; Allerman, Andrew A.; Krishnamoorthy, Sriram; Akyol, Fatih; Moseley, Michael W.; Armstrong, Andrew M.; Rajan, Siddharth

    2016-04-11

    The efficiency of ultra violet LEDs has been critically limited by the absorption losses in p-type and metal layers. In this work, surface roughening based light extraction structures are combined with tunneling based p-contacts to realize highly efficient top-side light extraction efficiency in UV LEDs. Surface roughening of the top n-type AlGaN contact layer is demonstrated using self-assembled Ni nano-clusters as etch mask. The top surface roughened LEDs were found to enhance external quantum efficiency by over 40% for UV LEDs with a peak emission wavelength of 326 nm. The method described here can enable highly efficient UV LEDs without the need for complex manufacturing methods such as flip chip bonding.

  13. Enhanced output power of GaN-based LEDs with embedded AlGaN pyramidal shells.

    PubMed

    Tu, Shang-Ju; Sheu, Jinn-Kong; Lee, Ming-Lun; Yang, Chih-Ciao; Chang, Kuo-Hua; Yeh, Yu-Hsiang; Huang, Feng-Wen; Lai, Wei-Chih

    2011-06-20

    In this article, the characteristics of GaN-based LEDs grown on Ar-implanted GaN templates to form inverted Al0.27Ga0.83N pyramidal shells beneath an active layer were investigated. GaN-based epitaxial layers grown on the selective Ar-implanted regions had lower growth rates compared with those grown on the implantation-free regions. This resulted in selective growth, and formation of V-shaped concaves in the epitaxial layers. Accordingly, the inverted Al0.27Ga0.83N pyramidal shells were formed after the Al0.27Ga0.83N and GaN layers were subsequently grown on the V-shaped concaves. The experimental results indicate that the light-output power of LEDs with inverted AlGaN pyramidal shells was higher than those of conventional LEDs. With a 20 mA current injection, the output power was enhanced by 10% when the LEDs were embedded with inverted Al0.27Ga0.83N pyramidal shells. The enhancement in output power was primarily due to the light scattering at the Al0.27Ga0.83N/GaN interface, which leads to a higher escape probability for the photons, that is, light-extraction efficiency. Based on the ray tracing simulation, the output power of LEDs grown on Ar-implanted GaN templates can be enhanced by over 20% compared with the LEDs without the embedded AlGaN pyramidal shells, if the AlGaN layers were replaced by Al0.5Ga0.5N layers.

  14. NASA Ames UV-LED Poster Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jaroux, Belgacem Amar

    2015-01-01

    UV-LED is a small satellite technology demonstration payload being flown on the Saudisat-4 spacecraft that is demonstrating non-contacting charge control of an isolated or floating mass using new solid-state ultra-violet light emitting diodes (UV-LEDs). Integrated to the rest of the spacecraft and launched on a Dnepr in June 19, 2014, the project is a collaboration between the NASA Ames Research Center (ARC), Stanford University, and King Abdulaziz City for Science and Technology (KACST). Beginning with its commissioning in December, 2015, the data collected by UV-LED have validated a novel method of charge control that will improve the performance of drag-free spacecraft allowing for concurrent science collection during charge management operations as well as reduce the mass, power and volume required while increasing lifetime and reliability of a charge management subsystem. UV-LED continues to operate, exploring new concepts in non-contacting charge control and collecting data crucial to understanding the lifetime of ultra-violet light emitting diodes in space. These improvements are crucial to the success of ground breaking missions such as LISA and BBO, and demonstrates the ability of low cost small satellite missions to provide technological advances that far exceed mission costs.

  15. Characterization of failure modes in deep UV and deep green LEDs utilizing advanced semiconductor localization techniques.

    SciTech Connect

    Tangyunyong, Paiboon; Miller, Mary A.; Cole, Edward Isaac, Jr.

    2012-03-01

    We present the results of a two-year early career LDRD that focused on defect localization in deep green and deep ultraviolet (UV) light-emitting diodes (LEDs). We describe the laser-based techniques (TIVA/LIVA) used to localize the defects and interpret data acquired. We also describe a defect screening method based on a quick electrical measurement to determine whether defects should be present in the LEDs. We then describe the stress conditions that caused the devices to fail and how the TIVA/LIVA techniques were used to monitor the defect signals as the devices degraded and failed. We also describe the correlation between the initial defects and final degraded or failed state of the devices. Finally we show characterization results of the devices in the failed conditions and present preliminary theories as to why the devices failed for both the InGaN (green) and AlGaN (UV) LEDs.

  16. Compositional inhomogeneities in AlGaN thin films grown by molecular beam epitaxy: Effect on MSM UV photodetectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pramanik, Pallabi; Sen, Sayantani; Singha, Chirantan; Roy, Abhra Shankar; Das, Alakananda; Sen, Susanta; Bhattacharyya, A.

    2016-10-01

    Ultraviolet (UV) MSM photodetectors (PD) based on AlGaN alloys find many applications, including flame sensing. In this work we investigate the dependence of AlGaN based photodetectors grown by MBE on the kinetics of growth. MSM photodetectors were fabricated in the interdigitated configuration with Ni/Au contacts having 400 μm finger length and 10 μm finger spacing. Bulk Al0.4Ga0.6N films were grown on to sapphire substrates using an AlN buffer layer. A series of PDs were developed using the Al0.4Ga0.6N films grown under different group III/V flux ratios ranging from stoichiometric conditions to much higher than unity. Upon testing, it was observed that the otherwise identical photodetectors show significant decrease in dark current as AlGaN deposition conditions change from stoichiometric to excess group III, due to reduction of unintentional incorporation of oxygen-related point defects. In addition, the intensity and spectral dependence of the photocurrent also change, showing an extended low energy tail for the former and a sharp and prominent excitonic peak for the latter. The optical transmission measurements indicate a variation in Urbach energy with deposition conditions of the AlGaN films, although they have the same absorption edge. While all samples show a single red-shifted photoluminescence peak at room temperature, upon cooling, multiple higher energy peaks appear in the photoluminescence (PL) spectra, indicating that the alloys contain complex compositional inhomogeneities. Two types of alloy fluctuations, determined by the growth conditions, have been identified that modulate the optoelectronic properties of AlGaN by changing the spatial localization of excitons, thereby altering their stability. We identified that growth under stoichiometric conditions leads to compositional inhomogeneities that play a detrimental role in the operation of MSM photodetectors, which reduces the sharpness of the sensitivity edge, while growth under excess metal

  17. OMVPE growth and gas-phase reactions of AlGaN for UV emitters

    SciTech Connect

    Han, J.; Figiel, J.J.; Crawford, M.H.; Banas, M.A.; Bartram, M.E.; Biefeld, R.M.; Song, Y.K.; Nurmikko, A.V.

    1998-06-01

    Gas-phase parasitic reactions among TMG, TMA, and NH3, are investigated by monitoring of the growth rate/incorporation efficiency of GaN and AlN using an in-situ optical reflectometer. It is suggested that gas phase adduct (TMA: NH{sub 3}) reactions not only reduce the incorporation efficiency of TMA but also affect the incorporation behavior of TMGa. The observed phenomena can be explained by either a synergistic gas-phase scavenging effect or a surface site-blocking effect. Relatively low reactor pressures (30--50 Torr) are employed to grow an AlGaN/GaN QW p-n diode structure. The UV emission at 354 nm (FWHM {approximately} 6 nm) represents the first report of LED operation from an indium-free GaN QW diode.

  18. Ground testing and flight demonstration of charge management of insulated test masses using UV-LED electron photoemission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saraf, Shailendhar; Buchman, Sasha; Balakrishnan, Karthik; Lui, Chin Yang; Soulage, Michael; Faied, Dohy; Hanson, John; Ling, Kuok; Jaroux, Belgacem; Suwaidan, Badr Al; AlRashed, Abdullah; Al-Nassban, Badr; Alaqeel, Faisal; Harbi, Mohammed Al; Salamah, Badr Bin; Othman, Mohammed Bin; Qasim, Bandar Bin; Alfauwaz, Abdulrahman; Al-Majed, Mohammed; DeBra, Daniel; Byer, Robert

    2016-12-01

    The UV-LED mission demonstrates the precise control of the potential of electrically isolated test masses. Test mass charge control is essential for the operation of space accelerometers and drag-free sensors which are at the core of geodesy, aeronomy and precision navigation missions as well as gravitational wave experiments and observatories. Charge management using photoelectrons generated by the 254 nm UV line of Hg was first demonstrated on Gravity Probe B and is presently part of the LISA Pathfinder technology demonstration. The UV-LED mission and prior ground testing demonstrates that AlGaN UVLEDs operating at 255 nm are superior to Hg lamps because of their smaller size, lower power draw, higher dynamic range, and higher control authority. We show laboratory data demonstrating the effectiveness and survivability of the UV-LED devices and performance of the charge management system. We also show flight data from a small satellite experiment that was one of the payloads on KACST’s SaudiSat-4 mission that demonstrates ‘AC charge control’ (UV-LEDs and bias are AC modulated with adjustable relative phase) between a spherical test mass and its housing. The result of the mission brings the UV-LED device Technology Readiness Level (TRL) to TRL-9 and the charge management system to TRL-7. We demonstrate the ability to control the test mass potential on an 89 mm diameter spherical test mass over a 20 mm gap in a drag-free system configuration, with potential measured using an ultra-high impedance contact probe. Finally, the key electrical and optical characteristics of the UV-LEDs showed less than 7.5% change in performance after 12 months in orbit.

  19. High-efficiency blue LEDs with thin AlGaN interlayers in InGaN/GaN MQWs grown on Si (111) substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kimura, Shigeya; Yoshida, Hisashi; Ito, Toshihide; Okada, Aoi; Uesugi, Kenjiro; Nunoue, Shinya

    2016-02-01

    We demonstrate high-efficiency blue light-emitting diodes (LEDs) with thin AlGaN interlayers in InGaN/GaN multiquantum wells (MQWs) grown on Si (111) substrates. The peak external quantum efficiency (EQE) ηEQE of 82% at room temperature and the hot/cold factor (HCF) of 94% have been obtained by using the functional thin AlGaN interlayers in the MQWs in addition to reducing threading dislocation densities (TDDs) in the blue LEDs. An HCF is defined as ηEQE(85°C)/ηEQE(25°C). The blue LED structures were grown by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition on Si (111) substrates. The MQWs applied as an active layer have 8- pairs of InGaN/AlyGa1-yN/GaN (0<=y<=1) heterostructures. Thinfilm LEDs were fabricated by removing the Si (111) substrates from the grown layers. It is observed by high-resolution transmission electron microscopy and three-dimensional atom probe analysis that the 1 nm-thick AlyGa1-yN interlayers, whose Al content is y=0.3 or less, are continuously formed. EQE and the HCFs of the LEDs with thin Al0.15Ga0.85N interlayers are enhanced compared with those of the samples without the interlayers in the low-current-density region. We consider that the enhancement is due to both the reduction of the nonradiative recombination centers and the increase of the radiative recombination rate mediated by the strain-induced hole carriers indicated by the simulation of the energy band diagram.

  20. Design and performance of nitride-based ultraviolet (UV) LEDs

    SciTech Connect

    CRAWFORD,MARY H.; HAN,JUNG

    2000-04-24

    The authors overview several of the challenges in achieving high efficiency nitride-based UV (< 400 nm) LEDs. The issue of optical efficiency is presented through temperature-dependent photoluminescence studies of various UV active regions. These studies demonstrate enhanced optical efficiencies for active regions with In-containing alloys (InGaN, AlInGaN). The authors compare the performance of two distinct UV LED structures. GaN/AlGaN quantum well LEDs with {lambda} < 360 nm emission have demonstrated output powers > 0.1 mW, but present designs suffer from internal absorption effects. InGaN/AlInGaN quantum well LEDs with 370 nm < {lambda} < 390 nm emission and > 1 mW output power are also presented.

  1. UV photoemission study of heteroepitaxial AlGaN films grown on 6H-SiC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benjamin, M. C.; Bremser, M. D.; Weeks, T. W.; King, S. W.; Davis, R. F.; Nemanich, R. J.

    1996-09-01

    This study presents results of UV photoemission measurements of the surface and interface properties of heteroepitaxial AlGaN on 6H-SiC. Previous results have demonstrated a negative electron affinity of AlN on 6H-SiC. In this study Al xGa 1- xN alloy films were grown by organometallic vapor phase epitaxy (OMVPE) and doped with silicon. The analytical techniques included UPS, Auger electron spectroscopy, and LEED. All analysis took place in an integrated UHV transfer system which included the analysis techniques, a surface processing chamber and a gas source MBE. The OMVPE alloy samples were transported in air to the surface characterization system while the AlN and GaN investigations were prepared in situ. The surface electronic states were characterized by surface normal UV photoemission to determine whether the electron affinity was positive or negative. Two aspects of the photoemission distinguish a surface that exhibits a NEA: (1) the spectrum exhibits a sharp peak in the low kinetic energy region, and (2) the width of the spectrum is hv - Eg. The in situ prepared AlN samples exhibited the characteristics of a NEA while the GaN and Al 0.13Ga 0.87N samples did not. The Al 0.55Ga 0.45N sample shows a low positive electron affinity. Annealing of the sample to > 400°C resulted in the disappearance of the sharp emission features, and this effect was related to contaminant effects on the surface. The results suggest the potential of nitride based cold cathode electron emitters.

  2. High-power UV-B LEDs with long lifetime

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rass, Jens; Kolbe, Tim; Lobo-Ploch, Neysha; Wernicke, Tim; Mehnke, Frank; Kuhn, Christian; Enslin, Johannes; Guttmann, Martin; Reich, Christoph; Mogilatenko, Anna; Glaab, Johannes; Stoelmacker, Christoph; Lapeyrade, Mickael; Einfeldt, Sven; Weyers, Markus; Kneissl, Michael

    2015-03-01

    UV light emitters in the UV-B spectral range between 280 nm and 320 nm are of great interest for applications such as phototherapy, gas sensing, plant growth lighting, and UV curing. In this paper we present high power UV-B LEDs grown by MOVPE on sapphire substrates. By optimizing the heterostructure design, growth parameters and processing technologies, significant progress was achieved with respect to internal efficiency, injection efficiency and light extraction. LED chips emitting at 310 nm with maximum output powers of up to 18 mW have been realized. Lifetime measurements show approximately 20% decrease in emission power after 1,000 operating hours at 100 mA and 5 mW output power and less than 30% after 3,500 hours of operation, thus indicating an L50 lifetime beyond 10,000 hours.

  3. AlGaN Ultraviolet Detectors for Dual-Band UV Detection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miko, Laddawan; Franz, David; Stahle, Carl M.; Yan, Feng; Guan, Bing

    2010-01-01

    This innovation comprises technology that has the ability to measure at least two ultraviolet (UV) bands using one detector without relying on any external optical filters. This allows users to build a miniature UVA and UVB monitor, as well as to develop compact, multicolor imaging technologies for flame temperature sensing, air-quality control, and terrestrial/counter-camouflage/biosensing applications.

  4. Effect of UV irradiation on the apoptosis and necrosis of Jurkat cells using UV LEDs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inada, Shunko A.; Amano, Hiroshi; Akasaki, Isamu; Morita, Akimichi; Kobayashi, Keiko

    2009-02-01

    Phototherapy is a very effective method for treating most of the incurable skin diseases. A fluorescent light bulb is used as a conventional UV light source for this type of therapy. However, infrared radiation from the light source sometimes causes serious problems on patient's health. In addition, the normal part of the skin is irradiated when a large fluorescent light bulb is used. Moreover, a conventional UV irradiation system is heavy and has a short lifetime and a high electrical power consumption. Therefore, a new UV light source for solving the problems of phototherapy is required. To realize low-power-consumption, lightweight and long-lifetime systems, group III nitride-based UV-A1 light-emitting diodes (LEDs) were investigated. We examined the UV LED irradiation of Jurkat cell, which is a tumor cell and more sensitive to UV light than a healthy cell. The numbers of apoptotic and necrotic cells were confirmed to be the same using a UV LED and a conventional lamp system. The UV LED showed the possibility of realizing a new UV light source for phototherapy.

  5. Molecular beam epitaxial growth and characterization of Al(Ga)N nanowire deep ultraviolet light emitting diodes and lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mi, Z.; Zhao, S.; Woo, S. Y.; Bugnet, M.; Djavid, M.; Liu, X.; Kang, J.; Kong, X.; Ji, W.; Guo, H.; Liu, Z.; Botton, G. A.

    2016-09-01

    We report on the detailed molecular beam epitaxial growth and characterization of Al(Ga)N nanowire heterostructures on Si and their applications for deep ultraviolet light emitting diodes and lasers. The nanowires are formed under nitrogen-rich conditions without using any metal catalyst. Compared to conventional epilayers, Mg-dopant incorporation is significantly enhanced in nearly strain- and defect-free Al(Ga)N nanowire structures, leading to efficient p-type conduction. The resulting Al(Ga)N nanowire LEDs exhibit excellent performance, including a turn-on voltage of ∼5.5 V for an AlN nanowire LED operating at 207 nm. The design, fabrication, and performance of an electrically injected AlGaN nanowire laser operating in the UV-B band is also presented.

  6. Charge management for gravitational-wave observatories using UV LEDs

    SciTech Connect

    Pollack, S. E.; Turner, M. D.; Schlamminger, S.; Hagedorn, C. A.; Gundlach, J. H.

    2010-01-15

    Accumulation of electrical charge on the end mirrors of gravitational-wave observatories can become a source of noise limiting the sensitivity of such detectors through electronic couplings to nearby surfaces. Torsion balances provide an ideal means for testing gravitational-wave technologies due to their high sensitivity to small forces. Our torsion pendulum apparatus consists of a movable plate brought near a plate pendulum suspended from a nonconducting quartz fiber. A UV LED located near the pendulum photoejects electrons from the surface, and a UV LED driven electron gun directs photoelectrons towards the pendulum surface. We have demonstrated both charging and discharging of the pendulum with equivalent charging rates of {approx}10{sup 5}e/s, as well as spectral measurements of the pendulum charge resulting in a white noise level equivalent to 3x10{sup 5}e/{radical}(Hz).

  7. UV-LED-based charge control for LISA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olatunde, Taiwo; Shelley, Ryan; Chilton, Andrew; Ciani, Giacomo; Mueller, Guido; Conklin, John

    2014-03-01

    The test masses inside the LISA gravitational reference sensors (GRS) must maintain almost pure geodesic motion for gravitational waves to be successfully detected. The residual accelerations have to stay below 3fm/s2/rtHz at all frequencies between 0.1 and 3 mHz. One of the well known noise sources is associated with the charges on the test masses which couple to stray electrical potentials and external electro-magnetic fields. The LISA pathfinder (LPF) will use Hg-discharge lamps emitting mostly around 253 nm to discharge the test masses via photoemission in its 2015/16 flight. A future LISA mission launched around 2030 will likely replace the lamps with newer UV-LEDs. UV-LEDs have a lower mass, a better power efficiency, and are smaller than their Hg counterparts. Furthermore, the latest generation produces light at 240 nm, with energy well above the work function of pure gold. I will describe a preliminary design for effective charge control through photoelectric effect by using these LEDs. The effectiveness of this method is verified by taking Quantum Efficiency (QE) measurements which relate the number of electrons emitted to the number of photons incident on the Au test mass surface. This presentation addresses our initial results and future plans which includes implementation and testing in the UF torsion pendulum and space-qualification in a small satellite mission which will launch in the summer of 2014, through a collaboration with Stanford, KACST, and NASA Ames Research Center.

  8. 240 nm UV LEDs for LISA test mass charge control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olatunde, Taiwo; Shelley, Ryan; Chilton, Andrew; Serra, Paul; Ciani, Giacomo; Mueller, Guido; Conklin, John

    2015-05-01

    Test Masses inside the LISA Gravitational Reference Sensor must maintain almost pure geodesic motion for gravitational waves to be successfully detected. LISA requires residual test mass accelerations below 3 fm/s2/√Hz at all frequencies between 0.1 and 3 mHz. One of the well-known noise sources is associated with the charges on the test masses which couple to stray electrical potentials and external electromagnetic fields. LISA Pathfinder will use Hg-discharge lamps emitting mostly around 254 nm to discharge the test masses via photoemission in its 2015/16 flight. A future LISA mission launched around 2030 will likely replace the lamps with newer UV-LEDs. Presented here is a preliminary study of the effectiveness of charge control using latest generation UV-LEDs which produce light at 240 nm with energy above the work function of pure Au. Their lower mass, better power efficiency and small size make them an ideal replacement for Hg lamps.

  9. Application of ultraviolet light-emitting diodes (UV-LEDs) for water disinfection: A review.

    PubMed

    Song, Kai; Mohseni, Madjid; Taghipour, Fariborz

    2016-05-01

    Ultraviolet (UV) disinfection is an effective technology for the inactivation of pathogens in water and is of growing interest for industrial application. A new UV source - ultraviolet light-emitting diode (UV-LED) - has emerged in the past decade with a number of advantages compared to traditional UV mercury lamps. This promising alternative raises great interest in the research on application of UV-LEDs for water treatment. Studies on UV-LED water disinfection have increased during the past few years. This article presents a comprehensive review of recent studies on UV-LEDs with various wavelengths for the inactivation of different microorganisms. Many inconsistent and incomparable data were found from published studies, which underscores the importance of establishing a standard protocol for studying UV-LED inactivation of microorganisms. Different UV sensitivities to UV-LEDs and traditional UV lamps were observed in the literature for some microorganisms, which requires further investigation for a better understanding of microorganism response to UV-LEDs. The unique aspects of UV-LEDs improve inactivation effectiveness by applying LED special features, such as multiple wavelengths and pulsed illumination; however, more studies are needed to investigate the influencing factors and mechanisms. The special features of UV-LEDs offer the flexibility of novel reactor designs for a broad application of UV-LED reactors.

  10. UV LED charge control of an electrically isolated proof mass in a Gravitational Reference Sensor configuration at 255 nm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balakrishnan, Karthik; Sun, Ke-Xun

    2012-07-01

    Precise control over the potential of an electrically isolated proof mass is necessary for the operation of devices such as a Gravitational Reference Sensor (GRS) and satellite missions such as LISA. We show that AlGaN UV LEDs operating at 255 nm are an effective substitute for Mercury vapor lamps used in previous missions because of their ability to withstand space qualification levels of vibration and thermal cycling. After 27 thermal and thermal vacuum cycles and 9 minutes of 14.07 g RMS vibration, there is less than 3% change in current draw, less than 15% change in optical power, and no change in spectral peak or FWHM (full width at half maximum). We also demonstrate UV LED stimulated photoemission from a wide variety of thin film carbide proof mass coating candidates (SiC, Mo2C, TaC, TiC, ZrC) that were applied using electron beam evaporation on an Aluminum 6061-T6 substrate. All tested carbide films have measured quantum efficiencies of 3.8-6.8*10^-7 and reflectivities of 0.11-0.15, which compare favorably with the properties of previously used gold films. We demonstrate the ability to control proof mass potential on an 89 mm diameter spherical proof mass over a 20 mm gap in a GRS-like configuration. Proof mass potential was measured via a non-contact DC probe, which would allow control without introducing dynamic forcing of the spacecraft. Finally we provide a look ahead to an upcoming technology demonstration mission of UV LEDs and future applications toward charge control of electrically isolated proof masses.

  11. Deep UV AlGaN light emitting diodes grown by gas source molecular beam epitaxy on sapphire and AlGaN/sapphire substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nikishin, S.; Borisov, B.; Kuryatkov, V.; Usikov, A.; Dmitriev, V.; Holtz, M.

    2006-02-01

    We report the electrical and optical properties of deep ultraviolet light emitting diodes (LEDs) based on digital alloy structures (DAS) of AlN/Al 0.08Ga 0.92N grown by gas source molecular beam epitaxy with ammonia on sapphire substrates and AlGaN/sapphire templates. AlGaN/sapphire templates were grown by recently developed stress controlled hydride vapor phase epitaxy (HVPE). For DAS with effective bandgap of 5.1 eV we obtain room temperature electron concentrations up to 1x10 19 cm -3 and hole concentrations of 1x10 18 cm -3. Based on these results we prepared double heterostructure (DHS) LEDs operating in the range of 250 to 290 nm. The emission wavelengths were controlled through the effective bandgap of the active region. The possible ways for increase of LED's efficiency are discussed. We observed significant improvement in the room temperature luminescence efficiency (by factor of 100) of AlGaN quantum wells when a transition growth mode is induced by reduced flux of ammonia. We found that active layer grown on HVPE AlGaN/sapphire substrates have higher luminescence efficiency (by factor of 3) than DAS grown on sapphire.

  12. Radiation Hard AlGaN Detectors and Imager

    SciTech Connect

    2012-05-01

    Radiation hardness of AlGaN photodiodes was tested using a 65 MeV proton beam with a total proton fluence of 3x10{sup 12} protons/cm{sup 2}. AlGaN Deep UV Photodiode have extremely high radiation hardness. These new devices have mission critical applications in high energy density physics (HEDP) and space explorations. These new devices satisfy radiation hardness requirements by NIF. NSTec is developing next generation AlGaN optoelectronics and imagers.

  13. Investigation of light output uniformity and performance using a UV transmitting glass optic for a multi-UV LED array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jasenak, Brian; Willsey, Rachel; Willsey, Adam; Forish, James

    2016-03-01

    Ultraviolet light-emitting diode (UV LED) adoption is accelerating; they are being used in new applications such as UV curing, germicidal irradiation, nondestructive testing, and forensic analysis. In many of these applications, it is critically important to produce a uniform light distribution and consistent surface irradiance. Flat panes of fused quartz, silica, or glass are commonly used to cover and protect multi-UV LED arrays. However, they don't offer the advantages of an optical lens design. An investigation was conducted to determine the effect of a secondary glass optic on the uniformity of the light distribution and irradiance. Glass optics capable of transmitting UV-A, UV-B, and UV-C wavelengths can improve light distribution and intensity. In this study, a UV transmitting glass formulation and secondary linear optic were designed and manufactured to demonstrate their effects on achievable irradiance intensity and uniformity. Prismatic patterning on the light source surface of the lens was used to minimize reflection losses on the incident surface of the glass. Fresnel optics were molded into the opposite side of the UV transmitting glass to control the refraction of the light and to gain the desired light intensity distribution from two multi-UV LED arrays. A 20% increase in relative irradiance was observed while maintaining the same coverage area. This work discusses the optical design and the resulting benefits of controlled light output on UV LED systems, which include reduced driving current, decreased thermal deterioration, improved energy efficiency, and longer LED lifetime.

  14. Design and demonstration of ultra-wide bandgap AlGaN tunnel junctions

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Yuewei; Krishnamoorthy, Sriram; Akyol, Fatih; Allerman, Andrew A.; Moseley, Michael W.; Armstrong, Andrew M.; Rajan, Siddharth

    2016-09-19

    Ultra violet light emitting diodes (UV LEDs) face critical limitations in both the injection efficiency and the light extraction efficiency due to the resistive and absorbing p-type contact layers. In this work, we investigate the design and application of polarization engineered tunnel junctions for ultra-wide bandgap AlGaN (Al mole fraction >50%) materials towards highly efficient UV LEDs. We demonstrate that polarization-induced three dimensional charge is beneficial in reducing tunneling barriers especially for high composition AlGaN tunnel junctions. In addition, the design of graded tunnel junction structures could lead to low tunneling resistance below 10–3 Ω cm2 and low voltage consumption below 1 V (at 1 kA/cm2) for high composition AlGaN tunnel junctions. Experimental demonstration of 292 nm emission was achieved through non-equilibrium hole injection into wide bandgap materials with bandgap energy larger than 4.7 eV, and detailed modeling of tunnel junctions shows that they can be engineered to have low resistance and can enable efficient emitters in the UV-C wavelength range.

  15. Design and demonstration of ultra-wide bandgap AlGaN tunnel junctions

    DOE PAGES

    Zhang, Yuewei; Krishnamoorthy, Sriram; Akyol, Fatih; ...

    2016-09-19

    Ultra violet light emitting diodes (UV LEDs) face critical limitations in both the injection efficiency and the light extraction efficiency due to the resistive and absorbing p-type contact layers. In this work, we investigate the design and application of polarization engineered tunnel junctions for ultra-wide bandgap AlGaN (Al mole fraction >50%) materials towards highly efficient UV LEDs. We demonstrate that polarization-induced three dimensional charge is beneficial in reducing tunneling barriers especially for high composition AlGaN tunnel junctions. In addition, the design of graded tunnel junction structures could lead to low tunneling resistance below 10–3 Ω cm2 and low voltage consumptionmore » below 1 V (at 1 kA/cm2) for high composition AlGaN tunnel junctions. Experimental demonstration of 292 nm emission was achieved through non-equilibrium hole injection into wide bandgap materials with bandgap energy larger than 4.7 eV, and detailed modeling of tunnel junctions shows that they can be engineered to have low resistance and can enable efficient emitters in the UV-C wavelength range.« less

  16. A novel application of UV-LEDs in the contact lens manufacturing process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McDermott, Sharon; Walsh, James E.; Howard, Robert G.

    2005-06-01

    The majority of soft contact lenses are manufactured using a process of ultraviolet (UV) radiation initiated photopolymerisation. The main source of UV radiation in this manufacturing process is from UV fluorescent lamps. However, there are a number of disadvantages to these lamps, namely, their intensity varies over time and has to be constantly monitored. This paper presents a comparison between light emitting diodes (LEDs), which emit in the UV, and fluorescent lamps used in the contact lens manufacturing industry. The spectral and temporal stability of both UV sources is presented. The ability of both sources to photopolymerise 2-Hydroxyethyl Methacrylate (HEMA), the main component of soft contact lenses, was measured using FTIR and Raman spectroscopy. The percentage polymerisation of HEMA, using both sources, was calculated for several UV sensitive photoinitiators and is presented here. The potential of these UV-LEDs in replacing fluorescent lamps in contact lens manufacturing is discussed.

  17. Remotely Triggered Solar Blind Signaling Using Deep Ultraviolet (UV) LEDs

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-06-01

    Setup used to measure intensity as a function of current. Due to the large difference in intensity between the LEDs of different lens types, the...duty cycle has the smaller rate of intensity drop. Even though the duration of the pulse is double that of the other current, the extra time...neutral troops. If activated, the prototype responds by emitting ten 300 ms flashes followed by a return to passive mode. The dimensions of the

  18. Technical Testing of Deep-UV Solid-State Sources for Fluorescence Lifetime Measurements in the Frequency Domain

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-02-01

    fluxes at wavelengths short enough for excitation of fluorescence in basic biological fluorophores and bacterial agents. In particular, deep- UV LEDs ...can be used for excitation of aromatic amino acids, whereas near- UV LEDs are suitable for excitation of autofluorescent coenzymes. The SUVOS AlGaN... LEDs as well as commercial InGaN near- UV LEDs were tested for spectral purity and the possibility of high-frequency modulation up to 200 MHz and

  19. Evaluating UV-C LED disinfection performance and investigating potential dual-wavelength synergy.

    PubMed

    Beck, Sara E; Ryu, Hodon; Boczek, Laura A; Cashdollar, Jennifer L; Jeanis, Kaitlyn M; Rosenblum, James S; Lawal, Oliver R; Linden, Karl G

    2017-02-01

    A dual-wavelength UV-C LED unit, emitting at peaks of 260 nm, 280 nm, and the combination of 260|280 nm together was evaluated for its inactivation efficacy and energy efficiency at disinfecting Escherichia coli, MS2 coliphage, human adenovirus type 2 (HAdV2), and Bacillus pumilus spores, compared to conventional low-pressure and medium-pressure UV mercury vapor lamps. The dual-wavelength unit was also used to measure potential synergistic effects of multiple wavelengths on bacterial and viral inactivation and DNA and RNA damage. All five UV sources demonstrated similar inactivation of E. coli. For MS2, the 260 nm LED was most effective. For HAdV2 and B. pumilus, the MP UV lamp was most effective. When measuring electrical energy per order of reduction, the LP UV lamp was most efficient for inactivating E. coli and MS2; the LP UV and MP UV mercury lamps were equally efficient for HAdV2 and B. pumilus spores. Among the UV-C LEDs, there was no statistical difference in electrical efficiency for inactivating MS2, HAdV2, and B. pumilus spores. The 260 nm and 260|280 nm LEDs had a statistical energy advantage for E. coli inactivation. For UV-C LEDs to match the electrical efficiency per order of log reduction of conventional LP UV sources, they must reach efficiencies of 25-39% or be improved on by smart reactor design. No dual wavelength synergies were detected for bacterial and viral inactivation nor for DNA and RNA damage.

  20. Influence of the LED heterostructure on the degradation behavior of (InAlGa)N-based UV-B LEDs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glaab, Johannes; Lobo Ploch, Neysha; Rass, Jens; Kolbe, Tim; Wernicke, Tim; Mehnke, Frank; Kuhn, Christian; Enslin, Johannes; Stölmacker, Christoph; Kueller, Viola; Knauer, Arne; Einfeldt, Sven; Weyers, Markus; Kneissl, Michael

    2016-02-01

    In this paper we report on the influence of the heterostructure design of (InAlGa)N-based UV-B LEDs grown by metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy on sapphire substrates on the degradation behavior of the device. Two types of LEDs with different heterostructure design, resulting in peak-wavelengths of about 290 nm and 310 nm, respectively, were stressed at a constant operation current of 100 mA and a heat sink temperature of 20°C. Electro-optical characterization of the LEDs over 1.000 h of operation shows two different degradation modes with respect to the change of the emission spectrum and leakage current. The first mode during the initial hours (290 nm LED: 0 h - 500 h, 310 nm LED: 0 h - 100 h) of operation is represented by a fast reduction of the quantum well (QW) luminescence, a constant or increasing parasitic luminescence between 310 nm and 450 nm and a fast increase of the reverse- and forward-bias leakage current. These changes are more pronounced (higher degradation rate) in the 290 nm LEDs and can therefore be attributed to the different heterostructure design. In contrast, the second degradation mode at longer operation times (290 nm LED: >500 h, 310 nm LED: >100 h) is marked by a slow reduction of both the QW and the parasitic luminescence, as well as a slow increase of the leakage current which are similar for both types of LEDs. Furthermore, the second mode is marked by a square-root time dependence of the QW luminescence intensity, indicating a diffusion process to be involved.

  1. Investigation of uniformity field generated from freeform lens with UV LED exposure system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ciou, F. Y.; Chen, Y. C.; Pan, C. T.; Lin, P. H.; Lin, P. H.; Hsu, F. T.

    2015-03-01

    In the exposure process, the intensity and uniformity of light in the exposure area directly influenced the precision of products. UV-LED (Ultraviolet Light-Emitting Diode) exposure system was established to reduce the radiation leakage and increase the energy efficiency for energy saving. It is a trend that conventional mercury lamp could be replaced with UV-LED exposure system. This study was based on the law of conservation of energy and law of refraction of optical field distributing on the target plane. With these, a freeform lens with uniform light field of main exposure area could be designed. The light outside the exposure area could be concentrated into the area to improve the intensity of light. The refraction index and UV transmittance of Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) is 1.43 at 385 nm wavelength and 85-90%, respectively. The PDMS was used to fabricate the optics lens for UV-LEDs. The average illumination and the uniformity could be obtained by increasing the number of UV-LEDs and the spacing of different arrangement modes. After exposure process with PDMS lens, about 5% inaccuracy was obtained. Comparing to 10% inaccuracy of general exposure system, it shows that it is available to replace conventional exposure lamp with using UV-LEDs.

  2. High-power UV InGaN/AlGaN double-heterostructure LEDs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mukai, Takashi; Morita, Daisuke; Nakamura, Shuji

    1998-06-01

    Ultraviolet (UV) InGaN/AlGaN double-heterostructure (DH) light-emitting diodes (LEDs) with an external quantum efficiency of 7.5%, an output power of 5 mW and an emission wavelength of 371 nm were developed. High-power UV LEDs are obtained using an InGaN active layer with a thickness of 400 Å instead of a GaN active layer. The localized energy states caused by In composition fluctuation in the InGaN active layer are related to the high efficiency of the InGaN-based LEDs.

  3. An elegant route to overcome fundamentally-limited light extraction in AlGaN deep-ultraviolet light-emitting diodes: preferential outcoupling of strong in-plane emission (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Jong Kyu; Lee, Jong Won; Kim, Dong-Yeong; Park, Jun Hyuk; Schubert, E. Fred; Kim, Jungsub; Kim, Yong-Il

    2016-09-01

    AlGaN-based deep ultraviolet (DUV) light-emitting diodes (LEDs) are being developed for their numerous applications such as purification of air and water, sterilization in food processing, UV curing, medical-, and defense-related light sources. However, external quantum efficiency (EQE) of AlGaN-based DUV LEDs is very poor (<5% for 250nm) particularly due to low hole concentration and light extraction efficiency (LEE). Conventional LEE-enhancing techniques used for GaInN-based visible LEDs turned out to be ineffective for DUV LEDs due to difference in intrinsic material property between GaInN and AlGaN (Al< 30%). Unlike GaInN visible LEDs, DUV light from a high Al-content AlGaN active region is strongly transverse-magnetic (TM) polarized, that is, the electric field vector is parallel to the (0001) c-axis and shows strong sidewall emission through m- or a-plane due to crystal-field split-off hole band being top most valence band. Therefore, a new LEE-enhancing approach addressing the unique intrinsic property of AlGaN DUV LEDs is strongly desired. In this study, an elegant approach based on a DUV LED having multiple mesa stripes whose inclined sidewalls are covered by a MgF2/Al omni-directional mirror to take advantage of the strongly anisotropic transverse-magnetic polarized emission pattern of AlGaN quantum wells is presented. The sidewall-emission-enhanced DUV LED breaks through the fundamental limitations caused by the intrinsic properties of AlGaN, thus shows a remarkable improvement in light extraction as well as operating voltage simultaneously. Furthermore, an analytic model is developed to understand and precisely estimate the extraction of DUV photons from AlGaN DUV LEDs, and hence to provide promising routes to maximize the power conversion efficiency.

  4. Fate of carbamazepine and anthracene in soils watered with UV-LED treated wastewaters.

    PubMed

    Chevremont, A-C; Boudenne, J-L; Coulomb, B; Farnet, A-M

    2013-11-01

    Water disinfection technologies based on ultraviolet (UV) radiations emitted by Light-Emitting Diodes (LED), as a wastewater tertiary treatment, have been shown to be promising for water reuse. Here, we assessed the fate of two ubiquitous pollutants, carbamazepine and anthracene, in soil watered with either UV-LED treated wastewaters or irrigation water. After 3 months, anthracene and carbamazepine were transformed two and three times faster respectively, in soils watered with UV-LED wastewater than in soils watered with tap water (probably because of the addition of organic matter by the effluent). Laccase activity was induced in the presence of the pollutants and anthraquinone was found as anthracene product of oxidation by laccases. Moreover, the addition of these pollutants into soil did not affect the functional diversity of autochthonous microbial communities assessed by Ecolog plates. Cellulase, protease and urease activities increased in soils watered with UV-LED treated wastewaters (UV-LED WW), showing transformation of organic matter from the effluent and lipase activity increased by anthracene addition, confirming the potential role of these enzymes as indicators of hydrocarbon contamination.

  5. High-Power 365 nm UV LED Mercury Arc Lamp Replacement for Photochemistry and Chemical Photolithography

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Ultraviolet light emitting diodes (UV LEDs) have become widespread in chemical research as highly efficient light sources for photochemistry and photopolymerization. However, in more complex experimental setups requiring highly concentrated light and highly spatially resolved patterning of the light, high-pressure mercury arc lamps are still widely used because they emit intense UV light from a compact arc volume that can be efficiently coupled into optical systems. Advances in the deposition and p-type doping of gallium nitride have recently permitted the manufacture of UV LEDs capable of replacing mercury arc lamps also in these applications. These UV LEDs exceed the spectral radiance of mercury lamps even at the intense I-line at 365 nm. Here we present the successful exchange of a high-pressure mercury arc lamp for a new generation UV LED as a light source in photolithographic chemistry and its use in the fabrication of high-density DNA microarrays. We show that the improved light radiance and efficiency of these LEDs offer substantial practical, economic and ecological advantages, including faster synthesis, lower hardware costs, very long lifetime, an >85-fold reduction in electricity consumption and the elimination of mercury waste and contamination. PMID:28066690

  6. High-Power 365 nm UV LED Mercury Arc Lamp Replacement for Photochemistry and Chemical Photolithography.

    PubMed

    Hölz, K; Lietard, J; Somoza, M M

    2017-01-03

    Ultraviolet light emitting diodes (UV LEDs) have become widespread in chemical research as highly efficient light sources for photochemistry and photopolymerization. However, in more complex experimental setups requiring highly concentrated light and highly spatially resolved patterning of the light, high-pressure mercury arc lamps are still widely used because they emit intense UV light from a compact arc volume that can be efficiently coupled into optical systems. Advances in the deposition and p-type doping of gallium nitride have recently permitted the manufacture of UV LEDs capable of replacing mercury arc lamps also in these applications. These UV LEDs exceed the spectral radiance of mercury lamps even at the intense I-line at 365 nm. Here we present the successful exchange of a high-pressure mercury arc lamp for a new generation UV LED as a light source in photolithographic chemistry and its use in the fabrication of high-density DNA microarrays. We show that the improved light radiance and efficiency of these LEDs offer substantial practical, economic and ecological advantages, including faster synthesis, lower hardware costs, very long lifetime, an >85-fold reduction in electricity consumption and the elimination of mercury waste and contamination.

  7. Characterising and testing deep UV LEDs for use in space applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hollington, D.; Baird, J. T.; Sumner, T. J.; Wass, P. J.

    2015-12-01

    Deep ultraviolet (DUV) light sources are used to neutralise isolated test masses in highly sensitive space-based gravitational experiments. An example is the LISA Pathfinder charge management system, which uses low-pressure mercury lamps. A future gravitational-wave observatory such as eLISA will use UV light-emitting diodes (UV LEDs), which offer numerous advantages over traditional discharge lamps. Such devices have limited space heritage but are now available from a number of commercial suppliers. Here we report on a test campaign that was carried out to quantify the general properties of three types of commercially available UV LEDs and demonstrate their suitability for use in space. Testing included general electrical and UV output power measurements, spectral stability, pulsed performance and temperature dependence, as well as thermal vacuum, radiation and vibration survivability.

  8. Characterization of curing behavior of UV-curable LSR for LED embedded injection mold

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tae, Joon-Sung; Yim, Kyung-Gyu; Rhee, Byung-Ohk; Kwak, Jae B.

    2016-11-01

    For many applications, liquid silicone rubber (LSR) injection molding is widely used for their great design flexibility and high productivity. In particular, a sealing part for a mobile device such as smartphone and watch has been produced by injection molding. While thermally curable LSR causes deformation problem due to a high mold temperature, UV-curable LSR can be molded at room temperature, which has advantages for over-molding with inserts of temperature-sensitive materials. Ultraviolet light-emitting diodes (UV LEDs) have advantages such as a longer service life, a lower heat dissipation, and smaller size to equip into the mold than conventional halogen or mercury UV lamps. In this work, rheological behavior of UV-curable LSR during curing process was analyzed by UV LEDs available in the market. UV-LEDs of various wave lengths and intensities were tested. The steady shear test was applied to find the starting time of curing and the SAOS was applied to find the ending time of curing to estimate processing time. In addition, the hardness change with irradiation energy was compared with the rheological data to confirm the reliability of the rheological test.

  9. N-Vinylcarbazole as Versatile Photoinaddimer of Photopolymerization under Household UV LED Bulb (392 nm).

    PubMed

    Xiao, Pu; Lalevée, Jacques; Zhao, Jiacheng; Stenzel, Martina H

    2015-09-01

    N-vinylcarbazole (NVK) can act simultaneously as a photoinitiator, an additive, and a mono-mer (photoinaddimer) of photopolymerization upon exposure to the household ultraviolet (UV) light-emitting diode (LED) bulb (emission wavelength centered at 392 nm). Even though the light absorption spectrum of NVK exhibits weak overlapping with the emission spectrum of the UV LED, the active species (i.e., radicals and cations) can be generated from the interaction between NVK and diphenyliodonium hexafluorophosphate (Iod) under irradiation of this LED device, which is investigated by steady state photolysis and electron spin resonance spin-trapping methods. Interestingly, the generated radicals and cations from the NVK/Iod system demonstrate high efficiency to initiate the free radical photopolymerization of (meth)acrylates and the cationic photopolymerization of epoxide and divinyl ether under the UV LED irradiation, and the one-step simultaneous catonic/radical photopolymerization of expoxide/acrylate blend can lead to the formation of tack free polyacrylate/polyether-based interpenetrated polymer network film within 10 min even when the polymerization process is exposed to the atmosphere highlighting the high efficiency of the system to reduce the oxygen inhibition effect. More interestingly, NVK/Iod system can also initiate the photopolymerization of NVK under the UV LED irradiation to produce polyvinylcarbazole, and NVK acts as both a photoinitiator and a monomer in the system.

  10. An AlGaN Core-Shell Tunnel Junction Nanowire Light-Emitting Diode Operating in the Ultraviolet-C Band.

    PubMed

    Sadaf, S M; Zhao, S; Wu, Y; Ra, Y-H; Liu, X; Vanka, S; Mi, Z

    2017-02-08

    To date, semiconductor light emitting diodes (LEDs) operating in the deep ultraviolet (UV) spectral range exhibit very low efficiency due to the presence of large densities of defects and extremely inefficient p-type conduction of conventional AlGaN quantum well heterostructures. We have demonstrated that such critical issues can be potentially addressed by using nearly defect-free AlGaN tunnel junction core-shell nanowire heterostructures. The core-shell nanowire arrays exhibit high photoluminescence efficiency (∼80%) in the UV-C band at room temperature. With the incorporation of an epitaxial Al tunnel junction, the p-(Al)GaN contact-free nanowire deep UV LEDs showed nearly one order of magnitude reduction in the device resistance, compared to the conventional nanowire p-i-n device. The unpackaged Al tunnel junction deep UV LEDs exhibit an output power >8 mW and a peak external quantum efficiency ∼0.4%, which are nearly one to two orders of magnitude higher than previously reported AlGaN nanowire devices. Detailed studies further suggest that the maximum achievable efficiency is limited by electron overflow and poor light extraction efficiency due to the TM polarized emission.

  11. Phosphors for near UV-Emitting LED's for Efficacious Generation of White Light

    SciTech Connect

    McKittrick, Joanna

    2013-09-30

    1) We studied phosphors for near-UV (nUV) LED application as an alternative to blue LEDs currently being used in SSL systems. We have shown that nUV light sources could be very efficient at high current and will have significantly less binning at both the chip and phosphor levels. We identified phosphor blends that could yield 4100K lamps with a CRI of approximately 80 and LPWnUV,opt equal to 179 for the best performing phosphor blend. Considering the fact that the lamps were not optimized for light coupling, the results are quite impressive. The main bottleneck is an optimum blue phosphor with a peak near 440 nm with a full width half maximum of about 25 nm and a quantum efficiency of >95%. Unfortunately, that may be a very difficult task when we want to excite a phosphor at ~400 nm with a very small margin for Stokes shift. Another way is to have all the phosphors in the blend having the excitation peak at 400 nm or slightly shorter wavelength. This could lead to a white light source with no body color and optimum efficacy due to no self-absorption effects by phosphors in the blend. This is even harder than finding an ideal blue phosphor, but not necessarily impossible. 2) With the phosphor blends identified, light sources using nUV LEDs at high current could be designed with comparable efficacy to those using blue LEDs. It will allow us to design light sources with multiple wattages using the same chips and phosphor blends simply by varying the input current. In the case of blue LEDs, this is not currently possible because varying the current will lower the efficacy at high current and alter the color point. With improvement of phosphor blends, control over CRI could improve. Less binning at the chip level and also at the phosphor blend level could reduce the cost of SSL light sources. 3) This study provided a deeper understanding of phosphor characteristics needed for LEDs in general and nUV LEDs in particular. Two students received Ph.D. degrees and three

  12. Photocatalytic degradation of Reactive Red 22 in aqueous solution by UV-LED radiation.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wen-Yu; Ku, Young

    2006-07-01

    Photocatalytic processes using TiO(2) as a catalyst have attracted extensive attention for decomposition of organic contaminants. The determination of optimum reactor design and operational conditions are the major concerns for the development and potential application of the photocatalytic process. Various photoreactor types, photocatalyst arrangements, light sources, and operation conditions were reported. This study was focused on the application of the ultraviolet light emitting diode (UV-LED) as the UV light source for the photocatalytic decomposition of Reactive Red 22 (RR 22). The temporal behavior of the photocatalytic decomposition of RR 22 in aqueous solution by the UV-LED/TiO(2) with a rectangular planar fixed-film reactor operated in a recirculation mode was studied under various conditions including initial dye concentration, periodic illumination, light intensity, and arrangements of TiO(2) coating. The decomposition of RR 22 in aqueous solution by TiO(2) photocatalytic processes with the UV-LED was found to be technically feasible with a high TiO(2) coated weight (1.135g) and low pH value (pH 2). A Langmuir-Hinshelwood-type kinetic equation was adequate for modeling the photocatalytic decomposition of RR 22 by the UV-LED/TiO(2) photocatalytic processes. The experimental results indicated that the photonic efficiency with periodic illumination was much higher than those with continuous illumination. The photonic efficiencies with the quartz-liquid-catalyst (QLC) arrangement were higher than those with the quartz-catalyst-liquid (QCL) arrangement for experiments conducted at lower applied light intensity; however, the photonic efficiencies for these two arrangements were nearly identical for experiments conducted at higher light intensities.

  13. PVP capped CdS nanoparticles for UV-LED applications

    SciTech Connect

    Sivaram, H.; Selvakumar, D.; Jayavel, R.

    2015-06-24

    Polyvinlypyrrolidone (PVP) capped cadmium sulphide (CdS) nanoparticles are synthesized by wet chemical method. The powder X-ray diffraction (XRD) result indicates that the nanoparticles are crystallized in cubic phase. The optical properties are characterized by UV-Vis absorption. The morphology of CdS nanoparticles are studied using Scanning electron microscope (SEM). The thermal behavior of the as prepared nanoparticles has been examined by Thermo gravimetric analysis (TGA). The optical absorption study of pvp capped CdS reveal a red shift confirms the UV-LED applications.

  14. Application of GaN-based ultraviolet-C light emitting diodes--UV LEDs--for water disinfection.

    PubMed

    Würtele, M A; Kolbe, T; Lipsz, M; Külberg, A; Weyers, M; Kneissl, M; Jekel, M

    2011-01-01

    GaN-based ultraviolet-C (UV-C) light emitting diodes (LEDs) are of great interest for water disinfection. They offer significant advantages compared to conventional mercury lamps due to their compact form factor, low power requirements, high efficiency, non-toxicity, and overall robustness. However, despite the significant progress in the performance of semiconductor based UV LEDs that has been achieved in recent years, these devices still suffer from low emission power and relatively short lifetimes. Even the best UV LEDs exhibit external quantum efficiencies of only 1-2%. The objective of this study was to investigate the suitability of GaN-based UV LEDs for water disinfection. The investigation included the evaluation of the performance characteristics of UV LEDs at different operating conditions as well as the design of a UV LED module in view of the requirements for water treatment applications. Bioanalytical testing was conducted using Bacillus subtilis spores as test organism and UV LED modules with emission wavelengths of 269 nm and 282 nm. The results demonstrate the functionality of the developed UV LED disinfection modules. GaN-based UV LEDs effectively inactivated B. subtilis spores during static and flow-through tests applying varying water qualities. The 269 nm LEDs reached a higher level of inactivation than the 282 nm LEDs for the same applied fluence. The lower inactivation achieved by the 282 nm LEDs was compensated by their higher photon flux. First flow-through tests indicate a linear correlation between inactivation and fluence, demonstrating a well designed flow-through reactor. With improved light output and reduced costs, GaN-based UV LEDs can provide a promising alternative for decentralised and mobile water disinfection systems.

  15. Plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy of Al(Ga)N layers and quantum well structures for optically pumped mid-UV lasers on c-Al2O3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivanov, S. V.; Nechaev, D. V.; Sitnikova, A. A.; Ratnikov, V. V.; Yagovkina, M. A.; Rzheutskii, N. V.; Lutsenko, E. V.; Jmerik, V. N.

    2014-06-01

    This paper reports on novel approaches developed for plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy of Al-rich AlGaN epilayers and quantum well heterostructures on c-sapphire, which allowed us to fabricate low-threshold optically-pumped separate confinement heterostructure lasers emitting in the mid-UV spectral range (258-290 nm) with the threshold power density below 600 kW cm-2. The optimum buffer structure has been developed which provides lowering the near-surface threading dislocation density down to 1.5 × 108 and 3 × 109 cm-2 for screw and edge types, respectively, and improving the surface morphology (rms < 0.7 nm at the area of 3 × 3 μm-2). It comprises the high-temperature (780 °C) migration enhanced epitaxy growth of a (30-70) nm thick AlN nucleation layer on c-Al2O3, followed by a 2 μm thick AlN buffer grown under the metal-rich conditions in the Al-flux modulation mode and containing several (up to 6) ultra-thin (˜3 nm) GaN interlayers grown at N-rich conditions. Proper strain engineering in AlGaN single quantum well heterostructure grown atop of the AlN buffer layer enables one to preserve dominant TE polarization of both spontaneous and stimulated emission even at shortest obtained wavelength (258 nm). The threshold power density of stimulated emission as low as 150 kW cm-2 at 289 nm for a single quantum well laser structure has been demonstrated.

  16. Development of ultraviolet electroabsorption modulators and light emitting diodes based on AlGaN alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kao, Chen-Kai

    The research in this dissertation addressed the development of ultraviolet (UV) electroabsorption modulators and ultraviolet light emitting diodes (UV-LEDs), covering the spectral range from 360 to 265 nm. The materials system for both types of devices is the AlGaN alloys, either in bulk or quantum well (QW) form, grown by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy (MBE). Potential applications of these devices either individually or in combination include UV non-line-of-sight free-space-optical communications, UV sensing and spectroscopic systems, Q-switched pulsed lasers, water/air purification and various medical applications. Optical modulators based on cubic III-V semiconductors have been the subject of extensive research over the past several years. Such devices are typically based on the quantum-confined Stark effect to modify the absorption spectrum of multiple-quantum-well active regions. On the other hand, in wurtzite III-Nitride semiconductors, strong electric fields are already present in the quantum wells due to intrinsic and piezoelectric polarizations; as a result, an even greater change in absorption is achievable, especially if the internal fields are compensated by the external bias so that the net field in the quantum wells is reduced. A number of UV electroabsorption modulators based on Schottky barriers on bulk GaN and GaN /AlGaN multiple quantum wells (MQWs) were designed, fabricated and characterized. Record modulation ratio of 30 % was obtained from bulk GaN Schottky barrier modulators at the excitonic resonant energy of 3.45 eV (360 nm) upon the application of 12 V reverse bias. Similarly, record modulation ratio of 43% was obtained from GaN / AlGaN MQWs Schottky barrier modulators at the excitonic resonant energy of 3.48 eV (356 nm) upon the application of 17 V reverse bias. The external quantum efficiency (EQE) of AlGaN based deep UV LEDS is relatively low (˜1% at 270 nm). This is generally attributed to the poor internal quantum efficiency

  17. Extreme Radiation Hardness and Space Qualification of AlGaN Optoelectronic Devices

    SciTech Connect

    Sun, Ke-Xun; Balakrishnan, Kathik; Hultgren, Eric; Goebel, John; Bilenko, Yuri; Yang, Jinwei; Sun, Wenhong; Shatalov, Max; Hu, Xuhong; Gaska, Remis

    2010-09-21

    Unprecedented radiation hardness and environment robustness are required in the new generation of high energy density physics (HEDP) experiments and deep space exploration. National Ignition Facility (NIF) break-even shots will have a neutron yield of 1015 or higher. The Europa Jupiter System Mission (EJSM) mission instruments will be irradiated with a total fluence of 1012 protons/cm2 during the space journey. In addition, large temperature variations and mechanical shocks are expected in these applications under extreme conditions. Hefty radiation and thermal shields are required for Si and GaAs based electronics and optoelectronics devices. However, for direct illumination and imaging applications, shielding is not a viable option. It is an urgent task to search for new semiconductor technologies and to develop radiation hard and environmentally robust optoelectronic devices. We will report on our latest systematic experimental studies on radiation hardness and space qualifications of AlGaN optoelectronic devices: Deep UV Light Emitting Diodes (DUV LEDs) and solarblind UV Photodiodes (PDs). For custom designed AlGaN DUV LEDs with a central emission wavelength of 255 nm, we have demonstrated its extreme radiation hardness up to 2x1012 protons/cm2 with 63.9 MeV proton beams. We have demonstrated an operation lifetime of over 26,000 hours in a nitrogen rich environment, and 23,000 hours of operation in vacuum without significant power drop and spectral shift. The DUV LEDs with multiple packaging styles have passed stringent space qualifications with 14 g random vibrations, and 21 cycles of 100K temperature cycles. The driving voltage, current, emission spectra and optical power (V-I-P) operation characteristics exhibited no significant changes after the space environmental tests. The DUV LEDs will be used for photoelectric charge management in space flights. For custom designed AlGaN UV photodiodes with a central response wavelength of 255 nm, we have demonstrated

  18. AlGaN-based deep-UV LEDs for fluorescence sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vitta, Pranciskus; Kurilcik, Natalija; Novickovas, Algirdas; Jursenas, Saulius; Calkauskas, Henrikas; Zukauskas, Arturas; Gaska, Remis

    2004-12-01

    Recent progress in wide-bandgap semiconductor optoelectronics resulted in an appearance of deep-UV light-emitting diodes (LEDs), which can be used for fluorescence excitation in a variety of chemical and biological compounds. We used two generations of AlGaN-based UVTOP series deep ultraviolet LEDs developed by Sensor Electronic Technology, Inc. The peak wavelength of these fully packaged devices is 340 nm and 280 nm, line width at half maximum approximately 10 nm, wall-plug efficiency up to 0.9% and output power in the milliwatt range. The second-generation emitters are shown to have an extremely low level of unwanted long-wavelength emission what is important for fluorescence measurements. The UV LEDs were tested for fluorescence excitation in standard fluorophores (organic dyes), autofluorescent biological compounds (riboflavin, NADH, tryptophan, and tyrosine) and medical specimens (fluid secreted by prostate gland). Fluorescence lifetime measurements in the frequency domain were demonstrated using UVTOP-340 and -280 devices. The output of the LEDs was modulated at frequencies up to 200 MHz by high-frequency current drivers and the phase angle of the fluorescence signal was resolved using a radio-frequency lock-in amplifier. Nanosecond-scaled measurements of fluorescence lifetimes, which are the "fingerprints" of chemical and biological compounds, were demonstrated.

  19. Impact of watering with UV-LED-treated wastewater on microbial and physico-chemical parameters of soil.

    PubMed

    Chevremont, A-C; Boudenne, J-L; Coulomb, B; Farnet, A-M

    2013-04-15

    Advanced oxidation processes based on UV radiations have been shown to be a promising wastewater disinfection technology. The UV-LED system involves innovative materials and could be an advantageous alternative to mercury-vapor lamps. The use of the UV-LED system results in good water quality meeting the legislative requirements relating to wastewater reuse for irrigation. The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of watering with UV-LED treated wastewaters (UV-LED WW) on soil parameters. Solid-state ¹³C NMR shows that watering with UV-LED WW do not change the chemical composition of soil organic matter compared to soil watered with potable water. Regarding microbiological parameters, laccase, cellulase, protease and urease activities increase in soils watered with UV-LED WW which means that organic matter brought by the effluent is actively degraded by soil microorganisms. The functional diversity of soil microorganisms is not affected by watering with UV-LED WW when it is altered by 4 and 8 months of watering with wastewater (WW). After 12 months, functional diversity is similar regardless of the water used for watering. The persistence of faecal indicator bacteria (coliform and enterococci) was also determined and watering with UV-LED WW does not increase their number nor their diversity unlike soils irrigated with activated sludge wastewater. The study of watering-soil microcosms with UV-LED WW indicates that this system seems to be a promising alternative to the UV-lamp-treated wastewaters.

  20. Development of a new water sterilization device with a 365 nm UV-LED.

    PubMed

    Mori, Mirei; Hamamoto, Akiko; Takahashi, Akira; Nakano, Masayuki; Wakikawa, Noriko; Tachibana, Satoko; Ikehara, Toshitaka; Nakaya, Yutaka; Akutagawa, Masatake; Kinouchi, Yohsuke

    2007-12-01

    Ultraviolet (UV) irradiation is an effective disinfection method. In sterilization equipment, a low-pressure mercury lamp emitting an effective germicidal UVC (254 nm) is used as the light source. However, the lamp, which contains mercury, must be disposed of at the end of its lifetime or following damage due to physical shock or vibration. We investigated the suitability of an ultraviolet light-emitting diode at an output wavelength of 365 nm (UVA-LED) as a sterilization device, comparing with the other wavelength irradiation such as 254 nm (a low-pressure mercury lam) and 405 nm (LED). We used a commercially available UVA-LED that emitted light at the shortest wavelength and at the highest output energy. The new sterilization system using the UVA-LED was able to inactivate bacteria, such as Escherichia coli DH5 alpha, Enteropathogenic E. coli, Vibrio parahaemolyticus, Staphylococcus aureus, and Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis. The inactivations of the bacteria were dependent on the accumulation of UVA irradiation. Taking advantage of the safety and compact size of LED devices, we expect that the UVA-LED sterilization device can be developed as a new type of water sterilization device.

  1. Smartphone Detection of UV LED-Enhanced Particle Immunoassay on Paper Microfluidics.

    PubMed

    Park, Tu San; Cho, Soohee; Nahapetian, Tigran G; Yoon, Jeong-Yeol

    2017-02-01

    Use of a smartphone as an optical detector for paper microfluidic devices has recently gained substantial attention due to its simplicity, ease of use, and handheld capability. Utilization of a UV light source enhances the optical signal intensities, especially for the particle immunoagglutination assay that has typically used visible or ambient light. Such enhancement is essential for true assimilation of assays to field deployable and point-of-care applications by greatly reducing the effects by independent environmental factors. This work is the first demonstration of using a UV LED (UVA) to enhance the Mie scatter signals from the particle immunoagglutination assay on the paper microfluidic devices and subsequent smartphone detection. Smartphone's CMOS camera can recognize the UVA scatter from the paper microfluidic channels efficiently in its green channel. For an Escherichia coli assay, the normalized signal intensities increased up to 50% from the negative signal with UV LED, compared with the 4% to 7% with ambient light. Detection limit was 10 colony-forming units/mL. Similar results were obtained in the presence of 10% human whole blood.

  2. Direct Blue Dye Degradation Using Titanium Nanostructures Under Energy-Efficient UV-LED Irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jo, Wan-Kuen; Tayade, Rajesh J.

    2016-01-01

    The present study describes the effect of titanium dioxide (TiO2) morphology on the photocatalytic activity under irradiation of ultraviolet light-emitting diode (UV-LED). Different TiO2 nanostructures were synthesized using hydrothermal (nanotubes and nanospheres) and solvothermal (nanoflowers) methods. The morphology, phase composition, bandgap, and chemical properties of the synthesized different TiO2 nanostructures were characterized using x-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, ultraviolet visible diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (UV-Vis DRS), and Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) analysis. The surface area of the nanotubes was larger than that of the nanospheres and nanoflowers by four- and three-fold, respectively. The photocatalytic activity of the photocatalysts was evaluated by degradation of direct blue-15 dye under UV-LED irradiation in a slurry-type reactor. The photocatalytic activity of the TiO2 nanoflowers was higher than that of TiO2 nanotubes or nanospheres, suggesting that nanoflowers can serve as efficient photocatalysts for dye degradation.

  3. The Use of Ultra-Violet (UV) Light Emitting Diodes (LEDS) in an Advanced Oxidation Process (AOP) with Brilliant Blue FCF as an Indicator

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-03-26

    indicated that it performed suitably as a witness dye with improved characteristics as compared to methylene blue. Further, the experiments indicated...light output by methylene blue adsorption on post experimentation reactor UV LEDsUV LED Quartz Lens Adsorption Experiment ...31 UV Brilliant Blue FCF...10 Figure 2 - Flow through reactor with UV LEDs

  4. Efficient charge carrier injection into sub-250 nm AlGaN multiple quantum well light emitting diodes

    SciTech Connect

    Mehnke, Frank Kuhn, Christian; Guttmann, Martin; Reich, Christoph; Kolbe, Tim; Rass, Jens; Wernicke, Tim; Kueller, Viola; Knauer, Arne; Lapeyrade, Mickael; Einfeldt, Sven; Weyers, Markus; Kneissl, Michael

    2014-08-04

    The design and Mg-doping profile of AlN/Al{sub 0.7}Ga{sub 0.3}N electron blocking heterostructures (EBH) for AlGaN multiple quantum well (MQW) light emitting diodes (LEDs) emitting below 250 nm was investigated. By inserting an AlN electron blocking layer (EBL) into the EBH, we were able to increase the quantum well emission power and significantly reduce long wavelength parasitic luminescence. Furthermore, electron leakage was suppressed by optimizing the thickness of the AlN EBL while still maintaining sufficient hole injection. Ultraviolet (UV)-C LEDs with very low parasitic luminescence (7% of total emission power) and external quantum efficiencies of 0.19% at 246 nm have been realized. This concept was applied to AlGaN MQW LEDs emitting between 235 nm and 263 nm with external quantum efficiencies ranging from 0.002% to 0.93%. After processing, we were able to demonstrate an UV-C LED emitting at 234 nm with 14.5 μW integrated optical output power and an external quantum efficiency of 0.012% at 18.2 A/cm{sup 2}.

  5. Ultraviolet light stable and transparent sol-gel methyl siloxane hybrid material for UV light-emitting diode (UV LED) encapsulant.

    PubMed

    Bae, Jun-Young; Kim, YongHo; Kim, HweaYoon; Kim, YuBae; Jin, Jungho; Bae, Byeong-Soo

    2015-01-21

    An ultraviolet (UV) transparent and stable methyl-siloxane hybrid material was prepared by a facile sol-gel method. The transparency and stability of a UV-LED encapsulant is an important issue because it affects UV light extraction efficiency and long-term reliability. We introduced a novel concept for UV-LED encapsulation using a thermally curable oligosiloxane resin. The encapsulant was fabricated by a hydrosilylation of hydrogen-methyl oligosiloxane resin and vinyl-methyl siloxane resin, and showed a comparable transmittance to polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) in the UVB (∼300 nm) region. Most remarkably, the methyl-siloxane hybrid materials exhibited long-term UV stability under light soaking in UVB (∼300 nm) for 1000 h.

  6. Computer numerical control (CNC) lithography: light-motion synchronized UV-LED lithography for 3D microfabrication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Jungkwun; Yoon, Yong-Kyu; Allen, Mark G.

    2016-03-01

    This paper presents a computer-numerical-controlled ultraviolet light-emitting diode (CNC UV-LED) lithography scheme for three-dimensional (3D) microfabrication. The CNC lithography scheme utilizes sequential multi-angled UV light exposures along with a synchronized switchable UV light source to create arbitrary 3D light traces, which are transferred into the photosensitive resist. The system comprises a switchable, movable UV-LED array as a light source, a motorized tilt-rotational sample holder, and a computer-control unit. System operation is such that the tilt-rotational sample holder moves in a pre-programmed routine, and the UV-LED is illuminated only at desired positions of the sample holder during the desired time period, enabling the formation of complex 3D microstructures. This facilitates easy fabrication of complex 3D structures, which otherwise would have required multiple manual exposure steps as in the previous multidirectional 3D UV lithography approach. Since it is batch processed, processing time is far less than that of the 3D printing approach at the expense of some reduction in the degree of achievable 3D structure complexity. In order to produce uniform light intensity from the arrayed LED light source, the UV-LED array stage has been kept rotating during exposure. UV-LED 3D fabrication capability was demonstrated through a plurality of complex structures such as V-shaped micropillars, micropanels, a micro-‘hi’ structure, a micro-‘cat’s claw,’ a micro-‘horn,’ a micro-‘calla lily,’ a micro-‘cowboy’s hat,’ and a micro-‘table napkin’ array.

  7. Molecular beam epitaxy growth of Al-rich AlGaN nanowires for deep ultraviolet optoelectronics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, S.; Woo, S. Y.; Sadaf, S. M.; Wu, Y.; Pofelski, A.; Laleyan, D. A.; Rashid, R. T.; Wang, Y.; Botton, G. A.; Mi, Z.

    2016-08-01

    Self-organized AlGaN nanowires by molecular beam epitaxy have attracted significant attention for deep ultraviolet optoelectronics. However, due to the strong compositional modulations under conventional nitrogen rich growth conditions, emission wavelengths less than 250 nm have remained inaccessible. Here we show that Al-rich AlGaN nanowires with much improved compositional uniformity can be achieved in a new growth paradigm, wherein a precise control on the optical bandgap of ternary AlGaN nanowires can be achieved by varying the substrate temperature. AlGaN nanowire LEDs, with emission wavelengths spanning from 236 to 280 nm, are also demonstrated.

  8. Design and evaluation of a UV LED Photocatalytic Reactor Using Anodized TiO2 Nanotubes.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Jyoti P; Achari, Gopal; Langford, Cooper H

    2016-08-01

    A bench-scale flow-through photocatalytic reactor using light emitting diodes (LED) as light source and a TiO2 nanotube array (TN) as immobilized catalyst has been designed, fabricated and tested on commonly studied contaminants. The photoreactor is comprised of 144, 365-nm UV-LED lamps mounted along the inner periphery of an annular cylinder. An ordered array of TN, as catalyst, was immobilized by electrochemical anodization of a titanium cylinder and placed in the center of the reactor. Synthesized TN was characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX). Laboratory investigations were conducted on the photoreactor to treat 4-chlorophenol (4-CP), atrazine and methylene blue. The performance of the photoreactor at different flow rates and at varying distances of photocatalyst from the light source was monitored. The photocatalytic reaction rates increased with bubbling oxygen into the reservoir. Significant improvement was observed when H2O2 was added and degradation to detection limits was observed.

  9. Heuristic optimization of a continuous flow point-of-use UV-LED disinfection reactor using computational fluid dynamics.

    PubMed

    Jenny, Richard M; Jasper, Micah N; Simmons, Otto D; Shatalov, Max; Ducoste, Joel J

    2015-10-15

    Alternative disinfection sources such as ultraviolet light (UV) are being pursued to inactivate pathogenic microorganisms such as Cryptosporidium and Giardia, while simultaneously reducing the risk of exposure to carcinogenic disinfection by-products (DBPs) in drinking water. UV-LEDs offer a UV disinfecting source that do not contain mercury, have the potential for long lifetimes, are robust, and have a high degree of design flexibility. However, the increased flexibility in design options will add a substantial level of complexity when developing a UV-LED reactor, particularly with regards to reactor shape, size, spatial orientation of light, and germicidal emission wavelength. Anticipating that LEDs are the future of UV disinfection, new methods are needed for designing such reactors. In this research study, the evaluation of a new design paradigm using a point-of-use UV-LED disinfection reactor has been performed. ModeFrontier, a numerical optimization platform, was coupled with COMSOL Multi-physics, a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) software package, to generate an optimized UV-LED continuous flow reactor. Three optimality conditions were considered: 1) single objective analysis minimizing input supply power while achieving at least (2.0) log10 inactivation of Escherichia coli ATCC 11229; and 2) two multi-objective analyses (one of which maximized the log10 inactivation of E. coli ATCC 11229 and minimized the supply power). All tests were completed at a flow rate of 109 mL/min and 92% UVT (measured at 254 nm). The numerical solution for the first objective was validated experimentally using biodosimetry. The optimal design predictions displayed good agreement with the experimental data and contained several non-intuitive features, particularly with the UV-LED spatial arrangement, where the lights were unevenly populated throughout the reactor. The optimal designs may not have been developed from experienced designers due to the increased degrees of

  10. Developing LED UV fluorescence sensors for online monitoring DOM and predicting DBPs formation potential during water treatment.

    PubMed

    Li, Wen-Tao; Jin, Jing; Li, Qiang; Wu, Chen-Fei; Lu, Hai; Zhou, Qing; Li, Ai-Min

    2016-04-15

    Online monitoring dissolved organic matter (DOM) is urgent for water treatment management. In this study, high performance size exclusion chromatography with multi-UV absorbance and multi-emission fluorescence scans were applied to spectrally characterize samples from 16 drinking water sources across Yangzi River and Huai River Watersheds. The UV absorbance indices at 254 nm and 280 nm referred to the same DOM components and concentration, and the 280 nm UV light could excite both protein-like and humic-like fluorescence. Hence a novel UV fluorescence sensor was developed out using only one UV280 light-emitting diode (LED) as light source. For all samples, enhanced coagulation was mainly effective for large molecular weight biopolymers; while anion exchange further substantially removed humic substances. During chlorination tests, UVA280 and UVA254 showed similar correlations with yields of disinfection byproducts (DBPs); the humic-like fluorescence obtained from LED sensors correlated well with both trihalomethanes and haloacetic acids yields, while the correlation between protein-like fluorescence and trihalomethanes was relatively poor. Anion exchange exhibited more reduction of DBPs yields as well as UV absorbance and fluorescence signals than enhanced coagulation. The results suggest that the LED UV fluorescence sensors are very promising for online monitoring DOM and predicting DBPs formation potential during water treatment.

  11. Atmospheric HONO and NO2 measurement based on a broadband cavity enhanced UV-LED spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Tao; Zha, Qiaozhi; Chen, Weidong; Xu, Zheng; Wang, Tao; He, Xingdao

    2015-04-01

    Nitrous acid (HONO) is a key component in tropospheric oxidant chemistry due to its contribution to the cycles of nitrogen oxides (NOx) and hydrogen oxides (HOx). Though numerous laboratory, field, and modeling studies were performed to explain the observed HONO concentrations in the atmosphere, the knowledge of atmospheric HONO chemistry is still not well understood and sometimes controversial [1]. Accurate measurements of HONO and its precursors with high precision should aid in understanding the HONO chemistry. In this paper we report on the measurements of HONO and NO2 concentrations at a suburban site of Tung Chung in Hong Kong during a field intercomparison campaign using a broadband cavity enhanced UV-LED spectrometer. 1σ detection limits of 0.3 ppbv for HONO and 1 ppbv for NO2 were achieved with an optimum acquisition time of 120 s. The measured HONO and NO2 concentrations were compared with the data from commercial HONO (LOPAP) and NO2 (NOX-analyzer) measurement instrument. Typical diurnal pattern of HONO have been observed and the potential formation sources have been analyzed [2]. Acknowledgements The supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 41265011), Educational Commission of Jiangxi Province of China (No.GJJ14548) and Environment and Conservation Fund of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region (No. 7/2009). The support of the IRENI program of the Région Nord-Pas de Calaisn, is acknowledged. References [1] W. Chen, R. Maamary, X. Cui, T. Wu, E. Fertein, D. Dewaele, F. Cazier, Q. Zha, Z. Xu, T. Wang, Y. Wang, W. Zhang, X. Gao, W. Liu, F. Dong, 'Photonic Sensing of Environmental Gaseous Nitrous Acid (HONO): Opportunities and Challenges' in The Wonder of Nanotechnology: Quantum Optoelectronic Devices and Applications, M. Razeghi. L. Esaki, and K. von Klitzing, Eds., SPIE Press, Bellingham, WA, 2013, pp. 693-737 [2] T. Wu, Q. Zha, W. Chen, Z. XU, T. Wang, X. He, 'Development and deployment of a cavity enhanced UV-LED

  12. Dual Band Deep Ultraviolet AlGaN Photodetectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aslam, S.; Miko, L.; Stahle, C.; Franz, D.; Pugel, D.; Guan, B.; Zhang, J. P.; Gaska, R.

    2007-01-01

    We report on the design, fabrication and characterization of a back-illuminated voltage bias selectable dual-band AlGaN UV photodetector. The photodetector can separate UVA and W-B band radiation by bias switching a two terminal n-p-n homojunction structure that is fabricated in the same pixel. When a forward bias is applied between the top and bottom electrodes, the detector can sense UV-A and reject W-B band radiation. Alternatively, under reverse bias, the photodetector can sense UV-B and reject UV-A band radiation.

  13. Design and field application of a UV-LED based optical fiber biofilm sensor.

    PubMed

    Fischer, Matthias; Wahl, Martin; Friedrichs, Gernot

    2012-03-15

    Detecting changes in the formation dynamics of biofilms stemming from bacteria and unicellular microorganisms in their natural environment is of prime interest for biological, ecological as well as anti-fouling technology research. We developed a robust optical fiber-based biofilm sensor ready to be applied in natural aquatic environments for on-line, in situ and non-destructive monitoring of large-area biofilms. The device is based on the detection of the natural fluorescence of microorganisms constituting the biofilm. Basically, the intrinsic fluorescence of the amino acid tryptophan is excited at a wavelength of λ=280 nm and detected at λ=350 nm utilising a numerically optimized sensor head equipped with a UV-LED light source and optical fiber bundles for efficient fluorescence light collection. Calibration was carried out with tryptophan solutions and two characteristic marine bacteria strains revealing linear signal response, satisfactory background suppression, wide dynamic range, and an experimental detection limit of 4 × 10(3)cells/cm(2). Successful field experiments in the Baltic Sea accomplished over a period of twenty-one days provided for the first time continuous observation of biofilm formation dynamics in a natural habitat. Starting from the first adhering bacteria, the measurement yielded the characteristic three phases of biofilm formation up to a fully developed biofilm. The sensor system holds potential for applications in aquatic sciences including deep sea research and, after further miniaturisation, in the industrial and biomedical field.

  14. Efficacy of Inactivation of Human Enteroviruses by Multiple-Wavelength UV LEDs - abstract

    EPA Science Inventory

    Background: Ultraviolet (UV) light has been successfully used for treating a broad suite of pathogens without the concomitant formation of carcinogenic disinfection by-products (DBPs). However, conventional mercury UV lamps have some practical limitations in water treatment appli...

  15. Efficacy of Inactivation of Human Enteroviruses by Multiple-Wavelength UV LEDs

    EPA Science Inventory

    Ultraviolet (UV) light has been successfully used for treating a broad suite of pathogens without the concomitant formation of carcinogenic disinfection by-products (DBPs). However, conventional mercury UV lamps have some practical limitations in water treatment applications, suc...

  16. Material and design engineering of (Al)GaN for high-performance avalanche photodiodes and intersubband applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Razeghi, M.; Bayram, C.

    2009-05-01

    Numerous applications in scientific, medical, and military areas demand robust, compact, sensitive, and fast ultraviolet (UV) detection. Our (Al)GaN photodiodes pose high avalanche gain and single-photon detection efficiency that can measure up to these requirements. Inherit advantage of back-illumination in our devices offers an easier integration and layout packaging via flip-chip hybridization for UV focal plane arrays that may find uses from space applications to hostile-agent detection. Thanks to the recent (Al)GaN material optimization, III-Nitrides, known to have fast carrier dynamics and short relaxation times, are employed in (Al)GaN based superlattices that absorb in near-infrared regime. In this work, we explain the origins of our high performance UV APDs, and employ our (Al)GaN material knowledge for intersubband applications. We also discuss the extension of this material engineering into the far infrared, and even the terahertz (THz) region.

  17. Investigation of the effect of UV-LED exposure conditions on the production of vitamin D in pig skin.

    PubMed

    Barnkob, Line Lundbæk; Argyraki, Aikaterini; Petersen, Paul Michael; Jakobsen, Jette

    2016-12-01

    The dietary intake of vitamin D is currently below the recommended intake of 10-20μg vitamin D/day. Foods with increased content of vitamin D or new products with enhanced vitamin D are warranted. Light-emitting diodes (LEDs) are a potential new resource in food production lines. In the present study the exposure conditions with ultraviolet (UV) LEDs were systematically investigated in the wavelength range 280-340nm for achieving optimal vitamin D bio-fortification in pig skin. A wavelength of 296nm was found to be optimal for vitamin D3 production. The maximum dose of 20kJ/m(2) produced 3.5-4μg vitamin D3/cm(2) pig skin. Vitamin D3 produced was independent on the combination of time and intensity of the LED source. The increased UV exposure by UV-LEDs may be readily implemented in existing food production facilities, without major modifications to the process or processing equipment, for bio-fortifying food products containing pork skin.

  18. Bias Selectable Dual Band AlGaN Ultra-violet Detectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yan, Feng; Miko, Laddawan; Franz, David; Guan, Bing; Stahle, Carl M.

    2007-01-01

    Bias selectable dual band AlGaN ultra-violet (UV) detectors, which can separate UV-A and UV-B using one detector in the same pixel by bias switching, have been designed, fabricated and characterized. A two-terminal n-p-n photo-transistor-like structure was used. When a forward bias is applied between the top electrode and the bottom electrode, the detectors can successfully detect W-A and reject UV-B. Under reverse bias, they can detect UV-B and reject UV-A. The proof of concept design shows that it is feasible to fabricate high performance dual-band UV detectors based on the current AlGaN material growth and fabrication technologies.

  19. Performance Improvement of AlN Crystal Quality Grown on Patterned Si(111) Substrate for Deep UV-LED Applications

    PubMed Central

    Tran, Binh Tinh; Maeda, Noritoshi; Jo, Masafumi; Inoue, Daishi; Kikitsu, Tomoka; Hirayama, Hideki

    2016-01-01

    An AlN template layer is required for growth of AlGaN-based deep ultraviolet light-emitting diodes (UV-LEDs). However, the crystal quality of AlN templates grown on both flat and patterned Si substrates has so far been insufficient for replacing templates grown on sapphire substrates. In this work, we grew a high-quality AlN template on 2 in. micro-circle-patterned Si substrate (mPSiS) with two different sizes and shapes through controlling the bias power of inductively coupled plasma (ICP) etching. The experimental results showed that the best AlN template was obtained on a large pattern size with a bow-angle shape and the template had X-ray rocking curves with full widths at half-maximum of 620 and 1141 arcsec for the (002) and (102) reflection planes. The threading dislocation density near surface of AlN template through transmission electron microscopy (TEM) estimation was in the order of 107 cm−2, which is the lowest dislocation density reported for a Si substrate to our knowledge. A strong single electroluminescence (EL) peak was also obtained for an AlGaN-based deep UV-LED grown on this template, means that it can be used for further developing high-efficiency deep UV-LEDs. PMID:27819331

  20. Treatment of crystallized-fruit wastewater by UV-A LED photo-Fenton and coagulation-flocculation.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Chueca, Jorge; Amor, Carlos; Fernandes, José R; Tavares, Pedro B; Lucas, Marco S; Peres, José A

    2016-02-01

    This work reports the treatment of crystallized-fruit effluents, characterized by a very low biodegradability (BOD5/COD <0.19), through the application of a UV-A LED photo-Fenton process. Firstly, a Box-Behnken design of Response Surface Methodology was applied to achieve the optimal conditions for the UV-A LED photo-Fenton process, trying to maximize the efficiency by saving chemicals and time. Under the optimal conditions ([H2O2] = 5459 mg/L; [Fe(3+)] = 286 mg/L; time >180 min), a COD removal of 45, 64 and 74% was achieved after 360 min, using an irradiance of 23, 70 and 85 W/m(2) respectively. Then a combination of UV-A LED photo-Fenton with coagulation-flocculation-decantation attained a higher COD removal (80%), as well as almost total removal of turbidity (99%) and total suspended solids (95%). Subsequent biodegradability of treated effluents increased, allowing the application of a biological treatment step after the photochemical/CFD with 85 W/m(2).

  1. Development of a broadband cavity enhanced UV-LED spectrometer for the detection of atmospheric HONO and NO2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Tao; Xia, Ruxiao; Chen, Weidong; He, Xingdao

    2016-10-01

    An incoherent broadband cavity enhanced UV-LED spectrometer (IBBCEAS) was developed to detect atmospheric HONO and NO2. Using a UV light emitting diode (LED) operating at 366 nm in combination with a high finesse optical cavity, HONO and NO2 were able to be simultaneously measured with high sensitivity. Detection limits (for SNR=1) of 0.3 ppbv for HONO and 1 ppbv for NO2 were achieved with an optimum acquisition time of 120 s. Stability of the developed cavity enhanced UV-LED spectrometer has been characterized by means of an Allan variance analysis. Daytime and nighttime concentrations of atmospheric HONO and NO2 were measured and compared with data from LOPAP for HONO and blue light converter-based NOx analyzer for NO2. The present work performed in a real atmospheric environment demonstrates the feasibility of using IBBCEAS technique for interference (chemical and spectral) free measurement of HONO. Experimental detail will be presented, the problems encountered during the real atmospheric measurement will be discussed.

  2. Performance Improvement of AlN Crystal Quality Grown on Patterned Si(111) Substrate for Deep UV-LED Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tran, Binh Tinh; Maeda, Noritoshi; Jo, Masafumi; Inoue, Daishi; Kikitsu, Tomoka; Hirayama, Hideki

    2016-11-01

    An AlN template layer is required for growth of AlGaN-based deep ultraviolet light-emitting diodes (UV-LEDs). However, the crystal quality of AlN templates grown on both flat and patterned Si substrates has so far been insufficient for replacing templates grown on sapphire substrates. In this work, we grew a high-quality AlN template on 2 in. micro-circle-patterned Si substrate (mPSiS) with two different sizes and shapes through controlling the bias power of inductively coupled plasma (ICP) etching. The experimental results showed that the best AlN template was obtained on a large pattern size with a bow-angle shape and the template had X-ray rocking curves with full widths at half-maximum of 620 and 1141 arcsec for the (002) and (102) reflection planes. The threading dislocation density near surface of AlN template through transmission electron microscopy (TEM) estimation was in the order of 107 cm‑2, which is the lowest dislocation density reported for a Si substrate to our knowledge. A strong single electroluminescence (EL) peak was also obtained for an AlGaN-based deep UV-LED grown on this template, means that it can be used for further developing high-efficiency deep UV-LEDs.

  3. Modeling Ultraviolet (UV) Light Emitting Diode (LED) Energy Propagation in Reactor Vessels

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-03-27

    urban wastewater effluent than a single wavelength used alone (Chevremont, Farnet, Coulomb, & Boudenne, 2012; Oguma, Kita, Sakai, Murakami...into waste streams. Certain chemicals may be detrimental to the effectiveness of municipal wastewater treatment plants. This can lead to reduced...introduced to wastewater treatment plants. One of these methods includes an Advanced Oxidation Process (AOP) which uses ultraviolet (UV) energy and

  4. Measuring response of extruded scintillator to UV LED in magnetic field

    SciTech Connect

    Beznosko, D.; Blazey, G.; Dyshkant, A.; Francis, K.; Kubik, D.; Rykalin, V.; Tartaglia, M.; Zutshi, V.; /Northern Illinois U.

    2005-05-01

    The experimental results on the performance of the extruded scintillator and WLS fiber, and various LEDs in the magnetic fields of 1.8T and 2.3T respectively, are reported. The methodic used is being described.

  5. Final LDRD report : science-based solutions to achieve high-performance deep-UV laser diodes.

    SciTech Connect

    Armstrong, Andrew M.; Miller, Mary A.; Crawford, Mary Hagerott; Alessi, Leonard J.; Smith, Michael L.; Henry, Tanya A.; Westlake, Karl R.; Cross, Karen Charlene; Allerman, Andrew Alan; Lee, Stephen Roger

    2011-12-01

    We present the results of a three year LDRD project that has focused on overcoming major materials roadblocks to achieving AlGaN-based deep-UV laser diodes. We describe our growth approach to achieving AlGaN templates with greater than ten times reduction of threading dislocations which resulted in greater than seven times enhancement of AlGaN quantum well photoluminescence and 15 times increase in electroluminescence from LED test structures. We describe the application of deep-level optical spectroscopy to AlGaN epilayers to quantify deep level energies and densities and further correlate defect properties with AlGaN luminescence efficiency. We further review our development of p-type short period superlattice structures as an approach to mitigate the high acceptor activation energies in AlGaN alloys. Finally, we describe our laser diode fabrication process, highlighting the development of highly vertical and smooth etched laser facets, as well as characterization of resulting laser heterostructures.

  6. InGaN-based UV/blue/green/amber LEDs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mukai, Takashi; Yamada, Motokazu; Nakamura, Shuji

    1999-04-01

    High-efficient light emitting diodes (LEDs) emitting red, amber, green, blue, and ultraviolet light have been obtained through the use of an InGaN active layers instead of GaN active layers. Red LEDs with an emission wavelength of 680 nm which emission energy was smaller than the band-gap energy of InN were fabricated mainly resulting from the piezoelectric field due to the strain. The localized energy states caused by In composition fluctuation in the InGaN active layer seem to be related to the high efficiency of the InGaN-based emitting devices in spite of having a large number of threading dislocations. InGaN single-quantum-well- structure blue LEDs were grown on epitaxially laterally overgrown GaN and sapphire substrates. The emission spectra showed the similar blue shift with increasing forward currents between both LEDs. The output power of both LEDs was almost the same, as high as 6 mW at a current of 20 mA. These results indicate that the In composition fluctuation is not caused by dislocations, the dislocations are not effective to reduce the efficiency of the emission, and that the dislocations from the leakage current pathway in InGaN.

  7. Dependence of adhesion strength between GaN LEDs and sapphire substrate on power density of UV laser irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Junsu; Sin, Young-Gwan; Kim, Jae-Hyun; Kim, Jaegu

    2016-10-01

    Selective laser lift-off (SLLO) is an innovative technology used to manufacture and repair micro-light-emitting diode (LED) displays. In SLLO, laser is irradiated to selectively separate micro-LED devices from a transparent sapphire substrate. The light source used is an ultraviolet (UV) laser with a wavelength of 266 nm, pulse duration of 20 ns, and repetition rate of 30 kHz. Controlled adhesion between a LED and the substrate is key for a SLLO process with high yield and reliability. This study examined the fundamental relationship between adhesion and laser irradiation. Two competing mechanisms affect adhesion at the irradiated interface between the GaN LED and sapphire substrate: Ga precipitation caused by the thermal decomposition of GaN and roughened interface caused by thermal damage on the sapphire. The competition between these two mechanisms leads to a non-trivial SLLO condition that needs optimization. This study helps understand the SLLO process, and accelerate the development of a process for manufacturing micro-LED displays via SLLO for future applications.

  8. High density GaN/AlN quantum dots for deep UV LED with high quantum efficiency and temperature stability

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Weihuang; Li, Jinchai; Zhang, Yong; Huang, Po-Kai; Lu, Tien-Chang; Kuo, Hao-Chung; Li, Shuping; Yang, Xu; Chen, Hangyang; Liu, Dayi; Kang, Junyong

    2014-01-01

    High internal efficiency and high temperature stability ultraviolet (UV) light-emitting diodes (LEDs) at 308 nm were achieved using high density (2.5 × 109 cm−2) GaN/AlN quantum dots (QDs) grown by MOVPE. Photoluminescence shows the characteristic behaviors of QDs: nearly constant linewidth and emission energy, and linear dependence of the intensity with varying excitation power. More significantly, the radiative recombination was found to dominant from 15 to 300 K, with a high internal quantum efficiency of 62% even at room temperature. PMID:24898569

  9. Electrophoretic Deposition of Highly Efficient Phosphors for White Solid State Lighting using near UV-Emitting LEDs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Jae Ik

    Electrophoretic deposition (EPD) is a method to deposit particles dispersed in a liquid onto a substrate under the force of an applied electric field, and has been applied for depositing phosphors for application in solid state lighting. The objective is to deposit phosphors in a "remote phosphor" configuration for a UV-LED-based light source for improved white light extraction efficiency. It is demonstrated that EPD can be used to deposit red-, green-, blue-, yellow- and orange-emitting phosphors to generate white light using a near UV-emitting LED by either depositing a phosphor blend or sequentially individual phosphor compositions. The phosphor coverage was excellent, demonstrating that EPD is a viable method to produce phosphor layers for the "remote phosphor" white light design. The deposition rates of the individual phosphor films were ˜1-5 mum/min. The blend depositions composed of both three and four phosphor compositions emit white light located on or near the black body locus on the CIE chromaticity diagram. Phosphor films were also prepared by sequential deposition of red/orange and green/blue compositions, to generate white light. The layered films were flipped over and illuminated in this orientation, which showed approximately the same luminescence characteristics. No change in the reabsorption ratio of green/blue emission by the red/orange phosphor was found regardless of the deposited order of the layered films. These applications of EPD of phosphor for white solid state lighting are promising and effective due to easy tuning of emissive color by varying the phosphor blend compositions. Although nanoparticles of a variety of materials have been coated by EPD, there have been few direct comparisons of EPD of nano- and micron-sized particles of the same material. Another field of the study was to compare EPD of nano-, nano core/SiO2 shell and micron-sized (Ba0.97 Eu0.03)2SiO4 phosphor particles for application in a near-UV LED-based light source

  10. Color-Transformable Silicone Elastomers Prepared by Thiol-Ene Reaction with Potential Application in UV-LEDs.

    PubMed

    Zuo, Yujing; Gou, Zhiming; Zhang, Jie; Feng, Shengyu

    2016-04-01

    A series of high-efficiency, full-color fluorescent elastomers based on polysiloxane matrix prepared by an easy thiol-ene "click" reaction is reported here. It is found for the first time that the same elastomer can emit transformable colors by conveniently altering the excitation wavelength because of the effect of energy transfer and the "fluorescence switch" of lanthanide ions. A fluent change in emission colors can also be feasible and conveniently reproducible by varying the stoichiometric ratio of lanthanide ions and rhodamine-B in solution and in polymer elastomers. The obtained elastomers are further coated onto commercially available UV-LED cells from the solution medium followed by an in situ cross-linking step.

  11. Monitoring of TiO2-catalytic UV-LED photo-oxidation of cyanide contained in mine wastewater and leachate.

    PubMed

    Kim, Seong Hee; Lee, Sang Woo; Lee, Gye Min; Lee, Byung-Tae; Yun, Seong-Taek; Kim, Soon-Oh

    2016-01-01

    A photo-oxidation process using UV-LEDs and TiO2 was studied for removal of cyanide contained in mine wastewater and leachates. This study focused on monitoring of a TiO2-catalyzed LED photo-oxidation process, particularly emphasizing the effects of TiO2 form and light source on the efficiency of cyanide removal. The generation of hydroxyl radicals was also examined during the process to evaluate the mechanism of the photo-catalytic process. The apparent removal efficiency of UV-LEDs was lower than that achieved using a UV-lamp, but cyanide removal in response to irradiation as well as consumption of electrical energy was observed to be higher for UV-LEDs than for UV-lamps. The Degussa P25 TiO2 showed the highest performance of the TiO2 photo-catalysts tested. The experimental results indicate that hydroxyl radicals oxidize cyanide to OCN(-), NO2(-), NO3(-), HCO3(-), and CO3(2-), which have lower toxicity than cyanide. In addition, the overall efficacy of the process appeared to be significantly affected by diverse operational parameters, such as the mixing ratio of anatase and rutile, the type of gas injected, and the number of UV-LEDs used.

  12. Performance of 128×128 solar-blind AlGaN ultraviolet focal plane arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Yongang; Zhang, Yan; Liu, Dafu; Chu, Kaihui; Wang, Ling; Li, Xiangyang

    2009-07-01

    Ozone layer intensively absorbs 240nm to 285 nm incidence, when the sunshine goes through stratospheric. There is almost no UVC (200nm-280nm) band radiation existing below stratospheric. Because the radiation target presents a strong contrast between atmosphere and background, solar-blind band radiation is very useful. Wide band gap materials, especially III-V nitride materials, have attracted extensive interest. The direct band gap of GaN and A1N is 3.4 and 6.2 eV, respectively. Since they are miscible with each other and form a complete series of AlGaN alloys, AlGaN has direct band gaps from 3.4 to 6.2 eV, corresponding to cutoff wavelengths from 365 to 200 nm. A back-illuminated hybrid FPA has been developed by Shanghai Institute of Technical Physics Chinese Academy of Science. This paper reports the performance of the 128x128 solar-blind AlGaN UV Focal Plane Arrays (FPAs). More and more a CTIA (capacitivetransimpedance) readout circuit architecture has been proven to be well suited for AlGaN detectors arrays. The bared readout circuit was first tested to find out optimal analog reference voltage. Second, this ROIC was tested in a standard 20-pin shielded dewar at 115 K to 330K. Then, a new test system was set up to obtain test UV FPA noise, swing voltage, data valid time, operating speed, dynamic range, UV response etc. The results show that 128x128 back-illuminated AlGaN PIN detector SNR is as high as 74db at the speed of above30 frame per second. Also, some noise test method is mentioned.

  13. Laser diodes with 353 nm wavelength enabled by reduced-dislocation-density AlGaN templates

    SciTech Connect

    Crawford, Mary H.; Allerman, Andrew A.; Armstrong, Andrew M.; Smith, Michael L.; Cross, Karen C.

    2015-10-30

    We fabricated optically pumped and electrically injected ultraviolet (UV) lasers on reduced-threading-dislocation-density (reduced-TDD) AlGaN templates. The overgrowth of sub-micron-wide mesas in the Al0.32Ga0.68N templates enabled a tenfold reduction in TDD, to (2–3) × 108 cm–2. Optical pumping of AlGaN hetero-structures grown on the reduced-TDD templates yielded a low lasing threshold of 34 kW/cm2 at 346 nm. Room-temperature pulsed operation of laser diodes at 353 nm was demonstrated, with a threshold of 22.5 kA/cm2. Furthermore, reduced-TDD templates have been developed across the entire range of AlGaN compositions, presenting a promising approach for extending laser diodes into the deep UV.

  14. Laser diodes with 353 nm wavelength enabled by reduced-dislocation-density AlGaN templates

    DOE PAGES

    Crawford, Mary H.; Allerman, Andrew A.; Armstrong, Andrew M.; ...

    2015-10-30

    We fabricated optically pumped and electrically injected ultraviolet (UV) lasers on reduced-threading-dislocation-density (reduced-TDD) AlGaN templates. The overgrowth of sub-micron-wide mesas in the Al0.32Ga0.68N templates enabled a tenfold reduction in TDD, to (2–3) × 108 cm–2. Optical pumping of AlGaN hetero-structures grown on the reduced-TDD templates yielded a low lasing threshold of 34 kW/cm2 at 346 nm. Room-temperature pulsed operation of laser diodes at 353 nm was demonstrated, with a threshold of 22.5 kA/cm2. Furthermore, reduced-TDD templates have been developed across the entire range of AlGaN compositions, presenting a promising approach for extending laser diodes into the deep UV.

  15. Suppressing spontaneous polarization of p-GaN by graphene oxide passivation: Augmented light output of GaN UV-LED

    PubMed Central

    Jeong, Hyun; Jeong, Seung Yol; Park, Doo Jae; Jeong, Hyeon Jun; Jeong, Sooyeon; Han, Joong Tark; Jeong, Hee Jin; Yang, Sunhye; Kim, Ho Young; Baeg, Kang-Jun; Park, Sae June; Ahn, Yeong Hwan; Suh, Eun-Kyung; Lee, Geon-Woong; Lee, Young Hee; Jeong, Mun Seok

    2015-01-01

    GaN-based ultraviolet (UV) LEDs are widely used in numerous applications, including white light pump sources and high-density optical data storage. However, one notorious issue is low hole injection rate in p-type transport layer due to poorly activated holes and spontaneous polarization, giving rise to insufficient light emission efficiency. Therefore, improving hole injection rate is a key step towards high performance UV-LEDs. Here, we report a new method of suppressing spontaneous polarization in p-type region to augment light output of UV-LEDs. This was achieved by simply passivating graphene oxide (GO) on top of the fully fabricated LED. The dipole layer formed by the passivated GO enhanced hole injection rate by suppressing spontaneous polarization in p-type region. The homogeneity of electroluminescence intensity in active layers was improved due to band filling effect. As a consequence, the light output was enhanced by 60% in linear current region. Our simple approach of suppressing spontaneous polarization of p-GaN using GO passivation disrupts the current state of the art technology and will be useful for high-efficiency UV-LED technology. PMID:25586148

  16. Strongly transverse-electric-polarized emission from deep ultraviolet AlGaN quantum well light emitting diodes

    SciTech Connect

    Reich, Christoph Guttmann, Martin; Wernicke, Tim; Mehnke, Frank; Kuhn, Christian; Feneberg, Martin; Goldhahn, Rüdiger; Rass, Jens; Kneissl, Michael; Lapeyrade, Mickael; Einfeldt, Sven; Knauer, Arne; Kueller, Viola; Weyers, Markus

    2015-10-05

    The optical polarization of emission from ultraviolet (UV) light emitting diodes (LEDs) based on (0001)-oriented Al{sub x}Ga{sub 1−x}N multiple quantum wells (MQWs) has been studied by simulations and electroluminescence measurements. With increasing aluminum mole fraction in the quantum well x, the in-plane intensity of transverse-electric (TE) polarized light decreases relative to that of the transverse-magnetic polarized light, attributed to a reordering of the valence bands in Al{sub x}Ga{sub 1−x}N. Using k ⋅ p theoretical model calculations, the AlGaN MQW active region design has been optimized, yielding increased TE polarization and thus higher extraction efficiency for bottom-emitting LEDs in the deep UV spectral range. Using (i) narrow quantum wells, (ii) barriers with high aluminum mole fractions, and (iii) compressive growth on patterned aluminum nitride sapphire templates, strongly TE-polarized emission was observed at wavelengths as short as 239 nm.

  17. Functional Analysis in Long-Term Operation of High Power UV-LEDs in Continuous Fluoro-Sensing Systems for Hydrocarbon Pollution.

    PubMed

    Arques-Orobon, Francisco Jose; Nuñez, Neftali; Vazquez, Manuel; Gonzalez-Posadas, Vicente

    2016-02-26

    This work analyzes the long-term functionality of HP (High-power) UV-LEDs (Ultraviolet Light Emitting Diodes) as the exciting light source in non-contact, continuous 24/7 real-time fluoro-sensing pollutant identification in inland water. Fluorescence is an effective alternative in the detection and identification of hydrocarbons. The HP UV-LEDs are more advantageous than classical light sources (xenon and mercury lamps) and helps in the development of a low cost, non-contact, and compact system for continuous real-time fieldwork. This work analyzes the wavelength, output optical power, and the effects of viscosity, temperature of the water pollutants, and the functional consistency for long-term HP UV-LED working operation. To accomplish the latter, an analysis of the influence of two types 365 nm HP UV-LEDs degradation under two continuous real-system working mode conditions was done, by temperature Accelerated Life Tests (ALTs). These tests estimate the mean life under continuous working conditions of 6200 h and for cycled working conditions (30 s ON & 30 s OFF) of 66,000 h, over 7 years of 24/7 operating life of hydrocarbon pollution monitoring. In addition, the durability in the face of the internal and external parameter system variations is evaluated.

  18. Functional Analysis in Long-Term Operation of High Power UV-LEDs in Continuous Fluoro-Sensing Systems for Hydrocarbon Pollution

    PubMed Central

    Arques-Orobon, Francisco Jose; Nuñez, Neftali; Vazquez, Manuel; Gonzalez-Posadas, Vicente

    2016-01-01

    This work analyzes the long-term functionality of HP (High-power) UV-LEDs (Ultraviolet Light Emitting Diodes) as the exciting light source in non-contact, continuous 24/7 real-time fluoro-sensing pollutant identification in inland water. Fluorescence is an effective alternative in the detection and identification of hydrocarbons. The HP UV-LEDs are more advantageous than classical light sources (xenon and mercury lamps) and helps in the development of a low cost, non-contact, and compact system for continuous real-time fieldwork. This work analyzes the wavelength, output optical power, and the effects of viscosity, temperature of the water pollutants, and the functional consistency for long-term HP UV-LED working operation. To accomplish the latter, an analysis of the influence of two types 365 nm HP UV-LEDs degradation under two continuous real-system working mode conditions was done, by temperature Accelerated Life Tests (ALTs). These tests estimate the mean life under continuous working conditions of 6200 h and for cycled working conditions (30 s ON & 30 s OFF) of 66,000 h, over 7 years of 24/7 operating life of hydrocarbon pollution monitoring. In addition, the durability in the face of the internal and external parameter system variations is evaluated. PMID:26927113

  19. Straightforward fabrication of stable white LEDs by embedding of inorganic UV-LEDs into bulk polymerized polymethyl-methacrylate doped with organic dyes.

    PubMed

    Di Martino, Daniela; Beverina, Luca; Sassi, Mauro; Brovelli, Sergio; Tubino, Riccardo; Meinardi, Francesco

    2014-03-18

    Stable white-emitting down-converted LEDs are straightforwardly prepared by bulk polymerization of an organic dye doped polymethyl-methacrylate (PMMA) shell directly on top of a highly efficient commercial blue-emitting InGaN LED. Our optimized polymerization procedure allows for extending the form factor of achievable luminescence converter (LUCO) material beyond the conventional thin film form and to directly produce devices with light bulb design. The selected organic dyes, the blue-emitting Coumarin 30 and a red-emitting diketopyrrolopyrrole derivative, exhibit high compatibility with the free radical polymerization reaction of the PMMA matrix and ensure high stability of the final hybrid device. The control of both the thickness of the PMMA shell and the concentration of the dopant dyes allow for fine tuning of the emission color of the LUCO LED and to obtain white light with CIE chromatic coordinates x = 0.32 and y = 0.33, with rendering index as high as 80. This simple and versatile procedure is not dye-exclusive and is therefore extendable to other molecular systems for color-tunable efficient solid-state lighting sources.

  20. Straightforward fabrication of stable white LEDs by embedding of inorganic UV-LEDs into bulk polymerized polymethyl-methacrylate doped with organic dyes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    di Martino, Daniela; Beverina, Luca; Sassi, Mauro; Brovelli, Sergio; Tubino, Riccardo; Meinardi, Francesco

    2014-03-01

    Stable white-emitting down-converted LEDs are straightforwardly prepared by bulk polymerization of an organic dye doped polymethyl-methacrylate (PMMA) shell directly on top of a highly efficient commercial blue-emitting InGaN LED. Our optimized polymerization procedure allows for extending the form factor of achievable luminescence converter (LUCO) material beyond the conventional thin film form and to directly produce devices with light bulb design. The selected organic dyes, the blue-emitting Coumarin 30 and a red-emitting diketopyrrolopyrrole derivative, exhibit high compatibility with the free radical polymerization reaction of the PMMA matrix and ensure high stability of the final hybrid device. The control of both the thickness of the PMMA shell and the concentration of the dopant dyes allow for fine tuning of the emission color of the LUCO LED and to obtain white light with CIE chromatic coordinates x = 0.32 and y = 0.33, with rendering index as high as 80. This simple and versatile procedure is not dye-exclusive and is therefore extendable to other molecular systems for color-tunable efficient solid-state lighting sources.

  1. Plasmonic based light manipulation and applications in AIGaN deep-UV devices (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yin, Jun; Li, Jing; Kang, Junyong

    2016-09-01

    Recently, surface plasmon (SP)-exciton coupling has been wildly applied in nitride semiconductors in order to improve the spontaneous radiative recombination rate [1-3]. However, most works have been focused on the emission enhancement in InGaN-based blue or green light emitting diodes (LEDs). Practically, it is significantly important to improve the emission efficiency in deep-UV AlGaN-base quantum well (QW) structure due to its intrinsically low internal quantum efficiency (IQE) induced by the high defect density in its epitaxy layer [4]. But, the effective SP-exciton coupling with matched energy in deep-UV region is still a challenge issue due to the lack of appropriate metal structures and compatible fabrication techniques. In this work, the Al nanoparticles (NPs) were introduced by the nanosphere lithography (NSL) and deposition techniques into the AlGaN based MQWs with optimized size and structure. Due to the local surface plasmon (LSP) coupling with the excitons in QWs, emission enhancement in deep UV region has been achieved in the Al NPs decorated AlGaN MQWs structure with comparison to the bare MQWs. Theoretical calculations on the energy subbands of AlGaN QWs were further carried out to investigate the corresponding mechanisms, in which the hot carrier transition activated by SP-exciton coupling was believed to be mainly responsible for the enhancement. This work demonstrated a low cost, wafer scale fabrication process, which can be potentially employed to the practical SP-enhanced AlGaN-based deep UV LEDs with high IQEs.

  2. Optimization of UV LED-Curable Ink for Reverse-Offset Roll-to-Plate (RO-R2P) Printing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mendoza, Kayna Lee; Ortega, Ada; Kim, Nam Soo

    2015-03-01

    Reverse-offset roll-to-plate printing has become increasingly popular in the printing industry because of the ease with which the printing process can be manipulated to achieve a high-resolution pattern with line widths as narrow as 5 μm with precision and accuracy. The printing procedure involves three stages, and a roller is required to transfer ink from each stage. The substrates used throughout this experiment were chosen by measuring their contact angles ( θ) and using them in accordance with the sequence: θ (Stage 1) > θ (roller) > θ (Stage 2) and θ (Stage 3). An ultraviolet (UV) light-emitting diode (LED)-curable ink was used during the printing process; however, the pristine solution of this ink was unsuitable for printing a final pattern on the substrate because of its viscosity. Diluting the solution of the UV LED-curable ink with 40% CH3OH resulted in reduced viscosity. The original solution had a viscosity of approximately 40.7 cP whereas that of the diluted solution was approximately 25 cP. The two solutions behaved as non-Newtonian, dilatant, shear-thickening fluids. The UV LED-curable ink solutions, both dilute and non-dilute, were successfully printed by use of an inkjet printer and three-dimensional printing methods.

  3. Applications of Robust, Radiation Hard AlGaN Optoelectronic Devices in Space Exploration and High Energy Density Physics

    SciTech Connect

    Sun, K.

    2011-05-04

    This slide show presents: space exploration applications; high energy density physics applications; UV LED and photodiode radiation hardness; UV LED and photodiode space qualification; UV LED AC charge management; and UV LED satellite payload instruments. A UV LED satellite will be launched 2nd half 2012.

  4. Improved color rendering of phosphor-converted white light-emitting diodes with dual-blue active layers and n-type AlGaN layer.

    PubMed

    Yan, Qi-Rong; Zhang, Yong; Li, Shu-Ti; Yan, Qi-Ang; Shi, Pei-Pei; Niu, Qiao-Li; He, Miao; Li, Guo-Ping; Li, Jun-Rui

    2012-05-01

    An InGaN/GaN blue light-emitting diode (LED) structure and an InGaN/GaN blue-violet LED structure were grown sequentially on the same sapphire substrate by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition. It was found that the insertion of an n-type AlGaN layer below the dual blue-emitting active layers showed better spectral stability at the different driving current relative to the traditional p-type AlGaN electron-blocking layer. In addition, color rendering index of a Y3Al5O12:Ce3+ phosphor-converted white LED based on a dual blue-emitting chip with n-type AlGaN reached 91 at 20 mA, and Commission Internationale de L'Eclairage coordinates almost remained at the same point from 5 to 60 mA.

  5. Synthesis and Luminescence Properties of Rare Earth Activated Phosphors for near UV-Emitting LEDs for Efficacious Generation of White Light

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Jinkyu

    Solid state white-emitting lighting devices based on LEDs outperform conventional light sources in terms of lifetime, durability, and luminous efficiency. Near UV-LEDs in combination with blue-, green-, and red-emitting phosphors show superior luminescence properties over the commercialized blue-emitting LED with yellow-emitting phosphors. However, phosphor development for near UV LEDs is a challenging problem and a vibrant area of research. In addition, using the proper synthesis technique is an important consideration in the development of phosphors. In this research, efficient blue-, green-yellow, red-emitting, and color tunable phosphors for near UV LEDs based white light are identified and prepared by various synthetic methods such as solid state reaction, sol-gel/Pechini, co-precipitation, hydrothermal, combustion and spray-pyrolysis. Blue-emittingLiCaPO4:Eu2+, Green/yellow-emitting (Ba,Sr)2SiO4:Eu2+, color tunable solid solutions of KSrPO4-(Ba,Ca)2SiO4:Eu 2+, and red-emitting (Ba,Sr,Ca)3MgSi2O 8:Eu2+,Mn2+ show excellent excitation profile in the near UV region, high quantum efficiency, and good thermal stability for use in solid state lighting applications. In addition, different synthesis methods are analyzed and compared, with the goal of obtaining ideal phosphors, which should have not only have high luminous output but also optimal particle size (˜150--400 nm) and spherical morphology. For Sr2SiO 4:Eu2+, the sol-gel method appears to be the best method. For Ba2SiO4:Eu2+, the co-precipitation method is be the best. Lastly, the fabrication of core/SiO2 shell particles alleviate surface defects and improve luminescence output and moisture stability of nano and micron sized phosphors. For nano-sized Y2O 3:Eu3+, Y2SiO5:Ce3+,Tb 3+, and (Ba,Sr)2SiO4, the luminescence emission intensity of the core/shell particles were significantly higher than that of bare cores. Additionally, the moisture stability is also improved by SiO 2 shells, the luminescence output of

  6. Application of portable online LED UV fluorescence sensor to predict the degradation of dissolved organic matter and trace organic contaminants during ozonation.

    PubMed

    Li, Wen-Tao; Majewsky, Marius; Abbt-Braun, Gudrun; Horn, Harald; Jin, Jing; Li, Qiang; Zhou, Qing; Li, Ai-Min

    2016-09-15

    This work aims to correlate signals of LED UV/fluorescence sensor with the degradation of dissolved organic matter (DOM) and trace-level organic contaminants (TOrCs) during ozonation process. Six sets of bench-scale ozonation kinetic experiments incorporated with three different water matrices and 14 TOrCs of different reactivity (group I ∼ V) were conducted. Calibrated by tryptophan and humic substances standards and verified by the lab benchtop spectroscopy, the newly developed portable/online LED sensor, which measures the UV280 absorbance, protein-like and humic-like fluorescence simultaneously, was feasible to monitor chromophores and fluorophores with good sensitivity and accuracy. The liquid chromatography with organic carbon detector combined with 2D synchronous correlation analysis further demonstrated how the DOM components of large molecular weight were transformed into small moieties as a function of the decrease of humic-like fluorescence. For TOrCs, their removal rates were well correlated with the decrease of the LED UV/fluorescence signals, and their elimination patterns were mainly determined by their reactivity with O3 and hydroxyl radicals. At approximately 50% reduction of humic-like fluorescence almost complete oxidation of TOrCs of group I and II was reached, a similar removal percentage (25-75%) of TOrCs of group III and IV, and a poor removal percentage (<25%) of group V. This study might contribute to the smart control of advanced oxidation processes for the water and wastewater treatment in the future.

  7. Investigation of temperature characteristics of UV-LEDs with different GaN/AlGaN heterostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evseenkov, A. S.; Kurin, S. Yu; Tadtaev, P. O.; Tarasov, S. A.; Solomonov, A. V.

    2016-11-01

    The quantum efficiency of AlInGaN-based LED structures with different active region thickness at different temperatures and biases was studied. The strong influence of the thickness of the active region on the characteristics of the samples was observed. Through the decrease of the active region thickness not only the emissive power dwindled but also thermodynamic properties tended to deteriorate and low temperature stability of the active region was observed. It was shown that the decrease in internal quantum efficiency through the increase of the current density was caused by charge leak from the quantum well. The heating of the active region due to the higher Auger recombination frequency led to the shift in the peak wavelength of the emission spectrum and lower emission power.

  8. An approach to utilize the artificial high power LED UV-A radiation in photoreactors for the degradation of methylene blue.

    PubMed

    Betancourt-Buitrago, L A; Vásquez, C; Veitia, L; Ossa-Echeverry, O; Rodriguez-Vallejo, J; Barraza-Burgos, J; Marriaga-Cabrales, N; Machuca-Martínez, F

    2017-01-18

    Utilization of UV LED light is trending in the development of photoreactors for pollutant treatment. In this study, two different geometries were studied in the degradation of methylenebBlue (MB) using high power UVA LED as a source of light. The dosage, initial concentration, electric power, and H2O2 addition were evaluated in the two geometries: a mini CPC (Cilindrical Parabolic Collector) and a vertical cylindrical with external irradiation both coupled with LED UVA. Best degradation was obtained for 0.3 g L(-1) TiO2, 40 min, and 15 ppm of MB of initial concentration in the standard batch reactor. It was found that the best system was a cpc geometry. Also, hydrogen peroxide was used as an electron acceptor and 97% degradation was obtained in 30 min with 10 mM H2O2 and 0.4 g TiO2/L. Power of the LEDs was also evaluated and it was found that 20 W m(-2) is the best operational condition to achieve the best MB degradation avoiding the oxidant species recombination.

  9. Deep ultraviolet photoluminescence of Tm-doped AlGaN alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Nepal, N.; Zavada, J. M.; Lee, D. S.; Steckl, A. J.; Sedhain, A.; Lin, J. Y.; Jiang, H. X.

    2009-03-16

    The ultraviolet (UV) photoluminescence (PL) properties of Tm-doped Al{sub x}Ga{sub 1-x}N (0.39{<=}x{<=}1) alloys grown by solid-source molecular beam epitaxy were probed using above-bandgap excitation from a laser source at 197 nm. The PL spectra show dominant UV emissions at 298 and 358 nm only for samples with x=1 and 0.81. Temperature dependence of the PL intensities of these emission lines reveals exciton binding energies of 150 and 57 meV, respectively. The quenching of these UV emissions appears related to the thermal activation of the excitons bound to rare-earth structured isovalent (RESI) charge traps, which transfer excitonic energy to Tm{sup 3+} ions resulting in the UV emissions. A model of the RESI trap levels in AlGaN alloys is presented.

  10. Photocatalytic decomposition of selected estrogens and their estrogenic activity by UV-LED irradiated TiO2 immobilized on porous titanium sheets via thermal-chemical oxidation.

    PubMed

    Arlos, Maricor J; Liang, Robert; Hatat-Fraile, Melisa M; Bragg, Leslie M; Zhou, Norman Y; Servos, Mark R; Andrews, Susan A

    2016-11-15

    The removal of endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs) remains a big challenge in water treatment. Risks associated with these compounds are not clearly defined and it is important that the water industry has additional options to increase the resiliency of water treatment systems. Titanium dioxide (TiO2) has potential applications for the removal of EDCs from water. TiO2 has been immobilized on supports using a variety of synthesis methods to increase its feasibility for water treatment. In this study, we immobilized TiO2 through the thermal-chemical oxidation of porous titania sheets. The efficiency of the material to degrade target EDCs under UV-LED irradiation was examined under a wide range of pH conditions. A yeast-estrogen screen assay was used to complement chemical analysis in assessing removal efficiency. All compounds but 17β-estradiol were degraded and followed a pseudo first-order kinetics at all pH conditions tested, with pH 4 and pH 11 showing the most and the least efficient treatments respectively. In addition, the total estrogenic activity was substantially reduced even with the inefficient degradation of 17β-estradiol. Additional studies will be required to optimize different treatment conditions, UV-LED configurations, and membrane fouling mitigation measures to make this technology a more viable option for water treatment.

  11. Does an additional UV LED improve the degree of conversion and Knoop Hardness of light-shade composite resins?

    PubMed Central

    Giorgi, Maria Cecília Caldas; Aguiar, Flávio Henrique Baggio; Soares, Luís Eduardo Silva; Martin, Airton Abrahão; Liporoni, Priscila Christiane Suzy; Paulillo, Luís Alexandre Maffei Sartini

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the degree of conversion (DC) using FT-Raman spectroscopy and the Knoop hardness (KHN) of composites cured by second and third-generation LED light curing-units (LCU), Radii Cal and Ultralume 5. Methods: Three composites (Filtek Supreme XT, Filtek Z350, and Esthet X) were selected for this study. KHN testing (n=10) was performed with 10 indentations for the top (T) and bottom (B) surfaces. For DC (n=10), both the T and B surfaces were analyzed. Results: For KHN, the three composites differed in hardens. There was a “LCU-surface” interaction, in which Radii Cal showed significantly greater hardens in the B surface. For DC, there was a “composite-surface-LCU” interaction. For the “composite” factor, there was no significant difference between the groups, except for Supreme XT-Radii Cal (T or B surfaces). For the “LCU” factor there was a significant difference for Supreme XT T surface, Ultralume 5 obtained a higher DC. For the Z350 T surface, a significant difference in the DC in which Radii Cal obtained better results. For the “surface” factor, all groups presented T surfaces with a higher DC than the B surfaces, the sole exceptions involved Esthet X-Radii Cal and Z350-Ultralume 5. Conclusion: Knowledge regarding composite composition and the characteristics of LCUs are important for effective polymerization. PMID:23077419

  12. Sterilization of Escherichia coli by using near-UV LED and TiO2 nanofibers that were prepared by using electrostatic spray

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Dong-Gil; Hong, Ji-Tae; Son, Min-Kyu; Lee, Kyoung-Jun; Xu, Guo-Cheng; Prabakar, Kandasamy; Kim, Hee-je

    2010-05-01

    TiO2 nanofiber films were prepared by a homemade electrostatic spray method at 13 kV using a high power supply. As-prepared TiO2 was used to sterilize enteropathogenic Escherichia coli in polluted water by using near-UV LEDs at three different wavelengths with variable exposure time and frequency of irradiation. Irrespective of the wavelength of the light source used, longer irradiation times such as 1 h completely inactivated the E. coli. However, a wavelength of 375 nm was effective in inactivating in a shorter irradiation time (15 min). When the frequency of irradiation was 1 kHz, almost 95% of the E. coli was inactivated after 30 min exposure.

  13. Optimization of UV-LED curable printing material for applications in direct writing systems: Inkjet, reverse offset, and micro dispensing GPD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Varela, Ada Judith Ortega

    The quality of a product fabricated by direct writing methods will depend greatly on the properties of the printing material and its compatibility with the printing process. Although multiple advances in developing printing inks and pastes with novel properties are being made, the potential those can bring to electronics is hindered by their stability and performance during the printing process. In this study a UV-LED curable acrylic material was used to test the optimization of inks and pastes for three of the most common direct writing systems: Piezo-type Inkjet, Reverse Offset Roll to Plate, and Micro Deposition. The viscosity of the photosensitive acrylic matrix was controlled by either the addition of diluents or electronically functional reinforcement material. The contact angle of the optimized solutions on 16 different Polyester, Polyimide, and Paper films was observed. Solutions with larger contact angles showed better line definition for the Inkjet and the Micro Dispense systems. In addition to the contact angle differential, the rheological properties showed to be a determinant factor for the feasibility of a solution to undergo the reverse offset printing process. The UV curable acrylic demonstrated electrical conductivity when 2% (wt.) MWCNT were ultrasonically mixed in the matrix and then cured with a 385nm wavelength for 3 seconds. Only the micro deposition system was capable of printing the acrylic-MWCNT paste and the relationship between the contact angle, pattern accuracy, substrate selection, and electrical conductivity, was determined.

  14. Low-ohmic-contact-resistance V-based electrode for n-type AlGaN with high AlN molar fraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mori, Kazuki; Takeda, Kunihiro; Kusafuka, Toshiki; Iwaya, Motoaki; Takeuchi, Tetsuya; Kamiyama, Satoshi; Akasaki, Isamu; Amano, Hiroshi

    2016-05-01

    We investigated a V-based electrode for the realization of low ohmic-contact resistivity in n-type AlGaN with a high AlN molar fraction characterized by the circular transmission line model. The contact resistivity of n-type Al0.62Ga0.38N prepared using the V/Al/Ni/Au electrode reached 1.13 × 10-6 Ω cm2. Using this electrode, we also demonstrated the fabrication of UV light-emitting diodes (LEDs) with an emission wavelength of approximately 300 nm. An operating voltage of LED prepared using a V/Al/Ni/Au electrode was 1.6 V lower at 100 mA current injection than that prepared using a Ti/Al/Ti/Au electrode, with a specific contact resistance of approximately 2.36 × 10-4 Ω cm2 for n-type Al0.62Ga0.38N.

  15. The Calibration System Based On the Controllable UV/visible LED Flasher for the Veto System of the DarkSide Detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chepurnov, A. S.; Gromov, M. B.; Litvinovich, E. A.; Machulin, I. N.; Skorokhvatov, M. D.; Shamarin, A. F.

    2017-01-01

    A prototype of the calibration system for the Liquid Scintillator Veto (LSV) and for the Water Cherenkov Veto (WCV) of the DarkSide detector have been developed. The instrument consists of a fast double output flasher which can be configured and controlled via USB, the appropriate application software. UV, visible or combination of both LEDs could be installed. Flashes amplitude, repetition rate and delay time between two continuous pulses are adjustable. High –OH silica fibers are used to minimize intensity losses on the delivery path. X shape splitter is used to combine two LED’s pigtailed output and then to split the sum of the signals. One output feeds calibration path to the detector, while the second is used for pulse-to-pulse measurement of the flash intensity with compatible photodiode in combination with Flash ADC. The instrument allows to simulate point-like physical events in very wide energy range from a few hundred keV up to several dozen of MeV. Additional studies (pile-up analysis, spatial reconstruction, quenching as a function of position and wavelength) can be performed due to double-LEDs scheme and possibility of fast replacement of diodes.

  16. BPO4@B2O3 and (BPO4@B2O3):Eu3+: The novel single-emitting-component phosphors for near UV-white LEDs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Xiyu; Liu, Wei; Jiang, Yu; Cao, Lixin; Su, Ge; Gao, Rongjie

    2016-08-01

    Nowadays much effort has been devoted to exploring novel luminescent materials with low-cost, high stability and excellent luminescent properties. In this paper, a new kind of luminescent material BPO4@B2O3 was prepared by using a facile method. The as-obtained samples contain numerous BPO4 nanoparticles enclosed by amorphous and crystalline B2O3 homogeneously, which exhibits a broad emission band ranging from 380 to 700 nm under near-UV irradiation. More importantly, it is worth noting that the BPO4@B2O3 phosphor exhibits the excellent thermal quenching property, which endows it with a promising prospect as phosphors for high power white LEDs. To further promote its application as white light phosphors, Eu3+ ions were doped into the BPO4@B2O3 samples and prepared the (BPO4@B2O3):Eu3+ phosphors with chromaticity coordinates (0.3022, 0.3122). The corresponding packaging of LEDs indicates that both BPO4@B2O3 and (BPO4@B2O3):Eu3+ can be considered as the promising phosphors for WLEDs.

  17. An elegant route to overcome fundamentally-limited light extraction in AlGaN deep-ultraviolet light-emitting diodes: Preferential outcoupling of strong in-plane emission

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jong Won; Kim, Dong Yeong; Park, Jun Hyuk; Schubert, E. Fred; Kim, Jungsub; Lee, Jinsub; Kim, Yong-Il; Park, Youngsoo; Kim, Jong Kyu

    2016-01-01

    While there is an urgent need for semiconductor-based efficient deep ultraviolet (DUV) sources, the efficiency of AlGaN DUV light-emitting diodes (LEDs) remains very low because the extraction of DUV photons is significantly limited by intrinsic material properties of AlGaN. Here, we present an elegant approach based on a DUV LED having multiple mesa stripes whose inclined sidewalls are covered by a MgF2/Al omni-directional mirror to take advantage of the strongly anisotropic transverse-magnetic polarized emission pattern of AlGaN quantum wells. The sidewall-emission-enhanced DUV LED breaks through the fundamental limitations caused by the intrinsic properties of AlGaN, thus shows a remarkable improvement in light extraction as well as operating voltage. Furthermore, an analytic model is developed to understand and precisely estimate the extraction of DUV photons from AlGaN DUV LEDs, and hence to provide promising routes for maximizing the power conversion efficiency. PMID:26935402

  18. An elegant route to overcome fundamentally-limited light extraction in AlGaN deep-ultraviolet light-emitting diodes: Preferential outcoupling of strong in-plane emission.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jong Won; Kim, Dong Yeong; Park, Jun Hyuk; Schubert, E Fred; Kim, Jungsub; Lee, Jinsub; Kim, Yong-Il; Park, Youngsoo; Kim, Jong Kyu

    2016-03-03

    While there is an urgent need for semiconductor-based efficient deep ultraviolet (DUV) sources, the efficiency of AlGaN DUV light-emitting diodes (LEDs) remains very low because the extraction of DUV photons is significantly limited by intrinsic material properties of AlGaN. Here, we present an elegant approach based on a DUV LED having multiple mesa stripes whose inclined sidewalls are covered by a MgF2/Al omni-directional mirror to take advantage of the strongly anisotropic transverse-magnetic polarized emission pattern of AlGaN quantum wells. The sidewall-emission-enhanced DUV LED breaks through the fundamental limitations caused by the intrinsic properties of AlGaN, thus shows a remarkable improvement in light extraction as well as operating voltage. Furthermore, an analytic model is developed to understand and precisely estimate the extraction of DUV photons from AlGaN DUV LEDs, and hence to provide promising routes for maximizing the power conversion efficiency.

  19. A novel greenish yellow-orange red Ba3Y4O9:Bi(3+),Eu(3+) phosphor with efficient energy transfer for UV-LEDs.

    PubMed

    Li, Kai; Lian, Hongzhou; Shang, Mengmeng; Lin, Jun

    2015-12-21

    A series of novel color-tunable Ba3Y4O9:Bi(3+),Eu(3+) phosphors were prepared for the first time via the high-temperature solid-state reaction route. The effect of Bi(3+) concentration on the emission intensity of Ba3Y4O9:Bi(3+) was investigated. The emission spectra of the Ba3Y4O9:Bi(3+),Eu(3+) phosphors present both a greenish yellow band of Bi(3+) emission centered at 523 nm, and many characteristic emission lines of Eu(3+), derived from the allowed (3)P1-(1)S0 transition of the Bi(3+) ion and the (5)D0-(7)FJ transition of the Eu(3+) ion, respectively. The energy transfer phenomenon from Bi(3+) to Eu(3+) ions is observed under UV excitation in Bi(3+), Eu(3+) co-doped Ba3Y4O9 phosphors, and their transfer mechanism is demonstrated to be a resonant type via dipole-quadrupole interaction. The critical distance between Bi(3+) and Eu(3+) for the energy transfer effect was calculated via the concentration quenching and spectral overlap methods. Results show that color tuning from greenish yellow to orange red can be realized by adjusting the mole ratio of Bi(3+) and Eu(3+) concentrations based on the principle of energy transfer. Moreover, temperature-dependent PL properties, CIE chromaticity coordinates and quantum yields of Ba3Y4O9:Bi(3+),Eu(3+) phosphors were also supplied. It is illustrated that the as-prepared Ba3Y4O9:Bi(3+),Eu(3+) phosphors can be potential candidates for color-tunable phosphors applied in UV-pumped LEDs.

  20. Sub-milliwatt AlGaN nanowire tunnel junction deep ultraviolet light emitting diodes on silicon operating at 242 nm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, S.; Sadaf, S. M.; Vanka, S.; Wang, Y.; Rashid, R.; Mi, Z.

    2016-11-01

    We report AlGaN nanowire light emitting diodes (LEDs) operating in the ultraviolet-C band. The LED structures are grown by molecular beam epitaxy on Si substrate. It is found that with the use of the n+-GaN/Al/p+-AlGaN tunnel junction (TJ), the device resistance is reduced by one order of magnitude, and the light output power is increased by two orders of magnitude, compared to AlGaN nanowire LEDs without TJ. For unpackaged TJ ultraviolet LEDs emitting at 242 nm, a maximum output power of 0.37 mW is measured, with a peak external quantum efficiency up to 0.012%.

  1. Lanthanides post-functionalized indium metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) for luminescence tuning, polymer film preparation and near-UV white LED assembly.

    PubMed

    Wu, Jing-Xing; Yan, Bing

    2016-11-22

    A class of hybrid materials based on indium 2,2'-bipyridine-5,5'-dicarboxylate metal-organic frameworks, In(OH)bpydc, was synthesized by postsynthetic introduction with lanthanide ions (Eu(3+), Tb(3+) and Sm(3+)). The structure, thermal stability, morphology and more detailed information about these materials were characterized by XRD, DSC, BET, FTIR, SEM and so forth. The further study of luminescent properties in detail showed that these compounds possess characteristic emission, and the In-MOF-Eu maintains different colors of light from blue-green to red under different excitation wavelengths (excited at 400 nm to 320 nm), which includes the near-white light region (the color coordinates are X = 0.34, Y = 0.36). It is a remarkable fact that the trend of ligand-central emission is opposite to that of the characteristic emission of Eu(3+). Moreover, a kind of thin film and assembled white light near-UV LED based on the optically lanthanide-functionalized MOFs was prepared in order to extend their potential applications; both of them lead to desirable white light (X = 0.34, Y = 0.36; X = 0.35, Y = 0.37). In addition, the matrix does not affect the white luminescence.

  2. Performance improvement of AlGaN-based deep-ultraviolet light-emitting diodes via asymmetric step-like AlGaN quantum wells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Lin; Wan, Zhi; Xu, FuJun; Wang, XinQiang; Lv, Chen; Shen, Bo; Jiang, Ming; Chen, QiGong

    2017-04-01

    Characteristics of AlGaN-based deep-ultraviolet light-emitting diodes (DUV-LEDs) with light-emitting wavelength around 265 nm via step-like AlGaN quantum wells (QWs) have been investigated. Simulation approach yields a result that, there is significant enhancement of light output power (LOP) for DUV-LEDs with two-layer step-like AlGaN QWs compared to that with conventional one. The location and thickness of AlGaN layer with higher Al-content in the step-like QWs are confirmed to significantly affect the distributions and overlap of electron and hole wavefunctions. The best material characteristic is obtained when the step-like QW is designed as an asymmetric structure, such as Al0.74Ga0.26N (1.8 nm)/Al0.64Ga0.36N (1.2 nm), where AlGaN with higher Al-content layer is set to be located nearer from n-side and be thick as far as possible. The key factors for the performance improvements for this specific design is the enhanced hole transport and mitigated auger recombination.

  3. Enhancement of blue InGaN light-emitting diodes by using AlGaN increased composition-graded barriers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Lei; Zhiqiang, Liu; Miao, He; Xiaoyan, Yi; Junxi, Wang; Jinmin, Li; Shuwen, Zheng; Shuti, Li

    2015-05-01

    The characteristics of nitride-based blue light-emitting diodes (LEDs) with AlGaN composition-graded barriers are analyzed numerically. The carrier concentrations in the quantum wells (QWs), the energy band diagrams, the electrostatic fields, and the light output power are investigated by APSYS software. The simulation results show that the LED with AlGaN composition-graded barriers has a better performance than its AlGaN/InGaN counterpart owing to the increase of hole injection and the enhancement of electron confinement. The simulation results also suggest that the output power is enhanced significantly and the efficiency droop is markedly improved when the AlGaN barriers are replaced by AlGaN composition-graded barriers. Project supported by the National High Technology Program of China (Nos. 2011AA03A105, 2013AA03A101), the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Nos. 61306051, 61306050, 11474105), the Beijing Municipal Science and Technology Project (No. D12110300140000), the National Basic Research Program of China (No. 2011CB301902), the Industry-Academia-Research Union Special Fund of Guangdong Province of China (No. 2012B091000169), the Science & Technology Innovation Platform of Industry-Academia-Research Union of Guangdong Province-Ministry Cooperation Special Fund of China (No. 2012B090600038), the Specialized Research Fund for the Doctoral Program of Higher Education (No. 20134407110008), and the Science research innovation foundation of South China Normal University of China (No. 2013kyjj041).

  4. An LED-based UV-B irradiation system for tiny organisms: System description and demonstration experiment to determine the hatchability of eggs from four Tetranychus spider mite species from Okinawa.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Takeshi; Yoshioka, Yoshio; Tsarsitalidou, Olga; Ntalia, Vivi; Ohno, Suguru; Ohyama, Katsumi; Kitashima, Yasuki; Gotoh, Tetsuo; Takeda, Makio; Koveos, Dimitris S

    2014-03-01

    We developed a computer-based system for controlling the photoperiod and irradiance of UV-B and white light from a 5×5 light-emitting diode (LED) matrix (100×100mm). In this system, the LED matrix was installed in each of four irradiation boxes and controlled by pulse-width modulators so that each box can independently emit UV-B and white light at irradiances of up to 1.5 and 4.0Wm(-2), respectively, or a combination of both light types. We used this system to examine the hatchabilities of the eggs of four Tetranychus spider mite species (T. urticae, T. kanzawai, T. piercei and T. okinawanus) collected from Okinawa Island under UV-B irradiation alone or simultaneous irradiation with white light for 12hd(-1) at 25°C. Although no eggs of any species hatched under the UV-B irradiation, even when the irradiance was as low as 0.02Wm(-2), the hatchabilities increased to >90% under simultaneous irradiation with 4.0Wm(-2) white light. At 0.06Wm(-2) UV-B, T. okinawanus eggs hatched (15% hatchability) under simultaneous irradiation with white light, whereas other species showed hatchabilities <1%. These results suggest that photolyases activated by white light may reduce UV-B-induced DNA damage in spider mite eggs and that the greater UV-B tolerance of T. okinawanus may explain its dominance on plants in seashore environments, which have a higher risk of exposure to reflected UV-B even on the undersurface of leaves. Our system will be useful for further examination of photophysiological responses of tiny organisms because of its ability to precisely control radiation conditions.

  5. The effect of surface cleaning on quantum efficiency in AlGaN photocathode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hao, Guanghui; Zhang, Yijun; Jin, Muchun; Feng, Cheng; Chen, Xinlong; Chang, Benkang

    2015-01-01

    To improve the quantum efficiency of AlGaN photocathode, various surfaces cleaning techniques for the removal of alumina and carbon from AlGaN photocathode surface were investigated. The atomic compositions of AlGaN photocathode structure and surface were measured by the X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and Ar+ ion sputtering. It is found that the boiling KOH solution and the mixture of sulfuric acid and hydrogen peroxide, coupled with the thermal cleaning at 850 °C can effectively remove the alumina and carbon from the AlGaN photocathode surface. The quantum efficiency of AlGaN photocathode is improved to 35.1% at 240 nm, an increase of 50% over the AlGaN photocathode chemically cleaned by only the mixed solution of sulfuric acid and hydrogen peroxide and thermally cleaned at 710 °C.

  6. CONDENSED MATTER: ELECTRONIC STRUCTURE, ELECTRICAL, MAGNETIC, AND OPTICAL PROPERTIES: Energy Transfer from Ce3+ to Eu2+ in LiSrBO3 and Its Potential Application in UV-LED-Based White LEDs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Zhi-Jun; Li, Pan-Lai; Yang, Zhi-Ping; Guo, Qing-Lin; Fu, Guang-Sheng

    2009-11-01

    Ce3+/Eu2+ codoped LiSrBO3 phosphor is synthesized, and its luminescent characteristics are investigated. LiSrBO3:Ce3+,Eu2+ phosphor exhibits varied hues from blue to white and eventually to yellow by resonance-type energy transfer from Ce3+ ion to Eu2+ ion and tuning the relative proportion of Ce3+/Eu2+ properly. Energy transfer mechanism in LiSrBO3:Ce3+, Eu2+ phosphor is dominated by the dipole-dipole interaction, and the critical distance of the energy transfer is estimated to be about 2 nm by both spectral overlap and concentration quenching methods. Under UV radiation, white light is generated by coupling 436 and 565 nm emission bands attributed to Ce3+ and Eu2+ radiations, respectively.

  7. Development and deployment of a cavity enhanced UV-LED spectrometer for measurements of atmospheric HONO and NO2 in Hong Kong

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Tao; Zha, Qiaozhi; Chen, Weidong; Xu, Zheng; Wang, Tao; He, Xingdao

    2014-10-01

    An optical analytical instrument based on light emitting diode (LED) incoherent broadband cavity enhanced absorption spectroscopy (LED-IBBCEAS) was developed for simultaneous measurements of HONO and NO2 in ambient air. Detection limits (for signal-to-noise ratio, SNR = 2) of 0.6 ppbv for HONO and 2 ppbv for NO2 were achieved with an optimum acquisition time of 120 s. Field intercomparison campaign at a suburban site of Tung Chung in Hong Kong was carried out. Daytime and nighttime concentrations of HONO and NO2 were recorded and compared with data from a long path absorption photometer (LOPAP) and a NOx analyzer equipped with a blue light converter. The test of such a LED-IBBCEAS setup by the measurement intercomparison with the well established HONO and NO2 measurement instruments, for the first time, in a real atmospheric environment, demonstrated the feasibility of the proposed technique for the measurement of environmental HONO and NO2 concentrations in a manner that is free of chemical and spectral interference. During the measurement period from 12:32 on May 12th to 12:32 on May 14th, 2012, the quantitative assessments from these techniques showed well agreed data. High temporal correlations of HONO with NOx and CO were observed, and possible formation sources of HONO are discussed. Occasional inconsistencies in the quantitative assessment of HONO were observed during the in-field campaign. The problems encountered by the IBBCEAS technique applied to field observation and the further improvements are discussed.

  8. Persistent photoconductivity in AlGaN/GaN heterojunction channels caused by the ionization of deep levels in the AlGaN barrier layer

    SciTech Connect

    Murayama, H.; Akiyama, Y.; Niwa, R.; Sakashita, H.; Sakaki, H.; Kachi, T.; Sugimoto, M.

    2013-12-04

    Time-dependent responses of drain current (I{sub d}) in an AlGaN/GaN HEMT under UV (3.3 eV) and red (2.0 eV) light illumination have been studied at 300 K and 250 K. UV illumination enhances I{sub d} by about 10 %, indicating that the density of two-dimensional electrons is raised by about 10{sup 12} cm{sup −2}. When UV light is turned off at 300 K, a part of increased I{sub d} decays quickly but the other part of increment is persistent, showing a slow decay. At 250 K, the majority of increment remains persistent. It is found that such a persistent increase of I{sub d} at 250 K can be partially erased by the illumination of red light. These photo-responses are explained by a simple band-bending model in which deep levels in the AlGaN barrier get positively charged by the UV light, resulting in a parabolic band bending in the AlGaN layer, while some potion of those deep levels are neutralized by the red light.

  9. Elimination of AlGaN epilayer cracking by spatially patterned AlN mask

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarzyński, Marcin; Kryśko, Marcin; Targowski, Grzegorz; Czernecki, Robert; Sarzyńska, Agnieszka; Libura, Adam; Krupczyński, Wiktor; Perlin, Piotr; Leszczyński, Michał

    2006-03-01

    The inherent problem in III-nitride technology is the cracking of AlGaN layers that results from lattice mismatch between AlGaN and GaN. In case of thin substrates (30-90μm), such as, bulk GaN grown by the high-pressure/high-temperature method, the bowing of AlGaN /GaN strained structures becomes an additional problem. To eliminate cracking and bowing, AlGaN layers were grown on GaN substrates with an AlN mask patterned to form 3-15μm wide windows. In the 3μm window, the AlGaN layer was not cracked, although its thickness and Al composition exceeded critical values for growth on nonpatterned substrates. Dislocation density in the windows was of 5×106/cm2.

  10. Tunable blue-green-emitting wurtzite ZnS:Mg nanosheet-assembled hierarchical spheres for near-UV white LEDs

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Mg-doped ZnS hierarchical spheres have been synthesized via hydrothermal method using mixed solvents of ethylenediamine and DI water without any surface-active agent. The surface morphology and microstructure studies revealed that the hierarchical spheres were consisted of many well-aligned nanosheets with width 10 nm and length about 50 ~ 100 nm. X-Ray diffraction results show that the ZnS:Mg hierarchical spheres have wurtzite structure with high crystallinity. The absorption edge in the diffuse reflection spectra shifts towards lower wavelength with increasing Mg concentration, indicating an expansion in the bandgap energy that is estimated to be in the range of 3.28 to 3.47 eV. Blue-green photoluminescence with tunable intensity and peak position was observed depending on the Mg content. The Mg2+-activated ZnS phosphor can be good candidates for blue-green components in near-UV white light-emitting diodes. PMID:24418612

  11. The effect of mold materials on the overlay accuracy of a roll-to-roll imprinting system using UV LED illumination within a transparent mold

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Sungwoo; Kook, YunHo; Kim, ChulHo; Yoo, SoonSung; Park, Kwon-Shik; Kim, Seok-min; Kang, Shinill

    2016-06-01

    Although several studies on the roll-to-roll (R2R) imprinting process have reported achieving flexible electronics, improving the alignment accuracy in the overlay process of R2R imprinting is recognized as the biggest problem for the commercialization of this technology. For an overlay technique with high alignment accuracy, it is essential to develop a roll mold with high positional accuracy. In this study, a method for fabricating a roll mold with high positional accuracy is proposed by wrapping a thin glass substrate flexible mold around the transparent roll base, because it can provide higher mechanical strength and thermal stability than a conventional polymer substrate. To confirm the usability of the proposed process, the prepared roll mold was used to fabricate a test pattern of thin-film transistor backplane for a rollable display. The positional and overlay accuracy of the roll mold with the proposed thin glass substrate flexible mold were compared with the roll mold with a conventional polymer substrate flexible mold. Large-area transparent flexible molds with a size of 470  ×  370 mm were fabricated by an ultraviolet (UV) imprinting process on thin glass and polyethylene terephthalate substrates, and these flexible molds were wrapped around a roll base of 125 mm radius through a precision alignment process. After an anti-adhesion treatment and the wrapping process, the roll mold with the polymer substrate showed a ~180 μm positional error, whereas the thin glass substrate showed a ~30 μm positional error. After the overlay process using the R2R imprinting system with the alignment system, an average overlay error of ~3 μm was obtained when the thin glass flexible wrapped roll mold was used, whereas a ~22 μm overlay error was obtained when the polymer substrate flexible wrapped roll mold was used.

  12. Inductively coupled plasma–reactive ion etching of c- and a-plane AlGaN over the entire Al composition range: Effect of BCl{sub 3} pretreatment in Cl{sub 2}/Ar plasma chemistry

    SciTech Connect

    Shah, Amit P.; Laskar, Masihhur R.; Azizur Rahman, A.; Gokhale, Maheshwar R.; Bhattacharya, Arnab

    2013-11-15

    Inductively coupled plasma (ICP)–reactive ion etching (RIE) patterning is a standard processing step for UV and optical photonic devices based on III-nitride materials. There is little research on ICP-RIE of high Al-content AlGaN alloys and for nonpolar nitride orientations. The authors present a comprehensive study of the ICP-RIE of c- and a-plane AlGaN in Cl{sub 2}/Ar plasma over the entire Al composition range. The authors find that the etch rate decreases in general with increasing Al content, with different behavior for c- and a-plane AlGaN. They also study the effect of BCl{sub 3} deoxidizing plasma pretreatment. An ICP deoxidizing BCl{sub 3} plasma with the addition of argon is more efficient in removal of surface oxides from Al{sub x}Ga{sub 1−x}N than RIE alone. These experiments show that Al{sub x}Ga{sub 1−x}N etching is affected by the higher binding energy of AlN and the higher affinity of oxygen to aluminum compared to gallium, with oxides on a-plane AlGaN more difficult to etch as compared to oxides on c-plane AlGaN, specifically for high Al composition materials. The authors achieve reasonably high etch rate (∼350 nm/min) for high Al-content materials with a smooth surface morphology at a low DC bias of ∼−45 VDC.

  13. LED Update

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, Mark L.; Gordon, Kelly L.

    2006-09-01

    This article, which will appear in RESIDENTIAL LIGHTING MAGAZINE, interviews PNNL's Kelly Gordon and presents the interview in question and answer format. The topic is a light emitting diode (LED) lighting also known as solid state lighting. Solid state lighting will be a new category in an energy efficient lighting fixture design competition called Lighting for Tomorrow sponsored by the US Department of Energy Emerging Technologies Office, the American Institute for Lighting, and the Consortium for Energy Efficiency. LED technology has been around since the ’60s, but it has been used mostly for indicator lights on electronics equipment. The big breakthrough was the development in the 1990s of blue LEDs which can be combined with the red and green LEDs that already existed to make white light. LEDs produce 25 to 40 lumens of light per watt of energy used, almost as much as a CFL (50 lumens per watt) and much more efficient than incandescent sources, which are around 15 lumens per watt. They are much longer lived and practical in harsh environments unsuitable for incandescent lighting. They are ready for niche applications now, like under-counter lighting and may be practical for additional applications as technological challenges are worked out and the technology is advancing in leaps and bounds.

  14. LED lamp

    SciTech Connect

    Galvez, Miguel; Grossman, Kenneth; Betts, David

    2013-11-12

    There is herein described a lamp for providing white light comprising a plurality of light sources positioned on a substrate. Each of said light sources comprises a blue light emitting diode (LED) and a dome that substantially covers said LED. A first portion of said blue light from said LEDs is transmitted through said domes and a second portion of said blue light is converted into a red light by a first phosphor contained in said domes. A cover is disposed over all of said light sources that transmits at least a portion of said red and blue light emitted by said light sources. The cover contains a second phosphor that emits a yellow light in response to said blue light. The red, blue and yellow light combining to form the white light and the white light having a color rendering index (CRI) of at least about 80.

  15. Influence of AlN thickness on AlGaN epilayer grown by MOCVD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jayasakthi, M.; Juillaguet, S.; Peyre, H.; Konczewicz, L.; Baskar, K.; Contreras, S.

    2016-10-01

    AlGaN/AlN layers were grown by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) on sapphire substrates. The AlN buffer thickness was varied from 400 nm to 800 nm. The AlGaN layer thickness was 1000 nm. The crystalline quality, thickness and composition of AlGaN were determined using high resolution X-ray diffraction (HRXRD). The threading dislocation density (TDD) was found to decrease with increase of AlN layer thickness. Reciprocal space mapping (RSM) was used to estimate the strain and relaxation between AlGaN and AlN. The optical properties of AlGaN layers were investigated by temperature dependent photoluminescence (PL). PL intensities of AlGaN layers increases with increasing the AlN thickness. The surface morphology of AlGaN was studied by atomic force microscopy (AFM). Root mean square (RMS) roughness values were found to be decreased while increase of AlN thickness.

  16. Ultralow-threshold electrically injected AlGaN nanowire ultraviolet lasers on Si operating at low temperature.

    PubMed

    Li, K H; Liu, X; Wang, Q; Zhao, S; Mi, Z

    2015-02-01

    Ultraviolet laser radiation has been adopted in a wide range of applications as diverse as water purification, flexible displays, data storage, sterilization, diagnosis and bioagent detection. Success in developing semiconductor-based, compact ultraviolet laser sources, however, has been extremely limited. Here, we report that defect-free disordered AlGaN core-shell nanowire arrays, formed directly on a Si substrate, can be used to achieve highly stable, electrically pumped lasers across the entire ultraviolet AII (UV-AII) band (∼320-340 nm) at low temperatures. The laser threshold is in the range of tens of amps per centimetre squared, which is nearly three orders of magnitude lower than those of previously reported quantum-well lasers. This work also reports the first demonstration of electrically injected AlGaN-based ultraviolet lasers monolithically grown on a Si substrate, and offers a new avenue for achieving semiconductor lasers in the ultraviolet B (UV-B) (280-320 nm) and ultraviolet C (UV-C) (<280 nm) bands.

  17. Recent Advances in III-Nitride UV Photonics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Hongxing

    2004-03-01

    There is a great need of solid-state ultraviolet (UV) emitters for chemical and biological agent detections and general lighting. The availability of chip-scale UV light sources may also open up new applications for medical research in areas of early disease detection. Although many of the ideas and potentials of III-nitride devices for UV applications have been identified, a transition from basic research to practical device components has not yet been made due to various technological obstacles. Several key issues must be resolved. For example, highly conductive n-type and p-type AlGaN alloys as well as device quality quantum wells (QWs) based on AlGaN or AlInGaN alloys with high Al-contents are indispensable. This presentation will discuss some of the recent progresses in epitaxial growth and fundamental studies of high Al content III-nitride alloys. Novel techniques for obtaining highly conductive n-type and p-type III-nitride alloys with high Al contents and high quality QWs with deep UV emission will be discussed. Optical properties that are unique to this ultrahigh bandgap semiconductor material system will be highlighted. Innovative approaches for enhancing the extraction efficiencies of UV emitters, including the incorporation of micro-size emitter arrays and submicron/nano-scale photonic crystals into UV emitters, will be presented. Finally, remaining challenges and future prospects of nitride UV photonics and nanophotonics will be discussed.

  18. Comparative study of NH 4OH and HCl etching behaviours on AlGaN surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sohal, Rakesh; Dudek, Piotr; Hilt, Oliver

    2010-01-01

    A controlled AlGaN surface preparation method avails to improve the performance of GaN-based HEMT devices. A comparative investigation of chemical treatments by (1:10) NH 4OH:H 2O and (1:10) HCl:H 2O solutions for AlGaN surface preparation by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) is reported. The XPS data clearly reveal that the native oxide on AlGaN was composed of Al 2O 3, Ga 2O 3 and NO compounds. These compounds were etched off partially or completely by both the chemical treatments, namely NH 4OH or HCl solutions, independently. The HCl treatment etches out Al 2O 3 completely from native oxide unlike NH 4OH treatment. The HCl treatment results in larger amount of carbon segregation on AlGaN surfaces, however it removes all oxides' compounds faster than NH 4OH treatment. The AFM results reveal the improvement of surface morphology by both the chemical treatments leading to the surface roughness RMS values of 0.24 nm and 0.21 nm for NH 4OH and HCl treated AlGaN layers, respectively.

  19. Electrical properties of n-type AlGaN with high Si concentration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takeda, Kunihiro; Iwaya, Motoaki; Takeuchi, Tetsuya; Kamiyama, Satoshi; Akasaki, Isamu

    2016-05-01

    The electrical properties of Si-doped AlGaN layers (AlN molar fractions: 0.03-0.06) with the donor concentrations (N D) from 8.8 × 1017 to 4.5 × 1020 cm-3 were investigated by variable-temperature Hall effect measurement using the van der Pauw method. A minimum resistivity of 3.6 × 10-4 Ω cm was obtained for Si-doped AlGaN with a smooth surface at room temperature. We found that the activation energy of the Si donor is affected by the Coulomb interaction in the AlGaN layer with N D values from 8.8 × 1017 to 2.5 × 1020 cm-3. In several AlGaN layers, the free-electron concentration did not vary with sample temperature, as expected in the case of degeneracy. The localization of GaN in the AlGaN layer was speculated as a cause of degeneracy of samples.

  20. Piezoelectric domains in the AlGaN hexagonal microrods: Effect of crystal orientations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sivadasan, A. K.; Mangamma, G.; Bera, Santanu; Kamruddin, M.; Dhara, Sandip

    2016-05-01

    Presently, the piezoelectric materials are finding tremendous applications in the micro-mechanical actuators, sensors, and self-powered devices. In this context, the studies pertaining to piezoelectric properties of materials in the different size ranges are very important for the scientific community. The III-nitrides are exceptionally important, not only for optoelectronic but also for their piezoelectric applications. In the present study, we synthesized AlGaN via self-catalytic vapor-solid mechanism by atmospheric pressure chemical vapor deposition technique on AlN base layer over intrinsic Si(100) substrate. The growth process is substantiated using X-ray diffraction and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The Raman and photoluminescence studies reveal the formation of AlGaN microrods in the wurtzite phase and ensure the high optical quality of the crystalline material. The single crystalline, direct wide band gap and hexagonally shaped AlGaN microrods are studied for understanding the behavior of the crystallites under the application of constant external electric field using the piezoresponse force microscopy. The present study is mainly focused on understanding the behavior of induced polarization for the determination of piezoelectric coefficient of AlGaN microrod along the c-axis and imaging of piezoelectric domains in the sample originating because of the angular inclination of AlGaN microrods with respect to its AlN base layers.

  1. Polarization-induced electrical conductivity in ultra-wide band gap AlGaN alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Armstrong, Andrew M.; Allerman, Andrew A.

    2016-11-01

    Unintentionally doped (UID) AlGaN epilayers graded over Al compositions of 80%-90% and 80%-100% were grown by metal organic vapor phase epitaxy and were electrically characterized using contactless sheet resistance (Rsh) and capacitance-voltage (C-V) measurements. Strong electrical conductivity in the UID graded AlGaN epilayers resulted from polarization-induced doping and was verified by the low resistivity of 0.04 Ω cm for the AlGaN epilayer graded over 80%-100% Al mole fraction. A free electron concentration (n) of 4.8 × 1017 cm-3 was measured by C-V for Al compositions of 80%-100%. Average electron mobility ( μ ¯ ) was calculated from Rsh and n data for three ranges of Al composition grading, and it was found that UID AlGaN graded from 88%-96% had μ ¯ = 509 cm2/V s. The combination of very large band gap energy, high μ ¯ , and high n for UID graded AlGaN epilayers make them attractive as a building block for high voltage power electronic devices such as Schottky diodes and field effect transistors.

  2. Botulinum toxin detection using AlGaN /GaN high electron mobility transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yu-Lin; Chu, B. H.; Chen, K. H.; Chang, C. Y.; Lele, T. P.; Tseng, Y.; Pearton, S. J.; Ramage, J.; Hooten, D.; Dabiran, A.; Chow, P. P.; Ren, F.

    2008-12-01

    Antibody-functionalized, Au-gated AlGaN /GaN high electron mobility transistors (HEMTs) were used to detect botulinum toxin. The antibody was anchored to the gate area through immobilized thioglycolic acid. The AlGaN /GaN HEMT drain-source current showed a rapid response of less than 5s when the target toxin in a buffer was added to the antibody-immobilized surface. We could detect a range of concentrations from 1to10ng/ml. These results clearly demonstrate the promise of field-deployable electronic biological sensors based on AlGaN /GaN HEMTs for botulinum toxin detection.

  3. Strain dependence on polarization properties of AlGaN and AlGaN-based ultraviolet lasers grown on AlN substrates

    SciTech Connect

    Bryan, Zachary Bryan, Isaac; Sitar, Zlatko; Collazo, Ramón; Mita, Seiji; Tweedie, James

    2015-06-08

    Since the band ordering in AlGaN has a profound effect on the performance of UVC light emitting diodes (LEDs) and even determines the feasibility of surface emitting lasers, the polarization properties of emitted light from c-oriented AlGaN and AlGaN-based laser structures were studied over the whole composition range, as well as various strain states, quantum confinements, and carrier densities. A quantitative relationship between the theoretical valence band separation, determined using k•p theory, and the experimentally measured degree of polarization is presented. Next to composition, strain was found to have the largest influence on the degree of polarization while all other factors were practically insignificant. The lowest crossover point from the transverse electric to transverse magnetic polarized emission of 245 nm was found for structures pseudomorphically grown on AlN substrates. This finding has significant implications toward the efficiency and feasibility of surface emitting devices below this wavelength.

  4. AlGaN Channel Transistors for Power Management and Distribution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    VanHove, James M.

    1996-01-01

    Contained within is the Final report of a Phase 1 SBIR program to develop AlGaN channel junction field effect transistors (JFET). The report summarizes our work to design, deposit, and fabricate JFETS using molecular beam epitaxy growth AlGaN. Nitride growth is described using a RF atomic nitrogen plasma source. Processing steps needed to fabricate the device such as ohmic source-drain contacts, reactive ion etching, gate formation, and air bride fabrication are documented. SEM photographs of fabricated power FETS are shown. Recommendations are made to continue the effort in a Phase 2 Program.

  5. Low threshold for optical damage in AlGaN epilayers and heterostructures

    SciTech Connect

    Saxena, Tanuj; Tamulaitis, Gintautas; Shatalov, Max; Yang, Jinwei; Gaska, Remis; Shur, Michael S.

    2013-11-28

    Laser pulses with duration much shorter than the effective carrier lifetime cause permanent photoluminescence (PL) quenching and enhancement of PL decay rate in bare-faceted and capped AlGaN epilayers and multiple quantum wells at pulse energies about an order of magnitude lower than those causing the surface to melt and degrade. In contrast, GaN epilayers exhibit no photomodification in the same excitation intensity range. PL spectra and decay kinetics show that lattice heating is not responsible for the observed changes in AlGaN, which result from the formation of nonradiative recombination centers via recombination-enhanced defect reactions occurring at high nonequilibrium carrier densities.

  6. MOCVD Growth of GAN, AlN and AlGaN for UV Photodetector Applications

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-01-01

    silicon substrates were first degreased with hoc trichloroethylene, ha methanol . and F 30 acetone. Then. the A0,03 substrates were etched in a hot HAO...GaN and (110)Alo,,Ga0.sN are at 355 nrm and 341 nm, respectively. Fig. 4c shows that the peak emissions from the (00*I)GaN and (00. I)AIGaN aie at

  7. High Al-content AlGaN Alloys for Deep UV Laser Applications

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-02-08

    invited. 2. “III-nitride micro - and nano -photonics,” Delivered in Symposium EE of International Conference on Materials for Advanced Technologies...Inaugural Public Lecture, Hong Kong Polytechnic University, July 2011, invited. 5. “III-Nitride Nano -structures for Energy Generation,” Nano -Energy

  8. Aluminum incorporation efficiencies in A- and C-plane AlGaN grown by MOVPE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong-Yue, Han; Hui-Jie, Li; Gui-Juan, Zhao; Hong-Yuan, Wei; Shao-Yan, Yang; Lian-Shan, Wang

    2016-04-01

    The aluminum incorporation efficiencies in nonpolar A-plane and polar C-plane AlGaN films grown by metalorganic vapour phase epitaxy (MOVPE) are investigated. It is found that the aluminum content in A-plane AlGaN film is obviously higher than that in the C-plane sample when the growth temperature is above 1070 °C. The high aluminum incorporation efficiency is beneficial to fabricating deep ultraviolet optoelectronic devices. Moreover, the influences of the gas inlet ratio, the V/III ratio, and the chamber pressure on the aluminum content are studied. The results are important for growing the AlGaN films, especially nonpolar AlGaN epilayers. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 61504128, 61504129, 61274041, and 11275228), the National Basic Research Program of China (Grant No. 2012CB619305), the National High Technology Research and Development Program of China (Grant Nos. 2014AA032603, 2014AA032609, and 2015AA010801), and the Guangdong Provincial Scientific and Technologic Planning Program, China (Grant No. 2014B010119002).

  9. MOCVD Growth of AlGaInN for UV Emitters

    SciTech Connect

    Crawford, Mary; Han, Jung

    1999-07-07

    Issues related to the growth of nitride-based UV emitters are investigated in this work. More than 100 times of improved in the optical efficiency of the GaN active region can be attained with a combination of raising the growth pressure and introducing a small amount of indium. The unique issue in the UV emitter concerning the use of AlGaN for confinement and the associated tensile cracking is also investigated. They showed that the quaternary AlGaInN is potentially capable of providing confinement to GaN and GaN:In active regions while maintaining lattice matching to GaN, unlike the AlGaN ternary system.

  10. LEDs for Efficient Energy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guerin, David A.

    1978-01-01

    Light-emitting diodes (LEDs) are described and three classroom experiments are given, one to prove the, low power requirements and efficiency of LEDs, an LED on-off detector circuit, and the third an LED photoelectric smoke detector. (BB)

  11. Synthesis, morphology and optical properties of GaN and AlGaN semiconductor nanostructures

    SciTech Connect

    Kuppulingam, B. Singh, Shubra Baskar, K.

    2014-04-24

    Hexagonal Gallium Nitride (GaN) and Aluminum Gallium Nitride (AlGaN) nanoparticles were synthesized by sol-gel method using Ethylene Diamine Tetra Acetic acid (EDTA) complex route. Powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD) analysis confirms the hexagonal wurtzite structure of GaN and Al{sub 0.25}Ga{sub 0.75}N nanoparticles. Surface morphology and elemental analysis were carried out by Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) and Energy Dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX). The room temperature Photoluminescence (PL) study shows the near band edge emission for GaN at 3.35 eV and at 3.59 eV for AlGaN nanoparticles. The Aluminum (Al) composition of 20% has been obtained from PL emission around 345 nm.

  12. Theoretical study of electrolyte gate AlGaN /GaN field effect transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bayer, M.; Uhl, C.; Vogl, P.

    2005-02-01

    We predict the sensitivity of solution gate AlGaN /GaN field effect transistors to pH values of the electrolyte and to charged adsorbates at the semiconductor-electrolyte interface. Invoking the site-binding model for the chemical reactions at the oxidic semiconductor-electrolyte interface and taking into account the large polarization fields within the nitride heterostructure, the spatial charge and potential distribution have been calculated self-consistently both in the semiconductor and the electrolyte. In addition, the source-drain current is calculated and its sensitivity to the electrolyte's pH value is studied systematically. Comparison with experiment shows good agreement. A significantly enhanced resolution is predicted for AlGaN /GaN structures of N-face polarity.

  13. Influence of substrate miscut angle on surface morphology and luminescence properties of AlGaN

    SciTech Connect

    Kusch, Gunnar Edwards, Paul R.; Bruckbauer, Jochen; Martin, Robert W.; Li, Haoning; Parbrook, Peter J.; Sadler, Thomas C.

    2014-03-03

    The influence of substrate miscut on Al{sub 0.5}Ga{sub 0.5} N layers was investigated using cathodoluminescence (CL) hyperspectral imaging and secondary electron imaging in an environmental scanning electron microscope. The samples were also characterized using atomic force microscopy and high resolution X-ray diffraction. It was found that small changes in substrate miscut have a strong influence on the morphology and luminescence properties of the AlGaN layers. Two different types are resolved. For low miscut angle, a crack-free morphology consisting of randomly sized domains is observed, between which there are notable shifts in the AlGaN near band edge emission energy. For high miscut angle, a morphology with step bunches and compositional inhomogeneities along the step bunches, evidenced by an additional CL peak along the step bunches, are observed.

  14. Relaxation of compressively-strained AlGaN by inclined threading dislocations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Follstaedt, D. M.; Lee, S. R.; Provencio, P. P.; Allerman, A. A.; Floro, J. A.; Crawford, M. H.

    2005-09-01

    Transmission electron microscopy and x-ray diffraction were used to assess the microstructure and strain of AlxGa1-xN(x=0.61-0.64) layers grown on AlN. The compressively-strained AlGaN is partially relaxed by inclined threading dislocations, similar to observations on Si-doped AlGaN by P. Cantu, F. Wu, P. Waltereit, S. Keller, A. E. Romanov, U. K. Mishra, S. P. DenBaars, and J. S. Speck [Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 674 (2003)]; however, in our material, the dislocations bend before the introduction of any Si. The bending may be initiated by the greater lattice mismatch or the lower dislocation density of our material, but the presence of Si is not necessarily required. The relaxation by inclined dislocations is quantitatively accounted for with the model of A. E. Romanov and J. S. Speck [Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 2569 (2003)], and we demonstrate the predicted linear dependence of relaxation on layer thickness. Notably, such relaxation was not found in tensile strained AlGaN grown on GaN [J. A. Floro, D. M. Follstaedt, P. Provencio, S. J. Hearne, and S. R. Lee, J. Appl. Phys. 96, 7087 (2004)], even though the same mechanism appears applicable.

  15. Relaxation of compressively strained AlGaN by inclined threading dislocations.

    SciTech Connect

    Follstaedt, David Martin; Lee, Stephen Roger; Crawford, Mary Hagerott; Provencio, Paula Polyak; Allerman, Andrew Alan; Floro, Jerrold Anthony

    2005-06-01

    Transmission electron microscopy and x-ray diffraction were used to assess the microstructure and strain of Al{sub x}Ga{sub 1?x}N(x = 0.61-0.64) layers grown on AlN. The compressively-strained AlGaN is partially relaxed by inclined threading dislocations, similar to observations on Si-doped AlGaN by P. Cantu, F. Wu, P. Waltereit, S. Keller, A. E. Romanov, U. K. Mishra, S. P. DenBaars, and J. S. Speck [Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 674 (2003) ]; however, in our material, the dislocations bend before the introduction of any Si. The bending may be initiated by the greater lattice mismatch or the lower dislocation density of our material, but the presence of Si is not necessarily required. The relaxation by inclined dislocations is quantitatively accounted for with the model of A. E. Romanov and J. S. Speck [Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 2569 (2003)], and we demonstrate the predicted linear dependence of relaxation on layer thickness. Notably, such relaxation was not found in tensile strained AlGaN grown on GaN [J. A. Floro, D. M. Follstaedt, P. Provencio, S. J. Hearne, and S. R. Lee, J. Appl. Phys. 96, 7087 (2004)], even though the same mechanism appears applicable.

  16. The role of surface kinetics on composition and quality of AlGaN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bryan, Isaac; Bryan, Zachary; Mita, Seiji; Rice, Anthony; Hussey, Lindsay; Shelton, Christopher; Tweedie, James; Maria, Jon-Paul; Collazo, Ramón; Sitar, Zlatko

    2016-10-01

    Metal-polar, Al-rich AlGaN films were grown on both single crystalline AlN and sapphire substrates. The role of surface morphology and surface kinetics on AlGaN composition is presented. With the reduced dislocation density of the films grown on AlN substrates, atomically smooth bilayer stepped surfaces are achieved with RMS roughness of less than 50 pm for a 5×5 μm2 AFM scan area. By controlling the surface supersaturation through adjusting the growth rate, a transition from 2D nucleation to step flow was observed. The critical misorientation angle for step-bunching in nominal Al0.70Ga0.30N grown with a growth rate of 600 nm/h on AlN substrates was found to be 0.4°. The composition of bilayer stepped AlGaN was strongly dependent on substrate misorientation angle, where a compositional variation by a factor of two for a change in misorientation angle from 0.05 to 0.40° was observed; this is explained by the different surface diffusion lengths of Ga and Al. Step-bunching resulted in strong compositional inhomogeneity as observed by photoluminescence and scanning transmission electron microscopy studies.

  17. Strain and defects in Si-doped (Al)GaN epitaxial layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Forghani, Kamran; Schade, Lukas; Schwarz, Ulrich T.; Lipski, Frank; Klein, Oliver; Kaiser, Ute; Scholz, Ferdinand

    2012-11-01

    Si is the most common dopant in (Al)GaN based devices acting as a donor. It has been observed that Si induces tensile strain in (Al)GaN films, which leads to an increasing tendency for cracking of such films with the increase of Si content and/or the increase of Al content. Based on x-ray investigations, the Si-doped films have a larger in-plane lattice constant than their undoped buffer layers, indicating involvement of a mechanism other than the change of lattice constants expected from an alloying effect. In this work, we present a model about Si dislocation interaction while debating other proposed models in the literature. According to our model, Si atoms are attracted to the strain dipole of edge-type dislocations in (Al)GaN films. It is expected that Si is more incorporated on that side of the dislocation, which is under compression leading to the formation of off-balanced dipoles with reduced compressive component. In response to such off-balanced dipoles—appearing as tensile dominant strain dipoles—the dislocation lines climb in order to accommodate the excess tensile strain. However, this dislocation climb mechanism is hindered by forces exerted by vacancies created due to the climb process. Accordingly, we have observed a lower strain level in our Si doped layers when they contain fewer dislocations. These findings were further supported by x-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, and micro-photoluminescence investigations.

  18. Accurate colorimetric feedback for RGB LED clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Man, Kwong; Ashdown, Ian

    2006-08-01

    We present an empirical model of LED emission spectra that is applicable to both InGaN and AlInGaP high-flux LEDs, and which accurately predicts their relative spectral power distributions over a wide range of LED junction temperatures. We further demonstrate with laboratory measurements that changes in LED spectral power distribution with temperature can be accurately predicted with first- or second-order equations. This provides the basis for a real-time colorimetric feedback system for RGB LED clusters that can maintain the chromaticity of white light at constant intensity to within +/-0.003 Δuv over a range of 45 degrees Celsius, and to within 0.01 Δuv when dimmed over an intensity range of 10:1.

  19. Wafer-scale crack-free AlGaN on GaN through two-step selective-area growth for optically pumped stimulated emission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ko, Young-Ho; Bae, Sung-Bum; Kim, Sung-Bock; Kim, Dong Churl; Leem, Young Ahn; Cho, Yong-Hoon; Nam, Eun-Soo

    2016-07-01

    Crack-free AlGaN template has been successfully grown over entire 2-in. wafer by using 2-step selective-area growth (SAG). The GaN truncated structure was obtained by vertical growth mode with low growth temperature. AlGaN of second step was grown under lateral growth mode. Low pressure enhanced the relative ratio of lateral to vertical growth rate as well as absolute overall growth rate. High V/III ratio was favorable for lateral growth mode. Crack-free planar AlGaN was obtained under low pressure of 30 Torr and high V/III ratio of 4400. The AlGaN was crack-free over entire 2-in. wafer and had quite uniform Al-mole fraction. The dislocation density of the AlGaN with 20% Al-composition was as low as ~7.6×108 /cm2, measured by cathodoluminescence. GaN/AlGaN multi-quantum well (MQW) with cladding and waveguide layers were grown on the crack-free AlGaN template with low dislocation density. It was confirmed that the MQW on the AlGaN template emitted the stimulated emission at 355.5 nm through optical pumping experiment. The AlGaN obtained by 2-step SAG would provide high crystal quality for highly-efficient optoelectronic devices as well as the ultraviolet laser diode.

  20. Hybrid UV Imager Containing Face-Up AlGaN/GaN Photodiodes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zheng, Xinyu; Pain, Bedabrata

    2005-01-01

    A proposed hybrid ultraviolet (UV) image sensor would comprise a planar membrane array of face-up AlGaN/GaN photodiodes integrated with a complementary metal oxide/semiconductor (CMOS) readout-circuit chip. Each pixel in the hybrid image sensor would contain a UV photodiode on the AlGaN/GaN membrane, metal oxide/semiconductor field-effect transistor (MOSFET) readout circuitry on the CMOS chip underneath the photodiode, and a metal via connection between the photodiode and the readout circuitry (see figure). The proposed sensor design would offer all the advantages of comparable prior CMOS active-pixel sensors and AlGaN UV detectors while overcoming some of the limitations of prior (AlGaN/sapphire)/CMOS hybrid image sensors that have been designed and fabricated according to the methodology of flip-chip integration. AlGaN is a nearly ideal UV-detector material because its bandgap is wide and adjustable and it offers the potential to attain extremely low dark current. Integration of AlGaN with CMOS is necessary because at present there are no practical means of realizing readout circuitry in the AlGaN/GaN material system, whereas the means of realizing readout circuitry in CMOS are well established. In one variant of the flip-chip approach to integration, an AlGaN chip on a sapphire substrate is inverted (flipped) and then bump-bonded to a CMOS readout circuit chip; this variant results in poor quantum efficiency. In another variant of the flip-chip approach, an AlGaN chip on a crystalline AlN substrate would be bonded to a CMOS readout circuit chip; this variant is expected to result in narrow spectral response, which would be undesirable in many applications. Two other major disadvantages of flip-chip integration are large pixel size (a consequence of the need to devote sufficient area to each bump bond) and severe restriction on the photodetector structure. The membrane array of AlGaN/GaN photodiodes and the CMOS readout circuit for the proposed image sensor would

  1. Eu{sup 2+}, Mn{sup 2+} co-doped Ba{sub 9}Y{sub 2}Si{sub 6}O{sub 24} phosphors based on near-UV-excitable LED lights

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Yoejin; Park, Sangmoon

    2014-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • New near-ultraviolet (NUV)-excitable materials composed of Ba{sub 9}Eu{sub m}Mn{sub n}Y{sub 2}Si{sub 6}O{sub 24} (m = 0.01–0.5, n = 0–0.7) were prepared. • High energy-transfer from Eu{sup 2+} to Mn{sup 2+} and their energy-transfer mechanism were discussed. • The co-doping of Eu{sup 2+} and Mn{sup 2+} in the orthosilicate structure resulted in the emission of white light under NUV LED light. - Abstract: New single-phase and near-ultraviolet (NUV)-excitable materials composed of Ba{sub 9}Eu{sub m}Mn{sub n}Y{sub 2}Si{sub 6}O{sub 24} (m = 0.01–0.5, n = 0–0.7) were prepared via a solid-state reaction in reducing atmosphere. X-ray diffraction patterns of the obtained phosphors were examined to index the peak positions. After doping the host structure with Eu{sup 2+} and Mn{sup 2+} emitters, the intense green, white, and orange emission lights that were observed in the photoluminescence spectra under NUV excitation were monitored. The dependence of the luminescent intensity of the Mn{sup 2+} co-doped (n = 0.1–0.7) host lattices on the fixed Eu{sup 2+} content (m = 0.1, 0.3, 0.5) is also investigated. Co-doping Mn{sup 2+} into the Eu{sup 2+}-doped host structure enabled a high energy-transfer from Eu{sup 2+} to Mn{sup 2+} and their energy-transfer mechanism were discussed. Using these phosphors, the desired CIE values including emissions throughout the green to orange regions of the spectra were achieved. Efficient white-light light-emitting diodes (LEDs) were fabricated using Eu{sup 2+} and Mn{sup 2+} co-doped phosphors based on NUV-excitable LED lights.

  2. Lasing and Longitudinal Cavity Modes in Photo-Pumped Deep Ultraviolet AlGaN Heterostructures

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-04-29

    found else- where.19 Laser cavities were obtained by cleaving along the m-facet of the AlN wafer . For the 1.5 mm long cavity, the cleaving was done with... lasers . The authors would like to thank Paul Rozvadovsky of HexaTech for wafer thinning, which made cleaving of short cavities possible. 1S. Nakamura...NC 27709-2211 15. SUBJECT TERMS AlGaN lasers , optical pumping, longitudinal cavity modes Jinqiao Xie, Seiji Mita, Zachary Bryan, Wei Guo, Lindsay

  3. Photogalvanic effects for interband absorption in AlGaN /GaN superlattices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cho, K. S.; Chen, Y. F.; Tang, Y. Q.; Shen, B.

    2007-01-01

    The linear and circular photogalvanic effects (CPGEs), induced by ultraviolet (325nm) radiation, have been observed in the (0001)-oriented Al0.15Ga0.85N/GaN superlattices. The CPGE current changes sign upon reversing the radiation helicity, and it is up to two orders of magnitude larger than that obtained by far-infrared radiation. This result suggests the existence of a sizeable Rashba spin splitting in AlGaN /GaN superlattices. It also provides a possibility for the generation of spin orientation-induced current at room temperature.

  4. LED Color Characteristics

    SciTech Connect

    2012-01-01

    Color quality is an important consideration when evaluating LED-based products for general illumination. This fact sheet reviews the basics regarding light and color and summarizes the most important color issues related to white-light LED systems.

  5. Synthesis of ALD zinc oxide and thin film materials optimization for UV photodetector applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tapily, Kandabara Nouhoum

    Zinc oxide (ZnO) is a direct, wide bandgap semiconductor material. It is thermodynamically stable in the wurtzite structure at ambient temperature conditions. ZnO has very interesting optical and electrical properties and is a suitable candidate for numerous optoelectronic applications such as solar cells, LEDs and UV-photodetectors. ZnO is a naturally n-type semiconductor. Due to the lack of reproducible p-type ZnO, achieving good homojunction ZnO-based photodiodes such as UV-photodetectors remains a challenge. Meanwhile, heterojunction structures of ZnO with p-type substrates such as SiC, GaN, NiO, AlGaN, Si etc. are used; however, those heterojunction diodes suffer from low efficiencies. ZnO is an n-type material with numerous intrinsic defect levels responsible for the electrical and optical behaviors. Presently, there is no clear consensus about the origin of those defects. In this work, ZnO was synthesized by atomic layer deposition (ALD). ALD is a novel deposition technique suitable for nanotechnology engineering that provides unique features such as precise control of ZnO thin film with atomic resolution, high uniformity, good conformity and high aspect ratio. Using this novel deposition technique, the ALD ZnO deposition process was developed and optimized using diethyl zinc as the precursor for zinc and water vapor as the oxygen source. In order to optimize the film quality for use in electronic applications, the physical, mechanical and electrical properties were investigated. The structural and mechanical properties of the ALD ZnO thin films were investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), spectroscopic Ellipsometry, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), Raman spectroscopy, UV-VIS absorption and nanoindentation. The electrical characterizations were performed using C-V, I-V, DLTS, Hall Effect, and four-point probe. The intrinsic defects responsible

  6. AlGaN-based focal plane arrays for selective UV imaging at 310nm and 280nm and route toward deep UV imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reverchon, Jean-Luc; Robo, Jean-Alexandre; Truffer, Jean-Patrick; Caumes, Jean-Pascal; Mourad, Idir; Brault, Julien; Duboz, Jean-Yves

    2007-10-01

    The fast development of nitrides has given the opportunity to investigate AlGaN as a material for ultraviolet detection. Such camera present an intrinsic spectral selectivity and an extremely low dark current at room temperature. It can compete with technologies based on photocathodes, MCP intensifiers, back thinned CCD or hybrid CMOS focal plane arrays (FPA) for low flux measurements. AlGaN based cameras allow UV imaging without filters or with simplified ones in harsh solar blind conditions. Few results on camera have been shown in the last years, but the ultimate performances of AlGaN photodiodes couldn't be achieved due to parasitic illumination of multiplexers, responsivity of p layers in p-i-n structures, or use of cooled readout circuit. Such issues have prevented up to now a large development of this technology. We present results on focal plane array of 320x256 pixels with a pitch of 30μm for which Schottky photodiodes are multiplexed with a readout circuit protected by black matrix at room temperature. Theses focal plane present a peak reponsivity around 280nm and 310nm with a rejection of visible light of four decades only limited by internal photoemission in contact. Then we will show the capability to outdoor measurements. The noise figure is due to readout noise of the multiplexer and we will investigate the ultimate capabilities of Schottky diodes or Metal- Semiconductor-Metal (MSM) technologies to detect extremely low signal. Furthermore, we will consider deep UV measurements on single pixels MSM from 32nm to 61nm in a front side illumination configuration. Finally, we will define technology process allowing backside illumination and deep UV imaging.

  7. From Schottky to Ohmic graphene contacts to AlGaN/GaN heterostructures: Role of the AlGaN layer microstructure

    SciTech Connect

    Fisichella, G.; Greco, G.; Roccaforte, F.; Giannazzo, F.

    2014-08-11

    The electrical behaviour of graphene (Gr) contacts to Al{sub x}Ga{sub 1−x}N/GaN heterostructures has been investigated, focusing, in particular, on the impact of the AlGaN microstructure on the current transport at Gr/AlGaN interface. Two Al{sub 0.25}Ga{sub 0.75}N/GaN heterostructures with very different quality in terms of surface roughness and defectivity, as evaluated by atomic force microscopy (AFM) and transmission electron microscopy, were compared in this study, i.e., a uniform and defect-free sample and a sample with a high density of typical V-defects, which locally cause a reduction of the AlGaN thickness. Nanoscale resolution current voltage (I-V) measurements by an Au coated conductive AFM tip were carried out at several positions both on the bare and Gr-coated AlGaN surfaces. Rectifying contacts were found onto both bare AlGaN surfaces, but with a more inhomogeneous and lower Schottky barrier height (Φ{sub B} ≈ 0.6 eV) for AlGaN with V-defects, with respect to the case of the uniform AlGaN (Φ{sub B} ≈ 0.9 eV). Instead, very different electrical behaviours were observed in the presence of the Gr interlayer between the Au tip and AlGaN, i.e., a Schottky contact with reduced barrier height (Φ{sub B} ≈ 0.4 eV) for the uniform AlGaN and an Ohmic contact for the AlGaN with V-defects. Interestingly, excellent lateral uniformity of the local I-V characteristics was found in both cases and can be ascribed to an averaging effect of the Gr electrode over the AlGaN interfacial inhomogeneities. Due to the locally reduced AlGaN layer thickness, V defect act as preferential current paths from Gr to the 2DEG and can account for the peculiar Ohmic behaviour of Gr contacts on defective AlGaN.

  8. Hybrid AlGaN-SiC Avalanche Photodiode for Deep-UV Photon Detection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aslam, Shahid; Herrero, Federico A.; Sigwarth, John; Goldsman, Neil; Akturk, Akin

    2010-01-01

    The proposed device is capable of counting ultraviolet (UV) photons, is compatible for inclusion into space instruments, and has applications as deep- UV detectors for calibration systems, curing systems, and crack detection. The device is based on a Separate Absorption and Charge Multiplication (SACM) structure. It is based on aluminum gallium nitride (AlGaN) absorber on a silicon carbide APD (avalanche photodiode). The AlGaN layer absorbs incident UV photons and injects photogenerated carriers into an underlying SiC APD that is operated in Geiger mode and provides current multiplication via avalanche breakdown. The solid-state detector is capable of sensing 100-to-365-nanometer wavelength radiation at a flux level as low as 6 photons/pixel/s. Advantages include, visible-light blindness, operation in harsh environments (e.g., high temperatures), deep-UV detection response, high gain, and Geiger mode operation at low voltage. Furthermore, the device can also be designed in array formats, e.g., linear arrays or 2D arrays (micropixels inside a superpixel).

  9. LED champing: statistically blessed?

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhuo

    2015-06-10

    LED champing (smart mixing of individual LEDs to match the desired color and lumens) and color mixing strategies have been widely used to maintain the color consistency of light engines. Light engines with champed LEDs can easily achieve the color consistency of a couple MacAdam steps with widely distributed LEDs to begin with. From a statistical point of view, the distributions for the color coordinates and the flux after champing are studied. The related statistical parameters are derived, which facilitate process improvements such as Six Sigma and are instrumental to statistical quality control for mass productions.

  10. Diodes stabilize LED output

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deters, R. A.

    1977-01-01

    Small-signal diodes are placed in series with light-emitting diodes (LED's) to stabilize LED output against temperature fluctuations. Simple inexpensive method compensates for thermal fluctuations over a broad temperature range. Requiring few components, technique is particularly useful where circuit-board space is limited.

  11. Zinc-blende (Cubic) GaN and AlGaN Layers, Structures and Bulk Crystals by Molecular Beam Epitaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Novikov, Sergei V.; Zainal, Norzaini; Akimov, Andrey V.; Staddon, Chris R.; Foxon, C. Thomas; Kent, Anthony J.

    2010-11-01

    We have studied the growth of zinc-blende GaN and AlGaN layers, structures and bulk crystals by molecular beam epitaxy (MBE). We have developed a process for growth by MBE of free-standing cubic GaN layers. Undoped thick cubic GaN films were grown on semi-insulating GaAs (001) substrates by a modified plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy (PA-MBE) method and were removed from the GaAs substrate after the growth. The resulting free-standing GaN wafers with thicknesses in the 30-100 μm range may be used as substrates for further epitaxy of cubic GaN-based structures and devices. We have developed procedures to cleave the wafers into 10×10 mm2 square substrates and to polish them to produce epi-ready surfaces. The first GaN/InGaN LEDs on our zinc-blende GaN substrates have been demonstrated by our collaborators at Sharp Laboratories of Europe.

  12. Large area LED package

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goullon, L.; Jordan, R.; Braun, T.; Bauer, J.; Becker, F.; Hutter, M.; Schneider-Ramelow, M.; Lang, K.-D.

    2015-03-01

    Solid state lighting using LED-dies is a rapidly growing market. LED-dies with the needed increasing luminous flux per chip area produce a lot of heat. Therefore an appropriate thermal management is required for general lighting with LEDdies. One way to avoid overheating and shorter lifetime is the use of many small LED-dies on a large area heat sink (down to 70 μm edge length), so that heat can spread into a large area while at the same time light also appears on a larger area. The handling with such small LED-dies is very difficult because they are too small to be picked with common equipment. Therefore a new concept called collective transfer bonding using a temporary carrier chip was developed. A further benefit of this new technology is the high precision assembly as well as the plane parallel assembly of the LED-dies which is necessary for wire bonding. It has been shown that hundred functional LED-dies were transferred and soldered at the same time. After the assembly a cost effective established PCB-technology was applied to produce a large-area light source consisting of many small LED-dies and electrically connected on a PCB-substrate. The top contacts of the LED-dies were realized by laminating an adhesive copper sheet followed by LDI structuring as known from PCB-via-technology. This assembly can be completed by adding converting and light forming optical elements. In summary two technologies based on standard SMD and PCB technology have been developed for panel level LED packaging up to 610x 457 mm2 area size.

  13. Reduction in leakage current in AlGaN/GaN HEMT with three Al-containing step-graded AlGaN buffer layers on silicon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Xinxin; Ni, Jinyu; Li, Zhonghui; Zhou, Jianjun; Kong, Cen

    2014-05-01

    AlGaN/GaN high-electron-mobility transistor (HEMT) structures with two and three Al-containing step-graded AlGaN buffer layers (BLs) were grown on silicon (111) substrates by metal organic chemical vapor deposition. Considerable tensile stress was observed in the GaN grown with only two 0.8 µm AlGaN BLs, while a large in-plane compression in GaN grown with three 2.3 µm AlGaN BLs. The reverse gate leakage current in the HEMT with three AlGaN BLs was approximately 0.1 µA/mm, which was more than one order of magnitude smaller than that for the HEMT with two AlGaN BLs. A three-terminal off-state breakdown voltage of 265 V and a vertical gate-to-substrate breakdown voltage of 510 V were obtained in the HEMT with three AlGaN BLs. Detailed analysis was performed on the basis of the structural properties of AlGaN/GaN heterostructures.

  14. LEDs Are Diodes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lisensky, George C.; Condren, S. Michael; Widstrand, Cynthia G.; Breitzer, Jonathan; Ellis, Arthur B.

    2001-01-01

    Describes an activity comparing incandescent bulbs and LEDs powered by dc and ac voltage sources to illustrate properties of matter and the interactions of energy and matter. Includes both instructor information and student activity sheet. (Author/YDS)

  15. Energy Efficiency of LEDs

    SciTech Connect

    2013-03-01

    Solid-state lighting program technology fact sheet on energy efficiency of LEDs, characterizing the current state of the market and discussing package efficacy, luminaire efficacy, and application efficacy.

  16. White LED performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gu, Yimin; Narendran, Nadarajah; Freyssinier, Jean Paul

    2004-10-01

    Two life tests were conducted to compare the effects of drive current and ambient temperature on the degradation rate of 5 mm and high-flux white LEDs. Tests of 5 mm white LED arrays showed that junction temperature increases produced by drive current had a greater effect on the rate of light output degradation than junction temperature increases from ambient heat. A preliminary test of high-flux white LEDs showed the opposite effect, with junction temperature increases from ambient heat leading to a faster depreciation. However, a second life test is necessary to verify this finding. The dissimilarity in temperature effect among 5 mm and high-flux LEDs is likely caused by packaging differences between the two device types.

  17. Determination of gain in AlGaN cladding free nitride laser diodes

    SciTech Connect

    Muziol, G.; Turski, H.; Wolny, P.

    2013-08-05

    The optical gain spectra of InGaN-based multiple-quantum-well (MQW) laser diodes (LDs) grown by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy are compared for different emission wavelengths. Two AlGaN cladding free LDs with similar epitaxial structures but with different In compositions in MQW were grown to study the dependence of material gain on lasing wavelength. As the emission wavelength increased from 432 to 458 nm, the differential modal gain decreased from 5.7 to 4.7 cm/kA, and the optical losses increased from 40 to 46 cm{sup −1} resulting in an increase in threshold current density. This dependence is attributed to lower optical mode confinement of LD emitting at longer wavelength. We found a strong decrease of confinement factor with increasing wavelength.

  18. Growth and characterization of AlGaN films on patterned sapphire substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwak, Y. S.; Lee, D. S.; Kim, K. H.; Kim, W. H.; Moon, S. W.

    2011-12-01

    A GaN film and two AlGaN films with Al compositions of 5% and 10% have been grown on the patterned sapphire substrates (PSSs) by metal organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD). Optical properties and crystalline qualities of the films have been investigated. The GaN film and the Al0.05Ga0.95N film are almost entirely coalesced except for some point defects. However, the Al0.1Ga0.9N film contains large pits encircled by small pits adjacent to them. The large pits are distributed in the same manner with the PSS arrangement. Dislocations and inversion domain boundaries were also observed in the Al0.1Ga0.9N film.

  19. Deep-ultraviolet polychromatic emission from three-dimensionally structured AlGaN quantum wells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kataoka, Ken; Funato, Mitsuru; Kawakami, Yoichi

    2017-03-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) AlGaN/AlN quantum wells (QWs) were fabricated on trench-patterned AlN templates using a regrowth technique based on metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy. The 3D structures are composed of planar (0001) facets, \\{ 1\\bar{1}01\\} facets, and misoriented (0001) planes with bunched steps. Cathodoluminescence spectroscopy revealed double-peaked deep-ultraviolet (DUV) emissions: the shorter-wavelength emission was attributed to the (0001) facets, whereas the longer-wavelength emission arose from bunched step structures located around the bottom corner of the AlN trench, a region in which the AlGaN QWs possessed a relatively high Ga concentration and a thick well width compared with planar (0001) QWs.

  20. LED and Semiconductor Photo-effects on Living Things

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujiyasu, Hiroshi; Ishigaki, Takemitsu; Fujiyasu, Kentarou; Ujihara, Shirou; Watanabe, Naoharu; Sunayama, Shunji; Ikoma, Shuuji

    We have studied LED irradiation effects on plants and animals in the visible to UV region of light from GaN LEDs. The results are as follows. Blue light considers to be effective for pearl cultivation or for attraction of small fishes living in near the surface of sea such as Pompano or Sardine, white light radiation is effective for cultivation of botanical plankton for shells. Other experiments of UV light irradiation attracting effect on baby sea turtle and the germination UV effect of mushroom, green light weight enhance effect on baby pigs, light vernalization effect of vegitable and Ge far infrared therapic effect on human body are also given.

  1. Light Emitting Diode (LED)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    A special lighting technology was developed for space-based commercial plant growth research on NASA's Space Shuttle. Surgeons have used this technology to treat brain cancer on Earth, in two successful operations. The treatment technique called photodynamic therapy, requires the surgeon to use tiny pinhead-size Light Emitting Diodes (LEDs) (a source releasing long wavelengths of light) to activate light-sensitive, tumor-treating drugs. Laser light has been used for this type of surgery in the past, but the LED light illuminates through all nearby tissues, reaching parts of a tumor that shorter wavelengths of laser light carnot. The new probe is safer because the longer wavelengths of light are cooler than the shorter wavelengths of laser light, making the LED less likely to injure normal brain tissue near the tumor. It can also be used for hours at a time while still remaining cool to the touch. The LED probe consists of 144 tiny pinhead-size diodes, is 9-inches long, and about one-half-inch in diameter. The small balloon aids in even distribution of the light source. The LED light source is compact, about the size of a briefcase, and can be purchased for a fraction of the cost of a laser. The probe was developed for photodynamic cancer therapy by the Marshall Space Flight Center under a NASA Small Business Innovative Research program grant.

  2. Light Emitting Diodes (LEDs)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    A special lighting technology was developed for space-based commercial plant growth research on NASA's Space Shuttle. Surgeons have used this technology to treat brain cancer on Earth, in two successful operations. The treatment technique, called Photodynamic Therapy, requires the surgeon to use tiny, pinhead-size Light Emitting Diodes (LEDs) (a source that releases long wavelengths of light ) to activate light-sensitive, tumor-treating drugs. 'A young woman operated on in May 1999 has fully recovered with no complications and no evidence of the tumor coming back,' said Dr. Harry Whelan, a pediatric neurologist at the Medical Hospital of Wisconsin in Milwaukee. Laser light has been used for this type of surgery in the past, but the LED light illuminates through all nearby tissues, reaching parts of a tumor that shorter wavelengths of laser light carnot. The new probe is safer because the longer wavelengths of light are cooler than the shorter wavelengths of laser light, making the LED less likely to injure normal brain tissue near the tumor. It can be used for hours at a time while still remaining cool to the touch. The LED light source is compact, about the size of a briefcase, and can be purchased for a fraction of the cost of a laser. The LEDs, developed and managed by NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center, have been used on seven Space Shuttle flights inside the Microgravity Astroculture Facility. This technology has also been successfully used to further commercial research in crop growth.

  3. Enhancing the light extraction efficiency of AlGaN deep ultraviolet light emitting diodes by using nanowire structures

    SciTech Connect

    Djavid, Mehrdad; Mi, Zetian

    2016-02-01

    The performance of conventional AlGaN deep ultraviolet light emitting diodes has been limited by the extremely low light extraction efficiency (<10%), due to the unique transverse magnetic (TM) polarized light emission. Here, we show that, by exploiting the lateral side emission, the extraction efficiency of TM polarized light can be significantly enhanced in AlGaN nanowire structures. Using the three-dimensional finite-difference time domain simulation, we demonstrate that the nanowire structures can be designed to inhibit the emission of guided modes and redirect trapped light into radiated modes. A light extraction efficiency of more than 70% can, in principle, be achieved by carefully optimizing the nanowire size, nanowire spacing, and p-GaN thickness.

  4. Short-period intrinsic Stark GaN /AlGaN superlattice as a Bloch oscillator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Litvinov, V. I.; Manasson, A.; Pavlidis, D.

    2004-07-01

    We discuss the properties of AlGaN /GaN superlattice (SL) related to the feasibility of a terahertz-range oscillator. The distortion of the conduction-band profile by the polarization fields has been taken into account. We have calculated the conduction-band offset between the pseudomorphic AlGaN barrier and the GaN quantum well, the first miniband width and energy dispersion, as functions of Al content in the barrier. As the short-period SL miniband energy dispersion contains contributions from next to nearest neighbors, it causes anharmonic electron oscillations at the multiples of the fundamental Bloch frequency. The Al content and SL period that favor high-frequency oscillations have been determined.

  5. Electrical detection of kidney injury molecule-1 with AlGaN /GaN high electron mobility transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, H. T.; Kang, B. S.; Ren, F.; Pearton, S. J.; Johnson, J. W.; Rajagopal, P.; Roberts, J. C.; Piner, E. L.; Linthicum, K. J.

    2007-11-01

    AlGaN /GaN high electron mobility transistors (HEMTs) were used to detect kidney injury molecule-1 (KIM-1), an important biomarker for early kidney injury detection. The gate region consisted of 5nm gold deposited onto the AlGaN surface. The gold was conjugated to highly specific KIM-1 antibodies through a self-assembled monolayer of thioglycolic acid. The HEMT source-drain current showed a clear dependence on the KIM-1 concentration in phosphate-buffered saline solution. The limit of detection was 1ng/ml using a 20×50μm2 gate sensing area. This approach shows potential for both preclinical and clinical kidney injury diagnosis with accurate, rapid, noninvasive, and high throughput capabilities.

  6. Inductively coupled BCl3/Cl2 /Ar plasma etching of Al-rich AlGaN

    DOE PAGES

    Douglas, Erica A.; Sanchez, Carlos A.; Kaplar, Robert J.; ...

    2016-12-01

    Varying atomic ratios in compound semiconductors is well known to have large effects on the etching properties of the material. The use of thin device barrier layers, down to 25 nm, adds to the fabrication complexity by requiring precise control over etch rates and surface morphology. The effects of bias power and gas ratio of BCl3 to Cl2 for inductively coupled plasma etching of high Al content AlGaN were contrasted with AlN in this study for etch rate, selectivity, and surface morphology. Etch rates were greatly affected by both bias power and gas chemistry. Here we detail the effects ofmore » small variations in Al composition for AlGaN and show substantial changes in etch rate with regards to bias power as compared to AlN.« less

  7. Uv Throughput

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Casertano, Stefano

    1995-07-01

    GRW+70d5824 is observed shortly before and after a DECON through all the UV filters in each chip and through F160BW crossed with F130LP, F185LP, and F165LP (where applicable) to determine the wavelength dependence of the throughput across the bandpass (hence color terms). Based on no particular cycle 4 program, this program is designed to better characterize the spectral response curve in the UV, and the spectral shape introduced by the contamination. Overall discrepencies between the updated synthetic photometric products and the results of this test should be 1-2% rms. This does not mean that the UV throughput will be known to this accuracy primarily because of uncertainties in the flux calibration of the standard used (5%) uncertainties in the UV flatfields (maybe 3% near the chip center), and time dependent contamination corrections (3% error), and uncertainties in the CTE correction (2%). The derived UV absolute photometry accuracy at the center of the chips should therefore be about 10%. After pipeline processing, each image will be reduced by aperture photometry. The throughput curves and their normalizations can be updated by trial and error. Expected to run 8/95. NOTE: crossed filters exposures should be observed in ALL chips after decontamination, but just in WF3 before decontamination.

  8. UV Throughput

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baggett, Sylvia

    1996-07-01

    This proposal has 2 main sections: 1} GRW+70d5824 is observed shortly before and after a DECON through all the UV filters in each chip and through F160BW crossed with F130LP, F185LP, and F165LP {where applicable}. 2} BD+75D325 is observed in a subset of chips and uv filters {including Lyman alpha}, shortly before and after a Decon; to be done before SMOV. These observations will be used to determine the wavelength dependence of the throughput across the bandpass {hence color terms}. Based on the Cycle 5 UV Throughput proposal {6186} and the Cycle 4 Lyman alpha throughput proposal {5778}, this program is designed to better characterize the spectral response curve in the UV, and the spectral shape introduced by the contamination as well as provide baseline measurements in preparation for SMOV 1997. The Lyman alpha observations will provide a measure of possible contamination on the pickoff mirror. The UV throughput should be measured to better than 3%. Accuracy in the Lyman alpha throughput is expected to be between 5% and 10%, due to the residual uncertainty of the red leak correction determined from observations of F122M crossed with F130LP. Results will be presented at TIPS, in WFPC2 ISR, and used to update SYNPHOT tables if necessary. NOTE: crossed filters exposures should be observed in ALL chips after decontamination, but just in WF3 before decontamination.

  9. [LED lights in dermatology].

    PubMed

    Noé, C; Pelletier-Aouizerate, M; Cartier, H

    2017-04-01

    The use in dermatology of light-emitting diodes (LEDs) continues to be surrounded by controversy. This is due mainly to poor knowledge of the physicochemical phases of a wide range of devices that are difficult to compare to one another, and also to divergences between irrefutable published evidence either at the level of in vitro studies or at the cellular level, and discordant clinical results in a variety of different indications: rejuvenation, acne, wound healing, leg ulcers, and cutaneous inflammatory or autoimmune processes. Therapeutic LEDs can emit wavelengths ranging from the ultraviolet, through visible light, to the near infrared (247-1300 nm), but only certain bands have so far demonstrated any real value. We feel certain that if this article remains factual, then readers will have a different, or at least more nuanced, opinion concerning the use of such LED devices in dermatology.

  10. Onset of surface stimulated emission at 260 nm from AlGaN multiple quantum wells

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Xiaohang E-mail: dupuis@gatech.edu; Xie, Hongen; Ponce, Fernando A.; Ryou, Jae-Hyun; Detchprohm, Theeradetch; Dupuis, Russell D. E-mail: dupuis@gatech.edu

    2015-12-14

    We demonstrated onset of deep-ultraviolet (DUV) surface stimulated emission (SE) from c-plane AlGaN multiple-quantum well (MQW) heterostructures grown on a sapphire substrate by optical pumping at room temperature. The onset of SE became observable at a pumping power density of 630 kW/cm{sup 2}. Spectral deconvolution revealed superposition of a linearly amplified spontaneous emission peak at λ ∼ 257.0 nm with a full width at half maximum (FWHM) of ∼12 nm and a superlinearly amplified SE peak at λ ∼ 260 nm with a narrow FWHM of less than 2 nm. In particular, the wavelength of ∼260 nm is the shortest wavelength of surface SE from III-nitride MQW heterostructures to date. Atomic force microscopy and scanning transmission electron microscopy measurements were employed to investigate the material and structural quality of the AlGaN heterostructures, showing smooth surface and sharp layer interfaces. This study offers promising results for AlGaN heterostructures grown on sapphire substrates for the development of DUV vertical cavity surface emitting lasers (VCSELs)

  11. Strain-compensated AlGaN /GaN/InGaN cladding layers in homoepitaxial nitride devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Czernecki, R.; Krukowski, S.; Targowski, G.; Prystawko, P.; Sarzynski, M.; Krysko, M.; Kamler, G.; Grzegory, I.; Leszczynski, M.; Porowski, S.

    2007-12-01

    One of the most important problems in III-nitride violet laser diode technology is the lattice mismatch between the AlGaN cladding layers and the rest of the epitaxial structure. For efficiently working devices, it is necessary to have both a high Al content and thick claddings. This leads, however, to severe sample bowing and even cracking of the upper layer. In this work, we propose a cladding structure of strain-compensated AlGaN /GaN/InGaN superlattice grown by metal-organic vapor phase epitaxy on bulk GaN substrates. Various thicknesses and compositions of the layers were employed. We measured the radius of bowing, lattice mismatches, aluminum and indium contents, and densities of threading dislocations. The proposed cladding structures suppress bowing and cracking, which are the two parasitic effects commonly experienced in laser diodes with bulk AlGaN claddings. The suppression of cracking and bowing is shown to occur due to modified strain energy distribution of the superlattices structure.

  12. Increased Efficiency LED

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Egalon, Claudio O. (Inventor); Rogowski, Robert S. (Inventor)

    1998-01-01

    In an LED a large portion of the light produced is lost due to total internal reflection at the air-semiconductor interface. A reverse taper of the semiconductor is used to change the angle at which light strikes the interface so that a greater portion of the light is transmitted.

  13. Performance enhancement of AlGaN deep-ultraviolet light-emitting diodes with varied superlattice barrier electron blocking layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Songqing; Ye, Chunya; Cai, Xuefen; Li, Shuping; Lin, Wei; Kang, Junyong

    2016-05-01

    The AlGaN-based deep-UV LEDs with specific design of varied superlattice barrier electron blocking layer (EBL) has been investigated numerically by APSYS software. The proposed structure exhibits significant improvement in the light output power, internal quantum efficiency, current-voltage curve and electroluminescence intensity. After analyzing the profiles of energy band diagrams, carriers concentration and radiative recombination rate, we find the main advantages of proposed structure are ascribed to higher barrier suppressing electron leakage and reduced barrier for hole injection. Thus, compared with reference sample, the proposed EBL design may be a good method for improving the whole performance of UV LEDs.

  14. Interfacial design and structure of protein/polymer films on oxidized AlGaN surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gupta, Samit K.; Wu, Hao-Hsuan; Kwak, Kwang J.; Casal, Patricia; Nicholson, Theodore R., III; Wen, Xuejin; Anisha, R.; Bhushan, Bharat; Berger, Paul R.; Lu, Wu; Brillson, Leonard J.; Lee, Stephen Craig

    2011-01-01

    Protein detection using biologically or immunologically modified field-effect transistors (bio/immunoFETs) depends on the nanoscale structure of the polymer/protein film at sensor interfaces (Bhushan 2010 Springer Handbook of Nanotechnology 3rd edn (Heidelberg: Springer); Gupta et al 2010 The effect of interface modification on bioFET sensitivity, submitted). AlGaN-based HFETs (heterojunction FETs) are attractive platforms for many protein sensing applications due to their electrical stability in high osmolarity aqueous environments and favourable current drive capabilities. However, interfacial polymer/protein films on AlGaN, though critical to HFET protein sensor function, have not yet been fully characterized. These interfacial films are typically comprised of protein-polymer films, in which analyte-specific receptors are tethered to the sensing surface with a heterobifunctional linker molecule (often a silane molecule). Here we provide insight into the structure and tribology of silane interfaces composed of one of two different silane monomers deposited on oxidized AlGaN, and other metal oxide surfaces. We demonstrate distinct morphologies and wear properties for the interfacial films, attributable to the specific chemistries of the silane monomers used in the films. For each specific silane monomer, film morphologies and wear are broadly consistent on multiple oxide surfaces. Differences in interfacial film morphology also drive improvements in sensitivity of the underlying HFET (coincident with, though not necessarily caused by, differences in interfacial film thickness). We present a testable model of the hypothetical differential interfacial depth distribution of protein analytes on FET sensor interfaces with distinct morphologies. Empirical validation of this model may rationalize the actual behaviour of planar immunoFETs, which has been shown to be contrary to expectations of bio/immunoFET behaviour prevalent in the literature for the last 20 years

  15. Fabrication of Very High Efficiency 5.8 GHz Power Amplifiers using AlGaN HFETs on SiC Substrates for Wireless Power Transmission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sullivan, Gerry

    2001-01-01

    For wireless power transmission using microwave energy, very efficient conversion of the DC power into microwave power is extremely important. Class E amplifiers have the attractive feature that they can, in theory, be 100% efficient at converting, DC power to RF power. Aluminum gallium nitride (AlGaN) semiconductor material has many advantageous properties, relative to silicon (Si), gallium arsenide (GaAs), and silicon carbide (SiC), such as a much larger bandgap, and the ability to form AlGaN/GaN heterojunctions. The large bandgap of AlGaN also allows for device operation at higher temperatures than could be tolerated by a smaller bandgap transistor. This could reduce the cooling requirements. While it is unlikely that the AlGaN transistors in a 5.8 GHz class E amplifier can operate efficiently at temperatures in excess of 300 or 400 C, AlGaN based amplifiers could operate at temperatures that are higher than a GaAs or Si based amplifier could tolerate. Under this program, AlGaN microwave power HFETs have been fabricated and characterized. Hybrid class E amplifiers were designed and modeled. Unfortunately, within the time frame of this program, good quality HFETs were not available from either the RSC laboratories or commercially, and so the class E amplifiers were not constructed.

  16. Study of the Linewidths of Excitonic Luminescence Transitions in AlGaN Alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bajaj, K. K.; Coli, Giuliano; Li, J.; Lin, Jingyu; Jiang, H. X.

    2001-03-01

    We have investigated the linewidth of excitonic photoluminescence transitions at 10 K and as a function of Al concentration in AlGaN alloys grown by low-pressure metal organic chemical vapor deposition on (0001) oriented sapphire substrates, with low-temperature GaN buffer layers. Al composition ranged from 0 to 35 percent. By means of a lineshape analysis of the excitonic transition we identify the contribution of the compositional disorder in the alloy to the excitonic linewidth and find that the values of the excitonic linewidths in our samples are considerably smaller than those reported recently[1]. These values of the excitonic linewidths, as expected, increase as a function of Al concentration and agree very well with those calculated by a model presented by Lee and Bajaj[2]. [1] G. Steude, B.K. Meyer, A. Göldner, A. Hoffmann, F. Bertram, J.Christen, H. Amano and I. Akasaki, Appl. Phys. Lett 74, 2456 (1999) [2] S. M. Lee and K. K. Bajaj, J. Appl. Phys. 73, 1788 (1993)

  17. Composition dependent valence band order in c-oriented wurtzite AlGaN layers

    SciTech Connect

    Neuschl, B. Helbing, J.; Knab, M.; Lauer, H.; Madel, M.; Thonke, K.; Feneberg, M.

    2014-09-21

    The valence band order of polar wurtzite aluminum gallium nitride (AlGaN) layers is analyzed for a dense series of samples, grown heteroepitaxially on sapphire substrates, covering the complete composition range. The excitonic transition energies, found by temperature dependent photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy, were corrected to the unstrained state using input from X-ray diffraction. k∙p theory yields a critical relative aluminum concentration x{sub c}=(0.09±0.05) for the crossing of the uppermost two valence bands for strain free material, shifting to higher values for compressively strained samples, as supported by polarization dependent PL. The analysis of the strain dependent valence band crossing reconciles the findings of other research groups, where sample strain was neglected. We found a bowing for the energy band gap to the valence band with Γ₉ symmetry of b{sub Γ₉}=0.85eV, and propose a possible bowing for the crystal field energy of b{sub cf}=-0.12eV. A comparison of the light extraction efficiency perpendicular and parallel to the c axis of Al{sub x}Ga{sub 1-x}N/Al{sub y}Ga{sub 1-y}N quantum well structures is discussed for different compositions.

  18. AlGaN channel field effect transistors with graded heterostructure ohmic contacts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bajaj, Sanyam; Akyol, Fatih; Krishnamoorthy, Sriram; Zhang, Yuewei; Rajan, Siddharth

    2016-09-01

    We report on ultra-wide bandgap (UWBG) Al0.75Ga0.25N channel metal-insulator-semiconductor field-effect transistors (MISFETs) with heterostructure engineered low-resistance ohmic contacts. The low intrinsic electron affinity of AlN (0.6 eV) leads to large Schottky barriers at the metal-AlGaN interface, resulting in highly resistive ohmic contacts. In this work, we use a reverse compositional graded n++ AlGaN contact layer to achieve upward electron affinity grading, leading to a low specific contact resistance (ρsp) of 1.9 × 10-6 Ω cm2 to n-Al0.75Ga0.25N channels (bandgap ˜5.3 eV) with non-alloyed contacts. We also demonstrate UWBG Al0.75Ga0.25N channel MISFET device operation employing the compositional graded n++ ohmic contact layer and 20 nm atomic layer deposited Al2O3 as the gate-dielectric.

  19. Inactivation of Escherichia coli on tomatoes using a ultraviolet(LED)light

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The recently developed UV LED has been shown effective at inactivating bacteria in water, but its ability to inactivate bacteria on foods is unknown. Escherichia coli in solution and dried on the surface of tomatoes was exposed to 255 nm UV from a LED, with a forward voltage of 6.5 V operating at 20...

  20. Effects of tensile stress induced by silicon nitride passivation on electrical characteristics of AlGaN /GaN heterostructure field-effect transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeon, Chang Min; Lee, Jong-Lam

    2005-04-01

    The effects of tensile stress induced by silicon nitride (Si3N4) passivation on electrical characteristics of AlGaN /GaN heterostructure field-effect transistors (HFETs) were investigated. The biaxial tensile stress applied to the AlGaN layer was increased with the thickness of the Si3N4 passivation layer, leading to the increase of sheet charge density confined at the heterointerface. The stress-induced charge density was 1.75×1011e/cm2 for 80-nm-thick Si3N4 and 6.74×1011e/cm2 for 500-nm-thick Si3N4. The maximum drain current and transconductance of AlGaN /GaN HFET increased from 769 to 858mA/mm and from 146 to 155mS/mm after passivation, respectively.

  1. Vertical transport through AlGaN barriers in heterostructures grown by ammonia molecular beam epitaxy and metalorganic chemical vapor deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Browne, David A.; Fireman, Micha N.; Mazumder, Baishakhi; Kuritzky, Leah Y.; Wu, Yuh-Renn; Speck, James S.

    2017-02-01

    The results of vertical transport through AlGaN heterobarriers are presented for ammonia molecular beam epitaxy (NH3-MBE) on c-plane GaN on sapphire templates and on m-plane bulk GaN substrates, as well as by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) on m-plane bulk GaN substrates. Experiments were performed to determine the role of the AlGaN alloy as an effective barrier to vertical transport, which is an essential component of both optoelectronic and power electronic devices. The alloy composition, thickness, and doping levels of the AlGaN layers, as well as substrate orientation, were systematically varied to examine their influence on electron transport. Atom probe tomography (APT) was used to directly determine the alloy composition at the atomic scale to reveal the presence of random alloy fluctuations which provides insight into the nature of the observed transport.

  2. Enhanced carrier injection in InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells LED with polarization-induced electron blocking barrier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Chengguo; Liu, Hongfei; Chua, Soo Jin

    2016-03-01

    In this report, we designed a light emitting diode (LED) structure in which an N-polar p-GaN layer is grown on top of Ga-polar In0.1Ga0.9N/GaN quantum wells (QWs) on an n-GaN layer. Numerical simulation reveals that the large polarization field at the polarity inversion interface induces a potential barrier in the conduction band, which can block electron overflow out of the QWs. Compared with a conventional LED structure with an Al0.2Ga0.8N electron blocking layer (EBL), the proposed LED structure shows much lower electron current leakage, higher hole injection, and a significant improvement in the internal quantum efficiency (IQE). These results suggest that the polarization induced barrier (PIB) is more effective than the AlGaN EBL in suppressing electron overflow and improving hole transport in GaN-based LEDs.

  3. Effects of Si-doping on structural, electrical, and optical properties of polar and non-polar AlGaN epi-layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Hongquan; Zhang, Xiong; Wang, Shuchang; Wang, Yi; Luan, Huakai; Dai, Qian; Wu, Zili; Zhao, Jianguo; Cui, Yiping

    2016-08-01

    The polar (0001)-oriented c-plane and non-polar (11 2 bar 0) -oriented a-plane wurtzite AlGaN epi-layers were successfully grown on polar (0001)-oriented c-plane and semi-polar (1 1 bar 02) -oriented r-plane sapphire substrates, respectively with various Si-doping levels in a low pressure metal organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) system. The morphological, structural, electrical, and optical properties of the polar and non-polar AlGaN epi-layers were studied with scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Hall effect, and Raman spectroscopy. The characterization results show that Si dopants incorporated into the polar and non-polar AlGaN films induced a relaxation of compressive residual strain and a generation of biaxial tensile strain on the surface in consequence of the dislocation climbing. In particular, it was found that the Si-induced compressive strain relaxation in the non-polar AlGaN samples can be promoted by the structural anisotropy as compared with the polar counterparts. The gradually increased relaxation of compressive residual strain in both polar and non-polar AlGaN samples with increasing Si-doping level was attributed to the Si-induced enhancement in the opportunity for the dislocations to interact and annihilate. This implies that the crystal quality for both polar and non-polar AlGaN epi-layers can be remarkably improved by Si-doping.

  4. On the increased efficiency in InGaN-based multiple quantum wells emitting at 530-590 nm with AlGaN interlayers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koleske, D. D.; Fischer, A. J.; Bryant, B. N.; Kotula, P. G.; Wierer, J. J.

    2015-04-01

    InGaN/AlGaN/GaN-based multiple quantum wells (MQWs) with AlGaN interlayers (ILs) are investigated, specifically to examine the fundamental mechanisms behind their increased radiative efficiency at wavelengths of 530-590 nm. The AlzGa1-zN (z~0.38) IL is ~1-2 nm thick, and is grown after and at the same growth temperature as the ~3 nm thick InGaN quantum well (QW). This is followed by an increase in temperature for the growth of a ~10 nm thick GaN barrier layer. The insertion of the AlGaN IL within the MQW provides various benefits. First, the AlGaN IL allows for growth of the InxGa1-xN QW well below typical growth temperatures to achieve higher x (up to~0.25). Second, annealing the IL capped QW prior to the GaN barrier growth improves the AlGaN IL smoothness as determined by atomic force microscopy, improves the InGaN/AlGaN/GaN interface quality as determined from scanning transmission electron microscope images and x-ray diffraction, and increases the radiative efficiency by reducing non-radiative defects as determined by time-resolved photoluminescence measurements. Finally, the AlGaN IL increases the spontaneous and piezoelectric polarization induced electric fields acting on the InGaN QW, providing an additional red-shift to the emission wavelength as determined by Schrodinger-Poisson modeling and fitting to the experimental data. The relative impact of increased indium concentration and polarization fields on the radiative efficiency of MQWs with AlGaN ILs is explored along with implications to conventional longer wavelength emitters.

  5. Room temperature low threshold stimulated emission of electron beam-pumped AlGaN-based deep UV laser structures emitting below 250 nm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nikiforov, A.; Zhang, W.; Woodward, J.; Yin, J.; Pecora, E.; Zhou, L.; Dal Negro, L.; Paiella, R.; Smith, D.; Moustakas, T.; Moldawer, A.

    2012-02-01

    The development of semiconductor lasers, operating in the deep UV, will find a number of applications such as identification of biological and chemical agents, non-line-off -sight free space communications and point of site medical diagnostics. In this paper we report the growth of QW laser structures in the configuration 6H-SiC / AlN / AlGaN - AlN MQWs /AlN by PAMBE. A novel growth mode was developed in which arriving active nitrogen species and aluminum atoms dissolve in the excess liquid Ga covering the surface of the growing film and incorporate into the AlGaN film from the liquid phase. This liquid phase epitaxy (LPE) growth was found to introduce band structure potential fluctuations and high-density of nanocluster-like features within the AlGaN wells. The structure and microstructure of these devices were investigated by AFM, XRD and TEM and their emission properties were investigated by electron beam pumping at room temperature. The investigated laser structures were found to emit in the 235-250 nm range and stimulated emission was observed at a threshold power of 20-40 KW / cm^2. This low threshold value is attributed to nanoclusters-like features in the wells.

  6. Growth and characterization of gallium nitride nanowire LEDs for application as on-chip optical interconnects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brubaker, Matt

    Gallium nitride (GaN) nanowires have potential as nanoscale optoelectronic building blocks that can be functionally integrated with silicon MEMS and IC devices. This dissertation presents an overview of the synthesis, characterization, and application of GaN nanowire light-emitting-diodes (LEDs) grown by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy (MBE). Specifically, this research demonstrates discrete axial p-n junction nanowires that produce ultra-violet (UV) electroluminescence at ˜40 nW optical power. It further demonstrates that a two-nanowire optical interconnect device can be fabricated from axial p-n junction nanowires with light-emitting and photoconductive capabilities. The nanowire structures obtained from MBE growth were found to depend sensitively on the morphology and crystallographic polarity of the underlying Aluminum Nitride (AlN) nucleation layer. These observations were enabled by piezoresponse force microscopy, which was developed and validated against polarity sensitive etching using uniform and mixed polarity AlN layers. The polarity and overall morphology of the AlN layers could be controlled by the V/III flux ratio and substrate temperature during MBE growth. GaN nanowires were observed to propagate the structural characteristics and crystallographic polarity of the underlying AlN layer, and in some cases a differential growth rate with respect to polarity was observed. Band-edge electroluminescence was obtained in axial p-n junction nanowires that incorporated a thin AlGaN electron blocking layer in the p-region of the device. Electroluminescence was below detection limits for p-n junction nanowires with no blocking layer, despite diode-like I-V characteristics and optically measured internal quantum efficiencies (IQEs) of ˜1 %. I-V measurements of the p-regions in p-n junction nanowires, as well as nanowires doped with Mg only, indicate low p-type conductivity and asymmetric Schottky-like p-contacts. These observations, in conjunction with

  7. Optically confined polarized resonance Raman studies in identifying crystalline orientation of sub-diffraction limited AlGaN nanostructure

    SciTech Connect

    Sivadasan, A. K. Patsha, Avinash; Dhara, Sandip

    2015-04-27

    An optical characterization tool of Raman spectroscopy with extremely weak scattering cross section tool is not popular to analyze scattered signal from a single nanostructure in the sub-diffraction regime. In this regard, plasmonic assisted characterization tools are only relevant in spectroscopic studies of nanoscale object in the sub-diffraction limit. We have reported polarized resonance Raman spectroscopic (RRS) studies with strong electron-phonon coupling to understand the crystalline orientation of a single AlGaN nanowire of diameter ∼100 nm. AlGaN nanowire is grown by chemical vapor deposition technique using the catalyst assisted vapor-liquid-solid process. The results are compared with the high resolution transmission electron microscopic analysis. As a matter of fact, optical confinement effect due to the dielectric contrast of nanowire with respect to that of surrounding media assisted with electron-phonon coupling of RRS is useful for the spectroscopic analysis in the sub-diffraction limit of 325 nm (λ/2N.A.) using an excitation wavelength (λ) of 325 nm and near ultraviolet 40× far field objective with a numerical aperture (N.A.) value of 0.50.

  8. Coulomb correlation effects and density dependence of radiative recombination rates in polar AlGaN quantum wells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rupper, Greg; Rudin, Sergey; Bertazzi, Francesco; Garrett, Gregory; Wraback, Michael

    2013-03-01

    AlGaN narrow quantum wells are important elements of deep-ultraviolet light emitting devices. The electron-hole radiative recombination rates are important characteristics of these nanostructures. In this work we evaluated their dependence on carrier density and lattice temperature and compared our theoretical results with the experimentally determined radiative lifetimes in the c-plane grown AlGaN quantum wells. The bands were determined in the k .p approximation for a strained c-plane wurtzite quantum well and polarization fields were included in the model. In order to account for Coulomb correlations at relatively high densities of photo-excited electron-hole plasma and arbitrary temperature, we employed real-time Green's function formalism with self-energies evaluated in the self-consistent T-matrix approximation. The luminescence spectrum was obtained from the susceptibility by summing over scattering in-plane directions and polarization states. The recombination coefficient was obtained from the integrated photo-luminescence. The density dependence of the radiative recombination rate shows effects of strong screening of the polarization electric field at high photo-excitation density.

  9. High internal quantum efficiency in AlGaN multiple quantum wells grown on bulk AlN substrates

    SciTech Connect

    Bryan, Zachary Bryan, Isaac; Sitar, Zlatko; Collazo, Ramón; Xie, Jinqiao; Mita, Seiji

    2015-04-06

    The internal quantum efficiency (IQE) of Al{sub 0.55}Ga{sub 0.45}N/AlN and Al{sub 0.55}Ga{sub 0.45}N/Al{sub 0.85}Ga{sub 0.15}N UVC MQW structures was analyzed. The use of bulk AlN substrates enabled us to undoubtedly distinguish the effect of growth conditions, such as V/III ratio, on the optical quality of AlGaN based MQWs from the influence of dislocations. At a high V/III ratio, a record high IQE of ∼80% at a carrier density of 10{sup 18 }cm{sup −3} was achieved at ∼258 nm. The high IQE was correlated with the decrease of the non-radiative coefficient A and a reduction of midgap defect luminescence, all suggesting that, in addition to dislocations, point defects are another major factor that strongly influences optical quality of AlGaN MQW structures.

  10. Influence of thermal stress on the relative permittivity of the AlGaN barrier layer in an AlGaN/GaN heterostructure Schottky contacts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lü, Yuan-Jie; Lin, Zhao-Jun; Zhang, Yu; Meng, Ling-Guo; Cao, Zhi-Fang; Luan, Chong-Biao; Chen, Hong; Wang, Zhan-Guo

    2011-09-01

    Ni Schottky contacts on AlGaN/GaN heterostructures were fabricated. Some samples were thermally treated in a furnace with N2 ambience at 600 °C for different times (0.5 h, 4.5 h, 10.5 h, 18 h, 33 h, 48 h, and 72 h), the others were thermally treated for 0.5 h at different temperatures (500 °C, 600 °C, 700 °C, and 800 °C). With the measured current—voltage (I—V) and capacitance—voltage (C—V) curves and by self-consistently solving Schrodinger's and Poisson's equations, we found that the relative permittivity of the AlGaN barrier layer was related to the piezoelectric and the spontaneous polarization of the AlGaN barrier layer. The relative permittivity was in proportion to the strain of the AlGaN barrier layer. The relative permittivity and the strain reduced with the increased thermal stress time until the AlGaN barrier totally relaxed (after 18 h at 600 °C in the current study), and then the relative permittivity was almost a constant with the increased thermal stress time. When the sample was treated at 800 °C for 0.5 h, the relative permittivity was less than the constant due to the huge diffusion of the contact metal atoms. Considering the relation between the relative permittivity of the AlGaN barrier layer and the converse piezoelectric effect, the conclusion can be made that a moderate thermal stress can restrain the converse piezoelectric effect and can improve the stability of AlGaN/GaN heterostructure devices.

  11. Sub-250nm room temperature optical gain from AlGaN materials with strong compositional fluctuations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pecora, Emanuele; Zhang, Wei; Sun, Haiding; Nikiforov, A.; Yin, Jian; Paiella, Roberto; Moustakas, Theodore; Dal Negro, Luca

    2013-03-01

    Compact and portable deep-UV LEDs and laser sources are needed for a number of engineering applications including optical communications, gas sensing, biochemical agent detection, disinfection, biotechnology and medical diagnostics. We investigate the deep-UV optical emission and gain properties of AlxGa1-xN/AlyGa1-yN multiple quantum wells structure. These structures were grown by molecular-beam epitaxy on 6H-SiC substrates resulting in either homogeneous wells or various degrees of band-structure compositional fluctuations in the form of cluster-like features within the wells. We measured the TE-polarized amplified spontaneous emission in the sample with cluster-like features and quantified the optical absorption/gain coefficients and gain spectra by the Variable Stripe Length (VSL) technique under ultrafast optical pumping. We report blue-shift and narrowing of the emission, VSL traces, gain spectra, polarization studies, and the validity of the Schalow-Townes relation to demonstrate a maximum net modal gain of 120 cm-1 at 250 nm in the sample with strong compositional fluctuations. Moreover, we measure a very low gain threshold (15 μJ/cm2) . On the other hand, we found that samples with homogeneous quantum wells lead to absorption only. In addition, we report gain measurements in graded-index-separate-confined heterostructure (GRINSCH) designed to increase the device optical confinement factor.

  12. Uniformity of LED light illumination in application to direct imaging lithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Ting-Ming; Chang, Shenq-Tsong; Tsay, Ho-Lin; Hsu, Ming-Ying; Chen, Fong-Zhi

    2016-09-01

    Direct imaging has widely applied in lithography for a long time because of its simplicity and easy-maintenance. Although this method has limitation of lithography resolution, it is still adopted in industries. Uniformity of UV irradiance for a designed area is an important requirement. While mercury lamps were used as the light source in the early stage, LEDs have drawn a lot of attention for consideration from several aspects. Although LED has better and better performance, arrays of LEDs are required to obtain desired irradiance because of limitation of brightness for a single LED. Several effects are considered that affect the uniformity of UV irradiance such as alignment of optics, temperature of each LED, performance of each LED due to production uniformity, and pointing of LED module. Effects of these factors are considered to study the uniformity of LED Light Illumination. Numerical analysis is performed by assuming a serious of control factors to have a better understanding of each factor.

  13. Nobel Prize for blue LEDs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kraftmakher, Yaakov

    2015-05-01

    A brief review of lighting technologies is presented. Unavoidable restrictions for incandescent light bulbs caused by the Planck distribution and properties of the human eye are illustrated. The efficiency and luminous efficacy of thermal radiation are calculated for various temperatures; the results clearly show the limitations for thermal radiators. The only way to overcome these limitations is using non-thermal radiators, such as fluorescent lamps and light-emitting diodes (LEDs). Unique advantages of LEDs undoubtedly made a revolution in this field. A crucial element of this progress is the blue LEDs (Nobel Prize 2014). Some experiments with a blue and a green LED are described: (i) the luminescence triggered in a green-yellow phosphor inside a white LED by the blue LED; (ii) radiant spectra and ‘efficiency droop’ in the LEDs; (iii) modulation of the blue LED up to 4 MHz; and (iv) the h/e ratio from the turn-on voltage of the green LED. The experiments are suitable for undergraduate laboratories and usable as classroom demonstrations.

  14. Personal UV biodosimeter for healthy indoor tanning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Terenetskaya, I. P.; Orlova, T. N.

    2008-04-01

    The practice of indoor tanning has led to the development of a large artificial tanning industry. In addition to psychological benefits, exposure to UVB light helps the body produce the activated form of vitamin D, which is necessary for many cellular functions. But uncontrolled tanning and UV overexposure can increase the risk of skin cancer. For direct checkout of the vitamin D synthetic capacity of a UV source the bio-equivalent UV dosimeter has been developed that is based on the same molecular photochemistry from which vitamin D is photosynthesized in human skin and makes possible both instrumental and visual indication of vitamin D synthesis.

  15. Catalytic activity of enzymes immobilized on AlGaN /GaN solution gate field-effect transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baur, B.; Howgate, J.; von Ribbeck, H.-G.; Gawlina, Y.; Bandalo, V.; Steinhoff, G.; Stutzmann, M.; Eickhoff, M.

    2006-10-01

    Enzyme-modified field-effect transistors (EnFETs) were prepared by immobilization of penicillinase on AlGaN /GaN solution gate field-effect transistors. The influence of the immobilization process on enzyme functionality was analyzed by comparing covalent immobilization and physisorption. Covalent immobilization by Schiff base formation on GaN surfaces modified with an aminopropyltriethoxysilane monolayer exhibits high reproducibility with respect to the enzyme/substrate affinity. Reductive amination of the Schiff base bonds to secondary amines significantly increases the stability of the enzyme layer. Electronic characterization of the EnFET response to penicillin G indicates that covalent immobilization leads to the formation of an enzyme (sub)monolayer.

  16. Stimulated emission and optical gain in AlGaN heterostructures grown on bulk AlN substrates

    SciTech Connect

    Guo, Wei Bryan, Zachary; Kirste, Ronny; Bryan, Isaac; Hussey, Lindsay; Bobea, Milena; Haidet, Brian; Collazo, Ramón; Sitar, Zlatko; Xie, Jinqiao; Mita, Seiji; Gerhold, Michael

    2014-03-14

    Optical gain spectra for ∼250 nm stimulated emission were compared in three different AlGaN-based structures grown on single crystalline AlN substrates: a single AlGaN film, a double heterostructure (DH), and a Multiple Quantum Well (MQW) structure; respective threshold pumping power densities of 700, 250, and 150 kW/cm{sup 2} were observed. Above threshold, the emission was transverse-electric polarized and as narrow as 1.8 nm without a cavity. The DH and MQW structures showed gain values of 50–60 cm{sup −1} when pumped at 1 MW/cm{sup 2}. The results demonstrated the excellent optical quality of the AlGaN-based heterostructures grown on AlN substrates and their potential for realizing electrically pumped sub-280 nm laser diodes.

  17. Improved mobility of AlGaN channel heterojunction material using an AlGaN/GaN composite buffer layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wen, Hui-Juan; Zhang, Jin-Cheng; Lu, Xiao-Li; Wang, Zhi-Zhe; Ha, Wei; Ge, Sha-Sha; Cao, Rong-Tao; Hao, Yue

    2014-03-01

    The quality of an AlGaN channel heterojunction on a sapphire substrate is massively improved by using an AlGaN/GaN composite buffer layer. We demonstrate an Al0.4Ga0.5N/Al0.18Ga0.82N heterojunction with a state-of-the-art mobility of 815 cm2/(V·s) and a sheet resistance of 890 Ω/□ under room temperature. The crystalline quality and the electrical properties of the AlGaN heterojunction material are analyzed by atomic force microscopy, high-resolution X-ray diffraction, and van der Pauw Hall and capacitance—voltage (C—V) measurements. The results indicate that the improved electrical properties should derive from the reduced surface roughness and low dislocation density.

  18. Optical polarization control of photo-pumped stimulated emissions at 238 nm from AlGaN multiple-quantum-well laser structures on AlN substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lachab, Mohamed; Sun, WenHong; Jain, Rakesh; Dobrinsky, Alex; Gaevski, Mikhail; Rumyantsev, Sergey; Shur, Michael; Shatalov, Max

    2017-01-01

    We demonstrate the capability to control the optical polarization of room-temperature stimulated emissions (SEs) at 238-239 nm from optically pumped AlGaN multiple-quantum-well (MQW) heterostructures on bulk AlN. The results of structural and optical characterizations provided evidence that altering the strain state in the pseudomorphically grown MQW laser structures enabled the switching of the polarization direction of the SE from predominantly transverse electric (TE) at 238 nm to predominantly transverse magnetic (TM) at 239 nm. The SE observed at 238 nm represents the shortest peak wavelength with TE polarization yet reported for AlGaN materials grown on any type of substrate.

  19. Inductively coupled BCl3/Cl2 /Ar plasma etching of Al-rich AlGaN

    SciTech Connect

    Douglas, Erica A.; Sanchez, Carlos A.; Kaplar, Robert J.; Allerman, Andrew A.; Baca, Albert G.

    2016-12-01

    Varying atomic ratios in compound semiconductors is well known to have large effects on the etching properties of the material. The use of thin device barrier layers, down to 25 nm, adds to the fabrication complexity by requiring precise control over etch rates and surface morphology. The effects of bias power and gas ratio of BCl3 to Cl2 for inductively coupled plasma etching of high Al content AlGaN were contrasted with AlN in this study for etch rate, selectivity, and surface morphology. Etch rates were greatly affected by both bias power and gas chemistry. Here we detail the effects of small variations in Al composition for AlGaN and show substantial changes in etch rate with regards to bias power as compared to AlN.

  20. Defects reduction in a-plane AlGaN epi-layers grown on r-plane sapphire substrates by metal organic chemical vapor deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Jianguo; Zhang, Xiong; Dai, Qian; Wang, Nan; Wu, Zili; Wang, Shuchang; Cui, Yiping

    2017-01-01

    Nonpolar a-plane AlGaN epi-layers were grown on a semi-polar r-plane sapphire substrate with an innovative two-way pulsed-flows metal organic chemical vapor deposition growth technology. A root-mean-square value of 1.79 nm was achieved, and the relative light transmittance of the a-plane AlGaN epi-layer was enhanced by 36.9%. These results reveal that the innovative growth method is able to improve the surface morphology and reduce the defect density in nonpolar a-plane Al x Ga1- x N epi-layers, particularly those with an Al composition greater than 0.5, which are key materials for the fabrication of nonpolar AlGaN-based high light emission efficiency deep-ultraviolet light-emitting diodes.

  1. Light pipes for LED measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Floyd, S. R.; Thomas, E. F., Jr.

    1976-01-01

    Light pipe directly couples LED optical output to single detector. Small area detector measures total optical output of diode. Technique eliminates thermal measurement problems and channels optical output to remote detector.

  2. Performance enhancement of blue light-emitting diodes with InGaN/GaN multi-quantum wells grown on Si substrates by inserting thin AlGaN interlayers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kimura, Shigeya; Yoshida, Hisashi; Uesugi, Kenjiro; Ito, Toshihide; Okada, Aoi; Nunoue, Shinya

    2016-09-01

    We have grown blue light-emitting diodes (LEDs) having InGaN/GaN multi-quantum wells (MQWs) with thin AlyGa1-yN (0 < y < 0.3) interlayers on Si(111) substrates. It was found by high-resolution transmission electron microscopy observations and three-dimensional atom probe analysis that 1-nm-thick interlayers with an AlN mole fraction of less than y = 0.3 were continuously formed between GaN barriers and InGaN wells, and that the AlN mole fraction up to y = 0.15 could be consistently controlled. The external quantum efficiency of the blue LED was enhanced in the low-current-density region (≤45 A/cm2) but reduced in the high-current-density region by the insertion of the thin Al0.15Ga0.85N interlayers in the MQWs. We also found that reductions in both forward voltage and wavelength shift with current were achieved by inserting the interlayers even though the inserted AlGaN layers had potential higher than that of the GaN barriers. The obtained peak wall-plug efficiency was 83% at room temperature. We suggest that the enhanced electroluminescence (EL) performance was caused by the introduction of polarization-induced hole carriers in the InGaN wells on the side adjacent to the thin AlGaN/InGaN interface and efficient electron carrier transport through multiple wells. This model is supported by temperature-dependent EL properties and band-diagram simulations. We also found that inserting the interlayers brought about a reduction in the Shockley-Read-Hall nonradiative recombination component, corresponding to the shrinkage of V-defects. This is another conceivable reason for the observed performance enhancement.

  3. LED minilidar for Mars rover

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shiina, Tatsuo; Yamada, Sonoko; Senshu, Hiroki; Otobe, Naohito; Hashimoto, George; Kawabata, Yasuhiro

    2016-10-01

    A mini-lidar to observe the activity of Martian atmosphere is developed. The 10cm-cube LED mini-lidar was designed to be onboard a Mars rover. The light source of the mini-lidar is a high powered LED of 385nm. LED was adopted as light source because of its toughness against circumference change and physical shock for launch. The pulsed power and the pulse repetition frequency of LED beam were designed as 0.75W (=7.5nJ/10ns) and 500kHz, respectively. Lidar echoes were caught by the specially designed Cassegrain telescope, which has the shorter telescope tube than the usual to meet the 10cm-cube size limit. The high-speed photon counter was developed to pursue to the pulse repetition frequency of the LED light. The measurement range is no shorter than 30m depending back-ground condition. Its spatial resolution was improved as 0.15m (=1ns) by this photon counter. The demonstrative experiment was conducted at large wind tunnel facility of Japan Meteorological Agency. The measurement target was smoke of glycerin particles. The smoke was flowed in the wind tunnel with wind speed of 0 - 5m. Smoke diffusion and its propagation due to the wind flow were observed by the LED mini-lidar. This result suggests that the developed lidar can pursue the structure and the motion of dust devil of >2m.

  4. Advanced oxidation degradation kinetics as a function of ultraviolet LED duty cycle.

    PubMed

    Duckworth, Kelsey; Spencer, Michael; Bates, Christopher; Miller, Michael E; Almquist, Catherine; Grimaila, Michael; Magnuson, Matthew; Willison, Stuart; Phillips, Rebecca; Racz, LeeAnn

    2015-01-01

    Ultraviolet (UV) light emitting diodes (LEDs) may be a viable option as a UV light source for advanced oxidation processes (AOPs) utilizing photocatalysts or oxidizing agents such as hydrogen peroxide. The effect of UV-LED duty cycle, expressed as the percentage of time the LED is powered, was investigated in an AOP with hydrogen peroxide, using methylene blue (MB) to assess contaminant degradation. The UV-LED AOP degraded the MB at all duty cycles. However, adsorption of MB onto the LED emitting surface caused a linear decline in reactor performance over time. With regard to the effect of duty cycle, the observed rate constant of MB degradation, after being adjusted to account for the duty cycle, was greater for 5 and 10% duty cycles than higher duty cycles, providing a value approximately 160% higher at 5% duty cycle than continuous operation. This increase in adjusted rate constant at low duty cycles, as well as contaminant fouling of the LED surface, may impact design and operational considerations for pulsed UV-LED AOP systems.

  5. Growth and Implementation of Carbon-Doped AlGaN Layers for Enhancement-Mode HEMTs on 200 mm Si Substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su, Jie; Posthuma, Niels; Wellekens, Dirk; Saripalli, Yoga N.; Decoutere, Stefaan; Arif, Ronald; Papasouliotis, George D.

    2016-12-01

    We are reporting the growth of AlGaN based enhancement-mode high electron mobility transistors (HEMTs) on 200 mm silicon (111) substrates using a single wafer metalorganic chemical vapor deposition reactor. It is found that TMAl pre-dosing conditions are critical in controlling the structural quality, surface morphology, and wafer bow of the HEMT stack. Optimal structural quality and pit-free surface are demonstrated for AlGaN HEMTs with pre-dosing temperature at 750°C. Intrinsically, carbon-doped AlGaN, is used as the current blocking layer in the HEMT structures. The lateral buffer breakdown and device breakdown characteristics, reach 400 V at a leakage current of 1 μA/mm measured at 150°C. The fabricated HEMT devices, with a Mg doped p-GaN gate layer, are operating in enhancement mode reaching a positive threshold voltage of 2-2.5 V, a low on-resistance of 10.5 Ω mm with a high drain saturation current of 0.35 A/mm, and a low forward bias gate leakage current of 0.5 × 10-6 A/mm ( V gs = 7 V). Tight distribution of device parameters across the 200 mm wafers and over repeat process runs is observed.

  6. AlN and AlGaN layers grown on Si(111) substrate by mixed-source hydride vapor phase epitaxy method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeon, Hunsoo; Jeon, Injun; Lee, Gang Seok; Bae, Sung Geun; Ahn, Hyung Soo; Yang, Min; Yi, Sam Nyung; Yu, Young Moon; Honda, Yoshio; Sawaki, Nobuhiko; Kim, Suck-Whan

    2017-01-01

    High Al-composition AlGaN and AlN epilayers were grown directly on Si(111) substrate by a hydride vapor phase epitaxy (HVPE) method with a melted mixed source in a graphite boat set in a source zone with high temperatures of T = 700 and 800 °C, respectively. The presence of the Ga material in the mixed source of Ga and Al promoted the growth of AlN and AlGaN epilayers in the growth zone. When the temperature in the source zone was 800 °C, the crystalline quality of the AlN and AlGaN epilayers increased as the ratio of Ga to Al increased, and the optimum mix ratio of Ga to Al for the growth of AlN epilayers was approximately 0.35-0.42, obtained from a numerical fitting analysis of the X-ray diffraction (XRD) data for these epilayers. It appears that they can be grown directly by our melted-mixed-source HVPE method in a high-temperature source zone.

  7. Polariton Bose–Einstein condensate at room temperature in an Al(Ga)N nanowire–dielectric microcavity with a spatial potential trap

    PubMed Central

    Das, Ayan; Bhattacharya, Pallab; Heo, Junseok; Banerjee, Animesh; Guo, Wei

    2013-01-01

    A spatial potential trap is formed in a 6.0-μm Al(Ga)N nanowire by varying the Al composition along its length during epitaxial growth. The polariton emission characteristics of a dielectric microcavity with the single nanowire embedded in-plane have been studied at room temperature. Excitation is provided at the Al(Ga)N end of the nanowire, and polariton emission is observed from the lowest bandgap GaN region within the potential trap. Comparison of the results with those measured in an identical microcavity with a uniform GaN nanowire and having an identical exciton–photon detuning suggests evaporative cooling of the polaritons as they are transported into the trap in the Al(Ga)N nanowire. Measurement of the spectral characteristics of the polariton emission, their momentum distribution, first-order spatial coherence, and time-resolved measurements of polariton cooling provides strong evidence of the formation of a near-equilibrium Bose–Einstein condensate in the GaN region of the nanowire at room temperature. In contrast, the condensate formed in the uniform GaN nanowire–dielectric microcavity without the spatial potential trap is only in self-equilibrium. PMID:23382183

  8. Dislocation blocking by AlGaN hot electron injecting layer in the epitaxial growth of GaN terahertz Gunn diode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Liang; Yang, Lin'an; Zhang, Jincheng; Hao, Yue

    2013-09-01

    This paper reports an efficient method to improve the crystal quality of GaN Gunn diode with AlGaN hot electron injecting layer (HEI). An evident reduction of screw dislocation and edge dislocation densities is achieved by the strain management and the enhanced lateral growth in high temperature grown AlGaN HEI layer. Compared with the top hot electron injecting layer (THEI) structure, the bottom hot electron injecting layer (BHEI) structure enhances the crystal quality of transit region due to the growth sequence modulation of HEI layer. A high Hall mobility of 2934 cm2/Vs at 77 K, a nearly flat downtrend of Hall mobility at the temperature ranging from 300 to 573 K, a low intensity of ratio of yellow luminescence band to band edge emission, a narrow band edge emission line-width, and a smooth surface morphology are observed for the BHEI structural epitaxy of Gunn diode, which indicates that AlGaN BHEI structure is a promising candidate for fabrication of GaN Gunn diodes in terahertz regime.

  9. Effect of surface pretreatment on interfacial chemical bonding states of atomic layer deposited ZrO{sub 2} on AlGaN

    SciTech Connect

    Ye, Gang; Arulkumaran, Subramaniam; Ng, Geok Ing; Li, Yang; Ang, Kian Siong; Wang, Hong; Liu, Zhi Hong

    2015-09-15

    Atomic layer deposition (ALD) of ZrO{sub 2} on native oxide covered (untreated) and buffered oxide etchant (BOE) treated AlGaN surface was analyzed by utilizing x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy. Evidenced by Ga–O and Al–O chemical bonds by XPS, parasitic oxidation during deposition is largely enhanced on BOE treated AlGaN surface. Due to the high reactivity of Al atoms, more prominent oxidation of Al atoms is observed, which leads to thicker interfacial layer formed on BOE treated surface. The results suggest that native oxide on AlGaN surface may serve as a protecting layer to inhibit the surface from further parasitic oxidation during ALD. The findings provide important process guidelines for the use of ALD ZrO{sub 2} and its pre-ALD surface treatments for high-k AlGaN/GaN metal–insulator–semiconductor high electron mobility transistors and other related device applications.

  10. Application of spectral ellipsometry to in situ diagnostics of atomic layer deposition of dielectrics on silicon and AlGaN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clemente, Iosif E.; Miakonkikh, Andrey V.

    2016-12-01

    Atomic layer deposition (ALD) of Al2O3 on Si and AlGaN substrates was studied in situ by means of spectral ellipsometry. Method was used for optimization of process of atomic layer deposition. Optical model takes into account all layers of transparent structure typical for gallium nitride devices Al2O3/AlGaN/AlN/GaN. Developed model is able to measure in situ temperature of wafer before the process and its change during the deposition which is critical for development of new process and understanding of chemical reactions. Difference in temperature between chuck and sample were calculated. Spectral ellipsometry was used to determine initial nucleation lag of film growth which is different on silicon and AlGaN surface and chemical transient during the first steps of deposition. Removal of native oxide in AlGaN structures could play key role in observed effects of passivation GaN transistor structures by alumina.

  11. Impact of post-deposition annealing on interfacial chemical bonding states between AlGaN and ZrO{sub 2} grown by atomic layer deposition

    SciTech Connect

    Ye, Gang; Arulkumaran, Subramaniam; Ng, Geok Ing; Li, Yang; Ang, Kian Siong; Wang, Hong; Liu, Zhi Hong

    2015-03-02

    The effect of post-deposition annealing on chemical bonding states at interface between Al{sub 0.5}Ga{sub 0.5}N and ZrO{sub 2} grown by atomic layer deposition (ALD) is studied by angle-resolved x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy. It has been found that both of Al-O/Al 2p and Ga-O/Ga 3d area ratio decrease at annealing temperatures lower than 500 °C, which could be attributed to “clean up” effect of ALD-ZrO{sub 2} on AlGaN. Compared to Ga spectra, a much larger decrease in Al-O/Al 2p ratio at a smaller take-off angle θ is observed, which indicates higher effectiveness of the passivation of Al-O bond than Ga-O bond through “clean up” effect near the interface. However, degradation of ZrO{sub 2}/AlGaN interface quality due to re-oxidation at higher annealing temperature (>500 °C) is also found. The XPS spectra clearly reveal that Al atoms at ZrO{sub 2}/AlGaN interface are easier to get oxidized as compared with Ga atoms.

  12. Enhancing the luminance of converted green LEDs in LED projectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schulz, Benjamin; Neumann, Cornelius

    2017-02-01

    High-power light-emitting diodes have successfully found their way into projection applications. Owing to their long lifetime, small size, and easy electrical drive, they are getting more and more attractive for use in various kinds of projectors. The challenge to achieve higher brightness levels lies in the étendue limitation, which is determined mainly by the size of the microdisplay inside the projection system. In this paper, a new approach is presented to increase the output flux of LED-based projectors by enhancing the luminance of converted green LEDs.

  13. UV emissions from low energy artificial light sources.

    PubMed

    Fenton, Leona; Moseley, Harry

    2014-01-01

    Energy efficient light sources have been introduced across Europe and many other countries world wide. The most common of these is the Compact Fluorescent Lamp (CFL), which has been shown to emit ultraviolet (UV) radiation. Light Emitting Diodes (LEDs) are an alternative technology that has minimal UV emissions. This brief review summarises the different energy efficient light sources available on the market and compares the UV levels and the subsequent effects on the skin of normal individuals and those who suffer from photodermatoses.

  14. UV water disinfector

    DOEpatents

    Gadgil, A.; Garud, V.

    1998-07-14

    A UV disinfector with a gravity driven feed water delivery system and an air-suspended bare UV lamp are disclosed. The disinfector is hydrodynamically optimized with a laminerizing, perforated baffle wall, beveled treatment chamber, and outlet weir. 7 figs.

  15. UV water disinfector

    DOEpatents

    Gadgil, Ashok; Garud, Vikas

    1998-07-14

    A UV disinfector with a gravity driven feed water delivery system, and an air-suspended bare UV lamp. The disinfector is hydrodynamically optimized with a laminerizing, perforated baffle wall, beveled treatment chamber, and outlet weir.

  16. Índice UV

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Información general sobre el Índice UV que proporciona un pronóstico del riesgo esperado de sobreexposición a la radiación ultravioleta (UV) del sol. El índice UV va acompañado de recomendaciones para protegerse del sol.

  17. Experimental evidences for reducing Mg activation energy in high Al-content AlGaN alloy by MgGa δ doping in (AlN)m/(GaN)n superlattice.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiao; Wang, Wei; Wang, Jingli; Wu, Hao; Liu, Chang

    2017-03-14

    P-type doping in high Al-content AlGaN alloys is a main challenge for realizing AlGaN-based deep ultraviolet optoelectronics devices. According to the first-principles calculations, Mg activation energy may be reduced so that a high hole concentration can be obtained by introducing nanoscale (AlN)5/(GaN)1 superlattice (SL) in Al0.83Ga0.17N disorder alloy. In this work, experimental evidences were achieved by analyzing Mg doped high Al-content AlGaN alloys and Mg doped AlGaN SLs as well as MgGa δ doped AlGaN SLs. Mg acceptor activation energy was significantly reduced from 0.378 to 0.331 eV by using MgGa δ doping in SLs instead of traditional doping in alloys. This new process was confirmed to be able to realize high p-type doping in high Al-content AlGaN.

  18. Experimental evidences for reducing Mg activation energy in high Al-content AlGaN alloy by MgGa δ doping in (AlN)m/(GaN)n superlattice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xiao; Wang, Wei; Wang, Jingli; Wu, Hao; Liu, Chang

    2017-03-01

    P-type doping in high Al-content AlGaN alloys is a main challenge for realizing AlGaN-based deep ultraviolet optoelectronics devices. According to the first-principles calculations, Mg activation energy may be reduced so that a high hole concentration can be obtained by introducing nanoscale (AlN)5/(GaN)1 superlattice (SL) in Al0.83Ga0.17N disorder alloy. In this work, experimental evidences were achieved by analyzing Mg doped high Al-content AlGaN alloys and Mg doped AlGaN SLs as well as MgGa δ doped AlGaN SLs. Mg acceptor activation energy was significantly reduced from 0.378 to 0.331 eV by using MgGa δ doping in SLs instead of traditional doping in alloys. This new process was confirmed to be able to realize high p-type doping in high Al-content AlGaN.

  19. Experimental evidences for reducing Mg activation energy in high Al-content AlGaN alloy by MgGa δ doping in (AlN)m/(GaN)n superlattice

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xiao; Wang, Wei; Wang, Jingli; Wu, Hao; Liu, Chang

    2017-01-01

    P-type doping in high Al-content AlGaN alloys is a main challenge for realizing AlGaN-based deep ultraviolet optoelectronics devices. According to the first-principles calculations, Mg activation energy may be reduced so that a high hole concentration can be obtained by introducing nanoscale (AlN)5/(GaN)1 superlattice (SL) in Al0.83Ga0.17N disorder alloy. In this work, experimental evidences were achieved by analyzing Mg doped high Al-content AlGaN alloys and Mg doped AlGaN SLs as well as MgGa δ doped AlGaN SLs. Mg acceptor activation energy was significantly reduced from 0.378 to 0.331 eV by using MgGa δ doping in SLs instead of traditional doping in alloys. This new process was confirmed to be able to realize high p-type doping in high Al-content AlGaN. PMID:28290480

  20. CONDENSED MATTER: STRUCTURE, THERMAL AND MECHANICAL PROPERTIES: The effect of single AlGaN interlayer on the structural properties of GaN epilayers grown on Si (111) substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Yu-Xin; Zhu, Jian-Jun; Zhao, De-Gang; Liu, Zong-Shun; Jiang, De-Sheng; Zhang, Shu-Ming; Wang, Yu-Tian; Wang, Hui; Chen, Gui-Feng; Yang, Hui

    2009-10-01

    High-quality and nearly crack-free GaN epitaxial layer was obtained by inserting a single AlGaN interlayer between GaN epilayer and high-temperature AlN buffer layer on Si (111) substrate by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition. This paper investigates the effect of AlGaN interlayer on the structural properties of the resulting GaN epilayer. It confirms from the optical microscopy and Raman scattering spectroscopy that the AlGaN interlayer has a remarkable effect on introducing relative compressive strain to the top GaN layer and preventing the formation of cracks. X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy analysis reveal that a significant reduction in both screw and edge threading dislocations is achieved in GaN epilayer by the insertion of AlGaN interlayer. The process of threading dislocation reduction in both AlGaN interlayer and GaN epilayer is demonstrated.

  1. Peer-Led Team Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cracolice, Mark S.; Deming, John C.

    2001-01-01

    Introduces the Peer-Led Team Learning (PLTL) model as an alternative to traditional cooperative learning. Discusses the difficulties of PLTL based curriculum which include finding the peer leaders, selecting the right materials for implementation, and training techniques for peer leaders. (YDS)

  2. Multicolor, High Efficiency, Nanotextured LEDs

    SciTech Connect

    Jung Han; Arto Nurmikko

    2011-09-30

    We report on research results in this project which synergize advanced material science approaches with fundamental optical physics concepts pertaining to light-matter interaction, with the goal of solving seminal problems for the development of very high performance light emitting diodes (LEDs) in the blue and green for Solid State Lighting applications. Accomplishments in the duration of the contract period include (i) heteroepitaxy of nitrogen-polar LEDs on sapphire, (ii) heteroepitaxy of semipolar (11{bar 2}2) green LEDs on sapphire, (iii) synthesis of quantum-dot loaded nanoporous GaN that emits white light without phosphor conversion, (iv) demonstration of the highest quality semipolar (11{bar 2}2) GaN on sapphire using orientation-controlled epitaxy, (v) synthesis of nanoscale GaN and InGaN medium, and (vi) development of a novel liftoff process for manufacturing GaN thin-film vertical LEDs. The body of results is presented in this report shows how a solid foundation has been laid, with several noticeable accomplishments, for innovative research, consistent with the stated milestones.

  3. Student-Led Portfolio Conferences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paulson, F. Leon; Paulson, Pearl R.

    In at least one Oregon school system, student-led conferences have begun to replace traditional report cards. When conferences are well done, parents believe they have learned more about their child's learning and progress than they would through a traditional report card. There is an important additional benefit in that students can rise to the…

  4. LED lamp color control system and method

    DOEpatents

    Gaines, James; Clauberg, Bernd; Van Erp, Josephus A.M.

    2013-02-05

    An LED lamp color control system and method including an LED lamp having an LED controller 58; and a plurality of LED channels 60 operably connected to the LED controller 58, each of the plurality of LED channels 60 having a channel switch 62 in series with at least one shunted LED circuit 83, the shunted LED circuit 83 having a shunt switch 68 in parallel with an LED source 80. The LED controller 58 determines whether the LED source 80 is in a feedback controllable range, stores measured optical flux for the LED source 80 when the LED source 80 is in the feedback controllable range, and bypasses storing the measured optical flux when the LED source 80 is not in the feedback controllable range.

  5. LED lamp power management system and method

    DOEpatents

    Gaines, James; Clauberg, Bernd; Van Erp, Josephus A. M.

    2013-03-19

    An LED lamp power management system and method including an LED lamp having an LED controller 58; a plurality of LED channels 60 operably connected to the LED controller 58, each of the plurality of LED channels 60 having a channel switch 62 in series with at least one shunted LED circuit 83, the shunted LED circuit 83 having a shunt switch 68 in parallel with an LED source 80. The LED controller 58 reduces power loss in one of the channel switch 62 and the shunt switch 68 when LED lamp electronics power loss (P.sub.loss) exceeds an LED lamp electronics power loss limit (P.sub.lim); and each of the channel switches 62 receives a channel switch control signal 63 from the LED controller 58 and each of the shunt switches 68 receives a shunt switch control signal 69 from the LED controller 58.

  6. Improved p-type conductivity in Al-rich AlGaN using multidimensional Mg-doped superlattices

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, T. C.; Lin, W.; Liu, R.; Cai, D. J.; Li, J. C.; Li, S. P.; Kang, J. Y.

    2016-01-01

    A novel multidimensional Mg-doped superlattice (SL) is proposed to enhance vertical hole conductivity in conventional Mg-doped AlGaN SL which generally suffers from large potential barrier for holes. Electronic structure calculations within the first-principle theoretical framework indicate that the densities of states (DOS) of the valence band nearby the Fermi level are more delocalized along the c-axis than that in conventional SL, and the potential barrier significantly decreases. Hole concentration is greatly enhanced in the barrier of multidimensional SL. Detailed comparisons of partial charges and decomposed DOS reveal that the improvement of vertical conductance may be ascribed to the stronger pz hybridization between Mg and N. Based on the theoretical analysis, highly conductive p-type multidimensional Al0.63Ga0.37N/Al0.51Ga0.49N SLs are grown with identified steps via metalorganic vapor-phase epitaxy. The hole concentration reaches up to 3.5 × 1018 cm−3, while the corresponding resistivity reduces to 0.7 Ω cm at room temperature, which is tens times improvement in conductivity compared with that of conventional SLs. High hole concentration can be maintained even at 100 K. High p-type conductivity in Al-rich structural material is an important step for the future design of superior AlGaN-based deep ultraviolet devices. PMID:26906334

  7. AlGaN Nanostructures with Extremely High Room-Temperature Internal Quantum Efficiency of Emission Below 300 nm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toropov, A. A.; Shevchenko, E. A.; Shubina, T. V.; Jmerik, V. N.; Nechaev, D. V.; Evropeytsev, E. A.; Kaibyshev, V. Kh.; Pozina, G.; Rouvimov, S.; Ivanov, S. V.

    2016-11-01

    We present theoretical optimization of the design of a quantum well (QW) heterostructure based on AlGaN alloys, aimed at achievement of the maximum possible internal quantum efficiency of emission in the mid-ultraviolet spectral range below 300 nm at room temperature. A sample with optimized parameters was fabricated by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy using the submonolayer digital alloying technique for QW formation. High-angle annular dark-field scanning transmission electron microscopy confirmed strong compositional disordering of the thus-fabricated QW, which presumably facilitates lateral localization of charge carriers in the QW plane. Stress evolution in the heterostructure was monitored in real time during growth using a multibeam optical stress sensor intended for measurements of substrate curvature. Time-resolved photoluminescence spectroscopy confirmed that radiative recombination in the fabricated sample dominated in the whole temperature range up to 300 K. This leads to record weak temperature-induced quenching of the QW emission intensity, which at 300 K does not exceed 20% of the low-temperature value.

  8. Modelling of capacitance and threshold voltage for ultrathin normally-off AlGaN /GaN MOSHEMT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swain, R.; Jena, K.; Lenka, T. R.

    2017-01-01

    A compact quantitative model based on oxide semiconductor interface density of states (DOS) is proposed for Al0.25Ga0.75N/GaN metal oxide semiconductor high electron mobility transistor (MOSHEMT). Mathematical expressions for surface potential, sheet charge concentration, gate capacitance and threshold voltage have been derived. The gate capacitance behaviour is studied in terms of capacitance-voltage (CV) characteristics. Similarly, the predicted threshold voltage ( V T) is analysed by varying barrier thickness and oxide thickness. The positive V T obtained for a very thin 3 nm AlGaN barrier layer enables the enhancement mode operation of the MOSHEMT. These devices, along with depletion mode devices, are basic constituents of cascode configuration in power electronic circuits. The expressions developed are used in conventional long-channel HEMT drain current equation and evaluated to obtain different DC characteristics. The obtained results are compared with experimental data taken from literature which show good agreement and hence endorse the proposed model.

  9. LED instrument approach instruction display

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meredith, B. D.; Kelly, W. L., IV; Crouch, R. K.

    1979-01-01

    A display employing light emitting diodes (LED's) was developed to demonstrate the feasibility of such displays for presenting landing and navigation information to reduce the workload of general aviation pilots during IFR flight. The display consists of a paper tape reader, digital memory, control electronics, digital latches, and LED alphanumeric displays. A presentable digital countdown clock-timer is included as part of the system to provide a convenient means of monitoring time intervals for precise flight navigation. The system is a limited capability prototype assembled to test pilot reaction to such a device under simulated IFR operation. Pilot opinion indicates that the display is helpful in reducing the IFR pilots workload when used with a runway approach plate. However, the development of a compact, low power second generation display was recommended which could present several instructions simultaneously and provide information update capability. A microprocessor-based display could fulfill these requirements.

  10. Colorimetric characterization of LED luminaires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Costa, C. L. M.; Vieira, R. R.; Pereira, R. C.; Silva, P. V. M.; Oliveira, I. A. A.; Sardinha, A. S.; Viana, D. D.; Barbosa, A. H.; Souza, L. P.; Alvarenga, A. D.

    2015-01-01

    The Optical Metrology Division of Inmetro - National Institute of Metrology, Quality and Technology has recently started the colorimetric characterization of lamps by implementing Correlated Color Temperature (CCT) and Color Rendering Index (CRI) measurements of incandescent lamps, followed by the CFL, and LED lamps and luminaires. Here we present the results for the verification of the color characterization of samples of SSL luminaires for public as well as indoor illumination that are sold in Brazil.

  11. High f T and f max AlGaN/GaN HFETs achieved by using thin and high-Al-composition AlGaN barrier layers and Cat-CVD SiN passivation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Higashiwaki, M.; Onojima, N.; Matsui, T.; Mimura, T.

    2006-05-01

    We fabricated sub-0.1 m-gate Al0.4Ga0.6N/GaN heterostructure field-effect transistors (HFETs) with AlGaN barrier thicknesses of 4-10 nm. The devices were passivated with 2 nm-thick SiN layers formed by catalytic chemical vapor deposition (Cat-CVD). The Cat-CVD SiN passivation greatly increased electron density, and the effect became more significant with decreasing AlGaN barrier thickness. The HFETs had maximum drain current densities of 1.1-1.5 A/mm and peak extrinsic transconductances of 305-438 mS/mm. Peak current-gain cutoff frequency of 163 GHz and maximum oscillation frequency of 192 GHz were obtained for the devices with 8 nm-thick AlGaN barriers.

  12. Color-tunable photoluminescence phosphors of Ce{sup 3+} and Tb{sup 3+} co-doped Sr{sub 2}La{sub 8}(SiO{sub 4}){sub 6}O{sub 2} for UV w-LEDs

    SciTech Connect

    Guo, Qingfeng; Liao, Libing Mei, Lefu; Liu, Haikun; Hai, Yun

    2015-05-15

    A series of new luminescent emission-tunable phosphors Sr{sub 2}La{sub 8}(SiO{sub 4}){sub 6}O{sub 2}:Ce{sup 3+}, Tb{sup 3+} with apatite structure have been synthesized by a high temperature solid-state reaction. The phase structure, photoluminescence emission and excitation spectra, lifetime, as well as the effect of Tb{sup 3+} concentration are investigated to characterize the resulting samples. The critical distance was calculated to be 8.26 Å by using the concentration quenching method. The intense green emission was observed in the Sr{sub 2}La{sub 8}(SiO{sub 4}){sub 6}O{sub 2}:Ce{sup 3+}, Tb{sup 3+} phosphors on the basis of the efficient energy transfer from Ce{sup 3+} to Tb{sup 3+} with an efficiency of 68.55%. And a possible mechanism of the energy-transfer from Ce{sup 3+} to Tb{sup 3+} ion is also proposed. The results indicate that Sr{sub 2}La{sub 8}(SiO{sub 4}){sub 6}O{sub 2}:Ce{sup 3+}, Tb{sup 3+} phosphors have potential applications to be used as near UV-convertible phosphors for white light-emitting diodes because of the broad excitation in the near-ultraviolet range and the efficient green emission light. - Graphical abstract: Crystal structure and luminescence properties of Sr{sub 2}La{sub 8}(SiO{sub 4}){sub 6}O{sub 2}:Ce{sup 3+},Tb{sup 3+} phosphors have been discussed. - Highlights: • Ce{sup 3+} and Tb{sup 3+} ions entered both La sites in SLSO. • The energy transfer efficiency can reach at 68.55%. • The emitting color of SLSO phosphors shifted from the blue to green region.

  13. SF6/O2 plasma effects on silicon nitride passivation of AlGaN /GaN high electron mobility transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meyer, David J.; Flemish, Joseph R.; Redwing, Joan M.

    2006-11-01

    The effects of various plasma and wet chemical surface pretreatments on the electrical characteristics of AlGaN /GaN high electron mobility transistors (HEMTs) passivated with plasma-deposited silicon nitride were investigated. The results of pulsed IV measurements show that samples exposed to various SF6/O2 plasma treatments have markedly better rf dispersion characteristics compared to samples that were either untreated or treated in wet buffered oxide etch prior to encapsulation. The improvement in these characteristics correlates with the reduction of carbon on the semiconductor surface as measured with x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. HEMT channel sheet resistance was also affected by varying silicon nitride deposition parameters.

  14. Improved characteristics of ultraviolet AlGaN multiple-quantum-well laser diodes with step-graded quantum barriers close to waveguide layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cai, Xuefen; Li, Shuping; Kang, Junyong

    2016-09-01

    Ultraviolet AlGaN multiple-quantum-well laser diodes (LDs) with step-graded quantum barriers (QBs) instead of conventional first and last QBs close to waveguide layers are proposed. The characteristics of this type of laser diodes are numerically investigated by using the software PICS3D and it is found that the performances of these LDs are greatly improved. The results indicates that the structure with step-graded QBs exhibits higher output light power, slope efficiency and emission intensity, as well as lower series resistance and threshold current density under the identical condition, compared with conventional LD structure.

  15. Experimental observation of isotropic in-plane spin splitting in GaN /AlGaN two-dimensional electron gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Hongming; Liu, Baoli; Guo, Liwei; Tan, Changling; Chen, Hong; Chen, Dongmin

    2007-12-01

    The circular photogalvanic effect (CPGE) was used to study the in-plane-orientation dependent spin splitting in the C(0001)-oriented GaN /AlGaN two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG). The CPGE current induced by the interband transition shows an isotropic in-plane spin splitting in this system at room temperature. The spin relaxation time is found to be 14ps using the time resolved Kerr rotation technique, which is another evidence of the spin splitting in this 2DEG system.

  16. Modelling UV sky for future UV missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sreejith, A. G.; Safanova, M.; Mohan, R.; Murthy, Jayant

    Software simulators are now widely used in all areas of science, especially in application to astronomical missions: from instrument design to mission planning, and to data interpretation. We present a simulator to model the diffuse ultraviolet sky, where the different contributors are separately calculated and added together to produce a sky image of the size specified by the instrument requirements. Each of the contributors to the background, instrumental dark current, airglow, zodiacal light and diffuse galactic light, is dependent on various factors. Airglow is dependent on the time of day, zodiacal light on the time of year, angle from the Sun and from the ecliptic, and diffuse UV emission depends on the look direction. To provide a full description of any line of sight, we have also added stars. The diffuse UV background light can dominate in many areas of the sky and severely impact space telescopes viewing directions due to over brightness. The simulator, available as a downloadable package and as a simple web-based tool, can be applied to separate missions and instruments. For demonstration, we present the example used for two UV missions: the UVIT instrument on the Indian ASTROSAT mission to be launched in the next year and a prospective wide-field mission to search for transients in the UV.

  17. UV-sensitive syndrome.

    PubMed

    Spivak, Graciela

    2005-09-04

    UV-sensitive syndrome (UV(S)S) is a human DNA repair-deficiency disorder with mild clinical manifestations. In contrast to other disorders with photosensitivity, no neurological or developmental abnormalities and no predisposition to cancer have been reported. The cellular and biochemical responses of UV(S)S and Cockayne syndrome (CS) cells to UV light are indistinguishable, and result from defective transcription-coupled repair of photoproducts in expressed genes [G. Spivak, T. Itoh, T. Matsunaga, O. Nikaido, P. Hanawalt, M. Yamaizumi, Ultra violet-sensitive syndrome cells are defective in transcription-coupled repair of cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers, DNA Repair, 1, 2002, 629-643]. The severe neurological and developmental deficiency characteristic of CS may arise from unresolved blockage of transcription at oxidative DNA lesions, which could result in excessive cell death and/or attenuated transcription. We have proposed that individuals with UV(S)S develop normally because they are proficient in repair of oxidative base damage or in transcriptional bypass of these lesions; consistent with this hypothesis, CS-B cells, but not UV(S)S cells, are deficient in host cell reactivation of plasmids containing oxidative base lesions [G. Spivak, P. Hanawalt, Host cell reactivation of plasmids containing oxidative DNA lesions is defective in Cockayne syndrome but normal in UV-sensitive syndrome, 2005, submitted for publication]. In this review, I will summarize the current understanding of the UV-sensitive syndrome and compare it with the Cockayne syndrome.

  18. Sub-250 nm light emission and optical gain in AlGaN materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Francesco Pecora, Emanuele; Zhang, Wei; Nikiforov, A. Yu.; Yin, Jian; Paiella, Roberto; Dal Negro, Luca; Moustakas, Theodore D.

    2013-01-01

    We investigate the deep-UV optical emission and gain properties of AlxGa1-xN/AlyGa1-yN multiple quantum wells structures. These structures were grown by plasma-assisted molecular-beam epitaxy on 6H-SiC substrates, under a growth mode which promotes various degrees of band-structure potential fluctuations in the form of cluster-like features within the wells. The degree of inhomogeneities in these samples was determined by cathodoluminescence mapping. We measured the TE-polarized amplified spontaneous emission in the sample with cluster-like features and quantified the optical absorption/gain coefficients and gain spectra by the variable stripe length technique under ultrafast optical pumping. A maximum net modal gain of about 120 cm-1 is measured at 4.9 eV. On the other hand, we found that samples with homogeneous quantum wells lead to absorption. Numerical simulations are performed to support our experimental findings.

  19. Sub-250 nm light emission and optical gain in AlGaN materials

    SciTech Connect

    Francesco Pecora, Emanuele; Zhang Wei; Nikiforov, A. Yu.; Yin Jian; Paiella, Roberto; Dal Negro, Luca; Moustakas, Theodore D.

    2013-01-07

    We investigate the deep-UV optical emission and gain properties of Al{sub x}Ga{sub 1-x}N/Al{sub y}Ga{sub 1-y}N multiple quantum wells structures. These structures were grown by plasma-assisted molecular-beam epitaxy on 6H-SiC substrates, under a growth mode which promotes various degrees of band-structure potential fluctuations in the form of cluster-like features within the wells. The degree of inhomogeneities in these samples was determined by cathodoluminescence mapping. We measured the TE-polarized amplified spontaneous emission in the sample with cluster-like features and quantified the optical absorption/gain coefficients and gain spectra by the variable stripe length technique under ultrafast optical pumping. A maximum net modal gain of about 120 cm{sup -1} is measured at 4.9 eV. On the other hand, we found that samples with homogeneous quantum wells lead to absorption. Numerical simulations are performed to support our experimental findings.

  20. HIRDES UV spectrographs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kappelmann, N.; Barnstedt, J.; Gringel, W.; Werner, K.; Becker-Ross, H.; Florek, S.; Graue, R.; Kampf, D.; Reutlinger, A.; Neumann, C.; Shustov, B.; Sachkov, M.; Panchuk, V.; Yushkin, M.; Moisheev, A.; Skripunov, E.

    2006-06-01

    The World Space Observatory Ultraviolet (WSO/UV) is a multi-national project grown out of the needs of the astronomical community to have future access to the ultraviolet range of the spectrum. The development of the WSO/UV S/C and the telescope is headed by the Russian Federal Space Agency (Roscosmos). The mission is scheduled to be launched in 2010 into the L2 orbit. The WSO/UV consists of a single Ultraviolet Telescope, incorporating a primary mirror of 1.7 m diameter feeding UV spectrometer and UV imagers. The UV spectrometer comprises three different single spectrographs, two high resolution echelle spectrographs - the High Resolution Double Echelle Spectrograph (HIRDES) - and a low dispersion long slit instrument. Within the HIRDES the spectral band (102 - 310 nm) is separated into two echelle spectrographs covering the UV range between 174- and 310 nm (UVES) and VacuumUV range between 102 and 176 nm (VUVES) with a very high spectral resolution of > 50000. Each spectrograph encompass a stand alone optical bench structure with a fully redundant high speed MCP detector system, the optomechanics and a network of mechanisms with different functionalities. The fundamental technical concept is based on the heritage of the two previous ORFEUS SPAS missions. The phase B1 development activities are described in this paper under consideration of performance aspects, design drivers, the related trade offs (e.g. mechanical concepts, material selection etc.) and the critical functional and environmental test verification approach. Furthermore the actual state of the other scientific instruments of the WSO/UV (e.g. UV imagers) project is described.

  1. Developing Successful International Faculty Led Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fabregas Janeiro, Maria G.; Fabre, Ricardo Lopez; Rosete, Rodrigo Tello

    2012-01-01

    Faculty Led Programs are study abroad experiences led by university professors. Faculty Led Programs are considered as an opportunity for college students, especially in the United States to attend a short-term international experience (Mills, 2010). Faculty Led Program is an international experience which is different from the traditional…

  2. Dark-current characteristics of GaN-based UV avalanche photodiodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Jintong; Chang, Chao; Li, Xiangyang

    2015-04-01

    For UV detecting, it needs high ratio of signal to noise, which means high responsibility and low noise. GaN-based avalanche photodiodes can provide a high internal photocurrent gain. In this paper, we report the testing and characterization of GaN based thin film materials, optimization design of device structure, the device etching and passivation technology, and the photoelectric characteristics of the devices. Also, uniformity of the device was obtained. The relationship between dark current and material quality or device processes was the focus of this study. GaN based material with high aluminum components have high density defects. Scanning electron microscope, cathodoluminescence spectra, X-ray double crystal diffraction and transmission spectroscopy testing were employed to evaluate the quality of GaN-based material. It shows that patterned sapphire substrate or thick AlN buffer layer is more effective to get high quality materials. GaN-based materials have larger hole ionization coefficient, so back incident structure were adopted to maximize the hole-derived multiplication course and it was helped to get a smaller multiplication noise. The device with separate absorption and multiplication regions is also prospective to reduce the avalanche noise. According to AlGaN based material characteristics and actual device fabrication, device structure was optimized further. Low physical damage inductively coupled plasma (ICP) etching method was used to etch mesa and wet etching method was employed to treat mesa damage. Silica is passivation material of device mesa. For solar-blind ultraviolet device, it is necessary to adopt a wider bandgap material than AlGaN material. The current-voltage characteristics under reverse bias were measured in darkness and under UV illumination. The distribution of dark current and response of different devices was obtained. In short, for GaN-based UV avalanche photodiode, dark current was related to high density dislocation of

  3. Effects of UV irradiation and UV/chlorine co-exposure on natural organic matter in water.

    PubMed

    Liu, Wei; Zhang, Zaili; Yang, Xin; Xu, Yiyue; Liang, Yongmei

    2012-01-01

    The effects of co-exposure to ultraviolet (UV) irradiation (with either low- or medium-pressure UV lamps) and free chlorine (chloramine) at practical relevant conditions on changes in natural organic matter (NOM) properties were investigated using four waters. The changes were characterized using the specific disinfection by-product formation potential (SDBPFP), specific total organic halogen formation potential (STOXFP), differential UV absorbance (∆UVA), and size-exclusion chromatography (SEC). The results for exposure to UV irradiation alone and for samples with no exposure were also obtained. The SDBPFPs in all UV-irradiated NOM waters observed were higher than those of non-irradiated samples. UV irradiation led to increases in STOXFPs as a result of chlorination, but no changes, or only small decreases, from chloramination. UV irradiation alone led to positive ∆UVA spectra of the four NOM waters; co-exposure to UV and chlorine gave larger negative ∆UVA spectra than those obtained by chlorine exposure alone. No obvious changes in SEC results were observed for samples only irradiated with UV light; co-exposure gave no detectable changes in the abundances of small fractions for exposure to chlorine only. Both UV photooxidation and photocatalytic oxidation appear to affect the reactivity of the NOM toward subsequent chlorination, and the magnitude of the changes is generally greater for medium-pressure lamps than for low-pressure lamps. These results suggest that applying UV disinfection technology to a particular source may not always be disinfection by-product-problem-free, and the interactions between UV light, chlorine, and NOM may need to be considered.

  4. Monitoring LED-induced carotenoid increase in grapes by Transmission Resonance Raman spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonzálvez, Alicia G.; Martínez, Nerea L.; Telle, Helmut H.; Ureña, Ángel González

    2013-02-01

    Transmission Resonance Raman (TRR) spectroscopy combines increased signal-to-noise ratio with enhanced analytical sensibility. TRR was applied to directly monitor, without any sample preparation, the enhancement of β-carotene content in table grapes when they are irradiated by low power UV-LEDs. It was shown that, with respect to control samples, the carotenoid content in the grapes increased about five-fold, using UV-LED irradiation doses being two orders of magnitude lower than the maximum limit allowed by United States Food and Drug Administration. These promising results may pave the way for the development of easy, non-invasive techniques to improve food quality.

  5. UV, stress and aging.

    PubMed

    Debacq-Chainiaux, Florence; Leduc, Cedric; Verbeke, Alix; Toussaint, Olivier

    2012-07-01

    Skin is a model of choice in studies on aging. Indeed, skin aging can be modulated by internal and external factors, reflecting its complexity. Two types of skin aging have been identified: intrinsic, mainly genetically determined and extrinsic-also called "photo-aging"-resulting on the impact of environmental stress and more precisely of UV rays. Simplified in vitro models, based on cellular senescence, have been developed to study the relationship between UV and aging. These models vary on the cell type (fibroblasts or keratinocytes, normal or immortalized) and the type of UV used (UVA or UVB).

  6. Impact of wet-oxidized Al2O3/AlGaN interface on AlGaN/GaN 2-DEGs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meer, Mudassar; Majety, Sridhar; Takhar, Kuldeep; Ganguly, Swaroop; Saha, Dipankar

    2017-04-01

    We investigated the impact of wet-oxidation of AlGaN in an AlGaN/GaN heterostructure by selectively probing the metal/AlGaN interface. The two-dimensional electron gas (2-DEG) characteristics show improved mobility with increasing oxidation time and Al2O3 thickness. The change is attributed to an interplay of the interface trap density (D it) and the oxide thickness. D it is found to reduce progressively for thicker gate oxides as determined by selectively probing the Al2O3/AlGaN interface and employing frequency dependent capacitance and conductance spectroscopy on these devices. The energies of the interface traps are found to be in the range of 0.35–0.45 eV below the conduction band edge. The D it is found to reduce from 2 × 1013 cm‑2 eV‑1 for 2.3 nm of Al2O3 to 5 × 1012 cm‑2 eV‑1 for 16 nm of Al2O3. Contrary to the earlier reports of increased 2-DEG electron density, the primary advantage is found to be a reduction in Dit leading to an increased electron mobility from 1730 to 2800 cm2V‑1s‑1.

  7. Measurement and simulation of top- and bottom-illuminated solar-blind AlGaN metal-semiconductor-metal photodetectors with high external quantum efficiencies

    SciTech Connect

    Brendel, Moritz Helbling, Markus; Knigge, Andrea; Brunner, Frank; Weyers, Markus

    2015-12-28

    A comprehensive study on top- and bottom-illuminated Al{sub 0.5}Ga{sub 0.5}N/AlN metal-semiconductor-metal (MSM) photodetectors having different AlGaN absorber layer thickness is presented. The measured external quantum efficiency (EQE) shows pronounced threshold and saturation behavior as a function of applied bias voltage up to 50 V reaching about 50% for 0.1 μm and 67% for 0.5 μm thick absorber layers under bottom illumination. All experimental findings are in very good accordance with two-dimensional drift-diffusion modeling results. By taking into account macroscopic polarization effects in the hexagonal metal-polar +c-plane AlGaN/AlN heterostructures, new insights into the general device functionality of AlGaN-based MSM photodetectors are obtained. The observed threshold/saturation behavior is caused by a bias-dependent extraction of photoexcited holes from the Al{sub 0.5}Ga{sub 0.5}N/AlN interface. While present under bottom illumination for any AlGaN layer thickness, under top illumination this mechanism influences the EQE-bias characteristics only for thin layers.

  8. Demonstration of transverse-magnetic deep-ultraviolet stimulated emission from AlGaN multiple-quantum-well lasers grown on a sapphire substrate

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Xiao-Hang E-mail: dupuis@gatech.edu; Kao, Tsung-Ting; Satter, Md. Mahbub; Shen, Shyh-Chiang; Yoder, P. Douglas; Detchprohm, Theeradetch; Dupuis, Russell D. E-mail: dupuis@gatech.edu; Wei, Yong O.; Wang, Shuo; Xie, Hongen; Fischer, Alec M.; Ponce, Fernando A.

    2015-01-26

    We demonstrate transverse-magnetic (TM) dominant deep-ultraviolet (DUV) stimulated emission from photo-pumped AlGaN multiple-quantum-well lasers grown pseudomorphically on an AlN/sapphire template by means of photoluminescence at room temperature. The TM-dominant stimulated emission was observed at wavelengths of 239, 242, and 243 nm with low thresholds of 280, 250, and 290 kW/cm{sup 2}, respectively. In particular, the lasing wavelength of 239 nm is shorter compared to other reports for AlGaN lasers grown on foreign substrates including sapphire and SiC. The peak wavelength difference between the transverse-electric (TE)-polarized emission and TM-polarized emission was approximately zero for the lasers in this study, indicating the crossover of crystal-field split-off hole and heavy-hole valence bands. The rapid variation of polarization between TE- and TM-dominance versus the change in lasing wavelength from 243 to 249 nm can be attributed to a dramatic change in the TE-to-TM gain coefficient ratio for the sapphire-based DUV lasers in the vicinity of TE-TM switch.

  9. Influence of high-temperature AlN intermediate layer on the optical properties of MOCVD grown AlGaN films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Deng; Qiu, Zhi Ren; Liu, Yao; Talwar, Devki N.; Wan, Lingyu; Zhang, Xiong; Mei, Ting; Ferguson, Ian T.; Feng, Zhe Chuan

    2017-02-01

    By combining spectroscopic ellipsometry (SE) and optical transmission (OT) characterization methods we have systematically investigated the influence of AlN intermediate layer and AlN transition layer on the optical properties of AlGaN epilayers grown on sapphire by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) method. Most dielectric functions of III-nitrides obtained by different research groups show significant band-tail absorption—which is not anticipated for such a direct band gap material. The dielectric functions are studied for a series of AlGaN/AlN/Al2O3 structures, with a four-layer model taking into account both high temperature grown AlN layer and low temperature grown AlN layer. The results obtained by fitting the optical parameters to experimental data show that the band-tail absorption should originate from the transition layer. AlGaN film without high temperature AlN epilayer exhibited a redshift of band gap around 0.24 eV.

  10. Predicting UV sky for future UV missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Safonova, M.; Mohan, R.; Sreejith, A. G.; Murthy, Jayant

    2013-02-01

    Software simulators are now widely used in all areas of science, especially in application to astronomical missions: from instrument design to mission planning, and to data interpretation. We present a simulator to model the diffuse ultraviolet sky, where the different contributors are separately calculated and added together to produce a sky image of the size specified by the instrument requirements. Each of the contributors to the background, instrumental dark current, airglow, zodiacal light and diffuse Galactic light, depends on different factors. Airglow is dependent on the time of day; zodiacal light depends on the time of year, angle from the Sun and from the ecliptic; diffuse UV emission depends on the line of sight. To provide a full description of the sky along any line of sight, we have also added stars. The UV background light can dominate in many areas of the sky and severely limit viewing directions due to overbrightness. The simulator, available as a downloadable package and as a web-based tool, can be applied to preparation of real space missions and instruments. For demonstration, we present the example use for the two near-future UV missions: UVIT instrument on the Indian Astrosat mission and a new proposed wide-field (∼1000 square degrees) transient explorer satellite.

  11. Semi-polar (11-22) AlGaN on overgrown GaN on micro-rod templates: Simultaneous management of crystal quality improvement and cracking issue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Z.; Jiu, L.; Gong, Y.; Wang, L.; Zhang, Y.; Bai, J.; Wang, T.

    2017-02-01

    Thick and crack-free semi-polar (11-22) AlGaN layers with various high Al compositions have been achieved by means of growth on the top of nearly but not yet fully coalesced GaN overgrown on micro-rod templates. The range of the Al composition of up to 55.7% was achieved, corresponding to an emission wavelength of up to 270 nm characterised by photoluminescence at room temperature. X-ray diffraction (XRD) measurements show greatly improved crystal quality as a result of lateral overgrowth compared to the AlGaN counterparts on standard planar substrates. The full width at half maximums of the XRD rocking curves measured along the [1-100]/[11-2-3] directions (the two typical orientations for characterizing the crystal quality of (11-22) AlGaN) are 0.2923°/0.2006° for 37.8% Al and 0.3825°/0.2064° for 55.7% Al, respectively, which have never been achieved previously. Our calculation based on reciprocal space mapping measurements has demonstrated significant strain relaxation in the AlGaN as a result of utilising the non-coalesced GaN underneath, contributing to the elimination of any cracks. The results presented have demonstrated that our overgrowth technique can effectively manage strain and improve crystal quality simultaneously.

  12. High-quality Ga-rich AlGaN grown on trapezoidal patterned GaN template using super-short period AlN/GaN superlattices for rapid coalescence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiao, Ming; Zhang, Jincheng; Hao, Yue

    2017-04-01

    High quality crack-free Ga-rich Al26.1Ga73.9N film was grown on trapezoidal patterned GaN template (TPGT) by low-pressure metalorganic chemical vapor deposition. The super-short period AlN/GaN superlattices structure was used to grow AlGaN material instead of the direct growth method. We obtained large lateral to vertical growth rate ratio larger than 4.79. The growth rate of GaN layer was proved to be the decisive factor of the lateral to vertical growth rate ratio. Moreover, for AlGaN growth, we found that that the TPGT is more beneficial to suppression of crack and relaxation of biaxial tensile strain than planar GaN template. The obtained results demonstrate that, comparing with AlGaN grown on planar GaN template, the threading dislocation density in AlGaN grown on TPGT was reduced from 2×109 cm-2 to 2×108 cm-2.

  13. Microfluidic devices fabricated using fast wafer-scale LED-lithography patterning.

    PubMed

    Challa, Pavan K; Kartanas, Tadas; Charmet, Jérôme; Knowles, Tuomas P J

    2017-01-01

    Current lithography approaches underpinning the fabrication of microfluidic devices rely on UV exposure of photoresists to define microstructures in these materials. Conventionally, this objective is achieved with gas discharge mercury lamps, which are capable of producing high intensity UV radiation. However, these sources are costly, have a comparatively short lifetime, necessitate regular calibration, and require significant time to warm up prior to exposure taking place. To address these limitations we exploit advances in solid state sources in the UV range and describe a fast and robust wafer-scale laboratory exposure system relying entirely on UV-Light emitting diode (UV-LED) illumination. As an illustration of the potential of this system for fast and low-cost microfluidic device production, we demonstrate the microfabrication of a 3D spray-drying microfluidic device and a 3D double junction microdroplet maker device.

  14. High reflectivity III-nitride UV-C distributed Bragg reflectors for vertical cavity emitting lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Franke, A.; Hoffmann, M. P.; Kirste, R.; Bobea, M.; Tweedie, J.; Kaess, F.; Gerhold, M.; Collazo, R.; Sitar, Z.

    2016-10-01

    UV-C distributed Bragg reflectors (DBRs) for vertical cavity surface emitting laser applications and polariton lasers are presented. The structural integrity of up to 25 layer pairs of AlN/Al0.65Ga0.35N DBRs is maintained by balancing the tensile and compressive strain present between the single layers of the multilayer stack grown on top of an Al0.85Ga0.35N template. By comparing the structural and optical properties for DBRs grown on low dislocation density AlN and AlGaN templates, the criteria for plastic relaxation by cracking thick nitride Bragg reflectors are deduced. The critical thickness is found to be limited mainly by the accumulated strain energy during the DBR growth and is only negligibly affected by the dislocations. A reflectance of 97.7% at 273 nm is demonstrated. The demonstrated optical quality and an ability to tune the resonance wavelength of our resonators and microcavity structures open new opportunities for UV-C vertical emitters.

  15. Comparison of halogen, plasma and LED curing units.

    PubMed

    Nomoto, Rie; McCabe, John F; Hirano, Susumu

    2004-01-01

    This study evaluated the characteristics of two kinds of recently developed light-curing unit; plasma arc and blue light emitting diodes (LED), in comparison with a conventional tungsten-halogen light-curing unit. The light intensity and spectral distribution of light from these light-curing units, the temperature rise of the bovine enamel surface and the depth of cure of composites exposed to each unit were investigated. The light intensity and depth of cure were determined according to ISO standards. The spectral distributions of emitted light were measured using a spectro-radiometer. The temperature increase induced by irradiation was measured by using a thermocouple. Generally, light intensities in the range 400-515 nm emitted from the plasma arc were greater than those from other types. Light in the UV-A region was emitted from some plasma arc units. The required irradiation times were six to nine seconds for the plasma arc units and 40 to 60 seconds for the LED units to create a depth of cure equal to that produced by the tungsten-halogen light with 20 seconds of irradiation. The temperature increased by increasing the irradiation time for every light-curing unit. The temperature increases were 15 degrees C to 60 degrees C for plasma arc units, around 15 degrees C for a conventional halogen unit and under 10 degrees C for LED units. Both the plasma arc and LED units required longer irradiation times than those recommended by their respective manufacturers. Clinicians should be aware of potential thermal rise and UV-A hazard when using plasma arc units.

  16. UV Signature Mutations †

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Sequencing complete tumor genomes and exomes has sparked the cancer field's interest in mutation signatures for identifying the tumor's carcinogen. This review and meta-analysis discusses signatures and their proper use. We first distinguish between a mutagen's canonical mutations – deviations from a random distribution of base changes to create a pattern typical of that mutagen – and the subset of signature mutations, which are unique to that mutagen and permit inference backward from mutations to mutagen. To verify UV signature mutations, we assembled literature datasets on cells exposed to UVC, UVB, UVA, or solar simulator light (SSL) and tested canonical UV mutation features as criteria for clustering datasets. A confirmed UV signature was: ≥60% of mutations are C→T at a dipyrimidine site, with ≥5% CC→TT. Other canonical features such as a bias for mutations on the non-transcribed strand or at the 3' pyrimidine had limited application. The most robust classifier combined these features with criteria for the rarity of non-UV canonical mutations. In addition, several signatures proposed for specific UV wavelengths were limited to specific genes or species; non-signature mutations induced by UV may cause melanoma BRAF mutations; and the mutagen for sunlight-related skin neoplasms may vary between continents. PMID:25354245

  17. LEDs for Street Lighting—Here Today

    SciTech Connect

    2013-11-29

    Fact sheet that provides a brief overview of the viability of LED street lighting in municipalities and highlights case studies of two cities—Los Angeles and Seattle—that have invested in LED street lighting.

  18. Shipboard LED Lighting: A Business Case Analysis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-12-01

    components are placed under an epoxy dome to form an LED “package.” Groups of packages are clustered together in a housing, forming an LED lamp ...Unlike traditional screw-in bulbs, LED lamps must be integrated into specially designed fixtures or “luminaires.” Proper luminaire design, in...replacement LED fixtures due to lamp mortality. 2. Cost of maintenance—includes labor to replace burned out lamps or defective components and material

  19. Kinetics of inactivation and photoreactivation of Escherichia coli using ultrasound-enhanced UV-C light-emitting diodes disinfection.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Xiaoqin; Li, Zifu; Lan, Juanru; Yan, Yichang; Zhu, Nan

    2017-03-01

    Ultraviolet (UV) disinfection is highly recommended owing to its high disinfection efficiency and disinfection by-products free, and UV Light-Emitting Diodes (UV LEDs) is increasingly becoming an alternative of mercury UV lamps for water disinfection owing to its long lifetime, low input power, and absence of problems on disposal. However, renovation of existing UV lamps faces the challenges for UV disinfection associated with disinfection efficiency and photoreactivation, and modified UV disinfection process is required for practical application. In this study, mathematical rule of disinfection and photoreactivation in a US enhanced UV disinfection system was investigated. UV LED with peak emission at 254nm (UV-C LED) was selected as representative for UV lamps, and a low frequency US was used as pretreatment followed by UV disinfection. The disinfection efficiency of Escherichia coli in deionized water (DI), DI water with kaoline suspension (DIK), and secondary effluent (SE) of municipal wastewater treatment plant were analyzed. Moreover, photoreactivation of E. coli in DIK water within 6h after disinfection was conducted. The experimental results showed that the disinfection efficiencies had good fit with Chick-Watson first-order linear model, and US pretreatment increased the inactivation rate constant for E. coli, which increased from 0.1605 to 0.1887 in the DIK water. Therefore, US pretreatment with UV disinfection have potential to shorten the retention time and reduce the reactor volume. Moreover, the number of photoreactivated E. coli in effluent was reduced under UV-C LED disinfection with US pretreatment compared with that under UV-C LED disinfection alone. The order of maximum percentage of photo-reactivated E. coli was as follows: UV-C LED disinfection alone at 30mJ/cm(2)>UV-C LED disinfection at 25mJ/cm(2) with US pretreatment>UV-C LED disinfection at 30mJ/cm(2) with US pretreatment. The survival ratio versus photoreactivation time showed a good fit

  20. Disinfection of Spacecraft Potable Water Systems by Photocatalytic Oxidation Using UV-A Light Emitting Diodes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Birmele, Michele N.; O'Neal, Jeremy A.; Roberts, Michael S.

    2011-01-01

    Ultraviolet (UV) light has long been used in terrestrial water treatment systems for photodisinfection and the removal of organic compounds by several processes including photoadsorption, photolysis, and photocatalytic oxidation/reduction. Despite its effectiveness for water treatment, UV has not been explored for spacecraft applications because of concerns about the safety and reliability of mercury-containing UV lamps. However, recent advances in ultraviolet light emitting diodes (UV LEDs) have enabled the utilization of nanomaterials that possess the appropriate optical properties for the manufacture of LEDs capable of producing monochromatic light at germicidal wavelengths. This report describes the testing of a commercial-off-the-shelf, high power Nichia UV-A LED (250mW A365nnJ for the excitation of titanium dioxide as a point-of-use (POD) disinfection device in a potable water system. The combination of an immobilized, high surface area photocatalyst with a UV-A LED is promising for potable water system disinfection since toxic chemicals and resupply requirements are reduced. No additional consumables like chemical biocides, absorption columns, or filters are required to disinfect and/or remove potentially toxic disinfectants from the potable water prior to use. Experiments were conducted in a static test stand consisting of a polypropylene microtiter plate containing 3mm glass balls coated with titanium dioxide. Wells filled with water were exposed to ultraviolet light from an actively-cooled UV-A LED positioned above each well and inoculated with six individual challenge microorganisms recovered from the International Space Station (ISS): Burkholderia cepacia, Cupriavidus metallidurans, Methylobacterium fujisawaense, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Sphingomonas paucimobilis and Wautersia basilensis. Exposure to the Nichia UV-A LED with photocatalytic oxidation resulted in a complete (>7-log) reduction of each challenge bacteria population in <180 minutes of contact

  1. Dual LED/incandescent security fixture

    DOEpatents

    Gauna, Kevin Wayne

    2005-06-21

    A dual LED and incandescent security lighting system uses a hybrid approach to LED illumination. It combines an ambient LED illuminator with a standard incandescent lamp on a motion control sensor. The LED illuminator will activate with the onset of darkness (daylight control) and typically remain on during the course of the night ("always on"). The LED illumination, typically amber, is sufficient to provide low to moderate level lighting coverage to the wall and ground area adjacent to and under the fixture. The incandescent lamp is integrated with a motion control circuit and sensor. When movement in the field of view is detected (after darkness), the incandescent lamp is switched on, providing an increased level of illumination to the area. Instead of an "always on" LED illuminator, the LEDs may also be switched off when the incandescent lamp is switched on.

  2. Developing smart lighting LED-based device by using light parameterization and control method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Risteiu, Mircea; Ileana, Ioan; Marc, Gheorghe

    2016-12-01

    The paper presents a smart system for control of chromatic distribution of white light produced by LED sources in order to satisfy simultaneously physiological comfort and color rendering requests. In region of interest (ROI) lighted by an ensemble of RGB and white LED's, a system of appropriate light sensors (from UV to IR radiation) take the chromatic an intensity information and send them to a microcontroller based device. Following the actual state of illumination end the desired one, the microcontroller will command the LED drivers adequately to obtain the optimum situation.

  3. Degradation of antipyrine by UV, UV/H₂O₂ and UV/PS.

    PubMed

    Tan, Chaoqun; Gao, Naiyun; Deng, Yang; Zhang, Yongji; Sui, Minghao; Deng, Jing; Zhou, Shiqing

    2013-09-15

    Degradation of antipyrine (AP) in water by three UV-based photolysis processes (i.e., direct UV, UV/H₂O₂, UV/persulfate (UV/PS)) was studied. For all the oxidation processes, the AP decomposition exhibited a pseudo-first-order kinetics pattern. Generally, UV/H₂O₂ and UV/PS significantly improved the degradation rate relevant to UV treatment alone. The pseudo-first-order degradation rate constants (kobs) were, to different degrees, affected by initial AP concentration, oxidant dose, pH, UV irradiation intensity, and co-existing chemicals such as humic acid, chloride, bicarbonate, carbonate and nitrate. The three oxidation processes followed the order in terms of treatment costs: UV/PS>UV>UV/H₂O₂ if the energy and chemical costs are considered. Finally, the AP degradation pathways in the UV/H₂O₂ and UV/PS processes are proposed. Results demonstrated that UV/H₂O₂ and UV/PS are potential alternatives to control water pollution caused by emerging contaminants such as AP.

  4. Generation of solar spectrum by using LEDs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Pengzhi; Yang, Hua; Pei, Yanrong; Li, Jing; Xue, Bin; Wang, Junxi; Li, Jinmin

    2016-09-01

    Light emitting diode (LED) has been recognized as an applicable light source for indoor and outdoor lighting, city beautifying, landscape facilities, and municipal engineering etc. Conventional LED has superior characteristics such as long life time, low power consumption, high contrast, and wide viewing angle. Recently, LED with high color-rendering index and special spectral characteristics has received more and more attention. This paper is intended to report a solar spectrum simulated by multichip LED light source. The typical solar spectrum of 5500k released by CIE was simulated as a reference. Four types of LEDs with different spectral power distributions would be used in the LED light source, which included a 430nm LED, a 480nm LED, a 500nm LED and a white LED. In order to obtain better simulation results, the white LED was achieved by a 450nm LED chip with the mixture of phosphor. The phosphor combination was prepared by mixing green phosphor, yellow phosphor and red phosphor in a certain proportion. The multichip LED light source could provide a high fidelity spectral match with the typical solar spectrum of 5500k by adjusting injection current to each device. The luminous flux, CIE chromaticity coordinate x, y, CCT, and Ra were 104.7 lm, 0.3337, 0.3681, 5460K, and 88.6, respectively. Because of high color-rendering index and highly match to the solar spectrum, the multichip LED light source is a competitive candidate for applications where special spectral is required, such as colorimetric measurements, visual inspection, gemstone identification and agriculture.

  5. Point-of-use water disinfection using UV light-emitting diodes to reduce bacterial contamination.

    PubMed

    Nelson, Kristina Y; McMartin, Dena W; Yost, Christopher K; Runtz, Ken J; Ono, Takaya

    2013-08-01

    The treatment process described in this research explores the impact of exposing water samples containing fecal coliforms to the radiation produced by single ultraviolet (UV) light-emitting diodes (LEDs) operating at 265 nm. UV LEDs are long lasting, compact in size and produce more efficient light output than traditional mercury-vapour bulbs, making them ideal for application in point-of-use disinfection systems, such as in remote areas. In this study, contaminated water samples containing either a pure culture of Escherichia coli or tertiary effluent from the City of Regina Wastewater Treatment Plant were used to study the application and efficiency of using UV LEDs for water disinfection. The results indicate that bacterial inactivation was achieved in a time-dependent manner, with 1- and 2.5-log E. coli reductions in water following 20 and 50 min of UV LED exposure, respectively. Ultraviolet radiation was less effective in reducing coliform bacteria in wastewater samples due to the elevated turbidity levels. Further work remains to be completed to optimize the application of UV LEDs for point-of-use disinfection systems; however, the results from this study support that bacterial inactivation using UV LEDs is possible, meriting further future technological development of the LEDs.

  6. Biobased Nanoparticles for Broadband UV Protection with Photostabilized UV Filters.

    PubMed

    Hayden, Douglas R; Imhof, Arnout; Velikov, Krassimir P

    2016-12-07

    Sunscreens rely on multiple compounds to provide effective and safe protection against UV radiation. UV filters in sunscreens, in particular, provide broadband UV protection but are heavily linked to adverse health effects due to the generation of carcinogenic skin-damaging reactive oxygen species (ROS) upon solar irradiation. Herein, we demonstrate significant reduction in the ROS concentration by encapsulating an antioxidant photostabilizer with multiple UV filters into biobased ethyl cellulose nanoparticles. The developed nanoparticles display complete broadband UV protection and can form transparent and flexible films. This system therefore shows significant potential toward effective and safe nanoparticle-based UV protective coatings.

  7. AlN barrier HFETs with AlGaN channels to shift the threshold voltage to higher positive values: a proposal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hahn, Herwig; Reuters, Ben; Kalisch, Holger; Vescan, Andrei

    2013-07-01

    The need for efficient power converters is currently a major driver of GaN-on-Si research activities. Among several areas, a large research field is the engineering of enhancement mode devices. Several solutions have been provided in the past. Yet, almost all solutions either lack the compatibility with epitaxy on Si substrates (which is a necessity in terms of cost) or suffer from low positive threshold voltages (Vth) below +1 V. In power applications, there is definitely a need for higher values of Vth. In this paper, we propose the utilization of AlN barriers in conjunction with AlGaN channels to obtain Vth values of more than +3 V while still maintaining the low power-switching losses obtained in GaN-based heterostructure field-effect transistors.

  8. AlGaN-Cladding-Free m-Plane InGaN/GaN Laser Diodes with p-Type AlGaN Etch Stop Layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farrell, Robert M.; Haeger, Daniel A.; Hsu, Po Shan; Hardy, Matthew T.; Kelchner, Kathryn M.; Fujito, Kenji; Feezell, Daniel F.; Mishra, Umesh K.; DenBaars, Steven P.; Speck, James S.; Nakamura, Shuji

    2011-09-01

    We present a new method of improving the accuracy and reproducibility of dry etching processes for ridge waveguide InGaN/GaN laser diodes (LDs). A GaN:Al0.09Ga0.91N etch rate selectivity of 11:1 was demonstrated for an m-plane LD with a 40 nm p-Al0.09Ga0.91N etch stop layer (ESL) surrounded by Al-free cladding layers, establishing the effectiveness of AlGaN-based ESLs for controlling etch depth in ridge waveguide InGaN/GaN LDs. These results demonstrate the potential for integrating AlGaN ESLs into commercial device designs where accurate control of the etch depth of the ridge waveguide is necessary for stable, kink-free operation at high output powers.

  9. Statistical nanoscale study of localised radiative transitions in GaN/AlGaN quantum wells and AlGaN epitaxial layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rigutti, L.; Mancini, L.; Lefebvre, W.; Houard, J.; Hernàndez-Maldonado, D.; Di Russo, E.; Giraud, E.; Butté, R.; Carlin, J.-F.; Grandjean, N.; Blavette, D.; Vurpillot, F.

    2016-09-01

    Compositional disorder has important consequences on the optical properties of III-nitride ternary alloys. In AlGaN epilayers and AlGaN-based quantum heterostructures, the potential fluctuations induced by such disorder lead to the localisation of carriers at low temperature, which affects their transition energies. Using the correlations between micro-photoluminescence, scanning transmission electron microscopy and atom probe tomography we have analysed the optical behaviour of Al0.25Ga0.75N epilayers and that of GaN/AlGaN quantum wells, and reconstructed in three dimensions the distribution of chemical species with sub-nanometre spatial resolution. These composition maps served as the basis for the effective mass calculation of electrons and holes involved in radiative transitions. Good statistical predictions were subsequently obtained for the above-mentioned transition and localisation energies by establishing a link with their microstructural properties.

  10. Blue and UV Semiconductor Lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krukowski, S.; Skierbiszewski, C.; Perlin, P.; Leszczynski, M.; Bockowski, M.; Porowski, S.

    2006-04-01

    Despite many technological difficulties the group III nitrides: GaN, AlN and InN and their alloys are primary candidates for electro-optical coherent light sources. In the recent years the research and technology of the nitride based continuous wave (CW) laser diodes (LDs) led to creation of blue-violet coherent light sources of power up to 200 mW. The progress has been attained by using various ways to attack the main obstacles in the technology of these devices such as insufficient size of high quality lattice matched substrates, low p-doping efficiency of Mg acceptor, poor contact to p-type semiconductor and low efficiency of radiative recombination. The two different approaches were used to overcome the substrate problem: hetero-epitaxy and homoepitaxy. Homoepitaxy used high pressure GaN high quality crystals. Heteroepitaxy used sapphire, SiC or GaAs substrates and very sophisticated techniques of reduction of the dislocation density. The low p-doping efficiency by using Mg acceptor is related to creation of Mg--H complexes due to hydrogen presence during the growth of laser diode quantum structures. In addition, Mg acceptor has low efficiency due to its high energy. High Mg concentrations can be obtained by using either MOCVD or ammonia source MBE growth. An alternative route is to use hydrogen-free plasma activated MBE (PA-MBE) method. The recent advances and the prospects of both approaches will be discussed. Solid AlGaInN solution offers a possibility to cover wide spectral range, starting from near UV to blue, green and red. Arsenide based laser diodes (LDs) are efficient coherent red light sources. Therefore, nitride based LDs are considered to be devices of choice for green, blue and UV spectral range. So far only blue and violet laser has been realized. The progress toward green and UV lasers is far less spectacular. The results in all these areas and future prospects will be discussed.

  11. Enhanced light extraction from UV LEDs using spin-on glass microlenses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Chi-Min; Su, Guo-Dung J.

    2016-05-01

    In this paper, we present a cost-effective method for fabricating spin-on glass (SOG) microlens arrays (MLAs) on ultra-violet light-emitting diodes. The SOG MLA is formed using thermal reflow molds and multiple replication processes, which can reduce the cost of the solution process. In this paper, we fabricate SOG MLA of different sizes, where the diameter of each microlens is approximately 50, 100, 150, and 200 μm. In each case, the light extraction efficiency is improved by 21.86%, 14.01%, 10.35%, and 7.31%, respectively. We also discuss the effects of different-shaped SOG microlenses, namely circular, square, and hexagonal. The light extraction efficiency is improved by 7.31%, 9.60%, and 13.80% for the circular, square, and hexagonal SOG MLAs, respectively. By applying an optimized lens pattern, an increase in light extraction efficiency of 21.86% is achieved.

  12. ACS UV Contamination Monitor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Avila, Roberto

    2013-10-01

    The observations consist of SBC imaging and spectroscopy of the cluster NGC 6681 in order to monitor the temporal evolution of the UV sensitivity.All six filters and the two prisms will be used. Two SBC dark frames will follow the orbits.

  13. Are You UV Safe?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Capobianco, Brenda; Thiel, Elizabeth Andrew

    2006-01-01

    Students may be slathered with SPF 30 sunscreen all summer at the beach or pool, but what do they know about ultraviolet (UV) light radiation and absorption? The authors of this article found the perfect opportunity to help students find out the science behind this important health precaution, when they developed a series of practical strategies…

  14. Low temperature p-type doping of (Al)GaN layers using ammonia molecular beam epitaxy for InGaN laser diodes

    SciTech Connect

    Malinverni, M. Lamy, J.-M.; Martin, D.; Grandjean, N.; Feltin, E.; Dorsaz, J.; Castiglia, A.; Rossetti, M.; Duelk, M.; Vélez, C.

    2014-12-15

    We demonstrate state-of-the-art p-type (Al)GaN layers deposited at low temperature (740 °C) by ammonia molecular beam epitaxy (NH{sub 3}-MBE) to be used as top cladding of laser diodes (LDs) with the aim of further reducing the thermal budget on the InGaN quantum well active region. Typical p-type GaN resistivities and contact resistances are 0.4 Ω cm and 5 × 10{sup −4} Ω cm{sup 2}, respectively. As a test bed, we fabricated a hybrid laser structure emitting at 400 nm combining n-type AlGaN cladding and InGaN active region grown by metal-organic vapor phase epitaxy, with the p-doped waveguide and cladding layers grown by NH{sub 3}-MBE. Single-mode ridge-waveguide LD exhibits a threshold voltage as low as 4.3 V for an 800 × 2 μm{sup 2} ridge dimension and a threshold current density of ∼5 kA cm{sup −2} in continuous wave operation. The series resistance of the device is 6 Ω and the resistivity is 1.5 Ω cm, confirming thereby the excellent electrical properties of p-type Al{sub 0.06}Ga{sub 0.94}N:Mg despite the low growth temperature.

  15. Microscopic potential fluctuations in Si-doped AlGaN epitaxial layers with various AlN molar fractions and Si concentrations

    SciTech Connect

    Kurai, Satoshi Yamada, Yoichi; Miyake, Hideto; Hiramatsu, Kazumasa

    2016-01-14

    Nanoscopic potential fluctuations of Si-doped AlGaN epitaxial layers with the AlN molar fraction varying from 0.42 to 0.95 and Si-doped Al{sub 0.61}Ga{sub 0.39}N epitaxial layers with Si concentrations of 3.0–37 × 10{sup 17 }cm{sup −3} were investigated by cathodoluminescence (CL) imaging combined with scanning electron microscopy. The spot CL linewidths of AlGaN epitaxial layers broadened as the AlN molar fraction was increased to 0.7, and then narrowed at higher AlN molar fractions. The experimental linewidths were compared with the theoretical prediction from the alloy broadening model. The trends displayed by our spot CL linewidths were consistent with calculated results at AlN molar fractions of less than about 0.60, but the spot CL linewidths were markedly broader than the calculated linewidths at higher AlN molar fractions. The dependence of the difference between the spot CL linewidth and calculated line broadening on AlN molar fraction was found to be similar to the dependence of reported S values, indicating that the vacancy clusters acted as the origin of additional line broadening at high AlN molar fractions. The spot CL linewidths of Al{sub 0.61}Ga{sub 0.39}N epitaxial layers with the same Al concentration and different Si concentrations were nearly constant in the entire Si concentration range tested. From the comparison of reported S values, the increase of V{sub Al} did not contribute to the linewidth broadening, unlike the case of the V{sub Al} clusters.

  16. White LED visible light communication technology research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Chao

    2017-03-01

    Visible light communication is a new type of wireless optical communication technology. White LED to the success of development, the LED lighting technology is facing a new revolution. Because the LED has high sensitivity, modulation, the advantages of good performance, large transmission power, can make it in light transmission light signal at the same time. Use white LED light-emitting characteristics, on the modulation signals to the visible light transmission, can constitute a LED visible light communication system. We built a small visible optical communication system. The system composition and structure has certain value in the field of practical application, and we also research the key technology of transmitters and receivers, the key problem has been resolved. By studying on the optical and LED the characteristics of a high speed modulation driving circuit and a high sensitive receiving circuit was designed. And information transmission through the single chip microcomputer test, a preliminary verification has realized the data transmission function.

  17. System Reliability for LED-Based Products

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, J Lynn; Mills, Karmann; Lamvik, Michael; Yaga, Robert; Shepherd, Sarah D; Bittle, James; Baldasaro, Nick; Solano, Eric; Bobashev, Georgiy; Johnson, Cortina; Evans, Amy

    2014-04-07

    Results from accelerated life tests (ALT) on mass-produced commercially available 6” downlights are reported along with results from commercial LEDs. The luminaires capture many of the design features found in modern luminaires. In general, a systems perspective is required to understand the reliability of these devices since LED failure is rare. In contrast, components such as drivers, lenses, and reflector are more likely to impact luminaire reliability than LEDs.

  18. The stability of spectrum reproduction by LEDs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Hua; Li, Jing; Yao, Ran; Lu, Pengzhi; Pei, Yanrong

    2015-09-01

    Spectral power distribution together with color consistency and constancy of natural light is studied and simulated before the white-light LED systems are fabricated to reproduce the natural light. The model with 3, 4, 6 and more primary LEDs based on the real measured spectrum and theoretical spectrum are analyzed. The spectral power sensitivity relation between the LEDs with different wavelength and color characteristic is analyzed. This research simplifies the approach of visible spectrum reconstruction which is an efficient way to use in the design and realization of LED-based luminaire.

  19. Liquid explosive detection using near infrared LED

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Itozaki, Hideo; Ito, Shiori; Sato-Akaba, Hideo; Miyato, Yuji

    2015-10-01

    A bottle scanner to detect liquid explosive has been developed using technologies of near infrared. Its detection rate of liquid explosive is quite high and its false alarm rate of safe liquids quite low. It uses a light source with wide spectrum such as a halogen lamp. Recently a variety of LEDs have been developed and some of them have near infrared spectrum. Here a near infrared LED is tested as a light source of the liquid explosive detector. Three infrared LEDs that have a main peak of spectrum at 901nm, 936nm, and 1028 nm have been used as a light source to scan liquids. Spectrum widths of these LEDs are quite narrow typically less than 100 nm. Ten typical liquids have been evaluated by these LEDs and the correlation coefficients of a spectrum by an LED and a tungsten lamp were more than 0.98. This experiment shows that the infrared LED can be used as a light source for the liquid scanner. An LED has some merits, such as long life of more than some ten thousand hours and small consumption electric power of less than 0.2 W. When the LED is used as a light source for the liquid scanner, it is also more compact and handy.

  20. Blue LEDs feasibility for tissue fluorescence analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dets, Sergiy M.; Denisov, Nikolay A.

    2000-04-01

    We considered the limited number of light-induced fluorescence applications for marketed ultra-bright blue LEDs where they can compete with versatile laser sources. Satisfactory optical output and miniature size as well as low power consumption of blue LEDs emitting at 470 nm allow to consider them as a promising alternatives to metal vapor or gas lasers used in many expires LIF applications. Available to authors LEDs form Hewlett-Packard, Micro Electronics Corp., Nichia Chemical Industries Ltd. and Toyoda Gosei Co. were tested to comply with demands to a tissue excitation source for portable spectroscopes. The optical performance of LEDs has shown that selected group of InGaN LEDs could be successfully used for that. The miniature illuminator that includes LED, focusing condenser, filter set and distal fiberoptic light concentrator was designed and tested in conjunction with portable CCD- equipped spectroscope. Operating in dark condition the proposed LED illuminator provides the level of fluorescence signal sufficient to detect spectral abnormalities in human Caucasian skin and excised gastrointestinal samples. All tissue autofluorescence data taken under LED illumination were compared with readings under He-Cd laser excitation and showed a good match. A new diagnostic designs based on LEDs were considered for clinical use.

  1. Solid State Lighting LED Manufacturing Roundtable Summary

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2010-03-31

    Summary of a meeting of LED experts to develop proposed priority tasks for the Manufacturing R&D initiative, including task descriptions, discussion points, recommendations, and presentation highlights.

  2. Refrigerated display case lighting with LEDs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raghavan, Ramesh; Narendran, Nadarajah

    2002-11-01

    The rapid development of high brightness light emitting diodes (LEDs) has triggered many applications, especially in the area of display lighting. This paper focuses on the application of white LEDs in refrigerated display cases. The fluorescent lighting presently used in commercial refrigerators is inefficient in the application and also it provides poor lighting for merchandising. A laboratory human factors experiment was conducted to assess the preference for the different lighting systems, namely, fluorescent and LED. Two refrigerated display cases, one with the traditional fluorescent lighting system and the other with a prototype LED lighting system, were placed side-by-side in a laboratory setting. Illuminance measurements made within the two display cases showed that the lighting was more uniform with the LED system compared to the traditional fluorescent system. Sixteen human subjects participated in this study and rated their preference for the two lighting systems. The results show that human subjects strongly preferred the display case with the LED lighting. The authors of this manuscript believe a field study would be greatly beneficial to further confirm these results and to understand the relationship between preference and sales. Considering the luminous efficacy of white LEDs presently available in the marketplace, it is possible to develop a LED based lighting system for commercial refrigerators that is competitive with fluorescent lighting system in terms of energy use. The LED based lighting would provide better lighting than traditional fluorescent lighting.

  3. Projecting LED product life based on application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Narendran, Nadarajah; Liu, Yi-wei; Mou, Xi; Thotagamuwa, Dinusha R.; Eshwarage, Oshadhi V. Madihe

    2016-09-01

    LED products have started to displace traditional light sources in many lighting applications. One of the commonly claimed benefits for LED lighting products is their long useful lifetime in applications. Today there are many replacement lamp products using LEDs in the marketplace. Typically, lifetime claims of these replacement lamps are in the 25,000-hour range. According to current industry practice, the time for the LED light output to reach the 70% value is estimated according to IESNA LM-80 and TM-21 procedures and the resulting value is reported as the whole system life. LED products generally experience different thermal environments and switching (on-off cycling) patterns when used in applications. Current industry test methods often do not produce accurate lifetime estimates for LED systems because only one component of the system, namely the LED, is tested under a continuous-on burning condition without switching on and off, and because they estimate for only one failure type, lumen depreciation. The objective of the study presented in this manuscript was to develop a test method that could help predict LED system life in any application by testing the whole LED system, including on-off power cycling with sufficient dwell time, and considering both failure types, catastrophic and parametric. The study results showed for the LED A-lamps tested in this study, both failure types, catastrophic and parametric, exist. The on-off cycling encourages catastrophic failure, and maximum operating temperature influences the lumen depreciation rate and parametric failure time. It was also clear that LED system life is negatively affected by on-off switching, contrary to commonly held belief. In addition, the study results showed that most of the LED systems failed catastrophically much ahead of the LED light output reaching the 70% value. This emphasizes the fact that life testing of LED systems must consider catastrophic failure in addition to lumen depreciation, and

  4. Insulator Surface Flashover Due to UV Illumination

    SciTech Connect

    Javedani, J B; Houck, T L; Lahowe, D A; Vogtlin, G E; Goerz, D A

    2009-07-27

    insulator to flash was earlier in time for the cathode-half beam illumination case than the anode-half illumination case which led us to believe that the flashover mechanism for the UV illumination is initiated from the cathode side of the insulator. Qualitatively stated, the testing revealed that the shielding of the cathode triple point against UV is more important than the anode triple junction in the design of vacuum insulators and electrodes. The goal of this work was to acquire empirical data on critical UV fluence (energy per unit area) required to induce surface flashover of vacuum insulators for some candid insulator materials: High Density Polyethylene (HDPE), Rexolite{reg_sign} 1400, Macor{trademark} and Mycalex. This work was a clarification and extension of studies performed by C.L. Enloe, et. al. in the 80's [1-3]. Additionally, to gain an understanding of the physical mechanism of flashover, we experimented with UV illumination of a portion of the insulator's surface near the cathode and subsequently near the anode. The results of these experiments are covered in detail.

  5. Alloy inhomogeneity and carrier localization in AlGaN sections and AlGaN/AlN nanodisks in nanowires with 240–350 nm emission

    SciTech Connect

    Himwas, C.; Hertog, M. den; Dang, Le Si; Songmuang, R.; Monroy, E.

    2014-12-15

    We present structural and optical studies of AlGaN sections and AlGaN/AlN nanodisks (NDs) in nanowires grown by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy. The Al-Ga intermixing at Al(Ga)N/GaN interfaces and the chemical inhomogeneity in AlGaN NDs evidenced by scanning transmission electron microscopy are attributed to the strain relaxation process. This interpretation is supported by the three-dimensional strain distribution calculated by minimizing the elastic energy in the structure. The alloy inhomogeneity increases with the Al content, leading to enhanced carrier localization signatures in the luminescence characteristics, i.e., red shift of the emission, s-shaped temperature dependence, and linewidth broadening. Despite these effects, the emission energy of AlGaN/AlN NDs can be tuned in the 240–350 nm range with internal quantum efficiencies around 30%.

  6. TAUVEX - UV Space Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Topaz, Jeremy; Braun, Ofer; Brosch, Noah

    1993-01-01

    The TAUVEX UV Space Telescope currently under construction by El-Op Ltd. in Israel is designed both for recording images of the sky in the UV region and to serve as the optical monitor for the SODART X-Ray Telescope being built by the Danish Space Research Institute. The two systems, together with several other experiments, will be flown on the S-R-G satellite to be launched by the CIS in 1995. TAUVEX will image a field of about 1 deg simultaneously in three spectral bands. In addition, it will record a selected object in a high-speed time-resolved mode in these bands. The concept and design of TAUVEX is described in this paper.

  7. Today LED Holiday Lights, Tomorrow the World?

    SciTech Connect

    Gordon, Kelly L.

    2004-12-20

    This article for The APEM Advantage, the quarterly newsletter of the Association of Professional Energy Managers (APEM) describes the recent increase in the popularity of light emitting diode (LED) lighting and compares LED light output with that of incandescent and compact fluorescent lighting.

  8. Investigation of radiation influence on LED

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rabinovich, O. I.; Legotin, S. A.; Didenko, S. I.; Krasnov, A. A.; Kovalev, A. N.; Podgornaya, S. V.

    2017-01-01

    In this paper the investigation goal was to study the radiation effect (irradiation by fast electrons) on detectors, LEDs electro-physical parameters as they are widely used in space shuttles, satellites and airplanes on which space radiation influence. It was detected the critical value of irradiation for the irreversible changes in LED. The way for reducing characteristics degradation is suggested.

  9. UV curable materials development

    SciTech Connect

    Parker, B.G.

    1996-12-01

    Adhesives, coatings, and inks were selected for evaluation based on literature search and possible production applications. A differential photocalorimeter was used to measure degree of cure and allow prediction of optimum processing conditions. UV cure equipment were characterized and the ability to size equipment to specific materials cure needs established. Adhesion tests procedures were developed for the adhesives and solvent resistance testing procedures developed for the coatings and inks.

  10. 100 LPW 800 Lm Warm White LED

    SciTech Connect

    Sun, Decai

    2010-10-31

    An illumination grade warm white (WW) LED, having correlated color temperature (CCT) between 2800 K and 3500K and capable of producing 800 lm output at 100 lm/W, has been developed in this program. The high power WW LED is an ideal source for use as replacement for incandescent, and Halogen reflector and general purpose lamps of similar lumen value. Over the two year period, we have made following accomplishments: developed a high power warm white LED product and made over 50% improvements in light output and efficacy. The new high power WW LED product is a die on ceramic surface mountable LED package. It has four 1x1 mm{sup 2} InGaN pump dice flip chip attached to a ceramic submount in 2x2 array, covered by warm white phosphor ceramic platelets called Lumiramica and an overmolded silicone lens encapsulating the LED array. The performance goal was achieved through breakthroughs in following key areas: (1) High efficiency pump LED development through pump LED active region design and epi growth quality improvement (funded by internal programs). (2) Increase in injection efficiency (IE) represented by reduction in forward voltage (V{sub f}) through the improvement of the silver-based p-contact and a reduction in spreading resistance. The injection efficiency was increased from 80% at the start of the program to 96% at the end of the program at 700 mA/mm{sup 2}. (3) Improvement in thermal design as represented by reduction in thermal resistance from junction to case, through improvement of the die to submount connection in the thin film flip chip (TFFC) LED and choosing the submount material of high thermal conductivity. A thermal resistance of 1.72 K/W was demonstrated for the high power LED package. (4) Improvement in extraction efficiency from the LED package through improvement of InGaN die level and package level optical extraction efficiency improvement. (5) Improvement in phosphor system efficiency by improving the lumen equivalent (LE) and phosphor package

  11. Advances in LEDs for automotive applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhardwaj, Jy; Peddada, Rao; Spinger, Benno

    2016-03-01

    High power LEDs were introduced in automotive headlights in 2006-2007, for example as full LED headlights in the Audi R8 or low beam in Lexus. Since then, LED headlighting has become established in premium and volume automotive segments and beginning to enable new compact form factors such as distributed low beam and new functions such as adaptive driving beam. New generations of highly versatile high power LEDs are emerging to meet these application needs. In this paper, we will detail ongoing advances in LED technology that enable revolutionary styling, performance and adaptive control in automotive headlights. As the standards which govern the necessary lumens on the road are well established, increasing luminance enables not only more design freedom but also headlight cost reduction with space and weight saving through more compact optics. Adaptive headlighting is based on LED pixelation and requires high contrast, high luminance, smaller LEDs with high-packing density for pixelated Matrix Lighting sources. Matrix applications require an extremely tight tolerance on not only the X, Y placement accuracy, but also on the Z height of the LEDs given the precision optics used to image the LEDs onto the road. A new generation of chip scale packaged (CSP) LEDs based on Wafer Level Packaging (WLP) have been developed to meet these needs, offering a form factor less than 20% increase over the LED emitter surface footprint. These miniature LEDs are surface mount devices compatible with automated tools for L2 board direct attach (without the need for an interposer or L1 substrate), meeting the high position accuracy as well as the optical and thermal performance. To illustrate the versatility of the CSP LEDs, we will show the results of, firstly, a reflector-based distributed low beam using multiple individual cavities each with only 20mm height and secondly 3x4 to 3x28 Matrix arrays for adaptive full beam. Also a few key trends in rear lighting and impact on LED light

  12. High Performance Green LEDs by Homoepitaxial

    SciTech Connect

    Wetzel, Christian; Schubert, E Fred

    2009-11-22

    This work's objective was the development of processes to double or triple the light output power from green and deep green (525 - 555 nm) AlGaInN light emitting diode (LED) dies within 3 years in reference to the Lumileds Luxeon II. The project paid particular effort to all aspects of the internal generation efficiency of light. LEDs in this spectral region show the highest potential for significant performance boosts and enable the realization of phosphor-free white LEDs comprised by red-green-blue LED modules. Such modules will perform at and outperform the efficacy target projections for white-light LED systems in the Department of Energy's accelerated roadmap of the SSL initiative.

  13. White LEDs with limit luminous efficacy

    SciTech Connect

    Lisitsyn, V. M.; Stepanov, S. A. Yangyang, Ju; Lukash, V. S.

    2016-01-15

    In most promising widespread gallium nitride based LEDs emission is generated in the blue spectral region with a maximum at about 450 nm which is converted to visible light with the desired spectrum by means of phosphor. The thermal energy in the conversion is determined by the difference in the energies of excitation and emission quanta and the phosphor quantum yield. Heat losses manifest themselves as decrease in the luminous efficacy. LED heating significantly reduces its efficiency and life. In addition, while heating, the emission generation output and the efficiency of the emission conversion decrease. Therefore, the reduction of the energy losses caused by heating is crucial for LED development. In this paper, heat losses in phosphor-converted LEDs (hereinafter chips) during spectrum conversion are estimated. The limit values of the luminous efficacy for white LEDs are evaluated.

  14. Using LEDs to reduce energy consumption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eweni, Chukwuebuka E.

    The most popularly used light bulb in homes is the incandescent. It is also the least energy efficient. The filament in the bulb is so thin that it causes resistance in the electricity, which in turn causes the electricity's energy to form heat. This causes the incandescent to waste a lot of energy forming heat rather than forming the light. It uses 15 lumens per watt of input power. A recorded MATLAB demonstration showcased LED versatility and how it can be used by an Arduino UNO board. The objective of this thesis is to showcase how LEDs can reduce energy consumption through the use of an Arduino UNO board and MATLAB and to discuss the applications of LED. LED will be the future of lighting homes and will eventually completely incandescent bulbs when companies begin to make the necessary improvements to the LED.

  15. Nonspherical LED packaging lens for uniformity improvement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Yu-Cheng; Ou, Chung-Jen; Tsai, Yu-Sheng; Juang, Fuh-Shyang

    2009-05-01

    Light emitting diode (LED) has more advantages compared with a traditional incandescent light bulb and a fluorescent lamp, such as small size, low quantity of heat, long life, low power consumption, fast response, plain packaging and ease of develop ment of a frivolous short product. A methodology is proposed to improve the uniformity of the LED illumination system. As a light source in a backlight unit (BLU), the requirement for optical characteristics of a LED is different from highly directional conventional ones. New diffused-type LEDs need to be developed to fulfill the requirement of the BLU industry. A non-spherical lens is designed to optimize uniformity, and a great improvement in uniformity from 28.4 to 64% is demonstrated. In the future, it may used in an LED display to improve the unevenness of illumination.

  16. Transverse effects in UV FELs

    SciTech Connect

    Small, D.W.; Wong, R.K.; Colson, W.B.

    1995-12-31

    In an ultraviolet Free Electron Laser (UV FEL), the electron beam size can be approximately the same as the optical mode size. The performance of a UV FEL is studied including the effect of emittance, betatron focusing, and external focusing of the electron beam on the transverse optical mode. The results are applied to the Industrial Laser Consortium`s UV FEL.

  17. Color Degradation of Textiles with Natural Dyes and of Blue Scale Standards Exposed to White LED Lamps:Evaluation of White LED Lamps for Effectiveness as Museum Lighting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishii, Mie; Moriyama, Takayoshi; Toda, Masahiro; Kohmoto, Kohtaro; Saito, Masako

    White light-emitting diodes (LED) are well suited for museum lighting because they emit neither UV nor IR radiation, which damage artifacts. The color degradation of natural dyes and blue scale standards (JIS L 0841) by white LED lamps are examined, and the performance of white LED lamps for museum lighting is evaluated. Blue scale standard grades 1-6 and silk fabrics dyed with 22 types of natural dyes classified as mid to highly responsive in a CIE technical report (CIE157:2004) were exposed to five types of white LED lamps using different luminescence methods and color temperatures. Color changes were measured at each 15000 lx·hr (500 lx at fabric surface × 300 hr) interval ten times. The accumulated exposure totaled 150000 lx·hr. The data on conventional white LED lamps and previously reported white fluorescent (W) and museum fluorescent (NU) lamps was evaluated. All the white LED lamps showed lower fading rates compared with a W lamp on a blue scale grade 1. The fading rate of natural dyes in total was the same between an NU lamp (3000 K) and a white LED lamp (2869 K). However, yellow natural dyes showed higher fading rates with the white LED lamp. This tendency is due to the high power characteristic of the LED lamp around 400-500 nm, which possibly contributes to the photo-fading action on the dyes. The most faded yellow dyes were Ukon (Curcuma longa L.) and Kihada (Phellodendron amurense Rupr.), and these are frequently used in historic artifacts such as kimono, wood-block prints, and scrolls. From a conservation point of view, we need to continue research on white LED lamps for use in museum lighting.

  18. Comprehensive study of the electronic and optical behavior of highly degenerate p-type Mg-doped GaN and AlGaN

    SciTech Connect

    Gunning, Brendan P.; Fabien, Chloe A. M.; Merola, Joseph J.; Clinton, Evan A.; Doolittle, W. Alan; Wang, Shuo; Fischer, Alec M.; Ponce, Fernando A.

    2015-01-28

    The bulk and 2-dimensional (2D) electrical transport properties of heavily Mg-doped p-type GaN films grown on AlN buffer layers by Metal Modulated Epitaxy are explored. Distinctions are made between three primary p-type conduction mechanisms: traditional valence band conduction, impurity band conduction, and 2D conduction within a 2D hole gas at a hetero-interface. The bulk and 2D contributions to the overall carrier transport are identified and the relative contributions are found to vary strongly with growth conditions. Films grown with III/V ratio less than 1.5 exhibit high hole concentrations exceeding 2 × 10{sup 19} cm{sup −3} with effective acceptor activation energies of 51 meV. Films with III/V ratios greater than 1.5 exhibit lower overall hole concentrations and significant contributions from 2D transport at the hetero-interface. Films grown with III/V ratio of 1.2 and Mg concentrations exceeding 2 × 10{sup 20} cm{sup −3} show no detectable inversion domains or Mg precipitation. Highly Mg-doped p-GaN and p-AlGaN with Al fractions up to 27% similarly exhibit hole concentrations exceeding 2 × 10{sup 19} cm{sup −3}. The p-GaN and p-Al{sub 0.11}Ga{sub 0.89}N films show broad ultraviolet (UV) photoluminescence peaks, which intercept the valence band, supporting the presence of a Mg acceptor band. Finally, a multi-quantum-well light-emitting diode (LED) and p-i-n diode are grown, both of which demonstrate rectifying behavior with turn-on voltages of 3–3.5 V and series resistances of 6–10 Ω without the need for any post-metallization annealing. The LED exhibits violet-blue luminescence at 425 nm, while the p-i-n diode shows UV luminescence at 381 nm, and both devices still show substantial light emission even when submerged in liquid nitrogen at 77 K.

  19. Comprehensive study of the electronic and optical behavior of highly degenerate p-type Mg-doped GaN and AlGaN

    SciTech Connect

    Gunning, BP; Fabien, CAM; Merola, JJ; Clinton, EA; Doolittle, WA; Wang, S; Fischer, AM; Ponce, FA

    2015-01-28

    The bulk and 2-dimensional (2D) electrical transport properties of heavily Mg-doped p-type GaN films grown on AlN buffer layers by Metal Modulated Epitaxy are explored. Distinctions are made between three primary p-type conduction mechanisms: traditional valence band conduction, impurity band conduction, and 2D conduction within a 2D hole gas at a hetero-interface. The bulk and 2D contributions to the overall carrier transport are identified and the relative contributions are found to vary strongly with growth conditions. Films grown with III/V ratio less than 1.5 exhibit high hole concentrations exceeding 2 x 10(19) cm(-3) with effective acceptor activation energies of 51 meV. Films with III/V ratios greater than 1.5 exhibit lower overall hole concentrations and significant contributions from 2D transport at the hetero-interface. Films grown with III/V ratio of 1.2 and Mg concentrations exceeding 2 x 10(20) cm(-3) show no detectable inversion domains or Mg precipitation. Highly Mg-doped p-GaN and p-AlGaN with Al fractions up to 27% similarly exhibit hole concentrations exceeding 2 x 10(19) cm(-3). The p-GaN and p-Al0.11Ga0.89N films show broad ultraviolet (UV) photoluminescence peaks, which intercept the valence band, supporting the presence of a Mg acceptor band. Finally, a multi-quantum-well light-emitting diode (LED) and p-i-n diode are grown, both of which demonstrate rectifying behavior with turn-on voltages of 3-3.5V and series resistances of 6-10 Omega without the need for any post-metallization annealing. The LED exhibits violet-blue luminescence at 425 nm, while the p-i-n diode shows UV luminescence at 381 nm, and both devices still show substantial light emission even when submerged in liquid nitrogen at 77 K. (C) 2015 AIP Publishing LLC.

  20. Effects of GaN/AlGaN/Sputtered AlN nucleation layers on performance of GaN-based ultraviolet light-emitting diodes

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Hongpo; Zhou, Shengjun; Liu, Xingtong; Gao, Yilin; Gui, Chengqun; Liu, Sheng

    2017-01-01

    We report on the demonstration of GaN-based ultraviolet light-emitting diodes (UV LEDs) emitting at 375 nm grown on patterned sapphire substrate (PSS) with in-situ low temperature GaN/AlGaN nucleation layers (NLs) and ex-situ sputtered AlN NL. The threading dislocation (TD) densities in GaN-based UV LEDs with GaN/AlGaN/sputtered AlN NLs were determined by high-resolution X-ray diffraction (XRD) and cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy (TEM), which revealed that the TD density in UV LED with AlGaN NL was the highest, whereas that in UV LED with sputtered AlN NL was the lowest. The light output power (LOP) of UV LED with AlGaN NL was 18.2% higher than that of UV LED with GaN NL owing to a decrease in the absorption of 375 nm UV light in the AlGaN NL with a larger bandgap. Using a sputtered AlN NL instead of the AlGaN NL, the LOP of UV LED was further enhanced by 11.3%, which is attributed to reduced TD density in InGaN/AlInGaN active region. In the sputtered AlN thickness range of 10–25 nm, the LOP of UV LED with 15-nm-thick sputtered AlN NL was the highest, revealing that optimum thickness of the sputtered AlN NL is around 15 nm. PMID:28294166

  1. Effects of GaN/AlGaN/Sputtered AlN nucleation layers on performance of GaN-based ultraviolet light-emitting diodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Hongpo; Zhou, Shengjun; Liu, Xingtong; Gao, Yilin; Gui, Chengqun; Liu, Sheng

    2017-03-01

    We report on the demonstration of GaN-based ultraviolet light-emitting diodes (UV LEDs) emitting at 375 nm grown on patterned sapphire substrate (PSS) with in-situ low temperature GaN/AlGaN nucleation layers (NLs) and ex-situ sputtered AlN NL. The threading dislocation (TD) densities in GaN-based UV LEDs with GaN/AlGaN/sputtered AlN NLs were determined by high-resolution X-ray diffraction (XRD) and cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy (TEM), which revealed that the TD density in UV LED with AlGaN NL was the highest, whereas that in UV LED with sputtered AlN NL was the lowest. The light output power (LOP) of UV LED with AlGaN NL was 18.2% higher than that of UV LED with GaN NL owing to a decrease in the absorption of 375 nm UV light in the AlGaN NL with a larger bandgap. Using a sputtered AlN NL instead of the AlGaN NL, the LOP of UV LED was further enhanced by 11.3%, which is attributed to reduced TD density in InGaN/AlInGaN active region. In the sputtered AlN thickness range of 10–25 nm, the LOP of UV LED with 15-nm-thick sputtered AlN NL was the highest, revealing that optimum thickness of the sputtered AlN NL is around 15 nm.

  2. Comparison of milk oxidation by exposure to LED and fluorescent light.

    PubMed

    Brothersen, C; McMahon, D J; Legako, J; Martini, S

    2016-04-01

    Light-induced oxidation of milk has been well studied. Exposure of milk to UV light facilitates the oxidation of fats to aldehydes, and the degradation of sulfur-containing amino acids, both of which contribute to off-flavors. In addition, vitamin A and riboflavin are easily degraded by UV light. These reactions occur rapidly and are exacerbated by bright fluorescent lights in retail dairy cases. The invention of white light-emitting diodes (LED) may provide a solution to this oxidation problem. In this study, fresh milk containing 1% fat and fortified with vitamin A and riboflavin was exposed to LED at 4,000 lx, or fluorescent light at 2,200 lx for 24 h. Milk samples exposed to LED or fluorescent light, as well as milk protected from light, were analyzed by a consumer acceptance panel, and a trained flavor panel. In addition, vitamin A, riboflavin, and the production of volatile compounds were quantified. Exposure to light resulted in a reduction of cooked/sweet, milkfat, and sweet flavors and increased the intensity of butterscotch, cardboard, and astringency. In general, exposure to fluorescent light resulted in greater changes in the milk than exposure to LED even though the LED was at higher intensity. Consumers were able detect off-flavors in milk exposed to fluorescent light after 12 h and LED after 24 h of exposure. The riboflavin and vitamin A content was reduced by exposure to fluorescent light, whereas there was no significant reduction caused by LED compared with the non-light-exposed control. Production of hexanal, heptanal, 2-heptanal, octanal, 2-octanal nonanal, dimethyl sulfide, and caproic acid vinyl ester from the light-induced degradation of fats was significantly higher with fluorescent than LED. Production of these compounds was significantly higher with both light treatments than in the control milk. This study indicates that LED is less destructive to milk than fluorescent light.

  3. White LED with High Package Extraction Efficiency

    SciTech Connect

    Yi Zheng; Matthew Stough

    2008-09-30

    The goal of this project is to develop a high efficiency phosphor converting (white) Light Emitting Diode (pcLED) 1-Watt package through an increase in package extraction efficiency. A transparent/translucent monolithic phosphor is proposed to replace the powdered phosphor to reduce the scattering caused by phosphor particles. Additionally, a multi-layer thin film selectively reflecting filter is proposed between blue LED die and phosphor layer to recover inward yellow emission. At the end of the project we expect to recycle approximately 50% of the unrecovered backward light in current package construction, and develop a pcLED device with 80 lm/W{sub e} using our technology improvements and commercially available chip/package source. The success of the project will benefit luminous efficacy of white LEDs by increasing package extraction efficiency. In most phosphor-converting white LEDs, the white color is obtained by combining a blue LED die (or chip) with a powdered phosphor layer. The phosphor partially absorbs the blue light from the LED die and converts it into a broad green-yellow emission. The mixture of the transmitted blue light and green-yellow light emerging gives white light. There are two major drawbacks for current pcLEDs in terms of package extraction efficiency. The first is light scattering caused by phosphor particles. When the blue photons from the chip strike the phosphor particles, some blue light will be scattered by phosphor particles. Converted yellow emission photons are also scattered. A portion of scattered light is in the backward direction toward the die. The amount of this backward light varies and depends in part on the particle size of phosphors. The other drawback is that yellow emission from phosphor powders is isotropic. Although some backward light can be recovered by the reflector in current LED packages, there is still a portion of backward light that will be absorbed inside the package and further converted to heat. Heat

  4. High-power LED package requirements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wall, Frank; Martin, Paul S.; Harbers, Gerard

    2004-01-01

    Power LEDs have evolved from simple indicators into illumination devices. For general lighting applications, where the objective is to light up an area, white LED arrays have been utilized to serve that function. Cost constraints will soon drive the industry to provide a discrete lighting solution. Early on, that will mean increasing the power densities while quantum efficiencies are addressed. For applications such as automotive headlamps & projection, where light needs to be tightly collimated, or controlled, arrays of die or LEDs will not be able to satisfy the requirements & limitations defined by etendue. Ultimately, whether a luminaire requires a small source with high luminance, or light spread over a general area, economics will force the evolution of the illumination LED into a compact discrete high power package. How the customer interfaces with this new package should be an important element considered early on in the design cycle. If an LED footprint of adequate size is not provided, it may prove impossible for the customer, or end user, to get rid of the heat in a manner sufficient to prevent premature LED light output degradation. Therefore it is critical, for maintaining expected LED lifetime & light output, that thermal performance parameters be defined, by design, at the system level, which includes heat sinking methods & interface materials or methdology.

  5. Remote monitoring of LED lighting system performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thotagamuwa, Dinusha R.; Perera, Indika U.; Narendran, Nadarajah

    2016-09-01

    The concept of connected lighting systems using LED lighting for the creation of intelligent buildings is becoming attractive to building owners and managers. In this application, the two most important parameters include power demand and the remaining useful life of the LED fixtures. The first enables energy-efficient buildings and the second helps building managers schedule maintenance services. The failure of an LED lighting system can be parametric (such as lumen depreciation) or catastrophic (such as complete cessation of light). Catastrophic failures in LED lighting systems can create serious consequences in safety critical and emergency applications. Therefore, both failure mechanisms must be considered and the shorter of the two must be used as the failure time. Furthermore, because of significant variation between the useful lives of similar products, it is difficult to accurately predict the life of LED systems. Real-time data gathering and analysis of key operating parameters of LED systems can enable the accurate estimation of the useful life of a lighting system. This paper demonstrates the use of a data-driven method (Euclidean distance) to monitor the performance of an LED lighting system and predict its time to failure.

  6. UV-B Perception and Acclimation in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Chappuis, Richard; Allorent, Guillaume

    2016-01-01

    Plants perceive UV-B, an intrinsic component of sunlight, via a signaling pathway that is mediated by the photoreceptor UV RESISTANCE LOCUS8 (UVR8) and induces UV-B acclimation. To test whether similar UV-B perception mechanisms exist in the evolutionarily distant green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, we identified Chlamydomonas orthologs of UVR8 and the key signaling factor CONSTITUTIVELY PHOTOMORPHOGENIC1 (COP1). Cr-UVR8 shares sequence and structural similarity to Arabidopsis thaliana UVR8, has conserved tryptophan residues for UV-B photoreception, monomerizes upon UV-B exposure, and interacts with Cr-COP1 in a UV-B-dependent manner. Moreover, Cr-UVR8 can interact with At-COP1 and complement the Arabidopsis uvr8 mutant, demonstrating that it is a functional UV-B photoreceptor. Chlamydomonas shows apparent UV-B acclimation in colony survival and photosynthetic efficiency assays. UV-B exposure, at low levels that induce acclimation, led to broad changes in the Chlamydomonas transcriptome, including in genes related to photosynthesis. Impaired UV-B-induced activation in the Cr-COP1 mutant hit1 indicates that UVR8-COP1 signaling induces transcriptome changes in response to UV-B. Also, hit1 mutants are impaired in UV-B acclimation. Chlamydomonas UV-B acclimation preserved the photosystem II core proteins D1 and D2 under UV-B stress, which mitigated UV-B-induced photoinhibition. These findings highlight the early evolution of UVR8 photoreceptor signaling in the green lineage to induce UV-B acclimation and protection. PMID:27020958

  7. R&D100: LED Pulser

    SciTech Connect

    Pickett, Lyle; Manin, Julien; Eagle, Ethan

    2015-11-19

    A Sandia National Laboratories' light emitting diode (LED) driver is generating light pulses with shorter duration higher repetition frequency and higher brightness than anything on the market. The Sandia LED Pulser uses custom electronic circuitry to drive high-power LEDs to generate short, bright, high frequency light pulses. A single device can emit up to four different colors - each with independent pulse timing - crucial for light-beam forming in many optical applications and is more economical than current light sources such as lasers.

  8. R&D100: LED Pulser

    ScienceCinema

    Pickett, Lyle; Manin, Julien; Eagle, Ethan

    2016-10-19

    A Sandia National Laboratories' light emitting diode (LED) driver is generating light pulses with shorter duration higher repetition frequency and higher brightness than anything on the market. The Sandia LED Pulser uses custom electronic circuitry to drive high-power LEDs to generate short, bright, high frequency light pulses. A single device can emit up to four different colors - each with independent pulse timing - crucial for light-beam forming in many optical applications and is more economical than current light sources such as lasers.

  9. UV Radiation and the Skin

    PubMed Central

    D’Orazio, John; Jarrett, Stuart; Amaro-Ortiz, Alexandra; Scott, Timothy

    2013-01-01

    UV radiation (UV) is classified as a “complete carcinogen” because it is both a mutagen and a non-specific damaging agent and has properties of both a tumor initiator and a tumor promoter. In environmental abundance, UV is the most important modifiable risk factor for skin cancer and many other environmentally-influenced skin disorders. However, UV also benefits human health by mediating natural synthesis of vitamin D and endorphins in the skin, therefore UV has complex and mixed effects on human health. Nonetheless, excessive exposure to UV carries profound health risks, including atrophy, pigmentary changes, wrinkling and malignancy. UV is epidemiologically and molecularly linked to the three most common types of skin cancer, basal cell carcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma and malignant melanoma, which together affect more than a million Americans annually. Genetic factors also influence risk of UV-mediated skin disease. Polymorphisms of the melanocortin 1 receptor (MC1R) gene, in particular, correlate with fairness of skin, UV sensitivity, and enhanced cancer risk. We are interested in developing UV-protective approaches based on a detailed understanding of molecular events that occur after UV exposure, focusing particularly on epidermal melanization and the role of the MC1R in genome maintenance. PMID:23749111

  10. UV-Excited Fluorescence of Rocks in Gale Crater, Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fisk, M. R.; Pommerenck, J.; Watkins-Brandt, K.; Edgett, K. S.; Minitti, M. E.; Hardgrove, C. J.; Popa, R.; Goetz, W.; Cloutis, E.; Nixon, B.; Kennedy, M. R.; Treiman, A. H.

    2015-12-01

    Curiosity, the Mars Science Laboratory rover, landed in Gale crater in 2012. The Mars Hand Lens Imager (MAHLI), located on Curiosity's robotic arm, can be placed as close as 0.2 cm from targets. At this distance it has a pixel scale of ~13 µm/pixel. MAHLI usually images in daylight, but light emitting diodes (LEDs) located around the lens make nighttime imaging possible. Two of the six LEDs produce 365 nm long wave UV and near-UV light and small amounts of green and red light. On Mars MAHLI has taken images of UV-illuminated rocks, drill tailings, and a fluorescent calibration standard. In a lab test bed we took images of UV-illuminated terrestrial minerals. The test bed UV LEDs are equivalent to those on MAHLI. Fluorescence in the test bed was inferred when the color of the mineral in UV light was shifted from the color of the reflected incident UV light on non-fluorescing targets. We demonstrate this shift with terrestrial minerals: willemite (ZnSiO4) is green, fluorite (CaF2) is blue, fluorapatite (Ca5(PO4)3F) is yellow, and (some) calcites are red (Figure). Bassanite (CaSO4•½H2O) has been identified in sedimentary rock in Gale, and under long wave UV illumination, terrestrial bassanite fluoresces blue. In addition to bassanite, fluorite and apatite are candidate minerals in Gale crater. Portions of a bassanite-bearing target in Gale appear to fluoresce blue under MAHLI UV illumination. Adjacent to the bassanite is a dark mineral that yields a signal with more blue and less red and green than the bassanite suggesting a second fluorescing mineral. If these findings are supported by additional MAHLI and test bed measurements, then this will be the first fluorescence detection of its kind on Mars. This will be a step toward using UV light for the detection of organic compounds as has been proposed for the Mars 2020 mission.

  11. Monitoring and Detecting the Cigarette Beetle (Coleoptera: Anobiidae) Using Ultraviolet (LED) Direct and Reflected Lights and/or Pheromone Traps in a Laboratory and a Storehouse.

    PubMed

    Miyatake, Takahisa; Yokoi, Tomoyuki; Fuchikawa, Taro; Korehisa, Nobuyoshi; Kamura, Toru; Nanba, Kana; Ryouji, Shinsuke; Kamioka, Nagisa; Hironaka, Mantaro; Osada, Midori; Hariyama, Takahiko; Sasaki, Rikiya; Shinoda, Kazutaka

    2016-10-19

    The cigarette beetle, Lasioderma serricorne (F.), is an important stored-product pest worldwide because it damages dry foods. Detection and removal of the female L. serricorne will help to facilitate the control of the insect by removal of the egg-laying populations. In this manuscript, we examined the responses by L. serricorne to direct and reflected light in transparent cube (50 m(3)) set in a chamber (200 m(3)) and a stored facility with both direct and reflected UV-LED lights. The study also examined the responses by the beetles to light in the presence or absence of pheromone in traps that are placed at different heights. Reflected light attracted more beetles than the direct light in the experimental chamber, but the direct light traps attracted more beetles than the reflected light traps in the storehouse. Pheromone traps attracted only males; UV-LED traps attracted both sexes. The UV-LED traps with a pheromone, i.e., combined trap, attracted more males than UV-LED light traps without a pheromone, whereas the attraction of UV-LED traps with and without the pheromone was similar in females. The results suggest that UV-LED light trap combined with a sex pheromone is the best solution for monitoring and controlling L. serricorne.

  12. A metasynthesis of midwife-led care.

    PubMed

    Walsh, Denis; Devane, Declan

    2012-07-01

    The purpose of this metasynthesis is to describe and interpret qualitative research relating to midwife-led care to see if it sheds light on why low-risk women experience fewer birth interventions within this model of care. Eleven articles were included in the review. Three themes emerged: (a) relationally mediated benefits for women that resulted in increased agency and empathic care; (b) the problematic interface of midwife-led units with host maternity units, stemming from a clash of models and culture; and (c) greater agency for midwives within midwife-led models of care though bounded by the relationship with the host maternity unit. This metasynthesis suggests that lower rates of interventions could be linked to the greater agency experienced by women and midwives within midwife-led models, and that these effects are mediated, in part, by the smallness of scale in these settings.

  13. LED Outdoor Area Lighting Fact Sheet

    SciTech Connect

    2008-06-01

    This fact sheet reviews the major design and specification concerns for outdoor area lighting, and discusses the potential for LED luminaires to save energy while providing high quality lighting for outdoor areas.

  14. The use of ultraviolet LED illumination for composite resin removal: an in vitro study.

    PubMed

    Bush, Mary A; Hermanson, Arnold S; Yetto, Robert J; Wieczkowski, Gerard

    2010-01-01

    It may be difficult to recognize composite resin restorations that are correctly shade-matched and well-placed by visual and tactile inspection alone--which can make the replacement of an existing resin restoration challenging. Many composite resins fluoresce under UV light, which can help dentists to detect resin material. This article explores a technique that utilizes a UV LED to cause composite resin to fluoresce. A UV/visible light spectrofluorometer was used to measure fluorescence excitation and emission maxima of 14 composite resin brands. Control samples of dentin and enamel were measured in a similar manner. Subsequently, each brand of composite resin was placed in extracted teeth and relative fluorescence was assessed. The composite resins were then removed and each tooth was inspected using UV light to detect remaining resin. Results from this study indicated that the optimal excitation wavelength was 385-395 nm, while 460 nm was determined to be the mean emission maxima. This study revealed three types of resin: highly fluorescent, moderately fluorescent, and weakly fluorescent. In each instance, the UV light revealed the presence of resin after all resin was believed to have been removed. Based on the results of this study, the use of UV illumination can be a useful technique for determining if composite resin has been removed completely.

  15. Tunable fiber confocal sensor with LED

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weng, Chun-Jen; Lan, Tzu-Hsien; Hwang, Chi-Hung; Chu, Nien-Nan; Huang, Chien-Yao; Cheng, Pi-Ying

    2015-07-01

    A novel concept of confocal sensor based on focal lens is proposed to measure the displacement. The light source is a stabilized fiber coupled LED. A 1x2 graded-index multimode fiber optic coupler is used in this sensor. One port is a LED input port via SMA connector, another port is a LED output port connected to a reflective collimator and the other port is a reflective sensor port connected to a photo detector. The focusing sensor head is the cascade of a focal lens and a 20X objective lens. In this confocal displacement sensor, LED passes through a focal lens and an objective lens so that the LED beam focuses at a fixed focal point. A test target is placed after the objective lens. The displacement between the sensor head and a target can be measured quickly by detecting the reflective power according to the confocal principle. The long-term stability of LED is under 0.5%. The effective back focal length is varied from 5.67mm to 6.57mm by 0-290mA current driving so that the measuring range is about 0.9mm. The FWHM resolution of displacement is about 50μm. This sensor has the features of low cost, high stability, high precision and compact.

  16. Temperature measurements of high power LEDs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Badalan (Draghici), Niculina; Svasta, Paul; Drumea, Andrei

    2016-12-01

    Measurement of a LED junction temperature is very important in designing a LED lighting system. Depending on the junction temperature we will be able to determine the type of cooling system and the size of the lighting system. There are several indirect methods for junction temperature measurement. The method used in this paper is based on the thermal resistance model. The aim of this study is to identify the best device that would allow measuring the solder point temperature and the temperature on the lens of power LEDs. For this purpose four devices for measuring temperature on a high-power LED are presented and compared according to the acquired measurements: an infrared thermal camera from FLIR Systems, a multimeter with K type thermocouple (Velleman DVM4200), an infrared-spot based noncontact thermometer (Raynger ST) and a measurement system based on a digital temperature sensor (DS1821 type) connected to a PC. The measurements were conducted on an 18W COB (chip-on-board) LED. The measurement points are the supply terminals and the lens of the LED.

  17. LED luminaire longevity strategy models comparison

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lemieux, Hugo; Thibault, Simon; Martel, Alain A.

    2010-08-01

    As energy efficiency becomes more and more important, light-emitting diodes (LEDs) are a promising alternative to traditional lighting. Indeed, the energy efficiency of LEDs is still improving as their luminosity is modulated by current. Moreover, for applications such as exterior lamp posts, their small size, directionality, colors and high frequency response allow to combine them and provide design possibilities which are impossible with any other light source. However, as any lamp, LEDs have a lumen depreciation which is a function of both current and temperature. Thus, to take advantage of the full characteristics of LEDs, LED luminaire longevity strategies must be carefully studied and planned, especially since the IES and CIE guidelines state clearly that the luminaire must maintain the rated recommended light level until the end of the system's operating life. The recommended approach for LED luminaire specification is therefore to use the end-of-life light level when evaluating the luminaire. Different power supply strategies have been simulated to determine which one maximizes energy saving and lifetime. With these results, it appears that active control can save at least 25% in energy, but the best strategy cannot be determined because of uncertainties in luminosity degradation models.

  18. III-Nitride Based Optoelectronics

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-01-01

    order to satisfy the need of high sensitivity ultraviolet ( UV ) detectors for visible- and solar - blind applications. Examples of this research are...quantum dot baed LEDs, hybrid ZnO-InGaN based green LEDs, multi-quantum well detectors that show internal gain, and nano-structured UV detectors with...show single photon detection capabilities.79-80 A wide variety of (Al,Ga)N detector structures have been extensively studied for visible- and solar

  19. Uvs Nuur, Mongolia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    The Uvs Nuur Basin in Mongolia and the Russian Federation is the northernmost of the enclosed basins of Central Asia. It takes its name from Uvs Nuur Lake, a large, shallow and very saline lake, very important for migrating birds. Inscribed as a UNESCO World Heritage Site in 2003, the site is made up of twelve protected areas representing major biomes of eastern Eurasia. The steppe ecosystem supports a rich diversity of birds and the desert is home to a number of rare gerbil, jerboas and the marbled polecat. The mountains are an important refuge for the endangered snow leopard, mountain sheep, and the Asiatic ibex.

    The image covers an area of 46 x 47.8 km, was acquired on September 4, 2001, and is located near 50.3 degrees north latitude, 90.7 degrees east longitude.

    The U.S. science team is located at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Science Mission Directorate.

  20. UV Ozone Treatment for Improving Contact Resistance on Graphene

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Chung Wei; Ren, F.; Chi, G.C.; Hung, S. C.; Huang, Y. P.; Kim, J.; Kravchenko, Ivan I

    2012-01-01

    Optimized UV ozone cleaning of graphene layers on SiO2/Si substrates is shown to improve contact resistance of e-beam evaporated Ti/Au contacts by three orders of magnitude (3x10-6 -cm2) compared to untreated surfaces (4x10-3 -cm2). Subsequent annealing at 300 C lowers the minimum value achieved to 7x10-7 -cm2. Ozone exposure beyond an optimum time (6 mins in these experiments) led to a sharp increase in sheet resistance of the graphene, producing degraded contact resistance. The UV ozone treatment is a simple and effective method for producing high quality contacts to graphene.

  1. Thermal Analysis of LED Phosphor Layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perera, Ukwatte Lokuliyanage Indika Upendra

    Solid-state lighting technology has progressed to a level where light-emitting diode (LED) products are either on par or better than their traditional lighting technology counterparts with respect to efficacy and lifetime. At present, the most common method to create "white" light from LEDs for illumination applications is by using the LED primary radiation and wavelength-converting materials. In this method, the re-emission from the wavelength-converting materials excited by the LED primary radiation is combined with the LED primary radiation to create the "white" light. During this conversion process, heat is generated as a result of conversion inefficiencies and other loss mechanisms in the LED and the wavelength-converting materials. This generated heat, if not properly dissipated, increases the operating temperature, thereby increasing the light output degradation of the system over both the short and long term. The heat generation of the LED and thermal management of the LED have been studied extensively. Methods to effectively dissipate heat from the LEDs and maintain lower LED operating temperature are well understood. However, investigation of factors driving heat generation, the resulting temperature distribution in the phosphor layer, and the influence of the phosphor layer temperature on LED performance and reliability have not received the same focus. The goal of this dissertation was to understand the main factors driving heat and light generation and the transport of light and heat in the wavelength-converting layer of an LED system. Another goal was to understand the interaction between heat and light in the system and to develop and analyze a solution to reduce the wavelength-converting layer operating temperature, thereby improving light output and reliability. Even though past studies have explored generation and transfer separately for light and heat, to the best of the author's knowledge, this is the first study that has analyzed both factors

  2. LEDS GP Success Story: Fostering Coordinated LEDS Support in Kenya (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2014-03-01

    The LEDS Global Partnership (LEDS GP) strives to advance climate-resilient, low-emission development through catalyzing collaboration, information exchange, and action on the ground. The Government of Kenya is a key LEDS GP member and offers an inspiring example of how LEDS GP is having an impact globally. The 2012 LEDS Collaboration in Action workshop in London provided an interactive space for members to share experiences on cross-ministerial LEDS leadership and to learn about concrete development impacts of LEDS around the world. Inspired by these stories, the Kenya's Ministry of State for Planning, National Development and Vision 2030 (MPND) began to collaborate closely with the Ministry of Environment and Mineral Resources to create strong links between climate change action and development in the country, culminating in the integration of Kenya's National Climate Change Action Plan and the country's Medium Term Development Plan.

  3. UV-B and UV-C pre-treatments induce physiological changes and artemisinin biosynthesis in Artemisia annua L. - an antimalarial plant.

    PubMed

    Rai, Rashmi; Meena, Ram Prasad; Smita, Shachi Shuchi; Shukla, Aparna; Rai, Sanjay Kumar; Pandey-Rai, Shashi

    2011-12-02

    Present study was undertaken to investigate if short-term UV-B (4.2 kJ m(-2) day(-1)) and UV-C (5.7 kJ m(-2) day(-1)), pre-treatments can induce artemisinin biosynthesis in Artemisia annua. Twenty-one day old Artemisia seedlings were subjected to short-term (14 days) UV pre-treatment in an environmentally controlled growth chamber and then transplanted to the field under natural conditions. Treatment of A. annua with artificial UV-B and UV-C radiation not only altered the growth responses, biomass, pigment content and antioxidant enzyme activity but enhanced the secondary metabolites (artemisinin and flavonoid) content at all developmental stages as compared to non-irradiated plants. The extent of oxidative damage was measured in terms of the activities of enzymes such as catalase, superoxide dismutase and ascorbate peroxidase. Reinforcement in the antioxidative defense system seems to be a positive response of plants in ameliorating the negative effects of UV-B and UV-C radiations. While the carotenoid content was elevated, the chlorophyll content decreased under UV-B and UV-C pre-treatments. The reverse transcription PCR analysis of the genes associated in artemisinin/isoprenoid biosynthesis like 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase (HMGR), cytochrome P450 oxidoreductase (CPR) and amorpha-4,11-diene synthase (ADS) genes at different growth stages revealed UV induced significant over-expression of the above protein genes. UV-B and UV-C pre-treatments, led to an increase in the concentrations of artemisinin at full bloom stage by 10.5% and 15.7% than that of the control respectively. Thus, the result of our study suggests that short term UV-B pre-treatment of seedlings in greenhouse prior to transplantation into the field enhances artemisinin production with lesser yield related damages as compared to UV-C radiation in A. annua.

  4. Erratic Dislocations Within Funnel Defects in AlN Templates for AlGaN Epitaxial Layer Growth

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-05-21

    optoelectronic devices that operate in the UV region of the electromagnetic spectrum due to their direct tunable band gaps in this energy range1...funnel. A similar process has been observed for V-pits in InGaN /GaN multi quantum wells (MQWs), where it should be noted that the deformation in...the MQW structure leads to localization of charge carriers17, 18. In the case of the MPEG 8 sample shown in Figs. 1 and 2, the material filling

  5. Affordable underwater wireless optical communication using LEDs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pilipenko, Vladimir; Arnon, Shlomi

    2013-09-01

    In recent years the need for high data rate underwater wireless communication (WC) has increased. Nowadays, the conventional technology for underwater communication is acoustic. However, the maximum data rate that acoustic technology can provide is a few kilobits per second. On the other hand, emerging applications such as underwater imaging, networks of sensors and swarms of underwater vehicles require much faster data rates. As a result, underwater optical WC, which can provide much higher data rates, has been proposed as an alternative means of communication. In addition to high data rates, affordable communication systems become an important feature in the development requirements. The outcome of these requirements is a new system design based on off-the-shelf components such as blue and green light emitting diodes (LEDs). This is due to the fact that LEDs offer solutions characterized by low cost, high efficiency, reliability and compactness. However, there are some challenges to be met when incorporating LEDs as part of the optical transmitter, such as low modulation rates and non linearity. In this paper, we review the main challenges facing the incorporation of LEDs as an integral part of underwater WC systems and propose some techniques to mitigate the LED limitations in order to achieve high data rate communication

  6. Diamond Nanowire for UV Detection

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-02-28

    addition to the stated goal of solar - blind , radiation-hard diamond nanowire UV detectors [3]. The use of diamond nanowires in field-effect transistors could...the next phase. As a result, a working diamond nanowire UV detector can be expected within the coming few months. And, a completely new diamond...attractive candidate for use in ultraviolet ( UV ) light detectors and emitters[2]. Of all known materials, it is the hardest, and has the highest

  7. The Austrian UV monitoring network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blumthaler, Mario; Klotz, Barbara; Schwarzmann, Michael; Schreder, Josef

    2017-02-01

    The Austrian UV Monitoring network is operational since 1998 providing a large data set of erythemally weighted UV irradiance recorded with broadband UV biometer at 12 stations distributed all over Austria. In order to obtain high quality data all biometer are recalibrated once a year, the detectors are checked regularly for humidity and quality control is done routinely. The collected data are processed and then published on the website http://www.uv-index.at where the UV-Index of all measurement sites is presented in near real time together with a map of the distribution of the UV-Index over Austria. These UV-Index data together with measurements of global radiation and ozone levels from OMI are used to study long term trends for the stations of the monitoring network. Neither for all weather conditions nor for clear sky conditions is a statistically significant trend found for the UV-Index (with one exception) and for ozone. Furthermore, the radiation amplification factor (RAF) is determined experimentally from the power law correlation between UV-Index and ozone level for the site Innsbruck (577 m above sea level, 47.26°N, 11.38°E) for 19°solar elevation. A value of 0.91 ± 0.05 is found for the RAF for clear sky days with low ground albedo and a value of 1.03 ± 0.08 for days with high ground albedo (snow cover).

  8. LED illuminator for a microdisplay projector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Magarill, Simon

    2012-10-01

    An illumination system for a microdisplay projector with a two-step imaging system is described here. In the first step, an imaging condenser creates an image of the LED at the color combiner entrance window. In the second step, we relay the image of the integrator exit window onto the micro-display. The illuminator demonstrates high collection efficiency, small footprint, and efficient mixing of light from RGB LEDs that provides required uniformity. A variety of approaches to collecting light emitted from LEDs of various types are compared, leading to the two-step design. A design example using a 0.55" diagonal DLP-based optical engine is presented with the following characteristics: Footprint: 3.9"x3.3"x2.0" (25.7 cubic inches) Light output: 338 white lumens Efficiency: 4.7 lm/watt

  9. LED-based NDIR natural gas analyzer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fanchenko, Sergey; Baranov, Alexander; Savkin, Alexey; Sleptsov, Vladimir

    2016-03-01

    A new generation of the light-emitting diodes (LEDs) and photodiodes (PDs) was used recently to develop an open path non-dispersive infrared (NDIR) methane analyzer. The first open path detector prototype was constructed using LEDs for measurement and reference channels, accordingly, and first measurements for methane gas have been performed using optical paths of the order of several meters [3]. The natural gas consists of several first alkanes, mainly methane, and it is important to have a possibility of measuring all of them. In the present work we report the results of NDIR measurements for propane-butane mixture and new measurements of methane using LEDs for measurement and reference channels at 2300 and 1700 nm wavelengths, accordingly. The necessity of the double beam scheme is demonstrated and obtained results for methane and propane-butane mixture are compared.

  10. Optical communications. V - Light emitting diodes /LED/

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Best, S. W.

    1980-10-01

    The process of assembling diode chips is discussed, along with their application in optical communications. Metal plating is performed with an evaporation technique using primarily AuGe on the back side and Al or AuZn on the front side. The assembling of LED-chips with metal casings is illustrated. The chip is mounted on a flat bottom plate and electrical contact is established by means of an alloying or adhesion procedure. A glass fiber can be attached to the diode and then fitted with a casing, or the diode can be assembled with a metal cap and a lense, or with an open cap that is sealed with a clear synthetic resin plastic. The typical emission spectra of an LED and a semiconductor laser are compared. Limitations in the operation of an LED in a photoconductor are examined, taking into account spectral line width and radiated power criteria.

  11. Laser and LED external teeth-bleaching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zanin, Fatima A.; Brugnera, Aldo, Jr.; Marchesan, Melissa A.; Pecora, Jesus D.

    2004-09-01

    Teeth-bleaching is an initial phase in the reproduction of an aesthetic smile; thus, it is very important that the dentist knows how to diagnose the causes of color changes and indicate whitening before proposing dental treatment. Technological advances in teeth-whitening lead to the development of new techniques, improving comfort, security and decreasing time of execution: argon laser, diode Laser, LED whitening, xenon light whitening. The clearing agent used in all techniques, including home whitening, is hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) in different concentrations. In this study, the authors describe mechanisms of gel activation, the use of Laser and LED"s for teeth-bleaching, the importance of diagnosis and the comfort of the patient in in-office teeth-bleaching techniques.

  12. LED Device Illuminates New Path to Healing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    Among NASA s research goals is increased understanding of factors affecting plant growth, including the effects of microgravity. Impeding such studies, traditional light sources used to grow plants on Earth are difficult to adapt to space flight, as they require considerable amounts of power and produce relatively large amounts of heat. As such, an optimized experimental system requires much less energy and reduces temperature variance without negatively affecting plant growth results. Ronald W. Ignatius, founder and chairman of the board at Quantum Devices Inc. (QDI), of Barneveld, Wisconsin, proposed using light-emitting diodes (LEDs) as the photon source for plant growth experiments in space. This proposition was made at a meeting held by the Wisconsin Center for Space Automation and Robotics, a NASA-sponsored research center that facilitates the commercialization of robotics, automation, and other advanced technologies. The Wisconsin group teamed with QDI to determine whether an LED system could provide the necessary wavelengths and intensities for photosynthesis, and the resultant system proved successful. The center then produced the Astroculture3, a plant growth chamber that successfully incorporated this LED light source, which has now flown on several space shuttle missions. NASA subsequently identified another need that could be addressed with the use of LEDs: astronaut health. A central concern in astronaut health is maintaining healthy growth of cells, including preventing bone and muscle loss and boosting the body s ability to heal wounds all adversely affected by prolonged weightlessness. Thus, having determined that LEDs can be used to grow plants in space, NASA decided to investigate whether LEDs might be used for photobiomodulation therapy (PBMT).

  13. High-power LEDs for plant cultivation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tamulaitis, Gintautas; Duchovskis, Pavelas; Bliznikas, Zenius; Breive, Kestutis; Ulinskaite, Raimonda; Brazaityte, Ausra; Novickovas, Algirdas; Zukauskas, Arturas; Shur, Michael S.

    2004-10-01

    We report on high-power solid-state lighting facility for cultivation of greenhouse vegetables and on the results of the study of control of photosynthetic activity and growth morphology of radish and lettuce imposed by variation of the spectral composition of illumination. Experimental lighting modules (useful area of 0.22 m2) were designed based on 4 types of high-power light-emitting diodes (LEDs) with emission peaked in red at the wavelengths of 660 nm and 640 nm (predominantly absorbed by chlorophyll a and b for photosynthesis, respectively), in blue at 455 nm (phototropic function), and in far-red at 735 nm (important for photomorphology). Morphological characteristics, chlorophyll and phytohormone concentrations in radish and lettuce grown in phytotron chambers under lighting with different spectral composition of the LED-based illuminator and under illumination by high pressure sodium lamps with an equivalent photosynthetic photon flux density were compared. A well-balanced solid-state lighting was found to enhance production of green mass and to ensure healthy morphogenesis of plants compared to those grown using conventional lighting. We observed that the plant morphology and concentrations of morphologically active phytohormones is strongly affected by the spectral composition of light in the red region. Commercial application of the LED-based illumination for large-scale plant cultivation is discussed. This technology is favorable from the point of view of energy consumption, controllable growth, and food safety but is hindered by high cost of the LEDs. Large scale manufacturing of high-power red AlInGaP-based LEDs emitting at 650 nm and a further decrease of the photon price for the LEDs emitting in the vicinity of the absorption peak of chlorophylls have to be achieved to promote horticulture applications.

  14. Room-temperature deep-ultraviolet lasing at 241.5 nm of AlGaN multiple-quantum-well laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takano, Takayoshi; Narita, Yoshinobu; Horiuchi, Akihiko; Kawanishi, Hideo

    2004-05-01

    Room-temperature deep-ultraviolet lasing of AlxGa1-xN multiple-quantum-well lasers with an Al composition x of 0.66 was achieved at 241.5 nm under pulsed optical pumping. The threshold pumping power was approximately 1200 kW/cm2 at room temperature. The shortest lasing wavelength was 231.8 nm at 20 K. The laser structure was grown on a high-quality AlN layer, which was grown on a 4H-SiC substrate by inserting an AlN/GaN multibuffer-layer structure between the substrate and the AlN layer. Temperature dependence of lasing wavelength was also estimated to be 0.01 and 0.03 nm/K in the temperature region from 20 to 150 K and from 160 K to room temperature, respectively. The laser cavity was made of a cleaved facet of AlGaN epitaxial layers and a SiC substrate. For this purpose, it was necessary to polish the wafer to a thickness of less than 100 μm. The optimal wafer thickness for cleaving in our experiments was 60-70 μm.

  15. High quantum efficiency ultraviolet/blue AlGaN /InGaN photocathodes grown by molecular-beam epitaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leopold, D. J.; Buckley, J. H.; Rebillot, P.

    2005-08-01

    Enormous technological breakthroughs have been made in optoelectronic devices through the use of advanced heteroepitaxial-semiconductor crystal-growth techniques. This technology is being extended toward enhanced ultraviolet/blue single-photon detection through the design and fabrication of atomically tailored heteroepitaxial GaAlN /GaInN photocathode device structures. The AlGaN /InGaN system is ideal because the band gap can be tailored over an energy range from 0.8 to 6.2 eV and epitaxial thin-film layers can be grown directly on optically transparent sapphire substrates. Although a single p-type GaN layer activated with cesium can produce reasonably high quantum efficiency in the ultraviolet wave band, a more complex design is necessary to achieve high levels extending into the blue region. In the present work, band-gap engineering concepts have been utilized to design heterostructure photocathodes. The increased level of sophistication offered by this approach has been exploited in an attempt to precisely control photoelectron transport to the photocathode surface. Thin heterostructure layers designed for transmission-mode detection were fabricated by molecular-beam epitaxy. A quantum efficiency of 40% at 250 nm was achieved using a thin, compositionally graded GaN /InGaN layer, epitaxially grown on a sapphire substrate. Further improvements are anticipated through continued optimization, defect reduction, and more complex photocathode designs.

  16. Growth of high quality and uniformity AlGaN/GaN heterostructures on Si substrates using a single AlGaN layer with low Al composition

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Jianpeng; Yang, Xuelin; Sang, Ling; Guo, Lei; Zhang, Jie; Wang, Jiaming; He, Chenguang; Zhang, Lisheng; Wang, Maojun; Xu, Fujun; Tang, Ning; Qin, Zhixin; Wang, Xinqiang; Shen, Bo

    2016-01-01

    By employing a single AlGaN layer with low Al composition, high quality and uniformity AlGaN/GaN heterostructures have been successfully grown on Si substrates by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD). The heterostructures exhibit a high electron mobility of 2150 cm2/Vs with an electron density of 9.3 × 1012 cm−2. The sheet resistance is 313 ± 4 Ω/◻ with ±1.3% variation. The high uniformity is attributed to the reduced wafer bow resulting from the balance of the compressive stress induced and consumed during the growth, and the thermal tensile stress induced during the cooling down process. By a combination of theoretical calculations and in situ wafer curvature measurements, we find that the compressive stress consumed by the dislocation relaxation (~1.2 GPa) is comparable to the value of the thermal tensile stress (~1.4 GPa) and we should pay more attention to it during growth of GaN on Si substrates. Our results demonstrate a promising approach to simplifying the growth processes of GaN-on-Si to reduce the wafer bow and lower the cost while maintaining high material quality. PMID:26960730

  17. Postprocessing annealing effects on direct current and microwave performance of AlGaN /GaN high electron mobility transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Jaesun; Liu, Dongmin; Kim, Hyeongnam; Lu, Wu

    2004-09-01

    The effects of postprocessing annealing on direct current, radio frequency small signal, and power performances of AlGaN /GaN high electron mobility transistors with a gate-length of 0.2μm were investigated. The postannealing technique can improve the device performance, especially, after 10min postannealing at 400°C, the gate-to-drain breakdown voltage of devices exhibits remarkable improvement from 25 to 187V. The maximum extrinsic transconductance increases from 223 to 233mS/mm at a drain bias of 10V after 10min annealing at 400°C. The maximum drain current at a gate bias of 1V increases from 823 to 956mA/mm. After annealing, the values of the unity current gain cut-off frequency and the maximum oscillation frequency increases from 24 and 80GHz to 55 and 150GHz, respectively. The output power and gain at 10GHz were improved from 16.4dBm and 11.4dB to 25.9dBm and 19dB, respectively.

  18. Growth of high quality and uniformity AlGaN/GaN heterostructures on Si substrates using a single AlGaN layer with low Al composition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Jianpeng; Yang, Xuelin; Sang, Ling; Guo, Lei; Zhang, Jie; Wang, Jiaming; He, Chenguang; Zhang, Lisheng; Wang, Maojun; Xu, Fujun; Tang, Ning; Qin, Zhixin; Wang, Xinqiang; Shen, Bo

    2016-03-01

    By employing a single AlGaN layer with low Al composition, high quality and uniformity AlGaN/GaN heterostructures have been successfully grown on Si substrates by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD). The heterostructures exhibit a high electron mobility of 2150 cm2/Vs with an electron density of 9.3 × 1012 cm‑2. The sheet resistance is 313 ± 4 Ω/◻ with ±1.3% variation. The high uniformity is attributed to the reduced wafer bow resulting from the balance of the compressive stress induced and consumed during the growth, and the thermal tensile stress induced during the cooling down process. By a combination of theoretical calculations and in situ wafer curvature measurements, we find that the compressive stress consumed by the dislocation relaxation (~1.2 GPa) is comparable to the value of the thermal tensile stress (~1.4 GPa) and we should pay more attention to it during growth of GaN on Si substrates. Our results demonstrate a promising approach to simplifying the growth processes of GaN-on-Si to reduce the wafer bow and lower the cost while maintaining high material quality.

  19. An LED Approach for Measuring the Photocatalytic Breakdown of Crystal Violet Dye

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ryan, Robert E.; Underwood, Lauren W.; ONeal, Duane; Pagnutti, Mary; Davis, Bruce A.

    2009-01-01

    A simple technique to assess the reactivity of photocatalytic coatings sprayed onto transmissive glass surfaces was developed. This new method uses ultraviolet (UV) gallium nitride (GaN) light-emitting diodes (LEDs) to drive a photocatalytic reaction (the photocatalytic breakdown of a UV-resistant dye applied to a surface coated with the semiconductor titanium dioxide); and then a combination of a stabilized white light LED and a spectrometer to track the dye degradation as a function of time. Simple, standardized evaluation techniques that assess photocatalytic materials over a variety of environmental conditions, including illumination level, are not generally available and are greatly needed prior to in situ application of photocatalytic technologies. To date, much research pertaining to this aspect of photocatalysis has been limited and has focused primarily on laboratory experiments using mercury lamps. Mercury lamp illumination levels are difficult to control over large ranges and are temporally modulated by line power, limiting their use in helping to understand and predict how photocatalytic materials will behave in natural environmental settings and conditions. The methodology described here, using steady-state LEDs and time series spectroradiometric techniques, is a novel approach to explore the effect of UV light on the photocatalytic degradation of a UV resistant dye (crystal violet). GaN UV LED arrays, centered around 365 nm with an adjustable DC power supply, are used to create a small, spatially uniform light field where the steady state light level can be varied over three to four orders of magnitude. For this study, a set of glass microscope slides was custom coated with a thinly sprayed layer of photocatalytic titanium dioxide. Crystal violet was then applied to these titanium-dioxide coated slides and to uncoated control slides. The slides were then illuminated at various light levels from the dye side of the slide by the UV LED array. To monitor

  20. LED module with high index lens

    SciTech Connect

    Bierhuizen, Serge J.; Wang, Nanze Patrick; Eng, Gregory W.; Sun, Decai; Wei, Yajun

    2016-07-05

    An array of housings with housing bodies and lenses is molded, or an array of housing bodies is molded and bonded with lenses to form an array of housings with housing bodies and lenses. Light-emitting diodes (LEDs) are attached to the housings in the array. An array of metal pads may be bonded to the back of the array or insert molded with the housing array to form bond pads on the back of the housings. The array is singulated to form individual LED modules.

  1. Embedded systems for controlling LED matrix displays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marghescu, Cristina; Drumea, Andrei

    2016-12-01

    LED matrix displays are a common presence in everyday life - they can be found in trains, buses, tramways, office information tables or outdoor media. The structure of the display unit is similar for all these devices, a matrix of light emitting diodes coupled between row and column lines, but there are many options for the display controller that switches these lines. Present paper analyzes different types of embedded systems that can control the LED matrix, based on single board computers, on microcontrollers with different peripheral devices or with programmable logic devices like field programmable gate arrays with implemented soft processor cores. Scalability, easiness of implementation and costs are analyzed for all proposed solutions.

  2. Nonintrusive Measurement Of Temperature Of LED Junction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leidecker, Henning; Powers, Charles

    1991-01-01

    Temperature inferred from spectrum of emitted light. Method of determining temperature of junction based on two relevant characteristics of LED. Gap between valence and conduction electron-energy bands in LED material decreases with increasing temperature, causing wavelength of emitted photon to increase with temperature. Other, as temperature increases, non-radiative processes dissipate more of input electrical energy as heat and less as photons in band-gap wavelenth region; optical and quantum efficiencies decrease with increasing temperature. In principal, either characteristic alone used to determine temperature. However, desirable to use both to obtain indication of uncertainty.

  3. Design of an oximeter based on LED-LED configuration and FPGA technology.

    PubMed

    Stojanovic, Radovan; Karadaglic, Dejan

    2013-01-04

    A fully digital photoplethysmographic (PPG) sensor and actuator has been developed. The sensing circuit uses one Light Emitting Diode (LED) for emitting light into human tissue and one LED for detecting the reflectance light from human tissue. A Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) is used to control the LEDs and determine the PPG and Blood Oxygen Saturation (S(p)O(2)). The configurations with two LEDs and four LEDs are developed for measuring PPG signal and Blood Oxygen Saturation (S(p)O(2)). N-LEDs configuration is proposed for multichannel S(p)O(2) measurements. The approach resulted in better spectral sensitivity, increased and adjustable resolution, reduced noise, small size, low cost and low power consumption.

  4. Blue-red electroluminescence from hybrid Eu:phosphors/ZnO-nanowires/p-GaN LED

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Viana, B.; Pauporte, T.; Lupan, O.; Devis, L.; Gacoin, T.

    2014-03-01

    Nanowire (NW) based light emitting diodes (LEDs) have drawn great research interest due to many advantages compared to thin film based devices. Marked improved performances are expected from nanostructured active layers for light emission. Semiconducting oxide nanowires can act as direct waveguides and favor emitted light extraction without use of lens and reflectors in LEDs. Moreover, the use of ZnO wires avoids the presence of grain boundaries and then the emission efficiency is boosted by the absence of non-radiative recombinations at the joint defects. In this context, europium (Eu):Chelate/ZnO:Mg-nanowires/p-GaN light-emitting-diode (LED) structures have been fabricated showing near-UV/violet electroluminescence and red emission from trivalent europium. Fabricated LED structures exhibit UV-blue light at about 380 nm coming from the n-(ZnO:Mg)/p-GaN and a sharp red emission at ˜611 nm related to the intra-4f transition of Eu ions. It is found that in the case of the ZnO:Mg, the emission wavelength is slightly shifted to smaller wavelength to be well adapted to the trivalent europium excitation band. Radiative energy transfer is achieved through strong overlap between the emission wavelength from n-(ZnO:Mg)/p- GaN heterojunction and chelate ligand intensive absorption band. Indeed the Eu:chelate/(ZnO:Mg)-nanowires/p-GaN structure appears well adapted to UV/blue and red dual emission. Our results shows that the design of LEDs based on the chelate ligands are important issue to enhance the performance of electroluminescence devices based on ZnO nanowire arrays/p-GaN heterojunction and rare-earth metal complexes.

  5. EDITORIAL: Micro-pixellated LEDs for science and instrumentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dawson, Martin D.; Neil, Mark A. A.

    2008-05-01

    the work in an international context. Fan et al, who introduced the original forms of these devices in 2000, give a historical perspective as well as illustrating some recent trends in their work. Xu et al, another of the main international groups in this area, concentrate on biological imaging and detection applications. One of the most exciting prospects for this technology is its compatibility with CMOS, and Charbon reviews recent results with single-photon detection arrays which facilitate integrated optical lab-on-chip devices in conjunction with the micro-LEDs. Belton et al, from within the project partnership, overview the hybrid inorganic/organic semiconductor structures achieved by combining gallium nitride optoelectronics with organic semiconductor materials. The contributed papers cover many other aspects related to the devices themselves, their integration with polymers and CMOS, and also cover several associated developments such as UV-emitting nitride materials, new polymers, and the broader use of LEDs in microscopy. Images of LED fibres Emission patterns generated at the end of a multicore image fibre 600 μm in diameter, from article 094013 by H Xu et al of Brown University. We would like to thank Paul French for suggesting this special issue, the staff of IOP Publishing for their help and support, Dr Caroline Vance for her administration of the programme, and EPSRC (particularly Dr Lindsey Weston) for organizational and financial support.

  6. Comparison of instructor-led versus peer-led debriefing in nursing students.

    PubMed

    Roh, Young Sook; Kelly, Michelle; Ha, Eun Ho

    2016-06-01

    Despite its widespread support, the most effective simulation-based debriefing method has little evidence to support its efficacy. In this study, we compared the effect of peer-led and instructor-led debriefing among nursing students. The study was conducted with a non-equivalent control group using a pretest-post-test design. A convenience sample of third-year nursing students was used for the study, where 65 students enrolled in a 2-week clinical placement rotation were randomly assigned to the instructor-led group or peer-led group. The quality of cardiopulmonary resuscitation skills, satisfaction with simulation, and quality of debriefing in the peer-led group were compared to those in the instructor-led group. Group differences at each testing interval were analyzed using independent t-test. Nursing students in the instructor-led debriefing group showed better subsequent cardiopulmonary resuscitation performance, more satisfaction with simulation experience, and higher debriefing scores compared to the peer-led group. From our study, instructor-led debriefing is an effective method in improving skills performance, inducing favorable satisfaction, and providing better quality of debriefing among nursing students.

  7. Child-Led Enquiry in Primary Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunlop, Lynda; Compton, Kirsty; Clarke, Linda; McKelvey-Martin, Valerie

    2015-01-01

    This research describes and evaluates the application of a child-led approach to scientific enquiry (the Community of Scientific Enquiry, CoSE) to children aged 8-11 (Key Stage 2) in Northern Ireland. Primary teachers were introduced to CoSE at a workshop and asked to evaluate its implementation with their class. Results from children (n = 364)…

  8. Peer Led Focus Groups and Young People

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murray, Cathy

    2006-01-01

    Peer led focus groups, a qualitative social science research method, and their use with young people are examined. The paper outlines three developments that have contributed to their emergence, namely: traditional focus groups, peer education and participatory research. Drawing on a study in progress, the advantages and challenges associated with…

  9. LED structure with enhanced mirror reflectivity

    DOEpatents

    Bergmann, Michael; Donofrio, Matthew; Heikman, Sten; Schneider, Kevin S; Haberern, Kevin W; Edmond, John A

    2014-04-01

    Embodiments of the present invention are generally related to LED chips having improved overall emission by reducing the light-absorbing effects of barrier layers adjacent mirror contacts. In one embodiment, a LED chip comprises one or more LEDs, with each LED having an active region, a first contact under the active region having a highly reflective mirror, and a barrier layer adjacent the mirror. The barrier layer is smaller than the mirror such that it does not extend beyond the periphery of the mirror. In another possible embodiment, an insulator is further provided, with the insulator adjacent the barrier layer and adjacent portions of the mirror not contacted by the active region or by the barrier layer. In yet another embodiment, a second contact is provided on the active region. In a further embodiment, the barrier layer is smaller than the mirror such that the periphery of the mirror is at least 40% free of the barrier layer, and the second contact is below the first contact and accessible from the bottom of the chip.

  10. Electrical efficiency and droop in MQW LEDs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malyutenko, V. K.

    2014-02-01

    It is believed that low power conversion efficiency in commercial MQW LEDs occurs as a result of efficiency droop, current-induced dynamic degradation of the internal quantum efficiency, injection efficiency, and extraction efficiency. Broadly speaking, all these "quenching" mechanisms could be referred to as the optical losses. The vast advances of high-power InGaN and AlGaInP MQW LEDs have been achieved by addressing these losses. In contrast to these studies, in this paper we consider an alternative approach to make high-power LEDs more efficient. We identify current-induced electrical efficiency degradation (EED) as a strong limiting factor of power conversion efficiency. We found that EED is caused by current crowding followed by an increase in current-induced series resistance of a device. By decreasing the current spreading length, EED also causes the optical efficiency to degrade and stands for an important aspect of LED performance. This paper gives scientists the opportunity to look for different attributes of EED.

  11. LED Lighting in a Performing Arts Building

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, N. J.; Kaye, S. M.; Coleman, P. M.; Wilkerson, A. M.; Perrin, T. E.; Sullivan, G. P.

    2014-07-31

    At the University of Florida in Gainesville, the DOE Solid-State Lighting GATEWAY program evaluated LED architectural and theatrical lighting in four academic/performance-related spaces within the Nadine McGuire Theatre + Dance Pavilion. Due to a wise choice of products and luminaire light distributions, the change brought significant quality improvements including improved controllability and color.

  12. Portrait of a Teacher-Led School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nazareno, Lori

    2013-01-01

    Imagine a school with no principal and with a leadership structure that holds teachers accountable for the learning of all students. About 50 such teacher-led schools currently operate across the United States, and this article tells the story of one of them. The Mathematics and Science Leadership Academy (MSLA) in Denver, Colorado, serves about…

  13. Photomatrix LED therapy of extensive cutaneous pathology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zharov, Vladimir P.; Menyaev, Yulian A.; Zharova, I. Z.; Leviev, Dmitry O.; Tsarev, V. N.; Sarantsev, V. P.; Krusic, Joze

    2000-05-01

    Standard sources of radiation have not sufficient efficiency at treating spatially extended pathology, especially when pathologic areas involve opposite sides of the human being's body or when they are uneven in shape. The typical examples of such pathology are extensive burns, oedema, inflammatory processes, infectious wounds, actinic keratosis, psoriasis, arthritis and neurological diseases. Superbright LEDs gathered in a matrix and grasping the area of irradiation are the most suitable sources of radiation. This article presents the result of investigation of the effectiveness of various types of the blue-to-infrared spectrum range LED array that allow irradiating a surface with an area from several cm2 to several thousand cm2 including the whole human being's body with the intensity varying from 1 to 100 mW/cm2. Besides the matrixes, composed of separate light diodes, modular systems with separate monolithic hybrid chips with a high density of positioning the sources of radiation are considered. The peculiarities and results of applying such systems to treat oedema, cancer, weight regulation, neurological diseases, different infections diseases in combination with PDT, stomatitis and paradontosis are analyzed. The parameters of the photomatrix LED for different spectral regions and different geometry from flat shape to semispherical and cylindrical are presented. The perspective combination photomatrix LED with another therapeutical devices including photovacuum and photomagnetic therapy are considered.

  14. Determination of radiative current in LED's

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomas, E. F.

    1976-01-01

    Directly measureable quantity of radiative output in LED's is total forward current. When applied forward voltage is below 1.05 V the forward current is primarily nonradiative and varies with forward voltage as exp(qV/2kT), when q is the charge, V is applied voltage, K is Boltzmann's constant, and T is operating temperature.

  15. Student-Led Conferencing as Democratic Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tholander, Michael

    2011-01-01

    School conferences, in which teachers meet with parents and students, have long been criticised for being an undemocratic practice. Traditionally, such conferences have been organised and governed by the teacher. However, in recent years, student-led conferences have become more common in Swedish schools. The present article focuses on eight such…

  16. LED solution for E14 candle lamp

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yun; Liu, Ye; Boonekamp, Erik P.; Shi, Lei; Mei, Yi; Jiang, Tan; Guo, Qing; Wu, Huarong

    2009-08-01

    On a short to medium term, energy efficient retrofit LED products can offer an attractive solution for traditional lamps replacement in existing fixtures. To comply with user expectations, LED retrofit lamps should not only have the same mechanical interface to fit (socket and shape), but also have the similar light effect as the lamps they replace. The decorative lighting segment shows the best conditions to meet these requirements on short term. In 2008, Philips Lighting Shanghai started with the development of an LED candle lamp for the replacement of a 15W Candle shape (B35 E14) incandescent bulb, which is used in e.g. chandeliers. In this decorative application the main objective is not to generate as much light as possible, but the application requires the lamp to have a comparable look and, primarily, the same light effect as the incandescent candle lamp. This effect can be described as sparkling light, and it has to be directed sufficiently downwards (i.e., in the direction of the base of the lamp). These requirements leave very limited room for optics, electronics, mechanics and thermal design to play with in the small outline of this lamp. The main voltage AC LED concept is chosen to save the space for driver electronics. However the size of the AC LED is relatively big, which makes the optical design challenging. Several optical solutions to achieve the required light effect, to improve the optical efficiency, and to simplify the system are discussed. A novel prismatic lens has been developed which is capable of transforming the Lambertian light emission from typical high power LEDs into a butter-fly intensity distribution with the desired sparkling light effect. Thanks to this lens no reflecting chamber is needed, which improves the optical efficiency up to 70%, while maintaining the compact feature of the original optics. Together with advanced driver solution and thermal solution, the resulting LED candle lamp operates at 230V, consumes 1.8W, and

  17. Diamond LED substrate and novel quantum dots.

    PubMed

    Sung, James C; Sung, Michael

    2009-02-01

    Nitride LED (e.g., GaN) has become the mainstream of blue light source. The blue light can be converted to white light by exciting a phosphor (e.g., Nichia's YAG or Osram's TAG) with the complementary yellow emission. However, GaN is typically deposited on sapphire (Al2O3) substrates formed by crystal pulling or hexagonal (e.g., 4 H or 6 H) SiC wafers condensed from SiC vapor. In either case, the nitride lattice is ridden (e.g., 10(9)/cm2) with dislocations. The high dislocation density with sapphire is due to the large (>13%) lattice mismatch; and with hexagonal SiC, because of intrinsic defects. Cubic (beta) SiC may be deposited epitaxially using a CVD reactor onto silicon wafer by diffusing the interface and by chemical gradation. A reactive echant (e.g., hydrogen or fluorine) can be introduced periodically to gasify mis-aligned atoms. In this case, large single crystal wafers would be available for the manufacture of high bright LED with superb electro-optical efficiency. The SiC wafer may be coated with diamond film that can eliminate heat in real time. As a result of lower temperature, the nitride LED can be brighter and it will last longer. The blue light of GaN LED formed on SiC on Diamond (SiCON) LED may also be scattered by using novel quantum dots (e.g., 33 atom pairs of CdSe) to form a broad yellow light that blend in with the original blue light to form sunlight-like white light. This would be the ideal source for general illumination (e.g., for indoor) or backlighting (e.g., for LCD).

  18. LED mini-lidar as minimum setup

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shiina, Tatsuo

    2014-10-01

    The LED mini-lidar has been designed and demonstrated as the near range atmosphere monitoring, dust and gas detections. The LED lamp is used as a lidar light source. It is not a special one, and just used as a small status indicator or a spot luminaire. For the atmospheric monitoring in the near range of a few hundreds meters, the energy of 1nJ (=100mW/10ns) is enough for lidar observation in the nighttime. The LED lamp is excited at the high repetition frequency of < 1MHz. The signal-to-noise ratio can be increased by this high frequency even if the receiving photons are a little at each pulse. It is adequate because the spatiotemporal scale of the low-altitude atmosphere is small of a ten seconds and a few tens meters. To pursue such quick motion of the atmosphere and dust, the high-speed photon counter has been developed. It can act with BIN width of 4ns (Spatial resolution 0.6m) at the repetition frequency of <500kHz. The LED mini-lidar has been demonstrated to monitor the actual atmosphere of the observation range of <500m in the nighttime and <100m in the daytime with the receiving lens of 200mmφ. The interest approach is tired to distinguish the dust characteristics by using the counting rate of dust echoes. It is effective in the case that the dust material is given. And for trial, the LED mini-Raman-lidar is developed to monitor certain gas detection in near distance, too.

  19. UV damage of collagen: insights from model collagen peptides.

    PubMed

    Jariashvili, Ketevan; Madhan, Balaraman; Brodsky, Barbara; Kuchava, Ana; Namicheishvili, Louisa; Metreveli, Nunu

    2012-03-01

    Fibrils of Type I collagen in the skin are exposed to ultraviolet (UV) light and there have been claims that collagen photo-degradation leads to wrinkles and may contribute to skin cancers. To understand the effects of UV radiation on collagen, Type I collagen solutions were exposed to the UV-C wavelength of 254 nm for defined lengths of time at 4°C. Circular dichroism (CD) experiments show that irradiation of collagen leads to high loss of triple helical content with a new lower thermal stability peak and SDS-gel electrophoresis indicates breakdown of collagen chains. To better define the effects of UV radiation on the collagen triple-helix, the studies were extended to peptides which model the collagen sequence and conformation. CD studies showed irradiation for days led to lower magnitudes of the triple-helix maximum at 225 nm and lower thermal stabilities for two peptides containing multiple Gly-Pro-Hyp triplets. In contrast, the highest radiation exposure led to little change in the T(m) values of (Gly-Pro-Pro)(10) and (Ala-Hyp-Gly)(10) , although (Gly-Pro-Pro)(10) did show a significant decrease in triple helix intensity. Mass spectroscopy indicated preferential cleavage sites within the peptides, and identification of some of the most susceptible sites of cleavage. The effect of radiation on these well defined peptides gives insight into the sequence and conformational specificity of photo-degradation of collagen.

  20. Evaluation Capacity Building in the Schools: Administrator-Led and Teacher-Led Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lawrenz, Frances; Thomas, Kelli; Huffman, Douglas; Clarkson, Lesa Covington

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to describe evaluation capacity building using an immersion approach in two schools: one with an administrator-led process and one with a teacher-led process. The descriptions delineate conceptual, developmental, and sustainability aspects of capacity building through the perspectives of the teachers, principals, and…

  1. Sustainable LED Fluorescent Light Replacement Technology

    SciTech Connect

    None, None

    2011-09-30

    Ilumisys and the National Center for Manufacturing Sciences (NCMS) partnered on a three-year project awarded by the United States (U.S.) Department of Energy (DOE), to quantify the impacts of LED lamps, incandescent lamps and fluorescent benchmark lamps over a product lifecycle – i.e. to develop a sustainable design and manufacturing strategy that addresses product manufacturing, use, recycling and disposal scenarios for LED-based lighting. Based on the knowledge gained from extensive product tear-down studies of fluorescent and screw-in lighting products, lifecycle assessment tools, and accelerated lifecycle testing protocols, an interactive Sustainable LED Design Guide has been developed to aid architectural and lighting designers and engineers in making design decisions that consider three important environmental impacts (greenhouse gas emissions, energy use and mercury emission) across all phases of the life of an LED lighting product. Critical information developed for the lifecycle analysis and product feature comparisons is the useful life of the lighting product as well as its performance. The Design Guide is available at www.ncms.org, and was developed based on operational and durability testing of a variety of lighting products including power consumption, light output, and useful life of a lamp in order to allow a more realistic comparison of lamp designs. This report describes the main project tasks, results and innovative features of the lifecycle assessment (LCA)-based design tools, and the key considerations driving the sustainable design of LED lighting systems. The Design Guide incorporates the following three novel features for efficiently evaluating LED lighting features in value-chains: Bill-of-Materials (BOM) Builder – Designers may import process data for each component and supply functional data for the product, including power, consumption, lumen output and expected useful life: Environmental Impact Review – Designs are comparable

  2. Low-Cost Illumination-Grade LEDs

    SciTech Connect

    Epler, John

    2013-08-31

    Solid State Lighting is a cost-effective, energy-conserving technology serving a rapidly expand- ing multi-billion dollar market. This program was designed to accelerate this lighting revolution by reducing the manufacturing cost of Illumination-Grade LEDs. The technical strategy was to investigate growth substrate alternatives to standard planar sapphire, select the most effective and compatible option, and demonstrate a significant increase in Lumen/$ with a marketable LED. The most obvious alternate substrate, silicon, was extensively studied in the first two years of the program. The superior thermal and mechanical properties of Si were expected to improve wavelength uniformity and hence color yield in the manufacture of high-power illumination- grade LEDs. However, improvements in efficiency and epitaxy uniformity on standard c-plane sapphire diminished the advantages of switching to Si. Furthermore, the cost of sapphire decreased significantly and the cost of processing Si devices using our thin film process was higher than expected. We concluded that GaN on Si was a viable technology but not a practical option for Philips Lumileds. Therefore in 2012 and 2013, we sought and received amendments which broadened the scope to include other substrates and extended the time of execution. Proprietary engineered substrates, off-axis (non-c-plane) sapphire, and c-plane patterned sapphire substrates (PSS) were all investigated in the final 18 months of this program. Excellent epitaxy quality was achieved on all three candidates; however we eliminated engineered substrates and non-c-plane sapphire because of their higher combined cost of substrate, device fabrication and packaging. Ultimately, by fabricating a flip-chip (FC) LED based upon c-plane PSS we attained a 42% reduction in LED manufacturing cost relative to our LUXEON Rebel product (Q1-2012). Combined with a flux gain from 85 to 102 Lm, the LUXEON Q delivered a 210% increase in Lm/$ over this time period. The

  3. Effects of Arrangement of UV Light-Emitting Diodes on the Inactivation Efficiency of Microorganisms in Water.

    PubMed

    Oguma, Kumiko; Kita, Ryo; Takizawa, Satoshi

    2016-01-25

    Ultraviolet light-emitting diodes (UV-LEDs) offer high flexibility in the reactor design for water disinfection. To specify the key design factors affecting the performance of a reactor, we examined how the arrangement of UV-LEDs in a cylindrical reactor affects the inactivation efficiency of Escherichia coli and coliphage Qβ. A ring-shaped UV-LED apparatus, composed of two units containing ten 285-nm UV-LEDs each, were attached to a quartz cylinder, and microbial suspensions flowed through the cylinder for single pass at altered flow rates. The distance between the two units, L, was altered to examine its effects on inactivation efficiencies. Over 4 log inactivation of E. coli was achieved at 800 mL/min regardless of the L values, suggesting that the apparatus has a high potential to disinfect water. The inactivation at L=20 mm was significantly higher than that at L=0 in all cases tested (ANOVA, p < 0.05), while this was not true when L was extended to 40 and 60 mm. Therefore, a separate arrangement of UV-LEDs at a certain distance can improve the efficiency, and the distance matters to enhance the performance. This study involves a design concept on how to arrange UV-LEDs in a water disinfection apparatus. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  4. Fluorescent protein integrated white LEDs for displays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Press, Daniel Aaron; Melikov, Rustamzhon; Conkar, Deniz; Nur Firat-Karalar, Elif; Nizamoglu, Sedat

    2016-11-01

    The usage time of displays (e.g., TVs, mobile phones, etc) is in general shorter than their functional life time, which worsens the electronic waste (e-waste) problem around the world. The integration of biomaterials into electronics can help to reduce the e-waste problem. In this study, we demonstrate fluorescent protein integrated white LEDs to use as a backlight source for liquid crystal (LC) displays for the first time. We express and purify enhanced green fluorescent protein (eGFP) and monomeric Cherry protein (mCherry), and afterward we integrate these proteins as a wavelength-converter on a blue LED chip. The protein-integrated backlight exhibits a high luminous efficacy of 248 lm/Wopt and the area of the gamut covers 80% of the NTSC color gamut. The resultant colors and objects in the image on the display can be well observed and distinguished. Therefore, fluorescent proteins show promise for display applications.

  5. Lifetime Estimation of High Power White LEDs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishizaki, Shinya; Kimura, Hideyoshi; Sugimoto, Masaru

    We have developed a high power and long lifetime white LED module which can be used in general lighting applications. Since the materials in the package are very robust at high temperatures, the device can be operated at junction temperatures (Tj) over 250°C. Moreover, the thermal resistance of the package is less than 20°C/W. Therefore the device can be operated at input power as high as 2.4 W, making it possible to shorten the duration of accelerated lifetime tests. An acceleration ratio greater than 100 has been achieved. Assuming a thermally activated degradation process and applying the Arrhenius model, the LED chip lifetime (defined as a 50% reduction in luminous flux) is determined to be 40,000 hours for a Tj of 130°C. The activation energy of the degradation process was determined to be 1.55 eV.

  6. LED based full color stereoscopic projection system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bogaert, Lawrence; Meuret, Youri; Van Giel, Bart; Thienpont, Hugo

    2007-02-01

    We present a compact light emitting diode (LED) based projection system with potential for stereoscopic viewing. The optical core consists of four polarizing beam splitters (PBS), positioned in a cross configuration, with wavelength selective half wave plates placed between them. Four liquid crystal on silicon (LCoS) panels are located at the exterior facets of two PBSs in opposite corners of the cuboid. The illumination system combines individual LED sources and ensures telecentric illumination through the optical core. This architecture gives rise to two light paths that independently generate two linear polarized images with orthogonal polarization direction. When the observer wears polarization sensitive eyeglasses and a polarization maintaining screen is used, each eye will see a different projected image such that three-dimensional (3-D) viewing can be perceived. On the other hand, 2-D vision is possible by projecting two identical images.

  7. Laser and LED external teeth-bleaching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zanin, Fatima; Brugnera, Aldo, Jr.; Marchesan, Melissa A.; Pecora, Jesus D.

    2004-05-01

    Teeth-bleaching is an initial phase in the reproduction of an aesthetic smile; thus, it is very important that the dentist knows how to diagnose the causes of color changes and indicate whitening before proposing dental treatment. Technological advances in teeth-whitening lead to the development of new techniques, improving comfort, security and decreasing time of execution: argon laser, diode laser, LED whitening, xenon light whitening. The clearing agent used in all techniques, including home whitening, is hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) in different concentrations. In this study, the authors describe mechanisms of gel activation, the use of Laser and LED's for teeth-bleaching, the importance of diagnosis and the comfort of the patient in in-office teeth-bleaching techniques.

  8. Disinfection and oxidation of sewage effluent water using ozone and UV technologies.

    PubMed

    Oh, B S; Park, S J; Jung, Y J; Park, S Y; Kang, J W

    2007-01-01

    This study was aimed at exploring the reclamation of sewage treatment plant effluent water (SEW) as an alternative water resource. For the oxidation of SEW, an ozone-UV system, based on the results of the combined ozone/UV process performed in our previous study, was set up under practical conditions, including a series type, continuous mode, semi-pilot scale operation (1.5 m3/d). As a result, the serial contact of the ozone and UV reactors showed lower CODCr and TOC removal efficiencies. However, these were greatly enhanced by recycling the water flow of the ozone-UV system at 40Q, as a result of the improvements in the transferred ozone dose in the ozone reactor and the contact efficiency between photons and ozone in the UV reactor, which approached that achieved in the combined ozone/UV process. For the disinfection of SEW, carried out in a syringe-type batch reactor, the increase of instantaneous ozone demand (ozone ID) led to a higher inactivation efficiency, an increased UV transmittance due to ozonation, and an enhanced inactivation rate of E. coli in the UV reactor. Additionally, it was concluded that the ozone/UV process could overcome the limitations of the ozone alone and UV alone processes for the reclamation of sewage effluent water.

  9. LED color mixing with diffractive structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonenberger, Theresa; Baumgart, Jörg; Wendel, Simon; Neumann, Cornelius

    2013-03-01

    Lighting solutions with colored LEDs provide many opportunities for illumination. One of these opportunities is to create a color tunable light source. In this way different kinds of white light (color temperature) as well as discrete colors may be realized. This opens the field for applications as mood lighting. But there is always a spatial separation of the distinct LEDs that might get converted into an angular separation by any collimating optics. This angular separation causes such problems like color fringes and colored shadows that cannot be accepted in most applications. Conventional methods to solve these problems include e.g. mixing rods or dichroic filters. A new approach is the use of the dispersive effect of a diffractive structure to compensate the angular separation of the different colors. In this contribution the potential and limitations of diffractive structures in LED color mixing applications are discussed. Ray tracing simulations were performed to analyze such important parameters like efficiency, color performance and the cross section of the color mixing optics. New means for the estimation of color mixing performance were developed. A software tool makes it possible to detect the color distribution within ray trace data and it provides a quality factor to estimate the color mixing performance. It can be shown that the spectral band width has a large influence on the mixing process. Ray tracing simulations are compared with results of an experimental setup such that both measured as well as simulated data is presented.

  10. Sensitization of bleached Stentor to far UV.

    PubMed

    Burchill, B R; Bordy, M; Grene, R B

    1979-10-01

    Stentors are more sensitive to far UV-induced delay of oral regeneration following bleaching of their UV-absorbant cortical pigment granules. This finding supports a subcortical location of UV-sensitive sites.

  11. Precision Control Module For UV Laser 3D Micromachining

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Wen-Hong; Hung, Min-Wei; Chang, Chun-Li

    2011-01-01

    UV laser has been widely used in various micromachining such as micro-scribing or patterning processing. At present, most of the semiconductors, LEDs, photovoltaic solar panels and touch panels industries need the UV laser processing system. However, most of the UV laser processing applications in the industries utilize two dimensional (2D) plane processing. And there are tremendous business opportunities that can be developed, such as three dimensional (3D) structures of micro-electromechanical (MEMS) sensor or the precision depth control of indium tin oxide (ITO) thin films edge insulation in touch panels. This research aims to develop a UV laser 3D micromachining module that can create the novel applications for industries. By special designed beam expender in optical system, the focal point of UV laser can be adjusted quickly and accurately through the optical path control lens of laser beam expender optical system. Furthermore, the integrated software for galvanometric scanner and focal point adjustment mechanism is developed as well, so as to carry out the precise 3D microstructure machining.

  12. Field-testing UV disinfection of drinking water

    SciTech Connect

    Gadgil, A.; Drescher, A.; Greene, D.; Miller, P.; Motau, C.; Stevens, F.

    1997-09-01

    A recently invented device, ``UV Waterworks,`` uses ultraviolet (UV) light to disinfect drinking water. Its novel features are: low cost, robust design, rapid disinfection, low electricity use, low maintenance, high flow rate and ability to work with unpressurized water sources. The device could service a community of 1,000 persons, at an annual total cost of less than 10 US cents per person. UV Waterworks has been successfully tested in the laboratory. Limited field trials of an early version of the device were conducted in India in 1994--95. Insights from these trials led to the present design. Extended field trials of UV Waterworks, initiated in South Africa in February 1997, will be coordinated by the South African Center for Essential Community Services (SACECS), with technical and organizational support from Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory(LBNL) and the Natural Resources Defense Council (both US). The first of the eight planned sites of the year long trial is an AIDS hospice near Durban. Durban metro Water and LBNL lab-tested a UV Waterworks unit prior to installing it at the hospice in August, 1997. The authors describe the field test plans and preliminary results from Durban.

  13. UV clothing and skin cancer.

    PubMed

    Tarbuk, Anita; Grancarić, Ana Marija; Situm, Mirna; Martinis, Mladen

    2010-04-01

    Skin cancer incidence in Croatia is steadily increasing in spite of public and governmental permanently measurements. It is clear that will soon become a major public health problem. The primary cause of skin cancer is believed to be a long exposure to solar ultraviolet (UV) radiation. The future designers of UV protective materials should be able to block totally the ultraviolet radiation. The aim of this paper is to present results of measurements concerning UV protecting ability of garments and sun-screening textiles using transmission spectrophotometer Cary 50 Solarscreen (Varian) according to AS/NZS 4399:1996; to show that standard clothing materials are not always adequate to prevent effect of UV radiation to the human skin; and to suggest the possibilities for its improvement for this purpose.

  14. The Moon in the UV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hendrix, Amanda

    2014-11-01

    While the Moon has been observed in the UV for decades, the real utility of this spectral region for unlocking some of the Moon’s secrets has only recently been understood. Previously the domain of atmospheric studies, the UV has now emerged as an important spectral region for studying surfaces. The ultraviolet regime is very sensitive to both space weathering effects and composition, including hydration. This presentation will cover a review of early UV lunar observations (e.g., Apollo 17, International Ultraviolet Explorer), as well as early laboratory studies that first shone a light on the importance of this spectral region. The Lyman Alpha Mapping Project (LAMP) instrument, currently in orbit on the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) spacecraft, is providing critical mapping capabilities of UV signatures, including signals from the permanently shadowed regions of the poles. I will discuss some of these exciting results, and extend these to implications for other airless bodies in the solar system.

  15. Curing efficiency of modern LED units.

    PubMed

    Rencz, Adam; Hickel, Reinhard; Ilie, Nicoleta

    2012-02-01

    Recent reports claim that modern light-emitting diode (LED) curing units improve curing efficiency by increasing the units' irradiance. In this context also, short polymerisation times up to 5 s are proposed. The aim of this study was to examine whether there are differences in the curing efficiency of modern LED curing units by assessing their effect on two different composite materials and by varying the irradiation time. A nano- and a micro-hybrid resin-based composite (RBC) were polymerised for 5, 10 and 20 s with three commercial and a Prototype LED unit (Elipar™ S10). Cylindrical specimens (6 mm in depth, 4 mm in diameter) were prepared in three increments, each 2-mm thick, and were consecutively cured. Degree of cure was measured for 20 min in real time at the bottom of the samples, starting with the photoinitiation. The micro-mechanical properties (modulus of elasticity, E and Vickers hardness, HV) were measured as a function of depth, in 100-μm steps, on the above described samples stored in distilled water for 24 h at 37°C. Data were analysed with multivariate ANOVA followed by Tukey's test, t test and partial eta-squared statistics. In descending order of the strength of their effect, the type of RBC, depth, polymerisation time and curing unit were significant factors affecting the micro-mechanical parameters (p < 0.05). The degree of cure at 6-mm depth was less but significantly influenced by the curing unit and curing time and was independent from the type of RBC. A 5-s irradiation time is not recommended for these units. Whereas a 5-s irradiation is acceptable at the sample's surface, a minimum of 20 s of irradiation is necessary for an adequate polymerisation 2 mm beyond the surface.

  16. Wheat Under LED's (Light Emitting Diodes)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    Astroculture is a suite of technologies used to produce and maintain a closed controlled environment for plant growth. The two most recent missions supported growth of potato, dwarf wheat, and mustard plants, and provided scientists with the first opportunity to conduct true plant research in space. Light emitting diodes have particular usefulness for plant growth lighting because they emit a much smaller amount of radiant heat than do conventional lighting sources and because they have potential of directing a higher percentage of the emitted light onto plants surfaces. Furthermore, the high output LED's have emissions in the 600-700 nm waveband, which is of highest efficiency for photosynthesis by plants.

  17. Characterization of angled tapered superluminescent LEDs.

    PubMed

    Causa, Federica; Sarma, Jayanta; Yunus, Sharina

    2002-08-20

    We present a detailed analysis of the output beam of high-power edge-emitting angled tapered superluminescent LEDs (A-TSLEDs). A device model, including spontaneous and stimulated emission processes as well as the typical nonuniform carrier-density distribution due to current spreading and carrier diffusion, has been developed and used to interpret the experimentally obtained characteristics of inhouse-fabricated A-TSLEDs. The good match between measured and theoretical results indicates that the model reproduces the A-TSLED operation very satisfactorily and clearly explains the role of the collecting lens on the pronounced asymmetry of some of the measured optical intensity profiles.

  18. Child-led enquiry in primary science

    PubMed Central

    Dunlop, Lynda; Compton, Kirsty; Clarke, Linda; McKelvey-Martin, Valerie

    2015-01-01

    This research describes and evaluates the application of a child-led approach to scientific enquiry (the Community of Scientific Enquiry, CoSE) to children aged 8–11 (Key Stage 2) in Northern Ireland. Primary teachers were introduced to CoSE at a workshop and asked to evaluate its implementation with their class. Results from children (n = 364) and teachers (n = 19) found that CoSE engaged children with their science learning, and also developed confidence and oracy. However, teachers require more experience developing facilitation skills and in fitting science into a thematic teaching unit. PMID:27152060

  19. Non-imaging Optics of multi-LED light source for hyperspectral imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Islam, Kashif; Gosnell, Martin E.; Ploschner, Martin; Anwer, Ayad G.; Goldys, Ewa M.

    2016-12-01

    The main objective of our work was to design a light source which should be capable to collect and illuminate light of LEDs at the smaller aperture of cone (9mm) which could be either coupled with secondary optics of a microscope or utilized independently for hyperspectral studies. Optimized performance of cone was assessed for different substrates (diffused glass silica, Alumina, Zerodur glass, acrylic plastic) and coating surfaces (white diffused, flat white paint, standard mirror) using a simulation software. The parameters optimized for truncated cone include slanting length and Top Major R (Larger diameter of cone) which were also varied from 10 to 350 mm and 10 to 80 mm respectively. In order to see affect of LED positions on cone efficiency, the positions of LED were varied from central axis to off-axis. Similarly, interLED distance was varied from 2 mm to 6 mm to reckon its effect on the performance of cone. The optimized Slant length (80 mm) and Top Major R (50 mm) were determined for substrates (glass zerodur or acrylic plastic) and coating surface (standard mirror). The output profile of truncated source was found non uniform, which is a typical presentation of non imaging optics problem. The maximum efficiency of cone has been found for LED at the centre and it was found decreasing as LED moves away from the central axis. Moreover, shorter the interLED distance, better is the performance of cone. The primary optics of cone shaped light source is capable to lit visible and UV LEDs in practical design. The optimum parameters obtained through simulations could be implemented in the fabrication procedure if the reflectance of source would have been maintained upto finish level of a standard mirror.

  20. LED Context Lighting System in Residential Areas

    PubMed Central

    Im, Kyoung-Mi

    2014-01-01

    As issues of environment and energy draw keen interest around the globe due to such problems as global warming and the energy crisis, LED with high optical efficiency is brought to the fore as the next generation lighting. In addition, as the national income level gets higher and life expectancy is extended, interest in the enhancement of life quality is increasing. Accordingly, the trend of lightings is changing from mere adjustment of light intensity to system lighting in order to enhance the quality of one's life as well as reduce energy consumption. Thus, this study aims to design LED context lighting system that automatically recognizes the location and acts of a user in residential areas and creates an appropriate lighting environment. The proposed system designed in this study includes three types of processing: first, the creation of a lighting environment index suitable for the user's surroundings and lighting control scenarios and second, it measures and analyzes the optical characteristics that change depending on the dimming control of lighting and applies them to the index. Lastly, it adopts PIR, piezoelectric, and power sensor to grasp the location and acts of the user and create a lighting environment suitable for the current context. PMID:25101325

  1. Studying Light Color using White LED Lighting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamagishi, Misako; Yamaba, Kazuo; Nagata, Manori; Kubo, Chiho; Nokura, Kunihiro

    Recently, white Light Emitting Diodes (LEDs) are receiving attention worldwide as new lighting devices. This study examined effects of a lighting application on performance using white LEDs. The light color—the correlated color temperature (CCT) —was assessed. It affected to psychological states and physiological conditions. Three CCT conditions were respectively set for the experiment: 2500 K, 5000 K, and 8200 K. In all, 20 younger subjects (20-30 years old), 15 middle-aged to elderly subjects (45-60 years old) and 12 elderly subjects (over 65 years-old) participated. They were presented a Numerical Verification (NV) task for performance measurement. The psychological states on performance were evaluated using the lighting assessment questionnaire. The physiological conditions were recorded using an electrocardiograph. Results show that the effects of CCT differ among age groups. Especially, the performance of younger subjects might differ from CCT conditions; elderly subjects are affected by CCT condition because of their visual acuity or response to contrast of objects.

  2. LED context lighting system in residential areas.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Sook-Youn; Im, Kyoung-Mi; Lim, Jae-Hyun

    2014-01-01

    As issues of environment and energy draw keen interest around the globe due to such problems as global warming and the energy crisis, LED with high optical efficiency is brought to the fore as the next generation lighting. In addition, as the national income level gets higher and life expectancy is extended, interest in the enhancement of life quality is increasing. Accordingly, the trend of lightings is changing from mere adjustment of light intensity to system lighting in order to enhance the quality of one's life as well as reduce energy consumption. Thus, this study aims to design LED context lighting system that automatically recognizes the location and acts of a user in residential areas and creates an appropriate lighting environment. The proposed system designed in this study includes three types of processing: first, the creation of a lighting environment index suitable for the user's surroundings and lighting control scenarios and second, it measures and analyzes the optical characteristics that change depending on the dimming control of lighting and applies them to the index. Lastly, it adopts PIR, piezoelectric, and power sensor to grasp the location and acts of the user and create a lighting environment suitable for the current context.

  3. Freeform LED lens for rectangularly prescribed illumination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Kai; Liu, Sheng; Chen, Fei; Qin, Zong; Liu, Zongyuan; Luo, Xiaobing

    2009-10-01

    Freeform lenses are playing a more and more important role in LED secondary optics design. In this study, based on the new light energy mapping relationship, edge ray principle, Snell's law and error control of surface construction, a modified discontinuous freeform lens design method was presented for rectangularly prescribed illumination, with the advantages of a flexible energy mapping relationship, accurate light irradiation control and easier to manufacture. A polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) discontinuous freeform lens was designed as an example for LED tunnel illumination according to this method. The numerical simulation results demonstrated that the light pattern of the lens was in good agreement with the expected illumination performance when using a point source. Tolerance analyses were also conducted. An extended light source had little effect on the light output efficiency (LOE) of the lens but significantly decreased the effective illumination area. Installation errors had more effect on the uniformity and shape of the light pattern than the LOE of the lens. The tolerances of vertical, horizontal and rotational deviation of this lens were 0.4 mm, 0.4 mm and 2°, respectively.

  4. High drain current density and reduced gate leakage current in channel-doped AlGaN /GaN heterostructure field-effect transistors with Al2O3/Si3N4 gate insulator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maeda, Narihiko; Wang, Chengxin; Enoki, Takatomo; Makimoto, Toshiki; Tawara, Takehiko

    2005-08-01

    Channel-doped AlGaN /GaN heterostructure field-effect transistors (HFETs) with metal-insulator-semiconductor (MIS) structures have been fabricated to obtain the high drain current density and reduced gate leakage current. A thin bilayer dielectric of Al2O3(4nm)/Si3N4(1nm) was used as the gate insulator, to simultaneously take advantage of the high-quality interface between Si3N4 and AlGaN, and high resistivity and a high dielectric constant of Al2O3. A MIS HFET with a gate length of 1.5μm has exhibited a record high drain current density of 1.87A/mm at a gate voltage (Vg) of +3V, which is ascribed to a high applicable Vg and a very high two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG) density of 2.6×1013cm-2 in the doped channel. The gate leakage current was reduced by two or three orders of magnitude, compared with that in normal HFETs without a gate insulator. The transconductance (gm) was 168mS/mm, which is high in the category of the MIS structure. Channel-doped MIS HFETs fabricated have thus been proved to exhibit the high current density, reduced gate leakage current, and relatively high transconductance, hence, promising for high-power applications.

  5. Resonant-enhanced full-color emission of quantum-dot-based micro LED display technology.

    PubMed

    Han, Hau-Vei; Lin, Huang-Yu; Lin, Chien-Chung; Chong, Wing-Cheung; Li, Jie-Ru; Chen, Kuo-Ju; Yu, Peichen; Chen, Teng-Ming; Chen, Huang-Ming; Lau, Kei-May; Kuo, Hao-Chung

    2015-12-14

    Colloidal quantum dots which can emit red, green, and blue colors are incorporated with a micro-LED array to demonstrate a feasible choice for future display technology. The pitch of the micro-LED array is 40 μm, which is sufficient for high-resolution screen applications. The method that was used to spray the quantum dots in such tight space is called Aerosol Jet technology which uses atomizer and gas flow control to obtain uniform and controlled narrow spots. The ultra-violet LEDs are used in the array to excite the red, green and blue quantum dots on the top surface. To increase the utilization of the UV photons, a layer of distributed Bragg reflector was laid down on the device to reflect most of the leaked UV photons back to the quantum dot layers. With this mechanism, the enhanced luminous flux is 194% (blue), 173% (green) and 183% (red) more than that of the samples without the reflector. The luminous efficacy of radiation (LER) was measured under various currents and a value of 165 lm/Watt was recorded.

  6. Design of p-type cladding layers for tunnel-injected UV-A light emitting diodes

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Yuewei; Krishnamoorthy, Sriram; Akyol, Fatih; Allerman, Andrew A.; Moseley, Michael W.; Armstrong, Andrew M.; Rajan, Siddharth

    2016-11-09

    Here, we discuss the engineering of p-AlGaN cladding layers for achieving efficient tunnel-injected III-Nitride ultraviolet light emitting diodes (UV LEDs) in the UV-A spectral range. We show that the capacitance-voltage measurements can be used to estimate the compensation and doping in the p-AlGaN layers located between the multi-quantum well region and the tunnel junction layer. By increasing the p-type doping concentration to overcome the background compensation, on-wafer external quantum efficiency and wall-plug efficiency of 3.37% and 1.62%, respectively, were achieved for the tunnel-injected UV LEDs emitting at 325 nm. We also show that interband tunneling hole injection can be used to realize UV LEDs without any acceptor doping. The work discussed here provides new understanding of hole doping and transport in AlGaN-based UV LEDs and demonstrates the excellent performance of tunnel-injected LEDs for the UV-A wavelength range.

  7. Design of p-type cladding layers for tunnel-injected UV-A light emitting diodes

    DOE PAGES

    Zhang, Yuewei; Krishnamoorthy, Sriram; Akyol, Fatih; ...

    2016-11-09

    Here, we discuss the engineering of p-AlGaN cladding layers for achieving efficient tunnel-injected III-Nitride ultraviolet light emitting diodes (UV LEDs) in the UV-A spectral range. We show that the capacitance-voltage measurements can be used to estimate the compensation and doping in the p-AlGaN layers located between the multi-quantum well region and the tunnel junction layer. By increasing the p-type doping concentration to overcome the background compensation, on-wafer external quantum efficiency and wall-plug efficiency of 3.37% and 1.62%, respectively, were achieved for the tunnel-injected UV LEDs emitting at 325 nm. We also show that interband tunneling hole injection can be usedmore » to realize UV LEDs without any acceptor doping. The work discussed here provides new understanding of hole doping and transport in AlGaN-based UV LEDs and demonstrates the excellent performance of tunnel-injected LEDs for the UV-A wavelength range.« less

  8. Discrimination of reactively-dyed cotton fibres with thin layer chromatography and UV microspectrophotometry.

    PubMed

    De Wael, K; Van Dijck, K; Gason, F

    2015-12-01

    Reactively-dyed black, navy blue and medium red cotton samples showing metamerism under fluorescent tube illumination were examined. Optical microscopy (bright field, polarization and fluorescence microscopy) was used, followed by microspectrometry in the visible range (MSP Vis), to differentiate the samples in each block of colours. Additionally, the non-discriminated samples were subjected both to microspectrophotometry in the UV-range (MSP UV) and to enzymatic digestion followed by high performance thin layer chromatography (HPTLC) on the digests. While it was found that both methods may potentially result in higher discrimination, preparation of reactively-dyed cotton for HPTLC was found to be a very tedious and time-consuming step and HPTLC only led to a better discrimination than MSP UV for the red cotton samples. The results suggest that in order to increase the discrimination for reactively-dyed cotton fibres, measurement of the UV absorption spectrum (MSP UV) is preferred over HPTLC.

  9. EDITORIAL: LED light sources (light for the future) LED light sources (light for the future)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grandjean, N.

    2010-09-01

    Generating white light from electricity with maximum efficacy has been a long quest since the first incandescent lamp was invented by Edison at the end of the 19th century. Nowadays, semiconductors are making reality the holy grail of converting electrons into photons with 100% efficiency and with colours that can be mixed for white light illumination. The revolution in solid-state lighting (SSL) dates to 1994 when Nakamura reported the first high-brightness blue LED based on GaN semiconductors. Then, white light was produced by simply combining a blue dye with a yellow phosphor. After more than a decade of intensive research the performance of white LEDs is quite impressive, beating by far the luminous efficacy of compact fluorescent lamps. We are likely close to replacing our current lighting devices by SSL lamps. However, there are still technological and fabrication cost issues that could delay large market penetration of white LEDs. Interestingly, SSL may create novel ways of using light that could potentially limit electricity saving. Whatever the impact of SSL, it will be significant on our daily life. The purpose of this special cluster issue is to produce a snapshot of the current situation of SSL from different viewing angles. In an introductory paper, Tsao and co-workers from Sandia National Laboratories, present an energy-economics perspective of SSL considering societal changes and SSL technology evolution. In a second article, Narukawa et al working at Nichia Corporation—the pioneer and still the leading company in SSL—describe the state of the art of current research products. They demonstrate record performance with white LEDs exhibiting luminous efficacy of 183 lm W-1 at high-current injection. Then, a series of topical papers discuss in detail various aspects of the physics and technology of white LEDs Carrier localization in InGaN quantum wells has been considered the key to white LEDs' success despite the huge density of defects. A

  10. Rapid fabrication of microfluidic chips based on the simplest LED lithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yue; Wu, Ping; Luo, Zhaofeng; Ren, Yuxuan; Liao, Meixiang; Feng, Lili; Li, Yuting; He, Liqun

    2015-05-01

    Microfluidic chips are generally fabricated by a soft lithography method employing commercial lithography equipment. These heavy machines require a critical room environment and high lamp power, and the cost remains too high for most normal laboratories. Here we present a novel microfluidics fabrication method utilizing a portable ultraviolet (UV) LED as an alternative UV source for photolithography. With this approach, we can repeat several common microchannels as do these conventional commercial exposure machines, and both the verticality of the channel sidewall and lithography resolution are proved to be acceptable. Further microfluidics applications such as mixing, blood typing and microdroplet generation are implemented to validate the practicability of the chips. This simple but innovative method decreases the cost and requirement of chip fabrication dramatically and may be more popular with ordinary laboratories.

  11. Switched-capacitor isolated LED driver

    SciTech Connect

    Sanders, Seth R.; Kline, Mitchell

    2016-03-22

    A switched-capacitor voltage converter which is particularly well-suited for receiving a line voltage from which to drive current through a series of light emitting diodes (LEDs). Input voltage is rectified in a multi-level rectifier network having switched capacitors in an ascending-bank configuration for passing voltages in uniform steps between zero volts up to full received voltage V.sub.DC. A regulator section, operating on V.sub.DC, comprises switched-capacitor stages of H-bridge switching and flying capacitors. A current controlled oscillator drives the states of the switched-capacitor stages and changes its frequency to maintain a constant current to the load. Embodiments are described for isolating the load from the mains, utilizing an LC tank circuit or a multi-primary-winding transformer.

  12. LED--panacea or marketing hype?

    PubMed

    Baillie, Jonathan

    2012-02-01

    With energy efficiency and carbon reduction, and the importance of a relaxing, therapeutic patient environment, ever more in the spotlight, LED lighting's proponents claim the technology offers healthcare estates personnel many of the answers on both fronts. However some observers believe its benefits are being over-sold, often to the detriment of other high-performing types of more 'conventional lighting', and to a sometimes uninitiated audience too easily swayed by slick sales patter. HEJ editor Jonathan Baillie spoke to one highly experienced lighting professional, Nicholas Bukorović, a former employee of Thorn, Cooper, and Thorlux Lighting, and the principal author of the last CIBSE/Society of Light and Lighting (SLL) Guide LG2 on healthcare lighting, to seek some expert illumination.

  13. Scandium oxide antireflection coatings for superluminescent LEDs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ladany, I.; Zanzucchi, P. J.; Andrews, J. T.; Kane, J.; Depiano, E.

    1986-01-01

    For an employment of laser diodes as superluminescent LEDs (SLDs) or amplifiers, the facets of the diodes must be coated with antireflection films. In the work reported, scandium oxide was evaporated from an e-beam source onto Supersil II fused silica substrates. The obtained samples were used for measurements of absorption and reflectivity. Results of index measurements on e-beam evaporated films are presented. It is shown that excellent coatings with reflectivities of 0.00025 can be obtained using these films. Attention is given to the refractive indices for scandium oxide films as a function of wavelength, the power output vs current for laser before coating and after coating with Sc2O3.

  14. RGB color sensor implemented with LEDs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Filoteo-Razo, J. D.; Estudillo-Ayala, J. M.; Hernández-Garcia, J. C.; Trejo-Durán, M.; Muñoz-Lopez, A.; Jauregui-Vázquez, D.; Rojas-Laguna, R.

    2015-09-01

    This paper presents the design and implementation of an optical sensor to detect color changes in fruit by means of white light reflection to measure fruit ripeness in industrial and agricultural applications. The system consists of a LED RGB array including photodetectors, a power source and plastic optic fiber (POF). By means of Labview ® graphic interface we can control the power emission of the diodes digitally mixing the colors at different intensities until we achieve white light to be used as a source for the color sensor. We used an ATmega2560 microcontroller as a data collection device to monitor the colors obtained and to show them as color models using Matlab ®. We show results from tests conducted using two guava samples, observing the evolution of the color change on the fruit skin until they became overripe.

  15. Measurement of g Using a Flashing LED

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Terzella, T.; Sundermier, J.; Sinacore, J.; Owen, C.; Takai, H.

    2008-10-01

    In one of the classic free-fall experiments, a small mass is attached to a strip of paper tape and both are allowed to fall through a spark timer, where sparks are generated at regular time intervals. Students analyze marks (dots) left on the tape by the timer, thereby generating distance-versus-time data, which they analyze to extract the acceleration due to gravity g with good results. The apparatus, however, is cumbersome and often frustrating for students. High-tech versions of this experiment are done with an object dropped and followed by a motion sensor connected to a computer. The sensor relies on ultrasonic ranging to record distance and time data, which may then be displayed graphically. Students inspect the graphs to determine the value of g. Although the results are excellent, the emphasis on the computer's ability to collect and analyze data leaves little analysis for the students to perform.2 Furthermore, neither technique gives an intuitive display of what is happening. The motivation for our work was to overcome these issues by developing an innovative method for measuring g. In our version of the experiment, students drop a flashing LED at a known frequency and record its trajectory using long exposure photography with a digital camera. Proper choice of flashing LED timing parameters produces an image that allows for an accurate measurement of g and at the same time helps to explain what happens during free fall. The experiment remains high-tech in the sense that students learn to use updated equipment to record data and to carry out the analysis.

  16. Revisiting of LED pumped bulk laser: first demonstration of Nd:YVO₄ LED pumped laser.

    PubMed

    Barbet, Adrien; Balembois, François; Paul, Amandine; Blanchot, Jean-Philippe; Viotti, Anne-Lise; Sabater, Jacques; Druon, Frédéric; Georges, Patrick

    2014-12-01

    We describe here what is, to the best of our knowledge, the first LED pumped Nd:YVO₄ laser. Near-IR LED arrays with a wavelength centered close to 850 nm were used to pump transversely the crystal. By pulsing LEDs, with a duration of the order of the laser transition lifetime, we obtained sufficient pump intensities to reach the laser threshold. At a frequency of 250 Hz, we obtained an output energy of 40 μJ at 1064 nm for an input pump energy of 7.4 mJ, which corresponds to an optical efficiency of 0.5%. Experimental results of small signal gain are compared with theoretical analysis.

  17. Open LED Illuminator: A Simple and Inexpensive LED Illuminator for Fast Multicolor Particle Tracking in Neurons

    PubMed Central

    Bosse, Jens B.; Tanneti, Nikhila S.; Hogue, Ian B.; Enquist, Lynn W.

    2015-01-01

    Dual-color live cell fluorescence microscopy of fast intracellular trafficking processes, such as axonal transport, requires rapid switching of illumination channels. Typical broad-spectrum sources necessitate the use of mechanical filter switching, which introduces delays between acquisition of different fluorescence channels, impeding the interpretation and quantification of highly dynamic processes. Light Emitting Diodes (LEDs), however, allow modulation of excitation light in microseconds. Here we provide a step-by-step protocol to enable any scientist to build a research-grade LED illuminator for live cell microscopy, even without prior experience with electronics or optics. We quantify and compare components, discuss our design considerations, and demonstrate the performance of our LED illuminator by imaging axonal transport of herpes virus particles with high temporal resolution. PMID:26600461

  18. Compact lens with circular spot profile for square die LEDs in multi-LED projectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kari, Thøger; Gadegaard, Jesper; Thykjaer Jørgensen, Dennis; Søndergaard, Thomas; Pedersen, Thomas Garm; Pedersen, Kjeld

    2011-08-01

    In the stage illumination industry, LED technology is promising both in terms of energy use and novel features, but it also has inherent issues. This paper presents a solution to the poor color homogeneity arising when multiple rectangular images formed from LED dies are combined into a circular spot profile. Using ray tracing, a nonrotationally symmetric collimating lens was optimized to round off such die images. The result is a high-output lens with an almost perfectly circular spot. In a simulated red green blue color mixing projector with seven LEDs, the lens reduced measurable color inhomogeneity by ≈24.1%, with a 5.3% luminous gain, compared to the best rotationally symmetric benchmark lens.

  19. Investigation of ultra violet (UV) resistance for high strength fibers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Said, M. A.; Dingwall, Brenda; Gupta, A.; Seyam, A. M.; Mock, G.; Theyson, T.

    Ultra long duration balloons (ULDB), currently under development by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), requires the use of high strength fibers in the selected super-pressure pumpkin design. The pumpkin shape balloon concept allows clear separation of the load transferring functions of the major structural elements of the pneumatic envelope, the tendons and the film. Essentially, the film provides the gas barrier and transfers only local pressure load to the tendons. The tendons, in the mean time, provide the global pressure containing strength. In that manner, the strength requirement for the film only depends on local parameters. The tendon is made of p-phenylene-2,6-benzobisoxazole (PBO) fibers, which is selected due to its high strength to weight ratio when compared to other high performance, commercially available, fibers. High strength fibers, however, are known to degrade upon exposure to light, particularly at short wavelengths. This paper reports the results of an investigation of the resistance of four commercial high strength fibers to ultra violet (UV) exposure. The results indicate that exposing high strength fibers in continuous yarn form to UV led to serious loss in strength of the fibers except for Spectra® fibers. The adverse changes in mechanical behavior occurred over short duration of exposure compared to the 100 day duration targeted for these missions. UV blocking finishes to improve the UV resistance of these fibers are being investigated. The application of these specially formulated coatings is expected to lead to significant improvement of the UV resistance of these high performance fibers. In this publication, we report on the mechanical behavior of the fibers pre- and post-exposure to UV, but without application of the blocking finishes.

  20. Plasmon-enhanced UV photocatalysis

    SciTech Connect

    Honda, Mitsuhiro; Saito, Yuika Kawata, Satoshi; Kumamoto, Yasuaki; Taguchi, Atsushi

    2014-02-10

    We report plasmonic nanoparticle enhanced photocatalysis on titanium dioxide (TiO{sub 2}) in the deep-UV range. Aluminum (Al) nanoparticles fabricated on TiO{sub 2} film increases the reaction rate of photocatalysis by factors as high as 14 under UV irradiation in the range of 260–340 nm. The reaction efficiency has been determined by measuring the decolorization rate of methylene blue applied on the TiO{sub 2} substrate. The enhancement of photocatalysis shows particle size and excitation wavelength dependence, which can be explained by the surface plasmon resonance of Al nanoparticles.

  1. Plasmon-enhanced UV photocatalysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Honda, Mitsuhiro; Kumamoto, Yasuaki; Taguchi, Atsushi; Saito, Yuika; Kawata, Satoshi

    2014-02-01

    We report plasmonic nanoparticle enhanced photocatalysis on titanium dioxide (TiO2) in the deep-UV range. Aluminum (Al) nanoparticles fabricated on TiO2 film increases the reaction rate of photocatalysis by factors as high as 14 under UV irradiation in the range of 260-340 nm. The reaction efficiency has been determined by measuring the decolorization rate of methylene blue applied on the TiO2 substrate. The enhancement of photocatalysis shows particle size and excitation wavelength dependence, which can be explained by the surface plasmon resonance of Al nanoparticles.

  2. New paradigm of multi-chip white LEDs: combination of an InGaN blue LED and full down-converted phosphor-converted LEDs.

    PubMed

    Oh, Ji Hye; Oh, Jeong Rok; Park, Hoo Keun; Sung, Yeon-Goog; Do, Young Rag

    2011-05-09

    This study introduces innovative multi-chip white LED systems that combine an InGaN blue LED and green/red or green/amber/red full down-converted, phosphor-conversion LEDs (pc-LEDs). Efficient green, amber, and red full down-converted pc-LEDs were fabricated by simply capping a long-wave pass filter (LWPF) on top of LED packing associated with each corresponding powder phosphor. The principal advantage of this type of color-mixing approach in newly developed multi-chip white LEDs based on colored pc-LEDs is thought to be dynamic control of the chromaticity and better light quality. In addition, the color-mixing approach improves the low efficacy of green/amber LEDs in the "green gap" wavelength; reduces the wide color/efficacy variations of each primary LED with at different temperatures and currents; and improves the low color rendering indexes of the traditional color-mixing approach in red, green, and blue (RGB) multi-chip white LEDs.

  3. UV resistance of a halophilic archaeon in simulated martian conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    ten Kate, Il; van Sluis, Ca; Selch, F.; Garry, Jrc; Stan-Lotter, H.; van Loosdrecht, M.; Ehrenfreund, P.

    Mars is thought to have had liquid water at its surface for geologically long periods. The progressive desiccation of the surface would have led to an increase in the salt content of remaining bodies of water. If life had developed on Mars, then some of the mechanisms evolved in terrestrial halophilic bacteria to cope with high salt content may have been similar to those existing in martian organisms. We have exposed samples of the halophilic Natronorubrum sp. strain HG-1 (Nr. strain HG-1) to conditions of ultraviolet radiation (UV) similar to those of the present-day martian environment. Furthermore, the effects of low temperature and low pressure on Nr. strain HG-1 have been investigated. To simulate a more Mars-like environment and investigate the effect of water in the atmosphere Nr. strain HG-1 has been irradiated when placed in a low pressure CO2 environment, static as well as flowing. The results, obtained by monitoring growth curves, indicate that the present UV radiation at the surface of Mars is a significant hazard for this organism. Exposure of the cells to high vacuum inactivates ~50 % of the cells. Freezing to -20 ° C and -80 ° C kills ~80 % of the cells. When desiccated and embedded in a salt crust, cells are somewhat more resistant to UV radiation than when suspended in an aqueous solution. The cell inactivation by UV is wavelength dependent. It cannot be excluded that they can survive when embedded in the soil or buried underneath rocks.

  4. Development of Advanced LED Phosphors by Spray-based Processes for Solid State Lighting

    SciTech Connect

    Cabot Corporation

    2007-09-30

    The overarching goal of the project was to develop luminescent materials using aerosol processes for making improved LED devices for solid state lighting. In essence this means improving white light emitting phosphor based LEDs by improvement of the phosphor and phosphor layer. The structure of these types of light sources, displayed in Figure 1, comprises of a blue or UV LED under a phosphor layer that converts the blue or UV light to a broad visible (white) light. Traditionally, this is done with a blue emitting diode combined with a blue absorbing, broadly yellow emitting phosphor such as Y{sub 3}Al{sub 5}O{sub 12}:Ce (YAG). A similar result may be achieved by combining a UV emitting diode and at least three different UV absorbing phosphors: red, green, and blue emitting. These emitted colors mix to make white light. The efficiency of these LEDs is based on the combined efficiency of the LED, phosphor, and the interaction between the two. The Cabot SSL project attempted to improve the over all efficiency of the LED light source be improving the efficiency of the phosphor and the interaction between the LED light and the phosphor. Cabot's spray based process for producing phosphor powders is able to improve the brightness of the powder itself by increasing the activator (the species that emits the light) concentration without adverse quenching effects compared to conventional synthesis. This will allow less phosphor powder to be used, and will decrease the cost of the light source; thus lowering the barrier of entry to the lighting market. Cabot's process also allows for chemical flexibility of the phosphor particles, which may result in tunable emission spectra and so light sources with improved color rendering. Another benefit of Cabot's process is the resulting spherical morphology of the particles. Less light scattering results when spherical particles are used in the phosphor layer (Figure 1) compared to when conventional, irregular shaped phosphor particles

  5. Blue LED irradiation to hydration of skin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Menezes, Priscila F. C.; Requena, Michelle B.; Lizarelli, Rosane F., Z.; Bagnato, Vanderlei S.

    2015-06-01

    Blue LED system irradiation shows many important properties on skin as: bacterial decontamination, degradation of endogenous skin chromophores and biostimulation. In this clinical study we prove that the blue light improves the skin hydration. In the literature none authors reports this biological property on skin. Then this study aims to discuss the role of blue light in the skin hydration. Twenty patients were selected to this study with age between 25-35 years old and phototype I, II and III. A defined area from forearm was pre determined (A = 4.0 cm2). The study was randomized in two treatment groups using one blue light device (power of 5.3mW and irradiance of 10.8mW/cm2). The first treatment group was irradiated with 3J/cm2 (277seconds) and the second with 6J/cm2 (555 seconds). The skin hydration evaluations were done using a corneometer. The measurements were collected in 7, 14, 21 and 30 days, during the treatment. Statistical test of ANOVA, Tukey and T-Student were applied considering 5% of significance. In conclusion, both doses were able to improve the skin hydration; however, 6J/cm2 has kept this hydration for 30 days.

  6. Novel aplanatic designs for LED concentration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ricketts, Melissa; Winston, Roland; Jiang, Lun

    2014-09-01

    Aplanats make great concentrators because of their near perfect imaging. Aplanatic conditions can be satisfied using two surface curves (generally mirrored surfaces) in two dimensions (see Figure 1) which are constructed by successive approximation to create a highly efficient concentrator for both concentration and illumination. For concentration purposes, having a two mirror system would be impossible because the front mirror would block incoming light (see figure 2) so the idea is to replace the front mirror with a "one-way" mirror. Light from a lower index can be transmitted, so if the aplanat surface is a higher index light is allowed to enter, and be trapped. In the Jellyfish design, TIR takes place except for light striking the surface within the range of critical angles. To combat that, a small area of reflective coating is applied to the central top part of the Jellyfish, where TIR fails (In the middle) to keep the light there from directly escaping (see figure 3). The design works in both forwards and reverse. Light entering can be focused to a collecter, or the collecter can be replaced with a light source to concentrate light out. In this case, LEDs are used for their highly efficienct properties.

  7. Factors that led to the Walkerton tragedy.

    PubMed

    Salvadori, Marina I; Sontrop, Jessica M; Garg, Amit X; Moist, Louise M; Suri, Rita S; Clark, William F

    2009-02-01

    In May 2000, bacterial contamination of municipal water in Walkerton, Ontario, resulted in the worst public health disaster involving municipal water in Canadian history. At least seven people died and 2300 became ill. A public inquiry led by judge Dennis O'Connor examined the events and delineated the causes of the outbreak, including physical causes, the role of the public utilities operators, the public utilities commissioners, the Ministry of the Environment (MOE), and the provincial government. Improper practices and systemic fraudulence by the public utility operators, the recent privatization of municipal water testing, the absence of criteria governing quality of testing, and the lack of provisions made for notification of results to multiple authorities all contributed to the crisis. The MOE noted significant concerns 2 years before the outbreak; however, no changes resulted because voluntary guidelines as opposed to legally binding regulations governed water safety. The inquiry concluded that budgetary restrictions introduced by the provincial government 4 years before the outbreak were enacted with no assessment of risk to human health. The ministers and the cabinet had received warnings about serious risks. Budgetary cuts destroyed the checks and balances that were necessary to ensure municipal water safety.

  8. Transcriptomic Profiling of Soybean in Response to High-Intensity UV-B Irradiation Reveals Stress Defense Signaling.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Min Young; Kim, Moon Young; Shim, Sangrae; Kim, Kyung Do; Ha, Jungmin; Shin, Jin Hee; Kang, Sungtaeg; Lee, Suk-Ha

    2016-01-01

    The depletion of the ozone layer in the stratosphere has led to a dramatic spike in ultraviolet B (UV-B) intensity and increased UV-B light levels. The direct absorption of high-intensity UV-B induces complex abiotic stresses in plants, including excessive light exposure, heat, and dehydration. However, UV-B stress signaling mechanisms in plants including soybean (Glycine max [L.]) remain poorly understood. Here, we surveyed the overall transcriptional responses of two soybean genotypes, UV-B-sensitive Cheongja 3 and UV-B-resistant Buseok, to continuous UV-B irradiation for 0 (control), 0.5, and 6 h using RNA-seq analysis. Homology analysis using UV-B-related genes from Arabidopsis thaliana revealed differentially expressed genes (DEGs) likely involved in UV-B stress responses. Functional classification of the DEGs showed that the categories of immune response, stress defense signaling, and reactive oxygen species (ROS) metabolism were over-represented. UV-B-resistant Buseok utilized phosphatidic acid-dependent signaling pathways (based on subsequent reactions of phospholipase C and diacylglycerol kinase) rather than phospholipase D in response to UV-B exposure at high fluence rates, and genes involved in its downstream pathways, such as ABA signaling, mitogen-activated protein kinase cascades, and ROS overproduction, were upregulated in this genotype. In addition, the DEGs for TIR-NBS-LRR and heat shock proteins are positively activated. These results suggest that defense mechanisms against UV-B stress at high fluence rates are separate from the photomorphogenic responses utilized by plants to adapt to low-level UV light. Our study provides valuable information for deep understanding of UV-B stress defense mechanisms and for the development of resistant soybean genotypes that survive under high-intensity UV-B stress.

  9. Transcriptomic Profiling of Soybean in Response to High-Intensity UV-B Irradiation Reveals Stress Defense Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Yoon, Min Young; Kim, Moon Young; Shim, Sangrae; Kim, Kyung Do; Ha, Jungmin; Shin, Jin Hee; Kang, Sungtaeg; Lee, Suk-Ha

    2016-01-01

    The depletion of the ozone layer in the stratosphere has led to a dramatic spike in ultraviolet B (UV-B) intensity and increased UV-B light levels. The direct absorption of high-intensity UV-B induces complex abiotic stresses in plants, including excessive light exposure, heat, and dehydration. However, UV-B stress signaling mechanisms in plants including soybean (Glycine max [L.]) remain poorly understood. Here, we surveyed the overall transcriptional responses of two soybean genotypes, UV-B-sensitive Cheongja 3 and UV-B-resistant Buseok, to continuous UV-B irradiation for 0 (control), 0.5, and 6 h using RNA-seq analysis. Homology analysis using UV-B-related genes from Arabidopsis thaliana revealed differentially expressed genes (DEGs) likely involved in UV-B stress responses. Functional classification of the DEGs showed that the categories of immune response, stress defense signaling, and reactive oxygen species (ROS) metabolism were over-represented. UV-B-resistant Buseok utilized phosphatidic acid-dependent signaling pathways (based on subsequent reactions of phospholipase C and diacylglycerol kinase) rather than phospholipase D in response to UV-B exposure at high fluence rates, and genes involved in its downstream pathways, such as ABA signaling, mitogen-activated protein kinase cascades, and ROS overproduction, were upregulated in this genotype. In addition, the DEGs for TIR-NBS-LRR and heat shock proteins are positively activated. These results suggest that defense mechanisms against UV-B stress at high fluence rates are separate from the photomorphogenic responses utilized by plants to adapt to low-level UV light. Our study provides valuable information for deep understanding of UV-B stress defense mechanisms and for the development of resistant soybean genotypes that survive under high-intensity UV-B stress. PMID:28066473

  10. UV-laser ablation of sensory cells in living insects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fuhr, G.; Ronacher, B.; Krahe, R.; Fest, S.; Shirley, S. G.; Rogaschewski, S.

    An experimental set-up for applying pulsed UV-laser ablation to the integument of insects and the high precision of ablation is demonstrated. In order to test for possible detrimental effects on physiological responses, this technique was applied to the ears of migratory locust (Locusta migratoria L.). The handling of living insects, the survival, and physiological response after treatment are described. We selectively interrupted the d-receptor of the tympanal organ, which is the receptor system responsible for the locust's sensitivity in the high-frequency range (>10 kHz). The effects of the laser treatment were tested by determining hearing thresholds in electrophysiological recordings from the tympanal nerves. In agreement with the literature, the interruption of the d-receptors led to a significant shift towards higher values of the thresholds in the high-frequency range. Future perspectives and biological applications of UV-laser ablation are discussed.

  11. Photoreceptor spectral sensitivity of the compound eyes of black soldier fly (Hermetia illucens) informing the design of LED-based illumination to enhance indoor reproduction.

    PubMed

    Oonincx, D G A B; Volk, N; Diehl, J J E; van Loon, J J A; Belušič, G

    2016-12-01

    Mating in the black soldier fly (BSF) is a visually mediated behaviour that under natural conditions occurs in full sunlight. Artificial light conditions promoting mating by BSF were designed based on the spectral characteristics of the compound eye retina. Electrophysiological measurements revealed that BSF ommatidia contained UV-, blue- and green-sensitive photoreceptor cells, allowing trichromatic vision. An illumination system for indoor breeding based on UV, blue and green LEDs was designed and its efficiency was compared with illumination by fluorescent tubes which have been successfully used to sustain a BSF colony for five years. Illumination by LEDs and the fluorescent tubes yielded equal numbers of egg clutches, however, the LED illumination resulted in significantly more larvae. The possibilities to optimize the current LED illumination system to better approximate the skylight illuminant and potentially optimize the larval yield are discussed.

  12. Near UV Aerosol Group Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Torres, Omar

    2013-01-01

    2012-13 Report of research on aerosol and cloud remote sensing using UV observations. The document was presented at the 2013 AEROCENTER Annual Meeting held at the GSFC Visitors Center, May 31, 2013. The Organizers of the meeting are posting the talks to the public Aerocentr website, after the meeting.

  13. UV photobiochemistry under space conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dose, K.; Bieger-Dose, A.; Dillmann, R.; Gill, M.; Kerz, O.; Klein, A.; Stridde, C.

    The response of spores of Bacillus subtilis, cells of Deinococcus radiodurans and conidia of Aspergillus ochraceus to actual and simulated space conditions (UV in combination with long-term exposure to extremely dry conditions, including vacuum) has been studied: The following effects have been analyzed: decrease of viability, occurrence of DNA double strand breaks, formation of DNA-protein cross-links and DNA-DNA cross-links. All organisms show an increased sensitivity to UV light in extreme dryness (dry argon or vacuum) compared to an irradiation in aqueous suspension. The UV irradiation leads in all cases to a variety of DNA lesions. Very conspicuous is the occurrence of double strand breaks. Most of these double strand breaks are produced by incomplete repair of other lesions, especially base damages. The increase in DNA lesions can be correlated to the loss in viability. The specific response of the chromosomal DNA to UV irradiation in extreme dryness, however, varies from species to species and depends on the state of dehydration. The formation of DNA double strand breaks and DNA-protein cross-links prevails in the case of B. subtilis spores. In cells of Deinococcus radiodurans DNA-DNA cross-links often predominate, in conidia of Aspergillus ochraceus double strand breaks. The results obtained by direct exposure to space conditions (EURECA mission and D2 mission) largely agree with the laboratory data.

  14. UV Treatment for Small Systems

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Center for Environmental Education, Conservation and Research (CECIA) at InterAmerican University of Puerto Rico (IAUPR) has organized the 10th CECIA-IAUPR Biennial Symposium on Potable Water Issues in Puerto Rico. This presentation on UV Treatment for Small Systems will be ...

  15. UV-radiation in galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sil'Chenko, Olga K.

    2011-09-01

    I review the origin of UV-radiation in galaxies of different morphological types. UV-excess in spectra of massive elliptical galaxies which have predominantly old stellar populations is traditionally explained by the contribution of low-mass stars at very late, poorly known stages of evolution—by so called `AGB-manqué' stars or by the population of extended horizontal branch. However recent results from the GALEX survey of a large sample of nearby ellipticals have also demonstrated probable traces of recent star formation in a third of all ellipticals observed. In spiral galaxies extended UV-disks have been discovered by the GALEX; they are certainly illuminated by the current star formation, but what has provoked star formation in the areas of very low gas density, beyond the distribution of older stars, is a puzzle yet. The UV-spectra of starburst galaxies or starforming galactic nuclei are characterized by weak emission lines, if any, quite dissimilar to their optical spectra.

  16. Large Stereoscopic LED Display by Use of a Parallax Barrier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamamoto, Hirotsugu; Hayasaki, Yoshio; Nishida, Nobuo

    Since the development of high-brightness blue and green LEDs, the use of outdoor commercial LED displays has been increasing. Because of their high-brightness, good visibility, and long-term durability, LED displays are a preferred technology for outdoor installations such as stadiums, street advertising, and billboards. This chapter deals with a large stereoscopic full-color LED display using a parallax barrier. We discuss optimization of viewing areas, which depend on LED arrangements. Enlarged viewing areas have been demonstrated by using a three-in-one chip LED panel that has wider black regions than ordinary LED lamp cluster panels. We have developed a real-time system to measure a viewer's position and investigated the movements of viewers who watch different designs of stereoscopic LED displays, including conventional designs and designs to eliminate pseudoscopic viewing areas. The design of parallax barrier for plural viewers was utilized for a 140-inch stereoscopic LED display.

  17. Validating Community-Led Forest Biomass Assessments

    PubMed Central

    Venter, Michelle; Venter, Oscar; Edwards, Will; Bird, Michael I.

    2015-01-01

    The lack of capacity to monitor forest carbon stocks in developing countries is undermining global efforts to reduce carbon emissions. Involving local people in monitoring forest carbon stocks could potentially address this capacity gap. This study conducts a complete expert remeasurement of community-led biomass inventories in remote tropical forests of Papua New Guinea. By fully remeasuring and isolating the effects of 4,481 field measurements, we demonstrate that programmes employing local people (non-experts) can produce forest monitoring data as reliable as those produced by scientists (experts). Overall, non-experts reported lower biomass estimates by an average of 9.1%, equivalent to 55.2 fewer tonnes of biomass ha-1, which could have important financial implications for communities. However, there were no significant differences between forest biomass estimates of expert and non-expert, nor were there significant differences in some of the components used to calculate these estimates, such as tree diameter at breast height (DBH), tree counts and plot surface area, but were significant differences between tree heights. At the landscape level, the greatest biomass discrepancies resulted from height measurements (41%) and, unexpectedly, a few large missing trees contributing to a third of the overall discrepancies. We show that 85% of the biomass discrepancies at the tree level were caused by measurement taken on large trees (DBH ≥50cm), even though they consisted of only 14% of the stems. We demonstrate that programmes that engage local people can provide high-quality forest carbon data that could help overcome barriers to reducing forest carbon emissions in developing countries. Nonetheless, community-based monitoring programmes should prioritise reducing errors in the field that lead to the most important discrepancies, notably; overcoming challenges to accurately measure large trees. PMID:26126186

  18. Design of high power LED-based UVA emission system and a photosensitive substance for clinical application in corneal radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mota, Alessandro D.; Cestari, André M.; de Oliveira, André O.; Oliveira, Anselmo G.; Terruggi, Cristina H. B.; Rossi, Giuliano; Castro, Jarbas C.; Ligabô, João. P. B.; Ortega, Tiago A.; Rosa, Tiago

    2015-09-01

    This work presents an innovative cross-linking procedure to keratoconus treatment, a corneal disease. It includes the development of an ultraviolet controlled emission portable device based on LED source and a new formulation of a photosensitive drug called riboflavin. Thus new formulation improves drug administration by its transepithelial property. The UV reaction with riboflavin in corneal tissue leads to a modification of corneal collagen fibers, turning them more rigid and dense, and consequently restraining the advance of the disease. We present the control procedures to maintain UV output power stable up to 45mw/cm2, the optical architecture that leads to a homogeneous UV spot and the new formulation of Riboflavin.

  19. UV/chlorine process for ammonia removal and disinfection by-product reduction: comparison with chlorination.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xinran; Li, Weiguang; Blatchley, Ernest R; Wang, Xiaoju; Ren, Pengfei

    2015-01-01

    The combined application of UV irradiation at 254 nm and chlorination (UV/chlorine process) was investigated for ammonia removal in water treatment. The UV/chlorine process led to higher ammonia removal with less chlorine demand, as compared to breakpoint chlorination. Chlorination of NH₃ led to NH₂Cl formation in the first step. The photolysis of NH₂Cl and radical- mediated oxidation of ammonia appeared to represent the main pathways for ammonia removal. The trivalent nitrogen of ammonia was oxidized, presumably by reactions with aminyl radicals and chlorine radicals. Measured products included NO₃⁻and NO₂⁻; it is likely that N₂ and N₂O were also generated. In addition, UV irradiation appeared to have altered the reactivity of NOM toward free chlorine. The UV/chlorine process had lower chlorine demand, less C-DBPs (THMs and HAAs), but more HANs than chlorination. These results indicate that the UV/chlorine process could represent an alternative to conventional breakpoint chlorination for ammonia-containing water, with several advantages in terms of simplicity, short reaction time, and reduced chemical dosage.

  20. Transition from star-like to crew-cut micelles induced by UV radiation.

    PubMed

    Fayad, Samira Jamil; Minatti, Edson; Soldi, Valdir; Borsali, Redouane

    2014-02-15

    In the present article, the effect of UV on PS-b-PMMA micelles in solution is discussed. Micellar solutions of the amphiphilic poly(styrene-b-methylmethacrylate) block copolymer in selective solvent (methanol for the PMMA block) were exposed to UV radiation, which has simultaneously led to cross linking of the micellar core (PS) and degradation of the micellar corona (PMMA). The kinetics of such process were investigated in situ by means of dynamic light scattering, allowing the measurement of hydrodynamic radius as a function of UV exposure time. Results indicate that the size of micelles has decreased with UV exposure time down to a minimum value. Such reduced size resulted from PMMA degradation, which later promoted aggregation and coagulation because the micellar core was no longer well protected by PMMA. Addition of good solvent for both blocks (toluene) to non-UV exposed micelles has led to core swelling (PS) and, ultimately, system disassembly (free copolymer chain). The effect of adding toluene on the UV-exposed micelles has only caused core swelling as a consequence of the PS cross-linking.

  1. Radiation-damage-induced phasing: a case study using UV irradiation with light-emitting diodes.

    PubMed

    de Sanctis, Daniele; Zubieta, Chloe; Felisaz, Franck; Caserotto, Hugo; Nanao, Max H

    2016-03-01

    Exposure to X-rays, high-intensity visible light or ultraviolet radiation results in alterations to protein structure such as the breakage of disulfide bonds, the loss of electron density at electron-rich centres and the movement of side chains. These specific changes can be exploited in order to obtain phase information. Here, a case study using insulin to illustrate each step of the radiation-damage-induced phasing (RIP) method is presented. Unlike a traditional X-ray-induced damage step, specific damage is introduced via ultraviolet light-emitting diodes (UV-LEDs). In contrast to UV lasers, UV-LEDs have the advantages of small size, low cost and relative ease of use.

  2. UV collagen cross-linking of the cornea: safety aspects and design of a UV illumination system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bueeler, M.; Spoerl, E.; Seiler, T.; Mrochen, M.

    2008-02-01

    Cross-linking of the cornea is a new curative approach to re-increase the mechanical stability of corneal tissue that is progressively decreasing as a result of a corneal disease such as keratoconus or pellucid marginal degeneration. The new procedure might have the potential to reduce the need for invasive corneal transplantation. The aim of the treatment is to create additional chemical bonds inside the corneal stroma by means of a photopolymerizer and UV light at 365 nm. Two different potential damage mechanisms must be considered: the UV-irradiation alone and the action of the photochemically induced free radicals (photochemical damage). In this study damage thresholds from the literature were compared to the treatment parameters currently used in corneal cross-linking and aspects of the design of a UV illumination system for corneal cross-linking were discussed with respect to the safety of the procedure. It was shown that the currently used UVA dose density of 5.4 mJ/cm2 is below the known damage thresholds of UVA for the corneal endothelium, lens, and retina. All these safety considerations assume an optically homogeneous irradiation. Optical inhomogeneities such as hot spots may lead to localized supra-threshold irradiation with consecutive damage to the corneal endothelium which represents the most endangered structure. Some authors have used direct illumination of the cornea by means of UV-LEDs, which bares the risk of creating too high intensities. Therefore, clinically used light sources must guarantee a perfect homogeneity of the irradiance across the beam area. The illumination system presented here provides good homogeneity and shows a very high tolerance towards variations in treatment distance which was shown to cause dangerous hot spots when direct LED illumination is used.

  3. Tunable UV source for UV fluorescence remote sensing

    SciTech Connect

    Mead, R.D.; Lowenthal, D.D.; Raymond, T.D.; Alford, W.J.; Smith, A.V.; Johnson, M.S.

    1994-08-01

    Efficient generation of ultraviolet radiation tunable over the 240--410 nm range has been achieved in a system suitable for ultraviolet (uv) fluorescence remote sensing. Light from an Optical Parametric Oscillator/Amplifier turning in the 0.7--2.1 {mu}m range is mixed with the second or third harmonic from a Nd:YAG laser, to obtain up to 30 mJ of broadly tunable output in the ultraviolet.

  4. Integration of organic LEDs with inorganic LEDs for a hybrid lighting system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kong, H. J.; Park, J. W.; Kim, Y. M.

    2013-01-01

    We demonstrate that a surface-emitting hybrid light source can be realized by a combination of organic and inorganic light-emitting devices (LEDs). To this end, a blue inorganic LED bar is deployed at one side of a transparent light guide plate (LGP), and a yellow organic LED (OLED) is in contact with the rear surface of the LGP. In such a configuration, it is found that the overall luminance is almost equivalent to the sum of the luminances measured from each light source, and the overall luminance uniformity is determined mainly by the luminance uniformity of the OLED panel at high luminances. We have achieved a white color showing the Commission Internationale d'Eclairage (CIE) chromaticity coordinates of (x = 0.34, y = 0.33), the power efficiency of 9.3 lm/W, the luminance uniformity of 63% at the luminance of 3100 cd m-2, the color rendering index as high as 89.3, and the correlated color temperature finely tunable within the range between 3000 and 8000 K. Such a system facilitates color tuning by adjusting their luminous intensities and hence the implementation of the emotional lighting system.

  5. The response of human skin commensal bacteria as a reflection of UV radiation: UV-B decreases porphyrin production.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yanhan; Zhu, Wenhong; Shu, Muya; Jiang, Yong; Gallo, Richard L; Liu, Yu-Tsueng; Huang, Chun-Ming

    2012-01-01

    Recent global radiation fears reflect the urgent need for a new modality that can simply determine if people are in a radiation risk of developing cancer and other illnesses. Ultraviolet (UV) radiation has been thought to be the major risk factor for most skin cancers. Although various biomarkers derived from the responses of human cells have been revealed, detection of these biomarkers is cumbersome, probably requires taking live human tissues, and varies significantly depending on human immune status. Here we hypothesize that the reaction of Propionibacterium acnes (P. acnes), a human resident skin commensal, to UV radiation can serve as early surrogate markers for radiation risk because the bacteria are immediately responsive to radiation. In addition, the bacteria can be readily accessible and exposed to the same field of radiation as human body. To test our hypothesis, P. acnes was exposed to UV-B radiation. The production of porphyrins in P. acnes was significantly reduced with increasing doses of UV-B. The porphyrin reduction can be detected in both P. acnes and human skin bacterial isolates. Exposure of UV-B to P. acnes- inoculated mice led to a significant decrease in porphyrin production in a single colony of P. acnes and simultaneously induced the formation of cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers (CPD) in the epidermal layers of mouse skin. Mass spectrometric analysis via a linear trap quadrupole (LTQ)-Orbitrap XL showed that five peptides including an internal peptide (THLPTGIVVSCQNER) of a peptide chain release factor 2 (RF2) were oxidized by UV-B. Seven peptides including three internal peptides of 60 kDa chaperonin 1 were de-oxidized by UV-B. When compared to UV-B, gamma radiation also decreased the porphyrin production of P. acnes in a dose-dependent manner, but induced a different signature of protein oxidation/de-oxidation. We highlight that uncovering response of skin microbiome to radiation will facilitate the development of pre-symptomatic diagnosis

  6. The Response of Human Skin Commensal Bacteria as a Reflection of UV Radiation: UV-B Decreases Porphyrin Production

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yanhan; Zhu, Wenhong; Shu, Muya; Jiang, Yong; Gallo, Richard L.; Liu, Yu-Tsueng; Huang, Chun-Ming

    2012-01-01

    Recent global radiation fears reflect the urgent need for a new modality that can simply determine if people are in a radiation risk of developing cancer and other illnesses. Ultraviolet (UV) radiation has been thought to be the major risk factor for most skin cancers. Although various biomarkers derived from the responses of human cells have been revealed, detection of these biomarkers is cumbersome, probably requires taking live human tissues, and varies significantly depending on human immune status. Here we hypothesize that the reaction of Propionibacterium acnes (P. acnes), a human resident skin commensal, to UV radiation can serve as early surrogate markers for radiation risk because the bacteria are immediately responsive to radiation. In addition, the bacteria can be readily accessible and exposed to the same field of radiation as human body. To test our hypothesis, P. acnes was exposed to UV-B radiation. The production of porphyrins in P. acnes was significantly reduced with increasing doses of UV-B. The porphyrin reduction can be detected in both P. acnes and human skin bacterial isolates. Exposure of UV-B to P. acnes- inoculated mice led to a significant decrease in porphyrin production in a single colony of P. acnes and simultaneously induced the formation of cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers (CPD) in the epidermal layers of mouse skin. Mass spectrometric analysis via a linear trap quadrupole (LTQ)-Orbitrap XL showed that five peptides including an internal peptide (THLPTGIVVSCQNER) of a peptide chain release factor 2 (RF2) were oxidized by UV-B. Seven peptides including three internal peptides of 60 kDa chaperonin 1 were de-oxidized by UV-B. When compared to UV-B, gamma radiation also decreased the porphyrin production of P. acnes in a dose-dependent manner, but induced a different signature of protein oxidation/de-oxidation. We highlight that uncovering response of skin microbiome to radiation will facilitate the development of pre-symptomatic diagnosis

  7. Microorganisms in the Stratosphere (MIST): In-flight Sterilization with UVC Leds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wong, Gregory Michael; Smith, David J.

    2014-01-01

    The stratosphere (10 km to 50 km above sea level) is a unique place on Earth for astrobiological studies of microbes in extreme environments due to the combination of harsh conditions (high ultraviolet radiation, low pressure, desiccation, and low temperatures). Microorganisms in the Stratosphere (MIST) will attempt to characterize the diversity of microbes at these altitudes using a balloon collection device on a meteorological weather balloon. A major challenge of such an aerobiology study is the potential for ground contamination that makes it difficult to distinguish between collected microbes and contaminants. One solution is to use germicidal ultraviolet light emitting diodes (UV LEDs) to sterilize the collection strip. To use this solution, an optimal spatial arrangement of the lights had to be determined to ensure the greatest chance of complete sterilization within the 30 to 60 minute time of balloon ascent. A novel, 3D-printed test stand was developed to experimentally determine viable Bacillus pumilus SAFR-032 spore reduction after exposure to ultraviolet radiation at various times, angles, and distances. Taken together, the experimental simulations suggested that the UV LEDs on the MIST flight hardware should be active for at least 15 minutes and mounted within 4 cm of the illuminated surface at any angle to achieve optimal sterilization. These findings will aid in the production of the balloon collection device to ensure pristine stratospheric microbial samples are collected. Flight hardware capable of in-flight self-sterilization will enable future life detection missions to minimize both forward contamination and false positives.

  8. Development of substrate-removal-free vertical ultraviolet light-emitting diode (RefV-LED)

    SciTech Connect

    Kurose, N. Aoyagi, Y.; Shibano, K.; Araki, T.

    2014-02-15

    A vertical ultraviolet (UV) light-emitting diode (LED) that does not require substrate removal is developed. Spontaneous via holes are formed in n-AlN layer epitaxially grown on a high conductive n+Si substrate and the injected current flows directly from the p-electrode to high doped n{sup +} Si substrate through p-AlGaN, multi-quantum wells, n-AlGaN and spontaneous via holes in n-AlN. The spontaneous via holes were formed by controlling feeding-sequence of metal-organic gas sources and NH{sub 3} and growth temperature in MOCVD. The via holes make insulating n-AlN to be conductive. We measured the current-voltage, current-light intensity and emission characteristics of this device. It exhibited a built-in voltage of 3.8 V and emission was stated at 350 nm from quantum wells with successive emission centered at 400 nm. This UV LED can be produced, including formation of n and p electrodes, without any resist process.

  9. Improved wound healing in blue LED treated superficial abrasions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rossi, Francesca; Tatini, Francesca; Pini, Roberto; Bacci, Stefano; De Siena, Gaetano; Cicchi, Riccardo; Pavone, Francesco; Alfieri, Domenico

    2013-06-01

    A blue-LED photocoagulator device was designed in order to induce a selective photocoagulation effect in superficial bleeding. An in vivo study in rat back skin evidenced an improved healing process in the LED treated abrasions.

  10. UV and Optical Detectors: Status and Prospects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woodgate, Bruce; Oegerle, William (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    UV and visible detectors - status and prospects. The status and prospects for UV and visible detectors for space astrophysics missions will be described, based on the findings of the NASA working group roadmap report, hopefully updated.

  11. Genetics Home Reference: UV-sensitive syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... Facebook Share on Twitter Your Guide to Understanding Genetic Conditions Search MENU Toggle navigation Home Page Search ... Conditions Genes Chromosomes & mtDNA Resources Help Me Understand Genetics Home Health Conditions UV-sensitive syndrome UV-sensitive ...

  12. PULSED UV: REALITIES OF ENHANCED DISINFECTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Quantitative measurements of the light output from low pressure (LP), medium pressure (MP) and the pulsed UV lamps were made using calibrated spectrometry, chemical actinometry and biodosimetry approaches to compare their relative efficiency in producing germicidal UV energy. Fur...

  13. UV photodegradation of inorganic chloramines.

    PubMed

    Li, Jing; Blatchley, Ernest R

    2009-01-01

    The ultraviolet (UV) photolysis of monochloramine (NH2Cl), dichloramine (NHCl2), and trichloramine (NCl3) in aqueous solution was investigated at wavelengths of 222, 254, and 282 nm. All three chloramines can be degraded by UV irradiation, and the quantum yields for these processes are wavelength-dependent. Stable photoproducts include nitrite, nitrate, nitrous oxide, and ammonium. Solution pH was observed to have little effect on the rate of photodecay; however, the product distribution showed strong pH dependence. Nitrate formation was favored at low pH, while nitrite formation was favored at high pH. The effects of pH on formation of N2O and NH4+ were less clear. On the basis of the results, a mechanism of photodecay of monochloramine is proposed.

  14. Photorealistic rendering application to the design of LED flash lens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chern, Jyh-Long

    2012-10-01

    LED flash module becomes popular in current mobile communication devices, such as for the smart phones and tablet. As a lighting apparatus for image taking, photo rendering performance is crucial. We explore the LED flash lens design with a stress of photorealistic rendering application toward a high-performance LED flash illumination.

  15. Mapping Student-Led Peer Learning in the UK

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keenan, Chris

    2014-01-01

    Peer-led academic learning has increased in importance, but there is little sense of how many institutions support it, how they understand its purposes or what peer-led learning best practice is. This report examines the provision of peer-led learning in the UK. It identifies challenges and opportunities, including international perspectives and…

  16. EC-LEDS Supports the Low-Carbon Transition

    SciTech Connect

    2016-09-01

    EC-LEDS is a flagship U.S. government-led effort that assists countries to create and implement low emission development strategies, or LEDS -- development frameworks that promote sustainable social and economic development while reducing greenhouse gas emissions over the medium to long term.

  17. CALiPER Snapshot Report: Indoor LED Luminaires

    SciTech Connect

    2014-04-01

    Snapshot reports use data from DOE's LED Lighting Facts product list to compare the LED performance to standard technologies, and are designed to help lighting retailers, distributors, designers, utilities, energy efficiency program sponsors, and other stakeholders understand the current state of the LED market and its trajectory.

  18. LEDs: DOE Programs Add Credibility to a Developing Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conbere, Susan

    2009-01-01

    LED (light-emitting diode) technology is moving fast, and with justification, some facility managers have viewed it with a wary eye. Some LEDs on the market do not perform as promised, and the technology is changing rapidly. But new developments from the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) now make it easier for facility managers to find LEDs that…

  19. Computer-Based Experiment for Determining Planck's Constant Using LEDs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhou, Feng; Cloninger, Todd

    2008-01-01

    Visible light emitting diodes (LEDs) have been widely used as power indicators. However, after the power is switched off, it takes a while for the LED to go off. Many students were fascinated by this simple demonstration. In this paper, by making use of computer-based data acquisition and modeling, we show the voltage across the LED undergoing an…

  20. High Efficiency Driving Electronics for General Illumination LED Luminaires

    SciTech Connect

    Upadhyay, Anand

    2012-10-31

    New generation of standalone LED driver platforms developed, which are more efficient These LED Drivers are more efficient (≥90%), smaller in size ( 0.15 in3/watt), lower in cost ( 12 cents/watt in high volumes in millions of units). And these products are very reliable having an operating life of over 50,000 hours. This technology will enable growth of LED light sources in the use. This will also help in energy saving and reducing total life cycle cost of LED units. Two topologies selected for next generation of LED drivers: 1) Value engineered single stage Flyback topology. This is suitable for low powered LED drivers up to 50W power. 2) Two stage boost power factor correction (PFC) plus LLC half bridge platform for higher powers. This topology is suitable for 40W to 300W LED drivers. Three new product platforms were developed to cover a wide range of LED drivers: 1) 120V 40W LED driver, 2) Intellivolt 75W LED driver, & 3) Intellivolt 150W LED driver. These are standalone LED drivers for rugged outdoor lighting applications. Based on these platforms number of products are developed and successfully introduced in the market place meeting key performance, size and cost goals.

  1. UV SPECTRAL SYNTHESIS OF VEGA

    SciTech Connect

    Fitzpatrick, E. L.

    2010-12-20

    We show that the UV spectrum (1280-3200 A) of the 'superficially normal' A-star Vega, as observed by the International Ultraviolet Explorer (IUE) satellite at a resolution comparable to the star's rotational broadening width, can be fit remarkably well by a single-temperature synthetic spectrum based on LTE atmosphere models and a newly constructed UV line list. If Vega were a normal, equator-on, slow-rotating star, then its spectrum and our analysis would indicate a temperature of T{sub eff} {approx_equal}9550 K, surface gravity of log g {approx_equal}3.7, general surface metallicity of [m/H] {approx_equal}-0.5, and a microturbulence velocity of v{sub turb} {approx_equal}2.0 km s{sup -1}. Given its rapid rotation and nearly pole-on orientation, however, these parameters must be regarded as representing averages across the observed hemisphere. Modeling the complex UV line spectrum has allowed us to determine the specific surface abundances for 17 different chemical elements, including CNO, the light metals, and the iron group elements. The resultant abundance pattern agrees in general with previous results, although there is considerable scatter in the literature. Despite its peculiarities, Vega has turned out to provide a powerful test of the extent of our abilities to model the atmospheric properties of the early A-stars, particularly the detailed UV line spectrum. The value of the measurements from this pilot study will increase as this analysis is extended to more objects in the rich high-dispersion IUE data archive, including both normal and peculiar objects.

  2. European Conference on Atmospheric UV Radiation: Overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taalas, Petteri; Amanatidis, Georgios T.; Heikkilä, Anu

    2000-02-01

    Interest in atmospheric ultraviolet radiation (UV) research has increased considerably since the discovery of the Antarctic ozone "hole" and after indications of the existence of a similar kind of potential in northern high latitudes. UV measuring and research activities have grown accordingly, including development of new instruments, improvement in quality assurance/quality control methodologies, as well as development of models. Modeling methodologies have been applied for development of spaceborne techniques for estimating the global distribution of solar UV radiation. The European Conference on Atmospheric UV Radiation (ECUV), which was held on June 28 to July 2, 1998 in Helsinki, Finland, brought together 160 scientists from all parts of the world. The Journal of Geophysical Research (JGR) ECUV special issue summarizes 32 papers presented at the conference. New UV trend analyses based on spectral and broadband measurements and modeled UV data for the most recent decades indicate increases of UV-B radiation in various parts of Europe. Additional observational and modeled information on the impact of cloudiness, total ozone, ozone profiles, aerosols, and albedo on ground level UV irradiance has been gathered. The regional UV albedo has been studied over snow-covered surfaces, vegetation, and sea areas by aircraft-based, ground-based, and modeled methods. Further instrument development, improved QA/QC practices, and the application of data correction methods have already taken place but are also clearly needed in the future. Different methods for estimating UV irradiance using spaceborne information have been developed. Additional efforts to improve our understanding of the impact of cloudiness, albedo, and aerosol on UV are expected to improve spaceborne UV retrievals in the future. In Europe the European Commission and national funding agencies have been supporting research projects aimed at understanding the UV climatology in Europe through UV instrument

  3. Thymine auxotrophy is associated with increased UV sensitivity in Escherichia coli and Bacillus subtilis.

    PubMed

    Lojo, M M

    1995-06-01

    Thymine auxotrophy was shown to be associated with an increase in UV sensitivity both in Bacillus subtilis and in Escherichia coli. This UV sensitization became clearly evident in polA5 mutants of Bacillus subtilis: at UV doses of 16 J/m2, a reduction of more than 10-fold in the survivor population is observed in thymine requiring spontaneous mutants (polA5 thyA thyB) compared to the parental strains (polA5). Reversion of either thyA or thyB mutation led to a partial recovery in the UV resistance. This result suggests that DNA repair polymerization might be improved by the biosynthesis of thymidylate or some effect associated with such activity.

  4. UV irradiance and albedo at Union Glacier Camp (Antarctica): a case study.

    PubMed

    Cordero, Raul R; Damiani, Alessandro; Ferrer, Jorge; Jorquera, Jose; Tobar, Mario; Labbe, Fernando; Carrasco, Jorge; Laroze, David

    2014-01-01

    We report on the first spectral measurements of ultraviolet (UV) irradiance and the albedo at a Camp located in the southern Ellsworth Mountains on the broad expanse of Union Glacier (700 m altitude, 79° 46' S; 82° 52'W); about 1,000 km from the South Pole. The measurements were carried out by using a double monochromator-based spectroradiometer during a campaign (in December 2012) meant to weight up the effect of the local albedo on the UV irradiance. We found that the albedo measured at noon was about 0.95 in the UV and the visible part of the spectrum. This high surface reflectivity led to enhancements in the UV index under cloudless conditions of about 50% in comparison with snow free surfaces. Spectral measurements carried out elsewhere as well as estimates retrieved from the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) were used for further comparisons.

  5. UV Irradiance and Albedo at Union Glacier Camp (Antarctica): A Case Study

    PubMed Central

    Cordero, Raul R.; Damiani, Alessandro; Ferrer, Jorge; Jorquera, Jose; Tobar, Mario; Labbe, Fernando; Carrasco, Jorge; Laroze, David

    2014-01-01

    We report on the first spectral measurements of ultraviolet (UV) irradiance and the albedo at a Camp located in the southern Ellsworth Mountains on the broad expanse of Union Glacier (700 m altitude, 79° 46′ S; 82° 52′W); about 1,000 km from the South Pole. The measurements were carried out by using a double monochromator-based spectroradiometer during a campaign (in December 2012) meant to weight up the effect of the local albedo on the UV irradiance. We found that the albedo measured at noon was about 0.95 in the UV and the visible part of the spectrum. This high surface reflectivity led to enhancements in the UV index under cloudless conditions of about 50% in comparison with snow free surfaces. Spectral measurements carried out elsewhere as well as estimates retrieved from the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) were used for further comparisons. PMID:24598906

  6. UV Tanning Equipment | Radiation Protection | US EPA

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    2016-05-18

    Sun lamps and tanning equipment emit ultraviolet (UV) rays. People who are exposed to UV rays over a long period of time are more likely to develop skin cancer. People with light skin are in more danger because their skin is more sensitive to UV rays.

  7. Photolytic degradation of sulfamethoxazole and trimethoprim using UV-A, UV-C and vacuum-UV (VUV).

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyun Young; Kim, Tae-Hun; Yu, Seungho

    2015-01-01

    The photolytic degradation of the non-degradable pharmaceuticals sulfamethoxazole (SMX) and trimethoprim (TMP) in an aqueous solution was investigated using three kinds of low-pressure mercury lamp UV-A (352 nm), UV-C (254 nm), and vacuum-UV (VUV, 185 nm and 254 nm). The degradation rates were highly dependent on the target compounds as well as the UV sources. No degradation of the target compounds was observed using UV-A treatment, because there was no overlap between the UV-A emission spectrum and absorption spectrum of the target compounds. On the other hand, UVC and VUV revealed higher reactivity. The results also indicated that SMX had a greater potential to react photochemically than TMP. Among the UV sources, VUV was the most effective process for the degradation of target compounds. Furthermore, the addition of oxidants such as hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and sodium persulfate (Na2S2O8) to the reaction system improved the overall degradation rate significantly.The experimental results for the VUV-irradiated samples with the addition of methanol as a hydroxyl radical scavenger revealed that hydroxyl radicals contribute significantly to the elimination of the target compound. Overall, the degradation rate of the target compounds was in the order: VUV = UV-C > UV-A for sulfamethoxazole and VUV/H2O2 > VUV/ Na2S2O8 > VUV >UV-C >UV-A for trimethoprim.

  8. Optimizing Structure of LED Light Bulb for Heat Transfer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kobayashi, T.; Itami, D.; Hashimoto, R.; Takashina, T.; Kanematsu, H.; Mizuta, K.; Utsumi, Y.

    2013-04-01

    In this paper, in order to optimize the heat transfer structure of LED light bulb, the effects of various parameters on the temperature of the LED device were systematically analyzed, and a design guideline was shown. Although LED device has become popular due to its high-efficiency and long life, the design issues on the heat transfer structure of LED light bulbs has still remained. Because the original efficiency and life of the LED device can not be obtained due to the local temperature rise of LED element and the surrounding polymer molding material. Therefore, heat transfer analysis by finite element method was conducted systematically by changing parameters such as the shape, number and thickness of the radiating fin of the LED. As a result, advantage of open type structure was shown, and the proper design guidance for the structure of the fin shape was obtained.

  9. [Study of achieving white organic LED by fluorescence dye].

    PubMed

    Wang, Jin; Wang, Jing; Zheng, Rong-er; Meng, Ji-wu

    2005-08-01

    Some hybrid organic LEDs are made by using fluorescence dye and InGaN blue-light chip and the possibility of achieving white organic LED is investigated according to light conversion theory. Firstly, the LEDs made by normal method and double-dotting glue method are studied. It is found that the double-dotting glue method is too complex and the LEDs made by this way is low-luminance, so it isn't fit to make LED. Secondly the different weight ratio of 1/1/100, 1/1/200, 2/1.5/100 ax-17/zq-13/AB LEDs are manufactured. The 2/1.5/100 LED's color coordinate is (0.32, 0.30), approaching to white point and the correlative color temperature is 6290K which is close to sunlight. So it is a relatively ideal white lamp-house.

  10. LED power reduction trade-offs for ambulatory pulse oximetry.

    PubMed

    Peláez, Eduardo Aguilar; Villegas, Esther Rodríguez

    2007-01-01

    The development of ambulatory arterial pulse oximetry is key to longer term monitoring and treatment of cardiovascular and respiratory conditions. The investigation presented in this paper will assist the designer of an ambulatory pulse oximetry monitor in minimizing the overall LED power consumption (P LED,TOT) levels by analyzing the lowest achievable limit as constrained by the optical components, circuitry implementation and final SpO2 reading accuracy required. LED duty cycle (D LED) reduction and light power (P LED,ON) minimization are proposed as methods to reduce P LED,TOT. Bandwidth and signal quality calculations are carried out in order to determine the required P LED,TOT as a function of the different noise sources.

  11. Photoluminescent carbon quantum dots as a directly film-forming phosphor towards white LEDs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Feng; Feng, Xiaoting; Zhang, Yi; Yan, Lingpeng; Yang, Yongzhen; Liu, Xuguang

    2016-04-01

    Photoluminescent organosilane-functionalized carbon quantum dots (CQDs), 3.0-3.5 nm in diameter, were synthesized via a facile hydrothermal method using citric acid monohydrate as a precursor and N-(3-(trimethoxysilyl) propyl) ethylenediamine as a coordinating and passivation agent. The optical properties of the as-obtained CQDs were investigated in detail. The CQD aqueous solution emits bright blue-white light under ultraviolet (UV) illumination with a quantum yield of 57.3% and high red-green-blue (RGB) spectral composition of 60.1%, and in particular the CQDs exhibit excitation-independent photoluminescence. The CQDs have a narrow size distribution around 3.1 nm and good film-forming ability through simple heat-treatment. By virtue of these excellent optical characteristics and good film-forming ability, a white light-emitting device (LED) was fabricated by combining a UV-LED chip with a single CQD phosphor film, which exhibited cool white light with a CIE coordinate of (0.31, 0.36), a color rendering index of 84 and a correlated color temperature of 6282 K. In addition, the white LED exhibits good optical stability under various working currents and for different working time intervals. Moreover, the interaction between the carbogenic core and surface groups was discussed using the DMol3 program based on density functional theory. This research suggests the great potential of CQDs for solid-state lighting systems and reveals the effect of the surface state on the photoluminescent mechanism of CQDs.

  12. Photoluminescent carbon quantum dots as a directly film-forming phosphor towards white LEDs.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Feng; Feng, Xiaoting; Zhang, Yi; Yan, Lingpeng; Yang, Yongzhen; Liu, Xuguang

    2016-04-28

    Photoluminescent organosilane-functionalized carbon quantum dots (CQDs), 3.0-3.5 nm in diameter, were synthesized via a facile hydrothermal method using citric acid monohydrate as a precursor and N-(3-(trimethoxysilyl) propyl) ethylenediamine as a coordinating and passivation agent. The optical properties of the as-obtained CQDs were investigated in detail. The CQD aqueous solution emits bright blue-white light under ultraviolet (UV) illumination with a quantum yield of 57.3% and high red-green-blue (RGB) spectral composition of 60.1%, and in particular the CQDs exhibit excitation-independent photoluminescence. The CQDs have a narrow size distribution around 3.1 nm and good film-forming ability through simple heat-treatment. By virtue of these excellent optical characteristics and good film-forming ability, a white light-emitting device (LED) was fabricated by combining a UV-LED chip with a single CQD phosphor film, which exhibited cool white light with a CIE coordinate of (0.31, 0.36), a color rendering index of 84 and a correlated color temperature of 6282 K. In addition, the white LED exhibits good optical stability under various working currents and for different working time intervals. Moreover, the interaction between the carbogenic core and surface groups was discussed using the DMol(3) program based on density functional theory. This research suggests the great potential of CQDs for solid-state lighting systems and reveals the effect of the surface state on the photoluminescent mechanism of CQDs.

  13. UV-accelerated test based on analysis of field-exposed PV modules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shioda, T.

    2011-09-01

    We proposed an UV accelerated test condition for an EVA encapsulant, based on analysis of long term field exposed PV modules. We found that strong UV irradiation into EVA encapsulant test sample led to the fast decomposition of UV absorber formulated in EVA encapsulant, which has never seen in the field exposed PV modules. Thus, the integrating UV intensity of 60 W/m2 and black panel temperature of 110°C using a xenon weather-o-meter were suitable as an UV accelerated test condition. With this proposed test condition, which shows that 1 week exposure by xenon light corresponds to 1 year field exposure, we can predict discoloration rate of EVA encapsulant. In addition, we evaluated change in peel strength to glass for Mitsui's and the other commercially available EVA encapsulants during UV accelerated test with the proposed condition. There was no large change in peel strength for our EVA encapsulant during the UV accelerated test. On the other hand, we observed that the competitor's EVA encapsulant showed the large decrease of peel strength to glass at early stage, even no change in yellowness index (YI). This result indicates not only YI change but also peel strength change should be evaluated for design of reliable PV module and encapsulant.

  14. Increased lumens per etendue by combining pulsed LEDs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murat, Hueseyin; De Smet, Herbert; Cuypers, Dieter; Meuret, Youri; Thienpont, Hugo; Vervaeke, Michael; Desmet, Lieven

    2005-04-01

    Led based projectors have numerous advantages compared to traditional projectors, such as: compact, larger color gamut, longer lifetime, lower supply voltage, etc. As LED's can switch rapidly, there is the possibility to pulse. However, there is also an important disadvantage. The optical power per unit of etendue of a LED is significantly lower than e.g. an UHP-lamp (approximately 50 times). This problem can be remedied partly by pulsing of the LED"s. If one drives a LED with a pulsed current source, the peak luminance can be higher, albeit that the average luminance will not increase. By pulsing X LED's alternately, their increased flux can be added up in time and will generate a higher average flux within the same etendue. This can be carried out in a number of different configurations. The first configuration uses moving components where a number of LED's (e.g. 8) are mounted on a carrousel and consecutively the pulsed LED is brought in the light path of the projector to fill up the time with its peak flux. An alternative without moving components can be reached with 2 LED's which are combined with a PBS. By alternately pulsing the LED's with 50% duty cycle and changing the polarisation of one LED with a switchable retarder, one can combine the flux of both LED's in the same etendue. Because of its fast switching time ferro-electric retarders are used here. This can be extended further to 4,8,16... LED's, at the price of a larger and more complicated optical architecture.

  15. IR/UV and UV/UV double-resonance study of guaiacol and eugenol dimers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Longarte, Asier; Redondo, Carolina; Fernández, José A.; Castaño, Fernando

    2005-04-01

    Guaiacol (2-methoxyphenol) and eugenol (4-allyl-2-methoxyphenol) molecules are biologically active phenol derivatives with an intramolecular -OH⋯OCH3 hydrogen bond (H bond). Pulsed supersonic expansions of mixtures of either of the two molecules with He yield weakly bound homodimers as well as other higher-order complexes. A number of complementary and powerful laser spectroscopic techniques, including UV-UV and IR-UV double resonances, have been employed to interrogate the species formed in the expansion in order to get information on their structures and spectroscopic properties. The interpretation of the spectra of eugenol dimer is complex and required a previous investigation on a similar but simpler molecule both to gain insight into the possible structures and support the conclusions. Guaiacol (2-methoxyphenol) has been used for that purpose. The combination of the broad laser study combined with ab initio calculations at the Becke 3 Lee-Yang-Parr/6-31+G(d) level has provided the isomer structures, the potential-energy wells, and shed light on the inter- and intramolecular interactions involved. Guaiacol homodimer has been shown to have a single isomer whereas eugenol dimer has at least two. The comparison between the computed geometries of the dimers, their respective energies, and the vibrational normal modes permits the identification of the spectra.

  16. UV blocking filters for polymeric films

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rayl, G. J.

    1979-01-01

    The concept of incorporating UV screening agents in silicone resins as a means of protecting underlying solar cell covers and adhesives from UV degradation is presented. A silicone hard-coat resin incorporating a UV screening agent was selected as a suitable coating material for PFA Teflon solar cell covers. Consideration is given to fabrication procedures and techniques for introduction of the UV screening agents into silicone resins and application of these UV-inhibited coatings to the Teflons. Some preliminary environmental tests, such as thermal shock and temperature humidity, were conducted.

  17. Benzotriazole UV-stabilizers and benzotriazole: Antiandrogenic activity in vitro and activation of aryl hydrocarbon receptor pathway in zebrafish eleuthero-embryos.

    PubMed

    Fent, Karl; Chew, Geraldine; Li, Jun; Gomez, Elena

    2014-06-01

    Benzotriazole UV-stabilizers (BUVs) are applied in materials for protection against UV-irradiation. They are widely used, bioaccumulate and share structural similarities to benzotriazole. Benzotriazole (1HBT) finds application as corrosion inhibitor in dishwashing detergents, antifreeze (vehicles) and aircraft de-icing agent. BUVs and 1HBT are persistent and ubiquitous in the aquatic environment, but there is little understanding of the ecotoxicological implications. Here, we comparatively analyze the hormonal activity in vitro and effects in zebrafish eleuthero-embryos in vivo. 2-(2-Hydroxy-5-methylphenyl)benzotriazole (UV-P), 2-(3-t-butyl-2-hydroxy-5-methylphenyl)-5-chlorobenzotriazole (UV-326), UV-327, UV-328, UV-329 and UV-320 showed no estrogenicity (YES assay) and androgenicity (YAS assay). However, UV-P and 1HBT showed significant antiandrogenic activity. We assessed the transcription profiles of up to 26 genes associated with different toxicological pathways in zebrafish eleuthero-embryos to elucidate potential modes of action of UV-P, UV-326 and 1HBT. Embryos were experimentally exposed for 144hpf to three measured concentrations of 15.8, 70.8, and 690μg/L UV-P, 7.5, 31.7, and 84.3μg/L UV-326 and 7.9, 97.3 and 1197.3μg/L 1HBT. Among the 26 transcripts, the induction of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) pathway by UV-P and UV-326 was the most significant finding. UV-P led to dose-related induction of AHR1, ARNT2 and cyp1a1, as well as of phase II enzymes glutathione-S-transferase (gstp1) and ugt1a. UV-326 led to a significant induction of cyp1a1 and AHR2, but down-regulation of gstp1 at 84μg/L. Only little transcriptional alterations occurred in genes related to apoptosis, oxidative stress, hormone receptors, and steroidogenesis including aromatase. 1HBT led to only a few expressional changes at 1197μg/L. Our data lead to the conclusion that UV-P and UV-326 activate the AHR-pathway, whereas 1HBT shows only little transcriptional alterations. It

  18. UV irradiation responses in Giardia intestinalis.

    PubMed

    Einarsson, Elin; Svärd, Staffan G; Troell, Karin

    2015-07-01

    The response to ultraviolet light (UV) radiation, a natural stressor to the intestinal protozoan parasite Giardia intestinalis, was studied to deepen the understanding of how the surrounding environment affects the parasite during transmission. UV radiation at 10 mJ/cm(2) kills Giardia cysts effectively whereas trophozoites and encysting parasites can recover from UV treatment at 100 mJ/cm(2) and 50 mJ/cm(2) respectively. Staining for phosphorylated histone H2A showed that UV treatment induces double-stranded DNA breaks and flow cytometry analyses revealed that UV treatment of trophozoites induces DNA replication arrest. Active DNA replication coupled to DNA repair could be an explanation to why UV light does not kill trophozoites and encysting cells as efficiently as the non-replicating cysts. We also examined UV-induced gene expression responses in both trophozoites and cysts using RNA sequencing (RNA seq). UV radiation induces small overall changes in gene expression in Giardia but cysts show a stronger response than trophozoites. Heat shock proteins, kinesins and Nek kinases are up-regulated, whereas alpha-giardins and histones are down-regulated in UV treated trophozoites. Expression of variable surface proteins (VSPs) is changed in both trophozoites and cysts. Our data show that Giardia cysts have limited ability to repair UV-induced damage and this may have implications for drinking- and waste-water treatment when setting criteria for the use of UV disinfection to ensure safe water.

  19. Diurnal changes in epidermal UV transmittance of plants in naturally high UV environments.

    PubMed

    Barnes, Paul W; Flint, Stephan D; Slusser, James R; Gao, Wei; Ryel, Ronald J

    2008-06-01

    Studies were conducted on three herbaceous plant species growing in naturally high solar UV environments in the subalpine of Mauna Kea, Hawaii, USA, to determine if diurnal changes in epidermal UV transmittance (T(UV)) occur in these species, and to test whether manipulation of the solar radiation regime could alter these diurnal patterns. Additional field studies were conducted at Logan, Utah, USA, to determine if solar UV was causing diurnal T(UV) changes and to evaluate the relationship between diurnal changes in T(UV) and UV-absorbing pigments. Under clear skies, T(UV), as measured with a UV-A-pulse amplitude modulation fluorometer for leaves of Verbascum thapsus and Oenothera stricta growing in native soils and Vicia faba growing in pots, was highest at predawn and sunset and lowest at midday. These patterns in T(UV) closely tracked diurnal changes in solar radiation and were the result of correlated changes in fluorescence induced by UV-A and blue radiation but not photochemical efficiency (F(v)/F(m)) or initial fluorescence yield (F(o)). The magnitude of the midday reduction in T(UV) was greater for young leaves than for older leaves of Verbascum. Imposition of artificial shade eliminated the diurnal changes in T(UV) in Verbascum, but reduction in solar UV had no effect on diurnal T(UV) changes in Vicia. In Vicia, the diurnal changes in T(UV) occurred without detectable changes in the concentration of whole-leaf UV-absorbing compounds. Results suggest that plants actively control diurnal changes in UV shielding, and these changes occur in response to signals other than solar UV; however, the underlying mechanisms responsible for rapid changes in T(UV) remain unclear.

  20. Optical design of LED-based automotive headlamps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Xiangbing; Zhu, Qian; Wu, Han; Chen, Chun

    2013-02-01

    In order to solve the problem of high cost and low optical efficiency of current LED-based headlamps, we introduced a new optical design approach for LED-based automotive headlamps. In this configuration, 48 pieces of LEDs are used to build a LED array and the measuring screen is divided into multiple blocks to allow each LED to illuminate a block. A kind of secondary optical lens for a single LED is used so that the lights radiated from a single LED can form a rectangular beam region, whose optical efficiency is above 85% in theory. Lighting up different LEDs can illuminate different blocks, so as to realize low-beam and high-beam lighting. Ray tracing simulation results fulfill the low-beam and high-beam optical demands of the regulation. Since low-power LEDs need no additional reflectors, cost lower and obtain higher efficiency than high-power LEDs, this configuration achieves high reliability installation and can partially realize the functions of Adaptive Front-Lighting System (AFS).

  1. LED light engine concept with ultra-high scalable luminance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoelen, Christoph; de Boer, Dick; Bruls, Dominique; van der Eyden, Joost; Koole, Rolf; Li, Yun; Mirsadeghi, Mo; Vanbroekhoven, Vincent; Van den Bergh, John-John; Van de Voorde, Patrick

    2016-03-01

    Although LEDs have been introduced successfully in many general lighting applications during the past decade, high brightness light source applications are still suffering from the limited luminance of LEDs. High power LEDs are generally limited in luminance to ca 100 Mnit (108 lm/m2sr) or less, while dedicated devices for projection may achieve luminance values up to ca 300 Mnit with phosphor converted green. In particular for high luminous flux applications with limited étendue, like in front projection systems, only very modest luminous flux values in the beam can be achieved with LEDs compared to systems based on discharge lamps. In this paper we introduce a light engine concept based on a light converter rod pumped with blue LEDs that breaks through the étendue and brightness limits of LEDs, enabling LED light source luminance values that are more than 4 times higher than what can be achieved with LEDs so far. In LED front projection systems, green LEDs are the main limiting factor. With our green light emitting modules, peak luminance values well above 1.2 Gnit have been achieved, enabling doubling of the screen brightness of LED based DLP projection systems, and even more when this technology is applied to other colors as well. This light source concept, introduced as the ColorSpark High Lumen Density (HLD) LED technology, enables a breakthrough in the performance of LED-based light engines not only for projection, where >2700 ANSI lm was demonstrated, but for a wide variety of high brightness applications.

  2. [Progress in the research on silicon-nitrogen based phosphor for white LED].

    PubMed

    Xu, Guo-Tang; Liang, Pei; Wang, Le; Dong, Qian-Min; Liu, Yang; Li, Xiao-Yan

    2013-11-01

    With the rapid development of white LED technology, the traditional YAG : Ce3+ phosphor is difficult to meet the requirement due to the low color rendering and high color temperature. Using ultraviolet chip to stimulate the tri-phosphor has become an effective way for white LED, and it is urgent to develop novel tri-phosphor with high-performance, especially for red light-emitting materials. Silicon-nitrogen based compounds contain the network structure composed of SiN4 tetrahedron, with higher chemical and thermal stability. Because of their diversity structures, these phosphors have a higher absorption efficiency in UV-blue region, and also, with the change of substrate and active ion, emission spectrum will cover the entire visible region, resulting in a higher light conversion efficiency and light color stability, coupled with the advantages of being not sensitive to the changes in temperature and drive current, etc. These studies will have a far-reaching impact on the development of white LED. In the present paper, we introduce the preparation and latest progress of silicon-nitrogen based phosphor, including the crystal structure, spectroscopic properties and application characteristics.

  3. White emitting polyfluorene functionalized with azide hybridized on near-UV light emitting diode for high color rendering index.

    PubMed

    Huyal, Ilkem Ozge; Ozel, Tuncay; Koldemir, Unsal; Nizamoglu, Sedat; Tuncel, Donus; Demir, Hilmi Volkan

    2008-01-21

    We develop and demonstrate high-quality white light generation that relies on the use of a single-type simple conjugated polymer of polyfluorene functionalized with azide groups (PFA) integrated on a near-UV LED platform. The high-quality white emission from the polyfluorene is achieved by using the azide functionalization to facilitate cross-linking intentionally when cast into solid-state form. Hybridized on n-UV InGaN/GaN LED at 378 nm, the PFA emitters collectively generate a very broad down-converting photoluminescence at longer wavelengths across the entirety of the visible spectrum, yielding high color rendering indices up to 91.

  4. Comparative effect of simulated solar light, UV, UV/H2O2 and photo-Fenton treatment (UV-Vis/H2O2/Fe2+,3+) in the Escherichia coli inactivation in artificial seawater.

    PubMed

    Rubio, D; Nebot, E; Casanueva, J F; Pulgarin, C

    2013-10-15

    Innovative disinfection technologies are being studied for seawater, seeking a viable alternative to chlorination. This study proposes the use of H2O2/UV254 and photo-Fenton as disinfection treatment in seawater. The irradiations were carried out using a sunlight simulator (Suntest) and a cylindrical UV reactor. The efficiency of the treatment was compared for Milli-Q water, Leman Lake water and artificial seawater. The presence of bicarbonates and organic matter was investigated in order to evaluate possible effects on the photo-Fenton disinfection treatment. The photo-Fenton treatment, employing 1 mg L(-1) Fe(2+) and 10 mg L(-1) of H2O2, led to the fastest bacterial inactivation kinetics. Using H2O2/UV254 high disinfection rates were obtained similar to those obtained with photo-Fenton under UV254 light. In Milli-Q water, the rate of inactivation for Escherichia coli was higher than in Leman Lake water and seawater due to the lack of inorganic ions affecting negatively bacteria inactivation. The presence of bicarbonate showed scavenging of the OH(•) radicals generated in the treatment of photo-Fenton and H2O2/UV254. Despite the negative effect of inorganic ions, especially HCO3(-), the disinfection treatments with AOPs in lake water and seawater improved significantly the disinfection compared to light alone (simulated sunlight and UV254). In the treatment of photo-Fenton with simulated sunlight, dissolved organic matter had a beneficial effect by increasing the rate of inactivation. This is associated with the formation of Fe(3+)-organo photosensitive complexes leading to the formation of ROS able to inactivate bacteria. This effect was not observed in the photo-Fenton with UV254. Growth of E. coli surviving in seawater was observed 24 and 48 h after treatment with UV light. However, growth of surviving bacteria was not detected after photo-Fenton with UV254 and H2O2/UV254 treatments. This study suggests H2O2/UV254 and photo-Fenton treatments for the

  5. On the application of CaF2:Eu and SrF2:Eu phosphors in LED based phototherapy lamp

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belsare, P. D.; Moharil, S. V.; Joshi, C. P.; Omanwar, S. K.

    2013-06-01

    In the last few years the interest of scientific community has been increased towards solid state lighting based on LEDs because of their superior advantages over the conventional fluorescent lamps. As the GaN based LEDs are easily available efforts of the researchers are now on making the new phosphors which are excitable in the near UV region (360-400nm) for solid state lighting. This paper reports the photoluminescence characteristics of CaF2:Eu and SrF2:Eu phosphor prepared by wet chemical method. The violet emission of these phosphors with near UV excitation can be useful in making a phototherapy lamp based on LEDs for treating various skin diseases like acne vulgaris and hyperbilirubinemia.

  6. Temporal variation of optimal UV exposure time over Korea: risks and benefits of surface UV radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Y. G.; Koo, J. H.

    2015-12-01

    Solar UV radiation in a wavelength range between 280 to 400 nm has both positive and negative influences on human body. Surface UV radiation is the main natural source of vitamin D, providing the promotion of bone and musculoskeletal health and reducing the risk of a number of cancers and other medical conditions. However, overexposure to surface UV radiation is significantly related with the majority of skin cancer, in addition other negative health effects such as sunburn, skin aging, and some forms of eye cataracts. Therefore, it is important to estimate the optimal UV exposure time, representing a balance between reducing negative health effects and maximizing sufficient vitamin D production. Previous studies calculated erythemal UV and vitamin-D UV from the measured and modelled spectral irradiances, respectively, by weighting CIE Erythema and Vitamin D3 generation functions (Kazantzidis et al., 2009; Fioletov et al., 2010). In particular, McKenzie et al. (2009) suggested the algorithm to estimate vitamin-D production UV from erythemal UV (or UV index) and determined the optimum conditions of UV exposure based on skin type Ⅱ according to the Fitzpatrick (1988). Recently, there are various demands for risks and benefits of surface UV radiation on public health over Korea, thus it is necessary to estimate optimal UV exposure time suitable to skin type of East Asians. This study examined the relationship between erythemally weighted UV (UVEry) and vitamin D weighted UV (UVVitD) over Korea during 2004-2012. The temporal variations of the ratio (UVVitD/UVEry) were also analyzed and the ratio as a function of UV index was applied in estimating the optimal UV exposure time. In summer with high surface UV radiation, short exposure time leaded to sufficient vitamin D and erythema and vice versa in winter. Thus, the balancing time in winter was enough to maximize UV benefits and minimize UV risks.

  7. An overview of LED applications for general illumination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pelka, David G.; Patel, Kavita

    2003-11-01

    This paper begins by reviewing the current state of development of LEDs, their existing markets as well as their potential for energy conservation and their potential for gaining market share in the general illumination market. It discusses LED metrics such as chip size, lumens per watt, thermal resistance, and the recommended maximum current rating. The paper then goes on to consider the importance of non-imaging optics for both optically efficient and extremely compact LED lighting systems. Finally, microstructures useful for controlling the fields-of-view of LED lighting systems are considered and described in some detail. An extremely efficient and cost effective microstructure, called kinoform diffusers, is shown to have very unique properties that make this technology almost ideal for shaping the output beams of LED lighting systems. It concludes by illustrating some general illumination LED lighting systems

  8. Interior LED Lighting Technology. Navy Energy Technology Validation (Techval) Program

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-09-01

    lamps. What is the Technology? An LED is a semiconductor- diode that emits light when power is applied. A driver is used, much as a ballast, to...Approved for public release: distribution unlimited TDS-NAVFAC EXWC-PW-1601 Sep 2015 Interior LED Lighting Technology Navy Energy...NAVFAC EXWC) to determine the potential energy savings for Interior LED lighting technology in office environments. NAVAFAC EXWC concluded that

  9. Effect of LED lamping on the chlorophylls of leaf mustard

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Shiqiang; Zhu, Liang; Zhao, Fuli; Yang, Bowen; Chen, Zuxin; Cai, Ruhai; Chen, Jiansheng

    The absorption coefficients of chloroplast of leaf mustard were measured by a spectrophotometer. The leaves were collected from seven treatments with different lighting. The chlorophyll content was calculated following Arnon equation. LEDs for filling the light source can increase the conduction of plants. Compared with other treatments, Chlorophyll in the leaves got an higher concentration under the lamping of red LEDS to blue LEDS for 7:1 .

  10. Defined UV protection by apparel textiles.

    PubMed

    Hoffmann, K; Laperre, J; Avermaete, A; Altmeyer, P; Gambichler, T

    2001-08-01

    This article was written to update information on test methods and standards for determining the UV protection of apparel textiles and on factors affecting UV protective properties of fabrics, from dermatological and textile technological viewpoints. Articles from dermatological and textile technological journals published from 1990 to 2001 were identified from MEDLINE, Excerpta Medica/EMBASE, World Textiles, and Textile Technology Digest. Peer-reviewed dermatological articles, textile technological research articles, and normative publications were selected. Independent data extraction was performed by several observers. Spectrophotometry is the preferred method for determining UV protection factor of textile materials. Various textile qualities affect the UV protection factor of a finished garment; important elements are the fabric porosity, type, color, weight, and thickness. The application of UV absorbers in the yarns significantly improves the UV protection factor of a garment. With wear and use, several factors can alter the UV protective properties of a textile, including stretch, wetness, and degradation due to laundering. Standards in the field exist in Australia and Great Britain, and organizations such as the European Standardization Commission in Europe and the American Association of Textile Chemists and Colorists and the American Society for Testing and Materials in the United States are also establishing standards for the determination and labeling of sun protective clothing. Various textile qualities and conditions of wear and use affect UV protective properties of apparel textiles. The use of UV blocking fabrics can provide excellent protection against the hazards of sunlight; this is especially true for garments manufactured as UV protective clothing.

  11. Evaluation of a UV-light emitting diodes unit for the removal of micropollutants in water for low energy advanced oxidation processes.

    PubMed

    Autin, Olivier; Romelot, Christophe; Rust, Lena; Hart, Julie; Jarvis, Peter; MacAdam, Jitka; Parsons, Simon A; Jefferson, Bruce

    2013-07-01

    There is growing interest in using light emitting diodes (LEDs) as alternative to traditional mercury lamps for the removal of micropollutants by advanced oxidation processes due to their low energy consumption and potential for high efficiency and long lifetime. This study investigates the penetration and coverage of the light emitted by LEDs in order to build an optimised LED collimated beam apparatus. From the experimental data, cost analysis was conducted in order to identify when LEDs will become economically viable. It was observed that if their development follows the predictions, LEDs should be a viable alternative to traditional lamps within 7yr for both UV/H2O2 and UV/TiO2 processes. However, parameters such as wall plug efficiency and input power need to improve for LEDs to become competitive.

  12. High-Modulation-Speed LEDs Based on III-Nitride

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Hong

    III-nitride InGaN light-emitting diodes (LEDs) enable wide range of applications in solid-state lighting, full-color displays, and high-speed visible-light communication. Conventional InGaN quantum well LEDs grown on polar c-plane substrate suffer from quantum confined Stark effect due to the large internal polarization-related fields, leading to a reduced radiative recombination rate and device efficiency, which limits the performance of InGaN LEDs in high-speed communication applications. To circumvent these negative effects, non-trivial-cavity designs such as flip-chip LEDs, metallic grating coated LEDs are proposed. This oral defense will show the works on the high-modulation-speed LEDs from basic ideas to applications. Fundamental principles such as rate equations for LEDs/laser diodes (LDs), plasmonic effects, Purcell effects will be briefly introduced. For applications, the modal properties of flip-chip LEDs are solved by implementing finite difference method in order to study the modulation response. The emission properties of highly polarized InGaN LEDs coated by metallic gratings are also investigated by finite difference time domain method.

  13. Excellent color rendering indexes of multi-package white LEDs.

    PubMed

    Oh, Ji Hye; Yang, Su Ji; Sung, Yeon-Goog; Do, Y R

    2012-08-27

    This study introduces multi-package white light-emitting diodes (LEDs) system with the ability to realize high luminous efficacy and an excellent color rendering index (CRI, R a) using the R B,M A B,M G B,M C B (R B,M A B,M G B,M denoted as a long-pass dichroic filter (LPDF)-capped, monochromatic red, amber and green phosphor converted-LED (pc-LED) pumped by a blue LED chip, and C B denoted as a cyan and blue mixed pc-LED pumped by a blue LED) system. The luminous efficacy and color rendering index (CRI) of multi-package white LED systems are compared while changing the concentration of the cyan phosphor used in the paste of a cyan-blue LED package and the driving current of individual LEDs in multi-package white LEDs at correlated color temperatures (CCTs) ranging from 6,500 K (cold white) to 2,700 K (warm white) using a set of eight CCTs as specified by the American National Standards Institute (ANSI) standard number C78.377-2008. A R B,M A B,M G B,M C B white LED system provides high luminous efficacy (≥ 96 lm/W) and a color rendering index (≥ 91) encompassing the complete CCT range. We also compare the optical properties of the R B,M A B,M G B,M C B system with those of the R B,M A B,M G B,M B and RAGB (red, amber, green, and blue semiconductor-type narrow-spectrum-band LEDs) systems. It can be expected that the cyan color added to a blue LED in multi-package white LEDs based on LPDF-capped, phosphor-converted monochromatic LEDs will meet the needs of the high-quality, highly efficient, full-color white LED lighting market in the near future.

  14. Effects of Cryogenic Temperatures on LEDs and Optical Fiber

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pantel, Erica R.

    2005-01-01

    Light Emitting Diodes (LEDs) may provide a simple, low powered light source for future space missions. However, the effects of cryogenic temperatures on LEDs and optical fibers are largely unknown. Tests were performed on a selection of commercially-available LEDs, with wavelengths varying from 468 nm to 950 nm, as well as "white" LEDs. Dry ice and liquid nitrogen (LN2) were used to bring the LEDs to the desired temperatures. The optical fibers were tested using a specially-machined brass cylinder that would allow the fibers to be cooled slowly and evenly in an LN2 dewer. An optical fiber coupled to a spectrometer was used to acquired spectra of a calibration light source (wavelength range 253-922 nm) at various temperatures. Examination of the LED spectra has shown several different effects, depending on the LED in question. Those with wavelengths above 590 nm tend to show a "blue shift" in their peak wavelength and an increase in intensity. Other LEDs developed secondary or tertiary peaks, or showed no peak shift at all, although all LEDs did show an increase in observed intensity. The optical fiber showed a slight non-uniform decrease in transmission as the temperature cooled to -195 C.

  15. Estimates of Surface Ultraviolet (UV) Radiation over North America from GOES Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gadhavi, H. S.; Pinker, R. T.; Laszlo, I.

    2006-12-01

    Ultraviolet (UV) rays have harmful effects on living organisms and plants. Information on UV radiation is also needed for modeling chemical processes in the atmosphere. Therefore, there is a wide interest in estimating UV flux reaching the earth surface. This led to the establishment of world-wide UV monitoring networks, yet, only satellites can provide large scale and homogeneous information. In addition to ozone, clouds and aerosols affect the surface UV radiation. These are highly variable in space and time which limits the applicability of point measurements to wider areas. Several algorithms have been developed for estimating UV flux from space-borne observations. These vary from simple parameterizations to full radiative transfer calculations. The most common limitations of these algorithms are related to their local dependence, satellite specific assumptions and/or large computational time requirement. We present an algorithm for estimating UV flux from Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES) data. The methodology will utilize information derived from independent satellites such as ozone. It relies on transmission table based on the Santa Barbara Discrete Ordinate Atmospheric Radiative Transfer (SBDART) model. The algorithm accounts for surface elevation variation, incorporates region dependent aerosol models and provides spectrally resolved output for UV flux at 5 nm interval. The algorithm is generic and can be adapted to different geographic regions. Initially, it will be implemented over North America for a period of about five years. The inferred UV values are being evaluated against ground observations as available from several networks over the United States and results will be presented at the meeting.

  16. Mn2- x Y x (MoO4)3 Phosphor Excited by UV GaN-Based Light-Emitting Diode for White Emission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Lung-Chien; Tseng, Zong-Liang; Hsu, Ting-Chun; Yang, Shengyi; Chen, Yuan-Bin

    2017-04-01

    One option for low-cost white light-emitting diodes (LEDs) is the combination of a near-ultraviolet (UV) LED chip (382 nm) and a single phosphor. Such Mn2- x Y x (MoO4)3 single phosphors have been fabricated by a simple solid-state reaction route and their emission color tuned by controlling the Mn doping amount. The chromaticity coordinates of the white light emitted by the UV GaN LED with the MnY(MoO4)3 phosphor were x = 0.5204 and y = 0.4050 [correlated color temperature (CCT) = 7958 K].

  17. Growth and Fabrication of III-Nitride Deep Ultraviolet Emitters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tahtamouni, T. M. Al

    2005-03-01

    In recent years, there has been a great effort to develop AlGaN based compact deep ultraviolet (UV) light-emitting diodes (LEDs) (λ< 300 nm) for applications such as bio-chemical agent detection and medical research/health care. To obtain deep UV emission with λ< 300 nm, AlGaN quantum well (QW) based LED structures require an active layer with Al composition higher than 40%. As a result, the alloy composition for p- and n-cladding layers should be more than that of the active layer. The high Al composition introduces dislocations and leads to poor p- and n-type conductivity in the cladding layers, which limits current injection. We report here on the epitaxial growth of deep UV LEDs with operating wavelengths ranging from 300 nm to 270 nm by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD). Our UV LED structure was deposited on AlN/sapphire templates. We have achieved deep UV LEDs with an output power of 1.4 mW at 350 mA dc driving at 280 nm. The use of AlN epilayers as templates to reduce the dislocation density and enhance the LED performance will be discussed. Different device architectures for enhanced LED performances will also be presented.

  18. Is increased UV-B a threat to crop photosynthesis and productivity?

    PubMed

    Fiscus, E L; Booker, F L

    1995-02-01

    It has been suggested that increases in ground-level UV-B, as a result of stratospheric ozone depletion, may have major deleterious effects on crop photosynthesis and productivity. The direct consequences of such effects have been projected by some as a world-wide decrease in crop yields of 20-25%. Further losses, or unrealized gains, have also been suggested as a result of increased UV-B counteracting the beneficial effects of elevated atmospheric CO2. Deleterious UV-B effects may be largely partitioned between damage to the plant genome and damage to the photosynthetic machinery. Direct damage to DNA is a common result of absorption of high energy UV-B photons. However, most plants possess repair mechanisms adequate to deal with the levels of damage expected from projected increases in ground-level UV-B. In addition, most plants have the ability to increase production of UV-absorbing compounds in their leaves as a result of exposure to UV-B, UV-A and visible radiation. These compounds contribute substantially to reducing UV-B damage in situ. It has also been shown that in some plants, under the proper conditions, almost every facet of the photosynthetic machinery can be damaged directly by very high UV-B exposures. However, electron transport, mediated by Photosystem II (PS II) appears to be the most sensitive part of the system. Various laboratories have reported damage to virtually all parts of the PS II complex from the Mn binding site to the plastoquinone acceptor sites on the opposite surface of the thylakoid membrane. However, a critical review of the literature with emphasis on exposure protocols and characterization of the radiation environment, revealed that most growth chamber and greenhouse experiments and very many field experiments have been conducted at unrealistic or indeterminate UV-B exposure levels, especially with regard to the spectral balance of their normal radiation environment. Thus, these experiments have led directly to large

  19. Parameterization of Solar Global Uv Irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feister, U.; Jaekel, E.; Gericke, K.

    Daily doses of solar global UV-B, UV-A, and erythemal irradiation have been param- eterized to be calculated from pyranometer data of global and diffuse irradiation as well as from atmospheric column ozone measured at Potsdam (52 N, 107 m asl). The method has been validated against independent data of measured UV irradiation. A gain of information is provided by use of the parameterization for the three UV compo- nents (UV-B, UV-A and erythemal) referring to average values of UV irradiation. Ap- plying the method to UV irradiation measured at the mountain site Hohenpeissenberg (48 N, 977 m asl) shows that the parameterization even holds under completely differ- ent climatic conditions. On a long-term average (1953 - 2000), parameterized annual UV irradiation values are by 15 % (UV-A) and 21 % (UV-B), respectively, higher at Hohenpeissenberg, than they are at Potsdam. Using measured input data from 27 Ger- man weather stations, the method has been also applied to estimate the spatial distribu- tion of UV irradiation across Germany. Daily global and diffuse irradiation measured at Potsdam (1937 -2000) as well as atmospheric column ozone measured at Potsdam between1964 - 2000 have been used to derive long-term estimates of daily and annual totals of UV irradiation that include the effects of changes in cloudiness, in aerosols and, at least for the period 1964 to 2000, also in atmospheric ozone. It is shown that the extremely low ozone values observed mainly after the volcanic eruptions of Mt. Pinatubo in 1991 have substantially enhanced UV-B irradiation in the first half of the 90ies of the last century. The non-linear long-term changes between 1968 and 2000 amount to +4% ...+5% for annual global and UV-A irradiation mainly due to changing cloudiness, and +14% ... +15% for UV-B and erythemal irradiation due to both chang- ing cloudiness and decreasing column ozone. Estimates of long-term changes in UV irradiation derived from data measured at other German sites are

  20. Horizontally assembled green InGaN nanorod LEDs: scalable polarized surface emitting LEDs using electric-field assisted assembly

    PubMed Central

    Park, Hoo Keun; Yoon, Seong Woong; Eo, Yun Jae; Chung, Won Woo; Yoo, Gang Yeol; Oh, Ji Hye; Lee, Keyong Nam; Kim, Woong; Do, Young Rag

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we report the concerted fabrication process, which is easy to transform the size of active emitting area and produce polarized surface light, using the electric-field-assisted assembly for horizontally assembled many tiny nanorod LEDs between two metal electrodes. We fabricate the millions of individually separated 1D nanorod LEDs from 2D nanorod arrays using nanosphere lithography, etching and cutting process of InGaN/GaN LED structure on a flat sapphire substrate. The horizontally assembled InGaN-based nanorods LED device shows bright (~2,130 cd/m2) and uniform polarized (polarization ratio, ρ = ~0.61) green emissions from large area (0.7 cm × 0.6 cm) planar surface. The realization of a horizontally assembled nanorod LED device can prove the concept of an innovative idea to fabricate formable and scalable polarized surface LED lighting. PMID:27324568