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Sample records for algebra intermediate algebra

  1. A Concurrent Support Course for Intermediate Algebra

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooper, Cameron I.

    2011-01-01

    This article summarizes the creation and implementation of a concurrent support class for TRS 92--Intermediate Algebra, a developmental mathematics course at Fort Lewis College in Durango, Colorado. The concurrent course outlined in this article demonstrates a statistically significant increase in student success rates since its inception.…

  2. Microsoft Excel as a Supplement to Intermediate Algebra

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stephens, Larry J.

    2003-01-01

    Excel assignments were used as extra credit in an intermediate algebra course. Ninety percent of the students had a home computer and seventy per cent were familiar with Excel. There was not a significant linear correlation between the amount of Excel that the students performed and their achievement in algebra. One-third of the students did less…

  3. Teaching Algebra without Algebra

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kalman, Richard S.

    2008-01-01

    Algebra is, among other things, a shorthand way to express quantitative reasoning. This article illustrates ways for the classroom teacher to convert algebraic solutions to verbal problems into conversational solutions that can be understood by students in the lower grades. Three reasonably typical verbal problems that either appeared as or…

  4. Comparison of the Effectiveness of a Traditional Intermediate Algebra Course With That of a Less Rigorous Intermediate Algebra Course in Preparing Students for Success in a Subsequent Mathematics Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sworder, Steven C.

    2007-01-01

    An experimental two-track intermediate algebra course was offered at Saddleback College, Mission Viejo, CA, between the Fall, 2002 and Fall, 2005 semesters. One track was modeled after the existing traditional California community college intermediate algebra course and the other track was a less rigorous intermediate algebra course in which the…

  5. Kiddie Algebra

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cavanagh, Sean

    2009-01-01

    As educators and policymakers search for ways to prepare students for the rigors of algebra, teachers in the Helena, Montana, school system are starting early by attempting to nurture students' algebraic-reasoning ability, as well as their basic number skills, in early elementary school, rather than waiting until middle or early high school.…

  6. Learning Activity Package, Algebra.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans, Diane

    A set of ten teacher-prepared Learning Activity Packages (LAPs) in beginning algebra and nine in intermediate algebra, these units cover sets, properties of operations, number systems, open expressions, solution sets of equations and inequalities in one and two variables, exponents, factoring and polynomials, relations and functions, radicals,…

  7. Color Algebras

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mulligan, Jeffrey B.

    2017-01-01

    A color algebra refers to a system for computing sums and products of colors, analogous to additive and subtractive color mixtures. We would like it to match the well-defined algebra of spectral functions describing lights and surface reflectances, but an exact correspondence is impossible after the spectra have been projected to a three-dimensional color space, because of metamerism physically different spectra can produce the same color sensation. Metameric spectra are interchangeable for the purposes of addition, but not multiplication, so any color algebra is necessarily an approximation to physical reality. Nevertheless, because the majority of naturally-occurring spectra are well-behaved (e.g., continuous and slowly-varying), color algebras can be formulated that are largely accurate and agree well with human intuition. Here we explore the family of algebras that result from associating each color with a member of a three-dimensional manifold of spectra. This association can be used to construct a color product, defined as the color of the spectrum of the wavelength-wise product of the spectra associated with the two input colors. The choice of the spectral manifold determines the behavior of the resulting system, and certain special subspaces allow computational efficiencies. The resulting systems can be used to improve computer graphic rendering techniques, and to model various perceptual phenomena such as color constancy.

  8. Factors That Influence Students' Performance in Intermediate Algebra Classes at the College: A Longitudinal Research Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramirez, Sonia; Siadat, M. Vali

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to identify factors that influence students' performance in the intermediate algebra classes at the college by analyzing parameters such as test scores, grades, attitude towards mathematics, time lapse between subsequent courses, placement, and teaching practices. This study will investigate the correlation of several…

  9. Steinberg conformal algebras

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mikhalev, A. V.; Pinchuk, I. A.

    2005-06-01

    The structure of Steinberg conformal algebras is studied; these are analogues of Steinberg groups (algebras, superalgebras).A Steinberg conformal algebra is defined as an abstract algebra by a system of generators and relations between the generators. It is proved that a Steinberg conformal algebra is the universal central extension of the corresponding conformal Lie algebra; the kernel of this extension is calculated.

  10. Web Algebra.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Capani, Antonio; De Dominicis, Gabriel

    This paper proposes a model for a general interface between people and Computer Algebra Systems (CAS). The main features in the CAS interface are data navigation and the possibility of accessing powerful remote machines. This model is based on the idea of session management, in which the main engine of the tool enables interactions with the…

  11. Determination of the Effectiveness of Intermediate Algebra-Accelerated (Math 255) as Preparation for Student Success in a Transferable Mathematics Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sworder, Steven C.

    2011-01-01

    Background: The Mathematics Department at Saddleback College created a 3-units intermediate algebra course as an alternative to the traditional 5-units intermediate algebra course. Forty percent of the material in the traditional course was composed of review topics from beginning algebra. The 3-units course did not contain that rehash of…

  12. Algebraic trigonometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vaninsky, Alexander

    2011-04-01

    This article introduces a trigonometric field (TF) that extends the field of real numbers by adding two new elements: sin and cos - satisfying an axiom sin2 + cos2 = 1. It is shown that by assigning meaningful names to particular elements of the field, all known trigonometric identities may be introduced and proved. Two different interpretations of the TF are discussed with many others potentially possible. The main objective of this article is to introduce a broader view of trigonometry that can serve as motivation for mathematics students and teachers to study and teach abstract algebraic structures.

  13. Derive Workshop Matrix Algebra and Linear Algebra.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Townsley Kulich, Lisa; Victor, Barbara

    This document presents the course content for a workshop that integrates the use of the computer algebra system Derive with topics in matrix and linear algebra. The first section is a guide to using Derive that provides information on how to write algebraic expressions, make graphs, save files, edit, define functions, differentiate expressions,…

  14. Quantum cluster algebras and quantum nilpotent algebras

    PubMed Central

    Goodearl, Kenneth R.; Yakimov, Milen T.

    2014-01-01

    A major direction in the theory of cluster algebras is to construct (quantum) cluster algebra structures on the (quantized) coordinate rings of various families of varieties arising in Lie theory. We prove that all algebras in a very large axiomatically defined class of noncommutative algebras possess canonical quantum cluster algebra structures. Furthermore, they coincide with the corresponding upper quantum cluster algebras. We also establish analogs of these results for a large class of Poisson nilpotent algebras. Many important families of coordinate rings are subsumed in the class we are covering, which leads to a broad range of applications of the general results to the above-mentioned types of problems. As a consequence, we prove the Berenstein–Zelevinsky conjecture [Berenstein A, Zelevinsky A (2005) Adv Math 195:405–455] for the quantized coordinate rings of double Bruhat cells and construct quantum cluster algebra structures on all quantum unipotent groups, extending the theorem of Geiß et al. [Geiß C, et al. (2013) Selecta Math 19:337–397] for the case of symmetric Kac–Moody groups. Moreover, we prove that the upper cluster algebras of Berenstein et al. [Berenstein A, et al. (2005) Duke Math J 126:1–52] associated with double Bruhat cells coincide with the corresponding cluster algebras. PMID:24982197

  15. Profiles of Algebraic Competence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Humberstone, J.; Reeve, R.A.

    2008-01-01

    The algebraic competence of 72 12-year-old female students was examined to identify profiles of understanding reflecting different algebraic knowledge states. Beginning algebraic competence (mapping abilities: word-to-symbol and vice versa, classifying, and solving equations) was assessed. One week later, the nature of assistance required to map…

  16. Writing to Learn Algebra.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, L. Diane; England, David A.

    1989-01-01

    Describes a study in a large metropolitan high school to ascertain what influence the use of regular writing in algebra classes would have on students' attitudes towards algebra and their skills in algebra. Reports the simpler and more direct the writing topics the better. (MVL)

  17. Algebraic theory of molecules

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Iachello, Franco

    1995-01-01

    An algebraic formulation of quantum mechanics is presented. In this formulation, operators of interest are expanded onto elements of an algebra, G. For bound state problems in nu dimensions the algebra G is taken to be U(nu + 1). Applications to the structure of molecules are presented.

  18. Applied Algebra Curriculum Modules.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas State Technical Coll., Marshall.

    This collection of 11 applied algebra curriculum modules can be used independently as supplemental modules for an existing algebra curriculum. They represent diverse curriculum styles that should stimulate the teacher's creativity to adapt them to other algebra concepts. The selected topics have been determined to be those most needed by students…

  19. Connecting Arithmetic to Algebra

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Darley, Joy W.; Leapard, Barbara B.

    2010-01-01

    Algebraic thinking is a top priority in mathematics classrooms today. Because elementary school teachers lay the groundwork to develop students' capacity to think algebraically, it is crucial for teachers to have a conceptual understanding of the connections between arithmetic and algebra and be confident in communicating these connections. Many…

  20. Ternary Virasoro - Witt algebra.

    SciTech Connect

    Zachos, C.; Curtright, T.; Fairlie, D.; High Energy Physics; Univ. of Miami; Univ. of Durham

    2008-01-01

    A 3-bracket variant of the Virasoro-Witt algebra is constructed through the use of su(1,1) enveloping algebra techniques. The Leibniz rules for 3-brackets acting on other 3-brackets in the algebra are discussed and verified in various situations.

  1. Computer algebra and operators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fateman, Richard; Grossman, Robert

    1989-01-01

    The symbolic computation of operator expansions is discussed. Some of the capabilities that prove useful when performing computer algebra computations involving operators are considered. These capabilities may be broadly divided into three areas: the algebraic manipulation of expressions from the algebra generated by operators; the algebraic manipulation of the actions of the operators upon other mathematical objects; and the development of appropriate normal forms and simplification algorithms for operators and their actions. Brief descriptions are given of the computer algebra computations that arise when working with various operators and their actions.

  2. Discrete Minimal Surface Algebras

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arnlind, Joakim; Hoppe, Jens

    2010-05-01

    We consider discrete minimal surface algebras (DMSA) as generalized noncommutative analogues of minimal surfaces in higher dimensional spheres. These algebras appear naturally in membrane theory, where sequences of their representations are used as a regularization. After showing that the defining relations of the algebra are consistent, and that one can compute a basis of the enveloping algebra, we give several explicit examples of DMSAs in terms of subsets of sln (any semi-simple Lie algebra providing a trivial example by itself). A special class of DMSAs are Yang-Mills algebras. The representation graph is introduced to study representations of DMSAs of dimension d ≤ 4, and properties of representations are related to properties of graphs. The representation graph of a tensor product is (generically) the Cartesian product of the corresponding graphs. We provide explicit examples of irreducible representations and, for coinciding eigenvalues, classify all the unitary representations of the corresponding algebras.

  3. Prediction of Algebraic Instabilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaretzky, Paula; King, Kristina; Hill, Nicole; Keithley, Kimberlee; Barlow, Nathaniel; Weinstein, Steven; Cromer, Michael

    2016-11-01

    A widely unexplored type of hydrodynamic instability is examined - large-time algebraic growth. Such growth occurs on the threshold of (exponentially) neutral stability. A new methodology is provided for predicting the algebraic growth rate of an initial disturbance, when applied to the governing differential equation (or dispersion relation) describing wave propagation in dispersive media. Several types of algebraic instabilities are explored in the context of both linear and nonlinear waves.

  4. Connecting Algebra and Chemistry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Connor, Sean

    2003-01-01

    Correlates high school chemistry curriculum with high school algebra curriculum and makes the case for an integrated approach to mathematics and science instruction. Focuses on process integration. (DDR)

  5. Bicovariant quantum algebras and quantum Lie algebras

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schupp, Peter; Watts, Paul; Zumino, Bruno

    1993-10-01

    A bicovariant calculus of differential operators on a quantum group is constructed in a natural way, using invariant maps from Fun(mathfrak{G}_q ) to U q g, given by elements of the pure braid group. These operators—the “reflection matrix” Y≡L + SL - being a special case—generate algebras that linearly close under adjoint actions, i.e. they form generalized Lie algebras. We establish the connection between the Hopf algebra formulation of the calculus and a formulation in compact matrix form which is quite powerful for actual computations and as applications we find the quantum determinant and an orthogonality relation for Y in SO q (N).

  6. Catching Up on Algebra

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cavanagh, Sean

    2008-01-01

    A popular humorist and avowed mathphobe once declared that in real life, there's no such thing as algebra. Kathie Wilson knows better. Most of the students in her 8th grade class will be thrust into algebra, the definitive course that heralds the beginning of high school mathematics, next school year. The problem: Many of them are about three…

  7. Parastatistics Algebras and Combinatorics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Popov, T.

    2005-03-01

    We consider the algebras spanned by the creation parafermionic and parabosonic operators which give rise to generalized parastatistics Fock spaces. The basis of such a generalized Fock space can be labelled by Young tableaux which are combinatorial objects. By means of quantum deformations a nice combinatorial structure of the algebra of the plactic monoid that lies behind the parastatistics is revealed.

  8. Algebraic Reasoning through Patterns

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rivera, F. D.; Becker, Joanne Rossi

    2009-01-01

    This article presents the results of a three-year study that explores students' performance on patterning tasks involving prealgebra and algebra. The findings, insights, and issues drawn from the study are intended to help teach prealgebra and algebra. In the remainder of the article, the authors take a more global view of the three-year study on…

  9. Linear-Algebra Programs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lawson, C. L.; Krogh, F. T.; Gold, S. S.; Kincaid, D. R.; Sullivan, J.; Williams, E.; Hanson, R. J.; Haskell, K.; Dongarra, J.; Moler, C. B.

    1982-01-01

    The Basic Linear Algebra Subprograms (BLAS) library is a collection of 38 FORTRAN-callable routines for performing basic operations of numerical linear algebra. BLAS library is portable and efficient source of basic operations for designers of programs involving linear algebriac computations. BLAS library is supplied in portable FORTRAN and Assembler code versions for IBM 370, UNIVAC 1100 and CDC 6000 series computers.

  10. Ready, Set, Algebra?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levy, Alissa Beth

    2012-01-01

    The California Department of Education (CDE) has long asserted that success Algebra I by Grade 8 is the goal for all California public school students. In fact, the state's accountability system penalizes schools that do not require all of their students to take the Algebra I end-of-course examination by Grade 8 (CDE, 2009). In this dissertation,…

  11. Teaching Structure in Algebra

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Merlin, Ethan M.

    2013-01-01

    This article describes how the author has developed tasks for students that address the missed "essence of the matter" of algebraic transformations. Specifically, he has found that having students practice "perceiving" algebraic structure--by naming the "glue" in the expressions, drawing expressions using…

  12. Algebraic Nonlinear Collective Motion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Troupe, J.; Rosensteel, G.

    1998-11-01

    Finite-dimensional Lie algebras of vector fields determine geometrical collective models in quantum and classical physics. Every set of vector fields on Euclidean space that generates the Lie algebra sl(3, R) and contains the angular momentum algebra so(3) is determined. The subset of divergence-free sl(3, R) vector fields is proven to be indexed by a real numberΛ. TheΛ=0 solution is the linear representation that corresponds to the Riemann ellipsoidal model. The nonlinear group action on Euclidean space transforms a certain family of deformed droplets among themselves. For positiveΛ, the droplets have a neck that becomes more pronounced asΛincreases; for negativeΛ, the droplets contain a spherical bubble of radius |Λ|1/3. The nonlinear vector field algebra is extended to the nonlinear general collective motion algebra gcm(3) which includes the inertia tensor. The quantum algebraic models of nonlinear nuclear collective motion are given by irreducible unitary representations of the nonlinear gcm(3) Lie algebra. These representations model fissioning isotopes (Λ>0) and bubble and two-fluid nuclei (Λ<0).

  13. Algebraic invariants for homotopy types

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blanc, David

    1999-11-01

    We define a sequence of purely algebraic invariants - namely, classes in the Quillen cohomology of the [Pi]-algebra [pi][low asterisk]X - for distinguishing between different homotopy types of spaces. Another sequence of such cohomology classes allows one to decide whether a given abstract [Pi]-algebra can be realized as the homotopy [Pi]-algebra of a space.

  14. A Richer Understanding of Algebra

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foy, Michelle

    2008-01-01

    Algebra is one of those hard-to-teach topics where pupils seem to struggle to see it as more than a set of rules to learn, but this author recently used the software "Grid Algebra" from ATM, which engaged her Year 7 pupils in exploring algebraic concepts for themselves. "Grid Algebra" allows pupils to experience number,…

  15. Pseudo-Riemannian Novikov algebras

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Zhiqi; Zhu, Fuhai

    2008-08-01

    Novikov algebras were introduced in connection with the Poisson brackets of hydrodynamic-type and Hamiltonian operators in formal variational calculus. Pseudo-Riemannian Novikov algebras denote Novikov algebras with non-degenerate invariant symmetric bilinear forms. In this paper, we find that there is a remarkable geometry on pseudo-Riemannian Novikov algebras, and give a special class of pseudo-Riemannian Novikov algebras.

  16. Weyl n-Algebras

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Markarian, Nikita

    2017-03-01

    We introduce Weyl n-algebras and show how their factorization complex may be used to define invariants of manifolds. In the appendix, we heuristically explain why these invariants must be perturbative Chern-Simons invariants.

  17. Developing Algebraic Thinking.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alejandre, Suzanne

    2002-01-01

    Presents a teaching experience that resulted in students getting to a point of full understanding of the kinesthetic activity and the algebra behind it. Includes a lesson plan for a traffic jam activity. (KHR)

  18. Jordan Algebraic Quantum Categories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graydon, Matthew; Barnum, Howard; Ududec, Cozmin; Wilce, Alexander

    2015-03-01

    State cones in orthodox quantum theory over finite dimensional complex Hilbert spaces enjoy two particularly essential features: homogeneity and self-duality. Orthodox quantum theory is not, however, unique in that regard. Indeed, all finite dimensional formally real Jordan algebras -- arenas for generalized quantum theories with close algebraic kinship to the orthodox theory -- admit homogeneous self-dual positive cones. We construct categories wherein these theories are unified. The structure of composite systems is cast from universal tensor products of the universal C*-algebras enveloping ambient spaces for the constituent state cones. We develop, in particular, a notion of composition that preserves the local distinction of constituent systems in quaternionic quantum theory. More generally, we explicitly derive the structure of hybrid quantum composites with subsystems of arbitrary Jordan algebraic type.

  19. Accounting Equals Applied Algebra.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, Sondra

    1997-01-01

    Argues that students should be given mathematics credits for completing accounting classes. Demonstrates that, although the terminology is different, the mathematical concepts are the same as those used in an introductory algebra class. (JOW)

  20. Covariant deformed oscillator algebras

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Quesne, Christiane

    1995-01-01

    The general form and associativity conditions of deformed oscillator algebras are reviewed. It is shown how the latter can be fulfilled in terms of a solution of the Yang-Baxter equation when this solution has three distinct eigenvalues and satisfies a Birman-Wenzl-Murakami condition. As an example, an SU(sub q)(n) x SU(sub q)(m)-covariant q-bosonic algebra is discussed in some detail.

  1. Aprepro - Algebraic Preprocessor

    SciTech Connect

    2005-08-01

    Aprepro is an algebraic preprocessor that reads a file containing both general text and algebraic, string, or conditional expressions. It interprets the expressions and outputs them to the output file along witht the general text. Aprepro contains several mathematical functions, string functions, and flow control constructs. In addition, functions are included that, with some additional files, implement a units conversion system and a material database lookup system.

  2. Algebraic mesh quality metrics

    SciTech Connect

    KNUPP,PATRICK

    2000-04-24

    Quality metrics for structured and unstructured mesh generation are placed within an algebraic framework to form a mathematical theory of mesh quality metrics. The theory, based on the Jacobian and related matrices, provides a means of constructing, classifying, and evaluating mesh quality metrics. The Jacobian matrix is factored into geometrically meaningful parts. A nodally-invariant Jacobian matrix can be defined for simplicial elements using a weight matrix derived from the Jacobian matrix of an ideal reference element. Scale and orientation-invariant algebraic mesh quality metrics are defined. the singular value decomposition is used to study relationships between metrics. Equivalence of the element condition number and mean ratio metrics is proved. Condition number is shown to measure the distance of an element to the set of degenerate elements. Algebraic measures for skew, length ratio, shape, volume, and orientation are defined abstractly, with specific examples given. Combined metrics for shape and volume, shape-volume-orientation are algebraically defined and examples of such metrics are given. Algebraic mesh quality metrics are extended to non-simplical elements. A series of numerical tests verify the theoretical properties of the metrics defined.

  3. Abstract Algebra for Algebra Teaching: Influencing School Mathematics Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wasserman, Nicholas H.

    2016-01-01

    This article explores the potential for aspects of abstract algebra to be influential for the teaching of school algebra (and early algebra). Using national standards for analysis, four primary areas common in school mathematics--and their progression across elementary, middle, and secondary mathematics--where teaching may be transformed by…

  4. Adaptive Algebraic Multigrid Methods

    SciTech Connect

    Brezina, M; Falgout, R; MacLachlan, S; Manteuffel, T; McCormick, S; Ruge, J

    2004-04-09

    Our ability to simulate physical processes numerically is constrained by our ability to solve the resulting linear systems, prompting substantial research into the development of multiscale iterative methods capable of solving these linear systems with an optimal amount of effort. Overcoming the limitations of geometric multigrid methods to simple geometries and differential equations, algebraic multigrid methods construct the multigrid hierarchy based only on the given matrix. While this allows for efficient black-box solution of the linear systems associated with discretizations of many elliptic differential equations, it also results in a lack of robustness due to assumptions made on the near-null spaces of these matrices. This paper introduces an extension to algebraic multigrid methods that removes the need to make such assumptions by utilizing an adaptive process. The principles which guide the adaptivity are highlighted, as well as their application to algebraic multigrid solution of certain symmetric positive-definite linear systems.

  5. Resonant algebras and gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Durka, R.

    2017-04-01

    The S-expansion framework is analyzed in the context of a freedom in closing the multiplication tables for the abelian semigroups. Including the possibility of the zero element in the resonant decomposition, and associating the Lorentz generator with the semigroup identity element, leads to a wide class of the expanded Lie algebras introducing interesting modifications to the gauge gravity theories. Among the results, we find all the Maxwell algebras of type {{B}m} , {{C}m} , and the recently introduced {{D}m} . The additional new examples complete the resulting generalization of the bosonic enlargements for an arbitrary number of the Lorentz-like and translational-like generators. Some further prospects concerning enlarging the algebras are discussed, along with providing all the necessary constituents for constructing the gravity actions based on the obtained results.

  6. On weak Lie 2-algebras

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roytenberg, Dmitry

    2007-11-01

    A Lie 2-algebra is a linear category equipped with a functorial bilinear operation satisfying skew-symmetry and Jacobi identity up to natural transformations which themselves obey coherence laws of their own. Functors and natural transformations between Lie 2-algebras can also be defined, yielding a 2-category. Passing to the normalized chain complex gives an equivalence of 2-categories between Lie 2-algebras and certain "up to homotopy" structures on the complex; for strictly skew-symmetric Lie 2-algebras these are L∞-algebras, by a result of Baez and Crans. Lie 2-algebras appear naturally as infinitesimal symmetries of solutions of the Maurer-Cartan equation in some differential graded Lie algebras and L∞-algebras. In particular, (quasi-) Poisson manifolds, (quasi-) Lie bialgebroids and Courant algebroids provide large classes of examples.

  7. Algebra for Gifted Third Graders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borenson, Henry

    1987-01-01

    Elementary school children who are exposed to a concrete, hands-on experience in algebraic linear equations will more readily develop a positive mind-set and expectation for success in later formal, algebraic studies. (CB)

  8. A Holistic Approach to Algebra.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barbeau, Edward J.

    1991-01-01

    Described are two examples involving recursive mathematical sequences designed to integrate a holistic approach to learning algebra. These examples promote pattern recognition with algebraic justification, full class participation, and mathematical values that can be transferred to other situations. (MDH)

  9. Computer Program For Linear Algebra

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krogh, F. T.; Hanson, R. J.

    1987-01-01

    Collection of routines provided for basic vector operations. Basic Linear Algebra Subprogram (BLAS) library is collection from FORTRAN-callable routines for employing standard techniques to perform basic operations of numerical linear algebra.

  10. An algebra of reversible computation.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yong

    2016-01-01

    We design an axiomatization for reversible computation called reversible ACP (RACP). It has four extendible modules: basic reversible processes algebra, algebra of reversible communicating processes, recursion and abstraction. Just like process algebra ACP in classical computing, RACP can be treated as an axiomatization foundation for reversible computation.

  11. From Arithmetic to Algebra

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ketterlin-Geller, Leanne R.; Jungjohann, Kathleen; Chard, David J.; Baker, Scott

    2007-01-01

    Much of the difficulty that students encounter in the transition from arithmetic to algebra stems from their early learning and understanding of arithmetic. Too often, students learn about the whole number system and the operations that govern that system as a set of procedures to solve addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division problems.…

  12. Computers in Abstract Algebra

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nwabueze, Kenneth K.

    2004-01-01

    The current emphasis on flexible modes of mathematics delivery involving new information and communication technology (ICT) at the university level is perhaps a reaction to the recent change in the objectives of education. Abstract algebra seems to be one area of mathematics virtually crying out for computer instructional support because of the…

  13. Algebraic Thinking through Origami.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Higginson, William; Colgan, Lynda

    2001-01-01

    Describes the use of paper folding to create a rich environment for discussing algebraic concepts. Explores the effect that changing the dimensions of two-dimensional objects has on the volume of related three-dimensional objects. (Contains 13 references.) (YDS)

  14. Computer Algebra versus Manipulation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zand, Hossein; Crowe, David

    2004-01-01

    In the UK there is increasing concern about the lack of skill in algebraic manipulation that is evident in students entering mathematics courses at university level. In this note we discuss how the computer can be used to ameliorate some of the problems. We take as an example the calculations needed in three dimensional vector analysis in polar…

  15. Algebraic connectivity and graph robustness.

    SciTech Connect

    Feddema, John Todd; Byrne, Raymond Harry; Abdallah, Chaouki T.

    2009-07-01

    Recent papers have used Fiedler's definition of algebraic connectivity to show that network robustness, as measured by node-connectivity and edge-connectivity, can be increased by increasing the algebraic connectivity of the network. By the definition of algebraic connectivity, the second smallest eigenvalue of the graph Laplacian is a lower bound on the node-connectivity. In this paper we show that for circular random lattice graphs and mesh graphs algebraic connectivity is a conservative lower bound, and that increases in algebraic connectivity actually correspond to a decrease in node-connectivity. This means that the networks are actually less robust with respect to node-connectivity as the algebraic connectivity increases. However, an increase in algebraic connectivity seems to correlate well with a decrease in the characteristic path length of these networks - which would result in quicker communication through the network. Applications of these results are then discussed for perimeter security.

  16. On Dunkl angular momenta algebra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feigin, Misha; Hakobyan, Tigran

    2015-11-01

    We consider the quantum angular momentum generators, deformed by means of the Dunkl operators. Together with the reflection operators they generate a subalgebra in the rational Cherednik algebra associated with a finite real reflection group. We find all the defining relations of the algebra, which appear to be quadratic, and we show that the algebra is of Poincaré-Birkhoff-Witt (PBW) type. We show that this algebra contains the angular part of the Calogero-Moser Hamiltonian and that together with constants it generates the centre of the algebra. We also consider the gl( N ) version of the subalge-bra of the rational Cherednik algebra and show that it is a non-homogeneous quadratic algebra of PBW type as well. In this case the central generator can be identified with the usual Calogero-Moser Hamiltonian associated with the Coxeter group in the harmonic confinement.

  17. Quartic Poisson algebras and quartic associative algebras and realizations as deformed oscillator algebras

    SciTech Connect

    Marquette, Ian

    2013-07-15

    We introduce the most general quartic Poisson algebra generated by a second and a fourth order integral of motion of a 2D superintegrable classical system. We obtain the corresponding quartic (associative) algebra for the quantum analog, extend Daskaloyannis construction obtained in context of quadratic algebras, and also obtain the realizations as deformed oscillator algebras for this quartic algebra. We obtain the Casimir operator and discuss how these realizations allow to obtain the finite-dimensional unitary irreducible representations of quartic algebras and obtain algebraically the degenerate energy spectrum of superintegrable systems. We apply the construction and the formula obtained for the structure function on a superintegrable system related to type I Laguerre exceptional orthogonal polynomials introduced recently.

  18. Algebraic Multigrid Benchmark

    SciTech Connect

    2013-05-06

    AMG2013 is a parallel algebraic multigrid solver for linear systems arising from problems on unstructured grids. It has been derived directly from the Boomer AMG solver in the hypre library, a large linear solvers library that is being developed in the Center for Applied Scientific Computing (CASC) at LLNL. The driver provided in the benchmark can build various test problems. The default problem is a Laplace type problem on an unstructured domain with various jumps and an anisotropy in one part.

  19. Algebra of Majorana doubling.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jaehoon; Wilczek, Frank

    2013-11-27

    Motivated by the problem of identifying Majorana mode operators at junctions, we analyze a basic algebraic structure leading to a doubled spectrum. For general (nonlinear) interactions the emergent mode creation operator is highly nonlinear in the original effective mode operators, and therefore also in the underlying electron creation and destruction operators. This phenomenon could open up new possibilities for controlled dynamical manipulation of the modes. We briefly compare and contrast related issues in the Pfaffian quantum Hall state.

  20. The Algebra Artist

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beigie, Darin

    2014-01-01

    Most people who are attracted to STEM-related fields are drawn not by a desire to take mathematics tests but to create things. The opportunity to create an algebra drawing gives students a sense of ownership and adventure that taps into the same sort of energy that leads a young person to get lost in reading a good book, building with Legos®,…

  1. Priority in Process Algebras

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cleaveland, Rance; Luettgen, Gerald; Natarajan, V.

    1999-01-01

    This paper surveys the semantic ramifications of extending traditional process algebras with notions of priority that allow for some transitions to be given precedence over others. These enriched formalisms allow one to model system features such as interrupts, prioritized choice, or real-time behavior. Approaches to priority in process algebras can be classified according to whether the induced notion of preemption on transitions is global or local and whether priorities are static or dynamic. Early work in the area concentrated on global pre-emption and static priorities and led to formalisms for modeling interrupts and aspects of real-time, such as maximal progress, in centralized computing environments. More recent research has investigated localized notions of pre-emption in which the distribution of systems is taken into account, as well as dynamic priority approaches, i.e., those where priority values may change as systems evolve. The latter allows one to model behavioral phenomena such as scheduling algorithms and also enables the efficient encoding of real-time semantics. Technically, this paper studies the different models of priorities by presenting extensions of Milner's Calculus of Communicating Systems (CCS) with static and dynamic priority as well as with notions of global and local pre- emption. In each case the operational semantics of CCS is modified appropriately, behavioral theories based on strong and weak bisimulation are given, and related approaches for different process-algebraic settings are discussed.

  2. Clifford Algebras and Their Decomposition into Conjugate Fermionic Heisenberg Algebras

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Catto, Sultan; Gürcan, Yasemin; Khalfan, Amish; Kurt, Levent; Kato La, V.

    2016-10-01

    We discuss a construction scheme for Clifford numbers of arbitrary dimension. The scheme is based upon performing direct products of the Pauli spin and identity matrices. Conjugate fermionic algebras can then be formed by considering linear combinations of the Clifford numbers and the Hermitian conjugates of such combinations. Fermionic algebras are important in investigating systems that follow Fermi-Dirac statistics. We will further comment on the applications of Clifford algebras to Fueter analyticity, twistors, color algebras, M-theory and Leech lattice as well as unification of ancient and modern geometries through them.

  3. Duncan F. Gregory, William Walton and the development of British algebra: 'algebraical geometry', 'geometrical algebra', abstraction.

    PubMed

    Verburgt, Lukas M

    2016-01-01

    This paper provides a detailed account of the period of the complex history of British algebra and geometry between the publication of George Peacock's Treatise on Algebra in 1830 and William Rowan Hamilton's paper on quaternions of 1843. During these years, Duncan Farquharson Gregory and William Walton published several contributions on 'algebraical geometry' and 'geometrical algebra' in the Cambridge Mathematical Journal. These contributions enabled them not only to generalize Peacock's symbolical algebra on the basis of geometrical considerations, but also to initiate the attempts to question the status of Euclidean space as the arbiter of valid geometrical interpretations. At the same time, Gregory and Walton were bound by the limits of symbolical algebra that they themselves made explicit; their work was not and could not be the 'abstract algebra' and 'abstract geometry' of figures such as Hamilton and Cayley. The central argument of the paper is that an understanding of the contributions to 'algebraical geometry' and 'geometrical algebra' of the second generation of 'scientific' symbolical algebraists is essential for a satisfactory explanation of the radical transition from symbolical to abstract algebra that took place in British mathematics in the 1830s-1840s.

  4. Quantum computation using geometric algebra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matzke, Douglas James

    This dissertation reports that arbitrary Boolean logic equations and operators can be represented in geometric algebra as linear equations composed entirely of orthonormal vectors using only addition and multiplication Geometric algebra is a topologically based algebraic system that naturally incorporates the inner and anticommutative outer products into a real valued geometric product, yet does not rely on complex numbers or matrices. A series of custom tools was designed and built to simplify geometric algebra expressions into a standard sum of products form, and automate the anticommutative geometric product and operations. Using this infrastructure, quantum bits (qubits), quantum registers and EPR-bits (ebits) are expressed symmetrically as geometric algebra expressions. Many known quantum computing gates, measurement operators, and especially the Bell/magic operators are also expressed as geometric products. These results demonstrate that geometric algebra can naturally and faithfully represent the central concepts, objects, and operators necessary for quantum computing, and can facilitate the design and construction of quantum computing tools.

  5. How Structure Sense for Algebraic Expressions or Equations Is Related to Structure Sense for Abstract Algebra

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Novotna, Jarmila; Hoch, Maureen

    2008-01-01

    Many students have difficulties with basic algebraic concepts at high school and at university. In this paper two levels of algebraic structure sense are defined: for high school algebra and for university algebra. We suggest that high school algebra structure sense components are sub-components of some university algebra structure sense…

  6. Applications of algebraic grid generation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eiseman, Peter R.; Smith, Robert E.

    1990-01-01

    Techniques and applications of algebraic grid generation are described. The techniques are univariate interpolations and transfinite assemblies of univariate interpolations. Because algebraic grid generation is computationally efficient, the use of interactive graphics in conjunction with the techniques is advocated. A flexible approach, which works extremely well in an interactive environment, called the control point form of algebraic grid generation is described. The applications discussed are three-dimensional grids constructed about airplane and submarine configurations.

  7. Algebra and Algebraic Thinking in School Math: 70th YB

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Council of Teachers of Mathematics, 2008

    2008-01-01

    Algebra is no longer just for college-bound students. After a widespread push by the National Council of Teachers of Mathematics (NCTM) and teachers across the country, algebra is now a required part of most curricula. However, students' standardized test scores are not at the level they should be. NCTM's seventieth yearbook takes a look at the…

  8. Abstract Algebra to Secondary School Algebra: Building Bridges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christy, Donna; Sparks, Rebecca

    2015-01-01

    The authors have experience with secondary mathematics teacher candidates struggling to make connections between the theoretical abstract algebra course they take as college students and the algebra they will be teaching in secondary schools. As a mathematician and a mathematics educator, the authors collaborated to create and implement a…

  9. Statecharts Via Process Algebra

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Luttgen, Gerald; vonderBeeck, Michael; Cleaveland, Rance

    1999-01-01

    Statecharts is a visual language for specifying the behavior of reactive systems. The Language extends finite-state machines with concepts of hierarchy, concurrency, and priority. Despite its popularity as a design notation for embedded system, precisely defining its semantics has proved extremely challenging. In this paper, a simple process algebra, called Statecharts Process Language (SPL), is presented, which is expressive enough for encoding Statecharts in a structure-preserving and semantic preserving manner. It is establish that the behavioral relation bisimulation, when applied to SPL, preserves Statecharts semantics

  10. Patterns to Develop Algebraic Reasoning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stump, Sheryl L.

    2011-01-01

    What is the role of patterns in developing algebraic reasoning? This important question deserves thoughtful attention. In response, this article examines some differing views of algebraic reasoning, discusses a controversy regarding patterns, and describes how three types of patterns--in contextual problems, in growing geometric figures, and in…

  11. Viterbi/algebraic hybrid decoder

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boyd, R. W.; Ingels, F. M.; Mo, C.

    1980-01-01

    Decoder computer program is hybrid between optimal Viterbi and optimal algebraic decoders. Tests have shown that hybrid decoder outperforms any strictly Viterbi or strictly algebraic decoder and effectively handles compound channels. Algorithm developed uses syndrome-detecting logic to direct two decoders to assume decoding load alternately, depending on real-time channel characteristics.

  12. Online Algebraic Tools for Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kurz, Terri L.

    2011-01-01

    Many free online tools exist to complement algebraic instruction at the middle school level. This article presents findings that analyzed the features of algebraic tools to support learning. The findings can help teachers select appropriate tools to facilitate specific topics. (Contains 1 table and 4 figures.)

  13. Astro Algebra [CD-ROM].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1997

    Astro Algebra is one of six titles in the Mighty Math Series from Edmark, a comprehensive line of math software for students from kindergarten through ninth grade. Many of the activities in Astro Algebra contain a unique technology that uses the computer to help students make the connection between concrete and abstract mathematics. This software…

  14. Elementary maps on nest algebras

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Pengtong

    2006-08-01

    Let , be algebras and let , be maps. An elementary map of is an ordered pair (M,M*) such that for all , . In this paper, the general form of surjective elementary maps on standard subalgebras of nest algebras is described. In particular, such maps are automatically additive.

  15. Linear algebra and image processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allali, Mohamed

    2010-09-01

    We use the computing technology digital image processing (DIP) to enhance the teaching of linear algebra so as to make the course more visual and interesting. Certainly, this visual approach by using technology to link linear algebra to DIP is interesting and unexpected to both students as well as many faculty.

  16. Linear Algebra and Image Processing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allali, Mohamed

    2010-01-01

    We use the computing technology digital image processing (DIP) to enhance the teaching of linear algebra so as to make the course more visual and interesting. Certainly, this visual approach by using technology to link linear algebra to DIP is interesting and unexpected to both students as well as many faculty. (Contains 2 tables and 11 figures.)

  17. Learning Algebra from Worked Examples

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lange, Karin E.; Booth, Julie L.; Newton, Kristie J.

    2014-01-01

    For students to be successful in algebra, they must have a truly conceptual understanding of key algebraic features as well as the procedural skills to complete a problem. One strategy to correct students' misconceptions combines the use of worked example problems in the classroom with student self-explanation. "Self-explanation" is the…

  18. The Algebra of the Arches

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buerman, Margaret

    2007-01-01

    Finding real-world examples for middle school algebra classes can be difficult but not impossible. As we strive to accomplish teaching our students how to solve and graph equations, we neglect to teach the big ideas of algebra. One of those big ideas is functions. This article gives three examples of functions that are found in Arches National…

  19. The Algebra of Complex Numbers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LePage, Wilbur R.

    This programed text is an introduction to the algebra of complex numbers for engineering students, particularly because of its relevance to important problems of applications in electrical engineering. It is designed for a person who is well experienced with the algebra of real numbers and calculus, but who has no experience with complex number…

  20. Thermodynamics. [algebraic structure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zeleznik, F. J.

    1976-01-01

    The fundamental structure of thermodynamics is purely algebraic, in the sense of atopological, and it is also independent of partitions, composite systems, the zeroth law, and entropy. The algebraic structure requires the notion of heat, but not the first law. It contains a precise definition of entropy and identifies it as a purely mathematical concept. It also permits the construction of an entropy function from heat measurements alone when appropriate conditions are satisfied. Topology is required only for a discussion of the continuity of thermodynamic properties, and then the weak topology is the relevant topology. The integrability of the differential form of the first law can be examined independently of Caratheodory's theorem and his inaccessibility axiom. Criteria are established by which one can determine when an integrating factor can be made intensive and the pseudopotential extensive and also an entropy. Finally, a realization of the first law is constructed which is suitable for all systems whether they are solids or fluids, whether they do or do not exhibit chemical reactions, and whether electromagnetic fields are or are not present.

  1. Superintegrability in Two Dimensions and the Racah-Wilson Algebra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Genest, Vincent X.; Vinet, Luc; Zhedanov, Alexei

    2014-08-01

    The analysis of the most general second-order superintegrable system in two dimensions: the generic 3-parameter model on the 2-sphere is cast in the framework of the Racah problem for the algebra. The Hamiltonian of the 3-parameter system and the generators of its quadratic symmetry algebra are seen to correspond to the total and intermediate Casimir operators of the combination of three algebras, respectively. The construction makes explicit the isomorphism between the Racah-Wilson algebra, which is the fundamental algebraic structure behind the Racah problem for , and the invariance algebra of the generic 3-parameter system. It also provides an explanation for the occurrence of the Racah polynomials as overlap coefficients in this context. The irreducible representations of the Racah-Wilson algebra are reviewed as well as their connection with the Askey scheme of classical orthogonal polynomials.

  2. Symplectic Clifford Algebraic Field Theory.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dixon, Geoffrey Moore

    We develop a mathematical framework on which is built a theory of fermion, scalar, and gauge vector fields. This field theory is shown to be equivalent to the original Weinberg-Salam model of weak and electromagnetic interactions, but since the new framework is more rigid than that on which the original Weinberg-Salam model was built, a concomitant reduction in the number of assumptions lying outside of the framework has resulted. In particular, parity violation is actually hiding within our framework, and with little difficulty we are able to manifest it. The mathematical framework upon which we build our field theory is arrived at along two separate paths. The first is by the marriage of a Clifford algebra and a Lie superalgebra, the result being called a super Clifford algebra. The second is by providing a new characterization for a Clifford algebra employing its generators and a symmetric array of metric coefficients. Subsequently we generalize this characterization to the case of an antisymmetric array of metric coefficients, and we call the algebra which results a symplectic Clifford algebra. It is upon one of these that we build our field theory, and it is shown that this symplectic Clifford algebra is a particular subalgebra of a super Clifford algebra. The final ingredient is the operation of bracketing which involves treating the elements of our algebra as endomorphisms of a particular inner product space, and employing this space and its inner product to provide us with maps from our algebra to the reals. It is this operation which enables us to manifest the parity violation hiding in our algebra.

  3. Using Linear Algebra to Introduce Computer Algebra, Numerical Analysis, Data Structures and Algorithms (and To Teach Linear Algebra, Too).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gonzalez-Vega, Laureano

    1999-01-01

    Using a Computer Algebra System (CAS) to help with the teaching of an elementary course in linear algebra can be one way to introduce computer algebra, numerical analysis, data structures, and algorithms. Highlights the advantages and disadvantages of this approach to the teaching of linear algebra. (Author/MM)

  4. Quantum algebra of N superspace

    SciTech Connect

    Hatcher, Nicolas; Restuccia, A.; Stephany, J.

    2007-08-15

    We identify the quantum algebra of position and momentum operators for a quantum system bearing an irreducible representation of the super Poincare algebra in the N>1 and D=4 superspace, both in the case where there are no central charges in the algebra, and when they are present. This algebra is noncommutative for the position operators. We use the properties of superprojectors acting on the superfields to construct explicit position and momentum operators satisfying the algebra. They act on the projected wave functions associated to the various supermultiplets with defined superspin present in the representation. We show that the quantum algebra associated to the massive superparticle appears in our construction and is described by a supermultiplet of superspin 0. This result generalizes the construction for D=4, N=1 reported recently. For the case N=2 with central charges, we present the equivalent results when the central charge and the mass are different. For the {kappa}-symmetric case when these quantities are equal, we discuss the reduction to the physical degrees of freedom of the corresponding superparticle and the construction of the associated quantum algebra.

  5. Algebraic distance on graphs.

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, J.; Safro, I.

    2011-01-01

    Measuring the connection strength between a pair of vertices in a graph is one of the most important concerns in many graph applications. Simple measures such as edge weights may not be sufficient for capturing the effects associated with short paths of lengths greater than one. In this paper, we consider an iterative process that smooths an associated value for nearby vertices, and we present a measure of the local connection strength (called the algebraic distance; see [D. Ron, I. Safro, and A. Brandt, Multiscale Model. Simul., 9 (2011), pp. 407-423]) based on this process. The proposed measure is attractive in that the process is simple, linear, and easily parallelized. An analysis of the convergence property of the process reveals that the local neighborhoods play an important role in determining the connectivity between vertices. We demonstrate the practical effectiveness of the proposed measure through several combinatorial optimization problems on graphs and hypergraphs.

  6. Investigating Teacher Noticing of Student Algebraic Thinking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walkoe, Janet Dawn Kim

    2013-01-01

    Learning algebra is critical for students in the U.S. today. Algebra concepts provide the foundation for much advanced mathematical content. In addition, algebra serves as a gatekeeper to opportunities such as admission to college. Yet many students in the U.S. struggle in algebra classes. Researchers claim that one reason for these difficulties…

  7. Central extensions of Lax operator algebras

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schlichenmaier, M.; Sheinman, O. K.

    2008-08-01

    Lax operator algebras were introduced by Krichever and Sheinman as a further development of Krichever's theory of Lax operators on algebraic curves. These are almost-graded Lie algebras of current type. In this paper local cocycles and associated almost-graded central extensions of Lax operator algebras are classified. It is shown that in the case when the corresponding finite-dimensional Lie algebra is simple the two-cohomology space is one-dimensional. An important role is played by the action of the Lie algebra of meromorphic vector fields on the Lax operator algebra via suitable covariant derivatives.

  8. Asymptotic aspect of derivations in Banach algebras.

    PubMed

    Roh, Jaiok; Chang, Ick-Soon

    2017-01-01

    We prove that every approximate linear left derivation on a semisimple Banach algebra is continuous. Also, we consider linear derivations on Banach algebras and we first study the conditions for a linear derivation on a Banach algebra. Then we examine the functional inequalities related to a linear derivation and their stability. We finally take central linear derivations with radical ranges on semiprime Banach algebras and a continuous linear generalized left derivation on a semisimple Banach algebra.

  9. Computing Matrix Representations of Filiform Lie Algebras

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ceballos, Manuel; Núñez, Juan; Tenorio, Ángel F.

    In this paper, we compute minimal faithful unitriangular matrix representations of filiform Lie algebras. To do it, we use the nilpotent Lie algebra, g_n, formed of n ×n strictly upper-triangular matrices. More concretely, we search the lowest natural number n such that the Lie algebra g_n contains a given filiform Lie algebra, also computing a representative of this algebra. All the computations in this paper have been done using MAPLE 9.5.

  10. Cartooning in Algebra and Calculus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moseley, L. Jeneva

    2014-01-01

    This article discusses how teachers can create cartoons for undergraduate math classes, such as college algebra and basic calculus. The practice of cartooning for teaching can be helpful for communication with students and for students' conceptual understanding.

  11. GCD, LCM, and Boolean Algebra?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, Martin P.; Juraschek, William A.

    1976-01-01

    This article investigates the algebraic structure formed when the process of finding the greatest common divisor and the least common multiple are considered as binary operations on selected subsets of positive integers. (DT)

  12. Ada Linear-Algebra Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klumpp, A. R.; Lawson, C. L.

    1988-01-01

    Routines provided for common scalar, vector, matrix, and quaternion operations. Computer program extends Ada programming language to include linear-algebra capabilities similar to HAS/S programming language. Designed for such avionics applications as software for Space Station.

  13. Coherent States for Hopf Algebras

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Škoda, Zoran

    2007-07-01

    Families of Perelomov coherent states are defined axiomatically in the context of unitary representations of Hopf algebras. A global geometric picture involving locally trivial noncommutative fibre bundles is involved in the construction. If, in addition, the Hopf algebra has a left Haar integral, then a formula for noncommutative resolution of identity in terms of the family of coherent states holds. Examples come from quantum groups.

  14. Multiplier operator algebras and applications

    PubMed Central

    Blecher, David P.; Zarikian, Vrej

    2004-01-01

    The one-sided multipliers of an operator space X are a key to “latent operator algebraic structure” in X. We begin with a survey of these multipliers, together with several of the applications that they have had to operator algebras. We then describe several new results on one-sided multipliers, and new applications, mostly to one-sided M-ideals. PMID:14711990

  15. Hopf algebras and topological recursion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Esteves, João N.

    2015-11-01

    We consider a model for topological recursion based on the Hopf algebra of planar binary trees defined by Loday and Ronco (1998 Adv. Math. 139 293-309 We show that extending this Hopf algebra by identifying pairs of nearest neighbor leaves, and thus producing graphs with loops, we obtain the full recursion formula discovered by Eynard and Orantin (2007 Commun. Number Theory Phys. 1 347-452).

  16. Novikov algebras with associative bilinear forms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Fuhai; Chen, Zhiqi

    2007-11-01

    Novikov algebras were introduced in connection with the Poisson brackets of hydrodynamic-type and Hamiltonian operators in formal variational calculus. The goal of this paper is to study Novikov algebras with non-degenerate associative symmetric bilinear forms, which we call quadratic Novikov algebras. Based on the classification of solvable quadratic Lie algebras of dimension not greater than 4 and Novikov algebras in dimension 3, we show that quadratic Novikov algebras up to dimension 4 are commutative. Furthermore, we obtain the classification of transitive quadratic Novikov algebras in dimension 4. But we find that not every quadratic Novikov algebra is commutative and give a non-commutative quadratic Novikov algebra in dimension 6.

  17. Quantum Q systems: from cluster algebras to quantum current algebras

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di Francesco, Philippe; Kedem, Rinat

    2017-02-01

    This paper gives a new algebraic interpretation for the algebra generated by the quantum cluster variables of the A_r quantum Q-system (Di Francesco and Kedem in Int Math Res Not IMRN 10:2593-2642, 2014). We show that the algebra can be described as a quotient of the localization of the quantum algebra U_{√{q}}({n}[u,u^{-1}])subset U_{√{q}}(widehat{{sl}}_2), in the Drinfeld presentation. The generating current is made up of a subset of the cluster variables which satisfy the Q-system, which we call fundamental. The other cluster variables are given by a quantum determinant-type formula, and are polynomials in the fundamental generators. The conserved quantities of the discrete evolution (Di Francesco and Kedem in Adv Math 228(1):97-152, 2011) described by quantum Q-system generate the Cartan currents at level 0, in a non-standard polarization. The rest of the quantum affine algebra is also described in terms of cluster variables.

  18. Moving frames and prolongation algebras

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Estabrook, F. B.

    1982-01-01

    Differential ideals generated by sets of 2-forms which can be written with constant coefficients in a canonical basis of 1-forms are considered. By setting up a Cartan-Ehresmann connection, in a fiber bundle over a base space in which the 2-forms live, one finds an incomplete Lie algebra of vector fields in the fields in the fibers. Conversely, given this algebra (a prolongation algebra), one can derive the differential ideal. The two constructs are thus dual, and analysis of either derives properties of both. Such systems arise in the classical differential geometry of moving frames. Examples of this are discussed, together with examples arising more recently: the Korteweg-de Vries and Harrison-Ernst systems.

  19. Algebraic Lattices in QFT Renormalization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borinsky, Michael

    2016-07-01

    The structure of overlapping subdivergences, which appear in the perturbative expansions of quantum field theory, is analyzed using algebraic lattice theory. It is shown that for specific QFTs the sets of subdivergences of Feynman diagrams form algebraic lattices. This class of QFTs includes the standard model. In kinematic renormalization schemes, in which tadpole diagrams vanish, these lattices are semimodular. This implies that the Hopf algebra of Feynman diagrams is graded by the coradical degree or equivalently that every maximal forest has the same length in the scope of BPHZ renormalization. As an application of this framework, a formula for the counter terms in zero-dimensional QFT is given together with some examples of the enumeration of primitive or skeleton diagrams.

  20. Colored Quantum Algebra and Its Bethe State

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jin-Zheng; Jia, Xiao-Yu; Wang, Shi-Kun

    2014-12-01

    We investigate the colored Yang—Baxter equation. Based on a trigonometric solution of colored Yang—Baxter equation, we construct a colored quantum algebra. Moreover we discuss its algebraic Bethe ansatz state and highest wight representation.

  1. Using Number Theory to Reinforce Elementary Algebra.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Covillion, Jane D.

    1995-01-01

    Demonstrates that using the elementary number theory in algebra classes helps students to use acquired algebraic skills as well as helping them to more clearly understand concepts that are presented. Discusses factoring, divisibility rules, and number patterns. (AIM)

  2. Algebraic orbifold conformal field theories

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Feng

    2000-01-01

    The unitary rational orbifold conformal field theories in the algebraic quantum field theory and subfactor theory framework are formulated. Under general conditions, it is shown that the orbifold of a given unitary rational conformal field theory generates a unitary modular category. Many new unitary modular categories are obtained. It is also shown that the irreducible representations of orbifolds of rank one lattice vertex operator algebras give rise to unitary modular categories and determine the corresponding modular matrices, which has been conjectured for some time. PMID:11106383

  3. Scalable Parallel Algebraic Multigrid Solvers

    SciTech Connect

    Bank, R; Lu, S; Tong, C; Vassilevski, P

    2005-03-23

    The authors propose a parallel algebraic multilevel algorithm (AMG), which has the novel feature that the subproblem residing in each processor is defined over the entire partition domain, although the vast majority of unknowns for each subproblem are associated with the partition owned by the corresponding processor. This feature ensures that a global coarse description of the problem is contained within each of the subproblems. The advantages of this approach are that interprocessor communication is minimized in the solution process while an optimal order of convergence rate is preserved; and the speed of local subproblem solvers can be maximized using the best existing sequential algebraic solvers.

  4. Symmetry algebras of linear differential equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shapovalov, A. V.; Shirokov, I. V.

    1992-07-01

    The local symmetries of linear differential equations are investigated by means of proven theorems on the structure of the algebra of local symmetries of translationally and dilatationally invariant differential equations. For a nonparabolic second-order equation, the absence of nontrivial nonlinear local symmetries is proved. This means that the local symmetries reduce to the Lie algebra of linear differential symmetry operators. For the Laplace—Beltrami equation, all local symmetries reduce to the enveloping algebra of the algebra of the conformal group.

  5. Spatial-Operator Algebra For Robotic Manipulators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rodriguez, Guillermo; Kreutz, Kenneth K.; Milman, Mark H.

    1991-01-01

    Report discusses spatial-operator algebra developed in recent studies of mathematical modeling, control, and design of trajectories of robotic manipulators. Provides succinct representation of mathematically complicated interactions among multiple joints and links of manipulator, thereby relieving analyst of most of tedium of detailed algebraic manipulations. Presents analytical formulation of spatial-operator algebra, describes some specific applications, summarizes current research, and discusses implementation of spatial-operator algebra in the Ada programming language.

  6. Twining characters and orbit Lie algebras

    SciTech Connect

    Fuchs, Jurgen; Ray, Urmie; Schellekens, Bert; Schweigert, Christoph

    1996-12-05

    We associate to outer automorphisms of generalized Kac-Moody algebras generalized character-valued indices, the twining characters. A character formula for twining characters is derived which shows that they coincide with the ordinary characters of some other generalized Kac-Moody algebra, the so-called orbit Lie algebra. Some applications to problems in conformal field theory, algebraic geometry and the theory of sporadic simple groups are sketched.

  7. Applications of Algebraic Logic and Universal Algebra to Computer Science

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-06-21

    conference, with roughly equal representation from Mathematics and Computer Science . The conference consisted of eight invited lectures (60 minutes...each) and 26 contributed talks (20-40 minutes each). There was also a round-table discussion on the role of algebra and logic in computer science . Keywords

  8. A Balancing Act: Making Sense of Algebra

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gavin, M. Katherine; Sheffield, Linda Jensen

    2015-01-01

    For most students, algebra seems like a totally different subject than the number topics they studied in elementary school. In reality, the procedures followed in arithmetic are actually based on the properties and laws of algebra. Algebra should be a logical next step for students in extending the proficiencies they developed with number topics…

  9. Algebra? A Gate! A Barrier! A Mystery!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mathematics Educatio Dialogues, 2000

    2000-01-01

    This issue of Mathematics Education Dialogues focuses on the nature and the role of algebra in the K-14 curriculum. Articles on this theme include: (1) "Algebra For All? Why?" (Nel Noddings); (2) "Algebra For All: It's a Matter of Equity, Expectations, and Effectiveness" (Dorothy S. Strong and Nell B. Cobb); (3) "Don't Delay: Build and Talk about…

  10. Unifying the Algebra for All Movement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eddy, Colleen M.; Quebec Fuentes, Sarah; Ward, Elizabeth K.; Parker, Yolanda A.; Cooper, Sandi; Jasper, William A.; Mallam, Winifred A.; Sorto, M. Alejandra; Wilkerson, Trena L.

    2015-01-01

    There exists an increased focus on school mathematics, especially first-year algebra, due to recent efforts for all students to be college and career ready. In addition, there are calls, policies, and legislation advocating for all students to study algebra epitomized by four rationales of the "Algebra for All" movement. In light of this…

  11. UCSMP Algebra. What Works Clearinghouse Intervention Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    What Works Clearinghouse, 2007

    2007-01-01

    "University of Chicago School Mathematics Project (UCSMP) Algebra," designed to increase students' skills in algebra, is appropriate for students in grades 7-10, depending on the students' incoming knowledge. This one-year course highlights applications, uses statistics and geometry to develop the algebra of linear equations and inequalities, and…

  12. Constraint-Referenced Analytics of Algebra Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sutherland, Scot M.; White, Tobin F.

    2016-01-01

    The development of the constraint-referenced analytics tool for monitoring algebra learning activities presented here came from the desire to firstly, take a more quantitative look at student responses in collaborative algebra activities, and secondly, to situate those activities in a more traditional introductory algebra setting focusing on…

  13. Embedding Algebraic Thinking throughout the Mathematics Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vennebush, G. Patrick; Marquez, Elizabeth; Larsen, Joseph

    2005-01-01

    This article explores the algebra that can be uncovered in many middle-grades mathematics tasks that, on first inspection, do not appear to be algebraic. It shows connections to the other four Standards that occur in traditional algebra problems, and it offers strategies for modifying activities so that they can be used to foster algebraic…

  14. Teaching Strategies to Improve Algebra Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zbiek, Rose Mary; Larson, Matthew R.

    2015-01-01

    Improving student learning is the primary goal of every teacher of algebra. Teachers seek strategies to help all students learn important algebra content and develop mathematical practices. The new Institute of Education Sciences[IES] practice guide, "Teaching Strategies for Improving Algebra Knowledge in Middle and High School Students"…

  15. Build an Early Foundation for Algebra Success

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knuth, Eric; Stephens, Ana; Blanton, Maria; Gardiner, Angela

    2016-01-01

    Research tells us that success in algebra is a factor in many other important student outcomes. Emerging research also suggests that students who are started on an algebra curriculum in the earlier grades may have greater success in the subject in secondary school. What's needed is a consistent, algebra-infused mathematics curriculum all…

  16. Teacher Actions to Facilitate Early Algebraic Reasoning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunter, Jodie

    2015-01-01

    In recent years there has been an increased emphasis on integrating the teaching of arithmetic and algebra in primary school classrooms. This requires teachers to develop links between arithmetic and algebra and use pedagogical actions that facilitate algebraic reasoning. Drawing on findings from a classroom-based study, this paper provides an…

  17. Difficulties in Initial Algebra Learning in Indonesia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jupri, Al; Drijvers, Paul; van den Heuvel-Panhuizen, Marja

    2014-01-01

    Within mathematics curricula, algebra has been widely recognized as one of the most difficult topics, which leads to learning difficulties worldwide. In Indonesia, algebra performance is an important issue. In the Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS) 2007, Indonesian students' achievement in the algebra domain was…

  18. Cyclic homology for Hom-associative algebras

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hassanzadeh, Mohammad; Shapiro, Ilya; Sütlü, Serkan

    2015-12-01

    In the present paper we investigate the noncommutative geometry of a class of algebras, called the Hom-associative algebras, whose associativity is twisted by a homomorphism. We define the Hochschild, cyclic, and periodic cyclic homology and cohomology for this class of algebras generalizing these theories from the associative to the Hom-associative setting.

  19. Carry Groups: Abstract Algebra Projects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Cheryl Chute; Madore, Blair F.

    2004-01-01

    Carry Groups are a wonderful collection of groups to introduce in an undergraduate Abstract Algebra course. These groups are straightforward to define but have interesting structures for students to discover. We describe these groups and give examples of in-class group projects that were developed and used by Miller.

  20. Algebra, Home Mortgages, and Recessions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mariner, Jean A. Miller; Miller, Richard A.

    2009-01-01

    The current financial crisis and recession in the United States present an opportunity to discuss relevant applications of some topics in typical first-and second-year algebra and precalculus courses. Real-world applications of percent change, exponential functions, and sums of finite geometric sequences can help students understand the problems…

  1. Exploring Algebraic Misconceptions with Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sakow, Matthew; Karaman, Ruveyda

    2015-01-01

    Many students struggle with algebra, from simplifying expressions to solving systems of equations. Students also have misconceptions about the meaning of variables. In response to the question "Can x + y + z ever equal x + p + z?" during a student interview, the student claimed, "Never . . . because p has to have a different value…

  2. Easing Students' Transition to Algebra

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baroudi, Ziad

    2006-01-01

    Traditionally, students learn arithmetic throughout their primary schooling, and this is seen as the ideal preparation for the learning of algebra in the junior secondary school. The four operations are taught and rehearsed in the early years and from this, it is assumed, "children will induce the fundamental structure of arithmetic" (Warren &…

  3. Algebra for All. Research Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bleyaert, Barbara

    2009-01-01

    The call for "algebra for all" is not a recent phenomenon. Concerns about the inadequacy of math (and science) preparation in America's high schools have been a steady drumbeat since the 1957 launch of Sputnik; a call for raising standards and the number of math (and science) courses required for graduation has been a part of countless…

  4. Algebraic methods in system theory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brockett, R. W.; Willems, J. C.; Willsky, A. S.

    1975-01-01

    Investigations on problems of the type which arise in the control of switched electrical networks are reported. The main results concern the algebraic structure and stochastic aspects of these systems. Future reports will contain more detailed applications of these results to engineering studies.

  5. Inequalities, Assessment and Computer Algebra

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sangwin, Christopher J.

    2015-01-01

    The goal of this paper is to examine single variable real inequalities that arise as tutorial problems and to examine the extent to which current computer algebra systems (CAS) can (1) automatically solve such problems and (2) determine whether students' own answers to such problems are correct. We review how inequalities arise in contemporary…

  6. Adventures in Flipping College Algebra

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Sickle, Jenna

    2015-01-01

    This paper outlines the experience of a university professor who implemented flipped learning in two sections of college algebra courses for two semesters. It details how the courses were flipped, what technology was used, advantages, challenges, and results. It explains what students do outside of class, what they do inside class, and discusses…

  7. Elementary Algebra Connections to Precalculus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lopez-Boada, Roberto; Daire, Sandra Arguelles

    2013-01-01

    This article examines the attitudes of some precalculus students to solve trigonometric and logarithmic equations and systems using the concepts of elementary algebra. With the goal of enticing the students to search for and use connections among mathematical topics, they are asked to solve equations or systems specifically designed to allow…

  8. Celestial mechanics with geometric algebra

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hestenes, D.

    1983-01-01

    Geometric algebra is introduced as a general tool for Celestial Mechanics. A general method for handling finite rotations and rotational kinematics is presented. The constants of Kepler motion are derived and manipulated in a new way. A new spinor formulation of perturbation theory is developed.

  9. Math Sense: Algebra and Geometry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howett, Jerry

    This book is designed to help students gain the range of math skills they need to succeed in life, work, and on standardized tests; overcome math anxiety; discover math as interesting and purposeful; and develop good number sense. Topics covered in this book include algebra and geometry. Lessons are organized around four strands: (1) skill lessons…

  10. Weaving Geometry and Algebra Together

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cetner, Michelle

    2015-01-01

    When thinking about student reasoning and sense making, teachers must consider the nature of tasks given to students along with how to plan to use the tasks in the classroom. Students should be presented with tasks in a way that encourages them to draw connections between algebraic and geometric concepts. This article focuses on the idea that it…

  11. Algebraic Activities Aid Discovery Lessons

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wallace-Gomez, Patricia

    2013-01-01

    After a unit on the rules for positive and negative numbers and the order of operations for evaluating algebraic expressions, many students believe that they understand these principles well enough, but they really do not. They clearly need more practice, but not more of the same kind of drill. Wallace-Gomez provides three graphing activities that…

  12. Teachers' Understanding of Algebraic Generalization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hawthorne, Casey Wayne

    Generalization has been identified as a cornerstone of algebraic thinking (e.g., Lee, 1996; Sfard, 1995) and is at the center of a rich conceptualization of K-8 algebra (Kaput, 2008; Smith, 2003). Moreover, mathematics teachers are being encouraged to use figural-pattern generalizing tasks as a basis of student-centered instruction, whereby teachers respond to and build upon the ideas that arise from students' explorations of these activities. Although more and more teachers are engaging their students in such generalizing tasks, little is known about teachers' understanding of generalization and their understanding of students' mathematical thinking in this domain. In this work, I addressed this gap, exploring the understanding of algebraic generalization of 4 exemplary 8th-grade teachers from multiple perspectives. A significant feature of this investigation is an examination of teachers' understanding of the generalization process, including the use of algebraic symbols. The research consisted of two phases. Phase I was an examination of the teachers' understandings of the underlying quantities and quantitative relationships represented by algebraic notation. In Phase II, I observed the instruction of 2 of these teachers. Using the lens of professional noticing of students' mathematical thinking, I explored the teachers' enacted knowledge of algebraic generalization, characterizing how it supported them to effectively respond to the needs and queries of their students. Results indicated that teachers predominantly see these figural patterns as enrichment activities, disconnected from course content. Furthermore, in my analysis, I identified conceptual difficulties teachers experienced when solving generalization tasks, in particular, connecting multiple symbolic representations with the quantities in the figures. Moreover, while the teachers strived to overcome the challenges of connecting different representations, they invoked both productive and unproductive

  13. Explicit field realizations of W algebras

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Shao-Wen; Liu, Yu-Xiao; Zhang, Li-Jie; Ren, Ji-Rong

    2009-06-01

    The fact that certain nonlinear W2,s algebras can be linearized by the inclusion of a spin-1 current can provide a simple way to realize W2,s algebras from linear W1,2,s algebras. In this paper, we first construct the explicit field realizations of linear W1,2,s algebras with double scalar and double spinor, respectively. Then, after a change of basis, the realizations of W2,s algebras are presented. The results show that all these realizations are Romans-type realizations.

  14. Array algebra estimation in signal processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rauhala, U. A.

    A general theory of linear estimators called array algebra estimation is interpreted in some terms of multidimensional digital signal processing, mathematical statistics, and numerical analysis. The theory has emerged during the past decade from the new field of a unified vector, matrix and tensor algebra called array algebra. The broad concepts of array algebra and its estimation theory cover several modern computerized sciences and technologies converting their established notations and terminology into one common language. Some concepts of digital signal processing are adopted into this language after a review of the principles of array algebra estimation and its predecessors in mathematical surveying sciences.

  15. On special classes of n-algebras

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vainerman, L.; Kerner, R.

    1996-05-01

    We define n-algebras as linear spaces on which the internal composition law involves n elements: m:V⊗n■V. It is known that such algebraic structures are interesting for their applications to problems of modern mathematical physics. Using the notion of a commutant of two subalgebras of an n-algebra, we distinguish certain classes of n-algebras with reasonable properties: semisimple, Abelian, nilpotent, solvable. We also consider a few examples of n-algebras of different types, and show their properties.

  16. Recursion and feedback in image algebra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ritter, Gerhard X.; Davidson, Jennifer L.

    1991-04-01

    Recursion and feedback are two important processes in image processing. Image algebra, a unified algebraic structure developed for use in image processing and image analysis, provides a common mathematical environment for expressing image processing transforms. It is only recently that image algebra has been extended to include recursive operations [1]. Recently image algebra was shown to incorporate neural nets [2], including a new type of neural net, the morphological neural net [3]. This paper presents the relationship of the recursive image algebra to the field of fractions of the ring of matrices, and gives the two dimensional moving average filter as an example. Also, the popular multilayer perceptron with back propagation and a morphology neural network with learning rule are presented in image algebra notation. These examples show that image algebra can express these important feedback concepts in a succinct way.

  17. Deformed Kac Moody and Virasoro algebras

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balachandran, A. P.; Queiroz, A. R.; Marques, A. M.; Teotonio-Sobrinho, P.

    2007-07-01

    Whenever the group {\\bb R}^n acts on an algebra {\\cal A} , there is a method to twist \\cal A to a new algebra {\\cal A}_\\theta which depends on an antisymmetric matrix θ (θμν = -θνμ = constant). The Groenewold-Moyal plane {\\cal A}_\\theta({\\bb R}^{d+1}) is an example of such a twisted algebra. We give a general construction to realize this twist in terms of {\\cal A} itself and certain 'charge' operators Qμ. For {\\cal A}_\\theta({\\bb R}^{d+1}), Q_\\mu are translation generators. This construction is then applied to twist the oscillators realizing the Kac-Moody (KM) algebra as well as the KM currents. They give different deformations of the KM algebra. From one of the deformations of the KM algebra, we construct, via the Sugawara construction, the Virasoro algebra. These deformations have an implication for statistics as well.

  18. Algebraic complexities and algebraic curves over finite fields

    PubMed Central

    Chudnovsky, D. V.; Chudnovsky, G. V.

    1987-01-01

    We consider the problem of minimal (multiplicative) complexity of polynomial multiplication and multiplication in finite extensions of fields. For infinite fields minimal complexities are known [Winograd, S. (1977) Math. Syst. Theory 10, 169-180]. We prove lower and upper bounds on minimal complexities over finite fields, both linear in the number of inputs, using the relationship with linear coding theory and algebraic curves over finite fields. PMID:16593816

  19. Alternative algebraic approaches in quantum chemistry

    SciTech Connect

    Mezey, Paul G.

    2015-01-22

    Various algebraic approaches of quantum chemistry all follow a common principle: the fundamental properties and interrelations providing the most essential features of a quantum chemical representation of a molecule or a chemical process, such as a reaction, can always be described by algebraic methods. Whereas such algebraic methods often provide precise, even numerical answers, nevertheless their main role is to give a framework that can be elaborated and converted into computational methods by involving alternative mathematical techniques, subject to the constraints and directions provided by algebra. In general, algebra describes sets of interrelations, often phrased in terms of algebraic operations, without much concern with the actual entities exhibiting these interrelations. However, in many instances, the very realizations of two, seemingly unrelated algebraic structures by actual quantum chemical entities or properties play additional roles, and unexpected connections between different algebraic structures are often giving new insight. Here we shall be concerned with two alternative algebraic structures: the fundamental group of reaction mechanisms, based on the energy-dependent topology of potential energy surfaces, and the interrelations among point symmetry groups for various distorted nuclear arrangements of molecules. These two, distinct algebraic structures provide interesting interrelations, which can be exploited in actual studies of molecular conformational and reaction processes. Two relevant theorems will be discussed.

  20. Algebraic Methods to Design Signals

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-08-27

    group theory are employed to investigate the theory of their construction methods leading to new families of these arrays and some generalizations...sequences and arrays with desirable correlation properties. The methods used are very algebraic and number theoretic. Many new families of sequences...context of optical quantum computing, we prove that infinite families of anticirculant block weighing matrices can be obtained from generic weighing

  1. Computer algebra and transport theory.

    SciTech Connect

    Warsa, J. S.

    2004-01-01

    Modern symbolic algebra computer software augments and complements more traditional approaches to transport theory applications in several ways. The first area is in the development and enhancement of numerical solution methods for solving the Boltzmann transport equation. Typically, special purpose computer codes are designed and written to solve specific transport problems in particular ways. Different aspects of the code are often written from scratch and the pitfalls of developing complex computer codes are numerous and well known. Software such as MAPLE and MATLAB can be used to prototype, analyze, verify and determine the suitability of numerical solution methods before a full-scale transport application is written. Once it is written, the relevant pieces of the full-scale code can be verified using the same tools I that were developed for prototyping. Another area is in the analysis of numerical solution methods or the calculation of theoretical results that might otherwise be difficult or intractable. Algebraic manipulations are done easily and without error and the software also provides a framework for any additional numerical calculations that might be needed to complete the analysis. We will discuss several applications in which we have extensively used MAPLE and MATLAB in our work. All of them involve numerical solutions of the S{sub N} transport equation. These applications encompass both of the two main areas in which we have found computer algebra software essential.

  2. BLAS- BASIC LINEAR ALGEBRA SUBPROGRAMS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krogh, F. T.

    1994-01-01

    The Basic Linear Algebra Subprogram (BLAS) library is a collection of FORTRAN callable routines for employing standard techniques in performing the basic operations of numerical linear algebra. The BLAS library was developed to provide a portable and efficient source of basic operations for designers of programs involving linear algebraic computations. The subprograms available in the library cover the operations of dot product, multiplication of a scalar and a vector, vector plus a scalar times a vector, Givens transformation, modified Givens transformation, copy, swap, Euclidean norm, sum of magnitudes, and location of the largest magnitude element. Since these subprograms are to be used in an ANSI FORTRAN context, the cases of single precision, double precision, and complex data are provided for. All of the subprograms have been thoroughly tested and produce consistent results even when transported from machine to machine. BLAS contains Assembler versions and FORTRAN test code for any of the following compilers: Lahey F77L, Microsoft FORTRAN, or IBM Professional FORTRAN. It requires the Microsoft Macro Assembler and a math co-processor. The PC implementation allows individual arrays of over 64K. The BLAS library was developed in 1979. The PC version was made available in 1986 and updated in 1988.

  3. Introduction to Image Algebra Ada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, Joseph N.

    1991-07-01

    Image Algebra Ada (IAA) is a superset of the Ada programming language designed to support use of the Air Force Armament Laboratory's image algebra in the development of computer vision application programs. The IAA language differs from other computer vision languages is several respects. It is machine independent, and an IAA translator has been implemented in the military standard Ada language. Its image operands and operations can be used to program a range of both low- and high-level vision algorithms. This paper provides an overview of the image algebra constructs supported in IAA and describes the embodiment of these constructs in the IAA extension of Ada. Examples showing the use of IAA for a range of computer vision tasks are given. The design of IAA as a superset of Ada and the implementation of the initial translator in Ada represent critical choices. The authors discuss the reasoning behind these choices as well as the benefits and drawbacks associated with them. Implementation strategies associated with the use of Ada as an implementation language for IAA are also discussed. While one can look on IAA as a program design language (PDL) for specifying Ada programs, it is useful to consider IAA as a separate language superset of Ada. This admits the possibility of directly translating IAA for implementation on special purpose architectures. This paper explores strategies for porting IAA to various architectures and notes the critical language and implementation features for porting to different architectures.

  4. TBGG- INTERACTIVE ALGEBRAIC GRID GENERATION

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, R. E.

    1994-01-01

    TBGG, Two-Boundary Grid Generation, applies an interactive algebraic grid generation technique in two dimensions. The program incorporates mathematical equations that relate the computational domain to the physical domain. TBGG has application to a variety of problems using finite difference techniques, such as computational fluid dynamics. Examples include the creation of a C-type grid about an airfoil and a nozzle configuration in which no left or right boundaries are specified. The underlying two-boundary technique of grid generation is based on Hermite cubic interpolation between two fixed, nonintersecting boundaries. The boundaries are defined by two ordered sets of points, referred to as the top and bottom. Left and right side boundaries may also be specified, and call upon linear blending functions to conform interior interpolation to the side boundaries. Spacing between physical grid coordinates is determined as a function of boundary data and uniformly spaced computational coordinates. Control functions relating computational coordinates to parametric intermediate variables that affect the distance between grid points are embedded in the interpolation formulas. A versatile control function technique with smooth cubic spline functions is also presented. The TBGG program is written in FORTRAN 77. It works best in an interactive graphics environment where computational displays and user responses are quickly exchanged. The program has been implemented on a CDC Cyber 170 series computer using NOS 2.4 operating system, with a central memory requirement of 151,700 (octal) 60 bit words. TBGG requires a Tektronix 4015 terminal and the DI-3000 Graphics Library of Precision Visuals, Inc. TBGG was developed in 1986.

  5. Algebra: A Challenge at the Crossroads of Policy and Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stein, Mary Kay; Kaufman, Julia Heath; Sherman, Milan; Hillen, Amy F.

    2011-01-01

    The authors review what is known about early and universal algebra, including who is getting access to algebra and student outcomes associated with algebra course taking in general and specifically with universal algebra policies. The findings indicate that increasing numbers of students, some of whom are underprepared, are taking algebra earlier.…

  6. Bilinear forms on fermionic Novikov algebras

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Zhiqi; Zhu, Fuhai

    2007-05-01

    Novikov algebras were introduced in connection with the Poisson brackets of hydrodynamic type and Hamiltonian operators in formal variational calculus. Fermionic Novikov algebras correspond to a certain Hamiltonian super-operator in a super-variable. In this paper, we show that there is a remarkable geometry on fermionic Novikov algebras with non-degenerate invariant symmetric bilinear forms, which we call pseudo-Riemannian fermionic Novikov algebras. They are related to pseudo-Riemannian Lie algebras. Furthermore, we obtain a procedure to classify pseudo-Riemannian fermionic Novikov algebras. As an application, we give the classification in dimension <=4. Motivated by the one in dimension 4, we construct some examples in high dimensions.

  7. Hopf algebras of rooted forests, cocyles, and free Rota-Baxter algebras

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Tianjie; Gao, Xing; Guo, Li

    2016-10-01

    The Hopf algebra and the Rota-Baxter algebra are the two algebraic structures underlying the algebraic approach of Connes and Kreimer to renormalization of perturbative quantum field theory. In particular, the Hopf algebra of rooted trees serves as the "baby model" of Feynman graphs in their approach and can be characterized by certain universal properties involving a Hochschild 1-cocycle. Decorated rooted trees have also been applied to study Feynman graphs. We will continue the study of universal properties of various spaces of decorated rooted trees with such a 1-cocycle, leading to the concept of a cocycle Hopf algebra. We further apply the universal properties to equip a free Rota-Baxter algebra with the structure of a cocycle Hopf algebra.

  8. Numerical linear algebra algorithms and software

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dongarra, Jack J.; Eijkhout, Victor

    2000-11-01

    The increasing availability of advanced-architecture computers has a significant effect on all spheres of scientific computation, including algorithm research and software development in numerical linear algebra. Linear algebra - in particular, the solution of linear systems of equations - lies at the heart of most calculations in scientific computing. This paper discusses some of the recent developments in linear algebra designed to exploit these advanced-architecture computers. We discuss two broad classes of algorithms: those for dense, and those for sparse matrices.

  9. Symbolic Lie algebras manipulations using COMMON LISP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cecchini, R.; Tarlini, M.

    1989-01-01

    We present a description and an implementation of a program in COMMON LISP to perform symbolic computations in a given Lie algebra. Using the general definitions of vector space Lie algebra and enveloping algebra, the program is able to compute commutators, to evaluate similarity transformations and the general Baker-Campbell-Hausdorff formula. All the computations are exact, including numerical coefficients. For the interactive user an optional menu facility and online help are available. LISP knowledge is unnecessary.

  10. Lie algebras of classical and stochastic electrodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neto, J. J. Soares; Vianna, J. D. M.

    1994-03-01

    The Lie algebras associated with infinitesimal symmetry transformations of third-order differential equations of interest to classical electrodynamics and stochastic electrodynamics have been obtained. The structure constants for a general case are presented and the Lie algebra for each particular application is easily achieved. By the method used here it is not necessary to know the explicit expressions of the infinitesimal generators in order to determine the structure constants of the Lie algebra.

  11. Algebraic logic of concepts and its machine implementation in the algebras of deontic and axiological notions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manerowska, Anna; Nieznański, Edward; Mulawka, Jan

    2013-10-01

    Our aim is to present the algebra of concepts in two formal languages. First, after introducing a primary relation between concepts, which is subsumption, we shall specify in a language that uses quantifiers, the Boolean algebra of general concepts. Next, we shall note down the same algebra in simplified non-quantifying language, in order to use it as basis for two specific implementations, i.e. to create the Boolean algebras of deontic concepts and axiological concepts.

  12. Dispersion Operators Algebra and Linear Canonical Transformations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andriambololona, Raoelina; Ranaivoson, Ravo Tokiniaina; Hasimbola Damo Emile, Randriamisy; Rakotoson, Hanitriarivo

    2017-04-01

    This work intends to present a study on relations between a Lie algebra called dispersion operators algebra, linear canonical transformation and a phase space representation of quantum mechanics that we have introduced and studied in previous works. The paper begins with a brief recall of our previous works followed by the description of the dispersion operators algebra which is performed in the framework of the phase space representation. Then, linear canonical transformations are introduced and linked with this algebra. A multidimensional generalization of the obtained results is given.

  13. Dispersion Operators Algebra and Linear Canonical Transformations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andriambololona, Raoelina; Ranaivoson, Ravo Tokiniaina; Hasimbola Damo Emile, Randriamisy; Rakotoson, Hanitriarivo

    2017-02-01

    This work intends to present a study on relations between a Lie algebra called dispersion operators algebra, linear canonical transformation and a phase space representation of quantum mechanics that we have introduced and studied in previous works. The paper begins with a brief recall of our previous works followed by the description of the dispersion operators algebra which is performed in the framework of the phase space representation. Then, linear canonical transformations are introduced and linked with this algebra. A multidimensional generalization of the obtained results is given.

  14. Banach Algebras Associated to Lax Pairs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glazebrook, James F.

    2015-04-01

    Lax pairs featuring in the theory of integrable systems are known to be constructed from a commutative algebra of formal pseudodifferential operators known as the Burchnall- Chaundy algebra. Such pairs induce the well known KP flows on a restricted infinite-dimensional Grassmannian. The latter can be exhibited as a Banach homogeneous space constructed from a Banach *-algebra. It is shown that this commutative algebra of operators generating Lax pairs can be associated with a commutative C*-subalgebra in the C*-norm completion of the *-algebra. In relationship to the Bose-Fermi correspondence and the theory of vertex operators, this C*-algebra has an association with the CAR algebra of operators as represented on Fermionic Fock space by the Gelfand-Naimark-Segal construction. Instrumental is the Plücker embedding of the restricted Grassmannian into the projective space of the associated Hilbert space. The related Baker and tau-functions provide a connection between these two C*-algebras, following which their respective state spaces and Jordan-Lie-Banach algebras structures can be compared.

  15. Difficulties in initial algebra learning in Indonesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jupri, Al; Drijvers, Paul; van den Heuvel-Panhuizen, Marja

    2014-12-01

    Within mathematics curricula, algebra has been widely recognized as one of the most difficult topics, which leads to learning difficulties worldwide. In Indonesia, algebra performance is an important issue. In the Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS) 2007, Indonesian students' achievement in the algebra domain was significantly below the average student performance in other Southeast Asian countries such as Thailand, Malaysia, and Singapore. This fact gave rise to this study which aims to investigate Indonesian students' difficulties in algebra. In order to do so, a literature study was carried out on students' difficulties in initial algebra. Next, an individual written test on algebra tasks was administered, followed by interviews. A sample of 51 grade VII Indonesian students worked the written test, and 37 of them were interviewed afterwards. Data analysis revealed that mathematization, i.e., the ability to translate back and forth between the world of the problem situation and the world of mathematics and to reorganize the mathematical system itself, constituted the most frequently observed difficulty in both the written test and the interview data. Other observed difficulties concerned understanding algebraic expressions, applying arithmetic operations in numerical and algebraic expressions, understanding the different meanings of the equal sign, and understanding variables. The consequences of these findings on both task design and further research in algebra education are discussed.

  16. Multicloning and Multibroadcasting in Operator Algebras

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaniowski, Krzysztof; Lubnauer, Katarzyna; Łuczak, Andrzej

    2015-12-01

    We investigate multicloning and multibroadcasting in the general operator algebra framework in arbitrary dimension, generalizing thus results obtained in this framework for simple cloning and broadcasting.

  17. Prospective Teachers' Views on the Use of Calculators with Computer Algebra System in Algebra Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ozgun-Koca, S. Ash

    2010-01-01

    Although growing numbers of secondary school mathematics teachers and students use calculators to study graphs, they mainly rely on paper-and-pencil when manipulating algebraic symbols. However, the Computer Algebra Systems (CAS) on computers or handheld calculators create new possibilities for teaching and learning algebraic manipulation. This…

  18. An Arithmetic-Algebraic Work Space for the Promotion of Arithmetic and Algebraic Thinking: Triangular Numbers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hitt, Fernando; Saboya, Mireille; Cortés Zavala, Carlos

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents an experiment that attempts to mobilise an arithmetic-algebraic way of thinking in order to articulate between arithmetic thinking and the early algebraic thinking, which is considered a prelude to algebraic thinking. In the process of building this latter way of thinking, researchers analysed pupils' spontaneous production…

  19. Classification of filiform Lie algebras of order 3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Navarro, Rosa María

    2016-12-01

    Lie algebras of order 3 constitute a generalization of Lie algebras and superalgebras. Throughout this paper the classification problem of filiform Lie algebras of order 3 is considered and therefore this work is a continuation papers seen in the literature. We approach this classification by extending Vergne's result for filiform Lie algebras and by considering algebras of order 3 of high nilindex. We find the expression of the law to which any elementary filiform Lie algebra of order 3 is isomorphic.

  20. The Algebra of Lexical Semantics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kornai, András

    The current generative theory of the lexicon relies primarily on tools from formal language theory and mathematical logic. Here we describe how a different formal apparatus, taken from algebra and automata theory, resolves many of the known problems with the generative lexicon. We develop a finite state theory of word meaning based on machines in the sense of Eilenberg [11], a formalism capable of describing discrepancies between syntactic type (lexical category) and semantic type (number of arguments). This mechanism is compared both to the standard linguistic approaches and to the formalisms developed in AI/KR.

  1. Strengthening Effect Algebras in a Logical Perspective: Heyting-Wajsberg Algebras

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Konig, Martinvaldo

    2014-10-01

    Heyting effect algebras are lattice-ordered pseudoboolean effect algebras endowed with a pseudocomplementation that maps on the center (i.e. Boolean elements). They are the algebraic counterpart of an extension of both Łukasiewicz many-valued logic and intuitionistic logic. We show that Heyting effect algebras are termwise equivalent to Heyting-Wajsberg algebras where the two different logical implications are defined as primitive operators. We prove this logic to be decidable, to be strongly complete and to have the deduction-detachment theorem.

  2. Algebraic Thinking: A Problem Solving Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Windsor, Will

    2010-01-01

    Algebraic thinking is a crucial and fundamental element of mathematical thinking and reasoning. It initially involves recognising patterns and general mathematical relationships among numbers, objects and geometric shapes. This paper will highlight how the ability to think algebraically might support a deeper and more useful knowledge, not only of…

  3. Learning from Student Approaches to Algebraic Proofs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    D'Ambrosio, Beatriz S.; Kastberg, Signe E.; Viola dos Santos, Joao Ricardo

    2010-01-01

    Many mathematics teachers struggle to support their students' developing understanding of proof as an essential element in investigations of mathematics. The area of mathematics where the development of an understanding of proof is most challenging is algebra. In the case of algebraic proof, analysis of student written work on tasks that demand…

  4. From operator algebras to superconformal field theory

    SciTech Connect

    Kawahigashi, Yasuyuki

    2010-01-15

    We survey operator algebraic approach to (super)conformal field theory. We discuss representation theory, classification results, full and boundary conformal field theories, relations to supervertex operator algebras and Moonshine, connections to subfactor theory of Jones, and certain aspects of noncommutative geometry of Connes.

  5. A Technology-Intensive Approach to Algebra.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heid, M. Kathleen; Zbiek, Rose Mary

    1995-01-01

    Computer-Intensive Algebra (CIA) focuses on the use of technology to help develop a rich understanding of fundamental algebraic concepts in real-world settings using computing tools for easy access to numerical, graphical, and symbolic representations of mathematical ideas. (MKR)

  6. Focus on Fractions to Scaffold Algebra

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ooten, Cheryl Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Beginning algebra is a gatekeeper course into the pipeline to higher mathematics courses required for respected professions in engineering, science, statistics, mathematics, education, and technology. Beginning algebra can also be a perfect storm if the necessary foundational skills are not within a student's grasp. What skills ensure beginning…

  7. Post-Lie Algebras and Isospectral Flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ebrahimi-Fard, Kurusch; Lundervold, Alexander; Mencattini, Igor; Munthe-Kaas, Hans Z.

    2015-11-01

    In this paper we explore the Lie enveloping algebra of a post-Lie algebra derived from a classical R-matrix. An explicit exponential solution of the corresponding Lie bracket flow is presented. It is based on the solution of a post-Lie Magnus-type differential equation.

  8. Teaching Modeling and Axiomatization with Boolean Algebra.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Villiers, Michael D.

    1987-01-01

    Presented is an alternative approach to the traditional teaching of Boolean algebra for secondary school mathematics. The main aim of the approach is to use Boolean algebra to teach pupils such mathematical processes as modeling and axiomatization. A course using the approach is described. (RH)

  9. Arithmetic and Cognitive Contributions to Algebra

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cirino, Paul T.; Tolar, Tammy D.; Fuchs, Lynn S.

    2013-01-01

    Algebra is a prerequisite for access to STEM careers and occupational success (NMAP, 2008a), yet algebra is difficult for students through high school (US DOE, 2008). Growth in children's conceptual and procedural arithmetical knowledge is reciprocal, although conceptual knowledge has more impact on procedural knowledge than the reverse…

  10. Algebraic Thinking through Koch Snowflake Constructions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ghosh, Jonaki B.

    2016-01-01

    Generalizing is a foundational mathematical practice for the algebra classroom. It entails an act of abstraction and forms the core of algebraic thinking. Kinach (2014) describes two kinds of generalization--by analogy and by extension. This article illustrates how exploration of fractals provides ample opportunity for generalizations of both…

  11. Calif. Laws Shift Gears on Algebra, Textbooks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robelen, Erik W.

    2012-01-01

    New laws in California have set the state on a course for some potentially significant changes to the curriculum, including a measure that revisits the matter of teaching Algebra 1 in 8th grade and another that revamps the state's textbook-adoption process and hands districts greater leeway in choosing instructional materials. The algebra-related…

  12. Using Students' Interests as Algebraic Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whaley, Kenneth A.

    2012-01-01

    Fostering algebraic thinking is an important goal for middle-grades mathematics teachers. Developing mathematical reasoning requires that teachers cultivate students' habits of mind. Teachers develop students' understanding of algebra by engaging them in tasks that involve modeling and representation. This study was designed to investigate how…

  13. An algebraic approach to the scattering equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Rijun; Rao, Junjie; Feng, Bo; He, Yang-Hui

    2015-12-01

    We employ the so-called companion matrix method from computational algebraic geometry, tailored for zero-dimensional ideals, to study the scattering equations. The method renders the CHY-integrand of scattering amplitudes computable using simple linear algebra and is amenable to an algorithmic approach. Certain identities in the amplitudes as well as rationality of the final integrand become immediate in this formalism.

  14. THE RADICAL OF A JORDAN ALGEBRA

    PubMed Central

    McCrimmon, Kevin

    1969-01-01

    In this paper we define a Jacobson radical for Jordan algebras analogous to that for associative algebras and show that it enjoys many of the properties of the associative radical. We then relate the corresponding notion of “semisimplicity” to the previously defined notion of “nondegeneracy” (Jacobson, N., these Proceedings, 55, 243-251 (1966)). PMID:16591736

  15. Cartan calculus on quantum Lie algebras

    SciTech Connect

    Schupp, P.; Watts, P.; Zumino, B.

    1993-12-09

    A generalization of the differential geometry of forms and vector fields to the case of quantum Lie algebras is given. In an abstract formulation that incorporates many existing examples of differential geometry on quantum spaces we combine an exterior derivative, inner derivations, Lie derivatives, forms and functions au into one big algebra, the ``Cartan Calculus.``

  16. The operator algebra approach to quantum groups

    PubMed Central

    Kustermans, Johan; Vaes, Stefaan

    2000-01-01

    A relatively simple definition of a locally compact quantum group in the C*-algebra setting will be explained as it was recently obtained by the authors. At the same time, we put this definition in the historical and mathematical context of locally compact groups, compact quantum groups, Kac algebras, multiplicative unitaries, and duality theory. PMID:10639116

  17. Using the Internet To Investigate Algebra.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sherwood, Walter

    The lesson plans in this book engage students by using a tool they enjoy--the Internet--to explore key concepts in algebra. Working either individually or in groups, students learn to approach algebra from a problem solving perspective. Each lesson shows learners how to use the Internet as a resource for gathering facts, data, and other…

  18. Teaching Algebra to Students with Learning Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Impecoven-Lind, Linda S.; Foegen, Anne

    2010-01-01

    Algebra is a gateway to expanded opportunities, but it often poses difficulty for students with learning disabilities. Consequently, it is essential to identify evidence-based instructional strategies for these students. The authors begin by identifying three areas of algebra difficulty experienced by students with disabilities: cognitive…

  19. Gary M. Klingler Algebra Teacher Assistance Packages

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klingler, Gary

    2005-01-01

    Several packages designed by Elizabeth Marquez for mathematics teachers of grades 6-12, officially entitled the Teacher Assistance Package in Support of Better Algebra Assessment, is a series of resources developed to accompany ET's End-of-Course Algebra Assessment. It is designed to enhance teachers classroom assessment by providing examples of…

  20. Just Say Yes to Early Algebra!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stephens, Ana; Blanton, Maria; Knuth, Eric; Isler, Isil; Gardiner, Angela Murphy

    2015-01-01

    Mathematics educators have argued for some time that elementary school students are capable of engaging in algebraic thinking and should be provided with rich opportunities to do so. Recent initiatives like the Common Core State Standards for Mathematics (CCSSM) (CCSSI 2010) have taken up this call by reiterating the place of early algebra in…

  1. Symbolic Notations and Students' Achievements in Algebra

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peter, Ebiendele E.; Olaoye, Adetunji A.

    2013-01-01

    This study focuses on symbolic notations and its impact on students' achievement in Algebra. The main reason for this study rests on the observation from personal and professional experiences on students' increasing hatred for Algebra. One hundred and fifty (150) Senior Secondary School Students (SSS) from Ojo Local Education District, Ojo, Lagos,…

  2. SAYD Modules over Lie-Hopf Algebras

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rangipour, Bahram; Sütlü, Serkan

    2012-11-01

    In this paper a general van Est type isomorphism is proved. The isomorphism is between the Lie algebra cohomology of a bicrossed sum Lie algebra and the Hopf cyclic cohomology of its Hopf algebra. We first prove a one to one correspondence between stable-anti-Yetter-Drinfeld (SAYD) modules over the total Lie algebra and those modules over the associated Hopf algebra. In contrast to the non-general case done in our previous work, here the van Est isomorphism is proved at the first level of a natural spectral sequence, rather than at the level of complexes. It is proved that the Connes-Moscovici Hopf algebras do not admit any finite dimensional SAYD modules except the unique one-dimensional one found by Connes-Moscovici in 1998. This is done by extending our techniques to work with the infinite dimensional Lie algebra of formal vector fields. At the end, the one to one correspondence is applied to construct a highly nontrivial four dimensional SAYD module over the Schwarzian Hopf algebra. We then illustrate the whole theory on this example. Finally explicit representative cocycles of the cohomology classes for this example are calculated.

  3. Algebraic Formulas for Areas between Curves.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gabai, Hyman

    1982-01-01

    Korean secondary school students preparing for college learn about a simple algebraic formula for area bounded by a parabola and line. The approach does not seem well-known among American students. It is noted that, while the formula derivations rely on integration, algebra students could use the formulas without proofs. (MP)

  4. Some Applications of Algebraic System Solving

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roanes-Lozano, Eugenio

    2011-01-01

    Technology and, in particular, computer algebra systems, allows us to change both the way we teach mathematics and the mathematical curriculum. Curiously enough, unlike what happens with linear system solving, algebraic system solving is not widely known. The aim of this paper is to show that, although the theory lying behind the "exact…

  5. An Inquiry-Based Linear Algebra Class

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Haohao; Posey, Lisa

    2011-01-01

    Linear algebra is a standard undergraduate mathematics course. This paper presents an overview of the design and implementation of an inquiry-based teaching material for the linear algebra course which emphasizes discovery learning, analytical thinking and individual creativity. The inquiry-based teaching material is designed to fit the needs of a…

  6. Practicing Algebraic Skills: A Conceptual Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friedlander, Alex; Arcavi, Abraham

    2012-01-01

    Traditionally, a considerable part of teaching and learning algebra has focused on routine practice and the application of rules, procedures, and techniques. Although today's computerized environments may have decreased the need to master algebraic skills, procedural competence is still a central component in any mathematical activity. However,…

  7. Success in Algebra among Community College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reyes, Czarina

    2010-01-01

    College algebra is a required course for most majors, but is viewed by many as a gatekeeper course for degree completion by students. With almost half a million students taking college algebra each year, faculty are experimenting with new course lengths of time that might result in higher success, completion, and retention rates for college…

  8. Is Algebra Really Difficult for All Students?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Egodawatte, Gunawardena

    2009-01-01

    Research studies have shown that students encounter difficulties in transitioning from arithmetic to algebra. Errors made by high school students were analyzed for patterns and their causes. The origins of errors were: intuitive assumptions, failure to understand the syntax of algebra, analogies with other familiar symbol systems such as the…

  9. MODEL IDENTIFICATION AND COMPUTER ALGEBRA.

    PubMed

    Bollen, Kenneth A; Bauldry, Shawn

    2010-10-07

    Multiequation models that contain observed or latent variables are common in the social sciences. To determine whether unique parameter values exist for such models, one needs to assess model identification. In practice analysts rely on empirical checks that evaluate the singularity of the information matrix evaluated at sample estimates of parameters. The discrepancy between estimates and population values, the limitations of numerical assessments of ranks, and the difference between local and global identification make this practice less than perfect. In this paper we outline how to use computer algebra systems (CAS) to determine the local and global identification of multiequation models with or without latent variables. We demonstrate a symbolic CAS approach to local identification and develop a CAS approach to obtain explicit algebraic solutions for each of the model parameters. We illustrate the procedures with several examples, including a new proof of the identification of a model for handling missing data using auxiliary variables. We present an identification procedure for Structural Equation Models that makes use of CAS and that is a useful complement to current methods.

  10. LINPACK. Simultaneous Linear Algebraic Equations

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, M.A.

    1990-05-01

    LINPACK is a collection of FORTRAN subroutines which analyze and solve various classes of systems of simultaneous linear algebraic equations. The collection deals with general, banded, symmetric indefinite, symmetric positive definite, triangular, and tridiagonal square matrices, as well as with least squares problems and the QR and singular value decompositions of rectangular matrices. A subroutine-naming convention is employed in which each subroutine name consists of five letters which represent a coded specification (TXXYY) of the computation done by that subroutine. The first letter, T, indicates the matrix data type. Standard FORTRAN allows the use of three such types: S REAL, D DOUBLE PRECISION, and C COMPLEX. In addition, some FORTRAN systems allow a double-precision complex type: Z COMPLEX*16. The second and third letters of the subroutine name, XX, indicate the form of the matrix or its decomposition: GE General, GB General band, PO Positive definite, PP Positive definite packed, PB Positive definite band, SI Symmetric indefinite, SP Symmetric indefinite packed, HI Hermitian indefinite, HP Hermitian indefinite packed, TR Triangular, GT General tridiagonal, PT Positive definite tridiagonal, CH Cholesky decomposition, QR Orthogonal-triangular decomposition, SV Singular value decomposition. The final two letters, YY, indicate the computation done by the particular subroutine: FA Factor, CO Factor and estimate condition, SL Solve, DI Determinant and/or inverse and/or inertia, DC Decompose, UD Update, DD Downdate, EX Exchange. The LINPACK package also includes a set of routines to perform basic vector operations called the Basic Linear Algebra Subprograms (BLAS).

  11. LINPACK. Simultaneous Linear Algebraic Equations

    SciTech Connect

    Dongarra, J.J.

    1982-05-02

    LINPACK is a collection of FORTRAN subroutines which analyze and solve various classes of systems of simultaneous linear algebraic equations. The collection deals with general, banded, symmetric indefinite, symmetric positive definite, triangular, and tridiagonal square matrices, as well as with least squares problems and the QR and singular value decompositions of rectangular matrices. A subroutine-naming convention is employed in which each subroutine name consists of five letters which represent a coded specification (TXXYY) of the computation done by that subroutine. The first letter, T, indicates the matrix data type. Standard FORTRAN allows the use of three such types: S REAL, D DOUBLE PRECISION, and C COMPLEX. In addition, some FORTRAN systems allow a double-precision complex type: Z COMPLEX*16. The second and third letters of the subroutine name, XX, indicate the form of the matrix or its decomposition: GE General, GB General band, PO Positive definite, PP Positive definite packed, PB Positive definite band, SI Symmetric indefinite, SP Symmetric indefinite packed, HI Hermitian indefinite, HP Hermitian indefinite packed, TR Triangular, GT General tridiagonal, PT Positive definite tridiagonal, CH Cholesky decomposition, QR Orthogonal-triangular decomposition, SV Singular value decomposition. The final two letters, YY, indicate the computation done by the particular subroutine: FA Factor, CO Factor and estimate condition, SL Solve, DI Determinant and/or inverse and/or inertia, DC Decompose, UD Update, DD Downdate, EX Exchange. The LINPACK package also includes a set of routines to perform basic vector operations called the Basic Linear Algebra Subprograms (BLAS).

  12. Hexagonal tessellations in image algebra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eberly, David H.; Wenzel, Dennis J.; Longbotham, Harold G.

    1990-11-01

    In image algebra '' the concept of a coordinate set X is general in that such a set is simply a subset of ndimensional Euclidean space . The standard applications in 2-dimensional image processing use coordinate sets which are rectangular arrays X 72 x ZZm. However some applications may require other geometries for the coordinate set. We look at three such related applications in the context of image algebra. The first application is the modeling of photoreceptors in primate retinas. These receptors are inhomogeneously distributed on the retina. The largest receptor density occurs in the center of the fovea and decreases radially outwards. One can construct a hexagonal tessellation of the retina such that each hexagon contains approximately the same number of receptors. The resulting tessellation called a sunflower heart2 consists of concentric rings of hexagons whose sizes increase as the radius of the ring increases. The second application is the modeling of the primary visual . The neurons are assumed to be uniformly distributed as a regular hexagonal lattice. Cortical neural image coding is modeled by a recursive convolution of the retinal neural image using a special set of filters. The third application involves analysis of a hexagonally-tessellated image where the pixel resolution is variable .

  13. Generalization of n-ary Nambu algebras and beyond

    SciTech Connect

    Ataguema, H.; Makhlouf, A.; Silvestrov, S.

    2009-08-15

    The aim of this paper is to introduce n-ary Hom-algebra structures generalizing the n-ary algebras of Lie type including n-ary Nambu algebras, n-ary Nambu-Lie algebras and n-ary Lie algebras, and n-ary algebras of associative type including n-ary totally associative and n-ary partially associative algebras. We provide examples of the new structures and present some properties and construction theorems. We describe the general method allowing one to obtain an n-ary Hom-algebra structure starting from an n-ary algebra and an n-ary algebra endomorphism. Several examples are derived using this process. Also we initiate investigation of classification problems for algebraic structures introduced in the article and describe all ternary three-dimensional Hom-Nambu-Lie structures with diagonal homomorphism.

  14. Light polarization: A geometric-algebra approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baylis, W. E.; Bonenfant, J.; Derbyshire, J.; Huschilt, J.

    1993-06-01

    The geometric algebra of three-dimensional space (the ``Pauli algebra'') is known to provide an efficient geometric description of electromagnetic phenomena. Here, it is applied to the three-dimensional Stokes subspace to describe the polarization of an approximately monochromatic collimated beam of electromagnetic radiation. The coherency density ρ is a real element of the algebra whose components are the four Stokes parameters: a scalar representing the total photon flux density plus a three-dimensional vector whose direction and length in the Poincaré sphere give the type and degree of polarization. The detection of the radiation and the incoherent and coherent modification of the polarization by various optical elements are calculated by algebraic multiplication which has faithful representations in 2×2 matrices. One matrix representation of ρ is the coherency matrix with which Jones and Mueller matrices are related whereas another representation is the spin density matrix. However, the calculations are simplest to perform and interpret in the algebraic form independent of any particular matrix representation. It is shown that any possible change in the Stokes parameters can be treated algebraically by a combination of attenuation, depolarization, polarization, and rotation transformations of ρ. The geometric algebra thus unifies Stokes parameters, the Poincaré sphere, Jones and Mueller matrices, and the coherency and density matrices in a single, simple formalism.

  15. Conformal current algebra in two dimensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ashok, Sujay K.; Benichou, Raphael; Troost, Jan

    2009-06-01

    We construct a non-chiral current algebra in two dimensions consistent with conformal invariance. We show that the conformal current algebra is realized in non-linear sigma-models on supergroup manifolds with vanishing Killing form, with or without a Wess-Zumino term. The current algebra is computed using two distinct methods. First we exploit special algebraic properties of supergroups to compute the exact two- and three-point functions of the currents and from them we infer the current algebra. The algebra is also calculated by using conformal perturbation theory about the Wess-Zumino-Witten point and resumming the perturbation series. We also prove that these models realize a non-chiral Kac-Moody algebra and construct an infinite set of commuting operators that is closed under the action of the Kac-Moody generators. The supergroup models that we consider include models with applications to statistical mechanics, condensed matter and string theory. In particular, our results may help to systematically solve and clarify the quantum integrability of PSU(n|n) models and their cosets, which appear prominently in string worldsheet models on anti-deSitter spaces.

  16. Working memory, worry, and algebraic ability.

    PubMed

    Trezise, Kelly; Reeve, Robert A

    2014-05-01

    Math anxiety (MA)-working memory (WM) relationships have typically been examined in the context of arithmetic problem solving, and little research has examined the relationship in other math domains (e.g., algebra). Moreover, researchers have tended to examine MA/worry separate from math problem solving activities and have used general WM tasks rather than domain-relevant WM measures. Furthermore, it seems to have been assumed that MA affects all areas of math. It is possible, however, that MA is restricted to particular math domains. To examine these issues, the current research assessed claims about the impact on algebraic problem solving of differences in WM and algebraic worry. A sample of 80 14-year-old female students completed algebraic worry, algebraic WM, algebraic problem solving, nonverbal IQ, and general math ability tasks. Latent profile analysis of worry and WM measures identified four performance profiles (subgroups) that differed in worry level and WM capacity. Consistent with expectations, subgroup membership was associated with algebraic problem solving performance: high WM/low worry>moderate WM/low worry=moderate WM/high worry>low WM/high worry. Findings are discussed in terms of the conceptual relationship between emotion and cognition in mathematics and implications for the MA-WM-performance relationship.

  17. Three-dimensional polarization algebra.

    PubMed

    R Sheppard, Colin J; Castello, Marco; Diaspro, Alberto

    2016-10-01

    If light is focused or collected with a high numerical aperture lens, as may occur in imaging and optical encryption applications, polarization should be considered in three dimensions (3D). The matrix algebra of polarization behavior in 3D is discussed. It is useful to convert between the Mueller matrix and two different Hermitian matrices, representing an optical material or system, which are in the literature. Explicit transformation matrices for converting the column vector form of these different matrices are extended to the 3D case, where they are large (81×81) but can be generated using simple rules. It is found that there is some advantage in using a generalization of the Chandrasekhar phase matrix treatment, rather than that based on Gell-Mann matrices, as the resultant matrices are of simpler form and reduce to the two-dimensional case more easily. Explicit expressions are given for 3D complex field components in terms of Chandrasekhar-Stokes parameters.

  18. Jucys-Murphy elements for Birman-Murakami-Wenzl algebras

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Isaev, A. P.; Ogievetsky, O. V.

    2011-05-01

    The Burman-Wenzl-Murakami algebra, considered as the quotient of the braid group algebra, possesses the commutative set of Jucys-Murphy elements. We show that the set of Jucys-Murphy elements is maximal commutative for the generic Birman-Wenzl-Murakami algebra and reconstruct the representation theory of the tower of Birman-Wenzl-Murakami algebras.

  19. Kinematical superalgebras and Lie algebras of order 3

    SciTech Connect

    Campoamor-Stursberg, R.; Rausch de Traubenberg, M.

    2008-06-15

    We study and classify kinematical algebras which appear in the framework of Lie superalgebras or Lie algebras of order 3. All these algebras are related through generalized Inonue-Wigner contractions from either the orthosymplectic superalgebra or the de Sitter Lie algebra of order 3.

  20. Becchi-Rouet-Stora-Tyutin operators for W algebras

    SciTech Connect

    Isaev, A. P.; Krivonos, S. O.; Ogievetsky, O. V.

    2008-07-15

    The study of quantum Lie algebras motivates a use of noncanonical ghosts and antighosts for nonlinear algebras, such as W-algebras. This leads, for the W{sub 3} and W{sub 3}{sup (2)} algebras, to the Becchi-Rouet-Stora-Tyutin operator having the conventional cubic form.

  1. On computational complexity of Clifford algebra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Budinich, Marco

    2009-05-01

    After a brief discussion of the computational complexity of Clifford algebras, we present a new basis for even Clifford algebra Cl(2m) that simplifies greatly the actual calculations and, without resorting to the conventional matrix isomorphism formulation, obtains the same complexity. In the last part we apply these results to the Clifford algebra formulation of the NP-complete problem of the maximum clique of a graph introduced by Budinich and Budinich ["A spinorial formulation of the maximum clique problem of a graph," J. Math. Phys. 47, 043502 (2006)].

  2. Gauged Ads-Maxwell Algebra and Gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Durka, R.; Kowalski-Glikman, J.; Szczachor, M.

    We deform the anti-de Sitter algebra by adding additional generators {Z}ab, forming in this way the negative cosmological constant counterpart of the Maxwell algebra. We gauge this algebra and construct a dynamical model with the help of a constrained BF theory. It turns out that the resulting theory is described by the Einstein-Cartan action with Holst term, and the gauge fields associated with the Maxwell generators {Z}ab appear only in topological terms that do not influence dynamical field equations. We briefly comment on the extension of this construction, which would lead to a nontrivial Maxwell fields dynamics.

  3. Homomorphisms between C*-algebras and linear derivations on C*-algebras

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Choonkil; Boo, Deok-Hoon; An, Jong Su

    2008-01-01

    It is shown that every almost unital almost linear mapping of a unital C*-algebra to a unital C*-algebra is a homomorphism when h(3nuy)=h(3nu)h(y) holds for all unitaries , all , and all , and that every almost unital almost linear continuous mapping of a unital C*-algebra of real rank zero to a unital C*-algebra is a homomorphism when h(3nuy)=h(3nu)h(y) holds for all , and v is invertible}, all , and all . Furthermore, we prove the Hyers-Ulam-Rassias stability of *-homomorphisms between unital C*-algebras, and -linear *-derivations on unital C*-algebras. The concept of Hyers-Ulam-Rassias stability originated from the Th.M. Rassias' stability theorem that appeared in his paper: On the stability of the linear mapping in Banach spaces, Proc. Amer. Math. Soc. 72 (1978) 297-300.

  4. Lie algebra type noncommutative phase spaces are Hopf algebroids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meljanac, Stjepan; Škoda, Zoran; Stojić, Martina

    2016-11-01

    For a noncommutative configuration space whose coordinate algebra is the universal enveloping algebra of a finite-dimensional Lie algebra, it is known how to introduce an extension playing the role of the corresponding noncommutative phase space, namely by adding the commuting deformed derivatives in a consistent and nontrivial way; therefore, obtaining certain deformed Heisenberg algebra. This algebra has been studied in physical contexts, mainly in the case of the kappa-Minkowski space-time. Here, we equip the entire phase space algebra with a coproduct, so that it becomes an instance of a completed variant of a Hopf algebroid over a noncommutative base, where the base is the enveloping algebra.

  5. A note on derivations of Murray–von Neumann algebras

    PubMed Central

    Kadison, Richard V.; Liu, Zhe

    2014-01-01

    A Murray–von Neumann algebra is the algebra of operators affiliated with a finite von Neumann algebra. In this article, we first present a brief introduction to the theory of derivations of operator algebras from both the physical and mathematical points of view. We then describe our recent work on derivations of Murray–von Neumann algebras. We show that the “extended derivations” of a Murray–von Neumann algebra, those that map the associated finite von Neumann algebra into itself, are inner. In particular, we prove that the only derivation that maps a Murray–von Neumann algebra associated with a factor of type II1 into that factor is 0. Those results are extensions of Singer’s seminal result answering a question of Kaplansky, as applied to von Neumann algebras: The algebra may be noncommutative and may even contain unbounded elements. PMID:24469831

  6. A double commutant theorem for Murray–von Neumann algebras

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Zhe

    2012-01-01

    Murray–von Neumann algebras are algebras of operators affiliated with finite von Neumann algebras. In this article, we study commutativity and affiliation of self-adjoint operators (possibly unbounded). We show that a maximal abelian self-adjoint subalgebra of the Murray–von Neumann algebra associated with a finite von Neumann algebra is the Murray–von Neumann algebra , where is a maximal abelian self-adjoint subalgebra of and, in addition, is . We also prove that the Murray–von Neumann algebra with the center of is the center of the Murray–von Neumann algebra . Von Neumann’s celebrated double commutant theorem characterizes von Neumann algebras as those for which , where , the commutant of , is the set of bounded operators on the Hilbert space that commute with all operators in . At the end of this article, we present a double commutant theorem for Murray–von Neumann algebras. PMID:22543165

  7. Highest-weight representations of Brocherd`s algebras

    SciTech Connect

    Slansky, R.

    1997-01-01

    General features of highest-weight representations of Borcherd`s algebras are described. to show their typical features, several representations of Borcherd`s extensions of finite-dimensional algebras are analyzed. Then the example of the extension of affine- su(2) to a Borcherd`s algebra is examined. These algebras provide a natural way to extend a Kac-Moody algebra to include the hamiltonian and number-changing operators in a generalized symmetry structure.

  8. BiHom-Associative Algebras, BiHom-Lie Algebras and BiHom-Bialgebras

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graziani, Giacomo; Makhlouf, Abdenacer; Menini, Claudia; Panaite, Florin

    2015-10-01

    A BiHom-associative algebra is a (nonassociative) algebra A endowed with two commuting multiplicative linear maps α,β\\colon A→ A such that α (a)(bc)=(ab)β (c), for all a, b, cin A. This concept arose in the study of algebras in so-called group Hom-categories. In this paper, we introduce as well BiHom-Lie algebras (also by using the categorical approach) and BiHom-bialgebras. We discuss these new structures by presenting some basic properties and constructions (representations, twisted tensor products, smash products etc).

  9. Using Schemas to Develop Algebraic Thinking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steele, Diana F.

    2005-01-01

    This article describes ways in which students develop schemas as they generalize and formalize patterns when solving related algebraic problems that involve size, shape, growth, and change. (Contains 7 figures and 3 tables.)

  10. Cohomological invariants of central simple algebras

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merkurjev, A. S.

    2016-10-01

    We determine the indecomposable degree 3 cohomological invariants of tuples of central simple algebras with linear relations. Equivalently, we determine the degree 3 reductive cohomological invariants of all split semisimple groups of type A.

  11. Cyclic Cocycles on Twisted Convolution Algebras

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Angel, Eitan

    2013-01-01

    We give a construction of cyclic cocycles on convolution algebras twisted by gerbes over discrete translation groupoids. For proper étale groupoids, Tu and Xu (Adv Math 207(2):455-483, 2006) provide a map between the periodic cyclic cohomology of a gerbe-twisted convolution algebra and twisted cohomology groups which is similar to the construction of Mathai and Stevenson (Adv Math 200(2):303-335, 2006). When the groupoid is not proper, we cannot construct an invariant connection on the gerbe; therefore to study this algebra, we instead develop simplicial techniques to construct a simplicial curvature 3-form representing the class of the gerbe. Then by using a JLO formula we define a morphism from a simplicial complex twisted by this simplicial curvature 3-form to the mixed bicomplex computing the periodic cyclic cohomology of the twisted convolution algebras.

  12. ALGEBRAIC DEPENDENCE THEOREMS ON COMPLEX PSEUDOCONCAVE SPACES

    DTIC Science & Technology

    The notion of pseudoconcave space is introduced and classical theorems on algebraic dependence of meromorphic functions are extended for this new class of spaces and for sections in a coherent sheaf. (Author)

  13. Applications: Using Algebra in an Accounting Practice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eisner, Gail A.

    1994-01-01

    Presents examples of algebra from the field of accounting including proportional ownership of stock, separation of a loan payment into principal and interest portions, depreciation methods, and salary withholdings computations. (MKR)

  14. Lisa's Lemonade Stand: Exploring Algebraic Ideas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Billings, Esther M. H.; Lakatos, Tracy

    2003-01-01

    Presents an activity, "Lisa's Lemonade Stand," that actively engages students in algebraic thinking as they analyze change by investigating relationships between variables and gain experience describing and representing these relationships graphically. (YDS)

  15. Algebraic operator approach to gas kinetic models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Il'ichov, L. V.

    1997-02-01

    Some general properties of the linear Boltzmann kinetic equation are used to present it in the form ∂ tϕ = - †Âϕ with the operators Âand† possessing some nontrivial algebraic properties. When applied to the Keilson-Storer kinetic model, this method gives an example of quantum ( q-deformed) Lie algebra. This approach provides also a natural generalization of the “kangaroo model”.

  16. Dynamical systems and quantum bicrossproduct algebras

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arratia, Oscar; del Olmo, Mariano A.

    2002-06-01

    We present a unified study of some aspects of quantum bicrossproduct algebras of inhomogeneous Lie algebras, such as Poincaré, Galilei and Euclidean in N dimensions. The action associated with the bicrossproduct structure allows us to obtain a nonlinear action over a new group linked to the translations. This new nonlinear action associates a dynamical system with each generator which is the object of our study.

  17. Algebra and topology for applications to physics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rozhkov, S. S.

    1987-01-01

    The principal concepts of algebra and topology are examined with emphasis on applications to physics. In particular, attention is given to sets and mapping; topological spaces and continuous mapping; manifolds; and topological groups and Lie groups. The discussion also covers the tangential spaces of the differential manifolds, including Lie algebras, vector fields, and differential forms, properties of differential forms, mapping of tangential spaces, and integration of differential forms.

  18. Vague Congruences and Quotient Lattice Implication Algebras

    PubMed Central

    Qin, Xiaoyan; Xu, Yang

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to further develop the congruence theory on lattice implication algebras. Firstly, we introduce the notions of vague similarity relations based on vague relations and vague congruence relations. Secondly, the equivalent characterizations of vague congruence relations are investigated. Thirdly, the relation between the set of vague filters and the set of vague congruences is studied. Finally, we construct a new lattice implication algebra induced by a vague congruence, and the homomorphism theorem is given. PMID:25133207

  19. Edge covers and independence: Algebraic approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalinina, E. A.; Khitrov, G. M.; Pogozhev, S. V.

    2016-06-01

    In this paper, linear algebra methods are applied to solve some problems of graph theory. For ordinary connected graphs, edge coverings and independent sets are considered. Some results concerning minimum edge covers and maximum matchings are proved with the help of linear algebraic approach. The problem of finding a maximum matching of a graph is fundamental both practically and theoretically, and has numerous applications, e.g., in computational chemistry and mathematical chemistry.

  20. Algebraic Sub-Structuring for Electromagnetic Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, C.; Gao, W.G.; Bai, Z.J.; Li, X.Y.S.; Lee, L.Q.; Husbands, P.; Ng, E.G.; /LBL, Berkeley /UC, Davis /SLAC

    2006-06-30

    Algebraic sub-structuring refers to the process of applying matrix reordering and partitioning algorithms to divide a large sparse matrix into smaller submatrices from which a subset of spectral components are extracted and combined to form approximate solutions to the original problem. In this paper, they show that algebraic sub-structuring can be effectively used to solve generalized eigenvalue problems arising from the finite element analysis of an accelerator structure.

  1. Algebraic sub-structuring for electromagnetic applications

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Chao; Gao, Weiguo; Bai, Zhaojun; Li, Xiaoye; Lee, Lie-Quan; Husbands, Parry; Ng, Esmond G.

    2004-09-14

    Algebraic sub-structuring refers to the process of applying matrix reordering and partitioning algorithms to divide a large sparse matrix into smaller submatrices from which a subset of spectral components are extracted and combined to form approximate solutions to the original problem. In this paper, we show that algebraic sub-structuring can be effectively used to solve generalized eigenvalue problems arising from the finite element analysis of an accelerator structure.

  2. Lie n-algebras of BPS charges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sati, Hisham; Schreiber, Urs

    2017-03-01

    We uncover higher algebraic structures on Noether currents and BPS charges. It is known that equivalence classes of conserved currents form a Lie algebra. We show that at least for target space symmetries of higher parameterized WZW-type sigma-models this naturally lifts to a Lie ( p + 1)-algebra structure on the Noether currents themselves. Applied to the Green-Schwarz-type action functionals for super p-brane sigma-models this yields super Lie ( p+1)-algebra refinements of the traditional BPS brane charge extensions of supersymmetry algebras. We discuss this in the generality of higher differential geometry, where it applies also to branes with (higher) gauge fields on their worldvolume. Applied to the M5-brane sigma-model we recover and properly globalize the M-theory super Lie algebra extension of 11-dimensional superisometries by 2-brane and 5-brane charges. Passing beyond the infinitesimal Lie theory we find cohomological corrections to these charges in higher analogy to the familiar corrections for D-brane charges as they are lifted from ordinary cohomology to twisted K-theory. This supports the proposal that M-brane charges live in a twisted cohomology theory.

  3. Application of Computer Graphics to Graphing in Algebra and Trigonometry. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morris, J. Richard

    This project was designed to improve the graphing competency of students in elementary algebra, intermediate algebra, and trigonometry courses at Virginia Commonwealth University. Computer graphics programs were designed using an Apple II Plus computer and implemented using Pascal. The software package is interactive and gives students control…

  4. I CAN Learn[R] Pre-Algebra and Algebra. What Works Clearinghouse Intervention Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    What Works Clearinghouse, 2007

    2007-01-01

    The "I CAN Learn[R] Pre-Algebra" and "Algebra" computerized curricula are designed to cover mathematics and problem-solving skills for ethnically diverse, inner-city students in grades 6-12. The curricula are designed to equip students with the skills they need to meet district, state, and national math objectives through an…

  5. Card Games and Algebra Tic Tacmatics on Achievement of Junior Secondary II Students in Algebraic Expressions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Okpube, Nnaemeka Michael; Anugwo, M. N.

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the Card Games and Algebra tic-Tacmatics on Junior Secondary II Students' Achievement in Algebraic Expressions. Three research questions and three null hypotheses guided the study. The study adopted the pre-test, post-test control group design. A total of two hundred and forty (240) Junior Secondary School II students were…

  6. Developing "Algebraic Thinking": Two Key Ways to Establish Some Early Algebraic Ideas in Primary Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ormond, Christine

    2012-01-01

    Primary teachers play a key role in their students' future mathematical success in the early secondary years. While the word "algebra" may make some primary teachers feel uncomfortable or worried, the basic arithmetic ideas underlying algebra are vitally important for older primary students as they are increasingly required to use "algebraic…

  7. The Application of a Computer Algebra System as a Tool in College Algebra.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mayes, Robert L.

    1995-01-01

    Students (n=61) in an experimental course stressing active student involvement and the use of a computer algebra system scored higher than students (n=76) in a traditional college algebra course on final measures of inductive reasoning, visualization, and problem solving while maintaining equivalent manipulation and computation skills. (Author/MLB)

  8. Algebra Is a Civil Right: Increasing Achievement for African American Males in Algebra through Collaborative Inquiry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davies Gomez, Lisa

    2012-01-01

    Algebra is the gatekeeper of access to higher-level math and science courses, higher education and future earning opportunities. Unequal numbers of African-American males drop out of Algebra and mathematics courses and underperform on tests of mathematical competency and are thus denied both essential skills and a particularly important pathway to…

  9. Ternary Hom-Nambu-Lie algebras induced by Hom-Lie algebras

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arnlind, Joakim; Makhlouf, Abdenacer; Silvestrov, Sergei

    2010-04-01

    The need to consider n-ary algebraic structures, generalizing Lie and Poisson algebras, has become increasingly important in physics, and it should therefore be of interest to study the mathematical concepts related to n-ary algebras. The purpose of this paper is to investigate ternary multiplications (as deformations of n-Lie structures) constructed from the binary multiplication of a Hom-Lie algebra, a linear twisting map, and a trace function satisfying certain compatibility conditions. We show that the relation between the kernels of the twisting maps and the trace function plays an important role in this context and provide examples of Hom-Nambu-Lie algebras obtained using this construction.

  10. Classification of central extensions of Lax operator algebras

    SciTech Connect

    Schlichenmaier, Martin

    2008-11-18

    Lax operator algebras were introduced by Krichever and Sheinman as further developments of Krichever's theory of Lax operators on algebraic curves. They are infinite dimensional Lie algebras of current type with meromorphic objects on compact Riemann surfaces (resp. algebraic curves) as elements. Here we report on joint work with Oleg Sheinman on the classification of their almost-graded central extensions. It turns out that in case that the finite-dimensional Lie algebra on which the Lax operator algebra is based on is simple there is a unique almost-graded central extension up to equivalence and rescaling of the central element.

  11. Linearizing W2,4 and WB2 algebras

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bellucci, S.; Krivonos, S.; Sorin, A.

    1995-02-01

    It has recently been shown that the W3 and W3(2) algebras can be considered as subalgebras in some linear conformal algebras. In this paper we show that the nonlinear algebras W2,4 and WB2 as well as Zamolodchikov's spin {5}/{2} superalgebra also can be embedded as subalgebras into some linear conformal algebras with a finite set of currents. These linear algebras give rise to new realizations of the nonlinear algebras which could be suitable in the construction of W-string theories.

  12. Classification of central extensions of Lax operator algebras

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schlichenmaier, Martin

    2008-11-01

    Lax operator algebras were introduced by Krichever and Sheinman as further developments of Krichever's theory of Lax operators on algebraic curves. They are infinite dimensional Lie algebras of current type with meromorphic objects on compact Riemann surfaces (resp. algebraic curves) as elements. Here we report on joint work with Oleg Sheinman on the classification of their almost-graded central extensions. It turns out that in case that the finite-dimensional Lie algebra on which the Lax operator algebra is based on is simple there is a unique almost-graded central extension up to equivalence and rescaling of the central element.

  13. Spinor representations of affine Lie algebras

    PubMed Central

    Frenkel, I. B.

    1980-01-01

    Let [unk] be an infinite-dimensional Kac-Moody Lie algebra of one of the types Dl+1(2), Bl(1), or Dl(1). These algebras are characterized by the property that an elimination of any endpoint of their Dynkin diagrams gives diagrams of types Bl or Dl of classical orthogonal Lie algebras. We construct two representations of a Lie algebra [unk], which we call spinor representations, following the analogy with the classical case. We obtain that every spinor representation is either irreducible or has two irreducible components. This provides us with an explicit construction of fundamental representations of [unk], two for the type Dl+1(2), three for Bl(1), and four for Dl(1). We note the profound connection of our construction with quantum field theory—in particular, with fermion fields. Comparing the character formulas of our representations with another construction of the fundamental representations of Kac-Moody Lie algebras of types Al(1), Dl(1), El(1), we obtain classical Jacobi identities and addition formulas for elliptic θ-functions. PMID:16592912

  14. A process algebra model of QED

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sulis, William

    2016-03-01

    The process algebra approach to quantum mechanics posits a finite, discrete, determinate ontology of primitive events which are generated by processes (in the sense of Whitehead). In this ontology, primitive events serve as elements of an emergent space-time and of emergent fundamental particles and fields. Each process generates a set of primitive elements, using only local information, causally propagated as a discrete wave, forming a causal space termed a causal tapestry. Each causal tapestry forms a discrete and finite sampling of an emergent causal manifold (space-time) M and emergent wave function. Interactions between processes are described by a process algebra which possesses 8 commutative operations (sums and products) together with a non-commutative concatenation operator (transitions). The process algebra possesses a representation via nondeterministic combinatorial games. The process algebra connects to quantum mechanics through the set valued process and configuration space covering maps, which associate each causal tapestry with sets of wave functions over M. Probabilities emerge from interactions between processes. The process algebra model has been shown to reproduce many features of the theory of non-relativistic scalar particles to a high degree of accuracy, without paradox or divergences. This paper extends the approach to a semi-classical form of quantum electrodynamics.

  15. ADA interpretative system for image algebra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murillo, Juan J.; Wilson, Joseph N.

    1992-06-01

    An important research problem in image processing is to find appropriate tools to support algorithm development. There have been efforts to build algorithm development support systems for image algebra in several languages, but these systems still have the disadvantage of the time consuming algorithm development style associated with compilation-oriented programming. This paper starts with a description of the Run-Time Support Library (RTSL), which serves as the base for executing programs on both the Image Algebra Ada Translator (IAAT) and Image Algebra Ada Interpreter (IAAI). A presentation on the current status of IAAT and its capabilities is followed by a brief introduction to the utilization of the Image Display Manager (IDM) for image manipulation and analysis. We then discuss in detail the current development stage of IAAI and its relation with RTSL and IDM. The last section describes the design of a syntax-directed graphical user interface for IAAI. We close with an analysis of the current performance of IAAI, and future trends are discussed. Appendix A gives a brief introduction to Image Algebra (IA), and in Appendix B the reader is presented to the Image Algebra Ada (IAA) grammar.

  16. Permutation centralizer algebras and multimatrix invariants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mattioli, Paolo; Ramgoolam, Sanjaye

    2016-03-01

    We introduce a class of permutation centralizer algebras which underly the combinatorics of multimatrix gauge-invariant observables. One family of such noncommutative algebras is parametrized by two integers. Its Wedderburn-Artin decomposition explains the counting of restricted Schur operators, which were introduced in the physics literature to describe open strings attached to giant gravitons and were subsequently used to diagonalize the Gaussian inner product for gauge invariants of two-matrix models. The structure of the algebra, notably its dimension, its center and its maximally commuting subalgebra, is related to Littlewood-Richardson numbers for composing Young diagrams. It gives a precise characterization of the minimal set of charges needed to distinguish arbitrary matrix gauge invariants, which are related to enhanced symmetries in gauge theory. The algebra also gives a star product for matrix invariants. The center of the algebra allows efficient computation of a sector of multimatrix correlators. These generate the counting of a certain class of bicoloured ribbon graphs with arbitrary genus.

  17. An algebra of discrete event processes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heymann, Michael; Meyer, George

    1991-01-01

    This report deals with an algebraic framework for modeling and control of discrete event processes. The report consists of two parts. The first part is introductory, and consists of a tutorial survey of the theory of concurrency in the spirit of Hoare's CSP, and an examination of the suitability of such an algebraic framework for dealing with various aspects of discrete event control. To this end a new concurrency operator is introduced and it is shown how the resulting framework can be applied. It is further shown that a suitable theory that deals with the new concurrency operator must be developed. In the second part of the report the formal algebra of discrete event control is developed. At the present time the second part of the report is still an incomplete and occasionally tentative working paper.

  18. Operator algebra in logarithmic conformal field theory

    SciTech Connect

    Nagi, Jasbir

    2005-10-15

    For some time now, conformal field theories in two dimensions have been studied as integrable systems. Much of the success of these studies is related to the existence of an operator algebra of the theory. In this paper, some of the extensions of this machinery to the logarithmic case are studied and used. More precisely, from Moebius symmetry constraints, the generic three- and four-point functions of logarithmic quasiprimary fields are calculated in closed form for arbitrary Jordan rank. As an example, c=0 disordered systems with nondegenerate vacua are studied. With the aid of two-, three-, and four-point functions, the operator algebra is obtained and associativity of the algebra studied.

  19. Algebraic quantum gravity (AQG): II. Semiclassical analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giesel, K.; Thiemann, T.

    2007-05-01

    In the previous paper (Giesel and Thiemann 2006 Conceptual setup Preprint gr-qc/0607099) a new combinatorial and thus purely algebraical approach to quantum gravity, called algebraic quantum gravity (AQG), was introduced. In the framework of AQG, existing semiclassical tools can be applied to operators that encode the dynamics of AQG such as the master constraint operator. In this paper, we will analyse the semiclassical limit of the (extended) algebraic master constraint operator and show that it reproduces the correct infinitesimal generators of general relativity. Therefore, the question of whether general relativity is included in the semiclassical sector of the theory, which is still an open problem in LQG, can be significantly improved in the framework of AQG. For the calculations, we will substitute SU(2) with U(1)3. That this substitution is justified will be demonstrated in the third paper (Giesel and Thiemann 2006 Semiclassical perturbation theory Preprint gr-qc/0607101) of this series.

  20. Computational algebraic geometry of epidemic models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodríguez Vega, Martín.

    2014-06-01

    Computational Algebraic Geometry is applied to the analysis of various epidemic models for Schistosomiasis and Dengue, both, for the case without control measures and for the case where control measures are applied. The models were analyzed using the mathematical software Maple. Explicitly the analysis is performed using Groebner basis, Hilbert dimension and Hilbert polynomials. These computational tools are included automatically in Maple. Each of these models is represented by a system of ordinary differential equations, and for each model the basic reproductive number (R0) is calculated. The effects of the control measures are observed by the changes in the algebraic structure of R0, the changes in Groebner basis, the changes in Hilbert dimension, and the changes in Hilbert polynomials. It is hoped that the results obtained in this paper become of importance for designing control measures against the epidemic diseases described. For future researches it is proposed the use of algebraic epidemiology to analyze models for airborne and waterborne diseases.

  1. Sound Off! A Dialogue between Calculator and Algebra

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wade, William R.

    2006-01-01

    This article illustrates the fact that unless tempered by algebraic reasoning, a graphing calculator can lead one to erroneous conclusions. It also demonstrates that some problems can be solved by combining technology with algebra.

  2. A new algebra core for the minimal form' problem

    SciTech Connect

    Purtill, M.R. . Center for Communications Research); Oliveira, J.S.; Cook, G.O. Jr. )

    1991-12-20

    The demands of large-scale algebraic computation have led to the development of many new algorithms for manipulating algebraic objects in computer algebra systems. For instance, parallel versions of many important algorithms have been discovered. Simultaneously, more effective symbolic representations of algebraic objects have been sought. Also, while some clever techniques have been found for improving the speed of the algebraic simplification process, little attention has been given to the issue of restructuring expressions, or transforming them into minimal forms.'' By minimal form,'' we mean that form of an expression that involves a minimum number of operations. In a companion paper, we introduce some new algorithms that are very effective at finding minimal forms of expressions. These algorithms require algebraic and combinatorial machinery that is not readily available in most algebra systems. In this paper we describe a new algebra core that begins to provide the necessary capabilities.

  3. Infinitesimal deformations of naturally graded filiform Leibniz algebras

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khudoyberdiyev, A. Kh.; Omirov, B. A.

    2014-12-01

    In the present paper we describe infinitesimal deformations of complex naturally graded filiform Leibniz algebras. It is known that any n-dimensional filiform Lie algebra can be obtained by a linear integrable deformation of the naturally graded algebra Fn3(0) . We establish that in the same way any n-dimensional filiform Leibniz algebra can be obtained by an infinitesimal deformation of the filiform Leibniz algebras Fn1,Fn2and Fn3(α) . Moreover, we describe the linear integrable deformations of the above-mentioned algebras with a fixed basis of HL2 in the set of all n-dimensional Leibniz algebras. Among these deformations one new rigid algebra has been found.

  4. Current algebra and the nonlinear σ-model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghosh, S.

    2007-06-01

    We present the current algebra of a particular form in the nonlinear σ-model. The algebra has a non-Abelian form with field-dependent structure functions. We comment on the connection of the model with noncommutative space.

  5. Kac-Moody algebra and nonlinear sigma model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ogura, Waichi; Hosoya, Akio

    1985-12-01

    We investigate the nonlinear sigma model over an arbitrary homogeneous space. Then it is shown that the sigma model realizes the Kac-Moody algebra as current algebra only if the homogeneous space is restricted to the group manifold.

  6. Upper bound for the length of commutative algebras

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Markova, Ol'ga V.

    2009-12-01

    By the length of a finite system of generators for a finite-dimensional associative algebra over an arbitrary field one means the least positive integer k such that the words of length not exceeding k span this algebra (as a vector space). The maximum length for the systems of generators of an algebra is referred to as the length of the algebra. In the present paper, an upper bound for the length of a commutative algebra in terms of a function of two invariants of the algebra, the dimension and the maximal degree of the minimal polynomial for the elements of the algebra, is obtained. As a corollary, a formula for the length of the algebra of diagonal matrices over an arbitrary field is obtained. Bibliography: 8 titles.

  7. Rees algebras, Monomial Subrings and Linear Optimization Problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dupont, Luis A.

    2010-06-01

    In this thesis we are interested in studying algebraic properties of monomial algebras, that can be linked to combinatorial structures, such as graphs and clutters, and to optimization problems. A goal here is to establish bridges between commutative algebra, combinatorics and optimization. We study the normality and the Gorenstein property-as well as the canonical module and the a-invariant-of Rees algebras and subrings arising from linear optimization problems. In particular, we study algebraic properties of edge ideals and algebras associated to uniform clutters with the max-flow min-cut property or the packing property. We also study algebraic properties of symbolic Rees algebras of edge ideals of graphs, edge ideals of clique clutters of comparability graphs, and Stanley-Reisner rings.

  8. Supersymmetry in physics: an algebraic overview

    SciTech Connect

    Ramond, P.

    1983-01-01

    In 1970, while attempting to generalize the Veneziano model (string model) to include fermions, I introduced a new algebraic structure which turned out to be a graded Lie algebra; it was used as a spectrum-generating algebra. This approach was soon after generalized to include interactions, yielding a complete model of fermions and boson (RNS model). In an unrelated work in the Soviet Union, it was shown how to generalize the Poincare group to include fermionic charges. However it was not until 1974 that an interacting field theory invariant under the Graded Poincare group in 3 + 1 dimensions was built (WZ model). Supersymmetric field theories turned out to have less divergent ultraviolet behavior than non-supersymmetric field theories. Gravity was generalized to include supersymmetry, to a theory called supergravity. By now many interacting local field theories exhibiting supersymmetry have been built and studied from 1 + 1 to 10 + 1 dimensions. Supersymmetric local field theories in less than 9 + 1 dimensions, can be understood as limits of multilocal (string) supersymmetric theories, in 9 + 1 dimensions. On the other hand, graded Lie algebras have been used in non-relativistic physics as approximate symmetries of Hamiltonians. The most striking such use so far helps comparing even and odd nuclei energy levels. It is believed that graded Lie algebras can be used whenever paired and unpaired fermions excitations can coexist. In this overview of a tremendously large field, I will only survey finite graded Lie algebras and their representations. For non-relativistic applications, all of GLA are potentially useful, while for relativistic applications, only these which include the Poincare group are to be considered.

  9. Double conformal space-time algebra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Easter, Robert Benjamin; Hitzer, Eckhard

    2017-01-01

    The Double Conformal Space-Time Algebra (DCSTA) is a high-dimensional 12D Geometric Algebra G 4,8that extends the concepts introduced with the Double Conformal / Darboux Cyclide Geometric Algebra (DCGA) G 8,2 with entities for Darboux cyclides (incl. parabolic and Dupin cyclides, general quadrics, and ring torus) in spacetime with a new boost operator. The base algebra in which spacetime geometry is modeled is the Space-Time Algebra (STA) G 1,3. Two Conformal Space-Time subalgebras (CSTA) G 2,4 provide spacetime entities for points, flats (incl. worldlines), and hyperbolics, and a complete set of versors for their spacetime transformations that includes rotation, translation, isotropic dilation, hyperbolic rotation (boost), planar reflection, and (pseudo)spherical inversion in rounds or hyperbolics. The DCSTA G 4,8 is a doubling product of two G 2,4 CSTA subalgebras that inherits doubled CSTA entities and versors from CSTA and adds new bivector entities for (pseudo)quadrics and Darboux (pseudo)cyclides in spacetime that are also transformed by the doubled versors. The "pseudo" surface entities are spacetime hyperbolics or other surface entities using the time axis as a pseudospatial dimension. The (pseudo)cyclides are the inversions of (pseudo)quadrics in rounds or hyperbolics. An operation for the directed non-uniform scaling (anisotropic dilation) of the bivector general quadric entities is defined using the boost operator and a spatial projection. DCSTA allows general quadric surfaces to be transformed in spacetime by the same complete set of doubled CSTA versor (i.e., DCSTA versor) operations that are also valid on the doubled CSTA point entity (i.e., DCSTA point) and the other doubled CSTA entities. The new DCSTA bivector entities are formed by extracting values from the DCSTA point entity using specifically defined inner product extraction operators. Quadric surface entities can be boosted into moving surfaces with constant velocities that display the length

  10. Constraint algebra for interacting quantum systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fubini, S.; Roncadelli, M.

    1988-04-01

    We consider relativistic constrained systems interacting with external fields. We provide physical arguments to support the idea that the quantum constraint algebra should be the same as in the free quantum case. For systems with ordering ambiguities this principle is essential to obtain a unique quantization. This is shown explicitly in the case of a relativistic spinning particle, where our assumption about the constraint algebra plus invariance under general coordinate transformations leads to a unique S-matrix. On leave from Dipartimento di Fisica Nucleare e Teorica, Università di Pavia and INFN, I-27100 Pavia, Italy.

  11. Weak Lie symmetry and extended Lie algebra

    SciTech Connect

    Goenner, Hubert

    2013-04-15

    The concept of weak Lie motion (weak Lie symmetry) is introduced. Applications given exhibit a reduction of the usual symmetry, e.g., in the case of the rotation group. In this context, a particular generalization of Lie algebras is found ('extended Lie algebras') which turns out to be an involutive distribution or a simple example for a tangent Lie algebroid. Riemannian and Lorentz metrics can be introduced on such an algebroid through an extended Cartan-Killing form. Transformation groups from non-relativistic mechanics and quantum mechanics lead to such tangent Lie algebroids and to Lorentz geometries constructed on them (1-dimensional gravitational fields).

  12. Algebraic surface design and finite element meshes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bajaj, Chandrajit L.

    1992-01-01

    Some of the techniques are summarized which are used in constructing C sup 0 and C sup 1 continuous meshes of low degree, implicitly defined, algebraic surface patches in three dimensional space. These meshes of low degree algebraic surface patches are used to construct accurate computer models of physical objects. These meshes are also used in the finite element simulation of physical phenomena (e.g., heat dissipation, stress/strain distributions, fluid flow characteristics) required in the computer prototyping of both the manufacturability and functionality of the geometric design.

  13. Fréchet-algebraic deformation quantizations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waldmann, S.

    2014-09-01

    In this review I present some recent results on the convergence properties of formal star products. Based on a general construction of a Fréchet topology for an algebra with countable vector space basis I discuss several examples from deformation quantization: the Wick star product on the flat phase space m2n gives a first example of a Fréchet algebraic framework for the canonical commutation relations. More interesting, the star product on the Poincare disk can be treated along the same lines, leading to a non-trivial example of a convergent star product on a curved Kahler manifold.

  14. Shapes and stability of algebraic nuclear models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lopez-Moreno, Enrique; Castanos, Octavio

    1995-01-01

    A generalization of the procedure to study shapes and stability of algebraic nuclear models introduced by Gilmore is presented. One calculates the expectation value of the Hamiltonian with respect to the coherent states of the algebraic structure of the system. Then equilibrium configurations of the resulting energy surface, which depends in general on state variables and a set of parameters, are classified through the Catastrophe theory. For one- and two-body interactions in the Hamiltonian of the interacting Boson model-1, the critical points are organized through the Cusp catastrophe. As an example, we apply this Separatrix to describe the energy surfaces associated to the Rutenium and Samarium isotopes.

  15. Bohr model as an algebraic collective model

    SciTech Connect

    Rowe, D. J.; Welsh, T. A.; Caprio, M. A.

    2009-05-15

    Developments and applications are presented of an algebraic version of Bohr's collective model. Illustrative examples show that fully converged calculations can be performed quickly and easily for a large range of Hamiltonians. As a result, the Bohr model becomes an effective tool in the analysis of experimental data. The examples are chosen both to confirm the reliability of the algebraic collective model and to show the diversity of results that can be obtained by its use. The focus of the paper is to facilitate identification of the limitations of the Bohr model with a view to developing more realistic, computationally tractable models.

  16. Riemannian manifolds as Lie-Rinehart algebras

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pessers, Victor; van der Veken, Joeri

    2016-07-01

    In this paper, we show how Lie-Rinehart algebras can be applied to unify and generalize the elementary theory of Riemannian geometry. We will first review some necessary theory on a.o. modules, bilinear forms and derivations. We will then translate some classical theory on Riemannian geometry to the setting of Rinehart spaces, a special kind of Lie-Rinehart algebras. Some generalized versions of classical results will be obtained, such as the existence of a unique Levi-Civita connection, inducing a Levi-Civita connection on a submanifold, and the construction of spaces with constant sectional curvature.

  17. Quantum walled Brauer algebra: commuting families, Baxterization, and representations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Semikhatov, A. M.; Tipunin, I. Yu

    2017-02-01

    For the quantum walled Brauer algebra, we construct its Specht modules and (for generic parameters of the algebra) seminormal modules. The latter construction yields the spectrum of a commuting family of Jucys-Murphy elements. We also propose a Baxterization prescription; it involves representing the quantum walled Brauer algebra in terms of morphisms in a braided monoidal category and introducing parameters into these morphisms, which allows constructing a ‘universal transfer matrix’ that generates commuting elements of the algebra.

  18. Dynamical algebras for Poeschl-Teller Hamiltonian hierarchies

    SciTech Connect

    Kuru, S.; Negro, J.

    2009-12-15

    The dynamical algebras of the trigonometric and hyperbolic symmetric Poeschl-Teller Hamiltonian hierarchies are obtained. A kind of discrete-differential realizations of these algebras are found which are isomorphic to so(3, 2) Lie algebras. In order to get them, first the relation between ladder and factor operators is investigated. In particular, the action of the ladder operators on normalized eigenfunctions is found explicitly. Then, the whole dynamical algebras are generated in a straightforward way.

  19. Algebraic Ricci solitons of three-dimensional Lorentzian Lie groups

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Batat, W.; Onda, K.

    2017-04-01

    We study algebraic Ricci solitons of three-dimensional Lorentzian Lie groups. All algebraic Ricci solitons that we obtain are solvsolitons. In particular, we obtain new solitons on G2, G5, and G6, and we prove that, contrary to the Riemannian case, Lorentzian Ricci solitons need not be algebraic Ricci solitons.

  20. Capability and Schur multiplier of a pair of Lie algebras

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johari, Farangis; Parvizi, Mohsen; Niroomand, Peyman

    2017-04-01

    The aim of this work is to find some criteria for detecting the capability of a pair of Lie algebras. We characterize the exact structure of all pairs of capable Lie algebras in the class of abelian and Heisenberg ones. Among the other results, we also give some exact sequences on the Schur multiplier and exterior product of Lie algebras.

  1. The Ideas of Algebra, K-12. 1988 Yearbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coxford, Arthur F., Ed.; Shulte, Albert P., Ed.

    This volume is organized into six parts. Chapters 1-5, which make up Part 1, first discuss the forces impinging on algebra in the curriculum and suggest possible directions for change. Chapters 6-8, Part 2, concentrate on concepts and teaching possibilities available prior to the formal introduction of algebra. The notion that algebraic ideas are…

  2. The Impact of Early Algebra: Results from a Longitudinal Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brizuela, Bárbara M.; Martinez, Mara V.; Cayton-Hodges, Gabrielle A.

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we provide evidence of the impact of early algebra (EA) over time. We document this impact in the following ways: (a) by showing the performance over time of an experimental group of 15 children on an algebra assessment, from 3rd to 5th grade; and (b) by showing how the performance on an algebra assessment of children from an…

  3. Changing Pre-Service Elementary Teachers' Attitudes to Algebra.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGowen, Mercedes A.; Davis, Gary E.

    This article addresses the question: "What are the implications for the preparation of prospective elementary teachers of 'early algebra' in the elementary grades curriculum?" Part of the answer involves language aspects of algebra: in particular, how a change in pre-service teachers' attitudes to algebra, from instrumental to relational, is…

  4. A Research Base Supporting Long Term Algebra Reform?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaput, James J.

    This paper discusses three dimensions of algebra reform: breadth, integration, and pedagogy. Breadth of algebra includes algebra as: generalizing and formalizing patterns and constraints; syntactically-guided manipulation of formalisms; study of structures abstracted from computations and relations; study of functions, relations, and joint…

  5. Classical versus Computer Algebra Methods in Elementary Geometry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pech, Pavel

    2005-01-01

    Computer algebra methods based on results of commutative algebra like Groebner bases of ideals and elimination of variables make it possible to solve complex, elementary and non elementary problems of geometry, which are difficult to solve using a classical approach. Computer algebra methods permit the proof of geometric theorems, automatic…

  6. Remarks on Virasoro and Kac-Moody Algebras

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grabowski, J.; Marmo, G.; Perelomov, A.; Simoni, A.

    Parametric realizations of Virasoro or Kac-Moody algebras are constructed on a generic manifold carrying an appropriate vector field. It is shown that the centrally extended algebras cannot be realized as algebras of vector fields on finite-dimensional manifolds.

  7. Processes Used by College Students in Understanding Basic Algebra.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rachlin, Sidney Lee

    The purpose of this study was to uncover information about and gain a greater insight into the extent to which students who are successful in a basic algebra course: l) demonstrate a reversibility of reasoning processes when solving algebraic problems; 2) demonstrate a flexibility of reasoning processes when solving algebraic problems; 3)…

  8. Effectiveness of Cognitive Tutor Algebra I at Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pane, John F.; Griffin, Beth Ann; McCaffrey, Daniel F.; Karam, Rita

    2014-01-01

    This article examines the effectiveness of a technology-based algebra curriculum in a wide variety of middle schools and high schools in seven states. Participating schools were matched into similar pairs and randomly assigned to either continue with the current algebra curriculum for 2 years or to adopt Cognitive Tutor Algebra I (CTAI), which…

  9. Abstract Numeric Relations and the Visual Structure of Algebra

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Landy, David; Brookes, David; Smout, Ryan

    2014-01-01

    Formal algebras are among the most powerful and general mechanisms for expressing quantitative relational statements; yet, even university engineering students, who are relatively proficient with algebraic manipulation, struggle with and often fail to correctly deploy basic aspects of algebraic notation (Clement, 1982). In the cognitive tradition,…

  10. Static friction, differential algebraic systems and numerical stability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Jian; Schinner, Alexander; Matuttis, Hans-Georg

    We show how Differential Algebraic Systems (Ordinary Differential Equations with algebraic constraints) in mechanics are affected by stability issues and we implement Lubich's projection method to reduce the error to practically zero. Then, we explain how the "numerically exact" implementation for static friction by Differential Algebraic Systems can be stabilized. We conclude by comparing the corresponding steps in the "Contact mechanics" introduced by Moreau.

  11. Pilot Study on Algebra Learning among Junior Secondary Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poon, Kin-Keung; Leung, Chi-Keung

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of the study reported herein was to identify the common mistakes made by junior secondary students in Hong Kong when learning algebra and to compare teachers' perceptions of students' ability with the results of an algebra test. An algebra test was developed and administered to a sample of students (aged between 13 and 14 years). From…

  12. Evolution of a Teaching Approach for Beginning Algebra

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Banerjee, Rakhi; Subramaniam, K.

    2012-01-01

    The article reports aspects of the evolution of a teaching approach over repeated trials for beginning symbolic algebra. The teaching approach emphasized the structural similarity between arithmetic and algebraic expressions and aimed at supporting students in making a transition from arithmetic to beginning algebra. The study was conducted with…

  13. Should College Algebra be a Prerequisite for Taking Psychology Statistics?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sibulkin, Amy E.; Butler, J. S.

    2008-01-01

    In order to consider whether a course in college algebra should be a prerequisite for taking psychology statistics, we recorded students' grades in elementary psychology statistics and in college algebra at a 4-year university. Students who earned credit in algebra prior to enrolling in statistics for the first time had a significantly higher mean…

  14. How Middle Grade Teachers Think about Algebraic Reasoning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glassmeyer, David; Edwards, Belinda

    2016-01-01

    Algebraic reasoning is an essential habit of mind for building conceptual knowledge in K-12 mathematics, yet little is known about how middle school mathematics teachers think about algebraic reasoning. In this article we describe a research project examining how algebraic reasoning was considered by grades 6, 7, or 8 mathematics teachers in a…

  15. Solving Our Algebra Problem: Getting All Students through Algebra I to Improve Graduation Rates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schachter, Ron

    2013-01-01

    graduation as well as admission to most colleges. But taking algebra also can turn into a pathway for failure, from which some students never recover. In 2010, a national U.S. Department of Education study…

  16. Algebra Reform, Resarch, and the Classroom: A Reaction to a Research Base Supporting Long Term Algebra Reform.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burrill, Gail

    This paper is a reaction to a plenary address, "A Research Base Supporting Long Term Algebra Reform?" by James Kaput (SE 057 182). Three dimensions of algebra reform identified by Kaput (breadth, integration, and pedagogy) are discussed and contrasted with the draft version of the Algebra Document from the National Council of Teachers of…

  17. Algebra for All: The Effect of Algebra Coursework and Classroom Peer Academic Composition on Low-Achieving Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nomi, Takako; Raudenbush, Stephen W.

    2014-01-01

    Algebra is often considered as a gateway for later achievement. A recent report by the Mathematics Advisory Panel (2008) underscores the importance of improving algebra learning in secondary school. Today, a growing number of states and districts require algebra for all students in ninth grade or earlier. Chicago is at the forefront of this…

  18. Regular Gleason Measures and Generalized Effect Algebras

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dvurečenskij, Anatolij; Janda, Jiří

    2015-12-01

    We study measures, finitely additive measures, regular measures, and σ-additive measures that can attain even infinite values on the quantum logic of a Hilbert space. We show when particular classes of non-negative measures can be studied in the frame of generalized effect algebras.

  19. A Photographic Assignment for Abstract Algebra

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warrington, Gregory S.

    2009-01-01

    We describe a simple photographic assignment appropriate for an abstract algebra (or other) course. Students take digital pictures around campus of various examples of symmetry. They then classify these pictures according to which of the 17 plane symmetry groups they belong. (Contains 2 figures.)

  20. Using Group Explorer in Teaching Abstract Algebra

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schubert, Claus; Gfeller, Mary; Donohue, Christopher

    2013-01-01

    This study explores the use of Group Explorer in an undergraduate mathematics course in abstract algebra. The visual nature of Group Explorer in representing concepts in group theory is an attractive incentive to use this software in the classroom. However, little is known about students' perceptions on this technology in learning concepts in…

  1. I Teach Economics, Not Algebra and Calculus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hey, John D.

    2005-01-01

    Most people learn to drive without knowing how the engine works. In a similar vein, the author believes that students can learn economics without knowing the algebra and calculus underlying the results. If instructors follow the philosophy of other economics courses in using graphs to illustrate the results, and draw the graphs accurately, then…

  2. Generalizing: The Core of Algebraic Thinking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kinach, Barbara M.

    2014-01-01

    Generalizing--along with conjecturing, representing, justifying, and refuting--are forms of mathematical reasoning important in all branches of mathematics (Lannin, Ellis, and Elliott 2011). Increasingly, however, generalizing is recognized as the essence of thinking in algebra (Mason, Graham, and Johnston-Wilder 2010; Kaput, Carraher, and Blanton…

  3. Hungry for Early Spatial and Algebraic Reasoning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cross, Dionne I.; Adefope, Olufunke; Lee, Mi Yeon; Perez, Arnulfo

    2012-01-01

    Tasks that develop spatial and algebraic reasoning are crucial for learning and applying advanced mathematical ideas. In this article, the authors describe how two early childhood teachers used stories as the basis for a unit that supports spatial reasoning in kindergartners and first graders. Having mathematical experiences that go beyond…

  4. Journal Writing: Enlivening Elementary Linear Algebra.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meel, David E.

    1999-01-01

    Examines the various issues surrounding the implementation of journal writing in an undergraduate linear algebra course. Identifies the benefits of incorporating journal writing into an undergraduate mathematics course, which are supported with students' comments from their journals and their reflections on the process. Contains 14 references.…

  5. The geometric semantics of algebraic quantum mechanics.

    PubMed

    Cruz Morales, John Alexander; Zilber, Boris

    2015-08-06

    In this paper, we will present an ongoing project that aims to use model theory as a suitable mathematical setting for studying the formalism of quantum mechanics. We argue that this approach provides a geometric semantics for such a formalism by means of establishing a (non-commutative) duality between certain algebraic and geometric objects.

  6. An Evaluation of Saxon's Algebra Test.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Dale M.; Smith, Blaine

    1987-01-01

    John Saxon's incremental development model has been proclaimed as a superior teaching strategy for mathematics. This study evaluated the Saxon approach and textbook using 276 Algebra I students in experimental and control groups. The groups were compared in cognitive and affective areas. Results are presented. (Author/MT)

  7. Programed Instruction in Elementary Algebra: An Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lial, Margaret L.

    1970-01-01

    Report of an experiment which investigated the use of a programed elementary algebra text as a teaching method. The method was evaluated on the basis of student evaluation of the course and the percentage of students achieving a grade of C or better. Results indicated that the use of programed texts was superior to the traditional approach using…

  8. Private quantum subsystems and quasiorthogonal operator algebras

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levick, Jeremy; Jochym-O'Connor, Tomas; Kribs, David W.; Laflamme, Raymond; Pereira, Rajesh

    2016-03-01

    We generalize a recently discovered example of a private quantum subsystem to find private subsystems for Abelian subgroups of the n-qubit Pauli group, which exist in the absence of private subspaces. In doing so, we also connect these quantum privacy investigations with the theory of quasiorthogonal operator algebras through the use of tools from group theory and operator theory.

  9. Pre-Algebra Groups. Concepts & Applications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montgomery County Public Schools, Rockville, MD.

    Discussion material and exercises related to pre-algebra groups are provided in this five chapter manual. Chapter 1 (mappings) focuses on restricted domains, order of operations (parentheses and exponents), rules of assignment, and computer extensions. Chapter 2 considers finite number systems, including binary operations, clock arithmetic,…

  10. Parallel Algebraic Multigrids for Structural mechanics

    SciTech Connect

    Brezina, M; Tong, C; Becker, R

    2004-05-11

    This paper presents the results of a comparison of three parallel algebraic multigrid (AMG) preconditioners for structural mechanics applications. In particular, they are interested in investigating both the scalability and robustness of the preconditioners. Numerical results are given for a range of structural mechanics problems with various degrees of difficulty.

  11. Thinking Algebraically across the Elementary School Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soares, June; Blanton, Maria L.; Kaput, James J.

    2006-01-01

    With testing and accountability on everyone's mind, teachers are looking for creative ways to teach "all" subjects. Literacy is on the top of the list for testing, so it seems to get top priority. But how can teachers make sure that mathematics, especially a crucial area such as algebraic thinking, is a priority as well? Integrating subject matter…

  12. Using Technology to Balance Algebraic Explorations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kurz, Terri L.

    2013-01-01

    In 2000, the "National Council of Teachers of Mathematics" recommended that Algebra Standards, "instructional programs from prekindergarten through grade 12 should enable all students to use mathematical models to represent and understand quantitative relationships." In this article, the authors suggest the "Balance"…

  13. Noise limitations in optical linear algebra processors.

    PubMed

    Batsell, S G; Jong, T L; Walkup, J F; Krile, T F

    1990-05-10

    A general statistical noise model is presented for optical linear algebra processors. A statistical analysis which includes device noise, the multiplication process, and the addition operation is undertaken. We focus on those processes which are architecturally independent. Finally, experimental results which verify the analytical predictions are also presented.

  14. Lie algebras and linear differential equations.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brockett, R. W.; Rahimi, A.

    1972-01-01

    Certain symmetry properties possessed by the solutions of linear differential equations are examined. For this purpose, some basic ideas from the theory of finite dimensional linear systems are used together with the work of Wei and Norman on the use of Lie algebraic methods in differential equation theory.

  15. Constructive Learning in Undergraduate Linear Algebra

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chandler, Farrah Jackson; Taylor, Dewey T.

    2008-01-01

    In this article we describe a project that we used in our undergraduate linear algebra courses to help our students successfully master fundamental concepts and definitions and generate interest in the course. We describe our philosophy and discuss the projects overall success.

  16. Stability of Linear Equations--Algebraic Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cherif, Chokri; Goldstein, Avraham; Prado, Lucio M. G.

    2012-01-01

    This article could be of interest to teachers of applied mathematics as well as to people who are interested in applications of linear algebra. We give a comprehensive study of linear systems from an application point of view. Specifically, we give an overview of linear systems and problems that can occur with the computed solution when the…

  17. On a Equation in Finite Algebraically Structures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valcan, Dumitru

    2013-01-01

    Solving equations in finite algebraically structures (semigroups with identity, groups, rings or fields) many times is not easy. Even the professionals can have trouble in such cases. Therefore, in this paper we proposed to solve in the various finite groups or fields, a binomial equation of the form (1). We specify that this equation has been…

  18. Fundamental Theorems of Algebra for the Perplexes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poodiak, Robert; LeClair, Kevin

    2009-01-01

    The fundamental theorem of algebra for the complex numbers states that a polynomial of degree n has n roots, counting multiplicity. This paper explores the "perplex number system" (also called the "hyperbolic number system" and the "spacetime number system") In this system (which has extra roots of +1 besides the usual [plus or minus]1 of the…

  19. Using geometric algebra to study optical aberrations

    SciTech Connect

    Hanlon, J.; Ziock, H.

    1997-05-01

    This paper uses Geometric Algebra (GA) to study vector aberrations in optical systems with square and round pupils. GA is a new way to produce the classical optical aberration spot diagrams on the Gaussian image plane and surfaces near the Gaussian image plane. Spot diagrams of the third, fifth and seventh order aberrations for square and round pupils are developed to illustrate the theory.

  20. A Microcomputer Lab for Algebra & Calculus.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Avery, Chris; And Others

    An overview is provided of De Anza College's use of computerized instruction in its mathematics courses. After reviewing the ways in which computer technology is changing math instruction, the paper looks at the use of computers in several course sequences. The instructional model for the algebra sequence is based on a large group format of…

  1. A Linear Algebra Measure of Cluster Quality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mather, Laura A.

    2000-01-01

    Discussion of models for information retrieval focuses on an application of linear algebra to text clustering, namely, a metric for measuring cluster quality based on the theory that cluster quality is proportional to the number of terms that are disjoint across the clusters. Explains term-document matrices and clustering algorithms. (Author/LRW)

  2. Learning Activity Package, Algebra-Trigonometry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holland, Bill

    A series of ten teacher-prepared Learning Activity Packages (LAPs) in advanced algebra and trigonometry, the units cover logic; absolute value, inequalities, exponents, and complex numbers; functions; higher degree equations and the derivative; the trigonometric function; graphs and applications of the trigonometric functions; sequences and…

  3. Baxter Operator and Archimedean Hecke Algebra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerasimov, A.; Lebedev, D.; Oblezin, S.

    2008-12-01

    In this paper we introduce Baxter integral {mathcal{Q}} -operators for finite-dimensional Lie algebras {mathfrak{gl}_{ell+1}} and {mathfrak{so}_{2ell+1}} . Whittaker functions corresponding to these algebras are eigenfunctions of the {mathcal{Q}}-operators with the eigenvalues expressed in terms of Gamma-functions. The appearance of the Gamma-functions is one of the manifestations of an interesting connection between Mellin-Barnes and Givental integral representations of Whittaker functions, which are in a sense dual to each other. We define a dual Baxter operator and derive a family of mixed Mellin-Barnes-Givental integral representations. Givental and Mellin-Barnes integral representations are used to provide a short proof of the Friedberg-Bump and Bump conjectures for G = GL( ℓ + 1) proved earlier by Stade. We also identify eigenvalues of the Baxter {mathcal{Q}}-operator acting on Whittaker functions with local Archimedean L-factors. The Baxter {mathcal{Q}}-operator introduced in this paper is then described as a particular realization of the explicitly defined universal Baxter operator in the spherical Hecke algebra {mathcal {H}(G(mathbb{R}), K)} , K being a maximal compact subgroup of G. Finally we stress an analogy between {mathcal{Q}}-operators and certain elements of the non-Archimedean Hecke algebra {mathcal {H}(G(mathbb{Q}_p),G(mathbb{Z}_p))}.

  4. Modern Geometric Algebra: A (Very Incomplete!) Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suzuki, Jeff

    2009-01-01

    Geometric algebra is based on two simple ideas. First, the area of a rectangle is equal to the product of the lengths of its sides. Second, if a figure is broken apart into several pieces, the sum of the areas of the pieces equals the area of the original figure. Remarkably, these two ideas provide an elegant way to introduce, connect, and…

  5. Titration Calculations with Computer Algebra Software

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lachance, Russ; Biaglow, Andrew

    2012-01-01

    This article examines the symbolic algebraic solution of the titration equations for a diprotic acid, as obtained using "Mathematica," "Maple," and "Mathcad." The equilibrium and conservation equations are solved symbolically by the programs to eliminate the approximations that normally would be performed by the student. Of the three programs,…

  6. Some Unexpected Results Using Computer Algebra Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alonso, Felix; Garcia, Alfonsa; Garcia, Francisco; Hoya, Sara; Rodriguez, Gerardo; de la Villa, Agustin

    2001-01-01

    Shows how teachers can often use unexpected outputs from Computer Algebra Systems (CAS) to reinforce concepts and to show students the importance of thinking about how they use the software and reflecting on their results. Presents different examples where DERIVE, MAPLE, or Mathematica does not work as expected and suggests how to use them as a…

  7. Connecting Functions in Geometry and Algebra

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steketee, Scott; Scher, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    One goal of a mathematics education is that students make significant connections among different branches of mathematics. Connections--such as those between arithmetic and algebra, between two-dimensional and three-dimensional geometry, between compass-and-straight-edge constructions and transformations, and between calculus and analytic…

  8. Computer Algebra, Instrumentation and the Anthropological Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Monaghan, John

    2007-01-01

    This article considers research and scholarship on the use of computer algebra in mathematics education following the instrumentation and the anthropological approaches. It outlines what these approaches are, positions them with regard to other approaches, examines tensions between the two approaches and makes suggestions for how work in this…

  9. A Linear Algebraic Approach to Teaching Interpolation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tassa, Tamir

    2007-01-01

    A novel approach for teaching interpolation in the introductory course in numerical analysis is presented. The interpolation problem is viewed as a problem in linear algebra, whence the various forms of interpolating polynomial are seen as different choices of a basis to the subspace of polynomials of the corresponding degree. This approach…

  10. Digital Maps, Matrices and Computer Algebra

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knight, D. G.

    2005-01-01

    The way in which computer algebra systems, such as Maple, have made the study of complex problems accessible to undergraduate mathematicians with modest computational skills is illustrated by some large matrix calculations, which arise from representing the Earth's surface by digital elevation models. Such problems are often considered to lie in…

  11. Modules as Learning Tools in Linear Algebra

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooley, Laurel; Vidakovic, Draga; Martin, William O.; Dexter, Scott; Suzuki, Jeff; Loch, Sergio

    2014-01-01

    This paper reports on the experience of STEM and mathematics faculty at four different institutions working collaboratively to integrate learning theory with curriculum development in a core undergraduate linear algebra context. The faculty formed a Professional Learning Community (PLC) with a focus on learning theories in mathematics and…

  12. Invariant differential operators for non-compact Lie algebras parabolically related to conformal Lie algebras

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dobrev, V. K.

    2013-02-01

    In the present paper we continue the project of systematic construction of invariant differential operators for non-compact semisimple Lie groups. Our starting points is the class of algebras, which we call 'conformal Lie algebras' (CLA), which have very similar properties to the conformal algebras of Minkowski space-time, though our aim is to go beyond this class in a natural way. For this we introduce the new notion of parabolic relation between two non-compact semisimple Lie algebras G and G ' that have the same complexification and possess maximal parabolic subalgebras with the same complexification. Thus, we consider the exceptional algebra E 7(7) which is parabolically related to the CLA E 7(-25) , the parabolic subalgebras including E 6(6) and E 6(-26). Other interesting examples are the orthogonal algebras so(p, q) all of which are parabolically related to the conformal algebra so( n, 2) with p + q = n + 2, the parabolic subalgebras including the Lorentz subalgebra so( n - 1, 1) and its analogs so( p - 1, q - 1). We consider also E6(6) and E6(2) which are parabolically related to the hermitian symmetric case E6(-14) , the parabolic subalgebras including real forms of sl(6). We also give a formula for the number of representations in the main multiplets valid for CLAs and all algebras that are parabolically related to them. In all considered cases we give the main multiplets of indecomposable elementary representations including the necessary data for all relevant invariant differential operators. In the case of so( p, q) we give also the reduced multiplets. We should stress that the multiplets are given in the most economic way in pairs of shadow fields. Furthermore we should stress that the classification of all invariant differential operators includes as special cases all possible conservation laws and conserved currents, unitary or not.

  13. Unified algebraic method to non-Hermitian systems with Lie algebraic linear structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Hong-Biao; Jiang, Guang-Yuan; Wang, Gang-Cheng

    2015-07-01

    We suggest a generic algebraic method to solve non-Hermitian Hamiltonian systems with Lie algebraic linear structure. Such method can not only unify the non-Hermitian Hamiltonian and the Hermitian Hamiltonian with the same structure but also keep self-consistent between similarity transformation and unitary transformation. To clearly reveal the correctness and physical meaning of such algebraic method, we illustrate our method with two different types of non-Hermitian Hamiltonians: the non-Hermitian Hamiltonian with Heisenberg algebraic linear structure and the non-Hermitian Hamiltonian with su(1, 1) algebraic linear structure. We obtain energy eigenvalues and the corresponding eigenstates of non-Hermitian forced harmonic oscillator with Heisenberg algebra structure via a proper similarity transformation. We also calculate the eigen-problems of general non-Hermitian Hamiltonian with su(1, 1) structure in terms of the similarity transformation. As an application, we focus on studying the non-Hermitian single-mode squeezed and coherent harmonic oscillator system and find that such similarity transformation associated with this model is in fact gauge-like transformation for simple harmonic oscillator.

  14. The Symmetric Tensor Lichnerowicz Algebra and a Novel Associative Fourier-Jacobi Algebra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hallowell, Karl; Waldron, Andrew

    2007-09-01

    Lichnerowicz's algebra of differential geometric operators acting on symmetric tensors can be obtained from generalized geodesic motion of an observer carrying a complex tangent vector. This relation is based upon quantizing the classical evolution equations, and identifying wavefunctions with sections of the symmetric tensor bundle and Noether charges with geometric operators. In general curved spaces these operators obey a deformation of the Fourier-Jacobi Lie algebra of sp(2,R). These results have already been generalized by the authors to arbitrary tensor and spinor bundles using supersymmetric quantum mechanical models and have also been applied to the theory of higher spin particles. These Proceedings review these results in their simplest, symmetric tensor setting. New results on a novel and extremely useful reformulation of the rank 2 deformation of the Fourier-Jacobi Lie algebra in terms of an associative algebra are also presented. This new algebra! was originally motivated by studies of operator orderings in enveloping algebras. It provides a new method that is superior in many respects to common techniques such as Weyl or normal ordering.

  15. Current algebra formulation of M-theory based on E11 Kac-Moody algebra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sugawara, Hirotaka

    2017-02-01

    Quantum M-theory is formulated using the current algebra technique. The current algebra is based on a Kac-Moody algebra rather than usual finite dimensional Lie algebra. Specifically, I study the E11 Kac-Moody algebra that was shown recently1‑5 to contain all the ingredients of M-theory. Both the internal symmetry and the external Lorentz symmetry can be realized inside E11, so that, by constructing the current algebra of E11, I obtain both internal gauge theory and gravity theory. The energy-momentum tensor is constructed as the bilinear form of the currents, yielding a system of quantum equations of motion of the currents/fields. Supersymmetry is incorporated in a natural way. The so-called “field-current identity” is built in and, for example, the gravitino field is itself a conserved supercurrent. One unanticipated outcome is that the quantum gravity equation is not identical to the one obtained from the Einstein-Hilbert action.

  16. Interactive algebraic grid-generation technique

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, R. E.; Wiese, M. R.

    1986-01-01

    An algebraic grid generation technique and use of an associated interactive computer program are described. The technique, called the two boundary technique, is based on Hermite cubic interpolation between two fixed, nonintersecting boundaries. The boundaries are referred to as the bottom and top, and they are defined by two ordered sets of points. Left and right side boundaries which intersect the bottom and top boundaries may also be specified by two ordered sets of points. when side boundaries are specified, linear blending functions are used to conform interior interpolation to the side boundaries. Spacing between physical grid coordinates is determined as a function of boundary data and uniformly space computational coordinates. Control functions relating computational coordinates to parametric intermediate variables that affect the distance between grid points are embedded in the interpolation formulas. A versatile control function technique with smooth-cubic-spline functions is presented. The technique works best in an interactive graphics environment where computational displays and user responses are quickly exchanged. An interactive computer program based on the technique and called TBGG (two boundary grid generation) is also described.

  17. Relation of deformed nonlinear algebras with linear ones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nowicki, A.; Tkachuk, V. M.

    2014-01-01

    The relation between nonlinear algebras and linear ones is established. For a one-dimensional nonlinear deformed Heisenberg algebra with two operators we find the function of deformation for which this nonlinear algebra can be transformed to a linear one with three operators. We also establish the relation between the Lie algebra of total angular momentum and corresponding nonlinear one. This relation gives a possibility to simplify and to solve the eigenvalue problem for the Hamiltonian in a nonlinear case using the reduction of this problem to the case of linear algebra. It is demonstrated in an example of a harmonic oscillator.

  18. Differential geometry on Hopf algebras and quantum groups

    SciTech Connect

    Watts, Paul

    1994-12-15

    The differential geometry on a Hopf algebra is constructed, by using the basic axioms of Hopf algebras and noncommutative differential geometry. The space of generalized derivations on a Hopf algebra of functions is presented via the smash product, and used to define and discuss quantum Lie algebras and their properties. The Cartan calculus of the exterior derivative, Lie derivative, and inner derivation is found for both the universal and general differential calculi of an arbitrary Hopf algebra, and, by restricting to the quasitriangular case and using the numerical R-matrix formalism, the aforementioned structures for quantum groups are determined.

  19. Weak Hom-Hopf algebras and their (co)representations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xiaohui; Wang, Shuanhong

    2015-08-01

    In this paper we will introduce the notion of a weak Hom-Hopf algebra, generalizing both weak Hopf algebras and Hom-Hopf algebras. Then we study the category Rep(H) of Hom-modules with bijective Hom-structure maps over a weak Hom-Hopf algebra H and show that the tensor functor of a (weak) Hom-bialgebra is actually a (weak) bimonad on a Hom-type category. At last, we prove that if H is a quasitriangular weak Hom-bialgebra (resp. ribbon weak Hom-Hopf algebra), then Rep(H) is a braided monoidal category (resp. ribbon category).

  20. A Topos for Algebraic Quantum Theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heunen, Chris; Landsman, Nicolaas P.; Spitters, Bas

    2009-10-01

    The aim of this paper is to relate algebraic quantum mechanics to topos theory, so as to construct new foundations for quantum logic and quantum spaces. Motivated by Bohr’s idea that the empirical content of quantum physics is accessible only through classical physics, we show how a noncommutative C*-algebra of observables A induces a topos {mathcal{T}(A)} in which the amalgamation of all of its commutative subalgebras comprises a single commutative C*-algebra {A} . According to the constructive Gelfand duality theorem of Banaschewski and Mulvey, the latter has an internal spectrum {\\underline{Σ}(A)} in {mathcal{T}(A)} , which in our approach plays the role of the quantum phase space of the system. Thus we associate a locale (which is the topos-theoretical notion of a space and which intrinsically carries the intuitionistic logical structure of a Heyting algebra) to a C*-algebra (which is the noncommutative notion of a space). In this setting, states on A become probability measures (more precisely, valuations) on {\\underline{Σ}} , and self-adjoint elements of A define continuous functions (more precisely, locale maps) from {\\underline{Σ}} to Scott’s interval domain. Noting that open subsets of {\\underline{Σ}(A)} correspond to propositions about the system, the pairing map that assigns a (generalized) truth value to a state and a proposition assumes an extremely simple categorical form. Formulated in this way, the quantum theory defined by A is essentially turned into a classical theory, internal to the topos {mathcal{T}(A)}. These results were inspired by the topos-theoretic approach to quantum physics proposed by Butterfield and Isham, as recently generalized by Döring and Isham.

  1. The automorphisms of Novikov algebras in low dimensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bai, Chengming; Meng, Daoji

    2003-07-01

    Novikov algebras were introduced in connection with Poisson brackets of hydrodynamic type and Hamiltonian operators in the formal variational calculus. They also correspond to a class of vertex algebras. An automorphism of a Novikov algebra is a linear isomorphism varphi satisfying varphi(xy) = varphi(x)varphi(y) which keeps the algebraic structure. The set of automorphisms of a Novikov algebra is a Lie group whose Lie algebra is just the Novikov algebra's derivation algebra. The theory of automorphisms plays an important role in the study of Novikov algebras. In this paper, we study the automorphisms of Novikov algebras. We get some results on their properties and classification in low dimensions. These results are fundamental in a certain sense, and they will serve as a guide for further development. Moreover, we apply these results to classify Gel'fand-Dorfman bialgebras and Novikov-Poisson algebras. These results also can be used to study certain phase spaces and geometric classical r-matrices.

  2. Metric Lie 3-algebras in Bagger-Lambert theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Medeiros, Paul; Figueroa-O'Farrill, José; Méndez-Escobar, Elena

    2008-08-01

    We recast physical properties of the Bagger-Lambert theory, such as shift-symmetry and decoupling of ghosts, the absence of scale and parity invariance, in Lie 3-algebraic terms, thus motivating the study of metric Lie 3-algebras and their Lie algebras of derivations. We prove a structure theorem for metric Lie 3-algebras in arbitrary signature showing that they can be constructed out of the simple and one-dimensional Lie 3-algebras iterating two constructions: orthogonal direct sum and a new construction called a double extension, by analogy with the similar construction for Lie algebras. We classify metric Lie 3-algebras of signature (2, p) and study their Lie algebras of derivations, including those which preserve the conformal class of the inner product. We revisit the 3-algebraic criteria spelt out at the start of the paper and select those algebras with signature (2, p) which satisfy them, as well as indicate the construction of more general metric Lie 3-algebras satisfying the ghost-decoupling criterion.

  3. Generalized conformal realizations of Kac-Moody algebras

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palmkvist, Jakob

    2009-01-01

    We present a construction which associates an infinite sequence of Kac-Moody algebras, labeled by a positive integer n, to one single Jordan algebra. For n =1, this reduces to the well known Kantor-Koecher-Tits construction. Our generalization utilizes a new relation between different generalized Jordan triple systems, together with their known connections to Jordan and Lie algebras. Applied to the Jordan algebra of Hermitian 3×3 matrices over the division algebras R, C, H, O, the construction gives the exceptional Lie algebras f4, e6, e7, e8 for n =2. Moreover, we obtain their infinite-dimensional extensions for n ≥3. In the case of 2×2 matrices, the resulting Lie algebras are of the form so(p +n,q+n) and the concomitant nonlinear realization generalizes the conformal transformations in a spacetime of signature (p,q).

  4. Algebraic model checking for Boolean gene regulatory networks.

    PubMed

    Tran, Quoc-Nam

    2011-01-01

    We present a computational method in which modular and Groebner bases (GB) computation in Boolean rings are used for solving problems in Boolean gene regulatory networks (BN). In contrast to other known algebraic approaches, the degree of intermediate polynomials during the calculation of Groebner bases using our method will never grow resulting in a significant improvement in running time and memory space consumption. We also show how calculation in temporal logic for model checking can be done by means of our direct and efficient Groebner basis computation in Boolean rings. We present our experimental results in finding attractors and control strategies of Boolean networks to illustrate our theoretical arguments. The results are promising. Our algebraic approach is more efficient than the state-of-the-art model checker NuSMV on BNs. More importantly, our approach finds all solutions for the BN problems.

  5. Maximizing algebraic connectivity in air transportation networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Peng

    In air transportation networks the robustness of a network regarding node and link failures is a key factor for its design. An experiment based on the real air transportation network is performed to show that the algebraic connectivity is a good measure for network robustness. Three optimization problems of algebraic connectivity maximization are then formulated in order to find the most robust network design under different constraints. The algebraic connectivity maximization problem with flight routes addition or deletion is first formulated. Three methods to optimize and analyze the network algebraic connectivity are proposed. The Modified Greedy Perturbation Algorithm (MGP) provides a sub-optimal solution in a fast iterative manner. The Weighted Tabu Search (WTS) is designed to offer a near optimal solution with longer running time. The relaxed semi-definite programming (SDP) is used to set a performance upper bound and three rounding techniques are discussed to find the feasible solution. The simulation results present the trade-off among the three methods. The case study on two air transportation networks of Virgin America and Southwest Airlines show that the developed methods can be applied in real world large scale networks. The algebraic connectivity maximization problem is extended by adding the leg number constraint, which considers the traveler's tolerance for the total connecting stops. The Binary Semi-Definite Programming (BSDP) with cutting plane method provides the optimal solution. The tabu search and 2-opt search heuristics can find the optimal solution in small scale networks and the near optimal solution in large scale networks. The third algebraic connectivity maximization problem with operating cost constraint is formulated. When the total operating cost budget is given, the number of the edges to be added is not fixed. Each edge weight needs to be calculated instead of being pre-determined. It is illustrated that the edge addition and the

  6. A double commutant theorem for Murray-von Neumann algebras.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhe

    2012-05-15

    Murray-von Neumann algebras are algebras of operators affiliated with finite von Neumann algebras. In this article, we study commutativity and affiliation of self-adjoint operators (possibly unbounded). We show that a maximal abelian self-adjoint subalgebra A of the Murray-von Neumann algebra A(f)(R) associated with a finite von Neumann algebra R is the Murray-von Neumann algebra A(f)(A(0)), where A(0) is a maximal abelian self-adjoint subalgebra of R and, in addition, A(0) is A Π R. We also prove that the Murray-von Neumann algebra A(f)(C) with C the center of R is the center of the Murray-von Neumann algebra A(f)(R). Von Neumann's celebrated double commutant theorem characterizes von Neumann algebras R as those for which R'' = R, where R', the commutant of R, is the set of bounded operators on the Hilbert space that commute with all operators in R. At the end of this article, we present a double commutant theorem for Murray-von Neumann algebras.

  7. Dynamics of gelling liquids: algebraic relaxation.

    PubMed

    Srivastava, Sunita; Kumar, C N; Tankeshwar, K

    2009-08-19

    The sol-gel system which is known, experimentally, to exhibit a power law decay of stress autocorrelation function has been studied theoretically. A second-order nonlinear differential equation obtained from Mori's integro-differential equation is derived which provides the algebraic decay of a time correlation function. Involved parameters in the expression obtained are related to exact properties of the corresponding correlation function. The algebraic model has been applied to Lennard-Jones and sol-gel systems. The model shows the behaviour of viscosity as has been observed in computer simulation and theoretical studies. The expression obtained for the viscosity predicts a logarithmic divergence at a critical value of the parameter in agreement with the prediction of other theories.

  8. Field Theoretic Investigations in Current Algebra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jackiw, Roman

    The following sections are included: * Introduction * Canonical and Space-Time Constraints in Current Algebra * Canonical Theory of Currents * Space-Time Constraints on Commutators * Space-Time Constraints on Green's Functions * Space-Time Constraints on Ward Identities * Schwinger Terms * Discussion * The Bjorken-Johnson-Low Limit * The π 0 → 2γ Problem * Preliminaries * Sutherland-Veltman Theorem * Model Calculation * Anomalous Ward Identity * Anomalous Commutators * Anomalous Divergence of Axial Current * Discussion * Electroproduction Sum Rules * Preliminaries * Derivation of Sum Rules, Naive Method * Derivation of Sum Rules, Dispersive Method * Model Calculation * Anomalous Commutators * Discussion * Discussion of Anomalies in Current Algebra * Miscellaneous Anomalies * Non-Perturbative Arguments for Anomalies * Models without Anomalies * Discussion * Approximate Scale Symmetry * Introduction * Canonical Theory of Scale and Conformal Transformations * Ward Identities and Trace Identities * False Theorems * True Theorems * EXERCISES * SOLUTIONS

  9. On an algebra of pseudodifferential operators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zuĭ Bang, Kha

    1995-08-01

    In this paper we introduce an algebra of pseudodifferential operators with symbols of finite smoothness, acting invariantly and continuously in an Orlicz space of functions of exponential type. The concept of point spectral radius \\displaystyle \\lim_{m\\to\\infty}\\Vert A^m(D)f\\Vert _{\\Phi }^{1/m}is introduced and its existence is proved. Here f is an arbitrary function in this space, A(D) is an arbitrary element of the algebra, and \\Vert\\cdot\\Vert _{\\Phi } is the Luxemburg norm. This point spectral radius is evaluated as the supremum of the modulus of A(D) on the support of the Fourier transform of f. We evaluate the spectral radius of a pseudodifferential operator. As applications, certain non-convex and convex cases of the well-known Paley-Wiener theorem are obtained. We also consider the solvability of pseudodifferential equations.

  10. An algebraic approach to the Hubbard model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Leeuw, Marius; Regelskis, Vidas

    2016-02-01

    We study the algebraic structure of an integrable Hubbard-Shastry type lattice model associated with the centrally extended su (2 | 2) superalgebra. This superalgebra underlies Beisert's AdS/CFT worldsheet R-matrix and Shastry's R-matrix. The considered model specializes to the one-dimensional Hubbard model in a certain limit. We demonstrate that Yangian symmetries of the R-matrix specialize to the Yangian symmetry of the Hubbard model found by Korepin and Uglov. Moreover, we show that the Hubbard model Hamiltonian has an algebraic interpretation as the so-called secret symmetry. We also discuss Yangian symmetries of the A and B models introduced by Frolov and Quinn.

  11. Using Group Explorer in teaching abstract algebra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schubert, Claus; Gfeller, Mary; Donohue, Christopher

    2013-04-01

    This study explores the use of Group Explorer in an undergraduate mathematics course in abstract algebra. The visual nature of Group Explorer in representing concepts in group theory is an attractive incentive to use this software in the classroom. However, little is known about students' perceptions on this technology in learning concepts in abstract algebra. A total of 26 participants in an undergraduate course studying group theory were surveyed regarding their experiences using Group Explorer. Findings indicate that all participants believed that the software was beneficial to their learning and described their attitudes regarding the software in terms of using the technology and its helpfulness in learning concepts. A multiple regression analysis reveals that representational fluency of concepts with the software correlated significantly with participants' understanding of group concepts yet, participants' attitudes about Group Explorer and technology in general were not significant factors.

  12. Selecting reusable components using algebraic specifications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eichmann, David A.

    1992-01-01

    A significant hurdle confronts the software reuser attempting to select candidate components from a software repository - discriminating between those components without resorting to inspection of the implementation(s). We outline a mixed classification/axiomatic approach to this problem based upon our lattice-based faceted classification technique and Guttag and Horning's algebraic specification techniques. This approach selects candidates by natural language-derived classification, by their interfaces, using signatures, and by their behavior, using axioms. We briefly outline our problem domain and related work. Lattice-based faceted classifications are described; the reader is referred to surveys of the extensive literature for algebraic specification techniques. Behavioral support for reuse queries is presented, followed by the conclusions.

  13. Situating the Debate on "Geometrical Algebra" within the Framework of Premodern Algebra.

    PubMed

    Sialaros, Michalis; Christianidis, Jean

    2016-06-01

    Argument The aim of this paper is to employ the newly contextualized historiographical category of "premodern algebra" in order to revisit the arguably most controversial topic of the last decades in the field of Greek mathematics, namely the debate on "geometrical algebra." Within this framework, we shift focus from the discrepancy among the views expressed in the debate to some of the historiographical assumptions and methodological approaches that the opposing sides shared. Moreover, by using a series of propositions related to Elem. II.5 as a case study, we discuss Euclid's geometrical proofs, the so-called "semi-algebraic" alternative demonstrations attributed to Heron of Alexandria, as well as the solutions given by Diophantus, al-Sulamī, and al-Khwārizmī to the corresponding numerical problem. This comparative analysis offers a new reading of Heron's practice, highlights the significance of contextualizing "premodern algebra," and indicates that the origins of algebraic reasoning should be sought in the problem-solving practice, rather than in the theorem-proving tradition.

  14. Projective Connections and the Algebra of Densities

    SciTech Connect

    George, Jacob

    2008-11-18

    Projective connections first appeared in Cartan's papers in the 1920's. Since then they have resurfaced periodically in, for example, integrable systems and perhaps most recently in the context of so called projectively equivariant quantisation. We recall the notion of projective connection and describe its relation with the algebra of densities on a manifold. In particular, we construct a Laplace-type operator on functions using a Thomas projective connection and a symmetric contravariant tensor of rank 2 ('upper metric')

  15. Charge transfer in algebraic quantum field theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wright, Jill Dianne

    We discuss aspects of the algebraic structure of quantum field theory. We take the view that the superselection structure of a theory should be determinable from the vacuum representation of the observable algebra, and physical properties of the charge. Hence one determines the nature of the charge transfer operations: the automorphisms of the observable algebra corresponding to the movement of charge along space-time paths. New superselection sectors are obtained from the vacuum sector by an automorphism which is a limit of charge transfer operations along paths with an endpoint tending to spacelike infinity. Roberts has shown that for a gauge theory of the first kind, the charge transfer operations for a given charge form a certain kind of 1-cocycle over Minkowski space. The local 1-cohomology group of their equivalence classes corresponds to the superselection structure. The exact definition of the cohomology group depends on the properties of the charge. Using displaced Fock representations of free fields, we develop model field theories which illustrate this structure. The cohomological classification of displaced Fock representations has been elucidated by Araki. For more general representations, explicit determination of the cohomology group is a hard problem. Using our models, we can illustrate ways in which fields with reasonable physical properties depart fromthe abovementioned structure. In 1+1 dimensions, we use the Streater-Wilde model to illustrate explicitly the representation-dependence of the cohomology structure, and the direction-dependence of the limiting charge transfer operation. The cohomology structure may also be representation-dependent in higher-dimensional theories without strict localization of charge, for example the electromagnetic field. The algebraic structure of the electromagnetic field has many other special features, which we discuss in relation to the concept of charge transfer. We also give some indication of the modifications

  16. On Ternary Quotients of Cubic Hecke Algebras

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cabanes, Marc; Marin, Ivan

    2012-08-01

    We prove that the quotient of the group algebra of the braid group introduced by Funar (Commun Math Phys 173:513-558, 1995) collapses in characteristic distinct from 2. In characteristic 2 we define several quotients of it, which are connected to the classical Hecke and Birman-Wenzl-Murakami quotients, but which admit in addition a symmetry of order 3. We also establish conditions on the possible Markov traces factorizing through it.

  17. Aspects of coherent states of nonlinear algebras

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shreecharan, T.; Chaitanya, K. V. S. Shiv

    2010-12-01

    Various aspects of coherent states of nonlinear su(2) and su(1, 1) algebras are studied. It is shown that the nonlinear su(1, 1) Barut-Girardello and Perelomov coherent states are related by a Laplace transform. We then concentrate on the derivation and analysis of the statistical and geometrical properties of these states. The Berry's phase for the nonlinear coherent states is also derived.

  18. Boolean Operations with Prism Algebraic Patches

    PubMed Central

    Bajaj, Chandrajit; Paoluzzi, Alberto; Portuesi, Simone; Lei, Na; Zhao, Wenqi

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we discuss a symbolic-numeric algorithm for Boolean operations, closed in the algebra of curved polyhedra whose boundary is triangulated with algebraic patches (A-patches). This approach uses a linear polyhedron as a first approximation of both the arguments and the result. On each triangle of a boundary representation of such linear approximation, a piecewise cubic algebraic interpolant is built, using a C1-continuous prism algebraic patch (prism A-patch) that interpolates the three triangle vertices, with given normal vectors. The boundary representation only stores the vertices of the initial triangulation and their external vertex normals. In order to represent also flat and/or sharp local features, the corresponding normal-per-face and/or normal-per-edge may be also given, respectively. The topology is described by storing, for each curved triangle, the two triples of pointers to incident vertices and to adjacent triangles. For each triangle, a scaffolding prism is built, produced by its extreme vertices and normals, which provides a containment volume for the curved interpolating A-patch. When looking for the result of a regularized Boolean operation, the 0-set of a tri-variate polynomial within each such prism is generated, and intersected with the analogous 0-sets of the other curved polyhedron, when two prisms have non-empty intersection. The intersection curves of the boundaries are traced and used to decompose each boundary into the 3 standard classes of subpatches, denoted in, out and on. While tracing the intersection curves, the locally refined triangulation of intersecting patches is produced, and added to the boundary representation. PMID:21516262

  19. CULA: hybrid GPU accelerated linear algebra routines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Humphrey, John R.; Price, Daniel K.; Spagnoli, Kyle E.; Paolini, Aaron L.; Kelmelis, Eric J.

    2010-04-01

    The modern graphics processing unit (GPU) found in many standard personal computers is a highly parallel math processor capable of nearly 1 TFLOPS peak throughput at a cost similar to a high-end CPU and an excellent FLOPS/watt ratio. High-level linear algebra operations are computationally intense, often requiring O(N3) operations and would seem a natural fit for the processing power of the GPU. Our work is on CULA, a GPU accelerated implementation of linear algebra routines. We present results from factorizations such as LU decomposition, singular value decomposition and QR decomposition along with applications like system solution and least squares. The GPU execution model featured by NVIDIA GPUs based on CUDA demands very strong parallelism, requiring between hundreds and thousands of simultaneous operations to achieve high performance. Some constructs from linear algebra map extremely well to the GPU and others map poorly. CPUs, on the other hand, do well at smaller order parallelism and perform acceptably during low-parallelism code segments. Our work addresses this via hybrid a processing model, in which the CPU and GPU work simultaneously to produce results. In many cases, this is accomplished by allowing each platform to do the work it performs most naturally.

  20. Translating cosmological special relativity into geometric algebra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horn, Martin Erik

    2012-11-01

    Geometric algebra and Clifford algebra are important tools to describe and analyze the physics of the world we live in. Although there is enormous empirical evidence that we are living in four dimensional spacetime, mathematical worlds of higher dimensions can be used to present the physical laws of our world in an aesthetical and didactical more appealing way. In physics and mathematics education we are therefore confronted with the question how these high dimensional spaces should be taught. But as an immediate confrontation of students with high dimensional compactified spacetimes would expect too much from them at the beginning of their university studies, it seems reasonable to approach the mathematics and physics of higher dimensions step by step. The first step naturally is the step from four dimensional spacetime of special relativity to a five dimensional spacetime world. As a toy model for this artificial world cosmological special relativity, invented by Moshe Carmeli, can be used. This five dimensional non-compactified approach describes a spacetime which consists not only of one time dimension and three space dimensions. In addition velocity is regarded as a fifth dimension. This model very probably will not represent physics correctly. But it can be used to discuss and analyze the consequences of an additional dimension in a clear and simple way. Unfortunately Carmeli has formulated cosmological special relativity in standard vector notation. Therefore a translation of cosmological special relativity into the mathematical language of Grassmann and Clifford (Geometric algebra) is given and the physics of cosmological special relativity is discussed.

  1. Multifractal vector fields and stochastic Clifford algebra.

    PubMed

    Schertzer, Daniel; Tchiguirinskaia, Ioulia

    2015-12-01

    In the mid 1980s, the development of multifractal concepts and techniques was an important breakthrough for complex system analysis and simulation, in particular, in turbulence and hydrology. Multifractals indeed aimed to track and simulate the scaling singularities of the underlying equations instead of relying on numerical, scale truncated simulations or on simplified conceptual models. However, this development has been rather limited to deal with scalar fields, whereas most of the fields of interest are vector-valued or even manifold-valued. We show in this paper that the combination of stable Lévy processes with Clifford algebra is a good candidate to bridge up the present gap between theory and applications. We show that it indeed defines a convenient framework to generate multifractal vector fields, possibly multifractal manifold-valued fields, based on a few fundamental and complementary properties of Lévy processes and Clifford algebra. In particular, the vector structure of these algebra is much more tractable than the manifold structure of symmetry groups while the Lévy stability grants a given statistical universality.

  2. Multifractal vector fields and stochastic Clifford algebra

    SciTech Connect

    Schertzer, Daniel Tchiguirinskaia, Ioulia

    2015-12-15

    In the mid 1980s, the development of multifractal concepts and techniques was an important breakthrough for complex system analysis and simulation, in particular, in turbulence and hydrology. Multifractals indeed aimed to track and simulate the scaling singularities of the underlying equations instead of relying on numerical, scale truncated simulations or on simplified conceptual models. However, this development has been rather limited to deal with scalar fields, whereas most of the fields of interest are vector-valued or even manifold-valued. We show in this paper that the combination of stable Lévy processes with Clifford algebra is a good candidate to bridge up the present gap between theory and applications. We show that it indeed defines a convenient framework to generate multifractal vector fields, possibly multifractal manifold-valued fields, based on a few fundamental and complementary properties of Lévy processes and Clifford algebra. In particular, the vector structure of these algebra is much more tractable than the manifold structure of symmetry groups while the Lévy stability grants a given statistical universality.

  3. Algebraic and geometric spread in finite frames

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    King, Emily J.

    2015-08-01

    When searching for finite unit norm tight frames (FUNTFs) of M vectors in FN which yield robust representations, one is concerned with finding frames consisting of frame vectors which are in some sense as spread apart as possible. Algebraic spread and geometric spread are the two most commonly used measures of spread. A frame with optimal algebraic spread is called full spark and is such that any subcollection of N frame vectors is a basis for FN. A Grassmannian frame is a FUNTF which satisfies the Grassmannian packing problem; that is, the frame vectors are optimally geometrically spread given fixed M and N. A particular example of a Grassmannian frame is an equiangular frame, which is such that the absolute value of all inner products of distinct vectors is equal. The relationship between these two types of optimal spread is complicated. The folk knowledge for many years was that equiangular frames were full spark; however, this is now known not to hold for an infinite class of equiangular frames. The exact relationship between these types of spread will be further explored in this talk, as well as Plücker coordinates and coherence, which are measures of how much a frame misses being optimally algebraically or geometrically spread.

  4. Structured adaptive grid generation using algebraic methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yang, Jiann-Cherng; Soni, Bharat K.; Roger, R. P.; Chan, Stephen C.

    1993-01-01

    The accuracy of the numerical algorithm depends not only on the formal order of approximation but also on the distribution of grid points in the computational domain. Grid adaptation is a procedure which allows optimal grid redistribution as the solution progresses. It offers the prospect of accurate flow field simulations without the use of an excessively timely, computationally expensive, grid. Grid adaptive schemes are divided into two basic categories: differential and algebraic. The differential method is based on a variational approach where a function which contains a measure of grid smoothness, orthogonality and volume variation is minimized by using a variational principle. This approach provided a solid mathematical basis for the adaptive method, but the Euler-Lagrange equations must be solved in addition to the original governing equations. On the other hand, the algebraic method requires much less computational effort, but the grid may not be smooth. The algebraic techniques are based on devising an algorithm where the grid movement is governed by estimates of the local error in the numerical solution. This is achieved by requiring the points in the large error regions to attract other points and points in the low error region to repel other points. The development of a fast, efficient, and robust algebraic adaptive algorithm for structured flow simulation applications is presented. This development is accomplished in a three step process. The first step is to define an adaptive weighting mesh (distribution mesh) on the basis of the equidistribution law applied to the flow field solution. The second, and probably the most crucial step, is to redistribute grid points in the computational domain according to the aforementioned weighting mesh. The third and the last step is to reevaluate the flow property by an appropriate search/interpolate scheme at the new grid locations. The adaptive weighting mesh provides the information on the desired concentration

  5. Twisted vertex algebras, bicharacter construction and boson-fermion correspondences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anguelova, Iana I.

    2013-12-01

    The boson-fermion correspondences are an important phenomena on the intersection of several areas in mathematical physics: representation theory, vertex algebras and conformal field theory, integrable systems, number theory, cohomology. Two such correspondences are well known: the types A and B (and their super extensions). As a main result of this paper we present a new boson-fermion correspondence of type D-A. Further, we define a new concept of twisted vertex algebra of order N, which generalizes super vertex algebra. We develop the bicharacter construction which we use for constructing classes of examples of twisted vertex algebras, as well as for deriving formulas for the operator product expansions, analytic continuations, and normal ordered products. By using the underlying Hopf algebra structure we prove general bicharacter formulas for the vacuum expectation values for two important groups of examples. We show that the correspondences of types B, C, and D-A are isomorphisms of twisted vertex algebras.

  6. Clifford Algebras, Random Graphs, and Quantum Random Variables

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schott, René; Staples, G. Stacey

    2008-08-01

    For fixed n > 0, the space of finite graphs on n vertices is canonically associated with an abelian, nilpotent-generated subalgebra of the Clifford algebra {C}l2n,2n which is canonically isomorphic to the 2n-particle fermion algebra. Using the generators of the subalgebra, an algebraic probability space of "Clifford adjacency matrices" associated with finite graphs is defined. Each Clifford adjacency matrix is a quantum random variable whose mth moment corresponds to the number of m-cycles in the graph G. Each matrix admits a canonical "quantum decomposition" into a sum of three algebraic random variables: a = aΔ + aΥ + aΛ, where aΔ is classical while aΥ and aΛ are quantum. Moreover, within the Clifford algebra context the NP problem of cycle enumeration is reduced to matrix multiplication, requiring no more than n4 Clifford (geo-metric) multiplications within the algebra.

  7. Lie-algebraic solutions of the type IIB matrix model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chatzistavrakidis, Athanasios

    2011-11-01

    A systematic search for Lie-algebra solutions of the type IIB matrix model is performed. Our survey is based on the classification of all Lie algebras for dimensions up to five and of all nilpotent Lie algebras of dimension six. It is shown that Lie-type solutions of the equations of motion of the type IIB matrix model exist and they correspond to certain nilpotent and solvable Lie algebras. Their representation in terms of Hermitian matrices is discussed in detail. These algebras give rise to certain noncommutative spaces for which the corresponding star products are provided. Finally the issue of constructing quantized compact nilmanifolds and solvmanifolds based on the above algebras is addressed.

  8. Minimax Techniques For Optimizing Non-Linear Image Algebra Transforms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davidson, Jennifer L.

    1989-08-01

    It has been well established that the Air Force Armament Technical Laboratory (AFATL) image algebra is capable of expressing all linear transformations [7]. The embedding of the linear algebra in the image algebra makes this possible. In this paper we show a relation of the image algebra to another algebraic system called the minimax algebra. This system is used extensively in economics and operations research, but until now has not been investigated for applications to image processing. The relationship is exploited to develop new optimization methods for a class of non-linear image processing transforms. In particular, a general decomposition technique for templates in this non-linear domain is presented. Template decomposition techniques are an important tool in mapping algorithms efficiently to both sequential and massively parallel architectures.

  9. On left Hopf algebras within the framework of inhomogeneous quantum groups for particle algebras

    SciTech Connect

    Rodriguez-Romo, Suemi

    2012-10-15

    We deal with some matters needed to construct concrete left Hopf algebras for inhomogeneous quantum groups produced as noncommutative symmetries of fermionic and bosonic creation/annihilation operators. We find a map for the bidimensional fermionic case, produced as in Manin's [Quantum Groups and Non-commutative Hopf Geometry (CRM Univ. de Montreal, 1988)] seminal work, named preantipode that fulfills all the necessary requirements to be left but not right on the generators of the algebra. Due to the complexity and importance of the full task, we consider our result as an important step that will be extended in the near future.

  10. Aspects of infinite dimensional ℓ-super Galilean conformal algebra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aizawa, N.; Segar, J.

    2016-12-01

    In this work, we construct an infinite dimensional ℓ-super Galilean conformal algebra, which is a generalization of the ℓ = 1 algebra found in the literature. We give a classification of central extensions, the vector field representation, the coadjoint representation, and the operator product expansion of the infinite dimensional ℓ-super Galilean conformal algebra, keeping possible applications in physics and mathematics in mind.

  11. Spectral Metric Spaces on Extensions of C*-Algebras

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hawkins, Andrew; Zacharias, Joachim

    2017-03-01

    We construct spectral triples on C*-algebraic extensions of unital C*-algebras by stable ideals satisfying a certain Toeplitz type property using given spectral triples on the quotient and ideal. Our construction behaves well with respect to summability and produces new spectral quantum metric spaces out of given ones. Using our construction we find new spectral triples on the quantum 2- and 3-spheres giving a new perspective on these algebras in noncommutative geometry.

  12. Invariance of Conjunctions of Polynomial Equalities for Algebraic Differential Equations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-07-01

    non- linear hybrid systems by linear algebraic methods. In Radhia Cousot and Matthieu Martel, editors, SAS, volume 6337 of LNCS, pages 373–389. Springer...Tarski. A decision method for elementary algebra and geometry. Bulletin of the American Mathematical Society, 59, 1951. [36] Wolfgang Walter. Ordinary...Invariance of Conjunctions of Polynomial Equalities for Algebraic Differential Equations Khalil Ghorbal1 Andrew Sogokon2 André Platzer1 July 2014

  13. Poincare invariant algebra from instant to light-front quantization

    SciTech Connect

    Ji, Chueng-Ryong; Mitchell, Chad

    2001-10-15

    We present the Poincare algebra interpolating between instant and light-front time quantizations. The angular momentum operators satisfying SU(2) algebra are constructed in an arbitrary interpolation angle and shown to be identical to the ordinary angular momentum and Leutwyler-Stern angular momentum in the instant and light-front quantization limits, respectively. The exchange of the dynamical role between the transverse angular mometum and the boost operators is manifest in our newly constructed algebra.

  14. Quantum walks, deformed relativity and Hopf algebra symmetries.

    PubMed

    Bisio, Alessandro; D'Ariano, Giacomo Mauro; Perinotti, Paolo

    2016-05-28

    We show how the Weyl quantum walk derived from principles in D'Ariano & Perinotti (D'Ariano & Perinotti 2014Phys. Rev. A90, 062106. (doi:10.1103/PhysRevA.90.062106)), enjoying a nonlinear Lorentz symmetry of dynamics, allows one to introduce Hopf algebras for position and momentum of the emerging particle. We focus on two special models of Hopf algebras-the usual Poincaré and theκ-Poincaré algebras.

  15. Clifford algebra approach to the coincidence problem for planar lattices.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez, M A; Aragón, J L; Verde-Star, L

    2005-03-01

    The problem of coincidences of planar lattices is analyzed using Clifford algebra. It is shown that an arbitrary coincidence isometry can be decomposed as a product of coincidence reflections and this allows planar coincidence lattices to be characterized algebraically. The cases of square, rectangular and rhombic lattices are worked out in detail. One of the aims of this work is to show the potential usefulness of Clifford algebra in crystallography. The power of Clifford algebra for expressing geometric ideas is exploited here and the procedure presented can be generalized to higher dimensions.

  16. Twisted conformal algebra related to κ -Minkowski space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meljanac, Stjepan; Pachoł, Anna; Pikutić, Danijel

    2015-11-01

    Twisted deformations of the conformal symmetry in the Hopf algebraic framework are constructed. The first one is obtained by a Jordanian twist built up from dilatation and momenta generators. The second is the lightlike κ -deformation of the Poincaré algebra extended to the conformal algebra, obtained by a twist corresponding to the extended Jordanian r -matrix. The κ -Minkowski spacetime is covariant quantum space under both of these deformations. The extension of the conformal algebra by the noncommutative coordinates is presented in two cases. The differential realizations for κ -Minkowski coordinates, as well as their left-right dual counterparts, are also included.

  17. A spatial operator algebra for manipulator modeling and control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rodriguez, G.; Jain, A.; Kreutz-Delgado, K.

    1991-01-01

    A recently developed spatial operator algebra for manipulator modeling, control, and trajectory design is discussed. The elements of this algebra are linear operators whose domain and range spaces consist of forces, moments, velocities, and accelerations. The effect of these operators is equivalent to a spatial recursion along the span of a manipulator. Inversion of operators can be efficiently obtained via techniques of recursive filtering and smoothing. The operator algebra provides a high-level framework for describing the dynamic and kinematic behavior of a manipulator and for control and trajectory design algorithms. The interpretation of expressions within the algebraic framework leads to enhanced conceptual and physical understanding of manipulator dynamics and kinematics.

  18. Spatial-Operator Algebra For Flexible-Link Manipulators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jain, Abhinandan; Rodriguez, Guillermo

    1994-01-01

    Method of computing dynamics of multiple-flexible-link robotic manipulators based on spatial-operator algebra, which originally applied to rigid-link manipulators. Aspects of spatial-operator-algebra approach described in several previous articles in NASA Tech Briefs-most recently "Robot Control Based on Spatial-Operator Algebra" (NPO-17918). In extension of spatial-operator algebra to manipulators with flexible links, each link represented by finite-element model: mass of flexible link apportioned among smaller, lumped-mass rigid bodies, coupling of motions expressed in terms of vibrational modes. This leads to operator expression for modal-mass matrix of link.

  19. The structure of split regular BiHom-Lie algebras

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calderón, Antonio J.; Sánchez, José M.

    2016-12-01

    We introduce the class of split regular BiHom-Lie algebras as the natural extension of the one of split Hom-Lie algebras and so of split Lie algebras. We show that an arbitrary split regular BiHom-Lie algebra L is of the form L = U +∑jIj with U a linear subspace of a fixed maximal abelian subalgebra H and any Ij a well described (split) ideal of L, satisfying [Ij ,Ik ] = 0 if j ≠ k. Under certain conditions, the simplicity of L is characterized and it is shown that L is the direct sum of the family of its simple ideals.

  20. Conformal manifolds in four dimensions and chiral algebras

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buican, Matthew; Nishinaka, Takahiro

    2016-11-01

    Any { N }=2 superconformal field theory (SCFT) in four dimensions has a sector of operators related to a two-dimensional chiral algebra containing a Virasoro sub-algebra. Moreover, there are well-known examples of isolated SCFTs whose chiral algebra is a Virasoro algebra. In this note, we consider the chiral algebras associated with interacting { N }=2 SCFTs possessing an exactly marginal deformation that can be interpreted as a gauge coupling (i.e., at special points on the resulting conformal manifolds, free gauge fields appear that decouple from isolated SCFT building blocks). At any point on these conformal manifolds, we argue that the associated chiral algebras possess at least three generators. In addition, we show that there are examples of SCFTs realizing such a minimal chiral algebra: they are certain points on the conformal manifold obtained by considering the low-energy limit of type IIB string theory on the three complex-dimensional hypersurface singularity {x}13+{x}23+{x}33+α {x}1{x}2{x}3+{w}2=0. The associated chiral algebra is the { A }(6) theory of Feigin, Feigin, and Tipunin. As byproducts of our work, we argue that (i) a collection of isolated theories can be conformally gauged only if there is a SUSY moduli space associated with the corresponding symmetry current moment maps in each sector, and (ii) { N }=2 SCFTs with a≥slant c have hidden fermionic symmetries (in the sense of fermionic chiral algebra generators).

  1. Bethe Algebra of the ??N+1 Gaudin Model and Algebra of Functions on the Critical Set of the Master Function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mukhin, Evgeny; Tarasov, Vitaly; Varchenko, Alexander

    2011-10-01

    Consider a tensor product of finite-dimensional irreducible ??;N+1-modules and its decomposition into irreducible modules. The ??;N+1 Gaudin model assigns to each multiplicity space of that decomposition a commutative (Bethe) algebra of linear operators acting on the multiplicity space. The Bethe ansatz method is a method to find eigenvectors and eigenvalues of the Bethe algebra. One starts with a critical point of a suitable (master) function and constructs an eigenvector of the Bethe algebra. In this paper we consider the algebra of functions on the critical set of the associated master function and show that the action of this algebra on itself is isomorphic to the action of the Bethe algebra on a suitable subspace of the multiplicity space. As a byproduct we prove that the Bethe vectors corresponding to different critical points of the master function are linearly independent and, in particular, nonzero.

  2. Remarks on the differential algebraic approach to particle beam optics by M. Berz

    SciTech Connect

    Garczynski, V.

    1992-12-31

    The underlying mathematical structure of the differential algebraic approach of M. Berz to particle beam optics is isomorphic to the familiar truncated polynomial algebra. Concrete examples of derivations in this algebra, consistent with the truncation operation, are given.

  3. Capable n-Lie algebras and the classification of nilpotent n-Lie algebras with s(A) = 3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Darabi, Hamid; Saeedi, Farshid; Eshrati, Mehdi

    2016-12-01

    Darabi et al. (2016) associate to each d-dimensional nilpotent n-Lie algebra A, a number s(A) where s(A) =(d-1/n) + n - 1 - dim M(A) and M(A) denotes the multiplier of A. They prove that s(A) is non-negative and classify all nilpotent n-Lie algebras A for which s(A) = 0 , 1 , 2. In this paper, we will classify all capable n-Lie algebras with 1-dimensional derived subalgebra and apply it to obtain a classification of those nilpotent n-Lie algebras satisfying s(A) = 3.

  4. Cartan-Weyl 3-algebras and the BLG theory. I: classification of Cartan-Weyl 3-algebras

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chu, Chong-Sun

    2010-10-01

    As Lie algebras of compact connected Lie groups, semisimple Lie algebras have wide applications in the description of continuous symmetries of physical systems. Mathematically, semisimple Lie algebra admits a Cartan-Weyl basis of generators which consists of a Cartan subalgebra of mutually commuting generators H I and a number of step generators E α that are characterized by a root space of non-degenerate one-forms α. This simple decomposition in terms of the root space allows for a complete classification of semisimple Lie algebras. In this paper, we introduce the analogous concept of a Cartan-Weyl Lie 3-algebra. We analyze their structure and obtain a complete classification of them. Many known examples of metric Lie 3-algebras (e.g. the Lorentzian 3-algebras) are special cases of the Cartan-Weyl 3-algebras. Due to their elegant and simple structure, we speculate that Cartan-Weyl 3-algebras may be useful for describing some kinds of generalized symmetries. As an application, we consider their use in the Bagger-Lambert-Gustavsson (BLG) theory.

  5. The Linear Algebra Curriculum Study Group Recommendations for the First Course in Linear Algebra.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carlson, David; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Presents five recommendations of the Linear Algebra Curriculum Study Group: (1) The syllabus must respond to the client disciplines; (2) The first course should be matrix oriented; (3) Faculty should consider the needs and interests of students; (4) Faculty should use technology; and (5) At least one follow-up course should be required. Provides a…

  6. Access to Algebra I, Gateway to Success: The Impact of Eighth-Grade Algebra I

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Darling, Emily Jean Skelton

    2010-01-01

    An understanding of Algebra I and the role that this foundational course plays as an entry to the college preparatory pathway in secondary education and its influence on mathematical achievement is an integral component for the education of American youth in the global world of science and technology. Achievements in high school curricula are…

  7. Combinatorial Hopf Algebras in Quantum Field Theory I

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Figueroa, Héctor; Gracia-Bondía, José M.

    This paper stands at the interface between combinatorial Hopf algebra theory and renormalization theory. Its plan is as follows: Sec. 1.1 is the introduction, and contains an elementary invitation to the subject as well. The rest of Sec. 1 is devoted to the basics of Hopf algebra theory and examples in ascending level of complexity. Section 2 turns around the all-important Faà di Bruno Hopf algebra. Section 2.1 contains a first, direct approach to it. Section 2.2 gives applications of the Faà di Bruno algebra to quantum field theory and Lagrange reversion. Section 2.3 rederives the related Connes-Moscovici algebras. In Sec. 3, we turn to the Connes-Kreimer Hopf algebras of Feynman graphs and, more generally, to incidence bialgebras. In Sec. 3.1, we describe the first. Then in Sec. 3.2, we give a simple derivation of (the properly combinatorial part of) Zimmermann's cancellation-free method, in its original diagrammatic form. In Sec. 3.3, general incidence algebras are introduced, and the Faà di Bruno bialgebras are described as incidence bialgebras. In Sec. 3.4, deeper lore on Rota's incidence algebras allows us to reinterpret Connes-Kreimer algebras in terms of distributive lattices. Next, the general algebraic-combinatorial proof of the cancellation-free formula for antipodes is ascertained. The structure results for commutative Hopf algebras are found in Sec. 4. An outlook section very briefly reviews the coalgebraic aspects of quantization and the Rota-Baxter map in renormalization.

  8. PREFACE: Algebra, Geometry, and Mathematical Physics 2010

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stolin, A.; Abramov, V.; Fuchs, J.; Paal, E.; Shestopalov, Y.; Silvestrov, S.

    2012-02-01

    This proceedings volume presents results obtained by the participants of the 6th Baltic-Nordic workshop 'Algebra, Geometry, and Mathematical Physics (AGMP-6)' held at the Sven Lovén Centre for Marine Sciences in Tjärnö, Sweden on October 25-30, 2010. The Baltic-Nordic Network AGMP 'Algebra, Geometry, and Mathematical Physics' http://www.agmp.eu was created in 2005 on the initiative of two Estonian universities and two Swedish universities: Tallinn University of Technology represented by Eugen Paal (coordinator of the network), Tartu University represented by Viktor Abramov, Lund University represented by Sergei Silvestrov, and Chalmers University of Technology and the University of Gothenburg represented by Alexander Stolin. The goal was to promote international and interdisciplinary cooperation between scientists and research groups in the countries of the Baltic-Nordic region in mathematics and mathematical physics, with special emphasis on the important role played by algebra and geometry in modern physics, engineering and technologies. The main activities of the AGMP network consist of a series of regular annual international workshops, conferences and research schools. The AGMP network also constitutes an important educational forum for scientific exchange and dissimilation of research results for PhD students and Postdocs. The network has expanded since its creation, and nowadays its activities extend beyond countries in the Baltic-Nordic region to universities in other European countries and participants from elsewhere in the world. As one of the important research-dissimilation outcomes of its activities, the network has a tradition of producing high-quality research proceedings volumes after network events, publishing them with various international publishers. The PDF also contains the following: List of AGMP workshops and other AGMP activities Main topics discussed at AGMP-6 Review of AGMP-6 proceedings Acknowledgments List of Conference Participants

  9. Basic linear algebra subprograms for FORTRAN usage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lawson, C. L.; Hanson, R. J.; Kincaid, D. R.; Krogh, F. T.

    1977-01-01

    A package of 38 low level subprograms for many of the basic operations of numerical linear algebra is presented. The package is intended to be used with FORTRAN. The operations in the package are dot products, elementary vector operations, Givens transformations, vector copy and swap, vector norms, vector scaling, and the indices of components of largest magnitude. The subprograms and a test driver are available in portable FORTRAN. Versions of the subprograms are also provided in assembly language for the IBM 360/67, the CDC 6600 and CDC 7600, and the Univac 1108.

  10. Optical linear algebra processors - Architectures and algorithms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Casasent, David

    1986-01-01

    Attention is given to the component design and optical configuration features of a generic optical linear algebra processor (OLAP) architecture, as well as the large number of OLAP architectures, number representations, algorithms and applications encountered in current literature. Number-representation issues associated with bipolar and complex-valued data representations, high-accuracy (including floating point) performance, and the base or radix to be employed, are discussed, together with case studies on a space-integrating frequency-multiplexed architecture and a hybrid space-integrating and time-integrating multichannel architecture.

  11. Algebraic approach to electronic spectroscopy and dynamics.

    PubMed

    Toutounji, Mohamad

    2008-04-28

    Lie algebra, Zassenhaus, and parameter differentiation techniques are utilized to break up the exponential of a bilinear Hamiltonian operator into a product of noncommuting exponential operators by the virtue of the theory of Wei and Norman [J. Math. Phys. 4, 575 (1963); Proc. Am. Math. Soc., 15, 327 (1964)]. There are about three different ways to find the Zassenhaus exponents, namely, binomial expansion, Suzuki formula, and q-exponential transformation. A fourth, and most reliable method, is provided. Since linearly displaced and distorted (curvature change upon excitation/emission) Hamiltonian and spin-boson Hamiltonian may be classified as bilinear Hamiltonians, the presented algebraic algorithm (exponential operator disentanglement exploiting six-dimensional Lie algebra case) should be useful in spin-boson problems. The linearly displaced and distorted Hamiltonian exponential is only treated here. While the spin-boson model is used here only as a demonstration of the idea, the herein approach is more general and powerful than the specific example treated. The optical linear dipole moment correlation function is algebraically derived using the above mentioned methods and coherent states. Coherent states are eigenvectors of the bosonic lowering operator a and not of the raising operator a(+). While exp(a(+)) translates coherent states, exp(a(+)a(+)) operation on coherent states has always been a challenge, as a(+) has no eigenvectors. Three approaches, and the results, of that operation are provided. Linear absorption spectra are derived, calculated, and discussed. The linear dipole moment correlation function for the pure quadratic coupling case is expressed in terms of Legendre polynomials to better show the even vibronic transitions in the absorption spectrum. Comparison of the present line shapes to those calculated by other methods is provided. Franck-Condon factors for both linear and quadratic couplings are exactly accounted for by the herein calculated

  12. Vector fields and nilpotent Lie algebras

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grayson, Matthew; Grossman, Robert

    1987-01-01

    An infinite-dimensional family of flows E is described with the property that the associated dynamical system: x(t) = E(x(t)), where x(0) is a member of the set R to the Nth power, is explicitly integrable in closed form. These flows E are of the form E = E1 + E2, where E1 and E2 are the generators of a nilpotent Lie algebra, which is either free, or satisfies some relations at a point. These flows can then be used to approximate the flows of more general types of dynamical systems.

  13. Spatial Operator Algebra for multibody system dynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rodriguez, G.; Jain, A.; Kreutz-Delgado, K.

    1992-01-01

    The Spatial Operator Algebra framework for the dynamics of general multibody systems is described. The use of a spatial operator-based methodology permits the formulation of the dynamical equations of motion of multibody systems in a concise and systematic way. The dynamical equations of progressively more complex grid multibody systems are developed in an evolutionary manner beginning with a serial chain system, followed by a tree topology system and finally, systems with arbitrary closed loops. Operator factorizations and identities are used to develop novel recursive algorithms for the forward dynamics of systems with closed loops. Extensions required to deal with flexible elements are also discussed.

  14. Noncommutative Pfaffians associated with the orthogonal algebra

    SciTech Connect

    Artamonov, Dmitrii V; Golubeva, Valentina A

    2012-12-31

    Commutators of Pfaffians associated with the orthogonal algebra are found in skew-symmetric and root realizations of o{sub N}. A generating function of Pfaffians is proved to satisfy the reflection equation. A relation between Pfaffians in skew-symmetric and root realizations of o{sub N} is established. Using these results we construct an integrable equation of Knizhnik-Zamolodchikov type using the Capelli central elements in U(o{sub N}), which are sums of squares of the considered Pfaffians. A classical limit of the obtained Knizhnik-Zamolodchikov type equation turns out to be a very specific system of equations of isomonodromic deformations. Bibliography: 18 titles.

  15. Bialgebra deformations and algebras of trees

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grossman, Robert; Radford, David

    1991-01-01

    Let A denote a bialgebra over a field k and let A sub t = A((t)) denote the ring of formal power series with coefficients in A. Assume that A is also isomorphic to a free, associative algebra over k. A simple construction is given which makes A sub t a bialgebra deformation of A. In typical applications, A sub t is neither commutative nor cocommutative. In the terminology of Drinfeld, (1987), A sub t is a quantum group. This construction yields quantum groups associated with families of trees.

  16. Spurious Roots in the Algebraic Dirac Equation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pestka, Grzegorz

    The nature of spurious roots discovered by Drake and Goldman [G. W. F. Drake and S. P. Goldman, Phys. Rev. A 23, 2093 (1981)] among solutions of the algebraic Dirac Hamiltonian eigenvalue problem is discussed. It is shown that the spurious roots represent the positive spectrum states of the Dirac Hamiltonian and that each of them has its variational non-relativistic counterpart. Sufficient conditions to avoid the appearance of the spuriouses in the forbidden gap of Dirac energies are formulated. Numerical examples for κ = 1 ( P1/2) states of an electron in a spherical Coulomb potential (in Slater-type bases) are presented.

  17. Reasoning algebraically with IT: A cognitive perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mok, Ida; Johnson, David

    2000-12-01

    The focus of this paper is on the implications of key findings and theoretical positions from social psychology and cognitive developmental psychology (Piagetian/neo-Piagetian) for the use of IT tools to support learning in algebra. Particular reference is made to the research of the UK Cognitive Acceleration through Mathematics Education (CAME) project. The feasibility of the CAME model in the exploration of mathematical relationships supported by graphics calculators was addressed in a small-scale study in Hong Kong. The research provides evidence that, with appropriate mediation, cognitive conflict can be utilised to provide valuable appropriate for students to engage in increasingly higher levels of mathematical thinking.

  18. A PASCAL Implementation of the Image Algebra.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-12-01

    RFIT/GE/ENO/0-59 UNCLARSSIFI:ED F/O 9/2 mhhhhmhmhmhlmE~hNGh hh h 1.8 7 11111.25 111 .4 111. CRCOPY RESOLUTION TEST CHART THESI A PASCAL IMPLEMENTATION...OF THEIMAGE ALGEBRAII"-E T 1 THESIS I Christopher J. TitusD Captain, USAF AFIT/GE/ENG/86D-59 &pvv-ed fo, public rleaso, SDl~tjbUtim UnUimted...DTIC ELECTE MAR! 7 ig .4. e.4 JD A PASCAL IMPLEMENTATION OF THE IMAGE ALGEBRA THESIS Christopher J. Titus Captain, USAF AFIT/GE/ENG/86D-59 Approved for

  19. Universal Algebraic Varieties and Ideals in Physics:. Field Theory on Algebraic Varieties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iguchi, Kazumoto

    A class of universal algebraic varieties in physics is discussed herein using the concepts of determinant ideals in algebraic geometry. It is shown that these algebraic varieties arise with very different physical contexts in many branches of physics and mathematics from high energy physics theory to chaos theory. In these physical systems the models are constructed by using the fields on usual manifolds such as vector fields in a Euclidean space and a Minkowskian space. But there is a universal mathematical aspect of linear algebra for linear vector spaces, where the linear independency and dependency are described using the Gramians of the vectors. These Gramians form a class of hypersurfaces in a higher-dimensional mathematical space: If there exist g vectors vi in an n-dimensional Euclidean space, the Gramian Gg is given as a g × g determinant Gg=Det[xij] with the inner products xij=(vi,vj), and exists in a g(g-1)/2-[g(g+1)/2-] dimensional space if the vectors are (not) normalized, xii=1 (xii ≠ 1). It is also shown that the Gramians are invariant under automorphisms of the vectors. The mathematical structure of the Gramians is revealed to be equivalent to the concepts of determinant ideals Ig(v), each element of which is a g × g determinant constructed from components of an arbitrary N×N matrix with N>n and which have inclusion relation: R=I0(v)⊃ I1(v) ⊃···⊃ Ig(v) ⊃···, and Ig(v)=0 if g>n. In the various physical systems the ideals naturally emerge to give us dynamical flows on the hypersurfaces, and therefore, it is called the field theory on algebraic varieties. This viewpoint provides us a grand viewpoint in physics and mathematics.

  20. Decidability of classes of algebraic systems in polynomial time

    SciTech Connect

    Anokhin, M I

    2002-02-28

    For some classes of algebraic systems several kinds of polynomial-time decidability are considered, which use an oracle performing signature operations and computing predicates. Relationships between various kinds of decidability are studied. Several results on decidability and undecidability in polynomial time are proved for some finitely based varieties of universal algebras.

  1. Maximum/Minimum Problems Solved Using an Algebraic Way

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Modica, Erasmo

    2010-01-01

    This article describes some problems of the maximum/minimum type, which are generally solved using calculus at secondary school, but which here are solved algebraically. We prove six algebraic properties and then apply them to this kind of problem. This didactic approach allows pupils to solve these problems even at the beginning of secondary…

  2. Lie symmetry algebra of one-dimensional nonconservative dynamical systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Cui-Mei; Wu, Run-Heng; Fu, Jing-Li

    2007-09-01

    Lie symmetry algebra of linear nonconservative dynamical systems is studied in this paper. By using 1-1 mapping, the Lie point and Lie contact symmetry algebras are obtained from two independent solutions of the one-dimensional linear equations of motion.

  3. Schroedinger operators with the q-ladder symmetry algebras

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Skorik, Sergei; Spiridonov, Vyacheslav

    1994-01-01

    A class of the one-dimensional Schroedinger operators L with the symmetry algebra LB(+/-) = q(+/-2)B(+/-)L, (B(+),B(-)) = P(sub N)(L), is described. Here B(+/-) are the 'q-ladder' operators and P(sub N)(L) is a polynomial of the order N. Peculiarities of the coherent states of this algebra are briefly discussed.

  4. Symmetry algebra of a generalized anisotropic harmonic oscillator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Castanos, O.; Lopez-Pena, R.

    1993-01-01

    It is shown that the symmetry Lie algebra of a quantum system with accidental degeneracy can be obtained by means of the Noether's theorem. The procedure is illustrated by considering a generalized anisotropic two dimensional harmonic oscillator, which can have an infinite set of states with the same energy characterized by an u(1,1) Lie algebra.

  5. Computer-Intensive Algebra and Students' Conceptual Knowledge of Functions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Callaghan, Brian R.

    1998-01-01

    Describes a research project that examined the effects of the Computer-Intensive Algebra (CIA) and traditional algebra curricula on students' (N=802) understanding of the function concept. Results indicate that CIA students achieved a better understanding of functions and were better at the components of modeling, interpreting, and translating.…

  6. Pay-Offs from Expanding Summer Credit Recovery in Algebra

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allensworth, Elaine; Nomi, Takako; Heppen, Jessica

    2013-01-01

    The consequences of failing core academic courses during the first year are dire. In Chicago, over a quarter of students fail at least one semester of algebra in their ninth grade year, and only 13% of students who fail both semesters of Algebra I in ninth grade graduate in 4 years. Offering credit recovery options is one strategy to deal with…

  7. Effects of Expanding Summer Credit Recovery in Algebra

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allensworth, Elaine; Michelman, Valerie; Nomi, Takako; Heppen, Jessica

    2014-01-01

    In Chicago, over a quarter of students fail at least one semester of algebra in their ninth grade year, and only 13% of students who fail both semesters of Algebra I in ninth grade graduate in 4 years. Offering credit recovery options is one strategy to deal with high failure rates. The primary goal of credit recovery programs is to give students…

  8. A Learning Progressions Approach to Early Algebra Research and Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fonger, Nicole L.; Stephens, Ana; Blanton, Maria; Knuth, Eric

    2015-01-01

    We detail a learning progressions approach to early algebra research and how existing work around learning progressions and trajectories in mathematics and science education has informed our development of a four-component theoretical framework consisting of: a curricular progression of learning goals across big algebraic ideas; an instructional…

  9. The Algebra Initiative Colloquium. Volume 2: Working Group Papers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lacampagne, Carole B., Ed.; And Others

    This volume presents recommendations from four working groups at a conference on reform in algebra held in Leesburg, Virginia, December 9-12, 1993. Working Group 1: Creating an Appropriate Algebra Experience for All Grades K-12 Students produced the following papers: (1) "Report" (A. H. Schoenfeld); (2) "Five Questions About Algebra…

  10. Measuring the Readability of Elementary Algebra Using the Cloze Technique.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kulm, Gerald

    The relationship to readability of ten variables characterizing structural properties of mathematical prose was investigated in elementary algebra textbooks. Readability was measured by algebra student's responses to two forms of cloze tests. Linear and currilinear correlations were calculated between each structural variable and the cloze test.…

  11. Resources for Teaching Linear Algebra. MAA Notes Volume 42.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carlson, David, Ed.; And Others

    This book takes the position that the teaching of elementary linear algebra can be made more effective by emphasizing applications, exposition, and pedagogy. It includes the recommendations of the Linear Algebra Curriculum Study Group with their core syllabus for the first course, and the thoughts of mathematics faculty who have taught linear…

  12. Introduction to Algebra Curriculum Guide, Grade 8, 1987. Bulletin 1802.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Louisiana State Dept. of Education, Baton Rouge. Div. of Academic Programs.

    Because of the high incidence of failure in algebra I among ninth-grade students, the Louisiana State Board of Elementary and Secondary Education requested the development of this guide with the intention of providing a good pre-algebra foundation. The purposes of the guide are to recognize standards that involve the application of mathematical…

  13. Introduction to Matrix Algebra, Student's Text, Unit 23.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Frank B.; And Others

    Unit 23 in the SMSG secondary school mathematics series is a student text covering the following topics in matrix algebra: matrix operations, the algebra of 2 X 2 matrices, matrices and linear systems, representation of column matrices as geometric vectors, and transformations of the plane. Listed in the appendix are four research exercises in…

  14. Intertextuality and Sense Production in the Learning of Algebraic Methods

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rojano, Teresa; Filloy, Eugenio; Puig, Luis

    2014-01-01

    In studies carried out in the 1980s the algebraic symbols and expressions are revealed through prealgebraic readers as non-independent texts, as texts that relate to other texts that in some cases belong to the reader's native language or to the arithmetic sign system. Such outcomes suggest that the act of reading algebraic texts submerges…

  15. Matrix algebra routines for the Acorn Archimedes microcomputer: example applications.

    PubMed

    Fielding, A

    1988-08-01

    A set of matrix algebra routines have been written, as BASICV procedures, for the Acorn Archimedes microcomputer. It is shown that these procedures are executed so quickly that programs, which require matrix algebra computations, can be written in interpreted BASIC. Two example applications, reciprocal averaging and principal components analysis, are demonstrated.

  16. Preparing Secondary Mathematics Teachers: A Focus on Modeling in Algebra

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jung, Hyunyi; Mintos, Alexia; Newton, Jill

    2015-01-01

    This study addressed the opportunities to learn (OTL) modeling in algebra provided to secondary mathematics pre-service teachers (PSTs). To investigate these OTL, we interviewed five instructors of required mathematics and mathematics education courses that had the potential to include opportunities for PSTs to learn algebra at three universities.…

  17. Linear Algebra Revisited: An Attempt to Understand Students' Conceptual Difficulties

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Britton, Sandra; Henderson, Jenny

    2009-01-01

    This article looks at some of the conceptual difficulties that students have in a linear algebra course. An overview of previous research in this area is given, and the various theories that have been espoused regarding the reasons that students find linear algebra so difficult are discussed. Student responses to two questions testing the ability…

  18. Persistent and Pernicious Errors in Algebraic Problem Solving

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Booth, Julie L.; Barbieri, Christina; Eyer, Francie; Paré-Blagoev, E. Juliana

    2014-01-01

    Students hold many misconceptions as they transition from arithmetic to algebraic thinking, and these misconceptions can hinder their performance and learning in the subject. To identify the errors in Algebra I which are most persistent and pernicious in terms of predicting student difficulty on standardized test items, the present study assessed…

  19. Relational Thinking: Learning Arithmetic in Order to Promote Algebraic Thinking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Napaphun, Vishnu

    2012-01-01

    Trends in the curriculum reform propose that algebra should be taught throughout the grades, starting in elementary school. The aim should be to decrease the discontinuity between the arithmetic in elementary school and the algebra in upper grades. This study was conducted to investigate and characterise upper elementary school students…

  20. Algebraic Generalization Strategies Used by Kuwaiti Pre-Service Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alajmi, Amal Hussain

    2016-01-01

    This study reports on the algebraic generalization strategies used by elementary and middle/high school pre-service mathematics teachers in Kuwait. They were presented with 9 tasks that involved linear, exponential, and quadratic situations. The results showed that these pre-service teachers had difficulty in generalizing algebraic rules in all 3…

  1. The Algebra Content Knowledge of Beginning Teachers in California

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caswell, Lisa M.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the competence of beginning California K-6 teachers in basic algebra topics, and to investigate their level of math anxiety and attitudes toward math. The sample for this study was beginning California elementary teachers in the Bay Area of California. An algebra content assessment and a self-report…

  2. Critical exponents from infinite-dimensional symplectic algebras

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Altschüler, D.

    1985-11-01

    Unitary representations of the Virasoro algebra with centrala c = 1 - 6/(n + 2) are important in the study of two-dimensional models in statistical mechanics. It is shown that they can be constructed using Kac-Moody algebras of symplectic type. At the same time, this provides a simple derivation of the critical exponents.

  3. Re"modeling" College Algebra: An Active Learning Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pinzon, D.; Pinzon, K.; Stackpole, M.

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we discuss active learning in College Algebra at Georgia Gwinnett College. This approach has been used in more than 20 sections of College Algebra taught by the authors in the past four semesters. Students work in small, structured groups on guided inquiry activities after watching 15-20 minutes of videos before class. We discuss a…

  4. Questions Arise about Algebra 2 for All Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robelen, Erik W.

    2013-01-01

    Should all students take Algebra 2? Florida seemed to say "no" this spring with the passage of a law striking it from graduation requirements. Texas said much the same in legislation Republican Gov. Rick Perry signed this week that also backs away from Algebra 2 for all. Those steps come as the Common Core State Standards for math set…

  5. Concreteness Fading of Algebraic Instruction: Effects on Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ottmar, Erin; Landy, David

    2017-01-01

    Learning algebra is difficult for many students in part because of an emphasis on the memorization of abstract rules. Algebraic reasoners across expertise levels often rely on perceptual-motor strategies to make these rules meaningful and memorable. However, in many cases, rules are provided as patterns to be memorized verbally, with little overt…

  6. From geometry to algebra: the Euclidean way with technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferrarello, Daniela; Flavia Mammana, Maria; Pennisi, Mario

    2016-05-01

    In this paper, we present the results of an experimental classroom activity, history-based with a phylogenetic approach, to achieve algebra properties through geometry. In particular, we used Euclidean propositions, processed them by a dynamic geometry system and translate them into algebraic special products.

  7. Promoting Quantitative Literacy in an Online College Algebra Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tunstall, Luke; Bossé, Michael J.

    2016-01-01

    College algebra (a university freshman level algebra course) fulfills the quantitative literacy requirement of many college's general education programs and is a terminal course for most who take it. An online problem-based learning environment provides a unique means of engaging students in quantitative discussions and research. This article…

  8. Earth Algebra: Real-Life Mathematics in Navajoland.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schaufele, Christopher; Srivastava, Ravindra

    1995-01-01

    An algebra class at Navajo Community College (Shiprock, New Mexico) uses traditional algebra topics to study real-life situations, focuses on environmental issues, encourages collaborative learning, uses modern technology, and promotes development of critical thinking and decision-making skills. Students follow principles of Dine educational…

  9. Chain models on hecke algebra for corner type representations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Isaev, A. P.; Ogievetsky, O. V.; Os'kin, A. F.

    2008-04-01

    We consider the integrable open chain models formulated in terms of generators of the Hecke algebra. The spectrum of Hamiltonians for the open Hecke chains of finite size with free boundary conditions is deduced for special (comer type) irreducible representations of the Hecke algebra.

  10. The Aftermath of Accelerating Algebra: Evidence from District Policy Initiatives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clotfelter, Charles T.; Ladd, Helen F.; Vigdor, Jacob L.

    2014-01-01

    In 2008, the California State Board of Education voted to require all students to enroll in algebra by 8th grade. This policy initiative, yet to be actually implemented, represents the culmination of a decades-long movement toward offering algebra instruction before the traditional high school years. Nationally, the proportion of 8th grade…

  11. Soft translations and soft extensions of BCI/BCK-algebras.

    PubMed

    Sultana, Nazra; Rani, Nazia; Ali, Muhammad Irfan; Hussain, Azhar

    2014-01-01

    The concept of soft translations of soft subalgebras and soft ideals over BCI/BCK-algebras is introduced and some related properties are studied. Notions of Soft extensions of soft subalgebras and soft ideals over BCI/BCK-algebras are also initiated. Relationships between soft translations and soft extensions are explored.

  12. Comparing the Effectiveness of Collaborative Instructional Practices in Algebra

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Triaga, Russell D.

    2014-01-01

    The use of multiple forms of collaborative instruction to teach integrated algebra makes it difficult for teachers to determine which collaborative form is best suited for the curriculum. An inconsistent approach to integrated algebra instruction at the study school needed to be addressed for the benefit of teacher effectiveness and student…

  13. Factors Influencing Student Academic Performance in Online High School Algebra

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Feng; Cavanaugh, Cathy

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes the effect of teacher comments, students' demographic information and learning management system utilisation on student final scores in algebra courses in a K-12 virtual learning environment. Students taking algebra courses in a state virtual school in the Midwestern US region during 2007-2008 participated in this study.…

  14. Contextual Analysis of Problems in Algebra I Textbooks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rivers, Janelle

    This qualitative study is a two-part analysis of first year algebra textbooks adopted for use in South Carolina. Part 1 examines the five books selected in the 1984 adoption. This comparison of first year algebra textbooks examined: (1) whether the textbook authors had adjusted the traditional context of math texts at this level to reflect…

  15. Emphasizing Language and Visualization in Teaching Linear Algebra

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hannah, John; Stewart, Sepideh; Thomas, Mike

    2013-01-01

    Linear algebra with its rich theoretical nature is a first step towards advanced mathematical thinking for many undergraduate students. In this paper, we consider the teaching approach of an experienced mathematician as he attempts to engage his students with the key ideas embedded in a second-year course in linear algebra. We describe his…

  16. Paper 3: Content and Rigor of Algebra Credit Recovery Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walters, Kirk; Stachel, Suzanne

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes the content, organization and rigor of the f2f and online summer algebra courses that were delivered in summers 2011 and 2012. Examining the content of both types of courses is important because research suggests that algebra courses with certain features may be better than others in promoting success for struggling students.…

  17. Factors That Shape Curricular Reasoning about College Algebra Reform

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burn, Helen E.

    2012-01-01

    This multiple case study explores factors that shaped the curricular reasoning of mathematics faculty engaged in college algebra reform in community colleges. Overall, the study found that although proposed reform of college algebra is broad in scope and influenced by the student audience, competing influences emerge that can enable or constrain…

  18. Towards a cladistics of double Yangians and elliptic algebras*

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arnaudon, D.; Avan, J.; Frappat, L.; Ragoucy, E.; Rossi, M.

    2000-09-01

    A self-contained description of algebraic structures, obtained by combinations of various limit procedures applied to vertex and face sl(2) elliptic quantum affine algebras, is given. New double Yangian structures of dynamical type are defined. Connections between these structures are established. A number of them take the form of twist-like actions. These are conjectured to be evaluations of universal twists.

  19. Digital Tools for Algebra Education: Criteria and Evaluation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bokhove, Christian; Drijvers, Paul

    2010-01-01

    In the Netherlands, as in many other countries, the algebraic expertise of students graduating from secondary education is an issue. The use of digital tools for algebra education is expected to change epistemologies, activity structures and student achievement. Therefore, a study was set up to investigate in what way the use of ICT in upper…

  20. A linear algebraic nonlinear superposition formula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gordoa, Pilar R.; Conde, Juan M.

    2002-04-01

    The Darboux transformation provides an iterative approach to the generation of exact solutions for an integrable system. This process can be simplified using the Bäcklund transformation and Bianchi's theorem of permutability; in this way we construct a nonlinear superposition formula, that is, an equation relating a new solution to three previous solutions. In general this equation will be a differential equation; for some examples, such as the Korteweg-de Vries equation, it is a linear algebraic equation. This last is what happens also in the case of the system discussed in this Letter. The linear algebraic nonlinear superposition formula obtained here is a new result. As an example, we use it to construct the two soliton solution, as well as special cases of this last which give rise to solutions exhibiting combinations of fission and fusion. Solutions exhibiting repeated processes of fission and fusion are new phenomena within the area of soliton equations. We also consider obtaining solutions using a symmetry approach; in this way we obtain rational solutions and also the one soliton solution.

  1. Lie algebraic methods for particle tracking calculations

    SciTech Connect

    Douglas, D.R.; Dragt, A.J.

    1983-08-01

    A study of the nonlinear stability of an accelerator or storage ring lattice typically includes particle tracking simulations. Such simulations trace rays through linear and nonlinear lattice elements by numerically evaluating linear matrix or impulsive nonlinear transformations. Using the mathematical tools of Lie groups and algebras, one may construct a formalism which makes explicit use of Hamilton's equations and which allows the description of groups of linear and nonlinear lattice elements by a single transformation. Such a transformation will be exactly canonical and will describe finite length linear and nonlinear elements through third (octupole) order. It is presently possible to include effects such as fringing fields and potentially possible to extend the formalism to include nonlinearities of higher order, multipole errors, and magnet misalignments. We outline this Lie algebraic formalism and its use in particle tracking calculations. A computer code, MARYLIE, has been constructed on the basis of this formalism. We describe the use of this program for tracking and provide examples of its application. 6 references, 3 figures.

  2. On the binary expansions of algebraic numbers

    SciTech Connect

    Bailey, David H.; Borwein, Jonathan M.; Crandall, Richard E.; Pomerance, Carl

    2003-07-01

    Employing concepts from additive number theory, together with results on binary evaluations and partial series, we establish bounds on the density of 1's in the binary expansions of real algebraic numbers. A central result is that if a real y has algebraic degree D > 1, then the number {number_sign}(|y|, N) of 1-bits in the expansion of |y| through bit position N satisfies {number_sign}(|y|, N) > CN{sup 1/D} for a positive number C (depending on y) and sufficiently large N. This in itself establishes the transcendency of a class of reals {summation}{sub n{ge}0} 1/2{sup f(n)} where the integer-valued function f grows sufficiently fast; say, faster than any fixed power of n. By these methods we re-establish the transcendency of the Kempner--Mahler number {summation}{sub n{ge}0}1/2{sup 2{sup n}}, yet we can also handle numbers with a substantially denser occurrence of 1's. Though the number z = {summation}{sub n{ge}0}1/2{sup n{sup 2}} has too high a 1's density for application of our central result, we are able to invoke some rather intricate number-theoretical analysis and extended computations to reveal aspects of the binary structure of z{sup 2}.

  3. Anyons and matrix product operator algebras

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bultinck, N.; Mariën, M.; Williamson, D. J.; Şahinoğlu, M. B.; Haegeman, J.; Verstraete, F.

    2017-03-01

    Quantum tensor network states and more particularly projected entangled-pair states provide a natural framework for representing ground states of gapped, topologically ordered systems. The defining feature of these representations is that topological order is a consequence of the symmetry of the underlying tensors in terms of matrix product operators. In this paper, we present a systematic study of those matrix product operators, and show how this relates entanglement properties of projected entangled-pair states to the formalism of fusion tensor categories. From the matrix product operators we construct a C∗-algebra and find that topological sectors can be identified with the central idempotents of this algebra. This allows us to construct projected entangled-pair states containing an arbitrary number of anyons. Properties such as topological spin, the S matrix, fusion and braiding relations can readily be extracted from the idempotents. As the matrix product operator symmetries are acting purely on the virtual level of the tensor network, the ensuing Wilson loops are not fattened when perturbing the system, and this opens up the possibility of simulating topological theories away from renormalization group fixed points. We illustrate the general formalism for the special cases of discrete gauge theories and string-net models.

  4. De Finetti Theorem on the CAR Algebra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crismale, Vitonofrio; Fidaleo, Francesco

    2012-10-01

    The symmetric states on a quasi local C*-algebra on the infinite set of indices J are those invariant under the action of the group of the permutations moving only a finite, but arbitrary, number of elements of J. The celebrated De Finetti Theorem describes the structure of the symmetric states (i.e. exchangeable probability measures) in classical probability. In the present paper we extend the De Finetti Theorem to the case of the CAR algebra, that is for physical systems describing Fermions. Namely, after showing that a symmetric state is automatically even under the natural action of the parity automorphism, we prove that the compact convex set of such states is a Choquet simplex, whose extremal (i.e. ergodic w.r.t. the action of the group of permutations previously described) are precisely the product states in the sense of Araki-Moriya. In order to do that, we also prove some ergodic properties naturally enjoyed by the symmetric states which have a self-containing interest.

  5. Automorphisms of Hilbert space effect algebras

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Šemrl, Peter

    2015-05-01

    Let H be a Hilbert space and E (H) the effect algebra on H. A bijective map φ :E(H)\\to E(H) is called an ortho-order automorphism of E (H) if for every A,B\\in E(H) we have A≤slant B \\Longleftrightarrow φ (A)≤slant φ (B) and φ ({{A}\\bot })=φ {{(A)}\\bot }. The classical theorem of Ludwig states that every such ϕ is of the form φ (A)=UA{{U}*}, A\\in E(H), for some unitary or antiunitary operator U. It is also known that each bijective map on E (H) preserving order and coexistency in both directions is of the same form. Can we improve these two theorems by relaxing the bijectivity assumption and/or replacing the above preserving properties by the weaker assumptions of preserving above relations in one direction only and still get the same conclusion? For both characterizations of automorphisms of effect algebras we will prove the optimal versions and give counterexamples showing the optimality of the obtained results. This research was supported by a grant from ARRS, Slovenia.

  6. Direct determination of the underlying Lie algebra in nonlinear optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arnold, J. M.

    1991-01-01

    It is shown that the equations of resonant nonlinear optics can be studied entirely within the framework of an underlying Lie algebra, in which the 2x2 su(2) Hamiltonian and density matrices of the quantum mechanical description of the atomic system transform directly to the 2x2 sl(2,R) matrices of the Ablowitz-Kaup-Newell-Segur (AKNS) scheme, and the AKNS eigenvalue is introduced naturally as a free parameter. The Lie algebra sl(2,R) is also the symmetry algebra of transformations between equivalence classes of AKNS systems under SL(2,R) gauge transformations. The Lie algebra formalism condenses much algebraic manipulation, and provides a natural basis for the perturbation theory of "nearly integrable" nonlinear wave systems.

  7. Quantum teleportation and Birman-Murakami-Wenzl algebra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Kun; Zhang, Yong

    2017-02-01

    In this paper, we investigate the relationship of quantum teleportation in quantum information science and the Birman-Murakami-Wenzl (BMW) algebra in low-dimensional topology. For simplicity, we focus on the two spin-1/2 representation of the BMW algebra, which is generated by both the Temperley-Lieb projector and the Yang-Baxter gate. We describe quantum teleportation using the Temperley-Lieb projector and the Yang-Baxter gate, respectively, and study teleportation-based quantum computation using the Yang-Baxter gate. On the other hand, we exploit the extended Temperley-Lieb diagrammatical approach to clearly show that the tangle relations of the BMW algebra have a natural interpretation of quantum teleportation. Inspired by this interpretation, we construct a general representation of the tangle relations of the BMW algebra and obtain interesting representations of the BMW algebra. Therefore, our research sheds a light on a link between quantum information science and low-dimensional topology.

  8. Magnetic translation algebra with or without magnetic field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mudry, Christopher; Chamon, Claudio

    2013-03-01

    The magnetic translation algebra plays an important role in the quantum Hall effect. Murthy and Shankar have shown how to realize this algebra using fermionic bilinears defined on a two-dimensional square lattice. We show that, in any dimension d, it is always possible to close the magnetic translation algebra using fermionic bilinears, be it in the continuum or on the lattice. We also show that these generators are complete in even, but not odd, dimensions, in the sense that any fermionic Hamiltonian in even dimensions that conserves particle number can be represented in terms of the generators of this algebra, whether or not time-reversal symmetry is broken. As an example, we reproduce the f-sum rule of interacting electrons at vanishing magnetic field using this representation. We also show that interactions can significantly change the bare band width of lattice Hamiltonians when represented in terms of the generators of the magnetic translation algebra.

  9. Pilot study on algebra learning among junior secondary students

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poon, Kin-Keung; Leung, Chi-Keung

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of the study reported herein was to identify the common mistakes made by junior secondary students in Hong Kong when learning algebra and to compare teachers' perceptions of students' ability with the results of an algebra test. An algebra test was developed and administered to a sample of students (aged between 13 and 14 years). From the responses of the participating students (N = 815), it was found that students in schools with a higher level of academic achievement had better algebra test results than did those in schools with a lower level of such achievement. Moreover, it was found that a teacher's perception of a student's ability has a correlation with that student's level of achievement. Based on this finding, an instrument that measures teaching effectiveness is discussed. Last but not least, typical errors in algebra are identified, and some ideas for an instructional design based on these findings are discussed.

  10. Algebraic special functions and SO(3,2)

    SciTech Connect

    Celeghini, E.; Olmo, M.A. del

    2013-06-15

    A ladder structure of operators is presented for the associated Legendre polynomials and the sphericas harmonics. In both cases these operators belong to the irreducible representation of the Lie algebra so(3,2) with quadratic Casimir equals to −5/4. As both are also bases of square-integrable functions, the universal enveloping algebra of so(3,2) is thus shown to be homomorphic to the space of linear operators acting on the L{sup 2} functions defined on (−1,1)×Z and on the sphere S{sup 2}, respectively. The presence of a ladder structure is suggested to be the general condition to obtain a Lie algebra representation defining in this way the “algebraic special functions” that are proposed to be the connection between Lie algebras and square-integrable functions so that the space of linear operators on the L{sup 2} functions is homomorphic to the universal enveloping algebra. The passage to the group, by means of the exponential map, shows that the associated Legendre polynomials and the spherical harmonics support the corresponding unitary irreducible representation of the group SO(3,2). -- Highlights: •The algebraic ladder structure is constructed for the associated Legendre polynomials (ALP). •ALP and spherical harmonics support a unitary irreducible SO(3,2)-representation. •A ladder structure is the condition to get a Lie group representation defining “algebraic special functions”. •The “algebraic special functions” connect Lie algebras and L{sup 2} functions.

  11. Structure of classical affine and classical affine fractional W-algebras

    SciTech Connect

    Suh, Uhi Rinn

    2015-01-15

    We introduce a classical BRST complex (See Definition 3.2.) and show that one can construct a classical affine W-algebra via the complex. This definition clarifies that classical affine W-algebras can be considered as quasi-classical limits of quantum affine W-algebras. We also give a definition of a classical affine fractional W-algebra as a Poisson vertex algebra. As in the classical affine case, a classical affine fractional W-algebra has two compatible λ-brackets and is isomorphic to an algebra of differential polynomials as a differential algebra. When a classical affine fractional W-algebra is associated to a minimal nilpotent, we describe explicit forms of free generators and compute λ-brackets between them. Provided some assumptions on a classical affine fractional W-algebra, we find an infinite sequence of integrable systems related to the algebra, using the generalized Drinfel’d and Sokolov reduction.

  12. The Development of Children's Algebraic Thinking: The Impact of a Comprehensive Early Algebra Intervention in Third Grade

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blanton, Maria; Stephens, Ana; Knuth, Eric; Gardiner, Angela Murphy; Isler, Isil; Kim, Jee-Seon

    2015-01-01

    This article reports results from a study investigating the impact of a sustained, comprehensive early algebra intervention in third grade. Participants included 106 students; 39 received the early algebra intervention, and 67 received their district's regularly planned mathematics instruction. We share and discuss students' responses to a written…

  13. Locally Compact Quantum Groups. A von Neumann Algebra Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Daele, Alfons

    2014-08-01

    In this paper, we give an alternative approach to the theory of locally compact quantum groups, as developed by Kustermans and Vaes. We start with a von Neumann algebra and a comultiplication on this von Neumann algebra. We assume that there exist faithful left and right Haar weights. Then we develop the theory within this von Neumann algebra setting. In [Math. Scand. 92 (2003), 68-92] locally compact quantum groups are also studied in the von Neumann algebraic context. This approach is independent of the original C^*-algebraic approach in the sense that the earlier results are not used. However, this paper is not really independent because for many proofs, the reader is referred to the original paper where the C^*-version is developed. In this paper, we give a completely self-contained approach. Moreover, at various points, we do things differently. We have a different treatment of the antipode. It is similar to the original treatment in [Ann. Sci. & #201;cole Norm. Sup. (4) 33 (2000), 837-934]. But together with the fact that we work in the von Neumann algebra framework, it allows us to use an idea from [Rev. Roumaine Math. Pures Appl. 21 (1976), 1411-1449] to obtain the uniqueness of the Haar weights in an early stage. We take advantage of this fact when deriving the other main results in the theory. We also give a slightly different approach to duality. Finally, we collect, in a systematic way, several important formulas. In an appendix, we indicate very briefly how the C^*-approach and the von Neumann algebra approach eventually yield the same objects. The passage from the von Neumann algebra setting to the C^*-algebra setting is more or less standard. For the other direction, we use a new method. It is based on the observation that the Haar weights on the C^*-algebra extend to weights on the double dual with central support and that all these supports are the same. Of course, we get the von Neumann algebra by cutting down the double dual with this unique

  14. A Cohomology Theory of Grading-Restricted Vertex Algebras

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Yi-Zhi

    2014-04-01

    We introduce a cohomology theory of grading-restricted vertex algebras. To construct the correct cohomologies, we consider linear maps from tensor powers of a grading-restricted vertex algebra to "rational functions valued in the algebraic completion of a module for the algebra," instead of linear maps from tensor powers of the algebra to a module for the algebra. One subtle complication arising from such functions is that we have to carefully address the issue of convergence when we compose these linear maps with vertex operators. In particular, for each , we have an inverse system of nth cohomologies and an additional nth cohomology of a grading-restricted vertex algebra V with coefficients in a V-module W such that is isomorphic to the inverse limit of the inverse system . In the case of n = 2, there is an additional second cohomology denoted by which will be shown in a sequel to the present paper to correspond to what we call square-zero extensions of V and to first order deformations of V when W = V.

  15. Generalized coherent states for polynomial Weyl-Heisenberg algebras

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kibler, Maurice R.; Daoud, Mohammed

    2012-08-01

    It is the aim of this paper to show how to construct á la Perelomov and á la Barut-Girardello coherent states for a polynomial Weyl-Heisenberg algebra. This algebra depends on r parameters. For some special values of the parameter corresponding to r = 1, the algebra covers the cases of the su(1,1) algebra, the su(2) algebra and the ordinary Weyl-Heisenberg or oscillator algebra. For r arbitrary, the generalized Weyl-Heisenberg algebra admits finite or infinite-dimensional representations depending on the values of the parameters. Coherent states of the Perelomov type are derived in finite and infinite dimensions through a Fock-Bargmann approach based on the use of complex variables. The same approach is applied for deriving coherent states of the Barut-Girardello type in infinite dimension. In contrast, the construction of á la Barut-Girardello coherent states in finite dimension can be achieved solely at the price to replace complex variables by generalized Grassmann variables. Finally, some preliminary developments are given for the study of Bargmann functions associated with some of the coherent states obtained in this work.

  16. Beyond the Schwinger boson representation of the su(2)-algebra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsue, Yasuhiko; Providência, Constança; da Providência, João; Yamamura, Masatoshi

    2015-04-01

    With the use of two kinds of boson operators, a new boson representation of the su(2)-algebra is proposed. The basic idea comes from the pseudo su(1,1)-algebra recently given by the present authors [Y. Tsue et al., Prog. Theor. Exp. Phys. 2013, 103D04 (2013)]. It forms a striking contrast to the Schwinger boson representation of the su(2)-algebra, which is also based on two kinds of bosons. It is proved that this new boson representation obeys the su(2)-algebra in a certain subspace in the whole boson space constructed by the Schwinger boson representation of the su(1,1)-algebra. This representation may be suitable for describing the time dependence of the system interacting with the external environment in the framework of the thermo field dynamics formalism, i.e., phase space doubling. Further, several deformations related to the su(2)-algebra in this boson representation are discussed. On the basis of these deformed algebras, various types of time evolution of a simple boson system are investigated.

  17. Computational algebraic topology-based video restoration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rochel, Alban; Ziou, Djemel; Auclair-Fortier, Marie-Flavie

    2005-03-01

    This paper presents a scheme for video denoising by diffusion of gray levels, based on the Computational Algebraic Topology (CAT) image model. The diffusion approach is similar to the one used to denoise static images. Rather than using the heat transfer partial differential equation, discretizing it and solving it by a purely mathematical process, the CAT approach considers the global expression of the heat transfer and decomposes it into elementary physical laws. Some of these laws describe conservative relations, leading to error-free expressions, whereas others depend on metric quantities and require approximation. This scheme allows for a physical interpretation for each step of the resolution process. We propose a nonlinear and an anisotropic diffusion algorithms based on the extension to video of an existing 2D algorithm thanks to the flexibility of the topological support. Finally it is validated with experimental results.

  18. Numerical stability in problems of linear algebra.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Babuska, I.

    1972-01-01

    Mathematical problems are introduced as mappings from the space of input data to that of the desired output information. Then a numerical process is defined as a prescribed recurrence of elementary operations creating the mapping of the underlying mathematical problem. The ratio of the error committed by executing the operations of the numerical process (the roundoff errors) to the error introduced by perturbations of the input data (initial error) gives rise to the concept of lambda-stability. As examples, several processes are analyzed from this point of view, including, especially, old and new processes for solving systems of linear algebraic equations with tridiagonal matrices. In particular, it is shown how such a priori information can be utilized as, for instance, a knowledge of the row sums of the matrix. Information of this type is frequently available where the system arises in connection with the numerical solution of differential equations.

  19. The Bell states in noncommutative algebraic geometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beil, Charlie

    2014-10-01

    We introduce new mathematical aspects of the Bell states using matrix factorizations, non-noetherian singularities, and noncommutative blowups. A matrix factorization of a polynomial p consists of two matrices ϕ1, ϕ2 such that ϕ1ϕ2 = ϕ2ϕ1 = p id. Using this notion, we show how the Bell states emerge from the separable product of two mixtures, by defining pure states over complex matrices rather than just the complex numbers. We then show in an idealized algebraic setting that pure states are supported on non-noetherian singularities. Moreover, we find that the collapse of a Bell state is intimately related to the representation theory of the noncommutative blowup along its singular support. This presents an exchange in geometry: the nonlocal commutative spacetime of the entangled state emerges from an underlying local noncommutative spacetime.

  20. Algebraic grid generation with corner singularities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vinokur, M.; Lombard, C. K.

    1983-01-01

    A simple noniterative algebraic procedure is presented for generating smooth computational meshes on a quadrilateral topology. Coordinate distribution and normal derivative are provided on all boundaries, one of which may include a slope discontinuity. The boundary conditions are sufficient to guarantee continuity of global meshes formed of joined patches generated by the procedure. The method extends to 3-D. The procedure involves a synthesis of prior techniques stretching functions, cubic blending functions, and transfinite interpolation - to which is added the functional form of the corner solution. The procedure introduces the concept of generalized blending, which is implemented as an automatic scaling of the boundary derivatives for effective interpolation. Some implications of the treatment at boundaries for techniques solving elliptic PDE's are discussed in an Appendix.

  1. Algebraic properties of the monopole formula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanany, Amihay; Sperling, Marcus

    2017-02-01

    The monopole formula provides the Hilbert series of the Coulomb branch for a 3-dimensional N=4 gauge theory. Employing the concept of a fan defined by the matter content, and summing over the corresponding collection of monoids, allows the following: firstly, we provide explicit expressions for the Hilbert series for any gauge group. Secondly, we prove that the order of the pole at t = 1 and t → ∞ equals the complex or quaternionic dimension of the moduli space, respectively. Thirdly, we determine all bare and dressed BPS monopole operators that are sufficient to generate the entire chiral ring. As an application, we demonstrate the implementation of our approach to computer algebra programs and the applicability to higher rank gauge theories.

  2. A New Reynolds Stress Algebraic Equation Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shih, Tsan-Hsing; Zhu, Jiang; Lumley, John L.

    1994-01-01

    A general turbulent constitutive relation is directly applied to propose a new Reynolds stress algebraic equation model. In the development of this model, the constraints based on rapid distortion theory and realizability (i.e. the positivity of the normal Reynolds stresses and the Schwarz' inequality between turbulent velocity correlations) are imposed. Model coefficients are calibrated using well-studied basic flows such as homogeneous shear flow and the surface flow in the inertial sublayer. The performance of this model is then tested in complex turbulent flows including the separated flow over a backward-facing step and the flow in a confined jet. The calculation results are encouraging and point to the success of the present model in modeling turbulent flows with complex geometries.

  3. Algebraic Theories and (Infinity,1)-Categories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cranch, James

    2010-11-01

    We adapt the classical framework of algebraic theories to work in the setting of (infinity,1)-categories developed by Joyal and Lurie. This gives a suitable approach for describing highly structured objects from homotopy theory. A central example, treated at length, is the theory of E_infinity spaces: this has a tidy combinatorial description in terms of span diagrams of finite sets. We introduce a theory of distributive laws, allowing us to describe objects with two distributing E_infinity stuctures. From this we produce a theory of E_infinity ring spaces. We also study grouplike objects, and produce theories modelling infinite loop spaces (or connective spectra), and infinite loop spaces with coherent multiplicative structure (or connective ring spectra). We use this to construct the units of a grouplike E_infinity ring space in a natural manner. Lastly we provide a speculative pleasant description of the K-theory of monoidal quasicategories and quasicategories with ring-like structures.

  4. Parallel Algebraic Multigrid Methods - High Performance Preconditioners

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, U M

    2004-11-11

    The development of high performance, massively parallel computers and the increasing demands of computationally challenging applications have necessitated the development of scalable solvers and preconditioners. One of the most effective ways to achieve scalability is the use of multigrid or multilevel techniques. Algebraic multigrid (AMG) is a very efficient algorithm for solving large problems on unstructured grids. While much of it can be parallelized in a straightforward way, some components of the classical algorithm, particularly the coarsening process and some of the most efficient smoothers, are highly sequential, and require new parallel approaches. This chapter presents the basic principles of AMG and gives an overview of various parallel implementations of AMG, including descriptions of parallel coarsening schemes and smoothers, some numerical results as well as references to existing software packages.

  5. Computational Complexity Reductions Using Clifford Algebras

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schott, René; Staples, G. Stacey

    Given a computing architecture based on Clifford algebras, a natural context for determining an algorithm's time complexity is in terms of the number of geometric (Clifford) operations required. In this paper the existence of such a processor is assumed, and a number of graph-theoretical problems are considered. This paper is an extension of previous work, in which the authors defined the "nilpotent adjacency matrix" associated with a finite graph and showed that a number of graph problems of complexity class NP are polynomial in the number of Clifford operations required. Previous results are recalled and illustrated with Mathematica examples. New results are obtained, and old results are improved by the development of new techniques. In particular, a matrix-free approach is developed to count matchings, compute girth, and enumerate proper cycle covers of finite graphs. These new results and techniques are also illustrated with Mathematica examples.

  6. Multiway Filtering Based on Multilinear Algebra Tools

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bourennane, Salah; Fossati, Caroline

    This paper presents some recent filtering methods based on the lower-rank tensor approximation approach for denoising tensor signals. In this approach, multicomponent data are represented by tensors, that is, multiway arrays, and the presented tensor filtering methods rely on multilinear algebra. First, the classical channel-by-channel SVD-based filtering method is overviewed. Then, an extension of the classical matrix filtering method is presented. It is based on the lower rank-(K 1,...,K N ) truncation of the HOSVD which performs a multimode Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and is implicitly developed for an additive white Gaussian noise. Two tensor filtering methods recently developed by the authors are also overviewed. The performances and comparative results between all these tensor filtering methods are presented for the cases of noise reduction in color images.

  7. A graph algebra for scalable visual analytics.

    PubMed

    Shaverdian, Anna A; Zhou, Hao; Michailidis, George; Jagadish, Hosagrahar V

    2012-01-01

    Visual analytics (VA), which combines analytical techniques with advanced visualization features, is fast becoming a standard tool for extracting information from graph data. Researchers have developed many tools for this purpose, suggesting a need for formal methods to guide these tools' creation. Increased data demands on computing requires redesigning VA tools to consider performance and reliability in the context of analysis of exascale datasets. Furthermore, visual analysts need a way to document their analyses for reuse and results justification. A VA graph framework encapsulated in a graph algebra helps address these needs. Its atomic operators include selection and aggregation. The framework employs a visual operator and supports dynamic attributes of data to enable scalable visual exploration of data.

  8. Optimal Discretization Resolution in Algebraic Image Reconstruction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharif, Behzad; Kamalabadi, Farzad

    2005-11-01

    In this paper, we focus on data-limited tomographic imaging problems where the underlying linear inverse problem is ill-posed. A typical regularized reconstruction algorithm uses algebraic formulation with a predetermined discretization resolution. If the selected resolution is too low, we may loose useful details of the underlying image and if it is too high, the reconstruction will be unstable and the representation will fit irrelevant features. In this work, two approaches are introduced to address this issue. The first approach is using Mallow's CL method or generalized cross-validation. For each of the two methods, a joint estimator of regularization parameter and discretization resolution is proposed and their asymptotic optimality is investigated. The second approach is a Bayesian estimator of the model order using a complexity-penalizing prior. Numerical experiments focus on a space imaging application from a set of limited-angle tomographic observations.

  9. Algebraic grid generation for complex geometries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shih, T. I.-P.; Bailey, R. T.; Nguyen, H. L.; Roelke, R. J.

    1991-01-01

    An efficient computer program called GRID2D/3D has been developed to generate single and composite grid systems within geometrically complex two- and three-dimensional (2D and 3D) spatial domains that can deform with time. GRID2D/3D generates single grid systems by using algebraic grid generation methods based on transfinite interpolation. The distribution of grid points within the spatial domain is controlled by stretching functions and grid lines can intersect boundaries of the spatial domain orthogonally. GRID2D/3D generates composite grid systems by patching together two or more single grid systems. The patching can be discontinuous or continuous. For 2D spatial domains the boundary curves are constructed by using either cubic or tension spline interpolation. For 3D spatial domains the boundary surfaces are constructed by using a new technique, developed in this study, referred to as 3D bidirectional Hermite interpolation.

  10. Layout optimization with algebraic multigrid methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Regler, Hans; Ruede, Ulrich

    1993-01-01

    Finding the optimal position for the individual cells (also called functional modules) on the chip surface is an important and difficult step in the design of integrated circuits. This paper deals with the problem of relative placement, that is the minimization of a quadratic functional with a large, sparse, positive definite system matrix. The basic optimization problem must be augmented by constraints to inhibit solutions where cells overlap. Besides classical iterative methods, based on conjugate gradients (CG), we show that algebraic multigrid methods (AMG) provide an interesting alternative. For moderately sized examples with about 10000 cells, AMG is already competitive with CG and is expected to be superior for larger problems. Besides the classical 'multiplicative' AMG algorithm where the levels are visited sequentially, we propose an 'additive' variant of AMG where levels may be treated in parallel and that is suitable as a preconditioner in the CG algorithm.

  11. Factoring Algebraic Error for Relative Pose Estimation

    SciTech Connect

    Lindstrom, P; Duchaineau, M

    2009-03-09

    We address the problem of estimating the relative pose, i.e. translation and rotation, of two calibrated cameras from image point correspondences. Our approach is to factor the nonlinear algebraic pose error functional into translational and rotational components, and to optimize translation and rotation independently. This factorization admits subproblems that can be solved using direct methods with practical guarantees on global optimality. That is, for a given translation, the corresponding optimal rotation can directly be determined, and vice versa. We show that these subproblems are equivalent to computing the least eigenvector of second- and fourth-order symmetric tensors. When neither translation or rotation is known, alternating translation and rotation optimization leads to a simple, efficient, and robust algorithm for pose estimation that improves on the well-known 5- and 8-point methods.

  12. Algebraic geometry realization of quantum Hall soliton

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abounasr, R.; Ait Ben Haddou, M.; El Rhalami, A.; Saidi, E. H.

    2005-02-01

    Using the Iqbal-Netzike-Vafa dictionary giving the correspondence between the H2 homology of del Pezzo surfaces and p-branes, we develop a way to approach the system of brane bounds in M-theory on S1. We first review the structure of 10-dimensional quantum Hall soliton (QHS) from the view of M-theory on S1. Then, we show how the D0 dissolution in D2-brane is realized in M-theory language and derive the p-brane constraint equations used to define appropriately the QHS. Finally, we build an algebraic geometry realization of the QHS in type IIA superstring and show how to get its type IIB dual. Other aspects are also discussed.

  13. Algebraic method for calculating a neutron albedo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ignatovich, V. K.; Shabalin, E. P.

    2007-02-01

    A neutron albedo from arbitrary homogeneous and finely grained substances is examined on the basis of a new, algebraic, method. In the approximation of an isotropic distribution of incident and reflected neutrons, it is shown that, in the case of thermal neutrons, coherent scattering on individual particles of finely grained media increases only slightly the transport cross section, but, at a given wall thickness, it reduces the albedo because of a decrease in the density of the substance. A significant increase in the albedo is possible only for neutrons of wavelength on the order of dimensions of a powder grain. The angular distribution of reflected neutrons is discussed, and it is proven that a deviation of this distribution from an isotropic one does not lead to a change in the magnitude of the albedo.

  14. Algebraically special Einstein-Maxwell fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van den Bergh, Norbert

    2017-01-01

    The Geroch-Held-Penrose formalism is used to re-analyse algebraically special non-null Einstein-Maxwell fields, aligned as well as non-aligned, in the presence of a possible non-vanishing cosmological constant. A new invariant characterization is given of the García-Plebański and Plebański-Hacyan metrics within the family of aligned solutions and of the Griffiths metrics within the family of the non-aligned solutions. As a corollary also the double alignment of the Debever-McLenaghan `class D' metrics with non-vanishing cosmological constant is shown to be equivalent with the shear-free and geodesic behavior of their Debever-Penrose vectors.

  15. Challenges of Algebraic Multigrid across Multicore Architectures

    SciTech Connect

    Baker, A H; Gamblin, T; Schulz, M; Yang, U M

    2010-04-12

    Algebraic multigrid (AMG) is a popular solver for large-scale scientific computing and an essential component of many simulation codes. AMG has shown to be extremely efficient on distributed-memory architectures. However, when executed on modern multicore architectures, we face new challenges that can significantly deteriorate AMG's performance. We examine its performance and scalability on three disparate multicore architectures: a cluster with four AMD Opteron Quad-core processors per node (Hera), a Cray XT5 with two AMD Opteron Hex-core processors per node (Jaguar), and an IBM BlueGene/P system with a single Quad-core processor (Intrepid). We discuss our experiences on these platforms and present results using both an MPI-only and a hybrid MPI/OpenMP model. We also discuss a set of techniques that helped to overcome the associated problems, including thread and process pinning and correct memory associations.

  16. The Dixmier Map for Nilpotent Super Lie Algebras

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herscovich, Estanislao

    2012-07-01

    In this article we prove that there exists a Dixmier map for nilpotent super Lie algebras. In other words, if we denote by {Prim({U}({g}))} the set of (graded) primitive ideals of the enveloping algebra {{U}({g})} of a nilpotent Lie superalgebra {{g}} and {{A}d0} the adjoint group of {{g}0}, we prove that the usual Dixmier map for nilpotent Lie algebras can be naturally extended to the context of nilpotent super Lie algebras, i.e. there exists a bijective map I : {g}0^{*}/{A}d0 rightarrow Prim({U}({g})) defined by sending the equivalence class [ λ] of a functional λ to a primitive ideal I( λ) of {{U}({g})}, and which coincides with the Dixmier map in the case of nilpotent Lie algebras. Moreover, the construction of the previous map is explicit, and more or less parallel to the one for Lie algebras, a major difference with a previous approach ( cf. [18]). One key fact in the construction is the existence of polarizations for super Lie algebras, generalizing the concept defined for Lie algebras. As a corollary of the previous description, we obtain the isomorphism {{U}({g})/I(λ) ˜eq Cliffq(k) ⊗ Ap(k)}, where {(p,q) = (dim({g}0/{g}0^{λ})/2,dim({g}1/{g}1^{λ}))}, we get a direct construction of the maximal ideals of the underlying algebra of {{U}({g})} and also some properties of the stabilizers of the primitive ideals of {{U}({g})}.

  17. Algebraic Dynamic Programming over general data structures

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Background Dynamic programming algorithms provide exact solutions to many problems in computational biology, such as sequence alignment, RNA folding, hidden Markov models (HMMs), and scoring of phylogenetic trees. Structurally analogous algorithms compute optimal solutions, evaluate score distributions, and perform stochastic sampling. This is explained in the theory of Algebraic Dynamic Programming (ADP) by a strict separation of state space traversal (usually represented by a context free grammar), scoring (encoded as an algebra), and choice rule. A key ingredient in this theory is the use of yield parsers that operate on the ordered input data structure, usually strings or ordered trees. The computation of ensemble properties, such as a posteriori probabilities of HMMs or partition functions in RNA folding, requires the combination of two distinct, but intimately related algorithms, known as the inside and the outside recursion. Only the inside recursions are covered by the classical ADP theory. Results The ideas of ADP are generalized to a much wider scope of data structures by relaxing the concept of parsing. This allows us to formalize the conceptual complementarity of inside and outside variables in a natural way. We demonstrate that outside recursions are generically derivable from inside decomposition schemes. In addition to rephrasing the well-known algorithms for HMMs, pairwise sequence alignment, and RNA folding we show how the TSP and the shortest Hamiltonian path problem can be implemented efficiently in the extended ADP framework. As a showcase application we investigate the ancient evolution of HOX gene clusters in terms of shortest Hamiltonian paths. Conclusions The generalized ADP framework presented here greatly facilitates the development and implementation of dynamic programming algorithms for a wide spectrum of applications. PMID:26695390

  18. Algebraic Davis Decomposition and Asymmetric Doob Inequalities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hong, Guixiang; Junge, Marius; Parcet, Javier

    2016-09-01

    In this paper we investigate asymmetric forms of Doob maximal inequality. The asymmetry is imposed by noncommutativity. Let {({M}, τ)} be a noncommutative probability space equipped with a filtration of von Neumann subalgebras {({M}_n)_{n ≥ 1}}, whose union {bigcup_{n≥1}{M}_n} is weak-* dense in {{M}}. Let {{E}_n} denote the corresponding family of conditional expectations. As an illustration for an asymmetric result, we prove that for {1 < p < 2} and {x in L_p({M},τ)} one can find {a, b in L_p({M},τ)} and contractions {u_n, v_n in {M}} such that {E}_n(x) = a u_n + v_n b quad and quad max big{ |a|_p,|b|_p big} ≤ c_p |x|_p. Moreover, it turns out that {a u_n} and {v_n b} converge in the row/column Hardy spaces {{H}_p^r({M})} and {{H}_p^c({M})} respectively. In particular, this solves a problem posed by the Defant and Junge in 2004. In the case p = 1, our results establish a noncommutative form of the Davis celebrated theorem on the relation betwe en martingale maximal and square functions in L 1, whose noncommutative form has remained open for quite some time. Given {1 ≤ p ≤ 2}, we also provide new weak type maximal estimates, which imply in turn left/right almost uniform convergence of {{E}_n(x)} in row/column Hardy spaces. This improves the bilateral convergence known so far. Our approach is based on new forms of Davis martingale decomposition which are of independent interest, and an algebraic atomic description for the involved Hardy spaces. The latter results are new even for commutative von Neumann algebras.

  19. Disjointness preserving operators between little Lipschitz algebras

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiménez-Vargas, A.

    2008-01-01

    Given a real number [alpha][set membership, variant](0,1) and a metric space (X,d), let Lip[alpha](X) be the algebra of all scalar-valued bounded functions f on X such that endowed with any one of the norms ||f||=max{p[alpha](f),||f||[infinity]} or ||f||=p[alpha](f)+||f||[infinity]. The little Lipschitz algebra lip[alpha](X) is the closed subalgebra of Lip[alpha](X) formed by all those functions f such that f(x)-f(y)/d(x,y)[alpha]->0 as d(x,y)->0. A linear mapping is called disjointness preserving if f[dot operator]g=0 in lip[alpha](X) implies (Tf)[dot operator](Tg)=0 in lip[alpha](Y). In this paper we study the representation and the automatic continuity of such maps T in the case in which X and Y are compact. We prove that T is essentially a weighted composition operator Tf=h[dot operator](f[circle, open][phi]) for some nonvanishing little Lipschitz function h and some continuous map [phi]. If, in addition, T is bijective, we deduce that h is a nonvanishing function in lip[alpha](Y) and [phi] is a Lipschitz homeomorphism from Y onto X and, in particular, we obtain that T is automatically continuous and T-1 is disjointness preserving. Moreover we show that there exists always a discontinuous disjointness preserving linear functional on lip[alpha](X), provided X is an infinite compact metric space.

  20. Conceptualizing Routines of Practice That Support Algebraic Reasoning in Elementary Schools: A Constructivist Grounded Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Store, Jessie Chitsanzo

    2012-01-01

    There is ample literature documenting that, for many decades, high school students view algebra as difficult and do not demonstrate understanding of algebraic concepts. Algebraic reasoning in elementary school aims at meaningfully introducing algebra to elementary school students in preparation for higher-level mathematics. While there is research…

  1. Why It Is Important to Learn Algebra. Parent/Student Guide

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    EdSource, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This Parent/Student Guide explains why Algebra I is a required subject, how it helps prepare students for the future, how Algebra I fits into the student's high school math program, and what parents can do to support their student's success in learning algebra. It also explains why California policymakers require all students to take algebra and…

  2. Boolean Algebra. Geometry Module for Use in a Mathematics Laboratory Setting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brotherton, Sheila; And Others

    This module is recommended as an honors unit to follow a unit on logic. There are four basic parts: (1) What is a Boolean Algebra; (2) Using Boolean Algebra to Prove Theorems; (3) Using Boolean Algebra to Simplify Logical Statements; and (4) Circuit Problems with Logic and Boolean Algebra. Of these, sections 1, 2, and 3 are primarily written…

  3. A Response to a Research Base Supporting Long-Term Algebra Reform.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phillips, Elizabeth

    This paper is a reaction to a plenary address, "A Research Base Supporting Long Term Algebra Reform?" by James Kaput (SE 057 182). The reactions fall into three categories: comments on Kaput's dimensions of algebra reform, a brief discussion of algebra and algebra reform from the viewpoint of a curriculum developer of the Connected…

  4. The Propositional Logic Induced by Means of Basic Algebras

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chajda, I.

    2015-12-01

    A propositional logic induced by means of commutative basic algebras was already described by M. Botur and R. Halaš. It turns out that this is a kind of non-associative fuzzy logic which can be used e.g. in expert systems. Unfortunately, there are other important classes of basic algebras which are not commutative, e.g. orthomodular lattices which are used as an axiomatization of the logic of quantum mechanics. This motivated us to develop another axioms and derivation rules which form a propositional logic induced by basic algebras in general. We show that this logic is algebraizable in the sense of W. J. Blok and D. Pigozzi.

  5. Sheaf-theoretic representation of quantum measure algebras

    SciTech Connect

    Zafiris, Elias

    2006-09-15

    We construct a sheaf-theoretic representation of quantum probabilistic structures, in terms of covering systems of Boolean measure algebras. These systems coordinatize quantum states by means of Boolean coefficients, interpreted as Boolean localization measures. The representation is based on the existence of a pair of adjoint functors between the category of presheaves of Boolean measure algebras and the category of quantum measure algebras. The sheaf-theoretic semantic transition of quantum structures shifts their physical significance from the orthoposet axiomatization at the level of events, to the sheaf-theoretic gluing conditions at the level of Boolean localization systems.

  6. Symmetric linear systems - An application of algebraic systems theory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hazewinkel, M.; Martin, C.

    1983-01-01

    Dynamical systems which contain several identical subsystems occur in a variety of applications ranging from command and control systems and discretization of partial differential equations, to the stability augmentation of pairs of helicopters lifting a large mass. Linear models for such systems display certain obvious symmetries. In this paper, we discuss how these symmetries can be incorporated into a mathematical model that utilizes the modern theory of algebraic systems. Such systems are inherently related to the representation theory of algebras over fields. We will show that any control scheme which respects the dynamical structure either implicitly or explicitly uses the underlying algebra.

  7. Towards classical spectrum generating algebras for f-deformations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kullock, Ricardo; Latini, Danilo

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we revise the classical analog of f-oscillators, a generalization of q-oscillators given in Man'ko et al. (1997) [8], in the framework of classical spectrum generating algebras (SGA) introduced in Kuru and Negro (2008) [9]. We write down the deformed Poisson algebra characterizing the entire family of non-linear oscillators and construct its general solution algebraically. The latter, covering the full range of f-deformations, shows an energy dependence both in the amplitude and the frequency of the motion.

  8. f-Deformed Boson Algebra Related to Gentile Statistics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chung, Won Sang; Hassanabadi, Hassan

    2017-02-01

    In this paper the deformed boson algebra giving the Gentile distribution function is constructed by using the model of ideal gas of deformed bosons and some properties of a root of unity. As an example we discuss the quantum optical problem related to the Gentile (or f-deformed) boson algebra with large but finite M. For this algebra we construct the Gentile (or f-deformed) coherent state and discuss its nonclassical properties such as sub-Poissonian statistics and anti-bunching effect.

  9. Almost split real forms for hyperbolic Kac Moody Lie algebras

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ben Messaoud, Hechmi

    2006-11-01

    A Borel Tits theory was developed for almost split forms of symmetrizable Kac Moody Lie algebras. In this paper, we look to almost split real forms and their restricted root systems for symmetrizable hyperbolic Kac Moody Lie algebras. We establish a complete list of these forms, in terms of their Satake Tits index, for the strictly hyperbolic ones and for those which are obtained as (hyperbolic) canonical Lorentzian extensions of affine Lie algebras. These forms are of particular interest in theoretical physics because of their connection to supergravity theories.

  10. W∞-ALGEBRA for Fermions in the Lowest Landau Level

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Myung, Yun Soo

    We derive the W∞-algebra directly from the cocycle (translational) transformation of fermions in the lowest Landau level. This happens whenever the translational symmetry is unbroken in the ground state. Under the cocycle transformations, the lowest Landau level condition and fermion number are preserved. In the droplet approximation, the algebra of this system is reduced to the classical w∞-algebra (area-preserving deformations) and is related to condensed matter physics. This describes the edge modes of the fractional quantum Hall effect.

  11. A quantum affine algebra for the deformed Hubbard chain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beisert, Niklas; Galleas, Wellington; Matsumoto, Takuya

    2012-09-01

    The integrable structure of the one-dimensional Hubbard model is based on Shastry's R-matrix and the Yangian of a centrally extended \\mathfrak {sl}(2|2) superalgebra. Alcaraz and Bariev have shown that the model admits an integrable deformation whose R-matrix has recently been found. This R-matrix is of trigonometric type and here we derive its underlying exceptional quantum affine algebra. We also show how the algebra reduces to the above-mentioned Yangian and to the conventional quantum affine \\mathfrak {sl}(2|2) algebra in two special limits.

  12. Using Algebraic Computing To Teach General Relativity And Cosmology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vulcanov, Dumitru N.; Boată, Remus-Ştefan Ş.

    2012-12-01

    The article presents some new aspects and experience on the use of computer in teaching general relativity and cosmology for undergraduate students (and not only) with some experience in computer manipulation. Some years ago certain results were reported [1] using old fashioned computer algebra platforms but the growing popularity of graphical platforms as Maple and Mathematica forced us to adapt and reconsider our methods and programs. We will describe some simple algebraic programming procedures (in Maple with GrTensorII package) for obtaining and the study of some exact solutions of the Einstein equations in order to convince a dedicated student in general relativity about the utility of a computer algebra system.

  13. Efficient computer algebra algorithms for polynomial matrices in control design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baras, J. S.; Macenany, D. C.; Munach, R.

    1989-01-01

    The theory of polynomial matrices plays a key role in the design and analysis of multi-input multi-output control and communications systems using frequency domain methods. Examples include coprime factorizations of transfer functions, cannonical realizations from matrix fraction descriptions, and the transfer function design of feedback compensators. Typically, such problems abstract in a natural way to the need to solve systems of Diophantine equations or systems of linear equations over polynomials. These and other problems involving polynomial matrices can in turn be reduced to polynomial matrix triangularization procedures, a result which is not surprising given the importance of matrix triangularization techniques in numerical linear algebra. Matrices with entries from a field and Gaussian elimination play a fundamental role in understanding the triangularization process. In the case of polynomial matrices, matrices with entries from a ring for which Gaussian elimination is not defined and triangularization is accomplished by what is quite properly called Euclidean elimination. Unfortunately, the numerical stability and sensitivity issues which accompany floating point approaches to Euclidean elimination are not very well understood. New algorithms are presented which circumvent entirely such numerical issues through the use of exact, symbolic methods in computer algebra. The use of such error-free algorithms guarantees that the results are accurate to within the precision of the model data--the best that can be hoped for. Care must be taken in the design of such algorithms due to the phenomenon of intermediate expressions swell.

  14. Algebra for All: California’s Eighth-Grade Algebra Initiative as Constrained Curricula

    PubMed Central

    Domina, Thurston; Penner, Andrew M.; Penner, Emily K.; Conley, Annemarie

    2015-01-01

    Background/Context Across the United States, secondary school curricula are intensifying as a growing proportion of students enroll in high-level academic math courses. In many districts, this intensification process occurs as early as eighth grade, where schools are effectively constraining their mathematics curricula by restricting course offerings and placing more students into Algebra I. This paper provides a quantitative single-case research study of policy-driven curricular intensification in one California school district. Research Questions (1a) What effect did 8th eighth grade curricular intensification have on mathematics course enrollment patterns in Towering Pines Unified schools? (2b) How did the distribution of prior achievement in Towering Pines math classrooms change as the district constrained the curriculum by universalizing 8th eighth grade Algebra? (3c) Did 8th eighth grade curricular intensification improve students’ mathematics achievement? Setting Towering Pines is an immigrant enclave in the inner-ring suburbs of a major metropolitan area. The district’s 10 middle schools together enroll approximately 4,000 eighth graders each year. The districts’ students are ethnically diverse and largely economically disadvantaged. The study draws upon administrative data describing 8th eighth graders in the district in the 2004–20-05 through 2007–20-08 school years. Intervention/Program/Practice During the study period, Towering Pines dramatically intensified middle school students’ math curricula: In the 2004–20-05 school year 32% of the district’s 8th eighth graders enrolled in Algebra or a higher- level mathematics course; by the 2007–20-08 school year that proportion had increased to 84%. Research Design We use an interrupted time-series design, comparing students’ 8th eighth grade math course enrollments, 10th grade math course enrollments, and 10th grade math test scores across the four cohorts, controlling for demographics and

  15. Learning Activity Package, Algebra 103-104, LAPs 23-33.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans, Diane

    This set of 11 teacher-prepared Learning Activity Packages (LAPs) in intermediate algebra covers number systems; exponents and radicals; polynomials and factoring; rational expressions; coordinate geometry; relations, functions, and inequalities; quadratic equations and inequalities; Quadratic functions; systems of equations and inequalities;…

  16. Algebras with convergent star products and their representations in Hilbert spaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soloviev, M. A.

    2013-07-01

    We study star product algebras of analytic functions for which the power series defining the products converge absolutely. Such algebras arise naturally in deformation quantization theory and in noncommutative quantum field theory. We consider different star products in a unifying way and present results on the structure and basic properties of these algebras, which are useful for applications. Special attention is given to the Hilbert space representation of the algebras and to the exact description of their corresponding operator algebras.

  17. The complete Heyting algebra of subsystems and contextuality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vourdas, A.

    2013-08-01

    The finite set of subsystems of a finite quantum system with variables in {{Z}}(n), is studied as a Heyting algebra. The physical meaning of the logical connectives is discussed. It is shown that disjunction of subsystems is more general concept than superposition. Consequently, the quantum probabilities related to commuting projectors in the subsystems, are incompatible with associativity of the join in the Heyting algebra, unless if the variables belong to the same chain. This leads to contextuality, which in the present formalism has as contexts, the chains in the Heyting algebra. Logical Bell inequalities, which contain "Heyting factors," are discussed. The formalism is also applied to the infinite set of all finite quantum systems, which is appropriately enlarged in order to become a complete Heyting algebra.

  18. Category-theoretic models of algebraic computer systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kovalyov, S. P.

    2016-01-01

    A computer system is said to be algebraic if it contains nodes that implement unconventional computation paradigms based on universal algebra. A category-based approach to modeling such systems that provides a theoretical basis for mapping tasks to these systems' architecture is proposed. The construction of algebraic models of general-purpose computations involving conditional statements and overflow control is formally described by a reflector in an appropriate category of algebras. It is proved that this reflector takes the modulo ring whose operations are implemented in the conventional arithmetic processors to the Łukasiewicz logic matrix. Enrichments of the set of ring operations that form bases in the Łukasiewicz logic matrix are found.

  19. The exotic conformal Galilei algebra and nonlinear partial differential equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cherniha, Roman; Henkel, Malte

    2010-09-01

    The conformal Galilei algebra (CGA) and the exotic conformal Galilei algebra (ECGA) are applied to construct partial differential equations (PDEs) and systems of PDEs, which admit these algebras. We show that there are no single second-order PDEs invariant under the CGA but systems of PDEs can admit this algebra. Moreover, a wide class of nonlinear PDEs exists, which are conditionally invariant under CGA. It is further shown that there are systems of non-linear PDEs admitting ECGA with the realisation obtained very recently in [D. Martelli and Y. Tachikawa, arXiv:0903.5184v2 [hep-th] (2009)]. Moreover, wide classes of non-linear systems, invariant under two different 10-dimensional subalgebras of ECGA are explicitly constructed and an example with possible physical interpretation is presented.

  20. Decomposition Theory in the Teaching of Elementary Linear Algebra.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    London, R. R.; Rogosinski, H. P.

    1990-01-01

    Described is a decomposition theory from which the Cayley-Hamilton theorem, the diagonalizability of complex square matrices, and functional calculus can be developed. The theory and its applications are based on elementary polynomial algebra. (KR)

  1. Comparative study of homotopy continuation methods for nonlinear algebraic equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nor, Hafizudin Mohamad; Ismail, Ahmad Izani Md.; Majid, Ahmad Abd.

    2014-07-01

    We compare some recent homotopy continuation methods to see which method has greater applicability and greater accuracy. We test the methods on systems of nonlinear algebraic equations. The results obtained indicate the superior accuracy of Newton Homotopy Continuation Method (NHCM).

  2. On explicit algebraic stress models for complex turbulent flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gatski, T. B.; Speziale, C. G.

    1992-01-01

    Explicit algebraic stress models that are valid for three-dimensional turbulent flows in noninertial frames are systematically derived from a hierarchy of second-order closure models. This represents a generalization of the model derived by Pope who based his analysis on the Launder, Reece, and Rodi model restricted to two-dimensional turbulent flows in an inertial frame. The relationship between the new models and traditional algebraic stress models -- as well as anistropic eddy visosity models -- is theoretically established. The need for regularization is demonstrated in an effort to explain why traditional algebraic stress models have failed in complex flows. It is also shown that these explicit algebraic stress models can shed new light on what second-order closure models predict for the equilibrium states of homogeneous turbulent flows and can serve as a useful alternative in practical computations.

  3. N=2 supersymmetric extension of l-conformal Galilei algebra

    SciTech Connect

    Masterov, Ivan

    2012-07-15

    N=2 supersymmetric extension of the l-conformal Galilei algebra is constructed. A relation between its representations in flat spacetime and in Newton-Hooke spacetime is discussed. An infinite-dimensional generalization of the superalgebra is given.

  4. Poisson and symplectic structures on Lie algebras. I

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alekseevsky, D. V.; Perelomov, A. M.

    1997-06-01

    The purpose of this paper is to describe a new class of Poisson and symplectic structures on Lie algebras. This gives a new class of solutions of the classical Yang-Baxter equation. The class of elementary Lie algebras is defined and the Poisson and symplectic structures for them are described. The algorithm is given for description of all closed 2-forms and of symplectic structures on any Lie algebra G, which is decomposed into semidirect sum of elementary subalgebras. Using these results we obtain the description of closed 2-forms and symplectic forms (if they exist) on the Borel subalgebra B(G) of semisimple Lie algebra G. As a byproduct, we get description of the second cohomology group H2( B( G)).

  5. Constitutive relations in optics in terms of geometric algebra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dargys, A.

    2015-11-01

    To analyze the electromagnetic wave propagation in a medium the Maxwell equations should be supplemented by constitutive relations. At present the classification of linear constitutive relations is well established in tensorial-matrix and exterior p-form calculus. Here the constitutive relations are found in the context of Clifford geometric algebra. For this purpose Cl1,3 algebra that conforms with relativistic 4D Minkowskian spacetime is used. It is shown that the classification of linear optical phenomena with the help of constitutive relations in this case comes from the structure of Cl1,3 algebra itself. Concrete expressions for constitutive relations which follow from this algebra are presented. They can be applied in calculating the propagation properties of electromagnetic waves in any anisotropic, linear and nondissipative medium.

  6. The complete Heyting algebra of subsystems and contextuality

    SciTech Connect

    Vourdas, A.

    2013-08-15

    The finite set of subsystems of a finite quantum system with variables in Z(n), is studied as a Heyting algebra. The physical meaning of the logical connectives is discussed. It is shown that disjunction of subsystems is more general concept than superposition. Consequently, the quantum probabilities related to commuting projectors in the subsystems, are incompatible with associativity of the join in the Heyting algebra, unless if the variables belong to the same chain. This leads to contextuality, which in the present formalism has as contexts, the chains in the Heyting algebra. Logical Bell inequalities, which contain “Heyting factors,” are discussed. The formalism is also applied to the infinite set of all finite quantum systems, which is appropriately enlarged in order to become a complete Heyting algebra.

  7. Paving the Way To Algebraic Thought Using Residue Designs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Iris DeLoach

    1998-01-01

    Presents a brief definition and examples of residue designs while sharing some of the algebraic thought that a student used to form generalizations about the patterns discovered during the investigations of residue designs. (ASK)

  8. A spatial operator algebra for manipulator modeling and control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rodriguez, G.; Kreutz, K.; Milman, M.

    1988-01-01

    A powerful new spatial operator algebra for modeling, control, and trajectory design of manipulators is discussed along with its implementation in the Ada programming language. Applications of this algebra to robotics include an operator representation of the manipulator Jacobian matrix; the robot dynamical equations formulated in terms of the spatial algebra, showing the complete equivalence between the recursive Newton-Euler formulations to robot dynamics; the operator factorization and inversion of the manipulator mass matrix which immediately results in O(N) recursive forward dynamics algorithms; the joint accelerations of a manipulator due to a tip contact force; the recursive computation of the equivalent mass matrix as seen at the tip of a manipulator; and recursive forward dynamics of a closed chain system. Finally, additional applications and current research involving the use of the spatial operator algebra are discussed in general terms.

  9. Teaching Basic Algebra Courses at the College Level

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mallenby, Michel L.; Mallenby, Douglas W.

    2004-01-01

    Three dysfunctional behaviors of basic algebra students are described: Silence as Camouflage, Wing and a Prayer, and Ignorance is OK. These behavior patterns are explained, and beneficial teaching methods that address the weaknesses are presented.

  10. New infinite-dimensional algebras, sine brackets, and SU (infinity)

    SciTech Connect

    Zachos, C.K.; Fairlie, D.B.

    1989-01-01

    We investigate the infinite dimensional algebras we have previously introduced, which involve trigonometric functions in their structure constants. We find a realization for them which provides a basis-independent formulation, identified with the algebra of sine brackets. A special family of them, the cyclotomic ones, contain SU(N) as invariant subalgebras. In this basis, it is evident by inspection that the algebra of SU(infinity) is equivalent to the centerless algebra of SDiff/sub 0/ on two-dimensional manifolds. Gauge theories of SU(infinity) are thus simply reformulated in terms of surface (sheet) coordinates. Spacetime-independent configurations of their gauge fields describe strings through the quadratic Schild action. 11 refs.

  11. The quantum holonomy-diffeomorphism algebra and quantum gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aastrup, Johannes; Grimstrup, Jesper Møller

    2016-03-01

    We introduce the quantum holonomy-diffeomorphism ∗-algebra, which is generated by holonomy-diffeomorphisms on a three-dimensional manifold and translations on a space of SU(2)-connections. We show that this algebra encodes the canonical commutation relations of canonical quantum gravity formulated in terms of Ashtekar variables. Furthermore, we show that semiclassical states exist on the holonomy-diffeomorphism part of the algebra but that these states cannot be extended to the full algebra. Via a Dirac-type operator we derive a certain class of unbounded operators that act in the GNS construction of the semiclassical states. These unbounded operators are the type of operators, which we have previously shown to entail the spatial three-dimensional Dirac operator and Dirac-Hamiltonian in a semiclassical limit. Finally, we show that the structure of the Hamilton constraint emerges from a Yang-Mills-type operator over the space of SU(2)-connections.

  12. Whittaker modules for the twisted Heisenberg-Virasoro algebra

    SciTech Connect

    Liu Dong; Wu Yuezhu; Zhu Linsheng

    2010-02-15

    We define Whittaker modules for the twisted Heisenberg-Virasoro algebra and obtain several results from the classical setting, including a classification of simple Whittaker modules by central characters.

  13. Assessment of polytechnic students' understanding of basic algebra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mokmin, Nur Azlina Mohamed; Masood, Mona

    2015-12-01

    It is important for engineering students to excel in algebra. Previous studies show that the algebraic fraction is a subtopic of algebra that was found to be the most challenging for engineering students. This study is done with 191 first semester engineering students who have enrolled in engineering programs in Malaysian polytechnic. The respondents are divided into Group 1 (Distinction) and Group 2 (Credit) based on their Mathematics SPM result. A computer application is developed for this study to assess student information and understanding of the algebraic fraction topic. The result is analyzed using SPSS and Microsoft Excel. The test results show that there are significant differences between Group 1 and Group 2 and that most of the students scored below the minimum requirement.

  14. The arithmetico-geometric sequence: an application of linear algebra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orosi, Greg

    2016-07-01

    In this paper, we present a linear algebra-based derivation of the analytic formula for the sum of the first nth terms of the arithmetico-geometric sequence. Furthermore, the advantage of the derivation is briefly discussed.

  15. Hidden gauge structure of supersymmetric free differential algebras

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andrianopoli, Laura; D'Auria, Riccardo; Ravera, Lucrezia

    2016-08-01

    The aim of this paper is to clarify the role of the nilpotent fermionic generator Q ' introduced in [6] and appearing in the hidden supergroup underlying the free differential algebra (FDA) of D=11 supergravity.

  16. Applied Algebra: The Modeling Technique of Least Squares

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zelkowski, Jeremy; Mayes, Robert

    2008-01-01

    The article focuses on engaging students in algebra through modeling real-world problems. The technique of least squares is explored, encouraging students to develop a deeper understanding of the method. (Contains 2 figures and a bibliography.)

  17. Tensor Algebra Library for NVidia Graphics Processing Units

    SciTech Connect

    Liakh, Dmitry

    2015-03-16

    This is a general purpose math library implementing basic tensor algebra operations on NVidia GPU accelerators. This software is a tensor algebra library that can perform basic tensor algebra operations, including tensor contractions, tensor products, tensor additions, etc., on NVidia GPU accelerators, asynchronously with respect to the CPU host. It supports a simultaneous use of multiple NVidia GPUs. Each asynchronous API function returns a handle which can later be used for querying the completion of the corresponding tensor algebra operation on a specific GPU. The tensors participating in a particular tensor operation are assumed to be stored in local RAM of a node or GPU RAM. The main research area where this library can be utilized is the quantum many-body theory (e.g., in electronic structure theory).

  18. Quasi-Linear Algebras and Integrability (the Heisenberg Picture)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vinet, Luc; Zhedanov, Alexei

    2008-02-01

    We study Poisson and operator algebras with the ''quasi-linear property'' from the Heisenberg picture point of view. This means that there exists a set of one-parameter groups yielding an explicit expression of dynamical variables (operators) as functions of ''time'' t. We show that many algebras with nonlinear commutation relations such as the Askey-Wilson, q-Dolan-Grady and others satisfy this property. This provides one more (explicit Heisenberg evolution) interpretation of the corresponding integrable systems.

  19. Nonlinear realizations of the W(2)3 algebra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bellucci, S.; Gribanov, V.; Krivonos, S.; Pashnev, A.

    1994-08-01

    In this Letter we consider the nonlinear realizations of the classical Polyakov's algebra W(2)3. The coset space method and the covariant reduction procedure allow us to deduce the Boussinesq equation with interchanged space and evolution coordinates. By adding one more space coordinate and introducing two copies of the W(2)3 algebra, the same method yields the sl(3, R) Toda lattice equations.

  20. Birman—Wenzl—Murakami Algebra and Topological Basis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Cheng-Cheng; Xue, Kang; Wang, Gang-Cheng; Sun, Chun-Fang; Du, Gui-Jiao

    2012-02-01

    In this paper, we use entangled states to construct 9 × 9-matrix representations of Temperley—Lieb algebra (TLA), then a family of 9 × 9-matrix representations of Birman—Wenzl—Murakami algebra (BWMA) have been presented. Based on which, three topological basis states have been found. And we apply topological basis states to recast nine-dimensional BWMA into its three-dimensional counterpart. Finally, we find the topological basis states are spin singlet states in special case.