NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Huf, P. A.; Carminati, J.
2015-09-01
In this paper we: (1) introduce TensorPack, a software package for the algebraic manipulation of tensors in covariant index format in Maple; (2) briefly demonstrate the use of the package with an orthonormal tensor proof of the shearfree conjecture for dust. TensorPack is based on the Riemann and Canon tensor software packages and uses their functions to express tensors in an indexed covariant format. TensorPack uses a string representation as input and provides functions for output in index form. It extends the functionality to basic algebra of tensors, substitution, covariant differentiation, contraction, raising/lowering indices, symmetry functions and other accessory functions. The output can be merged with text in the Maple environment to create a full working document with embedded dynamic functionality. The package offers potential for manipulation of indexed algebraic tensor expressions in a flexible software environment.
Applications of Maple To Algebraic Cryptography.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Sigmon, Neil P.
1997-01-01
Demonstrates the use of technology to enhance the appreciation of applications involving abstract algebra. The symbolic manipulator Maple can perform computations required for a linear cryptosystem. One major benefit of this process is that students can encipher and decipher messages using a linear cryptosystem without becoming confused and…
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nicolaides, Roy A.; Walkington, Noel J.
1996-06-01
A knowledge of one or more high level symbolic mathematics programs is rapidly becoming a necessity for mathematics users from all fields of science. The aim of this book is to provide a solid grounding in Maple, one of the best known of these programs. The authors combine efficiency and economy of exposition with a complete coverage of Maple. The book has twelve chapters, of which eight are completely accessible to anyone who has completed calculus and linear sequences as taught in American universities. These chapters cover the great majority of Maple's capabilities. There are also three chapters on Maple programming that can be read without prior programming experience, although knowledge of a high level programming language (Basic, Fortran, C etc.) will help. There is also a chapter on some relevant aspects of algebra. Above all, the book allows the reader to extract value from Maple without wasting time and effort in the learning process. It is the fastest track to expertise for Maple users in mathematics and computer science.
Maple (Computer Algebra System) in Teaching Pre-Calculus: Example of Absolute Value Function
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Tuluk, Güler
2014-01-01
Modules in Computer Algebra Systems (CAS) make Mathematics interesting and easy to understand. The present study focused on the implementation of the algebraic, tabular (numerical), and graphical approaches used for the construction of the concept of absolute value function in teaching mathematical content knowledge along with Maple 9. The study…
Learning Activity Package, Algebra-Trigonometry.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Holland, Bill
A series of ten teacher-prepared Learning Activity Packages (LAPs) in advanced algebra and trigonometry, the units cover logic; absolute value, inequalities, exponents, and complex numbers; functions; higher degree equations and the derivative; the trigonometric function; graphs and applications of the trigonometric functions; sequences and…
Learning Activity Package, Pre-Algebra.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Evans, Diane
A set of ten teacher-prepared Learning Activity Packages (LAPs) for individualized instruction in topics in pre-algebra, the units cover the decimal numeration system; number theory; fractions and decimals; ratio, proportion, and percent; sets; properties of operations; rational numbers; real numbers; open expressions; and open rational…
A Maple package for improved global mapping forecast
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Carli, H.; Duarte, L. G. S.; da Mota, L. A. C. P.
2014-03-01
We present a Maple implementation of the well known global approach to time series analysis and some further developments designed to improve the computational efficiency of the forecasting capabilities of the approach. This global approach can be summarized as being a reconstruction of the phase space, based on a time ordered series of data obtained from the system. After that, using the reconstructed vectors, a portion of this space is used to produce a mapping, a polynomial fitting, through a minimization procedure, that represents the system and can be employed to forecast further entries for the series. In the present implementation, we introduce a set of commands, tools, in order to perform all these tasks. For example, the command VecTS deals mainly with the reconstruction of the vector in the phase space. The command GfiTS deals with producing the minimization and the fitting. ForecasTS uses all these and produces the prediction of the next entries. For the non-standard algorithms, we here present two commands: IforecasTS and NiforecasTS that, respectively deal with the one-step and the N-step forecasting. Finally, we introduce two further tools to aid the forecasting. The commands GfiTS and AnalysTS, basically, perform an analysis of the behavior of each portion of a series regarding the settings used on the commands just mentioned above. Catalogue identifier: AERW_v1_0 Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/AERW_v1_0.html Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen’s University, Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions: Standard CPC licence, http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/licence/licence.html No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 3001 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 95018 Distribution format: tar.gz Programming language: Maple 14. Computer: Any capable of running Maple Operating system: Any capable of running Maple. Tested on Windows ME, Windows XP, Windows 7. RAM: 128 MB
Born total ionisation cross sections: An algebraic computing program using Maple
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bartlett, Philip L.; Stelbovics, Andris T.
2003-08-01
The software described in this paper uses the Maple algebraic computing environment to calculate an analytic form for the matrix element of the plane-wave Born approximation of the electron-impact ionisation of an atomic orbital, with arbitrary orbital and angular momentum quantum numbers. The atomic orbitals are approximated by Hartree-Fock Slater functions, and the ejected electron is modelled by a hydrogenic Coulomb wave, made orthogonal to all occupied orbitals of the target atom. Clenshaw-Curtis integration techniques are then used to calculate the total ionisation cross-section. For improved performance, the numerical integrations are performed using FORTRAN by automatically converting the analytic matrix element for each orbital into a FORTRAN subroutine. The results compare favourably with experimental data for a wide range of elements, including the transition metals, with excellent convergence at high energies. Program summaryTitle of program: BIX Catalogue identifier:ADRZ Program summary URL:http://www.cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/cpc/summaries/ADRZ Program obtainable from:CPC Program Library, Queen's University of Belfast, N. Ireland Computers: Platform independent Operating systems: Tested on DEC Alpha Unix, Windows NT 4.0 and Windows XP Professional Edition Programming language used: Maple V Release 5.1 and FORTRAN 90 Memory required: 256 MB No. of processors used: 1 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.:61754 Distributed format:tar gzip file Keywords: Born approximation, electron-impact ionisation cross-section, Maple, Hartree-Fock Nature of physical problem: Calculates the total electron impact ionisation cross-section for neutral and ionised atomic species using the first-Born approximation. The scattered electron is modelled by a plane wave, and the ejected electron is modelled by a hydrogenic Coulomb wave, which is made orthogonal to all occupied atomic orbitals, and the atomic orbitals are approximated by Hartree-Fock Slater
Algebra [Student's Individualized Career Source Package].
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Tingle, H. Burton
This is a volume of teacher-developed units to supplement the textbook in a first-year algebra course. The units consist mainly of statements of objectives and student worksheets with some examples and references to the textbook given as aids. Major topics covered are basic operations with signed rational numbers and with polynomials,…
Learning Activity Package, Algebra 124, LAPs 46-55.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Holland, Bill
A series of 10 teacher-prepared Learning Activity Packages (LAPs) in advanced algebra and trigonometry, these units cover absolute value, inequalities, exponents, radicals, and complex numbers; functions; higher degree equations and the derivative; the trigonometric functions; graphs and applications of the trigonometric functions; sequences and…
AN ADA LINEAR ALGEBRA PACKAGE MODELED AFTER HAL/S
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Klumpp, A. R.
1994-01-01
This package extends the Ada programming language to include linear algebra capabilities similar to those of the HAL/S programming language. The package is designed for avionics applications such as Space Station flight software. In addition to the HAL/S built-in functions, the package incorporates the quaternion functions used in the Shuttle and Galileo projects, and routines from LINPAK that solve systems of equations involving general square matrices. Language conventions in this package follow those of HAL/S to the maximum extent practical and minimize the effort required for writing new avionics software and translating existent software into Ada. Valid numeric types in this package include scalar, vector, matrix, and quaternion declarations. (Quaternions are fourcomponent vectors used in representing motion between two coordinate frames). Single precision and double precision floating point arithmetic is available in addition to the standard double precision integer manipulation. Infix operators are used instead of function calls to define dot products, cross products, quaternion products, and mixed scalar-vector, scalar-matrix, and vector-matrix products. The package contains two generic programs: one for floating point, and one for integer. The actual component type is passed as a formal parameter to the generic linear algebra package. The procedures for solving systems of linear equations defined by general matrices include GEFA, GECO, GESL, and GIDI. The HAL/S functions include ABVAL, UNIT, TRACE, DET, INVERSE, TRANSPOSE, GET, PUT, FETCH, PLACE, and IDENTITY. This package is written in Ada (Version 1.2) for batch execution and is machine independent. The linear algebra software depends on nothing outside the Ada language except for a call to a square root function for floating point scalars (such as SQRT in the DEC VAX MATHLIB library). This program was developed in 1989, and is a copyrighted work with all copyright vested in NASA.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Zhi-Bin; Liu, Yin-Ping
2004-11-01
In Maple 8, by taking advantage of the package RIF contained in DEtools, we developed a package RAEEM which is a comprehensive and complete implementation of such methods as the tanh-method, the extended tanh-method, the Jacobi elliptic function method and the elliptic equation method. RAEEM can entirely automatically output a series of exact traveling wave solutions, including those of polynomial, exponential, triangular, hyperbolic, rational, Jacobi elliptic, Weierstrass elliptic type. The effectiveness of the package is illustrated by applying it to a large variety of equations. In addition to recovering previously known solutions, we also obtain more general forms of some solutions and new solutions. Program summaryTitle of program: RAEEM Catalogue identifier: ADUP Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/ADUP Program obtained from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University of Belfast, N. Ireland Computers: PC Pentium IV Installations: Copy Operating systems: Windows 98/2000/XP Program language used: Maple 8 Memory required to execute with typical data: depends on the problem, minimum about 8M words No. of bits in a word: 8 No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 3163 No. of bytes in distributed program, including the test data, etc.: 26 720 Distribution format: tar.gz Nature of physical problem: Our program provides exact traveling wave solutions, which describe various phenomena in nature, and thus can give more insight into the physical aspects of problems. These solutions may be easily used in further applications. Restriction on the complexity of the problem: The program can handle system of nonlinear evolution equations with any number of independent and dependent variables, in which each equation is a polynomial (or can be converted to a polynomial) in the dependent variables and their derivatives. Typical running time: It depends on the input equations as well as the degrees of the desired polynomial solutions. For
A MAPLE Package for Energy-Momentum Tensor Assessment in Curved Space-Time
Murariu, Gabriel; Praisler, Mirela
2010-01-21
One of the most interesting problem which remain unsolved, since the birth of the General Theory of Relativity (GR), is the energy-momentum localization. All our reflections are within the Lagrange formalism of the field theory. The concept of the energy-momentum tensor for gravitational interactions has a long history. To find a generally accepted expression, there have been different attempts. This paper is dedicated to the investigation of the energy-momentum problem in the theory of General Relativity. We use Einstein [1], Landau-Lifshitz [2], Bergmann-Thomson [3] and Moller's [4] prescriptions to evaluate energy-momentum distribution. In order to cover the huge volume of computation and, bearing in mind to make a general approaching for different space-time configurations, a MAPLE application to succeed in studying the energy momentum tensor was built. In the second part of the paper for two space-time configuration, the comparative results were presented.
Software package and API in MATLAB for working with fuzzy algebras
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zahariev, Zlatko
2009-11-01
New software package for fuzzy calculus is presented in this paper. Most important feature of this package is solving fuzzy linear systems of equations and inequalities in fuzzy algebras. Together with this, some other functionality is implemented. An example is also given.
Maple Explorations, Perfect Numbers, and Mersenne Primes
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Ghusayni, B.
2005-01-01
Some examples from different areas of mathematics are explored to give a working knowledge of the computer algebra system Maple. Perfect numbers and Mersenne primes, which have fascinated people for a very long time and continue to do so, are studied using Maple and some questions are posed that still await answers.
Learning Activity Package, Algebra 103-104, LAPs 23-33.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Evans, Diane
This set of 11 teacher-prepared Learning Activity Packages (LAPs) in intermediate algebra covers number systems; exponents and radicals; polynomials and factoring; rational expressions; coordinate geometry; relations, functions, and inequalities; quadratic equations and inequalities; Quadratic functions; systems of equations and inequalities;…
Learning Activity Package, Algebra 93-94, LAPs 12-22.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Evans, Diane
A set of 11 teacher-prepared Learning Activity Packages (LAPs) in beginning algebra, these units cover sets, properties of operations, operations over real numbers, open expressions, solution sets of equations and inequalities, equations and inequalities with two variables, solution sets of equations with two variables, exponents, factoring and…
Hyperfine structure parametrisation in Maple
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gaigalas, G.; Scharf, O.; Fritzsche, S.
2006-02-01
: All computers with a license of the computer algebra package MAPLE Installations: University of Kassel (Germany) Operating systems under which the program has been tested: Linux 9.0 Program language used:MAPLE, Release 7, 8 and 9 Memory required to execute with typical data: 5 MB No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 34 300 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 954 196 Distribution format: tar.gz Nature of the physical problem: Atomic state functions of an many configuration many electron atom with several open shells are defined by a number of quantum numbers, by their coupling and selection rules such as the Pauli exclusion principal or parity conservation. The matrix elements of any one-particle operator acting on these wavefunctions can be analytically integrated up to the radial part [G. Gaigalas, O. Scharf, S. Fritzsche, Central European J. Phys. 2 (2004) 720]. The decoupling of the interacting electrons is general, the obtained submatrix element holds all the peculiarities of the operator in question. These so-called submatrix elements are the key to do hyperfine structure calculations. The interaction between the electrons and the atomic nucleus leads to an additional splitting of the fine structure lines, the hyperfine structure. The leading components are the magnetic dipole interaction defining the so-called A factor and the electric quadrupole interaction, defining the so-called B factor. They express the energetic splitting of the spectral lines. Moreover, they are obtained directly by experiments and can be calculated theoretically in an ab initio approach. A semiempirical approach allows the fitting of the radial parts of the wavefunction to the experimentally obtained A and B factors. Method of solution: Extending the existing csf_LS() and asf_LS() to several open shells and implementing a data structure level_LS() for the fine structure level, the atomic environment is defined in MAPLE. It is used in
An Ada Linear-Algebra Software Package Modeled After HAL/S
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Klumpp, Allan R.; Lawson, Charles L.
1990-01-01
New avionics software written more easily. Software package extends Ada programming language to include linear-algebra capabilities similar to those of HAL/S programming language. Designed for such avionics applications as Space Station flight software. In addition to built-in functions of HAL/S, package incorporates quaternion functions used in Space Shuttle and Galileo projects and routines from LINPAK solving systems of equations involving general square matrices. Contains two generic programs: one for floating-point computations and one for integer computations. Written on IBM/AT personal computer running under PC DOS, v.3.1.
Using Maple to Implement eLearning Integrated with Computer Aided Assessment
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Blyth, Bill; Labovic, Aleksandra
2009-01-01
Advanced mathematics courses have been developed and refined by the first author, using an action research methodology, for more than a decade. These courses use the computer algebra system (CAS) Maple in an "immersion mode" where all presentations and student work are done using Maple. Assignments and examinations are Maple files downloaded from…
JTpack90: A parallel, object-based, Fortran 90 linear algebra package
Turner, J.A.; Kothe, D.B.; Ferrell, R.C.
1997-03-01
The authors have developed an object-based linear algebra package, currently with emphasis on sparse Krylov methods, driven primarily by needs of the Los Alamos National Laboratory parallel unstructured-mesh casting simulation tool Telluride. Support for a number of sparse storage formats, methods, and preconditioners have been implemented, driven primarily by application needs. They describe the object-based Fortran 90 approach, which enhances maintainability, performance, and extensibility, the parallelization approach using a new portable gather/scatter library (PGSLib), current capabilities and future plans, and present preliminary performance results on a variety of platforms.
Engineering Mathematics Assessment Using "MapleTA"
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Jones, Ian S.
2008-01-01
The assessment of degree level engineering mathematics students using the computer-aided assessment package MapleTA is discussed. Experience of academic and practical issues for both online coursework and examination assessments is presented, hopefully benefiting other academics in this novel area of activity. (Contains 6 figures and 1 table.)
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Johnston, Basil
1978-01-01
Describing the Iroquoi's Maple Sugar Festival, this article details the symbolism of renewal, becoming, and regeneration celebrated by the Iroquoi as the sap from the maple trees begins to flow each year. The symbolic role of woman, the sweet sap itself, and man's fellow creatures are described. (JC)
Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR
2012-04-01
... § 168.140 Maple sirup. (a) Maple sirup is the liquid food derived by concentration and heat treatment of the sap of the maple tree (Acer) or by solution in water of maple sugar (mapel concrete) made...
Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR
2013-04-01
... § 168.140 Maple sirup. (a) Maple sirup is the liquid food derived by concentration and heat treatment of the sap of the maple tree (Acer) or by solution in water of maple sugar (mapel concrete) made...
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-04-01
... § 168.140 Maple sirup. (a) Maple sirup is the liquid food derived by concentration and heat treatment of the sap of the maple tree (Acer) or by solution in water of maple sugar (mapel concrete) made...
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-01-01
... Yield Coverage Using Actual Production History § 1437.107 Maple sap. (a) NAP assistance for maple sap is... maple sap. (g) The actual production history for maple sap shall be recorded on the basis of gallons...
The Multiple Pendulum Problem via Maple[R
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Salisbury, K. L.; Knight, D. G.
2002-01-01
The way in which computer algebra systems, such as Maple, have made the study of physical problems of some considerable complexity accessible to mathematicians and scientists with modest computational skills is illustrated by solving the multiple pendulum problem. A solution is obtained for four pendulums with no restriction on the size of the…
Algebra I, Package 03-03, Addition and Multiplication of Real Numbers.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Thompson, Russ; Fuller, Albert
This teacher guide is part of the materials prepared for an individualized program for ninth-grade algebra and basic mathematics students. Materials written for the program are to be used with audiovisual lessons recorded on tape cassettes. For an evaluation of the program, see ED 086 545. In this guide, the teacher is provided with objectives for…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Maguire, Molly; Gunton, Ric
2000-01-01
Maple Leaf Outdoor Centre (Ontario) has added year-round outdoor education facilities and programs to help support its summer camp for disadvantaged children. Schools, youth centers, religious groups, and athletic teams conduct their own programs, collaborate with staff, or use staff-developed programs emphasizing adventure education and personal…
Equivalent Colorings with "Maple"
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Cecil, David R.; Wang, Rongdong
2005-01-01
Many counting problems can be modeled as "colorings" and solved by considering symmetries and Polya's cycle index polynomial. This paper presents a "Maple 7" program link http://users.tamuk.edu/kfdrc00/ that, given Polya's cycle index polynomial, determines all possible associated colorings and their partitioning into equivalence classes. These…
The Chemical Composition of Maple Syrup
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Ball, David W.
2007-01-01
Maple syrup is one of several high-sugar liquids that humans consume. However, maple syrup is more than just a concentrated sugar solution. Here, we review the chemical composition of maple syrup. (Contains 4 tables and 1 figure.)
Student's Lab Assignments in PDE Course with MAPLE.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Ponidi, B. Alhadi
Computer-aided software has been used intensively in many mathematics courses, especially in computational subjects, to solve initial value and boundary value problems in Partial Differential Equations (PDE). Many software packages were used in student lab assignments such as FORTRAN, PASCAL, MATLAB, MATHEMATICA, and MAPLE in order to accelerate…
Using Math With Maple Sugaring.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Christenson, Gary
1984-01-01
Suggest several math activities using the simple technique of tapping a sugar maple tree for sap. Information and activities presented are useful in tapping one or two trees on school property, helping students who tap trees at home, or leading a field trip to a nearby maple sugaring site. (ERB)
Nonnumeric Computer Applications to Algebra, Trigonometry and Calculus.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Stoutemyer, David R.
1983-01-01
Described are computer program packages requiring little or no knowledge of computer programing for college algebra, calculus, and abstract algebra. Widely available computer algebra systems are listed. (MNS)
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-01-01
... limited to maple sap produced on private property for sale as sap or syrup. Eligible maple sap must be... sap must be established for the value of the sap before processing into syrup. If price data is available only for maple syrup, this data must be converted to a maple sap basis. The wholesale price for...
The Maple Products: An Outdoor Education Unit.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Yaple, Charles; And Others
Designed to take advantage of the spring season, this resource packet on maple products centers upon a field lesson in harvesting and making maple syrup. The resources in this packet include: a narrative on the origins of maple sugar; an illustrated description of "old time maple sugarin'"; suggestions for pre-trip activities (history of maple…
Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR
2013-01-01
... limited to maple sap produced on private property for sale as sap or syrup. Eligible maple sap must be... sap must be established for the value of the sap before processing into syrup. If price data is available only for maple syrup, this data must be converted to a maple sap basis. The wholesale price for...
Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR
2014-01-01
... limited to maple sap produced on private property for sale as sap or syrup. Eligible maple sap must be... sap must be established for the value of the sap before processing into syrup. If price data is available only for maple syrup, this data must be converted to a maple sap basis. The wholesale price for...
Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR
2012-01-01
... limited to maple sap produced on private property for sale as sap or syrup. Eligible maple sap must be... sap must be established for the value of the sap before processing into syrup. If price data is available only for maple syrup, this data must be converted to a maple sap basis. The wholesale price for...
Parametric Equations, Maple, and Tubeplots.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Feicht, Louis
1997-01-01
Presents an activity that establishes a graphical foundation for parametric equations by using a graphing output form called tubeplots from the computer program Maple. Provides a comprehensive review and exploration of many previously learned topics. (ASK)
Use of a Colony of Cooperating Agents and MAPLE To Solve the Traveling Salesman Problem.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Guerrieri, Bruno
This paper reviews an approach for finding optimal solutions to the traveling salesman problem, a well-known problem in combinational optimization, and describes implementing the approach using the MAPLE computer algebra system. The method employed in this approach to the problem is similar to the way ant colonies manage to establish shortest…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Trisler, Carmen E.
1994-01-01
Uses models to illustrate the possible "migration route" of the sugar maple in response to predicted global climate change. Curriculum activities for students are provided that specifically address the sugar maple forests of the Great Lakes regions. (ZWH)
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-04-01
... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Maple sirup. 168.140 Section 168.140 Food and... CONSUMPTION SWEETENERS AND TABLE SIRUPS Requirements for Specific Standardized Sweeteners and Table Sirups § 168.140 Maple sirup. (a) Maple sirup is the liquid food derived by concentration and heat treatment...
Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR
2014-04-01
... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Maple sirup. 168.140 Section 168.140 Food and... CONSUMPTION SWEETENERS AND TABLE SIRUPS Requirements for Specific Standardized Sweeteners and Table Sirups § 168.140 Maple sirup. (a) Maple sirup is the liquid food derived by concentration and heat treatment...
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Avellar, J.; Duarte, L. G. S.; da Mota, L. A. C. P.
2012-10-01
of revisions: • As time went by, many commands in Maple were deprecated. So, in order to make the program able to run with the newer versions, we have checked and changed some of those. For instance, the command sum had changed, and some program lines were substituted so that the package works properly. • In the old version we must supply the degree of the Darboux polynomials we want to determine. In the present version the user can set the degree by typing Deg = number in the command call (e.g., PSsolve(ode, Deg =3); telling the command PSsolve that it must use Darboux polynomials of degree up to three). If the user does not specify the degree, the routines use, as default, the degree 1. Restrictions: If the integrating factor for the FOODE under consideration has factors of high degree in the dependent and independent variables and in the elementary functions appearing in the FOODE, the package may spend a long time finding the solution. Also, when dealing with FOODEs containing elementary functions, it is essential that the algebraic dependency between them is recognized. If that does not happen, our program can miss some solutions. Unusual features: Our implementation of the Prelle-Singer approach not only solves FOODEs, but can also be used as a research tool that allows the user to follow all the steps of the procedure. For example, the Darboux polynomials (eigenpolynomials) of the D-operator associated with a FOODE (see Section 4) can be calculated. In addition, our package is successful in solving FOODEs that were not solved by some of the most commonly available solvers. Finally, our package implements a theoretical extension (for details, see [1,2]) to the original Prelle-Singer approach that enhances its scope, allowing it to tackle some FOODEs whose solutions involve non-elementary Liouvillian functions. Running time: This depends strongly on the FOODE, but usually under 2 seconds when running our 'arena' test file: The non linear FOODEs presented in
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Avellar, J.; Duarte, L. G. S.; da Mota, L. A. C. P.
2012-10-01
of revisions: • As time went by, many commands in Maple were deprecated. So, in order to make the program able to run with the newer versions, we have checked and changed some of those. For instance, the command sum had changed, and some program lines were substituted so that the package works properly. • In the old version we must supply the degree of the Darboux polynomials we want to determine. In the present version the user can set the degree by typing Deg = number in the command call (e.g., PSsolve(ode, Deg =3); telling the command PSsolve that it must use Darboux polynomials of degree up to three). If the user does not specify the degree, the routines use, as default, the degree 1. Restrictions: If the integrating factor for the FOODE under consideration has factors of high degree in the dependent and independent variables and in the elementary functions appearing in the FOODE, the package may spend a long time finding the solution. Also, when dealing with FOODEs containing elementary functions, it is essential that the algebraic dependency between them is recognized. If that does not happen, our program can miss some solutions. Unusual features: Our implementation of the Prelle-Singer approach not only solves FOODEs, but can also be used as a research tool that allows the user to follow all the steps of the procedure. For example, the Darboux polynomials (eigenpolynomials) of the D-operator associated with a FOODE (see Section 4) can be calculated. In addition, our package is successful in solving FOODEs that were not solved by some of the most commonly available solvers. Finally, our package implements a theoretical extension (for details, see [1,2]) to the original Prelle-Singer approach that enhances its scope, allowing it to tackle some FOODEs whose solutions involve non-elementary Liouvillian functions. Running time: This depends strongly on the FOODE, but usually under 2 seconds when running our 'arena' test file: The non linear FOODEs presented in
Graphs and Enhancing Maple Multiplication.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Cecil, David R.; Wang, Rongdong
2002-01-01
Description of a technique in Maple programming language that automatically prints all paths of any desired length along with the name of each vertex, proceeding in order from the beginning vertex to the ending vertex for a given graph. (Author/MM)
Hincapié, Doracelly; Ospina, Juan
2011-01-01
Algebraic analysis of social networks exhibited by SARS-Beijing-2003 and AH1N1 flu-México-2009 was realized. The main tools were the Tutte polynomials and Maple package Graph-Theory. The topological structures like graphs and networks were represented by invariant polynomials. The evolution of a given social network was represented like an evolution of the algebraic complexity of the corresponding Tutte polynomial. The reduction of a given social network was described like an involution of the algebraic complexity of the associated Tutte polynomial. The outbreaks of SARS and AH1N1 Flu were considered like represented by a reduction of previously existing contact networks via the control measures executed by health authorities. From Tutte polynomials were derived numerical indicators about efficiency of control measures. PMID:21431617
Maple procedures for the coupling of angular momenta. IX. Wigner D-functions and rotation matrices
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pagaran, J.; Fritzsche, S.; Gaigalas, G.
2006-04-01
expressions to be evaluated. Licensing provisions:None Computer for which the program is designed and others on which it is operable: All computers with a license for the computer algebra package Maple [Maple is a registered trademark of Waterloo Maple Inc.] Installations:University of Kassel (Germany) Operating systems under which the program has been tested: Linux 8.2+ Program language used:MAPLE, Release 8 and 9 Memory required to execute with typical data:10-50 MB No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.:52 653 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.:1 195 346 Distribution format:tar.gzip Nature of the physical problem: The Wigner D-functions and (reduced) rotation matrices occur very frequently in physical applications. They are known not only as the (infinite) representation of the rotation group but also to obey a number of integral and summation rules, including those for their orthogonality and completeness. Instead of the direct computation of these matrices, therefore, one first often wishes to find algebraic simplifications before the computations can be carried out in practice. Reasons for new version: The RACAH program has been found an efficient tool during recent years, in order to evaluate and simplify expressions from Racah's algebra. Apart from the Wigner n-j symbols ( j=3,6,9) and spherical harmonics, we now extended the code to allow for Wigner rotation matrices. This extension will support the study of those quantum processes especially where different axis of quantization occurs in course of the theoretical deviations. Summary of revisions: In a revised version of the RACAH program [S. Fritzsche, Comput. Phys. Comm. 103 (1997) 51; S. Fritzsche, T. Inghoff, M. Tomaselli, Comput. Phys. Comm. 153 (2003) 424], we now also support the occurrence of the Wigner D-functions and reduced rotation matrices. By following our previous design, the (algebraic) properties of these rotation matrices as well as a number of
Titration Calculations with Computer Algebra Software
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Lachance, Russ; Biaglow, Andrew
2012-01-01
This article examines the symbolic algebraic solution of the titration equations for a diprotic acid, as obtained using "Mathematica," "Maple," and "Mathcad." The equilibrium and conservation equations are solved symbolically by the programs to eliminate the approximations that normally would be performed by the student. Of the three programs,…
Some Unexpected Results Using Computer Algebra Systems.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Alonso, Felix; Garcia, Alfonsa; Garcia, Francisco; Hoya, Sara; Rodriguez, Gerardo; de la Villa, Agustin
2001-01-01
Shows how teachers can often use unexpected outputs from Computer Algebra Systems (CAS) to reinforce concepts and to show students the importance of thinking about how they use the software and reflecting on their results. Presents different examples where DERIVE, MAPLE, or Mathematica does not work as expected and suggests how to use them as a…
Digital Maps, Matrices and Computer Algebra
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Knight, D. G.
2005-01-01
The way in which computer algebra systems, such as Maple, have made the study of complex problems accessible to undergraduate mathematicians with modest computational skills is illustrated by some large matrix calculations, which arise from representing the Earth's surface by digital elevation models. Such problems are often considered to lie in…
Maple Sugar Harvesting/Wild Rice Harvesting.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Minneapolis Public Schools, MN.
Comprised of two separate booklets, this resource unit assists elementary teachers in explaining how the Ojibwe people harvest maple sugar and wild rice. The first booklet explains the procedure of tapping the maple trees for sap, preparation for boiling the sap, and the three forms the sugar is made into (granulated, "molded," and "taffy"). The…
Computational algebraic geometry of epidemic models
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rodríguez Vega, Martín.
2014-06-01
Computational Algebraic Geometry is applied to the analysis of various epidemic models for Schistosomiasis and Dengue, both, for the case without control measures and for the case where control measures are applied. The models were analyzed using the mathematical software Maple. Explicitly the analysis is performed using Groebner basis, Hilbert dimension and Hilbert polynomials. These computational tools are included automatically in Maple. Each of these models is represented by a system of ordinary differential equations, and for each model the basic reproductive number (R0) is calculated. The effects of the control measures are observed by the changes in the algebraic structure of R0, the changes in Groebner basis, the changes in Hilbert dimension, and the changes in Hilbert polynomials. It is hoped that the results obtained in this paper become of importance for designing control measures against the epidemic diseases described. For future researches it is proposed the use of algebraic epidemiology to analyze models for airborne and waterborne diseases.
Filteau, Marie; Lagacé, Luc; Lapointe, Gisèle; Roy, Denis
2012-03-01
Maple sap processing and microbial contamination are significant aspects that affect maple syrup quality. In this study, two sample sets from 2005 and 2008 were used to assess the maple syrup quality variation and its relationship to microbial populations, with respect to processing, production site and harvesting period. The abundance of maple sap predominant bacteria (Pseudomonas fluorescens group and two subgroups, Rahnella spp., Janthinobacterium spp., Leuconostoc mesenteroides) and yeast (Mrakia spp., Mrakiella spp.,Guehomyces pullulans) was assessed by quantitative PCR. Maple syrup properties were analyzed by physicochemical and sensorial methods. Results indicate that P. fluorescens, Mrakia spp., Mrakiella spp. G. pullulans and Rahnella spp. are stable contaminants of maple sap, as they were found for every production site throughout the flow period. Multiple factor analysis reports a link between the relative abundance of P. fluorescens group and Mrakia spp. in maple sap with maple and vanilla odor as well as flavor of maple syrup. This evidence supports the contribution of these microorganisms or a consortium of predominant microbial contaminants to the characteristic properties of maple syrup. PMID:22236761
Teaching Algebra without Algebra
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Kalman, Richard S.
2008-01-01
Algebra is, among other things, a shorthand way to express quantitative reasoning. This article illustrates ways for the classroom teacher to convert algebraic solutions to verbal problems into conversational solutions that can be understood by students in the lower grades. Three reasonably typical verbal problems that either appeared as or…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Harris, Gary A.
2000-01-01
Discusses the use of a computer algebra system in a capstone mathematics course for undergraduate mathematics majors preparing to teach secondary school mathematics. Provides sample exercises intended to demonstrate how the power of a computer algebra system such as MAPLE can contribute to desired outcomes including reinforcing and strengthening…
Computer algebra and transport theory.
Warsa, J. S.
2004-01-01
Modern symbolic algebra computer software augments and complements more traditional approaches to transport theory applications in several ways. The first area is in the development and enhancement of numerical solution methods for solving the Boltzmann transport equation. Typically, special purpose computer codes are designed and written to solve specific transport problems in particular ways. Different aspects of the code are often written from scratch and the pitfalls of developing complex computer codes are numerous and well known. Software such as MAPLE and MATLAB can be used to prototype, analyze, verify and determine the suitability of numerical solution methods before a full-scale transport application is written. Once it is written, the relevant pieces of the full-scale code can be verified using the same tools I that were developed for prototyping. Another area is in the analysis of numerical solution methods or the calculation of theoretical results that might otherwise be difficult or intractable. Algebraic manipulations are done easily and without error and the software also provides a framework for any additional numerical calculations that might be needed to complete the analysis. We will discuss several applications in which we have extensively used MAPLE and MATLAB in our work. All of them involve numerical solutions of the S{sub N} transport equation. These applications encompass both of the two main areas in which we have found computer algebra software essential.
Paquette, Alain; Fontaine, Bastien; Berninger, Frank; Dubois, Karine; Lechowicz, Martin J; Messier, Christian; Posada, Juan M; Valladares, Fernando; Brisson, Jacques
2012-11-01
Norway maple (Acer platanoides L), which is among the most invasive tree species in forests of eastern North America, is associated with reduced regeneration of the related native species, sugar maple (Acer saccharum Marsh) and other native flora. To identify traits conferring an advantage to Norway maple, we grew both species through an entire growing season under simulated light regimes mimicking a closed forest understorey vs. a canopy disturbance (gap). Dynamic shade-houses providing a succession of high-intensity direct-light events between longer periods of low, diffuse light were used to simulate the light regimes. We assessed seedling height growth three times in the season, as well as stem diameter, maximum photosynthetic capacity, biomass allocation above- and below-ground, seasonal phenology and phenotypic plasticity. Given the north European provenance of Norway maple, we also investigated the possibility that its growth in North America might be increased by delayed fall senescence. We found that Norway maple had significantly greater photosynthetic capacity in both light regimes and grew larger in stem diameter than sugar maple. The differences in below- and above-ground biomass, stem diameter, height and maximum photosynthesis were especially important in the simulated gap where Norway maple continued extension growth during the late fall. In the gap regime sugar maple had a significantly higher root : shoot ratio that could confer an advantage in the deepest shade of closed understorey and under water stress or browsing pressure. Norway maple is especially invasive following canopy disturbance where the opposite (low root : shoot ratio) could confer a competitive advantage. Considering the effects of global change in extending the potential growing season, we anticipate that the invasiveness of Norway maple will increase in the future. PMID:23076822
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Pye, Cory C.; Mercer, Colin J.
2012-01-01
The symbolic algebra program Maple and the spreadsheet Microsoft Excel were used in an attempt to reproduce the Gaussian fits to a Slater-type orbital, required to construct the popular STO-NG basis sets. The successes and pitfalls encountered in such an approach are chronicled. (Contains 1 table and 3 figures.)
Introducing Computer Algebra to School Teachers of Mathematics
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Man, Yiu-Kwong
2007-01-01
Since the last decade, the use of computer algebra systems at the Hong Kong school level is still very limited. Among various reasons behind, the lack of exposure of this kind of software to local school teachers should be taken into account. In this article, we describe how to introduce MAPLE in a BEd module of a local teacher-training programme.…
Environmental setting of Maple Creek watershed, Nebraska
Fredrick, Brian S.; Linard, Joshua I.; Carpenter, Jennifer L.
2006-01-01
The Maple Creek watershed covers a 955-square-kilometer area in eastern Nebraska, which is a region dominated by agricultural land use. The Maple Creek watershed is one of seven areas currently included in a nationwide study of the sources, transport, and fate of water and chemicals in agricultural watersheds. This study, known as the topical study of 'Agricultural Chemicals: Sources, Transport, and Fate' is part of the National Water-Quality Assessment Program being conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey. The Program is designed to describe water-quality conditions and trends based on representative surface- and ground-water resources across the Nation. The objective of the Agricultural Chemicals topical study is to investigate the sources, transport, and fate of selected agricultural chemicals in a variety of agriculturally diverse environmental settings. The Maple Creek watershed was selected for the Agricultural Chemicals topical study because its watershed represents the agricultural setting that characterizes eastern Nebraska. This report describes the environmental setting of the Maple Creek watershed in the context of how agricultural practices, including agricultural chemical applications and irrigation methods, interface with natural settings and hydrologic processes. A description of the environmental setting of a subwatershed within the drainage area of Maple Creek is included to improve the understanding of the variability of hydrologic and chemical cycles at two different scales.
Biosensor Applications of MAPLE Deposited Lipase
Califano, Valeria; Bloisi, Francesco; Aronne, Antonio; Federici, Stefania; Nasti, Libera; Depero, Laura E.; Vicari, Luciano R. M.
2014-01-01
Matrix Assisted Pulsed Laser Evaporation (MAPLE) is a thin film deposition technique derived from Pulsed Laser Deposition (PLD) for deposition of delicate (polymers, complex biological molecules, etc.) materials in undamaged form. The main difference of MAPLE technique with respect to PLD is the target: it is a frozen solution or suspension of the (guest) molecules to be deposited in a volatile substance (matrix). Since laser beam energy is mainly absorbed by the matrix, damages to the delicate guest molecules are avoided, or at least reduced. Lipase, an enzyme catalyzing reactions borne by triglycerides, has been used in biosensors for detection of β-hydroxyacid esters and triglycerides in blood serum. Enzymes immobilization on a substrate is therefore required. In this paper we show that it is possible, using MAPLE technique, to deposit lipase on a substrate, as shown by AFM observation, preserving its conformational structure, as shown by FTIR analysis. PMID:25587426
Calculus of One and More Variables with Maple
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Samkova, Libuse
2012-01-01
This is a guide to using Maple in teaching fundamental calculus of one, two and three variables (limits, derivatives, integrals, etc.), also suitable for Maple beginners. It outlines one of the ways to effective use of computers in the teaching process. It scans advantages and disadvantages of using Maple in relation to students and teacher. The…
Tapping the Sugar Maple--Learning and Appreciating
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Malone, Charles
1976-01-01
The article discusses how to tap a maple tree. Tapping a maple tree to produce maple syrup can: (1) lead to better understanding in many subject areas, (2) develop skills through participation in a rewarding activity, and (3) help students appreciate the many important roles that trees play in our environment and daily lives. (NQ)
Ophthalmoplegia in Maple Syrup Urine Disease
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Zee, David S.; And Others
1974-01-01
Reported is the case of a female infant whose early symptom of ophthalmoplegia (paralysis of one or more motor nerves in the eye) led to eventual diagnosis and treatment for maple syrup urine disease, a condition in which early dietary restrictions can prevent severe mental retardation and neurologic disability. (DB)
MAPLE activities and applications in gas sensors
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jelínek, Miroslav; Remsa, Jan; Kocourek, Tomáš; Kubešová, Barbara; Schůrek, Jakub; Myslík, Vladimír
2011-11-01
During the last decade, many groups have grown thin films of various organic materials by the cryogenic Matrix Assisted Pulsed Laser Evaporation (MAPLE) technique with a wide range of applications. This contribution is focused on the summary of our results with deposition and characterization of thin films of fibrinogen, pullulan derivates, azo-polyurethane, cryoglobulin, polyvinyl alcohol, and bovine serum albumin dissolved in physiological serum, dimethyl sulfoxide, sanguine plasma, phosphate buffer solution, H2O, ethylene glycol, and tert-butanol. MAPLE films were characterized using FTIR, AFM, Raman scattering, and SEM. For deposition, a special hardware was developed including a unique liquid nitrogen cooled target holder. Overview of MAPLE thin film applications is given. We studied SnAcAc, InAcAc, SnO2, porphyrins, and polypyrrole MAPLE fabricated films as small resistive gas sensors. Sensors were tested with ozone, nitrogen dioxide, hydrogen, and water vapor gases. In the last years, our focus was on the study of fibrinogen-based scaffolds for application in tissue engineering, wound healing, and also as a part of layers for medical devices.
Family with intermittent maple syrup urine disease
Valman, H. B.; Patrick, A. D.; Seakins, J. W. T.; Platt, J. W.; Gompertz, D.
1973-01-01
A family is described in which the 3 children presented with episodes of severe metabolic acidosis secondary to minor infections. 2 of them died, and 1 of these was severely retarded. The sole surviving child is 6 years old and is normal with respect to physical and mental development. Gas chromatography of the urine obtained during episodes of ketoacidosis showed the keto and hydroxy acids characteristic of maple syrup urine disease, and thin layer chromatography of the plasma and urine showed greatly increased concentrations of the branched chain amino acids. The urine and plasma of the surviving child was chromatographically normal between episodes. The leucocyte branched chain keto acid decarboxylase activity in this patient and her father was reduced. The range of features in this family with intermittent maple syrup urine disease illustrates the necessity for prompt and careful investigation of metabolic acidosis of unknown aetiology. PMID:4693464
The Invar tensor package: Differential invariants of Riemann
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Martín-García, J. M.; Yllanes, D.; Portugal, R.
2008-10-01
The long standing problem of the relations among the scalar invariants of the Riemann tensor is computationally solved for all 6ṡ10 objects with up to 12 derivatives of the metric. This covers cases ranging from products of up to 6 undifferentiated Riemann tensors to cases with up to 10 covariant derivatives of a single Riemann. We extend our computer algebra system Invar to produce within seconds a canonical form for any of those objects in terms of a basis. The process is as follows: (1) an invariant is converted in real time into a canonical form with respect to the permutation symmetries of the Riemann tensor; (2) Invar reads a database of more than 6ṡ10 relations and applies those coming from the cyclic symmetry of the Riemann tensor; (3) then applies the relations coming from the Bianchi identity, (4) the relations coming from commutations of covariant derivatives, (5) the dimensionally-dependent identities for dimension 4, and finally (6) simplifies invariants that can be expressed as product of dual invariants. Invar runs on top of the tensor computer algebra systems xTensor (for Mathematica) and Canon (for Maple). Program summaryProgram title:Invar Tensor Package v2.0 Catalogue identifier:ADZK_v2_0 Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/ADZK_v2_0.html Program obtainable from:CPC Program Library, Queen's University, Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions:Standard CPC licence, http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/licence/licence.html No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.:3 243 249 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.:939 Distribution format:tar.gz Programming language:Mathematica and Maple Computer:Any computer running Mathematica versions 5.0 to 6.0 or Maple versions 9 and 11 Operating system:Linux, Unix, Windows XP, MacOS RAM:100 Mb Word size:64 or 32 bits Supplementary material:The new database of relations is much larger than that for the previous version and therefore has not been included in
Using computer algebra and SMT solvers in algebraic biology
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pineda Osorio, Mateo
2014-05-01
Biologic processes are represented as Boolean networks, in a discrete time. The dynamics within these networks are approached with the help of SMT Solvers and the use of computer algebra. Software such as Maple and Z3 was used in this case. The number of stationary states for each network was calculated. The network studied here corresponds to the immune system under the effects of drastic mood changes. Mood is considered as a Boolean variable that affects the entire dynamics of the immune system, changing the Boolean satisfiability and the number of stationary states of the immune network. Results obtained show Z3's great potential as a SMT Solver. Some of these results were verified in Maple, even though it showed not to be as suitable for the problem approach. The solving code was constructed using Z3-Python and Z3-SMT-LiB. Results obtained are important in biology systems and are expected to help in the design of immune therapies. As a future line of research, more complex Boolean network representations of the immune system as well as the whole psychological apparatus are suggested.
Monitoring the Health of Sugar Maple, "Acer Saccharum"
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Carlson, Martha
2013-01-01
The sugar maple, "Acer saccharum," is projected to decline and die in 88 to 100 percent of its current range in the United States. An iconic symbol of the northeastern temperate forest and a dominant species in this forest, the sugar maple is identified as the most sensitive tree in its ecosystem to rising temperatures and a warming…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Schaufele, Christopher; Zumoff, Nancy
Earth Algebra is an entry level college algebra course that incorporates the spirit of the National Council of Teachers of Mathematics (NCTM) Curriculum and Evaluation Standards for School Mathematics at the college level. The context of the course places mathematics at the center of one of the major current concerns of the world. Through…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Cavanagh, Sean
2009-01-01
As educators and policymakers search for ways to prepare students for the rigors of algebra, teachers in the Helena, Montana, school system are starting early by attempting to nurture students' algebraic-reasoning ability, as well as their basic number skills, in early elementary school, rather than waiting until middle or early high school.…
Step-by-Step Solution Possibilities in Different Computer Algebra Systems.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Tonisson, Eno
This paper compares a number of different Computer Algebra Systems (CAS) in their solution of one-step and multi-step problems. The CAS programs considered include DERIVE, Maple, Mathematica, and MuPAD while the problems are taken from the final examinations of grades 9 and 12 in Estonian schools. The different outputs to one-step problems with…
Revisiting Newtonian and Non-Newtonian Fluid Mechanics Using Computer Algebra
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Knight, D. G.
2006-01-01
This article illustrates how a computer algebra system, such as Maple[R], can assist in the study of theoretical fluid mechanics, for both Newtonian and non-Newtonian fluids. The continuity equation, the stress equations of motion, the Navier-Stokes equations, and various constitutive equations are treated, using a full, but straightforward,…
Prado, Julia; Quesada, Carlos; Gosney, Michael; Mickelbart, Michael V; Sadof, Clifford
2015-06-01
Although leaf nitrogen (N) has been shown to increase the suitability of hosts to herbivorous arthropods, the responses of these pests to N fertilization on susceptible and resistant host plants are not well characterized. This study determined how different rates of N fertilization affected injury caused by the potato leafhopper (Empoasca fabae Harris) and the abundance of maple spider mite (Oligonychus aceris (Shimer)) on 'Red Sunset' red maple (Acer rubrum) and 'Autumn Blaze' Freeman maple (Acer×freemanii) during two years in Indiana. N fertilization increased leaf N concentration in both maple cultivars, albeit to a lesser extent during the second year of the study. Overall, Red Sunset maples were more susceptible to E. fabae injury than Autumn Blaze, whereas Autumn Blaze maples supported higher populations of O. aceris. Differences in populations of O. aceris were attributed to differences between communities of stigmaeid and phytoseiid mites on each cultivar. Injury caused by E. fabae increased with N fertilization in a dose-dependent manner in both cultivars. Although N fertilization increased the abundance of O. aceris on both maple cultivars, there was no difference between the 20 and 40 g rates. We suggest the capacity of N fertilization to increase O. aceris on maples could be limited at higher trophic levels by the community of predatory mites. PMID:26470249
Structural characterization of MAPLE deposited lipase biofilm
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Aronne, Antonio; Ausanio, Giovanni; Bloisi, Francesco; Calabria, Raffaela; Califano, Valeria; Fanelli, Esther; Massoli, Patrizio; Vicari, Luciano R. M.
2014-11-01
Lipases (triacylglycerol ester hydrolases) are enzymes used in several industrial applications. Enzymes immobilization can be used to address key issues limiting widespread application at industrial level. Immobilization efficiency is related to the ability to preserve the native conformation of the enzyme. MAPLE (Matrix Assisted Pulsed Laser Evaporation) technique, a laser deposition procedure for treating organic/polymeric/biomaterials, was applied for the deposition of lipase enzyme in an ice matrix, using near infrared laser radiation. Microscopy analysis showed that the deposition occurred in micrometric and submicrometric clusters with a wide size distribution. AFM imaging showed that inter-cluster regions are uniformly covered with smaller aggregates of nanometric size. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy was used for both recognizing the deposited material and analyzing its secondary structure. Results showed that the protein underwent reversible self-association during the deposition process. Actually, preliminary tests of MAPLE deposited lipase used for soybean oil transesterification with isopropyl alcohol followed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry gave results consistent with undamaged deposition of lipase.
Definite Integrals, Some Involving Residue Theory Evaluated by Maple Code
Bowman, Kimiko o
2010-01-01
The calculus of residue is applied to evaluate certain integrals in the range (-{infinity} to {infinity}) using the Maple symbolic code. These integrals are of the form {integral}{sub -{infinity}}{sup {infinity}} cos(x)/[(x{sup 2} + a{sup 2})(x{sup 2} + b{sup 2}) (x{sup 2} + c{sup 2})]dx and similar extensions. The Maple code is also applied to expressions in maximum likelihood estimator moments when sampling from the negative binomial distribution. In general the Maple code approach to the integrals gives correct answers to specified decimal places, but the symbolic result may be extremely long and complex.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wu, P. K.; Ringeisen, B. R.; Krizman, D. B.; Frondoza, C. G.; Brooks, M.; Bubb, D. M.; Auyeung, R. C. Y.; Piqué, A.; Spargo, B.; McGill, R. A.; Chrisey, D. B.
2003-04-01
Two techniques for transferring biomaterial using a pulsed laser beam were developed: matrix-assisted pulsed laser evaporation (MAPLE) and MAPLE direct write (MDW). MAPLE is a large-area vacuum based technique suitable for coatings, i.e., antibiofouling, and MDW is a localized deposition technique capable of fast prototyping of devices, i.e., protein or tissue arrays. Both techniques have demonstrated the capability of transferring large (mol wt>100 kDa) molecules in different forms, e.g., liquid and gel, and preserving their functions. They can deposit patterned films with spatial accuracy and resolution of tens of μm and layering on a variety of substrate materials and geometries. MDW can dispense volumes less than 100 pl, transfer solid tissues, fabricate a complete device, and is computed aided design/computer aided manufacturing compatible. They are noncontact techniques and can be integrated with other sterile processes. These attributes are substantiated by films and arrays of biomaterials, e.g., polymers, enzymes, proteins, eucaryotic cells, and tissue, and a dopamine sensor. These examples, the instrumentation, basic mechanisms, a comparison with other techniques, and future developments are discussed.
Using Mathematica and Maple To Obtain Chemical Equations.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Missen, Ronald W.; Smith, William R.
1997-01-01
Shows how the computer software programs Mathematica and Maple can be used to obtain chemical equations to represent the stoichiometry of a reacting system. Specific examples are included. Contains 10 references. (DKM)
Dynamics of the inverse MAPLE nanoparticle deposition process
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Steiner, Matthew A.; Fitz-Gerald, James M.
2015-05-01
Matrix-assisted pulsed laser evaporation (MAPLE) is a processing technique by which laser-sensitive materials are dissolved or placed into colloidal solution with a strongly absorbing sacrificial solvent, which when frozen into a solid target and irradiated under vacuum disperses the undamaged solute material onto a desired substrate. We present an inversion of the original MAPLE process, where the irradiation of metal-based acetate precursors in solution with UV transparent water results in the deposition of inorganic nanoparticles. A theory is forwarded to explain the underlying multiscale sequence of events that control the inverse MAPLE process from acetate decomposition to nanoparticle formation and subsequent ejection. Support for this theory is provided through the analysis of deposited nanoparticles and by novel characterization of MAPLE targets post-irradiation via cryostage scanning electron microscopy. Ejection is shown to proceed through the same phase-explosion mechanism that drives conventional MAPLE, relating the two techniques and advancing the broader understanding of MAPLE deposition processes.
The possible role of air quality in sugar maple decline
Linzon, S.N. )
1987-01-01
The decline of sugar maple (Acer saccharum L.) was first reported to occur in North America in 1913. A review of the literature on the occurrence of sugar maple decline and the associated causal agents was made in 1986 based on 189 reports. No single cause for the decline was identified with a number of diverse factors being reported to be involved. These factors included defoliating insects, drought, nutritional deficiencies, improper woodlot management, secondary root rot organisms, road salt and acidic precipitation. In the Provinces of Quebec and Ontario, Canada, intensive studies into the occurrence and etiology of sugar maple decline commenced in the early 1980s. Maple syrup producers in both provinces complained that sugar maple trees were declining and dying in greater numbers than usual and suspected that air pollution, including acidic precipitation, was involved. This paper describes the symptoms associated with sugar maple decline, the surveys underway in both provinces, and the field and experimental studies being carried out to determine the role of air quality.
Monitoring the health of sugar maple, Acer saccharum
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Carlson, Martha
The sugar maple, Acer saccharum, is projected to decline and die in 88 to 100 percent of its current range in the United States. An iconic symbol of the northeastern temperate forest and a dominant species in this forest, the sugar maple is identified as the most sensitive tree in its ecosystem to rising temperatures and a warming climate. This study measures the health of sugar maples on 12 privately owned forests and at three schools in New Hampshire. Laboratory quantitative analyses of leaves, buds and sap as well as qualitative measures of leaf and bud indicate that record high beat in 2012 stressed the sugar maple. The study identifies several laboratory and qualitative tests of health which seem most sensitive and capable of identifying stress early when intervention in forest management or public policy change might counter decline of the species. The study presents evidence of an unusual atmospheric pollution event which defoliated sugar maples in 2010. The study examines the work of citizen scientists in Forest Watch, a K-12 school program in which students monitor the impacts of ozone on white pine, Pinus strobus, another keystone species in New Hampshire's forest. Finally, the study examines three simple measurements of bud, leaf and the tree's acclimation to light. The findings of these tests illuminate findings in the first study. And they present examples of what citizen scientists might contribute to long-term monitoring of maples. A partnership between science and citizens is proposed to begin long-term monitoring and to report on the health of sugar maples.
2004-03-01
A collection of packages of classes for interfacing to sparse and dense matrices, vectors and graphs, and to linear operators. TSF (via TSFCore, TSFCoreUtils and TSFExtended) provides the application programmer interface to any number of solvers, linear algebra libraries and preconditioner packages, providing also a sophisticated technique for combining multiple packages to solve a single problem. TSF provides a collection of abstract base classes that define the interfaces to abstract vector, matrix and linear soerator objects. By using abstract interfaces, users of TSF are not limiting themselves to any one concrete library and can in fact easily combine multiple libraries to solve a single problem.
Phenylbutyrate therapy for maple syrup urine disease
Brunetti-Pierri, Nicola; Lanpher, Brendan; Erez, Ayelet; Ananieva, Elitsa A.; Islam, Mohammad; Marini, Juan C.; Sun, Qin; Yu, Chunli; Hegde, Madhuri; Li, Jun; Wynn, R. Max; Chuang, David T.; Hutson, Susan; Lee, Brendan
2011-01-01
Therapy with sodium phenylacetate/benzoate or sodium phenylbutyrate in urea cycle disorder patients has been associated with a selective reduction in branched-chain amino acids (BCAA) in spite of adequate dietary protein intake. Based on this clinical observation, we investigated the potential of phenylbutyrate treatment to lower BCAA and their corresponding α-keto acids (BCKA) in patients with classic and variant late-onset forms of maple syrup urine disease (MSUD). We also performed in vitro and in vivo experiments to elucidate the mechanism for this effect. We found that BCAA and BCKA are both significantly reduced following phenylbutyrate therapy in control subjects and in patients with late-onset, intermediate MSUD. In vitro treatment with phenylbutyrate of control fibroblasts and lymphoblasts resulted in an increase in the residual enzyme activity, while treatment of MSUD cells resulted in the variable response which did not simply predict the biochemical response in the patients. In vivo phenylbutyrate increases the proportion of active hepatic enzyme and unphosphorylated form over the inactive phosphorylated form of the E1α subunit of the branched-chain α-keto acid dehydrogenase complex (BCKDC). Using recombinant enzymes, we show that phenylbutyrate prevents phosphorylation of E1α by inhibition of the BCKDC kinase to activate BCKDC overall activity, providing a molecular explanation for the effect of phenylbutyrate in a subset of MSUD patients. Phenylbutyrate treatment may be a valuable treatment for reducing the plasma levels of neurotoxic BCAA and their corresponding BCKA in a subset of MSUD patients and studies of its long-term efficacy are indicated. PMID:21098507
Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)
Air injection (AI) is a maple sap processing technology reported to increase the efficiency of maple syrup production by increasing production of more economically valuable light-colored maple syrup, and reducing development of loose scale mineral precipitates in syrup, and scale deposits on evapora...
Maple syrup-production, composition, chemistry, and sensory characteristics.
Perkins, Timothy D; van den Berg, Abby K
2009-01-01
Maple syrup is made from sap exuded from stems of the genus Acer during the springtime. Sap is a dilute solution of primarily water and sucrose, with varying amounts of amino and organic acids and phenolic substances. When concentrated, usually by heating, a series of complex reactions produce a wide variety of flavor compounds that vary due to processing and other management factors, seasonal changes in sap chemistry, and microbial contamination. Color also forms during thermal evaporation. Flavor and color together are the primary factors determining maple syrup grade, and syrup can range from very light-colored and delicate-flavored to very dark-colored and strong-flavored. PMID:19389608
Twisted Quantum Toroidal Algebras
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jing, Naihuan; Liu, Rongjia
2014-09-01
We construct a principally graded quantum loop algebra for the Kac-Moody algebra. As a special case a twisted analog of the quantum toroidal algebra is obtained together with the quantum Serre relations.
Solving stochastic epidemiological models using computer algebra
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hincapie, Doracelly; Ospina, Juan
2011-06-01
Mathematical modeling in Epidemiology is an important tool to understand the ways under which the diseases are transmitted and controlled. The mathematical modeling can be implemented via deterministic or stochastic models. Deterministic models are based on short systems of non-linear ordinary differential equations and the stochastic models are based on very large systems of linear differential equations. Deterministic models admit complete, rigorous and automatic analysis of stability both local and global from which is possible to derive the algebraic expressions for the basic reproductive number and the corresponding epidemic thresholds using computer algebra software. Stochastic models are more difficult to treat and the analysis of their properties requires complicated considerations in statistical mathematics. In this work we propose to use computer algebra software with the aim to solve epidemic stochastic models such as the SIR model and the carrier-borne model. Specifically we use Maple to solve these stochastic models in the case of small groups and we obtain results that do not appear in standard textbooks or in the books updated on stochastic models in epidemiology. From our results we derive expressions which coincide with those obtained in the classical texts using advanced procedures in mathematical statistics. Our algorithms can be extended for other stochastic models in epidemiology and this shows the power of computer algebra software not only for analysis of deterministic models but also for the analysis of stochastic models. We also perform numerical simulations with our algebraic results and we made estimations for the basic parameters as the basic reproductive rate and the stochastic threshold theorem. We claim that our algorithms and results are important tools to control the diseases in a globalized world.
Algebraic vs physical N = 6 3-algebras
Cantarini, Nicoletta; Kac, Victor G.
2014-01-15
In our previous paper, we classified linearly compact algebraic simple N = 6 3-algebras. In the present paper, we classify their “physical” counterparts, which actually appear in the N = 6 supersymmetric 3-dimensional Chern-Simons theories.
CHICKEN COOP AND BROAD LEAF MAPLE, LOOKING NORTHEAST. Three chicken ...
CHICKEN COOP AND BROAD LEAF MAPLE, LOOKING NORTHEAST. Three chicken coops on the farm were used by both chickens and turkeys. The yards around the buildings were once fenced in to give the poultry brooding space. - Kineth Farm, Chicken Coop, 19162 STATE ROUTE 20, Coupeville, Island County, WA
FACTORS INFLUENCING FALL FOLIAGE COLOR EXPRESSION IN SUGAR MAPLE TREES.
Abstract: We evaluated factors influencing red autumn coloration in leaves of sugar maple (Acer saccharum Marsh.) by measuring mineral nutrition and carbohydrate concentrations, moisture content, and phenology of color development of leaves from 16 mature open-grown trees on 12 d...
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
National Council of Teachers of Mathematics, Inc., Reston, VA.
This is a reprint of the historical capsules dealing with algebra from the 31st Yearbook of NCTM,"Historical Topics for the Mathematics Classroom." Included are such themes as the change from a geometric to an algebraic solution of problems, the development of algebraic symbolism, the algebraic contributions of different countries, the origin and…
Figueroa-O'Farrill, Jose Miguel
2009-11-15
We phrase deformations of n-Leibniz algebras in terms of the cohomology theory of the associated Leibniz algebra. We do the same for n-Lie algebras and for the metric versions of n-Leibniz and n-Lie algebras. We place particular emphasis on the case of n=3 and explore the deformations of 3-algebras of relevance to three-dimensional superconformal Chern-Simons theories with matter.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Surzhykov, Andrey; Koval, Peter; Fritzsche, Stephan
2005-01-01
Today, the 'hydrogen atom model' is known to play its role not only in teaching the basic elements of quantum mechanics but also for building up effective theories in atomic and molecular physics, quantum optics, plasma physics, or even in the design of semiconductor devices. Therefore, the analytical as well as numerical solutions of the hydrogen-like ions are frequently required both, for analyzing experimental data and for carrying out quite advanced theoretical studies. In order to support a fast and consistent access to these (Coulomb-field) solutions, here we present the DIRAC program which has been developed originally for studying the properties and dynamical behavior of the (hydrogen-like) ions. In the present version, a set of MAPLE procedures is provided for the Coulomb wave and Green's functions by applying the (wave) equations from both, the nonrelativistic and relativistic theory. Apart from the interactive access to these functions, moreover, a number of radial integrals are also implemented in the DIRAC program which may help the user to construct transition amplitudes and cross sections as they occur frequently in the theory of ion-atom and ion-photon collisions. Program summaryTitle of program:DIRAC Catalogue number: ADUQ Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/ADUQ Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University of Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions: None Computer for which the program is designed and has been tested: All computers with a license of the computer algebra package MAPLE [1] Program language used: Maple 8 and 9 No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.:2186 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 162 591 Distribution format: tar gzip file CPC Program Library subprograms required: None Nature of the physical problem: Analytical solutions of the hydrogen atom are widely used in very different fields of physics [2,3]. Despite of the rather simple structure
Quantum cluster algebras and quantum nilpotent algebras
Goodearl, Kenneth R.; Yakimov, Milen T.
2014-01-01
A major direction in the theory of cluster algebras is to construct (quantum) cluster algebra structures on the (quantized) coordinate rings of various families of varieties arising in Lie theory. We prove that all algebras in a very large axiomatically defined class of noncommutative algebras possess canonical quantum cluster algebra structures. Furthermore, they coincide with the corresponding upper quantum cluster algebras. We also establish analogs of these results for a large class of Poisson nilpotent algebras. Many important families of coordinate rings are subsumed in the class we are covering, which leads to a broad range of applications of the general results to the above-mentioned types of problems. As a consequence, we prove the Berenstein–Zelevinsky conjecture [Berenstein A, Zelevinsky A (2005) Adv Math 195:405–455] for the quantized coordinate rings of double Bruhat cells and construct quantum cluster algebra structures on all quantum unipotent groups, extending the theorem of Geiß et al. [Geiß C, et al. (2013) Selecta Math 19:337–397] for the case of symmetric Kac–Moody groups. Moreover, we prove that the upper cluster algebras of Berenstein et al. [Berenstein A, et al. (2005) Duke Math J 126:1–52] associated with double Bruhat cells coincide with the corresponding cluster algebras. PMID:24982197
Basic linear algebra subprograms for FORTRAN usage
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lawson, C. L.; Hanson, R. J.; Kincaid, D. R.; Krogh, F. T.
1977-01-01
A package of 38 low level subprograms for many of the basic operations of numerical linear algebra is presented. The package is intended to be used with FORTRAN. The operations in the package are dot products, elementary vector operations, Givens transformations, vector copy and swap, vector norms, vector scaling, and the indices of components of largest magnitude. The subprograms and a test driver are available in portable FORTRAN. Versions of the subprograms are also provided in assembly language for the IBM 360/67, the CDC 6600 and CDC 7600, and the Univac 1108.
Binomial and Poisson Mixtures, Maximum Likelihood, and Maple Code
Bowman, Kimiko o; Shenton, LR
2006-01-01
The bias, variance, and skewness of maximum likelihoood estimators are considered for binomial and Poisson mixture distributions. The moments considered are asymptotic, and they are assessed using the Maple code. Question of existence of solutions and Karl Pearson's study are mentioned, along with the problems of valid sample space. Large samples to reduce variances are not unusual; this also applies to the size of the asymptotic skewness.
Phenolic glycosides from sugar maple (Acer saccharum) bark.
Yuan, Tao; Wan, Chunpeng; González-Sarrías, Antonio; Kandhi, Vamsikrishna; Cech, Nadja B; Seeram, Navindra P
2011-11-28
Four new phenolic glycosides, saccharumosides A-D (1-4), along with eight known phenolic glycosides, were isolated from the bark of sugar maple (Acer saccharum). The structures of 1-4 were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic data analysis. All compounds isolated were evaluated for cytotoxicity effects against human colon tumorigenic (HCT-116 and Caco-2) and nontumorigenic (CCD-18Co) cell lines. PMID:22032697
Assessing the Factors of Regional Growth Decline of Sugar Maple
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bishop, D. A.; Beier, C. M.; Pederson, N.; Lawrence, G. B.; Stella, J. C.; Sullivan, T. J.
2014-12-01
Sugar maple (Acer saccharum Marsh) is among the most ecologically, economically and culturally important trees in North America, but has experienced a decline disease across much of its range. We investigated the climatic and edaphic factors associated with A. saccharum growth in the Adirondack Mountains (USA) using a well-replicated tree-ring network incorporating a range of soil fertility (base cation availability). We found that nearly 3 in 4 A. saccharum trees exhibited declining growth rates during the last several decades, regardless of tree age or size. Although diameter growth was consistently higher on base-rich soils, the negative trends in growth were largely consistent across the soil chemistry gradient. Sensitivity of sugar maple growth to climatic variability was overall weaker than expected, but were also non-stationary during the 20th century. We observed increasingly positive responses to late-winter precipitation, increasingly negative responses to growing season temperatures, and strong positive responses to moisture availability during the 1960s drought that became much weaker during the recent pluvial. Further study is needed of these factors and their interactions as potential mechanisms for sugar maple growth decline.
Inhibitory effect of maple syrup on the cell growth and invasion of human colorectal cancer cells.
Yamamoto, Tetsushi; Uemura, Kentaro; Moriyama, Kaho; Mitamura, Kuniko; Taga, Atsushi
2015-04-01
Maple syrup is a natural sweetener consumed by individuals of all ages throughout the world. Maple syrup contains not only carbohydrates such as sucrose but also various components such as organic acids, amino acids, vitamins and phenolic compounds. Recent studies have shown that these phenolic compounds in maple syrup may possess various activities such as decreasing the blood glucose level and an anticancer effect. In this study, we examined the effect of three types of maple syrup, classified by color, on the cell proliferation, migration and invasion of colorectal cancer (CRC) cells in order to investigate whether the maple syrup is suitable as a phytomedicine for cancer treatment. CRC cells that were administered maple syrup showed significantly lower growth rates than cells that were administered sucrose. In addition, administration of maple syrup to CRC cells caused inhibition of cell invasion, while there was no effect on cell migration. Administration of maple syrup clearly inhibited AKT phosphorylation, while there was no effect on ERK phosphorylation. These data suggest that maple syrup might inhibit cell proliferation and invasion through suppression of AKT activation and be suitable as a phytomedicine for CRC treatment, with fewer adverse effects than traditional chemotherapy. PMID:25647359
2004-03-01
A collection of packages of classes for interfacing to sparse and dense matrices, vectors and graphs, and to linear operators. TSF (via TSFCore, TSFCoreUtils and TSFExtended) provides the application programmer interface to any number of solvers, linear algebra libraries and preconditioner packages, providing also a sophisticated technique for combining multiple packages to solve a single problem. TSF provides a collection of abstract base classes that define the interfaces to abstract vector, matrix and linear soeratormore » objects. By using abstract interfaces, users of TSF are not limiting themselves to any one concrete library and can in fact easily combine multiple libraries to solve a single problem.« less
Learning Algebra in a Computer Algebra Environment
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Drijvers, Paul
2004-01-01
This article summarises a doctoral thesis entitled "Learning algebra in a computer algebra environment, design research on the understanding of the concept of parameter" (Drijvers, 2003). It describes the research questions, the theoretical framework, the methodology and the results of the study. The focus of the study is on the understanding of…
Realizations of Galilei algebras
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nesterenko, Maryna; Pošta, Severin; Vaneeva, Olena
2016-03-01
All inequivalent realizations of the Galilei algebras of dimensions not greater than five are constructed using the algebraic approach proposed by Shirokov. The varieties of the deformed Galilei algebras are discussed and families of one-parametric deformations are presented in explicit form. It is also shown that a number of well-known and physically interesting equations and systems are invariant with respect to the considered Galilei algebras or their deformations.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Iachello, Franco
1995-01-01
An algebraic formulation of quantum mechanics is presented. In this formulation, operators of interest are expanded onto elements of an algebra, G. For bound state problems in nu dimensions the algebra G is taken to be U(nu + 1). Applications to the structure of molecules are presented.
Orientation in operator algebras
Alfsen, Erik M.; Shultz, Frederic W.
1998-01-01
A concept of orientation is relevant for the passage from Jordan structure to associative structure in operator algebras. The research reported in this paper bridges the approach of Connes for von Neumann algebras and ourselves for C*-algebras in a general theory of orientation that is of geometric nature and is related to dynamics. PMID:9618457
Developing Thinking in Algebra
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Mason, John; Graham, Alan; Johnson-Wilder, Sue
2005-01-01
This book is for people with an interest in algebra whether as a learner, or as a teacher, or perhaps as both. It is concerned with the "big ideas" of algebra and what it is to understand the process of thinking algebraically. The book has been structured according to a number of pedagogic principles that are exposed and discussed along the way,…
Connecting Arithmetic to Algebra
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Darley, Joy W.; Leapard, Barbara B.
2010-01-01
Algebraic thinking is a top priority in mathematics classrooms today. Because elementary school teachers lay the groundwork to develop students' capacity to think algebraically, it is crucial for teachers to have a conceptual understanding of the connections between arithmetic and algebra and be confident in communicating these connections. Many…
Applied Algebra Curriculum Modules.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Texas State Technical Coll., Marshall.
This collection of 11 applied algebra curriculum modules can be used independently as supplemental modules for an existing algebra curriculum. They represent diverse curriculum styles that should stimulate the teacher's creativity to adapt them to other algebra concepts. The selected topics have been determined to be those most needed by students…
Profiles of Algebraic Competence
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Humberstone, J.; Reeve, R.A.
2008-01-01
The algebraic competence of 72 12-year-old female students was examined to identify profiles of understanding reflecting different algebraic knowledge states. Beginning algebraic competence (mapping abilities: word-to-symbol and vice versa, classifying, and solving equations) was assessed. One week later, the nature of assistance required to map…
Ternary Virasoro - Witt algebra.
Zachos, C.; Curtright, T.; Fairlie, D.; High Energy Physics; Univ. of Miami; Univ. of Durham
2008-01-01
A 3-bracket variant of the Virasoro-Witt algebra is constructed through the use of su(1,1) enveloping algebra techniques. The Leibniz rules for 3-brackets acting on other 3-brackets in the algebra are discussed and verified in various situations.
Computer algebra and operators
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Fateman, Richard; Grossman, Robert
1989-01-01
The symbolic computation of operator expansions is discussed. Some of the capabilities that prove useful when performing computer algebra computations involving operators are considered. These capabilities may be broadly divided into three areas: the algebraic manipulation of expressions from the algebra generated by operators; the algebraic manipulation of the actions of the operators upon other mathematical objects; and the development of appropriate normal forms and simplification algorithms for operators and their actions. Brief descriptions are given of the computer algebra computations that arise when working with various operators and their actions.
QUALITY ASSURANCE ASPECTS OF THE JOINT USA-CANADA NORTH AMERICAN SUGAR MAPLE DECLINE PROJECT
The North American Sugar Maple Decline Project was implemented in 1988 in response to concerns about the condition of sugar maple (Acer saccharum Marsh) in the United States and Canada. ata collection for the project involved at least 15 federal, state, and provincial crews from ...
America's Native Sweet: Chippewa Treaties and the Right to Harvest Maple Sugar.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Keller, Robert H.
1989-01-01
Argues in favor of a Chippewa right to harvest maple sap from trees on federal land. Discusses the history of Indian production of and trade in maple sugar, examines relevant treaties, and draws parallels with tribal rights to fish and harvest wild rice. Contains 91 references. (SV)
Passive Maple-Seed Robotic Fliers for Education, Research and Entrepreneurship
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Aslam, D. M.; Abu-Ageel, A.; Alfatlawi, M.; Varney, M. W.; Thompson, C. M.; Aslam, S. K.
2014-01-01
As inspirations from flora and fauna have led to many advances in modern technology, the concept of drawing ideas from nature for design should be reflected in engineering education. This paper focuses on a maple-seed robotic flier (MRF) with various complexities, a robotic platform modeled after the samaras of maple or ash trees, to teach STEM…
MAPLE Procedures For Boson Fields System On Curved Space - Time
Murariu, Gabriel
2007-04-23
Systems of interacting boson fields are an important subject in the last years. From the problem of dark matter to boson stars' study, boson fields are involved. In the general configuration, it is considered a Klein-Gordon-Maxwell-Einstein fields system for a complex scalar field minimally coupled to a gravitational one. The necessity of studying a larger number of space-time configurations and the huge volume of computations for each particular situation are some reasons for building a MAPLE procedures set for this kind of systems.
Fernando, Denise R; Marshall, Alan T; Lynch, Jonathan P
2016-01-01
Sugar maple and red maple are closely-related co-occurring tree species significant to the North American forest biome. Plant abiotic stress effects including nutritional imbalance and manganese (Mn) toxicity are well documented within this system, and are implicated in enhanced susceptibility to biotic stresses such as insect attack. Both tree species are known to overaccumulate foliar manganese (Mn) when growing on unbuffered acidified soils, however, sugar maple is Mn-sensitive, while red maple is not. Currently there is no knowledge about the cellular sequestration of Mn and other nutrients in these two species. Here, electron-probe x-ray microanalysis was employed to examine cellular and sub-cellular deposition of excessively accumulated foliar Mn and other mineral nutrients in vivo. For both species, excess foliar Mn was deposited in symplastic cellular compartments. There were striking between-species differences in Mn, magnesium (Mg), sulphur (S) and calcium (Ca) distribution patterns. Unusually, Mn was highly co-localised with Mg in mesophyll cells of red maple only. The known sensitivity of sugar maple to excess Mn is likely linked to Mg deficiency in the leaf mesophyll. There was strong evidence that Mn toxicity in sugar maple is primarily a symplastic process. For each species, leaf-surface damage due to biotic stress including insect herbivory was compared between sites with acidified and non-acidified soils. Although it was greatest overall in red maple, there was no difference in biotic stress damage to red maple leaves between acidified and non-acidified soils. Sugar maple trees on buffered non-acidified soil were less damaged by biotic stress compared to those on unbuffered acidified soil, where they are also affected by Mn toxicity abiotic stress. This study concluded that foliar nutrient distribution in symplastic compartments is a determinant of Mn sensitivity, and that Mn stress hinders plant resistance to biotic stress. PMID:27391424
Fernando, Denise R.; Marshall, Alan T.; Lynch, Jonathan P.
2016-01-01
Sugar maple and red maple are closely-related co-occurring tree species significant to the North American forest biome. Plant abiotic stress effects including nutritional imbalance and manganese (Mn) toxicity are well documented within this system, and are implicated in enhanced susceptibility to biotic stresses such as insect attack. Both tree species are known to overaccumulate foliar manganese (Mn) when growing on unbuffered acidified soils, however, sugar maple is Mn-sensitive, while red maple is not. Currently there is no knowledge about the cellular sequestration of Mn and other nutrients in these two species. Here, electron-probe x-ray microanalysis was employed to examine cellular and sub-cellular deposition of excessively accumulated foliar Mn and other mineral nutrients in vivo. For both species, excess foliar Mn was deposited in symplastic cellular compartments. There were striking between-species differences in Mn, magnesium (Mg), sulphur (S) and calcium (Ca) distribution patterns. Unusually, Mn was highly co-localised with Mg in mesophyll cells of red maple only. The known sensitivity of sugar maple to excess Mn is likely linked to Mg deficiency in the leaf mesophyll. There was strong evidence that Mn toxicity in sugar maple is primarily a symplastic process. For each species, leaf-surface damage due to biotic stress including insect herbivory was compared between sites with acidified and non-acidified soils. Although it was greatest overall in red maple, there was no difference in biotic stress damage to red maple leaves between acidified and non-acidified soils. Sugar maple trees on buffered non-acidified soil were less damaged by biotic stress compared to those on unbuffered acidified soil, where they are also affected by Mn toxicity abiotic stress. This study concluded that foliar nutrient distribution in symplastic compartments is a determinant of Mn sensitivity, and that Mn stress hinders plant resistance to biotic stress. PMID:27391424
Combinatorial MAPLE gradient thin film assemblies signalling to human osteoblasts.
Axente, Emanuel; Sima, Felix; Elena Sima, Livia; Erginer, Merve; Eroglu, Mehmet S; Serban, Natalia; Ristoscu, Carmen; Petrescu, Stefana M; Toksoy Oner, Ebru; Mihailescu, Ion N
2014-09-01
There is increased interest in smart bioactive materials to control tissue regeneration for the engineering of cell instructive scaffolds. We introduced combinatorial matrix-assisted pulsed laser evaporation (C-MAPLE) as a new method for the fabrication of organic thin films with a compositional gradient. Synchronized C-MAPLE of levan and oxidized levan was employed to assemble a two-compound biopolymer film structure. The gradient of the film composition was validated by fluorescence microscopy. In this study, we investigated the cell response induced by the compositional gradient using imaging of early osteoblast attachment and analysis of signalling phosphoprotein expression. Cells attached along the gradient in direct proportion to oxidized levan concentration. During this process distinct areas of the binary gradient have been shown to modulate the osteoblasts' extracellular signal-regulated kinase signalling with different propensity. The proposed fabrication method results in the preparation of a new bioactive material, which could control the cell signalling response. This approach can be extended to screen new bioactive interfaces for tissue regeneration. PMID:24867882
Red edge spectral measurements from sugar maple leaves
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Vogelmann, J. E.; Rock, B. N.; Moss, D. M.
1993-01-01
Many sugar maple stands in the northeastern United States experienced extensive insect damage during the 1988 growing season. Chlorophyll data and high spectral resolution spectrometer laboratory reflectance data were acquired for multiple collections of single detached sugar maple leaves variously affected by the insect over the 1988 growing season. Reflectance data indicated consistent and diagnostic differences in the red edge portion (680-750 nm) of the spectrum among the various samples and populations of leaves. These included differences in the red edge inflection point (REIP), a ratio of reflectance at 740-720 nm (RE3/RE2), and a ratio of first derivative values at 715-705 nm (D715/D705). All three red edge parameters were highly correlated with variation in total chlorophyll content. Other spectral measures, including the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) and the Simple Vegetation Index Ratio (VI), also varied among populations and over the growing season, but did not correlate well with total chlorophyll content. Leaf stacking studies on light and dark backgrounds indicated REIP, RE3/RE2 and D715/D705 to be much less influenced by differences in green leaf biomass and background condition than either NDVI or VI.
A Richer Understanding of Algebra
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Foy, Michelle
2008-01-01
Algebra is one of those hard-to-teach topics where pupils seem to struggle to see it as more than a set of rules to learn, but this author recently used the software "Grid Algebra" from ATM, which engaged her Year 7 pupils in exploring algebraic concepts for themselves. "Grid Algebra" allows pupils to experience number, pre-algebra, and algebra…
Connecting Algebra and Chemistry.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
O'Connor, Sean
2003-01-01
Correlates high school chemistry curriculum with high school algebra curriculum and makes the case for an integrated approach to mathematics and science instruction. Focuses on process integration. (DDR)
Muhr, Jan; Messier, Christian; Delagrange, Sylvain; Trumbore, Susan; Xu, Xiaomei; Hartmann, Henrik
2016-03-01
While trees store substantial amounts of nonstructural carbon (NSC) for later use, storage regulation and mobilization of stored NSC in long-lived organisms like trees are still not well understood. At two different sites with sugar maple (Acer saccharum), we investigated ascending sap (sugar concentration, δ(13) C, Δ(14) C) as the mobilized component of stored stem NSC during early springtime. Using the bomb-spike radiocarbon approach we were able to estimate the average time elapsed since the mobilized carbon (C) was originally fixed from the atmosphere and to infer the turnover time of stem storage. Sites differed in concentration dynamics and overall δ(13) C, indicating different growing conditions. The absence of temporal trends for δ(13) C and Δ(14) C indicated sugar mobilization from a well-mixed pool with average Δ(14) C consistent with a mean turnover time (TT) of three to five years for this pool, with only minor differences between the sites. Sugar maple trees hence appear well buffered against single or even several years of negative plant C balance from environmental stress such as drought or repeated defoliation by insects. Manipulative investigations (e.g. starvation via girdling) combined with Δ(14) C measurements of this mobilized storage pool will provide further new insights into tree storage regulation and functioning. PMID:26639654
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Merlin, Ethan M.
2013-01-01
This article describes how the author has developed tasks for students that address the missed "essence of the matter" of algebraic transformations. Specifically, he has found that having students practice "perceiving" algebraic structure--by naming the "glue" in the expressions, drawing expressions using…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Levy, Alissa Beth
2012-01-01
The California Department of Education (CDE) has long asserted that success Algebra I by Grade 8 is the goal for all California public school students. In fact, the state's accountability system penalizes schools that do not require all of their students to take the Algebra I end-of-course examination by Grade 8 (CDE, 2009). In this…
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lawson, C. L.; Krogh, F. T.; Gold, S. S.; Kincaid, D. R.; Sullivan, J.; Williams, E.; Hanson, R. J.; Haskell, K.; Dongarra, J.; Moler, C. B.
1982-01-01
The Basic Linear Algebra Subprograms (BLAS) library is a collection of 38 FORTRAN-callable routines for performing basic operations of numerical linear algebra. BLAS library is portable and efficient source of basic operations for designers of programs involving linear algebriac computations. BLAS library is supplied in portable FORTRAN and Assembler code versions for IBM 370, UNIVAC 1100 and CDC 6000 series computers.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Cavanagh, Sean
2008-01-01
A popular humorist and avowed mathphobe once declared that in real life, there's no such thing as algebra. Kathie Wilson knows better. Most of the students in her 8th grade class will be thrust into algebra, the definitive course that heralds the beginning of high school mathematics, next school year. The problem: Many of them are about three…
Intellectual performance of children with maple syrup urine disease.
Hilliges, C; Awiszus, D; Wendel, U
1993-02-01
The intellectual performance of 22 children aged 3-16 years with maple syrup urine disease (MSUD) was assessed and compared to a group of early treated phenylketonuria (PKU) children and normal subjects matched by age, sex, nationality, and socio-economic status. All subjects were tested by one examiner only using the age related versions of the non-verbal Snijders-Oomen intelligence test. The mean IQ (+/- SD) score was 74 +/- 14 (range 50-103) in patients with MSUD, 101 +/- 12 (range 87-125) in early treated PKU patients, and 107 +/- 9 (range 90-122) in normal subjects. Intercorrelations indicated that length of time after birth that plasma leucine concentration remained > 1 mmol/l and quality of long-term metabolic control have important influences on IQ. PMID:8444223
Application of Computer Graphics to Graphing in Algebra and Trigonometry. Final Report.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Morris, J. Richard
This project was designed to improve the graphing competency of students in elementary algebra, intermediate algebra, and trigonometry courses at Virginia Commonwealth University. Computer graphics programs were designed using an Apple II Plus computer and implemented using Pascal. The software package is interactive and gives students control…
Filteau, Marie; Lagacé, Luc; LaPointe, Gisèle; Roy, Denis
2011-08-01
During collection, maple sap is contaminated by bacteria and fungi that subsequently colonize the tubing system. The bacterial microbiota has been more characterized than the fungal microbiota, but the impact of both components on maple sap quality remains unclear. This study focused on identifying bacterial and fungal members of maple sap and correlating microbiota composition with maple sap properties. A multiplex automated ribosomal intergenic spacer analysis (MARISA) method was developed to presumptively identify bacterial and fungal members of maple sap samples collected from 19 production sites during the tapping period. Results indicate that the fungal community of maple sap is mainly composed of yeast related to Mrakia sp., Mrakiella sp., Guehomyces pullulans, Cryptococcus victoriae and Williopsis saturnus. Mrakia, Mrakiella and Guehomyces peaks were identified in samples of all production sites and can be considered dominant and stable members of the fungal microbiota of maple sap. A multivariate analysis based on MARISA profiles and maple sap chemical composition data showed correlations between Candida sake, Janthinobacterium lividum, Williopsis sp., Leuconostoc mesenteroides, Mrakia sp., Rhodococcus sp., Pseudomonas tolaasii, G. pullulans and maple sap composition at different flow periods. This study provides new insights on the relationship between microbial community and maple sap quality. PMID:21569942
Leafhopper control in filed-grown red maples with systemic insecticides
Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)
Red maple, a popular landscape tree, can be susceptible to foliar damage caused by potato leafhopper feeding. Typical potato leafhopper injury includes distorted leaf tissue and reduced shoot growth. This research identified systemic neonicotinoid insecticides, Allectus and Discus, which controlled...
mMaple: A Photoconvertible Fluorescent Protein for Use in Multiple Imaging Modalities
McEvoy, Ann L.; Hoi, Hiofan; Bates, Mark; Platonova, Evgenia; Cranfill, Paula J.; Baird, Michelle A.; Davidson, Michael W.; Ewers, Helge; Liphardt, Jan; Campbell, Robert E.
2012-01-01
Recent advances in fluorescence microscopy have extended the spatial resolution to the nanometer scale. Here, we report an engineered photoconvertible fluorescent protein (pcFP) variant, designated as mMaple, that is suited for use in multiple conventional and super-resolution imaging modalities, specifically, widefield and confocal microscopy, structured illumination microscopy (SIM), and single-molecule localization microscopy. We demonstrate the versatility of mMaple by obtaining super-resolution images of protein organization in Escherichia coli and conventional fluorescence images of mammalian cells. Beneficial features of mMaple include high photostability of the green state when expressed in mammalian cells and high steady state intracellular protein concentration of functional protein when expressed in E. coli. mMaple thus enables both fast live-cell ensemble imaging and high precision single molecule localization for a single pcFP-containing construct. PMID:23240015
Semigroups and computer algebra in algebraic structures
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bijev, G.
2012-11-01
Some concepts in semigroup theory can be interpreted in several algebraic structures. A generalization fA,B,fA,B(X) = A(X')B of the complement operator (') on Boolean matrices is made, where A and B denote any rectangular Boolean matrices. While (') is an isomorphism between Boolean semilattices, the generalized complement operator is homomorphism in the general case. The map fA,B and its general inverse (fA,B)+ have quite similar properties to those in the linear algebra and are useful for solving linear equations in Boolean matrix algebras. For binary relations on a finite set, necessary and sufficient conditions for the equation αξβ = γ to have a solution ξ are proved. A generalization of Green's equivalence relations in semigroups for rectangular matrices is proposed. Relationships between them and the Moore-Penrose inverses are investigated. It is shown how any generalized Green's H-class could be constructed by given its corresponding linear subspaces and converted into a group isomorphic to a linear group. Some information about using computer algebra methods concerning this paper is given.
Lie algebra extensions of current algebras on S3
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kori, Tosiaki; Imai, Yuto
2015-06-01
An affine Kac-Moody algebra is a central extension of the Lie algebra of smooth mappings from S1 to the complexification of a Lie algebra. In this paper, we shall introduce a central extension of the Lie algebra of smooth mappings from S3 to the quaternization of a Lie algebra and investigate its root space decomposition. We think this extension of current algebra might give a mathematical tool for four-dimensional conformal field theory as Kac-Moody algebras give it for two-dimensional conformal field theory.
Leibniz algebras associated with representations of filiform Lie algebras
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ayupov, Sh. A.; Camacho, L. M.; Khudoyberdiyev, A. Kh.; Omirov, B. A.
2015-12-01
In this paper we investigate Leibniz algebras whose quotient Lie algebra is a naturally graded filiform Lie algebra nn,1. We introduce a Fock module for the algebra nn,1 and provide classification of Leibniz algebras L whose corresponding Lie algebra L / I is the algebra nn,1 with condition that the ideal I is a Fock nn,1-module, where I is the ideal generated by squares of elements from L. We also consider Leibniz algebras with corresponding Lie algebra nn,1 and such that the action I ×nn,1 → I gives rise to a minimal faithful representation of nn,1. The classification up to isomorphism of such Leibniz algebras is given for the case of n = 4.
Coreflections in Algebraic Quantum Logic
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jacobs, Bart; Mandemaker, Jorik
2012-07-01
Various generalizations of Boolean algebras are being studied in algebraic quantum logic, including orthomodular lattices, orthomodular po-sets, orthoalgebras and effect algebras. This paper contains a systematic study of the structure in and between categories of such algebras. It does so via a combination of totalization (of partially defined operations) and transfer of structure via coreflections.
Developing Algebraic Thinking.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Alejandre, Suzanne
2002-01-01
Presents a teaching experience that resulted in students getting to a point of full understanding of the kinesthetic activity and the algebra behind it. Includes a lesson plan for a traffic jam activity. (KHR)
Algebraic integrability: a survey.
Vanhaecke, Pol
2008-03-28
We give a concise introduction to the notion of algebraic integrability. Our exposition is based on examples and phenomena, rather than on detailed proofs of abstract theorems. We mainly focus on algebraic integrability in the sense of Adler-van Moerbeke, where the fibres of the momentum map are affine parts of Abelian varieties; as it turns out, most examples from classical mechanics are of this form. Two criteria are given for such systems (Kowalevski-Painlevé and Lyapunov) and each is illustrated in one example. We show in the case of a relatively simple example how one proves algebraic integrability, starting from the differential equations for the integrable vector field. For Hamiltonian systems that are algebraically integrable in the generalized sense, two examples are given, which illustrate the non-compact analogues of Abelian varieties which typically appear in such systems. PMID:17588863
Algebraic Semantics for Narrative
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Kahn, E.
1974-01-01
This paper uses discussion of Edmund Spenser's "The Faerie Queene" to present a theoretical framework for explaining the semantics of narrative discourse. The algebraic theory of finite automata is used. (CK)
Aprepro - Algebraic Preprocessor
2005-08-01
Aprepro is an algebraic preprocessor that reads a file containing both general text and algebraic, string, or conditional expressions. It interprets the expressions and outputs them to the output file along witht the general text. Aprepro contains several mathematical functions, string functions, and flow control constructs. In addition, functions are included that, with some additional files, implement a units conversion system and a material database lookup system.
Geometric Algebra for Physicists
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Doran, Chris; Lasenby, Anthony
2007-11-01
Preface; Notation; 1. Introduction; 2. Geometric algebra in two and three dimensions; 3. Classical mechanics; 4. Foundations of geometric algebra; 5. Relativity and spacetime; 6. Geometric calculus; 7. Classical electrodynamics; 8. Quantum theory and spinors; 9. Multiparticle states and quantum entanglement; 10. Geometry; 11. Further topics in calculus and group theory; 12. Lagrangian and Hamiltonian techniques; 13. Symmetry and gauge theory; 14. Gravitation; Bibliography; Index.
Covariant deformed oscillator algebras
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Quesne, Christiane
1995-01-01
The general form and associativity conditions of deformed oscillator algebras are reviewed. It is shown how the latter can be fulfilled in terms of a solution of the Yang-Baxter equation when this solution has three distinct eigenvalues and satisfies a Birman-Wenzl-Murakami condition. As an example, an SU(sub q)(n) x SU(sub q)(m)-covariant q-bosonic algebra is discussed in some detail.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hiley, B. J.
In this chapter, we examine in detail the non-commutative symplectic algebra underlying quantum dynamics. By using this algebra, we show that it contains both the Weyl-von Neumann and the Moyal quantum algebras. The latter contains the Wigner distribution as the kernel of the density matrix. The underlying non-commutative geometry can be projected into either of two Abelian spaces, so-called `shadow phase spaces'. One of these is the phase space of Bohmian mechanics, showing that it is a fragment of the basic underlying algebra. The algebraic approach is much richer, giving rise to two fundamental dynamical time development equations which reduce to the Liouville equation and the Hamilton-Jacobi equation in the classical limit. They also include the Schrödinger equation and its wave-function, showing that these features are a partial aspect of the more general non-commutative structure. We discuss briefly the properties of this more general mathematical background from which the non-commutative symplectic algebra emerges.
On Generating Discrete Integrable Systems via Lie Algebras and Commutator Equations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, Yu-Feng; Honwah, Tam
2016-03-01
In the paper, we introduce the Lie algebras and the commutator equations to rewrite the Tu-d scheme for generating discrete integrable systems regularly. By the approach the various loop algebras of the Lie algebra A1 are defined so that the well-known Toda hierarchy and a novel discrete integrable system are obtained, respectively. A reduction of the later hierarchy is just right the famous Ablowitz-Ladik hierarchy. Finally, via two different enlarging Lie algebras of the Lie algebra A1, we derive two resulting differential-difference integrable couplings of the Toda hierarchy, of course, they are all various discrete expanding integrable models of the Toda hierarchy. When the introduced spectral matrices are higher degrees, the way presented in the paper is more convenient to generate discrete integrable equations than the Tu-d scheme by using the software Maple. Supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China under Grant No. 11371361, the Innovation Team of Jiangsu Province hosted by China University of Mining and Technology (2014), and Hong Kong Research Grant Council under Grant No. HKBU202512, as well as the Natural Science Foundation of Shandong Province under Grant No. ZR2013AL016
On Generating Discrete Integrable Systems via Lie Algebras and Commutator Equations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, Yu-Feng; Tam, Honwah
2016-03-01
In the paper, we introduce the Lie algebras and the commutator equations to rewrite the Tu-d scheme for generating discrete integrable systems regularly. By the approach the various loop algebras of the Lie algebra A1 are defined so that the well-known Toda hierarchy and a novel discrete integrable system are obtained, respectively. A reduction of the later hierarchy is just right the famous Ablowitz–Ladik hierarchy. Finally, via two different enlarging Lie algebras of the Lie algebra A1, we derive two resulting differential-difference integrable couplings of the Toda hierarchy, of course, they are all various discrete expanding integrable models of the Toda hierarchy. When the introduced spectral matrices are higher degrees, the way presented in the paper is more convenient to generate discrete integrable equations than the Tu-d scheme by using the software Maple. Supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China under Grant No. 11371361, the Innovation Team of Jiangsu Province hosted by China University of Mining and Technology (2014), and Hong Kong Research Grant Council under Grant No. HKBU202512, as well as the Natural Science Foundation of Shandong Province under Grant No. ZR2013AL016
DG Poisson algebra and its universal enveloping algebra
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lü, JiaFeng; Wang, XingTing; Zhuang, GuangBin
2016-05-01
In this paper, we introduce the notions of differential graded (DG) Poisson algebra and DG Poisson module. Let $A$ be any DG Poisson algebra. We construct the universal enveloping algebra of $A$ explicitly, which is denoted by $A^{ue}$. We show that $A^{ue}$ has a natural DG algebra structure and it satisfies certain universal property. As a consequence of the universal property, it is proved that the category of DG Poisson modules over $A$ is isomorphic to the category of DG modules over $A^{ue}$. Furthermore, we prove that the notion of universal enveloping algebra $A^{ue}$ is well-behaved under opposite algebra and tensor product of DG Poisson algebras. Practical examples of DG Poisson algebras are given throughout the paper including those arising from differential geometry and homological algebra.
Nagai, Noriaki; Yamamoto, Tetsushi; Tanabe, Wataru; Ito, Yoshimasa; Kurabuchi, Satoshi; Mitamura, Kuniko; Taga, Atsushi
2015-01-01
We investigate whether maple syrup is a suitable sweetener in the management of type 2 diabetes using the Otsuka Long-Evans Tokushima Fatty (OLETF) rat. The enhancement in plasma glucose (PG) and glucose absorption in the small intestine were lower after the oral administration of maple syrup than after sucrose administration in OLETF rats, and no significant differences were observed in insulin levels. These data suggested that maple syrup might inhibit the absorption of glucose from the small intestine and preventing the enhancement of PG in OLETF rats. Therefore, maple syrup might help in the prevention of type 2 diabetes. PMID:25757438
Climate Change in the School Yard: Monitoring the Health of Acer Saccharum with A Maple Report Card
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Carlson, M.; Diller, A.; Rock, B. N.
2012-12-01
K-12 Teachers and students engage in authentic science and a research partnership with scientists in Maple Watch, a University of New Hampshire outreach program. Maple Watch is a hands-on, inquiry-based program in which students learn about climate change and air quality as well as many other environmental stress factors which may affect the health of sugar maple. The iconic New England tree is slated to lose 52% of its range in this century. Maple Watch builds on the 20-year record of Forest Watch, a K-12 program in which students and teachers have contributed annual research specimens and data to a UNH study of tropospheric ozone and its impact on white pine (Pinus strobus). Maple Watch students monitor sugar maples (Acer saccharum) year-round for signals of strain and disease. Students report the first run in sap season, bud burst and leaf development, and leaf senescence and fall. Across New England the timing of these phenologic events is changing with climate warming. Students assess maple health with simple measures of leaf development in May, leaf senescence in early fall and bud quality in late fall. Simple student arithmetic rankings of leaf and bud health correlate with chlorophyll content and spectral reflectance measures that students can analyze and compare with researchers at UNH. Grading their trees for each test on a one-two-three scale, students develop a Maple Report Card for each type of measurement, which presents an annual portrait of tree health. Year-by-year, schools across the sugar maple's 31 million acre range could monitor changes in tree health. The change over time in maple health can be graphed in parallel with the Goddard Space Institute's Common Sense Climate Index. Four teachers, listed as co-authors here, began a pilot study with Maple Watch in 2010, contributing sap samples and sharing curricular activities with UNH. Pilot Maple Watch schools already manage stands of sugar maples and make maple syrup and are assisting in training
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kharcheva, Anastasia V.
2014-01-01
The work is devoted to the spectral measurements of maple leaves. Fresh green leaves of maple were investigated in spring and summer, healthy leaves and leaves affected by fungal diseases - during the fall color change. F685/F740 parameter values for healthy and diseased maple leaves were found, as well as the change of this parameter during the growing season. The concentration of chlorophylls a and b and carotenoids in ethanol extracts of maple leaves with different pigmentation were calculated by absorption spectroscopy and the ratio of Chl a / Chl b was found.
Using computer algebra for Yang-Baxterization applied to quantum computing
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vélez, Mario; Ospina, Juan
2006-05-01
Using Computer Algebra Software (Mathematica and Maple), the recently introduced topic of Yang- Baxterization applied to quantum computing, is explored from the mathematical and computational views. Some algorithms of computer algebra were elaborated with the aim to make the calculations to obtain some of results that were originally presented in the paper by Shang-Kauffman-Ge. Also certain new results about computational Yang-baxterization are presented. We obtain some Hamiltonians for hypothetical physical systems which can be realized within the domain of spin chains and certain diffusion process. We conclude that it is possible to have real physical systems on which implement, via Yang-baxterization, the standard quantum gates with topological protection. Finally some lines for future research are deligned.
National Institute of Standards and Technology Data Gateway
NIST Scoring Package (PC database for purchase) The NIST Scoring Package (Special Database 1) is a reference implementation of the draft Standard Method for Evaluating the Performance of Systems Intended to Recognize Hand-printed Characters from Image Data Scanned from Forms.
Biochemical correlates of neuropsychiatric illness in maple syrup urine disease
Muelly, Emilie R.; Moore, Gregory J.; Bunce, Scott C.; Mack, Julie; Bigler, Don C.; Morton, D. Holmes; Strauss, Kevin A.
2013-01-01
Maple syrup urine disease (MSUD) is an inherited disorder of branched chain amino acid metabolism presenting with neonatal encephalopathy, episodic metabolic decompensation, and chronic amino acid imbalances. Dietary management enables survival and reduces risk of acute crises. Liver transplantation has emerged as an effective way to eliminate acute decompensation risk. Psychiatric illness is a reported MSUD complication, but has not been well characterized and remains poorly understood. We report the prevalence and characteristics of neuropsychiatric problems among 37 classical MSUD patients (ages 5–35 years, 26 on dietary therapy, 11 after liver transplantation) and explore their underlying mechanisms. Compared with 26 age-matched controls, MSUD patients were at higher risk for disorders of cognition, attention, and mood. Using quantitative proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy, we found lower brain glutamate, N-acetylaspartate (NAA), and creatine concentrations in MSUD patients, which correlated with specific neuropsychiatric outcomes. Asymptomatic neonatal course and stringent longitudinal biochemical control proved fundamental to optimizing long-term mental health. Neuropsychiatric morbidity and neurochemistry were similar among transplanted and nontransplanted MSUD patients. In conclusion, amino acid dysregulation results in aberrant neural networks with neurochemical deficiencies that persist after transplant and correlate with neuropsychiatric morbidities. These findings may provide insight into general mechanisms of psychiatric illness. PMID:23478409
Development of a more efficient maple syrup evaporator. Final report
Parsons, D.
1982-11-30
The goal of this project was to retrofit a traditional wood-fired maple syrup evaporator to make more efficient use of the wood fuel. A sap preheater was constructed that used waste heat from the steam to preheat the incoming sap. The preheater was tested on the evaporator and 8% more water was processed. There were some problems that will be discussed in the body of the report. A sap pan with fins incorporated into the bottom (described in the 1st and 2nd quarterly reports) was built but was not tested because the fins could not be properly sealed at the ends. Put more simply, it leaked. The bulk of time and energy was spent designing, building, and installing the forced draft and heat exchanger system (refer to 3rd quarterly report). A squirrel cage blower forced fresh air through twelve pipes that were arranged in the stack to the firebox and a draft inducer was mounted on top of the stack. With this arrangement plus the preheater 27% more water was processed than the original rig with the same amount of wood.
Acrodermatitis dysmetabolica in an infant with maple syrup urine disease.
Flores, K; Chikowski, R; Morrell, D S
2016-08-01
Acrodermatitis dysmetabolica (AD) is a rare, newly termed, and poorly understood disease that appears to be clinically similar to acrodermatitis enteropathica (AE). Both diseases are characterized by the triad of periorificial and acral dermatitis, diarrhoea, and alopecia. Unlike AE, which is caused by zinc deficiency, AD is caused by numerous metabolic disorders. One such disorder is maple syrup urine disease (MSUD), a genetic deficiency of branched chain α-ketoacid dehydrogenase, the enzyme that degrades the branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs) isoleucine, leucine and valine. Treatment involves restricting BCAAs to prevent accumulation. We report a case of an infant being treated for MSUD, who developed the triad of AE/AD after a period of poor BCAA formula intake. The child was found to have low isoleucine and normal zinc levels. Increasing the isoleucine dose improved the eruption, thus the diagnosis of AD secondary to isoleucine deficiency was made. This case emphasizes the importance of carefully balancing BCAA levels while treating MSUD, as deficiency can precipitate AD. PMID:27334242
Sugar Maple Phenology: Anthocyanin Production During Leaf Senescence
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lindgren, E.; Rock, B.
2007-12-01
The Northeastern United States is known for its brilliant fall foliage colors. Foliage is responsible for a billion dollar tourism industry. Many comment that past years have not resulted in the amazing color displays seen historically. As sugar maple trees senesce they contribute bright red leaves to the mural of oranges, yellows, and greens. The pigment that produces the red color, anthocyanin, is synthesized in the fall as chlorophyll slowly degrades. Remote sensing data from LandSat during fall senescence can help investigate this event by quantifying color change and intensity. This data can then be compared to ground validation efforts in several study plots. The results will help answer the question, "Why do leaves turn red?" One hypothesis is that this pigment acts as a photoprotectant and screens leaves from UV light. It is possible that an increase in tropospheric ozone has negatively affected fall foliage due to the increased reflection of UV light before it reaches the trees; thereby reducing the leaves need to produce anthocyanin. Another hypothesis is that production of anthocyanin is linked to temperature, with maximum synthesis occurring during cold evenings and moderate days. Temperature changes caused by climate change could also be affecting anthocyanin. Through observing these changes by remote sensing and ground experiments, more can be learned about this phenological stage and why it happens.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vail, Benjamin; Aris, Damian; Scarlete, Mihai
The present study proposes an algorithm for point-group analysis (PGA) of the vibrational activity of molecules, adapted for the efficient utilization of the linear packages incorporated into currently available symbolic computation engines (SCE), such as Maple, Mathcad, or Mathematica. By the creation of this algorithm, we have addressed the need for a numerically friendly environment, outside the "locked" procedures within molecular modeling packages, which will preserve its flexibility, transparency, and maneuverability, regardless of the complexity of the calculation. The format of the character tables of the point groups significant to chemical species has been adapted to ensure automatic numerization, and consistent input of the alphanumeric data from the existent character tables into the SCE templates designed to perform the PGA. The two proposed templates address two complementary objectives: (i) a totally transparent and interactive file has been designed to allow access to all intermediate results at all levels of the procedure for easy implementation of potential additional modules of special interest 1-5, and (ii) for fast output and routine calculations of the IR/Raman vibrational activity of molecules based on their point groups, a totally automatic file with a highly simplified input interface has been designed. The numerical interface conveniently replaces the usual graphic user interface that is common to most commercial molecular modeling software packages, requiring minimum input determination. The structure for both templates is based on the use of the digitized forms for the character tables, for the symmetry operations, and for symmetry elements, all saved in dedicated libraries uploaded to the numerical database of the SCE.
Biogeochemical Drivers of Sugar Maple Mortality at the Species-Range Scale
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Perry, C. H.; Zimmerman, P. L.
2012-12-01
The decline of sugar maple in the northern United States is causing concern in the resource management community, and several studies have identified soil properties that are linked to the observation of dead/dying trees (Hallett et al. 2006; Horsley et al. 2000; Long et al. 2009; St.Clair et al. 2008). Unfortunately, the sample of trees supporting these studies tends to be purposive in nature; soil properties generally are assessed only on those plots where dead trees are observed. In this study, we used more than 200 plots from the USDA Forest Service's FIADB (USDA Forest Service 2012; Woudenberg et al. 2010), including the phase 3 soils data (O'Neill et al. 2005; Woodall et al. 2010), to analyze a broader population of sugar maple (alive and dead) across a wide range of soil types. This population of plots has a highly skewed, zero-inflated distribution: the number of plots in the sample without dead trees is an order of magnitude greater than the number of plots with dead trees. One effective method of analysis is a two-stage approach. In the first stage, the response variable is the presence or absence of dead sugar maple; the inferential space is the entire population of plots with sugar maple trees. The second stage uses the relative abundance of dead sugar maple as the response variable; in this case, inference is restricted to those plots where dead sugar maple trees are observed. In both sets of models, basal area and geology are significant predictors of dead sugar maple. The most significant soil variables vary between these two inferential spaces. Our model of the presence/absence of sugar maple death included the molar ratio of Mg:Mn; when conditional on the presence of dead sugar maple, our model includes the molar ratio of Ca:Al, along with exchangeable Na and Mg percentages. Multimodel inference (Burnham and Anderson 2002) assists the assessment of predictors within and between the two stages.
Stiff-Roberts, Adrienne D.; Pate, Ryan; McCormick, Ryan; Lantz, Kevin R.
2012-07-30
Resonant infrared matrix-assisted pulsed laser evaporation (RIR-MAPLE) is a variation of pulsed laser deposition that is useful for organic-based thin films because it reduces material degradation by selective absorption of infrared radiation in the host matrix. A unique emulsion-based RIR-MAPLE approach has been developed that reduces substrate exposure to solvents and provides controlled and repeatable organic thin film deposition. In order to establish emulsion-based RIR-MAPLE as a preferred deposition technique for conjugated polymer or hybrid nanocomposite optoelectronic devices, studies have been conducted to demonstrate the value added by the approach in comparison to traditional solution-based deposition techniques, and this work will be reviewed. The control of hybrid nanocomposite thin film deposition, and the photoconductivity in such materials deposited using emulsion-based RIR-MAPLE, will also be reviewed. The overall result of these studies is the demonstration of emulsion-based RIR-MAPLE as a viable option for the fabrication of conjugated polymer and hybrid nanocomposite optoelectronic devices that could yield improved device performance.
Changes in mRNA and protein content of SO sub 2 -fumigated maple leaves
Stinemetz, C.L. ); Roberts, B.R.; Schnipke, V.M. )
1989-04-01
The effect of acute SO{sub 2} fumigation on foliar DNA, RNA, and protein levels in 2-yr-old containerized Acer seedlings was examined. While DNA content did not change appreciably in either SO{sub 2}-sensitive red maple (A. rubrum L.) or SO{sub 2}-tolerant silver maple (A. saccharinum L.), significant reductions in mRNA (35% for red maple; 21% for silver maple) were observed after 54 h fumigation (6 h/day {times} 3 days/wk {times} 3 wk) at 2.5 ppm SO{sub 2}. Reductions in mRNA and protein content were accompanied by a corresponding decline in net photosynthesis (Pn). The data from this study suggest that acute SO{sub 2} fumigation alters Pn in red and silver maple by disrupting molecular events, and that species sensitivity for these particular Acer spp may be related to the degree of change associated with mRNA and total protein content.
Regional growth decline of sugar maple (Acer saccharum) and its potential causes
Bishop, Daniel A.; Beier, Colin M.; Pederson, Neil; Lawrence, Gregory B.; Stella, John C; Sullivan, Timothy J.
2015-01-01
Sugar maple (Acer saccharum Marsh) has experienced poor vigor, regeneration failure, and elevated mortality across much of its range, but there has been relatively little attention to its growth rates. Based on a well-replicated dendrochronological network of range-centered populations in the Adirondack Mountains (USA), which encompassed a wide gradient of soil fertility, we observed that the majority of sugar maple trees exhibited negative growth trends in the last several decades, regardless of age, diameter, or soil fertility. Such growth patterns were unexpected, given recent warming and increased moisture availability, as well as reduced acidic deposition, which should have favored growth. Mean basal area increment was greater on base-rich soils, but these stands also experienced sharp reductions in growth. Growth sensitivity of sugar maple to temperature and precipitation was non-stationary during the last century, with overall weaker relationships than expected. Given the favorable competitive status and age structure of the Adirondack sugar maple populations sampled, evidence of widespread growth reductions raises concern over this ecologically and economically important tree. Further study will be needed to establish whether growth declines of sugar maple are occurring more widely across its range.
Benhammouda, Brahim
2016-01-01
Since 1980, the Adomian decomposition method (ADM) has been extensively used as a simple powerful tool that applies directly to solve different kinds of nonlinear equations including functional, differential, integro-differential and algebraic equations. However, for differential-algebraic equations (DAEs) the ADM is applied only in four earlier works. There, the DAEs are first pre-processed by some transformations like index reductions before applying the ADM. The drawback of such transformations is that they can involve complex algorithms, can be computationally expensive and may lead to non-physical solutions. The purpose of this paper is to propose a novel technique that applies the ADM directly to solve a class of nonlinear higher-index Hessenberg DAEs systems efficiently. The main advantage of this technique is that; firstly it avoids complex transformations like index reductions and leads to a simple general algorithm. Secondly, it reduces the computational work by solving only linear algebraic systems with a constant coefficient matrix at each iteration, except for the first iteration where the algebraic system is nonlinear (if the DAE is nonlinear with respect to the algebraic variable). To demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed technique, we apply it to a nonlinear index-three Hessenberg DAEs system with nonlinear algebraic constraints. This technique is straightforward and can be programmed in Maple or Mathematica to simulate real application problems. PMID:27330880
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Roitman, Michael
2008-08-01
In this paper we prove that for any commutative (but in general non-associative) algebra A with an invariant symmetric non-degenerate bilinear form there is a graded vertex algebra V = V0 Å V2 Å V3 Å ¼, such that dim V0 = 1 and V2 contains A. We can choose V so that if A has a unit e, then 2e is the Virasoro element of V, and if G is a finite group of automorphisms of A, then G acts on V as well. In addition, the algebra V can be chosen with a non-degenerate invariant bilinear form, in which case it is simple.
Adaptive Algebraic Multigrid Methods
Brezina, M; Falgout, R; MacLachlan, S; Manteuffel, T; McCormick, S; Ruge, J
2004-04-09
Our ability to simulate physical processes numerically is constrained by our ability to solve the resulting linear systems, prompting substantial research into the development of multiscale iterative methods capable of solving these linear systems with an optimal amount of effort. Overcoming the limitations of geometric multigrid methods to simple geometries and differential equations, algebraic multigrid methods construct the multigrid hierarchy based only on the given matrix. While this allows for efficient black-box solution of the linear systems associated with discretizations of many elliptic differential equations, it also results in a lack of robustness due to assumptions made on the near-null spaces of these matrices. This paper introduces an extension to algebraic multigrid methods that removes the need to make such assumptions by utilizing an adaptive process. The principles which guide the adaptivity are highlighted, as well as their application to algebraic multigrid solution of certain symmetric positive-definite linear systems.
Abstract Algebra for Algebra Teaching: Influencing School Mathematics Instruction
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Wasserman, Nicholas H.
2016-01-01
This article explores the potential for aspects of abstract algebra to be influential for the teaching of school algebra (and early algebra). Using national standards for analysis, four primary areas common in school mathematics--and their progression across elementary, middle, and secondary mathematics--where teaching may be transformed by…
Protein and leucine metabolism in maple syrup urine disease
Thompson, G.N.; Bresson, J.L.; Pacy, P.J.; Bonnefont, J.P.; Walter, J.H.; Leonard, J.V.; Saudubray, J.M.; Halliday, D. )
1990-04-01
Constant infusions of (13C)leucine and (2H5)phenylalanine were used to trace leucine and protein kinetics, respectively, in seven children with maple syrup urine disease (MSUD) and eleven controls matched for age and dietary protein intake. Despite significant elevations of plasma leucine (mean 351 mumol/l, range 224-477) in MSUD subjects, mean whole body protein synthesis (3.78 +/- 0.42 (SD) g.kg-1. 24 h-1) and catabolism (4.07 +/- 0.46) were similar to control values (3.69 +/- 0.50 and 4.09 +/- 0.50, respectively). The relationship between phenylalanine and leucine fluxes was also similar in MSUD subjects (mean phenylalanine-leucine flux ratio 0.35 +/- 0.07) and previously reported adult controls (0.33 +/- 0.02). Leucine oxidation was undetectable in four of the MSUD subjects and very low in the other three (less than 4 mumol.kg-1.h-1; controls 13-20). These results show that persistent elevation in leucine concentration has no effect on protein synthesis. The marked disturbance in leucine metabolism in MSUD did not alter the relationship between rates of catabolism of protein to phenylalanine and leucine, which provides further support for the validity of the use of a single amino acid to trace whole body protein metabolism. The minimal leucine oxidation in MSUD differs from findings in other inborn metabolic errors and indicates that in patients with classical MSUD there is no significant route of leucine disposal other than through protein synthesis.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Frear, Darrel
This chapter is a high-level overview of the materials used in an electronic package including: metals used as conductors in the package, ceramics and glasses used as dielectrics or insulators and polymers used as insulators and, in a composite form, as conductors. There is a need for new materials to meet the ever-changing requirements for high-speed digital and radio-frequency (RF) applications. There are different requirements for digital and RF packages that translate into the need for unique materials for each application. The interconnect and dielectric (insulating) requirements are presented for each application and the relevant materials properties and characteristics are discussed. The fundamental materials characteristics are: dielectric constant, dielectric loss, thermal and electric conductivity, resistivity, moisture absorption, glass-transition temperature, strength, time-dependent deformation (creep), and fracture toughness. The materials characteristics and properties are dependant on how they are processed to form the electronic package so the fundamentals of electronic packaging processes are discussed including wirebonding, solder interconnects, flip-chip interconnects, underfill for flip chip and overmolding. The relevant materials properties are given along with requirements (including environmentally friendly Pb-free packages) that require new materials to be developed to meet future electronics needs for both digital and RF applications.
Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014
2010-09-17
... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Maple Analytics, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market- Based Rate... notice in the above-referenced proceeding of Maple Analytics, LLC's application for market-based...
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Bal, Tara L.
2013-01-01
Sugar Maple, "Acer saccharum" Marsh., is one of the most valuable trees in the northern hardwood forests. Severe dieback was recently reported by area foresters in the western Upper Great Lakes Region. Sugar Maple has had a history of dieback over the last 100 years throughout its range and different variables have been identified as…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Scanlan, Martin
2016-01-01
This case describes Maple Hills Elementary, a K-8 school in a rural farming community of the Midwest. As a community, Maple Hills has historically experienced a narrow range of diversity across race, ethnicity, language, and religion. Residents have predominantly been White, with German and English heritage, speak English as a mother tongue, and…
Li, Mengxi; Seo, Sooyoun; Karboune, Salwa
2015-11-20
Maple syrups with selected degree Brix (°Bx) (15, 30, 60) were investigated as reaction systems for levansucrase from Bacillus amyloliquefaciens. The enzymatic conversion of sucrose present in the maple syrup and the production of the transfructosylation products were assessed over a time course of 48h. At 30°C, the use of maple syrup 30°Bx led to the highest levansucrase activity (427.53μmol/mg protein/min), while maple syrup 66°Bx led to the highest converted sucrose concentration (1.53M). In maple syrup 30°Bx, oligolevans (10
Computer Program For Linear Algebra
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Krogh, F. T.; Hanson, R. J.
1987-01-01
Collection of routines provided for basic vector operations. Basic Linear Algebra Subprogram (BLAS) library is collection from FORTRAN-callable routines for employing standard techniques to perform basic operations of numerical linear algebra.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Shahshahani, M.
1991-01-01
The performance characteristics are discussed of certain algebraic geometric codes. Algebraic geometric codes have good minimum distance properties. On many channels they outperform other comparable block codes; therefore, one would expect them eventually to replace some of the block codes used in communications systems. It is suggested that it is unlikely that they will become useful substitutes for the Reed-Solomon codes used by the Deep Space Network in the near future. However, they may be applicable to systems where the signal to noise ratio is sufficiently high so that block codes would be more suitable than convolutional or concatenated codes.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bouwknegt, Peter
1988-06-01
We investigate extensions of the Virasoro algebra by a single primary field of integer or halfinteger conformal dimension Δ. We argue that for vanishing structure constant CΔΔΔ, the extended conformal algebra can only be associative for a generic c-value if Δ=1/2, 1, 3/2, 2 or 3. For the other Δ<=5 we compute the finite set of allowed c-values and identify the rational solutions. The case CΔΔΔ≠0 is also briefly discussed. I would like to thank Kareljan Schoutens for discussions and Sander Bais for a careful reading of the manuscript.
Ecology of red maple swamps in the glaciated northeast: A community profile
Golet, F.C.; Calhoun, A.J.K.; DeRagon, W.R.; Lowry, D.J.; Gold, A.J.
1993-06-01
The report is part of a series of profiles on the ecology of wetland and deepwater habitats. This particular profile addresses red maple swamps in the glaciated northeastern United States. Red maple (Acer rubrum) swamp is a dominant wetland type in most of the region; it reaches the greatest abundance in southern New England and northern New Jersey; where it comprises 60-80% of all inland wetlands. Red maple swamps occur in a wide variety of hydrogeologic settings, from small, isolated basins in till or glaciofluvial deposits to extensive wetland complexes on glacial lake beds, and from hillside seeps to stream floodplains and lake edges. Individual swamps may be seasonally flooded, temporarily flooded, or seasonally saturated, and soils may be mineral or organic. As many as five distinct vegetation layers may occur in these swamps, including trees, saplings, shrubs, herbs, and ground cover plants such as bryophytes and clubmosses.
Bragg, D.C.; Stokke, D.D.
1994-01-01
Birdseye grain distortions in sugar maple must be identified to capture the full value of a timber sale throughout the economic range of birdseye's occurrence. Even when relatively common, birdseye veneer typically makes up less than 1 percent of the harvested volume, but may account for one-half of the value of the sale. Field identification of birdseye sugar maple is critical for two principal reasons: (1) it allows for the enumeration of a valuable resource that may influence management decisions, and (2) it may prevent improper manufacturing of logs at the job site. Both factors should help increase overall timber sale return. The objective of the paper is to provide a background on birdseye sugar maples and a detailed sequential methodology for field identification of birdseye in standing trees.
Ecology of red maple swamps in the glaciated northeast: A community profile
Golet, F.C.; Calhoun, A.J.K.; DeRagon, W.R.; Lowry, D.J.; Gold, A.J.
1993-06-01
In many areas of the glaciated northeastern United States, forested wetlands dominated by red maple (Acer rubrum) cover more of the landscape than all other nontidal wetland types combined. Yet surprisingly little of their ecology, functions, or social significance has been documented. Bogs, salt marshes, Atlantic white cedar swamps, and other less common types of wetlands have received considerable attention from scientists, but, except for botanical surveys, red maple swamps have been largely ignored. The report conveys what is known about these common wetlands and identifies topics most in need of investigation. Red maple swamps are so abundant and so widely distributed in the Northeast that their physical, chemical, and biological properties range widely as well, and their values to society are diverse. The central focus of the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service community profile series is the plant and animal communities of wetlands and deepwater habitats.
Effects of pesticide application on arthropod pests of nursery-grown maples.
Prado, Julia; Quesada, Carlos; Sadof, Clifford
2014-04-01
Insecticides used against potato leafhopper, Empoasca fabae (Harris) (Homoptera: Cicadellidae), have been reported to cause problems with maple spider mite, Oligonychus aceris (Shimer) (Acarina: Tetranychidae), on nursery-grown 'Red Sunset' red maple and 'Autumn Blaze' Freeman maple. To test this, we conducted two experiments on field-grown trees in nurseries. In the first, the effects of early-season pesticide applications were examined during 2009. The second experiment was conducted in 2010 to compare effects of using threshold levels of one, three, or six leafhoppers per branch to time applications. Pesticide applications reduced abundance and damage by leafhoppers in both cultivars, but increased populations of O. aceris on Autumn Blaze during 2009. In contrast, on Red Sunset, populations of O. aceris did not increase after insecticide applications. In 2010, insecticide applications did not increase abundance of O. aceris on Autumn Blaze because use of treatment thresholds to manage leafhoppers greatly reduced numbers of trees requiring treatment for leafhoppers. Two phytoseiid mites, Neoseiulus fallacis (Garman) and Typhlodromus caudiglans (Schuster), and one stigmaeid, Zetzellia mali (Ewing), were identified as the principal predators of O. aceris on maple leaves. Insecticide applications had no significant effects on the total abundance of predatory mites on either Red Sunset or Autumn Blaze maples in 2009 or 2010. However, populations of predator Z. mali were higher during both years on Red Sunset than on Autumn Blaze. These results suggest that both early-season pesticide use and cultivar can affect the likelihood of secondary outbreaks of spider mites on maples. PMID:24772553
SD-CAS: Spin Dynamics by Computer Algebra System.
Filip, Xenia; Filip, Claudiu
2010-11-01
A computer algebra tool for describing the Liouville-space quantum evolution of nuclear 1/2-spins is introduced and implemented within a computational framework named Spin Dynamics by Computer Algebra System (SD-CAS). A distinctive feature compared with numerical and previous computer algebra approaches to solving spin dynamics problems results from the fact that no matrix representation for spin operators is used in SD-CAS, which determines a full symbolic character to the performed computations. Spin correlations are stored in SD-CAS as four-entry nested lists of which size increases linearly with the number of spins into the system and are easily mapped into analytical expressions in terms of spin operator products. For the so defined SD-CAS spin correlations a set of specialized functions and procedures is introduced that are essential for implementing basic spin algebra operations, such as the spin operator products, commutators, and scalar products. They provide results in an abstract algebraic form: specific procedures to quantitatively evaluate such symbolic expressions with respect to the involved spin interaction parameters and experimental conditions are also discussed. Although the main focus in the present work is on laying the foundation for spin dynamics symbolic computation in NMR based on a non-matrix formalism, practical aspects are also considered throughout the theoretical development process. In particular, specific SD-CAS routines have been implemented using the YACAS computer algebra package (http://yacas.sourceforge.net), and their functionality was demonstrated on a few illustrative examples. PMID:20843716
Teaching Arithmetic and Algebraic Expressions
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Subramaniam, K.; Banerjee, Rakhi
2004-01-01
A teaching intervention study was conducted with sixth grade students to explore the interconnections between students' growing understanding of arithmetic expressions and beginning algebra. Three groups of students were chosen, with two groups receiving instruction in arithmetic and algebra, and one group in algebra without arithmetic. Students…
Assessing Elementary Algebra with STACK
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Sangwin, Christopher J.
2007-01-01
This paper concerns computer aided assessment (CAA) of mathematics in which a computer algebra system (CAS) is used to help assess students' responses to elementary algebra questions. Using a methodology of documentary analysis, we examine what is taught in elementary algebra. The STACK CAA system, http://www.stack.bham.ac.uk/, which uses the CAS…
Spinors in the hyperbolic algebra
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ulrych, S.
2006-01-01
The three-dimensional universal complex Clifford algebra Cbar3,0 is used to represent relativistic vectors in terms of paravectors. In analogy to the Hestenes spacetime approach spinors are introduced in an algebraic form. This removes the dependance on an explicit matrix representation of the algebra.
Response of sugar maple to calcium addition to northern hardwood forest.
Juice, Stephanie M; Fahey, Timothy J; Siccama, Thomas G; Driscoll, Charles T; Denny, Ellen G; Eagar, Christopher; Cleavitt, Natalie L; Minocha, Rakesh; Richardson, Andrew D
2006-05-01
Watershed budget studies at the Hubbard Brook Experimental Forest (HBEF), New Hampshire, USA, have demonstrated high calcium depletion of soil during the 20th century due, in part, to acid deposition. Over the past 25 years, tree growth (especially for sugar maple) has declined on the experimental watersheds at the HBEF. In October 1999, 0.85 Mg Ca/ha was added to Watershed 1 (W1) at the HBEF in the form of wollastonite (CaSiO3), a treatment that, by summer 2002, had raised the pH in the Oie horizon from 3.8 to 5.0 and, in the Oa horizon, from 3.9 to 4.2. We measured the response of sugar maple to the calcium fertilization treatment on W1. Foliar calcium concentration of canopy sugar maples in W1 increased markedly beginning the second year after treatment, and foliar manganese declined in years four and five. By 2005, the crown condition of sugar maple was much healthier in the treated watershed as compared with the untreated reference watershed (W6). Following high seed production in 2000 and 2002, the density of sugar maple seedlings increased significantly on W1 in comparison with W6 in 2001 and 2003. Survivorship of the 2003 cohort through July 2005 was much higher on W1 (36.6%) than W6 (10.2%). In 2003, sugar maple germinants on W1 were approximately 50% larger than those in reference plots, and foliar chlorophyll concentrations were significantly greater (0.27 g/m2 vs. 0.23 g/m2 leaf area). Foliage and fine-root calcium concentrations were roughly twice as high, and manganese concentrations twice as low in the treated than the reference seedlings in 2003 and 2004. Mycorrhizal colonization of seedlings was also much greater in the treated (22.4% of root length) than the reference sites (4.4%). A similar, though less dramatic, difference was observed for mycorrhizal colonization of mature sugar maples (56% vs. 35%). These results reinforce and extend other regional observations that sugar maple decline in the northeastern United States and southern Canada is
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Glick, David
1995-01-01
Presents a technique that helps students concentrate more on the science and less on the mechanics of algebra while dealing with introductory physics formulas. Allows the teacher to do complex problems at a lower level and not be too concerned about the mathematical abilities of the students. (JRH)
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Ketterlin-Geller, Leanne R.; Jungjohann, Kathleen; Chard, David J.; Baker, Scott
2007-01-01
Much of the difficulty that students encounter in the transition from arithmetic to algebra stems from their early learning and understanding of arithmetic. Too often, students learn about the whole number system and the operations that govern that system as a set of procedures to solve addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division problems.…
Computer Algebra versus Manipulation
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Zand, Hossein; Crowe, David
2004-01-01
In the UK there is increasing concern about the lack of skill in algebraic manipulation that is evident in students entering mathematics courses at university level. In this note we discuss how the computer can be used to ameliorate some of the problems. We take as an example the calculations needed in three dimensional vector analysis in polar…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Boiteau, Denise; Stansfield, David
This document describes mathematical programs on the basic concepts of algebra produced by Louisiana Public Broadcasting. Programs included are: (1) "Inverse Operations"; (2) "The Order of Operations"; (3) "Basic Properties" (addition and multiplication of numbers and variables); (4) "The Positive and Negative Numbers"; and (5) "Using Positive…
Thinking Visually about Algebra
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Baroudi, Ziad
2015-01-01
Many introductions to algebra in high school begin with teaching students to generalise linear numerical patterns. This article argues that this approach needs to be changed so that students encounter variables in the context of modelling visual patterns so that the variables have a meaning. The article presents sample classroom activities,…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Kennedy, John
This text provides information and exercises on arithmetic topics which should be mastered before a student enrolls in an Elementary Algebra course. Section I describes the fundamental properties and relationships of whole numbers, focusing on basic operations, divisibility tests, exponents, order of operations, prime numbers, greatest common…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Nwabueze, Kenneth K.
2004-01-01
The current emphasis on flexible modes of mathematics delivery involving new information and communication technology (ICT) at the university level is perhaps a reaction to the recent change in the objectives of education. Abstract algebra seems to be one area of mathematics virtually crying out for computer instructional support because of the…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Farley, Rosemary Carroll
2013-01-01
At Manhattan College, secondary mathematics education students take a capstone course designed specifically for them. In this course, students revisit important topics in the high school curriculum from a mathematically advanced perspective; incorporating the mathematical knowledge they have attained in their college mathematics classes to an…
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, Ming; Yao, JingTao
2004-04-01
The XML is a new standard for data representation and exchange on the Internet. There are studies on XML query languages as well as XML algebras in literature. However, attention has not been paid to research on XML algebras for data mining due to partially the fact that there is no widely accepted definition of XML mining tasks. This paper tries to examine the XML mining tasks and provide guidelines to design XML algebras for data mining. Some summarization and comparison have been done to existing XML algebras. We argue that by adding additional operators for mining tasks, XML algebras may work well for data mining with XML documents.
A package for exact kinetic data structures and sweepline algorithms.
Russel, Daniel; Karavelas, Menelaos I; Guibas, Leonidas J
2007-09-01
In this paper we present a package for implementing exact kinetic data structures built on objects which move along polynomial trajectories. We discuss how the package design was influenced by various considerations, including extensibility, support for multiple kinetic data structures, access to existing data structures and algorithms in CGAL, as well as debugging. Due to the similarity between the operations involved, the software can also be used to compute arrangements of polynomial objects using a sweepline approach. The package consists of three main parts, the kinetic data structure framework support code, an algebraic kernel which implements the set of algebraic operations required for kinetic data structure processing, and kinetic data structures for Delaunay triangulations in one and two dimensions, and Delaunay and regular triangulations in three dimensions. The models provided for the algebraic kernel support both exact operations and inexact approximations with heuristics to improve numerical stability. PMID:21165159
Not Available
1981-03-01
The objective of the research program is to determine the feasibility of converting existing pole-size maple stands to biomass/energy plantations using black locust as an interplanted species. Toward this end, progress has been made in quantifying sprout biomass. Significant differences have been identified in productivity by site, species, time of fertilizer application, and diameter and damage of stumps. Rhizobium strains for black locust have been identified which are tolerant of low pH and phosphorous and high aluminum levels. Frost-hardy black locust seed sources have been identified for future work. Methods for sampling and equations for young natural stands of maple have been developed. Detailed characterization of sugar and red maple sprouts by physical, chemical and thermal analysis were compared to those of old, mature trees. The results are discussed in terms of seasonal moisture content variation, effects of tree age on specific gravity, extractive contents, ash content, major cell wall components, heating values and thermal behavior. 7 references, 5 figures, 17 tables.
On Dunkl angular momenta algebra
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Feigin, Misha; Hakobyan, Tigran
2015-11-01
We consider the quantum angular momentum generators, deformed by means of the Dunkl operators. Together with the reflection operators they generate a subalgebra in the rational Cherednik algebra associated with a finite real reflection group. We find all the defining relations of the algebra, which appear to be quadratic, and we show that the algebra is of Poincaré-Birkhoff-Witt (PBW) type. We show that this algebra contains the angular part of the Calogero-Moser Hamiltonian and that together with constants it generates the centre of the algebra. We also consider the gl( N ) version of the subalge-bra of the rational Cherednik algebra and show that it is a non-homogeneous quadratic algebra of PBW type as well. In this case the central generator can be identified with the usual Calogero-Moser Hamiltonian associated with the Coxeter group in the harmonic confinement.
Algebraic connectivity and graph robustness.
Feddema, John Todd; Byrne, Raymond Harry; Abdallah, Chaouki T.
2009-07-01
Recent papers have used Fiedler's definition of algebraic connectivity to show that network robustness, as measured by node-connectivity and edge-connectivity, can be increased by increasing the algebraic connectivity of the network. By the definition of algebraic connectivity, the second smallest eigenvalue of the graph Laplacian is a lower bound on the node-connectivity. In this paper we show that for circular random lattice graphs and mesh graphs algebraic connectivity is a conservative lower bound, and that increases in algebraic connectivity actually correspond to a decrease in node-connectivity. This means that the networks are actually less robust with respect to node-connectivity as the algebraic connectivity increases. However, an increase in algebraic connectivity seems to correlate well with a decrease in the characteristic path length of these networks - which would result in quicker communication through the network. Applications of these results are then discussed for perimeter security.
MICROBIAL COLONIZATION, RESPIRATION AND BREAKDOWN OF MAPLE LEAVES ALONG A STREAM-MARSH CONTINUUM
Breakdown rates, macroinvertebrate and bacterial colonization, and microbial respiration were measured on decaying maple leaves at three sites along a stream-marsh continuum. Breakdown rates were 0.0284+/-0.0045 d-1 for leaves in a high-gradient, non-tidal stream; 0.0112 +/- 0.0...
Evaluation of Systemic Insecticides for Potato Leafhopper Control in Field-Grown Red Maple
Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)
Systemic insecticides and application methods were evaluated in two tests that began in 2005 and 2006 for control of potato leafhopper (Empoasca fabae [Harris]) on four red maple (Acer rubrum L.) cultivars and rated yearly through 2007. Treatments evaluated in this study included surface drenches o...
Computer-Aided Assessment Questions in Engineering Mathematics Using "MapleTA"[R
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Jones, I. S.
2008-01-01
The use of "MapleTA"[R] in the assessment of engineering mathematics at Liverpool John Moores University (JMU) is discussed with particular reference to the design of questions. Key aspects in the formulation and coding of questions are considered. Problems associated with the submission of symbolic answers, the use of randomly generated numbers…
MICROBIAL COLONIZATION, RESPIRATION, AND BREAKDOWN OF MAPLE LEAVES ALONG A STREAM-MARSH CONTINUUM
Breakdown rates, macroinvertebrate and bacterial colonization, and microbial respiration were measured on decaying maple (Acer saccharum) leaves at three sites along a stream-marsh continuum. Breakdown rates (-k+-SE) were 0.0284+-0.0045 d-1 for leaves in a high-gradient, non-tida...
2015-01-01
Maple syrup has nutraceutical potential given the macronutrients (carbohydrates, primarily sucrose), micronutrients (minerals and vitamins), and phytochemicals (primarily phenolics) found in this natural sweetener. We conducted compositional (ash, fiber, carbohydrates, minerals, amino acids, organic acids, vitamins, phytochemicals), in vitro biological, and in vivo safety (animal toxicity) studies on maple syrup extracts (MSX-1 and MSX-2) derived from two declassified maple syrup samples. Along with macronutrient and micronutrient quantification, thirty-three phytochemicals were identified (by HPLC-DAD), and nine phytochemicals, including two new compounds, were isolated and identified (by NMR) from MSX. At doses of up to 1000 mg/kg/day, MSX was well tolerated with no signs of overt toxicity in rats. MSX showed antioxidant (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay) and anti-inflammatory (in RAW 264.7 macrophages) effects and inhibited glucose consumption (by HepG2 cells) in vitro. Thus, MSX should be further investigated for potential nutraceutical applications given its similarity in chemical composition to pure maple syrup. PMID:24983789
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Salleh, Tuan Salwani; Zakaria, Effandi
2016-01-01
The objective of this research is to investigate the effectiveness of a learning strategy using Maple in integral calculus. This research was conducted using a quasi-experimental nonequivalent control group design. One hundred engineering technology students at a technical university were chosen at random. The effectiveness of the learning…
A controlled-environment experiment was initiated to evaluate the influence of CO2 enrichment on the growth and ontogeny of bigleaf maple (Acer macrophyllum). evelopment of seedlings was monitored from seed germination through the first five months of ontogeny in growth chambers ...
Zhang, Yan; Yuan, Tao; Li, Liya; Nahar, Pragati; Slitt, Angela; Seeram, Navindra P
2014-07-16
Maple syrup has nutraceutical potential given the macronutrients (carbohydrates, primarily sucrose), micronutrients (minerals and vitamins), and phytochemicals (primarily phenolics) found in this natural sweetener. We conducted compositional (ash, fiber, carbohydrates, minerals, amino acids, organic acids, vitamins, phytochemicals), in vitro biological, and in vivo safety (animal toxicity) studies on maple syrup extracts (MSX-1 and MSX-2) derived from two declassified maple syrup samples. Along with macronutrient and micronutrient quantification, thirty-three phytochemicals were identified (by HPLC-DAD), and nine phytochemicals, including two new compounds, were isolated and identified (by NMR) from MSX. At doses of up to 1000 mg/kg/day, MSX was well tolerated with no signs of overt toxicity in rats. MSX showed antioxidant (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay) and anti-inflammatory (in RAW 264.7 macrophages) effects and inhibited glucose consumption (by HepG2 cells) in vitro. Thus, MSX should be further investigated for potential nutraceutical applications given its similarity in chemical composition to pure maple syrup. PMID:24983789
Student Organizations in Canada and Quebec's "Maple Spring"
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Bégin-Caouette, Olivier; Jones, Glen A.
2014-01-01
This article has two major objectives: to describe the structure of the student movement in Canada and the formal role of students in higher education governance, and to describe and analyze the "Maple Spring," the dramatic mobilization of students in opposition to proposed tuition fee increases in Quebec that eventually led to a…
The Minnesota Maple Series: Community-Generated Knowledge Delivered through an Extension Website
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Wilsey, David S.; Miedtke, Juile A.; Sagor, Eli
2012-01-01
Extension continuously seeks novel and effective approaches to outreach and education. The recent retirement of a longtime content specialist catalyzed members of University of Minnesota Extension's Forestry team to reflect on our instructional capacity (internal and external) and educational design in the realm of maple syrup production. We…
Dual Mechanism of Brain Injury and Novel Treatment Strategy in Maple Syrup Urine Disease
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Zinnanti, William J.; Lazovic, Jelena; Griffin, Kathleen; Skvorak, Kristen J.; Paul, Harbhajan S.; Homanics, Gregg E.; Bewley, Maria C.; Cheng, Keith C.; LaNoue, Kathryn F.; Flanagan, John M.
2009-01-01
Maple syrup urine disease (MSUD) is an inherited disorder of branched-chain amino acid metabolism presenting with life-threatening cerebral oedema and dysmyelination in affected individuals. Treatment requires life-long dietary restriction and monitoring of branched-chain amino acids to avoid brain injury. Despite careful management, children…
Hammami, Riadh; Ben Abdallah, Nour; Barbeau, Julie; Fliss, Ismail
2015-01-01
This study was undertaken to evaluate the in vivo impact of new symbiotic products based on liquid maple sap or its concentrate. Sap and concentrate, with or without inulin (2%), were inoculated with Bifidobacterium lactis Bb12 and Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG valio at initial counts of 2-4 × 10(8) cfu mL(-1). The experiments started with intra-gastric administration of antibiotic (kanamycin 40 mg in 0.1 cc) (to induce microbiota disturbance and/or diarrhea) to 3-to-5-week-old C57BL/6 female mice followed by a combination of prebiotic and probiotics included in the maple sap or its concentrate for a week. The combination inulin and probiotics in maple sap and concentrate appeared to minimize the antibiotic-induced breakdown of mice microbiota with a marked effect on bifidobacterium and bacteroides levels, thus permitting a more rapid re-establishment of the baseline microbiota levels. Results suggest that maple sap and its concentrate represent good candidates for the production of non-dairy functional foods. PMID:26218660
Carbon content variation in boles of mature sugar maple and giant sequoia.
Lamlom, Sabah H; Savidge, Rodney A
2006-04-01
At present, a carbon (C) content of 50% (w/w) in dry wood is widely accepted as a generic value; however, few wood C measurements have been reported. We used elemental analysis to investigate C content per unit of dry matter and observed that it varied both radially and vertically in boles of two old-growth tree species: sugar maple (Acer saccharum Marsh.) and giant sequoia (Sequoiadendron giganteum (Lindl.) Bucholz). In sugar maple there was considerable variation in tree ring widths among four radii for particular annual layers of xylem, revealing that the annual rate of C assimilation differs around the circumference and from the base of each tree to its top, but the observed variation in C content was unrelated to diameter growth rate and strongly related to the calendar year when the wood was formed. Carbon content in sugar maple wood increased in an approximately linear fashion, from < 50 to 51% from pith to cambium, at both the base and top of the boles. In giant sequoia, C was essentially constant at > 55% across many hundreds of years of heartwood, but it declined abruptly at the sapwood-heartwood boundary and remained lower in all sapwood samples, an indication that heartwood formation involves anabolic metabolism. Factors that may be responsible for the different C contents and trends with age between sugar maple and sequoia trees are considered. Tree-ring data from this study do not support some of the key assumptions made by dendrochronology. PMID:16414925
Marquette, Ian
2013-07-15
We introduce the most general quartic Poisson algebra generated by a second and a fourth order integral of motion of a 2D superintegrable classical system. We obtain the corresponding quartic (associative) algebra for the quantum analog, extend Daskaloyannis construction obtained in context of quadratic algebras, and also obtain the realizations as deformed oscillator algebras for this quartic algebra. We obtain the Casimir operator and discuss how these realizations allow to obtain the finite-dimensional unitary irreducible representations of quartic algebras and obtain algebraically the degenerate energy spectrum of superintegrable systems. We apply the construction and the formula obtained for the structure function on a superintegrable system related to type I Laguerre exceptional orthogonal polynomials introduced recently.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dankova, T. S.; Rosensteel, G.
1998-10-01
Mean field theory has an unexpected group theoretic mathematical foundation. Instead of representation theory which applies to most group theoretic quantum models, Hartree-Fock and Hartree-Fock-Bogoliubov have been formulated in terms of coadjoint orbits for the groups U(n) and O(2n). The general theory of mean fields is formulated for an arbitrary Lie algebra L of fermion operators. The moment map provides the correspondence between the Hilbert space of microscopic wave functions and the dual space L^* of densities. The coadjoint orbits of the group in the dual space are phase spaces on which time-dependent mean field theory is equivalent to a classical Hamiltonian dynamical system. Indeed it forms a finite-dimensional Lax system. The mean field theories for the Elliott SU(3) and symplectic Sp(3,R) algebras are constructed explicitly in the coadjoint orbit framework.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Beigie, Darin
2014-01-01
Most people who are attracted to STEM-related fields are drawn not by a desire to take mathematics tests but to create things. The opportunity to create an algebra drawing gives students a sense of ownership and adventure that taps into the same sort of energy that leads a young person to get lost in reading a good book, building with Legos®,…
2013-05-06
AMG2013 is a parallel algebraic multigrid solver for linear systems arising from problems on unstructured grids. It has been derived directly from the Boomer AMG solver in the hypre library, a large linear solvers library that is being developed in the Center for Applied Scientific Computing (CASC) at LLNL. The driver provided in the benchmark can build various test problems. The default problem is a Laplace type problem on an unstructured domain with various jumps and an anisotropy in one part.
Vertex Algebras, Kac-Moody Algebras, and the Monster
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Borcherds, Richard E.
1986-05-01
It is known that the adjoint representation of any Kac-Moody algebra A can be identified with a subquotient of a certain Fock space representation constructed from the root lattice of A. I define a product on the whole of the Fock space that restricts to the Lie algebra product on this subquotient. This product (together with a infinite number of other products) is constructed using a generalization of vertex operators. I also construct an integral form for the universal enveloping algebra of any Kac-Moody algebra that can be used to define Kac-Moody groups over finite fields, some new irreducible integrable representations, and a sort of affinization of any Kac-Moody algebra. The ``Moonshine'' representation of the Monster constructed by Frenkel and others also has products like the ones constructed for Kac-Moody algebras, one of which extends the Griess product on the 196884-dimensional piece to the whole representation.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Palmkvist, Jakob
2014-01-01
We introduce an infinite-dimensional Lie superalgebra which is an extension of the U-duality Lie algebra of maximal supergravity in D dimensions, for 3 ⩽ D ⩽ 7. The level decomposition with respect to the U-duality Lie algebra gives exactly the tensor hierarchy of representations that arises in gauge deformations of the theory described by an embedding tensor, for all positive levels p. We prove that these representations are always contained in those coming from the associated Borcherds-Kac-Moody superalgebra, and we explain why some of the latter representations are not included in the tensor hierarchy. The most remarkable feature of our Lie superalgebra is that it does not admit a triangular decomposition like a (Borcherds-)Kac-Moody (super)algebra. Instead the Hodge duality relations between level p and D - 2 - p extend to negative p, relating the representations at the first two negative levels to the supersymmetry and closure constraints of the embedding tensor.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Cleaveland, Rance; Luettgen, Gerald; Natarajan, V.
1999-01-01
This paper surveys the semantic ramifications of extending traditional process algebras with notions of priority that allow for some transitions to be given precedence over others. These enriched formalisms allow one to model system features such as interrupts, prioritized choice, or real-time behavior. Approaches to priority in process algebras can be classified according to whether the induced notion of preemption on transitions is global or local and whether priorities are static or dynamic. Early work in the area concentrated on global pre-emption and static priorities and led to formalisms for modeling interrupts and aspects of real-time, such as maximal progress, in centralized computing environments. More recent research has investigated localized notions of pre-emption in which the distribution of systems is taken into account, as well as dynamic priority approaches, i.e., those where priority values may change as systems evolve. The latter allows one to model behavioral phenomena such as scheduling algorithms and also enables the efficient encoding of real-time semantics. Technically, this paper studies the different models of priorities by presenting extensions of Milner's Calculus of Communicating Systems (CCS) with static and dynamic priority as well as with notions of global and local pre- emption. In each case the operational semantics of CCS is modified appropriately, behavioral theories based on strong and weak bisimulation are given, and related approaches for different process-algebraic settings are discussed.
Palmkvist, Jakob
2014-01-15
We introduce an infinite-dimensional Lie superalgebra which is an extension of the U-duality Lie algebra of maximal supergravity in D dimensions, for 3 ⩽ D ⩽ 7. The level decomposition with respect to the U-duality Lie algebra gives exactly the tensor hierarchy of representations that arises in gauge deformations of the theory described by an embedding tensor, for all positive levels p. We prove that these representations are always contained in those coming from the associated Borcherds-Kac-Moody superalgebra, and we explain why some of the latter representations are not included in the tensor hierarchy. The most remarkable feature of our Lie superalgebra is that it does not admit a triangular decomposition like a (Borcherds-)Kac-Moody (super)algebra. Instead the Hodge duality relations between level p and D − 2 − p extend to negative p, relating the representations at the first two negative levels to the supersymmetry and closure constraints of the embedding tensor.
Compactly Generated de Morgan Lattices, Basic Algebras and Effect Algebras
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Paseka, Jan; Riečanová, Zdenka
2010-12-01
We prove that a de Morgan lattice is compactly generated if and only if its order topology is compatible with a uniformity on L generated by some separating function family on L. Moreover, if L is complete then L is (o)-topological. Further, if a basic algebra L (hence lattice with sectional antitone involutions) is compactly generated then L is atomic. Thus all non-atomic Boolean algebras as well as non-atomic lattice effect algebras (including non-atomic MV-algebras and orthomodular lattices) are not compactly generated.
Locally finite dimensional Lie algebras
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hennig, Johanna
We prove that in a locally finite dimensional Lie algebra L, any maximal, locally solvable subalgebra is the stabilizer of a maximal, generalized flag in an integrable, faithful module over L. Then we prove two structure theorems for simple, locally finite dimensional Lie algebras over an algebraically closed field of characteristic p which give sufficient conditions for the algebras to be of the form [K(R, *), K( R, *)] / (Z(R) ∩ [ K(R, *), K(R, *)]) for a simple, locally finite dimensional associative algebra R with involution *. Lastly, we explore the noncommutative geometry of locally simple representations of the diagonal locally finite Lie algebras sl(ninfinity), o( ninfinity), and sp(n infinity).
Quantum computation using geometric algebra
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Matzke, Douglas James
This dissertation reports that arbitrary Boolean logic equations and operators can be represented in geometric algebra as linear equations composed entirely of orthonormal vectors using only addition and multiplication Geometric algebra is a topologically based algebraic system that naturally incorporates the inner and anticommutative outer products into a real valued geometric product, yet does not rely on complex numbers or matrices. A series of custom tools was designed and built to simplify geometric algebra expressions into a standard sum of products form, and automate the anticommutative geometric product and operations. Using this infrastructure, quantum bits (qubits), quantum registers and EPR-bits (ebits) are expressed symmetrically as geometric algebra expressions. Many known quantum computing gates, measurement operators, and especially the Bell/magic operators are also expressed as geometric products. These results demonstrate that geometric algebra can naturally and faithfully represent the central concepts, objects, and operators necessary for quantum computing, and can facilitate the design and construction of quantum computing tools.
Verburgt, Lukas M
2016-01-01
This paper provides a detailed account of the period of the complex history of British algebra and geometry between the publication of George Peacock's Treatise on Algebra in 1830 and William Rowan Hamilton's paper on quaternions of 1843. During these years, Duncan Farquharson Gregory and William Walton published several contributions on 'algebraical geometry' and 'geometrical algebra' in the Cambridge Mathematical Journal. These contributions enabled them not only to generalize Peacock's symbolical algebra on the basis of geometrical considerations, but also to initiate the attempts to question the status of Euclidean space as the arbiter of valid geometrical interpretations. At the same time, Gregory and Walton were bound by the limits of symbolical algebra that they themselves made explicit; their work was not and could not be the 'abstract algebra' and 'abstract geometry' of figures such as Hamilton and Cayley. The central argument of the paper is that an understanding of the contributions to 'algebraical geometry' and 'geometrical algebra' of the second generation of 'scientific' symbolical algebraists is essential for a satisfactory explanation of the radical transition from symbolical to abstract algebra that took place in British mathematics in the 1830s-1840s. PMID:26806075
On the cohomology of Leibniz conformal algebras
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, Jiao
2015-04-01
We construct a new cohomology complex of Leibniz conformal algebras with coefficients in a representation instead of a module. The low-dimensional cohomology groups of this complex are computed. Meanwhile, we construct a Leibniz algebra from a Leibniz conformal algebra and prove that the category of Leibniz conformal algebras is equivalent to the category of equivalence classes of formal distribution Leibniz algebras.
Assessing Algebraic Solving Ability: A Theoretical Framework
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Lian, Lim Hooi; Yew, Wun Thiam
2012-01-01
Algebraic solving ability had been discussed by many educators and researchers. There exists no definite definition for algebraic solving ability as it can be viewed from different perspectives. In this paper, the nature of algebraic solving ability in terms of algebraic processes that demonstrate the ability in solving algebraic problem is…
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
1976-01-01
After studies found that many elderly persons don't eat adequately because they can't afford to, they have limited mobility, or they just don't bother, Innovated Foods, Inc. and JSC developed shelf-stable foods processed and packaged for home preparation with minimum effort. Various food-processing techniques and delivery systems are under study and freeze dried foods originally used for space flight are being marketed. (See 77N76140)
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Novotna, Jarmila; Hoch, Maureen
2008-01-01
Many students have difficulties with basic algebraic concepts at high school and at university. In this paper two levels of algebraic structure sense are defined: for high school algebra and for university algebra. We suggest that high school algebra structure sense components are sub-components of some university algebra structure sense…
Higher level twisted Zhu algebras
Ekeren, Jethro van
2011-05-15
The study of twisted representations of graded vertex algebras is important for understanding orbifold models in conformal field theory. In this paper, we consider the general setup of a vertex algebra V, graded by {Gamma}/Z for some subgroup {Gamma} of R containing Z, and with a Hamiltonian operator H having real (but not necessarily integer) eigenvalues. We construct the directed system of twisted level p Zhu algebras Zhu{sub p,{Gamma}}(V), and we prove the following theorems: For each p, there is a bijection between the irreducible Zhu{sub p,{Gamma}}(V)-modules and the irreducible {Gamma}-twisted positive energy V-modules, and V is ({Gamma}, H)-rational if and only if all its Zhu algebras Zhu{sub p,{Gamma}}(V) are finite dimensional and semisimple. The main novelty is the removal of the assumption of integer eigenvalues for H. We provide an explicit description of the level p Zhu algebras of a universal enveloping vertex algebra, in particular of the Virasoro vertex algebra Vir{sup c} and the universal affine Kac-Moody vertex algebra V{sup k}(g) at non-critical level. We also compute the inverse limits of these directed systems of algebras.
Biogeochemical features of maple and dandelion in Eastern Administrative District of Moscow
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vlasov, Dmitry
2014-05-01
Today more than half of world population and 73% of population in Russia live in cities. Moscow is the only one megacity in Russia with the population more than 11 million. The main source of technogenic impact in Moscow is transport. Plants can be used as indicators of urban environment heavy metals and metalloids (HM) pollution. Large scale biogeochemical research was done in Eastern Administrative District of Moscow. Apart from transport there are many industrial sources of pollution: metalworking, mechanical engineering, chemical, energetic and incinerator. This study focuses on detection of HM composition of woody plant leaves (maple - Acer platanoides) and herbaceous species leaves (dandelion - Taraxacum officinale). Plant material was collected on a regular greed with a step of 500-700 m. Background plants were sampled at 40 km west away from the city. Determination of Fe, Mn, Mo, Cd, Pb, Zn, Cu, As, Sb in plants was done using atomic absorption spectrometry after washing, drying and digestion with HNO3+H2O2. It was revealed that dandelion accumulates (index - concentration factors CF relatively background) Mo13Fe6Pb5Cd4.5As4Sb3, while maple Sb13As5.5Fe3Mo2Pb,Zn1.5. Geochemical specialization of plants in functional zones (industrial, transport, recreational, agricultural, residential areas with high-, middle- and low-rise buildings) was identified. The highest CF were determined for Mo in dandelion of all zones except industrial. In which the most accumulated elements are Fe and Mo, as well as Pb10As6Sb5Cu2. Arsenic is accumulated by dandelion in all zones. Copper is not concentrated by herbaceous species because of antagonism between Mo and Cu. The highest CF were determined for HM in maple of industrial zone. There trees concentrate Sb and As9Fe7Mo6Pb3Zn2. In the other zones levels of CF are lower in 2-5 times. Dandelion and maple don't accumulate Mn because of antagonism between Zn, Mo and Mn. Urban plants condition is estimated by the ratio between
Liu, Yongqiang; Ma, Hang; Seeram, Navindra P
2016-05-01
The phenolic contents of plant foods are commonly quantified by the Folin-Ciocalteu assay based on gallic acid equivalents (GAEs). However, this may lead to inaccuracies because gallic acid is not always representative of the structural heterogeneity of plant phenolics. Therefore, product-specific standards have been developed for the phenolic quantification of several foods. Currently, maple-derived foods (syrup, sugar, sap/water, and extracts) are quantified for phenolic contents based on GAEs. Because lignans are the predominant phenolics present in maple, herein, a maple phenolic lignan-enriched standard (MaPLES) was purified (by chromatography) and characterized (by UFLC-MS/MS with lignans previously isolated from maple syrup). Using MaPLES and secoisolariciresinol (a commercially available lignan), the phenolic contents of the maple-derived foods increased 3-fold compared to GAEs. Therefore, lignan-based standards are more appropriate for phenolic quantification of maple-derived foods versus GAEs. Also, MaPLES can be utilized for the authentication and detection of fake label claims on maple products. PMID:27101225
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Stiff-Roberts, Adrienne D.; McCormick, Ryan D.; Ge, Wangyao
2015-03-01
Resonant-infrared, matrix-assisted pulsed laser evaporation (RIR-MAPLE) has been used to deposit blended, organic thin-films with nanoscale domain sizes of constituent polymers, small molecules, or colloidal nanoparticles. In the emulsion-based RIR-MAPLE process, the target contains a nonpolar, organic solvent phase and a polar, water phase. The emulsion properties have a direct impact on the nanoscale morphology of single-component organic thin films, while the morphology of blended, organic thin films also depends on the RIR-MAPLE deposition mode. In addition to these fundamental aspects, applications of blended organic films (organic solar cells, anti-reflection coatings, and multi-functional surfaces) deposited by emulsion-based RIR-MAPLE are presented. Importantly, domain sizes in the blended films are critical to thin-film functionality.
Handheld Computer Algebra Systems in the Pre-Algebra Classroom
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Gantz, Linda Ann Galofaro
2010-01-01
This mixed method analysis sought to investigate several aspects of student learning in pre-algebra through the use of computer algebra systems (CAS) as opposed to non-CAS learning. This research was broken into two main parts, one which compared results from both the experimental group (instruction using CAS, N = 18) and the control group…
Abstract Algebra to Secondary School Algebra: Building Bridges
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Christy, Donna; Sparks, Rebecca
2015-01-01
The authors have experience with secondary mathematics teacher candidates struggling to make connections between the theoretical abstract algebra course they take as college students and the algebra they will be teaching in secondary schools. As a mathematician and a mathematics educator, the authors collaborated to create and implement a…
Algebra and Algebraic Thinking in School Math: 70th YB
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
National Council of Teachers of Mathematics, 2008
2008-01-01
Algebra is no longer just for college-bound students. After a widespread push by the National Council of Teachers of Mathematics (NCTM) and teachers across the country, algebra is now a required part of most curricula. However, students' standardized test scores are not at the level they should be. NCTM's seventieth yearbook takes a look at the…
Philip, Bobby; Chartier, Dr Timothy
2012-01-01
methods based on Local Sensitivity Analysis (LSA). The method can be used in the context of geometric and algebraic multigrid methods for constructing smoothers, and in the context of Krylov methods for constructing block preconditioners. It is suitable for both constant and variable coecient problems. Furthermore, the method can be applied to systems arising from both scalar and coupled system partial differential equations (PDEs), as well as linear systems that do not arise from PDEs. The simplicity of the method will allow it to be easily incorporated into existing multigrid and Krylov solvers while providing a powerful tool for adaptively constructing methods tuned to a problem.
Statecharts Via Process Algebra
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Luttgen, Gerald; vonderBeeck, Michael; Cleaveland, Rance
1999-01-01
Statecharts is a visual language for specifying the behavior of reactive systems. The Language extends finite-state machines with concepts of hierarchy, concurrency, and priority. Despite its popularity as a design notation for embedded system, precisely defining its semantics has proved extremely challenging. In this paper, a simple process algebra, called Statecharts Process Language (SPL), is presented, which is expressive enough for encoding Statecharts in a structure-preserving and semantic preserving manner. It is establish that the behavioral relation bisimulation, when applied to SPL, preserves Statecharts semantics
2013-05-06
AMG2013 is a parallel algebraic multigrid solver for linear systems arising from problems on unstructured grids. It has been derived directly from the Boomer AMG solver in the hypre library, a large linear solvers library that is being developed in the Center for Applied Scientific Computing (CASC) at LLNL. The driver provided in the benchmark can build various test problems. The default problem is a Laplace type problem on an unstructured domain with various jumpsmore » and an anisotropy in one part.« less
Elliptic Curve Cryptography with Java
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Klima, Richard E.; Sigmon, Neil P.
2005-01-01
The use of the computer, and specifically the mathematics software package Maple, has played a central role in the authors' abstract algebra course because it provides their students with a way to see realistic examples of the topics they discuss without having to struggle with extensive computations. However, Maple does not provide the computer…
Kimball, Briant A.; Johnson, Kevin K.; Runkel, Robert L.; Steiger, Judy I.
2004-01-01
The Silver Maple Claims area along Silver Creek, near Park City, Utah, is administered by the Bureau of Land Management. To quantify possible sources of elevated zinc concentrations in Silver Creek that exceed water-quality standards, the U.S. Geological Survey conducted a mass-loading study in May 2002 along a 1,400-meter reach of Silver Creek that included the Silver Maple Claims area. Additional samples were collected upstream and downstream from the injection reach to investigate other possible sources of zinc and other metals to the stream. Many metals were investigated in the study, but zinc is of particular concern for water-quality standards. The total loading of zinc along the study reach from Park City to Wanship, Utah, was about 49 kilograms per day. The Silver Maple Claims area contributed about 38 percent of this load. The Silver Creek tailings discharge pipe, which empties just inside the Silver Maple Claims area, contributed more than half the load of the Silver Maple Claims area. Substantial zinc loads also were added to Silver Creek downstream from the Silver Maple Claims area. Ground-water discharge upstream from the waste-water treatment plant contributed 20 percent of the total zinc load, and another 17 percent was contributed near the waste-water treatment plant. By identifying the specific areas where zinc and other metal loads are contributed to Silver Creek, it is possible to assess the needs of a remediation plan. For example, removing the tailings from the Silver Maple Claims area could contribute to lowering the zinc concentration in Silver Creek, but without also addressing the loading from the Silver Creek tailings discharge pipe and the ground-water discharge farther downstream, the zinc concentration could not be lowered enough to meet water-quality standards. Additional existing sources of zinc loading downstream from the Silver Maple Claims area could complicate the process of lowering zinc concentration to meet water
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
1994-01-01
The aluminized polymer film used in spacecraft as a radiation barrier to protect both astronauts and delicate instruments has led to a number of spinoff applications. Among them are aluminized shipping bags, food cart covers and medical bags. Radiant Technologies purchases component materials and assembles a barrier made of layers of aluminized foil. The packaging reflects outside heat away from the product inside the container. The company is developing new aluminized lines, express mailers, large shipping bags, gel packs and insulated panels for the building industry.
Panzuto, M; Lorenzetti, F; Mauffette, Y; Albert, P J
2001-10-01
We investigated the behavioral feeding preference and the chemoreception of leaf polar extracts from trembling aspen, Populus tremuloides, and from sun and shade sugar maple, Acer saccharum, by larvae of the polyphagous forest tent caterpillar, Malacosoma disstria, a defoliator of deciduous forests in the Northern Hemisphere. Three polar extracts were obtained from each tree species: a total extract, a water fraction, and a methanol fraction. M. disstria larvae were allowed ad libitum access to an artificial diet from eclosion to the fifth instar. Two-choice cafeteria tests were performed comparing the mean (+/-SE) surface area eaten of the total extracts, and the following order of preference was obtained: aspen > sun maple > shade maple. Tests with the other fractions showed that M. disstria larvae preferred the total aspen extract to its water fraction, and the latter to its methanol fraction. The response to sun maple was similar to aspen. However, for the shade maple experiment, there was no difference between the total extract and its water fraction. Electrophysiological recordings for aspen showed that the sugar-sensitive cell elicited more spikes to the water fraction, followed by the total extract, and finally the methanol fraction. Spike activity to stimulations of sun and shade maple extracts revealed a similar trend, where methanol fraction > water fraction > total extract. Our findings are discussed in light of previously known information about this insect's performance on these host plants. PMID:11710605
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Piqué, A.; Wu, P.; Ringeisen, B. R.; Bubb, D. M.; Melinger, J. S.; McGill, R. A.; Chrisey, D. B.
2002-01-01
The matrix-assisted pulsed laser evaporation (MAPLE) technique has been successfully used to deposit highly uniform thin films of various functional materials such as non-linear optical (NLO) organic materials, conductive polymers, luminescent organic molecules and several types of proteinaceous compounds. MAPLE is a laser evaporation technique for growing thin films of organic and polymeric materials which involves directing a pulsed laser beam (λ=193 nm; fluence=0.01-0.5 J cm -2) onto a frozen target (-40 to -160 °C) consisting of a solute polymeric or organic compound dissolved in a solvent matrix. Using MAPLE, thin films of N-(4-nitrophenyl)-( L)-prolinol or NPP, an NLO material; polypyrrole, a conductive polymer; and tris-(8-hydroxyquinoline) aluminum or Alq3, a luminescent organic compound, have been separately deposited with minor (in the case of Alq3) or no degradation (for the NPP and polypyrrole) to their optical and electrical properties. The MAPLE process has also been used to deposit discrete thin film micro-arrays of biotinylated bovine serum albumin (BSA). The deposited BSA films, after washing with a blocking protein and fluorescently tagged streptavidin, fluoresce when exposed to UV. This fluorescence indicates that the biochemical specificity of the transferred biotinylated protein is unaffected by the MAPLE process. These results demonstrate that the MAPLE technique can be used for growing thin films of functional polymer and active biomaterials.
Parallel Algebraic Multigrid Methods - High Performance Preconditioners
Yang, U M
2004-11-11
The development of high performance, massively parallel computers and the increasing demands of computationally challenging applications have necessitated the development of scalable solvers and preconditioners. One of the most effective ways to achieve scalability is the use of multigrid or multilevel techniques. Algebraic multigrid (AMG) is a very efficient algorithm for solving large problems on unstructured grids. While much of it can be parallelized in a straightforward way, some components of the classical algorithm, particularly the coarsening process and some of the most efficient smoothers, are highly sequential, and require new parallel approaches. This chapter presents the basic principles of AMG and gives an overview of various parallel implementations of AMG, including descriptions of parallel coarsening schemes and smoothers, some numerical results as well as references to existing software packages.
The Algebra of Complex Numbers.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
LePage, Wilbur R.
This programed text is an introduction to the algebra of complex numbers for engineering students, particularly because of its relevance to important problems of applications in electrical engineering. It is designed for a person who is well experienced with the algebra of real numbers and calculus, but who has no experience with complex number…
Algebraic Squares: Complete and Incomplete.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Gardella, Francis J.
2000-01-01
Illustrates ways of using algebra tiles to give students a visual model of competing squares that appear in algebra as well as in higher mathematics. Such visual representations give substance to the symbolic manipulation and give students who do not learn symbolically a way of understanding the underlying concepts of completing the square. (KHR)
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Buerman, Margaret
2007-01-01
Finding real-world examples for middle school algebra classes can be difficult but not impossible. As we strive to accomplish teaching our students how to solve and graph equations, we neglect to teach the big ideas of algebra. One of those big ideas is functions. This article gives three examples of functions that are found in Arches National…
Online Algebraic Tools for Teaching
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Kurz, Terri L.
2011-01-01
Many free online tools exist to complement algebraic instruction at the middle school level. This article presents findings that analyzed the features of algebraic tools to support learning. The findings can help teachers select appropriate tools to facilitate specific topics. (Contains 1 table and 4 figures.)
Condensing Algebra for Technical Mathematics.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Greenfield, Donald R.
Twenty Algebra-Packets (A-PAKS) were developed by the investigator for technical education students at the community college level. Each packet contained a statement of rationale, learning objectives, performance activities, performance test, and performance test answer key. The A-PAKS condensed the usual sixteen weeks of algebra into a six-week…
Algebraic Thinking in Adult Education
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Manly, Myrna; Ginsburg, Lynda
2010-01-01
In adult education, algebraic thinking can be a sense-making tool that introduces coherence among mathematical concepts for those who previously have had trouble learning math. Further, a modeling approach to algebra connects mathematics and the real world, demonstrating the usefulness of math to those who have seen it as just an academic…
Linear Algebra and Image Processing
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Allali, Mohamed
2010-01-01
We use the computing technology digital image processing (DIP) to enhance the teaching of linear algebra so as to make the course more visual and interesting. Certainly, this visual approach by using technology to link linear algebra to DIP is interesting and unexpected to both students as well as many faculty. (Contains 2 tables and 11 figures.)
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Instructional Objectives Exchange, Los Angeles, CA.
A complete set of behavioral objectives for first-year algebra taught in any of grades 8 through 12 is presented. Three to six sample test items and answers are provided for each objective. Objectives were determined by surveying the most used secondary school algebra textbooks. Fourteen major categories are included: (1) whole numbers--operations…
Exploring Algebraic Patterns through Literature.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Austin, Richard A.; Thompson, Denisse R.
1997-01-01
Presents methods for using literature to develop algebraic thinking in an environment that connects algebra to various situations. Activities are based on the book "Anno's Magic Seeds" with additional resources listed. Students express a constant function, exponential function, and a recursive function in their own words as well as writing about…
Learning Algebra from Worked Examples
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Lange, Karin E.; Booth, Julie L.; Newton, Kristie J.
2014-01-01
For students to be successful in algebra, they must have a truly conceptual understanding of key algebraic features as well as the procedural skills to complete a problem. One strategy to correct students' misconceptions combines the use of worked example problems in the classroom with student self-explanation. "Self-explanation" is…
Thermodynamics. [algebraic structure
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Zeleznik, F. J.
1976-01-01
The fundamental structure of thermodynamics is purely algebraic, in the sense of atopological, and it is also independent of partitions, composite systems, the zeroth law, and entropy. The algebraic structure requires the notion of heat, but not the first law. It contains a precise definition of entropy and identifies it as a purely mathematical concept. It also permits the construction of an entropy function from heat measurements alone when appropriate conditions are satisfied. Topology is required only for a discussion of the continuity of thermodynamic properties, and then the weak topology is the relevant topology. The integrability of the differential form of the first law can be examined independently of Caratheodory's theorem and his inaccessibility axiom. Criteria are established by which one can determine when an integrating factor can be made intensive and the pseudopotential extensive and also an entropy. Finally, a realization of the first law is constructed which is suitable for all systems whether they are solids or fluids, whether they do or do not exhibit chemical reactions, and whether electromagnetic fields are or are not present.
Asymptotics of bivariate generating functions with algebraic singularities
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Greenwood, Torin
Flajolet and Odlyzko (1990) derived asymptotic formulae the coefficients of a class of uni- variate generating functions with algebraic singularities. Gao and Richmond (1992) and Hwang (1996, 1998) extended these results to classes of multivariate generating functions, in both cases by reducing to the univariate case. Pemantle and Wilson (2013) outlined new multivariate ana- lytic techniques and used them to analyze the coefficients of rational generating functions. After overviewing these methods, we use them to find asymptotic formulae for the coefficients of a broad class of bivariate generating functions with algebraic singularities. Beginning with the Cauchy integral formula, we explicity deform the contour of integration so that it hugs a set of critical points. The asymptotic contribution to the integral comes from analyzing the integrand near these points, leading to explicit asymptotic formulae. Next, we use this formula to analyze an example from current research. In the following chapter, we apply multivariate analytic techniques to quan- tum walks. Bressler and Pemantle (2007) found a (d + 1)-dimensional rational generating function whose coefficients described the amplitude of a particle at a position in the integer lattice after n steps. Here, the minimal critical points form a curve on the (d + 1)-dimensional unit torus. We find asymptotic formulae for the amplitude of a particle in a given position, normalized by the number of steps n, as n approaches infinity. Each critical point contributes to the asymptotics for a specific normalized position. Using Groebner bases in Maple again, we compute the explicit locations of peak amplitudes. In a scaling window of size the square root of n near the peaks, each amplitude is asymptotic to an Airy function.
Dosimetry aspects of the new Canadian MAPLE-X10 reactor
Lidstone, R.F.; Wilkin, G.B.
1994-12-31
Atomic Energy of Canada Limited is building the 10-MW{sub t} MAPLE-X10 reactor facility as a dedicated producer of medical and industrial radioisotopes. Dosimetry aspects of the MAPLE-X10 nuclear design include the calculated thermal and fast neutron flux distributions throughout the reactor assembly and the rate of heat generation in reactor materials and components. Examples of the resolution of design issues are also presented, such as the use of fission counters and ion chambers to provide diverse methods of detecting neutron flux levels and the use of the difference between photon and neutron signals to guard against the effects of downgrading of the heavy-water reflector. Computer codes employed in the calculations include MCNP, ONEDANT, WIMS-AECL, and 3DDT.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Grumezescu, Valentina; Andronescu, Ecaterina; Holban, Alina Maria; Mogoantă, Laurenţiu; Mogoşanu, George Dan; Grumezescu, Alexandru Mihai; Stănculescu, Anca; Socol, Gabriel; Iordache, Florin; Maniu, Horia; Chifiriuc, Mariana Carmen
2015-05-01
In this study we aimed to evaluate the biocompatibility and antimicrobial activity of kanamycin functionalized 5 nm-magnetite (Fe3O4@KAN) nanoparticles thin films deposited by Matrix Assisted Pulsed Laser Evaporation (MAPLE) technique. A laser deposition regime was established in order to stoichiometrically transfer Fe3O4@KAN thin films on silicone and glass substrates. Morphological and physico-chemical properties of powders and coatings were characterized by XRD, TEM, SEM, AFM and IR microscopy (IRM). Our nanostructured thin films have proved efficiency in the prevention of microbial adhesion and mature biofilms development as a result of antibiotic release in its active form. Furthermore, kanamycin functionalized nanostructures exhibit a good biocompatibility, both in vivo and in vitro, demonstrating their potential for implants application. This is the first study reporting the assessment of the in vivo biocompatibility of a magnetite-antimicrobial thin films produced by MAPLE technique.
Variation in mineral content of red maple sap across an atmospheric deposition gradient
McCormick, L.H.
1997-11-01
Xylem sap was collected from red maple (Acer rubrum L.) trees during the spring of 1988 and 1989 at seven forest sites along an atmospheric deposition gradient in north central Pennsylvania and analyzed for pH and twelve mineral constituents. The objectives of the study were to examine the sources and patterns of variation in red maple sap chemistry across an atmospheric deposition gradient and to assess the feasibility of using sap analysis as an indicator of nutrient bioavailability. For most sap constituents, there was considerable spatial and temporal variation in concentration. Sources of variation included within and between site variation, date, and year of collection. The nature and extent of variation varied for different constituents. Site differences were similar in 1988 and 1989 for most sap constituents and for some constituents corresponded with differences in soil levels.
Aaron, Catherine; Beaudry, Gabrielle; Parker, J Alex; Therrien, Martine
2016-05-01
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a neurodegenerative disease causing death of the motor neurons. Proteotoxicity caused by TDP-43 protein is an important aspect of ALS pathogenesis, with TDP-43 being the main constituent of the aggregates found in patients. We have previously tested the effect of different sugars on the proteotoxicity caused by the expression of mutant TDP-43 in Caenorhabditis elegans. Here we tested maple syrup, a natural compound containing many active molecules including sugars and phenols, for neuroprotective activity. Maple syrup decreased several age-dependent phenotypes caused by the expression of TDP-43(A315T) in C. elegans motor neurons and requires the FOXO transcription factor DAF-16 to be effective. PMID:27071850
Invariants of triangular Lie algebras
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Boyko, Vyacheslav; Patera, Jiri; Popovych, Roman
2007-07-01
Triangular Lie algebras are the Lie algebras which can be faithfully represented by triangular matrices of any finite size over the real/complex number field. In the paper invariants ('generalized Casimir operators') are found for three classes of Lie algebras, namely those which are either strictly or non-strictly triangular, and for so-called special upper triangular Lie algebras. Algebraic algorithm of Boyko et al (2006 J. Phys. A: Math. Gen.39 5749 (Preprint math-ph/0602046)), developed further in Boyko et al (2007 J. Phys. A: Math. Theor.40 113 (Preprint math-ph/0606045)), is used to determine the invariants. A conjecture of Tremblay and Winternitz (2001 J. Phys. A: Math. Gen.34 9085), concerning the number of independent invariants and their form, is corroborated.
Simulation of n-qubit quantum systems: A computer-algebraic approach
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Radtke, T.; Fritzsche, S.; Surzhykov, A.
2007-03-01
During the last decade, the field of quantum computation has attracted a lot of interest and motivated many theoretical and experimental studies of n-qubit quantum systems. But apart from the promise of more efficient quantum algorithms, these investigations also revealed a number of obstacles which still have to be overcome in practice. In this context, the use of simulation programs has proved to be an appropriate method. In order to facilitate the simulation of n-qubit quantum systems, we present the Feynman software program to provide the necessary tools to define and to deal with quantum registers as well as the operators acting on them. Using an interactive design within the framework of the computer algebra system Maple, we hope that the Feynman software program will be useful not only for teaching the basic elements of quantum computing but also for studying their physical realization in the future.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
McConnell, Sean; Fritzsche, Stephan; Surzhykov, Andrey
2010-03-01
During recent years, the DIRAC package has proved to be an efficient tool for studying the structural properties and dynamic behavior of hydrogen-like ions. Originally designed as a set of MAPLE procedures, this package provides interactive access to the wave and Green's functions in the non-relativistic and relativistic frameworks and supports analytical evaluation of a large number of radial integrals that are required for the construction of transition amplitudes and interaction cross sections. We provide here a new version of the DIRAC program which is developed within the framework of MATHEMATICA (version 6.0). This new version aims to cater to a wider community of researchers that use the MATHEMATICA platform and to take advantage of the generally faster processing times therein. Moreover, the addition of new procedures, a more convenient and detailed help system, as well as source code revisions to overcome identified shortcomings should ensure expanded use of the new DIRAC program over its predecessor. New version program summaryProgram title: DIRAC Catalogue identifier: ADUQ_v2_0 Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/ADUQ_v2_0.html Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University, Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions: Standard CPC license, http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/licence/licence.html No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 45 073 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 285 828 Distribution format: tar.gz Programming language: Mathematica 6.0 or higher Computer: All computers with a license for the computer algebra package Mathematica (version 6.0 or higher) Operating system: Mathematica is O/S independent Classification: 2.1 Catalogue identifier of previous version: ADUQ_v1_0 Journal reference of previous version: Comput. Phys. Comm. 165 (2005) 139 Does the new version supersede the previous version?: Yes Nature of problem: Since the early days of quantum mechanics, the
A Simple Interactive Software Package for Plotting, Animating, and Calculating
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Engelhardt, Larry
2012-01-01
We introduce a new open source (free) software package that provides a simple, highly interactive interface for carrying out certain mathematical tasks that are commonly encountered in physics. These tasks include plotting and animating functions, solving systems of coupled algebraic equations, and basic calculus (differentiating and integrating…
Solving Differential Equations in R: Package deSolve
In this paper we present the R package deSolve to solve initial value problems (IVP) written as ordinary differential equations (ODE), differential algebraic equations (DAE) of index 0 or 1 and partial differential equations (PDE), the latter solved using the method of lines appr...
Parametric Decay of Pump Waves into two Linear Modes in SINP MaPLE Device
Biswas, Subir; Pal, Rabindranath
2010-11-23
Parametric decay of incident waves of ion cyclotron frequency range into linear modes is observed in experiment performed in the SINP MaPLE device where nitrogen plasma produced by ECR discharge. Along with a mode in drift wave frequency range, sideband of the incident waves are observed when amplitude of the exciter signal goes above a threshold value. Sideband of the second harmonic is also seen. Preliminary studies point towards excitation of ion Bernstein wave. Details of the experimental results are presented.
Parametric Decay of Pump Waves into two Linear Modes in SINP MaPLE Device
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Biswas, Subir; Pal, Rabindranath
2010-11-01
Parametric decay of incident waves of ion cyclotron frequency range into linear modes is observed in experiment performed in the SINP MaPLE device where nitrogen plasma produced by ECR discharge. Along with a mode in drift wave frequency range, sideband of the incident waves are observed when amplitude of the exciter signal goes above a threshold value. Sideband of the second harmonic is also seen. Preliminary studies point towards excitation of ion Bernstein wave. Details of the experimental results are presented.
Atwal, P.S.; Macmurdo, C.; Grimm, P.C.
2015-01-01
Acute metabolic decompensation in maple syrup urine disease can occur during intercurrent illness and is a medical emergency. A handful of reports in the medical literature describe the use of peritoneal dialysis and haemodialysis as therapeutic inventions. We report the only patient from our centre to have haemodialysis performed in this setting. Combined with dietary BCAA restriction and calorific support, haemodialysis allows rapid reduction in plasma leucine concentrations considerably faster than conservative methods. PMID:26937409
Atwal, P S; Macmurdo, C; Grimm, P C
2015-09-01
Acute metabolic decompensation in maple syrup urine disease can occur during intercurrent illness and is a medical emergency. A handful of reports in the medical literature describe the use of peritoneal dialysis and haemodialysis as therapeutic inventions. We report the only patient from our centre to have haemodialysis performed in this setting. Combined with dietary BCAA restriction and calorific support, haemodialysis allows rapid reduction in plasma leucine concentrations considerably faster than conservative methods. PMID:26937409
Fuel values of stems and branches in post oak and red maple
Harris, R.A.
1985-01-01
In red maple (Acer rubrum), there was n.s.d. in higher heating value (HHV) between stem wood and branch wood or between stem bark and branch bark. In post oak (Quercus stellata) the HHV of stem bark was significantly higher than that of branch bark, but there was n.s.d. between stem wood and branch wood. For both species the wood had a significantly higher HHV than the bark. 1 reference.
Maisuria, Vimal B; Hosseinidoust, Zeinab; Tufenkji, Nathalie
2015-06-01
Phenolic compounds are believed to be promising candidates as complementary therapeutics. Maple syrup, prepared by concentrating the sap from the North American maple tree, is a rich source of natural and process-derived phenolic compounds. In this work, we report the antimicrobial activity of a phenolic-rich maple syrup extract (PRMSE). PRMSE exhibited antimicrobial activity as well as strong synergistic interaction with selected antibiotics against Gram-negative clinical strains of Escherichia coli, Proteus mirabilis, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Among the phenolic constituents of PRMSE, catechol exhibited strong synergy with antibiotics as well as with other phenolic components of PRMSE against bacterial growth. At sublethal concentrations, PRMSE and catechol efficiently reduced biofilm formation and increased the susceptibility of bacterial biofilms to antibiotics. In an effort to elucidate the mechanism for the observed synergy with antibiotics, PRMSE was found to increase outer membrane permeability of all bacterial strains and effectively inhibit efflux pump activity. Furthermore, transcriptome analysis revealed that PRMSE significantly repressed multiple-drug resistance genes as well as genes associated with motility, adhesion, biofilm formation, and virulence. Overall, this study provides a proof of concept and starting point for investigating the molecular mechanism of the reported increase in bacterial antibiotic susceptibility in the presence of PRMSE. PMID:25819960
Fungi in Ontario maple syrup & some factors that determine the presence of mold damage.
Frasz, Samantha L; Miller, J David
2015-08-17
Maple syrup is a high value artisanal product produced mainly in Canada and a number of States primarily in the northeast USA. Mold growth (Wallemia sebi) on commercial product was first reported in syrup in 1908. Since then, few data have been published. We conducted a systematic examination for fungi in maple syrup from 68 producers from all of the syrup-producing areas of Ontario, Canada. The mean pH of the samples was pH 6.82, sugar content averaged 68.0±0.89 °Brix and aw averaged 0.841±0.011. Some 23 species of fungi were isolated based on morphology and molecular techniques. The most common fungus in the maple syrup samples was Eurotium herbariorum, followed by Penicillium chrysogenum, Aspergillus penicillioides, Aspergillus restrictus, Aspergillus versicolor and two species of Wallemia. Cladosporium cladosporioides was also common but only recovered when fungi known from high sugar substrates were also present in the mold damaged sample. The rarely reported yeast Citeromyces matrinsis was found in samples from three producers. There appear to be three potential causes for mold damage observed. High aw was associated with about one third of the mold damage. Independently, cold packing (bottling at ~25 °C) was a risk factor. However, syrup of good quality and quite low aw values was contaminated. We hypothesize that sanitation in the bottling line and other aspects of the bottling process may be partial explanations. Clarifying this requires further study. PMID:26001061
Anderson, Rachel; Ryser, Peter
2015-01-01
Several theories exist about the role of anthocyanins in senescing leaves. To elucidate factors contributing to variation in autumn leaf anthocyanin contents among individual trees, we analysed anthocyanins and other leaf traits in 27 individuals of red maple (Acer rubrum L.) over two growing seasons in the context of timing of leaf senescence. Red maple usually turns bright red in the autumn, but there is considerable variation among the trees. Leaf autumn anthocyanin contents were consistent between the two years of investigation. Autumn anthocyanin content strongly correlated with degree of chlorophyll degradation mid to late September, early senescing leaves having the highest concentrations of anthocyanins. It also correlated positively with leaf summer chlorophyll content and dry matter content, and negatively with specific leaf area. Time of leaf senescence and anthocyanin contents correlated with soil pH and with canopy openness. We conclude that the importance of anthocyanins in protection of leaf processes during senescence depends on the time of senescence. Rather than prolonging the growing season by enabling a delayed senescence, autumn anthocyanins in red maple in Ontario are important when senescence happens early, possibly due to the higher irradiance and greater danger of oxidative damage early in the season. PMID:27135339
New Gallotannin and other Phytochemicals from Sycamore Maple (Acer pseudoplatanus) Leaves.
Zhang, Lu; Tu, Zong-cai; Yuan, Tao; Ma, Hang; Niesen, Daniel B; Wang, Hui; Seeram, Navindra P
2015-11-01
The maple (Acer) genus is a reported source of bioactive (poly)phenols, including gallotannins, but several of its members, such as the sycamore maple (A. pseudoplatanus), remain uninvestigated. Herein, thirty-nine compounds, including a new gallotannin, 1,2,3-tri-O-galloyl-6-O-(p-hydroxybenzoyl)-β-D- glucopyranoside (1), and thirty-eight (2-39) known compounds, consisting of four gallotannins, one ellagitannin, thirteen flavonoids, eight hydroxycinnamic acids, ten benzoic acid derivatives, and two sesquiterpenoids, were isolated from sycamore maple leaves. Their structures were determined based on NMR and mass spectral analyses. The isolates were evaluated for α-glucosidase inhibitory and antioxidant activities. Among the isolates, the gallotannins were the most potent α-glucosidase inhibitors with thirteen-fold more potent activity compared with the clinical drug, acarbose (IC50 = 16-31 vs. 218 µM). Similarly, the gallotannins showed the highest antioxidant activities, followed by the other phenolic sub-classes, while the sesquiterpenoids were inactive. PMID:26749841
Sugar Maple Pigments Through the Fall and the Role of Anthocyanin as an Analytical Tool
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lindgren, E.; Rock, B.; Middleton, E.; Aber, J.
2008-12-01
Sugar maple habitat is projected to almost disappear in future climate scenarios. In fact, many institutions state that these trees are already in decline. Being able to detect sugar maple health could prove to be a useful analytical tool to monitor changes in phenology. Anthocyanin, a red pigment found in sugar maples, is thought to be a universal indicator of plant stress. It is very prominent in the spring during the first flush of leaves, as well as in the fall as leaves senesce. Determining an anthocyanin index that could be used with satellite systems will provide a greater understanding of tree phenology and the distribution of plant stress, both over large areas as well as changes over time. The utilization of anthocyanin for one of it's functions, prevention of oxidative stress, may fluctuate in response to changing climatic conditions that occur during senescence or vary from year to year. By monitoring changes in pigment levels and antioxidant capacity through the fall, one may be able to draw conclusions about the ability to detect anthocyanin remotely from space-based systems, and possibly determine a more specific function for anthocyanin during fall senescence. These results could then be applied to track changes in tree stress.
Insects attracted to Maple Sap: Observations from Prince Edward Island, Canada
Majka, Christopher G.
2010-01-01
Abstract The collection of maple sap for the production of maple syrup is a large commercial enterprise in Canada and the United States. In Canada, which produces 85% of the world’s supply, it has an annual value of over $168 million CAD. Over 38 million trees are tapped annually, 6.5% of which use traditional buckets for sap collection. These buckets attract significant numbers of insects. Despite this, there has been very little investigation of the scale of this phenomenon and the composition of insects that are attracted to this nutrient source. The present paper reports the results of a preliminary study conducted on Prince Edward Island, Canada. Twenty-eight species of Coleoptera, Lepidoptera, and Trichoptera were found in maple sap buckets, 19 of which are known to be attracted to saps and nectars. The physiological role of sap feeding is discussed with reference to moths of the tribe Xylenini, which are active throughout the winter, and are well documented as species that feed on sap flows. Additionally, 18 of the 28 species found in this study are newly recorded in Prince Edward Island. PMID:21594122
Maisuria, Vimal B.; Hosseinidoust, Zeinab
2015-01-01
Phenolic compounds are believed to be promising candidates as complementary therapeutics. Maple syrup, prepared by concentrating the sap from the North American maple tree, is a rich source of natural and process-derived phenolic compounds. In this work, we report the antimicrobial activity of a phenolic-rich maple syrup extract (PRMSE). PRMSE exhibited antimicrobial activity as well as strong synergistic interaction with selected antibiotics against Gram-negative clinical strains of Escherichia coli, Proteus mirabilis, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Among the phenolic constituents of PRMSE, catechol exhibited strong synergy with antibiotics as well as with other phenolic components of PRMSE against bacterial growth. At sublethal concentrations, PRMSE and catechol efficiently reduced biofilm formation and increased the susceptibility of bacterial biofilms to antibiotics. In an effort to elucidate the mechanism for the observed synergy with antibiotics, PRMSE was found to increase outer membrane permeability of all bacterial strains and effectively inhibit efflux pump activity. Furthermore, transcriptome analysis revealed that PRMSE significantly repressed multiple-drug resistance genes as well as genes associated with motility, adhesion, biofilm formation, and virulence. Overall, this study provides a proof of concept and starting point for investigating the molecular mechanism of the reported increase in bacterial antibiotic susceptibility in the presence of PRMSE. PMID:25819960
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Gonzalez-Vega, Laureano
1999-01-01
Using a Computer Algebra System (CAS) to help with the teaching of an elementary course in linear algebra can be one way to introduce computer algebra, numerical analysis, data structures, and algorithms. Highlights the advantages and disadvantages of this approach to the teaching of linear algebra. (Author/MM)
Chen, J.; Safro, I.
2011-01-01
Measuring the connection strength between a pair of vertices in a graph is one of the most important concerns in many graph applications. Simple measures such as edge weights may not be sufficient for capturing the effects associated with short paths of lengths greater than one. In this paper, we consider an iterative process that smooths an associated value for nearby vertices, and we present a measure of the local connection strength (called the algebraic distance; see [D. Ron, I. Safro, and A. Brandt, Multiscale Model. Simul., 9 (2011), pp. 407-423]) based on this process. The proposed measure is attractive in that the process is simple, linear, and easily parallelized. An analysis of the convergence property of the process reveals that the local neighborhoods play an important role in determining the connectivity between vertices. We demonstrate the practical effectiveness of the proposed measure through several combinatorial optimization problems on graphs and hypergraphs.
Constraint algebra in bigravity
Soloviev, V. O.
2015-07-15
The number of degrees of freedom in bigravity theory is found for a potential of general form and also for the potential proposed by de Rham, Gabadadze, and Tolley (dRGT). This aim is pursued via constructing a Hamiltonian formalismand studying the Poisson algebra of constraints. A general potential leads to a theory featuring four first-class constraints generated by general covariance. The vanishing of the respective Hessian is a crucial property of the dRGT potential, and this leads to the appearance of two additional second-class constraints and, hence, to the exclusion of a superfluous degree of freedom—that is, the Boulware—Deser ghost. The use of a method that permits avoiding an explicit expression for the dRGT potential is a distinctive feature of the present study.
Quantum algebra of N superspace
Hatcher, Nicolas; Restuccia, A.; Stephany, J.
2007-08-15
We identify the quantum algebra of position and momentum operators for a quantum system bearing an irreducible representation of the super Poincare algebra in the N>1 and D=4 superspace, both in the case where there are no central charges in the algebra, and when they are present. This algebra is noncommutative for the position operators. We use the properties of superprojectors acting on the superfields to construct explicit position and momentum operators satisfying the algebra. They act on the projected wave functions associated to the various supermultiplets with defined superspin present in the representation. We show that the quantum algebra associated to the massive superparticle appears in our construction and is described by a supermultiplet of superspin 0. This result generalizes the construction for D=4, N=1 reported recently. For the case N=2 with central charges, we present the equivalent results when the central charge and the mass are different. For the {kappa}-symmetric case when these quantities are equal, we discuss the reduction to the physical degrees of freedom of the corresponding superparticle and the construction of the associated quantum algebra.
Using Homemade Algebra Tiles To Develop Algebra and Prealgebra Concepts.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Leitze, Annette Ricks; Kitt, Nancy A.
2000-01-01
Describes how to use homemade tiles, sketches, and the box method to reach a broader group of students for successful algebra learning. Provides a list of concepts appropriate for such an approach. (KHR)
Distance geometry and geometric algebra
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dress, Andreas W. M.; Havel, Timothy F.
1993-10-01
As part of his program to unify linear algebra and geometry using the language of Clifford algebra, David Hestenes has constructed a (well-known) isomorphism between the conformal group and the orthogonal group of a space two dimensions higher, thus obtaining homogeneous coordinates for conformal geometry.(1) In this paper we show that this construction is the Clifford algebra analogue of a hyperbolic model of Euclidean geometry that has actually been known since Bolyai, Lobachevsky, and Gauss, and we explore its wider invariant theoretic implications. In particular, we show that the Euclidean distance function has a very simple representation in this model, as demonstrated by J. J. Seidel.(18)
Loop Virasoro Lie conformal algebra
Wu, Henan Chen, Qiufan; Yue, Xiaoqing
2014-01-15
The Lie conformal algebra of loop Virasoro algebra, denoted by CW, is introduced in this paper. Explicitly, CW is a Lie conformal algebra with C[∂]-basis (L{sub i} | i∈Z) and λ-brackets [L{sub i} {sub λ} L{sub j}] = (−∂−2λ)L{sub i+j}. Then conformal derivations of CW are determined. Finally, rank one conformal modules and Z-graded free intermediate series modules over CW are classified.
Hopf algebras and Dyson-Schwinger equations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Weinzierl, Stefan
2016-06-01
In this paper I discuss Hopf algebras and Dyson-Schwinger equations. This paper starts with an introduction to Hopf algebras, followed by a review of the contribution and application of Hopf algebras to particle physics. The final part of the paper is devoted to the relation between Hopf algebras and Dyson-Schwinger equations.
High density packaging technology ultra thin package & new tab package
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nakagawa, Osamu; Shimamoto, Haruo; Ueda, Tetsuya; Shimomura, Kou; Hata, Tsutomu; Tachikawa, Toru; Fukushima, Jiro; Banjo, Toshinobu; Yamamoto, Isamu
1989-09-01
As electronic devices become more highly integrated, the demand for small, high pin count packages has been increasing. We have developed two new types of IC packages in response to this demand. One is an ultra thin small outline package (TSOP) which has been reduced in size from the standard SOP and the other, which uses Tape Automated Bonding (TAB) technology, is a super thin, high pin count TAB in cap (T.I.C.) package. In this paper, we present these packages and their features along with the technologies used to improve package reliability and TAB. Thin packages are vulnerable to high humidity exposure, especially after heat shock.1 The following items were therefore investigated in order to improve humidity resistance: (1) The molding compound thermal stress, (2) Water absorption into the molding compound and its effect on package cracking during solder dipping, (3) Chip attach pad area and its affect on package cracking, (4) Adhesion between molding resin and chip attach pad and its affect on humidity resistance. With the improvements made as a result of these investigations, the reliability of the new thin packages is similar to that of the standard thicker plastic packages.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
1997-01-01
Primary science teachers in Scotland have a new updating method at their disposal with the launch of a package of CDi (Compact Discs Interactive) materials developed by the BBC and the Scottish Office. These were a response to the claim that many primary teachers felt they had been inadequately trained in science and lacked the confidence to teach it properly. Consequently they felt the need for more in-service training to equip them with the personal understanding required. The pack contains five disks and a printed user's guide divided up as follows: disk 1 Investigations; disk 2 Developing understanding; disks 3,4,5 Primary Science staff development videos. It was produced by the Scottish Interactive Technology Centre (Moray House Institute) and is available from BBC Education at Â£149.99 including VAT. Free Internet distribution of science education materials has also begun as part of the Global Schoolhouse (GSH) scheme. The US National Science Teachers' Association (NSTA) and Microsoft Corporation are making available field-tested comprehensive curriculum material including 'Micro-units' on more than 80 topics in biology, chemistry, earth and space science and physics. The latter are the work of the Scope, Sequence and Coordination of High School Science project, which can be found at http://www.gsh.org/NSTA_SSandC/. More information on NSTA can be obtained from its Web site at http://www.nsta.org.
Sequential products on effect algebras
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gudder, Stan; Greechie, Richard
2002-02-01
A sequential effect algebra (SEA) is an effect algebra on which a sequential product with natural properties is defined. The properties of sequential products on Hilbert space effect algebras are discussed. For a general SEA, relationships between sequential independence, coexistence and compatibility are given. It is shown that the sharp elements of a SEA form an orthomodular poset. The sequential center of a SEA is discussed and a characterization of when the sequential center is isomorphic to a fuzzy set system is presented. It is shown that the existence, of a sequential product is a strong restriction that eliminates many effect algebras from being SEA's. For example, there are no finite nonboolean SEA's, A measure of sharpness called the sharpness index is studied. The existence of horizontal sums of SEA's is characterized and examples of horizontal sums and tensor products are presented.
Curvature calculations with spacetime algebra
Hestenes, D.
1986-06-01
A new method for calculating the curvature tensor is developed and applied to the Scharzschild case. The method employs Clifford algebra and has definite advantages over conventional methods using differential forms or tensor analysis.
GCD, LCM, and Boolean Algebra?
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Cohen, Martin P.; Juraschek, William A.
1976-01-01
This article investigates the algebraic structure formed when the process of finding the greatest common divisor and the least common multiple are considered as binary operations on selected subsets of positive integers. (DT)
Cartooning in Algebra and Calculus
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Moseley, L. Jeneva
2014-01-01
This article discusses how teachers can create cartoons for undergraduate math classes, such as college algebra and basic calculus. The practice of cartooning for teaching can be helpful for communication with students and for students' conceptual understanding.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Klumpp, A. R.; Lawson, C. L.
1988-01-01
Routines provided for common scalar, vector, matrix, and quaternion operations. Computer program extends Ada programming language to include linear-algebra capabilities similar to HAS/S programming language. Designed for such avionics applications as software for Space Station.
Semiclassical states on Lie algebras
Tsobanjan, Artur
2015-03-15
The effective technique for analyzing representation-independent features of quantum systems based on the semiclassical approximation (developed elsewhere) has been successfully used in the context of the canonical (Weyl) algebra of the basic quantum observables. Here, we perform the important step of extending this effective technique to the quantization of a more general class of finite-dimensional Lie algebras. The case of a Lie algebra with a single central element (the Casimir element) is treated in detail by considering semiclassical states on the corresponding universal enveloping algebra. Restriction to an irreducible representation is performed by “effectively” fixing the Casimir condition, following the methods previously used for constrained quantum systems. We explicitly determine the conditions under which this restriction can be consistently performed alongside the semiclassical truncation.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lannes, A.; Teunissen, P. J. G.
2011-05-01
The first objective of this paper is to show that some basic concepts used in global navigation satellite systems (GNSS) are similar to those introduced in Fourier synthesis for handling some phase calibration problems. In experimental astronomy, the latter are at the heart of what is called `phase closure imaging.' In both cases, the analysis of the related structures appeals to the algebraic graph theory and the algebraic number theory. For example, the estimable functions of carrier-phase ambiguities, which were introduced in GNSS to correct some rank defects of the undifferenced equations, prove to be `closure-phase ambiguities:' the so-called `closure-delay' (CD) ambiguities. The notion of closure delay thus generalizes that of double difference (DD). The other estimable functional variables involved in the phase and code undifferenced equations are the receiver and satellite pseudo-clock biases. A related application, which corresponds to the second objective of this paper, concerns the definition of the clock information to be broadcasted to the network users for their precise point positioning (PPP). It is shown that this positioning can be achieved by simply having access to the satellite pseudo-clock biases. For simplicity, the study is restricted to relatively small networks. Concerning the phase for example, these biases then include five components: a frequency-dependent satellite-clock error, a tropospheric satellite delay, an ionospheric satellite delay, an initial satellite phase, and an integer satellite ambiguity. The form of the PPP equations to be solved by the network user is then similar to that of the traditional PPP equations. As soon as the CD ambiguities are fixed and validated, an operation which can be performed in real time via appropriate decorrelation techniques, estimates of these float biases can be immediately obtained. No other ambiguity is to be fixed. The satellite pseudo-clock biases can thus be obtained in real time. This is
Hopf algebras and topological recursion
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Esteves, João N.
2015-11-01
We consider a model for topological recursion based on the Hopf algebra of planar binary trees defined by Loday and Ronco (1998 Adv. Math. 139 293-309 We show that extending this Hopf algebra by identifying pairs of nearest neighbor leaves, and thus producing graphs with loops, we obtain the full recursion formula discovered by Eynard and Orantin (2007 Commun. Number Theory Phys. 1 347-452).
2005-04-11
The ALGEBRA program allows the user to manipulate data from a finite element analysis before it is plotted. The finite element output data is in the form of variable values (e.g., stress, strain, and velocity components) in an EXODUS II database. The ALGEBRA program evaluates user-supplied functions of the data and writes the results to an output EXODUS II database that can be read by plot programs.
Parallel linear algebra library for the Denelcor HEP
Dongarra, J.J.; Sorensen, D.C.
1984-10-01
This paper discusses the implementation of a library of algorithms for problems in linear algebra on the Denelcor HEP. The package includes some of the most heavily used subroutines from LINPACK, that is, solution of linear systems based on LU, Cholesky, and QR factorizations as well as the appropriate triangular solvers. The concept followed is to code these routines in terms of high-level modules, which provides a vehicle to achieve both transportability and efficiency across a wide range of architectures. We discuss this concept in the context of a numerical linear algebra software library which is adaptable to highly parallel computing systems. However, the concept is expected to applicable to other libraries as well.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Caricato, A. P.; Anni, M.; Cesaria, M.; Lattante, S.; Leggieri, G.; Leo, C.; Martino, M.; Perulli, A.; Resta, V.
2015-06-01
The Matrix-Assisted Pulsed Laser Evaporation (MAPLE) technique is emerging as an alternative route to the conventional methods for depositing organic materials, although the MAPLE-deposited films very often present high surface roughness and characteristic morphological features. Films of the blue-emitting polymer, poly(9,9-dioctylfluorene)—PFO, have been deposited by MAPLE to investigate the influence of the laser fluence and repetition rate on both their topography and emission properties. The laser fluence has been changed from 150 up to 450 mJ/cm2, while laser repetition rates of 2 and 10 Hz have been considered. The interplay/relationship between the topography and the emission properties of the MAPLE-deposited films has been studied by confocal microscopy, photoluminescence spectrometry and atomic force microscopy. It has been found that under high irradiation (fluence of 450 mJ/cm2) conditions, the sample surface is characterized by bubbles presenting the intrinsic PFO blue emission. Instead, while improvements in the film morphology can be observed for lowered fluence and laser repetition rate, green emission becomes predominant in such conditions. Such result is very interesting to better understand the MAPLE ablation mechanism, which is discussed in this study.
Tappeiner, J. C., II; Zasada, J.; Maxwell, B.
1996-01-01
In order to determine the effects of stump height, year of cutting, parent-tree size, logging damage, and deer browsing on bigleaf maple (Acer macrophyllum) sprout clump development, maple trees were cut to two stump heights at three different times. Stump height had the greatest impact on sprout clump size. Two years after clearcutting, the sprout clump volume for short stumps was significantly less than that for tall stumps. The sprout clump volume, area, and number of sprouts were significantly less for trees cut 1 and 2 yr before harvest than for trees cut at harvest. Sprout clump size was positively correlated with parent tree stem diameter and stump volume, and negatively correlated with the percentage of bark removed during logging. Browsing had no significant impact on average clump size. Uncut trees produced sprout clumps at their base and epicormic branches along the length of their stems; thus their crown volume averaged four to five times that of cut trees. Cutting maple in clearcuts to low stumps may reduce maple competition with Douglas-fir regeneration and still maintain maple in the next stand.
Diagonalization and Jordan Normal Form--Motivation through "Maple"[R
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Glaister, P.
2009-01-01
Following an introduction to the diagonalization of matrices, one of the more difficult topics for students to grasp in linear algebra is the concept of Jordan normal form. In this note, we show how the important notions of diagonalization and Jordan normal form can be introduced and developed through the use of the computer algebra package…
Cirelli, Damián; Jagels, Richard; Tyree, Melvin T
2008-08-01
Two theories have been proposed to explain how high positive pressures are developed in sugar maple stems when temperatures fluctuate around freezing. The Milburn-O'Malley theory proposes that pressure development is purely physical and does not require living cells or sucrose. The osmotic theory invokes the involvement of living cells and sucrose to generate an osmotic pressure difference between fibers and vessels, which are assumed to be separated by an osmotic barrier. We analyzed wood of Acer saccharum Marsh., Juglans cinerea L. and Betula papyrifera Marsh. (all generate positive pressures) examining three critical components of the osmotic model: pits in cell walls, selectivity of the osmotic barrier and stability of air bubbles under positive xylem pressure. We examined the distribution and type of pits directly by light and scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and indirectly by perfusion of branch segments with fluorescent dyes with molecular masses similar to sucrose. The latter approach allowed us to use osmotic surrogates for sucrose that could be tracked by epifluorescence. Infusion experiments were used to assess the compartmentalization of sucrose and to determine the behavior of gas bubbles as predicted by Fick's and Henry's laws. The SEM images of sugar maple revealed a lack of pitting between fibers and vessels but connections between fiber-tracheids and vessels were present. Fluorescein-perfusion experiments demonstrated that large molecules do not diffuse into libriform fibers but are confined within the domain of vessels, parenchyma and fiber-tracheids. Results of the infusion experiments were in agreement with those of the fluorescein perfusions and further indicated the necessity of a compartmentalized osmolyte to drive stem pressure, as well as the inability of air bubbles to maintain such pressure because of instability. These results support the osmotic model and demonstrate that the secondary cell wall is an effective osmotic barrier for
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kuzmin, Dmitri; Möller, Matthias; Gurris, Marcel
Flux limiting for hyperbolic systems requires a careful generalization of the design principles and algorithms introduced in the context of scalar conservation laws. In this chapter, we develop FCT-like algebraic flux correction schemes for the Euler equations of gas dynamics. In particular, we discuss the construction of artificial viscosity operators, the choice of variables to be limited, and the transformation of antidiffusive fluxes. An a posteriori control mechanism is implemented to make the limiter failsafe. The numerical treatment of initial and boundary conditions is discussed in some detail. The initialization is performed using an FCT-constrained L 2 projection. The characteristic boundary conditions are imposed in a weak sense, and an approximate Riemann solver is used to evaluate the fluxes on the boundary. We also present an unconditionally stable semi-implicit time-stepping scheme and an iterative solver for the fully discrete problem. The results of a numerical study indicate that the nonlinearity and non-differentiability of the flux limiter do not inhibit steady state convergence even in the case of strongly varying Mach numbers. Moreover, the convergence rates improve as the pseudo-time step is increased.
Virasoro algebra in the KN algebra; Bosonic string with fermionic ghosts on Riemann surfaces
Koibuchi, H. )
1991-10-10
In this paper the bosonic string model with fermionic ghosts is considered in the framework of the KN algebra. The authors' attentions are paid to representations of KN algebra and a Clifford algebra of the ghosts. The authors show that a Virasoro-like algebra is obtained from KN algebra when KN algebra has certain antilinear anti-involution, and that it is isomorphic to the usual Virasoro algebra. The authors show that there is an expected relation between a central charge of this Virasoro-like algebra and an anomaly of the combined system.
Invertible linear transformations and the Lie algebras
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, Yufeng; Tam, Honwah; Guo, Fukui
2008-07-01
With the help of invertible linear transformations and the known Lie algebras, a way to generate new Lie algebras is given. These Lie algebras obtained have a common feature, i.e. integrable couplings of solitary hierarchies could be obtained by using them, specially, the Hamiltonian structures of them could be worked out. Some ways to construct the loop algebras of the Lie algebras are presented. It follows that some various loop algebras are given. In addition, a few new Lie algebras are explicitly constructed in terms of the classification of Lie algebras proposed by Ma Wen-Xiu, which are bases for obtaining new Lie algebras by using invertible linear transformations. Finally, some solutions of a (2 + 1)-dimensional partial-differential equation hierarchy are obtained, whose Hamiltonian form-expressions are manifested by using the quadratic-form identity.
Management of a Woman With Maple Syrup Urine Disease During Pregnancy, Delivery, and Lactation.
Wessel, Ann E; Mogensen, Kris M; Rohr, Frances; Erick, Miriam; Neilan, Edward G; Chopra, Sameer; Levy, Harvey L; Gray, Kathryn J; Wilkins-Haug, Louise; Berry, Gerard T
2015-09-01
Maple syrup urine disease (MSUD) is an inherited disorder of metabolism of the branched-chain amino acids leucine, isoleucine, and valine. Complications of acute elevation in plasma leucine include ketoacidosis and risk of cerebral edema, which can be fatal. Individuals with MSUD are at risk of metabolic crisis throughout life, especially at times of physiological stress. We present a case of successful management of a woman with MSUD through pregnancy, delivery, postpartum, and lactation, including nutrition therapy using modified parenteral nutrition. PMID:24618664
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Schwaller, M. R.; Schnetzler, C. C.; Marshall, P. E.
1983-01-01
The effects of heavy metal stress on leaf reflectance of sugar maple seedlings (Acer saccharum Marsh) are examined. It is found that sugar maple seedlings treated with anomalous amounts of heavy metals in the rooting medium exhibited an increased leaf reflectance over the entire range of investigated wavelengths, from 475 to 1650 nm. These results conform to those of a previous investigation in the wavelengths from 475 to 660 nm, but tend to contradict the previous study in the near infrared wavelengths from 1000 to 1650 nm. The differences may possibly be due to different water regimes in the two investigations. Previously announced in STAR as N81-29729
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Schwaller, M. R.; Schnetzler, C. C.; Marshall, P. E.
1981-01-01
The effects of heavy metal stress on leaf reflectance of sugar maple seedlings (Acer saccharum Marsh) are examined. It is found that sugar maple seedlings treated with anomalous amounts of heavy metals in the rooting medium exhibited an increased leaf reflectance over the entire range of investigated wavelengths, from 475 to 1650 nm. These results conform to those of a previous investigation in the wavelengths from 475 to 660nm, but tend to contradict the previous study in the near infrared wavelengths from 1000 to 1650nm. The differences may possible be due to different water regimes in the two investigations.
Ternary generalization of Heisenberg's algebra
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kerner, Richard
2015-06-01
A concise study of ternary and cubic algebras with Z3 grading is presented. We discuss some underlying ideas leading to the conclusion that the discrete symmetry group of permutations of three objects, S3, and its abelian subgroup Z3 may play an important role in quantum physics. We show then how most of important algebras with Z2 grading can be generalized with ternary composition laws combined with a Z3 grading. We investigate in particular a ternary, Z3-graded generalization of the Heisenberg algebra. It turns out that introducing a non-trivial cubic root of unity, , one can define two types of creation operators instead of one, accompanying the usual annihilation operator. The two creation operators are non-hermitian, but they are mutually conjugate. Together, the three operators form a ternary algebra, and some of their cubic combinations generate the usual Heisenberg algebra. An analogue of Hamiltonian operator is constructed by analogy with the usual harmonic oscillator, and some properties of its eigenfunctions are briefly discussed.
Beyond Dirac - a Unified Algebra
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lundberg, Wayne R.
2001-10-01
A introductory insight will be shared regarding a 'separation of variables' approach to understanding the relationship between QCD and the origins of cosmological and particle mass. The discussion will then build upon work presented at DFP 2000, focussing on the formal basis for using 3x3x3 matrix algebra as it underlies and extends Dirac notation. A set of restrictions are established which break the multiple symmetries of the 3x3x3 matrix algebra, yielding Standard Model QCD objects and interactions. It will be shown that the 3x3x3 matrix representation unifies the algebra of strong and weak (and by extension, electromagnetic) interactions. A direct correspondence to string theoretic objects is established by considering the string to be partitioned in thirds. Rubik's cube is used as a graphical means of handling algebraic manipulation of 3x3x3 algebra. Further, its potential utility for advancing pedagogical methods through active engagement is discussed. A simulated classroom exercize will be conducted.
Packaging for logistical support
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Twede, Diana; Hughes, Harold
Logistical packaging is conducted to furnish protection, utility, and communication for elements of a logistical system. Once the functional requirements of space logistical support packaging have been identified, decision-makers have a reasonable basis on which to compare package alternatives. Flexible packages may be found, for example, to provide adequate protection and superior utility to that of rigid packages requiring greater storage and postuse waste volumes.
A computer code for calculations in the algebraic collective model of the atomic nucleus
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Welsh, T. A.; Rowe, D. J.
2016-03-01
A Maple code is presented for algebraic collective model (ACM) calculations. The ACM is an algebraic version of the Bohr model of the atomic nucleus, in which all required matrix elements are derived by exploiting the model's SU(1 , 1) × SO(5) dynamical group. This paper reviews the mathematical formulation of the ACM, and serves as a manual for the code. The code enables a wide range of model Hamiltonians to be analysed. This range includes essentially all Hamiltonians that are rational functions of the model's quadrupole moments qˆM and are at most quadratic in the corresponding conjugate momenta πˆN (- 2 ≤ M , N ≤ 2). The code makes use of expressions for matrix elements derived elsewhere and newly derived matrix elements of the operators [ π ˆ ⊗ q ˆ ⊗ π ˆ ] 0 and [ π ˆ ⊗ π ˆ ] LM. The code is made efficient by use of an analytical expression for the needed SO(5)-reduced matrix elements, and use of SO(5) ⊃ SO(3) Clebsch-Gordan coefficients obtained from precomputed data files provided with the code.
Analytical solution using computer algebra of a biosensor for detecting toxic substances in water
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rúa Taborda, María. Isabel
2014-05-01
In a relatively recent paper an electrochemical biosensor for water toxicity detection based on a bio-chip as a whole cell was proposed and numerically solved and analyzed. In such paper the kinetic processes in a miniaturized electrochemical biosensor system was described using the equations for specific enzymatic reaction and the diffusion equation. The numerical solution shown excellent agreement with the measured data but such numerical solution is not enough to design efficiently the corresponding bio-chip. For this reason an analytical solution is demanded. The object of the present work is to provide such analytical solution and then to give algebraic guides to design the bio-sensor. The analytical solution is obtained using computer algebra software, specifically Maple. The method of solution is the Laplace transform, with Bromwich integral and residue theorem. The final solution is given as a series of Bessel functions and the effective time for the bio-sensor is computed. It is claimed that the analytical solutions that were obtained will be very useful to predict further current variations in similar systems with different geometries, materials and biological components. Beside of this the analytical solution that we provide is very useful to investigate the relationship between different chamber parameters such as cell radius and height; and electrode radius.
Teaching Mathematics Using a Computer Algebra.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Westermann, Thomas
2001-01-01
Demonstrates the principal concept and the application of MAPLE in mathematical education in various examples. Discusses lengthy and abstract topics like the convergence of Fourier series to a given function, performs the visualization of the wave equation in the case of a vibrating string, and computes the oscillations of an idealized skyscraper…
Algebraic Lattices in QFT Renormalization
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Borinsky, Michael
2016-04-01
The structure of overlapping subdivergences, which appear in the perturbative expansions of quantum field theory, is analyzed using algebraic lattice theory. It is shown that for specific QFTs the sets of subdivergences of Feynman diagrams form algebraic lattices. This class of QFTs includes the standard model. In kinematic renormalization schemes, in which tadpole diagrams vanish, these lattices are semimodular. This implies that the Hopf algebra of Feynman diagrams is graded by the coradical degree or equivalently that every maximal forest has the same length in the scope of BPHZ renormalization. As an application of this framework, a formula for the counter terms in zero-dimensional QFT is given together with some examples of the enumeration of primitive or skeleton diagrams.
Algebraic Lattices in QFT Renormalization
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Borinsky, Michael
2016-07-01
The structure of overlapping subdivergences, which appear in the perturbative expansions of quantum field theory, is analyzed using algebraic lattice theory. It is shown that for specific QFTs the sets of subdivergences of Feynman diagrams form algebraic lattices. This class of QFTs includes the standard model. In kinematic renormalization schemes, in which tadpole diagrams vanish, these lattices are semimodular. This implies that the Hopf algebra of Feynman diagrams is graded by the coradical degree or equivalently that every maximal forest has the same length in the scope of BPHZ renormalization. As an application of this framework, a formula for the counter terms in zero-dimensional QFT is given together with some examples of the enumeration of primitive or skeleton diagrams.
Moving frames and prolongation algebras
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Estabrook, F. B.
1982-01-01
Differential ideals generated by sets of 2-forms which can be written with constant coefficients in a canonical basis of 1-forms are considered. By setting up a Cartan-Ehresmann connection, in a fiber bundle over a base space in which the 2-forms live, one finds an incomplete Lie algebra of vector fields in the fields in the fibers. Conversely, given this algebra (a prolongation algebra), one can derive the differential ideal. The two constructs are thus dual, and analysis of either derives properties of both. Such systems arise in the classical differential geometry of moving frames. Examples of this are discussed, together with examples arising more recently: the Korteweg-de Vries and Harrison-Ernst systems.
A Maple Program That Illustrates the Effect of pH on Peptide Charge
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sokolik, Charles W.
1998-11-01
One topic covered early in an introductory biochemistry course is acid-base chemistry and the Henderson-Hasselbalch equation (buffer equation). Using this equation a biochemistry student can determine the partial charges of amino acids in a peptide chain. This is an important concept to master for a student who is learning the structure-function relationship in proteins. The program described in this paper, written for Maple V, release 3 (Waterloo Maple Software, Waterloo, ON, Canada), uses the Henderson-Hasselbalch equation to calculate the partial charges of individual amino acids and the net charge of a peptide over the pH range 0 to 14. The amino acid sequence of a peptide is entered and an animated histogram is displayed illustrating the partial charge of the amino acids over the pH range. A graph showing the net charge of the peptide from pH 0 to 14 is also given. The program has been used with success in an introductory biochemistry course as an in-class demonstration as well as for individual homework assignments. The program is available through the Web page of the Journal of Chemical Education.
A numerical study of a freely-falling maple seed with autorotation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lee, Injae; Choi, Haecheon
2015-11-01
Many single winged seeds such as those of maples exploit autorotation to decrease the descending velocity and increase the dispersal distance for the conservation of species. In this study, a numerical simulation is conducted for flow around a freely-falling maple seed (Acer palmatum) at the Reynolds number of 1186 (based on the mean chord length and characteristic terminal velocity). We use an immersed boundary method in a non-inertial reference frame (Kim & Choi, JCP, 2006) for the simulation. After a transient period, the seed reaches the steady autorotation with a stable leading edge vortex attached on the surface of the wing at which the descending velocity significantly decreases. At steady autorotation, the descending velocity is proportional to the square root of disc loading. We also study the effect of the initial position of the seeds on the timing of autorotation, and show that the autorotation occurs earlier when the wing leading edge or nut is initially positioned upward. Supported by NRF-2011-0028032.
Flexible heterostructures based on metal phthalocyanines thin films obtained by MAPLE
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Socol, M.; Preda, N.; Rasoga, O.; Breazu, C.; Stavarache, I.; Stanculescu, F.; Socol, G.; Gherendi, F.; Grumezescu, V.; Popescu-Pelin, G.; Girtan, M.; Stefan, N.
2016-06-01
Heterostructures based on zinc phthalocyanine (ZnPc), magnesium phthalocyanine (MgPc) and 5,10,15,20-tetra(4-pyrydil)21H,23H-porphine (TPyP) were deposited on ITO flexible substrates by Matrix Assisted Pulsed Laser Evaporation (MAPLE) technique. Organic heterostructures containing (TPyP/ZnPc(MgPc)) stacked or (ZnPc(MgPc):TPyP) mixed layers were characterized by X-ray diffraction-XRD, photoluminescence-PL, UV-vis and FTIR spectroscopy. No chemical decomposition of the initial materials was observed. The investigated structures present a large spectral absorption in the visible range making them suitable for organic photovoltaics applications (OPV). Scanning electron microscopy-SEM and atomic force microscopy-AFM revealed morphologies typical for the films prepared by MAPLE. The current-voltage characteristics of the investigated structures, measured in dark and under light, present an improvement in the current value (∼3 order of magnitude larger) for the structure based on the mixed layer (Al/MgPc:TPyP/ITO) in comparison with the stacked layer (Al/MgPc//TPyP/ITO). A photogeneration process was evidenced in the case of structures Al/ZnPc:TPyP/ITO with mixed layers.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Stanculescu, F.; Rasoga, O.; Catargiu, A. M.; Vacareanu, L.; Socol, M.; Breazu, C.; Preda, N.; Socol, G.; Stanculescu, A.
2015-05-01
This paper presents some studies about the preparation by matrix-assisted pulsed laser evaporation (MAPLE) technique of heterostructures with single layer of arylene based polymer, poly[N-(2-ethylhexyl)2.7-carbazolyl vinylene]/AMC16 and poly[N-(2-ethylhexyl)2.7-carbazolyl 1.4-phenylene ethynylene]/AMC22, and with layers of these polymers mixed with Buckminsterfullerene/C60 in the weight ratio of 1:2 (AMC16:C60) and 1:3 (AMC22:C60). The deposited layers have been characterized by spectroscopic (UV-Vis-NIR, PL, FTIR) and microscopic (SEM, AFM) methods. The effect of the polymer particularities on the optical and electrical properties of the structures based on polymer and polymer:C60 mixed layer has been analyzed. The study of the electrical properties has revealed typical solar cell behavior for the heterostructure prepared by MAPLE on glass/ITO/PEDOT-PSS with AMC16, AMC22 and AMC22:C60 layer, confirming that this method is adequate for the preparation of polymeric and mixed active layers for solar cells applications. The highest photovoltaic effect was shown by the solar cell structure realized with single layer of AMC16 polymer: glass/ITO/PEDOT-PSS/AMC16/Al.
DNA damage in an animal model of maple syrup urine disease.
Scaini, Giselli; Jeremias, Isabela C; Morais, Meline O S; Borges, Gabriela D; Munhoz, Bruna P; Leffa, Daniela D; Andrade, Vanessa M; Schuck, Patrícia F; Ferreira, Gustavo C; Streck, Emilio L
2012-06-01
Maple syrup urine disease is an inborn error of metabolism caused by a severe deficiency of the branched chain alpha-ketoacid dehydrogenase complex. Neurological dysfunction is a common finding in patients with maple syrup urine disease. However, the mechanisms underlying the neuropathology of brain damage in this disorder are poorly understood. In this study, we investigated whether acute or chronic administration of a branched chain amino acid pool (leucine, isoleucine and valine) causes transient DNA damage, as determined by the alkaline comet assay, in the brain and blood of rats during development and whether antioxidant treatment prevented the alterations induced by branched chain amino acids. Our results showed that the acute administration of branched chain amino acids increased the DNA damage frequency and damage index in the hippocampus. However, the chronic administration of branched chain amino acids increased the DNA damage frequency and damage index in both the hippocampus and the striatum, and the antioxidant treatment was able to prevent DNA damage in the hippocampus and striatum. The present study demonstrated that metabolite accumulation in MSUD induces DNA damage in the hippocampus and striatum and that it may be implicated in the neuropathology observed in the affected patients. We demonstrated that the effect of antioxidant treatment (N-acetylcysteine plus deferoxamine) prevented DNA damage, suggesting the involvement of oxidative stress in DNA damage. PMID:22560665
Spring leaf phenology and the diurnal temperature range in a temperate maple forest
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hanes, Jonathan M.
2014-03-01
Spring leaf phenology in temperate climates is intricately related to numerous aspects of the lower atmosphere [e.g., surface energy balance, carbon flux, humidity, the diurnal temperature range (DTR)]. To further develop and improve the accuracy of ecosystem and climate models, additional investigations of the specific nature of the relationships between spring leaf phenology and various ecosystem and climate processes are required in different environments. This study used visual observations of maple leaf phenology, below-canopy light intensities, and micrometeorological data collected during the spring seasons of 2008, 2009, and 2010 to examine the potential influence of leaf phenology on a seasonal transition in the trend of the DTR. The timing of a reversal in the DTR trend occurred near the time when the leaves were unfolding and expanding. The results suggest that the spring decline in the DTR can be attributed primarily to the effect of canopy closure on daily maximum temperature. These findings improve our understanding of the relationship between leaf phenology and the diurnal temperature range in temperate maple forests during the spring. They also demonstrate the necessity of incorporating accurate phenological data into ecosystem and climate models and warrant a careful examination of the extent to which canopy phenology is currently incorporated into existing models.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bloisi, Francesco; Califano, Valeria; Perretta, Giuseppe; Nasti, Libera; Aronne, Antonio; Di Girolamo, Rocco; Auriemma, Finizia; De Rosa, Claudio; Vicari, Luciano R. M.
2016-06-01
Lipases are enzymes used for catalyzing reactions of acylglycerides in biodiesel production from lipids, where enzyme immobilization on a substrate is required. Silica nanoparticles in different morphologies and configurations are currently used in conjunction with biological molecules for drug delivery and catalysis applications, but up to date their use for triglycerides has been limited by the large size of long-chain lipid molecules. Matrix assisted pulsed laser evaporation (MAPLE), a laser deposition technique using a frozen solution/suspension as a target, is widely used for deposition of biomaterials and other delicate molecules. We have carried out a MAPLE deposition starting from a frozen mixture containing fumed silica and lipase in water. Deposition parameters were chosen in order to increase surface roughness and to promote the formation of complex structures. Both the target (a frozen thickened mixture of nanoparticles/catalyst in water) and the deposition configuration (a small target to substrate distance) are unusual and have been adopted in order to increase surface contact of catalyst and to facilitate access to long-chain molecules. The resulting innovative film morphology (fumed silica/lipase cluster level aggregation) and the lipase functionality (for catalytic biodiesel production) have been studied by FESEM, FTIR and transesterification tests.
Effect of substrate temperature on MAPLE deposition of synthetic eumelanin films
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bloisi, F.; Pezzella, A.; Barra, M.; Alfè, M.; Chiarella, F.; Cassinese, A.; Vicari, L.
2011-11-01
Eumelanin is an important pigment almost ubiquitous in animals and plants exhibiting interesting charge transport capabilities. Its poor solubility in common solvents represents a severe limitation for preparing thin films. It was recently demonstrated that eumelanin films can be successfully deposited with the MAPLE (Matrix Assisted Pulsed Laser Evaporation) technique starting from a frozen water suspension, using infrared laser radiation. The low laser absorption of ice together with the high absorption of eumelanin suggests that the target ablation is due to laser energy absorbed by the eumelanin molecules, followed by thermal energy transfer, and ejection of ice/water/vapor containing undamaged eumelanin molecules and supramolecular structures. Here, we report on the deposition of eumelanin thin films on substrates at different temperatures eventually followed by in-situ annealing. Structural characterization (UV-VIS, FTIR, AP-MALDI) confirms that the deposited films maintain the characteristics of the eumelanin biopolymer. Morphological characterization (AFM) shows that surface roughness increases with increasing substrate temperature during MAPLE deposition, but is not influenced by annealing. Preliminary electrical characterization shows that eumelanin films seem to obey Ohm's law without evidence that charge injection from gold electrodes is affected by the presence of significant energy barriers. Moreover, charge transport is drastically reduced in vacuum, even if the phenomenon is at least partially reversible.
MAPLE deposition of polypyrrole-based composite layers for bone regeneration
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Paun, Irina Alexandra; Acasandrei, Adriana Maria; Luculescu, Catalin Romeo; Mustaciosu, Cosmin Catalin; Ion, Valentin; Mihailescu, Mona; Vasile, Eugenia; Dinescu, Maria
2015-12-01
We report on biocompatible, electrically conductive layers of polypyrrole (PPy)-based composites obtained by Matrix Assisted Pulsed Laser Evaporation (MAPLE) for envisioned bone regeneration. In order to preserve the conductivity of the PPy while overcoming its lack of biodegradability and low mechanical resilience, conductive PPy nanograins were embedded in two biocompatible, insulating polymeric matrices, i.e. poly(lactic-co-glycolic)acid (PLGA) and polyurethane (PU). PLGA offers the advantage of full biodegradability into non-toxic products, while PU provides toughness and elasticity. The PPy nanograins formed micro-domains and networks within the PLGA and PU matrices, in a compact spatial arrangement favorable for electrical percolation. The proposed approach allowed us to obtain PPy-based composite layers with biologically meaningful conductivities up to 10-2 S/cm for PPy loadings as low as 1:10 weight ratios. Fluorescent staining and viability assays showed that the MG63 osteoblast-like cells cultured on the PPy-based layers deposited by MAPLE were viable and retained their capacity to proliferate. The performance of the proposed method was demonstrated by quantitative evaluation of the calcium phosphate deposits from the cultured cells, as indicative for cell mineralization. Electrical stimulation using 200 μA currents passing through the PPy-based layers, during a time interval of 4 h, enhanced the osteogenesis in the cultured cells. Despite their lowest conductivity, the PPy/PU layers showed the best biocompatibility and the highest osteogenic potential.
Genetic consequences of selection cutting on sugar maple (Acer saccharum Marshall).
Graignic, Noémie; Tremblay, Francine; Bergeron, Yves
2016-07-01
Selection cutting is a treatment that emulates tree-by-tree replacement for forests with uneven-age structures. It creates small openings in large areas and often generates a more homogenous forest structure (fewer large leaving trees and defective trees) that differs from old-growth forest. In this study, we evaluated whether this type of harvesting has an impact on genetic diversity of sugar maple (Acer saccharum Marshall). Genetic diversity among seedlings, saplings, and mature trees was compared between selection cut and old-growth forest stands in Québec, Canada. We found higher observed heterozygosity and a lower inbreeding coefficient in mature trees than in younger regeneration cohorts of both forest types. We detected a recent bottleneck in all stands undergoing selection cutting. Other genetic indices of diversity (allelic richness, observed and expected heterozygosity, and rare alleles) were similar between forest types. We concluded that the effect of selection cutting on the genetic diversity of sugar maple was recent and no evidence of genetic erosion was detectable in Québec stands after one harvest. However, the cumulative effect of recurring applications of selection cutting in bottlenecked stands could lead to fixation of deleterious alleles, and this highlights the need for adopting better forest management practices. PMID:27330554
Barger, J.H. ); Roberts, B.R.; Schnipke, V.M.
1989-04-01
Two-yr-old seedlings of red maple (Acer rubrum L) were exposed to sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) pollution at concentrations of 0, 0.5, 2.0, and 4.0 ppm 8 hr daily for two 3-day periods spaced 3 days apart. Alterations in membrane permeability caused by SO{sub 2} stress were measured by electrolyte leakage of incubated leaf discs, and changes in ethylene biosynthesis were determined by gas chromatography using intact leaves. Ethylene increased 62% as SO{sub 2} concentration changed from 0 to 0.5 ppm, suggesting that ethylene may be a useful indicator for determining the onset of acute SO{sub 2} stress in maple. Membrane permeability was not as sensitive to the onset of SO{sub 2} stress but exhibited incremental changes associated with increasing levels of SO{sub 2}. These data suggest that membrane permeability may serve as a useful index for monitoring changes caused by SO{sub 2} at the cellular level.
MAPLE deposition of 3D micropatterned polymeric substrates for cell culture
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Paun, Irina Alexandra; Mihailescu, Mona; Calenic, Bogdan; Luculescu, Catalin Romeo; Greabu, Maria; Dinescu, Maria
2013-08-01
3D micropatterned poly(lactide-co-glycolide)/polyurethane (PLGA/PU) substrates were produced by MAPLE deposition through masks and used for regulating the behavior of oral keratinocyte stem cells in response to topography. Flat PLGA/PU substrates were produced for comparison. 3D imaging of the PLGA/PU substrates and of the cultured cells was performed by Digital Holographic Microscopy. The micropatterns were in the shape of squares of 50 × 50 and 80 × 80 μm2 areas, ~1.8 μm in height and separated by 20 μm wide channels. It was found that substrate topography guided the adhesion of the cultured cells: on the smooth substrates the cells adhered randomly and showed no preferred orientation; in contrast, on the micropatterned substrates the cells adhered preferentially onto the squares and not in the separating channels. Furthermore, key properties of the cells (size, viability, proliferation rate and stem cell marker expression) did not show any dependence on substrate topography. The size of the cultured cells, their viability, the proportions of actively/slow proliferating cells, as well as the stem cell markers expressions, were similar for both flat and micropatterned substrates. Finally, it was found that the cells cultured on the PLGA/PU substrates deposited by MAPLE exhibited similar properties as the controls (i.e. cells cultured on glass slides), indicating the capability of the former to preserve the properties of the keratinocyte stem cells.
Lagacé, L; Jacques, M; Mafu, A A; Roy, D
2006-10-01
The susceptibility of planktonic and biofilm cells of Pseudomonas marginalis toward four commonly used biocides at different temperatures (15 and 30 degrees C) and biofilm growth times (24 and 48 h) was assessed. Using the MBEC biofilm device, biofilm production in maple sap was shown to be highly reproducible for each set of conditions tested. Biofilm formation was influenced by growth temperature and time. A temperature of 15 degrees C and incubation time of 24 h yielded fewer CFU per peg and showed fewer adhered cells and typical biofilm structures, based on scanning electron microscopy observations as compared with other conditions. Minimal biofilm eradication concentration values for P. marginalis were significantly greater (P. < 0.001) than were MBCs for planktonic cells and for every biocide tested, with the exception of minimal biofilm eradication concentration values for peracetic acid at 15 degrees C and 24 h. Sodium hypochlorite and peracetic acid sanitizers were able to eliminate P. marginalis biofilms at lower concentrations as compared with hydrogen peroxide- and quaternary ammonium-based sanitizers (P < 0.001). According to the results obtained, sodium hypochlorite and peracetic acid sanitizers would be more appropriate for maple sap collection system sanitation. PMID:17066920
Variation and correlation of properties in different grades of maple syrup.
Singh, Amritpal S; Jones, A Maxwell P; Saxena, Praveen K
2014-03-01
Thirty five commercial maple syrups from twelve producers in Southern Ontario were evaluated for properties including light transmittance, autofluorescence, density, pH, total soluble solids (TSS), glucose and fructose content, total phenol content, antioxidant potential and mineral content (Mg, Mn, P, Zn, Ca, K, Fe and Pb). A high degree of variability was found in many characteristics, often exceeding an order of magnitude. Syrups were categorized based on light transmission at 560 nm into amber (12), dark (13) and very dark (10) using International Maple Syrup Institute (IMSI) guidelines. No statistical differences were found among grades of syrup for density, pH, TSS, glucose, fructose, total reducing sugars, glucose:fructose ratio, magnesium, manganese or potassium. Darker syrups showed significantly higher autofluorescence, total phenol content, antioxidant potential, phosphorous, calcium and total mineral content. Significant negative correlations of percent transmission with total phenol content, antioxidant potential and total mineral content are reported. Significant positive correlations among total phenol content, antioxidant potential and total mineral content are also described. The results from this study suggest that darker syrups tend to contain more beneficial traits and may be applied in developing functional foods and value added products. PMID:24408861
Maple Bark Biochar Affects Rhizoctonia solani Metabolism and Increases Damping-Off Severity.
Copley, Tanya R; Aliferis, Konstantinos A; Jabaji, Suha
2015-10-01
Many studies have investigated the effect of biochar on plant yield, nutrient uptake, and soil microbial populations; however, little work has been done on its effect on soilborne plant diseases. To determine the effect of maple bark biochar on Rhizoctonia damping-off, 11 plant species were grown in a soilless potting substrate amended with different concentrations of biochar and inoculated or not with Rhizoctonia solani anastomosis group 4. Additionally, the effect of biochar amendment on R. solani growth and metabolism in vitro was evaluated. Increasing concentrations of maple bark biochar increased Rhizoctonia damping-off of all 11 plant species. Using multivariate analyses, we observed positive correlations between biochar amendments, disease severity and incidence, abundance of culturable bacterial communities, and physicochemical parameters. Additionally, biochar amendment significantly increased R. solani growth and hyphal extension in vitro, and altered its primary metabolism, notably the mannitol and tricarboxylic acid cycles and the glycolysis pathway. One or several organic compounds present in the biochar, as identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis, may be metabolized by R. solani. Taken together, these results indicate that future studies on biochar should focus on the effect of its use as an amendment on soilborne plant pathogens before applying it to soils. PMID:25938176
Generalized Galilean algebras and Newtonian gravity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
González, N.; Rubio, G.; Salgado, P.; Salgado, S.
2016-04-01
The non-relativistic versions of the generalized Poincaré algebras and generalized AdS-Lorentz algebras are obtained. These non-relativistic algebras are called, generalized Galilean algebras of type I and type II and denoted by GBn and GLn respectively. Using a generalized Inönü-Wigner contraction procedure we find that the generalized Galilean algebras of type I can be obtained from the generalized Galilean algebras type II. The S-expansion procedure allows us to find the GB5 algebra from the Newton Hooke algebra with central extension. The procedure developed in Ref. [1] allows us to show that the nonrelativistic limit of the five dimensional Einstein-Chern-Simons gravity is given by a modified version of the Poisson equation. The modification could be compatible with the effects of Dark Matter, which leads us to think that Dark Matter can be interpreted as a non-relativistic limit of Dark Energy.
Computer Algebra Systems in Undergraduate Instruction.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Small, Don; And Others
1986-01-01
Computer algebra systems (such as MACSYMA and muMath) can carry out many of the operations of calculus, linear algebra, and differential equations. Use of them with sketching graphs of rational functions and with other topics is discussed. (MNS)
Motivating Activities that Lead to Algebra
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Menon, Ramakrishnan
2004-01-01
Four activities consisting of puzzles are introduced, which help students to recognize the strength of algebraic generalizations. They also assist them to comprehend algebraic concepts, and enable them to develop their individual puzzles and games.
Scalable Parallel Algebraic Multigrid Solvers
Bank, R; Lu, S; Tong, C; Vassilevski, P
2005-03-23
The authors propose a parallel algebraic multilevel algorithm (AMG), which has the novel feature that the subproblem residing in each processor is defined over the entire partition domain, although the vast majority of unknowns for each subproblem are associated with the partition owned by the corresponding processor. This feature ensures that a global coarse description of the problem is contained within each of the subproblems. The advantages of this approach are that interprocessor communication is minimized in the solution process while an optimal order of convergence rate is preserved; and the speed of local subproblem solvers can be maximized using the best existing sequential algebraic solvers.
Computational triadic algebras of signs
Zadrozny, W.
1996-12-31
We present a finite model of Peirce`s ten classes of signs. We briefly describe Peirce`s taxonomy of signs; we prove that any finite collection of signs can be extended to a finite algebra of signs in which all interpretants are themselves being interpreted; and we argue that Peirce`s ten classes of signs can be defined using constraints on algebras of signs. The paper opens the possibility of defining multimodal cognitive agents using Peirce`s classes of signs, and is a first step towards building a computational logic of signs based on Peirce`s taxonomies.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Star, Jon R.; Rittle-Johnson, Bethany
2009-01-01
Competence in algebra is increasingly recognized as a critical milestone in students' middle and high school years. The transition from arithmetic to algebra is a notoriously difficult one, and improvements in algebra instruction are greatly needed (National Research Council, 2001). Algebra historically has represented students' first sustained…
Spatial-Operator Algebra For Robotic Manipulators
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Rodriguez, Guillermo; Kreutz, Kenneth K.; Milman, Mark H.
1991-01-01
Report discusses spatial-operator algebra developed in recent studies of mathematical modeling, control, and design of trajectories of robotic manipulators. Provides succinct representation of mathematically complicated interactions among multiple joints and links of manipulator, thereby relieving analyst of most of tedium of detailed algebraic manipulations. Presents analytical formulation of spatial-operator algebra, describes some specific applications, summarizes current research, and discusses implementation of spatial-operator algebra in the Ada programming language.
The weak Hopf algebras related to generalized Kac-Moody algebra
Wu Zhixiang
2006-06-15
We define a kind of quantized enveloping algebra of a generalized Kac-Moody algebra G by adding a generator J satisfying J{sup m}=J{sup m-1} for some integer m. We denote this algebra by wU{sub q}{sup {tau}}(G). This algebra is a weak Hopf algebra if and only if m=2. In general, it is a bialgebra, and contains a Hopf subalgebra. This Hopf subalgebra is isomorphic to the usually quantum envelope algebra U{sub q}(G) of a generalized Kac-Moody algebra G.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Stilwell, E. J.
1985-01-01
Most of the key areas of concern in packaging the three principle food forms for the space station were covered. It can be generally concluded that there are no significant voids in packaging materials availability or in current packaging technology. However, it must also be concluded that the process by which packaging decisions are made for the space station feeding program will be very synergistic. Packaging selection will depend heavily on the preparation mechanics, the preferred presentation and the achievable disposal systems. It will be important that packaging be considered as an integral part of each decision as these systems are developed.
Waste Package Lifting Calculation
H. Marr
2000-05-11
The objective of this calculation is to evaluate the structural response of the waste package during the horizontal and vertical lifting operations in order to support the waste package lifting feature design. The scope of this calculation includes the evaluation of the 21 PWR UCF (pressurized water reactor uncanistered fuel) waste package, naval waste package, 5 DHLW/DOE SNF (defense high-level waste/Department of Energy spent nuclear fuel)--short waste package, and 44 BWR (boiling water reactor) UCF waste package. Procedure AP-3.12Q, Revision 0, ICN 0, calculations, is used to develop and document this calculation.
Algebra? A Gate! A Barrier! A Mystery!
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Mathematics Educatio Dialogues, 2000
2000-01-01
This issue of Mathematics Education Dialogues focuses on the nature and the role of algebra in the K-14 curriculum. Articles on this theme include: (1) "Algebra For All? Why?" (Nel Noddings); (2) "Algebra For All: It's a Matter of Equity, Expectations, and Effectiveness" (Dorothy S. Strong and Nell B. Cobb); (3) "Don't Delay: Build and Talk about…
UCSMP Algebra. What Works Clearinghouse Intervention Report
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
What Works Clearinghouse, 2007
2007-01-01
"University of Chicago School Mathematics Project (UCSMP) Algebra," designed to increase students' skills in algebra, is appropriate for students in grades 7-10, depending on the students' incoming knowledge. This one-year course highlights applications, uses statistics and geometry to develop the algebra of linear equations and inequalities, and…
Graphing Calculator Use in Algebra Teaching
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Dewey, Brenda L.; Singletary, Ted J.; Kinzel, Margaret T.
2009-01-01
This study examines graphing calculator technology availability, characteristics of teachers who use it, teacher attitudes, and how use reflects changes to algebra curriculum and instructional practices. Algebra I and Algebra II teachers in 75 high school and junior high/middle schools in a diverse region of a northwestern state were surveyed.…
New family of Maxwell like algebras
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Concha, P. K.; Durka, R.; Merino, N.; Rodríguez, E. K.
2016-08-01
We introduce an alternative way of closing Maxwell like algebras. We show, through a suitable change of basis, that resulting algebras are given by the direct sums of the AdS and the Maxwell algebras already known in the literature. Casting the result into the S-expansion method framework ensures the straightaway construction of the gravity theories based on a found enlargement.
Build an Early Foundation for Algebra Success
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Knuth, Eric; Stephens, Ana; Blanton, Maria; Gardiner, Angela
2016-01-01
Research tells us that success in algebra is a factor in many other important student outcomes. Emerging research also suggests that students who are started on an algebra curriculum in the earlier grades may have greater success in the subject in secondary school. What's needed is a consistent, algebra-infused mathematics curriculum all…
A Balancing Act: Making Sense of Algebra
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Gavin, M. Katherine; Sheffield, Linda Jensen
2015-01-01
For most students, algebra seems like a totally different subject than the number topics they studied in elementary school. In reality, the procedures followed in arithmetic are actually based on the properties and laws of algebra. Algebra should be a logical next step for students in extending the proficiencies they developed with number topics…
Difficulties in Initial Algebra Learning in Indonesia
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Jupri, Al; Drijvers, Paul; van den Heuvel-Panhuizen, Marja
2014-01-01
Within mathematics curricula, algebra has been widely recognized as one of the most difficult topics, which leads to learning difficulties worldwide. In Indonesia, algebra performance is an important issue. In the Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS) 2007, Indonesian students' achievement in the algebra domain was…
Teaching Strategies to Improve Algebra Learning
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Zbiek, Rose Mary; Larson, Matthew R.
2015-01-01
Improving student learning is the primary goal of every teacher of algebra. Teachers seek strategies to help all students learn important algebra content and develop mathematical practices. The new Institute of Education Sciences[IES] practice guide, "Teaching Strategies for Improving Algebra Knowledge in Middle and High School Students"…
Lessons for Algebraic Thinking. Grades K-2.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
von Rotz, Leyani; Burns, Marilyn
Algebra is one of the top priorities of mathematics instruction for the elementary and middle grades. This book is designed to help K-2 teachers meet the challenge of making algebra an integral part of their mathematics instruction and realize both what to teach and how to teach central algebraic concepts. Classroom-tested lessons help teachers…
Unifying the Algebra for All Movement
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Eddy, Colleen M.; Quebec Fuentes, Sarah; Ward, Elizabeth K.; Parker, Yolanda A.; Cooper, Sandi; Jasper, William A.; Mallam, Winifred A.; Sorto, M. Alejandra; Wilkerson, Trena L.
2015-01-01
There exists an increased focus on school mathematics, especially first-year algebra, due to recent efforts for all students to be college and career ready. In addition, there are calls, policies, and legislation advocating for all students to study algebra epitomized by four rationales of the "Algebra for All" movement. In light of this…
Acute O3 damage on first year coppice sprouts of aspen and maple sprouts in an open-air experiment
Darbah, J.N.; Nagy, J.; Jones, W. S.; Burton, A. J.; Kubiske, M. E.
2011-10-01
We studied the effect of high ozone (O{sub 3}) concentration (110-490 nmol mol{sup -1}) on regenerating aspen (Populus tremuloides) and maple (Acer saccharum) trees at an open-air O{sub 3} pollution experiment near Rhinelander WI USA. This study is the first of its kind to examine the effects of acute O{sub 3} exposure on aspen and maple sprouts after the parent trees, which were grown under elevated O{sub 3} and/or CO{sub 2} for 12 years, were harvested. Acute O{sub 3} damage was not uniform within the crowns of aspen suckers; it was most severe in the mature, fully expanded photosynthesizing leaves. Young expanding leaves showed no visible signs of acute O{sub 3} damage contrary to expectations. Stomatal conductance played a primary role in the severity of acute O{sub 3} damage as it directly controlled O{sub 3} uptake. Maple sprouts, which had lower stomatal conductance, smaller stomatal aperture, higher stomatal density and larger leaf surface area, were tolerant of acute O{sub 3} exposure. Moreover, elevated CO{sub 2} did not ameliorate the adverse effects of acute O{sub 3} dose on aspen and maple sprouts, in contrast to its ability to counteract the effects of long-term chronic exposure to lower O{sub 3} levels.
Very low roughness MAPLE-deposited films of a light emitting polymer: an alternative to spin coating
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Caricato, A. P.; Cesaria, M.; Leo, C.; Mazzeo, M.; Genco, A.; Carallo, S.; Tunno, T.; Massafra, A.; Gigli, G.; Martino, M.
2015-04-01
The matrix assisted pulsed laser evaporation (MAPLE) technique is emerging as an alternative route to conventional deposition methods of organic materials (solution-phase and thermal evaporation approaches). However, the high surface roughness of the films deposited by MAPLE makes this technique not compatible with applications in electronics and photonics. In this paper we report the deposition of MAPLE-films of a green light emitting polymer, commercially named ADS125GE, with remarkable low roughness values, down to about 10 nm at the thickness conventionally used in photonic devices (~40 nm). This issue is discussed as a function of polymer concentration, target-substrate distance and substrate rotation based on AFM topography images, roughness estimation and optical (absorption and luminescent) measurements. In addition we have fabricated an organic light emitting diode with this technique using the best deposition parameters which guarantee the lowest roughness. These results open the way to MAPLE applications in organic photonics and opto-electronics.
Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)
Plant response to blue, red, gray or black shade cloth was evaluated with willow oak (Quercus phellos L.), Nuttall oak (Quercus nuttallii Palmer, Nuttall) and Summer Red maple (Acer rubrum L. ‘Summer Red’) liners. Light transmitted through the colored shade cloth had no influence on germination of ...
Weaving Geometry and Algebra Together
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Cetner, Michelle
2015-01-01
When thinking about student reasoning and sense making, teachers must consider the nature of tasks given to students along with how to plan to use the tasks in the classroom. Students should be presented with tasks in a way that encourages them to draw connections between algebraic and geometric concepts. This article focuses on the idea that it…
Inequalities, Assessment and Computer Algebra
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Sangwin, Christopher J.
2015-01-01
The goal of this paper is to examine single variable real inequalities that arise as tutorial problems and to examine the extent to which current computer algebra systems (CAS) can (1) automatically solve such problems and (2) determine whether students' own answers to such problems are correct. We review how inequalities arise in…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Bosse, Michael J.; Ries, Heather; Chandler, Kayla
2012-01-01
Secondary school mathematics teachers often need to answer the "Why do we do that?" question in such a way that avoids confusion and evokes student interest. Understanding the properties of number systems can provide an avenue to better grasp algebraic structures, which in turn builds students' conceptual knowledge of secondary mathematics. This…
Implementing Change in College Algebra
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Haver, William E.
2007-01-01
In this paper, departments are urged to consider implementing the type of changes proposed in Beyond Crossroads in College Algebra. The author of this paper is chair of the Curriculum Renewal Across the First Two Years (CRAFTY) Committee of the Mathematical Association of America. The committee has members from two-year colleges, four-year…
Algebraic Activities Aid Discovery Lessons
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Wallace-Gomez, Patricia
2013-01-01
After a unit on the rules for positive and negative numbers and the order of operations for evaluating algebraic expressions, many students believe that they understand these principles well enough, but they really do not. They clearly need more practice, but not more of the same kind of drill. Wallace-Gomez provides three graphing activities that…
Fuzzy-algebra uncertainty assessment
Cooper, J.A.; Cooper, D.K.
1994-12-01
A significant number of analytical problems (for example, abnormal-environment safety analysis) depend on data that are partly or mostly subjective. Since fuzzy algebra depends on subjective operands, we have been investigating its applicability to these forms of assessment, particularly for portraying uncertainty in the results of PRA (probabilistic risk analysis) and in risk-analysis-aided decision-making. Since analysis results can be a major contributor to a safety-measure decision process, risk management depends on relating uncertainty to only known (not assumed) information. The uncertainties due to abnormal environments are even more challenging than those in normal-environment safety assessments; and therefore require an even more judicious approach. Fuzzy algebra matches these requirements well. One of the most useful aspects of this work is that we have shown the potential for significant differences (especially in perceived margin relative to a decision threshold) between fuzzy assessment and probabilistic assessment based on subtle factors inherent in the choice of probability distribution models. We have also shown the relation of fuzzy algebra assessment to ``bounds`` analysis, as well as a description of how analyses can migrate from bounds analysis to fuzzy-algebra analysis, and to probabilistic analysis as information about the process to be analyzed is obtained. Instructive examples are used to illustrate the points.
Entropy algebras and Birkhoff factorization
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Marcolli, Matilde; Tedeschi, Nicolas
2015-11-01
We develop notions of Rota-Baxter structures and associated Birkhoff factorizations, in the context of min-plus semirings and their thermodynamic deformations, including deformations arising from quantum information measures such as the von Neumann entropy. We consider examples related to Manin's renormalization and computation program, to Markov random fields and to counting functions and zeta functions of algebraic varieties.
Algebra for All. Research Brief
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Bleyaert, Barbara
2009-01-01
The call for "algebra for all" is not a recent phenomenon. Concerns about the inadequacy of math (and science) preparation in America's high schools have been a steady drumbeat since the 1957 launch of Sputnik; a call for raising standards and the number of math (and science) courses required for graduation has been a part of countless national…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Oishi, Lindsay
2011-01-01
"Solve for x." While many people first encountered this enigmatic instruction in high school, the last 20 years have seen a strong push to get students to take algebra in eighth grade or even before. Today, concerns about the economy highlight a familiar worry: American eighth-graders trailed their peers in five Asian countries on the 2007 TIMSS…
Exploring Algebraic Misconceptions with Technology
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Sakow, Matthew; Karaman, Ruveyda
2015-01-01
Many students struggle with algebra, from simplifying expressions to solving systems of equations. Students also have misconceptions about the meaning of variables. In response to the question "Can x + y + z ever equal x + p + z?" during a student interview, the student claimed, "Never . . . because p has to have a different value…
An Introduction to Algebraic Multigrid
Falgout, R D
2006-04-25
Algebraic multigrid (AMG) solves linear systems based on multigrid principles, but in a way that only depends on the coefficients in the underlying matrix. The author begins with a basic introduction to AMG methods, and then describes some more recent advances and theoretical developments
Elementary Algebra Connections to Precalculus
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Lopez-Boada, Roberto; Daire, Sandra Arguelles
2013-01-01
This article examines the attitudes of some precalculus students to solve trigonometric and logarithmic equations and systems using the concepts of elementary algebra. With the goal of enticing the students to search for and use connections among mathematical topics, they are asked to solve equations or systems specifically designed to allow…
Adventures in Flipping College Algebra
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Van Sickle, Jenna
2015-01-01
This paper outlines the experience of a university professor who implemented flipped learning in two sections of college algebra courses for two semesters. It details how the courses were flipped, what technology was used, advantages, challenges, and results. It explains what students do outside of class, what they do inside class, and discusses…
Kinds of Knowledge in Algebra.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Lewis, Clayton
Solving equations in elementary algebra requires knowledge of the permitted operations, and knowledge of what operation to use at a given point in the solution process. While just these kinds of knowledge would be adequate for an ideal solver, human solvers appear to need and use other kinds of knowledge. First, many errors seem to indicate that…
Algebra, Home Mortgages, and Recessions
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Mariner, Jean A. Miller; Miller, Richard A.
2009-01-01
The current financial crisis and recession in the United States present an opportunity to discuss relevant applications of some topics in typical first-and second-year algebra and precalculus courses. Real-world applications of percent change, exponential functions, and sums of finite geometric sequences can help students understand the problems…
Algebra from Chips and Chopsticks
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Yun, Jeong Oak; Flores, Alfinio
2012-01-01
Students can use geometric representations of numbers as a way to explore algebraic ideas. With the help of these representations, students can think about the relations among the numbers, express them using their own words, and represent them with letters. The activities discussed here can stimulate students to try to find various ways of solving…
Celestial mechanics with geometric algebra
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hestenes, D.
1983-01-01
Geometric algebra is introduced as a general tool for Celestial Mechanics. A general method for handling finite rotations and rotational kinematics is presented. The constants of Kepler motion are derived and manipulated in a new way. A new spinor formulation of perturbation theory is developed.
Algebraic methods in system theory
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Brockett, R. W.; Willems, J. C.; Willsky, A. S.
1975-01-01
Investigations on problems of the type which arise in the control of switched electrical networks are reported. The main results concern the algebraic structure and stochastic aspects of these systems. Future reports will contain more detailed applications of these results to engineering studies.
Principals + Algebra (- Fear) = Instructional Leadership
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Carver, Cynthia L.
2010-01-01
Recent state legislation in Michigan mandates that all graduating seniors successfully pass algebra I and II. Numerous initiatives have been enacted to help mathematics teachers meet this challenge, yet school principals have had little preparation for the necessary curricular and instructional changes. To address this unmet need, university-based…
Experts Question California's Algebra Edict
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Cavanagh, Sean
2008-01-01
Business leaders from important sectors of the American economy have been urging schools to set higher standards in math and science--and California officials, in mandating that 8th graders be tested in introductory algebra, have responded with one of the highest such standards in the land. Still, many California educators and school…
CH Packaging Operations Manual
Washington TRU Solutions LLC
2005-06-13
This procedure provides instructions for assembling the CH Packaging Drum payload assembly, Standard Waste Box (SWB) assembly, Abnormal Operations and ICV and OCV Preshipment Leakage Rate Tests on the packaging seals, using a nondestructive Helium (He) Leak Test.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Perchonok, Michele; Antonini, David
2008-01-01
This viewgraph presentation describes a comparative packaging study for use on long duration space missions. The topics include: 1) Purpose; 2) Deliverables; 3) Food Sample Selection; 4) Experimental Design Matrix; 5) Permeation Rate Comparison; and 6) Packaging Material Information.
Hartmann, Henrik; Messier, Christian
2008-01-01
Background and Aims Natural and anthropogenic disturbances can act as stresses on tree vigour. According to Manion's conceptual model of tree disease, the initial vigour of trees decreases as a result of predisposing factors that render these trees more vulnerable to severe inciting stresses, stresses that can then cause final vigour decline and subsequent tree death. This tree disease model was tested in sugar maple (Acer saccharum) by assessing the roles of natural and anthropogenic disturbances in tree decline and death. Methods Radial growth data from 377 sugar maple trees that had undergone both defoliations by insects and partial harvest were used to estimate longitudinal survival probabilities as a proxy for tree vigour. Radial growth rates and survival probabilities were compared among trees subjected to different levels of above- and below-ground disturbances, between periods of defoliation and harvest, and between live and dead trees. Key Results Manion's tree disease model correctly accounts for vigour decline and tree death in sugar maple; tree growth and vigour were negatively affected by a first defoliation, predisposing these trees to death later during the study period due to a second insect outbreak that initiated a final vigour decline. This decline was accelerated by the partial harvest disturbance in 1993. Even the most severe anthropogenic disturbances from partial harvest did not cause, unlike insect defoliation, any growth or vigour declines in live sugar maple. Conclusions Natural disturbances acted as predisposing and inciting stresses in tree sugar maple decline and death. Anthropogenic disturbances from a partial harvest at worst accelerated a decline in trees that were already weakened by predisposing and inciting stresses (i.e. repeated insect defoliations). Favourable climatic conditions just before and after the partial harvest may have alleviated possible negative effects on growth resulting from harvesting. PMID:18660493
A Simple Interactive Software Package for Plotting, Animating, and Calculating
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Engelhardt, Larry
2012-10-01
We introduce a new open source (free) software package that provides a simple, highly interactive interface for carrying out certain mathematical tasks that are commonly encountered in physics. These tasks include plotting and animating functions, solving systems of coupled algebraic equations, and basic calculus (differentiating and integrating functions of a single variable). This package was created using Easy Java Simulations (Ejs), so we will refer to it simply as Ejs-Math. It can be downloaded from the Open Source Physics collection of the comPADRE digital library.2
The Exocenter of a Generalized Effect Algebra
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Foulis, David J.; Pulmannová, Sylvia
2011-12-01
Elements of the exocenter of a generalized effect algebra (GEA) correspond to decompositions of the GEA as a direct sum and thus the exocenter is a generalization to GEAs of the center of an effect algebra. The exocenter of a GEA is shown to be a boolean algebra, and the notion of a hull mapping for an effect algebra is generalized to a hull system for a GEA. We study Dedekind orthocompleteness of GEAs and extend to GEAs the notion of a centrally orthocomplete effect algebra.
Array algebra estimation in signal processing
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rauhala, U. A.
A general theory of linear estimators called array algebra estimation is interpreted in some terms of multidimensional digital signal processing, mathematical statistics, and numerical analysis. The theory has emerged during the past decade from the new field of a unified vector, matrix and tensor algebra called array algebra. The broad concepts of array algebra and its estimation theory cover several modern computerized sciences and technologies converting their established notations and terminology into one common language. Some concepts of digital signal processing are adopted into this language after a review of the principles of array algebra estimation and its predecessors in mathematical surveying sciences.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rybkin, Grigory
2012-12-01
Software packaging is indispensable part of build and prerequisite for deployment processes. Full ATLAS software stack consists of TDAQ, HLT, and Offline software. These software groups depend on some 80 external software packages. We present tools, package PackDist, developed and used to package all this software except for TDAQ project. PackDist is based on and driven by CMT, ATLAS software configuration and build tool, and consists of shell and Python scripts. The packaging unit used is CMT project. Each CMT project is packaged as several packages—platform dependent (one per platform available), source code excluding header files, other platform independent files, documentation, and debug information packages (the last two being built optionally). Packaging can be done recursively to package all the dependencies. The whole set of packages for one software release, distribution kit, also includes configuration packages and contains some 120 packages for one platform. Also packaged are physics analysis projects (currently 6) used by particular physics groups on top of the full release. The tools provide an installation test for the full distribution kit. Packaging is done in two formats for use with the Pacman and RPM package managers. The tools are functional on the platforms supported by ATLAS—GNU/Linux and Mac OS X. The packaged software is used for software deployment on all ATLAS computing resources from the detector and trigger computing farms, collaboration laboratories computing centres, grid sites, to physicist laptops, and CERN VMFS and covers the use cases of running all applications as well as of software development.
Modular avionics packaging standardization
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Austin, M.; McNichols, J. K.
The Modular Avionics Packaging (MAP) Program for packaging future military avionics systems with the objective of improving reliability, maintainability, and supportability, and reducing equipment life cycle costs is addressed. The basic MAP packaging concepts called the Standard Avionics Module, the Standard Enclosure, and the Integrated Rack are summarized, and the benefits of modular avionics packaging, including low risk design, technology independence with common functions, improved maintainability and life cycle costs are discussed. Progress made in MAP is briefly reviewed.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Ott, Dana B.
1988-01-01
This article discusses developments in food packaging, processing, and preservation techniques in terms of packaging materials, technologies, consumer benefits, and current and potential food product applications. Covers implications due to consumer life-style changes, cost-effectiveness of packaging materials, and the ecological impact of…
Packaging of electronic modules
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Katzin, L.
1966-01-01
Study of design approaches that are taken toward optimizing the packaging of electronic modules with respect to size, shape, component orientation, interconnections, and structural support. The study does not present a solution to specific packaging problems, but rather the factors to be considered to achieve optimum packaging designs.
Filiform Lie algebras of order 3
Navarro, R. M.
2014-04-15
The aim of this work is to generalize a very important type of Lie algebras and superalgebras, i.e., filiform Lie (super)algebras, into the theory of Lie algebras of order F. Thus, the concept of filiform Lie algebras of order F is obtained. In particular, for F = 3 it has been proved that by using infinitesimal deformations of the associated model elementary Lie algebra it can be obtained families of filiform elementary lie algebras of order 3, analogously as that occurs into the theory of Lie algebras [M. Vergne, “Cohomologie des algèbres de Lie nilpotentes. Application à l’étude de la variété des algèbres de Lie nilpotentes,” Bull. Soc. Math. France 98, 81–116 (1970)]. Also we give the dimension, using an adaptation of the sl(2,C)-module Method, and a basis of such infinitesimal deformations in some generic cases.
Atomic effect algebras with compression bases
Caragheorgheopol, Dan; Tkadlec, Josef
2011-01-15
Compression base effect algebras were recently introduced by Gudder [Demonstr. Math. 39, 43 (2006)]. They generalize sequential effect algebras [Rep. Math. Phys. 49, 87 (2002)] and compressible effect algebras [Rep. Math. Phys. 54, 93 (2004)]. The present paper focuses on atomic compression base effect algebras and the consequences of atoms being foci (so-called projections) of the compressions in the compression base. Part of our work generalizes results obtained in atomic sequential effect algebras by Tkadlec [Int. J. Theor. Phys. 47, 185 (2008)]. The notion of projection-atomicity is introduced and studied, and several conditions that force a compression base effect algebra or the set of its projections to be Boolean are found. Finally, we apply some of these results to sequential effect algebras and strengthen a previously established result concerning a sufficient condition for them to be Boolean.
Atomic effect algebras with compression bases
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Caragheorgheopol, Dan; Tkadlec, Josef
2011-01-01
Compression base effect algebras were recently introduced by Gudder [Demonstr. Math. 39, 43 (2006)]. They generalize sequential effect algebras [Rep. Math. Phys. 49, 87 (2002)] and compressible effect algebras [Rep. Math. Phys. 54, 93 (2004)]. The present paper focuses on atomic compression base effect algebras and the consequences of atoms being foci (so-called projections) of the compressions in the compression base. Part of our work generalizes results obtained in atomic sequential effect algebras by Tkadlec [Int. J. Theor. Phys. 47, 185 (2008)]. The notion of projection-atomicity is introduced and studied, and several conditions that force a compression base effect algebra or the set of its projections to be Boolean are found. Finally, we apply some of these results to sequential effect algebras and strengthen a previously established result concerning a sufficient condition for them to be Boolean.
MAPLE preparation and characterization of mixed arylenevinylene based oligomers:C60 layers
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Stanculescu, A.; Socol, G.; Vacareanu, L.; Socol, M.; Rasoga, O.; Breazu, C.; Girtan, M.; Stanculescu, F.
2016-06-01
This paper presents some studies about the preparation by matrix-assisted pulsed laser evaporation (MAPLE) of mixed layers based on two arylenevinylene oligomers, 1,4-bis [4-(N,N‧-diphenylamino)phenylvinyl] benzene (L78) and 3,3‧-bis(N-hexylcarbazole)vinylbenzene (L13) as donor and buckminsterfullerene (C60) as acceptor, blended in three different weight ratios: 1:1, 1:2 and 1:3. The optical, morphological, structural and electrical properties of these mixed layers have been investigated emphasizing the effect of the layer composition and of the significant degree of disorder. I-V characteristics have revealed typically solar cell behaviour for the heterostructures prepared with mixed layers containing L78 (L13) and fullerene blended in a weight ratio of 1:2. The solar cell structure glass/ITO/L13:C60/Al has shown the best parameters.
Imaging findings of anaplastic astrocytoma in a child with maple syrup urine disease: a case report.
Aw-Zoretic, Jessie; Wadhwani, Nitin R; Lulla, Rishi R; Rishi, Lulla R; Ryan, Maura E
2015-09-01
Maple syrup urine disease (MSUD) is an inborn error of branched-chain amino acid metabolism, which usually presents in childhood with encephalopathy due to cerebral edema and dysmyelination. Even with treatment, metabolic stressors may precipitate later episodes of acute decompensation. Changes related to cerebral and white matter edema have been described by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and imaging can aid in both initial diagnosis and evaluation of decompensation. To date, there are no published known reports of cancer in patients with MSUD. Here, we present the first case report of an anaplastic astrocytoma in a teenager with MSUD, with a discussion of imaging findings and the use of magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) to help distinguish between tumor and metabolic changes. PMID:26084772
Two consecutive partial liver transplants in a patient with Classic Maple Syrup Urine Disease.
Chin, H L; Aw, M M; Quak, S H; Huang, J; Hart, C E; Prabhakaran, K; Goh, D L
2015-09-01
Maple syrup urine disease is caused by a deficiency in the branched chain ketoacid dehydrogenase (BCKAD) complex. This results in the accumulation of branched chain amino acids (BCAA) and branched chain ketoacids in the body. Even when aggressively treated with dietary restriction of BCAA, patients experience long term cognitive, neurological and psychosocial problems. Liver transplantation from deceased donors has been shown to be an effective modality in introducing adequate BCKAD activity, attaining a metabolic cure for patients. Here, we report the clinical course of the first known patient with classic MSUD who received two consecutive partial liver grafts from two different living non-carrier donors and his five year outcome posttransplant. We also show that despite the failure of the first liver graft, and initial acute cellular rejection of the second liver graft in our patient, his metabolic control remained good without metabolic decompensation. PMID:26937410
[GENETIC AND METABOLIC URGENCIES IN THE NEONATAL INTENSIVE CARE UNIT: MAPLE SYRUP URINE DISEASE].
Páez Rojas, Paola Liliana; Suarez Obando, Fernando
2015-01-01
Maple syrup urine disease (MSUD) is a hereditary disorder of branched chain amino/keto acid metabolism, caused by a decreased activity of the branched-chain alpha- ketoacid dehydrogenase complex (BCKAD), which leads to abnormal elevated plasma concentrations of branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs) clinically manifested as a heavy burden for Central Nervous system. The toxic accumulation of substrates promotes the development of a severe and rapidly progressive neonatal encephalopathy if treatment is not immediately given. This disorder has a specific medical management in acute phase in order to minimize mortality and morbidity. For all those reasons, it is important to include the MSUD as a possible diagnosis in a encephalopathic newborn. We present a colombian newborn with classical MSUD with fatal outcome as an example of metabolic emergency and a differential diagnosis in the encephalopathic newborn. PMID:26262748
[Maples at the sub-Alpine vegetation belt: a long history].
David, F; Barbero, M
2001-02-01
Pollen analysis was carried out on lacustrine sediment of a small hollow (15 m x 25 m) at the treeless sub-Alpine belt (202 m) of the inner Maurienne valley in the northern French Alps. A 2,500-year-long maple settlement was demonstrared. Three AMS dates of terrestrial plant macroremains support the chronology. First, Betula and Salix spread prior to 9,000 C14 BP. The first pollen grains of Acer, Abies and Pinus cembra are quoted at 8,600 C14 BP. High frequencies of Alnus glutinosa/incana (20%) and Acer (10%) show that mixed communities of Acer and Alnus persisted above the mountainous Abies forest between 7,490 and 5,850 C14 BP. After 5,850 C14 BP, the decrease in Acer stands could be attributed to fire as suggested by the strong increase in Betula and by the delayed expansion of Pinus cembra. PMID:11280048
[Lists of food exchanges for use in phenylketonuria and maple-syrup urine disease].
Jiménez Soto, Z
1993-09-01
Phenylketonuria (PKU) and maple syrup urine disease (MSUD) are disorders of the amino acid metabolism. Treatment of PKU and MSUD, is based on the restriction of the involved amino acids. Diet must begin very early in life in order to prevent neurological sequelae. A wrong dietary produce central nervous system damage. The first clinical manifestations are unexplained failure to thrive, vomiting, feeding difficulties, lethargy, coma, acidosis and irritability. The most severe consequence is impaired mental development. The standard exchange foods list (EFL) used in outpatient clinics, is designed for developed countries, and contains foods that are not available in our countries. Therefore, we provide in this article a EFL, based on food that are frequently used in Central America, with data of existing food composition tables. This list is currently being used by the Costa Rica national Children's Hospital Metabolic Disease Unit. PMID:8779622
Beardmore, T; Whittle, C-A
2005-08-01
Twenty percent of of the world's flowering plants produce recalcitrant seeds (i.e., seeds that cannot withstand drying or freezing). We investigated whether the embryonic axis from the normally recalcitrant seeds of silver maple (Acer saccharinum L.) can be made tolerant to desiccation (10% water content) and low temperature (-196 degrees C, cryopreservation) by pretreatment with ABA or the compound tetcyclacis, which enhances endogenous ABA concentrations. Pretreatment of axes with both ABA and tetcyclacis increased germination after desiccation and freezing to 55% from a control value of zero. Pretreatment of axes with ABA and tetcyclacis increased the ABA content of the axes, as measured by enzyme-linked immunoassay, and stimulated the synthesis of storage and dehydrin-like proteins, believed to have a role in the desiccation tolerance of orthodox seeds. PMID:15929927
Analysis of higher order optical aberrations in the SLC final focus using Lie Algebra techniques
Walker, N.J.; Irwin, J.; Woodley, M.
1993-04-01
The SLC final focus system is designed to have an overall demagnification of 30:1, with a {beta} at the interaction point ({beta}*) of 5 mm, and an energy band pass of {approximately}0.4%. Strong sextupole pairs are used to cancel the large chromaticity which accrues primarily from the final triplet. Third-order aberrations limit the performance of the system, the dominating terms being U{sub 1266} and U{sub 3466} terms (in the notation of K. Brown). Using Lie Algebra techniques, it is possible to analytically calculate the soave of these terms in addition to understanding their origin. Analytical calculations (using Lie Algebra packages developed in the Mathematica language) are presented of the bandwidth and minimum spot size as a function of divergence at the interaction point (IP). Comparisons of the analytical results from the Lie Algebra maps and results from particle tracking (TURTLE) are also presented.
Symbolic Algebra Development for Higher-Order Electron Propagator Formulation and Implementation.
Tamayo-Mendoza, Teresa; Flores-Moreno, Roberto
2014-06-10
Through the use of symbolic algebra, implemented in a program, the algebraic expression of the elements of the self-energy matrix for the electron propagator to different orders were obtained. In addition, a module for the software package Lowdin was automatically generated. Second- and third-order electron propagator results have been calculated to test the correct operation of the program. It was found that the Fortran 90 modules obtained automatically with our algorithm succeeded in calculating ionization energies with the second- and third-order electron propagator in the diagonal approximation. The strategy for the development of this symbolic algebra program is described in detail. This represents a solid starting point for the automatic derivation and implementation of higher-order electron propagator methods. PMID:26580756
Biomedical properties and preparation of iron oxide-dextran nanostructures by MAPLE technique
2012-01-01
Background In this work the chemical structure of dextran-iron oxide thin films was reported. The films were obtained by MAPLE technique from composite targets containing 10 wt. % dextran with 1 and 5 wt.% iron oxide nanoparticles (IONPs). The IONPs were synthesized by co-precipitation method. A KrF* excimer laser source (λ = 248 nm, τFWHM≅25 ns, ν = 10 Hz) was used for the growth of the hybrid, iron oxide NPs-dextran thin films. Results Dextran coated iron oxide nanoparticles thin films were indexed into the spinel cubic lattice with a lattice parameter of 8.36 Å. The particle sized calculated was estimated at around 7.7 nm. The XPS shows that the binding energy of the Fe 2p3/2 of two thin films of dextran coated iron oxide is consistent with Fe3+ oxides. The atomic percentage of the C, O and Fe are 66.71, 32.76 and 0.53 for the films deposited from composite targets containing 1 wt.% maghemite and 64.36, 33.92 and 1.72 respectively for the films deposited from composite targets containing 5 wt.% maghemite. In the case of cells cultivated on dextran coated 5% maghemite γ-Fe2O3, the number of cells and the level of F-actin were lower compared to the other two types of thin films and control. Conclusions The dextran-iron oxide continuous thin films obtained by MAPLE technique from composite targets containing 10 wt.% dextran as well as 1 and 5 wt.% iron oxide nanoparticles synthesized by co-precipitation method presented granular surface morphology. Our data proved a good viability of Hep G2 cells grown on dextran coated maghemite thin films. Also, no changes in cells morphology were noticed under phase contrast microscopy. The data strongly suggest the potential use of iron oxide-dextran nanocomposites as a potential marker for biomedical applications. PMID:22410001
Technetium-99 cycling in maple trees: Characterization of changes in chemical form
Garten, C.T. Jr.; Lomax, R.D. )
1989-08-01
Prior field studies near an old radioactive waste disposal site at Oak Ridge, TN, indicated that following root uptake, metabolism by deciduous trees rendered 99Tc less biogeochemically mobile than expected, based on chemistry of the pertechnetate (TcO-4) anion. Subsequently, the form of technetium (Tc) in maple tree (Acer sp.) sap, leaves, wood and forest leaf litter was characterized using one or more of the following methods: dialysis, physical fractionation, chemical extraction, gel permeation chromatography, enzymatic extraction, or thin layer chromatography (TLC) on silica gel. Chromatography (Sephadex G-25) of TcO-4 incubated in vitro with tree sap showed it to behave similar to TcO-4 anion. When labeled wood and leaf tissues were processed using a tissue homogenizer, 15% and 40%, respectively, of the Tc was solubilized into phosphate buffer. Most (65% to 80%) of the solubilized Tc passing a 0.45-micron filter also passed through an ultrafiltration membrane with a nominal molecular weight cutoff of 10,000 atomic mass units (amu). A majority (72% to 80%) of the Tc in wood could be chemically removed by successive extractions with ethanol, water and weak mineral acid. These same extractants removed only 23% to 31% of the Tc from maple leaves or forest floor leaf litter. Most of the Tc in leaves and leaf litter was removed only by strongly alkaline reagents typically used to release structural polysaccharides (hemicelluloses) from plant tissues. Chromatography (Sephadex G-25) of the ethanol-water extract from wood and the alkaline extract from leaves demonstrated that Tc in these extracts was not principally TcO-4 but was complexed with molecules greater than 1000 amu. Incubations of leaf and wood homogenates with protease approximately doubled the amount of Tc released from contaminated tissues.
Hecke-Clifford Algebras and Spin Hecke Algebras IV: Odd Double Affine Type
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Khongsap, Ta; Wang, Weiqiang
2009-01-01
We introduce an odd double affine Hecke algebra (DaHa) generated by a classical Weyl group W and two skew-polynomial subalgebras of anticommuting generators. This algebra is shown to be Morita equivalent to another new DaHa which are generated by W and two polynomial-Clifford subalgebras. There is yet a third algebra containing a spin Weyl group algebra which is Morita (super)equivalent to the above two algebras. We establish the PBW properties and construct Verma-type representations via Dunkl operators for these algebras.
2003-06-03
The ALGEBRA II program allows the user to manipulate data from a finite element analysis before it is plotted by evaluating algebraic expressions. The equation variables are dependent on the input database variable names. The finite element output data is in the form of variable values (e.g., stress, strain, and velocity components) in an EXODUS II database which can be read by plot programs. Code is written in a portable form as possible. Fortran codemore » is written in ANSI Standard FORTRAN-77. Machine-specific routines are limited in number and are grouped together to minimize the time required to adapt them to a new system. SEACAS codes has been ported to several Unix systems.« less
Single axioms for Boolean algebra.
McCune, W.
2000-06-30
Explicit single axioms are presented for Boolean algebra in terms of (1) the Sheffer stroke; (2) disjunction and negation; (3) disjunction, conjunction, and negation; and (4) disjunction, conjunction, negation, 0, and 1. It was previously known that single axioms exist for these systems, but the procedures to generate them are exponential, producing huge equations. Automated deduction techniques were applied to find axioms of lengths 105, 131, 111, and 127, respectively, each with six variables.
The algebras of large N matrix mechanics
Halpern, M.B.; Schwartz, C.
1999-09-16
Extending early work, we formulate the large N matrix mechanics of general bosonic, fermionic and supersymmetric matrix models, including Matrix theory: The Hamiltonian framework of large N matrix mechanics provides a natural setting in which to study the algebras of the large N limit, including (reduced) Lie algebras, (reduced) supersymmetry algebras and free algebras. We find in particular a broad array of new free algebras which we call symmetric Cuntz algebras, interacting symmetric Cuntz algebras, symmetric Bose/Fermi/Cuntz algebras and symmetric Cuntz superalgebras, and we discuss the role of these algebras in solving the large N theory. Most important, the interacting Cuntz algebras are associated to a set of new (hidden!) local quantities which are generically conserved only at large N. A number of other new large N phenomena are also observed, including the intrinsic nonlocality of the (reduced) trace class operators of the theory and a closely related large N field identification phenomenon which is associated to another set (this time nonlocal) of new conserved quantities at large N.
Alternative algebraic approaches in quantum chemistry
Mezey, Paul G.
2015-01-22
Various algebraic approaches of quantum chemistry all follow a common principle: the fundamental properties and interrelations providing the most essential features of a quantum chemical representation of a molecule or a chemical process, such as a reaction, can always be described by algebraic methods. Whereas such algebraic methods often provide precise, even numerical answers, nevertheless their main role is to give a framework that can be elaborated and converted into computational methods by involving alternative mathematical techniques, subject to the constraints and directions provided by algebra. In general, algebra describes sets of interrelations, often phrased in terms of algebraic operations, without much concern with the actual entities exhibiting these interrelations. However, in many instances, the very realizations of two, seemingly unrelated algebraic structures by actual quantum chemical entities or properties play additional roles, and unexpected connections between different algebraic structures are often giving new insight. Here we shall be concerned with two alternative algebraic structures: the fundamental group of reaction mechanisms, based on the energy-dependent topology of potential energy surfaces, and the interrelations among point symmetry groups for various distorted nuclear arrangements of molecules. These two, distinct algebraic structures provide interesting interrelations, which can be exploited in actual studies of molecular conformational and reaction processes. Two relevant theorems will be discussed.
BLAS- BASIC LINEAR ALGEBRA SUBPROGRAMS
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Krogh, F. T.
1994-01-01
The Basic Linear Algebra Subprogram (BLAS) library is a collection of FORTRAN callable routines for employing standard techniques in performing the basic operations of numerical linear algebra. The BLAS library was developed to provide a portable and efficient source of basic operations for designers of programs involving linear algebraic computations. The subprograms available in the library cover the operations of dot product, multiplication of a scalar and a vector, vector plus a scalar times a vector, Givens transformation, modified Givens transformation, copy, swap, Euclidean norm, sum of magnitudes, and location of the largest magnitude element. Since these subprograms are to be used in an ANSI FORTRAN context, the cases of single precision, double precision, and complex data are provided for. All of the subprograms have been thoroughly tested and produce consistent results even when transported from machine to machine. BLAS contains Assembler versions and FORTRAN test code for any of the following compilers: Lahey F77L, Microsoft FORTRAN, or IBM Professional FORTRAN. It requires the Microsoft Macro Assembler and a math co-processor. The PC implementation allows individual arrays of over 64K. The BLAS library was developed in 1979. The PC version was made available in 1986 and updated in 1988.
Filteau, Marie; Lagacé, Luc; LaPointe, Gisèle; Roy, Denis
2010-04-01
An arbitrary primed community PCR fingerprinting technique based on capillary electrophoresis was developed to study maple sap microbial community characteristics among 19 production sites in Québec over the tapping season. Presumptive fragment identification was made with corresponding fingerprint profiles of bacterial isolate cultures. Maple sap microbial communities were subsequently compared using a representative subset of 13 16S rRNA gene clone libraries followed by gene sequence analysis. Results from both methods indicated that all maple sap production sites and flow periods shared common microbiota members, but distinctive features also existed. Changes over the season in relative abundance of predominant populations showed evidence of a common pattern. Pseudomonas (64%) and Rahnella (8%) were the most abundantly and frequently represented genera of the 2239 sequences analyzed. Janthinobacterium, Leuconostoc, Lactococcus, Weissella, Epilithonimonas and Sphingomonas were revealed as occasional contaminants in maple sap. Maple sap microbiota showed a low level of deep diversity along with a high variation of similar 16S rRNA gene sequences within the Pseudomonas genus. Predominance of Pseudomonas is suggested as a typical feature of maple sap microbiota across geographical regions, production sites, and sap flow periods. PMID:20202776
González-Sarrías, Antonio; Li, Liya; Seeram, Navindra P
2012-07-01
Phenolic-enriched extracts of maple sap and syrup, obtained from the sugar and red maple species (Acer saccharum Marsh, A. rubrum L., respectively), are reported to show anticancer effects. Despite traditional medicinal uses of various other parts of these plants by Native Americans, they have not been investigated for anticancer activity. Here leaves, stems/twigs, barks and sapwoods of both maple species were evaluated for antiproliferative effects against human colon tumorigenic (HCT-116, HT-29, Caco-2) and non-tumorigenic (CCD-18Co) cells. Extracts were standardized to total phenolic and ginnalin-A (isolated in our laboratory) levels. Overall, the extracts inhibited the growth of the colon cancer more than normal cells (over two-fold), their activities increased with their ginnalin-A levels, with red > sugar maple extracts. The red maple leaf extract, which contained the highest ginnalin-A content, was the most active extract (IC₅₀ = 35 and 16 µg/mL for extract and ginnalin-A, respectively). The extracts were not cytotoxic nor did they induce apoptosis of the colon cancer cells. However, cell cycle analyses revealed that the antiproliferative effects of the extracts were mediated through cell cycle arrest in the S-phase. The results from the current study suggest that these maple plant part extracts may have potential anticolon cancer effects. PMID:22147441
Walendziak, Andrzej
2015-01-01
The notions of an ideal and a fuzzy ideal in BN-algebras are introduced. The properties and characterizations of them are investigated. The concepts of normal ideals and normal congruences of a BN-algebra are also studied, the properties of them are displayed, and a one-to-one correspondence between them is presented. Conditions for a fuzzy set to be a fuzzy ideal are given. The relationships between ideals and fuzzy ideals of a BN-algebra are established. The homomorphic properties of fuzzy ideals of a BN-algebra are provided. Finally, characterizations of Noetherian BN-algebras and Artinian BN-algebras via fuzzy ideals are obtained. PMID:26125050
Lax operator algebras and integrable systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sheinman, O. K.
2016-02-01
A new class of infinite-dimensional Lie algebras, called Lax operator algebras, is presented, along with a related unifying approach to finite-dimensional integrable systems with a spectral parameter on a Riemann surface such as the Calogero-Moser and Hitchin systems. In particular, the approach includes (non-twisted) Kac-Moody algebras and integrable systems with a rational spectral parameter. The presentation is based on quite simple ideas about the use of gradings of semisimple Lie algebras and their interaction with the Riemann-Roch theorem. The basic properties of Lax operator algebras and the basic facts about the theory of the integrable systems in question are treated (and proved) from this general point of view. In particular, the existence of commutative hierarchies and their Hamiltonian properties are considered. The paper concludes with an application of Lax operator algebras to prequantization of finite-dimensional integrable systems. Bibliography: 51 titles.
Algebra: A Challenge at the Crossroads of Policy and Practice
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Stein, Mary Kay; Kaufman, Julia Heath; Sherman, Milan; Hillen, Amy F.
2011-01-01
The authors review what is known about early and universal algebra, including who is getting access to algebra and student outcomes associated with algebra course taking in general and specifically with universal algebra policies. The findings indicate that increasing numbers of students, some of whom are underprepared, are taking algebra earlier.…
Smith, J.H.; Carson, R.F.; Sullivan, C.T.; McClellan, G.; Palmer, D.W.
1997-09-01
Unlike silicon microelectronics, photonics packaging has proven to be low yield and expensive. One approach to make photonics packaging practical for low cost applications is the use of {open_quotes}smart{close_quotes} packages. {open_quotes}Smart{close_quotes} in this context means the ability of the package to actuate a mechanical change based on either a measurement taken by the package itself or by an input signal based on an external measurement. One avenue of smart photonics packaging, the use of polysilicon micromechanical devices integrated with photonic waveguides, was investigated in this research (LDRD 3505.340). The integration of optical components with polysilicon surface micromechanical actuation mechanisms shows significant promise for signal switching, fiber alignment, and optical sensing applications. The optical and stress properties of the oxides and nitrides considered for optical waveguides and how they are integrated with micromechanical devices were investigated.
Spielberger, Richard; Ohme, Bruce Walker; Jensen, Ronald J.
2011-06-21
A heater for heating packaged die for burn-in and heat testing is described. The heater may be a ceramic-type heater with a metal filament. The heater may be incorporated into the integrated circuit package as an additional ceramic layer of the package, or may be an external heater placed in contact with the package to heat the die. Many different types of integrated circuit packages may be accommodated. The method provides increased energy efficiency for heating the die while reducing temperature stresses on testing equipment. The method allows the use of multiple heaters to heat die to different temperatures. Faulty die may be heated to weaken die attach material to facilitate removal of the die. The heater filament or a separate temperature thermistor located in the package may be used to accurately measure die temperature.
Coverings of topological semi-abelian algebras
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mucuk, Osman; Demir, Serap
2016-08-01
In this work, we study on a category of topological semi-abelian algebras which are topological models of given an algebraic theory T whose category of models is semi-abelian; and investigate some results on the coverings of topological models of such theories yielding semi-abelian categories. We also consider the internal groupoid structure in the semi-abelian category of T-algebras, and give a criteria for the lifting of internal groupoid structure to the covering groupoids.
Stability of algebraically unstable dispersive flows
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
King, Kristina; Zaretzky, Paula; Weinstein, Steven; Cromer, Michael; Barlow, Nathaniel
2015-11-01
A widely unexplored type of hydrodynamic instability is examined - large-time algebraic growth. Such growth occurs on the threshold of (exponentially) neutral stability. A methodology is provided for predicting the algebraic growth rate of an initial disturbance, when applied to a class of partial differential equations describing wave propagation in dispersive media. There are several morphological differences between algebraically growing disturbances and the exponentially growing wave packets inherent to classical linear stability analysis, and these are elucidated in this study.
Explicit travelling waves and invariant algebraic curves
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gasull, Armengol; Giacomini, Hector
2015-06-01
We introduce a precise definition of algebraic travelling wave solution of n-th order partial differential equations and prove that the only algebraic travelling waves solutions for the celebrated Fisher-Kolmogorov equation are the ones found in 1979 by Ablowitz and Zeppetella. This question is equivalent to study when an associated one-parameter family of planar ordinary differential systems has invariant algebraic curves.
Finite-dimensional simple graded algebras
Bahturin, Yu A; Zaicev, M V; Sehgal, S K
2008-08-31
Let R be a finite-dimensional algebra over an algebraically closed field F graded by an arbitrary group G. In the paper it is proved that if the characteristic of F is zero or does not divide the order of any finite subgroup of G, then R is graded simple if and only if it is isomorphic to a matrix algebra over a finite-dimensional graded skew field. Bibliography: 24 titles.
2006-08-22
Stratimikos is a small package of C++ wrappers for linear solver and preconditioning functionality exposed through Thyra interfaces. This package makes is possible to aggregate all of the general linear solver capability from the packages Amesos, AztecOO, Belos, lfpack, ML and others into a simple to use, parameter-list driven, interface to linear solvers. This initial version of Stratimikos contains just one utility class for building linear solvrs and preconditioners out of Epetra-based linear operators.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Manerowska, Anna; Nieznański, Edward; Mulawka, Jan
2013-10-01
Our aim is to present the algebra of concepts in two formal languages. First, after introducing a primary relation between concepts, which is subsumption, we shall specify in a language that uses quantifiers, the Boolean algebra of general concepts. Next, we shall note down the same algebra in simplified non-quantifying language, in order to use it as basis for two specific implementations, i.e. to create the Boolean algebras of deontic concepts and axiological concepts.
Representations of Super Yang-Mills Algebras
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Herscovich, Estanislao
2013-06-01
We study in this article the representation theory of a family of super algebras, called the super Yang-Mills algebras, by exploiting the Kirillov orbit method à la Dixmier for nilpotent super Lie algebras. These super algebras are an extension of the so-called Yang-Mills algebras, introduced by A. Connes and M. Dubois-Violette in (Lett Math Phys 61(2):149-158, 2002), and in fact they appear as a "background independent" formulation of supersymmetric gauge theory considered in physics, in a similar way as Yang-Mills algebras do the same for the usual gauge theory. Our main result states that, under certain hypotheses, all Clifford-Weyl super algebras {{Cliff}q(k) ⊗ Ap(k)}, for p ≥ 3, or p = 2 and q ≥ 2, appear as a quotient of all super Yang-Mills algebras, for n ≥ 3 and s ≥ 1. This provides thus a family of representations of the super Yang-Mills algebras.
Difficulties in initial algebra learning in Indonesia
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jupri, Al; Drijvers, Paul; van den Heuvel-Panhuizen, Marja
2014-12-01
Within mathematics curricula, algebra has been widely recognized as one of the most difficult topics, which leads to learning difficulties worldwide. In Indonesia, algebra performance is an important issue. In the Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS) 2007, Indonesian students' achievement in the algebra domain was significantly below the average student performance in other Southeast Asian countries such as Thailand, Malaysia, and Singapore. This fact gave rise to this study which aims to investigate Indonesian students' difficulties in algebra. In order to do so, a literature study was carried out on students' difficulties in initial algebra. Next, an individual written test on algebra tasks was administered, followed by interviews. A sample of 51 grade VII Indonesian students worked the written test, and 37 of them were interviewed afterwards. Data analysis revealed that mathematization, i.e., the ability to translate back and forth between the world of the problem situation and the world of mathematics and to reorganize the mathematical system itself, constituted the most frequently observed difficulty in both the written test and the interview data. Other observed difficulties concerned understanding algebraic expressions, applying arithmetic operations in numerical and algebraic expressions, understanding the different meanings of the equal sign, and understanding variables. The consequences of these findings on both task design and further research in algebra education are discussed.
Multicloning and Multibroadcasting in Operator Algebras
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kaniowski, Krzysztof; Lubnauer, Katarzyna; Łuczak, Andrzej
2015-12-01
We investigate multicloning and multibroadcasting in the general operator algebra framework in arbitrary dimension, generalizing thus results obtained in this framework for simple cloning and broadcasting.
On Realization of Generalized Effect Algebras
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Paseka, Jan
2012-12-01
A well-known fact is that there is a finite orthomodular lattice with an order determining set of states which is not representable in the standard quantum logic, the lattice L(H) of all closed subspaces of a separable complex Hilbert space. We show that a generalized effect algebra is representable in the operator generalized effect algebra G(H) of effects of a complex Hilbert space H iff it has an order determining set of generalized states. This extends the corresponding results for effect algebras of Riečanová and Zajac. Further, any operator generalized effect algebra G(H) possesses an order determining set of generalized states.
Literal algebra for satellite dynamics. [perturbation analysis
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Gaposchkin, E. M.
1975-01-01
A description of the rather general class of operations available is given and the operations are related to problems in satellite dynamics. The implementation of an algebra processor is discussed. The four main categories of symbol processors are related to list processing, string manipulation, symbol manipulation, and formula manipulation. Fundamental required operations for an algebra processor are considered. It is pointed out that algebra programs have been used for a number of problems in celestial mechanics with great success. The advantage of computer algebra is its accuracy and speed.
Banach Algebras Associated to Lax Pairs
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Glazebrook, James F.
2015-04-01
Lax pairs featuring in the theory of integrable systems are known to be constructed from a commutative algebra of formal pseudodifferential operators known as the Burchnall- Chaundy algebra. Such pairs induce the well known KP flows on a restricted infinite-dimensional Grassmannian. The latter can be exhibited as a Banach homogeneous space constructed from a Banach *-algebra. It is shown that this commutative algebra of operators generating Lax pairs can be associated with a commutative C*-subalgebra in the C*-norm completion of the *-algebra. In relationship to the Bose-Fermi correspondence and the theory of vertex operators, this C*-algebra has an association with the CAR algebra of operators as represented on Fermionic Fock space by the Gelfand-Naimark-Segal construction. Instrumental is the Plücker embedding of the restricted Grassmannian into the projective space of the associated Hilbert space. The related Baker and tau-functions provide a connection between these two C*-algebras, following which their respective state spaces and Jordan-Lie-Banach algebras structures can be compared.
Type-Decomposition of an Effect Algebra
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Foulis, David J.; Pulmannová, Sylvia
2010-10-01
Effect algebras (EAs), play a significant role in quantum logic, are featured in the theory of partially ordered Abelian groups, and generalize orthoalgebras, MV-algebras, orthomodular posets, orthomodular lattices, modular ortholattices, and boolean algebras. We study centrally orthocomplete effect algebras (COEAs), i.e., EAs satisfying the condition that every family of elements that is dominated by an orthogonal family of central elements has a supremum. For COEAs, we introduce a general notion of decomposition into types; prove that a COEA factors uniquely as a direct sum of types I, II, and III; and obtain a generalization for COEAs of Ramsay’s fourfold decomposition of a complete orthomodular lattice.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chajda, Ivan
2014-10-01
Commutative BCI-algebras can be considered as semilattices whose sections are equipped with certain involutions. A similar view can be applied to commutative BCK-algebras. However, for general BCK-algebras a certain construction was settled by the author and J. Kühr (Miskolc Math. Notes 8:11-21, 2007) showing that they can be considered as structures essentially weaker than semilattices but still with certain involutions in sections. The aim of this paper is to involve a similar approach for BCI-algebras.
Fischler, Mark S.; Sachs, D.; /Fermilab
2004-11-01
A new object-oriented Minimization package is available for distribution in the same manner as CLHEP. This package, designed for use in HEP applications, has all the capabilities of Minuit, but is a re-write from scratch, adhering to modern C++ design principles. A primary goal of this package is extensibility in several directions, so that its capabilities can be kept fresh with as little maintenance effort as possible. This package is distinguished by the priority that was assigned to C++ design issues, and the focus on producing an extensible system that will resist becoming obsolete.
Spin wave Feynman diagram vertex computation package
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Price, Alexander; Javernick, Philip; Datta, Trinanjan
Spin wave theory is a well-established theoretical technique that can correctly predict the physical behavior of ordered magnetic states. However, computing the effects of an interacting spin wave theory incorporating magnons involve a laborious by hand derivation of Feynman diagram vertices. The process is tedious and time consuming. Hence, to improve productivity and have another means to check the analytical calculations, we have devised a Feynman Diagram Vertex Computation package. In this talk, we will describe our research group's effort to implement a Mathematica based symbolic Feynman diagram vertex computation package that computes spin wave vertices. Utilizing the non-commutative algebra package NCAlgebra as an add-on to Mathematica, symbolic expressions for the Feynman diagram vertices of a Heisenberg quantum antiferromagnet are obtained. Our existing code reproduces the well-known expressions of a nearest neighbor square lattice Heisenberg model. We also discuss the case of a triangular lattice Heisenberg model where non collinear terms contribute to the vertex interactions.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Ozgun-Koca, S. Ash
2010-01-01
Although growing numbers of secondary school mathematics teachers and students use calculators to study graphs, they mainly rely on paper-and-pencil when manipulating algebraic symbols. However, the Computer Algebra Systems (CAS) on computers or handheld calculators create new possibilities for teaching and learning algebraic manipulation. This…
Results of Using Algebra Tiles as Meaningful Representations of Algebra Concepts.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Sharp, Janet M.
Mathematical meanings can be developed when individuals construct translations between algebra symbol systems and physical systems that represent one another. Previous research studies indicated (1) few high school students connect whole number manipulations to algebraic manipulations and (2) students who encounter algebraic ideas through…
Some C∗-algebras which are coronas of non-C∗-Banach algebras
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Voiculescu, Dan-Virgil
2016-07-01
We present results and motivating problems in the study of commutants of hermitian n-tuples of Hilbert space operators modulo normed ideals. In particular, the C∗-algebras which arise in this context as coronas of non-C∗-Banach algebras, the connections with normed ideal perturbations of operators, the hyponormal operators and the bidual Banach algebras one encounters are discussed.
Leibniz algebras associated with some finite-dimensional representation of Diamond Lie algebra
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Camacho, Luisa M.; Ladra, Manuel; Karimjanov, Iqboljon A.; Omirov, Bakhrom A.
2016-03-01
In this paper we classify Leibniz algebras whose associated Lie algebra is four-dimensional Diamond Lie algebra 𝕯 and the ideal generated by squares of elements is represented by one of the finite-dimensional indecomposable D-modules Un 1, Un 2 or Wn 1 or Wn 2.
O'Dea, Mary E.; Zasada, John C.; Tappeiner, John C., II
1995-01-01
Vine maple (Acer circinatum Pursh.) clone development, expansion, and regeneration by seedling establishment were studied in 5-240 yr old managed and unmanaged Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco) stands in coastal Oregon. Stem length, number of stems, and crown area were all significantly (P @10 m long and basal sprouts 1-2 m long; some stems had been pinned to the forest floor by fallen trees or branches and had layered. In stands >120 yr in age, clones were often quite complex, composed of several decumbent stems each of which connected the ramets of 1-10 new aerial stems. Vine maple clone expansion occurs by the layering of long aerial stems. Over 95% of the layered stems we observed had been pinned to the forest floor by fallen debris. Unsevered stems that we artificially pinned to the forest floor initiated roots within 1 yr. Thinning may favor clonal expansion because fallen slash from thinning often causes entire clones to layer, not just individual stems. Clonal vine maple seed production and seedling establishment occurred in all stages of stand development except dense, young stands following crown closure. There were more seedlings in thinned stands than in unthinned stands and in unburned clearcuts than in burned clearcuts.
Mroz, G.D.; Jurgensen, M.F.; Lai, Y.Z.; Liechty, H.O.; Hamlin, D.C.; Gale, M.F.; Sajak, R.L.; Stinhilb, H.M.
1986-08-01
Forests in the Upper Lakes States region, composed predominantly of sugar maple and red maple with a large number of stems in small diameter classes, were evaluated for conversion to biomass/energy plantations. The study included examining the use of black locust as an interplant species to improve maple productivity. Available water and phosphorus were found to be highly correlated with site index and biomass on the sites. Skidding of trees with tops intact caused widespread disruption of forest floor horizons. Natural coppice regrowth on all sites was poor. Results indicate it is not feasible to coppice natural stands of northern hardwoods on a 4-year rotation. Survival of interplanted black locust was very poor due to susceptibility to frost. The potential of black locust as a biomass species for SRIC plantations was demonstrated by the exceptional growth of surviving individuals. A provenance trial of 20 seed sources showed variability in frost resistance among seed sources. Data is presented on the wood characteristics of seven northern hardwoods species show that young sprouts have higher moisture content, seasonal moisture content variation, higher extractive and ash content, a lower specific gravity and lower thermal stability. All species evaluated are comparable in terms of major chemical composition, caloric values, and extent of gasification. 111 refs., 11 figs., 35 tabs.
Technetium-99 cycling in maple trees: characterization of changes in chemical form
Garten Jr, Charles T; Lomax, Ronny D
1989-08-01
Prior field studies near an old radioactive waste disposal site at Oak Ridge, TN, indicated that following root uptake, metabolism by deciduous trees rendered 99Tc less biogeochemically mobile than expected, based on chemistry of the pertechnetate (TcO4-) anion. Subsequently, the form of technetium (Tc) in maple tree (Acer sp.) sap, leaves, wood and forest leaf litter was characterized using one or more of the following methods: dialysis, physical fractionation, chemical extraction, gel permeation chromatography, enzymatic extraction, or thin layer chromatography (TLC) on silica gel. Chromatography (Sephadex G-25) of TcO4- incubated in vitro with tree sap showed it to behave similar to TcO4- anion. When labeled wood and leaf tissues were processed using a tissue homogenizer, 15% and 40%, respectively, of the Tc was solubilized into phosphate buffer. Most (65% to 80%) of the solubilized Tc passing a 0.45-micron filter also passed through an ultrafiltration membrane with a nominal molecular weight cutoff of 10,000 atomic mass units (amu). A majority (72% to 80%) of the Tc in wood could be chemically removed by successive extractions with ethanol, water and weak mineral acid. These same extractants removed only 23% to 31% of the Tc from maple leaves or forest floor leaf litter. Most of the Tc in leaves and leaf litter was removed only by strongly alkaline reagents typically used to release structural polysaccharides (hemicelluloses) from plant tissues. Chromatography (Sephadex G-25) of the ethanol-water extract from wood and the alkaline extract from leaves demonstrated that Tc in these extracts was not principally TcO4- but was complexed with molecules > 1000 amu. Incubations of leaf and wood homogenates with protease approximately doubled the amount of Tc released from contaminated tissues. Ultrafiltration of protease-solubilized Tc from leaves and wood showed that 40% and 93%, respectively, of the Tc was >10,000 amu. TLC of the <10,000 amu fraction indicated the
The Algebra of Lexical Semantics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kornai, András
The current generative theory of the lexicon relies primarily on tools from formal language theory and mathematical logic. Here we describe how a different formal apparatus, taken from algebra and automata theory, resolves many of the known problems with the generative lexicon. We develop a finite state theory of word meaning based on machines in the sense of Eilenberg [11], a formalism capable of describing discrepancies between syntactic type (lexical category) and semantic type (number of arguments). This mechanism is compared both to the standard linguistic approaches and to the formalisms developed in AI/KR.
WASTE PACKAGE TRANSPORTER DESIGN
D.C. Weddle; R. Novotny; J. Cron
1998-09-23
The purpose of this Design Analysis is to develop preliminary design of the waste package transporter used for waste package (WP) transport and related functions in the subsurface repository. This analysis refines the conceptual design that was started in Phase I of the Viability Assessment. This analysis supports the development of a reliable emplacement concept and a retrieval concept for license application design. The scope of this analysis includes the following activities: (1) Assess features of the transporter design and evaluate alternative design solutions for mechanical components. (2) Develop mechanical equipment details for the transporter. (3) Prepare a preliminary structural evaluation for the transporter. (4) Identify and recommend the equipment design for waste package transport and related functions. (5) Investigate transport equipment interface tolerances. This analysis supports the development of the waste package transporter for the transport, emplacement, and retrieval of packaged radioactive waste forms in the subsurface repository. Once the waste containers are closed and accepted, the packaged radioactive waste forms are termed waste packages (WP). This terminology was finalized as this analysis neared completion; therefore, the term disposal container is used in several references (i.e., the System Description Document (SDD)) (Ref. 5.6). In this analysis and the applicable reference documents, the term ''disposal container'' is synonymous with ''waste package''.
Developing Large CAI Packages.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Reed, Mary Jac M.; Smith, Lynn H.
1983-01-01
When developing large computer-assisted instructional (CAI) courseware packages, it is suggested that there be more attentive planning to the overall package design before actual lesson development is begun. This process has been simplified by modifying the systems approach used to develop single CAI lessons, followed by planning for the…
Clements, M.D.
1995-11-01
Training Reactor Isotopes, General Atomics (TRIGA{reg_sign}) Reactors are in use at four US Department of Energy (DOE) complex facilities and at least 23 university, commercial, or government facilities. The development of the Neutron Radiography Facility (NRF) TRIGA packaging system began in October 1993. The Hanford Site NRF is being shut down and requires an operationally user-friendly transportation and storage packaging system for removal of the TRIGA fuel elements. The NRF TRIGA packaging system is designed to remotely remove the fuel from the reactor and transport the fuel to interim storage (up to 50 years) on the Hanford Site. The packaging system consists of a cask and an overpack. The overpack is used only for transport and is not necessary for storage. Based upon the cask`s small size and light weight, small TRIGA reactors will find it versatile for numerous refueling and fuel storage needs. The NRF TRIGA packaging design also provides the basis for developing a certifiable and economical packaging system for other TRIGA reactor facilities. The small size of the NRF TRIGA cask also accommodates placing the cask into a larger certified packaging for offsite transport. The Westinghouse Hanford Company NRF TRIGA packaging, as described herein can serve other DOE sites for their onsite use, and the design can be adapted to serve university reactor facilities, handling a variety of fuel payloads.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Public Broadcasting Service, Alexandria, VA.
This document consists of the printed components only of a PBS curriculum package intended to be used with the 9-videotape PBS documentary series entitled "The West." The complete curriculum package includes a teacher's guide, lesson plans, a student guide, audio tapes, a video index, and promotional poster. The teacher's guide and lesson plans…
Strengthening Effect Algebras in a Logical Perspective: Heyting-Wajsberg Algebras
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Konig, Martinvaldo
2014-10-01
Heyting effect algebras are lattice-ordered pseudoboolean effect algebras endowed with a pseudocomplementation that maps on the center (i.e. Boolean elements). They are the algebraic counterpart of an extension of both Łukasiewicz many-valued logic and intuitionistic logic. We show that Heyting effect algebras are termwise equivalent to Heyting-Wajsberg algebras where the two different logical implications are defined as primitive operators. We prove this logic to be decidable, to be strongly complete and to have the deduction-detachment theorem.
Automorphisms and Derivations of the Insertion-Elimination Algebra and Related Graded Lie Algebras
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ondrus, Matthew; Wiesner, Emilie
2016-07-01
This paper addresses several structural aspects of the insertion-elimination algebra {mathfrak{g}}, a Lie algebra that can be realized in terms of tree-inserting and tree-eliminating operations on the set of rooted trees. In particular, we determine the finite-dimensional subalgebras of {mathfrak{g}}, the automorphism group of {mathfrak{g}}, the derivation Lie algebra of {mathfrak{g}}, and a generating set. Several results are stated in terms of Lie algebras admitting a triangular decomposition and can be used to reproduce results for the generalized Virasoro algebras.
Modular electronics packaging system
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hunter, Don J. (Inventor)
2001-01-01
A modular electronics packaging system includes multiple packaging slices that are mounted horizontally to a base structure. The slices interlock to provide added structural support. Each packaging slice includes a rigid and thermally conductive housing having four side walls that together form a cavity to house an electronic circuit. The chamber is enclosed on one end by an end wall, or web, that isolates the electronic circuit from a circuit in an adjacent packaging slice. The web also provides a thermal path between the electronic circuit and the base structure. Each slice also includes a mounting bracket that connects the packaging slice to the base structure. Four guide pins protrude from the slice into four corresponding receptacles in an adjacent slice. A locking element, such as a set screw, protrudes into each receptacle and interlocks with the corresponding guide pin. A conduit is formed in the slice to allow electrical connection to the electronic circuit.
Differential algebras without differentials: An easy C++ implementation
Michelotti, L.
1989-03-01
Automated differentiation can be motivated and explained rather plainly without any reference to infinitesimals or differentials whatsoever. We shall describe one possible approach in this paper. The method which we shall use will suggest its own implementation. However, FORTRAN is not the most natural language in which to carry it out. In the second section we shall describe an almost trivial implementation using C++. (Indeed, one of the motivations for writing this paper is to persuade militant FORTRAN extremists to invest the four or five days necessary to learn this powerful and easy language.) Take heed, however, that what we describe below is only a stripped-down implementation, written in three days, of differential algebra's most essential features; it is not as robust as and does not contain the battery of tools available in Berz's DA package, the product of a significant amount of work. 10 refs.
Realizations of conformal current-type Lie algebras
Pei Yufeng; Bai Chengming
2010-05-15
In this paper we obtain the realizations of some infinite-dimensional Lie algebras, named 'conformal current-type Lie algebras', in terms of a two-dimensional Novikov algebra and its deformations. Furthermore, Ovsienko and Roger's loop cotangent Virasoro algebra, which can be regarded as a nice generalization of the Virasoro algebra with two space variables, is naturally realized as an affinization of the tensor product of a deformation of the two-dimensional Novikov algebra and the Laurent polynomial algebra. These realizations shed new light on various aspects of the structure and representation theory of the corresponding infinite-dimensional Lie algebras.
Is Algebra Really Difficult for All Students?
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Egodawatte, Gunawardena
2009-01-01
Research studies have shown that students encounter difficulties in transitioning from arithmetic to algebra. Errors made by high school students were analyzed for patterns and their causes. The origins of errors were: intuitive assumptions, failure to understand the syntax of algebra, analogies with other familiar symbol systems such as the…
Some Applications of Algebraic System Solving
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Roanes-Lozano, Eugenio
2011-01-01
Technology and, in particular, computer algebra systems, allows us to change both the way we teach mathematics and the mathematical curriculum. Curiously enough, unlike what happens with linear system solving, algebraic system solving is not widely known. The aim of this paper is to show that, although the theory lying behind the "exact solve"…
A Technology-Intensive Approach to Algebra.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Heid, M. Kathleen; Zbiek, Rose Mary
1995-01-01
Computer-Intensive Algebra (CIA) focuses on the use of technology to help develop a rich understanding of fundamental algebraic concepts in real-world settings using computing tools for easy access to numerical, graphical, and symbolic representations of mathematical ideas. (MKR)
An Inquiry-Based Linear Algebra Class
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Wang, Haohao; Posey, Lisa
2011-01-01
Linear algebra is a standard undergraduate mathematics course. This paper presents an overview of the design and implementation of an inquiry-based teaching material for the linear algebra course which emphasizes discovery learning, analytical thinking and individual creativity. The inquiry-based teaching material is designed to fit the needs of a…
Algebra in the Early Years? Yes!
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Taylor-Cox, Jennifer
2003-01-01
Suggests ways early years educators can begin teaching young children to think algebraically and prepare them for success in algebra. Focuses on ways to promote mathematical patterns, mathematical situations and structures, models of quantitative relationship, and change. Describes how first-graders used real object representations to better…
Algebraic Thinking: A Problem Solving Approach
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Windsor, Will
2010-01-01
Algebraic thinking is a crucial and fundamental element of mathematical thinking and reasoning. It initially involves recognising patterns and general mathematical relationships among numbers, objects and geometric shapes. This paper will highlight how the ability to think algebraically might support a deeper and more useful knowledge, not only of…
New directions in algebraic dynamical systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Schmidt, Klaus; Verbitskiy, Evgeny
2011-02-01
The logarithmic Mahler measure of certain multivariate polynomials occurs frequently as the entropy or the free energy of solvable lattice models (especially dimer models). It is also known that the entropy of an algebraic dynamical system is the logarithmic Mahler measure of the defining polynomial. The connection between the lattice models and the algebraic dynamical systems is still rather mysterious.
Solving Absolute Value Equations Algebraically and Geometrically
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Shiyuan, Wei
2005-01-01
The way in which students can improve their comprehension by understanding the geometrical meaning of algebraic equations or solving algebraic equation geometrically is described. Students can experiment with the conditions of the absolute value equation presented, for an interesting way to form an overall understanding of the concept.
Cartan calculus on quantum Lie algebras
Schupp, P.; Watts, P.; Zumino, B.
1993-12-09
A generalization of the differential geometry of forms and vector fields to the case of quantum Lie algebras is given. In an abstract formulation that incorporates many existing examples of differential geometry on quantum spaces we combine an exterior derivative, inner derivations, Lie derivatives, forms and functions au into one big algebra, the ``Cartan Calculus.``
Low Performers Found Unready to Take Algebra
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Cavanagh, Sean
2008-01-01
As state and school leaders across the country push to have more students take algebra in 8th grade, a new study argues that middle schoolers struggling the most in math are being enrolled in that course despite being woefully unprepared. "The Misplaced Math Student: Lost in Eighth Grade Algebra," scheduled for release by the Brookings Institution…
An algebraic approach to the scattering equations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Huang, Rijun; Rao, Junjie; Feng, Bo; He, Yang-Hui
2015-12-01
We employ the so-called companion matrix method from computational algebraic geometry, tailored for zero-dimensional ideals, to study the scattering equations. The method renders the CHY-integrand of scattering amplitudes computable using simple linear algebra and is amenable to an algorithmic approach. Certain identities in the amplitudes as well as rationality of the final integrand become immediate in this formalism.
Calif. Laws Shift Gears on Algebra, Textbooks
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Robelen, Erik W.
2012-01-01
New laws in California have set the state on a course for some potentially significant changes to the curriculum, including a measure that revisits the matter of teaching Algebra 1 in 8th grade and another that revamps the state's textbook-adoption process and hands districts greater leeway in choosing instructional materials. The algebra-related…
Success in Algebra among Community College Students
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Reyes, Czarina
2010-01-01
College algebra is a required course for most majors, but is viewed by many as a gatekeeper course for degree completion by students. With almost half a million students taking college algebra each year, faculty are experimenting with new course lengths of time that might result in higher success, completion, and retention rates for college…
Using the Internet To Investigate Algebra.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Sherwood, Walter
The lesson plans in this book engage students by using a tool they enjoy--the Internet--to explore key concepts in algebra. Working either individually or in groups, students learn to approach algebra from a problem solving perspective. Each lesson shows learners how to use the Internet as a resource for gathering facts, data, and other…
Algebraic Geodesics on Three-Dimensional Quadrics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kai, Yue
2015-12-01
By Hamilton-Jacobi method, we study the problem of algebraic geodesics on the third-order surface. By the implicit function theorem, we proved the existences of the real geodesics which are the intersections of two algebraic surfaces, and we also give some numerical examples.
Algebraic Formulas for Areas between Curves.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Gabai, Hyman
1982-01-01
Korean secondary school students preparing for college learn about a simple algebraic formula for area bounded by a parabola and line. The approach does not seem well-known among American students. It is noted that, while the formula derivations rely on integration, algebra students could use the formulas without proofs. (MP)
Classical and quantum Kummer shape algebras
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Odzijewicz, A.; Wawreniuk, E.
2016-07-01
We study a family of integrable systems of nonlinearly coupled harmonic oscillators on the classical and quantum levels. We show that the integrability of these systems follows from their symmetry characterized by algebras, here called Kummer shape algebras. The resolution of identity for a wide class of reproducing kernels is found. A number of examples, illustrating this theory, are also presented.
Young Mathematicians at Work: Constructing Algebra
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Fosnot, Catherine Twomey; Jacob, Bill
2010-01-01
This book provides a landscape of learning that helps teachers recognize, support, and celebrate their students' capacity to structure their worlds algebraically. It identifies the models, contexts, and landmarks that facilitate algebraic thinking in young students and provides insightful and practical methods for teachers, math supervisors, and…
Focus on Fractions to Scaffold Algebra
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Ooten, Cheryl Thomas
2013-01-01
Beginning algebra is a gatekeeper course into the pipeline to higher mathematics courses required for respected professions in engineering, science, statistics, mathematics, education, and technology. Beginning algebra can also be a perfect storm if the necessary foundational skills are not within a student's grasp. What skills ensure beginning…
Fourier theory and C∗-algebras
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bédos, Erik; Conti, Roberto
2016-07-01
We discuss a number of results concerning the Fourier series of elements in reduced twisted group C∗-algebras of discrete groups, and, more generally, in reduced crossed products associated to twisted actions of discrete groups on unital C∗-algebras. A major part of the article gives a review of our previous work on this topic, but some new results are also included.
Situated Learning in an Abstract Algebra Classroom
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Ticknor, Cindy S.
2012-01-01
Advisory committees of mathematics consider abstract algebra as an essential component of the mathematical preparation of secondary teachers, yet preservice teachers find it challenging to connect the topics addressed in this advanced course with the high school algebra they must someday teach. This study analyzed the mathematical content…
Teaching Algebra to Students with Learning Disabilities
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Impecoven-Lind, Linda S.; Foegen, Anne
2010-01-01
Algebra is a gateway to expanded opportunities, but it often poses difficulty for students with learning disabilities. Consequently, it is essential to identify evidence-based instructional strategies for these students. The authors begin by identifying three areas of algebra difficulty experienced by students with disabilities: cognitive…
Arithmetic and Cognitive Contributions to Algebra
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Cirino, Paul T.; Tolar, Tammy D.; Fuchs, Lynn S.
2013-01-01
Algebra is a prerequisite for access to STEM careers and occupational success (NMAP, 2008a), yet algebra is difficult for students through high school (US DOE, 2008). Growth in children's conceptual and procedural arithmetical knowledge is reciprocal, although conceptual knowledge has more impact on procedural knowledge than the reverse…
Just Say Yes to Early Algebra!
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Stephens, Ana; Blanton, Maria; Knuth, Eric; Isler, Isil; Gardiner, Angela Murphy
2015-01-01
Mathematics educators have argued for some time that elementary school students are capable of engaging in algebraic thinking and should be provided with rich opportunities to do so. Recent initiatives like the Common Core State Standards for Mathematics (CCSSM) (CCSSI 2010) have taken up this call by reiterating the place of early algebra in…
Fusion rule algebras from graph theory
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Caselle, M.; Ponzano, G.
1989-06-01
We describe a new class of fusion algebras related to graph theory which bear intriguing connections with group algebras. The structure constants and the matrix S, which diagonalizes the fusion rules, are explicitly computed in terms of SU(2) coupling coefficients.
NINTH YEAR MATHEMATICS. COURSE I, ALGEBRA.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
New York State Education Dept., Albany.
THIS GUIDE OUTLINES THE MINIMUM MATERIAL FOR WHICH STUDENTS OF NINTH YEAR MATHEMATICS - COURSE 1 - ALGEBRA WERE HELD RESPONSIBLE ON THE REGENTS EXAMINATIONS BEGINNING IN JUNE, 1966. THE REPORT ALSO PRESENTS THE SCOPE AND CONTENT OF THE ALGEBRA COURSE AND POSSIBLE SUGGESTIONS FOR TEACHING THE MATERIAL TO STUDENTS. (RP)
Modern Algebra, Mathematics: 5293.36.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Edwards, Raymond J.
This guidebook covers Boolean algebra, matrices, linear transformations of the plane, characteristic values, vectors, and algebraic structures. Overall course goals and performance objectives for each unit are specified; sequencing of units and various time schedules are suggested. A sample pretest and posttest are given, and an annotated list of…
The Structural Algebra Option: A Discussion Paper.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Kirshner, David
The goal of this paper is to renew interest in the structural option to algebra instruction. Concern for the usual secondary school algebra curriculum related to simplifying expressions, solving equations, and rationalizing numerators and denominators is viewed from three pedagogical approaches: (1) structural approach, (2) empirical approach, and…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Rickard, Caroline
2008-01-01
Shortly after starting work for the University of Chichester in the School of Teacher Education, the author was planning a session relating to algebra and found herself inspired by an article in MT182: "Algebraic Infants" by Andrews and Sayers (2003). Based on the making of families of "Multilink" animals, Andrews and Sayers (2003) claim that…
Teaching Modeling and Axiomatization with Boolean Algebra.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
De Villiers, Michael D.
1987-01-01
Presented is an alternative approach to the traditional teaching of Boolean algebra for secondary school mathematics. The main aim of the approach is to use Boolean algebra to teach pupils such mathematical processes as modeling and axiomatization. A course using the approach is described. (RH)
Loop realizations of quantum affine algebras
Cautis, Sabin; Licata, Anthony
2012-12-15
We give a simplified description of quantum affine algebras in their loop presentation. This description is related to Drinfeld's new realization via halves of vertex operators. We also define an idempotent version of the quantum affine algebra which is suitable for categorification.
Deforming the Maxwell-Sim algebra
Gibbons, G. W.; Gomis, Joaquim; Pope, C. N.
2010-09-15
The Maxwell algebra is a noncentral extension of the Poincare algebra, in which the momentum generators no longer commute, but satisfy [P{sub {mu}},P{sub {nu}}]=Z{sub {mu}{nu}}. The charges Z{sub {mu}{nu}} commute with the momenta, and transform tensorially under the action of the angular momentum generators. If one constructs an action for a massive particle, invariant under these symmetries, one finds that it satisfies the equations of motion of a charged particle interacting with a constant electromagnetic field via the Lorentz force. In this paper, we explore the analogous constructions where one starts instead with the ISim subalgebra of Poincare, this being the symmetry algebra of very special relativity. It admits an analogous noncentral extension, and we find that a particle action invariant under this Maxwell-Sim algebra again describes a particle subject to the ordinary Lorentz force. One can also deform the ISim algebra to DISim{sub b}, where b is a nontrivial dimensionless parameter. We find that the motion described by an action invariant under the corresponding Maxwell-DISim algebra is that of a particle interacting via a Finslerian modification of the Lorentz force. In an appendix is it shown that the DISim{sub b} algebra is isomorphic to the extended Schroedinger algebra with its standard deformation parameter z, when b=(1/1-z).
MODEL IDENTIFICATION AND COMPUTER ALGEBRA.
Bollen, Kenneth A; Bauldry, Shawn
2010-10-01
Multiequation models that contain observed or latent variables are common in the social sciences. To determine whether unique parameter values exist for such models, one needs to assess model identification. In practice analysts rely on empirical checks that evaluate the singularity of the information matrix evaluated at sample estimates of parameters. The discrepancy between estimates and population values, the limitations of numerical assessments of ranks, and the difference between local and global identification make this practice less than perfect. In this paper we outline how to use computer algebra systems (CAS) to determine the local and global identification of multiequation models with or without latent variables. We demonstrate a symbolic CAS approach to local identification and develop a CAS approach to obtain explicit algebraic solutions for each of the model parameters. We illustrate the procedures with several examples, including a new proof of the identification of a model for handling missing data using auxiliary variables. We present an identification procedure for Structural Equation Models that makes use of CAS and that is a useful complement to current methods. PMID:21769158
Placental Stem Cell Correction of Murine Intermediate Maple Syrup Urine Disease
Skvorak, Kristen J.; Dorko, Kenneth; Marongiu, Fabio; Tahan, Veysel; Hansel, Marc C.; Gramignoli, Roberto; Gibson, K. Michael; Strom, Stephen C.
2012-01-01
We previously reported improved survival and partial metabolic correction of a mouse intermediate maple syrup urine disease (iMSUD) model post allogenic hepatocyte transplant, confirming that a small number of enzyme proficient liver-engrafted cells can improve phenotype. However, clinical shortages of suitable livers for hepatocyte isolation indicate a need for alternative cell sources. Human amnion epithelial cells (hAEC) share stem cell characteristics while lacking many safety and ethical concerns, and differentiate to hepatocyte-like cells. Eight direct hepatic hAEC transplants were administered to iMSUD mice over the first 35 days beginning at birth; animals were provided a normal protein diet and sacrificed at days 35 and 100. Treatment at the neonatal stage is clinically relevant for MSUD, and may offer a donor cell engraftment advantage. Survival was significantly extended and body weight was normalized in iMSUD mice receiving hAEC transplants compared to iMSUD (severely cachectic; dead ≤28 days). Branched chain α-keto acid dehydrogenase enzyme activity was significantly increased in transplanted livers. Branched chain amino acids leucine, isoleucine, valine, and alloisoleucine were significantly improved in the sera and brain, as were other large neutral amino acids. Conclusion: Placental-derived stem cell transplantation lengthened survival and corrected many amino acid imbalances in a mouse model of iMSUD. This highlights the potential for their use as a viable alternative clinical therapy for MSUD and other liver-based metabolic diseases. PMID:23175463
Age, allocation and availability of nonstructural carbon in mature red maple trees.
Carbone, Mariah S; Czimczik, Claudia I; Keenan, Trevor F; Murakami, Paula F; Pederson, Neil; Schaberg, Paul G; Xu, Xiaomei; Richardson, Andrew D
2013-12-01
The allocation of nonstructural carbon (NSC) to growth, metabolism and storage remains poorly understood, but is critical for the prediction of stress tolerance and mortality. We used the radiocarbon ((14) C) 'bomb spike' as a tracer of substrate and age of carbon in stemwood NSC, CO2 emitted by stems, tree ring cellulose and stump sprouts regenerated following harvesting in mature red maple trees. We addressed the following questions: which factors influence the age of stemwood NSC?; to what extent is stored vs new NSC used for metabolism and growth?; and, is older, stored NSC available for use? The mean age of extracted stemwood NSC was 10 yr. More vigorous trees had both larger and younger stemwood NSC pools. NSC used to support metabolism (stem CO2 ) was 1-2 yr old in spring before leaves emerged, but reflected current-year photosynthetic products in late summer. The tree ring cellulose (14) C age was 0.9 yr older than direct ring counts. Stump sprouts were formed from NSC up to 17 yr old. Thus, younger NSC is preferentially used for growth and day-to-day metabolic demands. More recently stored NSC contributes to annual ring growth and metabolism in the dormant season, yet decade-old and older NSC is accessible for regrowth. PMID:24032647
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cristescu, R.; Surdu, A. V.; Grumezescu, A. M.; Oprea, A. E.; Trusca, R.; Vasile, O.; Dorcioman, G.; Visan, A.; Socol, G.; Mihailescu, I. N.; Mihaiescu, D.; Enculescu, M.; Chifiriuc, M. C.; Boehm, R. D.; Narayan, R. J.; Chrisey, D. B.
2015-05-01
Although a great number of antibiotics are currently available, they are often rendered ineffective by the ability of microbial strains to develop genetic resistance and to grow in biofilms. Since many antimicrobial agents poorly penetrate biofilms, biofilm-associated infections often require high concentrations of antimicrobial agents for effective treatment. Among the various strategies that may be used to inhibit microbial biofilms, one strategy that has generated significant interest involves the use of bioactive surfaces that are resistant to microbial colonization. In this respect, we used matrix assisted pulsed laser evaporation (MAPLE) involving a pulsed KrF* excimer laser source (λ = 248 nm, τ = 25 ns, ν = 10 Hz) to obtain thin composite biopolymeric films containing natural (flavonoid) or synthetic (antibiotic) compounds as bioactive substances. Chemical composition and film structures were investigated by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction. Films morphology was studied by scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. The antimicrobial assay of the microbial biofilms formed on these films was assessed by the viable cell counts method. The flavonoid-containing thin films showed increased resistance to microbial colonization, highlighting their potential to be used for the design of anti-biofilm surfaces.
Visan, A; Stan, G E; Ristoscu, C; Popescu-Pelin, G; Sopronyi, M; Besleaga, C; Luculescu, C; Chifiriuc, M C; Hussien, M D; Marsan, O; Kergourlay, E; Grossin, D; Brouillet, F; Mihailescu, I N
2016-09-10
Chitosan/biomimetic apatite thin films were grown in mild conditions of temperature and pressure by Combinatorial Matrix-Assisted Pulsed Laser Evaporation on Ti, Si or glass substrates. Compositional gradients were obtained by simultaneous laser vaporization of the two distinct material targets. A KrF* excimer (λ=248nm, τFWHM=25ns) laser source was used in all experiments. The nature and surface composition of deposited materials and the spatial distribution of constituents were studied by SEM, EDS, AFM, GIXRD, FTIR, micro-Raman, and XPS. The antimicrobial efficiency of the chitosan/biomimetic apatite layers against Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli strains was interrogated by viable cell count assay. The obtained thin films were XRD amorphous and exhibited a morphology characteristic to the laser deposited structures composed of nanometric round shaped grains. The surface roughness has progressively increased with chitosan concentration. FTIR, EDS and XPS analyses indicated that the composition of the BmAp-CHT C-MAPLE composite films gradually modified from pure apatite to chitosan. The bioevaluation tests indicated that S. aureus biofilm is more susceptible to the action of chitosan-rich areas of the films, whilst the E. coli biofilm proved more sensible to areas containing less chitosan. The best compromise should therefore go, in our opinion, to zones with intermediate-to-high chitosan concentration which can assure a large spectrum of antimicrobial protection concomitantly with a significant enhancement of osseointegration, favored by the presence of biomimetic hydroxyapatite. PMID:27418570
MAPLE fabricated Fe3O4@Cinnamomum verum antimicrobial surfaces for improved gastrostomy tubes.
Anghel, Alina Georgiana; Grumezescu, Alexandru Mihai; Chirea, Mariana; Grumezescu, Valentina; Socol, Gabriel; Iordache, Florin; Oprea, Alexandra Elena; Anghel, Ion; Holban, Alina Maria
2014-01-01
Cinnamomum verum-functionalized Fe3O4 nanoparticles of 9.4 nm in size were laser transferred by matrix assisted pulsed laser evaporation (MAPLE) technique onto gastrostomy tubes (G-tubes) for antibacterial activity evaluation toward Gram positive and Gram negative microbial colonization. X-ray diffraction analysis of the nanoparticle powder showed a polycrystalline magnetite structure, whereas infrared mapping confirmed the integrity of C. verum (CV) functional groups after the laser transfer. The specific topography of the deposited films involved a uniform thin coating together with several aggregates of bio-functionalized magnetite particles covering the G-tubes. Cytotoxicity assays showed an increase of the G-tube surface biocompatibility after Fe3O4@CV treatment, allowing a normal development of endothelial cells up to five days of incubation. Microbiological assays on nanoparticle-modified G-tube surfaces have proved an improvement of anti-adherent properties, significantly reducing both Gram negative and Gram positive bacteria colonization. PMID:24979402
Wendel, U; Wentrup, H; Rüdiger, H W
1975-09-01
Kinetic data are presented for the decarboxylation of branched chain alpha-ketoacids (BCKA) by intact human fibroblasts. Cultured cells of normal individuals and nine patients with different clinical pictures of maple syrup urine disease (MSUD) are studied with both alpha-ketoisocaproic acid (2-oxo-4-methylpentanoic acid (KIC)) and alpha-ketoisovaleric acid (2-oxo-3-methylbutanoic acid (KIVA)) as substrates. One normal cell strain and one patient cell strain is analyzed with alpha-keto-beta-methyl-n-valeric acid (2-oxo-3-methylpentanoic acid (MEVA)) as a substrate. A biphasic degradation kinetic for each BCKA is obtained for normal control subjects. The component with higher substrate affinity is affected in MSUD: for KIC the normally hyperbolic substrate curve is changed to sigmoid shape, for KIVA and MEVA as substrates this component is not detectable at all. Considering qualitative aspects of the BCKA decarboxylation kinetics intact fibroblasts yield the same results as our recent studies with the decarboxylase moieties of partially purified kidney BCKA dehydrogenase of normal individuals and one patient with classic MSUD (27). The decarboxylation velocities for normal and patient fibroblasts with one exception differ widely at low but not at high substrate concentrations of BCKA. To get meaningful data on the residual substrate degradation activities with intact fibroblasts of different phenotypes of MSUD physiologically low substrate concentrations are required in the assay. PMID:1202420
Singh, S; Willers, I; Goedde, H W
1977-04-01
Fibroblast strains derived from six patients with maple syrup urine disease have been investigated for their requirements of the cofactors NAD, CoASH, Mg++ and TPP in comparison with 10 normal control strains. The reconstitution of the decarboxylase function of branched chain alpha-keto acid (BCKA) dehydrogenase complex in lysed cells was studied with respect to the substrates alpha-keto-isocaproic acid, alpha-keto-isovaleric acid, and alpha-keto-beta-methylvaleric acid (KIC, KIVA, MEVA). The enzyme activity of all normal control strains for the substrates KIC and KIVA was not reconstituted by TPP + Mg++ alone, but CoASH + NAD could reconstitute the enzyme activity with KIC and KIVA in different degrees. Only two control strains were tested with MEVA as substrate, and these showed in contrast that TPP + Mg++ could partly reconstitute the enzyme activity. In contrast to the relative homogeneity in the reconstitution profiles of normal strains, the five classical and one intermittent MSUD strains showed heterogeneity in cofactor requirements. Complementation analysis using heterokaryons prepared from fibroblasts of four patients with classical MSUD and one patient with intermittent MSUD showed, in contrast to experiments with normal controls, a partial amelioration of the defect in two combinations; it is suggested that the defect in these strains is located at different functional subunits of the multienzyme complex. PMID:192504
Nellis, Mary M; Kasinski, Andrea; Carlson, Martha; Allen, Richard; Schaefer, Anna Marie; Schwartz, Edward M; Danner, Dean J
2003-01-01
Maple syrup urine disease [MSUD] is a rare inborn error of metabolism inherited as an autosomal recessive trait through mutations in any of three different genes that encode components of the branched chain alpha-ketoacid dehydrogenase [BCKD] complex. In this work, the genotype of affected individuals was correlated with their clinical histories. These individuals were diagnosed and followed in a single centralized clinic, and their molecular genetic characterization was done by one laboratory. Three individuals had mutant alleles in the gene for the E1alpha component, five had mutations in the gene for E1beta, and three had mutations in the gene for E2. The results emphasize the diversity of the molecular and clinical presentations for individuals with MSUD and support the complexity of diseases termed "single gene traits." Of primary importance is early identification of at risk infants through newborn screening programs to minimize many of the complications associated with this protein intolerance. Attention to abnormal neurological signs in the neonate or evidence of neurological decompensation in older infants and children by a centralized medical management team minimizes permanent brain damage and improves survival. PMID:14567968
Successful Pregnancy in a Woman with Maple Syrup Urine Disease: Case Report.
Heiber, Stefanie; Zulewski, Henryk; Zaugg, Marianne; Kiss, Caroline; Baumgartner, Matthias
2015-01-01
We present the positive outcome of a pregnancy in a woman with severe classic maple syrup urine disease (MSUD). Maintaining the maternal plasma levels of leucine between 200 and 300 μmol/L allowed normal development of the foetus. Tolerance of protein and leucine increased continuously from the 16th gestational week until delivery. The patient was able to increase protein and leucine intake from 5 g to nearly 30 g and 300-3,000 mg/day, respectively. Weekly measurement of branched-chain amino acid (BCAA) concentrations and the assessment of dietary intake were used to adjust protein intake. After 41 weeks of pregnancy, she gave birth to a healthy baby girl and was able to breastfeed her daughter for 6 months during which time, the protein and leucine intake were lower than during pregnancy, but higher than with her usual pre-pregnancy diet. The development of the girl is normal at the age of 3 years. PMID:25720565
Frazier, Dianne M; Allgeier, Courtney; Homer, Caroline; Marriage, Barbara J; Ogata, Beth; Rohr, Frances; Splett, Patricia L; Stembridge, Adrya; Singh, Rani H
2014-07-01
In an effort to increase harmonization of care and enable outcome studies, the Genetic Metabolic Dietitians International (GMDI) and the Southeast Regional Newborn Screening and Genetics Collaborative (SERC) are partnering to develop nutrition management guidelines for inherited metabolic disorders (IMD) using a model combining both evidence- and consensus-based methodology. The first guideline to be completed is for maple syrup urine disease (MSUD). This report describes the methodology used in its development: formulation of five research questions; review, critical appraisal and abstraction of peer-reviewed studies and unpublished practice literature; and expert input through Delphi surveys and a nominal group process. This report includes the summary statements for each research question and the nutrition management recommendations they generated. Each recommendation is followed by a standardized rating based on the strength of the evidence and consensus used. The application of technology to build the infrastructure for this project allowed transparency during development of this guideline and will be a foundation for future guidelines. Online open access of the full, published guideline allows utilization by health care providers, researchers, and collaborators who advise, advocate and care for individuals with MSUD and their families. There will be future updates as warranted by developments in research and clinical practice. PMID:24881969
Nakadai, Ryosuke; Kawakita, Atsushi
2016-07-01
The traditional explanation for the exceptional diversity of herbivorous insects emphasizes host shift as the major driver of speciation. However, phylogenetic studies have often demonstrated widespread host plant conservatism by insect herbivores, calling into question the prevalence of speciation by host shift to distantly related plants. A limitation of previous phylogenetic studies is that host plants were defined at the family or genus level; thus, it was unclear whether host shifts predominate at a finer taxonomic scale. The lack of a statistical approach to test the hypothesis of host-shift-driven speciation also hindered studies at the species level. Here, we analyze the radiation of leaf cone moths (Caloptilia) associated with maples (Acer) using a newly developed, phylogeny-based method that tests the role of host shift in speciation. This method has the advantage of not requiring complete taxon sampling from an entire radiation. Based on 254 host plant records for 14 Caloptilia species collected at 73 sites in Japan, we show that major dietary changes are more concentrated toward the root of the phylogeny, with host shift playing a minor role in recent speciation. We suggest that there may be other roles for host shift in promoting herbivorous insect diversification rather than facilitating speciation per se. PMID:27547326
Changes in the auditory nerve brainstem evoked responses in a case of maple syrup urine disease.
Geal-Dor, Miriam; Adelman, Cahtia; Levi, Haya; Goitein, Kalman; Sohmer, Haim
2004-03-01
Maple syrup urine disease (MSUD) is a rare metabolic disease due to deficiency in the enzyme that breaks down branched chain amino acids. Lack of the enzyme causes accumulation of these amino acids and, if untreated, causes severe neurological damage. A case study of a 10-day old female infant, born after 40 weeks' gestation with a birthweight of 2740 g with MSUD hospitalized in the acute stage with respiratory failure and severe brain oedema is described. As part of the neurological evaluation, auditory nerve brainstem evoked response testing was conducted and revealed bilateral presence of the first wave from the auditory nerve, with no later brainstem waves. Over the course of days when her condition improved following dialysis treatment and a diet to reach balanced levels of branched chain amino acids, the later brainstem waves appeared on one side, and several weeks later they were also observed on the other side. The possible mechanisms of the reversibility of the appearance of brainstem waves in this case are discussed. PMID:14995088
Soil and tree-ring chemistry response to liming in a sugar maple stand.
Houle, Daniel; Duchesne, Louis; Moore, Jean-David; Laflèche, Marc Richer; Ouimet, Rock
2002-01-01
An evaluation of the impact of dolomitic lime [CaMg(CO3)2] on soils (five years after treatment) and sapwood chemistry (after four growing seasons) was realized for a Ca-deficient sugar maple stand at the lake Clair watershed. The effect on humus chemistry was significant: exchangeable Mg and Ca, effective acidity (EA), base saturation (BSe), pH, and effective cation exchange capacity (CECe) significantly increased, while exchangeable Fe significantly decreased. In the B horizon, liming increased exchangeable Ca, Mg, and Mn concentrations while decreasing other acid cations. No significant temporal trends in element concentrations in tree rings could be detected, although the lime treatment significantly changed the average xylem Mg and Mn concentrations as well as the average Mg/Mn and Ca/Mn ratios of the sapwood. The absence of temporal trends in rings from the last 20 yr implied a significant re-equilibration of elements through the sapwood. Significant relationships were found between averaged xylem Ca/Mn and Mg/Mn ratios and exchangeable humus Ca, Mg, Mn, Al, Fe, and H+ concentration, EA, CECe, and BSe, suggesting that the average xylem Ca/Mn and Mg/Mn ratios are strong indicators of the soil acid-base status. PMID:12469849
Plant-Parasitic Nematode Communities in Dogwood, Maple, and Peach Nurseries in Tennessee
Niblack, T. L.; Bernard, E. C.
1985-01-01
Nursery blocks (48 dogwood, 27 red maple, and 17 peach) distributed among 20 Tennessee nurseries were sampled for nematodes in March, July, and October 1981. Plant-parasitic nematodes were extracted from soil, counted by genera, and identified to species after fixation. A total of 57 species in 24 genera were found, with 1-16 species occurring in a site. The species most commonly detected were Paratylenchus projectus and Xiphinema americanum, which were found in 88% and 78% of the sites, respectively. Relationships existed between distribution and densities of some species present in more than 10% of the sites and certain soil factors (pH, bulk density, texture, and organic matter content). Plant-parasitic nematode community diversity was related to tree age, percentage of weed ground cover, and number of weed species. Site similarities in community ordinations were dependent on the individual nurseries sampled, tree age, and soil type, but clusters of sites of similar tree ages and soil types were not exclusive. PMID:19294071
Duration of extracorporeal therapy in acute maple syrup urine disease: a kinetic model.
Phan, Véronique; Clermont, Marie-José; Merouani, Aicha; Litalien, Catherine; Tucci, Marisa; Lambert, Marie; Mitchell, Grant; Jouvet, Philippe
2006-05-01
Maple syrup urine disease (MSUD, MIM 248600) can be complicated by metabolic crises necessitating extracorporeal removal therapy (ECRT). Since leucine levels are usually not immediately available during therapy, an accurate kinetic model of leucine plasma levels during removal would be useful to establish the duration of ECRT. Such a kinetic model is available for neonates undergoing continuous ECRT (CECRT) with a leucine clearance>or=35 ml min-1 1.73 m-2. The current study tests the validity of this model in older children. Plasma leucine levels were obtained from eleven ECRT sessions [seven CECRT and four intermittent hemodialysis (HDi) sessions] in seven children aged 1-14 years. No hemodynamic instability or neurological complications were observed during treatment. HDi provided a higher leucine clearance and required shorter sessions than CECRT (5.4+/-0.6 vs. 17.1+/-6.0 h). All patients regained precrisis neurological status except for one patient who had severe neurological damage (severe cerebral edema) at the time of dialysis and subsequently died despite efficient leucine removal. A leucine clearance>or=50 ml min-1 1.73 m-2 is required to obtain a kinetic model similar to that reported in neonates, both with CECRT and HDi. This model should be helpful in predicting the duration of therapy needed to attain desired leucine levels. PMID:16518628
Fock space, symbolic algebra, and analytical solutions for small stochastic systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Santos, Fernando A. N.; Gadêlha, Hermes; Gaffney, Eamonn A.
2015-12-01
Randomness is ubiquitous in nature. From single-molecule biochemical reactions to macroscale biological systems, stochasticity permeates individual interactions and often regulates emergent properties of the system. While such systems are regularly studied from a modeling viewpoint using stochastic simulation algorithms, numerous potential analytical tools can be inherited from statistical and quantum physics, replacing randomness due to quantum fluctuations with low-copy-number stochasticity. Nevertheless, classical studies remained limited to the abstract level, demonstrating a more general applicability and equivalence between systems in physics and biology rather than exploiting the physics tools to study biological systems. Here the Fock space representation, used in quantum mechanics, is combined with the symbolic algebra of creation and annihilation operators to consider explicit solutions for the chemical master equations describing small, well-mixed, biochemical, or biological systems. This is illustrated with an exact solution for a Michaelis-Menten single enzyme interacting with limited substrate, including a consideration of very short time scales, which emphasizes when stiffness is present even for small copy numbers. Furthermore, we present a general matrix representation for Michaelis-Menten kinetics with an arbitrary number of enzymes and substrates that, following diagonalization, leads to the solution of this ubiquitous, nonlinear enzyme kinetics problem. For this, a flexible symbolic maple code is provided, demonstrating the prospective advantages of this framework compared to stochastic simulation algorithms. This further highlights the possibilities for analytically based studies of stochastic systems in biology and chemistry using tools from theoretical quantum physics.
Fock space, symbolic algebra, and analytical solutions for small stochastic systems.
Santos, Fernando A N; Gadêlha, Hermes; Gaffney, Eamonn A
2015-12-01
Randomness is ubiquitous in nature. From single-molecule biochemical reactions to macroscale biological systems, stochasticity permeates individual interactions and often regulates emergent properties of the system. While such systems are regularly studied from a modeling viewpoint using stochastic simulation algorithms, numerous potential analytical tools can be inherited from statistical and quantum physics, replacing randomness due to quantum fluctuations with low-copy-number stochasticity. Nevertheless, classical studies remained limited to the abstract level, demonstrating a more general applicability and equivalence between systems in physics and biology rather than exploiting the physics tools to study biological systems. Here the Fock space representation, used in quantum mechanics, is combined with the symbolic algebra of creation and annihilation operators to consider explicit solutions for the chemical master equations describing small, well-mixed, biochemical, or biological systems. This is illustrated with an exact solution for a Michaelis-Menten single enzyme interacting with limited substrate, including a consideration of very short time scales, which emphasizes when stiffness is present even for small copy numbers. Furthermore, we present a general matrix representation for Michaelis-Menten kinetics with an arbitrary number of enzymes and substrates that, following diagonalization, leads to the solution of this ubiquitous, nonlinear enzyme kinetics problem. For this, a flexible symbolic maple code is provided, demonstrating the prospective advantages of this framework compared to stochastic simulation algorithms. This further highlights the possibilities for analytically based studies of stochastic systems in biology and chemistry using tools from theoretical quantum physics. PMID:26764734
Algebraic Apect of Helicities in Hadron Physics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
An, Murat; Ji, Chueng
2015-04-01
We examined the relation of polarization vectors and spinors of (1 , 0) ⊕(0 , 1) representation of Lorentz group in Clifford algebra Cl1 , 3 , their relation with standard algebra, and properties of these spinors. Cl1 , 3 consists of different grades:e.g. the first and the second grades represent (1 / 2 , 1 / 2) and (1 , 0) ⊕(0 , 1) representation of spin groups respectively with 4 and 6 components. However, these Clifford numbers are not the helicity eigenstates and thus we transform them into combinations of helicity eigenstates by expressing them as spherical harmonics. We relate the spin-one polarization vectors and (1 , 0) ⊕(0 , 1) spinors under one simple transformation with the spin operators. We also link our work with Winnberg's work of a superfield of a spinors of Clifford algebra by giving a physical meaning to Grassmann variables and discuss how Grassman algebra is linked with Clifford algebra.
Packaging Concerns/Techniques for Large Devices
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Sampson, Michael J.
2009-01-01
This slide presentation reviews packaging challenges and options for electronic parts. The presentation includes information about non-hermetic packages, space challenges for packaging and complex package variations.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Shih, T. I.-P.; Roelke, R. J.; Steinthorsson, E.
1991-01-01
In order to study numerically details of the flow and heat transfer within coolant passages of turbine blades, a method must first be developed to generate grid systems within the very complicated geometries involved. In this study, a grid generation package was developed that is capable of generating the required grid systems. The package developed is based on an algebraic grid generation technique that permits the user considerable control over how grid points are to be distributed in a very explicit way. These controls include orthogonality of grid lines next to boundary surfaces and ability to cluster about arbitrary points, lines, and surfaces. This paper describes that grid generation package and shows how it can be used to generate grid systems within complicated-shaped coolant passages via an example.
2005-11-23
SeaChem Seawater Chemistry package provides routines to calculate pH, carbonate chemistry, density, and other quantities for seawater, based on the latest community standards. The chemistry is adapted from fortran routines provided by the OCMIP3/NOCES project, details of which are available at http://www.ipsl.jussieu.fr/OCMIP/. The SeaChem package can generate Fortran subroutines as well as Python wrappers for those routines. Thus the same code can be used by Python or Fortran analysis packages and Fortran ocean models alike.
Optoelectronic packaging: A review
Carson, R.F.
1993-09-01
Optoelectronics and photonics hold great potential for high data-rate communication and computing. Wide using in computing applications was limited first by device technologies and now suffers due to the need for high-precision, mass-produced packaging. The use of phontons as a medium of communication and control implies a unique set of packaging constraints that was not present in traditional telecommunications applications. The state-of-the-art in optoelectronic packaging is now driven by microelectric techniques that have potential for low cost and high volume manufacturing.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cristescu, R.; Popescu, C.; Socol, G.; Visan, A.; Mihailescu, I. N.; Gittard, S. D.; Miller, P. R.; Martin, T. N.; Narayan, R. J.; Andronie, A.; Stamatin, I.; Chrisey, D. B.
2011-04-01
We report on thin film deposition of poly(1,3-bis-(p-carboxyphenoxy propane)-co-sebacic anhydride)) 20:80 thin films containing several gentamicin concentrations by matrix assisted pulsed laser evaporation (MAPLE). A pulsed KrF* excimer laser was used to deposit the polymer-drug composite thin films. Release of gentamicin from these MAPLE-deposited polymer conjugate structures was assessed. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy was used to demonstrate that the functional groups of the MAPLE-transferred materials were not changed by the deposition process nor were new functional groups formed. Scanning electron microscopy confirmed that MAPLE may be used to fabricate thin films of good morphological quality. The activity of gentamicin-doped films against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus bacteria was demonstrated using disk diffusion and antibacterial drop test. Our studies indicate that deposition of polymer-drug composite thin films prepared by MAPLE is a suitable technique for performing controlled drug delivery. Antimicrobial thin film coatings have several medical applications, including use for indwelling catheters and implanted medical devices.
Algebraic K-theory, K-regularity, and -duality of -stable C ∗-algebras
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mahanta, Snigdhayan
2015-12-01
We develop an algebraic formalism for topological -duality. More precisely, we show that topological -duality actually induces an isomorphism between noncommutative motives that in turn implements the well-known isomorphism between twisted K-theories (up to a shift). In order to establish this result we model topological K-theory by algebraic K-theory. We also construct an E ∞ -operad starting from any strongly self-absorbing C ∗-algebra . Then we show that there is a functorial topological K-theory symmetric spectrum construction on the category of separable C ∗-algebras, such that is an algebra over this operad; moreover, is a module over this algebra. Along the way we obtain a new symmetric spectra valued functorial model for the (connective) topological K-theory of C ∗-algebras. We also show that -stable C ∗-algebras are K-regular providing evidence for a conjecture of Rosenberg. We conclude with an explicit description of the algebraic K-theory of a x+ b-semigroup C ∗-algebras coming from number theory and that of -stabilized noncommutative tori.
PC Basic Linear Algebra Subroutines
1992-03-09
PC-BLAS is a highly optimized version of the Basic Linear Algebra Subprograms (BLAS), a standardized set of thirty-eight routines that perform low-level operations on vectors of numbers in single and double-precision real and complex arithmetic. Routines are included to find the index of the largest component of a vector, apply a Givens or modified Givens rotation, multiply a vector by a constant, determine the Euclidean length, perform a dot product, swap and copy vectors, andmore » find the norm of a vector. The BLAS have been carefully written to minimize numerical problems such as loss of precision and underflow and are designed so that the computation is independent of the interface with the calling program. This independence is achieved through judicious use of Assembly language macros. Interfaces are provided for Lahey Fortran 77, Microsoft Fortran 77, and Ryan-McFarland IBM Professional Fortran.« less
Rythmos Numerical Integration Package
Coffey, Todd S.; Bartlett, Roscoe A.
2006-09-01
Rythmos numerically integrates transient differential equations. The differential equations can be explicit or implicit ordinary differential equations ofr formulated as fully implicit differential-algebraic equations. Methods include backward Euler, forward Euler, explicit Runge-Kutta, and implicit BDF at this time. Native support for operator split methods and strict modularity are strong design goals. Forward sensitivity computations will be included in the first release with adjoint sensitivities coming in the near future. Rythmos heavily relies on Thyra for linear algebra and nonlinear solver interfaces to AztecOO, Amesos, IFPack, and NOX in Tilinos. Rythmos is specially suited for stiff differential equations and thos applictions where operator split methods have a big advantage, e.g. Computational fluid dynamics, convection-diffusion equations, etc.