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Sample records for algebra geometry trigonometry

  1. Advanced Algebra and Trigonometry: Supplemental Computer Units.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dotseth, Karen

    A set of computer-oriented, supplemental activities is offered which can be used with a course in advanced algebra and trigonometry. The activities involve use of the BASIC programming language; it is assumed that the teacher is familiar with programming in BASIC. Students will learn some BASIC; however, the intent is not to develop proficient…

  2. Learning Activity Package, Algebra-Trigonometry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holland, Bill

    A series of ten teacher-prepared Learning Activity Packages (LAPs) in advanced algebra and trigonometry, the units cover logic; absolute value, inequalities, exponents, and complex numbers; functions; higher degree equations and the derivative; the trigonometric function; graphs and applications of the trigonometric functions; sequences and…

  3. A Course in Algebra and Trigonometry with Computer Programming.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beavers, Mildred; And Others

    This textbook was developed by the Colorado Schools Computing Science (CSCS) Curriculum Development Project. It can be used with high school or college students in an integrated presentation of second-year algebra, trigonometry, and beginning computer programing. (MK)

  4. Application of Computer Graphics to Graphing in Algebra and Trigonometry. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morris, J. Richard

    This project was designed to improve the graphing competency of students in elementary algebra, intermediate algebra, and trigonometry courses at Virginia Commonwealth University. Computer graphics programs were designed using an Apple II Plus computer and implemented using Pascal. The software package is interactive and gives students control…

  5. Nonnumeric Computer Applications to Algebra, Trigonometry and Calculus.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stoutemyer, David R.

    1983-01-01

    Described are computer program packages requiring little or no knowledge of computer programing for college algebra, calculus, and abstract algebra. Widely available computer algebra systems are listed. (MNS)

  6. A Vector Approach to Euclidean Geometry: Inner Product Spaces, Euclidean Geometry and Trigonometry, Volume 2. Teacher's Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vaughan, Herbert E.; Szabo, Steven

    This is the teacher's edition of a text for the second year of a two-year high school geometry course. The course bases plane and solid geometry and trigonometry on the fact that the translations of a Euclidean space constitute a vector space which has an inner product. Congruence is a geometric topic reserved for Volume 2. Volume 2 opens with an…

  7. Enhancing Conceptual Understanding of Trigonometry Using Earth Geometry and the Great Circle

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wongapiwatkul, Pimpalak; Laosinchai, Parames; Panijpan, Bhinyo

    2011-01-01

    Trigonometry is an integral part of the draft for the Senior Secondary Australian National Curriculum for Mathematics, as it is a topic in Unit 2 of both Specialist Mathematics and Mathematics Methods, and a reviewing topic in Unit 1, Topic 3: Measurement and Geometry of General Mathematics. However, learning trigonometric ideas is difficult for…

  8. Algebraic Trigonometry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vaninsky, Alexander

    2011-01-01

    This article introduces a trigonometric field (TF) that extends the field of real numbers by adding two new elements: sin and cos--satisfying an axiom sin[superscript 2] + cos[superscript 2] = 1. It is shown that by assigning meaningful names to particular elements of the field, all known trigonometric identities may be introduced and proved. Two…

  9. Distance geometry and geometric algebra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dress, Andreas W. M.; Havel, Timothy F.

    1993-10-01

    As part of his program to unify linear algebra and geometry using the language of Clifford algebra, David Hestenes has constructed a (well-known) isomorphism between the conformal group and the orthogonal group of a space two dimensions higher, thus obtaining homogeneous coordinates for conformal geometry.(1) In this paper we show that this construction is the Clifford algebra analogue of a hyperbolic model of Euclidean geometry that has actually been known since Bolyai, Lobachevsky, and Gauss, and we explore its wider invariant theoretic implications. In particular, we show that the Euclidean distance function has a very simple representation in this model, as demonstrated by J. J. Seidel.(18)

  10. Investigating the purpose of trigonometry in the modern sciences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hertel, Joshua T.

    This dissertation reports the results of a qualitative research project that aimed to develop a research-based perspective on the purpose of trigonometry in the modern sciences. The investigation was guided by three objectives. First, the study sought to identify the purpose of trigonometry as described by educators and high school textbooks. Second, the research investigated the perspectives these sources held about definitions of the trigonometric functions. Third, the investigation examined the potential benefits and drawbacks of a line-segment definition of the trigonometric functions. The study followed a grounded theory methodology with data collection and analysis intertwined. Participants included faculty from two large Midwestern research universities, high school teachers, and authors of standards documents. Textbooks were drawn from introductory algebra, geometry, advanced algebra, precalculus, and calculus texts. Data collected included surveys, interviews, and textbook excerpts. Analysis used the constant comparative method (Corbin & Strauss, 2008; Glaser & Strauss, 2006/1967). Analysis resulted in the emergence of a grounded theory, the tensions of trigonometry, which described three interrelated themes within the data: definition, application, and role. Two ideas emerged that connected the tensions of trigonometry, the regions of interaction, which described the interplay between the three tensions, and the idealized dichotomy of trigonometry education, which outlined opposing perspectives on trigonometry: trigonometry for all and trigonometry for some. The grounded theory outlines a range of competing purposes for trigonometry in the modern sciences. It suggests that educators are engaged in a process of continual negotiation that results in the formation of a localized purpose of trigonometry. The benefits and drawbacks of different definitions are not based on mathematical sophistication, but are situational. Furthermore, the theory suggests that

  11. Trigonometry Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gur, Hulya

    2009-01-01

    Background: Trigonometry is an area of mathematics that students believe to be particularly difficult and abstract compared with the other subjects of mathematics. Trigonometry is often introduced early in year 8 with most textbooks traditionally starting with naming sides of right-angled triangles. Students need to see and understand why their…

  12. Weaving Geometry and Algebra Together

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cetner, Michelle

    2015-01-01

    When thinking about student reasoning and sense making, teachers must consider the nature of tasks given to students along with how to plan to use the tasks in the classroom. Students should be presented with tasks in a way that encourages them to draw connections between algebraic and geometric concepts. This article focuses on the idea that it…

  13. Wartime Trigonometry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goetz, Albert

    2016-01-01

    "Media Clips" appears in every issue of "Mathematics Teacher," offering readers contemporary, authentic applications of quantitative reasoning based on print or electronic media. Based on "In All the Light We Cannot See" (2014), by Anthony Doerr, this article provides a brief trigonometry problem that was solved by…

  14. Duncan F. Gregory, William Walton and the development of British algebra: 'algebraical geometry', 'geometrical algebra', abstraction.

    PubMed

    Verburgt, Lukas M

    2016-01-01

    This paper provides a detailed account of the period of the complex history of British algebra and geometry between the publication of George Peacock's Treatise on Algebra in 1830 and William Rowan Hamilton's paper on quaternions of 1843. During these years, Duncan Farquharson Gregory and William Walton published several contributions on 'algebraical geometry' and 'geometrical algebra' in the Cambridge Mathematical Journal. These contributions enabled them not only to generalize Peacock's symbolical algebra on the basis of geometrical considerations, but also to initiate the attempts to question the status of Euclidean space as the arbiter of valid geometrical interpretations. At the same time, Gregory and Walton were bound by the limits of symbolical algebra that they themselves made explicit; their work was not and could not be the 'abstract algebra' and 'abstract geometry' of figures such as Hamilton and Cayley. The central argument of the paper is that an understanding of the contributions to 'algebraical geometry' and 'geometrical algebra' of the second generation of 'scientific' symbolical algebraists is essential for a satisfactory explanation of the radical transition from symbolical to abstract algebra that took place in British mathematics in the 1830s-1840s. PMID:26806075

  15. Connecting Functions in Geometry and Algebra

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steketee, Scott; Scher, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    One goal of a mathematics education is that students make significant connections among different branches of mathematics. Connections--such as those between arithmetic and algebra, between two-dimensional and three-dimensional geometry, between compass-and-straight-edge constructions and transformations, and between calculus and analytic…

  16. Computational algebraic geometry of epidemic models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodríguez Vega, Martín.

    2014-06-01

    Computational Algebraic Geometry is applied to the analysis of various epidemic models for Schistosomiasis and Dengue, both, for the case without control measures and for the case where control measures are applied. The models were analyzed using the mathematical software Maple. Explicitly the analysis is performed using Groebner basis, Hilbert dimension and Hilbert polynomials. These computational tools are included automatically in Maple. Each of these models is represented by a system of ordinary differential equations, and for each model the basic reproductive number (R0) is calculated. The effects of the control measures are observed by the changes in the algebraic structure of R0, the changes in Groebner basis, the changes in Hilbert dimension, and the changes in Hilbert polynomials. It is hoped that the results obtained in this paper become of importance for designing control measures against the epidemic diseases described. For future researches it is proposed the use of algebraic epidemiology to analyze models for airborne and waterborne diseases.

  17. PREFACE: Algebra, Geometry, and Mathematical Physics 2010

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stolin, A.; Abramov, V.; Fuchs, J.; Paal, E.; Shestopalov, Y.; Silvestrov, S.

    2012-02-01

    This proceedings volume presents results obtained by the participants of the 6th Baltic-Nordic workshop 'Algebra, Geometry, and Mathematical Physics (AGMP-6)' held at the Sven Lovén Centre for Marine Sciences in Tjärnö, Sweden on October 25-30, 2010. The Baltic-Nordic Network AGMP 'Algebra, Geometry, and Mathematical Physics' http://www.agmp.eu was created in 2005 on the initiative of two Estonian universities and two Swedish universities: Tallinn University of Technology represented by Eugen Paal (coordinator of the network), Tartu University represented by Viktor Abramov, Lund University represented by Sergei Silvestrov, and Chalmers University of Technology and the University of Gothenburg represented by Alexander Stolin. The goal was to promote international and interdisciplinary cooperation between scientists and research groups in the countries of the Baltic-Nordic region in mathematics and mathematical physics, with special emphasis on the important role played by algebra and geometry in modern physics, engineering and technologies. The main activities of the AGMP network consist of a series of regular annual international workshops, conferences and research schools. The AGMP network also constitutes an important educational forum for scientific exchange and dissimilation of research results for PhD students and Postdocs. The network has expanded since its creation, and nowadays its activities extend beyond countries in the Baltic-Nordic region to universities in other European countries and participants from elsewhere in the world. As one of the important research-dissimilation outcomes of its activities, the network has a tradition of producing high-quality research proceedings volumes after network events, publishing them with various international publishers. The PDF also contains the following: List of AGMP workshops and other AGMP activities Main topics discussed at AGMP-6 Review of AGMP-6 proceedings Acknowledgments List of Conference Participants

  18. Classical versus Computer Algebra Methods in Elementary Geometry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pech, Pavel

    2005-01-01

    Computer algebra methods based on results of commutative algebra like Groebner bases of ideals and elimination of variables make it possible to solve complex, elementary and non elementary problems of geometry, which are difficult to solve using a classical approach. Computer algebra methods permit the proof of geometric theorems, automatic…

  19. Elements of Mathematics, Book 9: Linear Algebra and Geometry with Trigonometry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Exner, Robert; And Others

    One of 12 books developed for use with the core material (Book O) of the Elements of Mathematics Program, this text covers material well beyond the scope of the usual secondary mathematics sequences. These materials are designed for highly motivated students with strong verbal abilities; mathematical theories and ideas are developed through…

  20. Algebraic geometry realization of quantum Hall soliton

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abounasr, R.; Ait Ben Haddou, M.; El Rhalami, A.; Saidi, E. H.

    2005-02-01

    Using the Iqbal-Netzike-Vafa dictionary giving the correspondence between the H2 homology of del Pezzo surfaces and p-branes, we develop a way to approach the system of brane bounds in M-theory on S1. We first review the structure of 10-dimensional quantum Hall soliton (QHS) from the view of M-theory on S1. Then, we show how the D0 dissolution in D2-brane is realized in M-theory language and derive the p-brane constraint equations used to define appropriately the QHS. Finally, we build an algebraic geometry realization of the QHS in type IIA superstring and show how to get its type IIB dual. Other aspects are also discussed.

  1. The Bell states in noncommutative algebraic geometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beil, Charlie

    2014-10-01

    We introduce new mathematical aspects of the Bell states using matrix factorizations, non-noetherian singularities, and noncommutative blowups. A matrix factorization of a polynomial p consists of two matrices ϕ1, ϕ2 such that ϕ1ϕ2 = ϕ2ϕ1 = p id. Using this notion, we show how the Bell states emerge from the separable product of two mixtures, by defining pure states over complex matrices rather than just the complex numbers. We then show in an idealized algebraic setting that pure states are supported on non-noetherian singularities. Moreover, we find that the collapse of a Bell state is intimately related to the representation theory of the noncommutative blowup along its singular support. This presents an exchange in geometry: the nonlocal commutative spacetime of the entangled state emerges from an underlying local noncommutative spacetime.

  2. Differential geometry on Hopf algebras and quantum groups

    SciTech Connect

    Watts, P.

    1994-12-15

    The differential geometry on a Hopf algebra is constructed, by using the basic axioms of Hopf algebras and noncommutative differential geometry. The space of generalized derivations on a Hopf algebra of functions is presented via the smash product, and used to define and discuss quantum Lie algebras and their properties. The Cartan calculus of the exterior derivative, Lie derivative, and inner derivation is found for both the universal and general differential calculi of an arbitrary Hopf algebra, and, by restricting to the quasitriangular case and using the numerical R-matrix formalism, the aforementioned structures for quantum groups are determined.

  3. From geometry to algebra: the Euclidean way with technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferrarello, Daniela; Flavia Mammana, Maria; Pennisi, Mario

    2016-05-01

    In this paper, we present the results of an experimental classroom activity, history-based with a phylogenetic approach, to achieve algebra properties through geometry. In particular, we used Euclidean propositions, processed them by a dynamic geometry system and translate them into algebraic special products.

  4. Misconceptions in Rational Numbers, Probability, Algebra, and Geometry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rakes, Christopher R.

    2010-01-01

    In this study, the author examined the relationship of probability misconceptions to algebra, geometry, and rational number misconceptions and investigated the potential of probability instruction as an intervention to address misconceptions in all 4 content areas. Through a review of literature, 5 fundamental concepts were identified that, if…

  5. From string theory to algebraic geometry and back

    SciTech Connect

    Brinzanescu, Vasile

    2011-02-10

    We describe some facts in physics which go up to the modern string theory and the related concepts in algebraic geometry. Then we present some recent results on moduli-spaces of vector bundles on non-Kaehler Calabi-Yau 3-folds and their consequences for heterotic string theory.

  6. Trigonometry with Year 8: Part 3

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steer, Jessica; de Vila, Maria Antonieta; Eaton, James

    2009-01-01

    This final article focuses in particular on the engagement of year 8 students who were taught trigonometry using dynamic geometry software ("Geometer's SketchPad"), as outlined in "MT214" and with resources from the ATM website. The project was implemented in three different classrooms in two different, multiracial, comprehensive and…

  7. Reverse engineering: algebraic boundary representations to constructive solid geometry.

    SciTech Connect

    Buchele, S. F.; Ellingson, W. A.

    1997-12-17

    Recent advances in reverse engineering have focused on recovering a boundary representation (b-rep) of an object, often for integration with rapid prototyping. This boundary representation may be a 3-D point cloud, a triangulation of points, or piecewise algebraic or parametric surfaces. This paper presents work in progress to develop an algorithm to extend the current state of the art in reverse engineering of mechanical parts. This algorithm will take algebraic surface representations as input and will produce a constructive solid geometry (CSG) description that uses solid primitives such as rectangular block, pyramid, sphere, cylinder, and cone. The proposed algorithm will automatically generate a CSG solid model of a part given its algebraic b-rep, thus allowing direct input into a CAD system and subsequent CSG model generation.

  8. Historical Reflections on Teaching Trigonometry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bressoud, David M.

    2010-01-01

    The study of trigonometry suffers from a basic dichotomy that presents a serious obstacle to many students. On the one hand, there is triangle trigonometry, in which angles are commonly measured in degrees and trigonometric functions are defined as ratios of sides of a right-angled triangle. On the other hand, there is circle trigonometry, in…

  9. Examining the Effects of Gender, Poverty, Attendance, and Ethnicity on Algebra, Geometry, and Trigonometry Performance in a Public High School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shafiq, Hasan

    2013-01-01

    Over the last few decades school accountability for student performance has become an issue at the forefront of education. The federal No Child Left Behind Act of 2001 (NCLB) and various regulations by individual states have set standards for student performance at both the district and individual public and charter school levels, and certain…

  10. [Geometry and algebra of branches of the middle cerebral artery].

    PubMed

    Blinkov, S M

    1986-01-01

    A classification of the cortical branches of the middle cerebral artery (MCA) is suggested by means of which each branch in any hemisphere can be qualified and identified in any variant of MCA branching. The principle of the classification consists in grouping the branches into arteries and trunks of the second, third, etc. order. Branches supplying blood to a certain sector of the lateral surface of the hemisphere are designated arteries. Their number and zone of branching are constant. Branches giving rise to 2 and more arteries are named trunks. Branching of the trunks, the number of trunks of the second, third, etc. order, and the site and type of origin of the arteries are extremely variable. Each trunk can be designated by a formula stating its order and the name of the artery supplied by this trunk. The arrangement of the MCA branches on the surface of the gyri and deep in the sulci, represented on the map of the lateral surface of the hemisphere, is designated conditionally as geometry of MCA branches. The order of branching of the trunks and the type of origin of the arteries, represented on abstract maps of the lateral surface of the hemisphere, are designated conditionally as algebra of the MCA branches. The variability of the geometry and algebra of the MCA branches must be taken into consideration in operations for extra-intracranial microanastomosis and in endovasal intervention on the MCA. PMID:3811741

  11. Integrating the Study of Trigonometry, Vectors, and Force Through Modeling.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doerr, Helen M.

    1996-01-01

    Investigates the construction of understanding of the motion of an object down an inclined plane which takes place through the process of model building in an integrated algebra, trigonometry, and physics class. Discusses four major themes related to student learning through modeling that emerged from the results. Discusses implications for…

  12. Clifford Algebras in Symplectic Geometry and Quantum Mechanics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Binz, Ernst; de Gosson, Maurice A.; Hiley, Basil J.

    2013-04-01

    The necessary appearance of Clifford algebras in the quantum description of fermions has prompted us to re-examine the fundamental role played by the quaternion Clifford algebra, C 0,2. This algebra is essentially the geometric algebra describing the rotational properties of space. Hidden within this algebra are symplectic structures with Heisenberg algebras at their core. This algebra also enables us to define a Poisson algebra of all homogeneous quadratic polynomials on a two-dimensional sub-space, {F}a of the Euclidean three-space. This enables us to construct a Poisson Clifford algebra, ℍ F , of a finite dimensional phase space which will carry the dynamics. The quantum dynamics appears as a realisation of ℍ F in terms of a Clifford algebra consisting of Hermitian operators.

  13. Hermitian geometry of 6-dimensional submanifolds of the Cayley algebra

    SciTech Connect

    Banaru, M B

    2002-06-30

    Orientable 6-dimensional submanifolds (of general type) of the Cayley algebra are investigated on which the 3-fold vector cross products in the octave algebra induce a Hermitian structure. It is shown that such submanifolds of the Cayley algebra are minimal, non-compact, and para-Kaehler, their holomorphic bisectional curvature is positive and vanishes only at the geodesic points. It is also proved that cosymplectic hypersurfaces of 6-dimensional Hermitian submanifolds of the octave algebra are ruled. A simple test for the minimality of such surfaces is obtained. It is shown that 6-dimensional submanifolds of the Cayley algebra satisfying the axiom of g-cosymplectic hypersurfaces are Kaehler manifolds.

  14. [Thomas Fincke and trigonometry].

    PubMed

    Schönbeck, Jürgen

    2004-01-01

    Thomas Fincke (January 6th, 1561 - April 24th, 1650), born in Flensburg (Germany), was one of the very most important and significant scientists in Denmark during the seventeenth century, a mathematician and astrologer and physician in the beginning of modern science, a representative of humanism and an influentual academic organizer. He studied in Strasbourg (since 1577) and Padua (since 1583) and received his M.D. in Basel (1587), he practised as a physician throughtout his life (since 1587 or 1590) and became a professor at Copenhagen (1591). But he was best known because of his Geometriae rotundi libri XIIII (1583), a famous book on plane and spherical trigonometry, based not on Euclid but on Petrus Ramus. In this influentual work, in which Fincke introduced the terms tangent and secant and probable first noticed the Law of Tangents and the so-called Newton-Oppel-Mauduit-Simpson-Mollweide-Gauss-formula, he showed himself to be ,,abreast of the mathematics of his time". PMID:15290836

  15. The role of difficulty and gender in numbers, algebra, geometry and mathematics achievement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rabab'h, Belal Sadiq Hamed; Veloo, Arsaythamby; Perumal, Selvan

    2015-05-01

    This study aims to identify the role of difficulty and gender in numbers, algebra, geometry and mathematics achievement among secondary schools students in Jordan. The respondent of the study were 337 students from eight public secondary school in Alkoura district by using stratified random sampling. The study comprised of 179 (53%) males and 158 (47%) females students. The mathematics test comprises of 30 items which has eight items for numbers, 14 items for algebra and eight items for geometry. Based on difficulties among male and female students, the findings showed that item 4 (fractions - 0.34) was most difficult for male students and item 6 (square roots - 0.39) for females in numbers. For the algebra, item 11 (inequality - 0.23) was most difficult for male students and item 6 (algebraic expressions - 0.35) for female students. In geometry, item 3 (reflection - 0.34) was most difficult for male students and item 8 (volume - 0.33) for female students. Based on gender differences, female students showed higher achievement in numbers and algebra compare to male students. On the other hand, there was no differences between male and female students achievement in geometry test. This study suggest that teachers need to give more attention on numbers and algebra when teaching mathematics.

  16. The Circle Approach to Trigonometry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Kevin c.; LaForest, Kevin R.

    2014-01-01

    How do students think about an angle measure of ninety degrees? How do they think about ratios and values on the unit circle? How might angle measure be used to connect right-triangle trigonometry and circular functions? And why might asking these questions be important when introducing trigonometric functions to students? When teaching…

  17. Mollweide's Formula in Teaching Trigonometry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karjanto, Natanael

    2011-01-01

    Trigonometry is one of the topics in mathematics that the students in both high school and pre-undergraduate levels need to learn. Generally, the topic covers trigonometric functions, trigonometric equations, trigonometric identities and solving oblique triangles using the Laws of Sines and Cosines. However, when solving the oblique triangles,…

  18. Spectral properties of sums of Hermitian matrices and algebraic geometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chau Huu-Tai, P.; Van Isacker, P.

    2016-04-01

    It is shown that all the eigenvectors of a sum of Hermitian matrices belong to the same algebraic variety. A polynomial system characterizing this variety is given and a set of nonlinear equations is derived which allows the construction of the variety. Moreover, in some specific cases, explicit expressions for the eigenvectors and eigenvalues can be obtained. Explicit solutions of selected models are also derived.

  19. Big Bang, Blowup, and Modular Curves: Algebraic Geometry in Cosmology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manin, Yuri I.; Marcolli, Matilde

    2014-07-01

    We introduce some algebraic geometric models in cosmology related to the ''boundaries'' of space-time: Big Bang, Mixmaster Universe, Penrose's crossovers between aeons. We suggest to model the kinematics of Big Bang using the algebraic geometric (or analytic) blow up of a point x. This creates a boundary which consists of the projective space of tangent directions to x and possibly of the light cone of x. We argue that time on the boundary undergoes the Wick rotation and becomes purely imaginary. The Mixmaster (Bianchi IX) model of the early history of the universe is neatly explained in this picture by postulating that the reverse Wick rotation follows a hyperbolic geodesic connecting imaginary time axis to the real one. Penrose's idea to see the Big Bang as a sign of crossover from ''the end of previous aeon'' of the expanding and cooling Universe to the ''beginning of the next aeon'' is interpreted as an identification of a natural boundary of Minkowski space at infinity with the Big Bang boundary.

  20. Abstract Algebra, Projective Geometry and Time Encoding of Quantum Information

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Planat, Michel; Saniga, Metod

    2005-10-01

    Algebraic geometrical concepts are playing an increasing role in quantum applications such as coding, cryptography, tomography and computing. We point out here the prominent role played by Galois fields viewed as cyclotomic extensions of the integers modulo a prime characteristic p. They can be used to generate efficient cyclic encoding, for transmitting secrete quantum keys, for quantum state recovery and for error correction in quantum computing. Finite projective planes and their generalization are the geometric counterpart to cyclotomic concepts, their coordinatization involves Galois fields, and they have been used repetitively for enciphering and coding. Finally, the characters over Galois fields are fundamental for generating complete sets of mutually unbiased bases, a generic concept of quantum information processing and quantum entanglement. Gauss sums over Galois fields ensure minimum uncertainty under such protocols. Some Galois rings which are cyclotomic extensions of the integers modulo 4 are also becoming fashionable for their role in time encoding and mutual unbiasedness.

  1. Bridging Algebra & Geometry with "n"-Gram Proofs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Craven, Joshua D.

    2010-01-01

    For many students, geometry is the first course in which mathematical proof takes center stage. To help ease students into writing proofs, the author tries to create lessons and activities throughout the year that challenge students to prove their own conjectures by using tools learned in previous mathematics courses. Teachers cannot get all…

  2. Quantum error-correcting codes from algebraic geometry codes of Castle type

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Munuera, Carlos; Tenório, Wanderson; Torres, Fernando

    2016-07-01

    We study algebraic geometry codes producing quantum error-correcting codes by the CSS construction. We pay particular attention to the family of Castle codes. We show that many of the examples known in the literature in fact belong to this family of codes. We systematize these constructions by showing the common theory that underlies all of them.

  3. Finite Trigonometry: A Resource for Teachers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malcom, Paul Scott

    This investigation extends a 25-point geometric system for defining a 25-point trigonometry whose properties are analogous to those of the trigonometry of the Euclidean plane. These properties include definitions of trigonometric functions arising from ratios of sides of right triangles, the relations of elements of a given triangle through the…

  4. From matrix models' topological expansion to topological string theories: counting surfaces with algebraic geometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orantin, N.

    2007-09-01

    The 2-matrix model has been introduced to study Ising model on random surfaces. Since then, the link between matrix models and combinatorics of discrete surfaces has strongly tightened. This manuscript aims to investigate these deep links and extend them beyond the matrix models, following my work's evolution. First, I take care to define properly the hermitian 2 matrix model which gives rise to generating functions of discrete surfaces equipped with a spin structure. Then, I show how to compute all the terms in the topological expansion of any observable by using algebraic geometry tools. They are obtained as differential forms on an algebraic curve associated to the model: the spectral curve. In a second part, I show how to define such differentials on any algebraic curve even if it does not come from a matrix model. I then study their numerous symmetry properties under deformations of the algebraic curve. In particular, I show that these objects coincide with the topological expansion of the observable of a matrix model if the algebraic curve is the spectral curve of this model. Finally, I show that fine tuning the parameters ensure that these objects can be promoted to modular invariants and satisfy the holomorphic anomaly equation of the Kodaira-Spencer theory. This gives a new hint that the Dijkgraaf-Vafa conjecture is correct.

  5. Trigonometry, A Tentative Guide Prepared for Use with the Text Plane Trigonometry with Tables.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brant, Vincent

    This teacher's guide for a semester course in trigonometry is prepared for use with the text "Plane Trigonometry with Tables" by E. R. Heineman. Included is a daily schedule of topics for discussion and homework assignments. The scope of each lesson and teaching suggestions are provided. The content for the course includes trigonometric functions,…

  6. Algebraic geometry methods associated to the one-dimensional Hubbard model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martins, M. J.

    2016-06-01

    In this paper we study the covering vertex model of the one-dimensional Hubbard Hamiltonian constructed by Shastry in the realm of algebraic geometry. We show that the Lax operator sits in a genus one curve which is not isomorphic but only isogenous to the curve suitable for the AdS/CFT context. We provide an uniformization of the Lax operator in terms of ratios of theta functions allowing us to establish relativistic like properties such as crossing and unitarity. We show that the respective R-matrix weights lie on an Abelian surface being birational to the product of two elliptic curves with distinct J-invariants. One of the curves is isomorphic to that of the Lax operator but the other is solely fourfold isogenous. These results clarify the reason the R-matrix can not be written using only difference of spectral parameters of the Lax operator.

  7. Boolean Algebra. Geometry Module for Use in a Mathematics Laboratory Setting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brotherton, Sheila; And Others

    This module is recommended as an honors unit to follow a unit on logic. There are four basic parts: (1) What is a Boolean Algebra; (2) Using Boolean Algebra to Prove Theorems; (3) Using Boolean Algebra to Simplify Logical Statements; and (4) Circuit Problems with Logic and Boolean Algebra. Of these, sections 1, 2, and 3 are primarily written…

  8. Trigonometry with Year 8: Part 1

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steer, Jessica; de Vila, Maria Antioneta; Eaton, James

    2009-01-01

    The authors explore the teaching of trigonometry using a method developed by Jeremy Burke of Kings College. A series of lessons was planned using an approach which looks at moving from a mathematical description of the topic, to a sequence plan, to a set of activities, which students can use to help them come to understand the topic. This is…

  9. Trigonometry 2, Mathematics: 5219.12.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, David J.

    This booklet is the second of a two-part sequence of minimum content for trigonometry. It includes sum, difference, double-angle, and half-angle formulas; Law of Sines; Law of Cosines; inverse trigonometric functions; polar coordinates; and DeMoivre's Theorem. Goals, performance objectives for each unit, a course outline, references to…

  10. Geometry and Algebra: Glow with the Flow. NASA Connect: Program 2 in the 2000-2001 Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Hampton, VA. Langley Research Center.

    This teaching unit is designed to help students in grades 5 to 8 explore the concepts of geometry and algebra in the context of the force of drag. The units in the series have been developed to enhance and enrich mathematics, science, and technology education and to accommodate different teaching and learning styles. Each unit consists of…

  11. The Trigonometry of Twistors and Elementary Particles

    SciTech Connect

    Gustafson, Karl

    2009-03-10

    A new trigonometry for twistors is presented. The operator-theoretic maximum twistor turning angle is shown to be related to the space-time geometric angle within the light cone. The corresponding maximally turned twistor antieigenvectors are calculated and interpretted. The two weak interaction CP eigenvectors of neutral kaons are shown to be exactly the two strong interaction strangeness antieigenvectors. Quark mixing is seen trigonometrically. 't Hooft's microcosmos model is connected to the theories of normal degree and complex dynamics.

  12. Investigating the Purpose of Trigonometry in the Modern Sciences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hertel, Joshua T.

    2013-01-01

    This dissertation reports the results of a qualitative research project that aimed to develop a research-based perspective on the purpose of trigonometry in the modern sciences. The investigation was guided by three objectives. First, the study sought to identify the purpose of trigonometry as described by educators and high school textbooks.…

  13. Math 3011--College Algebra and Trigonometry. Course Outline.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York Inst. of Tech., Old Westbury.

    This document contains the course syllabus and 12 independent practice modules for a college level mathematics course designed to provide the necessary foundation for success in calculus, develop logical thinking skills, and enhance analytic skills through problem solving. Topics include relations and functions; inequalities; complex numbers;…

  14. Math 1715/1613 (PIPI): Algebra and Trigonometry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blose, Murray M.; And Others

    This study guide, designed for use at Oklahoma State University, contains lists of activities for students to perform based on the "mastery of learning" concept. The activities include readings, problems, self evaluations, and assessment tasks. The units included are: Functions, Exponential and Logarithmic Functions, Trigonometric Functions,…

  15. External Variables as Predictors of Van Hiele Levels in Algebra and Geometry Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frykholm, Jeffrey A.

    In the attempt to improve the quality of geometry instruction in schools, researchers and teachers alike have given considerable attention to the van Hiele theory of geometry learning and development, which proposes a series of cognitive levels through which every geometry student passes. This paper reports a study to determine the extent to which…

  16. Geometry: Grades 10-12.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Instructional Objectives Exchange, Los Angeles, CA.

    Behavioral objectives, each accompanied by six sample test items, for secondary school geometry are presented. Objectives were determined by surveying the most widely used secondary school geometry textbooks, and cover 14 major categories of geometry, with sections on set theory and introductory trigonometry. Answers are provided. Categories…

  17. Trigonometry--Mathematical Curricular Areas and Instructional Computing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frandsen, Henry

    1981-01-01

    The computer has enormous potential for enhancing the secondary trigonometry curriculum. Areas that can be improved through use of the computer include: solutions of triangles, inductive investigations of functions, graphs of functions, and solution of trigonometric identities. (JN)

  18. Algebraic Structures, Physics and Geometry from a Unified Field Theoretical Framework

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cirilo-Lombardo, Diego Julio

    2015-10-01

    Starting from a Unified Field Theory (UFT) proposed previously by the author, the possible fermionic representations arising from the same spacetime are considered from the algebraic and geometrical viewpoint. We specifically demonstrate in this UFT general context that the underlying basis of the single geometrical structure P( G, M) (the principal fiber bundle over the real spacetime manifold M with structural group G) reflecting the symmetries of the different fields carry naturally a biquaternionic structure instead of a complex one. This fact allows us to analyze algebraically and to interpret physically in a straighforward way the Majorana and Dirac representations and the relation of such structures with the spacetime signature and non-hermitian (CP) dynamic operators. Also, from the underlying structure of the tangent space, the existence of hidden (super) symmetries and the possibility of supersymmetric extensions of these UFT models are given showing that Rothstein's theorem is incomplete for that description. The importance of the Clifford algebras in the description of all symmetries, mainly the interaction of gravity with the other fields, is briefly discussed.

  19. Editors' preface for the topical issue on Seven papers on Noncommutative Geometry and Operator Algebras

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guido, Daniele; Landi, Giovanni; Vassout, Stéphane

    2016-07-01

    This topical issue grew out of the International Conference "Noncommutative Geometry and Applications" held 16-21 June 2014 at Villa Mondragone, Frascati (Roma). The main purpose of the conference was to have a unified view of different incarnations of noncommutative geometry and its applications. The seven papers collected in the present topical issue represent a good sample of the topics covered at the workshop. The conference itself was one of the climaxes of the Franco-Italian project GREFI-GENCO, which was initiated in 2007 by CNRS and INDAM to promote and enhance collaboration and exchanges between French and Italian researchers in the area of noncommutative geometry.

  20. Pre-Service Elementary Teachers Make Connections between Geometry and Algebra through the Use of Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mohr, Doris J.

    2008-01-01

    In a geometry content course for pre-service elementary teachers, technology was utilized to assist students in making sense of shapes. They learned to write simple procedures in Logo that would program a turtle to draw various quadrilaterals. In the context of writing these procedures, the pre-service teachers used variables to represent the…

  1. The Interpretative Flexibility, Instrumental Evolution, and Institutional Adoption of Mathematical Software in Educational Practice: The Examples of Computer Algebra and Dynamic Geometry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruthven, Kenneth

    2008-01-01

    This article examines three important facets of the incorporation of new technologies into educational practice, focusing on emergent usages of the mathematical tools of computer algebra and dynamic geometry. First, it illustrates the interpretative flexibility of these tools, highlighting important differences in ways of conceptualizing and…

  2. Trigonometry 1, Mathematics: 5219.11.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, David J.

    The first of a two-part sequence for the student who has had difficulty in second-year algebra, this booklet covers definitions and measurement of angles (in degrees and radians), the trigonometric functions, solving trigonometric equations and graphing functions, identities, and computation with base ten logarithms. Overall goals for the course…

  3. A Vector Approach to Euclidean Geometry: Vector Spaces and Affine Geometry, Volume 1. Teacher's Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vaughan, Herbert E.; Szabo, Steven

    This is the teacher's edition of a text for the first year of a two-year high school geometry course. The course bases plane and solid geometry and trigonometry on the fact that the translations of a Euclidean space constitute a vector space which has an inner product. Volume 1 deals largely with affine geometry, and the notion of dimension is…

  4. Evaluation of Intermediate Algebra Prerequisite Enforcement at Saddleback College.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sworder, Steve

    In fall 1996, California's Saddleback Community College began enforcing a prerequisite mathematics course for the college's Algebra (Math 8), Statistics (Math 10), and Trigonometry (Math 124) series. The 11 memoranda collected in this report present results from a study of the effects of enforcing the prerequisite on successful completion of the…

  5. Learning Activity Package, Algebra 124, LAPs 46-55.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holland, Bill

    A series of 10 teacher-prepared Learning Activity Packages (LAPs) in advanced algebra and trigonometry, these units cover absolute value, inequalities, exponents, radicals, and complex numbers; functions; higher degree equations and the derivative; the trigonometric functions; graphs and applications of the trigonometric functions; sequences and…

  6. Lie algebra automorphisms as Lie-point symmetries and the solution space for Bianchi type I, II, IV, V vacuum geometries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Terzis, Petros A.; Christodoulakis, T.

    2012-12-01

    Lie-group symmetry analysis for systems of coupled, nonlinear ordinary differential equations is performed in order to obtain the entire solution space to Einstein’s field equations for vacuum Bianchi spacetime geometries. The symmetries used are the automorphisms of the Lie algebra of the corresponding three-dimensional isometry group acting on the hyper-surfaces of simultaneity for each Bianchi type, as well as the scaling and the time reparametrization symmetry. A detailed application of the method is presented for Bianchi type IV. The result is the acquisition of the general solution of type IV in terms of sixth Painlevé transcendent PVI, along with the known pp-wave solution. For Bianchi types I, II, V the known entire solution space is attained and very briefly listed, along with two new type V solutions of Euclidean and neutral signature and a type I pp-wave metric.

  7. An extension of the classical theory of algebraic invariants to pseudo-Riemannian geometry and Hamiltonian mechanics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McLenaghan, Raymond G.; Smirnov, Roman G.; The, Dennis

    2004-03-01

    We develop a new approach to the study of Killing tensors defined in pseudo-Riemannian spaces of constant curvature that is ideologically close to the classical theory of invariants. The main idea, which provides the foundation of the new approach, is to treat a Killing tensor as an algebraic object determined by a set of parameters of the corresponding vector space of Killing tensors under the action of the isometry group. The spaces of group invariants and conformal group invariants of valence two Killing tensors defined in the Minkowski plane are described. The group invariants, which are the generators of the space of invariants, are applied to the problem of classification of orthogonally separable Hamiltonian systems defined in the Minkowski plane. Transformation formulas to separable coordinates expressed in terms of the parameters of the corresponding space of Killing tensors are presented. The results are applied to the problem of orthogonal separability of the Drach superintegrable potentials.

  8. Critical Analysis of the Mathematical Formalism of Theoretical Physics. IV. Foundations of Trigonometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalanov, Temur Z.

    2015-04-01

    Analysis of the foundations of standard trigonometry is proposed. The unity of formal logic and of rational dialectics is methodological basis of the analysis. It is shown that the foundations of trigonometry contradict to the principles of system approach and contain formal-logical errors. The principal logical error is that the definitions of trigonometric functions represent quantitative relationships between the different qualities: between qualitative determinacy of angle and qualitative determinacy of rectilinear segments (legs) in rectangular triangle. These relationships do not satisfy the standard definition of mathematical function because there are no mathematical operations that should be carry out on qualitative determinacy of angle to obtain qualitative determinacy of legs. Therefore, the left-hand and right-hand sides of the standard mathematical definitions have no the identical sense. The logical errors determine the essence of trigonometry: standard trigonometry is a false theory.

  9. DG Poisson algebra and its universal enveloping algebra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lü, JiaFeng; Wang, XingTing; Zhuang, GuangBin

    2016-05-01

    In this paper, we introduce the notions of differential graded (DG) Poisson algebra and DG Poisson module. Let $A$ be any DG Poisson algebra. We construct the universal enveloping algebra of $A$ explicitly, which is denoted by $A^{ue}$. We show that $A^{ue}$ has a natural DG algebra structure and it satisfies certain universal property. As a consequence of the universal property, it is proved that the category of DG Poisson modules over $A$ is isomorphic to the category of DG modules over $A^{ue}$. Furthermore, we prove that the notion of universal enveloping algebra $A^{ue}$ is well-behaved under opposite algebra and tensor product of DG Poisson algebras. Practical examples of DG Poisson algebras are given throughout the paper including those arising from differential geometry and homological algebra.

  10. Teaching Algebra without Algebra

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kalman, Richard S.

    2008-01-01

    Algebra is, among other things, a shorthand way to express quantitative reasoning. This article illustrates ways for the classroom teacher to convert algebraic solutions to verbal problems into conversational solutions that can be understood by students in the lower grades. Three reasonably typical verbal problems that either appeared as or…

  11. Interactive Computer-Supported Learning in Mathematics: A Comparison of Three Learning Programs on Trigonometry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sander, Elisabeth; Heiß, Andrea

    2014-01-01

    Three different versions of a learning program on trigonometry were compared, a program controlled, non-interactive version (CG), an interactive, conflict inducing version (EG 1), and an interactive one which was supposed to reduce the occurrence of a cognitive conflict regarding the central problem solution (EG 2). Pupils (N = 101) of a…

  12. Mathematics Teacher-Candidates' Performance in Solving Problems with Different Representation Styles: The Trigonometry Example

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dündar, Sefa

    2015-01-01

    Using multiple representations of a problem can reveal the relationship between complex concepts by expressing the same mathematical condition differently and can contribute to the meaningful learning of mathematical concepts. The purpose of this study is to assess the performances of mathematics teacher-candidates on trigonometry problems…

  13. A Qualitative Study Comparing the Instruction on Vectors between a Physics Course and a Trigonometry Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    James, Wendy Michelle

    2013-01-01

    Science and engineering instructors often observe that students have difficulty using or applying prerequisite mathematics knowledge in their courses. This qualitative project uses a case-study method to investigate the instruction in a trigonometry course and a physics course based on a different methodology and set of assumptions about student…

  14. Students' Perceptions and Development of Conceptual Understanding Regarding Trigonometry and Trigonometric Function

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cetin, Omer Faruk

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to analyse university level mathematics education students' perceptions on conceptual understanding of trigonometry and trigonometric functions and their content development of these concepts. A case study was conducted with 90 freshman students of Elementary Mathematics Department. The data were gathered via a scale; they…

  15. Teaching Harmonic Motion in Trigonometry: Inductive Inquiry Supported by Physics Simulations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sokolowski, Andrzej; Rackley, Robin

    2011-01-01

    In this article, the authors present a lesson whose goal is to utilise a scientific environment to immerse a trigonometry student in the process of mathematical modelling. The scientific environment utilised during this activity is a physics simulation called "Wave on a String" created by the PhET Interactive Simulations Project at Colorado…

  16. Geometric Algebra for Physicists

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doran, Chris; Lasenby, Anthony

    2007-11-01

    Preface; Notation; 1. Introduction; 2. Geometric algebra in two and three dimensions; 3. Classical mechanics; 4. Foundations of geometric algebra; 5. Relativity and spacetime; 6. Geometric calculus; 7. Classical electrodynamics; 8. Quantum theory and spinors; 9. Multiparticle states and quantum entanglement; 10. Geometry; 11. Further topics in calculus and group theory; 12. Lagrangian and Hamiltonian techniques; 13. Symmetry and gauge theory; 14. Gravitation; Bibliography; Index.

  17. Elements of Mathematics, Book O: Intuitive Background. Chapter 14, Geometry: Similitudes, Coordinates, and Trigonometry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Exner, Robert; And Others

    The sixteen chapters of this book provide the core material for the Elements of Mathematics Program, a secondary sequence developed for highly motivated students with strong verbal abilities. The sequence is based on a functional-relational approach to mathematics teaching, and emphasizes teaching by analysis of real-life situations. This text is…

  18. Algebraic treatments of the problems of the spin-1/2 particles in the one- and two-dimensional geometry: A systematic study

    SciTech Connect

    Koc, Ramazan . E-mail: koc@gantep.edu.tr; Tuetuencueler, Hayriye; Koca, Mehmet; Olgar, Eser

    2005-10-01

    We consider solutions of the 2 x 2 matrix Hamiltonians of the physical systems within the context of the su (2) and su (1, 1) Lie algebras. Our technique is relatively simple when compared with those of others and treats those Hamiltonians which can be treated in a unified framework of the Sp (4, R) algebra. The systematic study presented here reproduces a number of earlier results in a natural way as well as leads to a novel finding. Possible generalizations of the method are also suggested.

  19. UCSMP Algebra. What Works Clearinghouse Intervention Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    What Works Clearinghouse, 2007

    2007-01-01

    "University of Chicago School Mathematics Project (UCSMP) Algebra," designed to increase students' skills in algebra, is appropriate for students in grades 7-10, depending on the students' incoming knowledge. This one-year course highlights applications, uses statistics and geometry to develop the algebra of linear equations and inequalities, and…

  20. Using the Quaternions to Compose Rotations. Applications of Linear Algebra to Geometry. Modules and Monographs in Undergraduate Mathematics and Its Applications Project. UMAP Unit 313.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Solomon, Frederick

    This module applies linear algebraic methods to solve the following problem: If an object in a three-dimensional coordinate system is first rotated about a given axis through the origin by a given angle, and then rotated about another axis through the origin by another angle, there is a straightforward way to calculate the combined result of the…

  1. Perceptions of 9th and 10th Grade Students on How Their Environment, Cognition, and Behavior Motivate Them in Algebra and Geometry Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harootunian, Alen

    2012-01-01

    In this study, relationships were examined between students' perception of their cognition, behavior, environment, and motivation. The purpose of the research study was to explore the extent to which 9th and 10th grade students' perception of environment, cognition, and behavior can predict their motivation in Algebra and Geometry…

  2. A qualitative study comparing the instruction on vectors between a physics course and a trigonometry course

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    James, Wendy Michelle

    Science and engineering instructors often observe that students have difficulty using or applying prerequisite mathematics knowledge in their courses. This qualitative project uses a case-study method to investigate the instruction in a trigonometry course and a physics course based on a different methodology and set of assumptions about student learning and the nature of mathematics than traditionally used when investigating students' difficulty using or applying prerequisite mathematics knowledge. Transfer theory examined within a positivist or post-positivist paradigm is often used to investigate students' issue applying their knowledge; in contrast, this qualitative case-study is positioned using constructionism as an epistemology to understand and describe mathematical practices concerning vectors in a trigonometry and a physics course. Instructor interviews, observations of course lectures, and textbooks served as the qualitative data for in-depth study and comparison, and Saussure's (1959) concept of signifier and signified provided a lens for examining the data during analysis. Multiple recursions of within-case comparisons and across-case comparison were analyzed for differences in what the instructors and textbooks explicitly stated and later performed as their practices. While the trigonometry and physics instruction differed slightly, the two main differences occurred in the nature and use of vectors in the physics course. First, the "what" that is signified in notation and diagrams differs between contextualized and context-free situations, and second, physics instruction taught vectors very similar to trigonometry instruction when teaching the mathematics for doing physics, but once instruction focused on physics, the manner in which vector notation and diagrams are used differed from what is explicitly stated during mathematics instruction.

  3. Emergent geometry from quantized spacetime

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Hyun Seok; Sivakumar, M.

    2010-08-15

    We examine the picture of emergent geometry arising from a mass-deformed matrix model. Because of the mass deformation, a vacuum geometry turns out to be a constant curvature spacetime such as d-dimensional sphere and (anti-)de Sitter spaces. We show that the mass-deformed matrix model giving rise to the constant curvature spacetime can be derived from the d-dimensional Snyder algebra. The emergent geometry beautifully confirms all the rationale inferred from the algebraic point of view that the d-dimensional Snyder algebra is equivalent to the Lorentz algebra in (d+1)-dimensional flat spacetime. For example, a vacuum geometry of the mass-deformed matrix model is completely described by a G-invariant metric of coset manifolds G/H defined by the Snyder algebra. We also discuss a nonlinear deformation of the Snyder algebra.

  4. Cartan calculus on quantum Lie algebras

    SciTech Connect

    Schupp, P.; Watts, P.; Zumino, B.

    1993-12-09

    A generalization of the differential geometry of forms and vector fields to the case of quantum Lie algebras is given. In an abstract formulation that incorporates many existing examples of differential geometry on quantum spaces we combine an exterior derivative, inner derivations, Lie derivatives, forms and functions au into one big algebra, the ``Cartan Calculus.``

  5. Locally finite dimensional Lie algebras

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hennig, Johanna

    We prove that in a locally finite dimensional Lie algebra L, any maximal, locally solvable subalgebra is the stabilizer of a maximal, generalized flag in an integrable, faithful module over L. Then we prove two structure theorems for simple, locally finite dimensional Lie algebras over an algebraically closed field of characteristic p which give sufficient conditions for the algebras to be of the form [K(R, *), K( R, *)] / (Z(R) ∩ [ K(R, *), K(R, *)]) for a simple, locally finite dimensional associative algebra R with involution *. Lastly, we explore the noncommutative geometry of locally simple representations of the diagonal locally finite Lie algebras sl(ninfinity), o( ninfinity), and sp(n infinity).

  6. The Algebraic Way

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hiley, B. J.

    In this chapter, we examine in detail the non-commutative symplectic algebra underlying quantum dynamics. By using this algebra, we show that it contains both the Weyl-von Neumann and the Moyal quantum algebras. The latter contains the Wigner distribution as the kernel of the density matrix. The underlying non-commutative geometry can be projected into either of two Abelian spaces, so-called `shadow phase spaces'. One of these is the phase space of Bohmian mechanics, showing that it is a fragment of the basic underlying algebra. The algebraic approach is much richer, giving rise to two fundamental dynamical time development equations which reduce to the Liouville equation and the Hamilton-Jacobi equation in the classical limit. They also include the Schrödinger equation and its wave-function, showing that these features are a partial aspect of the more general non-commutative structure. We discuss briefly the properties of this more general mathematical background from which the non-commutative symplectic algebra emerges.

  7. Adaptive Algebraic Multigrid Methods

    SciTech Connect

    Brezina, M; Falgout, R; MacLachlan, S; Manteuffel, T; McCormick, S; Ruge, J

    2004-04-09

    Our ability to simulate physical processes numerically is constrained by our ability to solve the resulting linear systems, prompting substantial research into the development of multiscale iterative methods capable of solving these linear systems with an optimal amount of effort. Overcoming the limitations of geometric multigrid methods to simple geometries and differential equations, algebraic multigrid methods construct the multigrid hierarchy based only on the given matrix. While this allows for efficient black-box solution of the linear systems associated with discretizations of many elliptic differential equations, it also results in a lack of robustness due to assumptions made on the near-null spaces of these matrices. This paper introduces an extension to algebraic multigrid methods that removes the need to make such assumptions by utilizing an adaptive process. The principles which guide the adaptivity are highlighted, as well as their application to algebraic multigrid solution of certain symmetric positive-definite linear systems.

  8. Earth Algebra.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schaufele, Christopher; Zumoff, Nancy

    Earth Algebra is an entry level college algebra course that incorporates the spirit of the National Council of Teachers of Mathematics (NCTM) Curriculum and Evaluation Standards for School Mathematics at the college level. The context of the course places mathematics at the center of one of the major current concerns of the world. Through…

  9. Kiddie Algebra

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cavanagh, Sean

    2009-01-01

    As educators and policymakers search for ways to prepare students for the rigors of algebra, teachers in the Helena, Montana, school system are starting early by attempting to nurture students' algebraic-reasoning ability, as well as their basic number skills, in early elementary school, rather than waiting until middle or early high school.…

  10. Graded geometry and Poisson reduction

    SciTech Connect

    Cattaneo, A. S.; Zambon, M.

    2009-02-02

    The main result extends the Marsden-Ratiu reduction theorem in Poisson geometry, and is proven by means of graded geometry. In this note we provide the background material about graded geometry necessary for the proof. Further, we provide an alternative algebraic proof for the main result.

  11. An algebraic approach to the scattering equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Rijun; Rao, Junjie; Feng, Bo; He, Yang-Hui

    2015-12-01

    We employ the so-called companion matrix method from computational algebraic geometry, tailored for zero-dimensional ideals, to study the scattering equations. The method renders the CHY-integrand of scattering amplitudes computable using simple linear algebra and is amenable to an algorithmic approach. Certain identities in the amplitudes as well as rationality of the final integrand become immediate in this formalism.

  12. Computational trigonometry

    SciTech Connect

    Gustafson, K.

    1994-12-31

    By means of the author`s earlier theory of antieigenvalues and antieigenvectors, a new computational approach to iterative methods is presented. This enables an explicit trigonometric understanding of iterative convergence and provides new insights into the sharpness of error bounds. Direct applications to Gradient descent, Conjugate gradient, GCR(k), Orthomin, CGN, GMRES, CGS, and other matrix iterative schemes will be given.

  13. A method for measuring the thickness of transparent oil film on water surface using laser trigonometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qieni, Lü; Baozhen, Ge; Wenda, Yao; Yimo, Zhang

    2011-01-01

    We present a method for measurement of thickness of transparent oil film on water surface based on laser trigonometry. With an oblique incident mode of single-point laser triangulation ranging system, laser light is incident on the upper and lower surfaces of the oil film being measured and an ellipse light spot is formed on the upper and lower surfaces of the oil film. The two light spots are imaged on an image plane CCD by an imaging lens and the image spot is formed and stored in a computer. The thickness of oil film being measured can be obtained by displacement of the image spot and the configuration parameter of the imaging system. The experiment is conducted using edible peanut oil and diesel oil. The research results show that the method presented in this paper is feasible and applicable to dynamic on-line measurement of oil film thickness of oil spill on sea surface.

  14. Geometry and physics

    PubMed Central

    Atiyah, Michael; Dijkgraaf, Robbert; Hitchin, Nigel

    2010-01-01

    We review the remarkably fruitful interactions between mathematics and quantum physics in the past decades, pointing out some general trends and highlighting several examples, such as the counting of curves in algebraic geometry, invariants of knots and four-dimensional topology. PMID:20123740

  15. Geometry of spinor regularization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hestenes, D.; Lounesto, P.

    1983-01-01

    The Kustaanheimo theory of spinor regularization is given a new formulation in terms of geometric algebra. The Kustaanheimo-Stiefel matrix and its subsidiary condition are put in a spinor form directly related to the geometry of the orbit in physical space. A physically significant alternative to the KS subsidiary condition is discussed. Derivations are carried out without using coordinates.

  16. Moving frames and prolongation algebras

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Estabrook, F. B.

    1982-01-01

    Differential ideals generated by sets of 2-forms which can be written with constant coefficients in a canonical basis of 1-forms are considered. By setting up a Cartan-Ehresmann connection, in a fiber bundle over a base space in which the 2-forms live, one finds an incomplete Lie algebra of vector fields in the fields in the fibers. Conversely, given this algebra (a prolongation algebra), one can derive the differential ideal. The two constructs are thus dual, and analysis of either derives properties of both. Such systems arise in the classical differential geometry of moving frames. Examples of this are discussed, together with examples arising more recently: the Korteweg-de Vries and Harrison-Ernst systems.

  17. Self-Paced Mathematics Instruction: How Effective Has it Been in Secondary and Postsecondary Schools?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schoen, Harold L.

    1976-01-01

    Seventeen studies of self-paced instruction in algebra, geometry, trigonometry, and college mathematics courses are reviewed. In general these studies did not find the individualized programs to be superior to theregular instruction with which they were compared. (SD)

  18. Multiple Solutions Involving Geoboard Problems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Lyle R.

    1993-01-01

    Illustrates various methods to determine the perimeter and area of triangles and polygons formed on the geoboard. Methods utilize algebraic techniques, trigonometry, geometric theorems, and analytic geometry to solve problems and connect a variety of mathematical concepts. (MDH)

  19. Can a Crescent Mars Ever Be Seen from Earth?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lamb, John F., Jr.

    1990-01-01

    Described is an activity that incorporates a computer, geometry, algebra, trigonometry, and calculus to answer questions about the planet Mars. A possible crescent of Mars is compared to those of Venus and Mercury. (KR)

  20. Astronomical Math.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryden, Robert

    1999-01-01

    Presents activities that combine astronomy problems with algebra, geometry, trigonometry, data analysis, and physics. Provides experiences for students in making distance measurements themselves by using the method of parallax. (ASK)

  1. Twisted Quantum Toroidal Algebras

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jing, Naihuan; Liu, Rongjia

    2014-09-01

    We construct a principally graded quantum loop algebra for the Kac-Moody algebra. As a special case a twisted analog of the quantum toroidal algebra is obtained together with the quantum Serre relations.

  2. Algebraic vs physical N = 6 3-algebras

    SciTech Connect

    Cantarini, Nicoletta; Kac, Victor G.

    2014-01-15

    In our previous paper, we classified linearly compact algebraic simple N = 6 3-algebras. In the present paper, we classify their “physical” counterparts, which actually appear in the N = 6 supersymmetric 3-dimensional Chern-Simons theories.

  3. Historical Topics in Algebra.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Council of Teachers of Mathematics, Inc., Reston, VA.

    This is a reprint of the historical capsules dealing with algebra from the 31st Yearbook of NCTM,"Historical Topics for the Mathematics Classroom." Included are such themes as the change from a geometric to an algebraic solution of problems, the development of algebraic symbolism, the algebraic contributions of different countries, the origin and…

  4. Deformations of 3-algebras

    SciTech Connect

    Figueroa-O'Farrill, Jose Miguel

    2009-11-15

    We phrase deformations of n-Leibniz algebras in terms of the cohomology theory of the associated Leibniz algebra. We do the same for n-Lie algebras and for the metric versions of n-Leibniz and n-Lie algebras. We place particular emphasis on the case of n=3 and explore the deformations of 3-algebras of relevance to three-dimensional superconformal Chern-Simons theories with matter.

  5. Quantum cluster algebras and quantum nilpotent algebras

    PubMed Central

    Goodearl, Kenneth R.; Yakimov, Milen T.

    2014-01-01

    A major direction in the theory of cluster algebras is to construct (quantum) cluster algebra structures on the (quantized) coordinate rings of various families of varieties arising in Lie theory. We prove that all algebras in a very large axiomatically defined class of noncommutative algebras possess canonical quantum cluster algebra structures. Furthermore, they coincide with the corresponding upper quantum cluster algebras. We also establish analogs of these results for a large class of Poisson nilpotent algebras. Many important families of coordinate rings are subsumed in the class we are covering, which leads to a broad range of applications of the general results to the above-mentioned types of problems. As a consequence, we prove the Berenstein–Zelevinsky conjecture [Berenstein A, Zelevinsky A (2005) Adv Math 195:405–455] for the quantized coordinate rings of double Bruhat cells and construct quantum cluster algebra structures on all quantum unipotent groups, extending the theorem of Geiß et al. [Geiß C, et al. (2013) Selecta Math 19:337–397] for the case of symmetric Kac–Moody groups. Moreover, we prove that the upper cluster algebras of Berenstein et al. [Berenstein A, et al. (2005) Duke Math J 126:1–52] associated with double Bruhat cells coincide with the corresponding cluster algebras. PMID:24982197

  6. Comparative Effects of Concept Mapping and Cooperative Learning Strategies on Senior Secondary School Students' Achievement in Mathematics-Trigonometry in Kano State, Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bot, Thomas D.; Eze, John E.

    2016-01-01

    This article presents the findings from an experimental study on the effectiveness of concept mapping and cooperative learning strategies on SSII students' achievement in trigonometry in mathematics. The research design used in conducting the study was quasi-experimental pre-test and post-test non-equivalent control group. The sample consisted of…

  7. Analytic Methods in Investigative Geometry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dobbs, David E.

    2001-01-01

    Suggests an alternative proof by analytic methods, which is more accessible than rigorous proof based on Euclid's Elements, in which students need only apply standard methods of trigonometry to the data without introducing new points or lines. (KHR)

  8. Learning Algebra in a Computer Algebra Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drijvers, Paul

    2004-01-01

    This article summarises a doctoral thesis entitled "Learning algebra in a computer algebra environment, design research on the understanding of the concept of parameter" (Drijvers, 2003). It describes the research questions, the theoretical framework, the methodology and the results of the study. The focus of the study is on the understanding of…

  9. Realizations of Galilei algebras

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nesterenko, Maryna; Pošta, Severin; Vaneeva, Olena

    2016-03-01

    All inequivalent realizations of the Galilei algebras of dimensions not greater than five are constructed using the algebraic approach proposed by Shirokov. The varieties of the deformed Galilei algebras are discussed and families of one-parametric deformations are presented in explicit form. It is also shown that a number of well-known and physically interesting equations and systems are invariant with respect to the considered Galilei algebras or their deformations.

  10. Algebraic theory of molecules

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Iachello, Franco

    1995-01-01

    An algebraic formulation of quantum mechanics is presented. In this formulation, operators of interest are expanded onto elements of an algebra, G. For bound state problems in nu dimensions the algebra G is taken to be U(nu + 1). Applications to the structure of molecules are presented.

  11. Orientation in operator algebras

    PubMed Central

    Alfsen, Erik M.; Shultz, Frederic W.

    1998-01-01

    A concept of orientation is relevant for the passage from Jordan structure to associative structure in operator algebras. The research reported in this paper bridges the approach of Connes for von Neumann algebras and ourselves for C*-algebras in a general theory of orientation that is of geometric nature and is related to dynamics. PMID:9618457

  12. Developing Thinking in Algebra

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mason, John; Graham, Alan; Johnson-Wilder, Sue

    2005-01-01

    This book is for people with an interest in algebra whether as a learner, or as a teacher, or perhaps as both. It is concerned with the "big ideas" of algebra and what it is to understand the process of thinking algebraically. The book has been structured according to a number of pedagogic principles that are exposed and discussed along the way,…

  13. Connecting Arithmetic to Algebra

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Darley, Joy W.; Leapard, Barbara B.

    2010-01-01

    Algebraic thinking is a top priority in mathematics classrooms today. Because elementary school teachers lay the groundwork to develop students' capacity to think algebraically, it is crucial for teachers to have a conceptual understanding of the connections between arithmetic and algebra and be confident in communicating these connections. Many…

  14. Applied Algebra Curriculum Modules.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas State Technical Coll., Marshall.

    This collection of 11 applied algebra curriculum modules can be used independently as supplemental modules for an existing algebra curriculum. They represent diverse curriculum styles that should stimulate the teacher's creativity to adapt them to other algebra concepts. The selected topics have been determined to be those most needed by students…

  15. Profiles of Algebraic Competence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Humberstone, J.; Reeve, R.A.

    2008-01-01

    The algebraic competence of 72 12-year-old female students was examined to identify profiles of understanding reflecting different algebraic knowledge states. Beginning algebraic competence (mapping abilities: word-to-symbol and vice versa, classifying, and solving equations) was assessed. One week later, the nature of assistance required to map…

  16. Ternary Virasoro - Witt algebra.

    SciTech Connect

    Zachos, C.; Curtright, T.; Fairlie, D.; High Energy Physics; Univ. of Miami; Univ. of Durham

    2008-01-01

    A 3-bracket variant of the Virasoro-Witt algebra is constructed through the use of su(1,1) enveloping algebra techniques. The Leibniz rules for 3-brackets acting on other 3-brackets in the algebra are discussed and verified in various situations.

  17. Computer algebra and operators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fateman, Richard; Grossman, Robert

    1989-01-01

    The symbolic computation of operator expansions is discussed. Some of the capabilities that prove useful when performing computer algebra computations involving operators are considered. These capabilities may be broadly divided into three areas: the algebraic manipulation of expressions from the algebra generated by operators; the algebraic manipulation of the actions of the operators upon other mathematical objects; and the development of appropriate normal forms and simplification algorithms for operators and their actions. Brief descriptions are given of the computer algebra computations that arise when working with various operators and their actions.

  18. Algebraic models of flexible manufacturing systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leskin, Aleksei Alekseevich

    Various aspects of the use of mathematical methods in the development of flexible manufacturing systems are examined. Attention is given to dynamical and structural models of flexible manufacturing systems developed by using methods of algebraic and differential geometry, topology, polynomial algebra, and extreme value problem theory. The principles of model integration are discussed, and approaches are proposed for solving problems related to the selection of flexible manufacturing equipment, real-time modeling of the manufacturing process, and optimization of local automation systems. The discussion is illustrated by examples.

  19. Weak Lie symmetry and extended Lie algebra

    SciTech Connect

    Goenner, Hubert

    2013-04-15

    The concept of weak Lie motion (weak Lie symmetry) is introduced. Applications given exhibit a reduction of the usual symmetry, e.g., in the case of the rotation group. In this context, a particular generalization of Lie algebras is found ('extended Lie algebras') which turns out to be an involutive distribution or a simple example for a tangent Lie algebroid. Riemannian and Lorentz metrics can be introduced on such an algebroid through an extended Cartan-Killing form. Transformation groups from non-relativistic mechanics and quantum mechanics lead to such tangent Lie algebroids and to Lorentz geometries constructed on them (1-dimensional gravitational fields).

  20. A Richer Understanding of Algebra

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foy, Michelle

    2008-01-01

    Algebra is one of those hard-to-teach topics where pupils seem to struggle to see it as more than a set of rules to learn, but this author recently used the software "Grid Algebra" from ATM, which engaged her Year 7 pupils in exploring algebraic concepts for themselves. "Grid Algebra" allows pupils to experience number, pre-algebra, and algebra…

  1. Problem Solving in Calculus with Symbolic Geometry and CAS

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Todd, Philip; Wiechmann, James

    2008-01-01

    Computer algebra systems (CAS) have been around for a number of years, as has dynamic geometry. Symbolic geometry software is new. It bears a superficial similarity to dynamic geometry software, but differs in that problems may be set up involving symbolic variables and constants, and measurements are given as symbolic expressions. Mathematical…

  2. Connecting Algebra and Chemistry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Connor, Sean

    2003-01-01

    Correlates high school chemistry curriculum with high school algebra curriculum and makes the case for an integrated approach to mathematics and science instruction. Focuses on process integration. (DDR)

  3. Teaching Structure in Algebra

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Merlin, Ethan M.

    2013-01-01

    This article describes how the author has developed tasks for students that address the missed "essence of the matter" of algebraic transformations. Specifically, he has found that having students practice "perceiving" algebraic structure--by naming the "glue" in the expressions, drawing expressions using…

  4. Ready, Set, Algebra?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levy, Alissa Beth

    2012-01-01

    The California Department of Education (CDE) has long asserted that success Algebra I by Grade 8 is the goal for all California public school students. In fact, the state's accountability system penalizes schools that do not require all of their students to take the Algebra I end-of-course examination by Grade 8 (CDE, 2009). In this…

  5. Linear-Algebra Programs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lawson, C. L.; Krogh, F. T.; Gold, S. S.; Kincaid, D. R.; Sullivan, J.; Williams, E.; Hanson, R. J.; Haskell, K.; Dongarra, J.; Moler, C. B.

    1982-01-01

    The Basic Linear Algebra Subprograms (BLAS) library is a collection of 38 FORTRAN-callable routines for performing basic operations of numerical linear algebra. BLAS library is portable and efficient source of basic operations for designers of programs involving linear algebriac computations. BLAS library is supplied in portable FORTRAN and Assembler code versions for IBM 370, UNIVAC 1100 and CDC 6000 series computers.

  6. Catching Up on Algebra

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cavanagh, Sean

    2008-01-01

    A popular humorist and avowed mathphobe once declared that in real life, there's no such thing as algebra. Kathie Wilson knows better. Most of the students in her 8th grade class will be thrust into algebra, the definitive course that heralds the beginning of high school mathematics, next school year. The problem: Many of them are about three…

  7. Trigonometry for Non-Trigonometry Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boyes, G. R.

    1994-01-01

    Presents a team-oriented student activity designed to introduce trigonometric ratios and applications of selected trigonometric functions by constructing tables of values. Can be used at the middle school level. (MKR)

  8. Semigroups and computer algebra in algebraic structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bijev, G.

    2012-11-01

    Some concepts in semigroup theory can be interpreted in several algebraic structures. A generalization fA,B,fA,B(X) = A(X')B of the complement operator (') on Boolean matrices is made, where A and B denote any rectangular Boolean matrices. While (') is an isomorphism between Boolean semilattices, the generalized complement operator is homomorphism in the general case. The map fA,B and its general inverse (fA,B)+ have quite similar properties to those in the linear algebra and are useful for solving linear equations in Boolean matrix algebras. For binary relations on a finite set, necessary and sufficient conditions for the equation αξβ = γ to have a solution ξ are proved. A generalization of Green's equivalence relations in semigroups for rectangular matrices is proposed. Relationships between them and the Moore-Penrose inverses are investigated. It is shown how any generalized Green's H-class could be constructed by given its corresponding linear subspaces and converted into a group isomorphic to a linear group. Some information about using computer algebra methods concerning this paper is given.

  9. Lie algebra extensions of current algebras on S3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kori, Tosiaki; Imai, Yuto

    2015-06-01

    An affine Kac-Moody algebra is a central extension of the Lie algebra of smooth mappings from S1 to the complexification of a Lie algebra. In this paper, we shall introduce a central extension of the Lie algebra of smooth mappings from S3 to the quaternization of a Lie algebra and investigate its root space decomposition. We think this extension of current algebra might give a mathematical tool for four-dimensional conformal field theory as Kac-Moody algebras give it for two-dimensional conformal field theory.

  10. Leibniz algebras associated with representations of filiform Lie algebras

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ayupov, Sh. A.; Camacho, L. M.; Khudoyberdiyev, A. Kh.; Omirov, B. A.

    2015-12-01

    In this paper we investigate Leibniz algebras whose quotient Lie algebra is a naturally graded filiform Lie algebra nn,1. We introduce a Fock module for the algebra nn,1 and provide classification of Leibniz algebras L whose corresponding Lie algebra L / I is the algebra nn,1 with condition that the ideal I is a Fock nn,1-module, where I is the ideal generated by squares of elements from L. We also consider Leibniz algebras with corresponding Lie algebra nn,1 and such that the action I ×nn,1 → I gives rise to a minimal faithful representation of nn,1. The classification up to isomorphism of such Leibniz algebras is given for the case of n = 4.

  11. Developing the concept of a parabola in Taxicab geometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ada, Tuba; Kurtuluş, Aytaç; Bahadır Yanik, H.

    2015-02-01

    The aim of this study was to observe the development process of the concept of a parabola in Taxicab geometry. The study was carried out in two stages. First, some activities related to Euclidean geometry and Taxicab geometry were designed based on concept development and real-life applications, and they were administered to a ninth-grade student. According to the findings, once the student learnt the definition of a parabola in Euclidean geometry, she was able to define a Taxicab parabola using the distance function in Taxicab geometry. Also, she came up with an algebraic definition of a Taxicab parabola based on this geometric definition of the concept of a parabola. Moving from algebraic definition to geometric representation, she configured the concept of a parabola in Taxicab geometry. By means of this application activity, the student had the opportunity to observe and practise the concept of a parabola in a real-life situation based on Euclidean geometry and Taxicab geometry.

  12. Coreflections in Algebraic Quantum Logic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacobs, Bart; Mandemaker, Jorik

    2012-07-01

    Various generalizations of Boolean algebras are being studied in algebraic quantum logic, including orthomodular lattices, orthomodular po-sets, orthoalgebras and effect algebras. This paper contains a systematic study of the structure in and between categories of such algebras. It does so via a combination of totalization (of partially defined operations) and transfer of structure via coreflections.

  13. New symbolic tools for differential geometry, gravitation, and field theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, I. M.; Torre, C. G.

    2012-01-01

    DifferentialGeometry is a Maple software package which symbolically performs fundamental operations of calculus on manifolds, differential geometry, tensor calculus, spinor calculus, Lie algebras, Lie groups, transformation groups, jet spaces, and the variational calculus. These capabilities, combined with dramatic recent improvements in symbolic approaches to solving algebraic and differential equations, have allowed for development of powerful new tools for solving research problems in gravitation and field theory. The purpose of this paper is to describe some of these new tools and present some advanced applications involving: Killing vector fields and isometry groups, Killing tensors, algebraic classification of solutions of the Einstein equations, and symmetry reduction of field equations.

  14. Algebraic Systems Biology: A Case Study for the Wnt Pathway.

    PubMed

    Gross, Elizabeth; Harrington, Heather A; Rosen, Zvi; Sturmfels, Bernd

    2016-01-01

    Steady-state analysis of dynamical systems for biological networks gives rise to algebraic varieties in high-dimensional spaces whose study is of interest in their own right. We demonstrate this for the shuttle model of the Wnt signaling pathway. Here, the variety is described by a polynomial system in 19 unknowns and 36 parameters. It has degree 9 over the parameter space. This case study explores multistationarity, model comparison, dynamics within regions of the state space, identifiability, and parameter estimation, from a geometric point of view. We employ current methods from computational algebraic geometry, polyhedral geometry, and combinatorics. PMID:26645985

  15. Generalizing the Connes Moscovici Hopf algebra to contain all rooted trees

    SciTech Connect

    Agarwala, Susama; Delaney, Colleen

    2015-04-15

    This paper defines a generalization of the Connes-Moscovici Hopf algebra, H(1), that contains the entire Hopf algebra of rooted trees. A relationship between the former, a much studied object in non-commutative geometry, and the latter, a much studied object in perturbative quantum field theory, has been established by Connes and Kreimer. The results of this paper open the door to study the cohomology of the Hopf algebra of rooted trees.

  16. Generalizing the Connes Moscovici Hopf algebra to contain all rooted trees

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agarwala, Susama; Delaney, Colleen

    2015-04-01

    This paper defines a generalization of the Connes-Moscovici Hopf algebra, H ( 1 ) , that contains the entire Hopf algebra of rooted trees. A relationship between the former, a much studied object in non-commutative geometry, and the latter, a much studied object in perturbative quantum field theory, has been established by Connes and Kreimer. The results of this paper open the door to study the cohomology of the Hopf algebra of rooted trees.

  17. University of Chicago School Mathematics Project 6-12 Curriculum. What Works Clearinghouse Intervention Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    What Works Clearinghouse, 2011

    2011-01-01

    The "University of Chicago School Mathematics Project ("UCSMP") 6-12 Curriculum" is a series of yearlong courses--(1) Transition Mathematics; (2) Algebra; (3) Geometry; (4) Advanced Algebra; (5) Functions, Statistics, and Trigonometry; and (6) Precalculus and Discrete Mathematics--emphasizing problem solving, real-world applications, and the use…

  18. Curriculum Guide for Baccalaureate Oriented Courses in Mathematics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Darnes, G. Robert, Ed.

    A mathematics curriculum guide is presented for the purpose of offering statewide guidelines to colleges for determining the content of those courses which might be considered standard courses in the first two years of the college curriculum. Courses covered include: intermediate algebra, college algebra, trigonometry, analytic geometry,…

  19. A Mathematics Software Database Update.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cunningham, R. S.; Smith, David A.

    1987-01-01

    Contains an update of an earlier listing of software for mathematics instruction at the college level. Topics are: advanced mathematics, algebra, calculus, differential equations, discrete mathematics, equation solving, general mathematics, geometry, linear and matrix algebra, logic, statistics and probability, and trigonometry. (PK)

  20. Differential Geometry and Lie Groups for Physicists

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fecko, Marián.

    2011-03-01

    Introduction; 1. The concept of a manifold; 2. Vector and tensor fields; 3. Mappings of tensors induced by mappings of manifolds; 4. Lie derivative; 5. Exterior algebra; 6. Differential calculus of forms; 7. Integral calculus of forms; 8. Particular cases and applications of Stoke's Theorem; 9. Poincaré Lemma and cohomologies; 10. Lie Groups - basic facts; 11. Differential geometry of Lie Groups; 12. Representations of Lie Groups and Lie Algebras; 13. Actions of Lie Groups and Lie Algebras on manifolds; 14. Hamiltonian mechanics and symplectic manifolds; 15. Parallel transport and linear connection on M; 16. Field theory and the language of forms; 17. Differential geometry on TM and T*M; 18. Hamiltonian and Lagrangian equations; 19. Linear connection and the frame bundle; 20. Connection on a principal G-bundle; 21. Gauge theories and connections; 22. Spinor fields and Dirac operator; Appendices; Bibliography; Index.

  1. Differential Geometry and Lie Groups for Physicists

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fecko, Marián.

    2006-10-01

    Introduction; 1. The concept of a manifold; 2. Vector and tensor fields; 3. Mappings of tensors induced by mappings of manifolds; 4. Lie derivative; 5. Exterior algebra; 6. Differential calculus of forms; 7. Integral calculus of forms; 8. Particular cases and applications of Stoke's Theorem; 9. Poincaré Lemma and cohomologies; 10. Lie Groups - basic facts; 11. Differential geometry of Lie Groups; 12. Representations of Lie Groups and Lie Algebras; 13. Actions of Lie Groups and Lie Algebras on manifolds; 14. Hamiltonian mechanics and symplectic manifolds; 15. Parallel transport and linear connection on M; 16. Field theory and the language of forms; 17. Differential geometry on TM and T*M; 18. Hamiltonian and Lagrangian equations; 19. Linear connection and the frame bundle; 20. Connection on a principal G-bundle; 21. Gauge theories and connections; 22. Spinor fields and Dirac operator; Appendices; Bibliography; Index.

  2. Developing Algebraic Thinking.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alejandre, Suzanne

    2002-01-01

    Presents a teaching experience that resulted in students getting to a point of full understanding of the kinesthetic activity and the algebra behind it. Includes a lesson plan for a traffic jam activity. (KHR)

  3. Algebraic integrability: a survey.

    PubMed

    Vanhaecke, Pol

    2008-03-28

    We give a concise introduction to the notion of algebraic integrability. Our exposition is based on examples and phenomena, rather than on detailed proofs of abstract theorems. We mainly focus on algebraic integrability in the sense of Adler-van Moerbeke, where the fibres of the momentum map are affine parts of Abelian varieties; as it turns out, most examples from classical mechanics are of this form. Two criteria are given for such systems (Kowalevski-Painlevé and Lyapunov) and each is illustrated in one example. We show in the case of a relatively simple example how one proves algebraic integrability, starting from the differential equations for the integrable vector field. For Hamiltonian systems that are algebraically integrable in the generalized sense, two examples are given, which illustrate the non-compact analogues of Abelian varieties which typically appear in such systems. PMID:17588863

  4. Algebraic Semantics for Narrative

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kahn, E.

    1974-01-01

    This paper uses discussion of Edmund Spenser's "The Faerie Queene" to present a theoretical framework for explaining the semantics of narrative discourse. The algebraic theory of finite automata is used. (CK)

  5. Aprepro - Algebraic Preprocessor

    2005-08-01

    Aprepro is an algebraic preprocessor that reads a file containing both general text and algebraic, string, or conditional expressions. It interprets the expressions and outputs them to the output file along witht the general text. Aprepro contains several mathematical functions, string functions, and flow control constructs. In addition, functions are included that, with some additional files, implement a units conversion system and a material database lookup system.

  6. Covariant deformed oscillator algebras

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Quesne, Christiane

    1995-01-01

    The general form and associativity conditions of deformed oscillator algebras are reviewed. It is shown how the latter can be fulfilled in terms of a solution of the Yang-Baxter equation when this solution has three distinct eigenvalues and satisfies a Birman-Wenzl-Murakami condition. As an example, an SU(sub q)(n) x SU(sub q)(m)-covariant q-bosonic algebra is discussed in some detail.

  7. Geometry and the quantum: basics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chamseddine, Ali H.; Connes, Alain; Mukhanov, Viatcheslav

    2014-12-01

    Motivated by the construction of spectral manifolds in noncommutative geometry, we introduce a higher degree Heisenberg commutation relation involving the Dirac operator and the Feynman slash of scalar fields. This commutation relation appears in two versions, one sided and two sided. It implies the quantization of the volume. In the one-sided case it implies that the manifold decomposes into a disconnected sum of spheres which will represent quanta of geometry. The two sided version in dimension 4 predicts the two algebras M 2(ℍ) and M 4(ℂ) which are the algebraic constituents of the Standard Model of particle physics. This taken together with the non-commutative algebra of functions allows one to reconstruct, using the spectral action, the Lagrangian of gravity coupled with the Standard Model. We show that any connected Riemannian Spin 4-manifold with quantized volume > 4 (in suitable units) appears as an irreducible representation of the two-sided commutation relations in dimension 4 and that these representations give a seductive model of the "particle picture" for a theory of quantum gravity in which both the Einstein geometric standpoint and the Standard Model emerge from Quantum Mechanics. Physical applications of this quantization scheme will follow in a separate publication.

  8. Spinors in Physics and Geometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trautman, A.; Furlan, G.

    1988-11-01

    The Table of Contents for the full book PDF is as follows: * Preface * Killing Spinors According to O. Hijazi and Applications * Self-Duality Conditions Satisfied by the Spin Connections on Spheres * Maslov Index and Half - Forms * Spin - 3/2 Fields on Black Hole Spacetimes * Indecomposable Conformal Spinors and Operator Product Expansions in a Massless QED Model * Nonlinear Spinor Representations * Nonlinear Wave Equations for Intrinsic Spinor Coordinates * Twistors - "Spinors" of SU(2,2), Their Generalizations and Achievements * Spinors, Reflections and Clifford Algebras: A Review * overline {SL}(n, R) Spinors for Particles, Gravity and Superstrings * Spinors on Compact Riemann Surfaces * Simple Spinors as Urfelder * Applications of Cartan Spinors to Differential Geometry in Higher Dimensions * Killing Spinors on Spheres and Projective Spaces * Spinor Structures on Homogeneous Riemannian Spaces * Classical Strings and Minimal Surfaces * Representing Spinors with Differential Forms * Inequalities for Spinors Norms in Clifford Algebras * The Importance of Spin * The Theory of World Spinors * Final List of Participants

  9. The three-dimensional origin of the classifying algebra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fuchs, Jürgen; Schweigert, Christoph; Stigner, Carl

    2010-01-01

    It is known that reflection coefficients for bulk fields of a rational conformal field theory in the presence of an elementary boundary condition can be obtained as representation matrices of irreducible representations of the classifying algebra, a semisimple commutative associative complex algebra. We show how this algebra arises naturally from the three-dimensional geometry of factorization of correlators of bulk fields on the disk. This allows us to derive explicit expressions for the structure constants of the classifying algebra as invariants of ribbon graphs in the three-manifold S×S. Our result unravels a precise relation between intertwiners of the action of the mapping class group on spaces of conformal blocks and boundary conditions in rational conformal field theories.

  10. Quantized Nambu-Poisson manifolds and n-Lie algebras

    SciTech Connect

    DeBellis, Joshua; Saemann, Christian; Szabo, Richard J.

    2010-12-15

    We investigate the geometric interpretation of quantized Nambu-Poisson structures in terms of noncommutative geometries. We describe an extension of the usual axioms of quantization in which classical Nambu-Poisson structures are translated to n-Lie algebras at quantum level. We demonstrate that this generalized procedure matches an extension of Berezin-Toeplitz quantization yielding quantized spheres, hyperboloids, and superspheres. The extended Berezin quantization of spheres is closely related to a deformation quantization of n-Lie algebras as well as the approach based on harmonic analysis. We find an interpretation of Nambu-Heisenberg n-Lie algebras in terms of foliations of R{sup n} by fuzzy spheres, fuzzy hyperboloids, and noncommutative hyperplanes. Some applications to the quantum geometry of branes in M-theory are also briefly discussed.

  11. Quantized Nambu-Poisson manifolds and n-Lie algebras

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DeBellis, Joshua; Sämann, Christian; Szabo, Richard J.

    2010-12-01

    We investigate the geometric interpretation of quantized Nambu-Poisson structures in terms of noncommutative geometries. We describe an extension of the usual axioms of quantization in which classical Nambu-Poisson structures are translated to n-Lie algebras at quantum level. We demonstrate that this generalized procedure matches an extension of Berezin-Toeplitz quantization yielding quantized spheres, hyperboloids, and superspheres. The extended Berezin quantization of spheres is closely related to a deformation quantization of n-Lie algebras as well as the approach based on harmonic analysis. We find an interpretation of Nambu-Heisenberg n-Lie algebras in terms of foliations of {{R}}^n by fuzzy spheres, fuzzy hyperboloids, and noncommutative hyperplanes. Some applications to the quantum geometry of branes in M-theory are also briefly discussed.

  12. On Griess Algebras

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roitman, Michael

    2008-08-01

    In this paper we prove that for any commutative (but in general non-associative) algebra A with an invariant symmetric non-degenerate bilinear form there is a graded vertex algebra V = V0 Å V2 Å V3 Å ¼, such that dim V0 = 1 and V2 contains A. We can choose V so that if A has a unit e, then 2e is the Virasoro element of V, and if G is a finite group of automorphisms of A, then G acts on V as well. In addition, the algebra V can be chosen with a non-degenerate invariant bilinear form, in which case it is simple.

  13. Abstract Algebra for Algebra Teaching: Influencing School Mathematics Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wasserman, Nicholas H.

    2016-01-01

    This article explores the potential for aspects of abstract algebra to be influential for the teaching of school algebra (and early algebra). Using national standards for analysis, four primary areas common in school mathematics--and their progression across elementary, middle, and secondary mathematics--where teaching may be transformed by…

  14. Molecular Geometry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Desseyn, H. O.; And Others

    1985-01-01

    Compares linear-nonlinear and planar-nonplanar geometry through the valence-shell electron pairs repulsion (V.S.E.P.R.), Mulliken-Walsh, and electrostatic force theories. Indicates that although the V.S.E.P.R. theory has more advantages for elementary courses, an explanation of the best features of the different theories offers students a better…

  15. Computer Program For Linear Algebra

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krogh, F. T.; Hanson, R. J.

    1987-01-01

    Collection of routines provided for basic vector operations. Basic Linear Algebra Subprogram (BLAS) library is collection from FORTRAN-callable routines for employing standard techniques to perform basic operations of numerical linear algebra.

  16. Algebraic geometric codes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shahshahani, M.

    1991-01-01

    The performance characteristics are discussed of certain algebraic geometric codes. Algebraic geometric codes have good minimum distance properties. On many channels they outperform other comparable block codes; therefore, one would expect them eventually to replace some of the block codes used in communications systems. It is suggested that it is unlikely that they will become useful substitutes for the Reed-Solomon codes used by the Deep Space Network in the near future. However, they may be applicable to systems where the signal to noise ratio is sufficiently high so that block codes would be more suitable than convolutional or concatenated codes.

  17. Extended conformal algebras

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bouwknegt, Peter

    1988-06-01

    We investigate extensions of the Virasoro algebra by a single primary field of integer or halfinteger conformal dimension Δ. We argue that for vanishing structure constant CΔΔΔ, the extended conformal algebra can only be associative for a generic c-value if Δ=1/2, 1, 3/2, 2 or 3. For the other Δ<=5 we compute the finite set of allowed c-values and identify the rational solutions. The case CΔΔΔ≠0 is also briefly discussed. I would like to thank Kareljan Schoutens for discussions and Sander Bais for a careful reading of the manuscript.

  18. Teaching Arithmetic and Algebraic Expressions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Subramaniam, K.; Banerjee, Rakhi

    2004-01-01

    A teaching intervention study was conducted with sixth grade students to explore the interconnections between students' growing understanding of arithmetic expressions and beginning algebra. Three groups of students were chosen, with two groups receiving instruction in arithmetic and algebra, and one group in algebra without arithmetic. Students…

  19. Assessing Elementary Algebra with STACK

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sangwin, Christopher J.

    2007-01-01

    This paper concerns computer aided assessment (CAA) of mathematics in which a computer algebra system (CAS) is used to help assess students' responses to elementary algebra questions. Using a methodology of documentary analysis, we examine what is taught in elementary algebra. The STACK CAA system, http://www.stack.bham.ac.uk/, which uses the CAS…

  20. Spinors in the hyperbolic algebra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ulrych, S.

    2006-01-01

    The three-dimensional universal complex Clifford algebra Cbar3,0 is used to represent relativistic vectors in terms of paravectors. In analogy to the Hestenes spacetime approach spinors are introduced in an algebraic form. This removes the dependance on an explicit matrix representation of the algebra.

  1. Calculus of Elementary Functions, Part II. Student Text. Revised Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herriot, Sarah T.; And Others

    This course is intended for students who have a thorough knowledge of college preparatory mathematics, including algebra, axiomatic geometry, trigonometry, and analytic geometry. This text, Part II, contains material designed to follow Part I. Chapters included in this text are: (6) Derivatives of Exponential and Related Functions; (7) Area and…

  2. Secondary Schools Curriculum Guide, Mathematics, Grades 10-12. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cranston School Dept., RI.

    Behavioral objectives for grades 10 through 12 are specified for plane geometry, algebra, general mathematics, computer mathematics, slide rule mathematics, basic college mathematics, trigonometry, analytic geometry, calculus and probability. Most sections present material in terms of portions of a school year. At least one major objective is…

  3. Tenth Year Mathematics, 1968 Reprint from 1954 Syllabus.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York State Education Dept., Albany. Bureau of Secondary Curriculum Development.

    This document is a reprint of the geometry section from the 1954 syllabus Mathematics 10-11-12, An Integrated Sequence for the Senior High School Grades. The text outlines a tenth year geometry course integrated with arithmetic, algebra, and trigonometry, which progresses from an informal to a formal level. The topics suggested include definition,…

  4. Algebraic Artful Aids.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glick, David

    1995-01-01

    Presents a technique that helps students concentrate more on the science and less on the mechanics of algebra while dealing with introductory physics formulas. Allows the teacher to do complex problems at a lower level and not be too concerned about the mathematical abilities of the students. (JRH)

  5. From Arithmetic to Algebra

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ketterlin-Geller, Leanne R.; Jungjohann, Kathleen; Chard, David J.; Baker, Scott

    2007-01-01

    Much of the difficulty that students encounter in the transition from arithmetic to algebra stems from their early learning and understanding of arithmetic. Too often, students learn about the whole number system and the operations that govern that system as a set of procedures to solve addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division problems.…

  6. Computer Algebra versus Manipulation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zand, Hossein; Crowe, David

    2004-01-01

    In the UK there is increasing concern about the lack of skill in algebraic manipulation that is evident in students entering mathematics courses at university level. In this note we discuss how the computer can be used to ameliorate some of the problems. We take as an example the calculations needed in three dimensional vector analysis in polar…

  7. The Power of Algebra.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boiteau, Denise; Stansfield, David

    This document describes mathematical programs on the basic concepts of algebra produced by Louisiana Public Broadcasting. Programs included are: (1) "Inverse Operations"; (2) "The Order of Operations"; (3) "Basic Properties" (addition and multiplication of numbers and variables); (4) "The Positive and Negative Numbers"; and (5) "Using Positive…

  8. Thinking Visually about Algebra

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baroudi, Ziad

    2015-01-01

    Many introductions to algebra in high school begin with teaching students to generalise linear numerical patterns. This article argues that this approach needs to be changed so that students encounter variables in the context of modelling visual patterns so that the variables have a meaning. The article presents sample classroom activities,…

  9. Pre-Algebra.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kennedy, John

    This text provides information and exercises on arithmetic topics which should be mastered before a student enrolls in an Elementary Algebra course. Section I describes the fundamental properties and relationships of whole numbers, focusing on basic operations, divisibility tests, exponents, order of operations, prime numbers, greatest common…

  10. Computers in Abstract Algebra

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nwabueze, Kenneth K.

    2004-01-01

    The current emphasis on flexible modes of mathematics delivery involving new information and communication technology (ICT) at the university level is perhaps a reaction to the recent change in the objectives of education. Abstract algebra seems to be one area of mathematics virtually crying out for computer instructional support because of the…

  11. Dark Geometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cembranos, J. A. R.; Dobado, A.; Maroto, A. L.

    Extra-dimensional theories contain additional degrees of freedom related to the geometry of the extra space which can be interpreted as new particles. Such theories allow to reformulate most of the fundamental problems of physics from a completely different point of view. In this essay, we concentrate on the brane fluctuations which are present in brane-worlds, and how such oscillations of the own space-time geometry along curved extra dimensions can help to resolve the Universe missing mass problem. The energy scales involved in these models are low compared to the Planck scale, and this means that some of the brane fluctuations distinctive signals could be detected in future colliders and in direct or indirect dark matter searches.

  12. XML algebras for data mining

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Ming; Yao, JingTao

    2004-04-01

    The XML is a new standard for data representation and exchange on the Internet. There are studies on XML query languages as well as XML algebras in literature. However, attention has not been paid to research on XML algebras for data mining due to partially the fact that there is no widely accepted definition of XML mining tasks. This paper tries to examine the XML mining tasks and provide guidelines to design XML algebras for data mining. Some summarization and comparison have been done to existing XML algebras. We argue that by adding additional operators for mining tasks, XML algebras may work well for data mining with XML documents.

  13. FINAL REPORT: GEOMETRY AND ELEMENTARY PARTICLE PHYSICS

    SciTech Connect

    Singer, Isadore M.

    2008-03-04

    The effect on mathematics of collaborations between high-energy theoretical physics and modern mathematics has been remarkable. Mirror symmetry has revolutionized enumerative geometry, and Seiberg-Witten invariants have greatly simplified the study of four manifolds. And because of their application to string theory, physicists now need to know cohomology theory, characteristic classes, index theory, K-theory, algebraic geometry, differential geometry, and non-commutative geometry. Much more is coming. We are experiencing a deeper contact between the two sciences, which will stimulate new mathematics essential to the physicists’ quest for the unification of quantum mechanics and relativity. Our grant, supported by the Department of Energy for twelve years, has been instrumental in promoting an effective interaction between geometry and string theory, by supporting the Mathematical Physics seminar, postdoc research, collaborations, graduate students and several research papers.

  14. Sparking Interest in Trigonometry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quinlan, Cyril

    2004-01-01

    The most important objective when starting a class on a previously unknown branch of mathematics is to ensure that the students enjoy and appreciate the significance of this new aspect of mathematics. Inundating them with a flood of technical terms and definitions without any reality experience is a fast way to send the students out of class…

  15. On Dunkl angular momenta algebra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feigin, Misha; Hakobyan, Tigran

    2015-11-01

    We consider the quantum angular momentum generators, deformed by means of the Dunkl operators. Together with the reflection operators they generate a subalgebra in the rational Cherednik algebra associated with a finite real reflection group. We find all the defining relations of the algebra, which appear to be quadratic, and we show that the algebra is of Poincaré-Birkhoff-Witt (PBW) type. We show that this algebra contains the angular part of the Calogero-Moser Hamiltonian and that together with constants it generates the centre of the algebra. We also consider the gl( N ) version of the subalge-bra of the rational Cherednik algebra and show that it is a non-homogeneous quadratic algebra of PBW type as well. In this case the central generator can be identified with the usual Calogero-Moser Hamiltonian associated with the Coxeter group in the harmonic confinement.

  16. Algebraic connectivity and graph robustness.

    SciTech Connect

    Feddema, John Todd; Byrne, Raymond Harry; Abdallah, Chaouki T.

    2009-07-01

    Recent papers have used Fiedler's definition of algebraic connectivity to show that network robustness, as measured by node-connectivity and edge-connectivity, can be increased by increasing the algebraic connectivity of the network. By the definition of algebraic connectivity, the second smallest eigenvalue of the graph Laplacian is a lower bound on the node-connectivity. In this paper we show that for circular random lattice graphs and mesh graphs algebraic connectivity is a conservative lower bound, and that increases in algebraic connectivity actually correspond to a decrease in node-connectivity. This means that the networks are actually less robust with respect to node-connectivity as the algebraic connectivity increases. However, an increase in algebraic connectivity seems to correlate well with a decrease in the characteristic path length of these networks - which would result in quicker communication through the network. Applications of these results are then discussed for perimeter security.

  17. Promoting Problem Solving across Geometry and Algebra by Using Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erbas, A. Kursat; Ledford, Sara D.; Orrill, Chandra Hawley; Polly, Drew

    2005-01-01

    Technology is a powerful tool in assisting students in problem solving by allowing for multiple representations. The vignette offered in this article provides insight into ways to solve open-ended problems using multiple technologies.

  18. Teaching Algebra and Geometry Concepts by Modeling Telescope Optics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siegel, Lauren M.; Dickinson, Gail; Hooper, Eric J.; Daniels, Mark

    2008-01-01

    This article describes preparation and delivery of high school mathematics lessons that integrate mathematics and astronomy through The Geometer's Sketchpad models, traditional proof, and inquiry-based activities. The lessons were created by a University of Texas UTeach preservice teacher as part of a project-based field experience in which high…

  19. Quartic Poisson algebras and quartic associative algebras and realizations as deformed oscillator algebras

    SciTech Connect

    Marquette, Ian

    2013-07-15

    We introduce the most general quartic Poisson algebra generated by a second and a fourth order integral of motion of a 2D superintegrable classical system. We obtain the corresponding quartic (associative) algebra for the quantum analog, extend Daskaloyannis construction obtained in context of quadratic algebras, and also obtain the realizations as deformed oscillator algebras for this quartic algebra. We obtain the Casimir operator and discuss how these realizations allow to obtain the finite-dimensional unitary irreducible representations of quartic algebras and obtain algebraically the degenerate energy spectrum of superintegrable systems. We apply the construction and the formula obtained for the structure function on a superintegrable system related to type I Laguerre exceptional orthogonal polynomials introduced recently.

  20. Algebraic Mean Field Theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dankova, T. S.; Rosensteel, G.

    1998-10-01

    Mean field theory has an unexpected group theoretic mathematical foundation. Instead of representation theory which applies to most group theoretic quantum models, Hartree-Fock and Hartree-Fock-Bogoliubov have been formulated in terms of coadjoint orbits for the groups U(n) and O(2n). The general theory of mean fields is formulated for an arbitrary Lie algebra L of fermion operators. The moment map provides the correspondence between the Hilbert space of microscopic wave functions and the dual space L^* of densities. The coadjoint orbits of the group in the dual space are phase spaces on which time-dependent mean field theory is equivalent to a classical Hamiltonian dynamical system. Indeed it forms a finite-dimensional Lax system. The mean field theories for the Elliott SU(3) and symplectic Sp(3,R) algebras are constructed explicitly in the coadjoint orbit framework.

  1. The Algebra Artist

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beigie, Darin

    2014-01-01

    Most people who are attracted to STEM-related fields are drawn not by a desire to take mathematics tests but to create things. The opportunity to create an algebra drawing gives students a sense of ownership and adventure that taps into the same sort of energy that leads a young person to get lost in reading a good book, building with Legos®,…

  2. Algebraic Multigrid Benchmark

    SciTech Connect

    2013-05-06

    AMG2013 is a parallel algebraic multigrid solver for linear systems arising from problems on unstructured grids. It has been derived directly from the Boomer AMG solver in the hypre library, a large linear solvers library that is being developed in the Center for Applied Scientific Computing (CASC) at LLNL. The driver provided in the benchmark can build various test problems. The default problem is a Laplace type problem on an unstructured domain with various jumps and an anisotropy in one part.

  3. Vertex Algebras, Kac-Moody Algebras, and the Monster

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borcherds, Richard E.

    1986-05-01

    It is known that the adjoint representation of any Kac-Moody algebra A can be identified with a subquotient of a certain Fock space representation constructed from the root lattice of A. I define a product on the whole of the Fock space that restricts to the Lie algebra product on this subquotient. This product (together with a infinite number of other products) is constructed using a generalization of vertex operators. I also construct an integral form for the universal enveloping algebra of any Kac-Moody algebra that can be used to define Kac-Moody groups over finite fields, some new irreducible integrable representations, and a sort of affinization of any Kac-Moody algebra. The ``Moonshine'' representation of the Monster constructed by Frenkel and others also has products like the ones constructed for Kac-Moody algebras, one of which extends the Griess product on the 196884-dimensional piece to the whole representation.

  4. The tensor hierarchy algebra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palmkvist, Jakob

    2014-01-01

    We introduce an infinite-dimensional Lie superalgebra which is an extension of the U-duality Lie algebra of maximal supergravity in D dimensions, for 3 ⩽ D ⩽ 7. The level decomposition with respect to the U-duality Lie algebra gives exactly the tensor hierarchy of representations that arises in gauge deformations of the theory described by an embedding tensor, for all positive levels p. We prove that these representations are always contained in those coming from the associated Borcherds-Kac-Moody superalgebra, and we explain why some of the latter representations are not included in the tensor hierarchy. The most remarkable feature of our Lie superalgebra is that it does not admit a triangular decomposition like a (Borcherds-)Kac-Moody (super)algebra. Instead the Hodge duality relations between level p and D - 2 - p extend to negative p, relating the representations at the first two negative levels to the supersymmetry and closure constraints of the embedding tensor.

  5. Priority in Process Algebras

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cleaveland, Rance; Luettgen, Gerald; Natarajan, V.

    1999-01-01

    This paper surveys the semantic ramifications of extending traditional process algebras with notions of priority that allow for some transitions to be given precedence over others. These enriched formalisms allow one to model system features such as interrupts, prioritized choice, or real-time behavior. Approaches to priority in process algebras can be classified according to whether the induced notion of preemption on transitions is global or local and whether priorities are static or dynamic. Early work in the area concentrated on global pre-emption and static priorities and led to formalisms for modeling interrupts and aspects of real-time, such as maximal progress, in centralized computing environments. More recent research has investigated localized notions of pre-emption in which the distribution of systems is taken into account, as well as dynamic priority approaches, i.e., those where priority values may change as systems evolve. The latter allows one to model behavioral phenomena such as scheduling algorithms and also enables the efficient encoding of real-time semantics. Technically, this paper studies the different models of priorities by presenting extensions of Milner's Calculus of Communicating Systems (CCS) with static and dynamic priority as well as with notions of global and local pre- emption. In each case the operational semantics of CCS is modified appropriately, behavioral theories based on strong and weak bisimulation are given, and related approaches for different process-algebraic settings are discussed.

  6. The tensor hierarchy algebra

    SciTech Connect

    Palmkvist, Jakob

    2014-01-15

    We introduce an infinite-dimensional Lie superalgebra which is an extension of the U-duality Lie algebra of maximal supergravity in D dimensions, for 3 ⩽ D ⩽ 7. The level decomposition with respect to the U-duality Lie algebra gives exactly the tensor hierarchy of representations that arises in gauge deformations of the theory described by an embedding tensor, for all positive levels p. We prove that these representations are always contained in those coming from the associated Borcherds-Kac-Moody superalgebra, and we explain why some of the latter representations are not included in the tensor hierarchy. The most remarkable feature of our Lie superalgebra is that it does not admit a triangular decomposition like a (Borcherds-)Kac-Moody (super)algebra. Instead the Hodge duality relations between level p and D − 2 − p extend to negative p, relating the representations at the first two negative levels to the supersymmetry and closure constraints of the embedding tensor.

  7. Compactly Generated de Morgan Lattices, Basic Algebras and Effect Algebras

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paseka, Jan; Riečanová, Zdenka

    2010-12-01

    We prove that a de Morgan lattice is compactly generated if and only if its order topology is compatible with a uniformity on L generated by some separating function family on L. Moreover, if L is complete then L is (o)-topological. Further, if a basic algebra L (hence lattice with sectional antitone involutions) is compactly generated then L is atomic. Thus all non-atomic Boolean algebras as well as non-atomic lattice effect algebras (including non-atomic MV-algebras and orthomodular lattices) are not compactly generated.

  8. Quantum computation using geometric algebra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matzke, Douglas James

    This dissertation reports that arbitrary Boolean logic equations and operators can be represented in geometric algebra as linear equations composed entirely of orthonormal vectors using only addition and multiplication Geometric algebra is a topologically based algebraic system that naturally incorporates the inner and anticommutative outer products into a real valued geometric product, yet does not rely on complex numbers or matrices. A series of custom tools was designed and built to simplify geometric algebra expressions into a standard sum of products form, and automate the anticommutative geometric product and operations. Using this infrastructure, quantum bits (qubits), quantum registers and EPR-bits (ebits) are expressed symmetrically as geometric algebra expressions. Many known quantum computing gates, measurement operators, and especially the Bell/magic operators are also expressed as geometric products. These results demonstrate that geometric algebra can naturally and faithfully represent the central concepts, objects, and operators necessary for quantum computing, and can facilitate the design and construction of quantum computing tools.

  9. On the cohomology of Leibniz conformal algebras

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jiao

    2015-04-01

    We construct a new cohomology complex of Leibniz conformal algebras with coefficients in a representation instead of a module. The low-dimensional cohomology groups of this complex are computed. Meanwhile, we construct a Leibniz algebra from a Leibniz conformal algebra and prove that the category of Leibniz conformal algebras is equivalent to the category of equivalence classes of formal distribution Leibniz algebras.

  10. Assessing Algebraic Solving Ability: A Theoretical Framework

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lian, Lim Hooi; Yew, Wun Thiam

    2012-01-01

    Algebraic solving ability had been discussed by many educators and researchers. There exists no definite definition for algebraic solving ability as it can be viewed from different perspectives. In this paper, the nature of algebraic solving ability in terms of algebraic processes that demonstrate the ability in solving algebraic problem is…

  11. Geometry and Symmetric Coherent States of Three Qubits Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Xiao-Kan

    2016-06-01

    In this paper, we first generalize the previous results that relate 1- and 2-qubit geometries to complex and quaternionic Möbius transformations respectively, to the case of 3-qubit states under octonionic Möbius transformations. This completes the correspondence between the qubit geometries and the four normed division algebras. Thereby, new systems of symmetric coherent states with 2 and 3 qubits can be constructed by mapping the spin coherent states to their antipodal symmetric ponits on the generalized Bloch spheres via Möbius transformations in corresponding dimensions. Finally, potential applications of the normed division algebras in physics are discussed.

  12. How Structure Sense for Algebraic Expressions or Equations Is Related to Structure Sense for Abstract Algebra

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Novotna, Jarmila; Hoch, Maureen

    2008-01-01

    Many students have difficulties with basic algebraic concepts at high school and at university. In this paper two levels of algebraic structure sense are defined: for high school algebra and for university algebra. We suggest that high school algebra structure sense components are sub-components of some university algebra structure sense…

  13. Higher level twisted Zhu algebras

    SciTech Connect

    Ekeren, Jethro van

    2011-05-15

    The study of twisted representations of graded vertex algebras is important for understanding orbifold models in conformal field theory. In this paper, we consider the general setup of a vertex algebra V, graded by {Gamma}/Z for some subgroup {Gamma} of R containing Z, and with a Hamiltonian operator H having real (but not necessarily integer) eigenvalues. We construct the directed system of twisted level p Zhu algebras Zhu{sub p,{Gamma}}(V), and we prove the following theorems: For each p, there is a bijection between the irreducible Zhu{sub p,{Gamma}}(V)-modules and the irreducible {Gamma}-twisted positive energy V-modules, and V is ({Gamma}, H)-rational if and only if all its Zhu algebras Zhu{sub p,{Gamma}}(V) are finite dimensional and semisimple. The main novelty is the removal of the assumption of integer eigenvalues for H. We provide an explicit description of the level p Zhu algebras of a universal enveloping vertex algebra, in particular of the Virasoro vertex algebra Vir{sup c} and the universal affine Kac-Moody vertex algebra V{sup k}(g) at non-critical level. We also compute the inverse limits of these directed systems of algebras.

  14. Handheld Computer Algebra Systems in the Pre-Algebra Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gantz, Linda Ann Galofaro

    2010-01-01

    This mixed method analysis sought to investigate several aspects of student learning in pre-algebra through the use of computer algebra systems (CAS) as opposed to non-CAS learning. This research was broken into two main parts, one which compared results from both the experimental group (instruction using CAS, N = 18) and the control group…

  15. Abstract Algebra to Secondary School Algebra: Building Bridges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christy, Donna; Sparks, Rebecca

    2015-01-01

    The authors have experience with secondary mathematics teacher candidates struggling to make connections between the theoretical abstract algebra course they take as college students and the algebra they will be teaching in secondary schools. As a mathematician and a mathematics educator, the authors collaborated to create and implement a…

  16. Algebra and Algebraic Thinking in School Math: 70th YB

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Council of Teachers of Mathematics, 2008

    2008-01-01

    Algebra is no longer just for college-bound students. After a widespread push by the National Council of Teachers of Mathematics (NCTM) and teachers across the country, algebra is now a required part of most curricula. However, students' standardized test scores are not at the level they should be. NCTM's seventieth yearbook takes a look at the…

  17. Adaptive Algebraic Smoothers

    SciTech Connect

    Philip, Bobby; Chartier, Dr Timothy

    2012-01-01

    methods based on Local Sensitivity Analysis (LSA). The method can be used in the context of geometric and algebraic multigrid methods for constructing smoothers, and in the context of Krylov methods for constructing block preconditioners. It is suitable for both constant and variable coecient problems. Furthermore, the method can be applied to systems arising from both scalar and coupled system partial differential equations (PDEs), as well as linear systems that do not arise from PDEs. The simplicity of the method will allow it to be easily incorporated into existing multigrid and Krylov solvers while providing a powerful tool for adaptively constructing methods tuned to a problem.

  18. Statecharts Via Process Algebra

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Luttgen, Gerald; vonderBeeck, Michael; Cleaveland, Rance

    1999-01-01

    Statecharts is a visual language for specifying the behavior of reactive systems. The Language extends finite-state machines with concepts of hierarchy, concurrency, and priority. Despite its popularity as a design notation for embedded system, precisely defining its semantics has proved extremely challenging. In this paper, a simple process algebra, called Statecharts Process Language (SPL), is presented, which is expressive enough for encoding Statecharts in a structure-preserving and semantic preserving manner. It is establish that the behavioral relation bisimulation, when applied to SPL, preserves Statecharts semantics

  19. Algebraic Multigrid Benchmark

    2013-05-06

    AMG2013 is a parallel algebraic multigrid solver for linear systems arising from problems on unstructured grids. It has been derived directly from the Boomer AMG solver in the hypre library, a large linear solvers library that is being developed in the Center for Applied Scientific Computing (CASC) at LLNL. The driver provided in the benchmark can build various test problems. The default problem is a Laplace type problem on an unstructured domain with various jumpsmore » and an anisotropy in one part.« less

  20. On Some Algebraic and Combinatorial Properties of Dunkl Elements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirillov, Anatol N.

    2013-06-01

    We introduce and study a certain class of nonhomogeneous quadratic algebras together with the special set of mutually commuting elements inside of each, the so-called Dunkl elements. We describe relations among the Dunkl elements. This result is a further generalization of similar results obtained in [S. Fomin and A. N. Kirillov, Quadratic algebras, Dunkl elements and Schubert calculus, in Advances in Geometry (eds. J.-S. Brylinski, V. Nistor, B. Tsygan and P. Xu), Progress in Math. Vol. 172 (Birkhäuser Boston, Boston, 1995), pp. 147-182, A. Postnikov, On a quantum version of Pieri's formula, in Advances in Geometry (eds. J.-S. Brylinski, R. Brylinski, V. Nistor, B. Tsygan and P. Xu), Progress in Math. Vol. 172 (Birkhäuser Boston, 1995), pp. 371-383 and A. N. Kirillov and T. Maenor, A Note on Quantum K-Theory of Flag Varieties, preprint]. As an application we describe explicitly the set of relations among the Gaudin elements in the group ring of the symmetric group, cf. [E. Mukhin, V. Tarasov and A. Varchenko, Bethe Subalgebras of the Group Algebra of the Symmetric Group, preprint arXiv:1004.4248]. Also we describe a few combinatorial properties of some special elements in the associative quasi-classical Yang-Baxter algebra in a connection with the values of the β-Grothendieck polynomials for some special permutations, and on the other hand, with the Ehrhart polynomial of the Chan-Robbins polytope.

  1. On Some Algebraic and Combinatorial Properties of Dunkl Elements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirillov, Anatol N.

    2012-11-01

    We introduce and study a certain class of nonhomogeneous quadratic algebras together with the special set of mutually commuting elements inside of each, the so-called Dunkl elements. We describe relations among the Dunkl elements. This result is a further generalization of similar results obtained in [S. Fomin and A. N. Kirillov, Quadratic algebras, Dunkl elements and Schubert calculus, in Advances in Geometry (eds. J.-S. Brylinski, V. Nistor, B. Tsygan and P. Xu), Progress in Math. Vol. 172 (Birkhäuser Boston, Boston, 1995), pp. 147-182, A. Postnikov, On a quantum version of Pieri's formula, in Advances in Geometry (eds. J.-S. Brylinski, R. Brylinski, V. Nistor, B. Tsygan and P. Xu), Progress in Math. Vol. 172 (Birkhäuser Boston, 1995), pp. 371-383 and A. N. Kirillov and T. Maenor, A Note on Quantum K-Theory of Flag Varieties, preprint]. As an application we describe explicitly the set of relations among the Gaudin elements in the group ring of the symmetric group, cf. [E. Mukhin, V. Tarasov and A. Varchenko, Bethe Subalgebras of the Group Algebra of the Symmetric Group, preprint arXiv:1004.4248]. Also we describe a few combinatorial properties of some special elements in the associative quasi-classical Yang-Baxter algebra in a connection with the values of the β-Grothendieck polynomials for some special permutations, and on the other hand, with the Ehrhart polynomial of the Chan-Robbins polytope.

  2. Piecewise Principal Coactions of Co-Commutative Hopf Algebras

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zieliński, Bartosz

    2014-08-01

    Principal comodule algebras can be thought of as objects representing principal bundles in non-commutative geometry. A crucial component of a principal comodule algebra is a strong connection map. For some applications it suffices to prove that such a map exists, but for others, such as computing the associated bundle projectors or Chern-Galois characters, an explicit formula for a strong connection is necessary. It has been known for some time how to construct a strong connection map on a multi-pullback comodule algebra from strong connections on multi-pullback components, but the known explicit general formula is unwieldy. In this paper we derive a much easier to use strong connection formula, which is not, however, completely general, but is applicable only in the case when a Hopf algebra is co-commutative. Because certain linear splittings of projections in multi-pullback comodule algebras play a crucial role in our construction, we also devote a significant part of the paper to the problem of existence and explicit formulas for such splittings. Finally, we show example application of our work.

  3. Matrix De Rham Complex and Quantum A-infinity algebras

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barannikov, S.

    2014-04-01

    I establish the relation of the non-commutative BV-formalism with super-invariant matrix integration. In particular, the non-commutative BV-equation, defining the quantum A ∞-algebras, introduced in Barannikov (Modular operads and non-commutative Batalin-Vilkovisky geometry. IMRN, vol. 2007, rnm075. Max Planck Institute for Mathematics 2006-48, 2007), is represented via de Rham differential acting on the supermatrix spaces related with Bernstein-Leites simple associative algebras with odd trace q( N), and gl( N| N). I also show that the matrix Lagrangians from Barannikov (Noncommutative Batalin-Vilkovisky geometry and matrix integrals. Isaac Newton Institute for Mathematical Sciences, Cambridge University, 2006) are represented by equivariantly closed differential forms.

  4. Structured adaptive grid generation using algebraic methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yang, Jiann-Cherng; Soni, Bharat K.; Roger, R. P.; Chan, Stephen C.

    1993-01-01

    of points to the grid redistribution scheme. The evaluation of the weighting mesh is accomplished by utilizing the weight function representing the solution variation and the equidistribution law. The selection of the weight function plays a key role in grid adaptation. A new weight function utilizing a properly weighted boolean sum of various flowfield characteristics is defined. The redistribution scheme is developed utilizing Non-Uniform Rational B-Splines (NURBS) representation. The application of NURBS representation results in a well distributed smooth grid by maintaining the fidelity of the geometry associated with boundary curves. Several algebraic methods are applied to smooth and/or nearly orthogonalize the grid lines. An elliptic solver is utilized to smooth the grid lines if there are grid crossings. Various computational examples of practical interest are presented to demonstrate the success of these methods.

  5. The Algebra of Complex Numbers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LePage, Wilbur R.

    This programed text is an introduction to the algebra of complex numbers for engineering students, particularly because of its relevance to important problems of applications in electrical engineering. It is designed for a person who is well experienced with the algebra of real numbers and calculus, but who has no experience with complex number…

  6. Algebraic Squares: Complete and Incomplete.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gardella, Francis J.

    2000-01-01

    Illustrates ways of using algebra tiles to give students a visual model of competing squares that appear in algebra as well as in higher mathematics. Such visual representations give substance to the symbolic manipulation and give students who do not learn symbolically a way of understanding the underlying concepts of completing the square. (KHR)

  7. The Algebra of the Arches

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buerman, Margaret

    2007-01-01

    Finding real-world examples for middle school algebra classes can be difficult but not impossible. As we strive to accomplish teaching our students how to solve and graph equations, we neglect to teach the big ideas of algebra. One of those big ideas is functions. This article gives three examples of functions that are found in Arches National…

  8. Online Algebraic Tools for Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kurz, Terri L.

    2011-01-01

    Many free online tools exist to complement algebraic instruction at the middle school level. This article presents findings that analyzed the features of algebraic tools to support learning. The findings can help teachers select appropriate tools to facilitate specific topics. (Contains 1 table and 4 figures.)

  9. Condensing Algebra for Technical Mathematics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenfield, Donald R.

    Twenty Algebra-Packets (A-PAKS) were developed by the investigator for technical education students at the community college level. Each packet contained a statement of rationale, learning objectives, performance activities, performance test, and performance test answer key. The A-PAKS condensed the usual sixteen weeks of algebra into a six-week…

  10. Algebraic Thinking in Adult Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manly, Myrna; Ginsburg, Lynda

    2010-01-01

    In adult education, algebraic thinking can be a sense-making tool that introduces coherence among mathematical concepts for those who previously have had trouble learning math. Further, a modeling approach to algebra connects mathematics and the real world, demonstrating the usefulness of math to those who have seen it as just an academic…

  11. Linear Algebra and Image Processing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allali, Mohamed

    2010-01-01

    We use the computing technology digital image processing (DIP) to enhance the teaching of linear algebra so as to make the course more visual and interesting. Certainly, this visual approach by using technology to link linear algebra to DIP is interesting and unexpected to both students as well as many faculty. (Contains 2 tables and 11 figures.)

  12. Algebra: Grades 8-12.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Instructional Objectives Exchange, Los Angeles, CA.

    A complete set of behavioral objectives for first-year algebra taught in any of grades 8 through 12 is presented. Three to six sample test items and answers are provided for each objective. Objectives were determined by surveying the most used secondary school algebra textbooks. Fourteen major categories are included: (1) whole numbers--operations…

  13. Exploring Algebraic Patterns through Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Austin, Richard A.; Thompson, Denisse R.

    1997-01-01

    Presents methods for using literature to develop algebraic thinking in an environment that connects algebra to various situations. Activities are based on the book "Anno's Magic Seeds" with additional resources listed. Students express a constant function, exponential function, and a recursive function in their own words as well as writing about…

  14. Learning Algebra from Worked Examples

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lange, Karin E.; Booth, Julie L.; Newton, Kristie J.

    2014-01-01

    For students to be successful in algebra, they must have a truly conceptual understanding of key algebraic features as well as the procedural skills to complete a problem. One strategy to correct students' misconceptions combines the use of worked example problems in the classroom with student self-explanation. "Self-explanation" is…

  15. Thermodynamics. [algebraic structure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zeleznik, F. J.

    1976-01-01

    The fundamental structure of thermodynamics is purely algebraic, in the sense of atopological, and it is also independent of partitions, composite systems, the zeroth law, and entropy. The algebraic structure requires the notion of heat, but not the first law. It contains a precise definition of entropy and identifies it as a purely mathematical concept. It also permits the construction of an entropy function from heat measurements alone when appropriate conditions are satisfied. Topology is required only for a discussion of the continuity of thermodynamic properties, and then the weak topology is the relevant topology. The integrability of the differential form of the first law can be examined independently of Caratheodory's theorem and his inaccessibility axiom. Criteria are established by which one can determine when an integrating factor can be made intensive and the pseudopotential extensive and also an entropy. Finally, a realization of the first law is constructed which is suitable for all systems whether they are solids or fluids, whether they do or do not exhibit chemical reactions, and whether electromagnetic fields are or are not present.

  16. Invariants of triangular Lie algebras

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boyko, Vyacheslav; Patera, Jiri; Popovych, Roman

    2007-07-01

    Triangular Lie algebras are the Lie algebras which can be faithfully represented by triangular matrices of any finite size over the real/complex number field. In the paper invariants ('generalized Casimir operators') are found for three classes of Lie algebras, namely those which are either strictly or non-strictly triangular, and for so-called special upper triangular Lie algebras. Algebraic algorithm of Boyko et al (2006 J. Phys. A: Math. Gen.39 5749 (Preprint math-ph/0602046)), developed further in Boyko et al (2007 J. Phys. A: Math. Theor.40 113 (Preprint math-ph/0606045)), is used to determine the invariants. A conjecture of Tremblay and Winternitz (2001 J. Phys. A: Math. Gen.34 9085), concerning the number of independent invariants and their form, is corroborated.

  17. On Clifford-algebraic dimensional extension and SUSY holography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gates, S. J.; Hübsch, T.; Stiffler, K.

    2015-03-01

    We analyze the group of maximal automorphisms of the N-extended worldline supersymmetry algebra, and its action on off-shell supermultiplets. This defines a concept of "holoraumy" that extends the notions of holonomy and curvature in a novel way and provides information about the geometry of the supermultiplet field-space. In turn, the "holoraumy" transformations of 0-brane dimensionally reduced supermultiplets provide information about Lorentz transformations in the higher-dimensional space-time from which the 0-brane supermultiplets are descended. Specifically, Spin(3) generators are encoded within 0-brane "holoraumy" tensors. Worldline supermultiplets are thus able to holographically encrypt information about higher-dimensional space-time geometry.

  18. Near-horizon geometry and warped conformal symmetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Afshar, Hamid; Detournay, Stéphane; Grumiller, Daniel; Oblak, Blagoje

    2016-03-01

    We provide boundary conditions for three-dimensional gravity including boosted Rindler spacetimes, representing the near-horizon geometry of non-extremal black holes or flat space cosmologies. These boundary conditions force us to make some unusual choices, like integrating the canonical boundary currents over retarded time and periodically identifying the latter. The asymptotic symmetry algebra turns out to be a Witt algebra plus a twisted u(1) current algebra with vanishing level, corresponding to a twisted warped CFT that is qualitatively different from the ones studied so far in the literature. We show that this symmetry algebra is related to BMS by a twisted Sugawara construction and exhibit relevant features of our theory, including matching micro- and macroscopic calculations of the entropy of zero-mode solutions. We confirm this match in a generalization to boosted Rindler-AdS. Finally, we show how Rindler entropy emerges in a suitable limit.

  19. Hermann-Bernoulli-Laplace-Hamilton-Runge-Lenz Vector.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Subramanian, P. R.; And Others

    1991-01-01

    A way for students to refresh and use their knowledge in both mathematics and physics is presented. By the study of the properties of the "Runge-Lenz" vector the subjects of algebra, analytical geometry, calculus, classical mechanics, differential equations, matrices, quantum mechanics, trigonometry, and vector analysis can be reviewed. (KR)

  20. Using Technology to Promote Mathematical Discourse Concerning Women in Mathematics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phy, Lyn

    2008-01-01

    This paper discusses uses of technology to facilitate mathematical discourse concerning women in mathematics. Such a topic can be introduced in various traditional courses such as algebra, geometry, trigonometry, probability and statistics, or calculus, but it is not included in traditional textbooks. Through the ideas presented here, you can…

  1. Engineering Certification Program Self-Study Course, Basic Mathematics. Engineering Management [Series].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Owsley, Fran, Ed.

    This course is part of an engineering certification program for men inspecting construction projects. It presumes some high school training in mathematics and science. The course begins with examples showing the importance of mathematics on the job. Following that is a section on algebra, one on geometry, and one on trigonometry. (KM)

  2. Curriculum Change in Secondary School Mathematics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alspaugh, John W.; and others

    1970-01-01

    Discusses six major trends in mathematics curriculum development: lowering of grade placement, teaching methods from memorization to discovery, introduction and deletion of content, integration of plane and solid geometry, algebra, and trigonometry, emphasis upon needs and characteristics of student, and increasing rate of curriculum change.…

  3. Wisconsin's Mathematics Talent Development Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rolland, Al; Schuster, Nancy

    1988-01-01

    The Mathematics Talent Development Project offers accelerated mathematics to students aged 10-14, on Saturdays at the University of Wisconsin-Eau Claire. Four years of high-school mathematics are covered in two years, including algebra, geometry, trigonometry, and statistics. Described are student selection, importance of homework, and teacher…

  4. Review of Academic Mathematics, A Tentative Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Helwig, G. Alfred; Shepperd, Anna G.

    This teaching guide outlines a semester course for those students who need review work in concepts from algebra and geometry. Successful completion of this material would serve as a prerequisite to the study of trigonometry. Sequence, textbook references, and time allotments are suggested. Units studied are: the real numbers; operations on the…

  5. Tenth Year Mathematics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York State Education Dept., Albany. Bureau of Secondary Curriculum Development.

    The booklet presents the minimum material for which students are responsible on the Tenth Year Regents examination of the state of New York. The syllabus is an attempt to integrate plane geometry with arithmetic, algebra and numerical trigonometry brought about by: (1) greater use of fractions and percents in mensuration problems; (2) use of…

  6. Introducing Group Theory through Music

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Craig M.

    2009-01-01

    The central ideas of postcalculus mathematics courses offered in college are difficult to introduce in middle and secondary schools, especially through the engineering and sciences examples traditionally used in algebra, geometry, and trigonometry textbooks. However, certain concepts in music theory can be used to expose students to interesting…

  7. Mathematical Preparation for General Physics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marion, Jerry B.; Davidson, Ronald C.

    This textbook is intended to provide the requisite mathematical background for an introductory college course in general physics. The topics covered are: Numbers and Units; Experimental Error; Basic Algebra, Geometry and Trigonometry; Functions and Graphs; Vectors; The Slide Rule; and Physical Units and Conversions. Where possible, mathematical…

  8. DIFFERENTIAL AND INTEGRAL CALCULUS. A TENTATIVE CURRICULUM GUIDE.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    BRANT, VINCENT; GERARDI, WILLIAM

    A GUIDE FOR A 1-YEAR COURSE IN DIFFERENTIAL AND INTEGRAL CALCULUS PREREQUISITED KNOWLEDGE IN ALGEBRA, ANALYTIC TRIGONOMETRY, AND ELEMENTARY ANALYSIS. EACH ASSIGNMENT CONTAINED BOTH NEW AND REVIEW WORK TO REINFORCE THE NEW WORK. THERE WERE ELEVEN UNITS OF STUDY USING THE FOLLOWING FOUR BOOKS--"CALCULUS AND ANALYTIC GEOMETRY, THIRD EDITIONS," BY…

  9. Using Linear Algebra to Introduce Computer Algebra, Numerical Analysis, Data Structures and Algorithms (and To Teach Linear Algebra, Too).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gonzalez-Vega, Laureano

    1999-01-01

    Using a Computer Algebra System (CAS) to help with the teaching of an elementary course in linear algebra can be one way to introduce computer algebra, numerical analysis, data structures, and algorithms. Highlights the advantages and disadvantages of this approach to the teaching of linear algebra. (Author/MM)

  10. Algebraic distance on graphs.

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, J.; Safro, I.

    2011-01-01

    Measuring the connection strength between a pair of vertices in a graph is one of the most important concerns in many graph applications. Simple measures such as edge weights may not be sufficient for capturing the effects associated with short paths of lengths greater than one. In this paper, we consider an iterative process that smooths an associated value for nearby vertices, and we present a measure of the local connection strength (called the algebraic distance; see [D. Ron, I. Safro, and A. Brandt, Multiscale Model. Simul., 9 (2011), pp. 407-423]) based on this process. The proposed measure is attractive in that the process is simple, linear, and easily parallelized. An analysis of the convergence property of the process reveals that the local neighborhoods play an important role in determining the connectivity between vertices. We demonstrate the practical effectiveness of the proposed measure through several combinatorial optimization problems on graphs and hypergraphs.

  11. Constraint algebra in bigravity

    SciTech Connect

    Soloviev, V. O.

    2015-07-15

    The number of degrees of freedom in bigravity theory is found for a potential of general form and also for the potential proposed by de Rham, Gabadadze, and Tolley (dRGT). This aim is pursued via constructing a Hamiltonian formalismand studying the Poisson algebra of constraints. A general potential leads to a theory featuring four first-class constraints generated by general covariance. The vanishing of the respective Hessian is a crucial property of the dRGT potential, and this leads to the appearance of two additional second-class constraints and, hence, to the exclusion of a superfluous degree of freedom—that is, the Boulware—Deser ghost. The use of a method that permits avoiding an explicit expression for the dRGT potential is a distinctive feature of the present study.

  12. Geometric calculus: a new computational tool for Riemannian geometry

    SciTech Connect

    Moussiaux, A.; Tombal, P.

    1988-05-01

    We compare geometric calculus applied to Riemannian geometry with Cartan's exterior calculus method. The correspondence between the two methods is clearly established. The results obtained by a package written in an algebraic language and doing general manipulations on multivectors are compared. We see that the geometric calculus is as powerful as exterior calculus.

  13. Coincidence technique to reduce geometry and matrix effects in assay

    SciTech Connect

    Zucker, M.S.; Gozani, T.; Bernatowicz, H.

    1983-01-01

    Algebraic combinations of coincidence multiplicities can be formed which are relatively independent of detection efficiency, yet proportional to the amount of nuclear material being assayed. Considering these combinations, rather than the coincidence alone as signatures, has the demonstrable advantage that the assay results are comparatively independent of sample geometry or even matrix.

  14. Assessing Readiness for Geometry in Mathematically Talented Middle School Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mason, Marguerite M.; Moore, Sara Delano

    1997-01-01

    Based on research on the geometric understanding of regular and gifted middle school students, this article describes a procedure for assessing geometry readiness in mathematically able middle school students. The procedure utilizes the vanHiele model of stages of geometric understanding and distinguishes between readiness for algebra and…

  15. Quantum algebra of N superspace

    SciTech Connect

    Hatcher, Nicolas; Restuccia, A.; Stephany, J.

    2007-08-15

    We identify the quantum algebra of position and momentum operators for a quantum system bearing an irreducible representation of the super Poincare algebra in the N>1 and D=4 superspace, both in the case where there are no central charges in the algebra, and when they are present. This algebra is noncommutative for the position operators. We use the properties of superprojectors acting on the superfields to construct explicit position and momentum operators satisfying the algebra. They act on the projected wave functions associated to the various supermultiplets with defined superspin present in the representation. We show that the quantum algebra associated to the massive superparticle appears in our construction and is described by a supermultiplet of superspin 0. This result generalizes the construction for D=4, N=1 reported recently. For the case N=2 with central charges, we present the equivalent results when the central charge and the mass are different. For the {kappa}-symmetric case when these quantities are equal, we discuss the reduction to the physical degrees of freedom of the corresponding superparticle and the construction of the associated quantum algebra.

  16. A New Reynolds Stress Algebraic Equation Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shih, Tsan-Hsing; Zhu, Jiang; Lumley, John L.

    1994-01-01

    A general turbulent constitutive relation is directly applied to propose a new Reynolds stress algebraic equation model. In the development of this model, the constraints based on rapid distortion theory and realizability (i.e. the positivity of the normal Reynolds stresses and the Schwarz' inequality between turbulent velocity correlations) are imposed. Model coefficients are calibrated using well-studied basic flows such as homogeneous shear flow and the surface flow in the inertial sublayer. The performance of this model is then tested in complex turbulent flows including the separated flow over a backward-facing step and the flow in a confined jet. The calculation results are encouraging and point to the success of the present model in modeling turbulent flows with complex geometries.

  17. Using Homemade Algebra Tiles To Develop Algebra and Prealgebra Concepts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leitze, Annette Ricks; Kitt, Nancy A.

    2000-01-01

    Describes how to use homemade tiles, sketches, and the box method to reach a broader group of students for successful algebra learning. Provides a list of concepts appropriate for such an approach. (KHR)

  18. Loop Virasoro Lie conformal algebra

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Henan Chen, Qiufan; Yue, Xiaoqing

    2014-01-15

    The Lie conformal algebra of loop Virasoro algebra, denoted by CW, is introduced in this paper. Explicitly, CW is a Lie conformal algebra with C[∂]-basis (L{sub i} | i∈Z) and λ-brackets [L{sub i} {sub λ} L{sub j}] = (−∂−2λ)L{sub i+j}. Then conformal derivations of CW are determined. Finally, rank one conformal modules and Z-graded free intermediate series modules over CW are classified.

  19. Hopf algebras and Dyson-Schwinger equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weinzierl, Stefan

    2016-06-01

    In this paper I discuss Hopf algebras and Dyson-Schwinger equations. This paper starts with an introduction to Hopf algebras, followed by a review of the contribution and application of Hopf algebras to particle physics. The final part of the paper is devoted to the relation between Hopf algebras and Dyson-Schwinger equations.

  20. Students' misconceptions and errors in transformation geometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ada, Tuba; Kurtuluş, Aytaç

    2010-10-01

    This study analyses the students' performances in two-dimensional transformation geometry and explores the mistakes made by the students taking the analytic geometry course given by researchers. An examination was given to students of Education Faculties who have taken the analytic geometry course at Eskisehir Osmangazi University in Turkey. The subject of this study included 126 third-year students in the Department of Mathematics Education. Data were collected from a seven questions exam. This exam consisted of three procedural questions, two conceptual questions and two procedural-conceptual questions. In data analysis, a descriptor code key was used. When the students' overall performances were considered for all seven questions, the results showed that they did not understand how to apply rotation transformation. The mostly observed mistakes showed that the students seemed to know the algebraic meaning of translation and also rotation but they did not seem to understand the geometric meaning of them.

  1. Sequential products on effect algebras

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gudder, Stan; Greechie, Richard

    2002-02-01

    A sequential effect algebra (SEA) is an effect algebra on which a sequential product with natural properties is defined. The properties of sequential products on Hilbert space effect algebras are discussed. For a general SEA, relationships between sequential independence, coexistence and compatibility are given. It is shown that the sharp elements of a SEA form an orthomodular poset. The sequential center of a SEA is discussed and a characterization of when the sequential center is isomorphic to a fuzzy set system is presented. It is shown that the existence, of a sequential product is a strong restriction that eliminates many effect algebras from being SEA's. For example, there are no finite nonboolean SEA's, A measure of sharpness called the sharpness index is studied. The existence of horizontal sums of SEA's is characterized and examples of horizontal sums and tensor products are presented.

  2. Curvature calculations with spacetime algebra

    SciTech Connect

    Hestenes, D.

    1986-06-01

    A new method for calculating the curvature tensor is developed and applied to the Scharzschild case. The method employs Clifford algebra and has definite advantages over conventional methods using differential forms or tensor analysis.

  3. GCD, LCM, and Boolean Algebra?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, Martin P.; Juraschek, William A.

    1976-01-01

    This article investigates the algebraic structure formed when the process of finding the greatest common divisor and the least common multiple are considered as binary operations on selected subsets of positive integers. (DT)

  4. Cartooning in Algebra and Calculus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moseley, L. Jeneva

    2014-01-01

    This article discusses how teachers can create cartoons for undergraduate math classes, such as college algebra and basic calculus. The practice of cartooning for teaching can be helpful for communication with students and for students' conceptual understanding.

  5. Ada Linear-Algebra Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klumpp, A. R.; Lawson, C. L.

    1988-01-01

    Routines provided for common scalar, vector, matrix, and quaternion operations. Computer program extends Ada programming language to include linear-algebra capabilities similar to HAS/S programming language. Designed for such avionics applications as software for Space Station.

  6. Semiclassical states on Lie algebras

    SciTech Connect

    Tsobanjan, Artur

    2015-03-15

    The effective technique for analyzing representation-independent features of quantum systems based on the semiclassical approximation (developed elsewhere) has been successfully used in the context of the canonical (Weyl) algebra of the basic quantum observables. Here, we perform the important step of extending this effective technique to the quantization of a more general class of finite-dimensional Lie algebras. The case of a Lie algebra with a single central element (the Casimir element) is treated in detail by considering semiclassical states on the corresponding universal enveloping algebra. Restriction to an irreducible representation is performed by “effectively” fixing the Casimir condition, following the methods previously used for constrained quantum systems. We explicitly determine the conditions under which this restriction can be consistently performed alongside the semiclassical truncation.

  7. GNSS algebraic structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lannes, A.; Teunissen, P. J. G.

    2011-05-01

    The first objective of this paper is to show that some basic concepts used in global navigation satellite systems (GNSS) are similar to those introduced in Fourier synthesis for handling some phase calibration problems. In experimental astronomy, the latter are at the heart of what is called `phase closure imaging.' In both cases, the analysis of the related structures appeals to the algebraic graph theory and the algebraic number theory. For example, the estimable functions of carrier-phase ambiguities, which were introduced in GNSS to correct some rank defects of the undifferenced equations, prove to be `closure-phase ambiguities:' the so-called `closure-delay' (CD) ambiguities. The notion of closure delay thus generalizes that of double difference (DD). The other estimable functional variables involved in the phase and code undifferenced equations are the receiver and satellite pseudo-clock biases. A related application, which corresponds to the second objective of this paper, concerns the definition of the clock information to be broadcasted to the network users for their precise point positioning (PPP). It is shown that this positioning can be achieved by simply having access to the satellite pseudo-clock biases. For simplicity, the study is restricted to relatively small networks. Concerning the phase for example, these biases then include five components: a frequency-dependent satellite-clock error, a tropospheric satellite delay, an ionospheric satellite delay, an initial satellite phase, and an integer satellite ambiguity. The form of the PPP equations to be solved by the network user is then similar to that of the traditional PPP equations. As soon as the CD ambiguities are fixed and validated, an operation which can be performed in real time via appropriate decorrelation techniques, estimates of these float biases can be immediately obtained. No other ambiguity is to be fixed. The satellite pseudo-clock biases can thus be obtained in real time. This is

  8. Hopf algebras and topological recursion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Esteves, João N.

    2015-11-01

    We consider a model for topological recursion based on the Hopf algebra of planar binary trees defined by Loday and Ronco (1998 Adv. Math. 139 293-309 We show that extending this Hopf algebra by identifying pairs of nearest neighbor leaves, and thus producing graphs with loops, we obtain the full recursion formula discovered by Eynard and Orantin (2007 Commun. Number Theory Phys. 1 347-452).

  9. ALGEBRA v.1.27

    2005-04-11

    The ALGEBRA program allows the user to manipulate data from a finite element analysis before it is plotted. The finite element output data is in the form of variable values (e.g., stress, strain, and velocity components) in an EXODUS II database. The ALGEBRA program evaluates user-supplied functions of the data and writes the results to an output EXODUS II database that can be read by plot programs.

  10. Sound Off! Don't Sacrifice Geometry on the Common Core Altar

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nirode, Wayne

    2013-01-01

    Although high school geometry could be a meaningful course in exploring, reasoning, proving, and communicating, it often lacks authentic proof and has become just another course in algebra. This article examines why geometry is important to learn and provides an outline of what that learning experience should be.

  11. Algebraic Flux Correction II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuzmin, Dmitri; Möller, Matthias; Gurris, Marcel

    Flux limiting for hyperbolic systems requires a careful generalization of the design principles and algorithms introduced in the context of scalar conservation laws. In this chapter, we develop FCT-like algebraic flux correction schemes for the Euler equations of gas dynamics. In particular, we discuss the construction of artificial viscosity operators, the choice of variables to be limited, and the transformation of antidiffusive fluxes. An a posteriori control mechanism is implemented to make the limiter failsafe. The numerical treatment of initial and boundary conditions is discussed in some detail. The initialization is performed using an FCT-constrained L 2 projection. The characteristic boundary conditions are imposed in a weak sense, and an approximate Riemann solver is used to evaluate the fluxes on the boundary. We also present an unconditionally stable semi-implicit time-stepping scheme and an iterative solver for the fully discrete problem. The results of a numerical study indicate that the nonlinearity and non-differentiability of the flux limiter do not inhibit steady state convergence even in the case of strongly varying Mach numbers. Moreover, the convergence rates improve as the pseudo-time step is increased.

  12. Quanta of Geometry: Noncommutative Aspects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chamseddine, Ali H.; Connes, Alain; Mukhanov, Viatcheslav

    2015-03-01

    In the construction of spectral manifolds in noncommutative geometry, a higher degree Heisenberg commutation relation involving the Dirac operator and the Feynman slash of real scalar fields naturally appears and implies, by equality with the index formula, the quantization of the volume. We first show that this condition implies that the manifold decomposes into disconnected spheres, which will represent quanta of geometry. We then refine the condition by involving the real structure and two types of geometric quanta, and show that connected spin manifolds with large quantized volume are then obtained as solutions. The two algebras M2(H ) and M4(C ) are obtained, which are the exact constituents of the standard model. Using the two maps from M4 to S4 the four-manifold is built out of a very large number of the two kinds of spheres of Planckian volume. We give several physical applications of this scheme such as quantization of the cosmological constant, mimetic dark matter, and area quantization of black holes.

  13. Quanta of geometry: noncommutative aspects.

    PubMed

    Chamseddine, Ali H; Connes, Alain; Mukhanov, Viatcheslav

    2015-03-01

    In the construction of spectral manifolds in noncommutative geometry, a higher degree Heisenberg commutation relation involving the Dirac operator and the Feynman slash of real scalar fields naturally appears and implies, by equality with the index formula, the quantization of the volume. We first show that this condition implies that the manifold decomposes into disconnected spheres, which will represent quanta of geometry. We then refine the condition by involving the real structure and two types of geometric quanta, and show that connected spin manifolds with large quantized volume are then obtained as solutions. The two algebras M_{2}(H) and M_{4}(C) are obtained, which are the exact constituents of the standard model. Using the two maps from M_{4} to S^{4} the four-manifold is built out of a very large number of the two kinds of spheres of Planckian volume. We give several physical applications of this scheme such as quantization of the cosmological constant, mimetic dark matter, and area quantization of black holes. PMID:25793795

  14. Virasoro algebra in the KN algebra; Bosonic string with fermionic ghosts on Riemann surfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Koibuchi, H. )

    1991-10-10

    In this paper the bosonic string model with fermionic ghosts is considered in the framework of the KN algebra. The authors' attentions are paid to representations of KN algebra and a Clifford algebra of the ghosts. The authors show that a Virasoro-like algebra is obtained from KN algebra when KN algebra has certain antilinear anti-involution, and that it is isomorphic to the usual Virasoro algebra. The authors show that there is an expected relation between a central charge of this Virasoro-like algebra and an anomaly of the combined system.

  15. Invertible linear transformations and the Lie algebras

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yufeng; Tam, Honwah; Guo, Fukui

    2008-07-01

    With the help of invertible linear transformations and the known Lie algebras, a way to generate new Lie algebras is given. These Lie algebras obtained have a common feature, i.e. integrable couplings of solitary hierarchies could be obtained by using them, specially, the Hamiltonian structures of them could be worked out. Some ways to construct the loop algebras of the Lie algebras are presented. It follows that some various loop algebras are given. In addition, a few new Lie algebras are explicitly constructed in terms of the classification of Lie algebras proposed by Ma Wen-Xiu, which are bases for obtaining new Lie algebras by using invertible linear transformations. Finally, some solutions of a (2 + 1)-dimensional partial-differential equation hierarchy are obtained, whose Hamiltonian form-expressions are manifested by using the quadratic-form identity.

  16. Geometry in Medias Res

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cukier, Mimi; Asdourian, Tony; Thakker, Anand

    2012-01-01

    Geometry provides a natural window into what it is like to do mathematics. In the world of geometry, playful experimentation is often more fruitful than following a procedure, and logic plus a few axioms can open new worlds. Nonetheless, teaching a geometry course in a way that combines both rigor and play can be difficult. Many geometry courses…

  17. Dynamic Geometry on WWW.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuntz, Gilles

    The first section of this paper on World Wide Web applications related to dynamic geometry addresses dynamic geometry and teaching, including the relationship between dynamic geometry and direct manipulation, key features of dynamic geometry environments, the importance of direct engagement of the learner using construction software for…

  18. Erlangen Program at Large-1: Geometry of Invariants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kisil, Vladimir V.

    2010-09-01

    This paper presents geometrical foundation for a systematic treatment of three main (elliptic, parabolic and hyperbolic) types of analytic function theories based on the representation theory of SL2(R) group. We describe here geometries of corresponding domains. The principal rôle is played by Clifford algebras of matching types. In this paper we also generalise the Fillmore-Springer-Cnops construction which describes cycles as points in the extended space. This allows to consider many algebraic and geometric invariants of cycles within the Erlangen program approach.

  19. Noncommutative spectral geometry, Bogoliubov transformations and neutrino oscillations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vittoria Gargiulo, Maria; Sakellariadou, Mairi; Vitiello, Giuseppe

    2015-07-01

    In this report we show that neutrino mixing is intrinsically contained in Connes’ noncommutatives pectral geometry construction, thanks to the introduction of the doubling of algebra, which is connected to the Bogoliubov transformation. It is known indeed that these transformations are responsible for the mixing, turning the mass vacuum state into the flavor vacuum state, in such a way that mass and flavor vacuum states are not unitary equivalent. There is thus a red thread that binds the doubling of algebra of Connes’ model to the neutrino mixing.

  20. Twisted spectral geometry for the standard model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinetti, Pierre

    2015-07-01

    In noncommutative geometry, the spectral triple of a manifold does not generate bosonic fields, for fluctuations of the Dirac operator vanish. A Connes-Moscovici twist forces the commutative algebra to be multiplied by matrices. Keeping the space of spinors untouched, twisted-fluctuations then yield perturbations of the spin connection. Applied to the spectral triple of the Standard Model, a similar twist yields the scalar field needed to stabilize the vacuum and to make the computation of the Higgs mass compatible with its experimental value.

  1. Ternary generalization of Heisenberg's algebra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kerner, Richard

    2015-06-01

    A concise study of ternary and cubic algebras with Z3 grading is presented. We discuss some underlying ideas leading to the conclusion that the discrete symmetry group of permutations of three objects, S3, and its abelian subgroup Z3 may play an important role in quantum physics. We show then how most of important algebras with Z2 grading can be generalized with ternary composition laws combined with a Z3 grading. We investigate in particular a ternary, Z3-graded generalization of the Heisenberg algebra. It turns out that introducing a non-trivial cubic root of unity, , one can define two types of creation operators instead of one, accompanying the usual annihilation operator. The two creation operators are non-hermitian, but they are mutually conjugate. Together, the three operators form a ternary algebra, and some of their cubic combinations generate the usual Heisenberg algebra. An analogue of Hamiltonian operator is constructed by analogy with the usual harmonic oscillator, and some properties of its eigenfunctions are briefly discussed.

  2. Beyond Dirac - a Unified Algebra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lundberg, Wayne R.

    2001-10-01

    A introductory insight will be shared regarding a 'separation of variables' approach to understanding the relationship between QCD and the origins of cosmological and particle mass. The discussion will then build upon work presented at DFP 2000, focussing on the formal basis for using 3x3x3 matrix algebra as it underlies and extends Dirac notation. A set of restrictions are established which break the multiple symmetries of the 3x3x3 matrix algebra, yielding Standard Model QCD objects and interactions. It will be shown that the 3x3x3 matrix representation unifies the algebra of strong and weak (and by extension, electromagnetic) interactions. A direct correspondence to string theoretic objects is established by considering the string to be partitioned in thirds. Rubik's cube is used as a graphical means of handling algebraic manipulation of 3x3x3 algebra. Further, its potential utility for advancing pedagogical methods through active engagement is discussed. A simulated classroom exercize will be conducted.

  3. Causal structure and algebraic classification of non-dissipative linear optical media

    SciTech Connect

    Schuller, Frederic P.; Witte, Christof; Wohlfarth, Mattias N.R.

    2010-09-15

    In crystal optics and quantum electrodynamics in gravitational vacua, the propagation of light is not described by a metric, but an area metric geometry. In this article, this prompts us to study conditions for linear electrodynamics on area metric manifolds to be well-posed. This includes an identification of the timelike future cones and their duals associated to an area metric geometry, and thus paves the ground for a discussion of the related local and global causal structures in standard fashion. In order to provide simple algebraic criteria for an area metric manifold to present a consistent spacetime structure, we develop a complete algebraic classification of area metric tensors up to general transformations of frame. This classification, valuable in its own right, is then employed to prove a theorem excluding the majority of algebraic classes of area metrics as viable spacetimes. Physically, these results classify and drastically restrict the viable constitutive tensors of non-dissipative linear optical media.

  4. Non-simply laced Lie algebras via F theory strings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonora, L.; Savelli, R.

    2010-11-01

    In order to describe the appearance in F theory of the non-simply-laced Lie algebras, we use the representation of symmetry enhancements by means of string junctions. After an introduction to the techniques used to describe symmetry enhancement, that is algebraic geometry, BPS states analysis and string junctions, we concentrate on the latter. We give an explicit description of the folding of D 2n to B n , of the folding of E 6 to F 4 and that of D 4 to G 2 in terms of junctions and Jordan strings. We also discuss the case of C n , but we are unable in this case to provide a string interpretation.

  5. Space Mathematics: A Resource for Secondary School Teachers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kastner, Bernice

    1985-01-01

    A collection of mathematical problems related to NASA space science projects is presented. In developing the examples and problems, attention was given to preserving the authenticity and significance of the original setting while keeping the level of mathematics within the secondary school curriculum. Computation and measurement, algebra, geometry, probability and statistics, exponential and logarithmic functions, trigonometry, matrix algebra, conic sections, and calculus are among the areas addressed.

  6. Quantum groups: Geometry and applications

    SciTech Connect

    Chu, C.S.

    1996-05-13

    The main theme of this thesis is a study of the geometry of quantum groups and quantum spaces, with the hope that they will be useful for the construction of quantum field theory with quantum group symmetry. The main tool used is the Faddeev-Reshetikhin-Takhtajan description of quantum groups. A few content-rich examples of quantum complex spaces with quantum group symmetry are treated in details. In chapter 1, the author reviews some of the basic concepts and notions for Hopf algebras and other background materials. In chapter 2, he studies the vector fields of quantum groups. A compact realization of these vector fields as pseudodifferential operators acting on the linear quantum spaces is given. In chapter 3, he describes the quantum sphere as a complex quantum manifold by means of a quantum stereographic projection. A covariant calculus is introduced. An interesting property of this calculus is the existence of a one-form realization of the exterior differential operator. The concept of a braided comodule is introduced and a braided algebra of quantum spheres is constructed. In chapter 4, the author considers the more general higher dimensional quantum complex projective spaces and the quantum Grassman manifolds. Differential calculus, integration and braiding can be introduced as in the one dimensional case. Finally, in chapter 5, he studies the framework of quantum principal bundle and construct the q-deformed Dirac monopole as a quantum principal bundle with a quantum sphere as the base and a U(1) with non-commutative calculus as the fiber. The first Chern class can be introduced and integrated to give the monopole charge.

  7. Learning Geometry through Dynamic Geometry Software

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forsythe, Sue

    2007-01-01

    In this article, the author investigates effective teaching and learning of geometrical concepts using dynamic geometry software (DGS). Based from her students' reactions to her project, the author found that her students' understanding of the concepts was better than if they had learned geometry through paper-based tasks. However, mixing computer…

  8. Learning Activity Package, Algebra 103-104, LAPs 23-33.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans, Diane

    This set of 11 teacher-prepared Learning Activity Packages (LAPs) in intermediate algebra covers number systems; exponents and radicals; polynomials and factoring; rational expressions; coordinate geometry; relations, functions, and inequalities; quadratic equations and inequalities; Quadratic functions; systems of equations and inequalities;…

  9. Focus in High School Mathematics: Reasoning and Sense Making in Algebra

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graham, Karen; Cuoco, Albert; Zimmermann, Gwendolyn

    2010-01-01

    This book examines the five key elements (meaningful use of symbols, mindful manipulation, reasoned solving, connection algebra with geometry, and linking expressions and functions) identified in "Focus in High School Mathematics: Reasoning and Sense Making" in more detail and elaborates on the associated reasoning habits. This volume is one of a…

  10. Algebraic Lattices in QFT Renormalization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borinsky, Michael

    2016-04-01

    The structure of overlapping subdivergences, which appear in the perturbative expansions of quantum field theory, is analyzed using algebraic lattice theory. It is shown that for specific QFTs the sets of subdivergences of Feynman diagrams form algebraic lattices. This class of QFTs includes the standard model. In kinematic renormalization schemes, in which tadpole diagrams vanish, these lattices are semimodular. This implies that the Hopf algebra of Feynman diagrams is graded by the coradical degree or equivalently that every maximal forest has the same length in the scope of BPHZ renormalization. As an application of this framework, a formula for the counter terms in zero-dimensional QFT is given together with some examples of the enumeration of primitive or skeleton diagrams.

  11. Algebraic Lattices in QFT Renormalization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borinsky, Michael

    2016-07-01

    The structure of overlapping subdivergences, which appear in the perturbative expansions of quantum field theory, is analyzed using algebraic lattice theory. It is shown that for specific QFTs the sets of subdivergences of Feynman diagrams form algebraic lattices. This class of QFTs includes the standard model. In kinematic renormalization schemes, in which tadpole diagrams vanish, these lattices are semimodular. This implies that the Hopf algebra of Feynman diagrams is graded by the coradical degree or equivalently that every maximal forest has the same length in the scope of BPHZ renormalization. As an application of this framework, a formula for the counter terms in zero-dimensional QFT is given together with some examples of the enumeration of primitive or skeleton diagrams.

  12. T-duality and exceptional generalized geometry through symmetries of dg-manifolds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lupercio, Ernesto; Rengifo, Camilo; Uribe, Bernardo

    2014-09-01

    We study dg-manifolds which are R[2]-bundles over R[1]-bundles over manifolds, we calculate its symmetries, its derived symmetries and we introduce the concept of T-dual dg-manifolds. Within this framework, we construct the T-duality map as a degree -1 map between the cohomologies of the T-dual dg-manifolds and we show an explicit isomorphism between the differential graded algebra of the symmetries of the T-dual dg-manifolds. We, furthermore, show how the algebraic structure underlying Bn generalized geometry could be recovered as derived dg-Leibniz algebra of the fixed points of the T-dual automorphism acting on the symmetries of a self T-dual dg-manifold, and we show how other types of algebraic structures underlying exceptional generalized geometry could be obtained as derived symmetries of certain dg-manifolds.

  13. Generalized Galilean algebras and Newtonian gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    González, N.; Rubio, G.; Salgado, P.; Salgado, S.

    2016-04-01

    The non-relativistic versions of the generalized Poincaré algebras and generalized AdS-Lorentz algebras are obtained. These non-relativistic algebras are called, generalized Galilean algebras of type I and type II and denoted by GBn and GLn respectively. Using a generalized Inönü-Wigner contraction procedure we find that the generalized Galilean algebras of type I can be obtained from the generalized Galilean algebras type II. The S-expansion procedure allows us to find the GB5 algebra from the Newton Hooke algebra with central extension. The procedure developed in Ref. [1] allows us to show that the nonrelativistic limit of the five dimensional Einstein-Chern-Simons gravity is given by a modified version of the Poisson equation. The modification could be compatible with the effects of Dark Matter, which leads us to think that Dark Matter can be interpreted as a non-relativistic limit of Dark Energy.

  14. Computer Algebra Systems in Undergraduate Instruction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Small, Don; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Computer algebra systems (such as MACSYMA and muMath) can carry out many of the operations of calculus, linear algebra, and differential equations. Use of them with sketching graphs of rational functions and with other topics is discussed. (MNS)

  15. Motivating Activities that Lead to Algebra

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Menon, Ramakrishnan

    2004-01-01

    Four activities consisting of puzzles are introduced, which help students to recognize the strength of algebraic generalizations. They also assist them to comprehend algebraic concepts, and enable them to develop their individual puzzles and games.

  16. Scalable Parallel Algebraic Multigrid Solvers

    SciTech Connect

    Bank, R; Lu, S; Tong, C; Vassilevski, P

    2005-03-23

    The authors propose a parallel algebraic multilevel algorithm (AMG), which has the novel feature that the subproblem residing in each processor is defined over the entire partition domain, although the vast majority of unknowns for each subproblem are associated with the partition owned by the corresponding processor. This feature ensures that a global coarse description of the problem is contained within each of the subproblems. The advantages of this approach are that interprocessor communication is minimized in the solution process while an optimal order of convergence rate is preserved; and the speed of local subproblem solvers can be maximized using the best existing sequential algebraic solvers.

  17. Computational triadic algebras of signs

    SciTech Connect

    Zadrozny, W.

    1996-12-31

    We present a finite model of Peirce`s ten classes of signs. We briefly describe Peirce`s taxonomy of signs; we prove that any finite collection of signs can be extended to a finite algebra of signs in which all interpretants are themselves being interpreted; and we argue that Peirce`s ten classes of signs can be defined using constraints on algebras of signs. The paper opens the possibility of defining multimodal cognitive agents using Peirce`s classes of signs, and is a first step towards building a computational logic of signs based on Peirce`s taxonomies.

  18. Making Algebra Work: Instructional Strategies that Deepen Student Understanding, within and between Algebraic Representations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Star, Jon R.; Rittle-Johnson, Bethany

    2009-01-01

    Competence in algebra is increasingly recognized as a critical milestone in students' middle and high school years. The transition from arithmetic to algebra is a notoriously difficult one, and improvements in algebra instruction are greatly needed (National Research Council, 2001). Algebra historically has represented students' first sustained…

  19. Spatial-Operator Algebra For Robotic Manipulators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rodriguez, Guillermo; Kreutz, Kenneth K.; Milman, Mark H.

    1991-01-01

    Report discusses spatial-operator algebra developed in recent studies of mathematical modeling, control, and design of trajectories of robotic manipulators. Provides succinct representation of mathematically complicated interactions among multiple joints and links of manipulator, thereby relieving analyst of most of tedium of detailed algebraic manipulations. Presents analytical formulation of spatial-operator algebra, describes some specific applications, summarizes current research, and discusses implementation of spatial-operator algebra in the Ada programming language.

  20. The weak Hopf algebras related to generalized Kac-Moody algebra

    SciTech Connect

    Wu Zhixiang

    2006-06-15

    We define a kind of quantized enveloping algebra of a generalized Kac-Moody algebra G by adding a generator J satisfying J{sup m}=J{sup m-1} for some integer m. We denote this algebra by wU{sub q}{sup {tau}}(G). This algebra is a weak Hopf algebra if and only if m=2. In general, it is a bialgebra, and contains a Hopf subalgebra. This Hopf subalgebra is isomorphic to the usually quantum envelope algebra U{sub q}(G) of a generalized Kac-Moody algebra G.

  1. Conformal invariance in noncommutative geometry and mutually interacting Snyder particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pramanik, Souvik; Ghosh, Subir; Pal, Probir

    2014-11-01

    A system of relativistic Snyder particles with mutual two-body interaction that lives in a noncommutative Snyder geometry is studied. The underlying novel symplectic structure is a coupled and extended version of (single-particle) Snyder algebra. In a recent work by Casalbuoni and Gomis [Phys. Rev. D 90, 026001 (2014)], a system of interacting conventional particles (in commutative spacetime) was studied with special emphasis on its conformal invariance. Proceeding along the same lines, we have shown that our interacting Snyder particle model is also conformally invariant. Moreover, the conformal Killing vectors have been constructed. Our main emphasis is on the Hamiltonian analysis of the conformal symmetry generators. We demonstrate that the Lorentz algebra remains undeformed, but validity of the full conformal algebra requires further restrictions.

  2. Algebra? A Gate! A Barrier! A Mystery!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mathematics Educatio Dialogues, 2000

    2000-01-01

    This issue of Mathematics Education Dialogues focuses on the nature and the role of algebra in the K-14 curriculum. Articles on this theme include: (1) "Algebra For All? Why?" (Nel Noddings); (2) "Algebra For All: It's a Matter of Equity, Expectations, and Effectiveness" (Dorothy S. Strong and Nell B. Cobb); (3) "Don't Delay: Build and Talk about…

  3. Graphing Calculator Use in Algebra Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dewey, Brenda L.; Singletary, Ted J.; Kinzel, Margaret T.

    2009-01-01

    This study examines graphing calculator technology availability, characteristics of teachers who use it, teacher attitudes, and how use reflects changes to algebra curriculum and instructional practices. Algebra I and Algebra II teachers in 75 high school and junior high/middle schools in a diverse region of a northwestern state were surveyed.…

  4. New family of Maxwell like algebras

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Concha, P. K.; Durka, R.; Merino, N.; Rodríguez, E. K.

    2016-08-01

    We introduce an alternative way of closing Maxwell like algebras. We show, through a suitable change of basis, that resulting algebras are given by the direct sums of the AdS and the Maxwell algebras already known in the literature. Casting the result into the S-expansion method framework ensures the straightaway construction of the gravity theories based on a found enlargement.

  5. Build an Early Foundation for Algebra Success

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knuth, Eric; Stephens, Ana; Blanton, Maria; Gardiner, Angela

    2016-01-01

    Research tells us that success in algebra is a factor in many other important student outcomes. Emerging research also suggests that students who are started on an algebra curriculum in the earlier grades may have greater success in the subject in secondary school. What's needed is a consistent, algebra-infused mathematics curriculum all…

  6. A Balancing Act: Making Sense of Algebra

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gavin, M. Katherine; Sheffield, Linda Jensen

    2015-01-01

    For most students, algebra seems like a totally different subject than the number topics they studied in elementary school. In reality, the procedures followed in arithmetic are actually based on the properties and laws of algebra. Algebra should be a logical next step for students in extending the proficiencies they developed with number topics…

  7. Difficulties in Initial Algebra Learning in Indonesia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jupri, Al; Drijvers, Paul; van den Heuvel-Panhuizen, Marja

    2014-01-01

    Within mathematics curricula, algebra has been widely recognized as one of the most difficult topics, which leads to learning difficulties worldwide. In Indonesia, algebra performance is an important issue. In the Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS) 2007, Indonesian students' achievement in the algebra domain was…

  8. Teaching Strategies to Improve Algebra Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zbiek, Rose Mary; Larson, Matthew R.

    2015-01-01

    Improving student learning is the primary goal of every teacher of algebra. Teachers seek strategies to help all students learn important algebra content and develop mathematical practices. The new Institute of Education Sciences[IES] practice guide, "Teaching Strategies for Improving Algebra Knowledge in Middle and High School Students"…

  9. Lessons for Algebraic Thinking. Grades K-2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    von Rotz, Leyani; Burns, Marilyn

    Algebra is one of the top priorities of mathematics instruction for the elementary and middle grades. This book is designed to help K-2 teachers meet the challenge of making algebra an integral part of their mathematics instruction and realize both what to teach and how to teach central algebraic concepts. Classroom-tested lessons help teachers…

  10. Unifying the Algebra for All Movement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eddy, Colleen M.; Quebec Fuentes, Sarah; Ward, Elizabeth K.; Parker, Yolanda A.; Cooper, Sandi; Jasper, William A.; Mallam, Winifred A.; Sorto, M. Alejandra; Wilkerson, Trena L.

    2015-01-01

    There exists an increased focus on school mathematics, especially first-year algebra, due to recent efforts for all students to be college and career ready. In addition, there are calls, policies, and legislation advocating for all students to study algebra epitomized by four rationales of the "Algebra for All" movement. In light of this…

  11. Combinatorial Geometry Printer Plotting.

    1987-01-05

    Picture generates plots of two-dimensional slices through the three-dimensional geometry described by the combinatorial geometry (CG) package used in such codes as MORSE and QAD-CG. These plots are printed on a standard line printer.

  12. General 2 charge geometries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, Marika

    2006-03-01

    Two charge BPS horizon free supergravity geometries are important in proposals for understanding black hole microstates. In this paper we construct a new class of geometries in the NS1-P system, corresponding to solitonic strings carrying fermionic as well as bosonic condensates. Such geometries are required to account for the full microscopic entropy of the NS1-P system. We then briefly discuss the properties of the corresponding geometries in the dual D1-D5 system.

  13. Inequalities, Assessment and Computer Algebra

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sangwin, Christopher J.

    2015-01-01

    The goal of this paper is to examine single variable real inequalities that arise as tutorial problems and to examine the extent to which current computer algebra systems (CAS) can (1) automatically solve such problems and (2) determine whether students' own answers to such problems are correct. We review how inequalities arise in…

  14. Putting the Modern in Algebra

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bosse, Michael J.; Ries, Heather; Chandler, Kayla

    2012-01-01

    Secondary school mathematics teachers often need to answer the "Why do we do that?" question in such a way that avoids confusion and evokes student interest. Understanding the properties of number systems can provide an avenue to better grasp algebraic structures, which in turn builds students' conceptual knowledge of secondary mathematics. This…

  15. Implementing Change in College Algebra

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haver, William E.

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, departments are urged to consider implementing the type of changes proposed in Beyond Crossroads in College Algebra. The author of this paper is chair of the Curriculum Renewal Across the First Two Years (CRAFTY) Committee of the Mathematical Association of America. The committee has members from two-year colleges, four-year…

  16. Algebraic Activities Aid Discovery Lessons

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wallace-Gomez, Patricia

    2013-01-01

    After a unit on the rules for positive and negative numbers and the order of operations for evaluating algebraic expressions, many students believe that they understand these principles well enough, but they really do not. They clearly need more practice, but not more of the same kind of drill. Wallace-Gomez provides three graphing activities that…

  17. Fuzzy-algebra uncertainty assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Cooper, J.A.; Cooper, D.K.

    1994-12-01

    A significant number of analytical problems (for example, abnormal-environment safety analysis) depend on data that are partly or mostly subjective. Since fuzzy algebra depends on subjective operands, we have been investigating its applicability to these forms of assessment, particularly for portraying uncertainty in the results of PRA (probabilistic risk analysis) and in risk-analysis-aided decision-making. Since analysis results can be a major contributor to a safety-measure decision process, risk management depends on relating uncertainty to only known (not assumed) information. The uncertainties due to abnormal environments are even more challenging than those in normal-environment safety assessments; and therefore require an even more judicious approach. Fuzzy algebra matches these requirements well. One of the most useful aspects of this work is that we have shown the potential for significant differences (especially in perceived margin relative to a decision threshold) between fuzzy assessment and probabilistic assessment based on subtle factors inherent in the choice of probability distribution models. We have also shown the relation of fuzzy algebra assessment to ``bounds`` analysis, as well as a description of how analyses can migrate from bounds analysis to fuzzy-algebra analysis, and to probabilistic analysis as information about the process to be analyzed is obtained. Instructive examples are used to illustrate the points.

  18. Entropy algebras and Birkhoff factorization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marcolli, Matilde; Tedeschi, Nicolas

    2015-11-01

    We develop notions of Rota-Baxter structures and associated Birkhoff factorizations, in the context of min-plus semirings and their thermodynamic deformations, including deformations arising from quantum information measures such as the von Neumann entropy. We consider examples related to Manin's renormalization and computation program, to Markov random fields and to counting functions and zeta functions of algebraic varieties.

  19. Algebra for All. Research Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bleyaert, Barbara

    2009-01-01

    The call for "algebra for all" is not a recent phenomenon. Concerns about the inadequacy of math (and science) preparation in America's high schools have been a steady drumbeat since the 1957 launch of Sputnik; a call for raising standards and the number of math (and science) courses required for graduation has been a part of countless national…

  20. A New Age for Algebra

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oishi, Lindsay

    2011-01-01

    "Solve for x." While many people first encountered this enigmatic instruction in high school, the last 20 years have seen a strong push to get students to take algebra in eighth grade or even before. Today, concerns about the economy highlight a familiar worry: American eighth-graders trailed their peers in five Asian countries on the 2007 TIMSS…

  1. Exploring Algebraic Misconceptions with Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sakow, Matthew; Karaman, Ruveyda

    2015-01-01

    Many students struggle with algebra, from simplifying expressions to solving systems of equations. Students also have misconceptions about the meaning of variables. In response to the question "Can x + y + z ever equal x + p + z?" during a student interview, the student claimed, "Never . . . because p has to have a different value…

  2. An Introduction to Algebraic Multigrid

    SciTech Connect

    Falgout, R D

    2006-04-25

    Algebraic multigrid (AMG) solves linear systems based on multigrid principles, but in a way that only depends on the coefficients in the underlying matrix. The author begins with a basic introduction to AMG methods, and then describes some more recent advances and theoretical developments

  3. Elementary Algebra Connections to Precalculus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lopez-Boada, Roberto; Daire, Sandra Arguelles

    2013-01-01

    This article examines the attitudes of some precalculus students to solve trigonometric and logarithmic equations and systems using the concepts of elementary algebra. With the goal of enticing the students to search for and use connections among mathematical topics, they are asked to solve equations or systems specifically designed to allow…

  4. Adventures in Flipping College Algebra

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Sickle, Jenna

    2015-01-01

    This paper outlines the experience of a university professor who implemented flipped learning in two sections of college algebra courses for two semesters. It details how the courses were flipped, what technology was used, advantages, challenges, and results. It explains what students do outside of class, what they do inside class, and discusses…

  5. Kinds of Knowledge in Algebra.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Clayton

    Solving equations in elementary algebra requires knowledge of the permitted operations, and knowledge of what operation to use at a given point in the solution process. While just these kinds of knowledge would be adequate for an ideal solver, human solvers appear to need and use other kinds of knowledge. First, many errors seem to indicate that…

  6. Algebra, Home Mortgages, and Recessions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mariner, Jean A. Miller; Miller, Richard A.

    2009-01-01

    The current financial crisis and recession in the United States present an opportunity to discuss relevant applications of some topics in typical first-and second-year algebra and precalculus courses. Real-world applications of percent change, exponential functions, and sums of finite geometric sequences can help students understand the problems…

  7. Algebra from Chips and Chopsticks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yun, Jeong Oak; Flores, Alfinio

    2012-01-01

    Students can use geometric representations of numbers as a way to explore algebraic ideas. With the help of these representations, students can think about the relations among the numbers, express them using their own words, and represent them with letters. The activities discussed here can stimulate students to try to find various ways of solving…

  8. Celestial mechanics with geometric algebra

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hestenes, D.

    1983-01-01

    Geometric algebra is introduced as a general tool for Celestial Mechanics. A general method for handling finite rotations and rotational kinematics is presented. The constants of Kepler motion are derived and manipulated in a new way. A new spinor formulation of perturbation theory is developed.

  9. Algebraic methods in system theory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brockett, R. W.; Willems, J. C.; Willsky, A. S.

    1975-01-01

    Investigations on problems of the type which arise in the control of switched electrical networks are reported. The main results concern the algebraic structure and stochastic aspects of these systems. Future reports will contain more detailed applications of these results to engineering studies.

  10. Principals + Algebra (- Fear) = Instructional Leadership

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carver, Cynthia L.

    2010-01-01

    Recent state legislation in Michigan mandates that all graduating seniors successfully pass algebra I and II. Numerous initiatives have been enacted to help mathematics teachers meet this challenge, yet school principals have had little preparation for the necessary curricular and instructional changes. To address this unmet need, university-based…

  11. Experts Question California's Algebra Edict

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cavanagh, Sean

    2008-01-01

    Business leaders from important sectors of the American economy have been urging schools to set higher standards in math and science--and California officials, in mandating that 8th graders be tested in introductory algebra, have responded with one of the highest such standards in the land. Still, many California educators and school…

  12. Assessment of an Explicit Algebraic Reynolds Stress Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carlson, Jan-Renee

    2005-01-01

    This study assesses an explicit algebraic Reynolds stress turbulence model in the in the three-dimensional Reynolds averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) solver, ISAAC (Integrated Solution Algorithm for Arbitrary Con gurations). Additionally, it compares solutions for two select configurations between ISAAC and the RANS solver PAB3D. This study compares with either direct numerical simulation data, experimental data, or empirical models for several different geometries with compressible, separated, and high Reynolds number flows. In general, the turbulence model matched data or followed experimental trends well, and for the selected configurations, the computational results of ISAAC closely matched those of PAB3D using the same turbulence model.

  13. Non-Commutative Methods for the K-Theory of C*-Algebras of Aperiodic Patterns from Cut-and-Project Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Putnam, Ian F.

    2010-03-01

    We investigate the C*-algebras associated to aperiodic structures called model sets obtained by the cut-and-project method. These C*-algebras are Morita equivalent to crossed product C*-algebras obtained from dynamics on a disconnected version of the internal space. This construction may be made from more general data, which we call a hyperplane system. From a hyperplane system, others may be constructed by a process of reduction and we show how the C*-algebras involved are related to each other. In particular, there are natural elements in the Kasparov KK-groups for the C*-algebra of a hyperplane system and that of its reduction. The induced map on K-theory fits in a six-term exact sequence. This provides a new method of the computation of the K-theory of such C*-algebras which is done completely in the setting of non-commutative geometry.

  14. Geometry and Erdkinder.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDonald, Nathaniel J.

    2001-01-01

    Chronicles a teacher's first year teaching geometry at the Hershey Montessori Farm School in Huntsburg, Ohio. Instructional methods relied on Euclid primary readings and combined pure abstract logic with practical applications of geometry on the land. The course included geometry background imparted by Montessori elementary materials as well as…

  15. The Exocenter of a Generalized Effect Algebra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foulis, David J.; Pulmannová, Sylvia

    2011-12-01

    Elements of the exocenter of a generalized effect algebra (GEA) correspond to decompositions of the GEA as a direct sum and thus the exocenter is a generalization to GEAs of the center of an effect algebra. The exocenter of a GEA is shown to be a boolean algebra, and the notion of a hull mapping for an effect algebra is generalized to a hull system for a GEA. We study Dedekind orthocompleteness of GEAs and extend to GEAs the notion of a centrally orthocomplete effect algebra.

  16. Array algebra estimation in signal processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rauhala, U. A.

    A general theory of linear estimators called array algebra estimation is interpreted in some terms of multidimensional digital signal processing, mathematical statistics, and numerical analysis. The theory has emerged during the past decade from the new field of a unified vector, matrix and tensor algebra called array algebra. The broad concepts of array algebra and its estimation theory cover several modern computerized sciences and technologies converting their established notations and terminology into one common language. Some concepts of digital signal processing are adopted into this language after a review of the principles of array algebra estimation and its predecessors in mathematical surveying sciences.

  17. Holography for a De Sitter-Esque geometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anninos, Dionysios; de Buyl, Sophie; Detournay, Stéphane

    2011-05-01

    Warped dS3 arises as a solution to topologically massive gravity (TMG) with positive cosmological constant +1/ ℓ 2 and Chern-Simons coefficient 1/ μ in the region μ 2 ℓ 2 < 27. It is given by a real line fibration over two-dimensional de Sitter space and is equivalent to the rotating Nariai geometry at fixed polar angle. We study the thermodynamic and asymptotic structure of a family of geometries with warped dS3 asymptotics. Interestingly, these solutions have both a cosmological horizon and an internal one, and their entropy is unbounded from above unlike black holes in regular de Sitter space. The asymptotic symmetry group resides at future infinity and is given by a semi-direct product of a Virasoro algebra and a current algebra. The right moving central charge vanishes when μ 2 ℓ 2 = 27/5. We discuss the possible holographic interpretation of these de Sitter-esque spacetimes.

  18. Filiform Lie algebras of order 3

    SciTech Connect

    Navarro, R. M.

    2014-04-15

    The aim of this work is to generalize a very important type of Lie algebras and superalgebras, i.e., filiform Lie (super)algebras, into the theory of Lie algebras of order F. Thus, the concept of filiform Lie algebras of order F is obtained. In particular, for F = 3 it has been proved that by using infinitesimal deformations of the associated model elementary Lie algebra it can be obtained families of filiform elementary lie algebras of order 3, analogously as that occurs into the theory of Lie algebras [M. Vergne, “Cohomologie des algèbres de Lie nilpotentes. Application à l’étude de la variété des algèbres de Lie nilpotentes,” Bull. Soc. Math. France 98, 81–116 (1970)]. Also we give the dimension, using an adaptation of the sl(2,C)-module Method, and a basis of such infinitesimal deformations in some generic cases.

  19. Atomic effect algebras with compression bases

    SciTech Connect

    Caragheorgheopol, Dan; Tkadlec, Josef

    2011-01-15

    Compression base effect algebras were recently introduced by Gudder [Demonstr. Math. 39, 43 (2006)]. They generalize sequential effect algebras [Rep. Math. Phys. 49, 87 (2002)] and compressible effect algebras [Rep. Math. Phys. 54, 93 (2004)]. The present paper focuses on atomic compression base effect algebras and the consequences of atoms being foci (so-called projections) of the compressions in the compression base. Part of our work generalizes results obtained in atomic sequential effect algebras by Tkadlec [Int. J. Theor. Phys. 47, 185 (2008)]. The notion of projection-atomicity is introduced and studied, and several conditions that force a compression base effect algebra or the set of its projections to be Boolean are found. Finally, we apply some of these results to sequential effect algebras and strengthen a previously established result concerning a sufficient condition for them to be Boolean.

  20. Atomic effect algebras with compression bases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caragheorgheopol, Dan; Tkadlec, Josef

    2011-01-01

    Compression base effect algebras were recently introduced by Gudder [Demonstr. Math. 39, 43 (2006)]. They generalize sequential effect algebras [Rep. Math. Phys. 49, 87 (2002)] and compressible effect algebras [Rep. Math. Phys. 54, 93 (2004)]. The present paper focuses on atomic compression base effect algebras and the consequences of atoms being foci (so-called projections) of the compressions in the compression base. Part of our work generalizes results obtained in atomic sequential effect algebras by Tkadlec [Int. J. Theor. Phys. 47, 185 (2008)]. The notion of projection-atomicity is introduced and studied, and several conditions that force a compression base effect algebra or the set of its projections to be Boolean are found. Finally, we apply some of these results to sequential effect algebras and strengthen a previously established result concerning a sufficient condition for them to be Boolean.

  1. Algebraic multigrid domain and range decomposition (AMG-DD / AMG-RD)*

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Bank, R.; Falgout, R. D.; Jones, T.; Manteuffel, T. A.; McCormick, S. F.; Ruge, J. W.

    2015-10-29

    In modern large-scale supercomputing applications, algebraic multigrid (AMG) is a leading choice for solving matrix equations. However, the high cost of communication relative to that of computation is a concern for the scalability of traditional implementations of AMG on emerging architectures. This paper introduces two new algebraic multilevel algorithms, algebraic multigrid domain decomposition (AMG-DD) and algebraic multigrid range decomposition (AMG-RD), that replace traditional AMG V-cycles with a fully overlapping domain decomposition approach. While the methods introduced here are similar in spirit to the geometric methods developed by Brandt and Diskin [Multigrid solvers on decomposed domains, in Domain Decomposition Methods inmore » Science and Engineering, Contemp. Math. 157, AMS, Providence, RI, 1994, pp. 135--155], Mitchell [Electron. Trans. Numer. Anal., 6 (1997), pp. 224--233], and Bank and Holst [SIAM J. Sci. Comput., 22 (2000), pp. 1411--1443], they differ primarily in that they are purely algebraic: AMG-RD and AMG-DD trade communication for computation by forming global composite “grids” based only on the matrix, not the geometry. (As is the usual AMG convention, “grids” here should be taken only in the algebraic sense, regardless of whether or not it corresponds to any geometry.) Another important distinguishing feature of AMG-RD and AMG-DD is their novel residual communication process that enables effective parallel computation on composite grids, avoiding the all-to-all communication costs of the geometric methods. The main purpose of this paper is to study the potential of these two algebraic methods as possible alternatives to existing AMG approaches for future parallel machines. As a result, this paper develops some theoretical properties of these methods and reports on serial numerical tests of their convergence properties over a spectrum of problem parameters.« less

  2. Algebraic multigrid domain and range decomposition (AMG-DD / AMG-RD)*

    SciTech Connect

    Bank, R.; Falgout, R. D.; Jones, T.; Manteuffel, T. A.; McCormick, S. F.; Ruge, J. W.

    2015-10-29

    In modern large-scale supercomputing applications, algebraic multigrid (AMG) is a leading choice for solving matrix equations. However, the high cost of communication relative to that of computation is a concern for the scalability of traditional implementations of AMG on emerging architectures. This paper introduces two new algebraic multilevel algorithms, algebraic multigrid domain decomposition (AMG-DD) and algebraic multigrid range decomposition (AMG-RD), that replace traditional AMG V-cycles with a fully overlapping domain decomposition approach. While the methods introduced here are similar in spirit to the geometric methods developed by Brandt and Diskin [Multigrid solvers on decomposed domains, in Domain Decomposition Methods in Science and Engineering, Contemp. Math. 157, AMS, Providence, RI, 1994, pp. 135--155], Mitchell [Electron. Trans. Numer. Anal., 6 (1997), pp. 224--233], and Bank and Holst [SIAM J. Sci. Comput., 22 (2000), pp. 1411--1443], they differ primarily in that they are purely algebraic: AMG-RD and AMG-DD trade communication for computation by forming global composite “grids” based only on the matrix, not the geometry. (As is the usual AMG convention, “grids” here should be taken only in the algebraic sense, regardless of whether or not it corresponds to any geometry.) Another important distinguishing feature of AMG-RD and AMG-DD is their novel residual communication process that enables effective parallel computation on composite grids, avoiding the all-to-all communication costs of the geometric methods. The main purpose of this paper is to study the potential of these two algebraic methods as possible alternatives to existing AMG approaches for future parallel machines. As a result, this paper develops some theoretical properties of these methods and reports on serial numerical tests of their convergence properties over a spectrum of problem parameters.

  3. Analysis on singular spaces: Lie manifolds and operator algebras

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nistor, Victor

    2016-07-01

    We discuss and develop some connections between analysis on singular spaces and operator algebras, as presented in my sequence of four lectures at the conference Noncommutative geometry and applications, Frascati, Italy, June 16-21, 2014. Therefore this paper is mostly a survey paper, but the presentation is new, and there are included some new results as well. In particular, Sections 3 and 4 provide a complete short introduction to analysis on noncompact manifolds that is geared towards a class of manifolds-called "Lie manifolds" -that often appears in practice. Our interest in Lie manifolds is due to the fact that they provide the link between analysis on singular spaces and operator algebras. The groupoids integrating Lie manifolds play an important background role in establishing this link because they provide operator algebras whose structure is often well understood. The initial motivation for the work surveyed here-work that spans over close to two decades-was to develop the index theory of stratified singular spaces. Meanwhile, several other applications have emerged as well, including applications to Partial Differential Equations and Numerical Methods. These will be mentioned only briefly, however, due to the lack of space. Instead, we shall concentrate on the applications to Index theory.

  4. Spacetime algebra as a powerful tool for electromagnetism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dressel, Justin; Bliokh, Konstantin Y.; Nori, Franco

    2015-08-01

    We present a comprehensive introduction to spacetime algebra that emphasizes its practicality and power as a tool for the study of electromagnetism. We carefully develop this natural (Clifford) algebra of the Minkowski spacetime geometry, with a particular focus on its intrinsic (and often overlooked) complex structure. Notably, the scalar imaginary that appears throughout the electromagnetic theory properly corresponds to the unit 4-volume of spacetime itself, and thus has physical meaning. The electric and magnetic fields are combined into a single complex and frame-independent bivector field, which generalizes the Riemann-Silberstein complex vector that has recently resurfaced in studies of the single photon wavefunction. The complex structure of spacetime also underpins the emergence of electromagnetic waves, circular polarizations, the normal variables for canonical quantization, the distinction between electric and magnetic charge, complex spinor representations of Lorentz transformations, and the dual (electric-magnetic field exchange) symmetry that produces helicity conservation in vacuum fields. This latter symmetry manifests as an arbitrary global phase of the complex field, motivating the use of a complex vector potential, along with an associated transverse and gauge-invariant bivector potential, as well as complex (bivector and scalar) Hertz potentials. Our detailed treatment aims to encourage the use of spacetime algebra as a readily available and mature extension to existing vector calculus and tensor methods that can greatly simplify the analysis of fundamentally relativistic objects like the electromagnetic field.

  5. Lambda modes of the neutron diffusion equation in hexagonal geometry

    SciTech Connect

    Barrachina, T.; Ginestar, D.; Verdu, G.

    2006-07-01

    A nodal collocation method is proposed to compute the dominant Lambda modes of nuclear reactor core with a hexagonal geometry. This method is based on a triangular mesh and assumes that the neutronic flux can be approximated as a finite expansion in terms of Dubiner's polynomials. The method transforms the initial differential eigenvalue problem into a generalized algebraic one, from which the dominant modes of the reactor can be computed. The performance of the method is tested with two benchmark problems. (authors)

  6. Two and three dimensional grid generation by an algebraic homotopy procedure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moitra, Anutosh

    1990-01-01

    An algebraic method for generating two- and three-dimensional grid systems for aerospace vehicles is presented. The method is based on algebraic procedures derived from homotopic relations for blending between inner and outer boundaries of any given configuration. Stable properties of homotopic maps have been exploited to provide near-orthogonality and specified constant spacing at the inner boundary. The method has been successfully applied to analytically generated blended wing-body configurations as well as discretely defined geometries such as the High-Speed Civil Transport Aircraft. Grid examples representative of the capabilities of the method are presented.

  7. On the applications of algebraic grid generation methods based on transfinite interpolation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nguyen, Hung Lee

    1989-01-01

    Algebraic grid generation methods based on transfinite interpolation called the two-boundary and four-boundary methods are applied for generating grids with highly complex boundaries. These methods yield grid point distributions that allow for accurate application to regions of sharp gradients in the physical domain or time-dependent problems with small length scale phenomena. Algebraic grids are derived using the two-boundary and four-boundary methods for applications in both two- and three-dimensional domains. Grids are developed for distinctly different geometrical problems and the two-boundary and four-boundary methods are demonstrated to be applicable to a wide class of geometries.

  8. Nonassociative geometry in quasi-Hopf representation categories II: Connections and curvature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barnes, Gwendolyn E.; Schenkel, Alexander; Szabo, Richard J.

    2016-08-01

    We continue our systematic development of noncommutative and nonassociative differential geometry internal to the representation category of a quasitriangular quasi-Hopf algebra. We describe derivations, differential operators, differential calculi and connections using universal categorical constructions to capture algebraic properties such as Leibniz rules. Our main result is the construction of morphisms which provide prescriptions for lifting connections to tensor products and to internal homomorphisms. We describe the curvatures of connections within our formalism, and also the formulation of Einstein-Cartan geometry as a putative framework for a nonassociative theory of gravity.

  9. Hecke-Clifford Algebras and Spin Hecke Algebras IV: Odd Double Affine Type

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khongsap, Ta; Wang, Weiqiang

    2009-01-01

    We introduce an odd double affine Hecke algebra (DaHa) generated by a classical Weyl group W and two skew-polynomial subalgebras of anticommuting generators. This algebra is shown to be Morita equivalent to another new DaHa which are generated by W and two polynomial-Clifford subalgebras. There is yet a third algebra containing a spin Weyl group algebra which is Morita (super)equivalent to the above two algebras. We establish the PBW properties and construct Verma-type representations via Dunkl operators for these algebras.

  10. ALGEBRA IIVer 1.22

    2003-06-03

    The ALGEBRA II program allows the user to manipulate data from a finite element analysis before it is plotted by evaluating algebraic expressions. The equation variables are dependent on the input database variable names. The finite element output data is in the form of variable values (e.g., stress, strain, and velocity components) in an EXODUS II database which can be read by plot programs. Code is written in a portable form as possible. Fortran codemore » is written in ANSI Standard FORTRAN-77. Machine-specific routines are limited in number and are grouped together to minimize the time required to adapt them to a new system. SEACAS codes has been ported to several Unix systems.« less

  11. Single axioms for Boolean algebra.

    SciTech Connect

    McCune, W.

    2000-06-30

    Explicit single axioms are presented for Boolean algebra in terms of (1) the Sheffer stroke; (2) disjunction and negation; (3) disjunction, conjunction, and negation; and (4) disjunction, conjunction, negation, 0, and 1. It was previously known that single axioms exist for these systems, but the procedures to generate them are exponential, producing huge equations. Automated deduction techniques were applied to find axioms of lengths 105, 131, 111, and 127, respectively, each with six variables.

  12. The algebras of large N matrix mechanics

    SciTech Connect

    Halpern, M.B.; Schwartz, C.

    1999-09-16

    Extending early work, we formulate the large N matrix mechanics of general bosonic, fermionic and supersymmetric matrix models, including Matrix theory: The Hamiltonian framework of large N matrix mechanics provides a natural setting in which to study the algebras of the large N limit, including (reduced) Lie algebras, (reduced) supersymmetry algebras and free algebras. We find in particular a broad array of new free algebras which we call symmetric Cuntz algebras, interacting symmetric Cuntz algebras, symmetric Bose/Fermi/Cuntz algebras and symmetric Cuntz superalgebras, and we discuss the role of these algebras in solving the large N theory. Most important, the interacting Cuntz algebras are associated to a set of new (hidden!) local quantities which are generically conserved only at large N. A number of other new large N phenomena are also observed, including the intrinsic nonlocality of the (reduced) trace class operators of the theory and a closely related large N field identification phenomenon which is associated to another set (this time nonlocal) of new conserved quantities at large N.

  13. Alternative algebraic approaches in quantum chemistry

    SciTech Connect

    Mezey, Paul G.

    2015-01-22

    Various algebraic approaches of quantum chemistry all follow a common principle: the fundamental properties and interrelations providing the most essential features of a quantum chemical representation of a molecule or a chemical process, such as a reaction, can always be described by algebraic methods. Whereas such algebraic methods often provide precise, even numerical answers, nevertheless their main role is to give a framework that can be elaborated and converted into computational methods by involving alternative mathematical techniques, subject to the constraints and directions provided by algebra. In general, algebra describes sets of interrelations, often phrased in terms of algebraic operations, without much concern with the actual entities exhibiting these interrelations. However, in many instances, the very realizations of two, seemingly unrelated algebraic structures by actual quantum chemical entities or properties play additional roles, and unexpected connections between different algebraic structures are often giving new insight. Here we shall be concerned with two alternative algebraic structures: the fundamental group of reaction mechanisms, based on the energy-dependent topology of potential energy surfaces, and the interrelations among point symmetry groups for various distorted nuclear arrangements of molecules. These two, distinct algebraic structures provide interesting interrelations, which can be exploited in actual studies of molecular conformational and reaction processes. Two relevant theorems will be discussed.

  14. Computer algebra and transport theory.

    SciTech Connect

    Warsa, J. S.

    2004-01-01

    Modern symbolic algebra computer software augments and complements more traditional approaches to transport theory applications in several ways. The first area is in the development and enhancement of numerical solution methods for solving the Boltzmann transport equation. Typically, special purpose computer codes are designed and written to solve specific transport problems in particular ways. Different aspects of the code are often written from scratch and the pitfalls of developing complex computer codes are numerous and well known. Software such as MAPLE and MATLAB can be used to prototype, analyze, verify and determine the suitability of numerical solution methods before a full-scale transport application is written. Once it is written, the relevant pieces of the full-scale code can be verified using the same tools I that were developed for prototyping. Another area is in the analysis of numerical solution methods or the calculation of theoretical results that might otherwise be difficult or intractable. Algebraic manipulations are done easily and without error and the software also provides a framework for any additional numerical calculations that might be needed to complete the analysis. We will discuss several applications in which we have extensively used MAPLE and MATLAB in our work. All of them involve numerical solutions of the S{sub N} transport equation. These applications encompass both of the two main areas in which we have found computer algebra software essential.

  15. BLAS- BASIC LINEAR ALGEBRA SUBPROGRAMS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krogh, F. T.

    1994-01-01

    The Basic Linear Algebra Subprogram (BLAS) library is a collection of FORTRAN callable routines for employing standard techniques in performing the basic operations of numerical linear algebra. The BLAS library was developed to provide a portable and efficient source of basic operations for designers of programs involving linear algebraic computations. The subprograms available in the library cover the operations of dot product, multiplication of a scalar and a vector, vector plus a scalar times a vector, Givens transformation, modified Givens transformation, copy, swap, Euclidean norm, sum of magnitudes, and location of the largest magnitude element. Since these subprograms are to be used in an ANSI FORTRAN context, the cases of single precision, double precision, and complex data are provided for. All of the subprograms have been thoroughly tested and produce consistent results even when transported from machine to machine. BLAS contains Assembler versions and FORTRAN test code for any of the following compilers: Lahey F77L, Microsoft FORTRAN, or IBM Professional FORTRAN. It requires the Microsoft Macro Assembler and a math co-processor. The PC implementation allows individual arrays of over 64K. The BLAS library was developed in 1979. The PC version was made available in 1986 and updated in 1988.

  16. Trigonometry from a Different Angle

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cavanagh, Michael

    2008-01-01

    The mathematics methodology subjects the author undertook in the early 1980s encouraged him to adopt a very expository style of teaching in which each new concept is introduced by its formal definition. The teacher should then explain a few carefully chosen examples for students to copy into their books, and then provide plenty of graded practice…

  17. (Fuzzy) Ideals of BN-Algebras

    PubMed Central

    Walendziak, Andrzej

    2015-01-01

    The notions of an ideal and a fuzzy ideal in BN-algebras are introduced. The properties and characterizations of them are investigated. The concepts of normal ideals and normal congruences of a BN-algebra are also studied, the properties of them are displayed, and a one-to-one correspondence between them is presented. Conditions for a fuzzy set to be a fuzzy ideal are given. The relationships between ideals and fuzzy ideals of a BN-algebra are established. The homomorphic properties of fuzzy ideals of a BN-algebra are provided. Finally, characterizations of Noetherian BN-algebras and Artinian BN-algebras via fuzzy ideals are obtained. PMID:26125050

  18. Lax operator algebras and integrable systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheinman, O. K.

    2016-02-01

    A new class of infinite-dimensional Lie algebras, called Lax operator algebras, is presented, along with a related unifying approach to finite-dimensional integrable systems with a spectral parameter on a Riemann surface such as the Calogero-Moser and Hitchin systems. In particular, the approach includes (non-twisted) Kac-Moody algebras and integrable systems with a rational spectral parameter. The presentation is based on quite simple ideas about the use of gradings of semisimple Lie algebras and their interaction with the Riemann-Roch theorem. The basic properties of Lax operator algebras and the basic facts about the theory of the integrable systems in question are treated (and proved) from this general point of view. In particular, the existence of commutative hierarchies and their Hamiltonian properties are considered. The paper concludes with an application of Lax operator algebras to prequantization of finite-dimensional integrable systems. Bibliography: 51 titles.

  19. Algebra: A Challenge at the Crossroads of Policy and Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stein, Mary Kay; Kaufman, Julia Heath; Sherman, Milan; Hillen, Amy F.

    2011-01-01

    The authors review what is known about early and universal algebra, including who is getting access to algebra and student outcomes associated with algebra course taking in general and specifically with universal algebra policies. The findings indicate that increasing numbers of students, some of whom are underprepared, are taking algebra earlier.…

  20. Coverings of topological semi-abelian algebras

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mucuk, Osman; Demir, Serap

    2016-08-01

    In this work, we study on a category of topological semi-abelian algebras which are topological models of given an algebraic theory T whose category of models is semi-abelian; and investigate some results on the coverings of topological models of such theories yielding semi-abelian categories. We also consider the internal groupoid structure in the semi-abelian category of T-algebras, and give a criteria for the lifting of internal groupoid structure to the covering groupoids.

  1. Stability of algebraically unstable dispersive flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    King, Kristina; Zaretzky, Paula; Weinstein, Steven; Cromer, Michael; Barlow, Nathaniel

    2015-11-01

    A widely unexplored type of hydrodynamic instability is examined - large-time algebraic growth. Such growth occurs on the threshold of (exponentially) neutral stability. A methodology is provided for predicting the algebraic growth rate of an initial disturbance, when applied to a class of partial differential equations describing wave propagation in dispersive media. There are several morphological differences between algebraically growing disturbances and the exponentially growing wave packets inherent to classical linear stability analysis, and these are elucidated in this study.

  2. Explicit travelling waves and invariant algebraic curves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gasull, Armengol; Giacomini, Hector

    2015-06-01

    We introduce a precise definition of algebraic travelling wave solution of n-th order partial differential equations and prove that the only algebraic travelling waves solutions for the celebrated Fisher-Kolmogorov equation are the ones found in 1979 by Ablowitz and Zeppetella. This question is equivalent to study when an associated one-parameter family of planar ordinary differential systems has invariant algebraic curves.

  3. Finite-dimensional simple graded algebras

    SciTech Connect

    Bahturin, Yu A; Zaicev, M V; Sehgal, S K

    2008-08-31

    Let R be a finite-dimensional algebra over an algebraically closed field F graded by an arbitrary group G. In the paper it is proved that if the characteristic of F is zero or does not divide the order of any finite subgroup of G, then R is graded simple if and only if it is isomorphic to a matrix algebra over a finite-dimensional graded skew field. Bibliography: 24 titles.

  4. A method to convert algebraic boundary representations to CSG representations for three-dimensional solids

    SciTech Connect

    Buchele, S.F.; Ellingson, W.A.

    1997-06-01

    Recent advances in reverse engineering have focused on recovering a boundary representation (b-rep) of an object, often for integration with rapid prototyping. This boundary representation may be a 3-D point cloud, a triangulation of points, or piecewise algebraic or parametric surfaces. This paper presents work in progress to develop an algorithm to extend the current state of the art in reverse engineering of mechanical parts. This algorithm will take algebraic surface representations as input and will produce a constructive solid geometry (CSG) description that uses solid primitives such as rectangular block, pyramid, sphere, cylinder, and cone. The proposed algorithm will automatically generate a CSG solid model of a part given its algebraic b-rep, thus allowing direct input into a CAD system and subsequent CSG model generation.

  5. The Beauty of Geometry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morris, Barbara H.

    2004-01-01

    This article describes a geometry project that used the beauty of stained-glass-window designs to teach middle school students about geometric figures and concepts. Three honors prealgebra teachers and a middle school mathematics gifted intervention specialist created a geometry project that covered the curriculum and also assessed students'…

  6. Geometry of multihadron production

    SciTech Connect

    Bjorken, J.D.

    1994-10-01

    This summary talk only reviews a small sample of topics featured at this symposium: Introduction; The Geometry and Geography of Phase space; Space-Time Geometry and HBT; Multiplicities, Intermittency, Correlations; Disoriented Chiral Condensate; Deep Inelastic Scattering at HERA; and Other Contributions.

  7. Want to Play Geometry?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaufmann, Matthew L.; Bomer, Megan A.; Powell, Nancy Norem

    2009-01-01

    Students enter the geometry classroom with a strong concept of fairness and a sense of what it means to "play by the rules," yet many students have difficulty understanding the postulates, or rules, of geometry and their implications. Although they may never have articulated the properties of an axiomatic system, they have gained a practical…

  8. Euclidean Geometry via Programming.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Filimonov, Rossen; Kreith, Kurt

    1992-01-01

    Describes the Plane Geometry System computer software developed at the Educational Computer Systems laboratory in Sofia, Bulgaria. The system enables students to use the concept of "algorithm" to correspond to the process of "deductive proof" in the development of plane geometry. Provides an example of the software's capability and compares it to…

  9. Geometry + Technology = Proof

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lyublinskaya, Irina; Funsch, Dan

    2012-01-01

    Several interactive geometry software packages are available today to secondary school teachers. An example is The Geometer's Sketchpad[R] (GSP), also known as Dynamic Geometry[R] software, developed by Key Curriculum Press. This numeric based technology has been widely adopted in the last twenty years, and a vast amount of creativity has been…

  10. Algebraic logic of concepts and its machine implementation in the algebras of deontic and axiological notions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manerowska, Anna; Nieznański, Edward; Mulawka, Jan

    2013-10-01

    Our aim is to present the algebra of concepts in two formal languages. First, after introducing a primary relation between concepts, which is subsumption, we shall specify in a language that uses quantifiers, the Boolean algebra of general concepts. Next, we shall note down the same algebra in simplified non-quantifying language, in order to use it as basis for two specific implementations, i.e. to create the Boolean algebras of deontic concepts and axiological concepts.

  11. Representations of Super Yang-Mills Algebras

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herscovich, Estanislao

    2013-06-01

    We study in this article the representation theory of a family of super algebras, called the super Yang-Mills algebras, by exploiting the Kirillov orbit method à la Dixmier for nilpotent super Lie algebras. These super algebras are an extension of the so-called Yang-Mills algebras, introduced by A. Connes and M. Dubois-Violette in (Lett Math Phys 61(2):149-158, 2002), and in fact they appear as a "background independent" formulation of supersymmetric gauge theory considered in physics, in a similar way as Yang-Mills algebras do the same for the usual gauge theory. Our main result states that, under certain hypotheses, all Clifford-Weyl super algebras {{Cliff}q(k) ⊗ Ap(k)}, for p ≥ 3, or p = 2 and q ≥ 2, appear as a quotient of all super Yang-Mills algebras, for n ≥ 3 and s ≥ 1. This provides thus a family of representations of the super Yang-Mills algebras.

  12. Difficulties in initial algebra learning in Indonesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jupri, Al; Drijvers, Paul; van den Heuvel-Panhuizen, Marja

    2014-12-01

    Within mathematics curricula, algebra has been widely recognized as one of the most difficult topics, which leads to learning difficulties worldwide. In Indonesia, algebra performance is an important issue. In the Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS) 2007, Indonesian students' achievement in the algebra domain was significantly below the average student performance in other Southeast Asian countries such as Thailand, Malaysia, and Singapore. This fact gave rise to this study which aims to investigate Indonesian students' difficulties in algebra. In order to do so, a literature study was carried out on students' difficulties in initial algebra. Next, an individual written test on algebra tasks was administered, followed by interviews. A sample of 51 grade VII Indonesian students worked the written test, and 37 of them were interviewed afterwards. Data analysis revealed that mathematization, i.e., the ability to translate back and forth between the world of the problem situation and the world of mathematics and to reorganize the mathematical system itself, constituted the most frequently observed difficulty in both the written test and the interview data. Other observed difficulties concerned understanding algebraic expressions, applying arithmetic operations in numerical and algebraic expressions, understanding the different meanings of the equal sign, and understanding variables. The consequences of these findings on both task design and further research in algebra education are discussed.

  13. Multicloning and Multibroadcasting in Operator Algebras

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaniowski, Krzysztof; Lubnauer, Katarzyna; Łuczak, Andrzej

    2015-12-01

    We investigate multicloning and multibroadcasting in the general operator algebra framework in arbitrary dimension, generalizing thus results obtained in this framework for simple cloning and broadcasting.

  14. On Realization of Generalized Effect Algebras

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paseka, Jan

    2012-12-01

    A well-known fact is that there is a finite orthomodular lattice with an order determining set of states which is not representable in the standard quantum logic, the lattice L(H) of all closed subspaces of a separable complex Hilbert space. We show that a generalized effect algebra is representable in the operator generalized effect algebra G(H) of effects of a complex Hilbert space H iff it has an order determining set of generalized states. This extends the corresponding results for effect algebras of Riečanová and Zajac. Further, any operator generalized effect algebra G(H) possesses an order determining set of generalized states.

  15. Literal algebra for satellite dynamics. [perturbation analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gaposchkin, E. M.

    1975-01-01

    A description of the rather general class of operations available is given and the operations are related to problems in satellite dynamics. The implementation of an algebra processor is discussed. The four main categories of symbol processors are related to list processing, string manipulation, symbol manipulation, and formula manipulation. Fundamental required operations for an algebra processor are considered. It is pointed out that algebra programs have been used for a number of problems in celestial mechanics with great success. The advantage of computer algebra is its accuracy and speed.

  16. Banach Algebras Associated to Lax Pairs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glazebrook, James F.

    2015-04-01

    Lax pairs featuring in the theory of integrable systems are known to be constructed from a commutative algebra of formal pseudodifferential operators known as the Burchnall- Chaundy algebra. Such pairs induce the well known KP flows on a restricted infinite-dimensional Grassmannian. The latter can be exhibited as a Banach homogeneous space constructed from a Banach *-algebra. It is shown that this commutative algebra of operators generating Lax pairs can be associated with a commutative C*-subalgebra in the C*-norm completion of the *-algebra. In relationship to the Bose-Fermi correspondence and the theory of vertex operators, this C*-algebra has an association with the CAR algebra of operators as represented on Fermionic Fock space by the Gelfand-Naimark-Segal construction. Instrumental is the Plücker embedding of the restricted Grassmannian into the projective space of the associated Hilbert space. The related Baker and tau-functions provide a connection between these two C*-algebras, following which their respective state spaces and Jordan-Lie-Banach algebras structures can be compared.

  17. Type-Decomposition of an Effect Algebra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foulis, David J.; Pulmannová, Sylvia

    2010-10-01

    Effect algebras (EAs), play a significant role in quantum logic, are featured in the theory of partially ordered Abelian groups, and generalize orthoalgebras, MV-algebras, orthomodular posets, orthomodular lattices, modular ortholattices, and boolean algebras. We study centrally orthocomplete effect algebras (COEAs), i.e., EAs satisfying the condition that every family of elements that is dominated by an orthogonal family of central elements has a supremum. For COEAs, we introduce a general notion of decomposition into types; prove that a COEA factors uniquely as a direct sum of types I, II, and III; and obtain a generalization for COEAs of Ramsay’s fourfold decomposition of a complete orthomodular lattice.

  18. A Structure of BCI-Algebras

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chajda, Ivan

    2014-10-01

    Commutative BCI-algebras can be considered as semilattices whose sections are equipped with certain involutions. A similar view can be applied to commutative BCK-algebras. However, for general BCK-algebras a certain construction was settled by the author and J. Kühr (Miskolc Math. Notes 8:11-21, 2007) showing that they can be considered as structures essentially weaker than semilattices but still with certain involutions in sections. The aim of this paper is to involve a similar approach for BCI-algebras.

  19. Prospective Teachers' Views on the Use of Calculators with Computer Algebra System in Algebra Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ozgun-Koca, S. Ash

    2010-01-01

    Although growing numbers of secondary school mathematics teachers and students use calculators to study graphs, they mainly rely on paper-and-pencil when manipulating algebraic symbols. However, the Computer Algebra Systems (CAS) on computers or handheld calculators create new possibilities for teaching and learning algebraic manipulation. This…

  20. Results of Using Algebra Tiles as Meaningful Representations of Algebra Concepts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sharp, Janet M.

    Mathematical meanings can be developed when individuals construct translations between algebra symbol systems and physical systems that represent one another. Previous research studies indicated (1) few high school students connect whole number manipulations to algebraic manipulations and (2) students who encounter algebraic ideas through…

  1. Some C∗-algebras which are coronas of non-C∗-Banach algebras

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voiculescu, Dan-Virgil

    2016-07-01

    We present results and motivating problems in the study of commutants of hermitian n-tuples of Hilbert space operators modulo normed ideals. In particular, the C∗-algebras which arise in this context as coronas of non-C∗-Banach algebras, the connections with normed ideal perturbations of operators, the hyponormal operators and the bidual Banach algebras one encounters are discussed.

  2. Leibniz algebras associated with some finite-dimensional representation of Diamond Lie algebra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Camacho, Luisa M.; Ladra, Manuel; Karimjanov, Iqboljon A.; Omirov, Bakhrom A.

    2016-03-01

    In this paper we classify Leibniz algebras whose associated Lie algebra is four-dimensional Diamond Lie algebra 𝕯 and the ideal generated by squares of elements is represented by one of the finite-dimensional indecomposable D-modules Un 1, Un 2 or Wn 1 or Wn 2.

  3. On the Hermitian Projective Line as a Home for the Geometry of Quantum Theory

    SciTech Connect

    Bertram, Wolfgang

    2008-11-18

    In the paper [1], generalized projective geometries have been proposed as a framework for a geometric formulation of Quantum Theory. In the present note, we refine this proposition by discussing further structural features of Quantum Theory: the link with associative involutive algebras A and with Jordan-Lie and Lie-Jordan algebas. The associated geometries are (Hermitian) projective lines over A; their axiomatic definition and theory will be given in subsequent work with M. Kinyon [2].

  4. The Algebra of Lexical Semantics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kornai, András

    The current generative theory of the lexicon relies primarily on tools from formal language theory and mathematical logic. Here we describe how a different formal apparatus, taken from algebra and automata theory, resolves many of the known problems with the generative lexicon. We develop a finite state theory of word meaning based on machines in the sense of Eilenberg [11], a formalism capable of describing discrepancies between syntactic type (lexical category) and semantic type (number of arguments). This mechanism is compared both to the standard linguistic approaches and to the formalisms developed in AI/KR.

  5. Differential geometry of groups in string theory

    SciTech Connect

    Schmidke, W.B. Jr.

    1990-09-01

    Techniques from differential geometry and group theory are applied to two topics from string theory. The first topic studied is quantum groups, with the example of GL (1{vert bar}1). The quantum group GL{sub q}(1{vert bar}1) is introduced, and an exponential description is derived. The algebra and coproduct are determined using the invariant differential calculus method introduced by Woronowicz and generalized by Wess and Zumino. An invariant calculus is also introduced on the quantum superplane, and a representation of the algebra of GL{sub q}(1{vert bar}1) in terms of the super-plane coordinates is constructed. The second topic follows the approach to string theory introduced by Bowick and Rajeev. Here the ghost contribution to the anomaly of the energy-momentum tensor is calculated as the Ricci curvature of the Kaehler quotient space Diff(S{sup 1})/S{sup 1}. We discuss general Kaehler quotient spaces and derive an expression for their Ricci curvatures. Application is made to the string and superstring diffeomorphism groups, considering all possible choices of subgroup. The formalism is extended to associated holomorphic vector bundles, where the Ricci curvature corresponds to the anomaly for different ghost sea levels. 26 refs.

  6. Massive neutrinos in almost-commutative geometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stephan, Christoph A.

    2007-02-01

    In the noncommutative formulation of the standard model of particle physics by Chamseddine and Connes [Commun. Math. Phys. 182, 155 (1996), e-print hep-th/9606001], one of the three generations of fermions has to possess a massless neutrino. [C. P. Martin et al., Phys. Rep. 29, 363 (1998), e-print hep-th-9605001]. This formulation is consistent with neutrino oscillation experiments and the known bounds of the Pontecorvo-Maki-Nakagawa-Sakata matrix (PMNS matrix). But future experiments which may be able to detect neutrino masses directly and high-precision measurements of the PMNS matrix might need massive neutrinos in all three generations. In this paper we present an almost-commutative geometry which allows for a standard model with massive neutrinos in all three generations. This model does not follow in a straightforward way from the version of Chamseddine and Connes since it requires an internal algebra with four summands of matrix algebras, instead of three summands for the model with one massless neutrino.

  7. Massive neutrinos in almost-commutative geometry

    SciTech Connect

    Stephan, Christoph A.

    2007-02-15

    In the noncommutative formulation of the standard model of particle physics by Chamseddine and Connes [Commun. Math. Phys. 182, 155 (1996), e-print hep-th/9606001], one of the three generations of fermions has to possess a massless neutrino. [C. P. Martin et al., Phys. Rep. 29, 363 (1998), e-print hep-th-9605001]. This formulation is consistent with neutrino oscillation experiments and the known bounds of the Pontecorvo-Maki-Nakagawa-Sakata matrix (PMNS matrix). But future experiments which may be able to detect neutrino masses directly and high-precision measurements of the PMNS matrix might need massive neutrinos in all three generations. In this paper we present an almost-commutative geometry which allows for a standard model with massive neutrinos in all three generations. This model does not follow in a straightforward way from the version of Chamseddine and Connes since it requires an internal algebra with four summands of matrix algebras, instead of three summands for the model with one massless neutrino.

  8. Strengthening Effect Algebras in a Logical Perspective: Heyting-Wajsberg Algebras

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Konig, Martinvaldo

    2014-10-01

    Heyting effect algebras are lattice-ordered pseudoboolean effect algebras endowed with a pseudocomplementation that maps on the center (i.e. Boolean elements). They are the algebraic counterpart of an extension of both Łukasiewicz many-valued logic and intuitionistic logic. We show that Heyting effect algebras are termwise equivalent to Heyting-Wajsberg algebras where the two different logical implications are defined as primitive operators. We prove this logic to be decidable, to be strongly complete and to have the deduction-detachment theorem.

  9. Automorphisms and Derivations of the Insertion-Elimination Algebra and Related Graded Lie Algebras

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ondrus, Matthew; Wiesner, Emilie

    2016-07-01

    This paper addresses several structural aspects of the insertion-elimination algebra {mathfrak{g}}, a Lie algebra that can be realized in terms of tree-inserting and tree-eliminating operations on the set of rooted trees. In particular, we determine the finite-dimensional subalgebras of {mathfrak{g}}, the automorphism group of {mathfrak{g}}, the derivation Lie algebra of {mathfrak{g}}, and a generating set. Several results are stated in terms of Lie algebras admitting a triangular decomposition and can be used to reproduce results for the generalized Virasoro algebras.

  10. Algebras Generated by Geometric Scalar Forms and their Applications in Physics and Social Sciences

    SciTech Connect

    Keller, Jaime

    2008-09-17

    The present paper analyzes the consequences of defining that the geometric scalar form is not necessarily quadratic, but in general K-atic, that is obtained from the K{sup th} power of the linear form, requiring {l_brace}e{sub i};i = 1,...,N;(e{sub i}){sup K} = 1{r_brace} and d-vector {sigma}{sub i}x{sub i}e{sub i}. We consider the algebras which are thus generated, for positive integer K, a generalization of the geometric algebras we know under the names of Clifford or Grassmann algebras. We then obtain a set of geometric K-algebras. We also consider the generalization of special functions of geometry which corresponds to the K-order scalar forms (as trigonometric functions and other related geometric functions which are based on the use of quadratic forms). We present an overview of the use of quadratic forms in physics as in our general theory, we have called START. And, in order to give an introduction to the use of the more general K-algebras and to the possible application to sciences other than physics, the application to social sciences is considered.For the applications to physics we show that quadratic spaces are a fundamental clue to understand the structure of theoretical physics (see, for example, Keller in ICNAAM 2005 and 2006)

  11. A Sourcebook of Problems for Geometry Based upon Industrial Design and Architectural Ornament.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sykes, Mabel

    This updated reprint of a classic work presents design analysis of geometric patterns and information helpful to constructing mathematical drawings of industrial and achitectural features. Both simple and complex designs are given. Problems combine both algebra and geometry. The work is divided into six chapters which are further divided into…

  12. TOPICAL REVIEW: Braided affine geometry and q-analogs of wave operators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gurevich, Dimitri; Saponov, Pavel

    2009-08-01

    The main goal of this review is to compare different approaches to constructing the geometry associated with a Hecke type braiding (in particular, with that related to the quantum group Uq(sl(n))). We place emphasis on the affine braided geometry related to the so-called reflection equation algebra (REA). All objects of such a type of geometry are defined in the spirit of affine algebraic geometry via polynomial relations on generators. We begin by comparing the Poisson counterparts of 'quantum varieties' and describe different approaches to their quantization. Also, we exhibit two approaches to introducing q-analogs of vector bundles and defining the Chern-Connes index for them on quantum spheres. In accordance with the Serre-Swan approach, the q-vector bundles are treated as finitely generated projective modules over the corresponding quantum algebras. Besides, we describe the basic properties of the REA used in this construction and compare different ways of defining q-analogs of partial derivatives and differentials on the REA and algebras close to them. In particular, we present a way of introducing a q-differential calculus via Koszul type complexes. The elements of the q-calculus are applied to defining q-analogs of some relativistic wave operators.

  13. Realizations of conformal current-type Lie algebras

    SciTech Connect

    Pei Yufeng; Bai Chengming

    2010-05-15

    In this paper we obtain the realizations of some infinite-dimensional Lie algebras, named 'conformal current-type Lie algebras', in terms of a two-dimensional Novikov algebra and its deformations. Furthermore, Ovsienko and Roger's loop cotangent Virasoro algebra, which can be regarded as a nice generalization of the Virasoro algebra with two space variables, is naturally realized as an affinization of the tensor product of a deformation of the two-dimensional Novikov algebra and the Laurent polynomial algebra. These realizations shed new light on various aspects of the structure and representation theory of the corresponding infinite-dimensional Lie algebras.

  14. Is Algebra Really Difficult for All Students?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Egodawatte, Gunawardena

    2009-01-01

    Research studies have shown that students encounter difficulties in transitioning from arithmetic to algebra. Errors made by high school students were analyzed for patterns and their causes. The origins of errors were: intuitive assumptions, failure to understand the syntax of algebra, analogies with other familiar symbol systems such as the…

  15. Some Applications of Algebraic System Solving

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roanes-Lozano, Eugenio

    2011-01-01

    Technology and, in particular, computer algebra systems, allows us to change both the way we teach mathematics and the mathematical curriculum. Curiously enough, unlike what happens with linear system solving, algebraic system solving is not widely known. The aim of this paper is to show that, although the theory lying behind the "exact solve"…

  16. A Technology-Intensive Approach to Algebra.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heid, M. Kathleen; Zbiek, Rose Mary

    1995-01-01

    Computer-Intensive Algebra (CIA) focuses on the use of technology to help develop a rich understanding of fundamental algebraic concepts in real-world settings using computing tools for easy access to numerical, graphical, and symbolic representations of mathematical ideas. (MKR)

  17. An Inquiry-Based Linear Algebra Class

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Haohao; Posey, Lisa

    2011-01-01

    Linear algebra is a standard undergraduate mathematics course. This paper presents an overview of the design and implementation of an inquiry-based teaching material for the linear algebra course which emphasizes discovery learning, analytical thinking and individual creativity. The inquiry-based teaching material is designed to fit the needs of a…

  18. Algebra in the Early Years? Yes!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor-Cox, Jennifer

    2003-01-01

    Suggests ways early years educators can begin teaching young children to think algebraically and prepare them for success in algebra. Focuses on ways to promote mathematical patterns, mathematical situations and structures, models of quantitative relationship, and change. Describes how first-graders used real object representations to better…

  19. Algebraic Thinking: A Problem Solving Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Windsor, Will

    2010-01-01

    Algebraic thinking is a crucial and fundamental element of mathematical thinking and reasoning. It initially involves recognising patterns and general mathematical relationships among numbers, objects and geometric shapes. This paper will highlight how the ability to think algebraically might support a deeper and more useful knowledge, not only of…

  20. New directions in algebraic dynamical systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidt, Klaus; Verbitskiy, Evgeny

    2011-02-01

    The logarithmic Mahler measure of certain multivariate polynomials occurs frequently as the entropy or the free energy of solvable lattice models (especially dimer models). It is also known that the entropy of an algebraic dynamical system is the logarithmic Mahler measure of the defining polynomial. The connection between the lattice models and the algebraic dynamical systems is still rather mysterious.

  1. Solving Absolute Value Equations Algebraically and Geometrically

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shiyuan, Wei

    2005-01-01

    The way in which students can improve their comprehension by understanding the geometrical meaning of algebraic equations or solving algebraic equation geometrically is described. Students can experiment with the conditions of the absolute value equation presented, for an interesting way to form an overall understanding of the concept.

  2. Low Performers Found Unready to Take Algebra

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cavanagh, Sean

    2008-01-01

    As state and school leaders across the country push to have more students take algebra in 8th grade, a new study argues that middle schoolers struggling the most in math are being enrolled in that course despite being woefully unprepared. "The Misplaced Math Student: Lost in Eighth Grade Algebra," scheduled for release by the Brookings Institution…

  3. Calif. Laws Shift Gears on Algebra, Textbooks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robelen, Erik W.

    2012-01-01

    New laws in California have set the state on a course for some potentially significant changes to the curriculum, including a measure that revisits the matter of teaching Algebra 1 in 8th grade and another that revamps the state's textbook-adoption process and hands districts greater leeway in choosing instructional materials. The algebra-related…

  4. Success in Algebra among Community College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reyes, Czarina

    2010-01-01

    College algebra is a required course for most majors, but is viewed by many as a gatekeeper course for degree completion by students. With almost half a million students taking college algebra each year, faculty are experimenting with new course lengths of time that might result in higher success, completion, and retention rates for college…

  5. Using the Internet To Investigate Algebra.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sherwood, Walter

    The lesson plans in this book engage students by using a tool they enjoy--the Internet--to explore key concepts in algebra. Working either individually or in groups, students learn to approach algebra from a problem solving perspective. Each lesson shows learners how to use the Internet as a resource for gathering facts, data, and other…

  6. Algebraic Geodesics on Three-Dimensional Quadrics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kai, Yue

    2015-12-01

    By Hamilton-Jacobi method, we study the problem of algebraic geodesics on the third-order surface. By the implicit function theorem, we proved the existences of the real geodesics which are the intersections of two algebraic surfaces, and we also give some numerical examples.

  7. Algebraic Formulas for Areas between Curves.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gabai, Hyman

    1982-01-01

    Korean secondary school students preparing for college learn about a simple algebraic formula for area bounded by a parabola and line. The approach does not seem well-known among American students. It is noted that, while the formula derivations rely on integration, algebra students could use the formulas without proofs. (MP)

  8. Classical and quantum Kummer shape algebras

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Odzijewicz, A.; Wawreniuk, E.

    2016-07-01

    We study a family of integrable systems of nonlinearly coupled harmonic oscillators on the classical and quantum levels. We show that the integrability of these systems follows from their symmetry characterized by algebras, here called Kummer shape algebras. The resolution of identity for a wide class of reproducing kernels is found. A number of examples, illustrating this theory, are also presented.

  9. Young Mathematicians at Work: Constructing Algebra

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fosnot, Catherine Twomey; Jacob, Bill

    2010-01-01

    This book provides a landscape of learning that helps teachers recognize, support, and celebrate their students' capacity to structure their worlds algebraically. It identifies the models, contexts, and landmarks that facilitate algebraic thinking in young students and provides insightful and practical methods for teachers, math supervisors, and…

  10. Focus on Fractions to Scaffold Algebra

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ooten, Cheryl Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Beginning algebra is a gatekeeper course into the pipeline to higher mathematics courses required for respected professions in engineering, science, statistics, mathematics, education, and technology. Beginning algebra can also be a perfect storm if the necessary foundational skills are not within a student's grasp. What skills ensure beginning…

  11. Fourier theory and C∗-algebras

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bédos, Erik; Conti, Roberto

    2016-07-01

    We discuss a number of results concerning the Fourier series of elements in reduced twisted group C∗-algebras of discrete groups, and, more generally, in reduced crossed products associated to twisted actions of discrete groups on unital C∗-algebras. A major part of the article gives a review of our previous work on this topic, but some new results are also included.

  12. Situated Learning in an Abstract Algebra Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ticknor, Cindy S.

    2012-01-01

    Advisory committees of mathematics consider abstract algebra as an essential component of the mathematical preparation of secondary teachers, yet preservice teachers find it challenging to connect the topics addressed in this advanced course with the high school algebra they must someday teach. This study analyzed the mathematical content…

  13. Teaching Algebra to Students with Learning Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Impecoven-Lind, Linda S.; Foegen, Anne

    2010-01-01

    Algebra is a gateway to expanded opportunities, but it often poses difficulty for students with learning disabilities. Consequently, it is essential to identify evidence-based instructional strategies for these students. The authors begin by identifying three areas of algebra difficulty experienced by students with disabilities: cognitive…

  14. Arithmetic and Cognitive Contributions to Algebra

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cirino, Paul T.; Tolar, Tammy D.; Fuchs, Lynn S.

    2013-01-01

    Algebra is a prerequisite for access to STEM careers and occupational success (NMAP, 2008a), yet algebra is difficult for students through high school (US DOE, 2008). Growth in children's conceptual and procedural arithmetical knowledge is reciprocal, although conceptual knowledge has more impact on procedural knowledge than the reverse…

  15. Just Say Yes to Early Algebra!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stephens, Ana; Blanton, Maria; Knuth, Eric; Isler, Isil; Gardiner, Angela Murphy

    2015-01-01

    Mathematics educators have argued for some time that elementary school students are capable of engaging in algebraic thinking and should be provided with rich opportunities to do so. Recent initiatives like the Common Core State Standards for Mathematics (CCSSM) (CCSSI 2010) have taken up this call by reiterating the place of early algebra in…

  16. Fusion rule algebras from graph theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caselle, M.; Ponzano, G.

    1989-06-01

    We describe a new class of fusion algebras related to graph theory which bear intriguing connections with group algebras. The structure constants and the matrix S, which diagonalizes the fusion rules, are explicitly computed in terms of SU(2) coupling coefficients.

  17. NINTH YEAR MATHEMATICS. COURSE I, ALGEBRA.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York State Education Dept., Albany.

    THIS GUIDE OUTLINES THE MINIMUM MATERIAL FOR WHICH STUDENTS OF NINTH YEAR MATHEMATICS - COURSE 1 - ALGEBRA WERE HELD RESPONSIBLE ON THE REGENTS EXAMINATIONS BEGINNING IN JUNE, 1966. THE REPORT ALSO PRESENTS THE SCOPE AND CONTENT OF THE ALGEBRA COURSE AND POSSIBLE SUGGESTIONS FOR TEACHING THE MATERIAL TO STUDENTS. (RP)

  18. Modern Algebra, Mathematics: 5293.36.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, Raymond J.

    This guidebook covers Boolean algebra, matrices, linear transformations of the plane, characteristic values, vectors, and algebraic structures. Overall course goals and performance objectives for each unit are specified; sequencing of units and various time schedules are suggested. A sample pretest and posttest are given, and an annotated list of…

  19. The Structural Algebra Option: A Discussion Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirshner, David

    The goal of this paper is to renew interest in the structural option to algebra instruction. Concern for the usual secondary school algebra curriculum related to simplifying expressions, solving equations, and rationalizing numerators and denominators is viewed from three pedagogical approaches: (1) structural approach, (2) empirical approach, and…

  20. Algebra: How Is It for You?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rickard, Caroline

    2008-01-01

    Shortly after starting work for the University of Chichester in the School of Teacher Education, the author was planning a session relating to algebra and found herself inspired by an article in MT182: "Algebraic Infants" by Andrews and Sayers (2003). Based on the making of families of "Multilink" animals, Andrews and Sayers (2003) claim that…

  1. Teaching Modeling and Axiomatization with Boolean Algebra.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Villiers, Michael D.

    1987-01-01

    Presented is an alternative approach to the traditional teaching of Boolean algebra for secondary school mathematics. The main aim of the approach is to use Boolean algebra to teach pupils such mathematical processes as modeling and axiomatization. A course using the approach is described. (RH)

  2. Loop realizations of quantum affine algebras

    SciTech Connect

    Cautis, Sabin; Licata, Anthony

    2012-12-15

    We give a simplified description of quantum affine algebras in their loop presentation. This description is related to Drinfeld's new realization via halves of vertex operators. We also define an idempotent version of the quantum affine algebra which is suitable for categorification.

  3. Deforming the Maxwell-Sim algebra

    SciTech Connect

    Gibbons, G. W.; Gomis, Joaquim; Pope, C. N.

    2010-09-15

    The Maxwell algebra is a noncentral extension of the Poincare algebra, in which the momentum generators no longer commute, but satisfy [P{sub {mu}},P{sub {nu}}]=Z{sub {mu}{nu}}. The charges Z{sub {mu}{nu}} commute with the momenta, and transform tensorially under the action of the angular momentum generators. If one constructs an action for a massive particle, invariant under these symmetries, one finds that it satisfies the equations of motion of a charged particle interacting with a constant electromagnetic field via the Lorentz force. In this paper, we explore the analogous constructions where one starts instead with the ISim subalgebra of Poincare, this being the symmetry algebra of very special relativity. It admits an analogous noncentral extension, and we find that a particle action invariant under this Maxwell-Sim algebra again describes a particle subject to the ordinary Lorentz force. One can also deform the ISim algebra to DISim{sub b}, where b is a nontrivial dimensionless parameter. We find that the motion described by an action invariant under the corresponding Maxwell-DISim algebra is that of a particle interacting via a Finslerian modification of the Lorentz force. In an appendix is it shown that the DISim{sub b} algebra is isomorphic to the extended Schroedinger algebra with its standard deformation parameter z, when b=(1/1-z).

  4. MODEL IDENTIFICATION AND COMPUTER ALGEBRA.

    PubMed

    Bollen, Kenneth A; Bauldry, Shawn

    2010-10-01

    Multiequation models that contain observed or latent variables are common in the social sciences. To determine whether unique parameter values exist for such models, one needs to assess model identification. In practice analysts rely on empirical checks that evaluate the singularity of the information matrix evaluated at sample estimates of parameters. The discrepancy between estimates and population values, the limitations of numerical assessments of ranks, and the difference between local and global identification make this practice less than perfect. In this paper we outline how to use computer algebra systems (CAS) to determine the local and global identification of multiequation models with or without latent variables. We demonstrate a symbolic CAS approach to local identification and develop a CAS approach to obtain explicit algebraic solutions for each of the model parameters. We illustrate the procedures with several examples, including a new proof of the identification of a model for handling missing data using auxiliary variables. We present an identification procedure for Structural Equation Models that makes use of CAS and that is a useful complement to current methods. PMID:21769158

  5. Gingerbread-House Geometry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Emenaker, Charles E.

    1999-01-01

    Describes a sixth-grade interdisciplinary geometry unit based on Charles Dickens's "A Christmas Carol". Focuses on finding area, volume, and perimeter, and working with estimation, decimals, and fractions in the context of making gingerbread houses. (ASK)

  6. What Is Geometry?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chern, Shiing-Shen

    1990-01-01

    Discussed are the major historical developments of geometry. Euclid, Descartes, Klein's Erlanger Program, Gaus and Riemann, globalization, topology, Elie Cartan, and an application to molecular biology are included as topics. (KR)

  7. Noncommutative Geometry and Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Connes, Alain

    2006-11-01

    In this very short essay we shall describe a "spectral" point of view on geometry which allows to start taking into account the lessons from both renormalization and of general relativity. We shall first do that for renormalization and explain in rough outline the content of our recent collaborations with Dirk Kreimer and Matilde Marcolli leading to the universal Galois symmetry of renormalizable quantum field theories provided by the renormalization group in its cosmic Galois group incarnation. As far as general relativity is concerned, since the functional integral cannot be treated in the traditional perturbative manner, it relies heavily as a "sum over geometries" on the chosen paradigm of geometric space. This will give us the occasion to discuss, in the light of noncommutative geometry, the issue of "observables" in gravity and our joint work with Ali Chamseddine on the spectral action, with a first attempt to write down a functional integral on the space of noncommutative geometries.

  8. Proof in Transformation Geometry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bell, A. W.

    1971-01-01

    The first of three articles showing how inductively-obtained results in transformation geometry may be organized into a deductive system. This article discusses two approaches to enlargement (dilatation), one using coordinates and the other using synthetic methods. (MM)

  9. Algebraic Apect of Helicities in Hadron Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    An, Murat; Ji, Chueng

    2015-04-01

    We examined the relation of polarization vectors and spinors of (1 , 0) ⊕(0 , 1) representation of Lorentz group in Clifford algebra Cl1 , 3 , their relation with standard algebra, and properties of these spinors. Cl1 , 3 consists of different grades:e.g. the first and the second grades represent (1 / 2 , 1 / 2) and (1 , 0) ⊕(0 , 1) representation of spin groups respectively with 4 and 6 components. However, these Clifford numbers are not the helicity eigenstates and thus we transform them into combinations of helicity eigenstates by expressing them as spherical harmonics. We relate the spin-one polarization vectors and (1 , 0) ⊕(0 , 1) spinors under one simple transformation with the spin operators. We also link our work with Winnberg's work of a superfield of a spinors of Clifford algebra by giving a physical meaning to Grassmann variables and discuss how Grassman algebra is linked with Clifford algebra.

  10. Common Geometry Module

    2005-01-01

    The Common Geometry Module (CGM) is a code library which provides geometry functionality used for mesh generation and other applications. This functionality includes that commonly found in solid modeling engines, like geometry creation, query and modification; CGM also includes capabilities not commonly found in solid modeling engines, like geometry decomposition tools and support for shared material interfaces. CGM is built upon the ACIS solid modeling engine, but also includes geometry capability developed beside and onmore » top of ACIS. CGM can be used as-is to provide geometry functionality for codes needing this capability. However, CGM can also be extended using derived classes in C++, allowing the geometric model to serve as the basis for other applications, for example mesh generation. CGM is supported on Sun Solaris, SGI, HP, IBM, DEC, Linux and Windows NT platforms. CGM also indudes support for loading ACIS models on parallel computers, using MPI-based communication. Future plans for CGM are to port it to different solid modeling engines, including Pro/Engineer or SolidWorks. CGM is being released into the public domain under an LGPL license; the ACIS-based engine is available to ACIS licensees on request.« less

  11. CMS Geometry Through 2020

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osborne, I.; Brownson, E.; Eulisse, G.; Jones, C. D.; Lange, D. J.; Sexton-Kennedy, E.

    2014-06-01

    CMS faces real challenges with upgrade of the CMS detector through 2020 and beyond. One of the challenges, from the software point of view, is managing upgrade simulations with the same software release as the 2013 scenario. We present the CMS geometry description software model, its integration with the CMS event setup and core software. The CMS geometry configuration and selection is implemented in Python. The tools collect the Python configuration fragments into a script used in CMS workflow. This flexible and automated geometry configuration allows choosing either transient or persistent version of the same scenario and specific version of the same scenario. We describe how the geometries are integrated and validated, and how we define and handle different geometry scenarios in simulation and reconstruction. We discuss how to transparently manage multiple incompatible geometries in the same software release. Several examples are shown based on current implementation assuring consistent choice of scenario conditions. The consequences and implications for multiple/different code algorithms are discussed.

  12. Contact Geometry of Hyperbolic Equations of Generic Type

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    The, Dennis

    2008-08-01

    We study the contact geometry of scalar second order hyperbolic equations in the plane of generic type. Following a derivation of parametrized contact-invariants to distinguish Monge-Ampère (class 6-6), Goursat (class 6-7) and generic (class 7-7) hyperbolic equations, we use Cartan's equivalence method to study the generic case. An intriguing feature of this class of equations is that every generic hyperbolic equation admits at most a nine-dimensional contact symmetry algebra. The nine-dimensional bound is sharp: normal forms for the contact-equivalence classes of these maximally symmetric generic hyperbolic equations are derived and explicit symmetry algebras are presented. Moreover, these maximally symmetric equations are Darboux integrable. An enumeration of several submaximally symmetric (eight and seven-dimensional) generic hyperbolic structures is also given.

  13. Monte Carlo simulations of random non-commutative geometries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barrett, John W.; Glaser, Lisa

    2016-06-01

    Random non-commutative geometries are introduced by integrating over the space of Dirac operators that form a spectral triple with a fixed algebra and Hilbert space. The cases with the simplest types of Clifford algebra are investigated using Monte Carlo simulations to compute the integrals. Various qualitatively different types of behaviour of these random Dirac operators are exhibited. Some features are explained in terms of the theory of random matrices but other phenomena remain mysterious. Some of the models with a quartic action of symmetry-breaking type display a phase transition. Close to the phase transition the spectrum of a typical Dirac operator shows manifold-like behaviour for the eigenvalues below a cut-off scale.

  14. Generalized -deformed correlation functions as spectral functions of hyperbolic geometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonora, L.; Bytsenko, A. A.; Guimarães, M. E. X.

    2014-08-01

    We analyze the role of vertex operator algebra and 2d amplitudes from the point of view of the representation theory of infinite-dimensional Lie algebras, MacMahon and Ruelle functions. By definition p-dimensional MacMahon function, with , is the generating function of p-dimensional partitions of integers. These functions can be represented as amplitudes of a two-dimensional c = 1 CFT, and, as such, they can be generalized to . With some abuse of language we call the latter amplitudes generalized MacMahon functions. In this paper we show that generalized p-dimensional MacMahon functions can be rewritten in terms of Ruelle spectral functions, whose spectrum is encoded in the Patterson-Selberg function of three-dimensional hyperbolic geometry.

  15. Algebraic K-theory, K-regularity, and -duality of -stable C ∗-algebras

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahanta, Snigdhayan

    2015-12-01

    We develop an algebraic formalism for topological -duality. More precisely, we show that topological -duality actually induces an isomorphism between noncommutative motives that in turn implements the well-known isomorphism between twisted K-theories (up to a shift). In order to establish this result we model topological K-theory by algebraic K-theory. We also construct an E ∞ -operad starting from any strongly self-absorbing C ∗-algebra . Then we show that there is a functorial topological K-theory symmetric spectrum construction on the category of separable C ∗-algebras, such that is an algebra over this operad; moreover, is a module over this algebra. Along the way we obtain a new symmetric spectra valued functorial model for the (connective) topological K-theory of C ∗-algebras. We also show that -stable C ∗-algebras are K-regular providing evidence for a conjecture of Rosenberg. We conclude with an explicit description of the algebraic K-theory of a x+ b-semigroup C ∗-algebras coming from number theory and that of -stabilized noncommutative tori.

  16. PC Basic Linear Algebra Subroutines

    1992-03-09

    PC-BLAS is a highly optimized version of the Basic Linear Algebra Subprograms (BLAS), a standardized set of thirty-eight routines that perform low-level operations on vectors of numbers in single and double-precision real and complex arithmetic. Routines are included to find the index of the largest component of a vector, apply a Givens or modified Givens rotation, multiply a vector by a constant, determine the Euclidean length, perform a dot product, swap and copy vectors, andmore » find the norm of a vector. The BLAS have been carefully written to minimize numerical problems such as loss of precision and underflow and are designed so that the computation is independent of the interface with the calling program. This independence is achieved through judicious use of Assembly language macros. Interfaces are provided for Lahey Fortran 77, Microsoft Fortran 77, and Ryan-McFarland IBM Professional Fortran.« less

  17. Weak homological dimensions and biflat Koethe algebras

    SciTech Connect

    Pirkovskii, A Yu

    2008-06-30

    The homological properties of metrizable Koethe algebras {lambda}(P) are studied. A criterion for an algebra A={lambda}(P) to be biflat in terms of the Koethe set P is obtained, which implies, in particular, that for such algebras the properties of being biprojective, biflat, and flat on the left are equivalent to the surjectivity of the multiplication operator A otimes-hat A{yields}A. The weak homological dimensions (the weak global dimension w.dg and the weak bidimension w.db) of biflat Koethe algebras are calculated. Namely, it is shown that the conditions w.db {lambda}(P)<=1 and w.dg {lambda}(P)<=1 are equivalent to the nuclearity of {lambda}(P); and if {lambda}(P) is non-nuclear, then w.dg {lambda}(P)=w.db {lambda}(P)=2. It is established that the nuclearity of a biflat Koethe algebra {lambda}(P), under certain additional conditions on the Koethe set P, implies the stronger estimate db {lambda}(P), where db is the (projective) bidimension. On the other hand, an example is constructed of a nuclear biflat Koethe algebra {lambda}(P) such that db {lambda}(P)=2 (while w.db {lambda}(P)=1). Finally, it is shown that many biflat Koethe algebras, while not being amenable, have trivial Hochschild homology groups in positive degrees (with arbitrary coefficients). Bibliography: 37 titles.

  18. Geometry and Cloaking Devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ochiai, T.; Nacher, J. C.

    2011-09-01

    Recently, the application of geometry and conformal mappings to artificial materials (metamaterials) has attracted the attention in various research communities. These materials, characterized by a unique man-made structure, have unusual optical properties, which materials found in nature do not exhibit. By applying the geometry and conformal mappings theory to metamaterial science, it may be possible to realize so-called "Harry Potter cloaking device". Although such a device is still in the science fiction realm, several works have shown that by using such metamaterials it may be possible to control the direction of the electromagnetic field at will. We could then make an object hidden inside of a cloaking device. Here, we will explain how to design invisibility device using differential geometry and conformal mappings.

  19. Phase Boundaries in Algebraic Conformal QFT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bischoff, Marcel; Kawahigashi, Yasuyuki; Longo, Roberto; Rehren, Karl-Henning

    2016-02-01

    We study the structure of local algebras in relativistic conformal quantum field theory with phase boundaries. Phase boundaries are instances of a more general notion of boundaries that give rise to a variety of algebraic structures. These can be formulated in a common framework originating in Algebraic QFT, with the principle of Einstein Causality playing a prominent role. We classify the phase boundary conditions by the centre of a certain universal construction, which produces a reducible representation in which all possible boundary conditions are realized. For a large class of models, the classification reproduces results obtained in a different approach by Fuchs et al. before.

  20. Toward robust scalable algebraic multigrid solvers.

    SciTech Connect

    Waisman, Haim; Schroder, Jacob; Olson, Luke; Hiriyur, Badri; Gaidamour, Jeremie; Siefert, Christopher; Hu, Jonathan Joseph; Tuminaro, Raymond Stephen

    2010-10-01

    This talk highlights some multigrid challenges that arise from several application areas including structural dynamics, fluid flow, and electromagnetics. A general framework is presented to help introduce and understand algebraic multigrid methods based on energy minimization concepts. Connections between algebraic multigrid prolongators and finite element basis functions are made to explored. It is shown how the general algebraic multigrid framework allows one to adapt multigrid ideas to a number of different situations. Examples are given corresponding to linear elasticity and specifically in the solution of linear systems associated with extended finite elements for fracture problems.

  1. Algebraic method for finding equivalence groups

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bihlo, Alexander; Dos Santos Cardoso-Bihlo, Elsa; Popovych, Roman O.

    2015-06-01

    The algebraic method for computing the complete point symmetry group of a system of differential equations is extended to finding the complete equivalence group of a class of such systems. The extended method uses the knowledge of the corresponding equivalence algebra. Two versions of the method are presented, where the first involves the automorphism group of this algebra and the second is based on a list of its megaideals. We illustrate the megaideal-based version of the method with the computation of the complete equivalence group of a class of nonlinear wave equations with applications in nonlinear elasticity.

  2. The nth root of sequential effect algebras

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Jun; Wu, Junde

    2010-06-01

    In 2005, Gudder [Int. J. Theor. Phys. 44, 2219 (2005)] presented 25 problems of sequential effect algebras, the 20th problem asked: In a sequential effect algebra, if the square root of some element exists, is it unique? In this paper, we show that for each given positive integer n >1, there is a sequential effect algebra such that the nth root of its some element c is not unique, and the nth root of c is not the kth root of c (k

  3. On computational complexity of Clifford algebra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Budinich, Marco

    2009-05-01

    After a brief discussion of the computational complexity of Clifford algebras, we present a new basis for even Clifford algebra Cl(2m) that simplifies greatly the actual calculations and, without resorting to the conventional matrix isomorphism formulation, obtains the same complexity. In the last part we apply these results to the Clifford algebra formulation of the NP-complete problem of the maximum clique of a graph introduced by Budinich and Budinich ["A spinorial formulation of the maximum clique problem of a graph," J. Math. Phys. 47, 043502 (2006)].

  4. Imperfect Cloning Operations in Algebraic Quantum Theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kitajima, Yuichiro

    2015-01-01

    No-cloning theorem says that there is no unitary operation that makes perfect clones of non-orthogonal quantum states. The objective of the present paper is to examine whether an imperfect cloning operation exists or not in a C*-algebraic framework. We define a universal -imperfect cloning operation which tolerates a finite loss of fidelity in the cloned state, and show that an individual system's algebra of observables is abelian if and only if there is a universal -imperfect cloning operation in the case where the loss of fidelity is less than . Therefore in this case no universal -imperfect cloning operation is possible in algebraic quantum theory.

  5. Contractions of affine Kac-Moody algebras

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daboul, J.; Daboul, C.; de Montigny, M.

    2008-08-01

    I review our recent work on contractions of affine Kac-Moody algebras (KMA) and present new results. We study generalized contractions of KMA with respect to their twisted and untwisted KM subalgebras. As a concrete example, we discuss contraction of D(1)4 and D(3)4, based on Z3-grading. We also describe examples of 'level-dependent' contractions, which are based on Z-gradings of KMA. Our work generalizes the Inönü-Wigner contraction of P. Majumdar in several directions. We also give an algorithm for constructing Kac-Moody-like algebras hat g for any Lie algebra g.

  6. Students Discovering Spherical Geometry Using Dynamic Geometry Software

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guven, Bulent; Karatas, Ilhan

    2009-01-01

    Dynamic geometry software (DGS) such as Cabri and Geometers' Sketchpad has been regularly used worldwide for teaching and learning Euclidean geometry for a long time. The DGS with its inductive nature allows students to learn Euclidean geometry via explorations. However, with respect to non-Euclidean geometries, do we need to introduce them to…

  7. Kinematical superalgebras and Lie algebras of order 3

    SciTech Connect

    Campoamor-Stursberg, R.; Rausch de Traubenberg, M.

    2008-06-15

    We study and classify kinematical algebras which appear in the framework of Lie superalgebras or Lie algebras of order 3. All these algebras are related through generalized Inonue-Wigner contractions from either the orthosymplectic superalgebra or the de Sitter Lie algebra of order 3.

  8. Alternative algebras admitting derivations with invertible values and invertible derivations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaygorodov, I. B.; Popov, Yu S.

    2014-10-01

    We prove an analogue of the Bergen-Herstein-Lanski theorem for alternative algebras: describe all alternative algebras that admit derivations with invertible values. We also prove an analogue of Moens' theorem for alternative algebras (a finite-dimensional alternative algebra over a field of characteristic zero is nilpotent if and only if it admits an invertible Leibniz derivation).

  9. Spinor-vector supersymmetry algebra in three dimensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shima, Kazunari; Tsuda, Motomu

    2006-06-01

    We focus on a spin-3/2 supersymmetry (SUSY) algebra of Baaklini in D = 3 and explicitly show a nonlinear realization of the SUSY algebra. The unitary representation of the spin-3/2 SUSY algebra is discussed and compared with the ordinary (spin-1/2) SUSY algebra.

  10. Becchi-Rouet-Stora-Tyutin operators for W algebras

    SciTech Connect

    Isaev, A. P.; Krivonos, S. O.; Ogievetsky, O. V.

    2008-07-15

    The study of quantum Lie algebras motivates a use of noncanonical ghosts and antighosts for nonlinear algebras, such as W-algebras. This leads, for the W{sub 3} and W{sub 3}{sup (2)} algebras, to the Becchi-Rouet-Stora-Tyutin operator having the conventional cubic form.

  11. Lie bialgebra structures on the Schroedinger-Virasoro Lie algebra

    SciTech Connect

    Han Jianzhi; Su Yucai; Li Junbo

    2009-08-15

    In this paper we shall investigate Lie bialgebra structures on the Schroedinger-Virasoro algebra L. We found out that not all Lie bialgebra structures on the Schroedinger-Virasoro algebra are triangular coboundary, which is different from the related known results of some other Lie algebras related to the Virasoro algebra.

  12. Top Element Problem and Macneille Completions of Generalized Effect Algebras

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    RieČanová, Z.; Kalina, M.

    2014-10-01

    Effect algebras (EAs), introduced by D. J. Foulis and M. K. Bennett, as common generalizations of Boolean algebras, orthomodular lattices and MV-algebras, are nondistributive algebraic structures including unsharp elements. Their unbounded versions, called generalized effect algebras, are posets which may have or may have not an EA-MacNeille completion, or cannot be embedded into any complete effect algebra. We give a necessary and sufficient condition for a generalized effect algebra to have an EA-MacNeille completion. Some examples are provided.

  13. I CAN Learn[R] Pre-Algebra and Algebra. What Works Clearinghouse Intervention Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    What Works Clearinghouse, 2009

    2009-01-01

    The I CAN Learn[R] Education System is an interactive, self-paced, mastery-based software system that includes the I CAN Learn[R] Fundamentals of Math (5th-6th grade math) curriculum, the I CAN Learn[R] Pre-Algebra curriculum, and the I CAN Learn[R] Algebra curriculum. College algebra credit is also available to students in participating schools…

  14. A note on derivations of Murray–von Neumann algebras

    PubMed Central

    Kadison, Richard V.; Liu, Zhe

    2014-01-01

    A Murray–von Neumann algebra is the algebra of operators affiliated with a finite von Neumann algebra. In this article, we first present a brief introduction to the theory of derivations of operator algebras from both the physical and mathematical points of view. We then describe our recent work on derivations of Murray–von Neumann algebras. We show that the “extended derivations” of a Murray–von Neumann algebra, those that map the associated finite von Neumann algebra into itself, are inner. In particular, we prove that the only derivation that maps a Murray–von Neumann algebra associated with a factor of type II1 into that factor is 0. Those results are extensions of Singer’s seminal result answering a question of Kaplansky, as applied to von Neumann algebras: The algebra may be noncommutative and may even contain unbounded elements. PMID:24469831

  15. The Helen of Geometry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, John

    2010-01-01

    The cycloid has been called the Helen of Geometry, not only because of its beautiful properties but also because of the quarrels it provoked between famous mathematicians of the 17th century. This article surveys the history of the cycloid and its importance in the development of the calculus.

  16. The Geometry of Viruses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Case, Christine L.

    1991-01-01

    Presented is an activity in which students make models of viruses, which allows them to visualize the shape of these microorganisms. Included are some background on viruses, the biology and geometry of viruses, directions for building viruses, a comparison of cells and viruses, and questions for students. (KR)

  17. Gravity is Geometry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacKeown, P. K.

    1984-01-01

    Clarifies two concepts of gravity--those of a fictitious force and those of how space and time may have geometry. Reviews the position of Newton's theory of gravity in the context of special relativity and considers why gravity (as distinct from electromagnetics) lends itself to Einstein's revolutionary interpretation. (JN)

  18. Sliding vane geometry turbines

    DOEpatents

    Sun, Harold Huimin; Zhang, Jizhong; Hu, Liangjun; Hanna, Dave R

    2014-12-30

    Various systems and methods are described for a variable geometry turbine. In one example, a turbine nozzle comprises a central axis and a nozzle vane. The nozzle vane includes a stationary vane and a sliding vane. The sliding vane is positioned to slide in a direction substantially tangent to an inner circumference of the turbine nozzle and in contact with the stationary vane.

  19. Making Solid Geometry Solid.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartz, Viggo

    1981-01-01

    Allowing students to use a polystyrene cutter to fashion their own three-dimensional models is suggested as a means of allowing individuals to experience problems and develop ideas related to solid geometry. A list of ideas that can lead to mathematical discovery is provided. (MP)

  20. Fractal geometry of music.

    PubMed Central

    Hsü, K J; Hsü, A J

    1990-01-01

    Music critics have compared Bach's music to the precision of mathematics. What "mathematics" and what "precision" are the questions for a curious scientist. The purpose of this short note is to suggest that the mathematics is, at least in part, Mandelbrot's fractal geometry and the precision is the deviation from a log-log linear plot. PMID:11607061

  1. GEOMETRY, TENTATIVE GUIDES.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    KLIER, KATHERINE M.

    PRESENTED IS A FUSED COURSE IN PLANE, SOLID, AND COORDINATE GEOMETRY. ELEMENTARY SET THEORY, LOGIC, AND THE PRINCIPLE OF SEPARATION PROVIDE UNIFYING THREADS THROUGHOUT THE TEXT. THE TWO CURRICULUM GUIDES HAVE BEEN PREPARED FOR USE WITH TWO DIFFERENT TEXTS. EITHER CURRICULUM GUIDE MAY BE USED DEPENDING UPON THE CHOICE OF THE TEACHER AND THE NEEDS…

  2. Listening to Geometry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooper, Brett D.; Barger, Rita

    2009-01-01

    The many connections between music and mathematics are well known. The length of a plucked string determines its tone, the time signature of a piece of music is a ratio, and note durations are measured in fractions. One connection commonly overlooked is that between music and geometry--specifically, geometric transformations, including…

  3. Using computer algebra and SMT solvers in algebraic biology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pineda Osorio, Mateo

    2014-05-01

    Biologic processes are represented as Boolean networks, in a discrete time. The dynamics within these networks are approached with the help of SMT Solvers and the use of computer algebra. Software such as Maple and Z3 was used in this case. The number of stationary states for each network was calculated. The network studied here corresponds to the immune system under the effects of drastic mood changes. Mood is considered as a Boolean variable that affects the entire dynamics of the immune system, changing the Boolean satisfiability and the number of stationary states of the immune network. Results obtained show Z3's great potential as a SMT Solver. Some of these results were verified in Maple, even though it showed not to be as suitable for the problem approach. The solving code was constructed using Z3-Python and Z3-SMT-LiB. Results obtained are important in biology systems and are expected to help in the design of immune therapies. As a future line of research, more complex Boolean network representations of the immune system as well as the whole psychological apparatus are suggested.

  4. Geometry of PDE's. IV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prástaro, Agostino

    2008-02-01

    Following our previous results on this subject [R.P. Agarwal, A. Prástaro, Geometry of PDE's. III(I): Webs on PDE's and integral bordism groups. The general theory, Adv. Math. Sci. Appl. 17 (2007) 239-266; R.P. Agarwal, A. Prástaro, Geometry of PDE's. III(II): Webs on PDE's and integral bordism groups. Applications to Riemannian geometry PDE's, Adv. Math. Sci. Appl. 17 (2007) 267-285; A. Prástaro, Geometry of PDE's and Mechanics, World Scientific, Singapore, 1996; A. Prástaro, Quantum and integral (co)bordism in partial differential equations, Acta Appl. Math. (5) (3) (1998) 243-302; A. Prástaro, (Co)bordism groups in PDE's, Acta Appl. Math. 59 (2) (1999) 111-201; A. Prástaro, Quantized Partial Differential Equations, World Scientific Publishing Co, Singapore, 2004, 500 pp.; A. Prástaro, Geometry of PDE's. I: Integral bordism groups in PDE's, J. Math. Anal. Appl. 319 (2006) 547-566; A. Prástaro, Geometry of PDE's. II: Variational PDE's and integral bordism groups, J. Math. Anal. Appl. 321 (2006) 930-948; A. Prástaro, Th.M. Rassias, Ulam stability in geometry of PDE's, Nonlinear Funct. Anal. Appl. 8 (2) (2003) 259-278; I. Stakgold, Boundary Value Problems of Mathematical Physics, I, The MacMillan Company, New York, 1967; I. Stakgold, Boundary Value Problems of Mathematical Physics, II, Collier-MacMillan, Canada, Ltd, Toronto, Ontario, 1968], integral bordism groups of the Navier-Stokes equation are calculated for smooth, singular and weak solutions, respectively. Then a characterization of global solutions is made on this ground. Enough conditions to assure existence of global smooth solutions are given and related to nullity of integral characteristic numbers of the boundaries. Stability of global solutions are related to some characteristic numbers of the space-like Cauchy dataE Global solutions of variational problems constrained by (NS) are classified by means of suitable integral bordism groups too.

  5. Highest-weight representations of Brocherd`s algebras

    SciTech Connect

    Slansky, R.

    1997-01-01

    General features of highest-weight representations of Borcherd`s algebras are described. to show their typical features, several representations of Borcherd`s extensions of finite-dimensional algebras are analyzed. Then the example of the extension of affine- su(2) to a Borcherd`s algebra is examined. These algebras provide a natural way to extend a Kac-Moody algebra to include the hamiltonian and number-changing operators in a generalized symmetry structure.

  6. On \\delta-derivations of n-ary algebras

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaygorodov, Ivan B.

    2012-12-01

    We give a description of \\delta-derivations of (n+1)-dimensional n-ary Filippov algebras and, as a consequence, of simple finite-dimensional Filippov algebras over an algebraically closed field of characteristic zero. We also give new examples of non-trivial \\delta-derivations of Filippov algebras and show that there are no non-trivial \\delta-derivations of the simple ternary Mal'tsev algebra M_8.

  7. Excision in algebraic K-theory and Karoubi's conjecture.

    PubMed

    Suslin, A A; Wodzicki, M

    1990-12-15

    We prove that the property of excision in algebraic K-theory is for a Q-algebra A equivalent to the H-unitality of the latter. Our excision theorem, in particular, implies Karoubi's conjecture on the equality of algebraic and topological K-theory groups of stable C*-algebras. It also allows us to identify the algebraic K-theory of the symbol map in the theory of pseudodifferential operators. PMID:11607130

  8. Excision in algebraic K-theory and Karoubi's conjecture.

    PubMed Central

    Suslin, A A; Wodzicki, M

    1990-01-01

    We prove that the property of excision in algebraic K-theory is for a Q-algebra A equivalent to the H-unitality of the latter. Our excision theorem, in particular, implies Karoubi's conjecture on the equality of algebraic and topological K-theory groups of stable C*-algebras. It also allows us to identify the algebraic K-theory of the symbol map in the theory of pseudodifferential operators. PMID:11607130

  9. On algebraic endomorphisms of the Einstein gyrogroup

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Molnár, Lajos; Virosztek, Dániel

    2015-08-01

    We describe the structure of all continuous algebraic endomorphisms of the open unit ball B of ℝ3 equipped with the Einstein velocity addition. We show that any nonzero such transformation originates from an orthogonal linear transformation on ℝ3.

  10. Clifford algebras and physical and engineering sciences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Furui, Sadataka

    2013-10-01

    Clifford algebra in physical and engineering science are studied. Roles of triality symmetry of Cartan's spinor in axial anomaly of particle physics and quaternion and octonion in the memristic circuits are discussed.

  11. Positive basis for surface skein algebras

    PubMed Central

    Thurston, Dylan Paul

    2014-01-01

    We show that the twisted SL2 skein algebra of a surface has a natural basis (the bracelets basis) that is positive, in the sense that the structure constants for multiplication are positive integers. PMID:24982193

  12. Lisa's Lemonade Stand: Exploring Algebraic Ideas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Billings, Esther M. H.; Lakatos, Tracy

    2003-01-01

    Presents an activity, "Lisa's Lemonade Stand," that actively engages students in algebraic thinking as they analyze change by investigating relationships between variables and gain experience describing and representing these relationships graphically. (YDS)

  13. Lima Beans, Paper Cups, and Algebra.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loewen, A. C.

    1991-01-01

    An activity in which students use manipulative materials to help solve simple algebraic equations using the operations of adding inverses, removing opposites, and sharing equally is presented. Directions, examples, the rationale, and cautions are included. (KR)

  14. Supersymmetric extension of Galilean conformal algebras

    SciTech Connect

    Bagchi, Arjun; Mandal, Ipsita

    2009-10-15

    The Galilean conformal algebra has recently been realized in the study of the nonrelativistic limit of the AdS/CFT conjecture. This was obtained by a systematic parametric group contraction of the parent relativistic conformal field theory. In this paper, we extend the analysis to include supersymmetry. We work at the level of the coordinates in superspace to construct the N=1 super-Galilean conformal algebra. One of the interesting outcomes of the analysis is that one is able to naturally extend the finite algebra to an infinite one. This looks structurally similar to the N=1 superconformal algebra in two dimensions, but is different. We also comment on the extension of our construction to cases of higher N.

  15. Applications: Using Algebra in an Accounting Practice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eisner, Gail A.

    1994-01-01

    Presents examples of algebra from the field of accounting including proportional ownership of stock, separation of a loan payment into principal and interest portions, depreciation methods, and salary withholdings computations. (MKR)

  16. Semigroups And Computer Algebra In Discrete Structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bijev, G.

    2010-10-01

    Some concepts in semigroup theory are interpreted in discrete structures such as finite lattices, binary relations, and finite semilattices. An algebraic approach to the pseudoinverse generalization problem in Boolean vector spaces is used. By analogy with the linear spaces in the linear algebra semilattice homomorphisms, isomorphisms, projections on Boolean vector spaces are defined and some properties of them are investigated in detail. Maps, corresponding to them in the linear algebra, are connected with matrices and their pseudouinverse. Important properties of these maps, which are essential for solving linear systems, remain the same in the Boolean vector spaces. Stochastic experiments using the maps defined and computer algebra methods have been made for solving linear equations Ax = b. The Hamming distance between b and the projection p(b) = Ax of b is equal or close to the least possible one, if the system has no solutions.

  17. Algebraic Sub-Structuring for Electromagnetic Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, C.; Gao, W.G.; Bai, Z.J.; Li, X.Y.S.; Lee, L.Q.; Husbands, P.; Ng, E.G.; /LBL, Berkeley /UC, Davis /SLAC

    2006-06-30

    Algebraic sub-structuring refers to the process of applying matrix reordering and partitioning algorithms to divide a large sparse matrix into smaller submatrices from which a subset of spectral components are extracted and combined to form approximate solutions to the original problem. In this paper, they show that algebraic sub-structuring can be effectively used to solve generalized eigenvalue problems arising from the finite element analysis of an accelerator structure.

  18. Algebraic sub-structuring for electromagnetic applications

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Chao; Gao, Weiguo; Bai, Zhaojun; Li, Xiaoye; Lee, Lie-Quan; Husbands, Parry; Ng, Esmond G.

    2004-09-14

    Algebraic sub-structuring refers to the process of applying matrix reordering and partitioning algorithms to divide a large sparse matrix into smaller submatrices from which a subset of spectral components are extracted and combined to form approximate solutions to the original problem. In this paper, we show that algebraic sub-structuring can be effectively used to solve generalized eigenvalue problems arising from the finite element analysis of an accelerator structure.

  19. Twisted Logarithmic Modules of Vertex Algebras

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bakalov, Bojko

    2016-07-01

    Motivated by logarithmic conformal field theory and Gromov-Witten theory, we introduce a notion of a twisted module of a vertex algebra under an arbitrary (not necessarily semisimple) automorphism. Its main feature is that the twisted fields involve the logarithm of the formal variable. We develop the theory of such twisted modules and, in particular, derive a Borcherds identity and commutator formula for them. We investigate in detail the examples of affine and Heisenberg vertex algebras.

  20. Edge covers and independence: Algebraic approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalinina, E. A.; Khitrov, G. M.; Pogozhev, S. V.

    2016-06-01

    In this paper, linear algebra methods are applied to solve some problems of graph theory. For ordinary connected graphs, edge coverings and independent sets are considered. Some results concerning minimum edge covers and maximum matchings are proved with the help of linear algebraic approach. The problem of finding a maximum matching of a graph is fundamental both practically and theoretically, and has numerous applications, e.g., in computational chemistry and mathematical chemistry.

  1. Filtering Algebraic Multigrid and Adaptive Strategies

    SciTech Connect

    Nagel, A; Falgout, R D; Wittum, G

    2006-01-31

    Solving linear systems arising from systems of partial differential equations, multigrid and multilevel methods have proven optimal complexity and efficiency properties. Due to shortcomings of geometric approaches, algebraic multigrid methods have been developed. One example is the filtering algebraic multigrid method introduced by C. Wagner. This paper proposes a variant of Wagner's method with substantially improved robustness properties. The method is used in an adaptive, self-correcting framework and tested numerically.

  2. Sharply Dominating MV-Effect Algebras

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalina, Martin; Olejček, Vladimír; Paseka, Jan; Riečanová, Zdenka

    2011-04-01

    Some open questions on Archimedean atomic MV-effect algebras are answered. Namely we prove that there are Archimedean atomic MV-effect algebras which are not sharply dominating. Equivalently, they don't have a basic decomposition of elements. Moreover, if their set of sharp elements (their center) is a complete lattice then they need not be complete lattices. The existence of infinite orthogonal sums of their elements is discussed.

  3. Stability of Lie groupoid C∗-algebras

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Debord, Claire; Skandalis, Georges

    2016-07-01

    In this paper we generalize a theorem of M. Hilsum and G. Skandalis stating that the C∗-algebra of any foliation of nonzero dimension is stable. Precisely, we show that the C∗-algebra of a Lie groupoid is stable whenever the groupoid has no orbit of dimension zero. We also prove an analogous theorem for singular foliations for which the holonomy groupoid as defined by I. Androulidakis and G. Skandalis is not Lie in general.

  4. Vague Congruences and Quotient Lattice Implication Algebras

    PubMed Central

    Qin, Xiaoyan; Xu, Yang

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to further develop the congruence theory on lattice implication algebras. Firstly, we introduce the notions of vague similarity relations based on vague relations and vague congruence relations. Secondly, the equivalent characterizations of vague congruence relations are investigated. Thirdly, the relation between the set of vague filters and the set of vague congruences is studied. Finally, we construct a new lattice implication algebra induced by a vague congruence, and the homomorphism theorem is given. PMID:25133207

  5. Algebra and topology for applications to physics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rozhkov, S. S.

    1987-01-01

    The principal concepts of algebra and topology are examined with emphasis on applications to physics. In particular, attention is given to sets and mapping; topological spaces and continuous mapping; manifolds; and topological groups and Lie groups. The discussion also covers the tangential spaces of the differential manifolds, including Lie algebras, vector fields, and differential forms, properties of differential forms, mapping of tangential spaces, and integration of differential forms.

  6. One-Equation Algebraic Model Of Turbulence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baldwin, B. S.; Barth, T. J.

    1993-01-01

    One-equation model of turbulence based on standard equations of k-epsilon model of turbulence, where k is turbulent energy and e is rate of dissipation of k. Derivation of one-equation model motivated partly by inaccuracies of flows computed by some Navier-Stokes-equations-solving algorithms incorporating algebraic models of turbulence. Satisfies need to avoid having to determine algebraic length scales.

  7. The arithmetic theory of algebraic groups

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Platonov, V. P.

    1982-06-01

    CONTENTS Introduction § 1. Arithmetic groups § 2. Adèle groups § 3. Tamagawa numbers § 4. Approximations in algebraic groups § 5. Class numbers and class groups of algebraic groups § 6. The genus problem in arithmetic groups § 7. Classification of maximal arithmetic subgroups § 8. The congruence problem § 9. Groups of rational points over global fields § 10. Galois cohomology and the Hasse principle § 11. Cohomology of arithmetic groups References

  8. Algorithmic Questions for Linear Algebraic Groups. Ii

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarkisjan, R. A.

    1982-04-01

    It is proved that, given a linear algebraic group defined over an algebraic number field and satisfying certain conditions, there exists an algorithm which determines whether or not two double cosets of a special type coincide in its adele group, and which enumerates all such double cosets. This result is applied to the isomorphism problem for finitely generated nilpotent groups, and also to other problems.Bibliography: 18 titles.

  9. Algebraic operator approach to gas kinetic models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Il'ichov, L. V.

    1997-02-01

    Some general properties of the linear Boltzmann kinetic equation are used to present it in the form ∂ tϕ = - †Âϕ with the operators Âand† possessing some nontrivial algebraic properties. When applied to the Keilson-Storer kinetic model, this method gives an example of quantum ( q-deformed) Lie algebra. This approach provides also a natural generalization of the “kangaroo model”.

  10. Clifford algebras and Hestenes spinors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lounesto, Pertti

    1993-09-01

    This article reviews Hestenes' work on the Dirac theory, where his main achievement is a real formulation of the theory within the real Clifford algebra Cl 1,3 ≃ M2 (H). Hestenes invented first in 1966 his ideal spinorsφ in Cl_{1,3 _2}^1 (1 - γ _{03} ) and later 1967/75 he recognized the importance of his operator spinors ψ ∈ Cl{/1,3 + } ≃ M2 (C). This article starts from the conventional Dirac equation as presented with matrices by Bjorken-Drell. Explicit mappings are given for a passage between Hestenes' operator spinors and Dirac's column spinors. Hestenes' operator spinors are seen to be multiples of even parts of real parts of Dirac spinors (real part in the decomposition C ⊗ Cl 1,3 and not in C ⊗ M4 (R)=M4 (C)). It will become apparent that the standard matrix formulation contains superfluous parts, which ought to be cut out by Occam's razor. Fierz identities of bilinear covariants are known to be sufficient to study the non-null case but are seen to be insufficient for the null case ψ†γ0ψ=0, ψ†γ0γ0123ψ=0. The null case is thoroughly scrutinized for the first time with a new concept called boomerang. This permits a new intrinsically geometric classification of spinors. This in turn reveals a new class of spinors which has not been discussed before. This class supplements the spinors of Dirac, Weyl, and Majorana; it describes neither the electron nor the neutron; it is awaiting a physical interpretation and a possible observation. Projection operators P±, Σ± are resettled among their new relatives in End(Cl 1,3 ). Finally, a new mapping, called tilt, is introduced to enable a transition from Cl 1,3 to the (graded) opposite algebra Cl 3,1 without resorting to complex numbers, that is, not using a replacement γμ → iγμ.

  11. Global differential geometry: An introduction for control engineers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Doolin, B. F.; Martin, C. F.

    1982-01-01

    The basic concepts and terminology of modern global differential geometry are discussed as an introduction to the Lie theory of differential equations and to the role of Grassmannians in control systems analysis. To reach these topics, the fundamental notions of manifolds, tangent spaces, vector fields, and Lie algebras are discussed and exemplified. An appendix reviews such concepts needed for vector calculus as open and closed sets, compactness, continuity, and derivative. Although the content is mathematical, this is not a mathematical treatise but rather a text for engineers to understand geometric and nonlinear control.

  12. Calabi-Yau Geometries: Algorithms, Databases and Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Yang-Hui

    2013-08-01

    With a bird's-eye view, we survey the landscape of Calabi-Yau threefolds, compact and noncompact, smooth and singular. Emphasis will be placed on the algorithms and databases which have been established over the years, and how they have been useful in the interaction between the physics and the mathematics, especially in string and gauge theories. A skein which runs through this review will be algorithmic and computational algebraic geometry and how, implementing its principles on powerful computers and experimenting with the vast mathematical data, new physics can be learnt. It is hoped that this interdisciplinary glimpse will be of some use to the beginning student.

  13. An introduction to Minkowski geometries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farnsworth, David L.

    2016-07-01

    The fundamental ideas of Minkowski geometries are presented. Learning about Minkowski geometries can sharpen our students' understanding of concepts such as distance measurement. Many of its ideas are important and accessible to undergraduate students. Following a brief overview, distance and orthogonality in Minkowski geometries are thoroughly discussed and many illustrative examples and applications are supplied. Suggestions for further study of these geometries are given. Indeed, Minkowski geometries are an excellent source of topics for undergraduate research and independent study.

  14. From Atiyah Classes to Homotopy Leibniz Algebras

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Zhuo; Stiénon, Mathieu; Xu, Ping

    2016-01-01

    A celebrated theorem of Kapranov states that the Atiyah class of the tangent bundle of a complex manifold X makes T X [-1] into a Lie algebra object in D + ( X), the bounded below derived category of coherent sheaves on X. Furthermore, Kapranov proved that, for a Kähler manifold X, the Dolbeault resolution {Ω^{bullet-1}(T_X^{1, 0})} of T X [-1] is an L ∞ algebra. In this paper, we prove that Kapranov's theorem holds in much wider generality for vector bundles over Lie pairs. Given a Lie pair ( L, A), i.e. a Lie algebroid L together with a Lie subalgebroid A, we define the Atiyah class α E of an A-module E as the obstruction to the existence of an A- compatible L-connection on E. We prove that the Atiyah classes α L/ A and α E respectively make L/ A[-1] and E[-1] into a Lie algebra and a Lie algebra module in the bounded below derived category {D^+(A)} , where {A} is the abelian category of left {U(A)} -modules and {U(A)} is the universal enveloping algebra of A. Moreover, we produce a homotopy Leibniz algebra and a homotopy Leibniz module stemming from the Atiyah classes of L/ A and E, and inducing the aforesaid Lie structures in {D^+(A)}.

  15. An algebraic homotopy method for generating quasi-three-dimensional grids for high-speed configurations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moitra, Anutosh

    1989-01-01

    A fast and versatile procedure for algebraically generating boundary conforming computational grids for use with finite-volume Euler flow solvers is presented. A semi-analytic homotopic procedure is used to generate the grids. Grids generated in two-dimensional planes are stacked to produce quasi-three-dimensional grid systems. The body surface and outer boundary are described in terms of surface parameters. An interpolation scheme is used to blend between the body surface and the outer boundary in order to determine the field points. The method, albeit developed for analytically generated body geometries is equally applicable to other classes of geometries. The method can be used for both internal and external flow configurations, the only constraint being that the body geometries be specified in two-dimensional cross-sections stationed along the longitudinal axis of the configuration. Techniques for controlling various grid parameters, e.g., clustering and orthogonality are described. Techniques for treating problems arising in algebraic grid generation for geometries with sharp corners are addressed. A set of representative grid systems generated by this method is included. Results of flow computations using these grids are presented for validation of the effectiveness of the method.

  16. C*-algebras of holonomy-diffeomorphisms and quantum gravity: I

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aastrup, Johannes; Møller Grimstrup, Jesper

    2013-04-01

    A new approach to a unified theory of quantum gravity based on noncommutative geometry and canonical quantum gravity is presented. The approach is built around a *-algebra generated by local holonomy-diffeomorphisms on a 3-manifold and a quantized Dirac-type operator, the two capturing the kinematics of quantum gravity formulated in terms of Ashtekar variables. We prove that the separable part of the spectrum of the algebra is contained in the space of measurable connections modulo gauge transformations and we give limitations to the non-separable part. The construction of the Dirac-type operator—and thus the application of noncommutative geometry—is motivated by the requirement of diffeomorphism invariance. We conjecture that a semi-finite spectral triple, which is invariant under volume-preserving diffeomorphisms, arises from a GNS construction of a semi-classical state. Key elements of quantum field theory emerge from the construction in a semi-classical limit, as does an almost commutative algebra. Finally, we note that the spectrum of loop quantum gravity emerges from a discretization of our construction. Certain convergence issues are left unresolved. This paper is the first of two where the second paper [1] is concerned with mathematical details and proofs concerning the spectrum of the holonomy-diffeomorphism algebra.

  17. Physics and geometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Souriau, Jean-Marie

    1983-01-01

    Differential geometry, the contemporary heir of the infinitesimal calculus of the 17th century, appears today as the most appropriate language for the description of physical reality. This holds at every level: The concept of “connexion,” for instance, is used in the construction of models of the universe as well as in the description of the interior of the proton. Nothing is apparently more contrary to the wisdom of physicists; all the same, “it works.” The pages that follow show the conceptual role played by this geometry in some examples—without entering into technical details. In order to achieve this, we shall often have to abandon the complete mathematical rigor and even full definitions; however, we shall be able to give a precise description of the connection of ideas thanks to some elements of group theory.

  18. Puzzle geometry and rigidity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smania, Daniel

    2007-07-01

    We describe a new and robust method to prove rigidity results in complex dynamics. The new ingredient is the geometry of the critical puzzle pieces: under control of geometry and ``complex bounds'', two generalized polynomial-like maps which admit a topological conjugacy, quasiconformal outside the filled-in Julia set, are indeed quasiconformally conjugate. The proof uses a new abstract removability-type result for quasiconformal maps, following ideas of Heinonen and Koskela and of Kallunki and Koskela, optimized for applications in complex dynamics. We prove, as the first application of this new method, that, for even criticalities distinct from two, the period two cycle of the Fibonacci renormalization operator is hyperbolic with 1 -dimensional unstable manifold.

  19. Failures of information geometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skilling, John

    2015-01-01

    Information H is a unique relationship between probabilities, based on the property of independence which is central to scientific methodology. Information Geometry makes the tempting but fallacious assumption that a local metric (conventionally based on information) can be used to endow the space of probability distributions with a preferred global Riemannian metric. No such global metric can conform to H, which is "from-to" asymmetric whereas geometrical length is by definition symmetric. Accordingly, any Riemannian metric will contradict the required structure of the very distributions which are supposedly being triangulated. It follows that probabilities do not form a metric space. We give counter-examples in which alternative formulations of information, and the use of information geometry, lead to unacceptable results.

  20. Cylindrical geometry hall thruster

    DOEpatents

    Raitses, Yevgeny; Fisch, Nathaniel J.

    2002-01-01

    An apparatus and method for thrusting plasma, utilizing a Hall thruster with a cylindrical geometry, wherein ions are accelerated in substantially the axial direction. The apparatus is suitable for operation at low power. It employs small size thruster components, including a ceramic channel, with the center pole piece of the conventional annular design thruster eliminated or greatly reduced. Efficient operation is accomplished through magnetic fields with a substantial radial component. The propellant gas is ionized at an optimal location in the thruster. A further improvement is accomplished by segmented electrodes, which produce localized voltage drops within the thruster at optimally prescribed locations. The apparatus differs from a conventional Hall thruster, which has an annular geometry, not well suited to scaling to small size, because the small size for an annular design has a great deal of surface area relative to the volume.

  1. Freezing in confined geometries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sokol, P. E.; Ma, W. J.; Herwig, K. W.; Snow, W. M.; Wang, Y.; Koplik, Joel; Banavar, Jayanth R.

    1992-01-01

    Results of detailed structural studies, using elastic neutron scattering, of the freezing of liquid O2 and D2 in porous vycor glass, are presented. The experimental studies have been complemented by computer simulations of the dynamics of freezing of a Lennard-Jones liquid in narrow channels bounded by molecular walls. Results point to a new simple physical interpretation of freezing in confined geometries.

  2. Integral geometry and holography

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Czech, Bartlomiej; Lamprou, Lampros; McCandlish, Samuel; Sully, James

    2015-10-27

    We present a mathematical framework which underlies the connection between information theory and the bulk spacetime in the AdS3/CFT2 correspondence. A key concept is kinematic space: an auxiliary Lorentzian geometry whose metric is defined in terms of conditional mutual informations and which organizes the entanglement pattern of a CFT state. When the field theory has a holographic dual obeying the Ryu-Takayanagi proposal, kinematic space has a direct geometric meaning: it is the space of bulk geodesics studied in integral geometry. Lengths of bulk curves are computed by kinematic volumes, giving a precise entropic interpretation of the length of any bulkmore » curve. We explain how basic geometric concepts -- points, distances and angles -- are reflected in kinematic space, allowing one to reconstruct a large class of spatial bulk geometries from boundary entanglement entropies. In this way, kinematic space translates between information theoretic and geometric descriptions of a CFT state. As an example, we discuss in detail the static slice of AdS3 whose kinematic space is two-dimensional de Sitter space.« less

  3. Emergent Complex Network Geometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Zhihao; Menichetti, Giulia; Rahmede, Christoph; Bianconi, Ginestra

    2015-05-01

    Networks are mathematical structures that are universally used to describe a large variety of complex systems such as the brain or the Internet. Characterizing the geometrical properties of these networks has become increasingly relevant for routing problems, inference and data mining. In real growing networks, topological, structural and geometrical properties emerge spontaneously from their dynamical rules. Nevertheless we still miss a model in which networks develop an emergent complex geometry. Here we show that a single two parameter network model, the growing geometrical network, can generate complex network geometries with non-trivial distribution of curvatures, combining exponential growth and small-world properties with finite spectral dimensionality. In one limit, the non-equilibrium dynamical rules of these networks can generate scale-free networks with clustering and communities, in another limit planar random geometries with non-trivial modularity. Finally we find that these properties of the geometrical growing networks are present in a large set of real networks describing biological, social and technological systems.

  4. Emergent Complex Network Geometry

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Zhihao; Menichetti, Giulia; Rahmede, Christoph; Bianconi, Ginestra

    2015-01-01

    Networks are mathematical structures that are universally used to describe a large variety of complex systems such as the brain or the Internet. Characterizing the geometrical properties of these networks has become increasingly relevant for routing problems, inference and data mining. In real growing networks, topological, structural and geometrical properties emerge spontaneously from their dynamical rules. Nevertheless we still miss a model in which networks develop an emergent complex geometry. Here we show that a single two parameter network model, the growing geometrical network, can generate complex network geometries with non-trivial distribution of curvatures, combining exponential growth and small-world properties with finite spectral dimensionality. In one limit, the non-equilibrium dynamical rules of these networks can generate scale-free networks with clustering and communities, in another limit planar random geometries with non-trivial modularity. Finally we find that these properties of the geometrical growing networks are present in a large set of real networks describing biological, social and technological systems. PMID:25985280

  5. Integral geometry and holography

    SciTech Connect

    Czech, Bartlomiej; Lamprou, Lampros; McCandlish, Samuel; Sully, James

    2015-10-27

    We present a mathematical framework which underlies the connection between information theory and the bulk spacetime in the AdS3/CFT2 correspondence. A key concept is kinematic space: an auxiliary Lorentzian geometry whose metric is defined in terms of conditional mutual informations and which organizes the entanglement pattern of a CFT state. When the field theory has a holographic dual obeying the Ryu-Takayanagi proposal, kinematic space has a direct geometric meaning: it is the space of bulk geodesics studied in integral geometry. Lengths of bulk curves are computed by kinematic volumes, giving a precise entropic interpretation of the length of any bulk curve. We explain how basic geometric concepts -- points, distances and angles -- are reflected in kinematic space, allowing one to reconstruct a large class of spatial bulk geometries from boundary entanglement entropies. In this way, kinematic space translates between information theoretic and geometric descriptions of a CFT state. As an example, we discuss in detail the static slice of AdS3 whose kinematic space is two-dimensional de Sitter space.

  6. Biomedical Mathematics, Unit I: Measurement, Linear Functions and Dimensional Algebra. Student Text. Revised Version, 1975.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Biomedical Interdisciplinary Curriculum Project, Berkeley, CA.

    This text presents lessons relating specific mathematical concepts to the ideas, skills, and tasks pertinent to the health care field. Among other concepts covered are linear functions, vectors, trigonometry, and statistics. Many of the lessons use data acquired during science experiments as the basis for exercises in mathematics. Lessons present…

  7. Card Games and Algebra Tic Tacmatics on Achievement of Junior Secondary II Students in Algebraic Expressions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Okpube, Nnaemeka Michael; Anugwo, M. N.

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the Card Games and Algebra tic-Tacmatics on Junior Secondary II Students' Achievement in Algebraic Expressions. Three research questions and three null hypotheses guided the study. The study adopted the pre-test, post-test control group design. A total of two hundred and forty (240) Junior Secondary School II students were…

  8. Algebra Is a Civil Right: Increasing Achievement for African American Males in Algebra through Collaborative Inquiry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davies Gomez, Lisa

    2012-01-01

    Algebra is the gatekeeper of access to higher-level math and science courses, higher education and future earning opportunities. Unequal numbers of African-American males drop out of Algebra and mathematics courses and underperform on tests of mathematical competency and are thus denied both essential skills and a particularly important pathway to…

  9. Slower Algebra Students Meet Faster Tools: Solving Algebra Word Problems with Graphing Software

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yerushalmy, Michal

    2006-01-01

    The article discusses the ways that less successful mathematics students used graphing software with capabilities similar to a basic graphing calculator to solve algebra problems in context. The study is based on interviewing students who learned algebra for 3 years in an environment where software tools were always present. We found differences…

  10. Developing "Algebraic Thinking": Two Key Ways to Establish Some Early Algebraic Ideas in Primary Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ormond, Christine

    2012-01-01

    Primary teachers play a key role in their students' future mathematical success in the early secondary years. While the word "algebra" may make some primary teachers feel uncomfortable or worried, the basic arithmetic ideas underlying algebra are vitally important for older primary students as they are increasingly required to use "algebraic…

  11. C∗-completions and the DFR-algebra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Forger, Michael; Paulino, Daniel V.

    2016-02-01

    The aim of this paper is to present the construction of a general family of C∗-algebras which includes, as a special case, the "quantum spacetime algebra" introduced by Doplicher, Fredenhagen, and Roberts. It is based on an extension of the notion of C∗-completion from algebras to bundles of algebras, compatible with the usual C∗-completion of the appropriate algebras of sections, combined with a novel definition for the algebra of the canonical commutation relations using Rieffel's theory of strict deformation quantization. Taking the C∗-algebra of continuous sections vanishing at infinity, we arrive at a functor associating a C∗-algebra to any Poisson vector bundle and recover the original DFR-algebra as a particular example.

  12. Hom-Lie algebras with symmetric invariant nondegenerate bilinear forms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benayadi, Saïd; Makhlouf, Abdenacer

    2014-02-01

    The aim of this paper is to introduce and study quadratic Hom-Lie algebras, which are Hom-Lie algebras equipped with symmetric invariant nondegenerate bilinear forms. We provide several constructions leading to examples and extend the Double Extension Theory to this class of nonassociative algebras. Elements of Representation Theory for Hom-Lie algebras, including adjoint and coadjoint representations, are supplied with application to quadratic Hom-Lie algebras. Centerless involutive quadratic Hom-Lie algebras are characterized. We reduce the case where the twist map is invertible to the study of involutive quadratic Lie algebras. Also, we establish a correspondence between the class of involutive quadratic Hom-Lie algebras and quadratic simple Lie algebras with symmetric involution.

  13. Three-algebra for supermembrane and two-algebra for superstring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Kanghoon; Park, Jeong-Hyuck

    2009-04-01

    While string or Yang-Mills theories are based on Lie algebra or two-algebra structure, recent studies indicate that Script M-theory may require a one higher, three-algebra structure. Here we construct a covariant action for a supermembrane in eleven dimensions, which is invariant under global supersymmetry, local fermionic symmetry and worldvolume diffeomorphism. Our action is classically on-shell equivalent to the celebrated Bergshoeff-Sezgin-Townsend action. However, the novelty is that we spell the action genuinely in terms of Nambu three-brackets: All the derivatives appear through Nambu brackets and hence it manifests the three-algebra structure. Further the double dimensional reduction of our action gives straightforwardly to a type IIA string action featuring two-algebra. Applying the same method, we also construct a covariant action for type IIB superstring, leading directly to the IKKT matrix model.

  14. Multi-Matrix Models and Noncommutative Frobenius Algebras Obtained from Symmetric Groups and Brauer Algebras

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kimura, Yusuke

    2015-07-01

    It has been understood that correlation functions of multi-trace operators in SYM can be neatly computed using the group algebra of symmetric groups or walled Brauer algebras. On the other hand, such algebras have been known to construct 2D topological field theories (TFTs). After reviewing the construction of 2D TFTs based on symmetric groups, we construct 2D TFTs based on walled Brauer algebras. In the construction, the introduction of a dual basis manifests a similarity between the two theories. We next construct a class of 2D field theories whose physical operators have the same symmetry as multi-trace operators constructed from some matrices. Such field theories correspond to non-commutative Frobenius algebras. A matrix structure arises as a consequence of the noncommutativity. Correlation functions of the Gaussian complex multi-matrix models can be translated into correlation functions of the two-dimensional field theories.

  15. Algebraic theory of recombination spaces.

    PubMed

    Stadler, P F; Wagner, G P

    1997-01-01

    A new mathematical representation is proposed for the configuration space structure induced by recombination, which we call "P-structure." It consists of a mapping of pairs of objects to the power set of all objects in the search space. The mapping assigns to each pair of parental "genotypes" the set of all recombinant genotypes obtainable from the parental ones. It is shown that this construction allows a Fourier decomposition of fitness landscapes into a superposition of "elementary landscapes." This decomposition is analogous to the Fourier decomposition of fitness landscapes on mutation spaces. The elementary landscapes are obtained as eigenfunctions of a Laplacian operator defined for P-structures. For binary string recombination, the elementary landscapes are exactly the p-spin functions (Walsh functions), that is, the same as the elementary landscapes of the string point mutation spaces (i.e., the hypercube). This supports the notion of a strong homomorphism between string mutation and recombination spaces. However, the effective nearest neighbor correlations on these elementary landscapes differ between mutation and recombination and among different recombination operators. On average, the nearest neighbor correlation is higher for one-point recombination than for uniform recombination. For one-point recombination, the correlations are higher for elementary landscapes with fewer interacting sites as well as for sites that have closer linkage, confirming the qualitative predictions of the Schema Theorem. We conclude that the algebraic approach to fitness landscape analysis can be extended to recombination spaces and provides an effective way to analyze the relative hardness of a landscape for a given recombination operator. PMID:10021760

  16. TBGG- INTERACTIVE ALGEBRAIC GRID GENERATION

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, R. E.

    1994-01-01

    TBGG, Two-Boundary Grid Generation, applies an interactive algebraic grid generation technique in two dimensions. The program incorporates mathematical equations that relate the computational domain to the physical domain. TBGG has application to a variety of problems using finite difference techniques, such as computational fluid dynamics. Examples include the creation of a C-type grid about an airfoil and a nozzle configuration in which no left or right boundaries are specified. The underlying two-boundary technique of grid generation is based on Hermite cubic interpolation between two fixed, nonintersecting boundaries. The boundaries are defined by two ordered sets of points, referred to as the top and bottom. Left and right side boundaries may also be specified, and call upon linear blending functions to conform interior interpolation to the side boundaries. Spacing between physical grid coordinates is determined as a function of boundary data and uniformly spaced computational coordinates. Control functions relating computational coordinates to parametric intermediate variables that affect the distance between grid points are embedded in the interpolation formulas. A versatile control function technique with smooth cubic spline functions is also presented. The TBGG program is written in FORTRAN 77. It works best in an interactive graphics environment where computational displays and user responses are quickly exchanged. The program has been implemented on a CDC Cyber 170 series computer using NOS 2.4 operating system, with a central memory requirement of 151,700 (octal) 60 bit words. TBGG requires a Tektronix 4015 terminal and the DI-3000 Graphics Library of Precision Visuals, Inc. TBGG was developed in 1986.

  17. Instanton superpotentials, Calabi-Yau geometry, and fibrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, Lara B.; Apruzzi, Fabio; Gao, Xin; Gray, James; Lee, Seung-Joo

    2016-04-01

    In this paper we explore contributions to nonperturbative superpotentials arising from instantons wrapping effective divisors in smooth Calabi-Yau fourfolds. We concentrate on the case of manifolds constructed as complete intersections in products of projective spaces or generalizations thereof. We systematically investigate the structure of the cone of effective (algebraic) divisors in the fourfold geometries and employ the same tools recently developed by Anderson et al. [arXiv:1507.03235] to construct more general instanton geometries than have previously been considered in the literature. We provide examples of instanton configurations on Calabi-Yau manifolds that are elliptically and K 3 fibered and explore their consequences in the context of string dualities. The examples discussed include manifolds containing infinite families of divisors with arithmetic genus, χ (D ,OD)=1 , and superpotentials exhibiting modular symmetry.

  18. Role of division algebra in seven-dimensional gauge theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalauni, Pushpa; Barata, J. C. A.

    2015-03-01

    The algebra of octonions 𝕆 forms the largest normed division algebra over the real numbers ℝ, complex numbers ℂ and quaternions ℍ. The usual three-dimensional vector product is given by quaternions, while octonions produce seven-dimensional vector product. Thus, octonionic algebra is closely related to the seven-dimensional algebra, therefore one can extend generalization of rotations in three dimensions to seven dimensions using octonions. An explicit algebraic description of octonions has been given to describe rotational transformation in seven-dimensional space. We have also constructed a gauge theory based on non-associative algebra to discuss Yang-Mills theory and field equation in seven-dimensional space.

  19. Boundary Lax pairs from non-ultra-local Poisson algebras

    SciTech Connect

    Avan, Jean; Doikou, Anastasia

    2009-11-15

    We consider non-ultra-local linear Poisson algebras on a continuous line. Suitable combinations of representations of these algebras yield representations of novel generalized linear Poisson algebras or 'boundary' extensions. They are parametrized by a boundary scalar matrix and depend, in addition, on the choice of an antiautomorphism. The new algebras are the classical-linear counterparts of the known quadratic quantum boundary algebras. For any choice of parameters, the non-ultra-local contribution of the original Poisson algebra disappears. We also systematically construct the associated classical Lax pair. The classical boundary principal chiral model is examined as a physical example.

  20. Lie algebra of conformal Killing–Yano forms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ertem, Ümit

    2016-06-01

    We provide a generalization of the Lie algebra of conformal Killing vector fields to conformal Killing–Yano forms. A new Lie bracket for conformal Killing–Yano forms that corresponds to slightly modified Schouten–Nijenhuis bracket of differential forms is proposed. We show that conformal Killing–Yano forms satisfy a graded Lie algebra in constant curvature manifolds. It is also proven that normal conformal Killing–Yano forms in Einstein manifolds also satisfy a graded Lie algebra. The constructed graded Lie algebras reduce to the graded Lie algebra of Killing–Yano forms and the Lie algebras of conformal Killing and Killing vector fields in special cases.