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Sample records for algarve southern portugal

  1. Holocene estuary development in the Algarve Region (Southern Portugal)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schneider, Heike; Höfer, Dana; Trog, Carmen; Hempel, Rita; Daut, Gerhard; Mäusbacher, Roland

    2010-05-01

    Former coastal estuaries in the Algarve region of South Portugal are used for reconstruction coastal evolution since first marine transgression processes at about 8.000 years before. The sediments of these archives allow high resolution analyses of geochemical and palynological signals. Drillings in different lagoons of the Algarve region contain the sequences from the fluvial sediments during the early Holocene, marine transgression facies during the middle Holocene and the marine/fluvial sediment deposits until present. The results of the sedimentological, geochemical and palynological analyses show that each estuary developed differently, depending on the morphology of the paleovalley, environmental conditions and especially the influence of the sea and the formation of barrier systems. The estuaries were flooded between 7500 and 5500 cal a BP by sea level rise and were almost completely filled by sediment by the beginning of the Roman occupation (226 y BC / 2176 cal a BP). A clear change in sedimentological processes is evident in the estuaries between 5500 and 3000 cal a BP and is interpreted as a result of high energy events such as storms or tsunamis (Schneider et al. 2009, Hilbich et al. 2008 ). Palynological as well as archaeological investigations show distinct anthropogenic influences since 3500 cal. BP by increasing values in maquies, cereals and open land communities. References Hilbich, C., Mügler, I., Daut, G., Frenzel, P., van der Borg, K., Mäusbacher, R. (2008): Reconstruction of the depositional history of the former coastal lagoon of Vilamoura (Algarve, Portugal): A sedimentological, microfaunal and geophysical approach.- Journal of Coastal Research 24(2B), 83-91. Schneider, H., Höfer, D., Trog, C., Busch, S., Schneider, M., Baade, J., Daut, G. & R. Mäusbacher (2009): Holocene estuary development in the Algarve Region (Southern Portugal) - A reconstruction of sedimentological and ecological evolution. - Quaternary International (In Press

  2. Pleistocene and Holocene geomorphological development in the Algarve, southern Portugal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chester, David K.

    2012-06-01

    A detailed chronological framework for Pleistocene and Holocene geomorphology and landscape evolution in the Algarve is proposed. With regards to the Pleistocene, attention has focused on the origin, dating and stratigraphy of the Ludo Formation. Subsuming the classifications of earlier writers, it is now proposed that during the Pliocene a marine transgression occurred across a tectonically controlled basin that was constrained by the mountains of the Algarve interior to the north. Fluvial sands were then deposited in a regressive phase during the late Pliocene/early Pleistocene, while braided streams operating under semi-arid conditions subsequently laid down sands and gravels in the middle and upper Pleistocene. Lying unconformably over the Ludo Formation is an alluvial deposit (Odiáxere gravels and Loulé sands) of late Pleistocene/early Holocene date that is found within the river valleys of the Algarve. In the early-Holocene (ca.10, 000-ca.7000 BP) and early late-Holocene (ca.5000-ca.3000 BP), the situation in the Algarve was one of climatic amelioration (i.e., warmer and wetter conditions), rising sea levels, vegetation colonization, soil development and towards the end of this period trenching of the Odiáxere gravels and Loulé sands. From ca.3000 BP evidence is abundant that humans became important geomorphological agents either acting on their own or in combination with climatic factors. From around 5000 BP, conditions became dryer and, between ca.3000 BP and ca.700 BP, clearance of land by pre-Roman, Roman, and especially Islamic agricultural settlers caused widespread erosion and the deposition of extensive spreads of topsoil dominated sediment within river valleys (i.e., the Holocene terrace) and in coastal estuaries. A period followed up to 1900 CE when agricultural practices were less damaging to the soil, erosion was reduced and the Holocene terrace - together with coastal and estuarine deposits - was incised. In the past century and under

  3. An assessment of landscape changes in Mediterranean region. A case study of Algarve, southern Portugal.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernandez, Helena; Martins, Fernando; Valín, Maria Isabel; Moreno, Ângela; Pedras, Celestina

    2014-05-01

    Currently, the application of remote sensing techniques is a key factor for the planning and land management to ensure a sustainable development of the regions. Algarve, the most southern region of Portugal is characterized by its Mediterranean climate. This climate is described by irregular precipitation throughout the year with drought during summer months. The regional climate has a profound influence on its particular vegetation and wildlife turning it in a unique habitat for many species. Since the 1970s, increases in tourism have greatly affected the coastal region. This has led to great landscape pressure and urban growth, resulting in population increases due to local economic prosperity. Across Algarve, in recent decades, lawns areas have grown dramatically. Landscape water use has increased mainly because homeowners seldom pay the 'true' cost of water. Continued expansion of water supply is not, therefore, a viable management option in the future, particularly given the anticipated increase in the frequency and severity of droughts in Portugal. There's a need to change the perception of landscape relative to water consumption. Algarve needs a sustainable, 'demand-led' approach to water resource management, focusing on conserving water and using it more efficiently. The water resources available in the Algarve are limited, and decisions regarding sustainability must consider the environment. The aim of this study is to apply the remote sensing techniques to analyse the landscape changes in three municipalities of Algarve (Portugal): Albufeira, Loulé and Faro. The three Landsat images, from April 9th 1973 (Landsat1), March 23th 1989 (Landsat5) and April 26th 2013 (Landsat8) were used. The images were classified based on the radiometric information and the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI). These range of dates of the Landsat images used allowed for the differentiation between classes of the landscape. Land use and water resources are closely

  4. Moving sands along a headland-embayed beach system (Algarve, Southern Portugal)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oliveira, Sónia; Horta, João; Nascimento, Ana; Gomes, Ana; Veiga-Pires, Cristina; Moura, Delminda

    2015-04-01

    Resilience of embayed and pocket beaches located at the southernmost coast of Portugal is currently a major question to coastal management of this region. In fact, several among those beaches have been artificially fed aiming to increase the width of the beach allowing people to maintain a safe distance to the unstable rocky cliffs. The sand is dredged from the offshore (ca. 2 miles from the shoreline) representing high costs for the Portuguese government. For how long will the artificial feeding solve the problem? Which beaches are worth being nourished taking into account the morphosedimentary processes? The present work is the result of a field experiment aiming to study the efficiency of the alongshore sedimentary transport between successive embayed beaches. The experiment was performed in the very indented rocky coast of the Algarve region (Southern Portugal) and comprised two field campaigns, both in 2014, during spring tides in March and November. The Algarve coast experiences a semi-diurnal meso-tidal regime ranging from 1.3 m during neap tides to 3.5 m at spring tides and the waves approach from WSW (232°) during 72% of observations along the year, almost normal to the study area shoreline. The wave and current characteristics (significant height-Hs and Period-T for waves, velocity and direction for currents) were measured during three and six tidal cycles respectively for the first and second campaign, using two pressure transducers and one electromagnetic current meter. We used sand painted with orange fluorescent dye (100 kg in March and 200 kg in November) as tracer to track the movement of the sand along the coast. The marked sand was placed on the beach face of the westernmost beach of the study area during the first low tide of each campaign. Following, hundreds of sediment samples were collected during low tide, through the monitored period, in the nodes of a georeferenced square mesh of 10 x 20 m covering three embayed beaches. Later in the

  5. Imaging 3D seismic velocity along the seismogenic zone of Algarve region (southern Portugal)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rocha, João.; Bezzeghoud, Mourad; Caldeira, Bento; Dias, Nuno; Borges, José; Matias, Luís.; Dorbath, Catherine; Carrilho, Fernando

    2010-05-01

    The present seismic tomographic study is focused around Algarve region, in South of Portugal. To locate the seismic events and find the local velocity structure of epicentral area, the P and S arrival times at 38 stations are used. The data used in this study were obtained during the Algarve campaign which worked from January/2006 to July/2007. The preliminary estimate of origin times and hypocentral coordinates are determined by the Hypoinverse program. Linearized inversion procedure was applied to comprise the following two steps: 1) finding the minimum 1D velocity model using Velest and 2) simultaneous relocation of hypocenters and determination of local velocity structure. The velocity model we have reached is a 10 layer model which gave the lowest RMS, after several runnings of eight different velocity models that we used "a priori". The model parameterization assumes a continuous velocity field between 4.5 km/s and 7.0 km/s until 30 km depth. The earth structure is represented in 3D by velocity at discrete points, and velocity at any intervening point is determined by linear interpolation among the surrounding eight grid points. A preliminary analysis of the resolution capabilities of the dataset, based on the Derivative Weight Sum (DWS) distribution, shows that the velocity structure is better resolved in the West part of the region between the surface to15 km. The resulting tomographic image has a prominent low-velocity anomaly that shows a maximum decrease in P-wave velocity in the first 12 kms in the studied region. We also identified the occurrence of local seismic events of reduced magnitude not catalogued, in the neighbourhood of Almodôvar (low Alentejo). The spatial distribution of epicentres defines a NE-SW direction that coincides with the strike of the mapped geological faults of the region and issued from photo-interpretation. Is still expectable to refine the seismicity of the region of Almodôvar and establish more rigorously its role in the

  6. Sea cliff instability susceptibility at regional scale: A statistically based assessment in southern Algarve, Portugal.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marques, F.; Matildes, R.; Redweik, P.

    2012-04-01

    Mass movements are the dominant process of sea cliff evolution, being a considerable source of natural hazard and a significant constrain for human activities in coastal areas. Related hazards include cliff top retreat, with implications on planning and land management, and unstable soil or rock movements at the cliffs face and toe, with implications mainly on beach users and support structures. To assess the spatial component of sea cliff hazard assessment with implications on planning, i.e. the susceptibility of a given cliff section to be affected by instabilities causing retreat of the cliff top, a statistically based study was carried out along the top of the sea cliffs of Burgau-Lagos coastal section (Southwest Algarve, Portugal). The study was based on bivariate and multi-variate statistics applied to a set of predisposing factors, mainly related with geology and geomorphology, which were correlated with an inventory of past cliff failures. The multi-temporal inventory of past cliff failures was produced using aerial digital photogrammetric methods, which included special procedures to enable the extraction of accurate data from old aerial photos, and validated by systematic stereo photo interpretation, helped by oblique aerial photos and field surveys. This study identified 137 cliff failures occurred between 1947 and 2007 along the 13 km long cliffs, causing the loss of 10,234 m2 of horizontal area at the cliffs top. The cliff failures correspond to planar slides (58%) mainly in Cretaceous alternating limestone and marls, toppling failures (17%) mainly in Miocene calcarenites, slumps (15%) in Plio-pleistocene silty sands that infill the karst in the Miocene rocks, and the remaining 10% correspond to complex movements, rockfalls and not determined cases. The space distribution of cliff failures is quite irregular but enables the objective separation of sub sections with homogeneous retreat behavior, for which were computed mean retreat rates between 5x10-3m

  7. Modelling the hydrodynamic and morphosedimentary response of an beach-headland system (Algarve, Southern Portugal)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horta, João; Oliveira, Sónia; Moura, Delminda

    2015-04-01

    Future behaviour of beaches within a headland-beach system is of fundamental interest on coastal evolution since they act as a buffer between the waves' attack and the cliffs backing them. The beaches at the cliffs' foot anchored between headlands are space-limited environments to morphosedimentary processes. Additionally, headlands and shore platforms are natural barriers to the alongshore drift. Several attempts to develop numerical expressions to characterize the stability of headland-beach systems have been made based mainly on linear parameters. However, in the sandy areas occur volumetric variations of greater magnitude that changes in the shoreline position in a tidal cycle. This work aims to quantify the balance between the incoming and the lost sediment in two embayed beaches in order to improve knowledge of the sedimentary dynamics of such environments and therefore the evolution of coastal landscapes. The study area is the Algarve coastal karstic landscapes, which raises challenging questions on morphosedimentary processes because it has dozens of stacks and cavities both in the surf zone and in the nearshore that interfere with the littoral current patterns. The field campaigns were performed during spring tide conditions in February and March, 2011. The nearshore wave climate and the current's velocity and direction were measured using respectively a non-vented Level TROLL 700 Pressure Transducer (PT) and an autonomously deployable electro-magnetic current meter (EMCM) Infinity-EM with a data logger. The offshore wave data used was acquired through the Portuguese Hydrographic Institute (IH) at the Faro buoy, located 50 km southeast from the study area. The topographic surveys were performed for a total area of about 1500 m2 using two Global Navigation Satellite System receptors (GPS Trimble R6 and GPS Trimble 5800) in real-time kinematic mode (RTK) with differential global positioning system (DGPS) providing centimetric accuracy. The altimetric values

  8. Searching for tsunamis evidences on the Algarve (Southern Portugal) continental shelf sedimentary record

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drago, Teresa; Silva, Pedro; Lopes, Ana; Magalhães, Vitor; Roque, Cristina; Rodrigues, Ana Isabel; Noiva, João; Terrinha, Pedro; Mena, Anxo; Francés, Guillermo; Kopf, Achim; Völker, David; Omira, Rachid; Baptista, Maria Ana

    2016-04-01

    Tsunami hazard assessment is important in order to prevent and/or minimize its effects, which is only possible if a complete and long record dataset of past events is available, allowing the estimation of their recurrence intervals. The knowledge of past tsunami events are based on instrumental, historical and geological records. Although instrumental and historical records are reliable sources they are limited in time. Geological records can give a much more extended reconstruction overview of thousand years, which can provide a good estimation of tsunami return periods. Most of the existing studies have been conducted onshore and only a few were based on offshore sedimentary record. These last ones, have the advantage to provide a more continuous and almost undisturbed records but the identification of tsunami sediments in marine environment require a multi-proxy approach in order to better identify the allochtonous layers/deposits and to differentiate them from storm deposits. In the context of ASTARTE project (FP7), five gravity and piston cores on the southern Portuguese continental shelf collected in 2008 and 2014 were studied. The methodology included XRF, MSCL, sedimentological and magnetic analyses. Preliminary results show some identifiable layers that may related with allochthonous sedimentary material, compatible with a genesis resulting from tsunami backwash sediment transport and deposition. Acknowledgments - Publication supported by project FCT UID/GEO/50019/2013 - Instituto Dom Luiz.

  9. Paleomagnetism of the Central Atlantic Magmatic Province in the Algarve basin, Portugal: First insights

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Font, Eric; Fernandes, Susana; Neres, Marta; Carvallo, Claire; Martins, Línia; Madeira, José; Youbi, Nasrrddine

    2015-11-01

    We present new rock magnetic and paleomagnetic data of the Central Atlantic Magmatic Province (CAMP) lavas cropping out in the Algarve basin (southern Portugal). Our results show that the magnetic mineralogy of the selected samples is primary and dominated by an assemblage of single-domain (SD) to multi-domain (MD) Ti-poor titanomagnetites. All samples carry a characteristic remanent magnetization of normal (positive) magnetic polarity, similarly to other circum-Atlantic CAMP lava sequences. Except for the sites located in the central part of the Algarve basin, site-based mean directions (5 sites, Group A) are comparable to the giant Messejana dyke's directions, suggesting that both lava flows and dyke were emplaced during the same geological interval (~ 200 Ma). However, sites located in the central part of the basin (4 sites; Group B), just east of the São Marcos-Quarteira fault zone, show a systematic discrepancy in the declination values, which is indicative of a significant vertical-axis rotation that we estimated to be ~ 30° clockwise. We suggest that the observed clockwise vertical-axis rotation was produced by a Riedel dextral shear zone of the São Marcos-Quarteira faults acting during the N-S compression that affected the Southern Portuguese margin in the Cenozoic. Our results provide important insights to unravel the complex history of the Algarve basin since the Mesozoic.

  10. Holocene morphologic changes offshore the Quarteira region, Algarve, south Portugal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noiva, João.; Duarte, Henrique; Terrinha, Pedro; Gonçalves, Daniela

    2010-05-01

    A 160 km long SPARKER single channel seismic reflection survey was acquired in November 2008 on the shallow continental shelf of south Portugal to investigate the recent tectonics of the S.Marcos - Quarteira Fault (SMQF) and of the Carcavai Fault. The NW-SE trending S.Marcos - Quarteira Fault (SMQF) can be traced on the onshore-offshore region of south Portugal for an extension of 160 km. It is a Variscan (Hercynian) orogenic thrust that was inverted as an extensional fault during the Mesozoic rifting in south Portugal, during which it played a major role in the segmentation of the Algarve Basin. The SMQF was re-inverted as a transpressive fault during the Paleogene-Miocene compression and folding and thrusting of Pleistocene terrigenous strata attest for its present day tectonic activity. The Carcavai fault trends NE-SW, intersects the SMQF. The Carcavai fault also played the role of rift fault during the Mesozoic and was inverted as a thrust during the Cenozoic compression. The mapping of both SMQ and Carcavai Faults offshore south Portugal attests for a complex interaction between the two in what concerns the Holocene and tectonics and paleogeography. The Carcavai Fault accommodates most of the Pliocene-Quaternary compression on its hanging-wall, whilst the SMQF takes up the deformation on the foot-wall of the Carcavai Fault. In what refers the early Holocene paleogeography, the interpretation of the seismic profiles shows the existence of two sedimentary bodies of possible Holocene age separated by a peninsula that consists of Pliocene-Pleistocene prograding clastics that make up the present day coastal cliff. This peninsula is parallel to the present day coastline, which is also parallel to the SMQF. The two bodies have different seismic facies. The offshore Holocene displays fairly continuous reflections, whilst the internal Holocene is made up of more discontinuous reflections. The isobaths map of the base of the external Holocene unit shows a smooth gently

  11. Assessment of post forest fire reclamation in Algarve, Portugal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andrade, Rita; Panagopoulos, Thomas; Guerrero, Carlos; Martins, Fernando; Zdruli, Pandi; Ladisa, Gaetano

    2014-05-01

    Fire is a common phenomenon in Mediterranean landscapes and it plays a crucial role in its transformations, making the determination of its impact on the ecosystem essential for land management. During summer of 2012, a wildfire took place in Algarve, Portugal, on an area mainly covered by sclerophyllous vegetation (39.44%, 10080ha), broad-leaved forest (20.80%, 5300ha), agriculture land with significant areas of natural vegetation (17.40%, 4400ha) and transitional woodlands-shrubs (16.17%, 4100ha). The objective of the study was to determine fire severity in order to plan post-fire treatments and to aid vegetation recovery and land reclamation. Satellite imagery was used to estimate burn severity by detecting physical and ecological changes in the landscape caused by fire. Differenced Normalized Burn Ratio (DNBR) was used to measure burn severity with pre and post fire data of four Landsat images acquired in October 2011, February and August 2012 and April 2013. The initial and extended differenced normalized burn ratio (DiNBR and DeNBR) were calculated. The calculated burned area of 24291 ha was 552ha lower than the map data determined with field reports. The 19.5% of that area was burned with high severity, 45% with moderate severity and 28.3% with low severity. Comparing fire severity and regrowth with land use, it is shown in DiNBR that the most severely burned areas were predominantly sclerophyllous vegetation (37.6%) and broad-leaved forests (31.1%). From the DeNRB it was found that the reestablishment of vegetation was slower in mixed forests and higher in sclerophyllous vegetation and in land with significant areas of natural vegetation. Faster recovery was calculated for the land uses of sclerophyllous vegetation (46.7%) and significant regrowth in areas of natural vegetation and lands occupied by agriculture (25.4%). Next steps of the study are field validation and crossing with erosion risk maps before to take land reclamation decisions.

  12. Tsunami Risk in the NE Atlantic: Pilot Study for Algarve Portugal and Applications for future TWS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Omira, R.; Baptista, M. A.; Catita, C.; Carrilho, F.; Matias, L.

    2012-04-01

    Tsunami risk assessment is an essential component of any Tsunami Early Warning System due to its significant contribution to the disaster reduction by providing valuable information that serve as basis for mitigation preparedness and strategies. Generally, risk assessment combines the outputs of the hazard and the vulnerability assessment for considered exposed elements. In the NE Atlantic region, the tsunami hazard is relatively well established through compilation of tsunami historical events, evaluation of tsunamigenic sources and impact computations for site-specific coastal areas. While, tsunami vulnerability remains poorly investigated in spite of some few studies that focused on limited coastal areas of the Gulf of Cadiz region. This work seeks to present a pilot study for tsunami risk assessment that covers about 170 km of coasts of Algarve region, south of Portugal. This area of high coastal occupation and touristic activities was strongly impacted by the 1755 tsunami event as reported in various historical documents. An approach based upon a combination of tsunami hazard and vulnerability is developed in order to take into account the dynamic aspect of tsunami risk in the region that depends on the variation of hazard and vulnerability of exposed elements from a coastal point to other. Hazard study is based upon the consideration of most credible earthquake scenarios and the derivation of hazard maps through hydrodynamic modeling of inundation and tsunami arrival time. The vulnerability assessment is performed by: i) the analysis of the occupation and the population density, ii) derivation of evacuation maps and safe shelters, and iii) the analysis of population response and evacuation times. Different risk levels ranging from "low" to "high" are assigned to the coats of the studied area. Variation of human tsunami risk between the high and low touristic seasons is also considered in this study and aims to produce different tsunami risk-related scenarios

  13. Constructing a strategic, national resource: European policies and the up-scaling of water services in the Algarve, Portugal.

    PubMed

    Thiel, Andreas

    2010-07-01

    Water management has been significantly reshaped throughout recent decades in Europe and worldwide. Vivid examples of this restructuring include Southern European coastal zones which have been transformed into the European "pleasure periphery" over the last 40 years, requiring significant changes in water service provision. Taking it as an illustrative case of the Southern European coastal freshwater crisis and the way different European Member States have dealt with it, the article provides an account of the Algarve, indicative of typical Portuguese dynamics, and compares it with developments in other European countries. Expanding demands on water services in this region led to a crisis situation throughout the nineties, which was resolved by shifting physical infrastructures and competencies to the supra-local level. The re-scaling of water management was instrumental to expanding national control over the sector at the expense of local authorities and privatization. The national level used European funds and regulations to re-configure the institutional and infrastructure set-up in order to provide for tourism and agricultural expansion. Quality tourism was constructed as a decentral, hegemonic state spatial project, with the Algarvian's entire water resource base being put at its disposal. The solution found illustrates a modified version of the supply side and surface water oriented "hydraulic paradigm" in Portugal: geared towards tourism and urban areas and the maintenance of irrigation agriculture. Delays in infrastructures, ideological preferences, maintaining national control over strategic water services and territoriality contributed towards the construction of water services as part of this hegemonic state spatial strategy for tourism expansion. PMID:20458480

  14. Constructing a Strategic, National Resource: European Policies and the Up-Scaling of Water Services in the Algarve, Portugal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thiel, Andreas

    2010-07-01

    Water management has been significantly reshaped throughout recent decades in Europe and worldwide. Vivid examples of this restructuring include Southern European coastal zones which have been transformed into the European “pleasure periphery” over the last 40 years, requiring significant changes in water service provision. Taking it as an illustrative case of the Southern European coastal freshwater crisis and the way different European Member States have dealt with it, the article provides an account of the Algarve, indicative of typical Portuguese dynamics, and compares it with developments in other European countries. Expanding demands on water services in this region led to a crisis situation throughout the nineties, which was resolved by shifting physical infrastructures and competencies to the supra-local level. The re-scaling of water management was instrumental to expanding national control over the sector at the expense of local authorities and privatization. The national level used European funds and regulations to re-configure the institutional and infrastructure set-up in order to provide for tourism and agricultural expansion. Quality tourism was constructed as a decentral, hegemonic state spatial project, with the Algarvian’s entire water resource base being put at its disposal. The solution found illustrates a modified version of the supply side and surface water oriented “hydraulic paradigm” in Portugal: geared towards tourism and urban areas and the maintenance of irrigation agriculture. Delays in infrastructures, ideological preferences, maintaining national control over strategic water services and territoriality contributed towards the construction of water services as part of this hegemonic state spatial strategy for tourism expansion.

  15. Seismic velocities and geotechnical data applied to the soil microzoning of western Algarve, Portugal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carvalho, J.; Torres, L.; Castro, R.; Dias, R.; Mendes-Victor, L.

    2009-06-01

    The Algarve province of Portugal is located near the E-W Eurasia-Africa plate boundary. It is characterized by a moderate seismicity with some important historical and instrumental earthquakes causing important loss of lives, serious damage and economical problems. It has therefore been a target of several risk assessment projects. This paper focuses the evaluation of the most interesting and useful geotechnical near-surface parameters, through the acquisition, processing and interpretation of P and S-waves refraction profiles and the use of SPT parameters. VP/ VS ratios and the Poisson's ratio were estimated and a subsoil classification based on geophysical and geotechnical parameters is presented. The classification based upon the European Code 8 for civil engineering and SPT bedrock data, was carried out for land use planning and design of critical facilities. Other parameters were computed to provide information for future site effect studies. The quality and volume of the data gathered here using established approaches can be quite useful to estimate soil microzoning in the absence of local earthquake records. The results also show that the lithology is the most influent parameter on the values of seismic velocities and SPT data. Therefore, surficial geology is inappropriate for this kind of studies and lithological maps should be used instead.

  16. New Paleoenvironmental and Biotic Records from the Triassic-Jurassic Boundary Interval of the Algarve Basin, Portugal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kasprak, A. H.; Whiteside, J. H.; Lopes, F. M.; Brusatte, S. L.; Butler, R. J.; Mateus, O.

    2010-12-01

    Studies of carbonate, bulk organic, and compound-specific stable isotopes of carbon have shown that the Triassic-Jurassic boundary interval (including the end-Triassic mass extinction) displays major, global perturbations to the carbon cycle. These records are instrumental not only in reconstructing environmental change, as they are thought to reflect ecosystem instability and changing atmospheric gas inventories, but, due to their global nature, can be useful tools for stratigraphic correlation. The Algarve Basin, a deformed, extensional basin in the south of Portugal, has potential for yielding insight into the dramatic paleoenvironmental and faunal changes that occurred during the latest Triassic through earliest Jurassic. During this time interval, the basin records an evolution from continental to marginal marine sediments that are interbedded with radioisotopically dated Central Atlantic Magmatic Province (CAMP) basalts, thought to be a major causative agent in the end-Triassic mass extinction. Recent field excavations in the Algarve Basin have documented terrestrial vertebrate remains at multiple horizons, including a rich bone bed densely packed with well-preserved remains of large stereospondyl temnospondyls (skull length up to ~1 meter) positioned close to the Triassic-Jurassic boundary. These stereospondyls may represent some of the latest surviving members of their groups in Europe, and occur in a time interval in which stereospondyl material is scarce and represented primarily by isolated and fragmentary material. Unfortunately, the paleoenvironmental and chronologic framework of the Algarve Basin is not well constrained, despite its importance as a critical record of this time in Earth history. We present a preliminary bulk organic carbon isotope record of early Mesozoic rift-basin sediments from the Algarve Basin. This record exhibits significant variability, but appears to record a trend towards more negative values at the top of the section, though

  17. Modelling tsunami sedimentation associated with the AD 1755 event in Algarve (Portugal)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Costa, P. J. M.; Gelfenbaum, G. R.; La Selle, S.; Costas, S.; Andrade, C.; Cascalho, J.; Freitas, M. C.

    2015-12-01

    Numerical models of tsunami inundation and sedimentation can provide useful insights into the dynamics of palaeotsunamis. We applied a coupled field data and numerical modelling approach for the AD1755 tsunami, the most destructive tsunami to affect the Atlantic coast of Europe in historical times. At Salgados, a lowland on the south coast of Portugal, tsunami deposits from AD1755 mostly consist of massive or normally-graded, landward thinning layers of shell-rich sand with an erosive base within the mud-dominated lowlands. Landward of the foredune, the AD1755 deposit is roughly 10cm thick and thins in the landward and alongshore directions. It is possible to ascribe the sediment source of this deposit to the dune and/or beach based on mineralogical and grain-size comparisons with modern surface samples. The present dune crest height is 6 m above MSL (mean sea level) near the seasonally-closed inlet of the lagoon, and rises alongshore towards the west up to 17m above MSL. From the combination of the spatial distribution of the deposit thickness landward of the sloping dune, and GPR data, which shows an erosional surface at approximately 6m above MSL, we infer that the maximum tsunami water level at the coast was between 6 and 10m. Regional tsunami historical records, however, suggest higher heights, up to 12m above MSL at the coast. We simulated tsunami inundation and sediment transport using Delft3D to examine these discrepancies. A 1D cross shore model was used to test flow height controls on deposit thickness and also to identify the sediment source of the AD1755 deposit. Four possible sediment sources were tested (nearshore, beach, dune and lagoon) using synthetic, long-period waves to simulate the AD1755 tsunami. The combination of geological studies with numerical modeling of inundation and sediment transport produces a better description of the AD1755 tsunami and its effects in coastal areas in the Algarve that will contribute to better hazard assessments.

  18. Contributions of hydrogeophysics to the hydrogeological conceptual model of the Albufeira-Ribeira de Quarteira coastal aquifer in Algarve, Portugal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Francés, Alain P.; Ramalho, Elsa C.; Fernandes, Judite; Groen, Michel; Hugman, Rui; Khalil, Mohamed A.; De Plaen, Joel; Monteiro Santos, Fernando A.

    2015-11-01

    Geoelectrical and electromagnetic (time and frequency domains) hydrogeophysical methods were applied and jointly interpreted together with auxiliary information such as regional piezometric maps, borehole lithological logs and offshore data. The objective was to retrieve the structure and geometry of the Albufeira-Ribeira de Quarteira coastal aquifer system (Algarve, Portugal) and to upgrade the current hydrogeological conceptual model. The results allowed for the detection of the freshwater-saltwater interface along the coastline and identification of the water-bearing layers and aquitards and their hydraulic relationships. An explanation for the location of the inter- and subtidal fresh groundwater discharge is also presented and a new modeling unit is proposed for groundwater flow modeling. Limitations of the used hydrogeophysical methods are indicated and recommendations are made for follow-up studies.

  19. Leishmania infection and host-blood feeding preferences of phlebotomine sandflies and canine leishmaniasis in an endemic European area, the Algarve Region in Portugal

    PubMed Central

    Maia, Carla; Dionísio, Lídia; Afonso, Maria Odete; Neto, Luís; Cristóvão, José Manuel; Campino, Lenea

    2013-01-01

    The Algarve Region (AR) in southern Portugal, which is an international tourist destination, has been considered an endemic region of zoonotic leishmaniasis caused by Leishmania infantum since the 1980s. In the present study, phlebotomine and canine surveys were conducted to identify sandfly blood meal sources and to update the occurrence of Leishmania infection in vectors and dogs. Four sandfly species were captured: Phlebotomus perniciosus, Phlebotomus ariasi, Phlebotomus sergenti and Sergentomyia minuta. In one P. perniciosus female, L. infantum DNA was detected. Blood meal tests showed that this species had no host preferences and was an opportunistic feeder. An overall canine leishmaniasis (CanL) seroprevalence of 16.06% was found; the seroprevalence was 3.88% in dogs housed in kennels and 40.63% in dogs that attended veterinary clinics. The simultaneous occurrence of dogs and P. perniciosus infected with L. infantum in the AR indicates that the region continues to be an endemic area for CanL. Our results reinforce the need for the systematic spatial distribution of phlebotomine populations and their Leishmania infection rates and the need to simultaneously perform pathogen monitoring in both invertebrate and vertebrate hosts to investigate the transmission, distribution and spreading of Leishmania infection. PMID:23827997

  20. Leishmania infection and host-blood feeding preferences of phlebotomine sandflies and canine leishmaniasis in an endemic European area, the Algarve Region in Portugal.

    PubMed

    Maia, Carla; Dionísio, Lídia; Afonso, Maria Odete; Neto, Luís; Cristóvão, José Manuel; Campino, Lenea

    2013-06-01

    The Algarve Region (AR) in southern Portugal, which is an international tourist destination, has been considered an endemic region of zoonotic leishmaniasis caused by Leishmania infantum since the 1980s. In the present study, phlebotomine and canine surveys were conducted to identify sandfly blood meal sources and to update the occurrence of Leishmania infection in vectors and dogs. Four sandfly species were captured: Phlebotomus perniciosus, Phlebotomus ariasi, Phlebotomus sergenti and Sergentomyia minuta. In one P. perniciosus female, L. infantum DNA was detected. Blood meal tests showed that this species had no host preferences and was an opportunistic feeder. An overall canine leishmaniasis (CanL) seroprevalence of 16.06% was found; the seroprevalence was 3.88% in dogs housed in kennels and 40.63% in dogs that attended veterinary clinics. The simultaneous occurrence of dogs and P. perniciosus infected with L. infantum in the AR indicates that the region continues to be an endemic area for CanL. Our results reinforce the need for the systematic spatial distribution of phlebotomine populations and their Leishmania infection rates and the need to simultaneously perform pathogen monitoring in both invertebrate and vertebrate hosts to investigate the transmission, distribution and spreading of Leishmania infection. PMID:23827997

  1. Role of shore platforms on coastal cliffs protection in Algarve (South Portugal): First approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gabriel, Selma; Moura, Delminda; Ferreira, Óscar; Pacheco, André; Matias, Ana; Veiga-Pires, Cristina; Jacob, José

    2010-05-01

    The complex interaction between morphogenetic processes acting on rocky coasts and substrate characteristics difficult the assessment of its evolution at different time scales. In opposition to other coastal environments such as beaches, where variations on substrate's attributes are constrained to a few possibilities, rocky coasts expose substrates having large amount of variables, among them, lithology, mechanical and chemical strength, density and orientation of faults and joints and, rocks' texture and structure (e.g., Trenhaile, 2003). Waves represent the most important energetic source on coastal areas and, abrasion, hammer effect and air compression in rocks discontinuities are the main mechanisms responsible for mechanical weathering induced by wave impact (e.g., Trenhaile, 1987, Sunamura, 1992). Shore platforms are the most conspicuous testimony of rocky cliffs recession. However, as shore platforms widen, cliffs foot rests out of the direct influence of breaking waves when sea level rise is slower than cliff retreat. Shore platforms have been reported as protective features against marine erosion by dissipating waves energy, its efficacy depending on height and slope (e.g., Porter et al., 2009; Trenhaile, 2010). The main objective of this work is to determine the role of shore platforms on cliffs protection at the Algarve (South Portugal) as monitored in two coastal sectors differently exposed to dominant waves. Coastal cliffs in the study area expose Miocene carbonate rocks with vertical facies variation between sub horizontal layers of calcarenites and siltstones, which represents a favourable geological context to the shore platform development. Waves height and period was measured along 12 months during spring tides and in some storm events by using pressure transducers. For that, pressure transducers were fixed into the rock in two coastal sectors positioned in both places at similar heights above mean sea level respectively for outer and inner edges

  2. Species Composition and WNV Screening of Mosquitoes from Lagoons in a Wetland Area of the Algarve, Portugal

    PubMed Central

    Freitas, Ferdinando B.; Novo, Maria Teresa; Esteves, Aida; de Almeida, A. Paulo G.

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate mosquito abundance, species diversity, larval and adult population dynamics in seven lagoons integrated in the wetland coastal system of the Algarve, Portugal, in the summer of 2007, as well as the screening of these for West Nile virus (WNV). WNV has been isolated from mosquitoes in this region, in the summer of 2004, next to the putative area of infection of two linked human WN cases. Adult mosquitoes were collected with CDC traps baited with CO2, and potential breeding sites were surveyed for immature stages. Morphological identification of 1,432 adult mosquitoes and 85 larvae revealed the presence of 10 species: Anopheles atroparvus, Anopheles algeriensis, Coquillettidia richiardii, Culex modestus, Culex pipiens, Culex theileri, Culex univittatus, Culiseta longiareolata, Aedes caspius, and Aedes detritus. Adult mosquito peak densities were recorded in July, contrasting with null larval breeding in the same month in the surveyed biotopes. Most abundant species were C. pipiens (52%), C. theileri (29%), and A. caspius (11%). Lagoon Salgados and Quinta das Salinas, exhibited the highest similarity of culicid fauna, despite being most distant from each other, Female mosquitoes (1,249 specimens) screened by RT-PCR, did not reveal WNV products. However, previous detection of WNV activity in this area, susceptible to re-introductions, demands for continued vigilance. PMID:22347862

  3. Early Diagenesis of Lower Pliensbachian Sediments from the Algarve Basin (Portugal): Characterisation and Relation with Tectonic Evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ribeiro, Carlos; Terrinha, Pedro; Rosario Azevedo, M.; Ouajhain, Brahim

    2010-05-01

    The Lower Jurassic (Lower Pliensbachian) sedimentary record of the western end of the Algarve Basin (Portugal) is made of decimetric thick layers of limestone and dolomitized limestone with chert nodules and inter-layered chert beds. Most of the observable lithologies are the product of an early diagenetic evolution and the original lithological content of the formation included limestones, marls and calciclastic limestones. In this area the sedimentation was controlled by the tectonic stretching responsible for the evolution of the Algarve Basin, as well as by short-lived events of tectonic inversion. These episodes of tectonic inversion were responsible for the some uplift with the development of unconformities, sometimes with erosional surfaces separating the different sedimentary packages. The early diagenesis affecting the Lower Pliensbachian sediments is characterized by: (i) a mechanical event controlled by the syn-sedimentary stretching, responsible for the development of calciclastic dikes and nodules alignements; (ii) the substitution of the carbonates from the most permeable calciclastic limestone layers by silica, leading to the development of the observed cherts; (iii) the dolomitization of the preserved limestones; and (iv) the infilling of joints and normal fault planes by silica-rich fluids leading to the development of quartz veins. This set of diagenetic transformations took place before the Upper Pliensbachian which lacks the evidences of their occurrence. The whole-rock geochemical data of the carbonate and siliceous sediments of the Lower Pliensbachian revealed some affinities between both lithological types namely the lack of Ce anomalies and the presence of La anomalies in the REE patterns of all samples. The similarities between the carbonate lithologies which diagenetic evolution is marked by the replacement of calcite by dolomite and the siliceous sediments derived from the replacement of calcite by quartz establish a chemical connection

  4. Extension and inversion structures in the Tethys-Atlantic linkage zone, Algarve Basin, Portugal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramos, Adrià; Fernández, Oscar; Terrinha, Pedro; Muñoz, Josep Anton

    2016-07-01

    The Algarve Basin is a Meso-Cenozoic sedimentary basin overlying Carboniferous basement, located in the southwestern margin of the Iberian Peninsula. Its structure reveals a protracted tectonic history comprising various pulses of Mesozoic extension followed by Cenozoic compression. This work deals with the structure along the northern margin, where the Mesozoic extensional structures and Cenozoic inversion structures crop out. The strike of the extensional structures ranges from E-W to N-S, as controlled by a shift from Tethyan-dominated extension in the east to Atlantic-dominated extension in the west. Contractional structures are inverted extensional structures, following their same trends. It is argued that the thickness of the Hettangian evaporite layer exerts a strong control on the structural style throughout the basin during the extensional and inversion episodes. The basin is affected by thick-skinned deformation along the northern margin, where salt is thin or absent, basement involved fault systems and short-cut structures. Basinward, as the Hettangian salt thickens, the margin is affected by thin-skinned deformation, with listric and down-to-the-basin growth faults, diapirism and salt-cored detachment folds. The aim was to discuss the key tectonic features, the relevance of salt, and understand the nature, timing, and significance of all these structures in the regional tectonic evolution.

  5. Extension and inversion structures in the Tethys-Atlantic linkage zone, Algarve Basin, Portugal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramos, Adrià; Fernández, Oscar; Terrinha, Pedro; Muñoz, Josep Anton

    2015-12-01

    The Algarve Basin is a Meso-Cenozoic sedimentary basin overlying Carboniferous basement, located in the southwestern margin of the Iberian Peninsula. Its structure reveals a protracted tectonic history comprising various pulses of Mesozoic extension followed by Cenozoic compression. This work deals with the structure along the northern margin, where the Mesozoic extensional structures and Cenozoic inversion structures crop out. The strike of the extensional structures ranges from E-W to N-S, as controlled by a shift from Tethyan-dominated extension in the east to Atlantic-dominated extension in the west. Contractional structures are inverted extensional structures, following their same trends. It is argued that the thickness of the Hettangian evaporite layer exerts a strong control on the structural style throughout the basin during the extensional and inversion episodes. The basin is affected by thick-skinned deformation along the northern margin, where salt is thin or absent, basement involved fault systems and short-cut structures. Basinward, as the Hettangian salt thickens, the margin is affected by thin-skinned deformation, with listric and down-to-the-basin growth faults, diapirism and salt-cored detachment folds. The aim was to discuss the key tectonic features, the relevance of salt, and understand the nature, timing, and significance of all these structures in the regional tectonic evolution.

  6. A sensory and nutritional comparison of mussels (Mytilus sp.) produced in NW Iberia and in the Armona offshore production area (Algarve, Portugal).

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Ana R; Sykes, António V; Hachero-Cruzado, Ismael; Azeiteiro, Ulisses M; Esteves, Eduardo

    2015-02-01

    A biometric, nutritional and sensory analysis of raw and cooked mussels comparing Mytilus sp. from the north-west coast of Portugal and Spain (Minho and Galicia, respectively) and the new offshore production site of Armona (Algarve, south Portugal) was carried out. In addition, multiple factorial analysis was performed to explore potential relationships between sensory attributes and nutritional content properties between the different mussels. Results showed that, at similar times of sale, biometrics of mussels from Armona and Vigo were similar and bigger than the remaining. Nonetheless, despite some similarities in proximate composition, mussels presented differences in lipid classes, fatty acid content and free amino acids profiles. These differences were not fully reflected in the sensory assessment by the panel, which were able to distinguish different production sites in raw specimens but displayed problems in discrimination these in cooked mussels. Some nutritional components were related to specific sensory sensations. PMID:25172743

  7. Potential Offshore Submarine Groundwater in the Albufeira-Ribeira de Quarteira aquifer system (Algarve, Portugal)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hugman, Rui; Stigter, Tibor; Monteiro, Jose Paulo

    2015-04-01

    The Albufeira-Ribeira de Quarteira aquifer system on the south coast of Portugal is an important source of groundwater for agriculture and tourism, as well as contributing to significant freshwater discharge along the coast in the form of inter- and sub-tidal springs and maintaining groundwater dependent ecosystems along the Quarteira stream. Submarine groundwater discharge (SGD) in the area was investigated within the scope of a multidisciplinary research project FREEZE (PTDC/MAR/102030/2008) which aimed to identify and characterize the effects of the hydrological/hydrogeological conditions on associated ecosystems. As well as near shore submarine springs, signs of SGD were found several kilometres from the shoreline during offshore CTD and geophysical surveys. On-land geophysical and offshore seismic surveys supplied data to update the 3D hydrogeological conceptual model of the aquifer system. Numerical models were applied to test the possibility of an offshore continuation of fresh groundwater over several kilometres under local conditions. Due to the high computational demand of variable density modelling, in an initial phase simplified 2D cross section models were used to test the conceptual model and reduce uncertainty in regards to model parameters. Results confirm the potential for SGD several kilometres from the coast within a range of acceptable values of hydraulic conductivity and recharge of the system. This represents the initial step in developing and calibrating a 3D regional scale model of the system, which aims to supply an estimate of the spatial distribution of SGD as well as serve as a decision support tool for the local water resources management agency.

  8. The influence of submarine groundwater discharges on subtidal meiofauna assemblages in south Portugal (Algarve)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Encarnação, João; Leitão, Francisco; Range, Pedro; Piló, David; Chícharo, M. Alexandra; Chícharo, Luís

    2013-09-01

    Submarine groundwater discharges (SGD) have been documented as contributing to the biological productivity of coastal areas, through a bottom-up support to higher trophic levels. Nevertheless, the effects on the bottom levels of the coastal food web, namely the meiofauna, are still very poorly known. The "Olhos de Água" beach is the only area on the South coast of Portugal where submarine freshwater seepages have been identified. In this study, meiofauna assemblages in the area impacted by SGD were compared with the meiofauna from a similar area, but without SGD. Samples were taken in Spring and Summer 2011, under different hydrological regimes, aquifer recharge (after Winter) and dryness (after Spring), respectively. The major changes in the community were recorded at a seasonal level, with higher abundances and number of taxa in Spring, when compared to Summer. This may be explained by better sediment aeration during spring along with higher food availability from the sedimentation of spring phytoplankton blooms. Although no significant differences were detected by multivariate analysis on the meiofauna abundances between Control and Impact areas, pair-wise tests on the interactions between factors in number of taxa (S) and species richness (Margalef's d) suggested that the discharge of groundwater stimulated an increase in meiofauna diversity. Such effect can be observed between the meiofauna assemblages from impacted and control areas and also between periods with different discharge regimes (Spring and Summer) in the impacted area. These findings highlight the role that freshwater discharges from coastal aquifers have on meiofauna assemblages and suggest that SGD contribute to enhance the transfer of energy from the lower levels of the trophic web to upper levels.

  9. The new CutSprof sampling tool and method for micromorphological and microfacies analyses of subsurface salt marsh sediments, Algarve, Portugal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Araújo-Gomes, João; Ramos-Pereira, Ana

    2015-02-01

    A new tool and method for collecting undisturbed subsurface samples in estuarine environments by means of trenching, timbering and sectioning is presented. Smoothing of sidewalls is achieved by a so-called cutting sediment profiler (CutSprof), while water draining into the trench is cleared by pumping. From smoothed sidewall sections, undisturbed thin sediment slices can then be collected for micromorphological and microfacies analyses. Results demonstrating the successful application of this procedure are presented for salt marshes of the Bensafrim River estuary (Lagos, Algarve, Portugal). In addition to palaeo-reconstructions in salt marsh settings, the CutSprof would be highly suitable in various other research domains as well as for environmental management purposes, particularly where sampling below the groundwater table is desirable to explore, for example, animal-sediment relationships in tidal-flat and mangrove ecosystems as well as the dynamics of coastal wetlands today threatened by ever-increasing anthropogenic influence.

  10. Connecting onshore structures in the Algarve with the southern Portuguese continental margin: The Carcavai fault zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carvalho, João; Matias, Hugo; Rabeh, Taha; Menezes, Paulo T. L.; Barbosa, Valeria C. F.; Dias, Ruben; Carrilho, Fernando

    2012-10-01

    The Algarve is located a few hundred kilometres north of the crossing of the E-W Eurasia-Africa plate boundary and is characterised by a moderate seismicity, with some important historical and instrumental earthquakes causing loss of lives and significant material damages. The area is affected not only by plate boundary generated earthquakes but also by local events capable of generating moderate to large earthquakes. The assessment of onshore local sources and its connections with the plate border is therefore of vital importance for an evaluation of the regional seismic hazard. This paper discusses the application of geophysical data to study a large fault zone which is the offshore prolonging of the Carcavai fault zone (CF), an onshore outcropping structure more than 20 km long which is seen to deform sediments of Plio-Quaternary age. Offshore and onshore aeromagnetic data, offshore gravimetric and seismic reflection data shows the existence of a long (over 200 km) WSW-ENE trending fault zone affecting the Palaeozoic basement with a normal geometry which is probably segmented by NNW-SSE to N-S faults. Seismic data shows that this fault zone has been reactivated as a left-lateral strike-slip fault and inverted in the Cenozoic with the upthrust of the northwestern block, in agreement with the onshore CF characteristics. Recent work carried out onshore and offshore near the coastline that shows deformation of Plio-Quaternary sediments suggests that this is an active fault. Some of the faults segments have instrumental seismicity associated. Though faults very rarely rupture along its entire length, several fault segments have a length of about 30 km and may produce an earthquake of magnitude about7. The proximity of the onshore segment to the city of Faro and of the offshore segments to the main population centres of the Algarve makes it a serious threat to the Algarve.

  11. Evaluation of water demand in golf courses from southern Portugal during the last three decades

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gago Pedras, Celestina M.; Lança, Rui M.; Granja-Martins, Fernando M.; Neto-Paixão, Helena M.; Vieira, Cristina; Monteiro, José P.; Guerrero, Carlos

    2014-05-01

    Golf is an economic activity with a prominent position in the tourist-sport offer in the region of Algarve. Located in southern of Portugal, this region is the most suitable region for the growth of the golf industry. The climate is characterized by mild winters with slight rainfall and hot and dry summers. The region has an annual average temperature of 14oC and annual precipitation that rarely exceeds 500 mm year-1. Since most of the rainfall occurs concentrated in the winter, irrigation is needed during the remaining months of the year to meet the water demand from plants. A proper irrigation management will allow to optimize the use water, thus it constitutes a key issue for the sustainability of this activity in areas subjected to water scarcity. Currently, remote sensing provides the tools to assess the evolution of the greenish quality of the area in the golf courses. In this study, based on Landsat images, vegetation indices were calculated the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), for the spring and summer seasons during the last 30 years. For the same period, according the data collected from weather stations distributed in the region, maps of precipitation, temperature, solar radiation, relative humidity and wind were produced. According the current maintenance practices and irrigation cycles, maps of potential and real evapotranspiration and with basis on the water balance were calculated, and water deficit maps estimated. Upon crossing this information with the NDVI maps, trends were identified in the consumption of water for irrigation due to the growth of the occupied area by golf courses in the region of Algarve. Since drought problems tend to increase due to climate changes, it becomes relevant the need to conduct this study aiming the research of strategies to ensure the beneficial use of water on golf courses and other turfgrass areas.

  12. Evaluation of golf courses water demand in southern of Portugal for the last three decades

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gago Pedras, Celestina M.; Lança, Rui M.; Martins, Fernando; Fernandez, Helena; Vieira, Cristina; Monteiro, José Paulo; Guerrero, Carlos

    2014-05-01

    Golf is an economic activity with a prominent position in the tourist-sport offer in the region of Algarve. Located in southern of Portugal, this region is the most suitable region for the growth of the golf industry. The climate is characterized by mild winters with slight rainfall and hot and dry summers. The region has an annual average temperature of 14oC and annual precipitation that rarely exceeds 500 mm year-1. Since most of the rainfall occurs concentrated in the winter, irrigation is needed during the remaining months of the year to meet the water demand from plants. A proper irrigation management will allow to optimize the use water, thus it constitutes a key issue for the sustainability of this activity in areas subjected to water scarcity. Currently, remote sensing provides the tools to assess the evolution of the greenish quality of the area in the golf courses. In this study, based on Landsat images, vegetation indices were calculated the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), for the spring and summer seasons during the last 30 years. For the same period, according the data collected from weather stations distributed in the region, maps of precipitation, temperature, solar radiation, relative humidity and wind were produced. According the current maintenance practices and irrigation cycles, maps of potential and real evapotranspiration and with basis on the water balance were calculated, and water deficit maps estimated. Upon crossing this information with the NDVI maps, trends were identified in the consumption of water for irrigation due to the growth of the occupied area by golf courses in the region of Algarve. Since drought problems tend to increase due to climate changes, it becomes relevant the need to conduct this study aiming the research of strategies to ensure the beneficial use of water on golf courses and other turfgrass areas. Keywords: evapotranspiration, golf, irrigation, NDVI, water deficit

  13. Simulation of the interactions between gravity processes and contour currents on the Algarve Margin (South Portugal) using the stratigraphic forward model Sedsim

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salles, T.; Marchès, E.; Dyt, C.; Griffiths, C.; Hanquiez, V.; Mulder, T.

    2010-08-01

    The margin of the Gulf of Cadiz is swept by an intermediate current the Mediterranean Outflow Water (MOW) flowing from the Mediterranean to the Atlantic. On the northern margin of the Gulf (Algarve Margin, South Portugal) the MOW intensity is low, and fine-grained contourite drifts are built up with an alongslope alignment. Recent sedimentological studies emphasize the presence of complex process interactions resulting in the formation of a unique depositional architecture. Alongslope processes related to contour currents generate contourite drift, while downslope processes form canyons and channels aligned on deep faults. This paper uses a combined oceanographic and geological dataset to simulate the different types of interactions between gravity processes and contour currents, which were evidenced on this margin. An extrapolation of the contour current intensity has been used based on the present day velocity field and sea-level fluctuations over the simulated geological time-scale. According to our model results, the construction of the contourite drift is closely linked to contour current velocities and directions, the types of sediments transported and the existing topography. Using modern sedimentological understanding of the area, we have correlated gravity flow's strongest activity to sea level lowstand periods mainly due to a closer connection between canyon's mouth and river or deltaic systems. The simulated gravity flows are initialized at different locations and times on the margin depending on the preserved lobes retrieved from seismic analysis. Their resulting morphological features are identified as perched-lobes with volumes and forms close to the ones observed on Portimão and Lagos Drifts. This study provides a process-based understanding of the construction of contourite system and a physical evaluation of the interactions between gravity flows perpendicular to the slope, and alongslope processes. In addition, it shows the influence of

  14. Climatic and geologic controls on the piezometry of the Querença-Silves karst aquifer, Algarve (Portugal)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neves, Maria C.; Costa, Luis; Monteiro, José P.

    2016-01-01

    Karst aquifers in semi-arid regions, like Querença-Silves (Portugal), are particularly vulnerable to climate variability. For the first time in this region, the temporal structure of a groundwater-level time series (1985-2010) was explored using the continuous wavelet transform. The investigation focused on a set of four piezometers, two at each side of the S. Marcos-Quarteira fault, to demonstrate how each of the two sectors of the aquifer respond to climate-induced patterns. Singular spectral analysis applied to an extended set of piezometers enabled identification of several quasi-periodic modes of variability, with periods of 6.5, 4.3, 3.2 and 2.6 years, which can be explained by low-frequency climate patterns. The geologic forcing accounts for ~15 % of the differential variability between the eastern and western sectors of the aquifer. The western sector displays spatially homogenous piezometric variations, large memory effects and low-pass filtering characteristics, which are consistent with relatively large and uniform values of water storage capacity and transmissivity properties. In this sector, the 6.5-year mode of variability accounts for ~70 % of the total variance of the groundwater levels. The eastern sector shows larger spatial and temporal heterogeneity, is more reactive to short-term variations, and is less influenced by the low-frequency components related to climate patterns.

  15. Spatial and depth-associated distribution patterns of shallow gorgonians in the Algarve coast (Portugal, NE Atlantic)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cúrdia, João; Monteiro, Pedro; Afonso, Carlos M. L.; Santos, Miguel N.; Cunha, Marina R.; Gonçalves, Jorge M. S.

    2013-09-01

    The ecological role of gorgonians for marine rocky bottoms is worldwide recognized, but the information on the distribution patterns of NE Atlantic temperate species is insufficient, considering current global, regional and local threats. To overcome the lack of information on the spatial distribution patterns of gorgonians in south Portugal, in 2009/2010, the occurrence and abundance of gorgonian species in rocky bottoms were quantified over more than 25 km of coast (37.1°N/8.6°W) down to 30 m depth. Eunicella labiata, Eunicella gazella, Eunicella verrucosa and Leptogorgia sarmentosa were abundant and frequent in the studied area, while Leptogorgia lusitanica was less abundant. All species evidenced a similar depth pattern, that is abundance significantly increased with depth below 15 m. At shallower waters (up to 15 m), the distribution of gorgonians may be constrained by abiotic factors and competition with algae. Indeed, the abundance of gorgonians was negatively correlated with the percentage cover of algae along the depth gradient, but gorgonians and sponges coexist. Competition among gorgonian species also seems to be low in this area because of the similarity in the abundance pattern observed for the most abundant species and also their high association. In NE Atlantic shallow temperate rocky bottoms, the distribution of gorgonians seems to be influenced by environmental factors and biological interactions, namely competition (algae) and coexistence (sponges and other gorgonians).

  16. Climatic and geologic controls on the piezometry of the Querença-Silves karst aquifer, Algarve (Portugal)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neves, Maria C.; Costa, Luis; Monteiro, José P.

    2016-06-01

    Karst aquifers in semi-arid regions, like Querença-Silves (Portugal), are particularly vulnerable to climate variability. For the first time in this region, the temporal structure of a groundwater-level time series (1985-2010) was explored using the continuous wavelet transform. The investigation focused on a set of four piezometers, two at each side of the S. Marcos-Quarteira fault, to demonstrate how each of the two sectors of the aquifer respond to climate-induced patterns. Singular spectral analysis applied to an extended set of piezometers enabled identification of several quasi-periodic modes of variability, with periods of 6.5, 4.3, 3.2 and 2.6 years, which can be explained by low-frequency climate patterns. The geologic forcing accounts for ~15 % of the differential variability between the eastern and western sectors of the aquifer. The western sector displays spatially homogenous piezometric variations, large memory effects and low-pass filtering characteristics, which are consistent with relatively large and uniform values of water storage capacity and transmissivity properties. In this sector, the 6.5-year mode of variability accounts for ~70 % of the total variance of the groundwater levels. The eastern sector shows larger spatial and temporal heterogeneity, is more reactive to short-term variations, and is less influenced by the low-frequency components related to climate patterns.

  17. Sea cliff instability susceptibility at regional scale: a statistically based assessment in southern Algarve, Portugal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marques, F. M. S. F.; Matildes, R.; Redweik, P.

    2013-05-01

    Mass movements of different types and sizes are the main processes of sea cliff evolution and also a considerable source of natural hazard, making its assessment a relevant issue in terms of human losses prevention and land use regulations. To address the assessment of the spatial component of sea cliff hazard, i.e. the susceptibility, a statistically based study was made to assess the capacity of a set of conditioning factors to express the occurrence of sea cliff failures affecting areas located along their top. The study was based on the application of the bivariate Information Value and multivariate Logistic regression statistical methods, using a set of predisposing factors for cliff failures, mainly related with geology (lithology, bedding dip, faults) and geomorphology (maximum and mean slope, height, aspect, plan curvature, toe protection) which were correlated with a photogrammetry based inventory of cliff failures occurred in a 60 yr period (1947-2007). The susceptibility models were validated against the inventory data using standard success rate and ROC curves, and provided encouraging results, indicating that the proposed approaches are effective for susceptibility assessment. The results obtained also stress the need for improvement of the predisposing factors to be used in this type of studies and the need of detailed and systematic cliff failures inventories.

  18. Sea cliff instability susceptibility at regional scale: a statistically based assessment in the southern Algarve, Portugal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marques, F. M. S. F.; Matildes, R.; Redweik, P.

    2013-12-01

    Sea cliff evolution is dominated by the occurrence of slope mass movements of different types and sizes, which are a considerable source of natural hazard, making their assessment a relevant issue in terms of human loss prevention and land use regulations. To address the assessment of the spatial component of sea cliff hazards, i.e. the susceptibility, a statistically based study was made to assess the capacity of a set of conditioning factors to express the occurrence of sea cliff failures affecting areas located along their top. The study was based on the application of the bivariate information value and multivariate logistic regression statistical methods, using a set of predisposing factors for cliff failures, mainly related to geology (lithology, bedding dip, faults) and geomorphology (maximum and mean slope, height, aspect, plan curvature, toe protection), which were correlated with a photogrammetry-based inventory of cliff failures that occurred in a 60 yr period (1947-2007). The susceptibility models were validated against the inventory data using standard success rate and ROC curves, and provided encouraging results, indicating that the proposed approaches are effective for susceptibility assessment. The results obtained also stress the need for improvement of the predisposing factors to be used in this type of study and the need for detailed and systematic cliff failure inventories.

  19. Slope mass movements on rocky sea-cliffs: A power-law distributed natural hazard on the Barlavento Coast, Algarve, Portugal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teixeira, Sebastião Braz

    2006-06-01

    The coast of the Central Algarve, Portugal, is dominated by sea-cliffs, cut on Miocene calcarenites; here, the main coastal geologic hazards result from the conflict between human occupation and sea-cliff recession. The evolution of this rocky coast occurs through an intermittent and discontinuous series of slope mass movements, along a 46 km cliff front. For the last 30 years, the increase of tourism occupation has amplified the risks to both people and buildings. In the last decade we have seen several accidents caused by cliff failure, which killed or wounded people and destroyed several buildings. The definition of buffer zones limited by hazard lines parallel to the cliff edge, where land use is restricted, is a widely used and effective preventive measure for mitigating risk. Rocky coasts typically show a slow cliff evolution. The process of gathering statistically significant field inventories of mass movements is, thus, very long. Although mass movement catalogues provide fundamental information on sea cliff evolution patterns and are an outstanding tool in hazard assessment, published data sets are still rare. In this work, we use two inventories of mass movement width, recorded on sea cliffs cut on Miocene calcarenites: a nine year long continuous field inventory (1995-2004) with 140 recorded events, and a 44 year long catalogue based on comparative analysis of aerial photographs (1947-1991), that includes 177 events. The cumulative frequency-width distributions of both data sets fit, above a critical width value corresponding to the threshold of full completeness of the inventories, to power-law distributions. The knowledge of the limits of the catalogues enabled the construction of a 53 year long record inventory over the range of mean width ⩾3 m ( n=167 events) and maximum width ⩾4 m ( n=155 events). The data assembled corresponds to a partial series and was converted to a return period-size distribution. Both return period-width distributions

  20. Chewing lice (Phthiraptera) from wild birds in southern Portugal.

    PubMed

    Tomás, André; Palma, Ricardo L; Rebelo, Maria Teresa; da Fonseca, Isabel Pereira

    2016-06-01

    This study was carried out to determine chewing louse species of wild birds in the Ria Formosa Natural Park, located in southern Portugal. In addition, the hypothesis that bird age, avian migration and social behaviour have an impact on the louse prevalence was tested. Between September and December of 2013, 122 birds (belonging to 10 orders, 19 families, 31 genera and 35 species) captured in scientific ringing sessions and admitted to the Wildlife Rehabilitation and Investigation Centre of Ria Formosa were examined for lice. Twenty-six (21.3%) birds were found to be infested with at least one chewing louse species. The chewing lice identified include 18 species. Colonial birds (34.9%) and migratory birds (29.5%) had statistically significant higher prevalence than territorial birds (6.8%) and resident birds (13.1%), respectively. This paper records 17 louse species for the first time in southern Portugal: Laemobothrion maximum, Laemobothrion vulturis, Actornithophilus piceus lari, Actornithophilus umbrinus, Austromenopon lutescens, Colpocephalum heterosoma, Colpocephalum turbinatum, Eidmanniella pustulosa, Nosopon casteli, Pectinopygus bassani, Pseudomenopon pilosum, Trinoton femoratum, Trinoton querquedulae, Craspedorrhynchus platystomus, Degeeriella fulva, Falcolipeurus quadripustulatus, Lunaceps schismatus. Also a nymph of the genus Strigiphilus was collected from a Eurasian eagle-owl. These findings contribute to the knowledge of avian chewing lice from important birds areas in Portugal. PMID:26899014

  1. Portugal.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eckles, David; Toro, Leonor, Ed.

    Brief information is provided on the region, climate, agriculture and industry of 10 provinces in Portugal: Tras-os-Montes e Alto Douro, located in Portugal's northeastern region; Beira Alta, the province with Portugal's highest elevation point; Beira Baixa, one of Portugal's poorest regions; Beira Litoral, located in central Portugal along the…

  2. Ditched enclosures in Southern Portugal: an Archaeoastronomical view

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mejuto, A J.; Valera, A. Carlos; Castaño, J. Gómez; Rodríguez-Caderot, G.; Becker, Helmut

    2015-05-01

    Since the very first ages, human beings have attempted to understand and manage their environment in order to survive. This is the case regarding wildlife, weather cycles and gathering periods. This is also reflected in the areas surrounding sites where individuals live; they changed the landscape with different aims. This type of archaeology has risen very recently - in the last few years - and is usually called Landscape Archaeology. Traditional landscape archaeology has dealt with earth and location related studies; the relationship of ancient peoples with the sky has been disregarded. The archaeoastronomical studies have mitigated this fact. Archaeoastronomy has revealed an important number of archaeological sites; many of them reveal a clear intention of astronomically designed buildings or structures. This implies a planned detailed design and obviously a deep understanding of astronomical knowledge. As examples of these sites a number of megalithic ditched enclosures sited in Portugal will be shown which were studied inside the project "Ditched enclosures plants and Neolithic cosmologies: A landscape, archaeoastronomical and geophysical perspective". The ideological and astronomical aspects inside the architecture of these types of sites will be explained. In this paper we present a new methodology applied in the archaeoastronomical calculations for southern Portugal sites. It includes GIS techniques and the development of an archaeoastronomical layer that can be used to display the computations over cartographic information from the archaeological sites. A Spatial Data Infrastructure is also created in order to expose the results.

  3. Effect of artificial reefs (southern Portugal) on sediment-water transport of nutrients: Importance of the hydrodynamic regime

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Falcão, M.; Santos, M. N.; Drago, T.; Serpa, D.; Monteiro, C.

    2009-08-01

    The present study investigates the differences between nutrient fluxes and particulate organic matter within an artificial reef system (AR) deployed in August 2002 off Faro (Algarve, Southern Portugal) and in a non-reef area (NRA), and how fluxes and suspended material may be affected by the hydrodynamic regime. Surveys to collect sediment cores, suspended/settled particles and overlying water samples were carried out by divers, from March (2006) to October (2007) in AR and NRA. Sediment cores and settled particles were collected to determine grain size, organic and inorganic carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus content. Overlying water and pore water samples were analysed for ammonium, nitrite, nitrate, phosphate, silicate, dissolved organic nitrogen, dissolved organic phosphorus and chlorophyll a. Results from the period studied showed that: (1) the benthic export of dissolved N, P and Si was 2-3 times higher at AR; (2) the particulate organic carbon (POC), nitrogen (PON) and phosphorus (POP) in suspended/settled particles were about 1.5 times higher at AR; (3) at both AR and NRA, the benthic export of dissolved N, P and Si, during a calm weather period, was 2-4 times higher than during or immediately after a storm event; and (4) at both sites, particulate organic compounds (POC, PON and POP) increased about 20 times during a storm event. These findings suggest that both the nutrients transport from sediment to water column and the quantity/quality of suspended/settled particles were highly dependent on the existence of reef structures and on the hydrodynamic regime.

  4. Portugal.

    PubMed

    1985-03-01

    Portugal's 1983 population of 10.04 million was growing at .7%/year. 97% were Roman Catholic, 80% were literate, and 4.1 million were in the labor force in 1984. Portugal is mountainous north of the Tagus River and consists of rolling plains in the central south. The Azores and Madeira islands belong to Portugal but enjoy considerable autonomy. Portugal's dependency of Macau on the Chinese coast is an autonomous entity under Portuguese administration. The former teritories of Goa and Portuguese Timor were annexed by India and Indonesia respectively in 1961 and 1976, and the former territories in Africa achieved independence in 1974 and 1975. Portugal, 1 of the oldest states in Europe, traces its modern history to A.D. 1140 when the 1st king was crowned. The approximate present day boundaries were secured in 1249. Portugal eventually became a massive colonial empire with territories in Africa and Latin America and outposts in the Far East. The Portuguese Republic replaced the monarchy in 1910. After some years of instability, Antonio Salazar became prime minister, and with his successor, ruled Portugal as an authoritarian "corporate" state for 42 years. An almost bloodless coup in 1974 led to establishment of a parliamentary democracy. The 4 main organs of national government are the presidency, the prime minister and council of ministers, the assembly of the republic, and the courts. Portugal's gross domestic product (GDP) in 1984 was $19.4 billion, and per capita income was $1930. After almost a decade of rapid growth, the economy declined in the mid 1970s due to disruption after the 1974 revolution and the large influx of refugees from Portugal's former colonies in Africa. Growth resumed in the late 1970s, but structural problems and an often adverse international economic climate have slowed progress. The proportion of the labor force in agriculture has dropped from 42% to 24.4% since 1960. Agricultural production now contributes only 8.8% to the GDP, and a

  5. sup 40 Ar- sup 39 Ar dating of the Beja gabbro: Timing of the accretion of southern Portugal

    SciTech Connect

    Ruffet, G. )

    1990-11-01

    The {sup 40}Ar-{sup 39}Ar dating of the amphibole from the Beja gabbro (Southern Portugal) yields a plateau age at 336.4 {plus minus} 0.8 Ma (2{sigma} level). The corresponding calculated isotopic closure temperature is around 800C. The comparison of this temperature with the magnetic blocking temperature ({approximately}570C) allows an estimation of a probable thermoremanent acquisition age for the characteristic magnetization component of the Beja gabbro between 335Ma and 315Ma, assuming cooling rates between 10C/Ma and 100C/Ma. These results, combined wtih paleomagnetic results from the Beja gabbro and Late Paleozoic rocks from Southern Portugal (Perroud et al., 1985), suggest that the southermost part of Spain and Portugal was separated from Northern Iberia in Early Carboniferous times and was accreted to Europe during the Late Carboniferous.

  6. Preparation for Life in a Democratic Society in Five Countries in Southern Europe (Greece, Italy, Malta, Portugal and Spain).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fuente, Carmen

    The aim of this report is to identify and explain the relevant experiences that are being undertaken in some Southern European schools to prepare young people for living in a democracy. To prepare the report, the authors visited schools in five countries: Greece, Italy, Malta, Portugal, and Spain. They also obtained information from ad hoc reports…

  7. Detection of Marteilia refringens infecting the European flat oyster Ostrea edulis and the dwarf oyster Ostrea stentina in southern Portugal and Spain.

    PubMed

    López-Sanmartín, Monserrat; Batista, Frederico M; del Carmen Marín, María; Garrido, Inmaculada; Quintero, David; Grade, Ana; Ruano, Francisco; de la Herrán, Roberto; Navas, José I

    2015-09-01

    In the present study, Marteilia sp. was detected by histological examination and in situ hybridisation in Ostrea edulis and Ostrea stentina collected in southern Iberian Peninsula. Marteilia refringens DNA was detected by PCR in O. edulis (collected in southern Portugal) and O. stentina (collected in southern Spain and Portugal). Sequencing analysis revealed the presence of M. refringens type O in O. edulis, and type O and M in O. stentina. This is the first confirmed detection of M. refringens in Portugal and the first report on the occurrence of M. refringens infecting O. stentina in Europe. PMID:26149820

  8. First survey for Babesia bovis and Babesia bigemina infection in cattle from Central and Southern regions of Portugal using serological and DNA detection methods

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Incidence of bovine babesiosis in Portugal is currently unknown. In this study, a first survey of Babesia bovis and B. bigemina infection in cattle was carried out using blood samples from 406 clinically healthy individuals from different districts from Central and Southern regions of Portugal and a...

  9. Study of the Impact of Submarine Groundwater Discharge on the Bio-Geochemical Parameters of Coastal Waters off Southern Portugal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kontar, A. Y.; Newton, A.

    2009-12-01

    We are working on the estimation of the impact of submarine groundwater discharge (SGD) on the bio-geochemical parameters of coastal waters in Atlantic off Portugal. It is important to obtain reliable quantitative estimates of both in coming and outgoing fluxes of fresh cold waters. In situation that incoming groundwater is cold enough to occupy the lower part of the stratified water column on the shelf, transport processes in the bottom boundary layer dominate the removal of discharged water from the coastal zone. Physical mechanisms of such removal seem to be similar to the mechanisms of dense water cascades off the continental shelf over the shelf break. Cascading is a specific type of thermohaline circulation, in which dense water formed over the continental shelf descends down the continental slope to a greater depth. This process is a major component of ventilation of intermediate and abyssal waters, hence affecting thermohaline circulation and global climate. The resulting flows produce an irreversible exchange of oceanic and shelf waters and take an important role in bio-geochemical cycles by removal of phytoplankton, carbon and chlorophyll from productive areas. Because it can take decades or more for the subducted water to re-surface, water cascades contribute to long term climatic variability. It is common to consider formation of dense water by cooling, evaporation or freezing in the surface layer. SGD can provide an alternative mechanism of dense water formation on the shelf. In the framework of the ERASMUS MANDUS project we investigate the physical mechanisms of the removal of SGD water from the Algarve coastal zone to try to get a quantification of off-shore fluxes and transport pathways for SGD and chemical species from the shelf through numerical modeling of the processes in the bottom boundary layer. We are using numerical modeling of the SGD fluxes and transport pathways of dense water flow in the bottom boundary layer using a set of process

  10. How did the AD 1755 tsunami impact on sand barriers across the southern coast of Portugal?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Costa, Pedro J. M.; Costas, Susana; González-Villanueva, R.; Oliveira, M. A.; Roelvink, D.; Andrade, C.; Freitas, M. C.; Cunha, P. P.; Martins, A.; Buylaert, J.-P.; Murray, A.

    2016-09-01

    Tsunamis are highly energetic events that may destructively impact the coast. Resolving the degree of coastal resilience to tsunamis is extremely difficult and sometimes impossible. In part, our understanding is constrained by the limited number of contemporaneous examples and by the high dynamism of coastal systems. In fact, long-term changes of coastal systems can mask the evidence of past tsunamis, leaving us a short or incomplete sedimentary archive. Here, we present a multidisciplinary approach involving sedimentological, geomorphological and geophysical analyses and numerical modelling of the AD 1755 tsunami flood on a coastal segment located within the southern coast of Portugal. In particular, the work focuses on deciphering the impact of the tsunami waves over a coastal sand barrier enclosing two lowlands largely inundated by the tsunami flood. Erosional features documented by geophysical data were assigned to the AD 1755 event with support of sedimentological and age estimation results. Furthermore, these features allowed the calibration of the simulation settings to reconstruct the local conditions and establish the run-up range of the AD 1755 tsunami when it hit this coast (6-8 m above mean sea level). Our work highlights the usefulness of erosional imprints preserved in the sediment record to interpret the impact of the extreme events on sand barriers.

  11. Folklore and traditional ecological knowledge of geckos in Southern Portugal: implications for conservation and science.

    PubMed

    Ceríaco, Luis M P; Marques, Mariana P; Madeira, Natália C; Vila-Viçosa, Carlos M; Mendes, Paula

    2011-01-01

    Traditional Ecological Knowledge (TEK) and folklore are repositories of large amounts of information about the natural world. Ideas, perceptions and empirical data held by human communities regarding local species are important sources which enable new scientific discoveries to be made, as well as offering the potential to solve a number of conservation problems. We documented the gecko-related folklore and TEK of the people of southern Portugal, with the particular aim of understanding the main ideas relating to gecko biology and ecology. Our results suggest that local knowledge of gecko ecology and biology is both accurate and relevant. As a result of information provided by local inhabitants, knowledge of the current geographic distribution of Hemidactylus turcicus was expanded, with its presence reported in nine new locations. It was also discovered that locals still have some misconceptions of geckos as poisonous and carriers of dermatological diseases. The presence of these ideas has led the population to a fear of and aversion to geckos, resulting in direct persecution being one of the major conservation problems facing these animals. It is essential, from both a scientific and conservationist perspective, to understand the knowledge and perceptions that people have towards the animals, since, only then, may hitherto unrecognized pertinent information and conservation problems be detected and resolved. PMID:21892925

  12. Prevalence of Temporomandibular Disorder in Children and Adolescents from Public Schools in Southern Portugal

    PubMed Central

    Minghelli, Beatriz; Cardoso, Iara; Porfírio, Melani; Gonçalves, Roberta; Cascalheiro, Sabina; Barreto, Vera; Soeiro, Andreia; Almeida, Leandro

    2014-01-01

    Background: The prevalence of temporomandibular disorder (TMD) in children and adolescents is in the range of 6-68% and can be triggered or aggravated by emotional stress. Aim: The study was to investigate the prevalence of TMD in Portuguese children and adolescents and its association with emotional stress. Materials and Methods: The sample comprised 3,260 students aged 5-19 years. The questionnaire was used to assess the presence of TMD, and was applied in a single moment. Results: TMD was observed in 821 (25.2%) students. The most common symptoms of TMD were: if considered tense or nervous (52%), have headaches (36.8%), and habit of clenching or grinding teeth (27.3%). The girls had a 1.36 higher probability of developing TMD than boys (95% CI: 1.14-1.63; p < 0.001); moreover, students from the older age group had a 2.31 higher probability of developing the disorder (95% CI: 1.85-2.89; p < 0.001). Students who considered themselves tense or nervous presented 8.74 higher probability (95% CI: 7.03-10.86; p < 0.001) of developing TMD. Conclusion: This study showed a high prevalence of TMD in children and adolescents in southern Portugal, and revealed a significant association between this dysfunction and the levels of emotional stress. Female students, older students, and those considered tense or nervous have a higher probability of developing TMD. PMID:24741551

  13. Folklore and traditional ecological knowledge of geckos in Southern Portugal: implications for conservation and science

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Traditional Ecological Knowledge (TEK) and folklore are repositories of large amounts of information about the natural world. Ideas, perceptions and empirical data held by human communities regarding local species are important sources which enable new scientific discoveries to be made, as well as offering the potential to solve a number of conservation problems. We documented the gecko-related folklore and TEK of the people of southern Portugal, with the particular aim of understanding the main ideas relating to gecko biology and ecology. Our results suggest that local knowledge of gecko ecology and biology is both accurate and relevant. As a result of information provided by local inhabitants, knowledge of the current geographic distribution of Hemidactylus turcicus was expanded, with its presence reported in nine new locations. It was also discovered that locals still have some misconceptions of geckos as poisonous and carriers of dermatological diseases. The presence of these ideas has led the population to a fear of and aversion to geckos, resulting in direct persecution being one of the major conservation problems facing these animals. It is essential, from both a scientific and conservationist perspective, to understand the knowledge and perceptions that people have towards the animals, since, only then, may hitherto unrecognized pertinent information and conservation problems be detected and resolved. PMID:21892925

  14. Integrated assessment of bioerosion, biocover and downwearing rates of carbonate rock shore platforms in southern Portugal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moura, D.; Gabriel, S.; Gamito, S.; Santos, R.; Zugasti, E.; Naylor, L.; Gomes, A.; Tavares, A. M.; Martins, A. L.

    2012-04-01

    Bioerosion on rocky shores has been frequently reported as an important mechanism in coastal evolution, with less attention focussed on determining the bioprotective role organisms may have in mediating coastal erosion. This work aims, for the first time, to provide an integrated assessment of both traversing microerosion meter (TMEM) downwearing rates and activity of intertidal organisms on two carbonate shore platforms in southern Portugal. Paired substations positioned on the same substrate but differing in biological cover (one with bare rock and the other with algal cover colonised between the first and final readings) were monitored for eighteen months using a TMEM. At each station, the volume of burrows produced by macro borers was measured. Downwearing rates were lower in the surfaces protected by algal turf except in the station that experienced the longest time of exposure to subaerial conditions. In contrast, TMEM downwearing rates were higher in the areas containing the higher volume of burrows. Both downwearing rates and burrow volumes were negatively correlated with the mechanical strength of the substrate as measured by Schmidt Hammer rebound.

  15. Transpiration, crop coefficient and water use of Olive tree (cv. Cordovil) in Southern Portugal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santos, F. L.

    2008-12-01

    Orchard olive transpiration, soil water status and stomatal response in relation to water deficit were investigated to clarify mechanisms of tree water uptake and stomatal control to improve the irrigation scheduling of low-density olive trees of cv. Cordovil grown in typical Mediterranean environment of Southern Portugal. Trees were subject to three irrigation treatments. Treatment A received 100% of crop evapotranspiration by a drip irrigation system, a sustained deficit (SDI)treatment B received 60% of crop evapotranspiration, a regulated deficit(RDI) irrigation treatment C received irrigation water before-flowering and just before pit-hardening, and a Dry-farming treatment. Tree and orchard transpiration and the dynamics of water uptake by roots were estimated from sap flow measurements and water balance technique. Stomatal conductance was modeled from local meteorological variables, measured sap flow and tree canopy variables. Higher than treatment A and B stomatal conductance and the high tree fruit production recommend treatment C as most suitable for scheduling irrigation of olive orchards in wet years of well distributed late summer rainfall. For drier years of no summer and early autumn rains that minimizes available water to extract by roots outside the wet bulb of drip irrigation and for the scarce readily available irrigation water years, as so often occurs in the region, the sustained deficit irrigation (SDI) regime seems a better option. Nonetheless, for years of limited available water resources that preclude sustained deficit irrigation, careful management of the proposed RDI could also allow for efficient use of irrigation water.

  16. Biogeochemical processes and nutrient cycling within an artificial reef off Southern Portugal.

    PubMed

    Falcão, M; Santos, M N; Vicente, M; Monteiro, C C

    2007-06-01

    This study (2002/2004) examines the effect of artificial reef (AR) structures off the southern coast of Portugal on biogeochemical process and nutrient cycling. Organic and inorganic carbon, nitrogen, phosphorus and chlorophyll a were determined monthly in sediment cores and settled particles for a two-year period. Ammonium, nitrates, phosphates, silicates, total organic nitrogen and phosphorus, chlorophyll a and phaeopigments were also determined monthly in water samples within AR and control sites. Results of the two-year study showed that: (i) there was a significant exponential fit between organic carbon and chlorophyll a (r2=0.91; p<0.01) in reef sediment suggesting an increase of benthic productivity; (ii) organic carbon and nitrogen content in settled particles within AR environment was about four times higher two years after reef deployment; (iii) nutrients and chlorophyll a in the water column were higher at AR than control site. Two years after AR deployment, dissolved organic and inorganic compounds in near bottom water were 30-60% higher, emphasizing benthic remineralization processes at AR's organically rich sediment. Marked chemical changes in the ecosystem were observed during the two-year study period, reinforcing the importance of these structures for sandy coastal areas rehabilitation through trophic chain pull-out. PMID:17239434

  17. Seroepidemiology of canine leishmaniosis in Évora (southern Portugal): 20-year trends

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Canine leishmaniosis (CanL) is an endemic zoonosis in the southern regions of Europe. This paper reports the trend in CanL seroprevalence in the municipality of Évora (southern Portugal), where the disease is endemic, over a period of 20 years. The work comprises three different studies that were conducted in the years of 1990 (n = 3,614), 1999 (n = 3,563) and 2010 (n = 1,485 dogs). Blood samples were collected during the anti-rabies vaccination campaigns. Anti-Leishmania antibodies were detected with the direct agglutination test (DAT). Findings The total percentages of DAT seropositive dogs were 3.9% (in 1990), 9.4% (in 1999) and 5.6% (in 2010). The overall seroprevalence was significantly higher in 1999 compared to 1990, but in 2010 a significant decrease was found in comparison with 1999. However, compared to 1990 the overall seroprevalence was still significantly higher in 2010. From 1990 to 2010 seroprevalence has switched from significantly lower to higher in the rural areas. Relatively few dogs showed clinical signs of overt disease (0.8% to 2.0%) with lymphadenopathy, onychogryphosis and skin involvement as most frequently observed. Gender associated differences in seroprevalence were not found, and most commonly seropositive dogs were working or stray animals. The mean age of seropositive dogs was significantly higher than seronegative dogs in all three sampling rounds. Conclusions A high proportion of dogs, which are apparently healthy, yet seropositive, may remain an important factor in limiting the outcome of zoonotic leishmaniosis control efforts. PMID:23587181

  18. Maritime halophyte species from southern Portugal as sources of bioactive molecules.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, Maria João; Gangadhar, Katkam N; Vizetto-Duarte, Catarina; Wubshet, Sileshi G; Nyberg, Nils T; Barreira, Luísa; Varela, João; Custódio, Luísa

    2014-04-01

    Extracts of five halophytes from southern Portugal (Arthrocnemum macrostachyum, Mesembryanthemum edule, Juncus acutus, Plantago coronopus and Halimione portulacoides), were studied for antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and in vitro antitumor properties. The most active extracts towards the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical were the methanol extracts of M. edule (IC₅₀ = 0.1 mg/mL) and J. acutus (IC₅₀ = 0.4 mg/mL), and the ether extracts of J. acutus (IC₅₀ = 0.2 mg/mL) and A. macrostachyum (IC₅₀ = 0.3 mg/mL). The highest radical scavenging activity (RSA) against the 2,2'-azino-bis (3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) (ABTS) radical was obtained in the ether extract of J. acutus (IC₅₀ = 0.4 mg/mL) and H. portulacoides (IC₅₀ = 0.9 mg/mL). The maximum total phenolic content (TPC) was found in the methanol extract of M. edule (147 mg gallic acid equivalents (GAE)/g) and in the ether extract of J. acutus (94 mg GAE/g). Significant decreases in nitric oxide (NO) production were observed after incubation of macrophages with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and the chloroform extract of H. portulacoides (IC₅₀ = 109 µg/mL) and the hexane extract of P. coronopus (IC₅₀ = 98.0 µg/mL). High in vitro cytotoxic activity and selectivity was obtained with the ether extract of J. acutus. Juncunol was identified as the active compound and for the first time was shown to display selective in vitro cytotoxicity towards various human cancer cells. PMID:24727393

  19. Maritime Halophyte Species from Southern Portugal as Sources of Bioactive Molecules

    PubMed Central

    Rodrigues, Maria João; Gangadhar, Katkam N.; Vizetto-Duarte, Catarina; Wubshet, Sileshi G.; Nyberg, Nils T.; Barreira, Luísa; Varela, João; Custódio, Luísa

    2014-01-01

    Extracts of five halophytes from southern Portugal (Arthrocnemum macrostachyum, Mesembryanthemum edule, Juncus acutus, Plantago coronopus and Halimione portulacoides), were studied for antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and in vitro antitumor properties. The most active extracts towards the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical were the methanol extracts of M. edule (IC50 = 0.1 mg/mL) and J. acutus (IC50 = 0.4 mg/mL), and the ether extracts of J. acutus (IC50 = 0.2 mg/mL) and A. macrostachyum (IC50 = 0.3 mg/mL). The highest radical scavenging activity (RSA) against the 2,2′-azino-bis (3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) (ABTS) radical was obtained in the ether extract of J. acutus (IC50 = 0.4 mg/mL) and H. portulacoides (IC50 = 0.9 mg/mL). The maximum total phenolic content (TPC) was found in the methanol extract of M. edule (147 mg gallic acid equivalents (GAE)/g) and in the ether extract of J. acutus (94 mg GAE/g). Significant decreases in nitric oxide (NO) production were observed after incubation of macrophages with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and the chloroform extract of H. portulacoides (IC50 = 109 µg/mL) and the hexane extract of P. coronopus (IC50 = 98.0 µg/mL). High in vitro cytotoxic activity and selectivity was obtained with the ether extract of J. acutus. Juncunol was identified as the active compound and for the first time was shown to display selective in vitro cytotoxicity towards various human cancer cells. PMID:24727393

  20. Influence of Groundwater Seepage on Water Quality and Ecological Health of the Ria Formosa Lagoon, Southern Portugal (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kontar, A. Y.; Newton, A.

    2009-12-01

    Groundwater seepage from coastal aquifers has recently been recognized as an overlooked major source of nutrients (N, P) and contaminants to the coastal environment (Biddanda et al., 2009; Fear, Paerl and Braddy, 2007; Kluge et al., 2007; Kroeger and Charette, 2008). Nutrient and contaminants concentrations in groundwater are often much higher than those in river water, compensating for the lower flux of groundwater relative to the lagoon surface water. The Ria Formosa is a coastal lagoon located in the south of Portugal (Algarve, Faro) and surrounded by an intensely farmed area. We hypothesize that water quality and ecological health of the Ria Formosa environments are influenced by past and on-going contamination of terrestrial groundwaters with nutrients from fertilizer, sewage and industry. According to Leote, Ibanhez and Rocha (2005) estimated submarine groundwater discharge (SGD) into the lagoon to be 3.6 m3 day-1 per linear meter of coastline with freshwater contributions (per volume) ranging from 10% to 50%. SGD as an important nutrient source to the Ria Formosa, estimating annual loads of 36.2 mol (0.507 kg) of Nitrogen, 1.1 mol (0.034 kg) of Phosphorus and 18.6 mol (0.522 kg) of Silicon per meter of coastline. Based on these results, it was suggested that SGD is a potential contributor to the observed nutrification status of the Ria Formosa lagoon. We are testing the following two hypotheses: (1) Anthropogenically impacted sites of the Ria Formosa having higher concentration of inorganic nutrients in groundwater will be characterized by higher density of Aquatic Invasive Species (AIS) distribution, and higher chlorophyll and phycocyanin concentration, oxygen demand, and sediment organic carbon than the pristine site; (2) Anthropogenically impacted sites of the Ria Formosa having higher concentration of contaminants in groundwater will be characterized by lower AIS dispersal and colonization, and lower chlorophyll and phycocyanin concentration, oxygen

  1. Evaluation of future climate change impacts on semi-arid Cobres basin in southern Portugal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Rong; Corte-Real, João; Moreira, Madalena; Kilsby, Chris; Burton, Aidan; Blenkinsop, Stephen; Forsythe, Nathan; Nunes, João; Sampaio, Elsa

    2014-05-01

    ; besides, both quantities present the same or slightly lower magnitudes as those with T larger than 20 years. The annual maximum discharge (sediment discharge) series, under control climate, follows the GEV distribution with location parameter of 64.6 m3/s (164.4 kg/s), scale parameter of 46.5 m3/s (120.3 kg/s) and shape parameter of 0.09 (-0.24); under future climate, the annual maximum discharge series follows the gamma distribution with scale parameter of 75.2 m3/s and shape parameter of 0.97 and the annual maximum sediment discharge series follows the three-parameter lognormal distribution with location parameter of -46.2 kg/s, mean of 5.3 kg/s and standard deviation of 0.78. This study has confirmed the increasing concerns of water scarcity and drought problems in southern Portugal; but it also indicated the mitigation of sediment transport for most of time in the future except heavy events. However, the results should be interpreted carefully since we did not consider possible changes of land-use in the future, as well as the climate and hydrological modelling uncertainties.

  2. Emergy analysis of a silvo-pastoral system, a case study in southern Portugal

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Mediterranean silvo-pastoral system known as Montado, in Portugal, is a complex land use system composed of an open tree stratum in various densities and an herbaceous layer, used for livestock grazing. Livestock also profit from the acorns, and the grazing contributes to avo...

  3. Human case of West Nile neuroinvasive disease in Portugal, summer 2015.

    PubMed

    Zé-Zé, Líbia; Proença, Paula; Osório, Hugo C; Gomes, Salomé; Luz, Teresa; Parreira, Paulo; Fevereiro, Miguel; Alves, Maria João

    2015-01-01

    A case of West Nile virus (WNV) infection was reported in the Algarve region, Portugal, in the first week of September 2015. WNV is known to circulate in Portugal, with occasional reports in horses and birds (2004 to 2011) and very sporadically human cases (in 2004 and in 2010). Here we present the clinical and laboratory aspects related to the first human case of West Nile neuroinvasive disease reported in Portugal. PMID:26535915

  4. A comparative evaluation of biological activities and bioactive compounds of the seagrasses Zostera marina and Zostera noltei from southern Portugal.

    PubMed

    Custódio, Luísa; Laukaityte, Simona; Engelen, Aschwin H; Rodrigues, Maria João; Pereira, Hugo; Vizetto-Duarte, Catarina; Barreira, Luísa; Rodríguez, Hortensia; Alberício, Fernando; Varela, João

    2016-01-01

    This work assessed the antioxidant potential, acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibition and the in vitro cytotoxic activity of extracts of the seagrasses Zostera marina and Zostera noltei collected from southern Portugal. The total phenolic contents (TPCs), the rosmarinic acid (RA) concentration (HPLC/DAD) and the fatty acid (FA) profile (GC/MS) are also described. Z. marina had the highest TPC, radical scavenging activity against DPPH radicals and copper chelating activity. Z. noltei had metal chelation capacity to copper and iron ions. None of the species was able to inhibit AChE. Both seagrasses had high levels of polyunsaturated FAs. Z. marina significantly and selectively reduced the viability of tumorous neuronal cells. Z. noltei was highly toxic for the three cell lines tested and was selective against hepatocarcinoma cells at the concentration of 100 μg/mL. RA was the main compound identified in Z. marina, but not in Z. noltei. PMID:26189828

  5. Effects of Recent Minimum Temperature and Water Deficit Increases on Pinus pinaster Radial Growth and Wood Density in Southern Portugal

    PubMed Central

    Kurz-Besson, Cathy B.; Lousada, José L.; Gaspar, Maria J.; Correia, Isabel E.; David, Teresa S.; Soares, Pedro M. M.; Cardoso, Rita M.; Russo, Ana; Varino, Filipa; Mériaux, Catherine; Trigo, Ricardo M.; Gouveia, Célia M.

    2016-01-01

    Western Iberia has recently shown increasing frequency of drought conditions coupled with heatwave events, leading to exacerbated limiting climatic conditions for plant growth. It is not clear to what extent wood growth and density of agroforestry species have suffered from such changes or recent extreme climate events. To address this question, tree-ring width and density chronologies were built for a Pinus pinaster stand in southern Portugal and correlated with climate variables, including the minimum, mean and maximum temperatures and the number of cold days. Monthly and maximum daily precipitations were also analyzed as well as dry spells. The drought effect was assessed using the standardized precipitation-evapotranspiration (SPEI) multi-scalar drought index, between 1 to 24-months. The climate-growth/density relationships were evaluated for the period 1958-2011. We show that both wood radial growth and density highly benefit from the strong decay of cold days and the increase of minimum temperature. Yet the benefits are hindered by long-term water deficit, which results in different levels of impact on wood radial growth and density. Despite of the intensification of long-term water deficit, tree-ring width appears to benefit from the minimum temperature increase, whereas the effects of long-term droughts significantly prevail on tree-ring density. Our results further highlight the dependency of the species on deep water sources after the juvenile stage. The impact of climate changes on long-term droughts and their repercussion on the shallow groundwater table and P. pinaster’s vulnerability are also discussed. This work provides relevant information for forest management in the semi-arid area of the Alentejo region of Portugal. It should ease the elaboration of mitigation strategies to assure P. pinaster’s production capacity and quality in response to more arid conditions in the near future in the region. PMID:27570527

  6. Effects of Recent Minimum Temperature and Water Deficit Increases on Pinus pinaster Radial Growth and Wood Density in Southern Portugal.

    PubMed

    Kurz-Besson, Cathy B; Lousada, José L; Gaspar, Maria J; Correia, Isabel E; David, Teresa S; Soares, Pedro M M; Cardoso, Rita M; Russo, Ana; Varino, Filipa; Mériaux, Catherine; Trigo, Ricardo M; Gouveia, Célia M

    2016-01-01

    Western Iberia has recently shown increasing frequency of drought conditions coupled with heatwave events, leading to exacerbated limiting climatic conditions for plant growth. It is not clear to what extent wood growth and density of agroforestry species have suffered from such changes or recent extreme climate events. To address this question, tree-ring width and density chronologies were built for a Pinus pinaster stand in southern Portugal and correlated with climate variables, including the minimum, mean and maximum temperatures and the number of cold days. Monthly and maximum daily precipitations were also analyzed as well as dry spells. The drought effect was assessed using the standardized precipitation-evapotranspiration (SPEI) multi-scalar drought index, between 1 to 24-months. The climate-growth/density relationships were evaluated for the period 1958-2011. We show that both wood radial growth and density highly benefit from the strong decay of cold days and the increase of minimum temperature. Yet the benefits are hindered by long-term water deficit, which results in different levels of impact on wood radial growth and density. Despite of the intensification of long-term water deficit, tree-ring width appears to benefit from the minimum temperature increase, whereas the effects of long-term droughts significantly prevail on tree-ring density. Our results further highlight the dependency of the species on deep water sources after the juvenile stage. The impact of climate changes on long-term droughts and their repercussion on the shallow groundwater table and P. pinaster's vulnerability are also discussed. This work provides relevant information for forest management in the semi-arid area of the Alentejo region of Portugal. It should ease the elaboration of mitigation strategies to assure P. pinaster's production capacity and quality in response to more arid conditions in the near future in the region. PMID:27570527

  7. Macrobenthic Secondary Production in the Intertidal Zone of the Ria Formosa—a Lagoon in Southern Portugal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sprung, Martin

    1994-06-01

    Production and biomass of the macrobenthic intertidal fauna of a sand flat, a Zostera noltii bed, and a mud flat in the Ria Formosa, Southern Portugal were examined over an annual cycle. The following values were obtained for secondary production P (g ash free dry weight m -2 a -1) and average biomass B¯ (g ash free dry weight m -2)—the value in brackets with the epibenthic predator Carcinus maenas included: sand flat: P=32·5 (34·4); B¯ =15·2 (15·4); P/B¯=2·14 (2·23); Zostera noltii bed: P=54·2 (57·6); B¯ =16·7 (17·2); P/B¯=3·24 (3·35); mud flat: P=54·7 (71·5); B¯ =22·4 (25·1); P/B¯=2·44 (2·85). Biomass varied markedly with minimum values during winter and maxima in spring/summer reflecting highest macrobenthic production during spring and summer months. Production and biomass were much more diverse on the sand flat and in the Zostera bed compared to the mud flat. This was interpreted as being due to differences in grain size characteristics between the sand flat and the mud flat and a caging effect of Zostera leaves. Production figures are discussed with reference to the main food sources of the species. It is concluded that detritus must be of outstanding importance for the production processes in the Ria Formosa.

  8. Ecological Status of a Margaritifera margaritifera (Linnaeus, 1758) Population at the Southern Edge of its Distribution (River Paiva, Portugal)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sousa, Ronaldo; Amorim, Ângela; Sobral, Carina; Froufe, Elsa; Varandas, Simone; Teixeira, Amílcar; Lopes-Lima, Manuel

    2013-11-01

    An important population of the critically endangered pearl mussel Margaritifera margaritifera (Linnaeus, 1758) was surveyed at the edge of its southern distribution (River Paiva, Portugal). Although an earlier study suggested that this population had a very low number of individuals (<500), a narrow distribution, and was mainly comprised by old specimens our data contradict these findings. Our assessment estimated a population with probably more than 5,000 individuals distributed across 80 km of the river length. From the 32 sites surveyed, 19 contained M. margaritifera with higher abundances verified in the middle and upper parts of the river (a maximum of 78 ind. per 100 m of river stretch was recorded). The pearl mussels showed a clear preference for areas near the banks, in shallow water, sandier and gravel sediments, and a high degree of riparian vegetation cover. The population structure was skewed with a very high percentage of large (and old) animals but 3.7 % of the individuals collected were juveniles (<60 mm in length); therefore, this population can be considered functional. Environmental characterization indicated that this river is still in excellent or good condition although some areas showed deterioration due to discharge of domestic effluents. The main conservation requirements of M. margaritifera in the River Paiva include maintaining the water quality (and if possible stopping the discharge of domestic effluents), increasing riparian vegetation cover, removing several weirs to increase connectivity, and increasing trout density.

  9. Stable isotopes in cave drip waters from the semi-arid southern Portugal: implication for paleoenvironment reconstructions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Veiga-Pires, Cristina; Hélie, Jean-François; Hillaire-Marcel, Claude

    2014-05-01

    Paleo-environmental studies rely on proxies for which present day conditions need to be documented. Here, we present results from a nearly two years sampling program of waters in precipitation, aquifers and cave drip waters in the semi arid region of Southern Portugal where a Mediterranean type climate prevails. Isotopic compositions of precipitations at Faro, from 1978 until 2001, are available through the Global Network of Isotopes in Precipitation (GNIP) database of the International Atomic Energy Agency. In addition, we measured oxygen and hydrogen isotopic compositions of water samples collected in 2011 and 2012 at one meteorological station located 20 km apart from the cave. In the cave itself, four different dripping locations were surveyed. Finally, five wells from the aquifer flowing underneath the cave were also sampled. Whereas local meteoric water line obtained from GNIP data shows an important contribution of local evaporating waters, precipitation data from this project rather points out to a drier moisture source, exhibiting a deuterium excess of close to 16.5 oȦquifer isotopic compositions show very small variations during the 2 yr sampling period, with mean values of -4.53±0.06 o (VSMOW) and 23.39±0.81 o (VSMOW) for δ18O and δ2H, respectively. On the other hand, drip waters isotopic compositions are dependent of the sampling site, although varying linearly (δ2H~13.3*δ18O + 38.1, R2=0.74, p

  10. Monitoring vegetation cover in the postfire in Tavira - São Brás de Alportel (southern Portugal)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramos-Simões, Nuno A.; Granja-Martins, Fernando M.; Neto-Paixão, Helena M.; Jordán, Antonio; Zavala, Lorena M.

    2014-05-01

    1. INTRODUCTION Often, restoration of areas affected by fire faces lack of knowledge of how ecosystems respond to the action of fire. Depending on environmental conditions, structure and diversity of the vegetation or the severity of the fire, burnt systems can provide responses ranging from spontaneous recovery in a relatively short time to onset of severe degradation processes. For this reason, it is necessary to monitor the evolution of post-burned in the fire, in order to plan effective strategies for restoring systems and soil erosion control. In order to assess soil erosion risk, this research aims to is to analyse the evolution of vegetation cover in a Mediterranean burnt forest soil, using vegetation indexes derived from Landsat-7 (Thematic Mapper sensor-TM) and Landsat-8 (Operation Land Imager sensor, OLI). 2. METHODS This study was carried out in a forest area affected by a wildfire by 18-22 July 2012. The study area is located within the coordinates 37o 9' - 37o 21' N and 7o 40' - 7o 53' W, including part of the municipalities of Tavira and São Brás de Alportel (southern Portugal). The relief in the studied area has an irregular topography. Soils are shallow and develop mainly metamorphic rocks (as slates or quartzite) and igneous rocks, which produce acidic and nutrient-poor soils, poorly developed in depth. The wildfire was one of the most important fires in Portugal during the recent years, and affected more than 24000 ha. Vegetation is dominated by cork oak (Quercus suber) ,holm oaks (Quercus ilex), strawberry tree (Arbutus unedo) and sclerophyllous vegetation (mostly formed by Quercus coccifera and Rosmarinus officinalis). These species are adapted to acidic-poor soils and show a great capability of resprouting and germination after fire. The study area is poorly developed, with cork and timber harvesting and other forest products or tourism as main economic activities. The area shows a highly fragmented urban fabric with the sparse

  11. METRIC model for the estimation and mapping of evapotranspiration in a super intensive olive orchard in Southern Portugal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pôças, Isabel; Nogueira, António; Paço, Teresa A.; Sousa, Adélia; Valente, Fernanda; Silvestre, José; Andrade, José A.; Santos, Francisco L.; Pereira, Luís S.; Allen, Richard G.

    2013-04-01

    Satellite-based surface energy balance models have been successfully applied to estimate and map evapotranspiration (ET). The METRICtm model, Mapping EvapoTranspiration at high Resolution using Internalized Calibration, is one of such models. METRIC has been widely used over an extensive range of vegetation types and applications, mostly focusing annual crops. In the current study, the single-layer-blended METRIC model was applied to Landsat5 TM and Landsat7 ETM+ images to produce estimates of evapotranspiration (ET) in a super intensive olive orchard in Southern Portugal. In sparse woody canopies as in olive orchards, some adjustments in METRIC application related to the estimation of vegetation temperature and of momentum roughness length and sensible heat flux (H) for tall vegetation must be considered. To minimize biases in H estimates due to uncertainties in the definition of momentum roughness length, the Perrier function based on leaf area index and tree canopy architecture, associated with an adjusted estimation of crop height, was used to obtain momentum roughness length estimates. Additionally, to minimize the biases in surface temperature simulations, due to soil and shadow effects, the computation of radiometric temperature considered a three-source condition, where Ts=fcTc+fshadowTshadow+fsunlitTsunlit. As such, the surface temperature (Ts), derived from the thermal band of the Landsat images, integrates the temperature of the canopy (Tc), the temperature of the shaded ground surface (Tshadow), and the temperature of the sunlit ground surface (Tsunlit), according to the relative fraction of vegetation (fc), shadow (fshadow) and sunlit (fsunlit) ground surface, respectively. As the sunlit canopies are the primary source of energy exchange, the effective temperature for the canopy was estimated by solving the three-source condition equation for Tc. To evaluate METRIC performance to estimate ET over the olive grove, several parameters derived from the

  12. Minerals and trace elements in silcretes of the Sado basin (Alentejo, southern Portugal) and implications for silcrete formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sauer, Daniela; Kullmann, Sarah; Zarei, Mehdi; Stahr, Karl

    2014-05-01

    Soils in the eastern part of the Sado basin (southern Portugal) are often characterized by massive cementations caused by silica. The thickness and massive character of these silcretes led to the hypothesis that accumulation of silica took place not only vertically within a soil profile, but also by enrichment through lateral water and element flow into the Sado basin. The aims of the study reported here were: 1) to characterize the cementing agent with regard to its mineralogy; 2) to test the hypothesis that silification was enhanced through lateral silica transport from the adjacent Alto Alentejo into the Sado basin. Aim 1) was achieved by scratching silica coatings from ped surfaces of the silicified soil horizons and cleaning them manually in the lab under a binocular microscope. After careful smashing with a mortar, density separation by sodium polytungstate solution was applied to remove any remaining mineral grains from the silica samples. The cleaned silica samples were then subjected to XRD and SEM in combination with EDS. Aim 2) was attained by using trace element contents of predominant rock types of the Alto Alentejo and of the silcretes in the Sado basin for identifying lateral pathways of water and silica in the landscape. Ten rock samples from the assumed source area of silica were combusted by fusion melt, and their contents of Ba, Co, Cs, Nb, Pb, Rb, Sr, Y and Zr were analyzed by ICP-MS. The same elements were analyzed in NaOH extracts of the cemented soil horizons in the Sado basin. The X-ray diagrams of the silica coatings show the expected broad hump of amorphous silica. In addition, quartz, kaolinite, and surprisingly high amounts of halloysite are identified, the latter reflecting conditions of intensive weathering and pedogenesis during the formation of the silica coatings. This intensive soil formation and hence silification most likely took place during Pliocene. Greater age is impossible, because the silification took place in Pliocene

  13. Probabilistic Seismic Hazard Disaggregation Analysis for the South of Portugal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodrigues, I.; Sousa, M.; Teves-Costa, P.

    2010-12-01

    Probabilistic seismic hazard disaggregation analysis was performed and seismic scenarios were identified for Southern Mainland Portugal. This region’s seismicity is characterized by small and moderate magnitude events and by the sporadic occurrence of large earthquakes (e.g. the 1755 Lisbon earthquake). Thus, the Portuguese Civil Protection Agency (ANPC) sponsored a collaborative research project for the study of the seismic and tsunami risks in the Algarve (project ERSTA). In the framework of this project, a series of new developments were obtained, namely the revision of the seismic catalogue (IM, 2008), the delineation of new seismogenic zones affecting the Algarve region, which reflects the growing knowledge of this region's seismotectonic context, the derivation of new spectral attenuation laws (Carvalho and Campos Costa, 2008) and the revision of the probabilistic seismic hazard (Sousa et al. 2008). Seismic hazard was disaggregated considering different spaces of random variables, namely, bivariate conditional hazard distributions of X-Y (seismic source latitude and longitude) and multivariate 4D conditional hazard distributions of M-(X-Y)-ɛ (ɛ - deviation of ground motion to the median value predicted by an attenuation model). These procedures were performed for the peak ground acceleration (PGA) and for the 5% damped 1.0 and 2.5 Hz spectral acceleration levels of three return periods: 95, 475 and 975 years. The seismic scenarios controlling the hazard of a given ground motion level, were identified as the modal values of the 4D disaggregation analysis for each of the 84 parishes of the Algarve region. Those scenarios, based on a probabilistic analysis, are meant to be used in the emergency planning as a complement to the historical scenarios that severely affected this region. Seismic scenarios share a few number of geographical locations for all return periods. Moreover, seismic hazard of most Algarve’s parishes is dominated by the seismicity located

  14. Applying the Fuzzy ARTMAP neural network for mapping erosive status in the Ria Formosa catchment (Portugal)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Granja Martins, F. M.; Neto Paixão, H. M.; Jordán, A.; Zavala, L. M.; Bellinfante, N.

    2012-04-01

    The study of the soil erosion risk is the starting point for development and sustainable land management. The intensity of soil erosion risk is conditioned by soil erodibility, slope, land use and vegetation cover. The objective of this work is mapping the erosive status of the Ria Formosa catchment using "Fuzzy ARTMAP" neural network. The study area is the catchment of Ria Formosa, which includes a shallow coastal lagoon with an area of about 16000 ha located in Algarve (southern Portugal). It is protected by EU and national laws, and is classified as a wetland of international importance under the RAMSAR convention. Previously to the construction of the artificial neuronal network model, it was necessary to establish the training areas (< 1% of total study area) in order to get information about lithofacies, land use, slope and the percentage of vegetation cover. These variables were assessed by supervised classification. Five classes of erosive status were obtained by the artificial neuronal network. These classes were compared with the map of erosive status elaborated with the methodology proposed by the Priority Action Plan/Regional Activity Centre (PAP/RAC, 1997). The differences between both methods were about 1% of the total area. Both maps were validated with field observations and analysis of aerial photographs.

  15. Supernumerary chromosomes on Southern European populations of the cockle Cerastoderma edule: Consequence of environmental pollution?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leitão, Alexandra; Chaves, Raquel; Joaquim, Sandra; Matias, Domitília; Ruano, Francisco; Guedes-Pinto, Henrique

    2008-08-01

    Cerastoderma edule (Cardiidae) has a diploid chromosome number of 2 n = 38, its karyotype consisting of 12 submetacentric, 4 subtelocentric and 3 telocentric chromosome pairs. Hyperdiploid cells had previously been observed in two populations of the Northern Galician coasts (northwest of Spain). The supernumerary chromosomes being easily distinguished by their reduced differentiated size and by their intra- and inter-individual variability. After the recent observation of 35% of cells with supernumerary chromosomes in a population of the Southern Galician coasts (Vigo) and 15% of cells with supernumerary chromosomes in a population of the south of Portugal (Ria Formosa, Algarve), we attempted, in this paper, an elucidation of the nature of these supernumerary chromosomes, by differential banding technique with restriction enzymes on these hyperdiploid cells. Analysis of the restriction enzyme banding of the 2 n > 38 karyotypes led us to propose the occurrence of a chromosomal fission event involving the largest submetacentric chromosome pair. This study represents the first description of the occurrence of a possible chromosomal fission in marine bivalves. Different levels of environmental pollution are suggested as possible explanation for the differences observed on the proportion of hyperdiploid cells between the Southern Portugal population and the three Galician ones.

  16. Spatial and temporal variability of the water and sediments quality in the Alqueva reservoir (Guadiana Basin; southern Portugal).

    PubMed

    Palma, P; Ledo, L; Soares, S; Barbosa, I R; Alvarenga, P

    2014-02-01

    The purpose of this work was to evaluate the dynamic of the water quality from the Alqueva reservoir (Guadiana River Basin, Portugal) and identify the most important parameters that influence its ecological and chemical status. The results could indicate preventive and/or remediation actions that are necessary to improve its quality and status. Water and sediment samples were collected between 2011 and 2012, at five sampling stations, and analyzed for: (i) water - pH, temperature, dissolved oxygen, electrical conductivity, chloride, total phosphorus, total nitrogen, ammonium, nitrate, nitrite, biochemical and chemical oxygen demand, total Fe, Mn, and As; and (ii) sediments - pH, electrical conductivity, organic matter, total nitrogen, total phosphorus, major and trace elements. The results from the water column showed that the organic descriptors exceeded the Portuguese guideline values for water quality for multiple uses at most of the sampling stations. As for nutrients, Ajuda is the station where the concentrations of the total nitrogen and total phosphorus exceeded the guideline values in most months. Ammonium achieved concentrations above the allowed, during the study, in all locations. Trace elements were more abundant in the sediments, surpassing the maximum levels for the protection of aquatic life for As, Cd and Pb, at Alcarrache, Lucefécit and Álamos, respectively. The use of multivariate analysis showed that the major parameters that explained the water quality variability were the nutrients in the water column, and trace elements in the sediments. Comparing the results from this study with results obtained since 2006, we can observe an obvious increment of the organic descriptors and nutrients in the water body. Further, several parameters and observations indicate an increase of the eutrophication process. So, it is urgent to develop preventive actions and remediation processes to stop the degradation so as to improve the quality of the water in this

  17. Mediterranean Outflow and surface water variability off southern Portugal during the early Pleistocene: A snapshot at Marine Isotope Stages 29 to 34 (1020-1135 ka)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voelker, Antje H. L.; Salgueiro, Emilia; Rodrigues, Teresa; Jimenez-Espejo, Francisco J.; Bahr, André; Alberto, Ana; Loureiro, Isabel; Padilha, Maria; Rebotim, Andreia; Röhl, Ursula

    2015-10-01

    Centennial-to-millennial scale records from IODP Site U1387, drilled during IODP Expedition 339 into the Faro Drift at 558 m water depth, now allow evaluating the climatic history of the upper core of the Mediterranean Outflow (MOW) and of the surface waters in the northern Gulf of Cadiz during the early Pleistocene. This study focuses on the period from Marine Isotope Stages (MIS) 29 to 34, i.e. the interval surrounding extreme interglacial MIS 31. Conditions in the upper MOW reflect obliquity, precession and millennial-scale variations. The benthic δ18O signal follows obliquity with the exception of an additional, smaller δ18O peak that marks the MIS 32/31 transition. Insolation maxima (precession minima) led to poor ventilation and a sluggish upper MOW core, whereas insolation minima were associated with enhanced ventilation and often also increased bottom current velocity. Millennial-scale periods of colder sea-surface temperatures (SST) were associated with short-term maxima in flow velocity and better ventilation, reminiscent of conditions known from MIS 3. A prominent contourite layer, coinciding with insolation cycle 100, was formed during MIS 31 and represents one of the few contourites developing within an interglacial period. MIS 31 surface water conditions were characterized by an extended period (1065-1091 ka) of warm SST, but SST were not much warmer than during MIS 33. Interglacial to glacial transitions experienced 2 to 3 stadial/interstadial cycles, just like their mid-to-late Pleistocene counterparts. Glacial MIS 30 and 32 recorded periods of extremely cold (< 12 °C) SST that in their climatic impact were comparable with the Heinrich events of the mid and late Pleistocene. Glacial MIS 34, on the other hand, was a relative warm glacial period off southern Portugal. Overall, surface water and MOW conditions at Site U1387 show a strong congruence with Mediterranean climate, whereas millennial-scale variations are closely linked to North Atlantic

  18. Using a stochastic gradient boosting algorithm to analyse the effectiveness of Landsat 8 data for montado land cover mapping: Application in southern Portugal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Godinho, Sérgio; Guiomar, Nuno; Gil, Artur

    2016-07-01

    This study aims to develop and propose a methodological approach for montado ecosystem mapping using Landsat 8 multi-spectral data, vegetation indices, and the Stochastic Gradient Boosting (SGB) algorithm. Two Landsat 8 scenes (images from spring and summer 2014) of the same area in southern Portugal were acquired. Six vegetation indices were calculated for each scene: the Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI), the Short-Wave Infrared Ratio (SWIR32), the Carotenoid Reflectance Index 1 (CRI1), the Green Chlorophyll Index (CIgreen), the Normalised Multi-band Drought Index (NMDI), and the Soil-Adjusted Total Vegetation Index (SATVI). Based on this information, two datasets were prepared: (i) Dataset I only included multi-temporal Landsat 8 spectral bands (LS8), and (ii) Dataset II included the same information as Dataset I plus vegetation indices (LS8 + VIs). The integration of the vegetation indices into the classification scheme resulted in a significant improvement in the accuracy of Dataset II's classifications when compared to Dataset I (McNemar test: Z-value = 4.50), leading to a difference of 4.90% in overall accuracy and 0.06 in the Kappa value. For the montado ecosystem, adding vegetation indices in the classification process showed a relevant increment in producer and user accuracies of 3.64% and 6.26%, respectively. By using the variable importance function from the SGB algorithm, it was found that the six most prominent variables (from a total of 24 tested variables) were the following: EVI_summer; CRI1_spring; SWIR32_spring; B6_summer; B5_summer; and CIgreen_summer.

  19. Learning from the Radial Project: Reflections on the Creation of Opportunities in the Algarve Mountains.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fletcher, Colin

    1992-01-01

    Amidst the poverty of the Algarve region, an area being depopulated, Project Radial focuses on child development, parent education, the establishment of children's centers and craftwork centers, and the building and empowerment of communities. (SK)

  20. Clinicoepidemiological profile of cerebral venous thrombosis in Algarve, Portugal: A retrospective observational study

    PubMed Central

    Nzwalo, Hipólito; Rodrigues, Fátima; Carneiro, Patricia; Macedo, Ana; Ferreira, Fátima; Basílio, Carlos

    2015-01-01

    Background: Cerebral venous thrombosis (CVT) is a very uncommon disorder with a wide variety of clinical manifestations. There are few studies describing the clinical and epidemiological profile of CVT in peripheral or rural areas. Over the last decades, the frequency in which this disease is diagnosed has increased due to greater awareness and availability of noninvasive diagnostic techniques. Materials and Methods: A hospital-based retrospective case review of adult (≥15 years) patients with CVT between 2001 and 2012 is described. 31 patients with confirmed imagiological diagnosis of CVT were included. Statistical Analysis Used: Statistical analysis was performed using R version 2.15.2. Incidence rate was computed as number of new cases by time. Confidence interval (CI) was set at 95% and P < 0.05 was considered significant. Results: The average annual incidence was 0.84 (CI: 0.58–1.18) to 0.73 (CI: 0.5–1.02) per 100 000 cases for adult population. There were 23 (74%) women and 8 (26%) men. Predominant initial manifestations were headache, followed by altered mental status and seizures. Median diagnostic delay from onset of illness was 8 days. All patients were treated with unfractionated heparin or low-molecular heparin followed by warfarin. Complete recovery occurred in the majority of cases 22 (78.6%) but two patients died during hospitalization. Conclusions: Albeit with some particularities, the epidemiology and clinical manifestations we found are comparable to what has been reported in western studies. PMID:26752915

  1. From Churches to Pavements: Urban Geology and Paleontology in Algarve

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azevedo Rodrigues, Luis

    2015-04-01

    Urban environments were and are tremendous consumers of geologic resources, offering excellent places for Geosciences outreach activities. Since 2011, three distinct science outreach activities were planned, produced and performed in three Algarve cities - Faro (GeoStories of Faro's Downtown), Lagos (Geology at the Corner) and Tavira (From the Museum to the Convent). Urban structures - churches, monuments, buildings and urban equipments were the starting point of the geological and paleontological stories that constitute the core of these informal education visits which also combine Art History and Heritage aspects. The urban buildings were the narrative tool to these Geosciences stories being the characters the rocks and/or the fossils as well as the city itself. Beyond the natural science element, the analyzed objects have relevant esthetical, historical or symbolic dimensions, conferring this way two levels of interpretation to the stories: the geosciences level; the other, the Historical and Architectural Heritage. The nineteen visits had 350 participants - Tavira (6; 100), Faro (4; 70) e Lagos (9; 180). Promoting and contribute to the Geosciences (Geology and Paleontology) outreach was the main objective of these walks, as well as: - modify the way that the general population looks at urban buildings; - contribute to the informal education of a general public especially among the public which is interested in Architecture, History and Heritage; - integrate different areas of human knowledge - Geosciences and Architecture, History and Heritage. The visits were tested and implemented and presently constitute one of the science outreach activities of the Ciência Viva Centers in the Algarve. As a result of these visits three bilingual books (Portuguese and English) of the Geosciences walks were edited. The guides, with 120 pages each, focus on the geological and paleontological characteristics of the visited places as well as the art history framework of the

  2. Climate and Landuse Change Impacts on hydrological processes and soil erosion in a dry Mediterranean agro-forested catchment, southern Portugal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santos, Juliana; Nunes, João Pedro; Sampaio, Elsa; Moreira, Madalena; Lima, Júlio; Jacinto, Rita; Corte-Real, João

    2014-05-01

    Climate change is expected to increase aridity in the Mediterranean rim of Europe, due to decreasing rainfall and increasing temperatures. This could lead to impacts on soil erosion, since the lower rainfall could nevertheless become concentrated in higher intensity events during the wet season, while the more arid conditions could reduce vegetation cover, also due to climate-induced land-use changes. In consequence, there is an interest in understanding how climate change will affect the interaction between the timing of extreme rainfall events, hydrological processes, vegetation growth, soil cover and soil erosion. To study this issue, the SWAT eco-hydrological model was applied to Guadalupe, an agro-forested catchment (446 ha) located close to the city of Évora, with a Mediterranean inland climate. The landcover is a mix of dispersed cork oak forests ("montado"), annual crops, and agroforesty regions where the cork oaks are associated with crops or pasture; this land cover is representative of the dry regions of southern Portugal and Spain. The catchment has been instrumented since 2011 with a hydrometric station (water discharge and suspended sediment concentration data) and a soil moisture measurement station. There is also observed data of actual evapotranspiration, LAI and biomass production (in pasture; from 1999 and 2008) and runoff data and sediment yield measured in six 16m2 plots. Water balance, vegetation growth, soil erosion and sediment yield in SWAT was calibrated with this dataset. This work will present the dataset, modeling process, results for impacts of climate and land-use change scenarios for vegetation growth, soil erosion and sediment export, considering the climate and socio-economic scenarios A1b and B1 (based on SRES storylines). Climate scenarios were created by statistical downscaling from Global Circulation Models (GCMs) for the period 2071-2100 (30 years). The reference period was 1971-2000 (30 years). The SWAT model was used to

  3. Multi-proxy constraints on ages of low U-content, young and "dirty" speleothems: Example from southern Portugal cave deposits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghaleb, Bassam; Veiga-Pires, Christina; Moura, Delminda; Hillaire-Marcel, Claude

    2014-05-01

    Due to uncertainties in 14C activities of cave CO2, radiocarbon measurements in "young" speleothems cannot be straightforwardly used for their dating. U-series isotopes remain their unique tools to set a chronology for carbonate accretion. In cases of pristine carbonate deposits with relatively high U-contents, precise ages can be obtained including for very recent formations (e.g., Shen et al, 2013, Nature). However, this is rarely the case. Speleothems often contain low ppb U-contents, part of this uranium linked to detrital contaminants, thus requiring age corrections. Such corrections turn out to be quite difficult when uncertainties on the isotopic composition of the detrital fraction are in the range of the authigenic U-content and in situ grown daughter 230Th. We will examine here ways to address these issues based on seriated measurements in a late Holocene stalagmite from a cave, near Faro (southern Portugal). Mean contents in 232Th and 238U average respectively 116±28 and 12±10 ppb, with 234U/238U and 230Th/234U activity ratios ranging respectively from 1.241 to 1.293 and 0.065 to 0.115. Whatever the applied correction, 232Th is used as a quantitative marker of the detrital contribution. One way to take into account this contribution is based on the assumption of an isotopically uniform contaminant. With the empirical "crustal model" (Ludwig and Paces, 2002 Geochim.Cosmo.Acta), the contaminating fraction is estimated from the mean crustal isotopic composition. However, the large uncertainty in this estimate discards the use of this model in extreme cases (very low authigenic U and young sample). More recently, Hellstrom, 2006 (Quatern. Gechron.) proposed to calculate a theoretical isotopic composition of the detrital fraction, compatible with stratigraphically ordered of dated speleothem samples. Finally, another approach, which we have tested here, consists in determining the isotopic composition of the finest fraction in soils overlying the carbonated

  4. Population diversity of Theileria annulata in Portugal.

    PubMed

    Gomes, Jacinto; Salgueiro, Patrícia; Inácio, João; Amaro, Ana; Pinto, João; Tait, Andy; Shiels, Brian; Pereira da Fonseca, Isabel; Santos-Gomes, Gabriela; Weir, William

    2016-08-01

    The tick-borne protozoan parasite Theileria annulata causes tropical theileriosis, a severe disease of cattle that occurs across the Mediterranean littoral, the Middle East and Southern Asia. In the Mediterranean region, the disease has long been perceived as being a constraint to livestock production in North Africa and Turkey but was believed to have minimal impact in Southern European countries. It has recently been demonstrated that in Southern Portugal the prevalence of T. annulata is approximately 30%. While the population genetics of the parasite and the multiplicity of infection in the bovine host have been studied in a number of countries, no information is currently available on the composition of the parasite population in Southern Europe or its relationship to populations in bordering regions. A parasite genotyping system, based on micro- and mini-satellite amplification, was used to perform genetic analysis of T. annulata populations from T. annulata infected cattle in twelve farms in Southern Portugal. A diversity of genotypes and a high multiplicity of infection were found, suggesting that the parasite possesses a panmictic population in this region. In comparison with genotypes found in Tunisia and Turkey, parasites from Portugal form a genetically distinct group and show lower genetic diversity. PMID:27109468

  5. Modeling the combined impacts of climate and socio-economic change on water quality, availability and consumption in a multi-purpose reservoir: an application to the Xarrama basin, southern Portugal.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacinto, Rita; Nunes, João Pedro; Santos, Juliana

    2014-05-01

    The water resources sector is one of the most vulnerable to climate change. In southern Europe, an increase of water scarcity is expected, combined with a higher frequency and length of severe droughts. Water management in these regions is already a challenge, and several severe droughts occurred there during the last decades, such as the severe droughts of 2005 and 2012 in Portugal, which have highlighted existing vulnerabilities and led to the disruption of part of water supplies. Furthermore, the evolution of socio-economic conditions and even climate change could cause changes to population and land-uses, with the potential to increase pressures on existing resources. The threat of scarcer water resources highlights the need to understand these vulnerabilities and act to reduce them, adapting to the impacts of future climate and land use changes. In fact, water resources governance has been pointed as a key challenge in the present and in the future, as it builds capacity on how to deal with stress and uncertainties generated by climatic variability and global change. Project ERLAND is focused on assessing the eco-hydrological impacts of climate change in Portugal, and therefore water scarcity and droughts are an important focal point on this research. One of the study areas is the Xarrama river basin in southern Portugal, which feeds the multi-purpose Vale do Gaio reservoir used for irrigation and urban water supplies, coupled with a small hydroelectric generating capacity. Currently it experiences some water quality problems and there is already the need of water transfers from other reservoirs to maintain supplies and quality. This is combined with ongoing land-use changes, where irrigated vineyards and olive groves have started to replace traditional rainfed pastures and cereal cultivation. The exposition and vulnerability of the Xarrama basin and the Vale do Gaio reservoir is being addressed for present and future conditions. Future climate scenarios were

  6. Rediscovering the palette of Alentejo (Southern Portugal) earth pigments: provenance establishment and characterization by LA-ICP-MS and spectra-colorimetric analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gil, M.; Green, R.; Carvalho, M. L.; Seruya, A.; Queralt, I.; Candeias, A. E.; Mirão, J.

    2009-09-01

    Colored earth pigments sourced from Alentejo, Portugal, can be geologically categorized as either weathered carbonate rocks (terra rossas), schist units, or weathered iron ore deposits. The material was used until the mid-1900s by local residents as an ingredient in their traditional lime wash paintings and possibly in the production of artistic murals across the Alentejo region since pre-historic times. An integrated methodology incorporating laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) and spectra-colorimetric analysis (CIELAB coordinates and reflectance curves), complemented by XRD, WDXRF, SEM-EDX, optical microscopy, and granulometric analysis, was used to characterize thirty-one Alentejo colored earths in an effort to correlate provenance with pigments properties. Data obtained from elemental analysis (major and trace) revealed a generic and similar elemental “fingerprint” that unable their distinction according to geographic provenance. Samples of weathered iron ore deposits derived from explored iron, copper, and sulfur mines are more easily discriminated using the chalcophilic (“sulfur-loving“) elements. Color analysis revealed a range of hues; olive-yellow to dark reddish-brown owing mainly to differences in the type and proportion of the color component present, independent of the accessory mineral.

  7. Lessons from Portugal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harry, Vickie; Mechling, Ken

    2010-01-01

    Portugal has long been touted as a popular destination for savvy travelers, but now educators are touting it as something else--a professional development (PD) powerhouse for inquiry-based science! This article describes Portugal's ongoing efforts to reform its country's elementary science education program through a project known as the…

  8. Tertiary Education in Portugal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    OECD Publishing (NJ3), 2008

    2008-01-01

    Portugal's tertiary education sector has expanded significantly over the last 20 years, but participation and overall educational attainment levels remain below European standards and enrolment rates have begun to decline. The OECD review recommends that Portugal's national government should focus on strategic direction and leave higher education…

  9. The yield of chlorophyll from nitrogen: a comparison between the shallow Ria Formosa lagoon and the deep oceanic conditions at Sagres along the southern coast of Portugal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edwards, Vivien; Icely, John; Newton, Alice; Webster, Ruth

    2005-02-01

    The yield of chlorophyll from dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN) has been shown to be a potentially useful parameter for predicting eutrophication, particularly, in the northerly, coastal waters of the North East Atlantic (NEA). This study investigates whether this parameter might also be appropriate for the southerly, coastal waters of the NEA. Nitrogen enrichment experiments were carried out using microcosms to determine the microplanktonic yield of chlorophyll from DIN in waters from the Ria Formosa (April 2002) and from Sagres (September 2002) on the south coast of Portugal. Continuous culture techniques enabled experiments to be run for 7 days after enrichment so that changes in the cumulative yield over time could be calculated. Yields from the Sagres experiment were consistently higher than those from the Ria Formosa experiment, with respective maximum yields of 4.7 and 2.1 μg chl (μmol N) -1, and respective steady-state yields of 3.1 and 0.9 μg chl (μmol N) -1. In addition, regressions carried out on historical data sets from the two study sites showed poor correlation between chlorophyll and nitrate. Other differences between the microcosm experiments at the two sites, included: background concentrations of DIN, silicate and phosphate that were, respectively, 5.6 μM, 8.1 μM, and 0.3 μM higher in the Ria; chlorophyll concentrations at Sagres that were double those of the Ria; accumulation of particulate nitrogen that was both more rapid and more substantial at Sagres; a different community structure for the diatoms at the two sites; more numerous autotrophic dinoflagellates, flagellates and cyanobacteria, as well as more numerous protozoan grazers, at Sagres. These differences may explain why the yield of chlorophyll from DIN at Sagres is one of the highest reported in the literature. This yield parameter requires further study under a range of seasonal conditions and with a range of microplankton communities before it could be considered useful for

  10. Antioxidant and anti-lipoxygenase activities of extracts from different parts of Lavatera cretica L. grown in Algarve (Portugal)

    PubMed Central

    Ben-Nasr, Soumeya; Aazza, Smail; Mnif, Wissem; Miguel, Maria da Graça Costa

    2015-01-01

    Background: Lavatera cretica L. was used in folk medicine as anti-inflammatory among other applications. As inflammation is many times associated with oxidative processes, the aim of the present work was to evaluate the ability of aqueous extracts obtained from different parts of L. cretica to prevent oxidation or inflammation using several methods in vitro. Materials and Methods: The capacity of samples for preventing lipid peroxidation, scavenging free radicals, chelating metal ions, reducing power, and inhibiting lipoxygenase activity was investigated. This last assay also permits to evaluate the anti-inflammatory activity. The quantification of total phenols was performed using Folin-Chiocalteu reagent. Results: The highest concentrations of total polyphenols and flavonoids were found in the leaf extract (254.62 ± 6.50 mg gallic acid equivalent/gram; dry weight). Leaf and flower extracts were the most active for scavenging 2,2’-azino-bis (3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) diammonium salt free radicals [Inhibition concentration (IC 50 = 2.88 ± 0.54 and IC50 = 4.37 ± 0.54 ΅g/mL, respectively)], and leaf extract was also the best for scavenging hydroxyl radicals (IC50 = 0.81 ± 0.05 μg/mL). Bract plus sepal extract possessed the best capacity for preventing lipid peroxidation when lecithin liposome was the lipid substrate (IC50 = 0.19 ± 0.03 μg/mL) and scavenging superoxide anion radicals (IC50 = 1.13 ± 0.48 μg/mL). Leaf and flower extracts were the best lipoxygenase inhibitors (IC50 = 0.013 ± 0.0034 μg/mL in both extracts). Conclusions: L. cretica extracts were able to scavenge free radicals, inhibit lipid peroxidation and lipoxygenase activity. With these attributes, this plant can have an important role in the treatment of neurodegenerative disorders. PMID:25709210

  11. Antioxidant activities, distribution of phenolics and free amino acids of Erica australis L. leaves and flowers collected in Algarve, Portugal.

    PubMed

    Nunes, Ricardo; Carvalho, Isabel S

    2013-01-01

    Leaves and flowers from Erica plant possess nutritional and medicinal properties. We determined the antioxidant activity, phenolic, flavonoid and amino acid profiles of the leaves and flowers of this plant. Total amino acid content varied from 28 to 49 and essential amino acids from 8 to 20 mg/g for flowers and leaves, respectively, with different distributions within the plant. From 16 phenolic compounds identified, delphinidin-3-glucoside, caffeic acid and cyanidin-3,5-glucoside in leaves and pelargonidin-3,5-glucoside in flowers were the compounds in highest amount, all with over 500 μg/g. Although flowers had higher contents of phenolic compounds (4000 μg/g) than leaves (3400 μg/g), they showed lower antioxidant activity, indicating that the antioxidant activity depends not only on the content of phenolics, but also on their type. This study shows that this plant has the potential to be used as an extra dietary source of amino acids and phenolic compounds and its consumption may provide health benefits. PMID:23237569

  12. Portugal to Accede to ESO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2000-06-01

    The Republic of Portugal will become the ninth member state of the European Southern Observatory (ESO) [1]. Today, during a ceremony at the ESO Headquarters in Garching (Germany), a corresponding Agreement was signed by the Portuguese Minister of Science and Technology, José Mariano Gago and the ESO Director General, Catherine Cesarsky , in the presence of other high officials from Portugal and the ESO member states (see Video Clip 05/00 below). Following subsequent ratification by the Portuguese Parliament of the ESO Convention and the associated protocols [2], it is foreseen that Portugal will formally join this organisation on January 1, 2001. Uniting European Astronomy ESO PR Photo 16/00 ESO PR Photo 16/00 [Preview - JPEG: 400 x 405 pix - 160k] [Normal - JPEG: 800 x 809 pix - 408k] Caption : Signing of the Portugal-ESO Agreement on June 27, 2000, at the ESO Headquarters in Garching (Germany). At the table, the ESO Director General, Catherine Cesarsky , and the Portuguese Minister of Science and Technology, José Mariano Gago . In his speech, the Portuguese Minister of Science and Technology, José Mariano Gago , stated that "the accession of Portugal to ESO is the result of a joint effort by ESO and Portugal during the last ten years. It was made possible by the rapid Portuguese scientific development and by the growth and internationalisation of its scientific community." He continued: "Portugal is fully committed to European scientific and technological development. We will devote our best efforts to the success of ESO". Catherine Cesarsky , ESO Director General since 1999, warmly welcomed the Portuguese intention to join ESO. "With the accession of their country to ESO, Portuguese astronomers will have great opportunities for working on research programmes at the frontiers of modern astrophysics." "This is indeed a good time to join ESO", she added. "The four 8.2-m VLT Unit Telescopes with their many first-class instruments are nearly ready, and the VLT

  13. Provenance of upper Triassic sandstone, southwest Iberia (Alentejo and Algarve basins): tracing variability in the sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pereira, M. F.; Ribeiro, C.; Gama, C.; Drost, K.; Chichorro, M.; Vilallonga, F.; Hofmann, M.; Linnemann, U.

    2016-01-01

    Laser ablation ICP-MS U-Pb analyses have been conducted on detrital zircon of Upper Triassic sandstone from the Alentejo and Algarve basins in southwest Iberia. The predominance of Neoproterozoic, Devonian, Paleoproterozoic and Carboniferous detrital zircon ages confirms previous studies that indicate the locus of the sediment source of the late Triassic Alentejo Basin in the pre-Mesozoic basement of the South Portuguese and Ossa-Morena zones. Suitable sources for the Upper Triassic Algarve sandstone are the Upper Devonian-Lower Carboniferous of the South Portuguese Zone (Phyllite-Quartzite and Tercenas formations) and the Meguma Terrane (present-day in Nova Scotia). Spatial variations of the sediment sources of both Upper Triassic basins suggest a more complex history of drainage than previously documented involving other source rocks located outside present-day Iberia. The two Triassic basins were isolated from each other with the detrital transport being controlled by two independent drainage systems. This study is important for the reconstruction of the late Triassic paleogeography in a place where, later, the opening of the Central Atlantic Ocean took place separating Europe from North America.

  14. Pests of Blueberries on Sao Miguel, Azores, Portugal

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In February and March 2006, two plots of 154 plants of two southern high bush blueberries cultivars, Vaccinium corymbosum cv. ‘Emerald’ and ‘Jewel,’ a rabbiteye cultivar, V. virgatum cv. ‘Spring High,’ were planted in two locations on São Miguel Island, Açores, Portugal. One plot was planted near t...

  15. KLIMHIST: A Project on Historical Climatology in Portugal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fragoso, Marcelo; João Alcoforado, Maria; Santos, João A.

    2013-04-01

    Climatic variability from the beginning of regular meteorological observations is now acknowledged. However, climate change prior to 1900 is far from being well known in Portugal, except for the 1675-1800 period in Southern Portugal. An interdisciplinary team is working in the frame of the KLIMHIST PROJECT ("Reconstruction and model simulations of past climate in Portugal using documentary and early instrumental sources, 17th-19th century)", since May 2012. The main objectives of the project are: (i) to contribute to the creation of a long-term history of climate in Portugal by producing databases of documentary evidence and of instrumental data since 1645, a period of natural climate variability that includes the Maunder Minimum and the Dalton Minimum; (ii) to search systematically for the first simultaneous documentary and instrumental data in order to calibrate the series; (iii) to analyse simulated multi-decadal trends over Portugal generated by climate models; (iv) to compare results with those obtained from dendroclimatology and from geothermal studies regarding Portugal and (v) to study extreme events of the past, their impacts and the vulnerability of societies to weather during the last 350 years, and compare them with current analogues. With these tasks, we expect to help completing the spatial coverage of past European climate, as the data gap over SW Europe is often mentioned. As the team members come from four different Universities in Portugal (Évora, Lisbon, Oporto and UTAD), we expect to obtain a good spatial representation of documentary evidence. Teams are now progressing in data search activities in archives. An Access database frame was constructed. Some 18th century extreme events have been and are being studied (Barbara storm, Dec.1739, among others). The first workshop took place in Lisbon (October 2012): Prof Brázdil and Dr. Domínguez-Castro (two of our consultants) were keynote speakers. Key-words: Climate reconstruction, Documentary

  16. Modernising Portugal's Secondary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heitor, Teresa V.

    2008-01-01

    Portugal has a total of 477 public secondary schools. Some date from the end of the 19th century but the majority were built after 1970, reflecting the period of expansion in the school network and the extension of compulsory schooling. The schools are heterogeneous in terms of building types, architectural features and quality. An assessment of…

  17. Meeting report from the second EurocanPlatform summer school on translational cancer research, Portugal, 20–24 October 2014

    PubMed Central

    Lipowska-Bhalla, Grazyna

    2015-01-01

    The second EurocanPlatform summer school was held in Algarve, Portugal and attracted scientists, clinicians and pathologists with a common interest in cancer research to discuss the latest developments and challenges in the field. The meeting focused on translational cancer research and also included lectures, workshops and discussions, which covered all aspects of the translational research continuum, from early detection through treatment to survivorship. The rate of new cancer cases and cancer mortality increases every year. Although the last decade witnessed enormous progress in understanding cancer biology and the development of new therapies, the efficacy of these therapies is challenged by cancer resistance. It clearly suggests that new druggable targets are required and their translation from laboratory to bedside must be faster and more efficient to improve survival rates and standards of care. PMID:25729425

  18. Phytoplankton Bloom Off Portugal

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Turquoise and greenish swirls marked the presence of a large phytoplankton bloom off the coast of Portugal on April 23, 2002. This true-color image was acquired by the Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), flying aboard NASA's Terra satellite. There are also several fires burning in northwest Spain, near the port city of A Coruna. Please note that the high-resolution scene provided here is 500 meters per pixel. For a copy of this scene at the sensor's fullest resolution, visit the MODIS Rapidfire site.

  19. UAV technologies applied for monitoring the land use in the municipality of São Brás de Alportel, Portugal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pedras, Celestina Maria G.; Neto Paixão, Helena Maria; Lança, Rui; Soares, Cristina; Silva, Elisa; Granja Martins, Fernando Miguel

    2015-04-01

    This study aims to develop a methodology to streamline the process of data acquisition on land cover in the municipality of S. Brás de Alportel, Portugal. The collected information allows the updating of the Forestry Fire Defense Municipal Plan (PMDFCI). This plan identifies the most vulnerable areas and priorities of action, concerning the prevention. Regarding the update of the PMDFCI, the study area was characterized in 2013. As this information is dynamic, it should be updated periodically, which is challenging, given the lack of human resources and the available technology. On the other hand, the obtained data detail and accuracy are directly related to the qualification of the operator and the complexity of the study area. However, data updating is crucial for the operationally of the PMDFCI. Currently, the data update of the land's occupation and use in this municipality is primarily made through field work, followed by their update in the cartography at the office, supported by the Algarve Forest Planning Regional Plan (PROF Algarve). The use of aerial images obtained from an Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) in the Northwest area of S. Brás de Alportel and its classification with a supervised methodology, will allow the discrimination of the land cover classes in a more expeditious manner. This result when compared with the information collected through field work, will allow to verify the precision of the obtained information, aiming the use of the proposed methodology in the rest of the country.

  20. Space Radar Image of Lisbon, Portugal

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    This radar image of Lisbon, Portugal illustrates the different land use patterns that are present in coastal Portugal. Lisbon, the national capital, lies on the north bank of the Rio Tejo where the river enters the Atlantic Ocean. The city center appears as the bright area in the center of the image. The green area west of the city center is a large city park called the Parque Florestal de Monsanto. The Lisbon Airport is visible east of the city. The Rio Tejo forms a large bay just east of the city. Many agricultural fields are visible as a patchwork pattern east of the bay. Suburban housing can be seen on the southern bank of the river. Spanning the river is the Ponte 25 de Abril, a large suspension bridge similar in architecture to San Francisco's Golden Gate Bridge. The image was acquired on April 19, 1994 and is centered at 38.8 degrees north latitude, 9.2 degrees west longitude. North is towards the upper right. The image is 50 kilometers by 30 kilometers (31 miles by 19 miles). The colors in this image represent the following radar channels and polarizations: red is L-band, horizontally transmitted and received; green is L-band, horizontally transmitted and vertically received; and blue is C-band, horizontally transmitted and vertically received. SIR-C/X-SAR, a joint mission of the German, Italian, and the United States space agencies, is part of NASA's Mission to Planet Earth.

  1. Early Childhood Education in Portugal.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vasconcelos, Teresa

    This booklet provides an overview of the policy and status of early childhood education in Portugal and includes the text of Law 5/97, the Framework Law for Pre-School Education, as well as the Curriculum Guidelines for Pre-School Education adopted by Portugal's government. Two of Law 5/97's nine main goals are: (1) to promote the child's personal…

  2. Women in Portugal.

    PubMed

    Barbosa, M

    1981-01-01

    Prior to 1974, women in Portugal were restricted by the Penal Code and had little organizational power. Women's groups were formed within the Catholic Church to teach women about cooking, child care, and home economics. There was no contact with international women's groups. The press only reported events such as bra burning. 80% of all illiterates in Portugal are women. The conditions of Portuguese women are described after the revolution of April 25, 1974. Present roles are discussed for work, health, education, religion, trade unions and political parties, and women's organizations. The Women's Liberation Movement (WLM) appeared in May 1974 among a heterogenous group of women in Lisbon who were concerned about the oppression of women. WLM made feminist issues public amid ridicule and promoted the declaration of equal rights for women in the 1976 Republic Constitution and in the Family Code. Wage discrimination became illegal in 1979. Women represent 32.8% of the labor force. Unemployment is particularly high among women and is increasing. Women's wages and levels of skill are the lowest. The Christian Democratic government is actively engaged in a campaign to keep women at home and has formed the special Ministry of Family Affairs, which encourages large families and women's home activity in order to save jobs for men. There is a crisis in education: large class sizes and limited number of schools. Child care for the working mother is expensive when available and rarely available. An obstacle to women's rights has been the role of the Catholic Church, which fought equal rights legislation, condemned the Family Code and divorce laws, forbade the practice of contraception, and supported the movement against abortion. Only 1 member of government is a women, and she is considered a token. Trade unions have a women's section, but little attention is given to the problems of women. Women's groups within larger organizations have little autonomy. Those with autonomy

  3. Accumulation of mercury by Artemia populations of different salinas of Portugal

    SciTech Connect

    Boia, C.M.; Duarte, A.C.

    1995-12-31

    The total mercury content in samples of the brine shrimp Artemia, sediments, water, suspended matter and, when available, algae, from nine salines of Portugal, was evaluated, to find out how mercury present in its natural habitat accumulates in Artemia. This study, carried out between 1990 and 1993, was part of a larger research project aiming to contribute to the knowledge on mercury accumulation and its effects on Artemia. This crustacean is used worldwide for marine species feeding in aquafarms, including in Portugal. The following sampling sites were chosen: some salinas of the lagoon of Aveiro, situated in the northern region of Portugal and partially contaminated with mercury-, the salt-mines of Rio Maior, in the interior of the central region of the country, where there are no sediments (the floor is cemented); and salt-marshes in the Algarve, in the south of Portugal. Mercury was determined by cold vapor absorption espectrofotometry after digestion of samples with sulfuric acid and potassium permanganate, and reference materials have been used to control the analytical performance. The concentrations of total Hg varied from 0.014 to 0.36 mg/Kg in the sediments, 0 to 0.30 {micro}g/g in the Artemia, 0.17 to 0.84 {micro}g/l in the suspended matter and 0.09 to 0.56 {micro}g/l in the water. The content of mercury in the artemias was strongly related to the concentration in the sediments, except when the algae were present, because they also accumulate a significantly percentage of the mercury. No relationships could be established with the Hg in water or in suspended matter (in mass of Hg/volume of filtered water), because their, content in Hg varied a lot with time and weather conditions, such as the wind strength. The presence of Hg in the sediments was due either to significant containing Hg discharges or to the composition of the sediments, being more important in the case of clays.

  4. Gender differences in HIV-related sexual behavior among college students from Spain and Portugal.

    PubMed

    Muñoz-Silva, Alicia; Sánchez-García, Manuel; Martins, Ana; Cristina, Nunes

    2009-11-01

    Under the perspective of the Theory of Planned Behavior, the objective of this study was to know the gender differences in the variables involved in the use of effective preventive measures in sexual relations against HIV in a sample of university students from Spain and Portugal. Furthermore, it is examined whether these factors produce different predictions concerning the adoption of safe sexual behaviour for young man and women in each country. The sample consisted of 683 university students, 319 Portuguese (64% female and 36% male) from the University of Algarve and 364 Spanish students (51% female and 49% male) from the University of Huelva. Data were obtained by means of a questionnaire. The data revealed that there are gender differences which apply in both countries, highlighting that the young women have more positive attitudes, greater perceived behavioural control and intention of condom use than young men. However, they protect themselves less that their male counterparts: the percentage of females who say using condoms as a contraceptive method is less than the percentage of males, and especially with their steady partners. The results are discussed in relation to gender role norms, to have a steady partner or not, gender relations, the associated meaning to sexual relations for men and women and their implications for the design of sexual educational programmes for them. PMID:19899650

  5. Education Returns of Wage Earners and Self-Employed Workers: Portugal Vs. Spain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garcia-Mainar, I.; Montuenga-Gomez, V.M.

    2005-01-01

    This paper investigates the returns to education in two Southern EU countries, Portugal and Spain, both characterized by a relatively high self-employment rate. The impact of education on both wage earners and the self-employed is analyzed by using a comparable data set coming from the European Community Household Panel during the period…

  6. Identification of tsunami-induced deposits using numerical modeling and rock magnetism techniques: A study case of the 1755 Lisbon tsunami in Algarve, Portugal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Font, E.; Nascimento, C.; Omira, R.; Baptista, M. A.; Silva, P. F.

    2010-10-01

    Storm- and tsunami-deposits are generated by similar depositional mechanisms making their discrimination hard to establish using classic sedimentologic methods. Here we propose an original approach to identify tsunami-induced deposits by combining numerical simulation and rock magnetism. To test our method, we investigate the tsunami deposit of the Boca do Rio estuary generated by the 1755 earthquake in Lisbon which is well described in the literature. We first test the 1755 tsunami scenario using a numerical inundation model to provide physical parameters for the tsunami wave. Then we use concentration (MS, SIRM) and grain size ( χARM, ARM, B1/2, ARM/SIRM) sensitive magnetic proxies coupled with SEM microscopy to unravel the magnetic mineralogy of the tsunami-induced deposit and its associated depositional mechanisms. In order to study the connection between the tsunami deposit and the different sedimentologic units present in the estuary, magnetic data were processed by multivariate statistical analyses. Our numerical simulation show a large inundation of the estuary with flow depths varying from 0.5 to 6 m and run up of ˜7 m. Magnetic data show a dominance of paramagnetic minerals (quartz) mixed with lesser amount of ferromagnetic minerals, namely titanomagnetite and titanohematite both of a detrital origin and reworked from the underlying units. Multivariate statistical analyses indicate a better connection between the tsunami-induced deposit and a mixture of Units C and D. All these results point to a scenario where the energy released by the tsunami wave was strong enough to overtop and erode important amount of sand from the littoral dune and mixed it with reworked materials from underlying layers at least 1 m in depth. The method tested here represents an original and promising tool to identify tsunami-induced deposits in similar embayed beach environments.

  7. Identification of tsunami-induced deposits using numerical modeling and rock magnetism techniques: A study case of the 1755 Lisbon tsunami in Algarve, Portugal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Font, E.; Nascimento, C.; Omira, R.; Baptista, M.; Silva, P. F.

    2010-12-01

    Storm- and tsunami-deposits are generated by similar depositional mechanisms making their discrimination hard to establish using classic sedimentologic methods. A promising approach is to use rock magnetism techniques to search for new physical benchmarks of tsunami deposits and to integrate them into a multi-disciplinary study. To test our method, we investigate the tsunami deposit of the Boca do Rio estuary generated by the 1755 earthquake in Lisbon which is well described in the literature. We use concentration (MS, SIRM) and grain size (χarm, ARM, B 1/2 , ARM/SIRM) sensitive magnetic proxies coupled with SEM microscopy to unravel the magnetic mineralogy and the depositional mechanism of the tsunami deposit. In order to study the connection between the tsunami deposit and the different sedimentologic units present in the estuary, magnetic data were processed by multivariate statistical analyses. Finally, we test the 1755 tsunami scenario using a numerical inundation model. Our results show that the tsunami deposit is constituted by a mixture of sands, mostly issued from the abrasion of the littoral dune, and reworked materials. Detrital titanomagnetite and, in lesser content, detrital titanohematite are the principal magnetic carriers. Multivariate statistical analyses indicate that the magnetic mineralogy of the tsunami deposit correspond to a mixture of material issue from a mixture of the underlying layers. Our numerical simulation shows a large inundation of the estuary with flow depths varying from 0.5 to 6 m and runup of ~7 m. In conclusion, all data suggest that most of the material constituting the tsunami deposit come from the erosion of the littoral sandy dune and from the reworking of the sedimentological units previously deposited in the estuary. We also propose that our multi-disciplinary approach is a suitable method to identify paleotsunami in beach embayment environments. Keywords: tsunami deposit, beach embayment, rock magnetism, numerical modelling.

  8. Textiles and Training in Portugal.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andrez, Jaime Serrao; Dias, Mario Caldeira

    Analyzing the role of vocational training in an economic sector that is declining in Portugal, this document consists of five chapters, a bibliography, and a list of training organizations. An introduction tells why the study is important and explains that the major obstacles to development of the Portuguese textile and clothing sector are the…

  9. Portugal's Secondary School Modernisation Programme

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heitor, Teresa V.; Freire da Silva, Jose M. R.

    2009-01-01

    The aim of the Secondary School Modernisation Programme, being implemented in Portugal by "Parque Escolar, EPE", is based on the pursuit of quality and makes Portuguese education a potential international benchmark. This paper discusses the strategies adopted to reorganise school spaces. It describes the conceptual model and highlights the…

  10. Sex education in Portugal.

    PubMed

    Frade, A; Vilar, D

    1991-05-01

    The article on sex education in Portugal covers background, the educational system, the clashes of the 1960's over sex education, the Committee for the Study of Sexuality and Education (CSSE), the policies, politics and social movements during the period 1974 - 1984, the discussions in Parliament, the 1988 Reform of the Educational System, the Family Planning Association (FPA) and sex education, and the future role of the FPA. It was not until the institution of the multiparity parliamentary system in 1974 that discussing social and political changes was possible, culminating in 1984 with new legislation on abortion, family planning, and sex education. School reform came in 1987/8 with the Ministry of Education primarily responsible for curricula. The 1960's brought with it the influence of the Catholic Church. Change came in the form of progressivism among Catholics who replaced dogma with dialogue and listening. Sex education was considered as preparation for marriage, but masturbation, contraception, and prostitution were also discussed. In addition, the founder of FPA chaired the CSSE in 1971 and opened up debate on sex issues and drafted a bill to establish co-education in Portuguese schools. The revolution of 1974 brought an end to censorship and brought forth a policy of developing family planning. Changed in the Family Code gave women greater equality. UNFPA supported teacher training in non-sexist education. With human reproduction included in the natural sciences, there was still no school sex education policy and contraception was only sometimes represented in the biology curriculum. The focus of FPA was on contraception and abortion. Finally in the 1980's, the first sex education programs were developed for out-of-school youth. Even though in the 1970's there were leftists groups promoting sex education, it took leftist parliamentary power to get legislation on sex education in the schools adopted. The Ministry of Education however was pressured by the

  11. Recent high-energy marine events in the sediments of Lagoa de Óbidos and Martinhal (Portugal): recognition, age and likely causes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Costa, P. J. M.; Leroy, S. A. G.; Dinis, J. L.; Dawson, A. G.; Kortekaas, S.

    2012-05-01

    A key issue in coastal hazards research is the need to distinguish sediments deposited by past extreme storms from those of past tsunamis. This study contributes to this aim by investigating patterns of sedimentation associated with extreme coastal flood events, in particular, within the Lagoa de Óbidos (Portugal). The recent stratigraphy of this coastal lagoon was studied using a wide range of techniques including visual description, grain-size analysis, digital and x-ray photography, magnetic susceptibility and geochemical analysis. The sequence was dated by 14C, 210Pb and Optically Stimulated Luminescence. Results disclose a distinctive coarser sedimentary unit, within the top of the sequence studied, and shown in quartz sand by the enrichment of elements with marine affinity (e.g., Ca and Na) and carbonates. The unit fines upwards and inland, thins inland and presents a sharp erosive basal contact. A noticeable post-event change in the sedimentary pattern was observed. The likely agent of sedimentation is discussed here and the conceivable association with the Great Lisbon tsunami of AD 1755 is debated, while a comparison is attempted with a possibly synchronous deposit from a tsunami in Martinhal (Algarve, Portugal). The possibility of a storm origin is also discussed in the context of the storminess of the western Portuguese coast and the North Atlantic Oscillation. This study highlights certain characteristics of the sedimentology of the deposits that may have a value in the recognition of extreme marine inundation signatures elsewhere in the world.

  12. Assessing environmental risk of pharmaceuticals in Portugal: An approach for the selection of the Portuguese monitoring stations in line with Directive 2013/39/EU.

    PubMed

    Pereira, André M P T; Silva, Liliana J G; Lino, Celeste M; Meisel, Leonor M; Pena, Angelina

    2016-02-01

    In line with the Directive 2013/39/EU the most representative surface waters, regarding pharmaceuticals contamination, were selected based on a Portuguese nationwide monitoring exercise. To meet this purpose, and given that wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) are regarded as the major point sources of pharmaceuticals environmental contamination, the occurrence, fate and environmental risk assessment (ERA) of eleven of the most consumed pharmaceuticals, belonging to several therapeutic classes were assessed in 15 WWTPs (influents (WWIs) and effluents (WWEs)), from five different regions during one year (4 sampling campaigns). Results showed that all samples were contaminated with at least 1, and up to 8 from the 11 targeted pharmaceuticals. The highest concentrations observed were 150 and 33 μg L(-1) for WWI and WWE, respectively. Regarding temporal and spacial influence, winter, Alentejo, Algarve and Center regions presented higher mass loads. The ERA posed by 7 of the selected pharmaceuticals presented a risk quotient higher than 1 to the three trophic levels. Our findings highlighted that the rivers Mondego, Tagus, Ave, Trancão, Fervença and Xarrama should be selected as surface water monitoring stations. This study gives a good overview on pharmaceuticals contamination in WWTPs and its impact on surface waters in Portugal. Thus, a more integrative approach to rank and prioritize pharmaceuticals, based on an integrated assessment of ERA and exposure of surface water, was provided to support the future selection of the 6 most representative monitoring stations in Portugal, as required by the above mentioned directive. PMID:26624957

  13. [Demography and employment in Portugal].

    PubMed

    Barata, O S

    1981-01-01

    The population of Portugal showed a period of slow growth between 1950-60; however, in the 1970s, the return of large numbers of former residents in African territories along with a reduction in emigration changed the trend so that the 1981 census showed a significant increase. The Portuguese economy, on the other hand, is in a state of crisis which has resulted in large numbers of unemployed. The growth of the population along with these hard times has made it more difficult to reduce the rate of unemployment. It is also more difficult for those leaving school to find jobs. The better educated generations are seeking jobs in industry and in other services that Portugal will find difficult to offer in sufficient numbers in the immediate future. At present, the Portuguese economy has a large component of agricultural labor. In any case, the means of economic and social intervention to fight unemployment have limited potential. Therefore, many of those unable to find jobs in Portugal will attempt to emigrate. Many Portuguese are already working in Germany, France, and in other Western European countries but migration today is much more difficult. In addition, these countries cannot be expected to recive many more migrant workers in the future. In fact, those better educated workers from Portugal will not be very interested in the low paying jobs which can be found more easily by foreign workers in Western Euorpe. Many will therefore attempt to find jobs in non-European countries. There has been a recent increase of migration to Canada and the US. A renewal of interest in jobs in Brazil and other South Amerian countries is also to be expected. There may also be a future increase in the number of experts, technicians, and other qualified personnel emigrating to Portuguese speaking African countries if there is adequate security and if these countries find the way to expand economic growth. (author's modified) PMID:12339773

  14. The International Polar Year in Portugal: A New National Polar Programme and a Major Education and Outreach project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mendes-Victor, L.; Vieira, G.; Xavier, J.; Canario, A.

    2008-12-01

    Before the International Polar Year, in Portugal polar research was conducted by a very small group of scientists integrated in foreign projects or research institutions. Portugal was not member of the Scientific Committee for Antarctic Research (SCAR), the European Polar Board (EPB), neither a subscriber of the Antarctic Treaty. In 2004 Portuguese Polar researchers considered the IPY as an opportunity to change this situation and organized the national Committee for the IPY. The objectives were ambitious: to answer the aforementioned issues in defining and proposing a National Polar Programme. In late 2008, close to the end of the IPY, the objectives were attained, except the Antarctic Treaty signature that is, however, in an advanced stage, having been approved by consensus at the National Parliament in early 2007. Portugal joined SCAR in July 2006, the EPB in 2007 and a set of 5 Antarctic research projects forming the roots of the National Polar Programme (ProPolar) have been approved by the Foundation for Science and Technology (FCT-MCTES). Scientifically, the IPY can already be considered a major success in Portugal with an improvement in polar scientific research, in the number of scientists performing field work in the Antarctic, organizing polar science meetings and producing an expected increase in the number of polar science peer- reviewed papers. The Portuguese IPY scientific activities were accompanied by a major education and outreach project funded by the Agencia Ciência Viva (MCTES): LATITUDE60! Education for the Planet in the IPY. This project lead by the universities of Algarve, Lisbon and by the Portuguese Association of Geography Teachers is heavily interdisciplinary, programmed for all ages, from kindergarten to adults, and hoped to bring together scientists and society. LATITUDE60! was a major success and focussed on showing the importance of the polar regions for Earth's environment, emphasising on the implications of polar change for

  15. Child Labour and Educational Success in Portugal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goulart, Pedro; Bedi, Arjun S.

    2008-01-01

    The current debate on child labour focuses on developing countries. However, Portugal is an example of a relatively developed country where child labour is still a matter of concern as between 8% and 12% of Portuguese children may be classified as workers. This paper studies the patterns of child labour in Portugal and assesses the consequences of…

  16. Geology and religion in Portugal

    PubMed Central

    Carneiro, Ana; Simoes, Ana; Diogo, Maria Paula; Mota, Teresa Salomé

    2013-01-01

    This paper addresses the relationship between geology and religion in Portugal by focusing on three case studies of naturalists who produced original research and lived in different historical periods, from the eighteenth to the twentieth century. Whereas in non-peripheral European countries religious themes and even controversies between science and religion were dealt with by scientists and discussed in scientific communities, in Portugal the absence of a debate between science and religion within scientific and intellectual circles is particularly striking. From the historiographic point of view, in a country such as Portugal, where Roman Catholicism is part of the religious and cultural tradition, the influence of religion in all aspects of life has been either taken for granted by those less familiar with the national context or dismissed by local intellectuals, who do not see it as relevant to science. The situation is more complex than these dichotomies, rendering the study of this question particularly appealing from the historiographic point of view, geology being by its very nature a well-suited point from which to approach the theme. We argue that there is a long tradition of independence between science and religion, agnosticism and even atheism among local elites. Especially from the eighteenth century onwards, they are usually portrayed as enlightened minds who struggled against religious and political obscurantism. Religion—or, to be more precise, the Roman Catholic Church and its institutions—was usually identified with backwardness, whereas science was seen as the path to progress; consequently men of science usually dissociated their scientific production from religious belief.

  17. Performance of intertidal topography video monitoring of a meso-tidal reflective beach in South Portugal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vousdoukas, Michalis Ioannis; Ferreira, Pedro Manuel; Almeida, Luis Pedro; Dodet, Guillaume; Psaros, Fotis; Andriolo, Umberto; Taborda, Rui; Silva, Ana Nobre; Ruano, Antonio; Ferreira, Óscar Manuel

    2011-10-01

    This study discusses site-specific system optimization efforts related to the capability of a coastal video station to monitor intertidal topography. The system consists of two video cameras connected to a PC, and is operating at the meso-tidal, reflective Faro Beach (Algarve coast, S. Portugal). Measurements from the period February 4, 2009 to May 30, 2010 are discussed in this study. Shoreline detection was based on the processing of variance images, considering pixel intensity thresholds for feature extraction, provided by a specially trained artificial neural network (ANN). The obtained shoreline data return rate was 83%, with an average horizontal cross-shore root mean square error (RMSE) of 1.06 m. Several empirical parameterizations and ANN models were tested to estimate the elevations of shoreline contours, using wave and tidal data. Using a manually validated shoreline set, the lowest RMSE (0.18 m) for the vertical elevation was obtained using an ANN while empirical parameterizations based on the tidal elevation and wave run-up height resulted in an RMSE of 0.26 m. These errors were reduced to 0.22 m after applying 3-D data filtering and interpolation of the topographic information generated for each tidal cycle. Average beach-face slope tan( β) RMSE were around 0.02. Tests for a 5-month period of fully automated operation applying the ANN model resulted in an optimal, average, vertical elevation RMSE of 0.22 m, obtained using a one tidal cycle time window and a time-varying beach-face slope. The findings indicate that the use of an ANN in such systems has considerable potential, especially for sites where long-term field data allow efficient training.

  18. A review of Alpine tectonics in Portugal: Foreland detachment in basement and cover rocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ribeiro, A.; Kullberg, M. C.; Kullberg, J. C.; Manuppella, G.; Phipps, S.

    1990-12-01

    The Alpine foreland in Portugal was deformed by compressional tectonism during the Miocene. In the NNE-SSW oriented Lusitanian Basin, most folds and thrusts in the Meso-Cenozoic cover are oriented ENE-WSW, parallel to the Alpine front in the Betic Cordillera, and verge towards the north-northwest and south-southeast. The thrusts are connected by lateral ramps: most of these are oriented NNE-SSW to N-S and show sinistral movement, and some are transpressional. The lateral ramps result from reactivation of older extensional faults related to crustal thinning of the continental margin. In the E-W oriented Algarve Basin a simpler basin inversion occurred, with older E-W normal faults reactivated as essentially pure thrusts. In both basins Alpine structures formed above décollements in the Hettangian evaporite-clastic complex. Variscan basement was also deformed by ENE-WSW reverse faults during Miocene time. The similarity in orientation and style of the basement structures to those in the cover suggests that they also occurred by detachment, but their larger scale indicates that the detachment is deep and involves much of the crust. Thus, we interpret the Central Cordillera, in which basement rocks are thrust over Miocene sediments on both sides, as a "pop-up" of crustal scale, elevated above downward-flattening faults that dip towards each other and merge into a single deep detachment. Alpine structures in the Iberian foreland are therefore similar in structural style to those of the Appalachian and Laramide forelands of North America and the Alpine foreland of northwest Europe.

  19. Climate change projections for precipitation in Portugal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andrade, C.; Santos, J. A.

    2013-10-01

    The strong irregularity of precipitation in Portugal, which may e.g. trigger severe/extreme droughts and floods, results in a high vulnerability of the country to precipitation inter-annual variability and to its extremes. Furthermore, dryer future climates are projected for Portugal, though there has also been some growing evidence for a strengthening of precipitation extremes. Due to the central role played byprecipitation on many socio-economic sectors and environmental systems, regional climate change assessments for precipitation in Portugal are necessary. This study is focused on analyzing climate change projections for seasonal (3-month) precipitation totals and their corresponding extremes over mainland Portugal. Taking into account the strong seasonality of the precipitation regimes in Portugal, winter (DJF) and summer (JJA) are considered separately. Precipitation datasets generated by a 16-member ensemble of regional climate model experiments from the ENSEMBLES project are used. Percentile-based indices of precipitation are computed and analyzed for a recent past period (1961-2000) and for a near future period (2041-2070). Results for the R5p, R50p and R95p indices highlight significant projected changes in precipitation, with a clear distinction between northwestern Portugal and the rest of the country in both seasons. Overall, precipitation is projected to decrease in both seasons, particularly over northwestern Portugal in winter, despite some significant regional differences. Although precipitation is projected to decrease in most cases, extremely high seasonal precipitations (above the 95th percentile)areexpected to increase in winter.

  20. Drought and vegetation stress monitoring in Portugal using satellite data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gouveia, C.; Trigo, R. M.; Dacamara, C. C.

    2009-02-01

    Remote sensed information on vegetation and soil moisture, namely the Normalised Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) and the Soil Water Index (SWI), is employed to monitor the spatial extent, severity and persistence of drought episodes over Continental Portugal, from 1999 to 2006. The severity of a given drought episode is assessed by evaluating the cumulative impact over time of drought conditions on vegetation. Special attention is given to the drought episodes that have occurred in the last decade, i.e., 1999, 2002 and particularly the major event of 2005. During both the 1999 and 2005 drought episodes negative anomalies of NDVI are observed over large sectors of Southern Portugal for up to nine months (out of eleven) of the vegetative cycle. On the contrary, the 2002 event was characterized by negative anomalies in the northern half of Portugal and for a shorter period (eight out of eleven months). The impact of soil moisture on vegetation dynamics is evaluated by analyzing monthly anomalies of SWI and by studying the annual cycle of SWI vs. NDVI. While in the case of the drought episode of 1999 the scarcity of water in the soil persisted until spring, in the recent episode of 2005 the deficit in greenness was already apparent at the end of summer. The impact of dry periods on vegetation is clearly observed in both arable land and forest, and it is found that arable land presents a higher sensitivity. From an operational point of view, obtained results reveal the possibility of using the developed methodology to monitor, in quasi real-time, vegetation stress and droughts in Mediterranean ecosystems.

  1. [Carbon monoxide intoxications in Portugal].

    PubMed

    Sá, Márcia Christel; Rodrigues, Rui Paulo; Moura, Daniel

    2011-01-01

    The prevalence of carbon monoxide intoxication in the World shows that this is a common situation. In Portugal, there are no concrete data available in literature and its incidence remains unknown. Currently, the use of hyperbaric oxygen is a valid therapeutic for carbon monoxide poisoning management. However, its effectiveness and its proper handling are still controversial. The first aim of this study was to estimate the incidence of carbon monoxide intoxication in Portugal and to analyze its demographic characteristics. The second objective of this work was to evaluate the possible change in the type of treatment applied in areas near de hyperbaric chamber of Unidade Local de Saúde de Matosinhos, since its opening in June 2006. To achieve these objectives, we conducted a survey on admissions data for carbon monoxide intoxication occured between January first, 2000 and December 31, 2007. These data was collected in seven hospitals and in the Administração Central do Sistema de Saúde, I.P. Nationally, 621 hospitalizations were recorded, which represents an incidence of 5,86/100000 in 8 years. In the seven hospitals, there were 93 hospitalizations due to carbon monoxide intoxication during the same period of time. There was a peak of incidence during winter, between November and March and there was a similar distribution in men (47,3%) and women (52,7%). Since June 2006, date of opening of the hyperbaric chamber, the Unidade Local de Saúde de Matosinhos, E.P.E. recorded a sharp increase in the number of hospitalization for carbon monoxide intoxication. The number of admissions in the 19 months after the chamber opening was double the number of all cases occurred in that institution in the 65 months prior. We concluded that, in Portugal, carbon monoxide intoxication is an uncommon situation but it´s still an important cause of hospitalization. The referral of cases to the Unidade Local de Saúde de Matosinhos, E.P.E. since the opening of hyperbaric chamber

  2. Optometry in Portugal: a historical perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teixeira, Eduardo; Baptista, António M. G.; Sousa, Raul A. R. C.

    2011-05-01

    The establishment and development of optometry in Portugal resulted from the committed work of many individuals and institutions. These efforts have had good results in terms of raising the public's awareness of the major role played by optometrists in primary eye care. Back in the late 80's higher education in optometry was started. Ten years ago the results of scientific research on the topic first became available and are now also contributing to the success of optometry in Portugal. In regard to the optometry profession, specific regulations are to be discussed in the national parliament. The Associação de Profissionais Licenciados de Optometria (APLO), as the professional organization representing optometrists in Portugal, has been critically important in this process. This article will present an overview of the history of optometry in Portugal, of change in the foreseeable future and of the APLO's experience and activities.

  3. Astronomy Week in Madeira, Portugal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Augusto, P.; Sobrinho, J. L.

    2012-05-01

    The outreach programme Semanas da Astronomia (Astronomy Weeks) is held in late spring or summer on the island of Madeira, Portugal. This programme has been attracting enough interest to be mentioned in the regional press/TV/radio every year and is now, without doubt, the astronomical highlight of the year on Madeira. We believe that this programme is a good case study for showing how to attract the general public to astronomy in a small (population 250 000, area 900 km2) and fairly isolated place such as Madeira. Our Astronomy Weeks have been different each year and have so far included exhibitions, courses, talks, a forum, documentaries, observing sessions (some with blackouts), music and an astro party. These efforts may contribute towards putting Madeira on the map with respect to observational astronomy, and have also contributed to the planned installation of two observatories in the island.

  4. The Afrotropical Miomantiscaffra Saussure 1871 and Miomantispaykullii Stal 1871: first records of alien mantid species in Portugal and Europe, with an updated checklist of Mantodea in Portugal (Insecta: Mantodea).

    PubMed

    Marabuto, Eduardo

    2014-01-01

    The recent growing interest on the Mantodea fauna of southern Europe and Portugal in particular, has enabled the discovery of two geographically separated populations of hitherto unknown species in Europe. Analysis of specimens shows that they belong to two Afrotropical mantids: Miomantiscaffra Saussure, 1871 and Miomantispaykullii Stal, 1871, thus raising the number of known species in Europe to 39 and in Portugal to 11. While these are remarkable findings, they also represent the first alien mantis species recorded from this continent. As yet, these species appear to be confined to artificial humanised gardened areas but call for more attention to the problem of biological invasions and the need for better bio-security measures for the conservation of natural ecosystems. In the absence of recent revisionary work on the Mantodea of Portugal and given the need to provide an accessible identification tool, both a checklist and a key to species are provided for all species in the country. PMID:25425938

  5. The Afrotropical Miomantis caffra Saussure 1871 and Miomantis paykullii Stal 1871: first records of alien mantid species in Portugal and Europe, with an updated checklist of Mantodea in Portugal (Insecta: Mantodea)

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The recent growing interest on the Mantodea fauna of southern Europe and Portugal in particular, has enabled the discovery of two geographically separated populations of hitherto unknown species in Europe. Analysis of specimens shows that they belong to two Afrotropical mantids: Miomantis caffra Saussure, 1871 and Miomantis paykullii Stal, 1871, thus raising the number of known species in Europe to 39 and in Portugal to 11. While these are remarkable findings, they also represent the first alien mantis species recorded from this continent. As yet, these species appear to be confined to artificial humanised gardened areas but call for more attention to the problem of biological invasions and the need for better bio-security measures for the conservation of natural ecosystems. In the absence of recent revisionary work on the Mantodea of Portugal and given the need to provide an accessible identification tool, both a checklist and a key to species are provided for all species in the country. PMID:25425938

  6. Phytoplankton off the Coast of Portugal

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    A large phytoplankton bloom off of the coast of Portugal can be seen in this true-color image taken on April 23, 2002, by the Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) aboard NASA's Terra satellite. The bloom is roughly half the size of Portugal and forms a bluish-green cloud in the water. The red spots in northwest Spain denote what are likely small agricultural fires. Image courtesy Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team at NASA GSFC

  7. Basic Needs and Education in Portugal. The Portugal Project. Document No. XIII.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erasmie, Thord

    The aim of this study was to describe and compare the socio-economic factors that can be expected to influence the education system in Portugal, where urbanization has been very slow. The report examines basic needs in Portugal's 18 districts and makes recommendations about resource allocation to planners of adult education programs. Extensive…

  8. Quantifying and modelling the contribution of streams that recharge the Querença-Silves aquifer in the south of Portugal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salvador, N.; Monteiro, J. P.; Hugman, R.; Stigter, T. Y.; Reis, E.

    2012-11-01

    The water balance of the mesocenozoic aquifers of the Algarve, in the south of Portugal has traditionally been estimated considering only direct ("autogenic") recharge from rainfall occurring in the area of the aquifers. Little importance has been attributed to so-called allogenic recharge, originating from streambed infiltration from runoff generated outside the aquifers, particularly in the Palaeozoic rocks to the north where runoff is high. The Querença-Silves (QS) aquifer is the most important aquifer of the region both for irrigation and public water supply. Several important and sensitive surface/groundwater ecotones and associated groundwater dependent ecosystems exist at the springs of the natural discharge areas of the aquifer system. A numerical flow model has been in constant development over the last few years and currently is able to reproduce the aquifer's responses to estimated direct recharge and abstraction for the years 2001-2010. However, recharge calculations for the model do not take into account allogenic recharge infiltration along influent reaches of streams. The quantification of allogenic recharge may further improve the assessment of water availability and exploitation risks. In this paper an attempt is made to quantify the average annual contribution of allogenic recharge to the QS aquifer, based on monitoring data of the principal water courses that cross the aquifer system. Significant uncertainties related to surface runoff generated within the aquifer area, as well as areal recharge were identified and the consequences for the optimization of spatial distribution of transmissivity in the groundwater flow model are also addressed.

  9. Ecole et communaute au Portugal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melo, Alberto

    1980-09-01

    Since 1974 Portugal has experienced some dramatic changes in educational practices at the local level. The school has been opened to the community and the community to the school. Teacher education now includes community studies, designed to prepare teachers for an active role in this process and for the better understanding of the social background of pupils. One new practice is the publication of local newspapers or news-sheets to enhance the understanding of the community by teachers and pupils. The development of a school garden for the cultivation of flowers and vegetables serves as another bridge between school and community. Other examples of community action are adult literacy classes, the creation of voluntary organisations for women, the running of youth clubs, the formation of co-operatives, and local projects like the purchase of an old tram-car to be converted into a library. The introduction of `Civic and Polytechnic Education' for 13-16 year olds was an important innovation. One half-day a week was to be devoted to the integration of the school with the locality, young people's participation in society as agents of change, the linking of study and productive work, and the involvement of young people in the solution of national problems, working from a concrete knowledge of local and regional life. However, since 1976 there has been a more conservative approach, and only in places with a strong consensus amongst teachers has the new relationship between school and community been maintained.

  10. Seabed morphology along the rocky shore of the Barlavento Coast, southern Portuguese continental shelf

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Correia, Ricardo; Lavoie, Caroline; Pinheiro, Luis; Magalhães, Vitor; Moura, Delminda; Bennazzouz, Omar; Sena, Clara; Silva, Paulo; Gabriel, Selma; Horta, João; Abreu, Tiago; Mota, António

    2014-05-01

    The coastal area between Galé and Olhos de Água, in the southernmost coast of the Algarve (Portugal) is characterized by shore platforms and sandy beaches where the carbonate rocky cliffs are undergoing a dramatic recession (Marques, 2008; Nunes et al., 2009). Such crenulated coast plays an important morphological control on alongshore drift. In order to understand the sedimentation patterns in this area and characterize the seabed morphology and subsurface geology, a detailed sidescan sonar (100 and 400 kHz) and high-resolution seismic (Chirp Sonar, 05-12 kHz) survey was carried out, complemented with sediment sampling, along the rocky shore of the Barlavento Coast, southern Portuguese continental shelf, in the scope of the EROS project. The acquired data concentrate in two main areas: Olhos de Água and Galé. The sidescan sonar data were processed and analyzed using the integrated Triton perspective software and the mosaics were gridded at a cell size of 0.5 m. 27 seabed sediment grab samples were used to ground-truth the sidescan mosaics and produce a semi-quantitative seabed classification map. The seismic data were processed using the SPW and RadExPro softwares. Preliminary results show that the seafloor of the area Galé (2.25 km2) is characterized by: (1) a field of ripples that occurs on the flat portions and in the deeper part of the study area between 10 and 18 m depth; these ripples are symmetric, 3-400 m long and have wavelengths up to 2.5 m; most of the ripples can be classified as straight or sinuous in phase, and they are generally sub-parallel to the slope with a NW-SE trending; (2) bedrock outcrops that are present from the coastline until 12 m water depth; and (3) anthropogenic features associated to small scale fishing activities, observed at the border between fine sand with high concentration of shells and low concentration. In the Olhos de Água area (3.1 km2) the seafloor is generally characterized by (1) asymmetrical E-W trending

  11. Entomological and ecological studies in a new potential zoonotic leishmaniasis focus in Torres Novas municipality, Central Region, Portugal.

    PubMed

    Branco, S; Alves-Pires, C; Maia, C; Cortes, S; Cristovão, J M S; Gonçalves, L; Campino, L; Afonso, M O

    2013-03-01

    In Portugal human and canine leishmaniasis are caused by Leishmania infantum, and Phlebotomus perniciosus and P. ariasi are the proven vectors. Three main foci were identified in eighty's decade: Trás-os-Montes and Alto Douro region, Lisbon region and Algarve region, but according to OnLeish observatory data, canine leishmaniasis cases have been reported from several other regions, for which sand fly species and their infection rates are unknown. This study is the first phlebotomine survey in Torres Novas municipality, Santarém District, Portugal. The main objectives were to identify the phlebotomine species, their bioecological aspects, Leishmania infection rate and the risk factors for the presence of phlebotomine species in the municipality. From June to November, 2010, 275 biotopes were surveyed with CDC light-traps. Captures covered the 17 parishes of the municipality and included domestic, peridomestic and sylvatic biotopes. Specimens were identified morphologically and females were used for molecular detection of Leishmania and bloodmeal identification. Simple and multiple logistic regression analysis were used to identify risk factors for phlebotomine presence. Nonparametric tests were used to compare densities of independent groups. A total of 1262 sand flies were captured and identified, and four species detected: P. perniciosus (73.69%), P. ariasi (8.16%), P. sergenti (6.58%) and Sergentomyia minuta (11.57%). In 71.4% localities at least one L. infantum proven vector species was present. Risk factors were identified as: high average temperatures and low relative humidities, sheltered locations and absence of strong wind, presence of pine trees as dominant vegetation, peridomestic biotopes, particularly sheep pens or proximity of sheep, poultry and house martin nests. L. infantum infection rate was 4% for P. ariasi and 0.48% for the total of Larroussius females. P. perniciosus females exhibited an opportunistic behavior, feeding in a wide variety of

  12. Child Poverty in Portugal: Dimensions and Dynamics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bastos, Amelia; Nunes, Francisco

    2009-01-01

    This article analyses the extent and persistence of child poverty in Portugal between 1995 and 2001. Data from the Portuguese component of the European Community Household Panel Survey (ECHP) are used to estimate child poverty rates and children's flows in and out of poverty. The article focuses upon an analysis based on family income and on a set…

  13. Paleomagnetic and rock magnetic study of sediments from Boca do Rio (Portugal): Inference for the emplacement of the 1755 tsunamigenic layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vigliotti, L.; Gallerani, A.; Andrade, C.; Freitas, M. C.

    2009-04-01

    In the framework of the EU project NEAREST a detailed paleomagnetic and rock magnetic study was carried out, on sediments collected in the area of Boca do Rio (Algarve, South Portugal) known to have been stricken by a tsunami wave during the 1755 Lisbon earthquake. The natural remanent magnetization (NRM), magnetic susceptibility and artificial magnetizations (anhysteretic remanence, ARM; isothermal remanence, IRM) were measured on 6 U-channel and 56 hand-oriented samples collected across the tsunami layer in 3 trenches opened in the field. The targets of the study were: 1) to reconstruct an age/depth model of the deposits based on the secular variation record of the magnetic field in order to evaluate and quantify the possible erosion related to the tsunami wave; 2) to investigate the source of the magnetic minerals carrying the remanence; 3) to check possible environmental changes occurring in the area after the occurrence of the tsunami. The rock magnetic data (X, ARM, SIRM) indicate high magnetic contents with susceptibility values exceeding 3000x10-6 SI units, except for the tsunami deposit that exhibits a distinctive magnetic signature representing allochtonous material. The magnetic mineral assemblage is dominated by multidomain ferrimagnetic grains with a significant contribution (5-9%) of ultra-fine (SP) magnetic particles probably related to the presence of pedogenetic magnetite created during soil development. The amount of this component seems to increase with depth and it may be related to changing environmental/climatic conditions in the area. The paleomagnetic directions obtained after alternating field (AF) cleaning allowed to reconstruct the characteristic remanent magnetization (ChRM) of the remanence. However, both a very low coercivity (MDF of NRM <10mT) and differences in the directions observed between sampled sites complicate the interpretation of the results. It is unclear if the timing of the magnetization lock-in is variable among the

  14. Phylogenetic status and matrilineal structure of the biting midge, Culicoides imicola, in Portugal, Rhodes and Israel.

    PubMed

    Dallas, J F; Cruickshank, R H; Linton, Y-M; Nolan, D V; Patakakis, M; Braverman, Y; Capela, R; Capela, M; Pena, I; Meiswinkel, R; Ortega, M D; Baylis, M; Mellor, P S; Mordue Luntz, A J

    2003-12-01

    The biting midge Culicoides imicola Kieffer (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) is the most important Old World vector of African horse sickness (AHS) and bluetongue (BT). Recent increases of BT incidence in the Mediterranean basin are attributed to its increased abundance and distribution. The phylogenetic status and genetic structure of C. imicola in this region are unknown, despite the importance of these aspects for BT epidemiology in the North American BT vector. In this study, analyses of partial mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase subunit I gene (COI) sequences were used to infer phylogenetic relationships among 50 C. imicola from Portugal, Rhodes, Israel, and South Africa and four other species of the Imicola Complex from southern Africa, and to estimate levels of matrilineal subdivision in C. imicola between Portugal and Israel. Eleven haplotypes were detected in C. imicola, and these formed one well-supported clade in maximum likelihood and Bayesian trees implying that the C. imicola samples comprise one phylogenetic species. Molecular variance was distributed mainly between Portugal and Israel, with no haplotypes shared between these countries, suggesting that female-mediated gene flow at this scale has been either limited or non-existent. Our results provide phylogenetic evidence that C. imicola in the study areas are potentially competent AHS and BT vectors. The geographical structure of the C. imicola COI haplotypes was concordant with that of BT virus serotypes in recent BT outbreaks in the Mediterranean basin, suggesting that population subdivision in its vector can impose spatial constraints on BT virus transmission. PMID:14651651

  15. Spatial variation of the scaling structure of short-term rainfall over Portugal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Lima, M. I. P.; Coelho, M. F. E. S.; de Lima, J. L. M. P.

    2009-04-01

    The spatial and temporal structure of rain, which typically exhibits extreme variability, is a core issue in studies that span a variety of research areas, e.g. hydrology, hydraulics, environment, energy, economics, society. The interest in rain can demand its study and characterization at a variety of space- and time-scales. Different tools and methodologies are used for this purpose, which are usually complementary. Mainland Portugal is located in the transitional region between the sub-tropical anticyclone and the sub-polar depression zones. The spatial distribution of precipitation over the territory and its seasonal variability are due to the characteristics of the global circulation. One specific feature is the Atlantic origin of many synoptic disturbances, e.g. seasonal movements of the Azores high pressure system, in the context of the regional geography (e.g. latitude, orography, oceanic and continental influences). Although the variation in climate factors is fairly small, it is sufficient to justify significant variations in precipitation. Compared with the northern region of Portugal, the southern region is warmer and drier; there the climate is semi-arid, and the region is well-known for its vulnerability to climate variability. Two storm types dominate the occurrence of rainfall in mainland Portugal: convective storms and frontal storms. Convective storms are typical during the summer and in early and mid autumn, and are more frequent in the southern regions; frontal storms occur principally in the winter season, and affect the northern regions more. In this work we discuss results of scale-invariant analyses of the temporal structure of rain from several locations in mainland Portugal. The aim was to investigate the statistical signature of rain events of different origins, resulting from the large number of mechanisms and factors affecting the rainfall climate over Portugal. The study uses hourly rainfall time series covering periods of about 30

  16. Estimation of the Crustal Bulk Properties Beneath Mainland Portugal from P-Wave Teleseismic Receiver Functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dündar, Süleyman; Dias, Nuno A.; Silveira, Graça; Kind, Rainer; Vinnik, Lev; Matias, Luís; Bianchi, Marcelo

    2016-03-01

    In this work, we present results from teleseismic P-wave receiver functions (PRFs) obtained in Portugal, Western Iberia. A dense seismic station deployment conducted between 2010 and 2012, in the scope of the WILAS project and covering the entire country, allowed the most spatially extensive probing on the bulk crustal seismic properties of Portugal up to date. The application of the H-κ stacking algorithm to the PRFs enabled us to estimate the crustal thickness (H) and the average crustal ratio of the P- and S-waves velocities V p/V s (κ) for the region. Observations of Moho conversions indicate that this interface is relatively smooth with the crustal thickness ranging between 24 and 34 km, with an average of 30 km. The highest V p/V s values are found on the Mesozoic-Cenozoic crust beneath the western and southern coastal domain of Portugal, whereas the lowest values correspond to Palaeozoic crust underlying the remaining part of the subject area. An average V p/V s is found to be 1.72, ranging 1.63-1.86 across the study area, indicating a predominantly felsic composition. Overall, we systematically observe a decrease of V p/V s with increasing crustal thickness. Taken as a whole, our results indicate a clear distinction between the geological zones of the Variscan Iberian Massif in Portugal, the overall shape of the anomalies conditioned by the shape of the Ibero-Armorican Arc, and associated Late Paleozoic suture zones, and the Meso-Cenozoic basin associated with Atlantic rifting stages. Thickened crust (30-34 km) across the studied region may be inherited from continental collision during the Paleozoic Variscan orogeny. An anomalous crustal thinning to around 28 km is observed beneath the central part of the Central Iberian Zone and the eastern part of South Portuguese Zone.

  17. Estimation of the Crustal Bulk Properties Beneath Mainland Portugal from P-Wave Teleseismic Receiver Functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dündar, Süleyman; Dias, Nuno A.; Silveira, Graça; Kind, Rainer; Vinnik, Lev; Matias, Luís; Bianchi, Marcelo

    2016-06-01

    In this work, we present results from teleseismic P-wave receiver functions (PRFs) obtained in Portugal, Western Iberia. A dense seismic station deployment conducted between 2010 and 2012, in the scope of the WILAS project and covering the entire country, allowed the most spatially extensive probing on the bulk crustal seismic properties of Portugal up to date. The application of the H- κ stacking algorithm to the PRFs enabled us to estimate the crustal thickness ( H) and the average crustal ratio of the P- and S-waves velocities V p/ V s ( κ) for the region. Observations of Moho conversions indicate that this interface is relatively smooth with the crustal thickness ranging between 24 and 34 km, with an average of 30 km. The highest V p/ V s values are found on the Mesozoic-Cenozoic crust beneath the western and southern coastal domain of Portugal, whereas the lowest values correspond to Palaeozoic crust underlying the remaining part of the subject area. An average V p/ V s is found to be 1.72, ranging 1.63-1.86 across the study area, indicating a predominantly felsic composition. Overall, we systematically observe a decrease of V p/ V s with increasing crustal thickness. Taken as a whole, our results indicate a clear distinction between the geological zones of the Variscan Iberian Massif in Portugal, the overall shape of the anomalies conditioned by the shape of the Ibero-Armorican Arc, and associated Late Paleozoic suture zones, and the Meso-Cenozoic basin associated with Atlantic rifting stages. Thickened crust (30-34 km) across the studied region may be inherited from continental collision during the Paleozoic Variscan orogeny. An anomalous crustal thinning to around 28 km is observed beneath the central part of the Central Iberian Zone and the eastern part of South Portuguese Zone.

  18. Multivariate statistical analysis of wildfires in Portugal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Costa, Ricardo; Caramelo, Liliana; Pereira, Mário

    2013-04-01

    Several studies demonstrate that wildfires in Portugal present high temporal and spatial variability as well as cluster behavior (Pereira et al., 2005, 2011). This study aims to contribute to the characterization of the fire regime in Portugal with the multivariate statistical analysis of the time series of number of fires and area burned in Portugal during the 1980 - 2009 period. The data used in the analysis is an extended version of the Rural Fire Portuguese Database (PRFD) (Pereira et al, 2011), provided by the National Forest Authority (Autoridade Florestal Nacional, AFN), the Portuguese Forest Service, which includes information for more than 500,000 fire records. There are many multiple advanced techniques for examining the relationships among multiple time series at the same time (e.g., canonical correlation analysis, principal components analysis, factor analysis, path analysis, multiple analyses of variance, clustering systems). This study compares and discusses the results obtained with these different techniques. Pereira, M.G., Trigo, R.M., DaCamara, C.C., Pereira, J.M.C., Leite, S.M., 2005: "Synoptic patterns associated with large summer forest fires in Portugal". Agricultural and Forest Meteorology. 129, 11-25. Pereira, M. G., Malamud, B. D., Trigo, R. M., and Alves, P. I.: The history and characteristics of the 1980-2005 Portuguese rural fire database, Nat. Hazards Earth Syst. Sci., 11, 3343-3358, doi:10.5194/nhess-11-3343-2011, 2011 This work is supported by European Union Funds (FEDER/COMPETE - Operational Competitiveness Programme) and by national funds (FCT - Portuguese Foundation for Science and Technology) under the project FCOMP-01-0124-FEDER-022692, the project FLAIR (PTDC/AAC-AMB/104702/2008) and the EU 7th Framework Program through FUME (contract number 243888).

  19. Municipal solid waste disposal in Portugal

    SciTech Connect

    Magrinho, Alexandre; Didelet, Filipe; Semiao, Viriato . E-mail: ViriatoSemiao@ist.utl.pt

    2006-07-01

    In recent years municipal solid waste (MSW) disposal has been one of the most important environmental problems for all of the Portuguese regions. The basic principles of MSW management in Portugal are: (1) prevention or reduction, (2) reuse, (3) recovery (e.g., recycling, incineration with heat recovery), and (4) polluter-pay principle. A brief history of legislative trends in waste management is provided herein as background for current waste management and recycling activities. The paper also presents and discusses the municipal solid waste management in Portugal and is based primarily on a national inquiry carried out in 2003 and directed to the MSW management entities. Additionally, the MSW responsibility and management structure in Portugal is presented, together with the present situation of production, collection, recycling, treatment and elimination of MSW. Results showed that 96% of MSW was collected mixed (4% was separately collected) and that 68% was disposed of in landfill, 21% was incinerated at waste-to-energy plants, 8% was treated at organic waste recovery plants and 3% was delivered to sorting. The average generation rate of MSW was 1.32 kg/capita/day.

  20. The Mesolithic-Neolithic transition in southern Iberia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cortés Sánchez, Miguel; Jiménez Espejo, Francisco J.; Simón Vallejo, María D.; Gibaja Bao, Juan F.; Carvalho, António Faustino; Martinez-Ruiz, Francisca; Gamiz, Marta Rodrigo; Flores, José-Abel; Paytan, Adina; López Sáez, José A.; Peña-Chocarro, Leonor; Carrión, José S.; Morales Muñiz, Arturo; Roselló Izquierdo, Eufrasia; Riquelme Cantal, José A.; Dean, Rebecca M.; Salgueiro, Emília; Martínez Sánchez, Rafael M.; De la Rubia de Gracia, Juan J.; Lozano Francisco, María C.; Vera Peláez, José L.; Rodríguez, Laura Llorente; Bicho, Nuno F.

    2012-03-01

    New data and a review of historiographic information from Neolithic sites of the Malaga and Algarve coasts (southern Iberian Peninsula) and from the Maghreb (North Africa) reveal the existence of a Neolithic settlement at least from 7.5 cal ka BP. The agricultural and pastoralist food producing economy of that population rapidly replaced the coastal economies of the Mesolithic populations. The timing of this population and economic turnover coincided with major changes in the continental and marine ecosystems, including upwelling intensity, sea-level changes and increased aridity in the Sahara and along the Iberian coast. These changes likely impacted the subsistence strategies of the Mesolithic populations along the Iberian seascapes and resulted in abandonments manifested as sedimentary hiatuses in some areas during the Mesolithic-Neolithic transition. The rapid expansion and area of dispersal of the early Neolithic traits suggest the use of marine technology. Different evidences for a Maghrebian origin for the first colonists have been summarized. The recognition of an early North-African Neolithic influence in Southern Iberia and the Maghreb is vital for understanding the appearance and development of the Neolithic in Western Europe. Our review suggests links between climate change, resource allocation, and population turnover.

  1. Population structure of methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA) in Portugal over a 19-year period (1992-2011).

    PubMed

    Tavares, A; Faria, N A; de Lencastre, H; Miragaia, M

    2014-03-01

    Despite their clinical relevance, few studies have addressed the epidemiology of methicillin-susceptible S. aureus (MSSA). In particular, it is not clear how MSSA population structure has evolved over time and how it might have been shaped by the emergence of MRSA in the community (CA-MRSA). In the present study we have evaluated the MSSA population structure over time, its geographical distribution and relatedness with MRSA in Portugal. A total of 465 MSSA from infection and colonization, collected over a 19-year period (1992-2011) in the northern, central and southern regions of Portugal were analyzed. Isolates were characterized by spa typing and multilocus-sequence typing (MLST). Isolates with predominant spa types were characterized by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). Isolates relatedness was analyzed by eBURST and BURP. The 172 spa types found among the 465 MSSA were grouped into 18 spa-CC (clonal complexes). Ten clonal types were more prevalent (40 %): one major clone (ST30-t012) was present in the entire study period and all over the country and the other nine were intermittently detected over time (ST5-t002, ST8-t008, ST15-t084, ST34-t166, ST72-t148, ST1-t127, ST7-t091, ST398-t571 and ST34-t136). Interestingly, three MSSA clonal types observed only after 1996 were closely related with CA-MRSA epidemic strains (ST8-t008, ST72-t148 and ST1-t127) found currently in Portugal. The MSSA population in Portugal is genetically diverse; however, some dominant clonal types have been established and widely disseminated for almost two decades. We identified MSSA isolates that were related with emergent CA-MRSA clones found in Portugal. PMID:24057140

  2. Biological effects and physics of solar and galactic cosmic radiation, Part B; Proceedings of a NATO Advanced Study Institute on Biological Effects and Physics of Solar and Galactic Cosmic Radiation, Algarve, Portugal, Oct. 13-23, 1991

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Swenberg, Charles E. (Editor); Horneck, Gerda (Editor); Stassinopoulos, E. G. (Editor)

    1993-01-01

    Since there is an increasing interest in establishing lunar bases and exploring Mars by manned missions, it is important to develop appropriate risk estimates and radiation protection guidelines. The biological effects and physics of solar and galactic cosmic radiation are examined with respect to the following: the radiation environment of interplanetary space, the biological responses to radiation in space, and the risk estimates for deep space missions. There is a need for a long-term program where ground-based studies can be augmented by flight experiments and an international standardization with respect to data collection, protocol comparison, and formulation of guidelines for future missions.

  3. Biological effects and physics of solar and galactic cosmic radiation, Part B; Proceedings of a NATO Advanced Study Institute on Biological Effects and Physics of Solar and Galactic Cosmic Radiation, Algarve, Portugal, Oct. 13-23, 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Swenberg, C.E.; Horneck, G.; Stassinopoulos, E.G.

    1993-12-31

    Since there is an increasing interest in establishing lunar bases and exploring Mars by manned missions, it is important to develop appropriate risk estimates and radiation protection guidelines. The biological effects and physics of solar and galactic cosmic radiation are examined with respect to the following: the radiation environment of interplanetary space, the biological responses to radiation in space, and the risk estimates for deep space missions. There is a need for a long-term program where ground-based studies can be augmented by flight experiments and an international standardization with respect to data collection, protocol comparison, and formulation of guidelines for future missions. For individual titles, see A95-81432 through A95-81454.

  4. DIMED 86: Discurso dos Media e Ensino a Distancia = Discours des Media et Enseignement a Distance = Media Speech and Distance Teaching. Papers Presented at a Seminar (21st, Algarve, Portugal, March 10-15, 1986).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coelho, Maria Eduarda Leal

    Presentations at this seminar on distance education focused on the different types of speech in multimedia presentations which contribute to the elaboration (simulated or substituted) of a situation involving different relationships. In addition to opening and closing remarks by Marcel de Greve and a final report by the Scientific Committee of…

  5. Immigration and Supplementary Ethnic Schooling: Ukrainian Students in Portugal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tereshchenko, Antonina; Grau Cárdenas, Valeska Valentina

    2013-01-01

    Immigration from Eastern European countries to Portugal is a recent phenomenon. Within the last decade, economic migrants from Ukraine, Russia, Romania and Moldova set up a number of supplementary schools across the country. No academic attention has been given to the phenomenon of supplementary ethnic schools in Portugal, whilst there is a…

  6. OECD Review of the Secondary School Modernisation Programme in Portugal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blyth, Alastair

    2010-01-01

    On 26 February in Lisbon a team from the OECD's Centre for Effective Learning Environments (CELE) presented its first review of a national school building programme. The school building renovation programme in Portugal, which began in March 2007, involves the renovation of 332 schools by 2015. However, Portugal plans to complete 205 by the end of…

  7. Pre-School Education in Portugal = Educacao Pre-Escolar em Portugal. Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ministry of Education, Lisbon (Portugal).

    This report, containing both English and Portuguese text, describes the historical background and current state of preschool education systems in Portugal, and presents recommendations on guideline consolidation in the implementation of a common preschool education policy. Part 1 of the report, "Historical Background," discusses the social,…

  8. Portugal takes step back on abortion legalization.

    PubMed

    1998-07-01

    According to international press reports, a law that would have allowed Portuguese women abortions through the 10th week of pregnancy and into the 16th week if their physical or mental health was at risk has been rescinded after a referendum to determine the statute's future was voided because of low voter turnout. Passed in February, the law was a liberalization of Portugal's strict anti-abortion laws, which ban all abortions except for narrowly defined medical reasons or in the case of rape (and those are permitted only until the 12th week of pregnancy). Because the issue is such a controversial one, politicians had turned to a national referendum asking Portuguese voters to overturn or ratify the new law. The referendum was the first in the country since the end of its right-wing dictatorship in 1974, and 50% participation was required. Only 31.5% of the country's 8.5 million eligible voters went to the polls on June 28. Of those voting, 50.9% voted against the liberalized new legislation. Sunny weather and World Cup soccer matches were both pointed to as reasons for the low turnout. Officials estimate there are some 20,000 illegal abortions annually in Portugal. Abortion-rights activists in the mostly Roman-Catholic country say hospitals see roughly 10,000 women a year suffering from complications from illegal abortions, and that at least 800 women die each year from the procedure. In the next day's Diario de Noticias, a daily paper in Portugal, the entire front page was filled with a giant question mark. "What now, lawmakers?" the headline read. PMID:12293809

  9. Assessment of essential and nonessential metals and different metal exposure biomarkers in the human placenta in a population from the south of Portugal.

    PubMed

    Serafim, A; Company, R; Lopes, B; Rosa, J; Cavaco, A; Castela, G; Castela, E; Olea, N; Bebianno, M J

    2012-01-01

    The general population is exposed to metals as trace amounts of metallic compounds are present in air, water, and food. Information on background exposures and biomarker concentrations of environmental chemicals in the general Portuguese population is limited. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to determine the levels of important nonessential metals with recognized toxicity cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb) and essential metals copper (Cu), nickel (Ni), chromium (Cr), and zinc (Zn) in placentas of mothers living in south Portugal (Algarve). Due to the difficulty in establishing the effects of chemicals in a complex and variable environment, this study also aimed to examine the response of biomarkers, such as biochemical changes that occurs at subcellular levels in the presence of contaminants. The investigated biomarkers in placentas indicative of metal exposure or damage included the metallothioneins (MT), delta-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (ALAD) (specific for Pb), and lipid peroxidation (LPO) as an index of oxidative stress damage. Moreover, HJ-BIPLOT was applied in order to identify and categorize mothers vulnerable to environmental contamination in this region. Metal concentrations in the placenta were not excessive but within the range found in most European studies. In general, the biomarkers MT and LPO were positively correlated with metal levels, while with ALAD the opposite occurred, indicating the selected battery of biomarkers were suitable to study the effects of metals on human placenta. Further, the application of multivariate analysis with HJ-BIPLOT showed that most significant factors contributing to maternal and fetal exposures via placenta were dietary and smoking habits. PMID:22788373

  10. Southern Africa

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-16

    article title:  Southern Africa     View larger JPEG image ... These Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR) images of Africa were acquired on August 25, 2000, during Terra orbit 3655. The left ... of smoke plumes and haze. The southern tip of South Africa is at the bottom of the image, and Zambia is at the top. Distinctive ...

  11. Interpersonal violence among immigrants in Portugal.

    PubMed

    Dias, Sónia; Fraga, Sílvia; Barros, Henrique

    2013-02-01

    To assess prevalence of interpersonal violence among a mixed gender sample of immigrants in Portugal, describing the type of violence and associated factors. A cross-sectional study was conducted between October 2008 and May 2009, evaluating a sample of 702 immigrants residing in the Lisbon region. Information was obtained by trained interviewers using a structured questionnaire. Overall, 15.1 % (15.5 % females and 14.7 % males; p = 0.844) of the immigrants reported to be victims of at least one episode of violence during the last year, regardless of which type of violence was involved. The prevalence of intimate-partner violence was 4.1 %, and it was significantly higher among women than men (7.1 % vs. 0.9 %, respectively, p < 0.001). Women who reported being victims of violence during the previous year stated that the episodes occurred more often at home (54.4 %) with the partner as the perpetrator (43.9 %). On the other hand, male victims stated that the violent episodes occurred mostly in public spaces (40.8 %); men indicated that the perpetrator was frequently a stranger (28.6 %) or a co-worker (18.4 %). Violence is a frequent problem among both female and male immigrants living in Portugal, with different gender patterns regarding the perpetrators and settings of abuse. PMID:22618354

  12. Southern Rains

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2014-05-15

    ...   View Larger image Vigorous vegetation growth in the Southern United States after heavy rains fell during April and ... for atmospheric scattering and absorption effects, and use plant canopy structural models to determine the partitioning of solar ...

  13. Simulation of morphodinamic processes in small coastal systems: application to the Aljezur coastal stream (Portugal)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guerreiro, Martha; Fortunato, André B.; Oliveira, Anabela; Bertin, Xavier; Bruneau, Nicolas; Rodrigues, Marta

    2010-05-01

    In small and shallow coastal streams, morphological changes may have a dramatic effect on tidal propagation and distortion, on hydrodynamics and, ultimately, on the transport and fate of water-borne material. Hence, the ability to simulate the morphodynamic evolution of these dynamic and complex systems can be required for water quality studies. This work aimed at implementing, validating and exploring the morphodynamic modelling system MORSYS2D (Fortunato and Oliveira, 2004, Bertin et al., 2009) in the Aljezur stream, a small and dynamic coastal system located in south-west Portugal. Four extensive field campaigns were carried out in 2008 and 2009 to measure bathymetry, water levels, waves and currents, in both the estuary and the adjoining beach. Between the two 2009 campaigns, bathymetry was measured on a monthly basis. Data revealed significant morphological changes, including channel migration and the formation of sandbars. The morphodynamic modelling system MORSYS2D consists of a wave model (SWAN - Booij et al., 1999), a circulation model (ELCIRC - Zhang et al., 2004) and a sediment transport and bottom update model (SAND2D, Fortunato and Oliveira, 2004), and is controlled by a script that runs the models, manages the transfer of information between them and performs control checks. The model was shown to reproduce successfully the waves, the water levels and the velocities. Preliminary morphodynamic simulations revealed that the model is highly sensitive to small changes in the initial conditions, the parameterization of friction and the sediment transport formulation. This presentation will describe the calibration and validation of the morphodynamic modelling system and will investigate on the circumstances that can lead to the inlet closure (including wave action and river flow). Acknowledgements This work was sponsored by the Portuguese Science and Technology Foundation (FCT), project MADyCOS (PTDC/ECM/66484/2006). The authors thank the developers of the

  14. Occupational exposure in Portugal in 1999.

    PubMed

    Alves, J G; Martins, M B; Amaral, E M

    2001-01-01

    This study reports the occupational radiation doses for external exposure received in 1999 by the radiation workers monitored by the Radiological Protection and Nuclear Safety Department (DPRSN) in Portugal. Occupational exposures arise from conventional industry, research laboratories, the health or medical sector, and mining. There are no nuclear power plants in the country. There are two dosimetry systems running simultaneously at DPRSN, one based on film dosimetry and the other on thermoluminescence dosimetry (TLD). In 1999, 8400 persons were monitored, 3100 with film and 5300 with TLD and the data presented in this report were obtained by using both technologies. The annual mean effective doses received from external radiation in the different fields of activity and the distribution of the annual effective dose by dose intervals are presented. The collective annual dose by field of activity is estimated and the contribution to the total annual collective dose is determined. PMID:11586752

  15. The determinants of lottery sales in Portugal.

    PubMed

    Kaizeler, Maria João; Faustino, Horácio C; Marques, Rafael

    2014-09-01

    In sum, this paper examines the core determinants of lottery sales in Portugal. With panel data analysis covering 18 Portuguese districts and 5 years, this study explains the variations in a district's per-capita lottery sales in terms of key theoretical hypotheses such as per capita district income, age, education index, gender and religion. This paper concludes that the richer Portuguese districts spend more than the poorer districts and there is an inverted-U relationship between lottery sales and per capita income. The paper also concludes that married Catholic citizens spend more on lottery products than others and that the level of education returns a negative effect on lottery spending. PMID:23760689

  16. Hydro-geomorphologic disasters in Portugal: mortality trends in the past 150 years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pereira, Susana; Zêzere, José L.; Quaresma, Ivânia; Santos, Pedro P.; Santos, Mónica

    2015-04-01

    important cluster in the Lisbon Region and in the Tagus valley, Oporto and Coimbra cities, where simultaneously, natural conditions are favorable to floods and a high number of people are exposed to flood hazard (e.g. residential buildings and economic activities installed in floodplains). The occurrence of landslide fatalities is mostly constrained in the north of the Tagus valley, where geologic and geomorphologic conditions are more landslide-prone than in the southern part of the country. Flash floods caused the majority of fatalities associated with floods, while falls and flows were responsible for the highest frequency of fatalities associated with landslides. The temporal evolution of flood fatalities reflects the implementation of territorial management policies and the improving of early warning systems for floods and the evacuation of people living in floodplain areas prior major flood events, in Portugal in the latest four decades. In the case of landslides, despite the improving in the quality of buildings construction, fatalities generated by landslides are still frequent because buildings are often located in hazardous slopes. In addition, so far no early warning system for landslide was implemented in Portugal. This research was supported by the Portuguese Foundation for Science and Technology (FCT). The first author is a Post-Doc fellow funded by FCT (SFRH/BPD/69002/2010).

  17. Molecular and histopathological detection of Hepatozoon canis in red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) from Portugal

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Hepatozoon canis is a protozoan tick-borne pathogen of dogs and wild canids. Hepatozoon spp. have been reported to infect foxes in different continents and recent studies have mostly used the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for the detection and characterization of the infecting species. Surveying red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) may contribute to better understanding the epidemiology of canine vector-borne diseases, including hepatozoonosis caused by H. canis in domestic dogs. The present study investigated the prevalence of Hepatozoon spp. by means of histopathology and molecular analysis of different tissues in red foxes from different parts of Portugal. Methods Blood and tissues including bone marrow, heart, hind leg muscle, jejunum, kidney, liver, lung, popliteal or axillary lymph nodes, spleen and/or tongue were collected from 91 red foxes from eight districts in northern, central and southern Portugal. Tissues were formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded, cut and stained with hematoxylin and eosin. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplified a ~650 bp fragment of the 18S rRNA gene of Hepatozoon spp. and the DNA products were sequenced. Results Hepatozoon canis was detected in 68 out of 90 foxes (75.6%) from all the sampled areas by PCR and sequencing. Histopathology revealed H. canis meronts similar in shape to those found in dogs in the bone marrow of 11 (23.4%) and in the spleen of two (4.3%) out of 47 foxes (p = 0.007). All the 11 foxes found positive by histopathology were also positive by PCR of bone marrow and/or blood. Positivity by PCR (83.0%) was significantly higher (p < 0.001) than by histopathological examination (23.4%) in paired bone marrow samples from the same 47 foxes. Sequences of the 18S rRNA gene of H. canis were 98–99% identical to those in GenBank. Conclusions Hepatozoon canis was found to be highly prevalent in red fox populations from northern, central and southern Portugal. Detection of the parasite by histopathology was

  18. Spatial and Temporal Distribution of Culicoides Species in Mainland Portugal (2005–2010). Results of the Portuguese Entomological Surveillance Programme

    PubMed Central

    Ramilo, David W.; Amador, Rita; Madeira, Sara; Baptista, Filipa M.; Harrup, Lara E.; Lucientes, Javier; Boinas, Fernando

    2015-01-01

    Bluetongue virus (BTV) is transmitted by Culicoides biting midges and causes an infectious, non-contagious disease of ruminants. It has been rapidly emerging in southern Europe since 1998. In mainland Portugal, strains of BTV belonging to three serotypes have been detected: BTV-10 (1956-1960), BTV-4 (2004-2006 and 2013) and BTV-1 (2007-2012). This paper describes the design, implementation and results of the Entomological Surveillance Programme covering mainland Portugal, between 2005 and 2010, including 5,650 caches. Culicoides imicola Kieffer was mostly found in central and southern regions of Portugal, although it was sporadically detected in northern latitudes. Its peak activity occurred in the autumn and it was active during the winter months in limited areas of the country. Obsoletus group was present at the highest densities in the north although they were found throughout the country in substantial numbers. Culicoides activity occurred all year round but peaked in the spring. A generalized linear mixed model was developed for the analysis of the environmental factors associated with activity of the species of Culicoides suspected vectors of BTV in the country. For C. imicola Kieffer, the most important variables were month, diurnal temperature range (DTR), the number of frost days (FRS) and median monthly temperature (TMP). For the Obsoletus group, the most important factors were month, diurnal temperature range (DTR), and linear and quadratic terms for median monthly temperature (TMP). The results reported can improve our understanding of climatic factors in Culicoides activity influencing their distribution and seasonal pattern. PMID:25906151

  19. Real-Time Seismology in Portugal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Custodio, S.; Marreiros, C.; Carvalho, S.; Vales, D.; Lima, V.; Carrilho, F.

    2012-12-01

    Portugal is located next to the plate boundary between Eurasia (Iberia) and Africa (Nubia). The country has been repeatedly affected by some of the largest earthquakes, both onshore and offshore, in the historical European record, including the largest historical European earthquake, the great Lisbon earthquake of 1755 (~M8.5). The Portuguese territory has suffered directly the consequences of strong ground shaking (collapse of buildings, etc) and also some of the most destructive consequences of earthquakes (e.g. tsunamis, fires, etc). However, the rate of tectonic deformation in the Portuguese territory is low (the Eurasian-African plates converge at a rate of ~ 5 mm/yr), which results in long recurrence intervals between earthquakes. This low to moderate rate of seismic activity has two major negative effects: 1) it is difficult to study the regional seismo-tectonics with traditional passive methods; 2) the population is little aware of earthquake risk and unprepared to react in case of disaster. In this scenario, real-time seismology is key to monitoring earthquake crisis in real-time, providing early warnings about potentially destructive events, and assisting in the channeling of recovery efforts in case of disaster. In this paper we will present the real-time algorithms implemented at Instituto de Meteorologia (IM), the institution responsible for seismic monitoring in Portugal. In particular, we will focus on the following aspects: 1) Data collection and real-time transmission to the headquarters. Broadband seismological stations are owned and operated by five different institutions. The last years have witnessed an effort for integration, and presently most data arrives at IM lab in real-time. 2) Earthquake location and local magnitude determination. Data is automatically analyzed in order to obtain a first earthquake hypocenter and ML. While this process is mostly automatic, it still requires the revision by an operator, who is available 24h. 3

  20. [Approach and Registry of Anaphylaxis in Portugal].

    PubMed

    Mota, Inês; Pereira, Ana Margarida; Pereira, Celso; Tomaz, Elza; Ferreira, Manuel Branco; Sabino, Filipa; Coelho, Anabela; Santos, Anabela; Martins, Henrique; Morais-Almeida, Mário

    2015-01-01

    Anaphylaxis has a growing incidence, especially in children. It represents a medical emergency and its successful therapy depends on early and proper intervention. Intramuscular epinephrine, with dose adjustment according to weight and age, is the drug of choice for anaphylaxis treatment. After resolution of the acute reaction, the patient should be kept under clinical surveillance for 6 to 24 hours, due to possible biphasic reactions. Prescription of an epinephrine auto injectable device should be considered in all patients with diagnosed or suspected anaphylaxis; additionally these patients should always be referred to an Immunoallergy consultation, to perform adequate investigation and management in order to reduce future risk. All anaphylaxis episodes must be recorded in The Portuguese Catalogue of Allergies and other Adverse Reactions (Catálogo Português de Alergias e outras Reações Adversas, CPARA), which represents a fundamental tool to share clinical information within the Health System. The present manuscript intends to disclose the most recent Portuguese guidelines for the diagnosis and treatment of anaphylaxis, making its clinical approach more effective and homogeneous, and to promote the use of The Portuguese Catalogue of Allergies and other Adverse Reactions as an essential tool to register and share information on anaphylaxis in Portugal. PMID:26849768

  1. Spatial and temporal variability of droughts in Portugal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santos, JoãO. Filipe; Pulido-Calvo, Inmaculada; Portela, Maria Manuela

    2010-03-01

    An analysis of droughts in mainland Portugal based on monthly precipitation data, from September 1910 to October 2004, in 144 rain gages distributed uniformly over the country is presented. The drought events were characterized by means of the Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI) applied to different time scales (1, 6, and 12 consecutive months and 6 months from April to September and 12 months from October to September). To assess spatial and temporal patterns of droughts, a principal component analysis (PCA) and K-means clustering (KMC) were applied to the SPI series. In this way, three different and spatially well-defined regions with different temporal evolution of droughts were identified (north, central, and south regions of Portugal). A spectral analysis of the SPI patterns obtained with principal component analysis and clusters analysis, using the fast Fourier transform algorithm (FFT), showed that there is a manifest 3.6-year cycle in the SPI pattern in the south of Portugal and evident 2.4-year and 13.4-year cycles in the north of Portugal. The observation of the drought periods supports the occurrence of more frequent cycles of dry events in the south (droughts from moderate to extreme approximately every 3.6 years) than in the north (droughts from severe to extreme approximately every 13.4 years). These results suggest a much stronger immediate influence of the NAO in the south than in the north of Portugal, although these relations remain a challenging task.

  2. Seismicity in West Iberia: small scale seismicity recording from a Dense Seismic Broadband Deployment in Portugal (WILAS Project)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Afonso Dias, Nuno; Custódio, Susana; Silveira, Graça; Carrilho, Fernando; Haberland, Christian; Lima, Vânia; Rio, Inês; Góngora, Eva; Marreiros, Célia; Morais, Iolanda; Vales, Dina; Fonseca, João; Caldeira, Bento; Villaseñor, Antonio

    2013-04-01

    Over the last years several projects targeted the lithospheric structure and its correlation with the surface topography, e.g. EarthSCOPE/USArray or TOPO-EUROPE. Two projects focused on the Iberian Peninsula, one giving particular attention to the southern collision margin (TOPO-MED) and the other to the central cratonic Massif (TOPO-IBERIA/IBERArray). These projects mostly rely on deployed dense seismic broadband (BB) networks with an average inter-station spacing of 60km, which strongly increases the available network spatial coverage. The seismicity recording in such networks is critical to access current rates of lithospheric deformation. Within the scope of project WILAS - West Iberia Lithosphere and Astenosphere Structure (PTDC/CTE-GIX/097946/2008), a 3-year project funded by the Portuguese Science & Technology Foundation (FCT), we deployed a temporary network of 30 BB stations in Portugal between 2010 and 2012, doubling the total number of operating BB stations. Together with the permanent and TOPO-IBERIA stations, the resulting networks provided a full and dense coverage of the Iberian Peninsula. The majority of the permanent stations in Portugal, aimed at the seismic surveillance, are located in the southern part of the country in result of the active tectonic convergence between Iberia and Africa. Therefore, the temporary stations were mainly deployed in the north of Portugal. These temporary stations allowed an improvement of the earthquake detection threshold. The detection of seismic events was based on the analysis of daily spectrograms of the entire network, the new events detected being analysed and included in the catalogue. The new detected events are located mainly in the north, with magnitudes as low as 0.5 ML and in the offshore in the Estremadura Spur. Some additional events were also located south of Portugal, between the Gorringe Bank and the Gulf of Cadiz, in this case the lower magnitudes being ~2.0ML. Focal mechanisms will also be

  3. A structural intermediate between triisodontids and mesonychians (Mammalia, Acreodi) from the earliest Eocene of Portugal.

    PubMed

    Tabuce, Rodolphe; Clavel, Julien; Antunes, Miguel Telles

    2011-02-01

    A new mammal, Mondegodon eutrigonus gen. et sp. nov., is described from the earliest Eocene locality of Silveirinha, Portugal. This species shows dental adaptations indicative of a carnivorous diet. M. eutrigonus is referred to the order Acreodi and considered, along with the early Paleocene North American species Oxyclaenus cuspidatus, as a morphological intermediate between two groups of ungulate-like mammals, namely, the triisodontids and mesonychians. Considering that triisodontids are early to early-late Paleocene North American taxa, Mondegodon probably belongs to a group that migrated from North America towards Europe during the first part of the Paleocene. Mondegodon could represent thus a relict genus, belonging to the ante-Eocene European mammalian fauna. The occurrence of such a taxon in Southern Europe may reflect a period of isolation of this continental area during the Paleocene/Eocene transition. In this context, the non-occurrence of closely allied forms of Mondegodon in the Eocene North European mammalian faunas is significant. This strengthens the hypothesis that the mammalian fauna from Southern Europe is characterized by a certain degree of endemism during the earliest Eocene. Mondegodon also presents some striking similarities with an unnamed genus from the early Eocene of India which could represent the first Asian known transitional form between the triisodontids and mesonychians. PMID:21181109

  4. A structural intermediate between triisodontids and mesonychians (Mammalia, Acreodi) from the earliest Eocene of Portugal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tabuce, Rodolphe; Clavel, Julien; Antunes, Miguel Telles

    2011-02-01

    A new mammal, Mondegodon eutrigonus gen. et sp. nov., is described from the earliest Eocene locality of Silveirinha, Portugal. This species shows dental adaptations indicative of a carnivorous diet. M. eutrigonus is referred to the order Acreodi and considered, along with the early Paleocene North American species Oxyclaenus cuspidatus, as a morphological intermediate between two groups of ungulate-like mammals, namely, the triisodontids and mesonychians. Considering that triisodontids are early to early-late Paleocene North American taxa, Mondegodon probably belongs to a group that migrated from North America towards Europe during the first part of the Paleocene. Mondegodon could represent thus a relict genus, belonging to the ante-Eocene European mammalian fauna. The occurrence of such a taxon in Southern Europe may reflect a period of isolation of this continental area during the Paleocene/Eocene transition. In this context, the non-occurrence of closely allied forms of Mondegodon in the Eocene North European mammalian faunas is significant. This strengthens the hypothesis that the mammalian fauna from Southern Europe is characterized by a certain degree of endemism during the earliest Eocene. Mondegodon also presents some striking similarities with an unnamed genus from the early Eocene of India which could represent the first Asian known transitional form between the triisodontids and mesonychians.

  5. WILAS Project: First Results from a Dense Broadband Deployment in Portugal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dias, N. A.; Custodio, S.; Madureira, G.; Carrilho, F.; Haberland, C. A.; Brazio, A.; Corela, C.; Alves, P.; Gongora, E.; Marreiros, C.; Narciso, J.; Caldeira, B.; Lima, V.; Villasenor, A.

    2012-12-01

    Over the last years several projects targeted the lithospheric structure and its correlation with the surface topography, e.g. EarthSCOPE/USArray or TOPO-EUROPE. Two projects focused on the Iberian Peninsula, one giving particular attention to the southern collision margin (TOPO-MED) and the other to the central cratonic Massif (TOPO-IBERIA/IBERArray). Some of these projects, like TOPO-IBERIA or EarthScope, deployed dense seismic broadband (BB) networks with an average inter-station spacing of 50-km. Within the scope of project WILAS - West Iberia Lithosphere and Astenosphere Structure, a 3-year project funded by the Portuguese Science & Technology Foundation (FCT), we deployed a temporary network of 30 BB stations in Portugal between 2010 and 2012. The WILAS temporary stations, along with the permanent and TOPO-IBERIA stations, provided a full and dense coverage of the Iberian Peninsula. In this presentation we will show the first results obtained from the data recorded during the 1st year of operation of the WILAS stations. We will present a first evaluation of the background noise level, based on the probability density functions (PDF) of the power spectral densities (PSD). Our analysis shows a clear difference between the noise level of permanent and temporary stations. Daily and seasonal variations of the noise level are also visible on specific frequency bands. Most permanent stations in Portugal are located in the south of the country, in result of the active tectonic convergence between Iberia and Africa. Therefore, the majority of temporary stations were deployed in the north of Portugal. These temporary stations allowed an improvement of the earthquake detection threshold, with lower magnitudes events detected and included in the catalog. The detection of seismic events was based on the analysis of daily spectrograms of the entire network. Focal mechanisms will also be presented for chosen events, obtained both from first motion polarity methods (for

  6. Following the trail: factors underlying the sudden expansion of the Egyptian mongoose (Herpestes ichneumon) in Portugal.

    PubMed

    Barros, Tânia; Carvalho, João; Pereira, Maria João Ramos; Ferreira, Joaquim P; Fonseca, Carlos

    2015-01-01

    Species range-limits are influenced by a combination of several factors. In our study we aimed to unveil the drivers underlying the expansion of the Egyptian mongoose in Portugal, a carnivore that was confined to southern Portugal and largely increased its range during the last three decades. We evaluated the expansion of the species in three periods (1980-1990, 1990-2000 and 2000-2010), by projecting the presence/absence data of the species in each temporal range and proposed four hypotheses to explain this sudden expansion associated to changes in the barrier effects of human infrastructure and topographic features, and in the availability of suitable areas due to climate change or land use. An exploratory analysis was made using Spearman rank correlation, followed by a hierarchical partitioning analysis to select uncorrelated potential explanatory variables associated with the different hypotheses. We then ran Generalized Linear Models (GLM) for every period for each hypothesis and for every combination of hypotheses. Our main findings suggest that dynamic transitions of land-use coupled with temperature and rainfall variations over the decades are the main drivers promoting the mongoose expansion. The geographic barriers and the human infrastructures functioned as barriers for mongoose expansion and have shaped its distribution. The expansion of the Egyptian mongoose across the Portuguese territory was due to a variety of factors. Our results suggest a rapid shift in species range in response to land-use and climate changes, underlining the close link between species ranges and a changing environment. PMID:26266939

  7. Trends and variability in total and extreme precipitation over mainland Portugal, 1941-2012

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Lima, Isabel P.; Espírito Santo, Fátima; Silva, Álvaro; Cunha, Sofia

    2014-05-01

    Changes in the climate are expected to affect the occurrence of extreme weather and climate events that might influence significantly the distribution, availability and sustainability of regional water resources. The location of mainland Portugal on the Northeast Atlantic Ocean region, in South-western Europe, together with other geographical features, makes this territory highly vulnerable to extreme hydrological events, such as floods and droughts, driven by the strong variability in precipitation. To study changes in the total and extreme precipitation in this area, at the annual and seasonal scales, 27 daily precipitation time series for the period 1941-2012 were analysed. We applied 8 selected precipitation-related indices of "moderate" extremes that include duration, threshold, absolute and percentile indices. In general, the results found in this study are in agreement with other studies that inspected changes in precipitation in western Iberia. Since the 1980s, it is notable the occurrence of long drought spells, as well as the more intense precipitation events on record; these events distressed more the centre and southern regions of mainland Portugal, which are the most vulnerable and the more affected by these types of events. Moreover, results show regional differences in the indices' trends and also point out to a greater asymmetry in the temporal distribution of precipitation and variations in the intensity, persistence and frequency of extreme events at various scales, which may influence the risk associated with floods and droughts. Overall, while contributing to the increased understanding of local and regional specificities in the study area, and in the context of the Iberian Peninsula, results can also be useful for disaster risk management and definition of adaptation and mitigation measures to climate change.

  8. Following The Trail: Factors Underlying the Sudden Expansion of the Egyptian Mongoose (Herpestes ichneumon) in Portugal

    PubMed Central

    Barros, Tânia; Carvalho, João; Pereira, Maria João Ramos; Ferreira, Joaquim P.; Fonseca, Carlos

    2015-01-01

    Species range-limits are influenced by a combination of several factors. In our study we aimed to unveil the drivers underlying the expansion of the Egyptian mongoose in Portugal, a carnivore that was confined to southern Portugal and largely increased its range during the last three decades. We evaluated the expansion of the species in three periods (1980-1990, 1990-2000 and 2000-2010), by projecting the presence/absence data of the species in each temporal range and proposed four hypotheses to explain this sudden expansion associated to changes in the barrier effects of human infrastructure and topographic features, and in the availability of suitable areas due to climate change or land use. An exploratory analysis was made using Spearman rank correlation, followed by a hierarchical partitioning analysis to select uncorrelated potential explanatory variables associated with the different hypotheses. We then ran Generalized Linear Models (GLM) for every period for each hypothesis and for every combination of hypotheses. Our main findings suggest that dynamic transitions of land-use coupled with temperature and rainfall variations over the decades are the main drivers promoting the mongoose expansion. The geographic barriers and the human infrastructures functioned as barriers for mongoose expansion and have shaped its distribution. The expansion of the Egyptian mongoose across the Portuguese territory was due to a variety of factors. Our results suggest a rapid shift in species range in response to land-use and climate changes, underlining the close link between species ranges and a changing environment. PMID:26266939

  9. Magnetic fingerprint of southern Portuguese speleothems and implications for paleomagnetism and environmental magnetism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Font, Eric; Veiga-Pires, Cristina; Pozo, Manuel; Carvallo, Claire; Siqueira Neto, António Carlos; Camps, Pierre; Fabre, Sébastien; Mirão, José

    2014-11-01

    Environmental magnetism of speleothems is still in its early stage of development. Here we report on our investigation of the environmental and paleomagnetic information that has been recorded in speleothems, and what are the factors that control its preservation and reliability. To address these issues, we used a multidisciplinary approach, including rock magnetism, petrography, scanning electron microscopy, stable carbon and oxygen isotope compositions, and major and trace element concentrations. We applied this to a set of samples from different stages of speleothem evolution: present-day dripwater (glass plates), a weathered stalactite, a fresh stalagmite, cave sediments, and terra rossa soils. These samples come from the Penico and Excentricas caves, located in two distinct aquifers of the Algarve region, South Portugal. Our results show that the main magnetic carriers of the speleothems under study are primary (detrital) and consist of maghemite (and magnetite?). Similarities in coercivity and temperature dependence of the studied set of samples suggest that iron oxides are inherited from the terra rossa soils that cap the cave and were transported to the speleothems by dripwater. Hence, they represent a regional environmental signature. Interestingly, a stable and probably detrital remanent magnetization could be isolated in the fresh stalagmite, whereas the weathered stalactite yielded chaotic magnetic directions and very low remanent intensities. We propose that these low intensities can be the result from (i) different remanence acquisition mechanisms between stalagmite and stalactite and/or (ii) iron dissolution by fungal activity. We also suggest that magnetic properties and color and the content in detrital elements in the fresh speleothem inform about environmental processes acting on the interface of rock (soil)-atmosphere, while oxygen isotope composition and alkaline-earth element concentrations inform about calcite-water interaction processes

  10. [The new migratory deal in Southern Europe].

    PubMed

    Simon, G

    1986-09-01

    The author examines migration patterns in Southern Europe during the 1970s and early 1980s, noting particularly the reduction in migration northward from this region. It is noted that "departure potential remains sizable in certain areas of Portugal, Spain, Southern Italy, and most particularly, of Turkey and Yugoslavia. Transoceanic migrations have by no means ceased, as new flows of skilled labor have, since 1974, gone towards Arab states endowed with petrol (oil) revenues. And yet, the paramount fact is most surely the emergence and the proliferation in Greece, Spain, and (especially) in Italy, of basically clandestine (illegal) immigration. This movement is due to the convergence of several factors: economic and demographic disparities between northern and southern shores of the Mediterranean Sea, the sealing-off of borders in Northwestern Europe and the 'carry-over' effect upon nations of 'transit', the extent of the flow of refugees, and--most particularly--the appeal provided by the development, in these new employer countries, of an underground economy accompanied by the extension into industry of the practice of 'undeclared' work. And notwithstanding the series of rules lastly drawn up in Spain and in Greece, such forms of clandestine (unauthorized) migration appear highly likely--to say the least--to persist." (SUMMARY IN ENG AND SPA) PMID:12268205

  11. Open Plan Schools in Portugal: Failure or Innovation?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martinho, Miguel; Freire da Silva, Jose M. R.

    2008-01-01

    Open plan schools have been largely contested in Portugal; many teachers, administrators and even parents consider this model of schooling inappropriate and therefore a failure. Recently however the Escola da Ponte, one of the open plan schools that has survived, was recognised as one of the country's most innovative educational facilities.…

  12. Research Management in Portugal: A Quest for Professional Identity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trindade, Margarida; Agostinho, Marta

    2014-01-01

    Research managers at science-intensive institutions appear as a continuously evolving group of professionals whose identity is somewhat fragmented, even to themselves. In Portugal, specialized research manager roles have rapidly emerged over the last years alongside the development of a small but consolidated scientific system. In order to get an…

  13. Quality of Life in Ageing Societies: Italy, Portugal, and Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arun, Ozgur; Cevik, Aylin Cakiroglu

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare and analyze the quality of life of the elderly in three aging countries: Italy, Portugal, and Turkey. This was done by using data provided by the European Quality of Life Survey completed in 2004. By doing so, we could then operationalize the conditions of the elderly in Turkey who have a rapid aging process…

  14. Corporate Blended Learning in Portugal: Current Status and Future Directions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marcal, Julia; Caetano, Antonio

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study is to characterize the current status of blended learning in Portugal, given that b-learning has grown exponentially in the Portuguese market over recent years. 38 organizations (representing 68% of all institutions certified to provide distance training by the Government Labour Office--DGERT-) participated in this study. The…

  15. Christmas, Natal, Navidad in Cuba, Mexico, and Portugal.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fontes, Maria Joao, Ed.; Fontes, Manuel da Costa, Ed.

    This material is a compilation of junior high school student-developed stories and games about the way Christmas is celebrated in Portugal, Mexico, and Cuba. The material was developed in the classroom by Portuguese, Mexican, and Cuban immigrant students and by American students who do not have a recent immigrant background, all of whom were…

  16. Early Intervention in Portugal: Family Support and Benefits

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Correia Leite, Carina Sofia; Da Silva Pereira, Ana Paula

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the support and benefits of early intervention (EI) in families with children with special needs. Data were gathered through a written questionnaire, "Family Benefits Inventory," completed by 126 families with children with special needs supported by EI teams, with ages from six months to six years in Portugal.…

  17. LIS Education in Portugal between Academia and Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ribeiro, Fernanda

    2008-01-01

    There is a brief exposition, in a historical perspective, about the evolution of the professional education in Portugal, in the area of Library and Information Science, since the creation of the Curso de Bibliotecario-Arquivista, in 1887, until its closure in 1982, when it was replaced by the Curso de Especializacao em Ciencias Documentais (CECD).…

  18. Making Sense of TV for Children: The Case of Portugal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pereira, Sara; Pinto, Manuel

    2011-01-01

    Empowering children for a critical and judicious use and consumption of media is a main objective of media literacy. This paper aims to examine the range of television programs available for children in Portugal through a comparative analysis of the programming for children broadcast by the four Portuguese terrestrial channels (RTP1, RTP2, SIC and…

  19. Technological Specialisation Courses in Portugal: Description and Suggested Improvements

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    da Costa, Nilza Maria Vilhena Nunes; Simoes, Ana Raquel; Pereira, Giselia Antunes; Pombo, Lucia

    2009-01-01

    This study is a part of the "Post-secondary Vocational Training in Portugal Project: from a description through to suggestions to improve training quality", which ran from 2003 to 2006. This article, which makes use of data obtained from interviews with Directors of Schools which offer technological specialisation courses (CETs) and from…

  20. School Psychology in Portugal: Practitioners' Characteristics and Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mendes, Sofia A.; Abreu-Lima, Isabel; Almeida, Leandro S.; Simeonsson, Rune J.

    2014-01-01

    Little empirical evidence is available on the professional characteristics and practices of school psychologists in Portugal. This study surveyed a total of 477 Portuguese school psychologists employed in public (80%) and private schools (20%). Portuguese school psychologists are described with regard to demographic, professional, and educational…

  1. Predicting Child Outcomes from Preschool Quality in Portugal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abreu-Lima, Isabel M. P.; Leal, Teresa B.; Cadima, Joana; Gamelas, Ana Madalena

    2013-01-01

    The main purpose of this study is to analyze whether quality of preschool classrooms relates to 4- and 5-year-old children developmental outcomes. The study was conducted in 60 classrooms in Porto Metropolitan Area, Portugal. Children (N = 215) were evaluated in the literacy, math, and behavior domains. Preschool quality was assessed through…

  2. Emerging Models of Teacher Training: The Case of Portugal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alexandre, Fernando; Ferreira, Manuela; Miranda, Branca

    2004-01-01

    The structural reforms of geography teacher training in Portugal have been justified by the global evolution of the educational system and took into account: (1) the political will to extend the period of compulsory schooling, which now covers the whole of lower secondary education, but will soon cover upper secondary education as well; (2) the…

  3. Science Policy and the Internationalisation of Research in Portugal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patricio, Maria Teresa

    2010-01-01

    This article will examine Portuguese and European science and higher education policies and their impact on international collaborations. It will do so by looking at two key indicators: international academic mobility and the coauthored international scientific publications. The data show Portugal as an attractive country for foreign students and…

  4. School Closures and Community Revitalisation: The Case of Obidos, Portugal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Godinho, Ana Sofia

    2012-01-01

    Rural communities in many countries are faced with the need to restructure their school networks and close some smaller facilities. Obidos, a town in western Portugal, provides a case study of how to meet these challenges by creating new school complexes that offer improved educational opportunities to the teaching staff, students and local…

  5. School-Based Sexuality Education in Portugal: Strengths and Weaknesses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rocha, Ana Cristina; Leal, Cláudia; Duarte, Cidália

    2016-01-01

    Portugal, like many other countries, faces obstacles regarding school-based sexuality education. This paper explores Portuguese schools' approaches to implementing sexuality education at a local level, and provides a critical analysis of potential strengths and weaknesses. Documents related to sexuality education in a convenience sample of 89…

  6. Southern blotting.

    PubMed

    Brown, T

    2001-05-01

    Southern blotting is the transfer of DNA fragments from an electrophoresis gel to a membrane support (the properties and advantages of the different types of membrane, transfer buffer, and transfer method are discussed in detail), resulting in immobilization of the DNA fragments, so the membrane carries a semipermanent reproduction of the banding pattern of the gel. After immobilization, the DNA can be subjected to hybridization analysis, enabling bands with sequence similarity to a labeled probe to be identified. This appendix describes Southern blotting via upward capillary transfer of DNA from an agarose gel onto a nylon or nitrocellulose membrane, using a high-salt transfer buffer to promote binding of DNA to the membrane. With the high-salt buffer, the DNA becomes bound to the membrane during transfer but not permanently immobilized. Immobilization is achieved by UV irradiation (for nylon) or baking (for nitrocellulose). A Support Protocol describes how to calibrate a UV transilluminator for optimal UV irradiation of a nylon membrane. An alternate protocol details transfer using nylon membranes and an alkaline buffer, and is primarily used with positively charged nylon membranes. The advantage of this combination is that no post-transfer immobilization step is required, as the positively charged membrane binds DNA irreversibly under alkaline transfer conditions. The method can also be used with neutral nylon membranes but less DNA will be retained. A second alternate protocol describes a transfer method based on a different transfer-stack setup. The traditional method of upward capillary transfer of DNA from gel to membrane described in the first basic and alternate protocols has certain disadvantages, notably the fact that the gel can become crushed by the weighted filter papers and paper towels that are laid on top of it. This slows down the blotting process and may reduce the amount of DNA that can be transferred. The downward capillary method described in

  7. Biological variables and health status affecting inorganic element concentrations in harbour porpoises (Phocoena phocoena) from Portugal (western Iberian Peninsula).

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Marisa; Monteiro, Silvia S; Torres, Jordi; Oliveira, Isabel; Sequeira, Marina; López, Alfredo; Vingada, José; Eira, Catarina

    2016-03-01

    The coastal preferences of harbour porpoise (Phocoena phocoena) intensify their exposure to human activities. The harbour porpoise Iberian population is presently very small and information about the threats it endures is vital for the conservation efforts that are being implemented to avoid local extinction. The present study explored the possible relation between the accumulation of trace elements by porpoises and their sex, body length, nutritional state, presence of parasites and gross pathologies. The concentrations of arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), copper (Cu), mercury (Hg), manganese (Mn), nickel (Ni), lead (Pb), zinc (Zn) and selenium (Se) were evaluated in 42 porpoises stranded in Portugal between 2005 and 2013. Considering European waters, porpoises stranded in Portugal present the highest Hg concentrations and the lowest Cd concentrations, which may reflect dietary preferences and the geographic availability of these pollutants. While no effect of sex on trace element concentrations was detected, there was a positive relationship between porpoise body length and the concentration of Cd, Hg and Pb. Animals in worse nutritional condition showed higher levels of Zn. Harbour porpoises with high parasite burdens showed lower levels of Zn and As in all analysed tissues and also lower levels of renal Ni, while those showing gross pathologies presented higher Zn and Hg levels. This is the first data on the relationship between trace elements and health-related variables in porpoises from southern European Atlantic waters, providing valuable baseline information about the contamination status of this vulnerable population. PMID:26803785

  8. The emerging European immigration regime: some reflections on implications for southern Europe.

    PubMed

    Baldwin-edwards, M

    1997-12-01

    "Immigration is one of the more controversial areas in the history of European integration. Whilst northern European countries have been constructing elaborate compromises in the European Union (EU) Treaties and in the Schengen group, southern European countries have been trying to construct their own immigration policies. Little attention has been paid in the literature to the relationship between these two phenomena: it is suggested here that southern countries have found it expedient to fit in with EU and Schengen arrangements, even though these appear impossible to implement. This contradiction is seen as intrinsic to the overall relations of Portugal, Spain, Italy and Greece to the EU." PMID:12293846

  9. Hydrogeology framework of the Azores archipelago (Portugal)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cruz, J. V.; Coutinho, R. M.

    2011-12-01

    The archipelago of the Azores is made of nine islands located in the North Atlantic Ocean, spread along a 600 km-long NW-SE strip, approximately 1600 km from Portugal mainland. All the islands are of volcanic origin and only in Santa Maria, the eastern most island of the Azores, are there sedimentary units interbedded in the volcanic succession of basic nature. Groundwater resources in the Azores are essential both as drinking water source and for ecosystem support. The Azores climate can be considered as marine temperate, with an average annual precipitation at the Azores equal to 1930 mm, exceeding by far the average annual actual evapotranspiration (581 mm). From October to March about 75% of the annual precipitation is registered, which also influences recharge distribution along the year. Recharge rates range from 8.5% to 62.1%, with the highest values been observed at Pico, Terceira, Faial, São Miguel and Graciosa islands, especially in areas where the terrain is covered by recent basaltic lava flows and the soil cover is thin, and the groundwater resources estimates point to a total volume of about 1600x106 m3/yr. Despite differences in the volcanic successions observed in the several islands, resulting from volcanic eruptions of various types, groundwater occurrence can be generally described in terms of two main aquifers systems: (1) the basal aquifer system, which corresponds to fresh-water lenses floating on underlying salt water, and (2) perched-water bodies, which are usually drained by springs spread in the volcanic edifices slopes. Specific well capacity ranges between 1.40x10-2 L/sm and 266.67 L/sm, with a median of 32.29 L/sm (Cruz 2001a, 2004). The values exhibit marked variability among the wells from the different islands. The highest specific capacity is observed on Pico and Graciosa, with wells drilled in recent basaltic lava flows, which generally are thin and fractured with frequently interbedded clincker levels. Transmissivity values also

  10. Past analogs of recent climate anomalies and impacts in Portugal. Droughts, storms and heat waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alcoforado, M. J.; Nunes, M. F.

    2009-09-01

    An indexed reconstruction of precipitation variability, based on documentary and instrumental data, has been done for southern Portugal starting in 1675. The descriptions of the extreme events in the documentary sources have also supplied information about their impacts. We will compare past and recent extreme weather events in Portugal, their causes and their impacts on society. We have selected periods of winter droughts, of storms that triggered great floods and of heat waves. There are a number of documentary sources dating from 1693-94 indicating that that there was no rainfall from December 1693 to at least November 1694 with the exception of light showers in June. Several pro-pluvia rogations ceremonies took place all over the country, even in the Northwest that is generally rainy. There are numerous descriptions of the impact of droughts on agriculture, of shortage of cereals, of escalating prices and the subsequent generalised famine. An analogy will be made for the 20th century using the 1980-81 winter drought that lasted roughly the same time and which also had severe social and economic impacts. The decrease in production of hydroelectric energy (50% below average) between January and July 1981 is also pointed out. In both cases, the lack of rainfall was partly due to a ridge that stayed over the Eastern Atlantic and kept Iberia in aerologic shelter. Apart from urban flash floods there are two types of floods in Portugal: (i) floods from the big river basins (Tagus, Mondego and Douro) that are due to the frequent passage of westerly frontal depressions during days or weeks; and (ii) floods of the small river basins due to convective depressions that affect small areas. The December 1739 flood, caused by the overflow of the great rivers, will be compared with the ones that occurred in February 1978. Both were caused by intensive precipitation all over the country at a time when the soil was already saturated with water from previous rainfall. The damages

  11. Southern Crater

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Context image for PIA03583 Southern Crater

    This crater is located south of Agassiz Crater. It is likely that the polar freeze/thaw/frost cycle is responsible for unusual appearance of the ejecta region around the crater.

    Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude 76.2S, Longitude 247.8E. 17 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

  12. Yellow and red ochre pigments from southern Portugal: Elemental composition and characterization by WDXRF and XRD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gil, M.; Carvalho, M. L.; Seruya, A.; Candeias, A. E.; Mirão, J.; Queralt, I.

    2007-09-01

    Three different yellow and red ochre pigments geological sources from Alentejo— Terras rossas, schist units and weathered iron ore deposits—were studied by elemental and phase analysis complemented with Munsell and CIELAB colour parameters. Central aims were to underline the mineralogical and chemical distinctiveness of natural pigment sources and establish a connection between local geology and use of specific colour pigments in traditional lime wash mural paintings. According to the chemical composition the Fe abundance is 6 times higher than average crust values. The Terras Rossas are characterized by higher Ca contents. In yellow and red schists, phyllosilicates are major minerals, so pigments from these units are enriched in K and Rb. Besides Fe, the pigments from weathered ores are enriched in metals like Pb, As, Cu, and Zn, which can be used as fingerprints.

  13. Phytoplankton community dynamics in an intermittently open hypereutrophic coastal lagoon in southern Portugal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coelho, Susana; Pérez-Ruzafa, Angel; Gamito, Sofia

    2015-12-01

    Phytoplankton community' dynamics were studied in Salgados coastal lagoon in order to evaluate the effects of excessive organic loads and also physical stress caused by the irregular opening of the lagoon. Salgados is a hypereutrophic intermittently open coastal lagoon, which received freshwater inputs from small rivers and from a wastewater treatment plant. Cyanophyceae dominated the phytoplankton communities most of the time; Bacillariophyceae became the main taxonomic group in winter when the lagoon was closed; Chlorophyceae was the major class in early summer; pico-nano flagellate algae accounted for a high percentage of total phytoplankton during spring. Potentially harmful taxa were observed during most of the sampling periods, forming blooms and accounting for a considerable percentage of total phytoplankton abundance. A strong differentiation among dry and wet seasons could be noticed. The dry season was dominated by Microsystis aeruginosa, Rhodomonas sp., pico-nano flagellate algae, Cyclotella spp. and Planktothrix sp., while the wet season, although still with the presence of Microsystis aeruginosa, was dominated by Dolichospermum spiroides. The best environmental variables explaining stations patterns and based on phytoplankton taxa were days of isolation, pH, and salinity. Temperature, cumulative rain and total phosphorus were also related with species and stations patterns. The high nutrient load in Salgados lagoon promoted the development and persistence of harmful algae blooms. Proper management of coastal lagoons involves not only the control of direct discharges of nutrients, but also of other factors, including water level and communication with the sea.

  14. Portugal and United States cooperative energy assessment. Volume 3. Reference reports, Part 1

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-09-01

    Statistical data on energy production and consumption and supporting information were obtained from US Bureau of Mines records supplemented by additional data obtained in Portugal. Geologic descriptions and analysis of known areas and of areas having possible future potential have been prepared by the US Geological Survey. Portugal lacks sufficient indigenous supplies of organic fuels to meet its energy demands, and so must import large quantities of petroleum and coal. Approximately 80% of Portugal's electric energy is produced by hydroelectric stations; thermal stations produce the other 20%. Portugal has produced no crude oil, natural gas, or condensate; no resources or reserves in these categories are listed for Portugal in the 1976 World Energy Conference report. Until the last year or so (1980), no significant onshore petroleum exploration had been done in Portugal since 1963. Production of coal in Portugal has declined steadily to the present annual yield of about 200,000 metric tons. On the basis of estimates in only three coal fields, resources of coal of all ranks in Portugal total at least 76 million (10/sup 6/) metric tons. Uranium is mined near Viseu and Guarda in the northern part of Portugal; the Nisa mine in east-central Portugal will begin producing uranium ore in 1985 after installation of a processing plant. Portugal produced 95 metric tons of uranium oxide (U/sub 3/O/sub 8/) from ore stocks in each year from 1972 through 1974; production is assumed to have continued at the same rate since then. Geothermal energy has not been developed in mainland Portugal; however, hot springs that may have geothermal energy potential are known in the Minho district in the northwest. Geothermal energy resources exist in the Azores and a program of evaluation and exploration with technical assistance from the USGS is presently in progress there.

  15. Detection of Dirofilaria repens microfilariae in a dog from Portugal.

    PubMed

    Maia, Carla; Lorentz, Susanne; Cardoso, Luís; Otranto, Domenico; Naucke, Torsten J

    2016-01-01

    Dirofilaria repens causes subcutaneous infection in dogs and cats, and is the main agent of human dirofilariosis in Europe. Detection of D. repens is described in a dog from Portugal, a finding that simultaneously represents the first presumable case of autochthonous infection with the parasite in any animal host species in the country. A mixed D. repens/Dirofilaria immitis infection (20:1 ratio) was found, with an overall density of 1267 microfilariae per millilitre of blood. Morphological features, including morphometry, and acid phosphatase histochemical staining confirmed identity of the two filarioids. Distribution of D. repens in Portugal should be further assessed at the population level both in vertebrate hosts and in vectors. Due to the zoonotic potential of the parasite, preventive measures such as the administration of microfilaricides and insect repellents should be put into practice to protect animals and public health. PMID:26486944

  16. Molecular Identification of Borrelia miyamotoi in Ixodes ricinus from Portugal.

    PubMed

    Nunes, Mónica; Parreira, Ricardo; Lopes, Nádia; Maia, Carla; Carreira, Teresa; Sousa, Carmelita; Faria, Sofia; Campino, Lenea; Vieira, M Luísa

    2015-08-01

    Borrelia miyamotoi, a relapsing fever spirochete, has been found recently in Ixodes ricinus ticks; however, little is known about its spatial distribution and potential local impact on human health. A total of 640 ticks (447 nymphs and 193 adults) collected throughout Portugal were analyzed using two nested PCR protocols, one targeting the flagellin gene and the other the internal transcribed space region between the 5S and the 23S rRNA. As a result, B. miyamotoi was detected, for the first time, in one guesting I. ricinus nymph collected in the Lisboa district. In addition, a prevalence of 11% (71/640) for B. burgdorferi sensu lato was obtained. Even though no human relapsing fever cases due to infection by B. miyamotoi have been reported yet in Portugal, surveillance must be improved to provide better insight into the prevalence and distribution of this spirochete in ticks. PMID:26273814

  17. Zika virus infections imported from Brazil to Portugal, 2015.

    PubMed

    Zé-Zé, L; Prata, M B; Teixeira, T; Marques, N; Mondragão, A; Fernandes, R; Saraiva da Cunha, J; Alves, M J

    2016-01-01

    Zika virus is an emerging arbovirus transmitted by Aedes sp. mosquitoes like the Dengue and Chikungunya viruses. Zika virus was until recently considered a mild pathogenic mosquito-borne flavivirus with very few reported benign human infections. In 2007, an epidemic in Micronesia initiated the turnover in the epidemiological history of Zika virus and more recently, the potential association with congenital microcephaly cases in Brazil 2015, still under investigation, led the World Health Organization (WHO) to declare a Public Health Emergency of International Concern on February 1, 2016. Here, we present the clinical and laboratory aspects related to the first four imported human cases of Zika virus in Portugal from Brazil, and alert, regarding the high level of traveling between Portugal and Brazil, and the ongoing expansion of this virus in the Americas, for the threat for Zika virus introduction in Europe and the possible introduction to Madeira Island where Aedes aegypti is present. PMID:27134823

  18. Zika virus infections imported from Brazil to Portugal, 2015

    PubMed Central

    Zé-Zé, L.; Prata, M.B.; Teixeira, T.; Marques, N.; Mondragão, A.; Fernandes, R.; Saraiva da Cunha, J.; Alves, M.J.

    2016-01-01

    Zika virus is an emerging arbovirus transmitted by Aedes sp. mosquitoes like the Dengue and Chikungunya viruses. Zika virus was until recently considered a mild pathogenic mosquito-borne flavivirus with very few reported benign human infections. In 2007, an epidemic in Micronesia initiated the turnover in the epidemiological history of Zika virus and more recently, the potential association with congenital microcephaly cases in Brazil 2015, still under investigation, led the World Health Organization (WHO) to declare a Public Health Emergency of International Concern on February 1, 2016. Here, we present the clinical and laboratory aspects related to the first four imported human cases of Zika virus in Portugal from Brazil, and alert, regarding the high level of traveling between Portugal and Brazil, and the ongoing expansion of this virus in the Americas, for the threat for Zika virus introduction in Europe and the possible introduction to Madeira Island where Aedes aegypti is present. PMID:27134823

  19. Epidemiological review of Toxoplasma gondii infection in humans and animals in Portugal.

    PubMed

    Lopes, A P; Dubey, J P; Dardé, M-L; Cardoso, L

    2014-11-01

    Toxoplasmosis is a worldwide zoonosis. However, data from Portugal are limited and a considerable part of the literature is in Portuguese. Currently, the rate of congenital infection in Portugal is unknown, and almost nothing is known of sequelae of congenital toxoplasmosis. There is no recent general population-based serological survey of Toxoplasma gondii in humans in Portugal. In addition, there is little information on genetic characteristics of T. gondii in animals and humans. In the present paper, we review prevalence, clinical spectrum and epidemiology of T. gondii in humans and animals in Portugal. This knowledge should be useful to biologists, public health workers, physicians and veterinarians. PMID:25215422

  20. Asthma in an Urban Population in Portugal: A prevalence study

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The prevalence and incidence of asthma are believed to be increasing but research on the true incidence, prevalence and mortality from asthma has met methodological obstacles since it has been difficult to define and diagnose asthma in epidemiological terms. New and widely accepted diagnostic criteria for asthma present opportunities for progress in this field. Studies conducted in Portugal have estimated the disease prevalence between 3% and 15%. Available epidemiological data present a significant variability due to methodological obstacles. Aim To estimate the true prevalence of asthma by gender and age groups in the population of the area covered by one urban Health Centre in Portugal. Method An observational study was conducted between February and July 2009 at the Horizonte Family Health Unit in Matosinhos, Portugal. A random sample of 590 patients, stratified by age and gender was obtained from the practice database of registered patients. Data was collected using a patient questionnaire based on respiratory symptoms and the physician's best knowledge of the patient's asthma status. The prevalence of asthma was calculated by age and gender. Results Data were obtained from 576 patients (97.6% response rate). The mean age for patients with asthma was 27.0 years (95% CI: 20.95 to 33.16). This was lower than the mean age for non-asthmatics but the difference was not statistically significant. Asthma was diagnosed in 59 persons giving a prevalence of 10.24% (95% CI: 8.16 to 12.32). There was no statistically significant difference in the prevalence of asthma by gender. Conclusion The prevalence of asthma found in the present study was higher than that found in some studies, though lower than that found in other studies. Further studies in other regions of Portugal are required to confirm these findings. PMID:21595928

  1. Syphilis hospitalisations in Portugal over the last decade.

    PubMed

    Sousa-Pinto, B; Freitas, A; Lisboa, C

    2016-02-01

    Although several studies have reported an increase of syphilis incidence over the last decade in Western Europe, information concerning syphilis epidemiology in Portugal remains scarce. Therefore, we sought to characterise acquired syphilis-associated hospitalisations in Portugal according to demographic and clinical data. We used a database containing all hospitalisations that occurred in mainland Portugal public hospitals with discharges between 2000 and 2014. We analysed all hospitalisations associated with ICD-9-CM codes 091-097.x (corresponding to acquired syphilis diagnosis) concerning inpatients' gender, age and comorbidities. The median length of stay and in-hospital mortality rates were also studied. Between 2000 and 2014, there were a total of 8974 syphilis-related hospitalisations in mainland Portugal. The rate of acquired syphilis hospitalisations per 100,000 inhabitants increased by 33 % during the studied period. Syphilis hospitalisation rates increased by 70 % in males and 139 % among patients aged over 55 years. On the other hand, they declined by 10 % in females and 20 % among patients younger than 55 years old. The percentage of syphilis episodes presenting cardiovascular and neuropsychiatric comorbidities increased, while the percentage of syphilis episodes presenting HIV co-infection decreased by 69 %. A fatal outcome was reported in 5 % of episodes; 4.6 % of them had acquired syphilis as the main reason for hospitalisation. This study illustrates that, despite being a preventable infection, syphilis remains a public health problem. The analysis of hospitalisation and administrative data helps to understand syphilis epidemiology and provides a supplement to traditional case notifications. PMID:26581424

  2. A Geophysical Study of the Carcavai Fault Zone, Portugal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carvalho, J.; Ramalho, E.; Dias, R.; Pinto, C.; Ressurreição, R.

    2012-01-01

    The Algarve province is located a few hundred kilometres north of the crossing of the E-W Eurasia-Africa plate boundary in an area of diffuse seismicity and broad deformation. It is characterised by a moderate seismicity, with some important historical and instrumental earthquakes causing loss of lives and significant material damages. The area is affected not only by plate boundary earthquakes but also by moderate to large events generated by local sources. The assessment of onshore local sources is, therefore, of vital importance for an evaluation of the regional seismic hazard. This paper discusses the application of geophysical data to the study of the Carcavai fault zone, an outcropping structure more than 20 km long which is seen to deform sediments of the Plio-Quaternary age. The location of some sectors of the fault zone, as well as the vertical offsets of the structure, are still to be confirmed. In order to estimate these and to study the geometry of the fault zone at depth, geophysical data were acquired together with new geological data. Where the location of the fault was less certain, EM and seismic reflection profiles with coarse spatial sampling were carried out. After the detailed location of the fault zone, seismic reflection profiles with a more dense spatial resolution were acquired. The integrated interpretation of the geological and geophysical data confirmed the presence of a large fault zone. The total fault length is still unknown as its extension offshore is still being studied. Together with estimated values of the throw obtained, this data set has improved understanding the seismic hazard in the area by providing more refined estimates of co-seismic rupture, maximum expected earthquake and return periods.

  3. Organic matter characterization of sediments in two river beaches from northern Portugal for forensic application.

    PubMed

    Carvalho, Áurea; Ribeiro, Helena; Mayes, Robert; Guedes, Alexandra; Abreu, Ilda; Noronha, Fernando; Dawson, Lorna

    2013-12-10

    In a forensic investigation, the analysis of earth materials such as sediments and soils have been used as evidence at a court of law, relying on the study of properties such as color, particle size distribution and mineral identification, among others. In addition, the analysis of the organic composition of sediments and soils is of particular value, since these can be used as complementary independent evidence to the inorganic component. To investigate the usefulness of organic indicators in sediment characterization and discrimination, seventy-seven samples were collected during a period of one year in two river beaches located at the southern bank of the Douro River estuary in the North of Portugal. Isotopes of total carbon, pollen and plant wax-marker analyses were performed. In both beaches, an increase of the organic matter concentrations was noticeable, moving landward, related with the higher cover of associated plant material. The results obtained showed that the combination of all the techniques adopted showed a clear discrimination between samples from the two beaches, and also showed a differentiation of samples in relation to distance from the river in both beaches. The results also show that seasonality in these beaches was not a determining factor for discrimination, at the times considered. In addition, the effects of time was not marked. PMID:24314547

  4. Intersection of Southern Parkway and Southern Heights, looking toward the ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Intersection of Southern Parkway and Southern Heights, looking toward the Beechmont Historic District, showing changes in landscaping, northeast - Southern Heights-Beechmont District Landscapes, Louisville, Jefferson County, KY

  5. Atmospheric circulation classification comparison based on wildfires in Portugal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pereira, M. G.; Trigo, R. M.

    2009-04-01

    Atmospheric circulation classifications are not a simple description of atmospheric states but a tool to understand and interpret the atmospheric processes and to model the relation between atmospheric circulation and surface climate and other related variables (Radan Huth et al., 2008). Classifications were initially developed with weather forecasting purposes, however with the progress in computer processing capability, new and more robust objective methods were developed and applied to large datasets prompting atmospheric circulation classification methods to one of the most important fields in synoptic and statistical climatology. Classification studies have been extensively used in climate change studies (e.g. reconstructed past climates, recent observed changes and future climates), in bioclimatological research (e.g. relating human mortality to climatic factors) and in a wide variety of synoptic climatological applications (e.g. comparison between datasets, air pollution, snow avalanches, wine quality, fish captures and forest fires). Likewise, atmospheric circulation classifications are important for the study of the role of weather in wildfire occurrence in Portugal because the daily synoptic variability is the most important driver of local weather conditions (Pereira et al., 2005). In particular, the objective classification scheme developed by Trigo and DaCamara (2000) to classify the atmospheric circulation affecting Portugal have proved to be quite useful in discriminating the occurrence and development of wildfires as well as the distribution over Portugal of surface climatic variables with impact in wildfire activity such as maximum and minimum temperature and precipitation. This work aims to present: (i) an overview the existing circulation classification for the Iberian Peninsula, and (ii) the results of a comparison study between these atmospheric circulation classifications based on its relation with wildfires and relevant meteorological

  6. Tettigettalna josei (Boulard, 1982) (Hemiptera: Cicadoidea): first record in Spain, with notes on the distribution, genetic variation and behaviour of the species

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The small cicada Tettigettalna josei (Boulard, 1982) was until recently only known from southern Portugal and was considered endemic to this country. Fieldwork in 2013 led to the first record of the species in Spain, expanding its known eastern range to Andalusia. The northern limits remain poorly defined but it appears that the distribution of Tettigettalna josei is restricted to the south Atlantic coastline in the Iberian Peninsula, with the highest densities found in Algarve. Some notes on behaviour and genetic variation of Tettigettalna josei are also given. PMID:24891819

  7. Inhomogeneities detection in annual precipitation time series in Portugal using direct sequential simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caineta, Júlio; Ribeiro, Sara; Costa, Ana Cristina; Henriques, Roberto; Soares, Amílcar

    2014-05-01

    Climate data homogenisation is of major importance in monitoring climate change, the validation of weather forecasting, general circulation and regional atmospheric models, modelling of erosion, drought monitoring, among other studies of hydrological and environmental impacts. This happens because non-climate factors can cause time series discontinuities which may hide the true climatic signal and patterns, thus potentially bias the conclusions of those studies. In the last two decades, many methods have been developed to identify and remove these inhomogeneities. One of those is based on geostatistical simulation (DSS - direct sequential simulation), where local probability density functions (pdf) are calculated at candidate monitoring stations, using spatial and temporal neighbouring observations, and then are used for detection of inhomogeneities. This approach has been previously applied to detect inhomogeneities in four precipitation series (wet day count) from a network with 66 monitoring stations located in the southern region of Portugal (1980-2001). This study revealed promising results and the potential advantages of geostatistical techniques for inhomogeneities detection in climate time series. This work extends the case study presented before and investigates the application of the geostatistical stochastic approach to ten precipitation series that were previously classified as inhomogeneous by one of six absolute homogeneity tests (Mann-Kendall test, Wald-Wolfowitz runs test, Von Neumann ratio test, Standard normal homogeneity test (SNHT) for a single break, Pettit test, and Buishand range test). Moreover, a sensibility analysis is implemented to investigate the number of simulated realisations that should be used to accurately infer the local pdfs. Accordingly, the number of simulations per iteration is increased from 50 to 500, which resulted in a more representative local pdf. A set of default and recommended settings is provided, which will help

  8. Analysis of 17 STR data on 5362 southern Portuguese individuals-an update on reference database.

    PubMed

    Cabezas Silva, Raquel; Ribeiro, Teresa; Lucas, Isabel; Porto, Maria João; Costa Santos, Jorge; Dario, Paulo

    2016-03-01

    The main objective of this work consisted of the updating of allele frequencies and other relevant forensic parameters for the 17 autosomal STR loci provided by the combination of the two types of kits used routinely in our laboratory casework: AmpF/STR Identifiler(®) and the Powerplex(®) 16 Systems. This aim was of significant importance, given that the last study on these kits within the southern Portuguese population dates back to 2006, and, as a consequence, it was necessary to correct the deviation caused by population evolution over the last ten years so that they might be better applied to our forensic casework. For this reason genetic data from 5362 unrelated Caucasian Portuguese individuals from the south of Portugal who were involved in paternity testing casework from 2005 to 2014 was used. Of all the markers, TPOX proved to be the least polymorphic, and Penta E the most. Secondly, this up-to-date southern Portuguese population was compared not only with the northern and central Portuguese populations, but also with that of southern Portugal in 2006, along with populations from Spain, Italy, Greece, Romania, Morocco, Angola and Korea in order to infer information about the relatedness of these respective populations, and the variation of the southern Portuguese population over time. PMID:26651434

  9. Training in the Retail Trade in Portugal. Report for the FORCE Programme. Retail Sector.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cerdeira, Maria Conceicao; And Others

    A study examined training in the retail trade in Portugal. Employment, work, and training patterns in Portugal's retail sector were researched, and case studies of two firms in the supermarket/hypermarket group, one firm in the stationary/cigarette shop sector, and one clothing manufacturer/retailer were conducted. Teams of researchers interviewed…

  10. Developmental Dyslexia: Perspectives on Teacher Training and Learning Disabilities in Portugal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carvalhais, Lenia; da Silva, Carlos Fernandes

    2010-01-01

    The focus of this study was to explore primary teachers' attitudes and perceptions toward their training experiences, instructional practices, and supports received in their schools toward working with students with dyslexia in Portugal. Primary school teachers from the centre of Portugal, working with children between the first and fourth grades,…

  11. Epidemiological review of Toxoplasma gondii infection in humans and animals in Portugal

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Toxoplasmosis is a worldwide zoonosis. However, data from Portugal are limited and a considerable part of the literature is in Portuguese. Currently, the rate of congenital infection in Portugal is unknown, and almost nothing is known of sequelae of congenital toxoplasmosis. There is no general popu...

  12. Assessing International Product Design and Development Graduate Courses: The MIT-Portugal Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dori, Yehudit Judy; Silva, Arlindo

    2010-01-01

    The Product Design and Development (PDD) course is part of the graduate curriculum in the Engineering Design and Advanced Manufacturing (EDAM) study in the MIT-Portugal Program. The research participants included about 110 students from MIT, EDAM, and two universities in Portugal, Instituto Superior Técnico-Universidade Técnica de Lisboa (IST) and…

  13. The Financing of Vocational Education and Training in Portugal. Financing Portrait. CEDEFOP Panorama Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Centeno, Luis Gomes; Sarmento, Ana Leonor

    The financing of vocational education and training (VET) in Portugal was examined. The examination focused on the following topics: (1) the economic, political, legal, and administrative contexts of funding; (2) the funding framework for VET in Portugal; (3) initial vocational training (IVT); (4) continuing vocational training (CVT); and (5)…

  14. The early Upper Paleolithic human skeleton from the Abrigo do Lagar Velho (Portugal) and modern human emergence in Iberia

    PubMed Central

    Duarte, Cidália; Maurício, João; Pettitt, Paul B.; Souto, Pedro; Trinkaus, Erik; van der Plicht, Hans; Zilhão, João

    1999-01-01

    The discovery of an early Upper Paleolithic human burial at the Abrigo do Lagar Velho, Portugal, has provided evidence of early modern humans from southern Iberia. The remains, the largely complete skeleton of a ≈4-year-old child buried with pierced shell and red ochre, is dated to ca. 24,500 years B.P. The cranium, mandible, dentition, and postcrania present a mosaic of European early modern human and Neandertal features. The temporal bone has an intermediate-sized juxtamastoid eminence. The mandibular mentum osseum and the dental size and proportions, supported by mandibular ramal features, radial tuberosity orientation, and diaphyseal curvature, as well as the pubic proportions align the skeleton with early modern humans. Body proportions, reflected in femorotibial lengths and diaphyseal robusticity plus tibial condylar displacement, as well as mandibular symphyseal retreat and thoracohumeral muscle insertions, align the skeleton with the Neandertals. This morphological mosaic indicates admixture between regional Neandertals and early modern humans dispersing into southern Iberia. It establishes the complexities of the Late Pleistocene emergence of modern humans and refutes strict replacement models of modern human origins. PMID:10377462

  15. Weather types and the regime of wildfires in Portugal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pereira, M. G.; Trigo, R. M.; Dacamara, C. C.

    2009-04-01

    An objective classification scheme, as developed by Trigo and DaCamara (2000), was applied to classify the daily atmospheric circulation affecting Portugal between 1980 and 2007 into a set of 10 basic weather types (WTs). The classification scheme relies on a set of atmospheric circulation indices, namely southerly flow (SF), westerly flow (WF), total flow (F), southerly shear vorticity (ZS), westerly shear vorticity (ZW) and total vorticity (Z). The weather-typing approach, together with surfacemeteorological variables (e.g. intensity and direction of geostrophic wind, maximum and minimum temperature and precipitation) were then associated to wildfire events as recorded in the official Portuguese fire database consisting of information on each fire occurred in the 18 districts of Continental Portugal within the same period (>450.000 events). The objective of this study is to explore the dependence of wildfire activity on weather and climate and then evaluate the potential of WTs to discriminate among recorded wildfires on what respects to their occurrence and development. Results show that days characterised by surface flow with an eastern component (i.e. NE, E and SE) account for a high percentage of daily burnt area, as opposed to surface westerly flow (NW, W and SW), which represents about a quarter of the total number of days but only accounts for a very low percentage of active fires and of burnt area. Meteorological variables such as minimum and maximum temperatures, that are closely associated to surface wind intensity and direction, also present a good ability to discriminate between the different types of fire events.. Trigo R.M., DaCamara C. (2000) "Circulation Weather Types and their impact on the precipitation regime in Portugal". Int J of Climatology, 20, 1559-1581.

  16. Determinants of birth weight in Portugal: 1988 to 2011.

    PubMed

    Fuster, Vicente; Santos, Carlota

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to analyse temporal birth weight variation, its relationship to the frequency of premature births in Portugal, and the influence of native and immigrant mothers' characteristics as well as to determine the possible existence of a pattern of temporal change in birth weight in the Iberian Peninsula as a whole. Individual mother-child data from the Portuguese National Institute of Statistics regarding live births (N = 2,661,542) permitted an analysis, for the first time, of weight at birth in Portugal from a bio-demographic perspective. The results obtained show that from 1988 to 2011 there was a gradual decline in the average weight at birth in Portugal that may be related to shifts in the duration of gestation. An initial rapid decline in the relative frequency of post-term births took place, followed by small variations from 1995 on. Logistic regressions indicated a pattern unaffected by maternal origin or the sex of the newborn. With regard to weeks of gestation, the odds values obtained were < 1 when the reference category was < 28 weeks. For this factor, no significant differences were found in relation to the mother's origin. Portuguese mothers over 35 years were associated with a higher incidence of low birth weight. Regardless of maternal origin, being a newborn of parity 1, and with the mother not in a couple, resulted in unfavourable outcomes with regard to low birth weight. On the other hand, long gestation periods and having secondary or university education constituted a protective factor. PMID:26754741

  17. Evolution of upwelling fronts off the coast of Portugal

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    We have analyzed the spatial and temporal variability of chlorophyll in the Atlantic Ocean off the Portugal coast using satellite imagery from 1979 to 1986 in conjunction with wind data. The spatial patterns in the imagery show the typical inshore-offshore and east-west gradients, while the temporal patterns show seasonal high winter values and low summer values. In the satellite imagery for the period 1979-1986, stable mesoscale and large scale patterns recurred despite interannual differences in absolute satellite-derived pigment concentrations.

  18. [Fever and dry cough in a construction worker from Portugal].

    PubMed

    Wiesli, P; Flepp, M; Greminger, P

    1997-07-30

    A 33-year-old Portugese worker presented with a one-week history of nonproductive cough and fever. A presumptive diagnosis "viral infection of the respiratory tract" was made. However, because of persisting cough and fever further investigations were necessary, and finally Brucella melitensis was isolated in blood cultures. Three months before admission to the hospital the man was dressing the carcasses of a goat in Portugal and consumpted fresh goats milk cheese. Antibiotic therapy with Rifampicin and Trimethoprim/Sulfamethoxazol over 6 weeks improved the signs and symptoms of the infection. PMID:9340710

  19. Ochratoxin A in Portugal: A Review to Assess Human Exposure

    PubMed Central

    Duarte, Sofia C.; Pena, Angelina; Lino, Celeste M.

    2010-01-01

    In Portugal, the climate, dietary habits, and food contamination levels present the characteristics for higher population susceptibility to ochratoxin A (OTA), one of the known mycotoxins with the greatest public health and agro-economic importance. In this review, following a brief historical insight on OTA research, a summary of the available data on OTA occurrence in food (cereals, bread, wine, meat) and biological fluids (blood, urine) is made. With this data, an estimation of intake is made to ascertain and update the risk exposure estimation of the Portuguese population, in comparison to previous studies and other populations. PMID:22069635

  20. NO2, PM10 and O3 urban concentrations and its association with circulation weather types in Portugal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Russo, Ana; Trigo, Ricardo M.; Martins, Helena; Mendes, Manuel T.

    2014-06-01

    High levels of atmospheric pollutants are frequently measured in Portugal, a country which has been affected by several pollution episodes, exceeding PM10, O3 and NO2 legal limits repeatedly during the last decade. The occurrence of these episodes is often related to either local-scale conditions or regional-scale transport. In order to better understand the atmospheric factors responsible for poor air quality, the relationships between air pollution and meteorological variables or atmospheric synoptic patterns represent an important research area. Here an objective classification scheme of the atmospheric circulation affecting Portugal, between 2002 and 2010, is presented, where daily circulation is characterized through the use of a set of indices associated with the direction and vorticity of the geostrophic flow in the lower atmosphere. The synoptic characteristics and the frequency of ten basic circulation weather types (CWTs) are discussed and a framework that permits the identification of the main characteristics associated to the occurrence of pollution episodes is mapped based on the identified patterns. The relationship between CWTs and poor air quality allowed distinguishing between which types are most frequently associated to pollution episodes. It is shown that the anticyclonic and north types, although being the most frequent classes during the majority of the year, do not prevail during pollution episodes that are dominated by easterly types. In general, higher concentration of all three pollutants and the two extreme events analysed occur associated predominantly with synoptic circulation characterized by an eastern component and advection of dry air masses. Moreover, results on the link between CWTs and air quality for Lisbon and Porto urban areas suggest that air quality regimes are generally similar for the northern and southern regions considered with the exception of spring and autumn PM10. Results obtained highlight the existence of strong

  1. Quality of life of people living with HIV/AIDS: a cross-country comparison study of Finland and Portugal.

    PubMed

    Nobre, Nuno; Pereira, Marco; Sutinen, Jussi; Canavarro, Maria Cristina; Sintonen, Harri; Roine, Risto P

    2016-07-01

    The premises underlying the development of the World Health Organization Quality of Life (WHOQOL) instruments provide a convincing rationale for comparing quality of life (QoL) across countries. The aim of the present study was to compare the QoL of patients living with HIV infection in Finland and in Portugal, and to examine the contribution of the QoL domains to the overall QoL in these two countries. The sample comprised 453 patients from Finland (76.3% male; mean age = 46.50) and 975 from Portugal (69.2% male; mean age = 40.98), all living with HIV. QoL data were collected by use of the WHOQOL-HIV-Bref questionnaire. Significant country differences were found in QoL domains and specific facets. Patients from Finland reported markedly higher scores on all six QoL domains and general facet, than did their Portuguese counterparts. Regarding the specific facets of the WHOQOL-HIV-Bref, patients from Finland also reported significantly higher scores on 24 out of 29. The exceptions were dependence on medications and treatment, positive feelings, personal relationships, sexual activity, and on spirituality, religion and personal beliefs. Regression analyses showed that physical, psychological, and independence domains contributed to overall QoL among the Finnish patients (R(2) = 0.63), whereas among the Portuguese, the domains significantly associated with overall QoL were physical, psychological, independence, and environment (R(2) = 0.48). Country differences in QoL domains and specific facets may reflect sociocultural differences between southern and northern Europe. PMID:26883186

  2. Formaldehyde and acetaldehyde emissions from residential wood combustion in Portugal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cerqueira, Mário; Gomes, Luís; Tarelho, Luís; Pio, Casimiro

    2013-06-01

    A series of experiments were conducted to characterize formaldehyde and acetaldehyde emissions from residential combustion of common wood species growing in Portugal. Five types of wood were investigated: maritime pine (Pinus pinaster), eucalyptus (Eucalyptus globulus), cork oak (Quercus suber), holm oak (Quercus rotundifolia) and pyrenean oak (Quercus pyrenaica). Laboratory experiments were performed with a typical wood stove used for domestic heating in Portugal and operating under realistic home conditions. Aldehydes were sampled from diluted combustion flue gas using silica cartridges coated with 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine and analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography with diode array detection. The average formaldehyde to acetaldehyde concentration ratio (molar basis) in the stove flue gas was in the range of 2.1-2.9. Among the tested wood types, pyrenean oak produced the highest emissions for both formaldehyde and acetaldehyde: 1772 ± 649 and 1110 ± 454 mg kg-1 biomass burned (dry basis), respectively. By contrast, maritime pine produced the lowest emissions: 653 ± 151 and 371 ± 162 mg kg-1 biomass (dry basis) burned, respectively. Aldehydes were sampled separately during distinct periods of the holm oak wood combustion cycles. Significant variations in the flue gas concentrations were found, with higher values measured during the devolatilization stage than in the flaming and smoldering stages.

  3. Artisanal salt production in Aveiro/Portugal - an ecofriendly process.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, Carolina M; Bio, Ana; Amat, Francisco; Vieira, Natividade

    2011-01-01

    Solar salinas are man-made systems exploited for the extraction of salt, by solar and wind evaporation of seawater. Salt production achieved by traditional methods is associated with landscapes and environmental and patrimonial values generated throughout history. Since the mid-twentieth century, this activity has been facing a marked decline in Portugal, with most salinas either abandoned or subjected to destruction, making it necessary to find a strategy to reverse this trend.It is, however, possible to generate revenue from salinas at several levels, not merely in terms of good quality salt production, but also by obtaining other products that can be commercialized, or by exploring their potential for tourism, and as research facilities, among others. Furthermore, with an adequate management, biodiversity can be restored to abandoned salinas, which constitute important feeding and breeding grounds for resident and migratory aquatic birds, many of which are protected by European Community Directives.The aims of this manuscript are to present a brief overview on the current state of sea salt exploitation in Portugal and to stress the importance of recovering these salinas for the conservation of this particular environment, for the regional economy, the scientific community and the general public. The Aveiro salina complex is presented in detail, to exemplify salina structure and functioning, as well as current problems and potential solutions for artisanal salinas. PMID:22053788

  4. Portugal's contribution to navigation and discovery of the New World.

    PubMed

    da Silva, M L

    1993-01-01

    Even before the birth of Prince Henry the Navigator (1394) Portugal had displayed a maritime calling due to its 500-mile shore line and numerous natural bays. Inspired by the riches of India he saw during the Portuguese exploration along the coast of West Africa, Prince Henry set out methodically to collect information by bringing together Jews and Moors with geographical knowledge to found his School of Navigation. From 1415 until his death in 1460 he attracted to his school the foremost contemporary scholars in mathematics, astronomy, and cartography along with experts in knowledge of the compass, astrolabe, water currents, and the winds. This concentration of talent yielded the invention of the caravel, the most important navigational advancement of the time, crucial for long voyages across the high seas. Although the rest of Europe busied itself in political and religious wars, for 70 years (1415-1492) Portugal alone pursued the discovery of the Atlantic. "No nation in the 15th century exhibited so great a spirit of maritime enterprise as the Portuguese." PMID:8354483

  5. Artisanal salt production in Aveiro/Portugal - an ecofriendly process

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Solar salinas are man-made systems exploited for the extraction of salt, by solar and wind evaporation of seawater. Salt production achieved by traditional methods is associated with landscapes and environmental and patrimonial values generated throughout history. Since the mid-twentieth century, this activity has been facing a marked decline in Portugal, with most salinas either abandoned or subjected to destruction, making it necessary to find a strategy to reverse this trend. It is, however, possible to generate revenue from salinas at several levels, not merely in terms of good quality salt production, but also by obtaining other products that can be commercialized, or by exploring their potential for tourism, and as research facilities, among others. Furthermore, with an adequate management, biodiversity can be restored to abandoned salinas, which constitute important feeding and breeding grounds for resident and migratory aquatic birds, many of which are protected by European Community Directives. The aims of this manuscript are to present a brief overview on the current state of sea salt exploitation in Portugal and to stress the importance of recovering these salinas for the conservation of this particular environment, for the regional economy, the scientific community and the general public. The Aveiro salina complex is presented in detail, to exemplify salina structure and functioning, as well as current problems and potential solutions for artisanal salinas. PMID:22053788

  6. Trichinella britovi in a red fox (Vulpes vulpes) from Portugal.

    PubMed

    Lopes, Ana Patrícia; Vila-Viçosa, Maria João; Coutinho, Teresa; Cardoso, Luís; Gottstein, Bruno; Müller, Norbert; Cortes, Helder C E

    2015-06-15

    Trichinellosis is one of the most important foodborne parasitic zoonoses, caused by nematodes of the genus Trichinella. Pigs and other domestic and wild animals, including red foxes (Vulpes vulpes), are sources of Trichinella infection for human beings. Trichinella britovi is the major agent of infection in sylvatic animals and the most important species circulating in the European wildlife. The present study aimed at assessing Trichinella spp. infection in red foxes from the North of Portugal. Forty-seven carcasses of wild red foxes shot during the official hunting season or killed in road accidents were obtained between November 2008 and March 2010. In order to identify the presence of Trichinella spp. larvae in red foxes, an individual artificial digestion was performed using approximately 30 g of muscle samples. Larvae of Trichinella spp. were detected in one (2.1%) out of the 47 assessed foxes. After a multiplex polymerase chain reaction analysis, T. britovi was molecularly identified as the infecting species. The recognition of T. britovi in a red fox confirms that a sylvatic cycle is present in the North of Portugal and that the local prevalence of Trichinella infection in wildlife must not be ignored due to its underlying zoonotic risks. PMID:25934252

  7. The 23 April 1909 Benavente earthquake (Portugal): macroseismic field revision

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teves-Costa, Paula; Batlló, Josep

    2011-01-01

    The 23 April 1909 earthquake, with epicentre near Benavente (Portugal), was the largest crustal earthquake in the Iberian Peninsula during the twentieth century ( M w = 6.0). Due to its importance, several studies were developed soon after its occurrence, in Portugal and in Spain. A perusal of the different studies on the macroseismic field of this earthquake showed some discrepancies, in particular on the abnormal patterns of the isoseismal curves in Spain. Besides, a complete list of intensity data points for the event is unavailable at present. Seismic moment, focal mechanism and other earthquake parameters obtained from the instrumental records have been recently reviewed and recalculated. Revision of the macroseismic field of this earthquake poses a unique opportunity to study macroseismic propagation and local effects in central Iberian Peninsula. For this reasons, a search to collect new macroseismic data for this earthquake has been carried out, and a re-evaluation of the whole set has been performed and it is presented here. Special attention is paid to the observed low attenuation of the macroseismic effects, heterogeneous propagation and the distortion introduced by local amplifications. Results of this study indicate, in general, an overestimation of the intensity degrees previously assigned to this earthquake in Spain; also it illustrates how difficult it is to assign an intensity degree to a large town, where local effects play an important role, and confirms the low attenuation of seismic propagation inside the Iberian Peninsula from west and southwest to east and northeast.

  8. Air Liquide builds H{sub 2} plant in Portugal

    SciTech Connect

    1996-06-19

    Air Liquide will spend $18 million to build a naphtha steam reforming unit in Estarreja, Portugal that will produce 3,700 cu meters/hour of hydrogen (H{sub 2}). The new plant will raise Air Liquide`s H{sub 2} capacity at the site to 8,000 cu meters/hour. The company supplies Anilina de Portugal with H{sub 2}. In addition, Air Liquide supplies Dow Chemical with carbon monoxide used in its methylene di-para-phenylene isocyanate plant at the site. Anilina is spending Esc1.8 billion ($11.3 million) to expand aniline capacity from 60,000 m.t./year to 95,000 m.t./year by the end of 1997 and nitrobenzene from 100,000 m.t./year to 170,000 m.t./year. This year Dow will buy more than 50,000 m.t./year of aniline from the Portuguese firm for its MDI production.

  9. Empirical rainfall thresholds for landslide occurrence in Portugal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zêzere, José Luis; Vaz, Teresa; Pereira, Susana; Oliveira, Sérgio C.; Marques, Rui; Garcia, Ricardo A. C.

    2015-04-01

    Rainfall is the most important physical process responsible for the landslide triggering in Portugal. Following the work of Zêzere et al. (2014), we present the state of the art concerning the proposition of empirical rainfall thresholds in Portugal for different types of landslides observed in different zones of the country: the Lisbon region, the Douro Valley and the NW Mountains, and the Povoação Municipality in São Miguel Island (Azores). The empirical thresholds applied in Portugal are based on the identification of 120 landslide events and include (i) the computation of antecedent rainfall threshold defined by linear regression, (ii) the normalization of rainfall by the mean annual precipitation, (iii) the definition of combined rainfall thresholds, which integrates the rainfall event and the antecedent rainfall for different time periods, and (iv) the definition of lower limit and upper limit rainfall thresholds. The intensity-duration (ID) threshold is the empirical rainfall threshold more used worldwide. In mainland Portugal, the highest ID rainfall threshold is registered in the NW Mountains, which is the rainiest zone of the country. The Lisbon Region typically receives less rain per year and the corresponding ID threshold is lower than that obtained in the north part of the country. The Povoação study area evidence a contrasting situation, which is associated to the highest value of the negative exponential of the threshold (-0.66). As a consequence, for short duration (< 10 h) this threshold is only exceeded in the NW Mountains, while for long durations (>1,000 h) it is below the remaining thresholds. The normalization of the ID threshold by the mean annual precipitation (MAP) has showed that, in relative terms: (i) the ID threshold is highest in Lisbon Region for duration less than 50 h; (ii) in the north of the country, the ID threshold is more exigent in the Douro Valley than in the NW Mountains and (iii) the ID threshold in Povoa

  10. A Seasonal Study of the Western Part of the Ria Formosa (South Portugal)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pereira, M. G.; Rodrigues, R.; Mudge, S. M.; Icely, J.; Newton, A.

    2003-04-01

    Ria Formosa is a large barrier lagoon (55 x 6km) in Southern Portugal, with restricted water exchange. High nutrient load due to land runoff and sewage discharges coupled with reduced tidal exchange has led to eutrophication, particularly of the inner parts of the lagoon. Our study focused on the western part of the lagoon, which has benefited from an artificial inlet opened in 1997. In order to investigate the water quality of this branch of the Ria Formosa, water samples were collected at 3 sites located at increasing distances from the opening to the sea. Sampling took place 4 times a year, at solstice and equinox tides, in order to cover the most extreme tidal conditions in the year, between September 2000 and July 2002. Nutrient concentrations (nitrate, nitrite, ammonium, silicate and phosphate) and primary gross production, net production and respiration were determined, together with other physical and chemical parameters. Photoautotrophic pigments from the planktonic community of Ria Formosa were analysed using reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography. In this presentation we will focus on data concerning the levels of nutrients and the dominant pigments present at different distances from the inlet, and their relationship to the primary production measured at these sites. We will evaluate the inter- and intra- annual variation as well as establish the areas of highest productivity. PLS (Partial Least Squares) using pigments of well documented microalgae species as signatures, has been used to determine the contribution of key species or groups to the total variance in the environment data. PCA analysis of the phytopigments has been conducted to distinguish between stations, seasons and tidal regime. The data set allowed us to address several topics of interest in phytoplankton ecology and marine biogeochemistry and to conclude on the effectiveness of the artificial opening to improve the overall water quality of the western branch of the Ria.

  11. Brazil to Join the European Southern Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2010-12-01

    conducted where every aspect of this large project was scrutinised by an international panel of independent experts. The panel found that the E-ELT project is technically ready to enter the construction phase. The go-ahead for E-ELT construction is planned for 2011 and when operations start early in the next decade, European, Brazilian and Chilean astronomers will have access to this giant telescope. The president of ESO's governing body, the Council, Laurent Vigroux, concludes: "Astronomers in Brazil will benefit from collaborating with European colleagues, and naturally from having observing time at ESO's world-class observatories at La Silla and Paranal, as well as on ALMA, which ESO is constructing with its international partners." Notes [1] After ratification of Brazil's membership, the ESO Member States will be Austria, Belgium, Brazil, the Czech Republic, Denmark, France, Finland, Germany, Italy, the Netherlands, Portugal, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland and the United Kingdom. More information ESO, the European Southern Observatory, is the foremost intergovernmental astronomy organisation in Europe and the world's most productive astronomical observatory. It is supported by 14 countries: Austria, Belgium, the Czech Republic, Denmark, France, Finland, Germany, Italy, the Netherlands, Portugal, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland and the United Kingdom. ESO carries out an ambitious programme focused on the design, construction and operation of powerful ground-based observing facilities enabling astronomers to make important scientific discoveries. ESO also plays a leading role in promoting and organising cooperation in astronomical research. ESO operates three unique world-class observing sites in Chile: La Silla, Paranal and Chajnantor. At Paranal, ESO operates the Very Large Telescope, the world's most advanced visible-light astronomical observatory and VISTA, the world's largest survey telescope. ESO is the European partner of a revolutionary astronomical telescope ALMA, the

  12. Anisotropic Tomography of Portugal (West Iberia) from ambient seismic noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silveira, Graça; Stutzmann, Éléonore; Schimmel, Martin; Dias, Nuno; Kiselev, Sergey; Custódio, Susana; Dundar, Suleyman

    2016-04-01

    Located on the western Iberian Peninsula, Portugal constitutes a key area for accretionary terrane and basin research, providing the best opportunity to probe a crustal formation shaped by the Paleozoic Variscan orogeny followed by the Mesozoic-Cenozoic extensions. The geology of Portugal documents a protracted history from Paleozoic basement formation to the Mesozoic opening of the North Atlantic Ocean. The inheritance of such complex geologic history is yet to be fully determined, playing an important role in the current geodynamic framework influencing, for example, the observed regional seismicity. The physical properties of its crust have largely remained undetermined so far, with unevenly distributed knowledge on the spatial distributions of a detailed crustal structure. Also, the deep seismic reflection/refraction surveys conducted in Western Iberia do not provide a clear picture of the regional characteristics of the crust. Using Seismic Broad Band observations from a dense temporary deployment, conducted between 2010 and 2012 in the scope of the WILAS project and covering the entire Portuguese mainland, we computed a 3D anisotropic model from ambient seismic noise. The dispersion measurements were computed for each station pair using empirical Green's functions generated by cross-correlating one-day-length seismic ambient-noise records. After dispersion analysis, group velocity measurements were regionalized to obtain 2D anisotropic tomographic images. Afterwards, the dispersion curves, extracted from each cell of the 2D group velocity maps, were inverted as a function of depth to obtain a 3D shear wave anisotropic model, using a bayesian approach. A simulated annealing method, in which the number of splines that describes the model, is adapted within the inversion. The models are jointly interpreted with the models gathered from Ps receiver functions as well as with the regional seismicity, enabling to obtain a more detailed picture of the crustal

  13. Integration of care systems in Portugal: anatomy of recent reforms

    PubMed Central

    Santana, Silvina; Szczygiel, Nina; Redondo, Patrícia

    2014-01-01

    Background Integrated care is increasingly present in the agenda of policy-makers, health professionals and researchers as a way to improve care services in relation to access, quality, user satisfaction and efficiency. These are overarching objectives of most sectoral reforms. However, health care and social care services and systems are more and more dependent on the performance of each other, imposing the logic of network. Demographic, epidemiologic and cultural changes result in pressure to increase efficiency and efficacy of services and organisations in both sectors and that is why integrated care has become so relevant in the last years. Methods We first used concept maps to organise and systematise information that we had gathered through deep literature review in order to set a framework where to base the subsequent work. Then, we interviewed informants at several levels of the health and social care systems and we built a list of major recent reforms addressing integrated care in Portugal. In a third step, we conducted two independent focus groups where those reforms were discussed and evaluated within the context of the concepts and frameworks identified from the literature. Results were confronted and reconciled, giving place to a list of requisites and guidelines that oriented further search for documentation on those reforms. Results Several important health reforms are in course in primary and hospital care in Portugal, while a so-called third level of care has been introduced with the launch of the National Network of Long-Term Integrated Care (RNCCI – Rede Nacional de Cuidados Continuados Integrados). The social care sector has itself been a subject of alternative models springing from opposite political orientations. All these changes are having repercussions on the way the systems work with each other as they are leading to ongoing and ill-evaluated reformulations on the way they are governed, financed, structured and operated. Conclusions Care

  14. The Ançã limestones, Coimbra, Portugal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quinta-Ferreira, Mário; Gil Catarino, Lídia; Delgado Rodrigues, José

    2016-04-01

    Ançã is located in the Lusitanian Basin (western Meso-Cenozoic sedimentary basin), in the municipality of Cantanhede, close to Coimbra, Portugal. This constitutes the northernmost Dogger (Bajocian) limestone sequence in Portugal. The use of the Ançã limestones is documented since the Roman occupation of the Iberian Peninsula. It was used for the construction of houses, palaces, churches, fine sculptures, carving, paving and for the production of lime. These limestones vary from white and very soft varieties, with very high porosity used for sculpture and carving to white and hard varieties used for masonry and as aggregates and to white to bluish with low porosity and high strength varieties, mainly used for paving. The softer and whiter variety is worldwide known as Ançã Stone (Pedra de Ançã) exhibiting a porosity of 26-29 %. It became famous after being largely used by Coimbra most famous Renaissance sculptors like João de Ruão and Nicolau de Chanterenne. The Pedra de Ançã was used mainly in the region of Coimbra, but also in several other places in Portugal, in Santiago de Compostela, Spain, and Brazil. Some examples of heritage in Coimbra using the Pedra de Ançã are the renaissance portal of the Saint Cross Church, the tombs of the first two Portuguese kings located in this church, the altar of the Saint Cross Church or of the Old Cathedral, or in sculptures at the University of Coimbra. It is quite prone to deteriorate when exposed to atmospheric agents and to soluble salts, mainly due to its high porosity. Deteriorated surfaces needing treatment constitute difficult conservation problems, especially when consolidation and protection treatments are required. The less porous varieties of the Ançã limestones (< 20 % porosity) were mainly used for masonry, paving and production of lime. The royal Palace of Buçaco is a remarkable masonry building constructed at the end of the XIX century with the less porous varieties of the Ançã limestones

  15. Multivariate cluster analysis of forest fire events in Portugal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tonini, Marj; Pereira, Mario; Vega Orozco, Carmen; Parente, Joana

    2015-04-01

    Portugal is one of the major fire-prone European countries, mainly due to its favourable climatic, topographic and vegetation conditions. Compared to the other Mediterranean countries, the number of events registered here from 1980 up to nowadays is the highest one; likewise, with respect to the burnt area, Portugal is the third most affected country. Portuguese mapped burnt areas are available from the website of the Institute for the Conservation of Nature and Forests (ICNF). This official geodatabase is the result of satellite measurements starting from the year 1990. The spatial information, delivered in shapefile format, provides a detailed description of the shape and the size of area burnt by each fire, while the date/time information relate to the ignition fire is restricted to the year of occurrence. In terms of a statistical formalism wildfires can be associated to a stochastic point process, where events are analysed as a set of geographical coordinates corresponding, for example, to the centroid of each burnt area. The spatio/temporal pattern of stochastic point processes, including the cluster analysis, is a basic procedure to discover predisposing factorsas well as for prevention and forecasting purposes. These kinds of studies are primarily focused on investigating the spatial cluster behaviour of environmental data sequences and/or mapping their distribution at different times. To include both the two dimensions (space and time) a comprehensive spatio-temporal analysis is needful. In the present study authors attempt to verify if, in the case of wildfires in Portugal, space and time act independently or if, conversely, neighbouring events are also closer in time. We present an application of the spatio-temporal K-function to a long dataset (1990-2012) of mapped burnt areas. Moreover, the multivariate K-function allowed checking for an eventual different distribution between small and large fires. The final objective is to elaborate a 3D

  16. DOA 2009 - PC Co-chairs' Message

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Little, Mark; Panzieri, Fabio; Dubray, Jean-Jacques

    On behalf of all those involved, we would like to welcome you to the proceedings of the 11th International Symposium on Distributed Objects, Middleware and Applications (DOA 2009), held in the Algarve, Portugal, November 2009.

  17. Will new gender policies stop the decrease of women physicists in Portugal?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosa, Carla Carmelo; Peña, Maria Teresa; Saavedra, Luisa; Providência, Constança

    2013-03-01

    The present context of women physicists in Portugal is discussed, updating our report for the 2002 IUPAP International Conference on Women in Physics, in which the 30 years prior to 2000 were analyzed.

  18. Elemental composition of four farmed fish produced in Portugal.

    PubMed

    Lourenço, Helena M; Afonso, Cláudia; Anacleto, Patrícia; Martins, Maria F; Nunes, Maria L; Lino, Ana R

    2012-11-01

    Farmed gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata), European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax), rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and turbot (Psetta maxima) produced in Portugal were analysed in order to characterize their elemental composition. Atomic absorption (flame and cold vapour) and molecular absorption spectrometry techniques were used to determine all the studied elements. Similar patterns of macro, trace and ultra trace elements were observed for all fish species. The main elements were potassium (K), sodium (Na), phosphorus (P), magnesium (Mg) and calcium (Ca), followed by zinc (Zn), iron (Fe), copper (Cu), chromium (Cr), manganese (Mn) and nickel (Ni). Cadmium (Cd), mercury (Hg) and lead (Pb) concentrations, obtained in this study, allow concluding that these species do not present a hazard for human consumption. In addition, they contain almost all essential elements at concentrations sufficient to suit the dietary reference intake. Nevertheless, P. maxima nutritious trace element content is relatively low compared with the other three species. PMID:22574998

  19. Comparing Consumer Resistance to Mobile Banking in Finland and Portugal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laukkanen, Tommi; Cruz, Pedro

    This study compares two distinct European countries namely Finland and Portugal in terms of consumer resistance to mobile banking services. We explored how the five adoption barriers namely usage, value, risk, tradition and image, derived from the earlier literature, differ between these two countries. Using an Internet questionnaire a total of 3.597 usable responses was collected. A confirmatory factor analysis was implemented with SEM to build the constructs’ latent score levels. Using non-parametric difference tests we concluded that the resistance is significantly lower among the Portuguese online bank customers in terms of four out of the five barriers. The results can be used for a better understanding and enhancement of adoption of this specific case of mobile communication.

  20. Conservation and sustainability in freshwater ecosystems in Tavira (Portugal)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonçalves, Esmeralda; Fonseca, José; Lopes, Luís; João Costa, Maria; Cunha, Miguel

    2013-04-01

    This interdisciplinary project carried out with 8th and 9th grade students involved five teachers from three different subjects (Physics and Chemistry, Natural Science and Geography). Framed in the Water Framework Directive, it aimed at verifying the ecological quality of water in two rivers in the municipality of Tavira (South Portugal). The development of this project has been structured in accordance with the following objectives: evaluate the quality of freshwater ecosystems through the existence of certain living organisms; present proposals on ways to preserve water resources in a sustainable perspective; sensitize students to the importance of their participation in collective action by volunteering for ecological protection. This is an innovative educational experience that allowed students an integrated approach to content and procedures applied to real problems in their local environment.

  1. Assessing fire risk in Portugal during the summer fire season

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dacamara, C. C.; Pereira, M. G.; Trigo, R. M.

    2009-04-01

    Since 1998, Instituto de Meteorologia, the Portuguese Weather Service has relied on the Canadian Fire Weather Index (FWI) System (van Wagner, 1987) to produce daily forecasts of fire risk. The FWI System consists of six components that account for the effects of fuel moisture and wind on fire behavior. The first three components, i.e. the Fine Fuel Moisture Code (FFMC), the Duff Moisture Code (DMC) and the Drought Code (DC) respectively rate the average moisture content of surface litter, decomposing litter, and organic (humus) layers of the soil. Wind effects are then added to FFMC leading to the Initial Spread Index (ISI) that rates fire spread. The remaining two fuel moisture codes (DMC and DC) are in turn combined to produce the Buildup Index (BUI) that is a rating of the total amount of fuel available for combustion. BUI is finally combined with ISI to produce the Fire Weather Index (FWI) that represents the rate of fire intensity. Classes of fire danger and levels of preparedness are commonly defined on an empirical way for a given region by calibrating the FWI System against wildfire activity as defined by the recorded number of events and by the observed burned area over a given period of time (Bovio and Camia, 1998). It is also a well established fact that distributions of burned areas are heavily skewed to the right and tend to follow distributions of the exponential-type (Cumming, 2001). Based on the described context, a new procedure is presented for calibrating the FWI System during the summer fire season in Portugal. Two datasets were used covering a 28-year period (1980-2007); i) the official Portuguese wildfire database which contains detailed information on fire events occurred in the 18 districts of Continental Portugal and ii) daily values of the six components of the FWI System as derived from reanalyses (Uppala et al., 2005) of the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF). Calibration of the FWI System is then performed in two

  2. Did the summer 2003 forest fires in Portugal affect air quality over Europe?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miranda, A. I.; Martins, V.; Sá, E.; Carvalho, A.; Amorim, J. H.; Borrego, C.

    2009-04-01

    2003 in Portugal highlighted the need to better analyze the link between forest fires and air quality. Portugal faced in 2003, the worst fire season ever recorded and this is clearly reflected in the values measured by the air quality-monitoring networks. There were 4,645 fires burning 8.6% of the total Portuguese forest area. The main purpose of this paper is to evaluate the contribution of summer 2003 Portuguese fires to air quality impairment in Europe. Portuguese forest fire emissions, namely CO2, CO, CH4, PM10, PM2.5, NMHC, NOx, SO2 and NH3, were estimated throughout the summer of 2003, based on specific southern European emissions factors, on type of vegetation and area burned. LOTOS-EUROS, which is an operational 3D chemistry transport model aimed to simulate air pollution in the lower troposphere, was specifically adapted to simulate forest fire emissions. The modelling system was applied first at a continental scale (with 0.5° x 0.25°, approximately 35 km x 25 km) and then to mainland Portugal domain, using the same physics and a simple one-way nesting technique, with 17.5 km x 12.5 km horizontal resolution. The simulation period covered the entire summer, aiming to estimate hourly concentration values of gaseous and particulate pollutants levels in the air. A baseline simulation (BS) was carried out, only including the "conventional" anthropogenic and biogenic emissions, and a forest fire simulation (FS), which also considered emissions from large forest fires (area burned higher than 100 ha). Hence, forest fire emissions values were added to the anthropogenic and biogenic grid emissions, according to the fire location and assuming a uniform fire spread and a constant injection altitude in the dynamic mixing layer. The modelling system indicates a severe degradation of particulate matter and ozone (O3) concentrations due to forest fires, not only in Portugal, but also in United Kingdom, France and Spain. Modelling results were compared to background

  3. Parasite communities in stray cat populations from Lisbon, Portugal.

    PubMed

    Waap, H; Gomes, J; Nunes, T

    2014-12-01

    Stray cats live in high-density colonies in urban areas and pose a health hazard to household cats and humans. In Portugal, information on the parasitic fauna of stray cats is limited and relies mostly on results from faecal analysis. The present survey aimed to determine the prevalence, diversity and intensity of parasites in stray cats from the urban area of Lisbon by means of parasitological necropsy. Internal organs were collected from 162 cats captured in different areas of the city and systematically subjected to parasitological dissection. Helminths were identified by macro- and microscopic examination and protozoa by faecal floatation and sedimentation techniques. The overall prevalence of parasites was 90.7% (95% confidence interval (CI): 85.3-94.6%). A total of 12 parasite species was recorded: Cystoisospora felis (14.2%), Cystoisospora rivolta (46.3%), Sarcocystis sp. (1.2%), Ancylostoma tubaeforme (19.1%), Toxocara cati (38.3%), Ollulanus tricuspis (30.9%), Aelurostrongylus abstrusus (12.4%), Eucoleus aerophilus (0.6%), Taenia taeniaeformis (3.1%), Dipylidium caninum (53.1%), Joyeuxiella pasqualei (15.4%) and Diplopylidium nölleri (3.7%). Overall mean species richness was 2.36 ±  1.52. Helminth mean intensity was highest for O. tricuspis (285.8), followed by D. caninum (42.4), J. pasqualei (14.4), A. tubaeforme (8.1) and T. cati (5.9). The prevalence and variety of parasites found in our sampling are substantially higher than the numbers previously reported in Portugal. Some of the parasites, including T. cati and A. tubaeforme, are zoonotic, which emphasizes the need for parasite control strategies based on demographic containment of stray cat populations in urban areas to promote public health protection. PMID:23719370

  4. Suicides in the Centre of Portugal: seven years analysis.

    PubMed

    Dias, Daniel; Mendonça, M Cristina; Real, Francisco Corte; Vieira, Duarte Nuno; Teixeira, Helena M

    2014-01-01

    As one of the more specific and distinctive problems of human beings, suicide has been investigated with increasing attention all over the world. Several risk factors have been described as well as limitations arising from their study. The World Health Organization estimates that this scourge affects one million people annually, which corresponds to one death every 40s worldwide. According to recent studies, Portugal, despite the good rates (10 suicide deaths per 100,000 inhabitants), had shown an increasing trend among younger people. This work aims to characterize the evolution of the suicidal profile autopsied at the Forensic Pathology Department of the Centre Branch of the National Institute of Legal Medicine and Forensic Sciences of Portugal, analyzing several variables: age, gender, marital status, employment status, suicidal methodology, toxicological analysis and some conditions/behaviors regarding personal history (alcoholism, suicidal ideation, suicide attempts, physical illness, psychiatric disorder). All the autopsies from the 1 January, 2003 to 31 December, 2009 were analyzed. The suicide profile achieved corresponded to a man (77%), aged between 65 and 74 years old (20.4%), married (54.5%), employed, who committed suicide by hanging, in September, May or February. Clinical records include an organic health problem or psychiatric one, in addition to risk behaviors such as alcoholism, suicidal thoughts or suicide attempts. The number of suicides autopsied at the Centre Branch has increased, resembling the profile to the result of many other authors. However, new medical and social developments place hanging as the favorite suicide method in our study. Many barriers remain to overthrow but several prevention programs begin to be designed and implemented. Future evaluations and interventions at the social and medical level, including the death certification process, will be fundamental to a better realistic understanding of this phenomenon. PMID:24378298

  5. Prevalence of asthma in Portugal - The Portuguese National Asthma Survey

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Asthma is a frequent chronic respiratory disease in both children and adults. However, few data on asthma prevalence are available in Portugal. The Portuguese National Asthma Survey is the first nationwide study that uses standardized methods. We aimed to estimate the prevalence of current asthma in the Portuguese population and to assess the association between ‘Current asthma’ and comorbidities such as upper airways disease. Methods A cross-sectional, population-based, telephone interview survey including all municipalities of Portugal was undertaken. Participants were randomly selected to answer a questionnaire based on the Portuguese version of the GA2LEN survey. ‘Current asthma’ was defined as self-reported lifetime asthma and at least one of 3 symptoms in the last 12 months: wheezing, waking with breathlessness or having an asthma attack. Results Data were obtained for 6 003 respondents, with mean age of 38.9 (95%CI 38.2-39.6) years and 57.3% females. In the Portuguese population, the prevalence of ‘Current asthma’ was 6.8% (95%CI 6.0-7.7) and of ‘Lifetime asthma’ was 10.5% (95%CI 9.5-11.6) Using GA2LEN definition for asthma, our prevalence estimate was 7.8% (95%CI 7.0-8.8). Rhinitis had a strong association with asthma (Adjusted OR 3.87, 95%CI 2.90-5.18) and the association between upper airway diseases and asthma was stronger in patients with both rhinitis and sinusitis (Adjusted OR 13.93, 95%CI 6.60-29.44). Conclusions Current asthma affects 695 000 Portuguese, with a prevalence of 6.8%. People who reported both rhinitis and sinusitis had the highest risk of having asthma. PMID:22931550

  6. [Epidemiological study of lung cancer in Portugal (2000/2002)].

    PubMed

    Parente, Bárbara; Queiroga, H; Teixeira, E; Sotto-Mayor, R; Barata, F; Sousa, A; Melo, M J; João, F; Neveda, R; Cunha, J; Fernandes, A; Manuel, M; Cardoso, T; Ferreira, L; Nogueira, F; Duarte, J; Semedo, E; Brito, U; Pimentel, F; Barros, S; Costa, F; Almodôvar, T; Araújo, A

    2007-01-01

    Lung cancer is the most common form of cancer death in the world. Five-year survival is about 15%, without any change to this picture envisaged. It is the 3rd most prevalent type of cancer in Portugal and the primary cause of cancer death. 85% of lung cancer cases are attributable to smoking. One study performed in Portugal for 3 years (2000/2002) by the Lung Oncology Work Committee of the Portuguese Society of Pulmonology in 22 Hospitals showed that of a total of 4396 patients with lung cancer, 81.8% were male and 18.2% were female, with a mean age of 64.49 +/- 11.28 years. About 70% of patients were smokers or former smokers, with 50.3% of patients presenting with performance status (Zubrod) 1. Histologically, 37.5% were adenocarcinoma, followed by squamous carcinoma in 30.5% of cases, and small cell lung cancer in 12.5%; neuroendocrine carcinoma presented in 1.4% of cases; non small cell lung cancer in 10.5%; mixed carcinoma in 0.7%; large cell carcinoma in 2.3%; and others/not specified in 4.6% of cases. Staging (known in 4097 patients), showed 113 patients in stage IA (2.8%)and 250 patients in stage IB (6.1%); only 0.8% in stage IIA and 4.5% in stage IIB; 9.1% in stage IIIA and 29.9% in stage IIIB; 46.9% were already in stage IV by the time of diagnosis. The first therapeutic option was known in 3855 patients. Surgery was performed in 8.2% and 21.8% of cases were treated with combined therapies (surgery and chemotherapy or radiotherapy, or combination of chemotherapy and radiotherapy); chemotherapy alone was first choice in 43.7% of patients and in 20.3% only best support therapy was chosen. PMID:17571453

  7. Influence of meteorological conditions on RSV infection in Portugal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oliveira-Santos, M.; Santos, J. A.; Soares, J.; Dias, A.; Quaresma, M.

    2016-04-01

    Acute viral bronchiolitis is a common cause for infant hospital admissions. Of all etiological agents, respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is commonly the most frequent. The present study assesses relationships between atmospheric factors and RSV infections in under 3-year-old patients admitted to the Inpatient Paediatric Service of Vila Real (North of Portugal). For this purpose, (1) clinical files of children admitted with a diagnosis of acute bronchiolitis from September 2005 to December 2015 (>10 years) were scrutinised and (2) local daily temperature/precipitation series, as well as six weather types controlling meteorological conditions in Portugal, were used. Fifty-five percent of all 770 admitted children were effectively infected with a given virus, whilst 48 % (367) were RSV+, i.e. 87 % of virus-infected children were RSV+. The bulk of incidence is verified in the first year of age (82 %, 302), slightly higher in males. RSV outbreaks are typically from December to March, but important inter-annual variability is found in both magnitude and shape. Although no clear connections were found between monthly temperatures/precipitation and RSV outbreaks apart from seasonality, a linkage to wintertime cold spells is apparent on a daily basis. Anomalously low minimum temperatures from the day of admittance back to 10 days before are observed. This relationship is supported by anomalously high occurrences of the E and AA weather types over the same period, which usually trigger dry and cold weather. These findings highlight some predictability in the RSV occurrences, revealing potential for modelling and risk assessments.

  8. Tsunami flooding along Tagus estuary, Portugal, the 1531 event

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baptista, M. A.; Miranda, J. M.; Batlo, J.; Ferreira, H.

    2012-04-01

    TSUNAMI FLOODING ALONG TAGUS ESTUARY (PORTUGAL), THE 1531 EVENT The city of Lisbon one of the main towns in Europe between the XVI and XVIII centuries was severely damaged by two strong earthquakes: 1531-01-26 and 1755-11-01 and the companion tsunamis. In this study we present a re-evaluation of the data available for this event. The 26 January 1531 earthquake occurred between 4 and 5 am and was felt mainly in Lisbon and surroundings dwellings along the Tagus river estuary. The shock heavily destroyed Lisbon downtown causing approximately 1000 casualties Two foreshocks preceded the event: on the 2nd and the 7th January 1531, respectively. The maximum MSK intensity is IX, making it one of the most disastrous earthquakes in the recent history of Portugal. The historical descriptions clearly describe the observation of high waves and the ships touching the riverbed. Although, the difference between tsunamis and storms is sometimes unclear in some historical documents, in this case, the occurrence of the of the earthquake definitively states clearly excludes the hypothesis of a storm. Moreover, the king's chronicle clearly states the observation of high waves and the lack of wind. Other reports consistent with the occurrence of a tsunami are the observation of strong fluxes and refluxes in the river the division of islands into smaller ones and the observation of the riverbed. In this study we present a re-appraisal of the historical information available, a new isoseismal map and the relocation of the epicentre. Finally, we present a tsunami simulation and propagation along a section of 70 km along Tagus estuary compatible with the earthquake data and the historical accounts.

  9. Spatio-temporal clustering of wildfires in Portugal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Costa, R.; Pereira, M. G.; Caramelo, L.; Vega Orozco, C.; Kanevski, M.

    2012-04-01

    Several studies have shown that wildfires in Portugal presenthigh temporal as well as high spatial variability (Pereira et al., 2005, 2011). The identification and characterization of spatio-temporal clusters contributes to a comprehensivecharacterization of the fire regime and to improve the efficiency of fire prevention and combat activities. The main goalsin this studyare: (i) to detect the spatio-temporal clusters of burned area; and, (ii) to characterize these clusters along with the role of human and environmental factors. The data were supplied by the National Forest Authority(AFN, 2011) and comprises: (a)the Portuguese Rural Fire Database, PRFD, (Pereira et al., 2011) for the 1980-2007period; and, (b) the national mapping burned areas between 1990 and 2009. In this work, in order to complement the more common cluster analysis algorithms, an alternative approach based onscan statistics and on the permutation modelwas used. This statistical methodallows the detection of local excess events and to test if such an excess can reasonably have occurred by chance.Results obtained for different simulations performed for different spatial and temporal windows are presented, compared and interpreted.The influence of several fire factors such as (climate, vegetation type, etc.) is also assessed. Pereira, M.G., Trigo, R.M., DaCamara, C.C., Pereira, J.M.C., Leite, S.M., 2005:"Synoptic patterns associated with large summer forest fires in Portugal".Agricultural and Forest Meteorology. 129, 11-25. Pereira, M. G., Malamud, B. D., Trigo, R. M., and Alves, P. I.: The history and characteristics of the 1980-2005 Portuguese rural fire database, Nat. Hazards Earth Syst. Sci., 11, 3343-3358, doi:10.5194/nhess-11-3343-2011, 2011 AFN, 2011: AutoridadeFlorestalNacional (National Forest Authority). Available at http://www.afn.min-agricultura.pt/portal.

  10. Thromboprophylaxis in critically ill children in Spain and Portugal

    PubMed Central

    Nñnez, A. Rodríguez; Fonte, M.; Faustino, E.V.S.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Although critically ill children may be at risk from developing deep venous thrombosis (DVT), data on its incidence and effectiveness of thromboprophylaxis are lacking. Objective To describe the use of thromboprophylaxis in critically ill children in Spain and Portugal, and to compare the results with international data. Material and methods Secondary analysis of the multinational study PROTRACT, carried out in 59 PICUs from 7 developed countries (4 from Portugal and 6 in Spain). Data were collected from patients less than 18 years old, who did not receive therapeutic thromboprophylaxis. Results A total of 308 patients in Spanish and Portuguese (Iberian) PICUS were compared with 2176 admitted to international PICUs. Risk factors such as femoral vein (P = .01), jugular vein central catheter (P < .001), cancer (P = .03), and sepsis (P < .001), were more frequent in Iberian PICUs. The percentage of patients with pharmacological thromboprophylaxis was similar in both groups (15.3% vs. 12.0%). Low molecular weight heparin was used more frequently in Iberian patients (P < .001). In treated children, prior history of thrombosis (P = .02), femoral vein catheter (P < .001), cancer (P = .02) and cranial trauma or craniectomy (P = .006), were more frequent in Iberian PICUs. Mechanical thromboprophylaxis was used in only 6.8% of candidates in Iberian PICUs, compared with 23.8% in the international PICUs (P < .001). Conclusions Despite the presence of risk factors for DVT in many patients, thromboprophylaxis is rarely prescribed, with low molecular weight heparin being the most used drug. Passive thromboprophylaxis use is anecdotal. There should be a consensus on guidelines of thromboprophylaxis in critically ill children. PMID:24907863

  11. Linguistic isolates in Portugal: insights from the mitochondrial DNA pattern.

    PubMed

    Mairal, Quim; Santos, Cristina; Silva, Marina; Marques, Sofia L; Ramos, Amanda; Aluja, Maria Pilar; Amorim, Antonio; Prata, Maria João; Alvarez, Luis

    2013-12-01

    Miranda do Douro, located in the northeastern region of Portugal, has notable characteristics not only from a geographic or naturalistic point of view, but also from a cultural perspective. A remarkable one is the coexistence of two different languages: Portuguese and Mirandese, the second being an Astur-Leonese dialect. The current persistence of the Astur-Leonese dialect in this population falls on the singularity of the region: relative isolation, implying difficulties to communicate with other Portuguese regions, while the same location facilitated the establishment of social and commercial relationships with adjacent Spanish territories, origin of the Astur-Leonese language. The objective of this study was to characterize the population from Miranda through the analysis of maternal lineages in order to evaluate whether its mitochondrial DNA diversity fitted the patterns previously reported for other populations from the Iberian Peninsula. Viewing that, the entire control region of mitochondrial DNA from 121 individuals was examined. Miranda showed a haplogroup composition usual for a Western European population, in the sense that as high as 63.6% of sequences belonged to macro-haplogroup R0. Lineages ascribed to have an African (L2a and L1b) origin, were detected, but reaching an amount commonly found in Portugal. Miranda also presented a few haplogroups typically found in Jewish populations, while rarely observed in other Iberian populations. The finding can be explained by gene flow with crypto-Jew communities that since long are known to be established in the region where Miranda is located. In Miranda, both genetic and nucleotide diversities presented low values (0.9292 ± 0.0180 and 0.01101 ± 0.00614 respectively) when compared to populations from its micro-geographical framework, which constitute a sign of population isolation that certainly provided conditions for the survival of the Astur-Leonese dialect in the region. PMID:24041913

  12. Pearl southern highbush blueberry

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The USDA-ARS Southern Horticulture has developed and released a new productive early ripening southern highbush blueberry cultivar, Pearl. 'Pearl', tested as MS 812, came from the cross Bluecrisp X Magnolia. The pedigree of Bluecrisp is unknown but it was tested as Fla 84-40, and Magnolia came fr...

  13. Southern Identity in "Southern Living" Magazine

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lauder, Tracy

    2012-01-01

    A fantasy-theme analysis of the editors' letters in "Southern Living" magazine shows an editorial vision of valuing the past and showcasing unique regional qualities. In addition, a content analysis of the visual representation of race in the magazine's formative years and recent past validates that inhabitants of the region were portrayed…

  14. A Well-Kept Treasure at Depth: Precious Red Coral Rediscovered in Atlantic Deep Coral Gardens (SW Portugal) after 300 Years

    PubMed Central

    Boavida, Joana; Paulo, Diogo; Aurelle, Didier; Arnaud-Haond, Sophie; Marschal, Christian; Reed, John

    2016-01-01

    Background The highly valuable red coral Corallium rubrum is listed in several Mediterranean Conventions for species protection and management since the 1980s. Yet, the lack of data about its Atlantic distribution has hindered its protection there. This culminated in the recent discovery of poaching activities harvesting tens of kg of coral per day from deep rocky reefs off SW Portugal. Red coral was irregularly exploited in Portugal between the 1200s and 1700s, until the fishery collapsed. Its occurrence has not been reported for the last 300 years. Results Here we provide the first description of an Atlantic red coral assemblage, recently rediscovered dwelling at 60–100 m depth in southern Portugal. We report a very slow growth rate (0.23 mm year-1), comparable to Mediterranean specimens. In comparison with most of the Mediterranean reports, the population reaches much larger sizes, estimated to be over one century old, and has a more complex coral branch architecture that promotes a rich assemblage of associated species, with boreal and Mediterranean affinities. Atlantic red coral is genetically distinct, yet mitochondrial analyses suggest that red corals from the Atlantic may have introgressed the Mediterranean ones after migration via the Algeria current. Our underwater surveys, using advanced mixed-gas diving, retrieved lost fishing gear in all coral sites. Besides illegal harvesting, the use and loss of fishing gears, particularly nets, by local fisheries are likely sources of direct impacts on these benthic assemblages. Conclusions We extended the knowledge on the distribution of C. rubrum in the Atlantic, discovered its genetic distinctiveness, and reveal a rich deep-dwelling fauna associated to these coral assemblages. These findings support a barrier role of the Atlantic-Mediterranean transition zone, but reveal also hints of connectivity along its southern margin. The results highlight the genetic and demographic uniqueness of red coral populations

  15. Using MODIS imagery to assign dates to maps of burn scars in Portugal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DaCamara, C. C.; Libonati, R.; Barros, A.; Gaspar, G.; Calado, T. J.

    2012-04-01

    In the European context, Portugal presents the highest number of fire occurrences and has the largest area affected by wildfires. Like other southern regions of Europe, Portugal has experienced a dramatic increase in fire incidence during the last few decades that has been attributed to modifications in land-use as well as to climatic changes and associated occurrence of weather extremes. Wildfire activity also presents a large inter-annual variability that has been related to changes in the frequency of occurrence of atmospheric conditions favorable to the onset and spreading of large-fires. Since 1990, the Portuguese Authority for Forests (AFN) has been producing yearly maps of fire perimeters under a protocol with the Department of Forest Engineering of the Institute of Agronomy (DEF/ISA). The AFN fire atlas uses end of fire season Landsat TM/ETM imagery to map all fire perimeters with area larger than 5ha. Because it relies on end-of-season imagery, the atlas provides a spatial snapshot of the yearly area burned, and dates of burn for individual events cannot be estimated. Such information is nevertheless crucial to understand the fire regime and fire seasonality and to disentangle the complex interactions among fire, land cover and meteorology. The aim of the present work is to develop an automated procedure that allows using time series of moderate resolution imagery, such as the one provided by the MODIS instrument on-board TERRA and AQUA, to assign dates of burning to scars larger than 500 ha in the Landsat based fire atlas. The procedure relies on the so-called (V,W) burned index that uses daily reflectance obtained from the 1km MODIS Level 1B calibrated radiance from bands 2 (NIR) and 20 (MIR). The algorithm detects persistent changes in the (V,W) burned index time series, within each Landsat burned scar. The day of maximum change is then identified by means of a discrimination index, together with thresholds from the (V,W) time series. A spatial filter

  16. Chronic mercury exposure in Late Neolithic/Chalcolithic populations in Portugal from the cultural use of cinnabar

    PubMed Central

    Emslie, Steven D.; Brasso, Rebecka; Patterson, William P.; Carlos Valera, António; McKenzie, Ashley; Maria Silva, Ana; Gleason, James D.; Blum, Joel D.

    2015-01-01

    Cinnabar is a natural mercury sulfide (HgS) mineral of volcanic or hydrothermal origin that is found worldwide. It has been mined prehistorically and historically in China, Japan, Europe, and the Americas to extract metallic mercury (Hg0) for use in metallurgy, as a medicinal, a preservative, and as a red pigment for body paint and ceramics. Processing cinnabar via combustion releases Hg0 vapor that can be toxic if inhaled. Mercury from cinnabar can also be absorbed through the gut and skin, where it can accumulate in organs and bone. Here, we report moderate to high levels of total mercury (THg) in human bone from three Late Neolithic/Chalcolithic (5400–4100 B.P.) sites in southern Portugal that were likely caused by cultural use of cinnabar. We use light stable isotope and Hg stable isotope tracking to test three hypotheses on the origin of mercury in this prehistoric human bone. We traced Hg in two individuals to cinnabar deposits near Almadén, Spain, and conclude that use of this mineral likely caused mild to severe mercury poisoning in the prehistoric population. Our methods have applications to bioarchaeological investigations worldwide, and for tracking trade routes and mobility of prehistoric populations where cinnabar use is documented. PMID:26424480

  17. Ecophys.Fish perspectives on growth of juvenile soles, Solea solea and Solea senegalensis, in the Tagus estuary, Portugal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fonseca, Vanessa F.; Neill, William H.; Miller, John M.; Cabral, Henrique N.

    2010-07-01

    Ecophys.Fish, an ecophysiological framework to simulate fish growth in time-varying environments, was parameterized for two sole species, Solea solea (Linnaeus, 1758) and Solea senegalensis Kaup, 1858. The model gave reliable predictions of soles' growth and metabolic rates from published data under controlled environments. Differences in model parameters reflected specie's different environmental optima and were in accordance with their distributional range — northern range of S. solea and a southern range of S. senegalensis. Field application of this model to resolve the effects of varying habitat conditions on juvenile soles' growth in the Tagus estuary (Portugal), during the spring-summer period from 2003 to 2006, highlighted spatial and temporal differences in soles' metabolic scope for growth and estimated growth rates. Higher growth estimates were obtained for S. solea and S. senegalensis in Vila Franca de Xira during 2006, and for S. senegalensis in Alcochete during 2003, 2004 and 2006, and were fairly well explained by natural variation in abiotic conditions. Overall, the Ecophys.Fish model gave accurate field predictions of each sole species' growth rate and proved to be a useful tool for monitoring and assessment of habitat quality for juvenile sole.

  18. Chronic mercury exposure in Late Neolithic/Chalcolithic populations in Portugal from the cultural use of cinnabar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Emslie, Steven D.; Brasso, Rebecka; Patterson, William P.; Carlos Valera, António; McKenzie, Ashley; Maria Silva, Ana; Gleason, James D.; Blum, Joel D.

    2015-10-01

    Cinnabar is a natural mercury sulfide (HgS) mineral of volcanic or hydrothermal origin that is found worldwide. It has been mined prehistorically and historically in China, Japan, Europe, and the Americas to extract metallic mercury (Hg0) for use in metallurgy, as a medicinal, a preservative, and as a red pigment for body paint and ceramics. Processing cinnabar via combustion releases Hg0 vapor that can be toxic if inhaled. Mercury from cinnabar can also be absorbed through the gut and skin, where it can accumulate in organs and bone. Here, we report moderate to high levels of total mercury (THg) in human bone from three Late Neolithic/Chalcolithic (5400-4100 B.P.) sites in southern Portugal that were likely caused by cultural use of cinnabar. We use light stable isotope and Hg stable isotope tracking to test three hypotheses on the origin of mercury in this prehistoric human bone. We traced Hg in two individuals to cinnabar deposits near Almadén, Spain, and conclude that use of this mineral likely caused mild to severe mercury poisoning in the prehistoric population. Our methods have applications to bioarchaeological investigations worldwide, and for tracking trade routes and mobility of prehistoric populations where cinnabar use is documented.

  19. Asymmetric introgression between sympatric molestus and pipiens forms of Culex pipiens (Diptera: Culicidae) in the Comporta region, Portugal

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Culex pipiens L. is the most widespread mosquito vector in temperate regions. This species consists of two forms, denoted molestus and pipiens, that exhibit important behavioural and physiological differences. The evolutionary relationships and taxonomic status of these forms remain unclear. In northern European latitudes molestus and pipiens populations occupy different habitats (underground vs. aboveground), a separation that most likely promotes genetic isolation between forms. However, the same does not hold in southern Europe where both forms occur aboveground in sympatry. In these southern habitats, the extent of hybridisation and its impact on the extent of genetic divergence between forms under sympatric conditions has not been clarified. For this purpose, we have used phenotypic and genetic data to characterise Cx. pipiens collected aboveground in Portugal. Our aims were to determine levels of genetic differentiation and the degree of hybridisation between forms occurring in sympatry, and to relate these with both evolutionary and epidemiological tenets of this biological group. Results Autogeny and stenogamy was evaluated in the F1 progeny of 145 individual Cx. pipiens females. Bayesian clustering analysis based on the genotypes of 13 microsatellites revealed two distinct genetic clusters that were highly correlated with the alternative traits that define pipiens and molestus. Admixture analysis yielded hybrid rate estimates of 8-10%. Higher proportions of admixture were observed in pipiens individuals suggesting that more molestus genes are being introgressed into the pipiens form than the opposite. Conclusion Both physiological/behavioural and genetic data provide evidence for the sympatric occurrence of molestus and pipiens forms of Cx. pipiens in the study area. In spite of the significant genetic differentiation between forms, hybridisation occurs at considerable levels. The observed pattern of asymmetric introgression probably relates to

  20. Southern hemisphere observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orchiston, Wayne

    Because of insurmountable problems associated with absolute dating, the non-literate cultures of the Southern Hemisphere can contribute little to Applied Historical Astronomy, although Maori traditions document a possible supernova dating to the period 1000-1770 AD. In contrast, the abundant nineteenth century solar, planetary, cometary and stellar observational data provided by Southern Hemisphere professional and amateur observatories can serve as an invaluable mine of information for present-day astronomers seeking to incorporate historical data in their investigations.

  1. Early Childhood Education and Care Policy in Portugal = A Educacao Pre-Escolar e os Cuidados para a Infancia em Portugal.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ministry of Education, Lisbon (Portugal).

    Based on the view that the rapid expansion and development of preschool education requires careful scrutiny of both educational policy and practices, this book presents information on current early childhood education and care policy in Portugal. Section 1 of the book provides a historical framework for the development of early childhood education…

  2. Erratum to Identification of tsunami-induced deposits using numerical modeling and rock magnetism techniques: A study case of the 1755 Lisbon tsunami in Algarve, Portugal. [Physics of the Earth and Planetary Interiors Volume 182, Issues 3-4, Pages 187-198 (October 2010)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Font, E.; Nascimento, C.; Omira, R.; Baptista, M. A.; Silva, P. F.

    2011-01-01

    Storm- and tsunami-deposits are generated by similar depositional mechanisms making their discrimination hard to establish using classic sedimentologic methods. Here we propose an original approach to identify tsunami-induced deposits by combining numerical simulation and rock magnetism. To test our method, we investigate the tsunami deposit of the Boca do Rio estuary generated by the 1755 earthquake in Lisbon which is well described in the literature. We first test the 1755 tsunami scenario using a numerical inundation model to provide physical parameters for the tsunami wave. Then we use concentration (MS, SIRM) and grain size ( χARM, ARM, B1/2, ARM/SIRM) sensitive magnetic proxies coupled with SEM microscopy to unravel the magnetic mineralogy of the tsunami-induced deposit and its associated depositional mechanisms. In order to study the connection between the tsunami deposit and the different sedimentologic units present in the estuary, magnetic data were processed by multivariate statistical analyses. Our numerical simulation show a large inundation of the estuary with flow depths varying from 0.5 to 6 m and run up of ˜7 m. Magnetic data show a dominance of paramagnetic minerals (quartz) mixed with lesser amount of ferromagnetic minerals, namely titanomagnetite and titanohematite both of a detrital origin and reworked from the underlying units. Multivariate statistical analyses indicate a better connection between the tsunami-induced deposit and a mixture of Units C and D. All these results point to a scenario where the energy released by the tsunami wave was strong enough to overtop and erode important amount of sand from the littoral dune and mixed it with reworked materials from underlying layers at least 1 m in depth. The method tested here represents an original and promising tool to identify tsunami-induced deposits in similar embayed beach environments.

  3. A strategic approach for Water Safety Plans implementation in Portugal.

    PubMed

    Vieira, Jose M P

    2011-03-01

    Effective risk assessment and risk management approaches in public drinking water systems can benefit from a systematic process for hazards identification and effective management control based on the Water Safety Plan (WSP) concept. Good results from WSP development and implementation in a small number of Portuguese water utilities have shown that a more ambitious nationwide strategic approach to disseminate this methodology is needed. However, the establishment of strategic frameworks for systematic and organic scaling-up of WSP implementation at a national level requires major constraints to be overcome: lack of legislation and policies and the need for appropriate monitoring tools. This study presents a framework to inform future policy making by understanding the key constraints and needs related to institutional, organizational and research issues for WSP development and implementation in Portugal. This methodological contribution for WSP implementation can be replicated at a global scale. National health authorities and the Regulator may promote changes in legislation and policies. Independent global monitoring and benchmarking are adequate tools for measuring the progress over time and for comparing the performance of water utilities. Water utilities self-assessment must include performance improvement, operational monitoring and verification. Research and education and resources dissemination ensure knowledge acquisition and transfer. PMID:21301119

  4. Salt Fluxes in a Complex River Mouth System of Portugal

    PubMed Central

    Vaz, Nuno; Lencart e Silva, João D.; Dias, João Miguel

    2012-01-01

    Measurements of velocity and salinity near the mouth and head of the Espinheiro channel (Ria de Aveiro lagoon, Portugal) are used to study the local variation of physical water properties and to assess the balance, under steady conditions, between the seaward salt transport induced by river discharge and the landward dispersion induced by various mixing mechanisms. This assessment is made using data sampled during complete tidal cycles. Under the assumption that the estuarine tidal channel is laterally homogeneous and during moderate tidal periods (except for one survey), currents and salinity data were decomposed into various spatial and temporal means and their deviations. Near the channel's mouth, the main contributions to the salt transport are the terms due to freshwater discharge and the tidal correlation. Near the channel's head, this last term is less important than the density driven circulation, which is enhanced by the increase in freshwater discharge. The remaining terms, which are dependent on the deviations from the mean depth have a smaller role in the results of salt transport. The computed salt transport per unit width of a section perpendicular to the mean flow is in close agreement to the sum of the advective and dispersive terms (within or very close to 12%). An imbalance of the salt budget across the sections is observed for all the surveys. Considerations are made on how this approach can inform the management of hazardous contamination and how to use these results to best time the release of environmental flows during dry months. PMID:23071793

  5. Distribution of materials in construction and demolition waste in Portugal.

    PubMed

    Coelho, André; de Brito, Jorge

    2011-08-01

    It may not be enough simply to know the global volume of construction and demolition waste (CDW) generated in a certain region or country if one wants to estimate, for instance, the revenue accruing from separating several types of materials from the input entering a given CDW recycling plant. A more detailed determination of the distribution of the materials within the generated CDW is needed and the present paper addresses this issue, distinguishing different buildings and types of operation (new construction, retrofitting and demolition). This has been achieved by measuring the materials from buildings of different ages within the Portuguese building stock, and by using direct data from demolition/retrofitting sites and new construction average values reported in the literature. An attempt to establish a benchmark with other countries is also presented. This knowledge may also benefit industry management, especially that related to CDW recycling, helping to optimize procedures, equipment size and operation and even industrial plant spatial distribution. In an extremely competitive market, where as in Portugal low-tech and high environmental impact procedures remain the norm in the construction industry (in particular, the construction waste industry), the introduction of a successful recycling industry is only possible with highly optimized processes and based on a knowledge-based approach to problems. PMID:20498131

  6. Female independence in Portugal: effect on suicide rates.

    PubMed

    de Castro, E F; Pimenta, F; Martins, I

    1988-08-01

    The greater incidence of suicide among males could be ascribed to the distinct roles still attributed to each sex. Progress towards female independence could reduce this different incidence. We analysed the following in Portugal: male and female suicide rates; profiles; and male/female suicide ratio before (1955-1969) and after the development of a movement for women's independence (1970-85). Concomitant with progress towards female independence there is a significant rise in female suicide and a decrease in male/female suicide ratio. The highest rates are among professional/technical women living in urban areas. In professional groups there is significant correlation between deaths caused by suicide and by liver cirrhosis. It is concluded that alcoholism often leads to suicide; in women, taboos about alcoholism and suicide explain a higher incidence of suicide among culturally freer professional groups; female independence will catalyse a rise in alcoholism, which together with other factors resulting from that independence will lead to a predictable increase of suicide among Portuguese women and a reduced difference in rates of suicide between the sexes. PMID:3265573

  7. Granite geomorphology and its geological controls, Serra da Estrela, Portugal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Migoń, Piotr; Vieira, Gonçalo

    2014-12-01

    Serra da Estrela is an elevated granite massif in central Portugal, characterized by extensive plateau surfaces incised by deep valleys affected by Quaternary glaciation, bounded by steep fault-generated escarpments. The presence of seven major textural variants of granite provides an opportunity to study the relationships between lithology and relief, whereas DEM analysis helped to show the relationships between lithology and topography objectively. The higher ground is associated with fine- to medium-grained granites and is typified by planar surfaces of low gradient, with occasional angular tors and rock pedestals. Block fields built by angular material are common in the parts that were not previously glaciated. Less elevated parts of the plateau are supported by medium- to coarse-grained granites and show more varied topography, with an abundance of tors, boulder piles, and depressions. Lithological boundaries locally coincide with slope breaks but this is not the rule. In the northern part of the massif a deep topographic basin has evolved in biotite granite, whereas deeply incised valleys follow major fault lines. Geological controls show a hierarchy, in that gross relief reflects the pattern of tectonic uplift and subsidence, whereas lithology and then fracture patterns become more and more important if one focuses on smaller and smaller landforms.

  8. Hereditary anaemias in Portugal: epidemiology, public health significance, and control.

    PubMed Central

    Martins, M C; Olim, G; Melo, J; Magalhães, H A; Rodrigues, M O

    1993-01-01

    A countrywide prospective study aimed at establishing the prevalence of the haemoglobinopathy genes in the Portuguese population was carried out by screening 15,208 randomly selected blood samples from young males. This male based survey provided the opportunity of assessing simultaneously the prevalence of the red cell enzyme glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency, thus giving a picture of these important hereditary anaemias in Portugal. The results showed a low average frequency of beta thalassaemia (0.45%) and haemoglobin S (0.32%) carriers as well as G6PD deficiency (0.51%). However, these disorders are unevenly distributed throughout the country with a higher prevalence in some areas, mainly in the south. The relationship of this pattern of haemoglobinopathies to the known haplotypes linked to beta thalassaemia and sickle cell disease, relevant historical events, and local selective pressure was investigated. Hb D and Hb J are the commonest other structural variants. The implemented programme for control of these hereditary anaemias is described. PMID:8474108

  9. Anaplasma marginale and Theileria annulata in questing ticks from Portugal.

    PubMed

    Antunes, S; Ferrolho, J; Domingues, N; Santos, A S; Santos-Silva, M M; Domingos, A

    2016-09-01

    Ticks are ubiquitous arthropods and vectors of several pathogenic agents in animals and humans. Monitoring questing ticks is of great importance to ascertain the occurrence of pathogens and the potential vector species, offering an insight into the risk of disease transmission in a given area. In this study 428 host-seeking ticks, belonging to nine species of Ixodidae and collected from 17 of the 23 Portuguese mainland subregions, were screened for several tick-borne agents with veterinary relevance: Anaplasma marginale, Anaplasma ovis, Anaplasma centrale, Babesia spp., Coxiella burnetii and Theileria spp. Prevalence was assessed by PCR and amplified amplicons sequenced for validation of results. Twenty ticks, in a total of 428, were found positive: one Ixodes ventalloi for Theileria annulata and four Dermacentor marginatus, one Haemaphysalis punctata, five Ixodes ricinus, five I. ventalloi, and four Rhipicephalus sanguineus sensu lato for A. marginale. According to the reviewed literature, this is the first report of A. marginale and T. annulata detection in I. ventalloi. Furthermore, the amplification of A. marginale DNA in several tick species suggests a broad range for this agent in Portugal that might include other uncommon species as R. sanguineus s.l. This work provides new data towards a better understanding of tick-pathogen associations and also contributes to the surveillance of tick-borne agents in geographic areas with limited information. PMID:27394441

  10. Isolation of Besnoitia besnoiti from infected cattle in Portugal.

    PubMed

    Cortes, H C E; Reis, Y; Waap, H; Vidal, R; Soares, H; Marques, I; Pereira da Fonseca, I; Fazendeiro, I; Ferreira, M L; Caeiro, V; Shkap, V; Hemphill, A; Leitão, A

    2006-11-01

    Besnoitia besnoiti, an obligate intracellular protozoan parasite belonging to the phylum apicomplexa, is the causative agent of bovine besnoitiosis. Besnoitiosis is responsible for significant losses in the cattle industry of Africa and Mediterranean countries due to the high morbidity rate, abortion and infertility in males. The acute stage of disease is associated with the proliferative forms (tachyzoites) and is characterized by fever, whimpery, general weakness and swelling of the superficial lymph nodes. During the following chronic stage, a huge number of cysts are formed mainly in the subcutaneous tissues. This process is non-reversible, and chronic besnoitiosis is characterized by hyper-sclerodermia, hyperkeratosis, alopecia and, in bulls, atrophy, sclerosis and focal necrosis that cause irreversible lesions in the testis. In this paper we report on the identification of large cysts in the skin of a cow and a bull in Portugal, which presented loss of hair and enlargement and pachydermis all over the body. The observation of a two-layered cyst wall within the host cell, the encapsulation of the host cell by a large outer cyst wall, and the subcutaneous localization of the cysts within the host, were characteristic for B. besnoiti. The parasites were isolated from the infected animals and successfully propagated in Vero cells without prior passages in laboratory animals. Morphological characterization of B. besnoiti tachyzoites and the amplification of the 149 bp segment from the internal transcribed spacer 1 (ITS1), aided with specific primers, confirmed the identification of B. besnoiti. PMID:16822614

  11. Burkholderia pseudomallei: First case of melioidosis in Portugal.

    PubMed

    Pelerito, Ana; Nunes, Alexandra; Coelho, Susana; Piedade, Cátia; Paixão, Paulo; Cordeiro, Rita; Sampaio, Daniel; Vieira, Luís; Gomes, João Paulo; Núncio, Sofia

    2016-01-01

    Burkholderia pseudomallei is a Gram-negative bacillus and the causative agent of melioidosis, a serious infection associated with high mortality rate in humans. It can be naturally found as an environmental saprophyte in soil or stagnant water, and rice paddies that predominate in regions of endemicity such as Northeast Thailand. B. pseudomallei is a Biosafety Level 3 organism due to risks of aerosolization and severe disease and is now included in formal emergency preparedness plans and guidelines issued by various authorities in the United States and Europe. Here, we report the first case of imported melioidosis in Portugal. B. pseudomallei was isolated from the patient's blood as well as from a left gluteal abscess pus. The isolate strain showed the unusual resistance profile to first-line eradication therapy trimethroprim/sulfamethoxazole. Whole genome sequencing revealed its similarity with isolates from Southeast Asia, suggesting the Thai origin of this Portuguese isolate, which is in agreement with a recent patient's travel to Thailand. PMID:26962474

  12. Evaluation of compliance with national legislation on emissions in Portugal.

    PubMed

    Gomes, João F P

    2005-04-01

    More than 13 years after publication of the first air quality laws in Portugal and more than 10 years after the publication of the respective emission limits, it seems appropriate to analyze the degree of compliance by the Portuguese manufacturing industry. Using the data from emission measurements made regularly by the Instituto de Soldadura e Qualidade, the only officially accredited laboratory according to standard ISO 17025, I analyzed a set of approximately 400 sources in terms of compliance with the emission limits regarding total suspended particulates, sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, and volatile organic compounds. I evaluated compliance through a nondimensional parameter and plotted it versus the emission flow rate to derive conclusions: the results indicate that emission limits are generally met regarding sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides but not for the other pollutants considered in this study. However, noncompliance occurs mainly for very low emission flow rates, which suggests some alterations in the emission limits, which are being revised at the moment. These alterations will include the exemption of measurements in minor sources. PMID:15887892

  13. The Great Recession in Portugal: impact on hospital care use.

    PubMed

    Perelman, Julian; Felix, Sónia; Santana, Rui

    2015-03-01

    The Great Recession started in Portugal in 2009, coupled with severe austerity. This study examines its impact on hospital care utilization, interpreted as caused by demand-side effects (related to variations in population income and health) and supply-side effects (related to hospitals' tighter budgets and reduced capacity). The database included all in-patient stays at all Portuguese NHS hospitals over the 2001-2012 period (n=17.7 millions). We analyzed changes in discharge rates, casemix index, and length of stay (LOS), using a before-after methodology. We additionally measured the association of health care indicators to unemployment. A 3.2% higher rate of discharges was observed after 2009. Urgent stays increased by 2.5%, while elective in-patient stays decreased by 1.4% after 2011. The LOS was 2.8% shorter after the crisis onset, essentially driven by the 4.5% decrease among non-elective stays. A one percentage point increase in unemployment rate was associated to a 0.4% increase in total volume, a 2.3% decrease in day cases, and a 0.1% decrease in LOS. The increase in total and urgent cases may reflect delayed out-patient care and health deterioration; the reduced volume of elective stays possibly signal a reduced capacity; finally, the shorter stays may indicate either efficiency-enhancing measures or reduced quality. PMID:25583679

  14. Practice of biopsychosocial medicine in Portugal: perspectives of professionals involved.

    PubMed

    Pereira, M Graça; Fachada, Alfonso Alonso; Smith, Thomas Edward

    2009-05-01

    Although, recently, the biopsychosocial approach has been emphasized in the practice of family medicine, how psychologists and physicians interact in collaborative family health care practice is still emerging in Portugal. This article describes a qualitative study that focused on the understanding of psychologists and family physicians' perceptions of their role and the collaborative approach in health care. A questionnaire gathered information regarding collaboration, referral, training and the practice of biopsychosocial medicine. A content analysis on respondents' discourse was performed. Results show that both physicians and psychologists agree on the importance of the biopsychosocial model and interdisciplinary collaboration. However, they also mentioned several difficulties that have to do with the lack of psychologists working full time in health care centers, lack of communication and different expectancies regarding each other roles in health care delivery. Both physicians and psychologists acknowledge the lack of academic training and consider the need for multidisciplinary teams in their training and practice to improve collaboration and integrative care. Implications for future research and for the practice of biopsychosocial medicine are addressed. PMID:19476234

  15. Burkholderia pseudomallei: First case of melioidosis in Portugal

    PubMed Central

    Pelerito, Ana; Nunes, Alexandra; Coelho, Susana; Piedade, Cátia; Paixão, Paulo; Cordeiro, Rita; Sampaio, Daniel; Vieira, Luís; Gomes, João Paulo; Núncio, Sofia

    2016-01-01

    Burkholderia pseudomallei is a Gram-negative bacillus and the causative agent of melioidosis, a serious infection associated with high mortality rate in humans. It can be naturally found as an environmental saprophyte in soil or stagnant water, and rice paddies that predominate in regions of endemicity such as Northeast Thailand. B. pseudomallei is a Biosafety Level 3 organism due to risks of aerosolization and severe disease and is now included in formal emergency preparedness plans and guidelines issued by various authorities in the United States and Europe. Here, we report the first case of imported melioidosis in Portugal. B. pseudomallei was isolated from the patient's blood as well as from a left gluteal abscess pus. The isolate strain showed the unusual resistance profile to first-line eradication therapy trimethroprim/sulfamethoxazole. Whole genome sequencing revealed its similarity with isolates from Southeast Asia, suggesting the Thai origin of this Portuguese isolate, which is in agreement with a recent patient's travel to Thailand. PMID:26962474

  16. Exploratory study of air quality in elementary schools, Coimbra, Portugal

    PubMed Central

    Ferreira, Ana Maria Conceição; Cardoso, Salvador Massano

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To analyze the air quality in elementary schools and their structural and functional conditions. METHODS Air quality in 51 elementary schools (81 classrooms) in the city of Coimbra, Portugal, both inside and outside of the rooms was evaluated during the four seasons, from 2010 to 2011. Temperature (T°), relative humidity (Hr), concentrations of carbon monoxide (CO), carbon dioxide (CO2), ozone (O3), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), sulfur dioxide (SO2), compounds were evaluated, as were volatile organics (VOC), formaldehyde and particulate matter (PM10), from November 2010 to February 2011 (autumn/winter) and March 2011 to June 2011 (spring/summer). A grid characterizing the structural and functional conditions of the schools was created. The statistical Student t test for paired samples and the Wilcoxon t test were applied. RESULTS In 47 schools, the average CO2concentrations were above the maximum reference concentration (984 ppm) mentioned in Portuguese legislation. The maximum concentration values found inside the rooms were critical, especially in the fall/winter (5,320 ppm). In some schools the average concentrations of VOC and PM10within the maximum concentration exceeded the reference legislated. The values (risk) of CO, formaldehyde, NO2, SO2and O3detected were not relevant. CONCLUSIONS There was a higher concentration of pollutants inside the rooms compared with outside. Inadequate ventilation is associated with high CO2concentration in the classroom. PMID:24626544

  17. Litter in submarine canyons off the west coast of Portugal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mordecai, Gideon; Tyler, Paul A.; Masson, Douglas G.; Huvenne, Veerle A. I.

    2011-12-01

    Marine litter is of global concern and is present in all the world's oceans, including deep benthic habitats where the extent of the problem is still largely unknown. Litter abundance and composition were investigated using video footage and still images from 16 Remotely Operated Vehicle (ROV) dives in Lisbon, Setúbal, Cascais and Nazaré Canyons located west of Portugal. Litter was most abundant at sites closest to the coastline and population centres, suggesting the majority of the litter was land sourced. Plastic was the dominant type of debris, followed by fishing gear. Standardised mean abundance was 1100 litter items km -2, but was as high as 6600 litter items km -2 in canyons close to Lisbon. Although all anthropogenic material may be harmful to biota, debris was also used as a habitat by some macro-invertebrates. Litter composition and abundance observed in the canyons of the Portuguese margin were comparable to those seen in other deep sea areas around the world. Accumulation of litter in the deep sea is a consequence of human activities both on land and at sea. This needs to be taken into account in future policy decisions regarding marine pollution.

  18. [A sociography of elderly victims of family violence in Portugal].

    PubMed

    Gil, Ana Paula; Santos, Ana João; Kislaya, Irina; Santos, César; Mascoli, Luísa; Ferreira, Alexandra Inácio; Vieira, Duarte Nuno

    2015-06-01

    This article presents data on violence against persons aged 60 years or older and living in Portugal for at least 12 months. The cross-sectional descriptive study collected data with a face-to-face questionnaire applied to victims that had sought assistance at three government institutions and one non-governmental support service for victims. The non-probabilistic sample included 510 victims of violence in family settings. Physical and psychological violence were the most common (87.8% and 69.6%, respectively). Financial violence was reported by 47.5% of the victims, followed by sexual assault (7.5%) and neglect (6.5%). The majority of victims (74.1%) reported more than one type of violence. Victims were mostly women, and mean age was 70.7 years. Most of the perpetrators belonged to the nuclear family, namely spouses or partners, sons/sons-in-law, and daughters/daughters-in-law. However, differences were observed according to victim's gender. The results indicate that violence is not a uniform phenomenon, presenting different configurations. PMID:26200371

  19. Detection of inhomogeneities in precipitation time series in Portugal using direct sequential simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ribeiro, Sara; Caineta, Júlio; Costa, Ana Cristina; Henriques, Roberto; Soares, Amílcar

    2016-05-01

    Climate data homogenisation is of major importance in climate change monitoring, validation of weather forecasting, general circulation and regional atmospheric models, modelling of erosion, drought monitoring, among other studies of hydrological and environmental impacts. The reason is that non-climate factors can cause time series discontinuities which may hide the true climatic signal and patterns, thus potentially bias the conclusions of those studies. In the last two decades, many methods have been developed to identify and remove these inhomogeneities. One of those is based on a geostatistical simulation technique (DSS - direct sequential simulation), where local probability density functions (pdfs) are calculated at candidate monitoring stations using spatial and temporal neighbouring observations, which then are used for the detection of inhomogeneities. Such approach has been previously applied to detect inhomogeneities in four precipitation series (wet day count) from a network with 66 monitoring stations located in the southern region of Portugal (1980-2001). That study revealed promising results and the potential advantages of geostatistical techniques for inhomogeneity detection in climate time series. This work extends the case study presented before and investigates the application of the geostatistical stochastic approach to ten precipitation series that were previously classified as inhomogeneous by one of six absolute homogeneity tests (Mann-Kendall, Wald-Wolfowitz runs, Von Neumann ratio, Pettitt, Buishand range test, and standard normal homogeneity test (SNHT) for a single break). Moreover, a sensitivity analysis is performed to investigate the number of simulated realisations which should be used to infer the local pdfs with more accuracy. Accordingly, the number of simulations per iteration was increased from 50 to 500, which resulted in a more representative local pdf. As in the previous study, the results are compared with those from the

  20. LUSO: Portugal's new 6000 m rated R.O.V. for deep sea research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calado, A.; Lourenco, N.; Madureira, P.; Costa, R.; Abreu, M.; Team, E.

    2008-12-01

    Portugal has now the capability to explore the deep ocean with a 6000 meter rated ROV. The ROV, named LUSO, was acquired by the Portuguese Task Group for the Extension of the Continental Shelf (EMEPC). LUSO is a work class Bathyssaurus XL, developed by ARGUS Remote Systems AS and has entered in operation in September 2008. Its main application will be focused on both fundamental and applied research in deep waters. This new ROV is equipped with a variety of multidisciplinary marine research equipment such as: cameras for capturing high definition digital images, two manipulators, one rosette system, a biologic sampler, a mini- drill, a CH4 and CO2 sensor, push corers, CTD and a Doppler velocity logger and two parallel green laser scaling devices. The equipment will be upgraded in 2009 with an inertial movement unit (IMU) and possibly a swath bathymetry system. A first cruise with LUSO will be held on board the Portuguese oceanic class vessel the "NRP Almirante Gago Coutinho" from September to November 2008. This mission will comprise five legs with the total of four study areas: 1. Azores Platform (including the most recent Serreta submarine eruption and a series of dives along the Terceira axis); 2. southern Azores seamounts (Great Meteor group); 3. the Mid-Atlantic Ridge between 36ºN and 38ºN and 4. the Josephine seamount (Eu-Nub plate boundary). A multidisciplinary team of researchers from several national universities and public institutions, covering a wide spectrum of marine research topics: Geology, Geophysics, Oceanography, Macro and micro-biology will conduct the research. In dive area 1 the architecture of hiper-slow oceanic crust, as exposed on the Terceira axis walls and the temporal and spatial variability of constructional processes which have been creating the Azores Volcanic Platform, will be investigated. In dive area 3, previous investigations of hydrothermal occurrences at the Lucky Strike segment will be complemented. This presentation will be

  1. New insights into the reconstructed temperature in Portugal over the last 400 years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santos, J. A.; Carneiro, M. F.; Correia, A.; Alcoforado, M. J.; Zorita, E.; Gómez-Navarro, J. J.

    2015-06-01

    The consistency of an existing reconstructed annual (December-November) temperature series for the Lisbon region (Portugal) from 1600 onwards, based on a European-wide reconstruction, with (1) five local borehole temperature-depth profiles; (2) synthetic temperature-depth profiles, generated from both reconstructed temperatures and two regional paleoclimate simulations in Portugal; (3) instrumental data sources over the twentieth century; and (4) temperature indices from documentary sources during the late Maunder Minimum (1675-1715) is assessed. The low-frequency variability in the reconstructed temperature in Portugal is not entirely consistent with local borehole temperature-depth profiles and with the simulated response of temperature in two regional paleoclimate simulations driven by reconstructions of various climate forcings. Therefore, the existing reconstructed series is calibrated by adjusting its low-frequency variability to the simulations (first-stage adjustment). The annual reconstructed series is then calibrated in its location and scale parameters, using the instrumental series and a linear regression between them (second-stage adjustment). This calibrated series shows clear footprints of the Maunder and Dalton minima, commonly related to changes in solar activity and explosive volcanic eruptions, and a strong recent-past warming, commonly related to human-driven forcing. Lastly, it is also in overall agreement with annual temperature indices over the late Maunder Minimum in Portugal. The series resulting from this post-reconstruction adjustment can be of foremost relevance to improve the current understanding of the driving mechanisms of climate variability in Portugal.

  2. Spatio-temporal variability of dry and wet periods in mainland Portugal and its relationships with teleconnection patterns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Espírito Santo, Fátima; de Lima, Isabel P.; Silva, Álvaro; Pires, Vanda; de Lima, João L. M. P.

    2014-05-01

    . Thus, indices were interpolated for the whole territory using deterministic and geostatistical methods, and the zonal statistics results were mapped; the spatial interpolation, analysis and mapping were implemented in ArcGIS. Results confirm that the precipitation in this region is strongly influenced by the NAO and SCAND, in particular in the wettest months. Moreover, the annual SPI shows a significant increase in the extent of dry extremes and a non-significant decrease in the extent of wet extremes. For shorter time scales, the behaviour depends on the season. We discuss the observed SPI trends and the uncertainties for the precipitation regime in the southern and western parts of the Iberian Peninsula, which includes mainland Portugal. Results underline potential applications of SPI for water resources management, which is discussed in the context of the regional hydrological conditions and increasing demand for water for different uses.

  3. The Eclipse, the Astronomer and His Audience: Frederico Oom and the Total Solar Eclipse of 28 May 1900 in Portugal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carolino, Luis Miguel; Simoes, Ana

    2012-01-01

    This study offers a detailed analysis of an episode of the popularization of astronomy which took place in Portugal, a peripheral country of Europe, and occurring in the early twentieth century. The episode was driven by the 28 May 1900 total solar eclipse which was seen on the Iberian Peninsula (Portugal and Spain). Instead of focusing on one of…

  4. Genetic characterization of Toxoplasma gondii isolates from Portugal, Austria, and Israel reveals higher genetic variability within the type II lineage

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study compared genetic diversity of Toxoplasma gondii isolates from Portugal, Austria and Israel. For this, we genotyped 90 T. gondii isolates (16 from Portugal, 67 from Austria and 7 from Israel) using 10 nested PCR-restriction length polymorphism (RFLP) genetic markers and 15 microsatellite (...

  5. Citizen participation and discontent in three Southern European health systems.

    PubMed

    Serapioni, Mauro; Matos, Ana Raquel

    2014-12-01

    Participation has featured in political agendas in recent decades and the domain of healthcare has not been indifferent to its appeal. Although emerging later than in other European regions, the involvement of civil society in healthcare decision-making procedures has proved one of the biggest challenges facing Southern European health systems. The health systems of the countries considered in this analysis - Italy, Portugal and Spain - underwent reforms that brought citizen participation to the forefront of the health system. Through national laws or health plans, each of these countries has recognised the need to promote participation in order to 'give a voice' to citizens in the health sector. Accordingly, a range of significant activities have been implemented in the region, although they have been developed unequally within national territories, at different paces and involving the mobilisation of different actors. This article focuses on the most relevant experiences of citizen participation designed and implemented in the three selected countries, describing their key features and potential, as well as the main critical issues and contradictions that have emerged over time. Particular emphasis is given to the impact of the current financial crisis on Southern European national health systems, especially in terms of participatory methods, the way in which citizen participation is progressing and civil society's reaction to these important changes. PMID:24947551

  6. Optical fiber sensors: a route from University of Kent to Portugal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santos, José L.; Lobo Ribeiro, António B.

    2011-06-01

    In this work the authors first summarily describe the main topics that were the subject of their post-graduate activity in fiber sensing at the Applied Optics Group of University of Kent in the late 1980s and early 1990s. After their return to Porto, Portugal, the know-how acquired during their stay at Kent and the collaboration paths that followed between the University of Porto and University of Kent were instrumental in the start-up and progress of optical fiber sensing activity in Portugal. The main topics addressed in this field, the description of some of the relevant developments achieved in recent years, the present situation and the guidelines for the future research and development activity in Portugal in fiber sensing will be the core of this work.

  7. Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 recombinant B/G subtypes circulating in Coimbra, Portugal.

    PubMed

    Duque, V; Holguín, A; Silvestre, M; González-Lahoz, J; Soriano, V

    2003-05-01

    An increasing prevalence of HIV-1 non-B variants is being noticed in several European regions, particularly in countries such as Portugal, which have closer contacts with African endemic areas, where multiple HIV subtypes cocirculate. HIV-1 subtyping by phylogenetic analyses of reverse transcriptase, protease and env (C2-V3) genomic regions was carried out in plasma collected from 18 HIV-1-infected subjects living in Coimbra, Portugal, and suspected to be infected with non-B variants. Three (16.7%) subjects carried recombinant B/G viruses (BV3/BRT/Gpro; GV3/URT/Bpro; AV3/GRT/Bpro), whereas all the remaining individuals were infected with HIV-1 subtype B. This is the first report of recombinant B/G subtypes in Portugal. PMID:12848757

  8. Surveillance of norovirus in Portugal and the emergence of the Sydney variant, 2011-2013.

    PubMed

    Costa, I; Mesquita, J R; Veiga, E; Oleastro, M; Nascimento, M J S

    2015-09-01

    This report presents the results of the national surveillance system of diarrhea etiology of the National Institute of Health of Portugal concerning norovirus (NoV) during a two-year period, May 2011-2013. Of the total 580 stool samples collected from patients hospitalized for acute diarrhea in 13 Hospitals of Portugal, 67 (11.6%) tested positive for NoV. From May 2011 to March 2012 the GII.4 variant New Orleans 2009 was the most predominant strain having been replaced by the new GII.4 variant Sydney 2012 since then till the end of the survey. To our knowledge this is the first study showing the circulation of GII.4 as the norovirus strain most commonly associated to gastroenteritis and the first to report the replacement of GII.4 New Orleans by GII.4 Sydney 2012 variant in Portugal. PMID:26305815

  9. Mathematics diagnostic testing in engineering: an international comparison between Ireland and Portugal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carr, M.; Fidalgo, C.; Bigotte de Almeida, M. E.; Branco, J. R.; Santos, V.; Murphy, E.; Fhloinn, E. Ní

    2015-09-01

    Concern has been expressed throughout Europe about the significant deficiencies in the basic mathematical skills of many engineering undergraduates. Mathematics diagnostic tests in the UK, Ireland and Portugal have shown these shortcomings, which provide a challenge to those striving to introduce more innovative educational practices into engineering education, such as projects or real-world problems. Every year, in the Dublin Institute of Technology (Ireland) and the Instituto Superior de Engenharia de Coimbra (Portugal), a diagnostic test is given to incoming first-year students. A comparison showed some potentially interesting differences between these students. In September 2013, a project was undertaken to compare mathematical competencies of incoming engineering students in both countries. A modified diagnostic test was devised and the results were then compared to ascertain if there are common areas of difficulty between students in Ireland and Portugal, or evidence of one group significantly outperforming the other in a particular area.

  10. The impact of winter cold weather on acute myocardial infarctions in Portugal.

    PubMed

    Vasconcelos, João; Freire, Elisabete; Almendra, Ricardo; Silva, Giovani L; Santana, Paula

    2013-12-01

    Mortality due to cardiovascular diseases shows a seasonal trend that can be associated with cold weather. Portugal is the European country with the highest excess winter mortality, but nevertheless, the relationship between cold weather and health is yet to be assessed. The main aim of this study is to identify the contribution of cold weather to cardiovascular diseases within Portugal. Poisson regression analysis based on generalized additive models was applied to estimate the influence of a human-biometeorological index (PET) on daily hospitalizations for myocardial infarction. The main results revealed a negative effect of cold weather on acute myocardial infarctions in Portugal. For every degree fall in PET during winter, there was an increase of up to 2.2% (95% CI = 0.9%; 3.3%) in daily hospital admissions. This paper shows the need for public policies that will help minimize or, indeed, prevent exposure to cold. PMID:23410618

  11. Triton's Southern Hemisphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    This polar projection of Triton's southern hemisphere provides a view of the southern polar cap and bright equatorial fringe. The margin of the cap is scalloped and ranges in latitude from +10 degrees to -30 degrees. The bright fringe is closely associated with the cap's margin; from it, diffuse bright rays extend north-northeast for hundreds of kilometers. The bright fringe probably consists of very fresh nitrogen frost or snow, and the rays consist of bright-fringe materials that were redistributed by north-moving Coriolis-deflected winds.

  12. Eucisia schist a natural stone from Northern Portugal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aires, Silvia; Carvalho, Cristina; Noronha, Fernando

    2013-04-01

    : CS 53 Mpa, FS 16.3 MPa, AD 25220 kg/m3 , OP 9.3%, WA 1,2 % AR 26.0mm and RTS resistant. For settling the recommended applications, European standards for natural stone products were considered. Considering the technical specifications that exist in some European countries, "Eucisia schist" can be applied on rustic masonary units, on colums, on paving (low traffic, mainly indoors) and on cladding (mainly indoors). This work was performed under the project PTDC/CTE-GIN/70704/2006, "SCHISTRESOURCE funded by FCT (Portuguese Science and Technology Foundation). SFRH/BD/86641/2012 a FCT grant financially supports Silvia Aires. [1] A.Ribeiro, E. Pereira and R. Dias, in Pre-Mesozoic Geology of Iberia edited by R.D. Dallmeyer and E. Martinez-Garcia, Berlin Heidelberg: Springer-Verlag. (1990). [2] E. Pereira, in: E. Pereira, coord. Carta Geológica de Portugal. Notícia Explicativa da Folha 2. (2006) [3] E. Pereira, A. Ribeiro, in: E. Pereira, coord. Carta Geológica de Portugal. Notícia Explicativa da Folha 2. (2006).

  13. Surveillance of imported hospital requiring malaria in Portugal: can it be improved?

    PubMed

    Fonseca, Ana Glória; Simões Dias, Sara; Baptista, João Luís; Torgal, Jorge

    2016-06-01

    Although eradicated in Portugal, malaria keeps taking its toll on travellers and migrants from endemic countries. Completeness of hospital requiring malaria notification in Portugal 2000-11 was estimated, using two-source capture-recapture method. Data sources were: national surveillance database of notifiable diseases and the national database of the Diagnosis-Related Groups resulting from National Health Service (NHS) hospital episodes. The completeness of notification was 21,2% for all malaria cases and 26,5% for malaria deaths, indicating significant underreporting and urging for complementary data source in surveillance, for disease burden estimates and retrospective monitoring, namely hospital episodes statistics. PMID:27069002

  14. Feasibility Studies and Design of High-Speed Railway (TGV) Projects in Portugal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oliveira, Ricardo; Abreu, Rui

    Portugal is starting a large program of high-speed train routes connecting the main cities in the country and these cities to central Europe throughout Spain. The country has a very wide range of lithological types and the main routes cross some important hilly zones. These facts, together with the severe geometric restrictions associated with the High-Speed Trains, attach an important role to Engineering Geology both at the Feasibility stage and at the Design stage of the projects. The paper illustrates this important role with examples of studies currently under way in Portugal.

  15. Modeling fecal contamination in the Aljezur coastal stream (Portugal)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodrigues, Marta; Oliveira, Anabela; Guerreiro, Martha; Fortunato, André Bustorff; Menaia, José; David, Luís Mesquita; Cravo, Alexandra

    2011-06-01

    This study aims at understanding the fecal contamination behavior in a small coastal stream (Aljezur, Portugal), which has significant economic and ecological values. Like in most small coastal systems, circulation and water renewal in the Aljezur stream exhibit a strong variability due to their dependence on tides, waves, intermittent river flows, and a highly variable morphology. Hence, the problem was approached through a combination of field surveys and the development and application of a hard-coupled three-dimensional hydrodynamic and fecal contamination model. Salinity and temperature results have shown that mixing and transport in the stream are very sensitive to the river flow and wind forcing. The model is able to represent the main patterns and trends observed in Escherichia coli and fecal enterococcus concentrations along the stream, for different environmental and contamination conditions, suggesting die-off rates on the order of 0.50-0.55 day-1. Die-off rate and the representation of the sediment-associated processes were identified as the major remaining sources of uncertainty in the model. Results show that, owing to the processes that occur along the stream, fecal bacteria reach the beaches water in numbers that comply with the European Bathing Waters Directive, even during the summer periods when the upstream concentrations are larger. In particular, results suggest a direct relation between the tidal propagation upstream and the reduction of the fecal bacteria concentrations along the stream that can be relevant for the development of a strategy for the management of the system's water safety.

  16. Risk assessment in submarine outfall projects: the case of Portugal.

    PubMed

    Mendonça, Ana; Losada, Miguel Ángel; Reis, Maria Teresa; Neves, Maria Graça

    2013-02-15

    Submarine outfalls need to be evaluated as part of an integrated environmental protection system for coastal areas. Although outfalls are tight with the diversity of economic activities along a densely populated coastline being effluent treatment and effluent reuse a sign of economic prosperity, precautions must be taken in the construction of these structures. They must be designed so as to have the least possible impact on the environment and at the same time be economically viable. This paper outlines the initial phases of a risk assessment procedure for submarine outfall projects. This approach includes a cost-benefit analysis in which risks are systematically minimized or eliminated. The methods used in this study also allow for randomness and uncertainty. The input for the analysis is a wide range of information and data concerning the failure probability of outfalls and the consequences of an operational stoppage or failure. As part of this risk assessment, target design levels of reliability, functionality, and operationality were defined for the outfalls. These levels were based on an inventory of risks associated with such construction projects, and thus afforded the possibility of identifying possible failure modes. This assessment procedure was then applied to four case studies in Portugal. The results obtained were the values concerning the useful life of the outfalls at the four sites and their joint probability of failure against the principal failure modes assigned to ultimate and serviceability limit states. Also defined were the minimum operationality of these outfalls, the average number of admissible technical breakdowns, and the maximum allowed duration of a stoppage mode. It was found that these values were in consonance with the nature of the effluent (tourist-related, industrial, or mixed) as well as its importance for the local economy. Even more important, this risk assessment procedure was able to measure the impact of the outfalls on

  17. Late Pleistocene raised beaches of coastal Estremadura, central Portugal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benedetti, Michael M.; Haws, Jonathan A.; Funk, Caroline L.; Daniels, J. Michael; Hesp, Patrick A.; Bicho, Nuno F.; Minckley, Thomas A.; Ellwood, Brooks B.; Forman, Steven L.

    2009-12-01

    We present new stratigraphic, sedimentological, and chronological data for a suite of tectonically raised beaches dating to Marine Isotope Stages 5, 4, and 3 along the Estremadura coast of west-central Portugal. The beach deposits are found in association with ancient tidal channels and coastal dunes, pollen bearing mud and peat, and Middle Paleolithic archaeological sites that confirm occupation of the coastal zone by Neanderthal populations. The significance of these deposits is discussed in terms of the archaeological record, the tectonic and geomorphic evolution of the coast, and correlation with reconstructions of global climate and eustatic sea-level change. Direct correlation between the Estremadura beach sections is complicated by the tectonic complexity of the area and the age of the beach deposits (which are near or beyond the limit of radiocarbon dating). Evidence from multiple sites dated by AMS radiocarbon and optical luminescence methods suggests broad synchroneity in relative sea-level changes along this coast during Marine Isotope Stage 3. Two beach complexes with luminescence and radiocarbon age control date to about 35 ka and 42 ka, recording a rise in relative sea level around the time of Heinrich Event 4 at 39 ka. Depending on assumptions about eustatic sea level at the time they were deposited, we estimate that these beaches have been uplifted at rates of 0.4-4.3 mm yr -1 by the combined effects of tectonic, halokinetic, and isostatic processes. Uplift rates of 1-2 mm yr -1 are likely if the beaches represent sea level stands at roughly 40 m below modern, as suggested by recent eustatic sea level reconstructions. Evidence from coastal bluffs and the interior of the study area indicates extensive colluvial, fluvial, and aeolian sedimentation beginning around 31 ka and continuing into the Holocene. These geomorphic adjustments are related to concomitant changes in climate and sea level, providing context that improves our understanding of Late

  18. Rehabilitation of adobe buildings. Understanding different materials from Portugal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Costa, Cristiana; Rocha, Fernando; Velosa, Ana

    2016-04-01

    Earth construction is the oldest building material known, with documented cases of the use of earth bricks since Mesopotamia around 10 000 BC (Heathcote, 1995). The earth construction exists throughout the majority of the world in different cultures, and for some countries, nowadays it continues to be the main process of construction (Vega et al, 2011). Around 30% of the world's population lives in buildings made of earth materials. Earthen construction is an environmentally friendly technique with a social and cultural contribution; this advantage is increased when this type of construction is applied in developing countries where the material costs counterbalance with labour costs, and where other materials and techniques cannot be available (Ciancio et al, 2013). Studies of materials characterization are required in order to understand the composition and specific properties of the earth buildings, their heterogeneity and their degradation mechanisms. Some adobes from different buildings, ages and regions of Portugal were collected in order to characterize them (mineralogically, chemically and physically). It was possible to understand the composition of these materials and their differences. Main minerals are quartz, feldspars, calcite and phyllosilicates (mica and kaolinite). The mechanical behaviour of these materials isn't the best, but it is possible to improve it with some simple and cheap natural additives (kaolinitic soils). The characterization of these materials allows us to understand the differences between the materials from the different regions (controlled by locally available raw materials). Understanding these materials, and their properties, it is possible to formulate new ones for repair, conservation and rehabilitation works. The adobe bricks are an alternative of kiln baked bricks which has several advantages and one of the most important is that these materials are recyclable. Adobes are an excellent option for building rehabilitation, if

  19. Occurrence of springs in massifs of crystalline rocks, northern Portugal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pacheco, Fernando António Leal; Alencoão, Ana Maria Pires

    2002-02-01

    An inventory of artesian springs emerging from fractures (fracture springs) was conducted in the Pinhão River Basin and Morais Massif, northern Portugal, comprising an area of approximately 650 km2. Over 1,500 springs were identified and associated with geological domains and fracture sets. Using cross-tabulation analysis, spring distributions by fracture sets were compared among geological environments, and the deviations related to differences in rock structure and, presumably, to differences in deformational histories. The relation between spring frequencies and rock structures was further investigated by spectral determination, the model introduced in this study. Input data are the spring frequencies and fracture lengths in each geological domain, in addition to the angles between fracture strikes and present-day stress-field orientation (θ). The model's output includes the so-called intrinsic densities, a parameter indexing spring occurrence to factors such as fracture type and associated deformational regime and age. The highest densities (12.2 springs/km of lineament) were associated with young shear fractures produced by brittle deformation, and the lowest (0.1) with old tensional and ductile fractures. Spectral determination also relates each orientation class to a dominant structural parameter: where spring occurrence is controlled by θ, the class is parallel to the present-day stress-field orientation; where the control is attributed to the length of fractures, the spring occurrence follows the strike of large-scale normal faults crossing the region. Résumé. Un inventaire des sources artésiennes émergeant de fractures (sources de fractures) a été réalisé dans le bassin de la rivière Pinhão et dans le massif de Morais, dans le nord du Portugal, dans une région couvrant environ 650 km2. Plus de 1,500 sources ont été identifiées et associées à des domaines géologiques et à des ensembles de fractures. Grâce à une analyse de tableaux

  20. 'Pearl' Southern Highbush Blueberry

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    ‘Pearl’ is a new southern highbush blueberry (Vaccinium spp. hybrid) developed and released by the United States Department of Agriculture Agricultural Research Service. The new cultivar has several advantages for growers in the Southeastern U.S. over rabbiteye blueberry cultivars, the most widely ...

  1. "Pearl" southern highbush blueberry

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    ‘Pearl’ is a new southern highbush blueberry (Vaccinium spp. hybrid) developed and released by the United States Department of Agriculture-Agricultural Research Service. The new cultivar has several advantages for growers in the Southeastern U.S. over rabbiteye blueberry cultivars, the most widely ...

  2. Southern Sclerotium blight

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sclerotium rolfsii attacks a wide range of plants throughout the world. It is most severe in tropical and subtropical areas. Southern Sclerotium blight is of major concern in the eastern, southeastern, and southwestern United States and in Mexico. Although severe losses are reported annually in pe...

  3. Southern (In)hospitality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamilton, Kendra

    2005-01-01

    This article presents the results of "The Status of Race Equity and Diversity in Public Higher Education in the South," an analysis of trends in admissions, enrollment and completion at public colleges and universities in the 19 Southern and border states that maintained segregated systems of higher education in 1954. While work on the project…

  4. Trouble at Texas Southern

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Asquith, Christina

    2006-01-01

    On the night of December 4, 2004, a Texas Southern University (TSU) student named Ashley Sloan was gunned down near campus, struck in the temple by a bullet after leaving a party with her friends. The murder prompted an outpouring of accusations concerning poor campus security. For many Houstonians, the shooting raised old fears of the…

  5. Tidal controls on trace gas dynamics in a seagrass meadow of the Ria Formosa lagoon (southern Portugal)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bahlmann, E.; Weinberg, I.; Lavrič, J. V.; Eckhard, T.; Michaelis, W.; Santos, R.; Seifert, R.

    2014-07-01

    Coastal zones are important source regions for a variety of trace gases including halocarbons and sulphur-bearing species. While salt-marshes, macroalgae and phytoplankton communities have been intensively studied, little is known about trace gas fluxes in seagrass meadows. Here we report results of a newly developed dynamic flux chamber system that can be deployed in intertidal areas over full tidal cycles allowing for high time resolved measurements. The trace gases measured in this study included carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4) and a variety of hydrocarbons, halocarbons and sulphur-bearing compounds. The high time resolved CO2 and CH4 flux measurements revealed a complex dynamic mediated by tide and light. In contrast to most previous studies our data indicate significantly enhanced fluxes during tidal immersion relative to periods of air exposure. Short emission peaks occured with onset of the feeder current at the sampling site. We suggest an overall strong effect of advective transport processes to explain the elevated fluxes during tidal immersion. Many emission estimates from tidally influenced coastal areas still rely on measurements carried out during low tide only. Hence, our results may have significant implications for budgeting trace gases in coastal areas. This dynamic flux chamber system provides intensive time series data of community respiration (at night) and net community production (during the day) of shallow coastal systems.

  6. Tidal controls on trace gas dynamics in a seagrass meadow of the Ria Formosa lagoon (southern Portugal)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bahlmann, E.; Weinberg, I.; Lavrič, J. V.; Eckhardt, T.; Michaelis, W.; Santos, R.; Seifert, R.

    2015-03-01

    Coastal zones are important source regions for a variety of trace gases, including halocarbons and sulfur-bearing species. While salt marshes, macroalgae and phytoplankton communities have been intensively studied, little is known about trace gas fluxes in seagrass meadows. Here we report results of a newly developed dynamic flux chamber system that can be deployed in intertidal areas over full tidal cycles allowing for highly time-resolved measurements. The fluxes of CO2, methane (CH4) and a range of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) showed a complex dynamic mediated by tide and light. In contrast to most previous studies, our data indicate significantly enhanced fluxes during tidal immersion relative to periods of air exposure. Short emission peaks occurred with onset of the feeder current at the sampling site. We suggest an overall strong effect of advective transport processes to explain the elevated fluxes during tidal immersion. Many emission estimates from tidally influenced coastal areas still rely on measurements carried out during low tide only. Hence, our results may have significant implications for budgeting trace gases in coastal areas. This dynamic flux chamber system provides intensive time series data of community respiration (at night) and net community production (during the day) of shallow coastal systems.

  7. The Oratory of Southern Demagogues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Logue, Cal M., Ed.; Dorgan, Howard, Ed.

    This book examines the rhetorical strategies of influential southern United States politicians, termed "southern demagogues," and their particular appeal to the poor working class whites of the South during the early twentieth century. Following an introductory chapter that discusses the origins of the southern demagogue, the remaining chapters…

  8. Employment and Training by Sector in Greece, Spain and Portugal. CEDEFOP Flash 9/89.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    CEDEFOP Flash, 1989

    1989-01-01

    This publication of the European Centre for the Development of Vocational Training (CEDEFOP) describes a project investigating employment and training in Greece, Spain, and Portugal. An introduction tells why CEDEFOP has given priority to those countries. The second section reports the project's examination of the textiles and ready-to-wear…

  9. Seroprevalence of circulating Angiostrongylus vasorum antigen and parasite-specific antibodies in dogs from Portugal.

    PubMed

    Alho, Ana Margarida; Schnyder, Manuela; Schaper, Roland; Meireles, José; Belo, Silvana; Deplazes, Peter; de Carvalho, Luís Madeira

    2016-07-01

    Angiostrongylus vasorum is a nematode that lives in the pulmonary arteries and right cardiac ventricle of domestic dogs and wild canids. It is increasingly being reported in several European countries and North America. This parasite induces inflammatory verminous pneumonia, causing severe respiratory disease in dogs. In some instances, coagulopathies, neurological signs and even death may occur. Scant data are available regarding the occurrence of A. vasorum in Portugal. Therefore, sera of 906 shelter dogs from North to South mainland Portugal were collected. ELISAs to detect A. vasorum circulating antigen and specific antibodies against this parasite were performed. A total of six dogs [0.66 %, 95 % confidence intervals (CI) 0.24-1.43] were positive for both A. vasorum antigen and antibody detection, indicating an active infection, and 12 dogs (1.32 %, CI 0.68-2.30) were A. vasorum antibody-positive only. Regions with antigen- and antibody-positive animals overlapped and were distributed over nearly all sampled areas in the country. This is the first large-scale ELISA-based serological survey for A. vasorum in dogs from Portugal. The endemic occurrence of A. vasorum in dogs from different geographical areas of Portugal is therefore confirmed. PMID:27000086

  10. Comparing Higher Education Reforms in Finland and Portugal: Different Contexts, Same Solutions?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kauko, Jaakko; Diogo, Sara

    2012-01-01

    This article provides a comparative analysis of recent governance reforms in both Finnish and Portuguese higher education institutions (HEIs), following the OECD's recent reviews of both countries' tertiary education systems. While in the case of Finland the major problem was identified as being a lack of entrepreneurialism, Portugal was…

  11. European Gender Lessons: Girls and Boys at Scout Camps in Denmark, Portugal, Russia and Slovakia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nielsen, Harriet Bjerrum

    2004-01-01

    The article investigates the tensions between and within models of gender equality and gender complementarity by studying children who are in the midst of learning to apply these gender models in practice. Children (aged 11-15 years) were observed and interviewed while they participated in scout camps in Denmark, Portugal, Slovakia and Russia.…

  12. Employability, Skills and Training in Portugal (1988-2000): Evidence from Official Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tome, Eduardo

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to analyse the determinants of employability in Portugal. Design/methodology/approach: Calculations were made using official data for 1991, 1994 and 1997 on education, skills and tenure, and on 1990, 1991, 1996 and 1997 regarding training. Findings: High skills, high levels of education and high levels of…

  13. Construction and Modification of the Autonomy of School Mathematical Knowledge in Portugal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matos, José Manuel

    2016-01-01

    During the second half of the nineteenth century and early twentieth century the discipline of secondary mathematics was gradually built in Portugal and certified teachers, textbooks, programs, special teaching techniques emerge. This consolidation process ends with the emergency of school subjects that develop some kind of autonomy as Chervel…

  14. Associations between Early Family Risk, Children's Behavioral Regulation, and Academic Achievement in Portugal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cadima, Joana; Gamelas, Ana M.; McClelland, Megan; Peixoto, Carla

    2015-01-01

    Research Findings: This study examined concurrent associations between family sociodemographic risk, self-regulation, and early literacy and mathematics in young children from Azores, Portugal (N = 186). Family sociodemographic risk was indexed by low maternal education, low family income, and low occupational status. Behavioral aspects of…

  15. Lessons Learnt from a Secondary School Sex Education Program in Portugal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sousa, Ana Paula; Soares, Isabel; Vilar, Duarte

    2007-01-01

    Based on a developmental framework, a study was conducted in Portugal in two groups of youth in terms of relevant aspects related to adolescent psychosexual development: one group participated in an Experimental Project of Sex Education and Health Promotion during high school, whereas the other did not receive any formal sex education in school.…

  16. Mathematics Diagnostic Testing in Engineering: An International Comparison between Ireland and Portugal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carr, M.; Fidalgo, C.; Bigotte de Almeida, M. E.; Branco, J. R.; Santos, V.; Murphy, E.; Ní Fhloinn, E.

    2015-01-01

    Concern has been expressed throughout Europe about the significant deficiencies in the basic mathematical skills of many engineering undergraduates. Mathematics diagnostic tests in the UK, Ireland and Portugal have shown these shortcomings, which provide a challenge to those striving to introduce more innovative educational practices into…

  17. Research in Foreign Language Education in Portugal (2006-2011): Its Transformative Potential

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vieira, Flávia; Moreira, Maria Alfredo; Peralta, Helena

    2014-01-01

    This article reviews a selective corpus of empirical and theoretical texts on foreign language pedagogy and teacher education, produced in Portugal between 2006 and 2011. A descriptive and interpretative approach is adopted to inquire into the transformative potential of research, with a focus on its scope, purposes, conceptual and methodological…

  18. Waves of (Dis)Satisfaction: Effects of the "Numerus Clausus" System in Portugal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fonseca, Madalena; Dias, Diana; Sá, Carla; Amaral, Alberto

    2014-01-01

    Access to higher education in Portugal is governed by a quota system (numerus clausus). The purpose of this article is to answer two questions: First, how does the "numerus clausus" system shape the demand for medical studies? Second, how do non-enrolled medical candidates influence the global allocation system and generate waves of…

  19. Child and Partner Abuse: Self-Reported Prevalence and Attitudes in the North of Portugal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Machado, Carla; Goncalves, Miguel; Matos, Marlene; Dias, Ana Rita

    2007-01-01

    Objectives: To determine the self-reported prevalence of child and partner physical and emotional abuse in the north of Portugal and to investigate attitudes about these forms of family violence. Methods: Data were collected by questionnaire from a representative sample of parents in two-parent families with children under the age of 18 years. A…

  20. Prevalence of antibodies to Toxoplasma gondii in dogs from northeastern Portugal

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Prevalence of antibodies to Toxoplasma gondii was investigated in 673 domestic dogs from northeastern Portugal, by using the modified agglutination test (MAT) with 1:20 as cut-off for seropositivity; antibodies were found in 256 dogs (38.0%). Differences between seroprevalence levels in males (36.7%...

  1. The Role of the Company in Generating Skills. The Learning Effects of Work Organization. Portugal.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodriguez, Maria Joao; Lopes, Helena

    The impact of changes in work organization on development of Portugese workers' skills was examined. At the macro level, a national study was conducted to identify current and possible future relationships among initial training, continuing training, the labor market, and industrial relations in Portugal. At the micro level, cases studies of three…

  2. Continuing Vocational Training in Local Government in Portugal, 2000-05--What Has Changed?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cabrito, Belmiro Gil; Simao, Ana Margarida Veiga; Alves, Mariana Gaio; Almeida, Antonio

    2009-01-01

    Local government in Portugal had a good opportunity to modernise through the Programa de Formacao para as Autarquias Locais (Foral) [Training programme for local authorities], implemented between 2000 and 2005. Substantial financial resources were made available through the programme to retrain local government human resources in order to improve…

  3. Translating University-Industry Relations: The Development of a Knowledge Link in Portugal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graca, Manuel

    2005-01-01

    INESC was created in 1980 in Portugal to link universities with industry. Starting within a university as the initiative of three young academics, the organization soon became a pivotal player in the modernization of the country through the development of applied research in science and technology to enhance the competitiveness of Portuguese…

  4. School Effectiveness Research Findings in the Portuguese Speaking Countries: Brazil and Portugal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferrão, Maria Eugénia

    2014-01-01

    This paper provides findings of research on school effectiveness and discusses implications for evaluation in Brazil and Portugal. Most findings reported over the last decade have been published in Brazilian or Portuguese refereed journals. Thus, a brief literature review of such studies enables that knowledge to reach international scholars and…

  5. Teaching Writing to Middle School Students in Portugal and in Brazil: An Exploratory Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Veiga Simão, Ana Margarida; Malpique, Anabela Abreu; Frison, Lourdes Maria Bragagnolo; Marques, André

    2016-01-01

    Learning how to write is a challenging process, typically developed in schools. Teachers' practices in teaching writing, however, have been under researched. The aim of this study was to survey a sample of teachers from Portugal (n = 96) and Brazil (n = 99) about their practices for and perceptions about writing instruction. Teachers reported on…

  6. Epidemiology of Autism Spectrum Disorder in Portugal: Prevalence, Clinical Characterization, and Medical Conditions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oliveira, Guiomar; Ataide, Assuncao; Marques, Carla; Miguel, Teresa S.; Coutinho, Ana Margarida; Mota-Vieira, Luisa; Goncalves, Esmeralda; Lopes, Nazare Mendes; Rodrigues, Vitor; Carmona da Mota, Henrique; Vicente, Astrid Moura

    2007-01-01

    The objective of this study was to estimate the prevalence of autistic spectrum disorder (ASD) and identify its clinical characterization, and medical conditions in a paediatric population in Portugal. A school survey was conducted in elementary schools, targeting 332 808 school-aged children in the mainland and 10 910 in the Azores islands.…

  7. Early Childhood Intervention in Portugal: An Overview Based on the Developmental Systems Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pinto, Ana Isabel; Grande, Catarina; Aguiar, Cecilia; de Almeida, Isabel Chaves; Felgueiras, Isabel; Pimentel, Julia Serpa; Serrano, Ana Maria; Carvalho, Leonor; Brandao, Maria Teresa; Boavida, Tania; Santos, Paula; Lopes-dos-Santos, Pedro

    2012-01-01

    Research studies on early childhood intervention (ECI) in Portugal are diffuse regarding both program components and the geographical area under scrutiny. Since the 1990s, a growing body of knowledge and evidence in ECI is being gathered, based on postgraduate teaching, in-service training, and research. This article draws on the systems theory…

  8. The Induction and Mentoring of New Teachers in Portugal: Contradictions, Needs and Opportunities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flores, Maria Assuncao; Ferreira, Fernando Ilidio

    2009-01-01

    In this article, policy and research on teacher induction in Portugal are examined. The lack of a formal induction system (despite recognition of its relevance in legal policy documents) and the mismatch between national regulations and practice are also discussed. The authors argue the need for a coherent and sustained induction and support…

  9. Higher Education Distance Learning in Portugal--State of the Art and Current Policy Issues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hasan, Abrar; Laaser, Wolfram

    2010-01-01

    The paper is based on a recent report given to the Portuguese Ministry of Science, Technology and Higher Education on "Reforming Higher Education Distance Learning in Portugal" (Hasan et. al. 2009). The report was grounded on on-site visits of leading Portuguese Universities, Polytechnics and Business Schools as well as on written statements of…

  10. European Social Fund in Portugal: A Complex Question for Human Resource Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tome, Eduardo

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: This article aims to review the application of the funds awarded by the European Social Fund (ESF) to Portugal, since 1986, from a human resource development (HRD) perspective. Design/methodology/approach: Several variables are analyzed: investment, absorption, people, impact of investment, evolution of skills, main programs, supply and…

  11. Education and Gender Wage Differentials in Portugal: What Can We Learn from an Age Cohort Analysis?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gonzalez, Pilar; Santos, Luis Delfim; Santos, Maria Clementina

    2009-01-01

    Important changes characterize the recent evolution of the schooling of workers in Portugal. The purpose of this paper is to investigate the consequences of those changes in the gender wage gap. In particular, we analyze and compare the way that this process has evolved in the groups of young workers and older workers. Our findings suggest that…

  12. Learning Transfer--Validation of the Learning Transfer System Inventory in Portugal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Velada, Raquel; Caetano, Antonio; Bates, Reid; Holton, Ed

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to analyze the construct validity of learning transfer system inventory (LTSI) for use in Portugal. Furthermore, it also aims to analyze whether LTSI dimensions differ across individual variables such as gender, age, educational level and job tenure. Design/methodology/approach: After a rigorous translation…

  13. Unprotected Girls and Teacher Training in Portugal in the Second Half of the Nineteenth Century

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mogarro, Maria Joao; Martinez, Silvia Alicia

    2009-01-01

    Throughout the second half of the nineteenth century, the cultural panorama in Portugal was largely dominated by education issues. The awareness of the weaknesses of the Portuguese education system was now based on a growing interest in statistics, which allowed the reinforcement of arguments regarding the country's backwardness and the need to…

  14. Prevalence of antibodies to Leishmania infantum and Toxoplasma gondii in horses from the north of Portugal

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background Leishmania infantum and Toxoplasma gondii are protozoa with zoonotic and economic importance. Prevalences of antibodies to these agents were assessed in 173 horses from the north of Portugal. Findings Antibodies to L. infantum were detected by the direct agglutination test (DAT); seven (...

  15. Arts and Cultural Education at School in Europe. Portugal 2007/08

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sousa, Isabel Susana

    2008-01-01

    This paper focuses on Portugal's arts and cultural education. The Ministry of Education (ME) is fundamentally responsible for establishing aims to develop the cultural and creative aspects of education, in accordance with the following aims defined for the whole curriculum. At the level of compulsory education, the Portuguese education system,…

  16. Seroepidemiology of Toxoplasma gondii infection in women from the North of Portugal in their childbearing years

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii infection and associated risk factors were investigated in 401 women of childbearing age from the North of Portugal. Among the 98 (24.4%) seropositive women, 92 (93.9%) were detected as positive only for imunoglobulin (Ig) G, two women (2.0%) were positive only fo...

  17. Reinterpreting Lifelong Learning: Meanings of Adult Education Policy in Portugal, 1999-2010

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guimaraes, Paula

    2013-01-01

    This article analyses Portugal's adult education policy between 1999 and 2010. Our empirical material consists of Portuguese as well as supranational policy documents. We use a theoretical framework which distinguishes three models of public policy, with different views on the roles of public policy and of education: (1) participative…

  18. Teacher Professionalisation and Professionalism in Portugal and Brazil: What Do the Policy Documents Tell?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flores, Maria Assuncao; Shiroma, Enida

    2003-01-01

    Examines teacher education policy in Portugal and Brazil over the past decade, discussing implications for teacher professionalization and professionalism; identifying the emergence of competing discourses arising from policy texts and other formal documents; and asserting that the intertwined concepts of professionalization and professionalism,…

  19. The Democratisation of Access and Success in Higher Education: The Case of Portugal and Brazil

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dias, Diana; Marinho-Araujo, Claisy; Almeida, Leandro; Amaral, Alberto

    2011-01-01

    Given that higher education systems everywhere have opened to the masses, this paper analyses to what extent this phenomenon has really been accompanied by an effective democratisation of access and success in Portugal and Brazil. It looks at the expansion of higher education and discusses how the political system and higher education institutions…

  20. Educational Journals and Worldwide Circulation of Pedagogical Knowledge: Brazil and Portugal (1921?1935)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Francisco, Jaime; Cordeiro, Parreira; Carvalho, Luis Miguel

    2005-01-01

    This article focuses on the circulation of educational models between Portugal and Brazil (from 1920 to 1935), within a broader context of an intensive international transfer of "ways of thinking" about education. It describes and analyses the results from research on two educational journals, one Portuguese (Revista Escolar) the other from the…

  1. Career Adapt-Abilities Scale--Portugal Form: Psychometric Properties and Relationships to Employment Status

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duarte, M. Eduarda; Soares, M. C.; Fraga, S.; Rafael, M.; Lima, M. R.; Paredes, I.; Agostinho, R.; Djalo, A.

    2012-01-01

    The Career-Adaptabilities Scale (CAAS)--Portugal Form consists of four scales, each with seven items, which measure concern, control, curiosity, and confidence as psychosocial resources for managing occupational transitions, developmental tasks, and work traumas. Internal consistency estimates for the subscale and total scores ranged from good to…

  2. 62 FR 61036 - Changes in Disease Status of Belgium, France, Greece, Luxembourg, Portugal, and Spain

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    1997-11-14

    ... specified conditions, based on the regions' disease status (see 62 FR 56000-56033, October 28, 1997, Dockets..., Greece, Luxembourg, Portugal, and Spain AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, USDA. ACTION...-mouth disease; Greece free of rinderpest; France, Greece, Luxembourg, and Spain free of exotic...

  3. Thermal models, lithosphere thickness and heat flow in South Portugal. Some comments about the subject

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosa Duque, Maria

    2016-04-01

    Reinterpretation of old heat flow data or use of new data and new techniques of detection of the temperature under the surface have conducted to new heat flow density values in some regions of the globe. The problem of ice melting in Greenland and Antarctica caught the public's attention to the importance of knowledge on heat flow values and thermal structure of the globe. In the last years, several models were presented trying to obtain lithosphere and Moho thickness of the Iberia Peninsula. The work we intend to present is related with the SW part of the Iberia Peninsula ( south of the Ossa Morena zone, South Portuguese Zone and Algarve). The results obtained show a decrease in the thickness of the crust and the lithosphere in this region. Density anomalies in the crust are also referred. I intend to make the connection between the results of these models and the heat flow thermal conductivity, heat production and geological data available for the region, trying to explain the results of heat flow density data obtained.

  4. Homogenisation of minimum and maximum air temperature in northern Portugal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freitas, L.; Pereira, M. G.; Caramelo, L.; Mendes, L.; Amorim, L.; Nunes, L.

    2012-04-01

    Homogenization of minimum and maximum air temperature has been carried out for northern Portugal for the period 1941-2010. The database corresponds to the values of the monthly arithmetic averages calculated from daily values observed at stations within the network of stations managed by the national Institute of Meteorology (IM). Some of the weather stations of IM's network are collecting data for more than a century; however, during the entire observing period, some factors have affected the climate series and have to be considered such as, changes in the station surroundings and changes related to replacement of manually operated instruments. Besides these typical changes, it is of particular interest the station relocation to rural areas or to the urban-rural interface and the installation of automatic weather stations in the vicinity of the principal or synoptic stations with the aim of replacing them. The information from these relocated and new stations was merged to produce just one but representative time series of that site. This process starts at the end 90's and the information of the time series fusion process constitutes the set of metadata used. Two basic procedures were performed: (i) preliminary statistical and quality control analysis; and, (ii) detection and correction of problems of homogeneity. In the first case, was developed and used software for quality control, specifically dedicated for the detection of outliers, based on the quartile values of the time series itself. The analysis of homogeneity was performed using the MASH (Multiple Analysis of Series for Homogenisation) and HOMER, which is a software application developed and recently made available within the COST Action ES0601 (COST-ES0601, 2012). Both methods provide a fast quality control of the original data and were developed for automatic processing, analyzing, homogeneity testing and adjusting of climatological data, but manual usage is also possible. Obtained results with both

  5. Gravity and magnetic modeling of granitic bodies in Central Portugal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Machadinho, Ana; Figueiredo, Fernando; Pereira, Alcides

    2015-04-01

    A better understanding of the subsurface geometry of the granitic bodies in Central Portugal is the main goal of this work. The results are also relevant for the assessment of the geothermal potential of the same region. The study area is located in the Central Iberian Zone where the Beiras granite batholith outcrops. These variscan granitoids were emplaced into the "Complexo Xisto-Grauváquico" (CXG), a thick and monotonous megasequences of metapelites and metagreywackes. This metasedimentary sequence is affected by the Variscan deformation phases and a late Proterozoic to Cambrian age has been generally assumed for this rocks. The granitoids in the region are attributed to the magmatic activity associated to the post-collisional stages of the Variscan orogeny during the D3 stage. The granitic bodies in the study area are considered syn-D3 and late to post-D3. To achieve the goal of the research, magnetic and gravimetric surveys where performed in order to obtain the Bouguer and magnetic anomalies. All the standard corrections were applied to the gravimetric and magnetic data. Considering and integrating all the available geological data and physical proprieties (density and magnetic susceptibility) the mentioned potential fields were simultaneously modeled. In this way it was possible to characterize the subsurface geometry of the granitic bodies in the studied region. The modeling results show that the regional tectonic setting controls the geometry of the granitic bodies as well as the structure of the host CXG metasedimentary sequence. Through the modeling of the potential field the overall geometry, average and maximum depths of the granitic bodies in the study area was obtained. Some late to post-D3 plutons outcrop in spatial continuity and as they have similar ages, a common feeding zone is assumed as the most likely scenario. The sin-D3 pluton is more abrupt and vertical, suggesting the presence of a fault contact with the late-D3 pluton. According to the

  6. Ground Penetrating Radar technique for railway track characterization in Portugal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Chiara, Francesca; Fontul, Simona; Fortunato, Eduardo; D'Andrea, Antonio

    2013-04-01

    Maintenance actions are significant for transport infrastructures but, today, costs have to be necessary limited. A proper quality control since the construction phase is a key factor for a long life cycle and for a good economy policy. For this reason, suitable techniques have to be chosen and non-destructive tests represent an efficient solution, as they allow to evaluate infrastructure characteristics in a continuous or quasi-continuous way, saving time and costs, enabling to make changes if tests results do not comply with the project requirements. Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) is a quick and effective technique to evaluate infrastructure condition in a continuous manner, replacing or reducing the use of traditional drilling method. GPR application to railways infrastructures, during construction and monitoring phase, is relatively recent. It is based on the measuring of layers thicknesses and detection of structural changes. It also enables the assessment of materials properties that constitute the infrastructure and the evaluation of the different types of defects such as ballast pockets, fouled ballast, poor drainage, subgrade settlement and transitions problems. These deteriorations are generally the causes of vertical deviations in track geometry and they cannot be detected by the common monitoring procedures, namely the measurements of track geometry. Moreover, the development of new GPR systems with higher antenna frequencies, better data acquisition systems, more user friendly software and new algorithms for calculation of materials properties can lead to a regular use of GPR. Therefore, it represents a reliable technique to assess track geometry problems and consequently to improve maintenance planning. In Portugal, rail inspection is performed with Plasser & Theurer EM120 equipment and recently 400 MHz IDS antennas were installed on it. GPR tests were performed on the Portuguese rail network and, as case study in this paper, a renewed track was

  7. Comparative receptor modelling study of airborne particulate pollutants in Birmingham (United Kingdom), Coimbra (Portugal) and Lahore (Pakistan)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harrison, Roy M.; Smith, D. J. T.; Piou, C. A.; Castro, L. M.

    Samples of airborne particulate matter have been collected in three cities in different parts of the world. In Birmingham, U.K. and Coimbra, Portugal, samples were of PM 10 whilst in Lahore, Pakistan, total suspended particulates were collected. The samples have been analysed for a wide range of metallic constituents, black carbon and organic carbon, and the soluble ions, SO 42-, NO-, Br-, Cl - and NH 4+. A receptor modelling study has been conducted for data from each city using Principal Component Factor Analysis followed by multi-linear regression analysis in order to provide quantitative insights into the sources of specific chemical components and total particulate matter (or PM 10) in the three cities. This methodology, applied separately to coarse and fine fractions in the samples collected in Birmingham and Coimbra, reveals between four and six source categories according to location and size fraction, and whilst the sites in Birmingham and Coimbra in northern and southern Europe, respectively, show considerable similarities, there are large contrasts with Lahore with its dryer climate and poorly controlled pollution sources. A detailed intercomparison has been conducted into the source attributions for lead and for PM 1O/TSP. In the case of lead, the source attributions in Birmingham are shown to correspond closely to the national atmospheric emissions inventory. Large differences between the cities in source contributions are seen in the case of PM,o/TSP, with soil dust estimated to contribute 62% of total suspended particulate matter in the atmosphere of Lahore, but contributing much less in Birmingham and Coimbra where road traffic emissions comprise a substantial percentage of the total.

  8. Accretion of southern Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hillhouse, J.W.

    1987-01-01

    Paleomagnetic data from southern Alaska indicate that the Wrangellia and Peninsular terranes collided with central Alaska probably by 65 Ma ago and certainly no later than 55 Ma ago. The accretion of these terranes to the mainland was followed by the arrival of the Ghost Rocks volcanic assemblage at the southern margin of Kodiak Island. Poleward movement of these terranes can be explained by rapid motion of the Kula oceanic plate, mainly from 85 to 43 Ma ago, according to recent reconstructions derived from the hot-spot reference frame. After accretion, much of southwestern Alaska underwent a counterclockwise rotation of about 50 ?? as indicated by paleomagnetic poles from volcanic rocks of Late Cretaceous and Early Tertiary age. Compression between North America and Asia during opening of the North Atlantic (68-44 Ma ago) may account for the rotation. ?? 1987.

  9. Genomic Southern blot analysis.

    PubMed

    Gebbie, Leigh

    2014-01-01

    This chapter describes a detailed protocol for genomic Southern blot analysis which can be used to detect transgene or endogenous gene sequences in cereal genomes. The protocol follows a standard approach that has been shown to generate high-quality results: size fractionation of genomic DNA; capillary transfer to a nylon membrane; hybridization with a digoxigenin-labelled probe; and detection using a chemiluminescent-based system. High sensitivity and limited background are key to successful Southern blots. The critical steps in this protocol are complete digestion of the right quantity of DNA, careful handling of the membrane to avoid unnecessary background, and optimization of probe concentration and temperatures during the hybridization step. Detailed instructions on how to successfully master these techniques are provided. PMID:24243203

  10. Post-fire vegetation recovery in Portugal based on spot/vegetation data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gouveia, C.; Dacamara, C. C.; Trigo, R. M.

    2010-04-01

    A procedure is presented that allows identifying large burned scars and the monitoring of vegetation recovery in the years following major fire episodes. The procedure relies on 10-day fields of Maximum Value Composites of Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (MVC-NDVI), with a 1 km×1 km spatial resolution obtained from the VEGETATION instrument. The identification of fire scars during the extremely severe 2003 fire season is performed based on cluster analysis of NDVI anomalies that persist during the vegetative cycle of the year following the fire event. Two regions containing very large burned scars were selected, located in Central and Southwestern Portugal, respectively, and time series of MVC-NDVI analysed before the fire events took place and throughout the post-fire period. It is shown that post-fire vegetation dynamics in the two selected regions may be characterised based on maps of recovery rates as estimated by fitting a monoparametric model of vegetation recovery to MVC-NDVI data over each burned scar. Results indicated that the recovery process in the region located in Central Portugal is mostly related to fire damage rather than to vegetation density before 2003, whereas the latter seems to have a more prominent role than vegetation conditions after the fire episode, e.g. in the case of the region in Southwestern Portugal. These differences are consistent with the respective predominant types of vegetation. The burned area located in Central Portugal is dominated by Pinus Pinaster whose natural regeneration crucially depends on the destruction of seeds present on the soil surface during the fire, whereas the burned scar in Southwestern Portugal was populated by Eucalyptus that may quickly re-sprout from buds after fire. Besides its simplicity, the monoparametric model of vegetation recovery has the advantage of being easily adapted to other low-resolution satellite data, as well as to other types of vegetation indices.

  11. Trends in gastric cancer mortality and in the prevalence of Helicobacter pylori infection in Portugal.

    PubMed

    Morais, Samantha; Ferro, Ana; Bastos, Ana; Castro, Clara; Lunet, Nuno; Peleteiro, Bárbara

    2016-07-01

    Portugal has the highest gastric cancer mortality rates in Western Europe, along with high prevalences of Helicobacter pylori infection. Monitoring their trends is essential to predict the burden of this cancer. We aimed to quantify time trends in gastric cancer mortality in Portugal and in each administrative region, and to compute short-term predictions, as well as to describe the prevalence of H. pylori infection, through a systematic review. Joinpoint analyses were used to identify significant changes in sex-specific trends in gastric cancer age-standardized mortality rates (ASMR) and to estimate annual percent changes (APC). The most recent trends were considered to compute estimates up to 2020 by adjusting Poisson regression models. We searched PubMed and IndexRMP to identify studies carried out in Portugal reporting the prevalence of H. pylori. Gastric cancer mortality has been decreasing in Portugal since 1971 in men (from ASMR=55.3/100 000; APC=-2.4, 95% confidence interval: -2.5 to -2.3) and since 1970 in women (from ASMR=28.0/100 000; APC=-2.8, 95% confidence interval: -2.9 to -2.7), although large regional differences were observed. Predicted ASMR for 2015 and 2020 were 18.8/100 000 and 16.7/100 000 for men and 8.5/100 000 and 7.4/100 000 for women, respectively. The prevalence of H. pylori varied from almost 5% at 0.5-2 years to just over 90% at 70 years or more. No consistent variation was observed since the 1990s. The downward trends in mortality rates are expected to remain in the next decades. The high prevalence of H. pylori infection across age groups and studies from different periods shows a large potential for decrease in the burden of gastric cancer in Portugal. PMID:26186469

  12. Starting a DNA barcode reference library for shallow water polychaetes from the southern European Atlantic coast.

    PubMed

    Lobo, Jorge; Teixeira, Marcos A L; Borges, Luisa M S; Ferreira, Maria S G; Hollatz, Claudia; Gomes, Pedro T; Sousa, Ronaldo; Ravara, Ascensão; Costa, Maria H; Costa, Filipe O

    2016-01-01

    Annelid polychaetes have been seldom the focus of dedicated DNA barcoding studies, despite their ecological relevance and often dominance, particularly in soft-bottom estuarine and coastal marine ecosystems. Here, we report the first assessment of the performance of DNA barcodes in the discrimination of shallow water polychaete species from the southern European Atlantic coast, focusing on specimens collected in estuaries and coastal ecosystems of Portugal. We analysed cytochrome oxidase I DNA barcodes (COI-5P) from 164 specimens, which were assigned to 51 morphospecies. To our data set from Portugal, we added available published sequences selected from the same species, genus or family, to inspect for taxonomic congruence among studies and collection location. The final data set comprised 290 specimens and 79 morphospecies, which generated 99 Barcode Index Numbers (BINs) within Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLD). Among these, 22 BINs were singletons, 47 other BINs were concordant, confirming the initial identification based on morphological characters, and 30 were discordant, most of which consisted on multiple BINs found for the same morphospecies. Some of the most prominent cases in the latter category include Hediste diversicolor (O.F. Müller, 1776) (7), Eulalia viridis (Linnaeus, 1767) (2) and Owenia fusiformis (delle Chiaje, 1844) (5), all of them reported from Portugal and frequently used in ecological studies as environmental quality indicators. Our results for these species showed discordance between molecular lineages and morphospecies, or added additional relatively divergent lineages. The potential inaccuracies in environmental assessments, where underpinning polychaete species diversity is poorly resolved or clarified, demand additional and extensive investigation of the DNA barcode diversity in this group, in parallel with alpha taxonomy efforts. PMID:26129849

  13. Smoke in Southern Africa

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    This SeaWiFS true-color image acquired over Southern Africa on Sept. 4, 2000, shows a thick shroud of smoke and haze blanketing much of the southern half of the continent. The smoke in this scene is being generated by a tremendous number of fires burning over a large area across the countries of Angola, Zambia, Mozambique, Zimbabwe, Botswana, and the Northern Province of South Africa. In this image, the smoke (grey pixels) is easily distinguished from clouds (bright white pixels). Refer to the Images and Data section for a larger scale view of the fires in Southern Africa. Data from both the SeaWiFS and Terra satellites are being used by an international team of scientists participating in the SAFARI field experiment. The objective of SAFARI is to measure the effects of windblown smoke and dust on air quality and the Earth's radiant energy budget. This image was produced using SeaWiFS channels 6, 5, and 1 (centered at 670 nm, 555 nm , and 412 nm, respectively). The data were acquired and provided by the Satellite Applications Center in Pretoria, South Africa. Image courtesy Gene Feldman, SeaWiFS Project and Orbital Sciences

  14. Bedforms and sediment distribution in the Minho estuary (Northern Portugal)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duarte, Henrique

    2010-05-01

    Here are presented preliminary results of the MINHO09 cruise, carried out within the scope of the paleoclimatic research task of the MINHO project (PROYECTO 0234_NATURA_MIÑO_MINHO). Bed features and sediment distribution were mapped in the Minho estuary (Northern Portugal) using a dual frequency sidescan sonar mosaic (EdgeTech 4200-MP), and bottom sediment texture data from 71 sites sampled with a winch operated sediment grab (Van Veen type). The survey was done within 5 days, in low flow energy conditions of summer dry weather and neap tides, close to optimal conditions for correlating the acoustic imagery with the bottom sediment data. A DGPS (Omnistar 8200HP) was used to determine the horizontal position of the acoustic imagery and the sediment sample sites with sub-meter accuracy. Uncorrected water depths were determined with a depth echo-sounder (Odom HYDROTRAC echo sounder), and the water depths referred to the local datum was later determined using data from a tidal gauge (Valeport model 740) deployed specifically for this survey. Overall the sampled sediments were mostly poorly calibrated, with grain sizes ranging from gravel to mud coexisting in the same sample, probably reflecting the great seasonal contrast in flow conditions in the Minho River. The predominantly muddy sediments were observed along the river margins (frequently charged with gas) and, locally, along relatively deeper portions of the channel bed. The bedforms observed in the sidescan sonar data are dominated by 2D and 3D dunes and ripples. There are several locations were the bedforms suddenly change from larger dunes (wave lengths greater than 5m) to smaller ripples (wave lengths smaller than 1m). These changes may be related to the occurrence of supercritical flow conditions (Froude number > 1): hydraulic jumps in places were there is a sudden change in depth without any change in channel width, or chutes and pools in places were there is a sudden change in channel width; future work is

  15. Clay minerals in sediments of Portuguese reservoirs and their significance as weathering products from over-eroded soils: a comparative study of the Maranhão, Monte Novo and Divor Reservoirs (South Portugal)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fonseca, Rita M. F.; Barriga, Fernando J. A. S.; Conceição, Patrícia I. S. T.

    2010-12-01

    The Southern region of Portugal is subjected to several forms of over-erosion. Most leached products, mainly composed of fine particles containing nutrients, metals or pesticides, are easily transported by river flows. When these are hindered by a physical barrier such as a dam, the particulate load accumulates on the bottom of the reservoirs, often leading to a pronounced decrease of water quality. Bottom sediments from three reservoirs were subjected to grain-size analysis and a study of clay minerals by X-ray diffraction. Most sediments contain a diverse set of clay minerals, mostly illites, smectites, chlorites and kaolinites. The nature of the clay minerals reflects the nature of the parent rocks. During the cycles of transport and temporary deposition, they may undergo significant chemical and physical transformations, which lead to an increase of expandable properties and therefore, to a higher cationic exchange capacity, determining its important role as vehicles of environmental pollutants.

  16. Urban aerosol in Oporto, Portugal: Chemical characterization of PM10 and PM2.5

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Custódio, Danilo; Ferreira, Catarina; Alves, Célia; Duarte, Mácio; Nunes, Teresa; Cerqueira, Mário; Pio, Casimiro; Frosini, Daniele; Colombi, Cristina; Gianelle, Vorne; Karanasiou, Angeliki; Querol, Xavier

    2014-05-01

    Several urban and industrial areas in Southern Europe are not capable of meeting the implemented EU standards for particulate matter. Efficient air quality management is required in order to ensure that the legal limits are not exceeded and that the consequences of poor air quality are controlled and minimized. Many aspects of the direct and indirect effects of suspended particulate matter on climate and public health are not well understood. The temporal variation of the chemical composition is still demanded, since it enables to adopt off-set strategies and to better estimate the magnitude of anthropogenic forcing on climate. This study aims to provide detailed information on concentrations and chemical composition of aerosol from Oporto city, an urban center in Southern Europe. This city is located near the coast line in the North of Portugal, being the country's second largest urban area. Moreover, Oporto city economic prospects depend heavily on a diversified industrial park, which contribute to air quality degradation. Another strong source of air pollution is traffic. The main objectives of this study are: 1) to characterize the chemical composition of PM10 and PM2.5 by setting up an orchestra of aerosol sampling devices in a strategic place in Oporto; 2) to identify the sources of particles exploring parameters such as organic and inorganic markers (e.g. sugars as tracers for biomass burning; metals and elemental carbon for industrial and vehicular emissions); 3) to evaluate long range transport of pollutants using back trajectory analysis. Here we present data obtained between January 2013 and January 2014 in a heavy traffic roadside sampling site located in the city center. Different PM10 and PM2.5 samplers were operated simultaneously in order to collect enough mass on different filter matrixes and to fulfill the requirements of analytical methodologies. More than 100 aerosol samples were collected and then analysed for their mass concentration and

  17. An overview of the RAIDEN project: a study of lightning in Portugal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fragoso, Marcelo; Leite, Solange; Sousa, João; Correia, Sandra; Reis, Margarida; Santos, João Andrade

    2013-04-01

    Atmospheric lightning is an important atmospheric hazard, as cloud-to-ground discharges (CGD) can affect people, can lead to severe damages in buildings, equipment, and can trigger forest fires. The potential damages directly linked to CGD have been increasing as society develops (e.g. due to greater use of electronic equipment). However, an adequate risk assessment requires an analysis in depth of the CGD spatial-temporal distributions. Further, the climate change impacts on the lightning activity still present many uncertainties. Nevertheless, there is a wide agreement in the scientific community that climate change in Europe is likely to impact on frequency, severity and location of extreme events. The Portuguese meteorological office (IPMA) maintains a lightning detection network (LDN) over mainland Portugal since June 2002. Due to the recent and short time period of available data, there are only few studies using this dataset. The RAIDEN project (contract number PTDC/CTE-ATM/101931/2008) - Lightning activity in Portugal: variability patterns and socioeconomic impacts - aims (1) to characterize the spatial-temporal variability of the lightning activity over mainland Portugal and (2) to assess its corresponding risks and socioeconomic impacts. This study is based on data provided by the Portuguese LDN and follows a multidisciplinary approach. As such, the project is focused on a 7-year period (2003-2009) of CGD data and the research program started studying the main climatological aspects of lightning activity, regarding the spatial patterns of the CGD occurrences, as well as their temporal variability at different time scales (inter-annual, seasonal and daily variability). The spatial patterns of the CGD occurrences over Portugal have also been categorized taking into account their spatial spread and strength using a clustering methodology. Furthermore, the dynamical mechanisms underlying the CGD occurrences, including the identification of the main lightning

  18. Disastrous floods and landslides in Portugal in the 20th century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quaresma, Ivânia; Zêzere, José Luis

    2010-05-01

    The record and analysis of statistical information on disaster occurrence, impacts and losses have been made worldwide in recent years. The development of natural disasters databases is crucial for risk management purposes, because it allows improving systems of indicators on disaster risk and vulnerability at national and sub-national scales. During the last century, Portugal was affected by several destructive natural disasters, namely of hydrologic (floods) and geomorphologic (landslides) origin. However, only recently risk prevention and management was assumed to be a national priority by the Portuguese Government. The basic information on past floods and landslides that occurred in Portugal is disperse and incomplete, and this is a shortcoming for the implementation of effective disaster mitigation measures, particularly when it is expectable an increase of frequency, magnitude, dimension and complexity of the hydro-geomorphologic phenomena resulting from climate change. In this work we present a preliminary assessment of hydro-geomorphologic disasters occurred in Portugal during the 20th century, based on the systematic survey of daily national newspapers. We included into a database those floods and landslides that produced, alternatively, dead people, injured people, missing people, evacuated and homeless. A total of 937 hydro-geomorphologic events were registered. In addition to physical and material damages, these events produced economic losses amounting to millions Euros. Our attention will focus on the geographic distribution and the temporal dimension of disastrous floods and landslides occurred in Portugal, and the temporal trends of hydro-geomorphologic disasters will be presented. The preliminary results shown that disastrous floods and landslides have been more frequent on the most populated regions of Portugal: the metropolitan areas of Lisbon and Oporto. In addition, data shows that disastrous hydrologic and geomorphologic phenomena were more

  19. Testing continuous earthquake detection and location in Alentejo (South Portugal) by waveform coherency analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matos, Catarina; Grigoli, Francesco; Cesca, Simone; Custódio, Susana

    2015-04-01

    In the last decade a permanent seismic network of 30 broadband stations, complemented by dense temporary deployments, covered Portugal. This extraordinary network coverage enables now the computation of a high-resolution image of the seismicity of Portugal, which in turn will shed light on the seismotectonics of Portugal. The large data volumes available cannot be analyzed by traditional time-consuming manual location procedures. In this presentation we show first results on the automatic detection and location of earthquakes occurred in a selected region in the south of Portugal Our main goal is to implement an automatic earthquake detection and location routine in order to have a tool to quickly process large data sets, while at the same time detecting low magnitude earthquakes (i.e., lowering the detection threshold). We present a modified version of the automatic seismic event location by waveform coherency analysis developed by Grigoli et al. (2013, 2014), designed to perform earthquake detections and locations in continuous data. The event detection is performed by continuously computing the short-term-average/long-term-average of two different characteristic functions (CFs). For the P phases we used a CF based on the vertical energy trace, while for S phases we used a CF based on the maximum eigenvalue of the instantaneous covariance matrix (Vidale 1991). Seismic event detection and location is obtained by performing waveform coherence analysis scanning different hypocentral coordinates. We apply this technique to earthquakes in the Alentejo region (South Portugal), taking advantage from a small aperture seismic network installed in the south of Portugal for two years (2010 - 2011) during the DOCTAR experiment. In addition to the good network coverage, the Alentejo region was chosen for its simple tectonic setting and also because the relationship between seismicity, tectonics and local lithospheric structure is intriguing and still poorly understood. Inside

  20. Fires in Southern Georgia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    Several large fires were burning in southern Georgia on April 29, 2007, when the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on NASA's Terra satellite passed overhead and captured this image. Places where MODIS detected actively burning fires are outlined in red. The Roundabout Fire sprang up on April 27, according to the U.S. Southern Area Coordination Center, and was about 3,500 acres as of April 30. That fire was threatening homes in the community of Kirkland. Meanwhile, south of Waycross, two large blazes were burning next to each other in the northern part of Okefenokee Swamp. The Sweat Farm Road Fire threatened the town of Waycross in previous weeks, but at the end of April, activity had moved to the southeastern perimeter. The fire had affected more than 50,000 acres of timber (including pine tree plantations) and swamps. Scores of residences scattered throughout the rural area are threatened. The Big Turnaround Complex is burning to the east. The 26,000-acre fire was extremely active over the weekend, with flame lengths more than 60 feet (just over 18 meters) in places. The two blazes appeared to overlap in fire perimeter maps available from the U.S. Geospatial Multi-Agency Coordination Team. According to the Southern Area Coordination Center morning report on April 30, the Sweat Farm Road Fire 'will be a long term fire. Containment and control will depend on significant rainfall, due to the inaccessible swamp terrain.' No expected containment date was available for the Big Turnaround Complex Fire, either. Describing that fire, the report stated, 'Heavy fuel loading, high fire danger, and difficulty of access continue to hamper suppression efforts.' The large image provided above has a spatial resolution (level of detail) of 250 meters per pixel. The MODIS Rapid Response Team provides twice-daily images of the region in additional resolutions. They also provide a version of the image that shows smoke plumes stretching out across the Atlantic Ocean.

  1. Two Interesting Southern Objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gyulbudaghian, A. L.

    2016-06-01

    Two southern objects are studied. The first, the planetary nebula PK 349-01.1, is of interest because it has a chain of jets ejected from the central star. 12C(1-0) observations of the vicinity of this object reveal red- and blue-shifted molecular outflows. The second object is a star formation region consisting of two groups of IR stars. These groups have a trapezium-like configuration. Two stars in one of these groups are associated with a ring-shaped nebulae. This star formation region is associated with a new radial system of dark globules.

  2. Southern Sky Redshift Survey

    SciTech Connect

    Da Costa, L.N.; Pellegrini, P.S.; Sargent, W.L.W.; Tonry, J.; Davis, M.

    1988-04-01

    The general characteristics of the space distribution of galaxies in the SSRS sample, covering the southern Galactic cap, are examined, and maps of the space distribution are presented. The sample consists of 2028 galaxies in an area of 1.75 sr with declination south of -17.5 deg and galactic latitude below -30 deg. The survey provides useful information on large-scale structure to a depth of 120/h Mpc. The galaxy distribution exhibits prominent filaments, sheets, and voids. Some large-scale structures are highly subclustered; others are much more diffuse. 21 references.

  3. Indigenous Astronomy in Southern Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Medupe, Thebe Rodney

    The cultural Astronomy of Southern African peoples has been a subject of many studies spanning atleast over a century. Some of the studies were biased against the notion that Southern African could have any interest in studying the natural environment to benefit their societies. In this chapter, I summarize the current knowledge about cultural Astronomy of Southern African peoples and highlight points of further research.

  4. The Southern Coalsack

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nyman, L.-Å.

    2008-12-01

    The Southern Coalsack is the most prominent, isolated dark cloud in the southern Milky Way. It is situated on the Galactic equator at l=303° and has a diameter of about 6°. The visual extinction over the cloud varies by between 1 and 3 magnitudes but can be much higher in small condensations and globules. From photometric studies the distance to the Coalsack has been estimated to ˜ 150 pc. A CO (1-0) survey of the whole cloud showed that it is very fragmented, consisting of clumps and filaments, and the total mass is estimated to ˜ 3500 M_{sun}. A cloud of this size and mass would be expected to contain young stars, but so far none has been found, although searches have been made for T Tauri stars, flare stars, HH objects, and IRAS point sources with color-color characteristics of young stars. The Coalsack may not be forming stars because it contains an unusually small amount of dense gas compared to typical star-forming clouds, as indicated by a ^{13}CO survey, or it is a young molecular cloud complex, implied by the fact that the densest globule is not centrally condensed, which is normally the case for globules and star-forming cores.

  5. Southern Ocean eddy phenomenology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frenger, I.; Münnich, M.; Gruber, N.; Knutti, R.

    2015-11-01

    Mesoscale eddies are ubiquitous features in the Southern Ocean, yet their phenomenology is not well quantified. To tackle this task, we use satellite observations of sea level anomalies and sea surface temperature (SST) as well as in situ temperature and salinity measurements from profiling floats. Over the period 1997-2010, we identified over a million mesoscale eddy instances and were able to track about 105 of them over 1 month or more. The Antarctic Circumpolar Current (ACC), the boundary current systems, and the regions where they interact are hot spots of eddy presence, representing also the birth places and graveyards of most eddies. These hot spots contrast strongly to areas shallower than about 2000 m, where mesoscale eddies are essentially absent, likely due to topographical steering. Anticyclones tend to dominate the southern subtropical gyres, and cyclones the northern flank of the ACC. Major causes of regional polarity dominance are larger formation numbers and lifespans, with a contribution of differential propagation pathways of long-lived eddies. Areas of dominance of one polarity are generally congruent with the same polarity being longer-lived, bigger, of larger amplitude, and more intense. Eddies extend down to at least 2000 m. In the ACC, eddies show near surface temperature and salinity maxima, whereas eddies in the subtropical areas generally have deeper anomaly maxima, presumably inherited from their origin in the boundary currents. The temperature and salinity signatures of the average eddy suggest that their tracer anomalies are a result of both trapping in the eddy core and stirring.

  6. Astrophysics in Southern Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whitelock, Patricia

    2008-03-01

    The government of South Africa has identified astronomy as a field in which their country has a strategic advantage and is consequently investing very significantly in astronomical infrastructure. South Africa now operates a 10-m class optical telescope, the Southern African Large Telescope (SALT), and is one of two countries short listed to host the Square Kilometre Array (SKA), an ambitious international project to construct a radio telescope with a sensitivity one hundred times that of any existing telescope. The challenge now is to produce an indigenous community of users for these facilities, particularly from among the black population which was severely disadvantaged under the apartheid regime. In this paper I briefly describe the observing facilities in Southern Africa before going on to discuss the various collaborations that are allowing us to use astronomy as a tool for development, and at the same time to train a new generation of astronomers who will be well grounded in the science and linked to their colleagues internationally.

  7. Uranium accumulation by aquatic plants from uranium-contaminated water in Central Portugal.

    PubMed

    Pratas, João; Favas, Paulo J C; Paulo, Carlos; Rodrigues, Nelson; Prasad, M N V

    2012-03-01

    Several species of plants have developed a tolerance to metal that enables them to survive in metal contaminated and polluted sites. Some of these aquatic plants have been reported to accumulate significant amounts of specific trace elements and are, therefore, useful for phytofiltration. This work focuses the potential of aquatic plants for the phytofiltration of uranium (U) from contaminated water. We observed that Callitriche stagnalis, Lemna minor, and Fontinalis antipyretica, which grow in the uraniferous geochemical province of Central Portugal, have been able to accumulate significant amounts of U. The highest concentration of U was found in Callitriche stagnalis (1948.41 mg/kg DW), Fontinalis antipyretica (234.79 mg/kg DW), and Lemna minor (52.98 mg/kg DW). These results indicate their potential for the phytofiltration of U through constructed treatment wetlands or by introducing these plants into natural water bodies in the uraniferous province of Central Portugal. PMID:22567707

  8. A transnational perspective on psychosurgery: beyond Portugal and the United States.

    PubMed

    Collins, Brianne M; Stam, Henderikus J

    2014-01-01

    The history of psychosurgery is most often recounted as a narrative wherein Portuguese and American physicians play the leading role. It is a traditional narrative in which the United States and, at times, Portugal are central in the development and spread of psychosurgery. Here we largely abandon the archetypal narrative and provide one of the first transnational accounts of psychosurgery to demonstrate the existence of a global psychosurgical community in which more than 40 countries participated, bolstered, critiqued, modified and heralded the treatment. From its inception in 1935 until its decline in the mid-1960s, psychosurgery was performed on almost all continents. Rather than being a phenomenon isolated to the United States and Portugal, it became a truly transnational movement. PMID:25116422

  9. Reed warblers migrating through Portugal: climatic influence on stopover ecology over the last decade.

    PubMed

    Araújo, Pedro M; da Silva, Luís P; Paiva, Vitor H; Ramos, Jaime A

    2016-06-01

    The arrival and breeding dates of small migrant birds have advanced throughout Europe. This study evaluates the hypothesis of a faster migration along the migratory route, which should lead to a decrease in stopover duration in staging areas over the last decades. Several climatic predictors were analysed as proxies to understand the stopover ecology of reed warbler Acrocephalus scirpaceus migrating through Central Portugal. The minimum stopover duration of migratory reed warblers decreased significantly over the last decade during both the spring and autumn migrations. Warmer conditions en route should increase food availability, increasing the body condition of departing birds and the quality of departing sites en route to Portugal, such that migrants will reduce the stopover duration at Portuguese reedbeds. PMID:26948014

  10. Evaluating macroinvertebrate biological metrics for ecological assessment of streams in northern Portugal.

    PubMed

    Varandas, Simone G; Cortes, Rui Manuel Vitor

    2010-07-01

    A procedure to select the most relevant metrics for assessing the ecological condition of the Douro basin (north Portugal) was developed based upon a set of 184 benthic community metrics. They were grouped into 16 biological categories selected from literature using data collected over 2 years from 54 sites along 31 rivers covering the whole perceived range of human disturbance. Multivariate analyses were carried out to identify the main trends in the macroinvertebrate data, to select reference versus impaired sites, to avoid multicolinearity between metrics, and to identify those that were clearly independent from natural stream typology. Structural metrics, adaptation metrics, and tolerance measures most effectively responded across a range of human influence. We find these attributes to be ecologically sound for monitoring Portugal's lotic ecosystems and providing information relevant to the Water Framework Directive, which asserts that the definition of water quality depends on its "ecological status", independent of the actual or potential uses of those waters. PMID:19488735

  11. An overview about the medical use of antifungals in Portugal in the last years.

    PubMed

    Manuel da S Azevedo, Maria; Cruz, Luisa; Pina-Vaz, Cidália; Gonçalves-Rodrigues, Acácio

    2016-05-01

    Despite the introduction of new antifungal agents, the frequency of invasive and mucocutaneous fungal infections as well as resistance to antifungal drugs continues to increase. Over 300 million persons are infected annually with fungi. Resistance to antimicrobials is one of today's major health threats. Can the possible causes of fungal antimicrobial resistance be understood and prevented to minimize risks to public health. We provide an overview of antifungal drug use in European countries, particularly Portugal. We reviewed prescriptions for and over-the-counter sales (OTC) of azoles in Portuguese pharmacies and in alternative shops. We conclude that in Portugal, azole antifungal sales, as well as medical prescribed azoles are very high. The Portuguese population consumes more antifungal drugs per capita than others in Europe. PMID:26865319

  12. Decrease in rate of multiple sclerosis-related hospitalizations in Portugal

    PubMed Central

    Pereira, Marta; Lambrelli, Dimitra; Ramagopalan, Sreeram V.

    2016-01-01

    We sought to investigate the rate of multiple sclerosis (MS)-related hospitalizations in Portugal and assess whether there have been temporal changes as described in other countries. Using data from the Portuguese National Discharge Registry, we observed that between 2008 and 2013 the rate of MS-related hospitalizations decreased by 44%, from 15.9/100 person-years (95% confidence interval (CI: 14.9-16.9) in 2008 to 8.9/100 person-years (95% CI: 8.2-9.6) in 2013. The change in hospitalization rates is in accordance with what has been observed in other countries, and coincides with the release of new therapies for MS in Portugal.

  13. Deep-Sky Companions: Southern Gems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Meara, Stephen James

    2013-05-01

    Preface; 1. How to use this book; 2. The southern gems; Appendix A. Southern gems: basic data; Appendix B. Forty-two additional southern gems in Dunlop's catalogue; Appendix C. A brief history of early telescopic exploration of the far-southern skies; Appendix D. Photo credits; The southern gems checklist; Index; Wide-field star charts.

  14. Health-related knowledge of primary prevention of cancer in Portugal.

    PubMed

    Costa, Ana Rute; Silva, Susana; Moura-Ferreira, Pedro; Villaverde-Cabral, Manuel; Santos, Osvaldo; do Carmo, Isabel; Barros, Henrique; Lunet, Nuno

    2016-01-01

    The increasing number of new cases of cancer highlights the relevance of primary prevention for cancer control, which is influenced, among other factors, by the population's health-related knowledge. Therefore, we aimed to describe cancer-related knowledge in Portugal, including perception of risk, awareness of cancer causes and preventive behaviours. We evaluated 1624 Portuguese-speaking dwellers, aged between 16 and 79 years, through face-to-face interviews conducted using a structured questionnaire. We computed adjusted (sex, age, education) regression coefficients and prevalence ratios, using linear and Poisson regression, respectively, to quantify associations with cancer-specific knowledge. The proportions of nonresponse ranged from 13.4 to 63.5% for the most frequent cancer in Portugal and the leading cause of cancer, respectively. The mean of the estimated lifetime risk of cancer in the Portuguese population was 37.0%. A total of 47.5% of the respondents identified breast cancer as the most frequent in Portugal, 72.0% named lifestyles as the leading cause of cancer and 40.2% selected not smoking as the most important preventive behaviour. Lower levels of education were associated with higher proportions of nonresponse, but not consistently with inaccurate knowledge. Men provided lower estimates of the lifetime risk of cancer, indicated breast cancer less frequently and more often lung cancer as the most frequent, and were more likely to select not smoking as the most important preventive behaviour. The present study provides relevant data on knowledge of cancer prevention, which may be used for the planning and evaluation of awareness-raising and primary prevention interventions in Portugal. PMID:25642793

  15. Climate change and pollutant emissions impacts on air quality in 2050 over Portugal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sá, E.; Martins, H.; Ferreira, J.; Marta-Almeida, M.; Rocha, A.; Carvalho, A.; Freitas, S.; Borrego, C.

    2016-04-01

    Changes in climate and air pollutant emissions will affect future air quality from global to urban scale. In this study, regional air quality simulations for historical and future periods are conducted, with CAMx version 6.0, to investigate the impacts of future climate and anthropogenic emission projections on air quality over Portugal and the Porto metropolitan area in 2050. The climate and the emission projections were derived from the Representative Concentrations Pathways (RCP8.5) scenario. Modelling results show that climate change will impact NO2, PM10 and O3 concentrations over Portugal. The NO2 and PM10 annual means will increase in Portugal and in the Porto municipality, and the maximum 8-hr daily O3 value will increase in the Porto suburban areas (approximately 5%) and decrease in the urban area (approximately 2%). When considering climate change and projected anthropogenic emissions, the NO2 annual mean decreases (approximately 50%); PM10 annual mean will increase in Portugal and decrease in Porto municipality (approximately 13%); however PM10 and O3 levels increase and extremes occur more often, surpassing the currently legislated annual limits and displaying a higher frequency of daily exceedances. This air quality degradation is likely to be related with the trends found for the 2046-2065 climate, which implies warmer and dryer conditions, and with the increase of background concentrations of ozone and particulate matter. The results demonstrate the need for Portuguese authorities and policy-makers to design and implement air quality management strategies that take climate change impacts into account.

  16. Draft Genome Sequence of the First NDM-1-Producing Providencia stuartii Strain Isolated in Portugal

    PubMed Central

    Manageiro, Vera; Sampaio, Daniel A.; Pereira, Patrícia; Rodrigues, Paulo; Vieira, Luís; Palos, Carlos

    2015-01-01

    We report here the draft genome sequence of the first NDM-1-producing Providencia stuartii strain isolated in Portugal. Sequence analyses revealed the presence of an incompatibility group A/C2 (IncA/C2) plasmid and of diverse acquired genes conferring resistance to β-lactams, aminoglycosides, tetracycline, macrolides, chloramphenicol, and sulfonamides. This sequence contributes to the evaluation of the spread of NDM-1 producers. PMID:26404603

  17. Forecasting Portugal's Wind Power Production by a Fuzzy-PCA Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonçalves, Lio; Salgado, Paulo

    2011-09-01

    The increased integration of wind power into the electric grid, as nowadays occurs in Portugal, poses new challenges due to its intermittency and volatility. Wind power prediction plays a key role in tackling these challenges. The contribution of this paper is to propose a new approach, combining fuzzy clustering and PCA, that uses historical data and wind speed data to get estimates of power curves that are very accurate.

  18. Draft Genome Sequence of the First NDM-1-Producing Providencia stuartii Strain Isolated in Portugal.

    PubMed

    Manageiro, Vera; Sampaio, Daniel A; Pereira, Patrícia; Rodrigues, Paulo; Vieira, Luís; Palos, Carlos; Caniça, Manuela

    2015-01-01

    We report here the draft genome sequence of the first NDM-1-producing Providencia stuartii strain isolated in Portugal. Sequence analyses revealed the presence of an incompatibility group A/C2 (IncA/C2) plasmid and of diverse acquired genes conferring resistance to β-lactams, aminoglycosides, tetracycline, macrolides, chloramphenicol, and sulfonamides. This sequence contributes to the evaluation of the spread of NDM-1 producers. PMID:26404603

  19. Acute Q fever in Portugal. Epidemiological and clinical features of 32 hospitalized patients

    PubMed Central

    Palmela, Carolina; Badura, Robert; Valadas, Emília

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Q fever is a worldwide zoonosis caused by Coxiella burnetii. The main characteristic of acute Q fever is its clinical polymorphism, usually presenting as a febrile illness with varying degrees of hepatitis and/or pneumonia. Q fever is endemic in Portugal, and it is an obligatory notifiable disease since 1999. However, its epidemiological and clinical characteristics are still incompletely described. Methods We performed a retrospective study of 32 cases admitted in the Infectious Diseases Department, Santa Maria’s University Hospital, from January 2001 to December 2010, in whom acute Q fever was diagnosed by the presence of antibodies to phase II Coxiella burnetii antigens associated with a compatible clinical syndrome. Results Out of the 32 cases recorded, 29 (91%) were male, with a male:female ratio of 9.7:1. Individuals at productive age were mainly affected (88%, n=28, with ages between 25 and 64 years). Clinically, the most common manifestation of acute Q fever was hepatic involvement (84%, n=27), which occurred isolated in 53% (n=17) of the cases. Hepatitis was more severe, presenting with higher values of liver function tests, in patients presenting both pulmonary and hepatic involvement. Additionally, we report one case of myocarditis and another one with neurological involvement. Empiric but appropriate antibiotic therapy was given in 66% (n=21) of the cases. There was a complete recovery in 94% (n=30) of the patients, and one death. We confirmed the sub-notification of this disease in Portugal, with only 47% (n=15) of the cases notified. Conclusion In Portugal further studies are needed to confirm our results. From the 32 cases studied, acute Q fever presented more frequently as a febrile disease with hepatic involvement affecting mainly young male individuals. Furthermore, acute Q fever is clearly underdiagnosed and underreported in Portugal, which suggests that an increased awareness of the disease is needed, together with a broader use

  20. Effects of apparent temperature on daily mortality in Lisbon and Oporto, Portugal

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Evidence that elevated temperatures can lead to increased mortality is well documented, with population vulnerability being location specific. However, very few studies have been conducted that assess the effects of temperature on daily mortality in urban areas in Portugal. Methods In this paper time-series analysis was used to model the relationship between mean apparent temperature and daily mortality during the warm season (April to September) in the two largest urban areas in Portugal: Lisbon and Oporto. We used generalized additive Poisson regression models, adjusted for day of week and season. Results Our results show that in Lisbon, a 1°C increase in mean apparent temperature is associated with a 2.1% (95%CI: 1.6, 2.5), 2.4% (95%CI: 1.7, 3.1) and 1.7% (95%CI: 0.1, 3.4) increase in all-causes, cardiovascular, and respiratory mortality, respectively. In Oporto the increase was 1.5% (95%CI: 1.0, 1.9), 2.1% (95%CI: 1.3, 2.9) and 2.7% (95%CI: 1.2, 4.3) respectively. In both cities, this increase was greater for the group >65 years. Conclusion Even without extremes in apparent temperature, we observed an association between temperature and daily mortality in Portugal. Additional research is needed to allow for better assessment of vulnerability within populations in Portugal in order to develop more effective heat-related morbidity and mortality public health programs. PMID:20219128

  1. Hydro-meteorological extreme events in the 18th century in Portugal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fragoso, Marcelo; João Alcoforado, Maria; Taborda, João Paulo

    2013-04-01

    The present work is carried out in the frame of the KLIMHIST PROJECT ("Reconstruction and model simulations of past climate in Portugal using documentary and early instrumental sources, 17th-19th century)", and is devoted to the study of hydro-meteorological extreme events during the last 350 years, in order to understand how they have changed in time and compare them with current analogues. More specifically, the results selected to this presentation will focus on some hydro-meteorological extreme events of the 18th century, like severe droughts, heavy precipitation episodes and windstorms. One of the most noteworthy events was the winterstorm Bárbara (3rd to 6th December 1739), already studied in prior investigations (Taborda et al, 2004; Pfister et al, 2010), a devastating storm with strong impacts in Portugal caused by violent winds and heavy rainfall. Several other extreme events were detected by searching different documentary archives, including individual, administrative and ecclesiastic sources. Moreover, a more detailed insight to the 1783-1787 period will be made with regard the Lisbon region, taking into consideration the availability of information for daily meteorological observations as well as documentary evidences, like descriptions from Gazeta de Lisboa, the periodic with more continuous publication in the 18thcentury. Key-words: Instrumental data, Documentary data, Extreme events, Klimhist Project, Portugal References Pfister, C., Garnier, E., Alcoforado, M.J., Wheeler, D. Luterbacher, J. Nunes, M.F., Taborda, J.P. (2010) The meteorological framework and the cultural memory of three severe winter-storms in early eighteenth-century Europe, Climatic Change, 101, 1-2, 281-310 Taborda, JP; Alcoforado, MJ and Garcia, JC (2004) O Clima do Sul de Portugal no Séc.XVIII, Centro de Estudos Geográficos, Área de de Investigação de Geo-Ecologia, relatório no 2

  2. High seroprevalence of antibodies to Toxoplasma gondii in wild animals from Portugal.

    PubMed

    Lopes, Ana Patrícia; Sargo, Roberto; Rodrigues, Manuela; Cardoso, Luís

    2011-05-01

    We report an investigation of antibodies to Toxoplasma gondii in 52 wild birds and 20 wild mammals from northern and central areas of Portugal by using the modified agglutination test. The birds comprised 26 common buzzards (Buteo buteo), five tawny owls (Strix aluco), four white storks (Ceconia ceconia), three Eurasian eagle owls (Bubo bubo), three northern goshawks (Accipiter gentilis), two booted eagles (Hieraaetus pennatus), two common barn owls (Tyto alba), two Eurasian sparrowhawks (Accipiter nisus), two short-toed eagles (Circaetus gallicus), one black kite (Milvus migrans), one Griffin vulture (Gyps fulvus), and one peregrine falcon (Falco peregrinus). The mammals were eight wild boars (Sus scrofa), six red foxes (Vulpes vulpes), two common genets (Genetta genetta), two European badgers (Meles meles), one European roe deer (Capreolus capreolus), and one Iberian wolf (Canis lupus signatus). Fifty percent of the wild birds and 90% of the wild mammals were seropositive; the overall seroprevalence of infection was 61.1%. When comparing the prevalence of antibodies in birds and mammals from northern Portugal, a significant difference was found, but the same was not true for birds and mammals from central Portugal. Seroprevalence levels were 30.0% in juvenile and 62.5% in adult birds (p=0.046), 0.0% in juvenile and 94.7% in adult mammals (p=0.100), 80.0% in female and 66.7% in male birds (p=1.000), and 81.8% in female and 100% in male mammals (p=0.479). This is the first study performed on T. gondii in birds of prey, white storks, and wild carnivores in Portugal. PMID:21104273

  3. [APF. Open letter to the political parties, on the abortion situation in Portugal].

    PubMed

    1995-01-01

    On the eve of legislative elections on September 21, 1995, the Portuguese Family Planning Association published an open letter to the political parties about the situation of abortion in Portugal. This was part of the activities of the Working Group on the Voluntary Interruption of Pregnancy which has been carrying out relevant work about abortion in Portugal since 1991. This group unites diverse nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) of women, trade unions, and professionals. The open letter was approved by 19 NGOs and scores of personalities. Clandestine abortion continues to be one of the most severe health problems for women in reproductive age in Portugal and the primary cause of maternal death. The law of 6/84 on abortion, which allows for exceptions to the voluntary interruption of pregnancy for certain causes, has been considered inadequate by numerous civic and professional organizations. Only a small proportion of abortions are carried out in medical establishments out of the 16,000 abortions estimated to occur every year in Portugal. It is known that in many instances fetal malformations are diagnosed after 16 weeks of gestation, which is the limit for legal abortion stipulated in this law. Furthermore, the law has not been applied in flagrant cases, such as drug-addicted pregnant women and/or women infected with HIV. There was an attempt to revise the Penal Code with regard to this matter; however, its submission for debate to the National Assembly has been blocked. This shows that the question of illegal abortion continues to be a taboo topic for many politicians instead of a serious public health concern. The reasons why women undergo abortion are: contraceptive failure or method unreliability, and socioeconomic as well as emotional factors. The political parties are exhorted to exhibit the courage to amend the existing law and solve this problem. PMID:12179259

  4. New insights into the reconstructed temperature in Portugal over the last 400 years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santos, J. A.; Carneiro, M. F.; Correia, A.; Alcoforado, M. J.; Zorita, E.; Gómez-Navarro, J. J.

    2015-01-01

    The reliability of an existing reconstructed annual (December-November) temperature series for the Lisbon region (Portugal) from 1600 onwards is assessed in the present study. The consistency of this series with: (1) five local borehole temperature-depth profiles; (2) synthetic temperature-depth profiles generated from both reconstructed temperatures and paleoclimate simulations in Portugal; (3) instrumental data sources over the twentieth century; and (4) temperature indices from documentary sources during the late Maunder Minimum (1675-1715) is assessed. It is found that reconstructed annual mean temperature series in Portugal, after European-wide reconstructions, is not consistent with both borehole profiles and paleoclimate simulations in their long-term variability and trends. Hence, the non-linear trend in the paleoclimate simulations is estimated and added to the reconstructed series (first-stage calibration). The annual reconstructed series is then calibrated in its location and scale parameters, using the instrumental series and a linear regression between them (second-stage calibration). The resulting calibrated series is then in clear accordance with the low-frequency variability of both borehole temperature-depth profiles and paleoclimate simulations. This calibrated series shows clear footprints of the Maunder and Dalton minima, mainly attributed to changes in solar activity and explosive volcanic eruptions, and a strong recent-past warming, attributed to human-driven forcing. Lastly, it is also in overall agreement with independently-derived annual temperature indices for the late Maunder Minimum. Thus, the series resulting of this re-calibration process for Lisbon can be of foremost relevance to improve the current understanding of the driving mechanisms of climate variability in Portugal.

  5. Genotyping Characterization of Toxoplasma gondii in Cattle, Sheep, Goats and Swine from the North of Portugal

    PubMed Central

    LOPES, Ana Patrícia; VILARES, Anabela; NETO, Francisco; RODRIGUES, Alcina; MARTINS, Tânia; FERREIRA, Idalina; GARGATÉ, Maria João; RODRIGUES, Manuela; CARDOSO, Luís

    2015-01-01

    Background: Epidemiological investigations on Toxoplasma gondii infection have found a significant association between human toxoplasmosis and consumption of raw or undercooked meat. The present study aimed to characterize genotypes of T. gondii in 20 cattle, 40 sheep, 15 goats and 16 pigs from the North of Portugal. Methods: Nested PCR amplified the surface antigen 2 (SAG2) gene. Sequencing analysis was performed in order to assess the prevalence of SAG2 type strains (I, II and III). Results: Three and 4 strains of SAG2 type II were identified in heart samples of cattle and sheep, respectively. Three SAG2 type II strains were detected in brain, diaphragm and heart of 3 pigs. Three strains detected in heart samples of 3 goats belonged to SAG2 types I or II; with the same result being observed in heart samples from 2 sheep and in 2 brain and 1 heart samples from 3 pigs. Conclusion: SAG2 type II has been shown for the first time to infect cattle in North of Portugal. In addition, SAG2 type II has also been confirmed as the predominant strain in sheep and pigs in the same region. This is the first molecular report of T. gondii in goats from Portugal. PMID:26622302

  6. Seroprevalence of heartworm (Dirofilaria immitis) in feline and canine hosts from central and northern Portugal.

    PubMed

    Vieira, L; Silvestre-Ferreira, A C; Fontes-Sousa, A P; Balreira, A C; Morchón, R; Carretón, E; Vilhena, H; Simón, F; Montoya-Alonso, J A

    2015-09-01

    Dirofilaria immitis is endemic in Portugal. Several studies have reported the presence of canine heartworm disease, although no previous studies on feline infections have been published. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of D. immitis in cats and dogs from central and northern Portugal. Blood samples from 434 cats were tested for circulating anti-D. immitis and anti-Wolbachia antibodies. Furthermore, 386 dogs were tested for circulating D. immitis antigens. Overall feline seroprevalence was 15%, while canine prevalence was 2.1%. The highest feline seroprevalences of 18.7% and 17.6% were found in Aveiro and Viseu, respectively, while the highest canine prevalences of 8.8% and 6.8% were found in Coimbra and Aveiro, respectively. Cats and dogs showing respiratory signs presented higher prevalences of 24.4% and 17%, respectively, while 50% of cats with gastrointestinal signs were seropositive. The present study confirms the seropositivity of D. immitis in the feline population in central and northern Portugal, and suggests the importance of including heartworm disease in the list of differential diagnoses of cats and dogs showing clinical signs compatible with the disease. PMID:24824176

  7. Tornado Strikes Southern Maryland

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Evening light catches the tops of towering thunderheads over the Mid-Atlantic states on April 28, 2002. The powerful storms spawned several tornados, one of which was classified as an F4 tornado. The powerful tornado touched down in the southern Maryland town of La Plata, destroying most of the historic downtown. The twister-one of the strongest ever to hit the state-beat a 24-mile swath running west to east through the state and claimed at least three lives. The image above was taken by the Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES) at 7:15 PM Eastern Daylight Savings Time. A large version of the animation shows more detail. (5.9 MB Quicktime) Image courtesy National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) and the GOES Project Science Office. Animation by Robert Simmon, NASA GSFC.

  8. New Zealand's Southern Alps

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    The rugged Southern Alps extend some 650 kilometers along the western side of New Zealand's South Island. The mountains are often obscured by clouds, which is probably why the Maoris called New Zealand 'Aotearoa', the long white cloud. The higher peaks are snow-covered all year round. Westerly winds bring clouds that drop over 500 centimeters of rain annually on luxuriant rain forest along the west coast. The drier eastern seaboard is home to the majority of the island's population.

    This pair of MISR images is from April 13, 2000 (Terra orbit 1712). The upper image is a natural color view from the instrument's vertical-viewing (nadir) camera. It is presented at a resolution of 550 meters per pixel. The lower image is a stereo anaglyph generated from the instrument's 46-degree and 26-degree forward-viewing cameras, and is presented at 275-meter per pixel resolution to show the portion of the image containing the Southern Alps in greater detail. Viewing the anaglyph in 3-D requires the use of red/blue glasses with the red filter over your left eye. To facilitate stereoscopic viewing, both images have been oriented with north at the left.

    The tallest mountain in the Southern Alps is Mt. Cook, at an elevation of 3754 meters. Its snow-covered peak is visible to the left of center in each of these MISR images. From the high peaks, glaciers have gouged long, slender mountain lakes and coastal fiords. Immediately to the southeast of Mt. Cook (to the right in these images), the glacial pale-blue water of Lake Pukaki stands out. Further to the south in adjacent valleys you can easily see Lakes Hawea and Wanaka, between which (though not visible here) is the Haast Pass Road, the most southerly of the few links between the east and west coast road systems. Further to the south is the prominent 'S' shape of Lake Wakatipu, 83 kilometers long, on the northern shore of which is Queenstown, the principal resort town of the island. The remote and spectacular Fiordland National

  9. Southern California Disasters II

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nicholson, Heather; Todoroff, Amber L.; LeBoeuf, Madeline A.

    2015-01-01

    The USDA Forest Service (USFS) has multiple programs in place which primarily utilize Landsat imagery to produce burn severity indices for aiding wildfire damage assessment and mitigation. These indices provide widely-used wildfire damage assessment tools to decision makers. When the Hyperspectral Infrared Imager (HyspIRI) is launched in 2022, the sensor's hyperspectral resolution will support new methods for assessing natural disaster impacts on ecosystems, including wildfire damage to forests. This project used simulated HyspIRI data to study three southern California fires: Aspen, French, and King. Burn severity indices were calculated from the data and the results were quantitatively compared to the comparable USFS products currently in use. The final results from this project illustrate how HyspIRI data may be used in the future to enhance assessment of fire-damaged areas and provide additional monitoring tools for decision support to the USFS and other land management agencies.

  10. Neptune's Southern Hemisphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    This photograph of Neptune's southern hemisphere was taken by the narrow-angle camera on NASA's Voyager 2 when the spacecraft was 4.2 million km (2.6 million miles) from the planet. The smallest features that can be seen are 38 km (24 miles) across. The almond-shaped structure at the left is a large cloud system that has been seen for several weeks. Internal details in the feature have become increasingly apparent as Voyager 2 has approached. Systems with similar shapes in Jupiter's atmosphere rotate about their centers, rolling in the local winds that increase toward the south. However, the wispy nature of the white central clouds in this Neptunian feature make confirmation of the system's rotation difficult. The Voyager Mission is conducted by JPL for NASA's Office of Space Science and Applications.

  11. Forecasting southern california earthquakes.

    PubMed

    Raleigh, C B; Sieh, K; Sykes, L R; Anderson, D L

    1982-09-17

    Since 1978 and 1979, California has had a significantly higher frequency of moderate to large earthquakes than in the preceding 25 years. In the past such periods have also been associated with major destructive earthquakes, of magnitude 7 or greater, and the annual probability of occurrence of such an event is now 13 percent in California. The increase in seismicity is associated with a marked deviation in the pattern of strain accumulation, a correlation that is physically plausible. Although great earthquakes (magnitude greater than 7.5) are too infrequent to have clear associations with any pattern of seismicity that is now observed, the San Andreas fault in southern California has accumulated sufficient potential displacement since the last rupture in 1857 to generate a great earthquake along part or all of its length. PMID:17740956

  12. Origin and Population Dynamics of a Novel HIV-1 Subtype G Clade Circulating in Cape Verde and Portugal.

    PubMed

    de Pina-Araujo, Isabel Inês M; Delatorre, Edson; Guimarães, Monick L; Morgado, Mariza G; Bello, Gonzalo

    2015-01-01

    The human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) subtype G is the most prevalent and second most prevalent HIV-1 clade in Cape Verde and Portugal, respectively; but there is no information about the origin and spatiotemporal dispersal pattern of this HIV-1 clade circulating in those countries. To this end, we used Maximum Likelihood and Bayesian coalescent-based methods to analyze a collection of 578 HIV-1 subtype G pol sequences sampled throughout Portugal, Cape Verde and 11 other countries from West and Central Africa over a period of 22 years (1992 to 2013). Our analyses indicate that most subtype G sequences from Cape Verde (80%) and Portugal (95%) branched together in a distinct monophyletic cluster (here called G(CV-PT)). The G(CV-PT) clade probably emerged after a single migration of the virus out of Central Africa into Cape Verde between the late 1970s and the middle 1980s, followed by a rapid dissemination to Portugal a couple of years later. Reconstruction of the demographic history of the G(CV-PT) clade circulating in Cape Verde and Portugal indicates that this viral clade displayed an initial phase of exponential growth during the 1980s and 1990s, followed by a decline in growth rate since the early 2000s. Our data also indicate that during the exponential growth phase the G(CV-PT) clade recombined with a preexisting subtype B viral strain circulating in Portugal, originating the CRF14_BG clade that was later disseminated to Spain and Cape Verde. Historical and recent human population movements between Angola, Cape Verde and Portugal probably played a key role in the origin and dispersal of the G(CV-PT )and CRF14_BG clades. PMID:25993094

  13. Origin and Population Dynamics of a Novel HIV-1 Subtype G Clade Circulating in Cape Verde and Portugal

    PubMed Central

    Guimarães, Monick L.; Morgado, Mariza G.; Bello, Gonzalo

    2015-01-01

    The human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) subtype G is the most prevalent and second most prevalent HIV-1 clade in Cape Verde and Portugal, respectively; but there is no information about the origin and spatiotemporal dispersal pattern of this HIV-1 clade circulating in those countries. To this end, we used Maximum Likelihood and Bayesian coalescent-based methods to analyze a collection of 578 HIV-1 subtype G pol sequences sampled throughout Portugal, Cape Verde and 11 other countries from West and Central Africa over a period of 22 years (1992 to 2013). Our analyses indicate that most subtype G sequences from Cape Verde (80%) and Portugal (95%) branched together in a distinct monophyletic cluster (here called GCV-PT). The GCV-PT clade probably emerged after a single migration of the virus out of Central Africa into Cape Verde between the late 1970s and the middle 1980s, followed by a rapid dissemination to Portugal a couple of years later. Reconstruction of the demographic history of the GCV-PT clade circulating in Cape Verde and Portugal indicates that this viral clade displayed an initial phase of exponential growth during the 1980s and 1990s, followed by a decline in growth rate since the early 2000s. Our data also indicate that during the exponential growth phase the GCV-PT clade recombined with a preexisting subtype B viral strain circulating in Portugal, originating the CRF14_BG clade that was later disseminated to Spain and Cape Verde. Historical and recent human population movements between Angola, Cape Verde and Portugal probably played a key role in the origin and dispersal of the GCV-PT and CRF14_BG clades. PMID:25993094

  14. Trends of cross-border mobility of physicians and nurses between Portugal and Spain

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Context Health workforce cross-border mobility has an impact not only on individual health workers, but also on how health services are organized, planned, and delivered. This paper presents the results of a study of current mobility trends of health professionals along the borders between Portugal and Spain. The objective was to describe the profile of mobile physicians and nurses; to elicit the opinions of employers on mobility factors; to describe incentive policies to retain or attract health professionals; and to collect and analyse employers’ opinions on the impact of this mobility on their health services. Methods Phone interviews of key informants were used to collect relevant data. The interviews were conducted during December 2010 and January 2011 in health organizations along the border of the two countries. In Portugal and Spain, four and 13 organizations were selected, respectively. Interviews were obtained in all the Portuguese organizations and in four of the Spanish organizations. Results Findings suggest that cross-border mobility between the two countries has decreased. From Spain to Portugal, mobility trends are mainly of physicians who seek professional development in the form of specialization, the availability of positions, better salaries, and the perceived good living conditions. The mobility of nurses lasted until 2008, when reforms improved working conditions in Spain and contributed to reversing the flow. Since then, there has been an increase of Portuguese nurses going to Spain seeking better working conditions or simply a job. Portuguese nurses as well as Spanish physicians are well considered in terms of professionalism and qualifications by their Spanish and Portuguese hosts, respectively. Conclusions There is a deficit of valid data on the health workforce in general. The present study allowed further exploration of the reality of the mobility trends between Portugal and Spain. At present, the mobility trends are mainly of Spanish

  15. Estimating harvested rainwater at greenhouses in south Portugal aquifer Campina de Faro for potential infiltration in Managed Aquifer Recharge.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Costa, Luís; Monteiro, José Paulo; Leitão, Teresa; Lobo-Ferreira, João Paulo; Oliveira, Manuel; Martins de Carvalho, José; Martins de Carvalho, Tiago; Agostinho, Rui

    2015-04-01

    The Campina de Faro (CF) aquifer system, located on the south coast of Portugal, is an important source of groundwater, mostly used for agriculture purposes. In some areas, this multi-layered aquifer is contaminated with high concentration of nitrates, possibly arising from excessive usage of fertilizers, reaching to values as high as 300 mg/L. In order to tackle this problem, Managed Aquifer Recharge (MAR) techniques are being applied at demonstration scale to improve groundwater quality through aquifer recharge, in both infiltration basins at the river bed of ephemeral river Rio Seco and existing traditional large diameter wells located in this aquifer. In order to assess the infiltration capacity of the existing infrastructures, in particular infiltration basins and large diameter wells at CF aquifer, infiltration tests were performed, indicating a high infiltration capacity of the existing infrastructures. Concerning the sources of water for recharge, harvested rainwater at greenhouses was identified in CF aquifer area as one of the main potential sources for aquifer recharge, once there is a large surface area occupied by these infrastructures at the demo site. This potential source of water could, in some cases, be redirected to the large diameter wells or to the infiltration basins at the riverbed of Rio Seco. Estimates of rainwater harvested at greenhouses were calculated based on a 32 year average rainfall model and on the location of the greenhouses and their surface areas, the latter based on aerial photograph. Potential estimated annual rainwater intercepted by greenhouses at CF aquifer accounts an average of 1.63 hm3/year. Nonetheless it is unlikely that the totality of this amount can be harvested, collected and redirected to aquifer recharge infrastructures, for several reasons, such as the lack of appropriate greenhouse infrastructures, conduits or a close location between greenhouses and large diameter wells and infiltration basins. Anyway, this

  16. Exchanges of nutrients and chlorophyll a through two inlets of Ria Formosa, South of Portugal, during coastal upwelling events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cravo, Alexandra; Cardeira, Sara; Pereira, Catarina; Rosa, Mónica; Alcântara, Pedro; Madureira, Miguel; Rita, Filomena; Luis, Joaquim; Jacob, José

    2014-10-01

    The Ria Formosa is a shallow and multi-inlet coastal lagoon system in southern Portugal, with six permanent connections to the Atlantic Ocean. The western sector of Ria Formosa comprises three of the main inlets, Ancão, Faro-Olhão and Armona, which contribute ~ 90% of the total tidal prism of the lagoon. Of those three inlets, Ancão and Faro-Olhão supply the minimum and maximum contribution for these exchanges, respectively. Four field surveys were conducted at these two inlets during the upwelling season (from spring to autumn) to determine the influence of upwelling process upon the hydrographic characteristics in spring tidal conditions: i) spring 2009 (Ancão inlet), ii) autumn 2011 (both inlets) and iii) spring 2012 (Faro-Olhão inlet). Water samples were collected hourly (at three levels), along complete semi-diurnal tidal cycles, to determine chlorophyll a (chl a) and nutrient concentrations. At the same time, the water velocity was measured along the cross section to estimate the tidal prism, nutrients and chl a transports. Ancão inlet contributes a much lower volume to the total tidal prisms than Faro-Olhão inlet. The temporal data variability reveals that chl a and nutrient dynamics through these inlets depends not only on the tidal influence and characteristics of the boundary waters, but also on the intensity of the atmospheric and oceanic forcings acting on the adjacent coastal zone. During pulses of coastal upwelling events, more evident in spring season (mainly in April 2009 and May 2012), the two inlets imported chl a and phosphate. In contrast, in the absence of upwelling conditions, due to wind reversals and/or long periods of wind relaxation, both inlets exported nitrate and phosphate, fertilizing the coastal ocean. However, the Ria Formosa is a highly complex hydrodynamic system, and hydrographic temporal differences can be expected at different scales as a result of changes in: i) morphological configuration of the natural inlets, ii

  17. The Southern Hemisphere VLBI experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Preston, R.A.; Meier, D.L.; Louie, A.P.; Morabito, D.D.; Skjerve, L.; Slade, M.A.; Niell, A.E.; Wehrle, A.E.; Jauncey, D.L.; Tzioumis, A.K.; Haystack Observatory, Westford, MA; California Univ., Los Angeles; CSIRO, Div. of Radiophysics, Epping; Sydney Univ.; Manchester Victoria Univ., Jodrell Bank )

    1989-07-01

    Six radio telescopes were operated as the first Southern Hemisphere VLBI array in April and May 1982. Observations were made at 2.3 and 8.4 GHz. This array provided VLBI modeling and hybrid imaging of celestial radio sources in the Southern Hemisphere, high-accuracy VLBI geodesy between Southern Hemisphere sites, and subarcsecond radio astrometry of celestial sources south of declination -45 deg. The goals and implementation of the array are discussed, the methods of modeling and hybrid image production are explained, and the VLBI structure of the sources that were observed is summarized. 36 refs.

  18. "Houses and Fields and Vineyards Shall Yet Again Be Bought in This Land": The Story of Ana, a Public Kindergarten Teacher in Portugal.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vasconcelos, Teresa Maria Sena

    This study examined the teaching style and methods of Ana, a kindergarten teacher in Portugal, chosen because she is considered a master teacher by colleagues and parents and because she grew up in Portugal before democracy. The study attempted to answer the questions: (1) What are the commitments and competencies that distinguish Ana as a master…

  19. Callisto's Southern Hemisphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    These views of Callisto's southern hemisphere were taken by the Near Infrared Mapping Spectrometer just after closest approach in orbit G8 on May 6, 1997. These false color images show surface compositional differences, red = more ice, blue = less ice.

    The upper left view contains Buri, a crater with a diameter of about 60 km. In the infrared spectrum, Buri and the rays that extend from the crater have high abundance of water ice compared to the surrounding region. The center view, a large (200 km or 120 mile diameter) unnamed impact crater with a distinct ring or circle around it reveals a complex mix of ice and non-ice materials. This is possibly due to impact excavation of the ice-rich subsurface which suggests that the darker material is just a thin surface covering caused by impact debris or a lag deposit from which the ice has evaporated away. The infrared data shows spectral signatures for both sulfur and carbon as two potential materials which could play a part in the complicated make-up of Callisto's surface.

    The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA manages the Galileo mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, DC. JPL is an operating division of California Institute of Technology (Caltech).

    This image and other images and data received from Galileo are posted on the World Wide Web, on the Galileo mission home page at URL http://galileo.jpl.nasa.gov.

  20. Arsia Mons Southern Flank

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    The final VIS image of Arsia Mons is located on the southern flank of the volcano adjacent to the NE trending feature. There has been a significant amount of collapse features formed in this region.

    Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude -11.1, Longitude 238.6 East (121.4 West). 17 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

  1. Fires in Southern California

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    In what seemed like the blink of an eye, wildfires ignited in the paper-dry, drought-stricken vegetation of Southern California over the weekend of October 20, 2007, and exploded into massive infernos that forced hundreds of thousands of people to evacuate their communities. Driven by Santa Ana winds, fires grew thousands of acres in just one to two days. The fires sped down from the mountains into the outskirts of coastal cities, including San Diego. Dozens of homes have burned to the ground, and at least one person has died, according to local news reports. Several of the fires were burning completely out of control as of October 22. This image of the fires in California was captured at 1:55 p.m. U.S. Pacific Daylight Time on October 22, 2007. Places where MODIS detected actively burning fires are outlined in red. Thick streamers of smoke unfurl over the Pacific Ocean. The brownish plumes are clouds of dust. Fires northwest of Los Angeles seemed calmer at the time of this image than they were the previous day.

  2. Southern Bald Eagles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    This is one in a series of remarkable photos documenting the daily lives of two of KSC's most famous residents: The Southern Bald Eagles which inhabit an enormous nest on the Kennedy Parkway North. Each fall, the eagles take up winter residence in the nest to breed and raise a new generation. Thanks to a remote-controlled Nikon camera installed yearly in the same pine tree as the nest, the activities of these magnificent birds are recorded on film. This year, a rare and unique event was captured by the camera when a second clutch of eggs was laid, even though a healthy eaglet was born a month earlier. Although it is impossible to determine if it is the same eagles returning each year, the continued tolerance shown by this pair to the human presence seems to indicate that they are the same couple. According to wildlife experts, eight to nine pairs of bald eagles inhabit nests at KSC. The nest on Kennedy Parkway North is particularly well-known because of its huge size and close proximity to a busy road.

  3. Flooding in Southern Russia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Over the past two weeks, heavy rains have inundated southern Russia, giving rise to floods that killed up to 83 people and drove thousands from their homes. This false-color image acquired on June 23, 2002, by the Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) aboard the Terra satellite shows some of the worst flooding. The Black Sea is the dark patch in the lower left-hand corner. The city of Krasnodor, Russia, which was one of the cities hardest hit, sits on the western edge of the larger lake on the left side of the image, and Stavropol, which lost more lives than any other city, sits just east of the small cluster of lakes on the right-hand side of the image. Normally, the rivers and smaller lakes in this image cannot even be seen clearly on MODIS imagery. In this false-color image, the ground is green and blue and water is black or dark brown. Clouds come across as pink and white. Credit: Image courtesy Jesse Allen, NASA GSFC, based on data provided by the MODIS Rapid Response System.

  4. SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA R-EMAP

    EPA Science Inventory

    Bioassessment of Southern California Watersheds with a survey of aquatic ecological conditions using a probablistic design. This area is an intensive study area that is a subset of the larger western US REMAP project.

  5. Indians and Southern Colonial Statutes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kawashima, Yasuhide

    1974-01-01

    Southern statutes, with their dual nature of uniformity and diversity, were doubtlessly an essential source of law for the examination of complex legal relations between American Indians and Anglo Americans in the colonial South. (FF)

  6. Southern Hospitality with a Difference.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grover, Veronica

    1997-01-01

    Describes the humanitarian efforts of St. Luke's Parish to reach out to the community and help others. Its attempts to spread justice and peace have made it a healing presence in southern society. (YKH)

  7. Retrospective and prospective analysis of policy incentives for wind power in Portugal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pena Cabra, Ivonne A.

    Concerns over climate change impacts, goals to increase environmental sustainability, and questions about the reliability of fuel supply have led several countries to pursue the goal of increasing the share of renewable energy sources in their electricity grid. Portugal is one of the leading countries for wind electricity generation. Wind diffusion in Portugal started in the early 2000's and in 2013 wind electricity generation accounted for more than 24% (REN 2013b). The large share of wind in Portuguese electricity production is a consequence of European Union (E.U.) mandates and national policies, mainly feed-in tariffs. Discussions on the appropriate policy design and level of incentive to promote renewable energy adoption and meet further renewable capacity goals are ongoing in Portugal, namely in what concerns the level and duration of feed-in tariffs that should be provided to independent power producers. This, in turn, raises the question of whether the past feed-in tariff levels were well designed to achieve the goals of a larger penetration of renewables in the Portuguese grid. The policies to induce wind adoption have led to a growth in wind installed capacity and share of electricity generated by wind in Portugal from less than 1% in 2000 to approximately 24% in 2013, but questions arise on their cost-effectiveness and whether alternative policy designs would have led to the same goal. The Portuguese wind feed-in tariffs are a guaranteed incentive which has varied between 85- 180/MWh over the last 20 years (ERSE 2011), and remained approximately constant since 2001 at $101/MWh. They are currently guaranteed for 20 years of production or 44GWh of electricity generation per MW installed (Diario da Republica 2013) - the longest period among countries with high wind electricity share. They do not incorporate any digression rate besides inflation, and are guaranteed for every unit of electricity fed to the grid. There are no power plants that have already

  8. Investigating recent trends in the rainfall structure: an overview across Portugal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Lima, M. I. P.; Coelho, M. F. E. S.; Carvalho, S. C. P.; de Lima, J. L. M. P.

    2009-09-01

    The spatial and temporal structure of rain, which typically exhibits extreme variability, is a core issue in studies that span a number of research areas, e.g. hydrology, hydraulics, environment, energy, economics, society. The interest in this process demands its comprehensive study and characterization at a variety of space- and time-scales. Local studies of the rainfall climate can play an important role as they may contribute to characterizing rainfall. In this work the study area is mainland Portugal. Mainland Portugal is located in the transitional region between the sub-tropical anticyclone and the sub-polar depression zones. The characteristics of global circulation (specifically the Atlantic origin of many synoptic disturbances such as seasonal movements of the Azores high pressure system) in the context of regional geography (e.g. latitude, orography, oceanic and continental influences) greatly influence the spatial distribution of precipitation over the territory. The climatic variables exhibit strong north-south and west-east gradients, and precipitation also exhibits strong seasonal variability. The dominant climate in mainland Portugal is mild Mediterranean with a warm, dry summer period. These characteristics are more pronounced in the south, where the climate is sometimes classified as semi-arid. These regions are also well known for their vulnerability to climate variability. Several studies have reported increased rainfall variability in recent years, largely on the basis of annual and monthly point rainfall data, and for different geographical locations across the Iberian Peninsula, including Portugal. The main aim of this work, which complements those trend studies, is to contribute to identifying and clarifying recent changes in rain variability in Portugal by analysing trends in the small-scale temporal behaviour and statistics of this process. Thus the analyses reported here concentrate on the statistics of short-term rainfall events. The

  9. Bonner Durchmusterung (Southern Durchmusterung)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    The Southern Durchmusterung (SD, Schoenfeld 1886, Becker 1949, Schmidt 1967) is a visual survey of stars in the declination zones -02 to -23 deg, completed as an extension to Argelander's (1859-62) monumental Bonner Durchmusterung (BD). Schoenfeld's survey was carried out using the same methods as had been used for the BD. The procedure consisted of allowing the telescope to drift along the mean declination of each zone and recording the positions and magnitudes of stars crossing the transit line of each field. The goal of the survey was to extend the BD to declination -23 deg (a plan originally adopted by Argelander) with approximately the same magnitude limits, although the primary instrument was of larger aperture (159 mm) than the 78-mm telescope used for the BD. Thus, whereas the BD magnitude estimates extend to 9.4 mag with all fainter stars assigned a magnitude of 9.5, the SD magnitude estimates extend to 9.9 mag with all fainter stars assigned a magnitude of 10. The SD contains a number of stars fainter than 10.0 mag and even some as faint as 11 mag. Lists of all corrections made to the original data as a result of published corrigenda, stars deleted according to overstriking in the printed catalogs or their inclusion in lists of 'missing' stars, and stars inserted in later editions are given. No other corrections or changes have been incorporated into the original data, e.g., from more modern positions and magnitudes or from comparison with other catalogs.

  10. Central and southern Africa

    SciTech Connect

    McGrew, H.J.

    1981-10-01

    Exploration in central and southern Africa continued to expand during 1980. The greatest concentration of activity was in Nigeria. However, there was considerable increase in the level of exploratory work in Cameroon and Congo. Significant new finds have been made in Ivory Coast. Geological and geophysical activity was carried out in 18 of the countries, with those in the western part having the largest share. Seismic work involved 225 party months of operation. Most of this time was spent on land, but marine operations accounted for 73,389 km of new control. Gravity and magnetic data were recorded during the marine surveys, and several large aeromagnetic projects were undertaken to obtain a total of 164,498 line km of data. Exploratory and development drilling accounted for a total of 304 wells and 2,605,044 ft (794,212 m) of hole. The 92 exploratory wells that were drilled resulted in 47 oil and gas discoveries. In development drilling 89% of the 212 wells were successful. At the end of the year, 27 exploratory wells were underway, and 34 development wells were being drilled for a total of 61. Oil production from the countries that this review covers was 918,747,009 bbl in 1980, a drop of about 9% from the previous year. Countries showing a decline in production were Nigeria, Gabon, Cabinda, and Zaire. Increases were recorded in Cameroon, Congo, and Ghana. A new country was added to the list of producers when production from the Belier field in Ivory Coast came on stream. 33 figures, 15 tables.

  11. Dominance of Serotype Ia among Group B Streptococci Causing Invasive Infections in Nonpregnant Adults in Portugal

    PubMed Central

    Martins, E. R.; Melo-Cristino, J.

    2012-01-01

    The population of group B streptococci (GBS) associated with invasive infections in nonpregnant adults from 2001 to 2008 was analyzed in isolates submitted from 24 hospital laboratories in Portugal (n = 225). The isolates were characterized by antimicrobial susceptibility, pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), multilocus sequence typing (MLST), and surface protein gene profiling. GBS invasive cases were found more frequently among men in all age groups. In addition, serotype Ia was the most frequent in our collection, whereas serotype V is dominant elsewhere. Serotype Ia was represented mainly by a single PFGE cluster defined by sequence type 23 (ST23) and surface protein gene eps and by ST24 and bca, similarly to neonatal invasive infections in Portugal, indicating that the same genetic lineages can be responsible for both vaginal colonization and invasive disease in all age groups. In contrast, the hypervirulent serotype III/ST17 neonatal lineage was responsible for a minority of infections. Serotype V isolates were distributed into two genetic lineages, one defined by ST1 and surface protein gene alp3 and macrolide resistant, and another presenting with ST2 and eps and fully susceptible to all antimicrobials tested. The erm(TR) gene was the most frequently found among erythromycin-resistant isolates, while the bovine-associated tet(O) gene was found in a minority of tetracycline-resistant isolates. Our data emphasize the importance of local identification of the genetic lineages responsible for GBS invasive infections in nonpregnant adults. The dominance of serotype Ia in invasive disease in Portugal highlights the importance of this serotype in GBS pathogenesis. PMID:22219307

  12. The Environmental History of Cetaceans in Portugal: Ten Centuries of Whale and Dolphin Records

    PubMed Central

    Brito, Cristina; Sousa, Andreia

    2011-01-01

    The history between cetaceans and humans is documented throughout time not only in reports, descriptions, and tales but also in legal documents, laws and regulations, and tithes. This wealth of information comes from the easy spotting and identification of individuals due to their large size, surface breathing, and conspicuous above water behaviour. This work is based on historical sources and accounts accounting for cetacean presence for the period between the 12th and 17th centuries, as well as scientific articles, newspapers, illustrations, maps, non-published scientific reports, and other grey literature from the 18th century onwards. Information on whale use in Portugal's mainland has been found since as early as the 12th century and has continued to be created throughout time. No certainty can be given for medieval and earlier events, but both scavenging of stranded whales or use of captured ones may have happened. There is an increasing number of accounts of sighted, stranded, used, or captured cetaceans throughout centuries which is clearly associated with a growing effort towards the study of these animals. Scientific Latin species denominations only started to be registered from the 18th century onwards, as a consequence of the evolution of natural sciences in Portugal and increasing interest from zoologists. After the 19th century, a larger number of observations were recorded, and from the 20th century to the present day, regular scientific records have been collected. Research on the environmental history of cetaceans in Portugal shows a several-centuries-old exploitation of whales and dolphins, as resources mainly for human consumption, followed in later centuries by descriptions of natural history documenting strandings and at sea encounters. Most cetaceans species currently thought to be present in Portuguese mainland waters were at some point historically recorded. PMID:21931627

  13. Larvicidal activity against Aedes aegypti of Foeniculum vulgare essential oils from Portugal and Cape Verde.

    PubMed

    Rocha, Diara Kady; Matosc, Olivia; Novoa, Maria Teresa; Figueiredo, Ana Cristina; Delgado, Manuel; Moiteiro, Cristina

    2015-04-01

    Dengue is a potentially fatal mosquito-borne infection with 50 million cases per year and 2.5 billion people vulnerable to the disease. This major public health problem has recurrent epidemics in Latin America and occurred recently in Cape Verde and Madeira Island. The lack of anti-viral treatment or vaccine makes the control of mosquito vectors a high option to prevent virus transmission. Essential oil (EO) constituents can affect insect's behaviour, being potentially effective in pest control. The present study evaluated the potential use of Foenicultm vulgare (fennel) EO in the control of the dengue vector Aedes aegypti. EOs isolated from fennel aerial parts collected in Cape Verde and from a commercial fennel EO of Portugal were analysed by NMR, GC and GC-MS. trans-Anethole (32 and 30%, respectively), limonene (28 and 18%, respectively) and fenchone (10% in both cases) were the main compounds identified in the EOs isolated from fennel from Cape Verde and Portugal, respectively. The larvicidal activity of the EOs and its major constituents were evaluated, using WHO procedures, against third instar larvae ofAe. aegypti for 24 h. Pure compounds, such as limonene isomers, were also assayed. The lethal concentrations LC50, C90 and LC99 were determined by probit analysis using mortality rates of bioassays. A 99% mortality of Ae. aegypti larvae was estimated at 37.1 and 52.4 µL L-1 of fennel EOs from Cape Verde and Portugal, respectively. Bioassays showed that fennel EOs from both countries displayed strong larvicidal effect against Ae. aegypti, the Cape Verde EO being as active as one of its major constituents, (-)-limonene. PMID:25973508

  14. Predominance of KPC-3 in a Survey for Carbapenemase-Producing Enterobacteriaceae in Portugal

    PubMed Central

    Manageiro, Vera; Ferreira, Eugénia; Almeida, Joana; Barbosa, Stephanie; Simões, Constança; Bonomo, Robert A.

    2015-01-01

    Among the 2,105 Enterobacteriaceae tested in a survey done in Portugal, 165 were nonsusceptible to carbapenems, from which 35 (26 Klebsiella pneumoniae, 3 Escherichia coli, 2 Enterobacter aerogenes, and 3 Enterobacter cloacae isolates and 1 Klebsiella oxytoca isolate) were confirmed to be carbapenemase producers by the presence of 30 Tn4401d-blaKPC-3, 4 intI3-blaGES-5, and one intI1-blaVIM-2 gene, alone or in combination with other bla genes. The dissemination of blaKPC-3 gene carried by an IncF plasmid suggests lateral gene transfer as a major mechanism of dissemination. PMID:25779587

  15. Notes on Archaeoastronomy in Portugal: From First Light to Dark Moon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silva, Cândido Marciano da

    2015-05-01

    These notes review the concepts and analyses that were developed over the years, regarding the region of Central Alentejo, in Portugal, following the report in 1971 of the Almendres Cromlech discovery. Field work on menhirs and enclosures, initially targeted at the identification of standstill orientations, would show that some lines seemed to suggest possible equinoctial orientations. However, it appears that it was the orientation pattern of the dolmens that would prevail over equinoctial directions and led to the concepts of the Spring Full Moon and of the rising Sun and Moon crossovers presently under debate.

  16. NUVEM - New methods to Use gnss water Vapor Estimates for Meteorology of Portugal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernandes, R. M. S.; Viterbo, P.; Bos, M. S.; Martins, J. P.; Sá, A. G.; Valentim, H.; Jones, J.

    2014-12-01

    NUVEM (New methods to Use gnss water Vapor Estimates for Meteorology of Portugal) is a collaborative project funded by the Portuguese National Science Foundation (FCT) aiming to implement a multi-disciplinary approach in order to operationalize the inclusion of GNSS-PWV estimates for nowcasting in Portugal, namely for the preparation of warnings of severe weather. To achieve such goal, the NUVEM project is divided in two major components: a) Development and implementation of methods to compute accurate estimates of PWV (Precipitable Water Vapor) in NRT (Near Real-Time); b) Integration of such estimates in nowcasting procedures in use at IPMA (Portuguese Meteorological Service). Methodologies will be optimized at SEGAL to passive and actively access to the data; the PWV estimations will be computed using PPP (Precise Point Positioning), which permits the estimation of each individual station separately; solutions will be validated using internal and external values; and computed solutions will be transferred timely to the IPMA Operational Center. Validation of derived estimations using robust statistics is an important component of the project. The need for sending computed values as soon as possible to IPMA requires fast but reliable internal (e.g., noise estimation) and external (e.g., feedback from IPMA using other sensors like radiosondes) assessment of the quality of the PWV estimates. At IPMA, the goal is to implement the operational use of GNSS-PWV to assist weather nowcasting in Portugal. This will be done with the assistance of the Meteo group of IDL. Maps of GNSS-PWV will be automatically created and compared with solutions provided by other operational systems in order to help IPMA to detect suspicious patterns at near real time. This will be the first step towards the assimilation of GNSS-PWV estimates at IPMA nowcasting models. The NUVEM (EXPL/GEO-MET/0413/2013) project will also contribute to the active participation of Portugal at the COST Action ES

  17. Middle Paleolithic human remains from the Gruta da Oliveira (Torres Novas), Portugal.

    PubMed

    Trinkaus, Erik; Maki, Julia; Zilhão, João

    2007-10-01

    Ongoing excavations in the Middle Paleolithic levels at the Gruta da Oliveira, Portugal have yielded four fragmentary human remains, a manual phalanx and an ulna from levels 9 and 10, and a humerus and a tibia from levels 18 and 19. The first two remains date to approximately 39 ka 14C BP ( approximately 43.5 ka cal BP), whereas the latter two derive from earlier in oxygen isotope stage 3. The preserved portions of the phalanx, humerus, and tibia align them morphologically with the Neandertals. In addition, the Oliveira 4 tibial diaphysis shows evidence of carnivore (probably canid) gnawing. PMID:17632802

  18. Analysis of Rainfall Changes in Transnational Basins in Portugal and Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guerreiro, S. B.; Kilsby, C. G.; Serinaldi, F.

    2012-04-01

    The impact of climate regime variability on the hydrology and water resources of the major transnational basins in Iberia (Portugal and Spain) is being studied. Spain is the source of the three major rivers that flow through Portugal, leaving this country in a vulnerable position. There is a strong interannual precipitation variability in Iberia, with very wet and very dry years occurring frequently. Situations of water scarcity are already frequent in the south of Portugal and Spain, so in the future, a critical problem of water availability for Iberia might arise. An analysis of changes in rainfall records covering the three major transnational basins was performed, using data from Spain and Portugal which are normally considered separately. This study area, defined by basins instead of countries, is more coherent for water resources analysis. Change point and trend analysis was performed on rainfall records in the transnational basins of rivers Douro, Tagus and Guadiana for the period 1961 to 2009. Non-parametric tests (Pettitt test, cusum test and Mann-Kendall test) were used in order not to have to assume a specific distribution for the data. Field significance was taken into account when calculating trends and change points. The importance of spatial correlation when calculating field significance was demonstrated. As well as finding changes in rainfall which have great significance for water resources, some important issues are raised as to the nature of changes in rainfall to be expected. Significant decreases in rainfall were found for the month of February and, to a lesser extent, March. Significant increases in rainfall were found for October in the Spanish side of Douro and Tagus catchments. The NAO index was considered as a possible explanation for the changes detected. It was also demonstrated that changes in rainfall cannot always be interpreted as trends or change points because the pattern of change can be more complex than these two simplistic

  19. A Taxonomic Catalogue of the Nemerteans (Phylum Nemertea) of Spain and Portugal.

    PubMed

    Herrera-Bachiller, Alfonso; Fernández-Álvarez, Fernando Ángel; Junoy, Juan

    2015-12-01

    A literature-based taxonomic catalogue of nemerteans (phylum Nemertea) from Spain and Portugal is provided, listing 75 species (12 Palaeonemertea, 24 Pilidiophora, and 39 Hoplonemertea) belonging to 34 genera. This is a low species number compared with the approximately 400 species listed in Europe. This lack of knowledge is mainly due to the low number of researchers interested in the phylum and the well-known taxonomic difficulties of its study. Geographic records are indicated for each species, and for some, comments are included on certain biological and taxonomic aspects. PMID:26654034

  20. Suicide in Portugal: Spatial determinants in a context of economic crisis.

    PubMed

    Santana, Paula; Costa, Cláudia; Cardoso, Graça; Loureiro, Adriana; Ferrão, João

    2015-09-01

    This study compares the existing statistical association between suicide mortality and the characteristics of places of residence (municipalities), before and during the current economic crisis, in Portugal. We found that (1) the traditional culture-based North/South pattern of suicidal behaviour has faded away, while the socioeconomic urban/rural divide has become more pronounced; (2) suicide is associated with higher levels of rurality and material deprivation; and (3) recent shifts in suicidal trends may result from the current period of crisis. Strategies targeting rural areas combined with public policies that address area deprivation may have important implications for tackling suicide. PMID:26277771

  1. Neisseria meningitidis C:2b:P1.2,5 with Intermediate Resistance to Penicillin, Portugal

    PubMed Central

    Dias, Ricardo; Ferreira, Eugénia

    2004-01-01

    For 1 year, serogroup, serotype, serosubtype, and penicillin susceptibility of meningococci circulating in various regions in Portugal were evaluated. Most frequent phenotypes were B:4:P1.15 (13.4%) and C:2b:P1.2,5 (75.9%), which are also common in Spain. Overall, 27.5% of C:2b:P1.2,5 strains showed intermediate resistance to penicillin. Laboratory-based surveillance of meningococcal infection in Portugal provides important information to assess the adequacy of public health measures. PMID:15109429

  2. The impact of the financial crisis on human resources for health policies in three southern-Europe countries.

    PubMed

    Correia, Tiago; Dussault, Gilles; Pontes, Carla

    2015-12-01

    The public health sector has been the target of austerity measures since the global financial crisis started in 2008, while health workforce costs have been a source of rapid savings in most European Union countries. This article aims to explore how health workforce policies have evolved in three southern European countries under external constraints imposed by emergency financial programmes agreed with the International Monetary Fund, Central European Bank and European Commission. The selected countries, Greece, Portugal and Cyprus, show similarities with regard to corporatist systems of social protection and comprehensive welfare mechanisms only recently institutionalized. Based on document analysis of the Memoranda of Understanding agreed with the Troika, our results reveal broadly similar policy responses to the crisis but also important differences. In Cyprus, General Practitioners have a key position in reducing public expenditure through gatekeeping and control of users' access, while Portugal and Greece seeks to achieve cost containment by constraining the decision-making powers of professionals. All three countries lack innovation as well as monitoring and assessment of the effects of the financial crisis in relation to the health workforce. Consequently, there is a need for health policy development to use human resources more efficiently in healthcare. PMID:26319095

  3. The Southern Ocean CIRCLE initiative

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murphy, E. J.; Ellis-Evans, J. C.

    2003-04-01

    The circumpolar Southern Ocean is the principal ocean connection between the Atlantic, Pacific and Indian Oceans, and exerts a profound influence on world climate through ocean circulation and its major role in the global carbon cycle. It is a major repository of biodiversity and also the only ocean system where significant marine living resources are yet to be fully exploited. However, this key component of the Earth System is still poorly understood, in part due to the logistical problems of a harsh, remote location and the circumpolar nature of the environment. Circumpolar patterns of variability have now been recognized and the current challenge is to understand how, at a circumpolar scale, this variability is generated, its impact on the regional biogeochemical cycles, its interaction with ecosystem processes and the links to global scale processes. Many of these scientific issues can only be addressed by Southern Ocean scale studies, and although a range of national and international research programmes are already targeting particular aspects, the research effort is largely uncoordinated. The European Polar Board is sponsoring a pan-European initiative (Southern Ocean CIRCLE) to coordinate the currently disparate Southern Ocean research effort and this initiative aims to address climate variability, biogeochemical cycling and ecosystem dynamics with particular reference to the links between these aspects in the circumpolar Southern Ocean. This poster outlines the development of the SO CIRCLE initiative, the major areas of science and proposals for implementation. It also outlines how SO CIRCLE will link to other programmes with a Southern Ocean component (e.g. CLIVAR, CliC, GLOBEC, SOLAS). A key aspect of the initiative will be to coordinate European scientific effort in the Southern Ocean with that of the wider international community.

  4. Fire in Southern Greece

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    The last major fire in southern Greece was brought under control this weekend, but not until over 469,000 acres of mostly forest and farmland were destroyed. An estimated 4000 people lost their homes, and over 60 deaths were reported. These were the worst fires ever to occur in Greece. In this Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) image acquired September 4 over the western coast of the Peloponnesus Peninsula, burned areas appear in dark red, and unburned vegetation is green. The area includes the ancient site of Olympia, the site of the Olympic Games in classical times. The fires came within 2 kilometers (1.2 miles) of the archaeological site, but spared it.

    With its 14 spectral bands from the visible to the thermal infrared wavelength region, and its high spatial resolution of 15 to 90 meters (about 50 to 300 feet), ASTER images Earth to map and monitor the changing surface of our planet.

    ASTER is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18, 1999, on NASA's Terra spacecraft. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products.

    The broad spectral coverage and high spectral resolution of ASTER provides scientists in numerous disciplines with critical information for surface mapping, and monitoring of dynamic conditions and temporal change. Example applications are: monitoring glacial advances and retreats; monitoring potentially active volcanoes; identifying crop stress; determining cloud morphology and physical properties; wetlands evaluation; thermal pollution monitoring; coral reef degradation; surface temperature mapping of soils and geology; and measuring surface heat balance.

    The U.S. science team is located at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Science Mission Directorate.

    Size: 56.4 by

  5. Southern Dust Devils

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    Released 9 July 2004 The atmosphere of Mars is a dynamic system. Water-ice clouds, fog, and hazes can make imaging the surface from space difficult. Dust storms can grow from local disturbances to global sizes, through which imaging is impossible. Seasonal temperature changes are the usual drivers in cloud and dust storm development and growth.

    Eons of atmospheric dust storm activity has left its mark on the surface of Mars. Dust carried aloft by the wind has settled out on every available surface; sand dunes have been created and moved by centuries of wind; and the effect of continual sand-blasting has modified many regions of Mars, creating yardangs and other unusual surface forms.

    In our final dust devil image we are again looking at the southern hemisphere of Mars. These tracks occur mainly on the northeast side of the topographic ridges. Of course, there are many exceptions, which makes understanding the dynamics that initiate the actual dust devil cyclone difficult.

    Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude -47.6, Longitude 317.3 East (42.7 West). 19 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at

  6. Detection and phylogenetic characterization of Theileria spp. and Anaplasma marginale in Rhipicephalus bursa in Portugal.

    PubMed

    Ferrolho, Joana; Antunes, Sandra; Santos, Ana S; Velez, Rita; Padre, Ludovina; Cabezas-Cruz, Alejandro; Santos-Silva, Maria Margarida; Domingos, Ana

    2016-04-01

    Ticks are obligatory blood-sucking arthropod (Acari:Ixodida) ectoparasites of domestic and wild animals as well as humans. The incidence of tick-borne diseases is rising worldwide, challenging our approach toward diagnosis, treatment and control options. Rhipicephalus bursa Canestrini and Fanzago, 1877, a two-host tick widely distributed in the Palearctic Mediterranean region, is considered a multi-host tick that can be commonly found on sheep, goats and cattle, and occasionally on horses, dogs, deer and humans. R. bursa is a species involved in the transmission of several tick-borne pathogens with a known impact on animal health and production. The aim of this study was to estimate R. bursa prevalence in Portugal Mainland and circulating pathogens in order to contribute to a better knowledge of the impact of this tick species. Anaplasma marginale and Theileria spp. were detected and classified using phylogenetic analysis. This is the first report of Theileria annulata and Theileria equi detection in R. bursa ticks feeding on cattle and horses, respectively, in Portugal. This study contributes toward the identification of currently circulating pathogens in this tick species as a prerequisite for developing future effective anti-tick control measures. PMID:26797395

  7. Polar marine biology science in Portugal and Spain: Recent advances and future perspectives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xavier, José C.; Barbosa, Andrés; Agustí, Susana; Alonso-Sáez, Laura; Alvito, Pedro; Ameneiro, Julia; Ávila, Conxita; Baeta, Alexandra; Canário, João; Carmona, Raquel; Catry, Paulo; Ceia, Filipe; Clark, Melody S.; Cristobo, Francisco J.; Cruz, Bruno; Duarte, Carlos M.; Figuerola, Blanca; Gili, Josep-Maria; Gonçalves, Ana R.; Gordillo, Francisco J. L.; Granadeiro, José P.; Guerreiro, Miguel; Isla, Enrique; Jiménez, Carlos; López-González, Pablo J.; Lourenço, Sílvia; Marques, João C.; Moreira, Elena; Mota, Ana M.; Nogueira, Marta; Núñez-Pons, Laura; Orejas, Covadonga; Paiva, Vitor H.; Palanques, Albert; Pearson, Gareth A.; Pedrós-Alió, Carlos; Peña Cantero, Álvaro L.; Power, Deborah M.; Ramos, Jaime A.; Rossi, Sergi; Seco, José; Sañé, Elisabet; Serrão, Ester A.; Taboada, Sergi; Tavares, Sílvia; Teixidó, Núria; Vaqué, Dolors; Valente, Tiago; Vázquez, Elsa; Vieira, Rui P.; Viñegla, Benjamin

    2013-10-01

    Polar marine ecosystems have global ecological and economic importance because of their unique biodiversity and their major role in climate processes and commercial fisheries, among others. Portugal and Spain have been highly active in a wide range of disciplines in marine biology of the Antarctic and the Arctic. The main aim of this paper is to provide a synopsis of some of the results and initiatives undertaken by Portuguese and Spanish polar teams within the field of marine sciences, particularly on benthic and pelagic biodiversity (species diversity and abundance, including microbial, molecular, physiological and chemical mechanisms in polar organisms), conservation and ecology of top predators (particularly penguins, albatrosses and seals), and pollutants and evolution of marine organisms associated with major issues such as climate change, ocean acidification and UV radiation effects. Both countries have focused their polar research more in the Antarctic than in the Arctic. Portugal and Spain should encourage research groups to continue increasing their collaborations with other countries and develop multi-disciplinary research projects, as well as to maintain highly active memberships within major organizations, such as the Scientific Committee for Antarctic Research (SCAR), the International Arctic Science Council (IASC) and the Association of Polar Early Career Scientists (APECS), and in international research projects.

  8. Changes in the characteristics of facial fractures in children and adolescents in Portugal 1993-2012.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Pedro; Barbosa, Joselina; Amarante, José; Insua-Pereira, Inês; Soares, Carlos; Silva, Álvaro

    2015-03-01

    We investigated the changes in the characteristics of facial fractures in children and adolescents during a 20-year period in Portugal to try to find out how to prevent such fractures in future. We reviewed the clinical records of patients aged 0-18 years old who had facial fractures treated at the Department of Plastic Surgery, São João Hospital, Porto, during the 20-year period 1993-2012. The patients were divided into two 10-year periods: January 1993 to December 2002, and January 2003 to December 2012, and these were compared and analysed. A total of 1416 patients with 2071 fractures were diagnosed. There was a significant reduction (p<0.001) in the number of patients treated during the two decades. In both groups the number of patients increased with increasing age (p<0.001), and there was a male preponderance in all age groups. Motor vehicle collisions were the main cause of the fractures, and the mandible was the most common site (49.7%). Other injuries were recorded in 1015 patients (71.7%), and the head and neck was the most common site in both decades. Facial fractures in children are usually associated with severe trauma, and their characteristics can be influenced by social and economic factors. Although the number of children injured has decreased significantly during the last decade, facial fractures remain common in Portugal. PMID:25560325

  9. Prevalence of canine heartworm (Dirofilaria immitis) disease in dogs of central Portugal

    PubMed Central

    Vieira, Ana Luísa; Vieira, Maria João; Oliveira, João Manuel; Simões, Ana Rita; Diez-Baños, Pablo; Gestal, Juan

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine the prevalence and risk factors concerning Dirofilaria immitis infection in dogs from Figueira da Foz, located in the central region of Portugal. In the period between November 2009 and January 2011, 304 blood samples were obtained from dogs over 1 year of age, with no previous history of heartworm prevention or diagnosis. Every blood sample was analyzed using varied laboratory techniques (direct microscopic evaluation of a fresh blood sample, the modified Knott technique, and the ELISA antigen detection test – IDEXX Snapp®). In the samples in which microfilaremia was detected, a histochemical technique using acid phosphatase staining was applied to identify the species of microfilariae. A total prevalence of 27.3% (83 out of 304) was found. We also found that 73.5% of all positive cases (61 out of 83) were microfilaremic, and 26.5% were occult infections (22 out of 83). By means of a histochemical technique Dirofilaria immitis was identified in 96.7% of microfilaremic samples. A multivariate model allowed us to identify the following risk factors for the presence of heartworm disease: age between 4 and 9 years, dogs living in a rural environment, large breed dogs, and living outdoors. This study shows for the first time the high prevalence of heartworm disease in a central area of Portugal and emphasizes the importance of systematic screening for this disease, as well as the need to prevent it in dogs in this area. PMID:24534524

  10. Prevalence of canine heartworm (Dirofilaria immitis) disease in dogs of central Portugal.

    PubMed

    Vieira, Ana Luísa; Vieira, Maria João; Oliveira, João Manuel; Simões, Ana Rita; Diez-Baños, Pablo; Gestal, Juan

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine the prevalence and risk factors concerning Dirofilaria immitis infection in dogs from Figueira da Foz, located in the central region of Portugal. In the period between November 2009 and January 2011, 304 blood samples were obtained from dogs over 1 year of age, with no previous history of heartworm prevention or diagnosis. Every blood sample was analyzed using varied laboratory techniques (direct microscopic evaluation of a fresh blood sample, the modified Knott technique, and the ELISA antigen detection test - IDEXX Snapp®). In the samples in which microfilaremia was detected, a histochemical technique using acid phosphatase staining was applied to identify the species of microfilariae. A total prevalence of 27.3% (83 out of 304) was found. We also found that 73.5% of all positive cases (61 out of 83) were microfilaremic, and 26.5% were occult infections (22 out of 83). By means of a histochemical technique Dirofilaria immitis was identified in 96.7% of microfilaremic samples. A multivariate model allowed us to identify the following risk factors for the presence of heartworm disease: age between 4 and 9 years, dogs living in a rural environment, large breed dogs, and living outdoors. This study shows for the first time the high prevalence of heartworm disease in a central area of Portugal and emphasizes the importance of systematic screening for this disease, as well as the need to prevent it in dogs in this area. PMID:24534524

  11. Distribution of HLA alleles in Portugal and Cabo Verde. Relationships with the slave trade route.

    PubMed

    Spínola, H; Brehm, A; Williams, F; Jesus, J; Middleton, D

    2002-07-01

    HLA-A, -B, and -DR frequencies were analysed in populations from Portugal and the Madeira and Cabo Verde Archipelagos, aiming to characterize their genetic composition. Portuguese settlers colonized both Archipelagos in the 15th and 16th centuries. Madeira received many sub-Saharan slaves to work in the sugar plantations, and Cabo Verde served as a pivotal market in the Atlantic slave trade and was populated by individuals coming from the Senegambia region of the West African coast. The population of Madeira shows the highest genetic diversity and the presence of alleles and haplotypes usually linked to sub-Saharan populations, the haplotypes accounting for 3.5% of the total. Cabo Verde presents typical markers acknowledged to be of European or Ibero-Mediterranean origin, thus revealing the admixture of European settlers with Sub-Saharan slaves. Altogether the number of European haplotypes reaches 15% of the total. The Portuguese population shows a perceivable and significant heterogeneity both in allele and haplotype frequencies, unveiling a differential input of peoples from different origins. A PCA of the populations studied, plus other relevant ones, clearly shows gene heterogeneity in mainland Portugal as well as the differences and relationships between these populations and Madeira and Cabo Verde. PMID:12418969

  12. Cloud-to-ground lightning in Portugal: patterns and dynamical forcing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santos, J. A.; Reis, M. A.; Sousa, J.; Leite, S. M.; Correia, S.; Janeira, M.; Fragoso, M.

    2012-03-01

    An analysis of the cloud-to-ground discharges (CGD) over Portugal is carried out using data collected by a network of sensors maintained by the Portuguese Meteorological Institute for 2003-2009 (7 yr). Only cloud-to-ground flashes are considered and negative polarity CGD are largely dominant. The total number of discharges reveals a considerable interannual variability and a large irregularity in their distribution throughout the year. However, it is shown that a large number of discharges occur in the May-September period (71%), with a bimodal distribution that peaks in May and September, with most of the lightning activity recorded in the afternoon (from 16:00 to 18:00 UTC). In spring and autumn the lightning activity tends to be scattered throughout the country, whereas in summer it tends to be more concentrated over northeastern Portugal. Winter generally presents low lightning activity. Furthermore, two significant couplings between the monthly number of days with discharges and the large-scale atmospheric circulation are isolated: a regional forcing, predominantly in summer, and a remote forcing. In fact, the identification of daily lightning regimes revealed three important atmospheric conditions for triggering lightning activity: regional cut-off lows, cold troughs induced by remote low pressure systems and summertime regional low pressures at low-tropospheric levels combined with a mid-tropospheric cold trough.

  13. Cross-border healthcare directive: Assessing stakeholders' perspectives in Poland and Portugal.

    PubMed

    Helena, Ricardo

    2016-04-01

    Within the context of the EU, a succession of rulings from the European Court of Justice addressed the gap of specific healthcare legislation. These rulings shook the member states assumption of health provision autonomy and led the European Commission to produce a specific directive concerning cross-border healthcare. In spite of different viewpoints of member states, including Poland and Portugal, the directive was approved and expected to be implemented by October 2013. The objective of this study was to analyse stakeholders' perspective towards the directive, unveiling the factors that supported a different viewpoint, and to identify challenges and assess the expected impact associated with the directive implementation on Poland and Portugal, using the WHO health systems conceptual framework. Information was collected through a literature review, identifying potential stakeholders. Primary qualitative analysis was conducted through the dissemination of open-ended questionnaires. Content and critical analysis was performed considering the available literature intertwined with the WHO health systems conceptual framework. The directive appears to be positive regarding patient rights, increased transparency, and potential to set new information technologies and healthcare networks. However, it also seems to potentially generate access inequalities between home and foreign patients, and increase healthcare costs due to the short-term investments needed. PMID:26948704

  14. Antimicrobial, antiviral and antioxidant activities of "água-mel" from Portugal.

    PubMed

    Miguel, Maria G; Faleiro, Leonor; Antunes, Maria D; Aazza, Smail; Duarte, Joana; Silvério, Ana R

    2013-06-01

    "Água-mel" is a honey-based product produced in Portugal for ancient times. Several attributes have been reported to "água-mel" particularly in the alleviation of simple symptoms of upper respiratory tract. Samples of "água-mel" from diverse beekeepers from different regions of Portugal were studied in what concerns antimicrobial, antioxidant and antiviral properties. The amounts of phenol and brown pigment were also evaluated and correlated with the antioxidant activities. A great variability on the levels of these compounds was found among samples which were responsible for the variability detected also on the antioxidant activities, independent on the method used. Generally, antioxidant activity correlated better with brown pigments' amount than with phenols' content. The antimicrobial activity found for "água-mel" samples confirm the virtues reported by popular findings. In addition, this work also reveals the antiviral properties of "água-mel" evidenced by a decrease on the infectivity of the Qβ bacteriophage. PMID:23422034

  15. Aerosols over Continental Portugal (1978-1993): their sources and an impact on the regional climate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morozova, A. L.; Mironova, I. A.

    2014-12-01

    Understanding of aerosol sources which affect climate is an important problem open in front of scientists as well as policymakers. The role of aerosols in local climate variability depends on a~balance between aerosol absorbing and scattering particles as well as on variability of environmental conditions. In this paper we investigate variability of aerosol content (both absorbing and scattering UV radiation) over Continental Portugal in dependence on aerosol sources (volcanic eruptions, dust events, wildfires and anthropogenic pollution). The effect of the aerosol on the climate is studied analyzing their contribution to variations of temperature, sunshine duration and precipitation over Portuguese regions. The present analysis is based on a developed modern multiple regression technique allowing us to build the statistical correlation models to determine both the main local aerosol sources and aerosol's influence on the climate of the Continental Portugal during 1978-1993 time period. The analysis allows us to conclude that the main sources driving the variations of the aerosol content over studied locations are wildfires, mineral dust intrusions and anthropogenic pollution. The relations between the aerosol content variations and the atmospheric parameters depend on the level of urbanization of the studied region, the type of aerosol and the season. The most significant finding is the decrease of the daily temperature (and diurnal temperature range) related to the decrease of sunshine duration observed during the summer periods of increased content of the absorbing aerosols in the atmosphere.

  16. High prevalence of LRRK2 mutations in familial and sporadic Parkinson's disease in Portugal.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Joaquim J; Guedes, Leonor Correia; Rosa, Mário Miguel; Coelho, Miguel; van Doeselaar, Marina; Schweiger, Dorothea; Di Fonzo, Alessio; Oostra, Ben A; Sampaio, Cristina; Bonifati, Vincenzo

    2007-06-15

    Mutations in the Leucine-Rich Repeat Kinase 2 (LRRK2) gene are the most frequent known cause of Parkinson's disease (PD), but their prevalence varies markedly between populations. Here we studied the frequency and associated phenotype of four recurrent LRRK2 mutations (R1441C, R1441G, R1441H, and G2019S) in familial and sporadic PD from a single referral center in Lisbon, Portugal. Among 138 unrelated PD probands, we identified 9 heterozygous G2019S carriers (6.52%) and 1 heterozygous R1441H carrier (0.72%). The G2019S mutation was present in 4 of the 107 sporadic (3.74%) and in 5 of the 31 familial probands (16.1%). Mutations were not found among 101 Portuguese controls. The G2019S mutation was present on a single haplotype and displayed reduced penetrance. Heterozygous parkin gene mutations were also found in 2 G2019S-positive probands, but their pathogenic role is unclear. The clinical phenotype in patients with LRRK2 mutations was indistinguishable from that of typical PD, including impaired sense of smell. The G2019S mutation is a very common genetic determinant among the Portuguese patients with PD, and the R1441H mutation is also present in this population. These data have important implications for the diagnostic work-up and genetic counseling of patients with this disease in Portugal. PMID:17469194

  17. The state of the fishery, conservation and management of the stalked barnacle Pollicipes pollicipes in Portugal.

    PubMed

    Cruz, Teresa; Jacinto, David; Sousa, Alina; Penteado, Nélia; Pereira, Diana; Fernandes, Joana N; Silva, Teresa; Castro, João J

    2015-12-01

    The stalked barnacle Pollicipes pollicipes is the most important intertidal economical resource in Portugal. The assessment of the state of the fishery, conservation and management of P. pollicipes in Portugal was made for the first time in three regions with different regulations regarding this fishery: two marine protected areas ("Reserva Natural das Berlengas", RNB; and "Parque Natural do Sudoeste Alentejano e Costa Vicentina", PNSACV); and the Center coast. Different approaches (independent observations, inquiries, logbooks) and sources of data (past and recent) were used. An overall negative tendency of the state of the fishery and conservation of this resource was observed in all regions, with the exception of the stable tendency detected in PNSACV when using the inquiries approach. A weak management was considered to be in practice at Center and at PNSACV, while an acceptable management was inferred for RNB. We recommend a change into a co-management system that should be tested in pilot regions as RNB and/or PNSACV. PMID:26507313

  18. Equity in health care financing in Portugal: findings from the Household Budget Survey 2010/2011.

    PubMed

    Quintal, Carlota; Lopes, José

    2016-07-01

    Equity in health care financing is recognised as a main goal in health policy. It implies that payments should be linked to capacity to pay and that households should be protected against catastrophic health expenditure (CHE). The risk of CHE is inversely related to the share of out-of-pocket payments (OOP) in total health expenditure. In Portugal, OOP represented 26% of total health expenditure in 2010 [one of the highest among Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) countries]. This study aims to identify the proportion of households with CHE in Portugal and the household factors associated with this outcome. Additionally, progressivity indices are calculated for OOP and private health insurance. Data were taken from the Portuguese Household Budget Survey 2010/2011. The prevalence of CHE is 2.1%, which is high for a developed country with a universal National Health Service. The main factor associated with CHE is the presence of at least one elderly person in households (when the risk quadruples). Payments are particularly regressive for medicines. Regarding the results by regions, the Kakwani index for total OOP is larger (negative) for the Centre and lower, not significant, for the Azores. Payments for voluntary health insurance are progressive. PMID:26573411

  19. Fascist labscapes: geneticists, wheat, and the landscapes of Fascism in Italy and Portugal.

    PubMed

    Saraiva, Tiago

    2010-01-01

    This paper explores the role of scientists in the building of fascist regimes in Italy and Portugal by focusing on plant geneticists' participation in the Italian and Portuguese wheat wars for bread self-sufficiency. It looks closely at the work undertaken by Nazareno Strampelli at the National Institute of Genetics for Grain Cultivation (Italy) and by António Sousa da Câmara at the National Agronomic Experiment Station (Portugal), both of whom took wheat as their prime experimental object of genetics research. The main argument is that the production of standardized organisms—the breeder's elite seeds—in laboratory spaces is deeply entangled with their circulation through extended distribution networks that allowed for their massive presence in Italian and Portuguese landscapes such as the Po Valley and the Alentejo. The narrative pays particular attention to the historical development of fascist regimes in the two countries, advancing the argument that breeders' artifacts were key components of the institutionalization of the new political regimes. PMID:20957828

  20. Survey of Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis in road-killed wild carnivores in Portugal.

    PubMed

    Matos, Ana Cristina; Figueira, Luis; Martins, Maria Helena; Loureiro, Filipa; Pinto, Maria Lurdes; Matos, Manuela; Coelho, Ana Cláudia

    2014-12-01

    A survey to determine the occurrence of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) in wild carnivores in Portugal was conducted by testing samples from road-killed animals between 2009 and 2012. Postmortem examinations were performed and tissues were collected from wild carnivores representing four families and six different species, with a total of 74 animals analyzed. Cultures were performed by using Löwenstein-Jensen and Middlebrook 7H11 solid media and acid-fast isolates were identified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and mycobactin dependency characteristics. Tissues were also screened for MAP by directly extracting DNA and testing for the MAP-specific sequences. The occurrence of infected animals (an animal had at least one tissue that was positive for culture or direct PCR) was 27.0% (n = 20). MAP was isolated from culture of 25 tissue samples (3.8%) and was detected by direct PCR in 40 (6.0%) samples. Infection was recorded in 5/6 studied species: 7/49 (14.3%) red foxes (Vulpes vulpes), 3/3 (100%) beech martens (Martes foina), 2/4 (50.0%) Eurasian otters (Lutra lutra), 7/15 (46.7%) Egyptian mongooses (Herpestes ichneumon), and 1/1 (100%) European badger (Meles meles). These species represent three different taxonomic families: Canidae (14.3% were positive), Mustelidae (75.0% were positive), and Herpestidae (46.7% were positive). The results of this study confirm the presence of MAP infection in wild carnivores in Portugal. PMID:25632662

  1. Distribution of trace metals in moss biomonitors and assessment of contamination sources in Portugal.

    PubMed

    Figueira, R; Sérgio, C; Sousa, A J

    2002-01-01

    A biomonitoring survey using the moss species [Hypnum cupressiforme Hedw. and Scelopodium touretii (Brid.) L. Kock] was performed in the whole territory of Portugal, in order to evaluate the atmospheric deposition of the following elements: Cd. Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn. The concentrations of the same elements were also obtained in two types of soil samples, collected under the moss and in nearby plots without any plant coverage, and relationships between moss and soil concentrations was investigated using the multivariate statistical method of Co-inertia Analysis. Also, relationships between concentrations in moss and several anthropogenic, geologic, pedologic and environmental parameters were screened using the same method of Co-inertia Analysis. Higher concentrations of Cu, Pb and Zn were found in areas of higher population density, with higher gasoline consumption, while higher values of Fe and Cr occur in the driest region, with lower plant coverage, indicating strong contamination by resuspended soil particles. Results also show good agreement between moss and soil contents, even for elements with high contribution of anthropogenic sources. The spatial pattern in Portugal of element contents in mosses were also detected and discussed in relation to local contamination sources. PMID:11996378

  2. Homoaffective parentage--specifically, a matter of medically assisted reproduction: a parallel between Brazil and Portugal.

    PubMed

    Chaves, Marianna

    2011-09-01

    In the field of homosexuality an issue still excessively polemical is the one concerning the possibility of paternity or maternity (biological or adoptive) as a right to be exercised by homosexuals. An even more controversial issue is that of homosexuals' access to assisted reproductive techniques. Carrying out an analysis of two countries, Brazil and Portugal face this with opposite approaches in legislation and legal doctrine. In Brazil, the issue is not legislatively regulated. In Portugal, there is regulatory law. The question that arises is: what is better an extremely reductive and discriminatory law or a true legal vacuum? Several questions may be raised in this context. The first one is: is there indeed a right to parenthood? What to say about surrogacy? In these cases is the commandment of the child's best interest being heeded, which is the vector for any decision relating to an infant or teenager? Differences of understanding will always exist, especially in such a sensitive field as Family Law. But one fact must be accepted: any resolution and legislation in this context must be based on the principle of the best interests of the - born or unborn - child and other constitutional principles as equality, freedom, non-discrimination and human dignity, forgetting the prejudice rooted in society and the unfounded conjectures of homophobic judgments. PMID:22191329

  3. Cheese-related listeriosis outbreak, Portugal, March 2009 to February 2012.

    PubMed

    Magalhaes, R; Almeida, G; Ferreira, V; Santos, I; Silva, J; Mendes, M M; Pita, J; Mariano, G; Mancio, I; Sousa, M M; Farber, J; Pagotto, F; Teixeira, P

    2015-01-01

    In Portugal, listeriosis has been notifiable since April 2014, but there is no active surveillance programme for the disease. A retrospective study involving 25 national hospitals led to the detection of an outbreak that occurred between March 2009 and February 2012. The amount of time between the start of the outbreak and its detection was 16 months. Of the 30 cases of listeriosis reported, 27 were in the Lisbon and Vale do Tejo region. Two cases were maternal/neonatal infections and one resulted in fetal loss. The mean age of the non-maternal/neonatal cases was 59 years (standard deviation: 17); 13 cases were more than 65 years old. The case fatality rate was 36.7%. All cases were caused by molecular serogroup IVb isolates indistinguishable by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis and ribotype profiles. Collaborative investigations with the national health and food safety authorities identified cheese as the probable source of infection, traced to a processing plant. The magnitude of this outbreak, the first reported food-borne listeriosis outbreak in Portugal, highlights the importance of having an effective listeriosis surveillance system in place for early detection and resolution of outbreaks, as well as the need for a process for the prompt submission of Listeria monocytogenes isolates for routine laboratory typing. PMID:25955775

  4. Chemical characterization, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and cytotoxic properties of bee venom collected in Northeast Portugal.

    PubMed

    Sobral, Filipa; Sampaio, Andreia; Falcão, Soraia; Queiroz, Maria João R P; Calhelha, Ricardo C; Vilas-Boas, Miguel; Ferreira, Isabel C F R

    2016-08-01

    Bee venom (BV) or apitoxin is a complex mixture of substances with reported biological activity. In the present work, five bee venom samples obtained from Apis mellifera iberiensis from the Northeast Portugal (two different apiaries) were chemically characterized and evaluated for their antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and cytotoxic properties. The LC/DAD/ESI-MS(n) analysis of the samples showed that melittin was the most abundant compound, followed by phospholipase A2 and apamin. All the samples revealed antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activity but without a direct relation with any of the individual chemical components identified. The results highlight that there are specific concentrations (present in BV5) in which these compounds are more active. The BV samples showed similar cytotoxicity for all the tested tumour cell lines (MCF-7, NCI-H460, HeLa and HepG2), being MCF-7 and HeLa the most susceptible ones. Nevertheless, the studied samples seem to be suitable to treat breast, hepatocellular and cervical carcinoma because at the active concentrations, the samples were not toxic for non-tumour cells (PLP2). Regarding the non-small cell lung carcinoma, BV should be used under the toxic concentration for non-tumour cells. Overall, the present study corroborates the enormous bioactive potential of BV being the first report on samples from Portugal. PMID:27288930

  5. [The construction of sexology as a profession in Portugal: composition professional group and types of sexologists].

    PubMed

    Alarcão, Violeta; Machado, Fernando Luís; Giami, Alain

    2016-02-01

    This study sets out to discuss the emergence of the profession of sexologist in Portugal, comparing its development with international trends. This research also seeks to understand the self-identification of sexologists and the significances they attribute to it. The empirical information presented derives from a survey conducted with 91 Portuguese sexologists identified through the leading professional associations and from 44 in-depth interviews with experts selected by intentional sampling to ensure the diversity of Portuguese sexologists. The results of the survey indicate that the Portuguese sexologist is on average 43 years old, mainly female, non-physician, and has training in sexology. Considering the qualifications of the interviewees, their professional trajectories and the activities they develop in the field, and the discourses related to their ideals of the profession, a typology was found with five types: sexologists by vocation, sexologist by clinical practice, sexologists by certification, social scientist-sexologists and sexologists by media coverage. The survey identified an interesting diversity of practices and professional conceptions in the field of sexology in Portugal. Being a sexologist appears to be more associated with the ideals of the profession than the time devoted to same. PMID:26910170

  6. Estimated BVDV-prevalence, -contact and -vaccine use in dairy herds in Northern Portugal.

    PubMed

    Niza-Ribeiro, J; Pereira, Adelaide; Souza, João; Madeira, Helena; Barbosa, Abigaíl; Afonso, Carla

    2005-11-15

    A study to evaluate BVDV-prevalence, recent -contact and -vaccine use in dairy herds in the "Entre Douro e Minho" (EDM) region in North Portugal was carried out in 124 dairy herds in 2003. Herds were visited to ascertain BVDV-vaccine use and to collect a bulk tank milk (BTM) sample and serum from 1268 cattle to analyse BVDV-antibodies using an NS2-3 ELISA. Fifty-three percent of farmers used inactivated BVDV-vaccines whilst the remaining farmers were not presently using BVDV-vaccines. BMT-antibody results included 35% positives, 25% negative and 39% inconclusive, and were similar in vaccinated and non-vaccinated herds (p>0.05) and allowed estimating a 10% BVDV herd-prevalence from prior knowledge of the relationship between BMT-antibody results and probability of PI cattle in the herd. Overall individual seroprevalence was 27% and was 23% in non-vaccinated and 36% in vaccinated cattle (p<0.05). Contact of the herd with BVDV was assessed according to seroprevalence in young and adult cattle in the herd and it was estimated that 35% of herds were infected or had recent contact with BVDV, 40% were not infected and did not have recent contact with BVDV and the BVDV-infection and -contact status of remaining herds was undetermined. The results from this study indicate BVDV is endemic and BVDV-vaccines are widespread in the dairy-cattle population in EDM region in Portugal. PMID:16216353

  7. Prevalence of antibodies to Leishmania infantum and Toxoplasma gondii in horses from the north of Portugal

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Leishmania infantum and Toxoplasma gondii are protozoa with zoonotic and economic importance. Prevalences of antibodies to these agents were assessed in 173 horses from the north of Portugal. Findings Antibodies to L. infantum were detected by the direct agglutination test (DAT); seven (4.0%) horses were seropositive with DAT titres of 200 (n = 5), 800 (n = 1) and ≥ 1600 (n = 1). Antibodies to T. gondii were assayed by the modified agglutination test (MAT); 23 (13.3%) horses were seropositive with MAT titres of 20 (n = 13), 40 (n = 5), 80 (n = 3) and ≥ 160 (n = 2). No statistical differences were found among equine categories of gender (female, male and gelding), age (1.5–6, 7–12 and 13–30 years), type of housing (indoors and mixed/outdoors), ability (recreation, farming and sports) and clinical status (apparently healthy and sick) for both agents. Conclusions Horses are exposed to and may be infected with L. infantum and T. gondii in the north of Portugal. PMID:23773870

  8. Using Life Cycle Assessment methodology to assess UHT milk production in Portugal.

    PubMed

    González-García, Sara; Castanheira, Erica G; Dias, Ana Cláudia; Arroja, Luis

    2013-01-01

    Milk and dairy products constitute an important ingredient in the human diet. Ultra-high temperature (UHT) milk is the main dairy product consumed in Portugal and its production entails large inputs of resources which derive on negative environmental effects such as nutrient enrichment of the ecosystem and climate change. In this study, Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) methodology was considered for the environmental assessment of packaged UHT milk produced in Portugal, including simple (whole, semi-skimmed and skimmed) and cocoa milk from a cradle-to-gate perspective and to identify the environmental hot spots. Results showed that the production of the raw milk in the dairy farm is the main hot spot in almost all the categories under assessment mainly due to the emissions from enteric fermentation, manure management and fertilisers production and application. Furthermore, on-site emissions derived from dairy factory are remarkable together with the packages and energy requirements production. The values reported in this study are in the range of other related papers. However, differences were also identified due to several reasons such as allocation approach, data sources, characterisation factors, farm management regimes and assumptions considered. Therefore, these aspects should be carefully addressed and sensitivity to the assumptions and uncertainty of the results should be evaluated. PMID:23178782

  9. Aerosols over continental Portugal (1978-1993): their sources and an impact on the regional climate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morozova, A. L.; Mironova, I. A.

    2015-06-01

    Understanding of aerosol sources that affect climate is an ongoing problem facing scientists as well as policymakers. The role of aerosols in local climate variability depends on a balance between light absorbing and scattering particles as well as on variability of environmental conditions. In this paper we investigate variability of aerosol content (both absorbing and scattering ultraviolet radiation) over continental Portugal in connection with aerosol sources (volcanic eruptions, dust events, wildfires and anthropogenic pollution). The effect of the aerosol on the climate is studied analyzing their contribution to variations of temperature, pressure, sunshine duration and precipitation over Portuguese regions. The present analysis is based on a developed modern multiple regression technique allowing us to build the statistical correlation models to determine both the main local aerosol sources and aerosol's influence on the climate of continental Portugal during 1978-1993. The analysis allows us to conclude that the main sources driving the variations of the aerosol content over studied locations are wildfires, mineral dust intrusions and anthropogenic pollution. The relations between the aerosol content variations and the atmospheric parameters depend on the level of urbanization of the studied region, the type of aerosol and the season. The most significant finding is the decrease of the daily maximum temperature (and diurnal temperature range) related to the decrease of sunshine duration observed during the summer periods of increased content of the absorbing aerosols in the atmosphere.

  10. Associations between forest characteristics and socio-economic development: a case study from Portugal.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, Sónia Carvalho; Lovett, Andrew

    2009-07-01

    The integration of socio-economic and environmental objectives is a major challenge in developing strategies for sustainable landscapes. We investigated associations between socio-economic variables, landscape metrics and measures of forest condition in the context of Portugal. The main goals of the study were to 1) investigate relationships between forest conditions and measures of socio-economic development at national and regional scales, 2) test the hypothesis that a systematic variation in forest landscape metrics occurs according to the stage of socio-economic development and, 3) assess the extent to which landscape metrics can inform strategies to enhance forest sustainability. A ranking approach and statistical techniques such as Principal Component Analysis were used to achieve these objectives. Relationships between socio-economic characteristics, landscape metrics and measures of forest condition were only significant in the regional analysis of municipalities in Northern Portugal. Landscape metrics for different tree species displayed significant variations across socio-economic groups of municipalities and these differences were consistent with changes in characteristics suggested by the forest transition model. The use of metrics also helped inform place-specific strategies to improve forest management, though it was also apparent that further work was required to better incorporate differences in forest functions into sustainability planning. PMID:18848746

  11. Forest Intervention Areas (ZIF): a new approach for forest management in Portugal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valente, S.; Coelho, C.; Soares, J.

    2012-04-01

    Portugal is the EU eighth country with more forest and other wooded area cover by surface area. However, it is also at the top of the EU countries most affected by forest fires. Several factors have been launched as possible causes, namely arson and negligence, which has been combined with harsh climate, steep slopes and a weakened rural context, characterized by depopulation and ageing, forest mismanagement, farmland abandonment and absence of an effective spatial planning. Forest fires of 2003 and 2005, which were particularly severe and intense, highlighted the need to restructure the legal and institutional setting of forest management in Portugal. These events proved to be very harmful, not only for the socio-economic context, but also in terms of desertification, soil erosion, loss of water supply and losses on soil organic matter. The EU funded DESIRE project (1) aimed to established promising sustainable land management (SLM) conservation strategies in several areas throughout the world affected by desertification, promoting joint work between scientists and local stakeholders. Forest fires are one of the major causes of desertification in Portugal and Mação and Góis municipalities were selected as DESIRE study sites. The decision support methodology developed under DESIRE was based on the notion that stakeholder participation in decision-making will develop more legitimate, effective and successful decisions. The reduction of burned area was the goal defined in the Portuguese stakeholder workshops and the Forest Intervention Area (ZIF) was selected as the needed approach towards SLM. The aim of this communication is to present the outline and context of ZIF approach in Portugal and to explore the social perception over the success or failure of this approach at Mação municipality. ZIF is a territorial unit where the main land use is forestry. This approach assembles and organizes small forest holders and defines a joint intervention for forest

  12. Geoconservation education: the leading role of the University of Minho (Portugal)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brilha, J.; Pereira, D.; Pereira, P.

    2012-04-01

    The University of Minho (with two campuses in Braga and Guimarães, northern Portugal) is a middle-size university created in 1973 and today with around 18,000 students and 1,100 academic staff members. The first works concerning geoconservation were developed in 1996 in the Earth Sciences Department. The research was related with the inventory of geological heritage in Alvão Natural Park, under the scope of a master thesis on Environmental Sciences. But it was only in 2005 that a major step was taken by this university with the creation of the master course on Geological Heritage and Geoconservation. Since that time, around 70 students were enrolled with an average of 10 new students each year. This 2-years course (120 ECTS) is the only post-graduation degree totally dedicated to this domain. During the first year, students have to complete several multidisciplinary modules like: Geodiversity; GIS and computers applied to geoconservation; Inventorying, conservation and interpretation of geological heritage; Environmental legislation; Geotourism; Education for sustainable development; and Mining heritage. The second year is dedicated to the preparation of a dissertation or project. This experience on geoconservation education has been motivating internationalisation with other universities with the support of different grant programmes like Erasmus and AlBan (both from the European Union) and Gulbenkian (Portugal): Students exchange (to Brazil and Greece; from Argentina, Brazil, Cape Verde, Chile, Mozambique, and Thailand) and staff exchange (to/from Greece, Spain, Switzerland, Turkey, United Kingdom, and United States of America). After finishing their master degree, students are finding jobs as geoconservationist experts in geoparks, protected areas, natural history museums, and also as teachers in secondary schools and universities. The University of Minho is also engaged with geoconservation at the PhD level. Several theses have been produced focused of themes

  13. Southern California Adjoint Source Inversions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tromp, J.; Kim, Y.

    2007-12-01

    Southern California Centroid-Moment Tensor (CMT) solutions with 9 components (6 moment tensor elements, latitude, longitude, and depth) are sought to minimize a misfit function computed from waveform differences. The gradient of a misfit function is obtained based upon two numerical simulations for each earthquake: one forward calculation for the southern California model, and an adjoint calculation that uses time-reversed signals at the receivers. Conjugate gradient and square-root variable metric methods are used to iteratively improve the earthquake source model while reducing the misfit function. The square-root variable metric algorithm has the advantage of providing a direct approximation to the posterior covariance operator. We test the inversion procedure by perturbing each component of the CMT solution, and see how the algorithm converges. Finally, we demonstrate full inversion capabilities using data for real Southern California earthquakes.

  14. Vocational Profiles and Training Requirements of Foremen and Overseers in the Textile/Clothing Sector in Portugal.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pereira, Licinio Chainho; And Others

    A study examined the current needs of middle management in the textile and clothing industry in Portugal. Focus was on Level 3--foremen, overseers, and team leaders. Eight of 400 enterprises responded to the first questionnaire; 370 of 1,000 responded to the revised questionnaire. The following data were collected: number of employees according to…

  15. Effects of National Policies on Teachers' Sense of Professionalism: Findings from an Empirical Study in Portugal and in England

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Day, Christopher; Flores, Maria Assuncao; Viana, Isabel

    2007-01-01

    This paper reports on research aimed at investigating the ways in which teachers in Portugal and in England are experiencing recent changes in the policy environment which have affected their sense of professionalism and their professional identity. Data were collected through questionnaires and focus group interviews. Findings suggest the…

  16. Policies of Adult Education in Portugal and France: The European Agenda of Validation of Non-Formal and Informal Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cavaco, C.; Lafont, P.; Pariat, M.

    2014-01-01

    This article analyses the influence of the European Union's educational policies on the implementation of devices for the recognition and the validation of informal and non-formal learning within public policies on education and training for adults in European Union Member States. Portugal and France are taken as examples. The European…

  17. Genetic characterization of Toxoplasma gondii isolates from Portugal, Austria and Israel reveals higher genetic variability within the type II lineage.

    PubMed

    Verma, S K; Ajzenberg, D; Rivera-Sanchez, A; Su, C; Dubey, J P

    2015-06-01

    This study compared genetic diversity of Toxoplasma gondii isolates from Portugal, Austria and Israel. For this, we genotyped 90 T. gondii isolates (16 from Portugal, 67 from Austria and 7 from Israel) using 10 nested PCR-restriction length polymorphism (RFLP) genetic markers and 15 microsatellite (MS) markers. By PCR-RFLP typing, 7 isolates from Portugal chickens were identified as type II (ToxoDB #1 or #3), 4 were type III (ToxoDB #2) and the remaining 4 isolates have unique genotype pattern were designated as ToxoDB #254. One mouse virulent isolate from a bovine fetus (Bos taurus) in Portugal was type I (ToxoDB #10) at all loci and designated as TgCowPr1. All 67 isolates from Austria and 7 from Israel were type II (ToxoDB #1 or #3). By MS typing, many additional genetic variations were revealed among the type II and type III isolates. Phylogenetic analysis showed that isolates from the same geographical locations tend to cluster together, and there is little overlapping of genotypes among different locations. This study demonstrated that the MS markers can provide higher discriminatory power to reveal association of genotypes with geographical locations. Future studies of the type II strains in Europe by these MS markers will be useful to reveal transmission patterns of the parasite. PMID:25677825

  18. Why Do Student Teachers Enrol for a Teaching Degree? A Study of Teacher Recruitment in Portugal and Sweden

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flores, Maria Assunção; Niklasson, Laila

    2014-01-01

    This paper reports on findings from an exploratory study carried out in Portugal and Sweden, concerning student teacher recruitment to Initial Teacher Education (ITE) programmes. It addresses issues such as the motivations and expectations of the student teachers regarding the teaching profession. Drawing upon existing related literature, a…

  19. A Practice-Oriented Professional Development Programme to Support the Introduction of a New Mathematics Curriculum in Portugal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    da Ponte, Joao Pedro

    2012-01-01

    This article presents the extended workshop, a national professional development programme that was used in the preparatory stages of the introduction of a new mathematics curriculum for basic education (grades 1-9) in Portugal. These workshops are based on five major ideas-orientation towards practice, focus on students' learning, collaboration,…

  20. The Implementation of a New Policy on Teacher Appraisal in Portugal: How Do Teachers Experience It at School?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flores, Maria Assuncao

    2012-01-01

    This paper draws upon a broader piece of research aimed at investigating the implementation process of a recent policy on teacher appraisal in Portugal. Two case studies were carried out and a combination of methods for data collection was used. Findings suggest that teachers' perceptions are marked by uncertainty and scepticism. Amongst the most…

  1. Crossing the Bridge: Foreign Language Students' Reciprocal Images in (Inter)Cultural Mediation between Portugal and Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Basílio, Daniel; Araújo e Sá, Maria Helena; Simões, Ana Raquel

    2016-01-01

    This study intends to highlight the role that Foreign Language Education (FLE), particularly in the Higher Education context, can play so as to contribute to the rapprochement of two distant and still mutually unknown countries such as Portugal and Turkey. In this sense, it ultimately aims at supporting the training of intercultural speakers,…

  2. Seeding Change through International University Partnerships: The MIT-Portugal Program as a Driver of Internationalization, Networking, and Innovation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pfotenhauer, Sebastian M.; Jacobs, Joshua S.; Pertuze, Julio A.; Newman, Dava J.; Roos, Daniel T.

    2013-01-01

    Higher education systems around the globe are experimenting with different strategies to foster internationalization and networking, achieve critical research mass, and strengthen innovation and labour market integration. This paper discusses how Portugal, since 2006, has pursued a distinctive international collaborative strategy to induce…

  3. International Psychological Applications Conference and Trends (InPACT) Proceedings (Porto, Portugal, April 4-6, 2014)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pracana, Clara, Ed.

    2014-01-01

    We are delighted to welcome you to the International Psychological Applications Conference and Trends 2014, taking place in Porto, Portugal, from 4 to 6 of April. Psychology, in our time, offers a large range of scientific fields where it can be applied. The goal of understanding individuals and groups (mental functions and behavioral…

  4. Master's in Autonomous Systems: An Overview of the Robotics Curriculum and Outcomes at ISEP, Portugal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silva, E.; Almeida, J.; Martins, A.; Baptista, J. P.; Campos Neves, B.

    2013-01-01

    Robotics research in Portugal is increasing every year, but few students embrace it as one of their first choices for study. Until recently, job offers for engineers were plentiful, and those looking for a degree in science and technology would avoid areas considered to be demanding, like robotics. At the undergraduate level, robotics programs are…

  5. Southern Ocean Iron Experiment (SOFex)

    SciTech Connect

    Coale, Kenneth H.

    2005-07-28

    The Southern Ocean Iron Experiment (SOFeX) was an experiment decades in the planning. It's implementation was among the most complex ship operations that SIO has been involved in. The SOFeX field expedition was successful in creating and tracking two experimentally enriched areas of the Southern Ocean, one characterized by low silicic acid, one characterized by high silicic acid. Both experimental sites were replete with abundant nitrate. About 100 scientists were involved overall. The major findings of this study were significant in several ways: (1) The productivity of the southern ocean is limited by iron availability. (2) Carbon uptake and flux is therefore controlled by iron availability (3) In spite of low silicic acid, iron promotes non-silicious phytoplankton growth and the uptake of carbon dioxide. (4) The transport of fixed carbon from the surface layers proceeds with a C:N ratio that would indicate differential remineralization of nitrogen at shallow depths. (5) These finding have major implications for modeling of carbon export based on nitrate utilization. (6) The general results of the experiment indicate that, beyond other southern ocean enrichment experiments, iron inputs have a much wider impact of productivity and carbon cycling than previously demonstrated. Scientific presentations: Coale, K., Johnson, K, Buesseler, K., 2002. The SOFeX Group. Eos. Trans. AGU 83(47) OS11A-0199. Coale, K., Johnson, K. Buesseler, K., 2002. SOFeX: Southern Ocean Iron Experiments. Overview and Experimental Design. Eos. Trans. AGU 83 (47) OS22D-01. Buesseler, K.,et al. 2002. Does Iron Fertilization Enhance Carbon Sequestration? Particle flux results from the Southern Ocean Iron Experiment. Eos. Trans. AGU 83 (47), OS22D-09. Johnson, K. et al. 2002. Open Ocean Iron Fertilization Experiments From IronEx-I through SOFeX: What We Know and What We Still Need to Understand. Eos. Trans. AGU 83 (47), OS22D-12. Coale, K. H., 2003. Carbon and Nutrient Cycling During the Southern

  6. DIET OF THE SOUTHERN TOAD FROM THE SOUTHERN EVERGLADES

    EPA Science Inventory

    We examined the diet of a February-May sample of the southern toad (Bufo Terrestris) from the Everglades National Park. Above the familial level, 13 taxa were consumed, but ants (Hymenoptera) and beetles (Coleoptera) were consumed most by, and in the greatest number of s...

  7. Work life and mental well-being: single and coupled employed mothers in Southern Europe and Scandinavia.

    PubMed

    Bull, Torill

    2009-09-01

    Many European mothers, single and coupled, combine work outside the home and family life. The effects of this on their mental well-being may vary depending on the level of support available from the State's welfare system, since welfare may buffer working mothers from some of the stress that can arise from trying to manage significant responsibilities on the job and at home. Welfare may be especially important for single working mothers, for whom the burden of multiple roles may be even heavier. The present study assessed levels and predictors of well-being of single and coupled employed mothers in Greece, Portugal and Spain, where welfare support is relatively limited. Results were compared to a parallel study with data from Denmark, Norway and Sweden, where welfare support is relatively comprehensive. Coupled mothers in Scandinavia had significantly lower financial hardship, longer education, higher life satisfaction, more enriching jobs, practical support, financial support and social participation than coupled mothers in the Southern European sample. On the other hand, the Scandinavian coupled mothers had higher levels of work family conflict than coupled mothers in Southern Europe. Single mothers in Scandinavia, compared to single mothers in Southern Europe, had significantly longer education, higher life satisfaction and positive affect, more enriching jobs, confidant support, practical support, financial support and social participation. Level of job stress was the same for all mother groups. All groups differed significantly from each other in level of financial hardship, with Scandinavian coupled mothers being best off, followed by Scandinavian single mothers, Southern European coupled mothers, and Southern European single mothers. The regional differences suggest that single motherhood per se need not be a risk factor for poorer well-being, and that welfare policies may have a protective effect for the mental well-being of single mothers. PMID:19773296

  8. Can small earthquakes help understand lithospheric deformation in slowly deforming regions? A case study from Portugal, western Europe.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Custódio, Susana; Carrilho, Fernando; Gongóra, Eva; Marreiros, Célia; Rio, Inês; Silveira, Graça; Arroucau, Pierre; Dias, Nuno

    2015-04-01

    Portugal lies on the south-westernmost tip of Europe, next to the boundary between Eurasia and Africa. The slow oblique convergence between Iberia and Nubia is accommodated along a broad region of diffuse deformation rather than along a single plate boundary. Individual faults have low loading rates, which results in long time intervals between earthquakes. Mainland Portugal lays on stable continental crust, however it has been repeatedly affected by moderate to high magnitude earthquakes in historical times, including some of the largest earthquakes in stable continental crust on the European historical catalog. The adjacent offshore also presents interesting seismicity, being the source region of the largest European historical earthquake (the 1755 Lisbon earthquake), and with a number of earthquakes occurring on old and cold lithospheric mantle, down to ˜60 km. The seismicity of mainland Portugal and its adjacent offshore has been repeatedly classified as diffuse. In this paper we show that although the plate boundary south of Portugal is diffuse, in that deformation is accommodated along several faults rather than along one long linear plate boundary, the seismicity itself is not diffuse, just grossly mislocated in current catalogs. When carefully re-located, earthquakes collapse into well-defined clusters and alignments. This work presents a contribution to understanding the Portuguese seismo-tectonics by analyzing the location of small earthquakes occurred between 1961 and 2013 in mainland Portugal and adjacent offshore. Earthquakes occurred between 2010 and 2012 were recorded by a dense broadband seismic deployment, and their locations show a significant improvement with respect to previous locations. New maps of seismicity show clustering and alignments, both onshore and offshore, which allow for a new interpretation of the regional seismo-tectonics. We conclude that the study of small earthquakes using dense seismic deployments is one of the few powerful

  9. Southern Universities: Are They Rising?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitehead, John S.

    1986-01-01

    This essay reviews four recent works on Southern universities: (1) "The University of Georgia: A Bicentennial History" (Dyer, 1985); (2) "A Pictorial History of the University of Georgia" (Boney, 1984); (3) To Foster Knowledge: A History of the University of Tennessee 1794-1970" (Montgomery, et al., 1984); and (4) "Gone with the Ivy: A Biography…

  10. Pediatric melioidosis in Southern India.

    PubMed

    Mukhopadhyay, Chiranjay; Eshwara, Vandana K; Kini, Pushpa; Bhat, Vinod

    2015-08-01

    Melioidosis in children is increasingly detected from the coastal region of Southern India during monsoon. We present 11 cases of melioidosis, ranging from localized to disseminated, treated successfully, barring one death. It calls for awareness and upgrading laboratory facilities for better diagnosis and management of pediatric melioidosis. PMID:26388638

  11. NUWUVI: A Southern Paiute History.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Inter-Tribal Council of Nevada, Reno.

    The first in a series of four histories of native Nevadans, this volume presents the story of the Southern Paiutes, or Nuwuvi. Based on interviews with tribal members and research conducted at numerous archives and record centers, the history begins with a description of the ancient culture and territory of the many Nuwuvi bands that lived,…

  12. RESOURCES FOR SOUTHERN MANPOWER DEVELOPMENT.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    BRINKER, PAUL; RUSSELL, WENDELL H.

    INFORMATION ABOUT LABOR FORCE CHARACTERISTICS AND MANPOWER DEVELOPMENT TRAINING RESOURCES, IN 15 SOUTHERN STATES, WAS ANALYZED TO DETERMINE PROGRAMS WHICH WOULD EFFECTIVELY INCREASE MANPOWER DEVELOPMENT ACTIVITIES. SOCIAL SCIENTISTS (1) TALKED WITH MORE THAN 360 STAFF MEMBERS IN 58 SCHOOLS, (2) CONTACTED FEDERAL, STATE, LABOR, AND PRIVATE…

  13. A new look on anomalous thermal gradient values obtained in South Portugal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duque, M. R.; Malico, I.

    2012-04-01

    A NEW LOOK ON THE ANOMALOUS THERMAL GRADIENT VALUES OBTAINED IN SOUTH PORTUGAL Duque, M. R. and Malico, I. M. Physics Department, University of Évora, Rua Romão Ramalho, 59,7000-671, Évora, Portugal It is well known that soil temperatures can be altered by water circulation. In this paper, we study numerically this effect by simulating some aquifers occurring in South Portugal. At this location, the thermal gradient values obtained in boreholes with depths less than 200 m, range between 22 and 30 °C km-1. However, there, it is easy to find places where temperatures are around 30 °C, at depths of 100 m. The obtained thermal gradient values show an increase one day after raining and a decrease during the dry season. Additionally, the curve of temperature as function of depth showed no hot water inlet in the hole. The region studied shows a smooth topography due to intensive erosion, but it was affected by alpine and hercinian orogenies. As a result, a high topography in depth, with folds and wrinkles is present. The space between adjacent folds is now filled by small sedimentary basins. Aquifers existing in this region can reach considerable depths and return to depths near the surface, but hot springs in the area are scarce. Water temperature rises in depth, and when the speed is high enough high temperatures near the surface, due to water circulation, can be found. The ability of the fluid to flow through the system depends on topography relief, rock permeability and basal heat flow. In this study, the steady-state fluid flow and heat transfer by conduction and advection are modeled. Fractures in the medium are simulated by an equivalent porous medium saturated with liquid. Thermal conductivity values for the water and the rocks can vary in space .Porosities used have high values in the region of the aquifer, low values in the lower region of the model and intermediate values in the upper regions. The results obtained show that temperature anomaly values

  14. Health information technology implementation - impacts and policy considerations: a comparison between Israel and Portugal.

    PubMed

    Catan, Gabriel; Espanha, Rita; Mendes, Rita Veloso; Toren, Orly; Chinitz, David

    2015-01-01

    The use of Information and Communications Technology (ICT) in health systems is increasing worldwide. While it is assumed that ICT holds great potential to make health services more efficient and grant patients more empowerment, research on these trends is at an early stage. Building on a study of the impact of ICT on physicians and patients in Israel, a Short Term Scientific Mission (STSM) sponsored by COST Net in conjunction with CIES/ISCTE IUL (Portugal) facilitated a comparison of ICT in health in Israel and Portugal. The comparison focused on patient empowerment, physician behavior and the role of government in implementing ICT. The research in both countries was qualitative in nature. In-depth interviews with the Ministry of Health (MOH), the private sector, patients associations, health plans and researchers were used to collect data. Purposeful sampling was used to select respondents, and secondary sources were used for triangulation. The findings indicate that respondents in both countries feel that patient empowerment has indeed been furthered by introduction of ICT. Regarding physicians, in both countries ICT is seen as providing more information that can be used in medical decision making. Increased access of patients to web-based medical information can strengthen the role of patients in decision making and improve the physician-patient relationship, but also shift the latter in ways that may require adjustments in physician orientation. Physician uptake of ICT in both countries involves overcoming certain barriers, such as resistance to change. At the national level, important differences were found between the two countries. While in Israel, ICT was promoted and adopted by the meso level of the health system, in particular the health plans and government intervention can be found in a later stage, in Portugal the government was the main developer and national strategies were built from the beginning. These two approaches present different advantages

  15. Oral soft tissue biopsies in Oporto, Portugal: An eight year retrospective analysis

    PubMed Central

    Guedes, Manuel-Moreira; Albuquerque, Rui; Monteiro, Marta; Lopes, Carlos-Alberto; do Amaral, José-Barbas; Pacheco, José-Júlio

    2015-01-01

    Background The diseases that affect the oral cavity are wide and diverse, comprising a broad spectrum of either benign or malignant lesions. However, few histological-based studies were performed for the evaluation of oral cavity lesions, and very few directed to oral soft tissue pathology. The aim of this study was to carry out pioneering research, within a Portuguese population, to determine the frequency and characteristics of oral malignancies, potential malignant disorders, and soft benign tissues pathologies submitted for biopsy in a north Portugal (Oporto) hospital population. Material and Methods We performed a retrospective study of soft tissue, oral cavity biopsies, in a hospital north of Portugal (Oporto) between 1999 and 2006. We analysed information on gender, age, location of the lesion, and the histopathological diagnosis. Results A total of 1042 oral biopsies were observed, 557(53.5%) in females and 485 (46.5%) in males, with a mean age of 51.7 years (S.D. ±17.6). The topographic location most frequently affected was labial mucosa (n=306). Considering the nature of the lesions, 700 (67.2%) corresponded to non-neoplasic lesions, 45 (4.3%) to potentially malignant disorders, and 297 (28.5%) to neoplasms (93 benign and 204 malignant). Non-neoplasic lesions were more prevalent in female gender (59.9%) when compared with potentially malignant disorders (46.7%) and neoplasms (39.4%) (P< 0.001). Non-neoplasic lesions presented the lower mean age (49.2±17.6) and potentially malignant disorders the highest mean age (60.5±14.5) (P< 0.001). The most common lesion of entire sample was fibro-epithelial hyperplasia (n=186; 17.9%), followed by squamous cell carcinoma (n=158; 15.1%). Conclusions Fibro-epithelial hyperplasia, followed by squamous cell carcinoma, was the most common pathologies. This pioneering study provided, for the first time, data about the proportion of squamous cell carcinoma when compared with benign conditions in a Portuguese hospital

  16. Runoff and inter-rill soil erosion following wildfire and terracing in north-central Portugal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martins, Martinho A. S.; Machado, Ana Isabel; Serpa, Dalila; Prats, Sergio; Faria, Silvia; Eufemia Varela, María; Keizer, Jan Jacob

    2013-04-01

    In Portugal, wildfires occur frequently and affect large areas, on average some 100.000 ha per year but in extreme years such as 2003 and 2005 over 300.000 ha. Wildfires can lead to considerable changes in geomorphologic and hydrological processes, as evidenced by the strong and sometimes extreme responses in post-fire runoff and erosion reported from various parts of the world, including Portugal. Besides wildfire itself, also post-fire forestry practices can strongly influence the hydrological and erosion response in recently burnt areas. In north-central Portugal, for example, rip ploughing in down-slope direction was found to be far more damaging in terms of soil loss than fire. Whilst rip ploughing in down-slope direction has now by and large been abandoned in the region, the construction of terraces in preparation of new tree and especially eucalypt plantations has become increasingly common. Although terraces are traditionally viewed as a technique for soil conservation, the authors have measured high splash erosion rates on recent terraces and have frequently observed small-scale erosion features and, on one occasion, gully formation over the full hill slope length. Runoff and sediment losses, however, have hardly ever been quantified for recently terraced plantations. In this study, we compared runoff and erosion, at the micro-plot scale, before and after terracing, during the first seven months after a wildfire and during the subsequent 17 months. This was done at two contrasting hill slopes, designated here as eucalypt and pine site. The former was, at the time of the wildfire, covered by eucalypt and then terraced and re-planted with eucalypt over its full extent; the latter was initially covered with pine and then partially terraced and planted with eucalypt and partially left to regenerate spontaneously. Total rainfall was rather similar for the pre- and post-terracing period (1205 and 1437 mm), in spite of their different, above-mentioned durations

  17. Assessing the outstanding 2003 fire events in Portugal with a Regional Climate Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trigo, Ricardo; Jerez, Sonia; Camara, Carlos; Montávez, Juan Pedro

    2013-04-01

    The heatwave that struck western Iberia in the early days of August 2003 was characterized by record high values of both maximum (47.3°C) and minimum (30.6°c) temperatures in Portugal, associated with extremely low humidity levels and relatively intense wind speed (Trigo et al., 2006). These conditions triggered the most devastating sequence of large fires ever registered in Portugal. The estimated total burnt area was about 450.000 ha, including 280.000 ha of forest (Pereira et al., 2011). The outstanding total burnt area value corresponds to roughly 5% of the Portuguese territory, and represents approximately twice the previous maximum observed in 1998 (~220.000 ha), and about four times the long-term average observed between 1980 and 2004. Here we characterise this unusual episode using meteorological fields obtained from both observations and a regional climate model. In this work we use the longest (49-years) high-resolution regional climate simulation available driven by reanalysis data spanning from 1959 to 2007 and covering the entire Iberian Peninsula. This long run was obtained using the MM5 model with a spatial resolution of 10 km. Using this high spatial and temporal resolution we have computed the Canadian Fire Weather Index (FWI) System to produce hourly values of fire risk. The FWI System consists of six components that account for the effects of fuel moisture and wind on fire behaviour (van Wagner, 1987). We show the temporal evolution of high resolution patterns for several fire related variables during the most important days for triggering new fires (the first week of August 2003). Besides the absolute value of Tmax, Tmin, wind (speed and direction), relative humidity and FWI we also evaluate the corresponding anomalies of these fields, obtained after removing the long-term smoothed daily climatology. Pereira M.G., Malamude B.D., Trigo R.M., Alves P.I. (2011) "The History and Characteristics of the 1980-2005 Portuguese Rural Fire Database

  18. Trends and variability of precipitation: analyses of historical time series from Portugal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carvalho, S. C. P.; de Lima, M. I. P.; Coelho, M. F. E. S.

    2009-04-01

    The impact of climate change on precipitation is one of the major concerns in many scientific research studies. To predict changes in the other hydrological processes it is crucial to understand the recent changes in precipitation patterns as part of the long term behaviour of this process. Quite often the limiting factor is the short length of many existing precipitation records. The statistical analyses of historical time series, if they are available, can shed more light on our understanding of the dynamics of precipitation and, therefore, on the evaluation of recent changes in this process. The purpose of this work is to investigate trends in the temporal and spatial variability of precipitation in Portugal by studying historical time series. The dataset comprises records of annual and monthly precipitation dating from the 19th century, from 13 meteorological stations scattered all over Mainland Portugal and in the Portuguese North Atlantic Islands of Madeira and Azores. The longest records date back from 1863. Different statistics methods were used in this study. As a preliminary step in the analyses, the data were statistically tested for serial correlation. Then, the homogeneity of the data was investigated; the methods used were: Standard Normal Homogeneity Test, Pettitt Test, von Neumann Ratio and Buishand Range Test. Finally, trends in the historical precipitation time series were examined using the Mann-Kendall nonparametric trend test and the Sen's nonparametric method. The non-monotonic character of the trends observed in the data, and to deal with partial trends, the method by Tomé and Miranda (2004) was applied to the data. This recently developed methodology is able to locate the times of significant change in the precipitation series. This study complements previous investigations of precipitation trends in Portugal. It highlights the fact that the uncertainties of the trend projections came from the extreme variability in the precipitation

  19. GPR Surveys for Archaeological Investigation in a Bronze Age site from NW Portugal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonçalves, L.; Sampaio, H. A.; Bettencourt, A. M. S.; Alves, M. I. C.

    2012-04-01

    This work describes the use of Ground-penetrating Radar (GPR) surveys in the identification and mapping of subtle cultural remains, from Pego Late Bronze Age settlement, located near the city of Braga, in NW Portugal. Bronze Age settlements from NW Portugal are characterized by the presence archaeological structures such as storage pits, postholes and trenches. These subtle structures have a very low dielectric contrast, making them quite difficult to detect in GPR surveys. In the case of Pego Site, previous investigations using conventional archaeological techniques, during a rescue excavation, partially revealed a residential area, a necropolis, and a stockade foundation trench that encircle the whole settlement. Different GPR prospection approaches were performed using GSSI Sir 3000 System, with 400 MHz antennae, with the objective of identify and define the borders between the different areas of human occupation inside the settlement. For the GPR survey, a grid-based approach with closely spaced parallels transects was defined, covering different areas inside the site. A first survey was conducted with a pseudo-3D methodology, with 50 cm profile separation, followed by a second survey with a dense data acquisition methodology, with 10 cm profile separation. Processed two-dimensional GPR profiles and constructed amplituded-slice maps were produced and analysed. Wave velocities were determined by reflected wave methods and by Hyperbola-Fitting method. The background analysis of the archaeological and geological features of the site, integrated with the preliminary interpretation of GPR data (profiles and amplitude slice-maps) suggest the presence of flat graves, in the west part of the site, and storage pits, post holes and some small trenches, in the centre and north area of the settlement. This interpretation indicates that the settlement is individualized in two different areas, a necropolis and a residential area, such as the first archaeological study

  20. Changes in Physical and Chemical Soil Properties on Burnt Shrub Areas in Mediterranean Mountains, Northern Portugal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fonseca, Felícia; de Figueiredo, Tomás; Leite, Micaela

    2014-05-01

    Human induced fire in scrublands to obtain better pastures for cattle is a relatively common practice in North Portugal. During burning, plant cover and litter layers are consumed, and the mineral soil is heated, resulting in changes to physical, chemical, mineralogical, and biological soil properties. Aiming at evaluating the effect of this kind of fires on a set of physical and chemical soil properties, two study areas were selected in contrasting mountain environments: Edroso, Vinhais municipality, NE Portugal, with typical Mediterranean climate, and Revelhe, Fafe, NW Portugal, with a strong ocean-influenced climate. In both, sampling was carried out in contiguous areas burnt and not burnt, covered by shrub vegetation, predominantly Cytisus multiflorus and Ulex europeus. In each study area (Edroso and Revelhe) 16 locations were selected for soil sampling (8 in the burned area and 8 in the not burnt area), six months after fire occurrence. Disturbed soil samples were collected in the layers 0-5, 5-10, 10-15, 15-20 and 20-30 cm depth, for assessing organic matter, N, P and K concentration, cation exchange capacity and related determinations, soil pH, electrical conductivity and soil texture. Undisturbed samples were collected, in 100 cm3 cylinders, to determine bulk density in the same above mentioned layers, and permeability in the 0-5 cm layer. Compared results of burnt and not burnt areas in Edroso and Revelhe study sites, show that coarse elements content and permeability decreased and bulk density slightly increased with the fire effect. Chemical properties in both sites changed with after fire, as organic matter content, exchangeable Al and cation exchange capacity increased, the opposite trend being found for phosphorus, sum of exchangeable bases and electrical conductivity. Potassium, total nitrogen and exchangeable acidity showed different soil responses to fire in the two study areas. Results stress the clear effects of fire on fertility related soil

  1. Incidence of hypertension in a prospective cohort study of adults from Porto, Portugal

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background During the past 30 years, Portugal has been described as one of the countries with highest median blood pressure levels in Europe, but the incidence of hypertension is unknown. The aim of this study was to estimate the incidence of hypertension, according to socio-demographic characteristics and lifestyles. Methods A population-based cohort of randomly selected dwellers from Porto, Portugal, aged ≥18 years, was assembled in 1999–2003 (EPIPorto study) and 796 hypertension-free individuals (62.6% women) were reassessed after a median of 3.8 years. Hypertension was defined as blood pressure ≥140/90 mmHg and/or antihypertensive drug therapy. Incidence rate ratios (IRR) were estimated using Poisson regression. Results The overall incidence rate was 47.3 [95% confidence interval (95% CI): 40.5-55.5] per 1000 person-years. Among women, the incidence was 43.4 (35.6-53.1) and among men 52.7 (41.3-68.0) per 1000 person-years. The incidence was lower in women up to 60 years and much higher among women above 60 (110.0 vs. 64.4 per 1000 person-years among men, p for age-sex interaction=0.032). Participants with higher education had a lower risk of becoming hypertensive (≥13 years vs. ≤4 years: RR=0.70, 95% CI, 0.46-1.08, p for linear trend <0.001), independently of age and sex. Overweight and obesity were associated with a 1.67-fold and 2.44-fold increased risk of hypertension, respectively, independently of age, sex and education. Conclusions In this urban Portuguese population the incidence rate of hypertension was high, with new cases occurring predominantly among older subjects, the less educated and those with overweight-obesity. Despite recent progresses in blood pressure related outcomes, the risk of hypertension remains higher in Portugal than in other developed countries. PMID:23190867

  2. Prevalence and pattern of cognitive impairment in rural and urban populations from Northern Portugal

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Despite worldwide recognition of the burden of dementia, no epidemiological data is yet available in Portugal. The objective of this study is to estimate the prevalence and describe the pattern of cognitive impairment with dementia or no dementia (CIND) in rural and urban populations from Northern Portugal. Methods Two random samples of residents aged 55 to 79 years in rural and urban communities were drawn from the health centres registries to be screened for cognitive impairment. The screening criteria for dementia were an abnormal Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) score or a Blessed Dementia Scale score. After excluding those who tested positive for dementia, cut-off points for CIND were set at 1 standard deviation below the mean of the MMSE according to educational level. All those who screened positive either for dementia or CIND were examined by a neurologist for establishing a definitive diagnosis. Results The prevalence of cognitive impairment was higher in rural than in urban populations, 16.8% (95% CI: 14.3-19.8%) vs. 12.0% (95%CI: 9.3-15.4%), with a rural/urban prevalence ratio (PR) of 2.16 (95% CI: 1.04-4.50) in the eldest and 2.19 (95% CI: 1.01-4.76) in persons with vascular risk factors. The prevalence of dementia was 2.7% (95% CI: 1.9-3.8%) with a rural/urban PR = 2.1 and the prevalence of CIND was 12.3% (95% CI: 10.4-14.4%) and PR = 1.3. The prevalence of dementia increases exponentially with age and in those with cerebrovascular disease or other comorbid conditions while the prevalence of CIND, besides these factors, is also higher in persons with low levels of education or vascular risk factors. Alzheimer's and vascular disease were equally likely aetiologies of dementia (38.7%), the later more common in men PR(F:M = 0.3) as opposed to the former PR(F:M = 2.0). Vascular CIND, associated either with cerebrovascular disease or vascular risk factors was more frequent (39.7%) then depression (18.4%) or any other aetiology. Conclusions

  3. Automatic Earthquake Detection and Location by Waveform coherency in Alentejo (South Portugal) Using CatchPy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Custodio, S.; Matos, C.; Grigoli, F.; Cesca, S.; Heimann, S.; Rio, I.

    2015-12-01

    Seismic data processing is currently undergoing a step change, benefitting from high-volume datasets and advanced computer power. In the last decade, a permanent seismic network of 30 broadband stations, complemented by dense temporary deployments, covered mainland Portugal. This outstanding regional coverage currently enables the computation of a high-resolution image of the seismicity of Portugal, which contributes to fitting together the pieces of the regional seismo-tectonic puzzle. Although traditional manual inspections are valuable to refine automatic results they are impracticable with the big data volumes now available. When conducted alone they are also less objective since the criteria is defined by the analyst. In this work we present CatchPy, a scanning algorithm to detect earthquakes in continuous datasets. Our main goal is to implement an automatic earthquake detection and location routine in order to have a tool to quickly process large data sets, while at the same time detecting low magnitude earthquakes (i.e. lowering the detection threshold). CatchPY is designed to produce an event database that could be easily located using existing location codes (e.g.: Grigoli et al. 2013, 2014). We use CatchPy to perform automatic detection and location of earthquakes that occurred in Alentejo region (South Portugal), taking advantage of a dense seismic network deployed in the region for two years during the DOCTAR experiment. Results show that our automatic procedure is particularly suitable for small aperture networks. The event detection is performed by continuously computing the short-term-average/long-term-average of two different characteristic functions (CFs). For the P phases we used a CF based on the vertical energy trace while for S phases we used a CF based on the maximum eigenvalue of the instantaneous covariance matrix (Vidale 1991). Seismic event location is performed by waveform coherence analysis, scanning different hypocentral coordinates

  4. The Southern California Dense GPS Geodetic Array

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Webb, F.

    1994-01-01

    The Southern California Earthquake Center is coordinating a effort by scientists at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, the U.S. Geological Survey, and various academic institutions to establish a dense 250 station, continuously recording GPS geodetic array in southern California for measuring crustal deformation associated with slip on the numerous faults that underlie the major metropolitan areas of southern california.

  5. The Recent Rise of Southern Magazines.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hynds, Ernest C.

    During the past decade states in the southern United States have produced an increasing percentage of the nation's "city" magazines. Three magazines illustrate what the southern metropolitan magazines are doing to serve their readers and their communities. "Southern Living" provides information about its readers' interests as urban and suburban…

  6. Leadership and performance in higher education: a comparative analysis in Portugal and Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cerda Suarez, Luis Manuel; Hernandez, Wilmar

    2012-12-01

    In the last decade, many changes have taken place in the field of university education. Professional practice demands that future graduates design and market products, preserve the interests of their clients, take responsibilities in public administration or participate in politics. Universities must educate professionals so that they become social leaders, consultants, advisers, entrepreneurs; in short, people with the capacity to solve problems. Professors recognise this situation; however, they do not always apply participatory teaching styles to develop these capacities in the students. This paper offers a tool to evaluate the implementation of a transformational teaching style in the classroom, developing joint work between professors and students. Its main contribution is that it assessed several teaching techniques based on this transformational style. This research was carried out in Portugal and Spain.

  7. Development of an online nursing management course: successful experience between Brazil and Portugal.

    PubMed

    Tronchin, Daisy Maria Rizatto; Peres, Heloisa Helena Ciqueto; Lima, Antônio Fernandes Costa; Alavarce, Débora Cristina; Prata, Ana Paula; Santos, Margarida Reis; Aroldi, Juscilynne Barros da Costa

    2015-12-01

    Objective To describe the experience of planning and developing online refresher courses in nursing management for nurses in the contexts of Brazil and Portugal. Method The instructional design was based on meaningful learning theory, andragogy, and dialectical methodology, so it valued interaction between the actors, emphasizing the scenarios of practice and applying the concepts covered. The course structure is divided into nine theoretical units, four case studies, and an essay exam. Results The course was positively evaluated by the participants, who reported opportunities for acquisition of new knowledge, interaction and exchange of experiences, motivation to study the topics, and self-learning. Conclusion It is expected that description of this experience will stimulate proposals for new courses and programs in distance education modalities, improving the processes of teaching and learning so as to give support to future analyses of their impact on the development and enhancement of management skills in nursing. PMID:26959169

  8. Later Middle Pleistocene human remains from the Almonda Karstic system, Torres Novas, Portugal.

    PubMed

    Trinkaus, Erik; Marks, Anthony E; Brugal, Jean Philip; Bailey, Shara E; Rink, W Jack; Richter, Daniel

    2003-09-01

    Later Middle Pleistocene archeological deposits of the Galeria Pesada (Gruta da Aroeira), Almonda Karstic System, Torres Novas, Portugal, yielded two archaic human teeth, a mandibular canine and a maxillary third molar. The C(1)presents moderate and asymmetrical shoveling with a stout root. The slightly worn M(3)exhibits at least four cusps with a large hypocone, three roots with large radicular plates, and an absence of taurodontism. They are moderately large for later Middle Pleistocene humans in their buccolingual crown diameters, although the M(3)mesiodistal diameter is modest. The C(1)exhibits labial calculus and multiple linear hypoplastic defects, but the M(3)is lesion free. Both teeth are morphologically similar to those of other Middle Pleistocene European humans and reinforce a pattern of dental hypertrophy among these archaic Homo. PMID:14580591

  9. The impact of gentrification on ethnic neighbourhoods in Toronto: a case study of little Portugal.

    PubMed

    Murdie, Robert; Teixeira, Carlos

    2011-01-01

    Despite extensive literature on the nature and impact of gentrification, there has been little consideration of the effects of gentrification on ethnic neighbourhoods. This study evaluates the negative and positive effects of gentrification on the Portuguese in west central Toronto. Details concerning the settlement patterns of the Portuguese, the characteristics of Portuguese residents and patterns of gentrification in inner-city Toronto were obtained from census data. Evaluations of neighbourhood change and attitudes of the residents towards gentrification were obtained from key informant and focus group interviews. The results suggest considerable ambivalence among the respondents, but most agreed that the long-term viability of Little Portugal as an immigrant reception area with a good supply of low-cost housing is in doubt. PMID:21174893

  10. Halomonhystera parasitica n. sp. (Nematoda: Monhysteridae), a parasite of Talorchestia brito (Crustacea: Talitridae) in Portugal.

    PubMed

    Poinar, George; Duarte, Daniella; Santos, Maria João

    2010-01-01

    Halomonhystera parasitica n. sp. (Monhysterida: Monhysteridae) is described from the body-cavity and under the dorsal plates of the sandy beach amphipod Talorchestia brito Stebbing (Crustacea: Talitridae) in Portugal. The new species differs from previously described members of the genus by a combination of the following characters: four medium-sized cephalic setae; base of stoma with three blunt denticles; posterior dilated portion of stoma absent; amphids small, with width less than quarter of corresponding body width; amphids located less than two labial widths from anterior extremity; uterine eggs elliptical and unembryonated; gubernaculum lacks caudal process; and male tail with two separated pairs of postcloacal papillae and a single subterminal seta-like papilla. This is the first representative of the family Monhysteridae parasitic in the body-cavity of crustaceans. Approximately 48% of the amphipods examined contained various stages of H. parasitica. PMID:20012518

  11. Filling the gaps of dinosaur eggshell phylogeny: Late Jurassic Theropod clutch with embryos from Portugal.

    PubMed

    Araújo, Ricardo; Castanhinha, Rui; Martins, Rui M S; Mateus, Octávio; Hendrickx, Christophe; Beckmann, F; Schell, N; Alves, L C

    2013-01-01

    The non-avian saurischians that have associated eggshells and embryos are represented only by the sauropodomorph Massospondylus and Coelurosauria (derived theropods), thus missing the basal theropod representatives. We report a dinosaur clutch containing several crushed eggs and embryonic material ascribed to the megalosaurid theropod Torvosaurus. It represents the first associated eggshells and embryos of megalosauroids, thus filling an important phylogenetic gap between two distantly related groups of saurischians. These fossils represent the only unequivocal basal theropod embryos found to date. The assemblage was found in early Tithonian fluvial overbank deposits of the Lourinhã Formation in West Portugal. The morphological, microstructural and chemical characterization results of the eggshell fragments indicate very mild diagenesis. Furthermore, these fossils allow unambiguous association of basal theropod osteology with a specific and unique new eggshell morphology. PMID:23722524

  12. Filling the gaps of dinosaur eggshell phylogeny: Late Jurassic Theropod clutch with embryos from Portugal

    PubMed Central

    Araújo, Ricardo; Castanhinha, Rui; Martins, Rui M. S.; Mateus, Octávio; Hendrickx, Christophe; Beckmann, F.; Schell, N.; Alves, L. C.

    2013-01-01

    The non-avian saurischians that have associated eggshells and embryos are represented only by the sauropodomorph Massospondylus and Coelurosauria (derived theropods), thus missing the basal theropod representatives. We report a dinosaur clutch containing several crushed eggs and embryonic material ascribed to the megalosaurid theropod Torvosaurus. It represents the first associated eggshells and embryos of megalosauroids, thus filling an important phylogenetic gap between two distantly related groups of saurischians. These fossils represent the only unequivocal basal theropod embryos found to date. The assemblage was found in early Tithonian fluvial overbank deposits of the Lourinhã Formation in West Portugal. The morphological, microstructural and chemical characterization results of the eggshell fragments indicate very mild diagenesis. Furthermore, these fossils allow unambiguous association of basal theropod osteology with a specific and unique new eggshell morphology. PMID:23722524

  13. Middle Paleolithic human remains from the Gruta Da Oliveira (Torres Novas), Portugal.

    PubMed

    Willman, John C; Maki, Julia; Bayle, Priscilla; Trinkaus, Erik; Zilhão, João

    2012-09-01

    Additional Middle Paleolithic human remains from layers 17, 18, and 22 of the Gruta da Oliveira, Portugal consist of a proximal manual phalanx 2 (Oliveira 5), a partial postcanine tooth (Oliveira 6), a humeral diaphysis (Oliveira 7), a distal mandibular molar (Oliveira 8), and a mandibular premolar (P(3) ) (Oliveira 9). Oliveira 5, 6, and 8 are unremarkable for Late Pleistocene humans. The Oliveira 7 right humerus is moderately robust or the individual had the stocky body proportions of other European (including Iberian) Neandertals. The Oliveira 9 P(3) has a large and symmetrical crown and lacks a distal accessory ridge and accessory lingual cusps, overlapping both Neandertal and recent human ranges of variation. It contrasts with at least recent human P(3) s in having relatively thin enamel. These join the Oliveira 1 to 4 remains in further documenting early MIS 3 Neandertal morphology in western Iberia. PMID:22610966

  14. Persistent organic pollutants and inorganic elements in the Balearic shearwater Puffinus mauretanicus wintering off Portugal.

    PubMed

    Costa, R A; Torres, J; Vingada, J V; Eira, C

    2016-07-15

    This study presents the first data on trace element and organic pollutant concentrations in the Critically Endangered Balearic shearwater Puffinus mauretanicus collected in 2010 and 2011 in Portugal. Trace element levels were below the threshold levels for adverse effects on birds, despite the Hg concentrations in feathers (4.35μg·g-1ww). No significant differences were detected between individuals from 2010 and 2011 except for Se concentrations in liver, feathers and muscle (higher in 2010) and Ag in liver and muscle (higher in 2011). No significant differences were detected in total concentrations of organochlorine compounds in Balearic shearwaters between years, although PCB congeners -101 and -180 presented higher concentrations in individuals from 2010. The PCB congeners -138, -153 and -180, and 4.4-DDE were detected in all individuals. This study on toxic elements and organic pollutants in wintering Balearic shearwaters provides baseline data from which deviations can be detected in the future. PMID:27113022

  15. Dom Pedro I of Brazil and IV of Portugal: epilepsy and peculiar behavior.

    PubMed

    Gomes, Marleide da Mota; Chalub, Miguel

    2007-09-01

    We present medical issues related to Dom Pedro de Alcântara Bragança e Bourbon (1798-1834), first Emperor of Brazil. This is made by means of narrative revision on historical facts starting from primary and secondary sources. Dom Pedro presented familiar incidence of epilepsy. His seizures were relatively benign and scattered, supposedly started at the age of 13: idiophatic epilepsy with generalized tonic-clonic seizures only or juvenile myoclonic epilepsy. He also had behavioral disorder characterized by hypersexuality, agitation and impulsiveness. It could have facilitated his opportunistic behavior necessary for daring to transgress the conservatism of the Portuguese crown, to create the constitutional monarchism in Brazil and in Portugal. PMID:17876421

  16. Popular press and forensic genetics in Portugal: expectations and disappointments regarding two cases of missing children.

    PubMed

    Machado, Helena; Santos, Filipe

    2011-05-01

    Two cases of missing children in Portugal (Joana and Maddie) have recently highlighted the dilemmas and contingencies associated with the technology of "genetic fingerprinting" for forensic purposes in the context of criminal investigations. The purpose of this article is to analyze the popular press's discourses and representations around forensic genetics in the context of those two highly mediatized criminal investigation cases. The symbolical construction and representation of forensic genetics by the media presents a form of public exposure to beliefs on forensic genetics' characteristics and potential. These are blended with popular cultural contexts that are constructed with reference to images of a super-science which may carry consequences in the public understanding of forensic science. The media coverage of both cases and their actual disclosure resembles the patterns ofa CSI effect, insofar as real science's capabilities and limitations are placed against fictionalized representations of forensic science. PMID:21796881

  17. Life cycle assessment modelling of waste-to-energy incineration in Spain and Portugal.

    PubMed

    Margallo, M; Aldaco, R; Irabien, A; Carrillo, V; Fischer, M; Bala, A; Fullana, P

    2014-06-18

    In recent years, waste management systems have been evaluated using a life cycle assessment (LCA) approach. A main shortcoming of prior studies was the focus on a mixture of waste with different characteristics. The estimation of emissions and consumptions associated with each waste fraction in these studies presented allocation problems. Waste-to-energy (WTE) incineration is a clear example in which municipal solid waste (MSW), comprising many types of materials, is processed to produce several outputs. This paper investigates an approach to better understand incineration processes in Spain and Portugal by applying a multi-input/output allocation model. The application of this model enabled predictions of WTE inputs and outputs, including the consumption of ancillary materials and combustibles, air emissions, solid wastes, and the energy produced during the combustion of each waste fraction. PMID:24951550

  18. The looming tide of nontuberculous mycobacterial infections in Portugal and Brazil.

    PubMed

    Nunes-Costa, Daniela; Alarico, Susana; Dalcolmo, Margareth Pretti; Correia-Neves, Margarida; Empadinhas, Nuno

    2016-01-01

    Nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) are widely disseminated in the environment and an emerging cause of infectious diseases worldwide. Their remarkable natural resistance to disinfectants and antibiotics and an ability to survive under low-nutrient conditions allows NTM to colonize and persist in man-made environments such as household and hospital water distribution systems. This overlap between human and NTM environments afforded new opportunities for human exposure, and for expression of their often neglected and underestimated pathogenic potential. Some risk factors predisposing to NTM disease have been identified and are mainly associated with immune fragilities of the human host. However, infections in apparently immunocompetent persons are also increasingly reported. The purpose of this review is to bring attention to this emerging health problem in Portugal and Brazil and to emphasize the urgent need for increased surveillance and more comprehensive epidemiological data in both countries, where such information is scarce and seriously thwarts the adoption of proper preventive strategies and therapeutic options. PMID:26560840

  19. Suspended sediment transport patterns in the inner shelf - S. Pedro de Moel (Portugal)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santos, Ana Isabel; Oliveira, Anabela; Zacarias, Nuno; Pinto, José P.; Ribeiro, Mónica

    2014-10-01

    In order to quantify the physical forcing processes associated to sediment transport in the inner shelf, sequential moorings were placed in the three access cable routes connecting the Renewable Energy Experimental Zone (offshore S. Pedro Moel - W Portugal) to the shore. ADCP and LISST data were collected to quantify and establish suspended sediment transport patterns in two different seasonal conditions: September and December 2011. ADCP relative acoustic backscatter was calibrated using LISST suspended sediment concentration and grain size, allowing the integration of current, sediment and wave data. In most cases suspended sediment signatures in all three mooring sites respond mainly to locally induced wave resuspension. More complex dynamic interplay was found in the central mooring site where different finer and coarser sediment signatures were identified, most likely associated with the effect of the Lis River runoff and upwelling fluxes.

  20. Life cycle assessment of a packaging waste recycling system in Portugal.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, S; Cabral, M; da Cruz, N F; Simões, P; Marques, R C

    2014-09-01

    Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) has been used to assess the environmental impacts associated with an activity or product life cycle. It has also been applied to assess the environmental performance related to waste management activities. This study analyses the packaging waste management system of a local public authority in Portugal. The operations of selective and refuse collection, sorting, recycling, landfilling and incineration of packaging waste were considered. The packaging waste management system in operation in 2010, which we called "Baseline" scenario, was compared with two hypothetical scenarios where all the packaging waste that was selectively collected in 2010 would undergo the refuse collection system and would be sent directly to incineration (called "Incineration" scenario) or to landfill ("Landfill" scenario). Overall, the results show that the "Baseline" scenario is more environmentally sound than the hypothetical scenarios. PMID:24910140