Scalable Parallel Algebraic Multigrid Solvers
Bank, R; Lu, S; Tong, C; Vassilevski, P
2005-03-23
The authors propose a parallel algebraic multilevel algorithm (AMG), which has the novel feature that the subproblem residing in each processor is defined over the entire partition domain, although the vast majority of unknowns for each subproblem are associated with the partition owned by the corresponding processor. This feature ensures that a global coarse description of the problem is contained within each of the subproblems. The advantages of this approach are that interprocessor communication is minimized in the solution process while an optimal order of convergence rate is preserved; and the speed of local subproblem solvers can be maximized using the best existing sequential algebraic solvers.
Toward robust scalable algebraic multigrid solvers.
Waisman, Haim; Schroder, Jacob; Olson, Luke; Hiriyur, Badri; Gaidamour, Jeremie; Siefert, Christopher; Hu, Jonathan Joseph; Tuminaro, Raymond Stephen
2010-10-01
This talk highlights some multigrid challenges that arise from several application areas including structural dynamics, fluid flow, and electromagnetics. A general framework is presented to help introduce and understand algebraic multigrid methods based on energy minimization concepts. Connections between algebraic multigrid prolongators and finite element basis functions are made to explored. It is shown how the general algebraic multigrid framework allows one to adapt multigrid ideas to a number of different situations. Examples are given corresponding to linear elasticity and specifically in the solution of linear systems associated with extended finite elements for fracture problems.
Scaling Algebraic Multigrid Solvers: On the Road to Exascale
Baker, A H; Falgout, R D; Gamblin, T; Kolev, T; Schulz, M; Yang, U M
2010-12-12
Algebraic Multigrid (AMG) solvers are an essential component of many large-scale scientific simulation codes. Their continued numerical scalability and efficient implementation is critical for preparing these codes for exascale. Our experiences on modern multi-core machines show that significant challenges must be addressed for AMG to perform well on such machines. We discuss our experiences and describe the techniques we have used to overcome scalability challenges for AMG on hybrid architectures in preparation for exascale.
Parallel Multigrid Equation Solver
2001-09-07
Prometheus is a fully parallel multigrid equation solver for matrices that arise in unstructured grid finite element applications. It includes a geometric and an algebraic multigrid method and has solved problems of up to 76 mullion degrees of feedom, problems in linear elasticity on the ASCI blue pacific and ASCI red machines.
2013-05-06
AMG2013 is a parallel algebraic multigrid solver for linear systems arising from problems on unstructured grids. It has been derived directly from the Boomer AMG solver in the hypre library, a large linear solvers library that is being developed in the Center for Applied Scientific Computing (CASC) at LLNL. The driver provided in the benchmark can build various test problems. The default problem is a Laplace type problem on an unstructured domain with various jumps and an anisotropy in one part.
On the Performance of an Algebraic MultigridSolver on Multicore Clusters
Baker, A H; Schulz, M; Yang, U M
2010-04-29
Algebraic multigrid (AMG) solvers have proven to be extremely efficient on distributed-memory architectures. However, when executed on modern multicore cluster architectures, we face new challenges that can significantly harm AMG's performance. We discuss our experiences on such an architecture and present a set of techniques that help users to overcome the associated problems, including thread and process pinning and correct memory associations. We have implemented most of the techniques in a MultiCore SUPport library (MCSup), which helps to map OpenMP applications to multicore machines. We present results using both an MPI-only and a hybrid MPI/OpenMP model.
On the Performance of an Algebraic Multigrid Solver on Multicore Clusters
Baker, A; Schulz, M; Yang, U M
2009-11-24
Algebraic multigrid (AMG) solvers have proven to be extremely efficient on distributed-memory architectures. However, when executed on modern multicore cluster architectures, we face new challenges that can significantly harm AMG's performance. We discuss our experiences on such an architecture and present a set of techniques that help users to overcome the associated problems, including thread and process pinning and correct memory associations. We have implemented most of the techniques in a MultiCore SUPport library (MCSup), which helps to map OpenMP applications to multicore machines. We present results using both an MPI-only and a hybrid MPI/OpenMP model.
Self-correcting Multigrid Solver
Jerome L.V. Lewandowski
2004-06-29
A new multigrid algorithm based on the method of self-correction for the solution of elliptic problems is described. The method exploits information contained in the residual to dynamically modify the source term (right-hand side) of the elliptic problem. It is shown that the self-correcting solver is more efficient at damping the short wavelength modes of the algebraic error than its standard equivalent. When used in conjunction with a multigrid method, the resulting solver displays an improved convergence rate with no additional computational work.
2013-05-06
AMG2013 is a parallel algebraic multigrid solver for linear systems arising from problems on unstructured grids. It has been derived directly from the Boomer AMG solver in the hypre library, a large linear solvers library that is being developed in the Center for Applied Scientific Computing (CASC) at LLNL. The driver provided in the benchmark can build various test problems. The default problem is a Laplace type problem on an unstructured domain with various jumpsmore » and an anisotropy in one part.« less
Adaptive Algebraic Multigrid Methods
Brezina, M; Falgout, R; MacLachlan, S; Manteuffel, T; McCormick, S; Ruge, J
2004-04-09
Our ability to simulate physical processes numerically is constrained by our ability to solve the resulting linear systems, prompting substantial research into the development of multiscale iterative methods capable of solving these linear systems with an optimal amount of effort. Overcoming the limitations of geometric multigrid methods to simple geometries and differential equations, algebraic multigrid methods construct the multigrid hierarchy based only on the given matrix. While this allows for efficient black-box solution of the linear systems associated with discretizations of many elliptic differential equations, it also results in a lack of robustness due to assumptions made on the near-null spaces of these matrices. This paper introduces an extension to algebraic multigrid methods that removes the need to make such assumptions by utilizing an adaptive process. The principles which guide the adaptivity are highlighted, as well as their application to algebraic multigrid solution of certain symmetric positive-definite linear systems.
Detwiler, R.L.; Mehl, S.; Rajaram, H.; Cheung, W.W.
2002-01-01
Numerical solution of large-scale ground water flow and transport problems is often constrained by the convergence behavior of the iterative solvers used to solve the resulting systems of equations. We demonstrate the ability of an algebraic multigrid algorithm (AMG) to efficiently solve the large, sparse systems of equations that result from computational models of ground water flow and transport in large and complex domains. Unlike geometric multigrid methods, this algorithm is applicable to problems in complex flow geometries, such as those encountered in pore-scale modeling of two-phase flow and transport. We integrated AMG into MODFLOW 2000 to compare two- and three-dimensional flow simulations using AMG to simulations using PCG2, a preconditioned conjugate gradient solver that uses the modified incomplete Cholesky preconditioner and is included with MODFLOW 2000. CPU times required for convergence with AMG were up to 140 times faster than those for PCG2. The cost of this increased speed was up to a nine-fold increase in required random access memory (RAM) for the three-dimensional problems and up to a four-fold increase in required RAM for the two-dimensional problems. We also compared two-dimensional numerical simulations of steady-state transport using AMG and the generalized minimum residual method with an incomplete LU-decomposition preconditioner. For these transport simulations, AMG yielded increased speeds of up to 17 times with only a 20% increase in required RAM. The ability of AMG to solve flow and transport problems in large, complex flow systems and its ready availability make it an ideal solver for use in both field-scale and pore-scale modeling.
Detwiler, Russell L; Mehl, Steffen; Rajaram, Harihar; Cheung, Wendy W
2002-01-01
Numerical solution of large-scale ground water flow and transport problems is often constrained by the convergence behavior of the iterative solvers used to solve the resulting systems of equations. We demonstrate the ability of an algebraic multigrid algorithm (AMG) to efficiently solve the large, sparse systems of equations that result from computational models of ground water flow and transport in large and complex domains. Unlike geometric multigrid methods, this algorithm is applicable to problems in complex flow geometries, such as those encountered in pore-scale modeling of two-phase flow and transport. We integrated AMG into MODFLOW 2000 to compare two- and three-dimensional flow simulations using AMG to simulations using PCG2, a preconditioned conjugate gradient solver that uses the modified incomplete Cholesky preconditioner and is included with MODFLOW 2000. CPU times required for convergence with AMG were up to 140 times faster than those for PCG2. The cost of this increased speed was up to a nine-fold increase in required random access memory (RAM) for the three-dimensional problems and up to a four-fold increase in required RAM for the two-dimensional problems. We also compared two-dimensional numerical simulations of steady-state transport using AMG and the generalized minimum residual method with an incomplete LU-decomposition preconditioner. For these transport simulations, AMG yielded increased speeds of up to 17 times with only a 20% increase in required RAM. The ability of AMG to solve flow and transport problems in large, complex flow systems and its ready availability make it an ideal solver for use in both field-scale and pore-scale modeling. PMID:12019641
New Multigrid Solver Advances in TOPS
Falgout, R D; Brannick, J; Brezina, M; Manteuffel, T; McCormick, S
2005-06-27
In this paper, we highlight new multigrid solver advances in the Terascale Optimal PDE Simulations (TOPS) project in the Scientific Discovery Through Advanced Computing (SciDAC) program. We discuss two new algebraic multigrid (AMG) developments in TOPS: the adaptive smoothed aggregation method ({alpha}SA) and a coarse-grid selection algorithm based on compatible relaxation (CR). The {alpha}SA method is showing promising results in initial studies for Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD) applications. The CR method has the potential to greatly improve the applicability of AMG.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Koldan, Jelena; Puzyrev, Vladimir; de la Puente, Josep; Houzeaux, Guillaume; Cela, José María
2014-06-01
We present an elaborate preconditioning scheme for Krylov subspace methods which has been developed to improve the performance and reduce the execution time of parallel node-based finite-element (FE) solvers for 3-D electromagnetic (EM) numerical modelling in exploration geophysics. This new preconditioner is based on algebraic multigrid (AMG) that uses different basic relaxation methods, such as Jacobi, symmetric successive over-relaxation (SSOR) and Gauss-Seidel, as smoothers and the wave front algorithm to create groups, which are used for a coarse-level generation. We have implemented and tested this new preconditioner within our parallel nodal FE solver for 3-D forward problems in EM induction geophysics. We have performed series of experiments for several models with different conductivity structures and characteristics to test the performance of our AMG preconditioning technique when combined with biconjugate gradient stabilized method. The results have shown that, the more challenging the problem is in terms of conductivity contrasts, ratio between the sizes of grid elements and/or frequency, the more benefit is obtained by using this preconditioner. Compared to other preconditioning schemes, such as diagonal, SSOR and truncated approximate inverse, the AMG preconditioner greatly improves the convergence of the iterative solver for all tested models. Also, when it comes to cases in which other preconditioners succeed to converge to a desired precision, AMG is able to considerably reduce the total execution time of the forward-problem code-up to an order of magnitude. Furthermore, the tests have confirmed that our AMG scheme ensures grid-independent rate of convergence, as well as improvement in convergence regardless of how big local mesh refinements are. In addition, AMG is designed to be a black-box preconditioner, which makes it easy to use and combine with different iterative methods. Finally, it has proved to be very practical and efficient in the
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Mineck, Raymond E.; Thomas, James L.; Biedron, Robert T.; Diskin, Boris
2005-01-01
FMG3D (full multigrid 3 dimensions) is a pilot computer program that solves equations of fluid flow using a finite difference representation on a structured grid. Infrastructure exists for three dimensions but the current implementation treats only two dimensions. Written in Fortran 90, FMG3D takes advantage of the recursive subroutine feature, dynamic memory allocation, and structured-programming constructs of that language. FMG3D supports multi-block grids with three types of block-to-block interfaces: periodic, C-zero, and C-infinity. For all three types, grid points must match at interfaces. For periodic and C-infinity types, derivatives of grid metrics must be continuous at interfaces. The available equation sets are as follows: scalar elliptic equations, scalar convection equations, and the pressure-Poisson formulation of the Navier-Stokes equations for an incompressible fluid. All the equation sets are implemented with nonzero forcing functions to enable the use of user-specified solutions to assist in verification and validation. The equations are solved with a full multigrid scheme using a full approximation scheme to converge the solution on each succeeding grid level. Restriction to the next coarser mesh uses direct injection for variables and full weighting for residual quantities; prolongation of the coarse grid correction from the coarse mesh to the fine mesh uses bilinear interpolation; and prolongation of the coarse grid solution uses bicubic interpolation.
Augustin, Christoph M.; Neic, Aurel; Liebmann, Manfred; Prassl, Anton J.; Niederer, Steven A.; Haase, Gundolf; Plank, Gernot
2016-01-01
Electromechanical (EM) models of the heart have been used successfully to study fundamental mechanisms underlying a heart beat in health and disease. However, in all modeling studies reported so far numerous simplifications were made in terms of representing biophysical details of cellular function and its heterogeneity, gross anatomy and tissue microstructure, as well as the bidirectional coupling between electrophysiology (EP) and tissue distension. One limiting factor is the employed spatial discretization methods which are not sufficiently flexible to accommodate complex geometries or resolve heterogeneities, but, even more importantly, the limited efficiency of the prevailing solver techniques which are not sufficiently scalable to deal with the incurring increase in degrees of freedom (DOF) when modeling cardiac electromechanics at high spatio-temporal resolution. This study reports on the development of a novel methodology for solving the nonlinear equation of finite elasticity using human whole organ models of cardiac electromechanics, discretized at a high para-cellular resolution. Three patient-specific, anatomically accurate, whole heart EM models were reconstructed from magnetic resonance (MR) scans at resolutions of 220 μm, 440 μm and 880 μm, yielding meshes of approximately 184.6, 24.4 and 3.7 million tetrahedral elements and 95.9, 13.2 and 2.1 million displacement DOF, respectively. The same mesh was used for discretizing the governing equations of both electrophysiology (EP) and nonlinear elasticity. A novel algebraic multigrid (AMG) preconditioner for an iterative Krylov solver was developed to deal with the resulting computational load. The AMG preconditioner was designed under the primary objective of achieving favorable strong scaling characteristics for both setup and solution runtimes, as this is key for exploiting current high performance computing hardware. Benchmark results using the 220 μm, 440 μm and 880 μm meshes demonstrate
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Augustin, Christoph M.; Neic, Aurel; Liebmann, Manfred; Prassl, Anton J.; Niederer, Steven A.; Haase, Gundolf; Plank, Gernot
2016-01-01
Electromechanical (EM) models of the heart have been used successfully to study fundamental mechanisms underlying a heart beat in health and disease. However, in all modeling studies reported so far numerous simplifications were made in terms of representing biophysical details of cellular function and its heterogeneity, gross anatomy and tissue microstructure, as well as the bidirectional coupling between electrophysiology (EP) and tissue distension. One limiting factor is the employed spatial discretization methods which are not sufficiently flexible to accommodate complex geometries or resolve heterogeneities, but, even more importantly, the limited efficiency of the prevailing solver techniques which is not sufficiently scalable to deal with the incurring increase in degrees of freedom (DOF) when modeling cardiac electromechanics at high spatio-temporal resolution. This study reports on the development of a novel methodology for solving the nonlinear equation of finite elasticity using human whole organ models of cardiac electromechanics, discretized at a high para-cellular resolution. Three patient-specific, anatomically accurate, whole heart EM models were reconstructed from magnetic resonance (MR) scans at resolutions of 220 μm, 440 μm and 880 μm, yielding meshes of approximately 184.6, 24.4 and 3.7 million tetrahedral elements and 95.9, 13.2 and 2.1 million displacement DOF, respectively. The same mesh was used for discretizing the governing equations of both electrophysiology (EP) and nonlinear elasticity. A novel algebraic multigrid (AMG) preconditioner for an iterative Krylov solver was developed to deal with the resulting computational load. The AMG preconditioner was designed under the primary objective of achieving favorable strong scaling characteristics for both setup and solution runtimes, as this is key for exploiting current high performance computing hardware. Benchmark results using the 220 μm, 440 μm and 880 μm meshes demonstrate
Analysis Tools for CFD Multigrid Solvers
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Mineck, Raymond E.; Thomas, James L.; Diskin, Boris
2004-01-01
Analysis tools are needed to guide the development and evaluate the performance of multigrid solvers for the fluid flow equations. Classical analysis tools, such as local mode analysis, often fail to accurately predict performance. Two-grid analysis tools, herein referred to as Idealized Coarse Grid and Idealized Relaxation iterations, have been developed and evaluated within a pilot multigrid solver. These new tools are applicable to general systems of equations and/or discretizations and point to problem areas within an existing multigrid solver. Idealized Relaxation and Idealized Coarse Grid are applied in developing textbook-efficient multigrid solvers for incompressible stagnation flow problems.
An Introduction to Algebraic Multigrid
Falgout, R D
2006-04-25
Algebraic multigrid (AMG) solves linear systems based on multigrid principles, but in a way that only depends on the coefficients in the underlying matrix. The author begins with a basic introduction to AMG methods, and then describes some more recent advances and theoretical developments
Advanced Multigrid Solvers for Fluid Dynamics
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Brandt, Achi
1999-01-01
The main objective of this project has been to support the development of multigrid techniques in computational fluid dynamics that can achieve "textbook multigrid efficiency" (TME), which is several orders of magnitude faster than current industrial CFD solvers. Toward that goal we have assembled a detailed table which lists every foreseen kind of computational difficulty for achieving it, together with the possible ways for resolving the difficulty, their current state of development, and references. We have developed several codes to test and demonstrate, in the framework of simple model problems, several approaches for overcoming the most important of the listed difficulties that had not been resolved before. In particular, TME has been demonstrated for incompressible flows on one hand, and for near-sonic flows on the other hand. General approaches were advanced for the relaxation of stagnation points and boundary conditions under various situations. Also, new algebraic multigrid techniques were formed for treating unstructured grid formulations. More details on all these are given below.
Multigrid in energy preconditioner for Krylov solvers
Slaybaugh, R.N.; Evans, T.M.; Davidson, G.G.; Wilson, P.P.H.
2013-06-01
We have added a new multigrid in energy (MGE) preconditioner to the Denovo discrete-ordinates radiation transport code. This preconditioner takes advantage of a new multilevel parallel decomposition. A multigroup Krylov subspace iterative solver that is decomposed in energy as well as space-angle forms the backbone of the transport solves in Denovo. The space-angle-energy decomposition facilitates scaling to hundreds of thousands of cores. The multigrid in energy preconditioner scales well in the energy dimension and significantly reduces the number of Krylov iterations required for convergence. This preconditioner is well-suited for use with advanced eigenvalue solvers such as Rayleigh Quotient Iteration and Arnoldi.
Parallel Algebraic Multigrid Methods - High Performance Preconditioners
Yang, U M
2004-11-11
The development of high performance, massively parallel computers and the increasing demands of computationally challenging applications have necessitated the development of scalable solvers and preconditioners. One of the most effective ways to achieve scalability is the use of multigrid or multilevel techniques. Algebraic multigrid (AMG) is a very efficient algorithm for solving large problems on unstructured grids. While much of it can be parallelized in a straightforward way, some components of the classical algorithm, particularly the coarsening process and some of the most efficient smoothers, are highly sequential, and require new parallel approaches. This chapter presents the basic principles of AMG and gives an overview of various parallel implementations of AMG, including descriptions of parallel coarsening schemes and smoothers, some numerical results as well as references to existing software packages.
Filtering Algebraic Multigrid and Adaptive Strategies
Nagel, A; Falgout, R D; Wittum, G
2006-01-31
Solving linear systems arising from systems of partial differential equations, multigrid and multilevel methods have proven optimal complexity and efficiency properties. Due to shortcomings of geometric approaches, algebraic multigrid methods have been developed. One example is the filtering algebraic multigrid method introduced by C. Wagner. This paper proposes a variant of Wagner's method with substantially improved robustness properties. The method is used in an adaptive, self-correcting framework and tested numerically.
Reducing Communication in Algebraic Multigrid Using Additive Variants
Vassilevski, Panayot S.; Yang, Ulrike Meier
2014-02-12
Algebraic multigrid (AMG) has proven to be an effective scalable solver on many high performance computers. However, its increasing communication complexity on coarser levels has shown to seriously impact its performance on computers with high communication cost. Moreover, additive AMG variants provide not only increased parallelism as well as decreased numbers of messages per cycle but also generally exhibit slower convergence. Here we present various new additive variants with convergence rates that are significantly improved compared to the classical additive algebraic multigrid method and investigate their potential for decreased communication, and improved communication-computation overlap, features that are essential for good performance on future exascale architectures.
Challenges of Algebraic Multigrid across Multicore Architectures
Baker, A H; Gamblin, T; Schulz, M; Yang, U M
2010-04-12
Algebraic multigrid (AMG) is a popular solver for large-scale scientific computing and an essential component of many simulation codes. AMG has shown to be extremely efficient on distributed-memory architectures. However, when executed on modern multicore architectures, we face new challenges that can significantly deteriorate AMG's performance. We examine its performance and scalability on three disparate multicore architectures: a cluster with four AMD Opteron Quad-core processors per node (Hera), a Cray XT5 with two AMD Opteron Hex-core processors per node (Jaguar), and an IBM BlueGene/P system with a single Quad-core processor (Intrepid). We discuss our experiences on these platforms and present results using both an MPI-only and a hybrid MPI/OpenMP model. We also discuss a set of techniques that helped to overcome the associated problems, including thread and process pinning and correct memory associations.
Reducing Communication in Algebraic Multigrid Using Additive Variants
Vassilevski, Panayot S.; Yang, Ulrike Meier
2014-02-12
Algebraic multigrid (AMG) has proven to be an effective scalable solver on many high performance computers. However, its increasing communication complexity on coarser levels has shown to seriously impact its performance on computers with high communication cost. Moreover, additive AMG variants provide not only increased parallelism as well as decreased numbers of messages per cycle but also generally exhibit slower convergence. Here we present various new additive variants with convergence rates that are significantly improved compared to the classical additive algebraic multigrid method and investigate their potential for decreased communication, and improved communication-computation overlap, features that are essential for goodmore » performance on future exascale architectures.« less
Solving Upwind-Biased Discretizations. 2; Multigrid Solver Using Semicoarsening
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Diskin, Boris
1999-01-01
This paper studies a novel multigrid approach to the solution for a second order upwind biased discretization of the convection equation in two dimensions. This approach is based on semi-coarsening and well balanced explicit correction terms added to coarse-grid operators to maintain on coarse-grid the same cross-characteristic interaction as on the target (fine) grid. Colored relaxation schemes are used on all the levels allowing a very efficient parallel implementation. The results of the numerical tests can be summarized as follows: 1) The residual asymptotic convergence rate of the proposed V(0, 2) multigrid cycle is about 3 per cycle. This convergence rate far surpasses the theoretical limit (4/3) predicted for standard multigrid algorithms using full coarsening. The reported efficiency does not deteriorate with increasing the cycle, depth (number of levels) and/or refining the target-grid mesh spacing. 2) The full multi-grid algorithm (FMG) with two V(0, 2) cycles on the target grid and just one V(0, 2) cycle on all the coarse grids always provides an approximate solution with the algebraic error less than the discretization error. Estimates of the total work in the FMG algorithm are ranged between 18 and 30 minimal work units (depending on the target (discretizatioin). Thus, the overall efficiency of the FMG solver closely approaches (if does not achieve) the goal of the textbook multigrid efficiency. 3) A novel approach to deriving a discrete solution approximating the true continuous solution with a relative accuracy given in advance is developed. An adaptive multigrid algorithm (AMA) using comparison of the solutions on two successive target grids to estimate the accuracy of the current target-grid solution is defined. A desired relative accuracy is accepted as an input parameter. The final target grid on which this accuracy can be achieved is chosen automatically in the solution process. the actual relative accuracy of the discrete solution approximation
A multigrid fluid pressure solver handling separating solid boundary conditions.
Chentanez, Nuttapong; Müller-Fischer, Matthias
2012-08-01
We present a multigrid method for solving the linear complementarity problem (LCP) resulting from discretizing the Poisson equation subject to separating solid boundary conditions in an Eulerian liquid simulation’s pressure projection step. The method requires only a few small changes to a multigrid solver for linear systems. Our generalized solver is fast enough to handle 3D liquid simulations with separating boundary conditions in practical domain sizes. Previous methods could only handle relatively small 2D domains in reasonable time, because they used expensive quadratic programming (QP) solvers. We demonstrate our technique in several practical scenarios, including nonaxis-aligned containers and moving solids in which the omission of separating boundary conditions results in disturbing artifacts of liquid sticking to solids. Our measurements show, that the convergence rate of our LCP solver is close to that of a standard multigrid solver. PMID:22411885
Parallel Algebraic Multigrids for Structural mechanics
Brezina, M; Tong, C; Becker, R
2004-05-11
This paper presents the results of a comparison of three parallel algebraic multigrid (AMG) preconditioners for structural mechanics applications. In particular, they are interested in investigating both the scalability and robustness of the preconditioners. Numerical results are given for a range of structural mechanics problems with various degrees of difficulty.
An evaluation of parallel multigrid as a solver and a preconditioner for singular perturbed problems
Oosterlee, C.W.; Washio, T.
1996-12-31
In this paper we try to achieve h-independent convergence with preconditioned GMRES and BiCGSTAB for 2D singular perturbed equations. Three recently developed multigrid methods are adopted as a preconditioner. They are also used as solution methods in order to compare the performance of the methods as solvers and as preconditioners. Two of the multigrid methods differ only in the transfer operators. One uses standard matrix- dependent prolongation operators from. The second uses {open_quotes}upwind{close_quotes} prolongation operators, developed. Both employ the Galerkin coarse grid approximation and an alternating zebra line Gauss-Seidel smoother. The third method is based on the block LU decomposition of a matrix and on an approximate Schur complement. This multigrid variant is presented in. All three multigrid algorithms are algebraic methods.
Agglomeration Multigrid for an Unstructured-Grid Flow Solver
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Frink, Neal; Pandya, Mohagna J.
2004-01-01
An agglomeration multigrid scheme has been implemented into the sequential version of the NASA code USM3Dns, tetrahedral cell-centered finite volume Euler/Navier-Stokes flow solver. Efficiency and robustness of the multigrid-enhanced flow solver have been assessed for three configurations assuming an inviscid flow and one configuration assuming a viscous fully turbulent flow. The inviscid studies include a transonic flow over the ONERA M6 wing and a generic business jet with flow-through nacelles and a low subsonic flow over a high-lift trapezoidal wing. The viscous case includes a fully turbulent flow over the RAE 2822 rectangular wing. The multigrid solutions converged with 12%-33% of the Central Processing Unit (CPU) time required by the solutions obtained without multigrid. For all of the inviscid cases, multigrid in conjunction with an explicit time-stepping scheme performed the best with regard to the run time memory and CPU time requirements. However, for the viscous case multigrid had to be used with an implicit backward Euler time-stepping scheme that increased the run time memory requirement by 22% as compared to the run made without multigrid.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Debreu, Laurent; Neveu, Emilie; Simon, Ehouarn; Le Dimet, Francois Xavier; Vidard, Arthur
2014-05-01
In order to lower the computational cost of the variational data assimilation process, we investigate the use of multigrid methods to solve the associated optimal control system. On a linear advection equation, we study the impact of the regularization term on the optimal control and the impact of discretization errors on the efficiency of the coarse grid correction step. We show that even if the optimal control problem leads to the solution of an elliptic system, numerical errors introduced by the discretization can alter the success of the multigrid methods. The view of the multigrid iteration as a preconditioner for a Krylov optimization method leads to a more robust algorithm. A scale dependent weighting of the multigrid preconditioner and the usual background error covariance matrix based preconditioner is proposed and brings significant improvements. [1] Laurent Debreu, Emilie Neveu, Ehouarn Simon, François-Xavier Le Dimet and Arthur Vidard, 2014: Multigrid solvers and multigrid preconditioners for the solution of variational data assimilation problems, submitted to QJRMS, http://hal.inria.fr/hal-00874643 [2] Emilie Neveu, Laurent Debreu and François-Xavier Le Dimet, 2011: Multigrid methods and data assimilation - Convergence study and first experiments on non-linear equations, ARIMA, 14, 63-80, http://intranet.inria.fr/international/arima/014/014005.html
Compatible Relaxation and Coarsening in Algebraic Multigrid
Brannick, J J; Falgout, R D
2009-09-22
We introduce a coarsening algorithm for algebraic multigrid (AMG) based on the concept of compatible relaxation (CR). The algorithm is significantly different from standard methods, most notably because it does not rely on any notion of strength of connection. We study its behavior on a number of model problems, and evaluate the performance of an AMG algorithm that incorporates the coarsening approach. Lastly, we introduce a variant of CR that provides a sharper metric of coarse-grid quality and demonstrate its potential with two simple examples.
Algebraic multigrid preconditioner for the cardiac bidomain model.
Plank, Gernot; Liebmann, Manfred; Weber dos Santos, Rodrigo; Vigmond, Edward J; Haase, Gundolf
2007-04-01
The bidomain equations are considered to be one of the most complete descriptions of the electrical activity in cardiac tissue, but large scale simulations, as resulting from discretization of an entire heart, remain a computational challenge due to the elliptic portion of the problem, the part associated with solving the extracellular potential. In such cases, the use of iterative solvers and parallel computing environments are mandatory to make parameter studies feasible. The preconditioned conjugate gradient (PCG) method is a standard choice for this problem. Although robust, its efficiency greatly depends on the choice of preconditioner. On structured grids, it has been demonstrated that a geometric multigrid preconditioner performs significantly better than an incomplete LU (ILU) preconditioner. However, unstructured grids are often preferred to better represent organ boundaries and allow for coarser discretization in the bath far from cardiac surfaces. Under these circumstances, algebraic multigrid (AMG) methods are advantageous since they compute coarser levels directly from the system matrix itself, thus avoiding the complexity of explicitly generating coarser, geometric grids. In this paper, the performance of an AMG preconditioner (BoomerAMG) is compared with that of the standard ILU preconditioner and a direct solver. BoomerAMG is used in two different ways, as a preconditioner and as a standalone solver. Two 3-D simulation examples modeling the induction of arrhythmias in rabbit ventricles were used to measure performance in both sequential and parallel simulations. It is shown that the AMG preconditioner is very well suited for the solution of the bidomain equation, being clearly superior to ILU preconditioning in all regards, with speedups by factors in the range 5.9-7.7. PMID:17405366
Layout optimization with algebraic multigrid methods
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Regler, Hans; Ruede, Ulrich
1993-01-01
Finding the optimal position for the individual cells (also called functional modules) on the chip surface is an important and difficult step in the design of integrated circuits. This paper deals with the problem of relative placement, that is the minimization of a quadratic functional with a large, sparse, positive definite system matrix. The basic optimization problem must be augmented by constraints to inhibit solutions where cells overlap. Besides classical iterative methods, based on conjugate gradients (CG), we show that algebraic multigrid methods (AMG) provide an interesting alternative. For moderately sized examples with about 10000 cells, AMG is already competitive with CG and is expected to be superior for larger problems. Besides the classical 'multiplicative' AMG algorithm where the levels are visited sequentially, we propose an 'additive' variant of AMG where levels may be treated in parallel and that is suitable as a preconditioner in the CG algorithm.
Non-Galerkin Coarse Grids for Algebraic Multigrid
Falgout, Robert D.; Schroder, Jacob B.
2014-06-26
Algebraic multigrid (AMG) is a popular and effective solver for systems of linear equations that arise from discretized partial differential equations. And while AMG has been effectively implemented on large scale parallel machines, challenges remain, especially when moving to exascale. Particularly, stencil sizes (the number of nonzeros in a row) tend to increase further down in the coarse grid hierarchy, and this growth leads to more communication. Therefore, as problem size increases and the number of levels in the hierarchy grows, the overall efficiency of the parallel AMG method decreases, sometimes dramatically. This growth in stencil size is due to the standard Galerkin coarse grid operator, $P^T A P$, where $P$ is the prolongation (i.e., interpolation) operator. For example, the coarse grid stencil size for a simple three-dimensional (3D) seven-point finite differencing approximation to diffusion can increase into the thousands on present day machines, causing an associated increase in communication costs. We therefore consider algebraically truncating coarse grid stencils to obtain a non-Galerkin coarse grid. First, the sparsity pattern of the non-Galerkin coarse grid is determined by employing a heuristic minimal “safe” pattern together with strength-of-connection ideas. Second, the nonzero entries are determined by collapsing the stencils in the Galerkin operator using traditional AMG techniques. The result is a reduction in coarse grid stencil size, overall operator complexity, and parallel AMG solve phase times.
Henson, V E
2003-02-06
The purpose of this research project was to investigate, design, and implement new algebraic multigrid (AMG) algorithms to enable the effective use of AMG in large-scale multiphysics simulation codes. These problems are extremely large; storage requirements and excessive run-time make direct solvers infeasible. The problems are highly ill-conditioned, so that existing iterative solvers either fail or converge very slowly. While existing AMG algorithms have been shown to be robust and stable for a large class of problems, there are certain problems of great interest to the Laboratory for which no effective algorithm existed prior to this research.
Algebraic multigrid domain and range decomposition (AMG-DD / AMG-RD)*
Bank, R.; Falgout, R. D.; Jones, T.; Manteuffel, T. A.; McCormick, S. F.; Ruge, J. W.
2015-10-29
In modern large-scale supercomputing applications, algebraic multigrid (AMG) is a leading choice for solving matrix equations. However, the high cost of communication relative to that of computation is a concern for the scalability of traditional implementations of AMG on emerging architectures. This paper introduces two new algebraic multilevel algorithms, algebraic multigrid domain decomposition (AMG-DD) and algebraic multigrid range decomposition (AMG-RD), that replace traditional AMG V-cycles with a fully overlapping domain decomposition approach. While the methods introduced here are similar in spirit to the geometric methods developed by Brandt and Diskin [Multigrid solvers on decomposed domains, in Domain Decomposition Methods inmore » Science and Engineering, Contemp. Math. 157, AMS, Providence, RI, 1994, pp. 135--155], Mitchell [Electron. Trans. Numer. Anal., 6 (1997), pp. 224--233], and Bank and Holst [SIAM J. Sci. Comput., 22 (2000), pp. 1411--1443], they differ primarily in that they are purely algebraic: AMG-RD and AMG-DD trade communication for computation by forming global composite “grids” based only on the matrix, not the geometry. (As is the usual AMG convention, “grids” here should be taken only in the algebraic sense, regardless of whether or not it corresponds to any geometry.) Another important distinguishing feature of AMG-RD and AMG-DD is their novel residual communication process that enables effective parallel computation on composite grids, avoiding the all-to-all communication costs of the geometric methods. The main purpose of this paper is to study the potential of these two algebraic methods as possible alternatives to existing AMG approaches for future parallel machines. As a result, this paper develops some theoretical properties of these methods and reports on serial numerical tests of their convergence properties over a spectrum of problem parameters.« less
Algebraic multigrid domain and range decomposition (AMG-DD / AMG-RD)*
Bank, R.; Falgout, R. D.; Jones, T.; Manteuffel, T. A.; McCormick, S. F.; Ruge, J. W.
2015-10-29
In modern large-scale supercomputing applications, algebraic multigrid (AMG) is a leading choice for solving matrix equations. However, the high cost of communication relative to that of computation is a concern for the scalability of traditional implementations of AMG on emerging architectures. This paper introduces two new algebraic multilevel algorithms, algebraic multigrid domain decomposition (AMG-DD) and algebraic multigrid range decomposition (AMG-RD), that replace traditional AMG V-cycles with a fully overlapping domain decomposition approach. While the methods introduced here are similar in spirit to the geometric methods developed by Brandt and Diskin [Multigrid solvers on decomposed domains, in Domain Decomposition Methods in Science and Engineering, Contemp. Math. 157, AMS, Providence, RI, 1994, pp. 135--155], Mitchell [Electron. Trans. Numer. Anal., 6 (1997), pp. 224--233], and Bank and Holst [SIAM J. Sci. Comput., 22 (2000), pp. 1411--1443], they differ primarily in that they are purely algebraic: AMG-RD and AMG-DD trade communication for computation by forming global composite “grids” based only on the matrix, not the geometry. (As is the usual AMG convention, “grids” here should be taken only in the algebraic sense, regardless of whether or not it corresponds to any geometry.) Another important distinguishing feature of AMG-RD and AMG-DD is their novel residual communication process that enables effective parallel computation on composite grids, avoiding the all-to-all communication costs of the geometric methods. The main purpose of this paper is to study the potential of these two algebraic methods as possible alternatives to existing AMG approaches for future parallel machines. As a result, this paper develops some theoretical properties of these methods and reports on serial numerical tests of their convergence properties over a spectrum of problem parameters.
Transonic Drag Prediction Using an Unstructured Multigrid Solver
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Mavriplis, D. J.; Levy, David W.
2001-01-01
This paper summarizes the results obtained with the NSU-3D unstructured multigrid solver for the AIAA Drag Prediction Workshop held in Anaheim, CA, June 2001. The test case for the workshop consists of a wing-body configuration at transonic flow conditions. Flow analyses for a complete test matrix of lift coefficient values and Mach numbers at a constant Reynolds number are performed, thus producing a set of drag polars and drag rise curves which are compared with experimental data. Results were obtained independently by both authors using an identical baseline grid and different refined grids. Most cases were run in parallel on commodity cluster-type machines while the largest cases were run on an SGI Origin machine using 128 processors. The objective of this paper is to study the accuracy of the subject unstructured grid solver for predicting drag in the transonic cruise regime, to assess the efficiency of the method in terms of convergence, cpu time, and memory, and to determine the effects of grid resolution on this predictive ability and its computational efficiency. A good predictive ability is demonstrated over a wide range of conditions, although accuracy was found to degrade for cases at higher Mach numbers and lift values where increasing amounts of flow separation occur. The ability to rapidly compute large numbers of cases at varying flow conditions using an unstructured solver on inexpensive clusters of commodity computers is also demonstrated.
Multiple Vector Preserving Interpolation Mappings in Algebraic Multigrid
Vassilevski, P S; Zikatanov, L T
2004-11-03
We propose algorithms for the construction of AMG (algebraic multigrid) interpolation mappings such that the resulting coarse space to span (locally and globally) any number of a priori given set of vectors. Specific constructions in the case of element agglomeration AMG methods are given. Some numerical illustration is also provided.
Coarse-grid selection for parallel algebraic multigrid
Cleary, A. J., LLNL
1998-06-01
The need to solve linear systems arising from problems posed on extremely large, unstructured grids has sparked great interest in parallelizing algebraic multigrid (AMG) To date, however, no parallel AMG algorithms exist We introduce a parallel algorithm for the selection of coarse-grid points, a crucial component of AMG, based on modifications of certain paallel independent set algorithms and the application of heuristics designed to insure the quality of the coarse grids A prototype serial version of the algorithm is implemented, and tests are conducted to determine its effect on multigrid convergence, and AMG complexity
Integration of a Multigrid ODE solver into an open medical simulation framework.
Wu, Xunlei; Yao, Jianhua; Enquobahrie, Andinet; Lee, Huai-Ping; Audette, Michel A
2012-01-01
In this paper, we present the implementation of a Multigrid ODE solver in SOFA framework. By combining the stability advantage of coarse meshes and the transient detail preserving virtue of fine meshes, Multigrid ODE solver computes more efficiently than classic ODE solvers based on a single level discretization. With the ever wider adoption of the SOFA framework in many surgical simulation projects, introducing this Multigrid ODE solver into SOFA's pool of ODE solvers shall benefit the entire community. This contribution potentially has broad ramifications in the surgical simulation research community, given that in a single-resolution system, a constitutively realistic interactive tissue response, which presupposes large elements, is in direct conflict with the need to represent clinically relevant critical tissues in the simulation, which are typically be comprised of small elements. PMID:23366578
Element Agglomeration Algebraic Multigrid and Upscaling Library
2015-02-11
ELAG is a serial C++ library for numerical upscaling of finite element discretizations. It provides optimal complexity algorithms to build multilevel hierarchies and solvers that can be used for solving a wide class of partial differential equation (elliptic, hyperbolic, saddle point problems) on general unstructured mesh. Additionally, a novel multilevel solver for saddle point problems with divergence constraint is implemented.
A multiblock multigrid three-dimensional Euler equation solver
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Cannizzaro, Frank E.; Elmiligui, Alaa; Melson, N. Duane; Vonlavante, E.
1990-01-01
Current aerodynamic designs are often quite complex (geometrically). Flexible computational tools are needed for the analysis of a wide range of configurations with both internal and external flows. In the past, geometrically dissimilar configurations required different analysis codes with different grid topologies in each. The duplicity of codes can be avoided with the use of a general multiblock formulation which can handle any grid topology. Rather than hard wiring the grid topology into the program, it is instead dictated by input to the program. In this work, the compressible Euler equations, written in a body-fitted finite-volume formulation, are solved using a pseudo-time-marching approach. Two upwind methods (van Leer's flux-vector-splitting and Roe's flux-differencing) were investigated. Two types of explicit solvers (a two-step predictor-corrector and a modified multistage Runge-Kutta) were used with multigrid acceleration to enhance convergence. A multiblock strategy is used to allow greater geometric flexibility. A report on simple explicit upwind schemes for solving compressible flows is included.
A multigrid solver for semi-implicit global shallow-water models
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Barros, Saulo R. M.; Dee, Dick P.; Dickstein, Flavio
1990-01-01
A multigrid solver is developed for the discretized two-dimensional elliptic equation on the sphere that arises from a semiimplicit time discretization of the global shallow-water equations. Different formulations of the semiimplicit scheme result in variable-coefficient Helmholtz-type equations for which no fast direct solvers are available. The efficiency of the multigrid solver is optimal, in the sense that the total operation count is proportional to the number of unknowns. Numerical experiments using initial data derived from actual 300-mb height and wind velocity fields indicate that the present model has very good accuracy and stability properties.
Vectorized multigrid Poisson solver for the CDC CYBER 205
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Barkai, D.; Brandt, M. A.
1984-01-01
The full multigrid (FMG) method is applied to the two dimensional Poisson equation with Dirichlet boundary conditions. This has been chosen as a relatively simple test case for examining the efficiency of fully vectorizing of the multigrid method. Data structure and programming considerations and techniques are discussed, accompanied by performance details.
Gao, Hao; Phan, Lan; Lin, Yuting
2012-09-01
A graphics processing unit-based parallel multigrid solver for a radiative transfer equation with vacuum boundary condition or reflection boundary condition is presented for heterogeneous media with complex geometry based on two-dimensional triangular meshes or three-dimensional tetrahedral meshes. The computational complexity of this parallel solver is linearly proportional to the degrees of freedom in both angular and spatial variables, while the full multigrid method is utilized to minimize the number of iterations. The overall gain of speed is roughly 30 to 300 fold with respect to our prior multigrid solver, which depends on the underlying regime and the parallelization. The numerical validations are presented with the MATLAB codes at https://sites.google.com/site/rtefastsolver/. PMID:23085905
Coarse Spaces by Algebraic Multigrid: Multigrid Convergence and Upscaled Error Estimates
Vassilevski, P S
2010-04-30
We give an overview of a number of algebraic multigrid methods targeting finite element discretization problems. The focus is on the properties of the constructed hierarchy of coarse spaces that guarantee (two-grid) convergence. In particular, a necessary condition known as 'weak approximation property', and a sufficient one, referred to as 'strong approximation property' are discussed. Their role in proving convergence of the TG method (as iterative method) and also on the approximation properties of the AMG coarse spaces if used as discretization tool is pointed out. Some preliminary numerical results illustrating the latter aspect are also reported.
Algebraic multigrid methods applied to problems in computational structural mechanics
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Mccormick, Steve; Ruge, John
1989-01-01
The development of algebraic multigrid (AMG) methods and their application to certain problems in structural mechanics are described with emphasis on two- and three-dimensional linear elasticity equations and the 'jacket problems' (three-dimensional beam structures). Various possible extensions of AMG are also described. The basic idea of AMG is to develop the discretization sequence based on the target matrix and not the differential equation. Therefore, the matrix is analyzed for certain dependencies that permit the proper construction of coarser matrices and attendant transfer operators. In this manner, AMG appears to be adaptable to structural analysis applications.
Black box multigrid solver for definite and indefinite problems
Shapira, Yair
1997-02-01
A two-level analysis method for certain separable problems is introduced. It motivates the definition of improved versions of Black Box Multigrid for diffusion problems with discontinuous coefficients and indefinite Helmholtz equations. For anisotropic problems, it helps in choosing suitable implementations for frequency decomposition multigrid methods. For highly indefinite problems, it provides a way to choose in advance a suitable mesh size for the coarsest grid used. Numerical experiments confirm the analysis and show the advantage of the present methods for several examples.
Multigrid Strategies for Viscous Flow Solvers on Anisotropic Unstructured Meshes
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Movriplis, Dimitri J.
1998-01-01
Unstructured multigrid techniques for relieving the stiffness associated with high-Reynolds number viscous flow simulations on extremely stretched grids are investigated. One approach consists of employing a semi-coarsening or directional-coarsening technique, based on the directions of strong coupling within the mesh, in order to construct more optimal coarse grid levels. An alternate approach is developed which employs directional implicit smoothing with regular fully coarsened multigrid levels. The directional implicit smoothing is obtained by constructing implicit lines in the unstructured mesh based on the directions of strong coupling. Both approaches yield large increases in convergence rates over the traditional explicit full-coarsening multigrid algorithm. However, maximum benefits are achieved by combining the two approaches in a coupled manner into a single algorithm. An order of magnitude increase in convergence rate over the traditional explicit full-coarsening algorithm is demonstrated, and convergence rates for high-Reynolds number viscous flows which are independent of the grid aspect ratio are obtained. Further acceleration is provided by incorporating low-Mach-number preconditioning techniques, and a Newton-GMRES strategy which employs the multigrid scheme as a preconditioner. The compounding effects of these various techniques on speed of convergence is documented through several example test cases.
Algebraic Multigrid by Smoothed Aggregation for Second and Fourth Order Elliptic Problems
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Vanek, Petr; Mandel, Jan; Brezina, Marian
1996-01-01
Multigrid methods are very efficient iterative solvers for system of algebraic equations arising from finite element and finite difference discretization of elliptic boundary value problems. The main principle of multigrid methods is to complement the local exchange of information in point-wise iterative methods by a global one utilizing several related systems, called coarse levels, with a smaller number of variables. The coarse levels are often obtained as a hierarchy of discretizations with different characteristic meshsizes, but this requires that the discretization is controlled by the iterative method. To solve linear systems produced by existing finite element software, one needs to create an artificial hierarchy of coarse problems. The principal issue is then to obtain computational complexity and approximation properties similar to those for nested meshes, using only information in the matrix of the system and as little extra information as possible. Such algebraic multigrid method that uses the system matrix only was developed by Ruge. The prolongations were based on the matrix of the system by partial solution from given values at selected coarse points. The coarse grid points were selected so that each point would be interpolated to via so-called strong connections. Our approach is based on smoothed aggregation introduced recently by Vanek. First the set of nodes is decomposed into small mutually disjoint subsets. A tentative piecewise constant interpolation (in the discrete sense) is then defined on those subsets as piecewise constant for second order problems, and piecewise linear for fourth order problems. The prolongation operator is then obtained by smoothing the output of the tentative prolongation and coarse level operators are defined variationally.
A Parallel Multigrid Solver for Viscous Flows on Anisotropic Structured Grids
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Prieto, Manuel; Montero, Ruben S.; Llorente, Ignacio M.; Bushnell, Dennis M. (Technical Monitor)
2001-01-01
This paper presents an efficient parallel multigrid solver for speeding up the computation of a 3-D model that treats the flow of a viscous fluid over a flat plate. The main interest of this simulation lies in exhibiting some basic difficulties that prevent optimal multigrid efficiencies from being achieved. As the computing platform, we have used Coral, a Beowulf-class system based on Intel Pentium processors and equipped with GigaNet cLAN and switched Fast Ethernet networks. Our study not only examines the scalability of the solver but also includes a performance evaluation of Coral where the investigated solver has been used to compare several of its design choices, namely, the interconnection network (GigaNet versus switched Fast-Ethernet) and the node configuration (dual nodes versus single nodes). As a reference, the performance results have been compared with those obtained with the NAS-MG benchmark.
Algebraic Multiscale Solver for Elastic Geomechanical Deformation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Castelletto, N.; Hajibeygi, H.; Tchelepi, H.
2015-12-01
Predicting the geomechanical response of geological formations to thermal, pressure, and mechanical loading is important in many engineering applications. The mathematical formulation that describes deformation of a reservoir coupled with flow and transport entails heterogeneous coefficients with a wide range of length scales. Such detailed heterogeneous descriptions of reservoir properties impose severe computational challenges for the study of realistic-scale (km) reservoirs. To deal with these challenges, we developed an Algebraic Multiscale Solver for ELastic geomechanical deformation (EL-AMS). Constructed on finite element fine-scale system, EL-AMS imposes a coarse-scale grid, which is a non-overlapping decomposition of the domain. Then, local (coarse) basis functions for the displacement vector are introduced. These basis functions honor the elastic properties of the local domains subject to the imposed local boundary conditions. The basis form the Restriction and Prolongation operators. These operators allow for the construction of accurate coarse-scale systems for the displacement. While the multiscale system is efficient for resolving low-frequency errors, coupling it with a fine-scale smoother, e.g., ILU(0), leads to an efficient iterative solver. Numerical results for several test cases illustrate that EL-AMS is quite efficient and applicable to simulate elastic deformation of large-scale heterogeneous reservoirs.
Directional Agglomeration Multigrid Techniques for High Reynolds Number Viscous Flow Solvers
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
1998-01-01
A preconditioned directional-implicit agglomeration algorithm is developed for solving two- and three-dimensional viscous flows on highly anisotropic unstructured meshes of mixed-element types. The multigrid smoother consists of a pre-conditioned point- or line-implicit solver which operates on lines constructed in the unstructured mesh using a weighted graph algorithm. Directional coarsening or agglomeration is achieved using a similar weighted graph algorithm. A tight coupling of the line construction and directional agglomeration algorithms enables the use of aggressive coarsening ratios in the multigrid algorithm, which in turn reduces the cost of a multigrid cycle. Convergence rates which are independent of the degree of grid stretching are demonstrated in both two and three dimensions. Further improvement of the three-dimensional convergence rates through a GMRES technique is also demonstrated.
Using computer algebra and SMT solvers in algebraic biology
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pineda Osorio, Mateo
2014-05-01
Biologic processes are represented as Boolean networks, in a discrete time. The dynamics within these networks are approached with the help of SMT Solvers and the use of computer algebra. Software such as Maple and Z3 was used in this case. The number of stationary states for each network was calculated. The network studied here corresponds to the immune system under the effects of drastic mood changes. Mood is considered as a Boolean variable that affects the entire dynamics of the immune system, changing the Boolean satisfiability and the number of stationary states of the immune network. Results obtained show Z3's great potential as a SMT Solver. Some of these results were verified in Maple, even though it showed not to be as suitable for the problem approach. The solving code was constructed using Z3-Python and Z3-SMT-LiB. Results obtained are important in biology systems and are expected to help in the design of immune therapies. As a future line of research, more complex Boolean network representations of the immune system as well as the whole psychological apparatus are suggested.
Adaptive Algebraic Multigrid for Finite Element Elliptic Equations with Random Coefficients
Kalchev, D
2012-04-02
This thesis presents a two-grid algorithm based on Smoothed Aggregation Spectral Element Agglomeration Algebraic Multigrid (SA-{rho}AMGe) combined with adaptation. The aim is to build an efficient solver for the linear systems arising from discretization of second-order elliptic partial differential equations (PDEs) with stochastic coefficients. Examples include PDEs that model subsurface flow with random permeability field. During a Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) simulation process, that draws PDE coefficient samples from a certain distribution, the PDE coefficients change, hence the resulting linear systems to be solved change. At every such step the system (discretized PDE) needs to be solved and the computed solution used to evaluate some functional(s) of interest that then determine if the coefficient sample is acceptable or not. The MCMC process is hence computationally intensive and requires the solvers used to be efficient and fast. This fact that at every step of MCMC the resulting linear system changes, makes an already existing solver built for the old problem perhaps not as efficient for the problem corresponding to the new sampled coefficient. This motivates the main goal of our study, namely, to adapt an already existing solver to handle the problem (with changed coefficient) with the objective to achieve this goal to be faster and more efficient than building a completely new solver from scratch. Our approach utilizes the local element matrices (for the problem with changed coefficients) to build local problems associated with constructed by the method agglomerated elements (a set of subdomains that cover the given computational domain). We solve a generalized eigenproblem for each set in a subspace spanned by the previous local coarse space (used for the old solver) and a vector, component of the error, that the old solver cannot handle. A portion of the spectrum of these local eigen-problems (corresponding to eigenvalues close to zero) form the
Geometric and algebraic multigrid techniques for fluid dynamics problems on unstructured grids
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Volkov, K. N.; Emel'yanov, V. N.; Teterina, I. V.
2016-02-01
Issues concerning the implementation and practical application of geometric and algebraic multigrid techniques for solving systems of difference equations generated by the finite volume discretization of the Euler and Navier-Stokes equations on unstructured grids are studied. The construction of prolongation and interpolation operators, as well as grid levels of various resolutions, is discussed. The results of the application of geometric and algebraic multigrid techniques for the simulation of inviscid and viscous compressible fluid flows over an airfoil are compared. Numerical results show that geometric methods ensure faster convergence and weakly depend on the method parameters, while the efficiency of algebraic methods considerably depends on the input parameters.
Three-Dimensional High-Lift Analysis Using a Parallel Unstructured Multigrid Solver
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Mavriplis, Dimitri J.
1998-01-01
A directional implicit unstructured agglomeration multigrid solver is ported to shared and distributed memory massively parallel machines using the explicit domain-decomposition and message-passing approach. Because the algorithm operates on local implicit lines in the unstructured mesh, special care is required in partitioning the problem for parallel computing. A weighted partitioning strategy is described which avoids breaking the implicit lines across processor boundaries, while incurring minimal additional communication overhead. Good scalability is demonstrated on a 128 processor SGI Origin 2000 machine and on a 512 processor CRAY T3E machine for reasonably fine grids. The feasibility of performing large-scale unstructured grid calculations with the parallel multigrid algorithm is demonstrated by computing the flow over a partial-span flap wing high-lift geometry on a highly resolved grid of 13.5 million points in approximately 4 hours of wall clock time on the CRAY T3E.
Distance-Two Interpolation for Parallel Algebraic Multigrid
De Sterck, H; Falgout, R; Nolting, J; Yang, U M
2007-05-08
Algebraic multigrid (AMG) is one of the most efficient and scalable parallel algorithms for solving sparse linear systems on unstructured grids. However, for large three-dimensional problems, the coarse grids that are normally used in AMG often lead to growing complexity in terms of memory use and execution time per AMG V-cycle. Sparser coarse grids, such as those obtained by the Parallel Modified Independent Set coarsening algorithm (PMIS) [7], remedy this complexity growth, but lead to non-scalable AMG convergence factors when traditional distance-one interpolation methods are used. In this paper we study the scalability of AMG methods that combine PMIS coarse grids with long distance interpolation methods. AMG performance and scalability is compared for previously introduced interpolation methods as well as new variants of them for a variety of relevant test problems on parallel computers. It is shown that the increased interpolation accuracy largely restores the scalability of AMG convergence factors for PMIS-coarsened grids, and in combination with complexity reducing methods, such as interpolation truncation, one obtains a class of parallel AMG methods that enjoy excellent scalability properties on large parallel computers.
A simplified analysis of the multigrid V-cycle as a fast elliptic solver
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Decker, Naomi H.; Taasan, Shlomo
1988-01-01
For special model problems, Fourier analysis gives exact convergence rates for the two-grid multigrid cycle and, for more general problems, provides estimates of the two-grid convergence rates via local mode analysis. A method is presented for obtaining mutigrid convergence rate estimates for cycles involving more than two grids (using essentially the same analysis as for the two-grid cycle). For the simple cast of the V-cycle used as a fast Laplace solver on the unit square, the k-grid convergence rate bounds obtained by this method are sharper than the bounds predicted by the variational theory. Both theoretical justification and experimental evidence are presented.
A catheterization-training simulator based on a fast multigrid solver.
Li, Shun; Guo, Jixiang; Wang, Qiong; Meng, Qiang; Chui, Yim-Pan; Qin, Jing; Heng, Pheng-Ann
2012-01-01
A VR-based simulator helps trainees develop skills for catheterization, a fundamental but difficult procedure in vascular interventional radiology. A deformable model simulates the complicated behavior of guide wires and catheters, using the principle of minimum total potential energy. A fast, stable multigrid solver ensures realistic simulation and real-time interaction. In addition, the system employs geometrically and topologically accurate vascular models based on improved parallel-transport frames, and it implements efficient collision detection. Experiments evaluated the method's stability, the solver's execution time, how well the simulation preserved the catheter's curved tip, and the catheter deformation's realism. An empirical study based on a typical selective-catheterization procedure assessed the system's feasibility and effectiveness. PMID:24807310
A monolithic FEM-multigrid solver for non-isothermal incompressible flow on general meshes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Damanik, H.; Hron, J.; Ouazzi, A.; Turek, S.
2009-06-01
We present special numerical simulation methods for non-isothermal incompressible viscous fluids which are based on LBB-stable FEM discretization techniques together with monolithic multigrid solvers. For time discretization, we apply the fully implicit Crank-Nicolson scheme of 2nd order accuracy while we utilize the high order Q2P1 finite element pair for discretization in space which can be applied on general meshes together with local grid refinement strategies including hanging nodes. To treat the nonlinearities in each time step as well as for direct steady approaches, the resulting discrete systems are solved via a Newton method based on divided differences to calculate explicitly the Jacobian matrices. In each nonlinear step, the coupled linear subproblems are solved simultaneously for all quantities by means of a monolithic multigrid method with local multilevel pressure Schur complement smoothers of Vanka type. For validation and evaluation of the presented methodology, we perform the MIT benchmark 2001 [M.A. Christon, P.M. Gresho, S.B. Sutton, Computational predictability of natural convection flows in enclosures, in: First MIT Conference on Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics, vol. 40, Elsevier, 2001, pp. 1465-1468] of natural convection flow in enclosures to compare our results with respect to accuracy and efficiency. Additionally, we simulate problems with temperature and shear dependent viscosity and analyze the effect of an additional dissipation term inside the energy equation. Moreover, we discuss how these FEM-multigrid techniques can be extended to monolithic approaches for viscoelastic flow problems.
A three dimensional multigrid Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes solver for unstructured meshes
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Mavriplis, D. J.
1994-01-01
A three-dimensional unstructured mesh Reynolds averaged Navier-Stokes solver is described. Turbulence is simulated using a single field-equation model. Computational overheads are minimized through the use of a single edge-based data-structure, and efficient multigrid solution technique, and the use of multi-tasking on shared memory multi-processors. The accuracy and efficiency of the code are evaluated by computing two-dimensional flows in three dimensions and comparing with results from a previously validated two-dimensional code which employs the same solution algorithm. The feasibility of computing three-dimensional flows on grids of several million points in less than two hours of wall clock time is demonstrated.
Srinath Vadlamani; Scott Kruger; Travis Austin
2008-06-19
Extended magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) codes are used to model the large, slow-growing instabilities that are projected to limit the performance of International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER). The multiscale nature of the extended MHD equations requires an implicit approach. The current linear solvers needed for the implicit algorithm scale poorly because the resultant matrices are so ill-conditioned. A new solver is needed, especially one that scales to the petascale. The most successful scalable parallel processor solvers to date are multigrid solvers. Applying multigrid techniques to a set of equations whose fundamental modes are dispersive waves is a promising solution to CEMM problems. For the Phase 1, we implemented multigrid preconditioners from the HYPRE project of the Center for Applied Scientific Computing at LLNL via PETSc of the DOE SciDAC TOPS for the real matrix systems of the extended MHD code NIMROD which is a one of the primary modeling codes of the OFES-funded Center for Extended Magnetohydrodynamic Modeling (CEMM) SciDAC. We implemented the multigrid solvers on the fusion test problem that allows for real matrix systems with success, and in the process learned about the details of NIMROD data structures and the difficulties of inverting NIMROD operators. The further success of this project will allow for efficient usage of future petascale computers at the National Leadership Facilities: Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Argonne National Laboratory, and National Energy Research Scientific Computing Center. The project will be a collaborative effort between computational plasma physicists and applied mathematicians at Tech-X Corporation, applied mathematicians Front Range Scientific Computations, Inc. (who are collaborators on the HYPRE project), and other computational plasma physicists involved with the CEMM project.
Smoothed aggregation adaptive spectral element-based algebraic multigrid
2015-01-20
SAAMGE provides parallel methods for building multilevel hierarchies and solvers that can be used for elliptic equations with highly heterogeneous coefficients. Additionally, hierarchy adaptation is implemented allowing solving multiple problems with close coefficients without rebuilding the hierarchy.
Parallel Element Agglomeration Algebraic Multigrid and Upscaling Library
2015-02-19
ParFELAG is a parallel distributed memory C++ library for numerical upscaling of finite element discretizations. It provides optimal complesity algorithms ro build multilevel hierarchies and solvers that can be used for solving a wide class of partial differential equations (elliptic, hyperbolic, saddle point problems) on general unstructured mesh (under the assumption that the topology of the agglomerated entities is correct). Additionally, a novel multilevel solver for saddle point problems with divergence constraint is implemented.
A new Rayleigh quotient minimization algorithm based on algebraic multigrid.
Lehoucq, Richard B.; Hetmaniuk, Ulrich L.
2005-01-01
Mandel and McCormick [2] introduced the RQMG method, which approximately minimizes the Rayleigh quotient over a sequence of grids. In this talk, we will present an algebraic extension. We replace the geometric mesh information with the algebraic information defined by an AMG preconditioner. At each level, we improve the smoother to accelerate the convergence. With a series of numerical experiments, we assess the efficiency of this new algorithm to compute several eigenpairs.
Ruge, J.; Li, Y.; McCormick, S.F.
1994-12-31
The formulation and time discretization of problems in meteorology are often tailored to the type of efficient solvers available for use on the discrete problems obtained. A common procedure is to formulate the problem so that a constant (or latitude-dependent) coefficient Poisson-like equation results at each time step, which is then solved using spectral methods. This both limits the scope of problems that can be handled and requires linearization by forward extrapolation of nonlinear terms, which, in turn, requires filtering to control noise. Multigrid methods do not suffer these limitations, and can be applied directly to systems of nonlinear equations with variable coefficients. Here, a global barotropic semi-Lagrangian model, developed by the authors, is presented which results in a system of three coupled nonlinear equations to be solved at each time step. A multigrid method for the solution of these equations is described, and results are presented.
The development of an algebraic multigrid algorithm for symmetric positive definite linear systems
Vanek, P.; Mandel, J.; Brezina, M.
1996-12-31
An algebraic multigrid algorithm for symmetric, positive definite linear systems is developed based on the concept of prolongation by smoothed aggregation. Coarse levels are generated automatically. We present a set of requirements motivated heuristically by a convergence theory. The algorithm then attempts to satisfy the requirements. Input to the method are the coefficient matrix and zero energy modes, which are determined from nodal coordinates and knowledge of the differential equation. Efficiency of the resulting algorithm is demonstrated by computational results on real world problems from solid elasticity, plate blending, and shells.
Recent Advances in Agglomerated Multigrid
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Nishikawa, Hiroaki; Diskin, Boris; Thomas, James L.; Hammond, Dana P.
2013-01-01
We report recent advancements of the agglomerated multigrid methodology for complex flow simulations on fully unstructured grids. An agglomerated multigrid solver is applied to a wide range of test problems from simple two-dimensional geometries to realistic three- dimensional configurations. The solver is evaluated against a single-grid solver and, in some cases, against a structured-grid multigrid solver. Grid and solver issues are identified and overcome, leading to significant improvements over single-grid solvers.
An overlapped grid method for multigrid, finite volume/difference flow solvers: MaGGiE
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Baysal, Oktay; Lessard, Victor R.
1990-01-01
The objective is to develop a domain decomposition method via overlapping/embedding the component grids, which is to be used by upwind, multi-grid, finite volume solution algorithms. A computer code, given the name MaGGiE (Multi-Geometry Grid Embedder) is developed to meet this objective. MaGGiE takes independently generated component grids as input, and automatically constructs the composite mesh and interpolation data, which can be used by the finite volume solution methods with or without multigrid convergence acceleration. Six demonstrative examples showing various aspects of the overlap technique are presented and discussed. These cases are used for developing the procedure for overlapping grids of different topologies, and to evaluate the grid connection and interpolation data for finite volume calculations on a composite mesh. Time fluxes are transferred between mesh interfaces using a trilinear interpolation procedure. Conservation losses are minimal at the interfaces using this method. The multi-grid solution algorithm, using the coaser grid connections, improves the convergence time history as compared to the solution on composite mesh without multi-gridding.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Gang; Zhang, Lili; Hao, Tianyao
2016-02-01
An effective solver for the large complex system of linear equations is critical for improving the accuracy of numerical solutions in three-dimensional (3D) magnetotelluric (MT) modeling using the staggered finite-difference (SFD) method. In electromagnetic modeling, the formed system of linear equations is commonly solved using preconditioned iterative relaxation methods. We present 3D MT modeling using the SFD method, based on former work. The multigrid solver and three solvers preconditioned by incomplete Cholesky decomposition—the minimum residual method, the generalized product bi-conjugate gradient method and the bi-conjugate gradient stabilized method—are used to solve the formed system of linear equations. Divergence correction for the magnetic field is applied. We also present a comparison of the stability and convergence of these iterative solvers if divergence correction is used. Model tests show that divergence correction improves the convergence of iterative solvers and the accuracy of numerical results. Divergence correction can also decrease the number of iterations for fast convergence without changing the stability of linear solvers. For consideration of the computation time and memory requirements, the multigrid solver combined with divergence correction is preferred for 3D MT field simulation.
Multigrid solver for the reference interaction site model of molecular liquids theory.
Sergiievskyi, Volodymyr P; Hackbusch, Wolfgang; Fedorov, Maxim V
2011-07-15
In this article, we propose a new multigrid-based algorithm for solving integral equations of the reference interactions site model (RISM). We also investigate the relationship between the parameters of the algorithm and the numerical accuracy of the hydration free energy calculations by RISM. For this purpose, we analyzed the performance of the method for several numerical tests with polar and nonpolar compounds. The results of this analysis provide some guidelines for choosing an optimal set of parameters to minimize computational expenses. We compared the performance of the proposed multigrid-based method with the one-grid Picard iteration and nested Picard iteration methods. We show that the proposed method is over 30 times faster than the one-grid iteration method, and in the high accuracy regime, it is almost seven times faster than the nested Picard iteration method. PMID:21455965
A unified multigrid solver for the Navier-Stokes equations on mixed element meshes
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Mavriplis, D. J.; Venkatakrishnan, V.
1995-01-01
A unified multigrid solution technique is presented for solving the Euler and Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes equations on unstructured meshes using mixed elements consisting of triangles and quadrilaterals in two dimensions, and of hexahedra, pyramids, prisms, and tetrahedra in three dimensions. While the use of mixed elements is by no means a novel idea, the contribution of the paper lies in the formulation of a complete solution technique which can handle structured grids, block structured grids, and unstructured grids of tetrahedra or mixed elements without any modification. This is achieved by discretizing the full Navier-Stokes equations on tetrahedral elements, and the thin layer version of these equations on other types of elements, while using a single edge-based data-structure to construct the discretization over all element types. An agglomeration multigrid algorithm, which naturally handles meshes of any types of elements, is employed to accelerate convergence. An automatic algorithm which reduces the complexity of a given triangular or tetrahedral mesh by merging candidate triangular or tetrahedral elements into quadrilateral or prismatic elements is also described. The gains in computational efficiency afforded by the use of non-simplicial meshes over fully tetrahedral meshes are demonstrated through several examples.
The mixed finite element multigrid method for stokes equations.
Muzhinji, K; Shateyi, S; Motsa, S S
2015-01-01
The stable finite element discretization of the Stokes problem produces a symmetric indefinite system of linear algebraic equations. A variety of iterative solvers have been proposed for such systems in an attempt to construct efficient, fast, and robust solution techniques. This paper investigates one of such iterative solvers, the geometric multigrid solver, to find the approximate solution of the indefinite systems. The main ingredient of the multigrid method is the choice of an appropriate smoothing strategy. This study considers the application of different smoothers and compares their effects in the overall performance of the multigrid solver. We study the multigrid method with the following smoothers: distributed Gauss Seidel, inexact Uzawa, preconditioned MINRES, and Braess-Sarazin type smoothers. A comparative study of the smoothers shows that the Braess-Sarazin smoothers enhance good performance of the multigrid method. We study the problem in a two-dimensional domain using stable Hood-Taylor Q2-Q1 pair of finite rectangular elements. We also give the main theoretical convergence results. We present the numerical results to demonstrate the efficiency and robustness of the multigrid method and confirm the theoretical results. PMID:25945361
The Mixed Finite Element Multigrid Method for Stokes Equations
Muzhinji, K.; Shateyi, S.; Motsa, S. S.
2015-01-01
The stable finite element discretization of the Stokes problem produces a symmetric indefinite system of linear algebraic equations. A variety of iterative solvers have been proposed for such systems in an attempt to construct efficient, fast, and robust solution techniques. This paper investigates one of such iterative solvers, the geometric multigrid solver, to find the approximate solution of the indefinite systems. The main ingredient of the multigrid method is the choice of an appropriate smoothing strategy. This study considers the application of different smoothers and compares their effects in the overall performance of the multigrid solver. We study the multigrid method with the following smoothers: distributed Gauss Seidel, inexact Uzawa, preconditioned MINRES, and Braess-Sarazin type smoothers. A comparative study of the smoothers shows that the Braess-Sarazin smoothers enhance good performance of the multigrid method. We study the problem in a two-dimensional domain using stable Hood-Taylor Q2-Q1 pair of finite rectangular elements. We also give the main theoretical convergence results. We present the numerical results to demonstrate the efficiency and robustness of the multigrid method and confirm the theoretical results. PMID:25945361
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jönsthövel, T. B.; van Gijzen, M. B.; MacLachlan, S.; Vuik, C.; Scarpas, A.
2012-09-01
Many applications in computational science and engineering concern composite materials, which are characterized by large discontinuities in the material properties. Such applications require fine-scale finite-element meshes, which lead to large linear systems that are challenging to solve with current direct and iterative solutions algorithms. In this paper, we consider the simulation of asphalt concrete, which is a mixture of components with large differences in material stiffness. The discontinuities in material stiffness give rise to many small eigenvalues that negatively affect the convergence of iterative solution algorithms such as the preconditioned conjugate gradient (PCG) method. This paper considers the deflated preconditioned conjugate gradient (DPCG) method in which the rigid body modes of sets of elements with homogeneous material properties are used as deflation vectors. As preconditioner we consider several variants of the algebraic multigrid smoothed aggregation method. We evaluate the performance of the DPCG method on a parallel computer using up to 64 processors. Our test problems are derived from real asphalt core samples, obtained using CT scans. We show that the DPCG method is an efficient and robust technique for solving these challenging linear systems.
Development of an explicit multiblock/multigrid flow solver for viscous flows in complex geometries
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Steinthorsson, E.; Liou, M. S.; Povinelli, L. A.
1993-01-01
A new computer program is being developed for doing accurate simulations of compressible viscous flows in complex geometries. The code employs the full compressible Navier-Stokes equations. The eddy viscosity model of Baldwin and Lomax is used to model the effects of turbulence on the flow. A cell centered finite volume discretization is used for all terms in the governing equations. The Advection Upwind Splitting Method (AUSM) is used to compute the inviscid fluxes, while central differencing is used for the diffusive fluxes. A four-stage Runge-Kutta time integration scheme is used to march solutions to steady state, while convergence is enhanced by a multigrid scheme, local time-stepping, and implicit residual smoothing. To enable simulations of flows in complex geometries, the code uses composite structured grid systems where all grid lines are continuous at block boundaries (multiblock grids). Example results shown are a flow in a linear cascade, a flow around a circular pin extending between the main walls in a high aspect-ratio channel, and a flow of air in a radial turbine coolant passage.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Marvriplis, D. J.; Venkatakrishnan, V.
1995-01-01
An agglomeration multigrid strategy is developed and implemented for the solution of three-dimensional steady viscous flows. The method enables convergence acceleration with minimal additional memory overheads, and is completely automated, in that it can deal with grids of arbitrary construction. The multigrid technique is validated by comparing the delivered convergence rates with those obtained by a previously developed overset-mesh multigrid approach, and by demonstrating grid independent convergence rates for aerodynamic problems on very large grids. Prospects for further increases in multigrid efficiency for high-Reynolds number viscous flows on highly stretched meshes are discussed.
Description of DASSL: a differential/algebraic system solver
Petzold, L.R.
1982-09-01
This paper describes a new code DASSL, for the numerical solution of implicit systems of differential/algebraic equations. These equations are written in the form F(t,y,y') = 0, and they can include systems which are substantially more complex than standard form ODE systems y' = f(t,y). Differential/algebraic equations occur in several diverse applications in the physical world. We outline the algorithms and strategies used in DASSL, and explain some of the features of the code. In addition, we outline briefly what needs to be done to solve a problem using DASSL.
Textbook Multigrid Efficiency for Leading Edge Stagnation
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Diskin, Boris; Thomas, James L.; Mineck, Raymond E.
2004-01-01
A multigrid solver is defined as having textbook multigrid efficiency (TME) if the solutions to the governing system of equations are attained in a computational work which is a small (less than 10) multiple of the operation count in evaluating the discrete residuals. TME in solving the incompressible inviscid fluid equations is demonstrated for leading-edge stagnation flows. The contributions of this paper include (1) a special formulation of the boundary conditions near stagnation allowing convergence of the Newton iterations on coarse grids, (2) the boundary relaxation technique to facilitate relaxation and residual restriction near the boundaries, (3) a modified relaxation scheme to prevent initial error amplification, and (4) new general analysis techniques for multigrid solvers. Convergence of algebraic errors below the level of discretization errors is attained by a full multigrid (FMG) solver with one full approximation scheme (FAS) cycle per grid. Asymptotic convergence rates of the FAS cycles for the full system of flow equations are very fast, approaching those for scalar elliptic equations.
Textbook Multigrid Efficiency for Leading Edge Stagnation
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Diskin, Boris; Thomas, James L.; Mineck, Raymond E.
2004-01-01
A multigrid solver is defined as having textbook multigrid efficiency (TME) if the solutions to the governing system of equations are attained in a computational work which is a small (less than 10) multiple of the operation count in evaluating the discrete residuals. TME in solving the incompressible inviscid fluid equations is demonstrated for leading- edge stagnation flows. The contributions of this paper include (1) a special formulation of the boundary conditions near stagnation allowing convergence of the Newton iterations on coarse grids, (2) the boundary relaxation technique to facilitate relaxation and residual restriction near the boundaries, (3) a modified relaxation scheme to prevent initial error amplification, and (4) new general analysis techniques for multigrid solvers. Convergence of algebraic errors below the level of discretization errors is attained by a full multigrid (FMG) solver with one full approximation scheme (F.4S) cycle per grid. Asymptotic convergence rates of the F.4S cycles for the full system of flow equations are very fast, approaching those for scalar elliptic equations.
MueLu Multigrid Preconditioning Package
2012-09-11
MueLu is intended for the research and development of multigrid algorithms used in the solution of sparse linear systems arising from systems of partial differential equations. The software provides multigrid source code, test programs, and short example programs to demonstrate the various interfaces for creating, accessing, and applying the solvers. MueLu currently provides an implementation of smoothed aggregation algebraic multigrid method and interfaces to many commonly used smoothers. However, the software is intended to be extensible, and new methods can be incorporated easily. MueLu also allows for advanced usage, such as combining multiple methods and segregated solves. The library supports point and block access to matrix data. All algorithms and methods in MueLu have been or will be published in the open scientific literature.
MueLu Multigrid Preconditioning Package
2012-09-11
MueLu is intended for the research and development of multigrid algorithms used in the solution of sparse linear systems arising from systems of partial differential equations. The software provides multigrid source code, test programs, and short example programs to demonstrate the various interfaces for creating, accessing, and applying the solvers. MueLu currently provides an implementation of smoothed aggregation algebraic multigrid method and interfaces to many commonly used smoothers. However, the software is intended to bemore » extensible, and new methods can be incorporated easily. MueLu also allows for advanced usage, such as combining multiple methods and segregated solves. The library supports point and block access to matrix data. All algorithms and methods in MueLu have been or will be published in the open scientific literature.« less
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Cannizzaro, Frank E.; Ash, Robert L.
1992-01-01
A state-of-the-art computer code has been developed that incorporates a modified Runge-Kutta time integration scheme, upwind numerical techniques, multigrid acceleration, and multi-block capabilities (RUMM). A three-dimensional thin-layer formulation of the Navier-Stokes equations is employed. For turbulent flow cases, the Baldwin-Lomax algebraic turbulence model is used. Two different upwind techniques are available: van Leer's flux-vector splitting and Roe's flux-difference splitting. Full approximation multi-grid plus implicit residual and corrector smoothing were implemented to enhance the rate of convergence. Multi-block capabilities were developed to provide geometric flexibility. This feature allows the developed computer code to accommodate any grid topology or grid configuration with multiple topologies. The results shown in this dissertation were chosen to validate the computer code and display its geometric flexibility, which is provided by the multi-block structure.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Golik, W. L.
1996-01-01
A robust solver for the elliptic grid generation equations is sought via a numerical study. The system of PDEs is discretized with finite differences, and multigrid methods are applied to the resulting nonlinear algebraic equations. Multigrid iterations are compared with respect to the robustness and efficiency. Different smoothers are tried to improve the convergence of iterations. The methods are applied to four 2D grid generation problems over a wide range of grid distortions. The results of the study help to select smoothing schemes and the overall multigrid procedures for elliptic grid generation.
Final Report on Subcontract B591217: Multigrid Methods for Systems of PDEs
Xu, J; Brannick, J J; Zikatanov, L
2011-10-25
Progress is summarized in the following areas of study: (1) Compatible relaxation; (2) Improving aggregation-based MG solver performance - variable cycle; (3) First Order System Least Squares (FOSLS) for LQCD; (4) Auxiliary space preconditioners; (5) Bootstrap algebraic multigrid; and (6) Practical applications of AMG and fast auxiliary space preconditioners.
Final report on the Copper Mountain conference on multigrid methods
1997-10-01
The Copper Mountain Conference on Multigrid Methods was held on April 6-11, 1997. It took the same format used in the previous Copper Mountain Conferences on Multigrid Method conferences. Over 87 mathematicians from all over the world attended the meeting. 56 half-hour talks on current research topics were presented. Talks with similar content were organized into sessions. Session topics included: fluids; domain decomposition; iterative methods; basics; adaptive methods; non-linear filtering; CFD; applications; transport; algebraic solvers; supercomputing; and student paper winners.
Philip, Bobby; Chartier, Dr Timothy
2012-01-01
methods based on Local Sensitivity Analysis (LSA). The method can be used in the context of geometric and algebraic multigrid methods for constructing smoothers, and in the context of Krylov methods for constructing block preconditioners. It is suitable for both constant and variable coecient problems. Furthermore, the method can be applied to systems arising from both scalar and coupled system partial differential equations (PDEs), as well as linear systems that do not arise from PDEs. The simplicity of the method will allow it to be easily incorporated into existing multigrid and Krylov solvers while providing a powerful tool for adaptively constructing methods tuned to a problem.
Multigrid techniques for unstructured meshes
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Mavriplis, D. J.
1995-01-01
An overview of current multigrid techniques for unstructured meshes is given. The basic principles of the multigrid approach are first outlined. Application of these principles to unstructured mesh problems is then described, illustrating various different approaches, and giving examples of practical applications. Advanced multigrid topics, such as the use of algebraic multigrid methods, and the combination of multigrid techniques with adaptive meshing strategies are dealt with in subsequent sections. These represent current areas of research, and the unresolved issues are discussed. The presentation is organized in an educational manner, for readers familiar with computational fluid dynamics, wishing to learn more about current unstructured mesh techniques.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bates, J. R.; Semazzi, F. H. M.; Higgins, R. W.; Barros, Saulo R. M.
1990-01-01
A vector semi-Lagrangian semi-implicit two-time-level finite-difference integration scheme for the shallow water equations on the sphere is presented. A C-grid is used for the spatial differencing. The trajectory-centered discretization of the momentum equation in vector form eliminates pole problems and, at comparable cost, gives greater accuracy than a previous semi-Lagrangian finite-difference scheme which used a rotated spherical coordinate system. In terms of the insensitivity of the results to increasing timestep, the new scheme is as successful as recent spectral semi-Lagrangian schemes. In addition, the use of a multigrid method for solving the elliptic equation for the geopotential allows efficient integration with an operation count which, at high resolution, is of lower order than in the case of the spectral models. The properties of the new scheme should allow finite-difference models to compete with spectral models more effectively than has previously been possible.
Report on the Copper Mountain Conference on Multigrid Methods
2001-04-06
OAK B188 Report on the Copper Mountain Conference on Multigrid Methods. The Copper Mountain Conference on Multigrid Methods was held on April 11-16, 1999. Over 100 mathematicians from all over the world attended the meeting. The conference had two major themes: algebraic multigrid and parallel multigrid. During the five day meeting 69 talks on current research topics were presented as well as 3 tutorials. Talks with similar content were organized into sessions. Session topics included: Fluids; Multigrid and Multilevel Methods; Applications; PDE Reformulation; Inverse Problems; Special Methods; Decomposition Methods; Student Paper Winners; Parallel Multigrid; Parallel Algebraic Multigrid; and FOSLS.
A comparison of solver performance for complex gastric electrophysiology models.
Sathar, Shameer; Cheng, Leo K; Trew, Mark L
2015-08-01
Computational techniques for solving systems of equations arising in gastric electrophysiology have not been studied for efficient solution process. We present a computationally challenging problem of simulating gastric electrophysiology in anatomically realistic stomach geometries with multiple intracellular and extracellular domains. The multiscale nature of the problem and mesh resolution required to capture geometric and functional features necessitates efficient solution methods if the problem is to be tractable. In this study, we investigated and compared several parallel preconditioners for the linear systems arising from tetrahedral discretisation of electrically isotropic and anisotropic problems, with and without stimuli. The results showed that the isotropic problem was computationally less challenging than the anisotropic problem and that the application of extracellular stimuli increased workload considerably. Preconditioning based on block Jacobi and algebraic multigrid solvers were found to have the best overall solution times and least iteration counts, respectively. The algebraic multigrid preconditioner would be expected to perform better on large problems. PMID:26736543
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pariona, Moisés Meza; de Oliveira, Fabiane; Teleginski, Viviane; Machado, Siliane; Pinto, Marcio Augusto Villela
2016-05-01
Al-1.5 wt% Fe alloy was irradiate by Yb-fiber laser beam using the laser surface remelting (LSR) technique, generating weld fillets that covered the whole surface of the sample. The laser-treatment showed to be an efficient technology for corrosion resistance improvements. In this study, the finite element method was used to simulate the solidification processes by LSR technique. The method Multigrid was employed in order to reduce the CPU time, which is important to the viability for industrial applications. Multigrid method is a technique very promising of optimization that reduced drastically the CPU time. The result was highly satisfactory, because the CPU time has fallen dramatically in comparison when it was not used Multigrid method. To validate the result of numerical simulation with the experimental result was done the microstructural characterization of laser-treated layer by the optical microscopy and SEM techniques and however, that both results showing be consistent.
Another look at neural multigrid
Baeker, M.
1997-04-01
We present a new multigrid method called neural multigrid which is based on joining multigrid ideas with concepts from neural nets. The main idea is to use the Greenbaum criterion as a cost functional for the neural net. The algorithm is able to learn efficient interpolation operators in the case of the ordered Laplace equation with only a very small critical slowing down and with a surprisingly small amount of work comparable to that of a Conjugate Gradient solver. In the case of the two-dimensional Laplace equation with SU(2) gauge fields at {beta}=0 the learning exhibits critical slowing down with an exponent of about z {approx} 0.4. The algorithm is able to find quite good interpolation operators in this case as well. Thereby it is proven that a practical true multigrid algorithm exists even for a gauge theory. An improved algorithm using dynamical blocks that will hopefully overcome the critical slowing down completely is sketched.
MGLab: An Interactive Multigrid Environment
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bordner, James; Saied, Faisal
1996-01-01
MGLab is a set of Matlab functions that defines an interactive environment for experimenting with multigrid algorithms. The package solves two-dimensional elliptic partial differential equations discretized using either finite differences or finite volumes, depending on the problem. Built-in problems include the Poisson equation, the Helmholtz equation, a convection-diffusion problem, and a discontinuous coefficient problem. A number of parameters controlling the multigrid V-cycle can be set using a point-and-click mechanism. The menu-based user interface also allows a choice of several Krylov subspace methods, including CG, GMRES(k), and Bi-CGSTAB, which can be used either as stand-alone solvers or as multigrid acceleration schemes. The package exploits Matlab's visualization and sparse matrix features and has been structured to be easily extensible.
A multigrid method for the Euler equations
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Jespersen, D. C.
1983-01-01
A multigrid algorithm has been developed for the numerical solution of the steady two-dimensional Euler equations. Flux vector splitting and one-sided differencing are employed to define the spatial discretization. Newton's method is used to solve the nonlinear equations, and a multigrid solver is used on each linear problem. The relaxation scheme for the linear problems is symmetric Gauss-Seidel. Standard restriction and interpolation operators are employed. Local mode analysis is used to predict the convergence rate of the multigrid process on the linear problems. Computed results for transonic flows over airfoils are presented.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jakub, Fabian; Mayer, Bernhard
2016-04-01
The recently developed 3-D TenStream radiative transfer solver was integrated into the University of California, Los Angeles large-eddy simulation (UCLA-LES) cloud-resolving model. This work documents the overall performance of the TenStream solver as well as the technical challenges of migrating from 1-D schemes to 3-D schemes. In particular the employed Monte Carlo spectral integration needed to be reexamined in conjunction with 3-D radiative transfer. Despite the fact that the spectral sampling has to be performed uniformly over the whole domain, we find that the Monte Carlo spectral integration remains valid. To understand the performance characteristics of the coupled TenStream solver, we conducted weak as well as strong-scaling experiments. In this context, we investigate two matrix preconditioner: geometric algebraic multigrid preconditioning (GAMG) and block Jacobi incomplete LU (ILU) factorization and find that algebraic multigrid preconditioning performs well for complex scenes and highly parallelized simulations. The TenStream solver is tested for up to 4096 cores and shows a parallel scaling efficiency of 80-90 % on various supercomputers. Compared to the widely employed 1-D delta-Eddington two-stream solver, the computational costs for the radiative transfer solver alone increases by a factor of 5-10.
Brezina, M; Manteuffel, T; McCormick, S; Ruge, J; Sanders, G; Vassilevski, P S
2007-05-31
Consider the linear system Ax = b, where A is a large, sparse, real, symmetric, and positive definite matrix and b is a known vector. Solving this system for unknown vector x using a smoothed aggregation multigrid (SA) algorithm requires a characterization of the algebraically smooth error, meaning error that is poorly attenuated by the algorithm's relaxation process. For relaxation processes that are typically used in practice, algebraically smooth error corresponds to the near-nullspace of A. Therefore, having a good approximation to a minimal eigenvector is useful to characterize the algebraically smooth error when forming a linear SA solver. This paper discusses the details of a generalized eigensolver based on smoothed aggregation (GES-SA) that is designed to produce an approximation to a minimal eigenvector of A. GES-SA might be very useful as a standalone eigensolver for applications that desire an approximate minimal eigenvector, but the primary aim here is for GES-SA to produce an initial algebraically smooth component that may be used to either create a black-box SA solver or initiate the adaptive SA ({alpha}SA) process.
Spectral element multigrid. Part 2: Theoretical justification
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Maday, Yvon; Munoz, Rafael
1988-01-01
A multigrid algorithm is analyzed which is used for solving iteratively the algebraic system resulting from tha approximation of a second order problem by spectral or spectral element methods. The analysis, performed here in the one dimensional case, justifies the good smoothing properties of the Jacobi preconditioner that was presented in Part 1 of this paper.
An angular multigrid method for computing mono-energetic particle beams in Flatland
Boergers, Christoph MacLachlan, Scott
2010-04-20
Beams of microscopic particles penetrating scattering background matter play an important role in several applications. The parameter choices made here are motivated by the problem of electron-beam cancer therapy planning. Mathematically, a steady particle beam penetrating matter, or a configuration of several such beams, is modeled by a boundary value problem for a Boltzmann equation. Grid-based discretization of such a problem leads to a system of algebraic equations. This system is typically very large because of the large number of independent variables in the Boltzmann equation-six if no dimension-reducing assumptions other than time independence are made. If grid-based methods are to be practical for these problems, it is therefore necessary to develop very fast solvers for the discretized problems. For beams of mono-energetic particles interacting with a passive background, but not with each other, in two space dimensions, the first author proposed such a solver, based on angular domain decomposition, some time ago. Here, we propose and test an angular multigrid algorithm for the same model problem. Our numerical experiments show rapid, grid-independent convergence. For high-resolution calculations, our method is substantially more efficient than the angular domain decomposition method. In addition, unlike angular domain decomposition, the angular multigrid method works well even when the angular diffusion coefficient is fairly large.
Multigrid methods with applications to reservoir simulation
Xiao, Shengyou
1994-05-01
Multigrid methods are studied for solving elliptic partial differential equations. Focus is on parallel multigrid methods and their use for reservoir simulation. Multicolor Fourier analysis is used to analyze the behavior of standard multigrid methods for problems in one and two dimensions. Relation between multicolor and standard Fourier analysis is established. Multiple coarse grid methods for solving model problems in 1 and 2 dimensions are considered; at each coarse grid level we use more than one coarse grid to improve convergence. For a given Dirichlet problem, a related extended problem is first constructed; a purification procedure can be used to obtain Moore-Penrose solutions of the singular systems encountered. For solving anisotropic equations, semicoarsening and line smoothing techniques are used with multiple coarse grid methods to improve convergence. Two-level convergence factors are estimated using multicolor. In the case where each operator has the same stencil on each grid point on one level, exact multilevel convergence factors can be obtained. For solving partial differential equations with discontinuous coefficients, interpolation and restriction operators should include information about the equation coefficients. Matrix-dependent interpolation and restriction operators based on the Schur complement can be used in nonsymmetric cases. A semicoarsening multigrid solver with these operators is used in UTCOMP, a 3-D, multiphase, multicomponent, compositional reservoir simulator. The numerical experiments are carried out on different computing systems. Results indicate that the multigrid methods are promising.
Multigrid with red black SOR revisited
Yavneh, I.
1994-12-31
Optimal relaxation parameters are obtained for red-black point Gauss-Seidel relaxation in multigrid solvers of a family of elliptic equations. The resulting relaxation schemes are found to retain high efficiency over an appreciable range of coefficients of the elliptic operator, yielding simple, inexpensive and fully parallelizable smoothers in many situations where more complicated and less cost-effective block-relaxation and/or partial coarsening are commonly used.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ivanov, I. G.; Netov, N. C.; Bogdanova, B. C.
2015-10-01
This paper addresses the problem of solving a generalized algebraic Riccati equation with an indefinite sign of its quadratic term. We extend the approach introduced by Lanzon, Feng, Anderson and Rotkowitz (2008) for solving similar Riccati equations. We numerically investigate two types of iterative methods for computing the stabilizing solution. The first type of iterative methods constructs two matrix sequences, where the sum of them converges to the stabilizing solution. The second type of methods defines one matrix sequence which converges to the stabilizing solution. Computer realizations of the presented methods are numerically tested and compared on the test of family examples. Based on the experiments some conclusions are derived.
New Nonlinear Multigrid Analysis
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Xie, Dexuan
1996-01-01
The nonlinear multigrid is an efficient algorithm for solving the system of nonlinear equations arising from the numerical discretization of nonlinear elliptic boundary problems. In this paper, we present a new nonlinear multigrid analysis as an extension of the linear multigrid theory presented by Bramble. In particular, we prove the convergence of the nonlinear V-cycle method for a class of mildly nonlinear second order elliptic boundary value problems which do not have full elliptic regularity.
Introduction to multigrid methods
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Wesseling, P.
1995-01-01
These notes were written for an introductory course on the application of multigrid methods to elliptic and hyperbolic partial differential equations for engineers, physicists and applied mathematicians. The use of more advanced mathematical tools, such as functional analysis, is avoided. The course is intended to be accessible to a wide audience of users of computational methods. We restrict ourselves to finite volume and finite difference discretization. The basic principles are given. Smoothing methods and Fourier smoothing analysis are reviewed. The fundamental multigrid algorithm is studied. The smoothing and coarse grid approximation properties are discussed. Multigrid schedules and structured programming of multigrid algorithms are treated. Robustness and efficiency are considered.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Dendy, J. E., Jr.
1981-01-01
The black box multigrid (BOXMG) code, which only needs specification of the matrix problem for application in the multigrid method was investigated. It is contended that a major problem with the multigrid method is that each new grid configuration requires a major programming effort to develop a code that specifically handles that grid configuration. The SOR and ICCG methods only specify the matrix problem, no matter what the grid configuration. It is concluded that the BOXMG does everything else necessary to set up the auxiliary coarser problems to achieve a multigrid solution.
Evaluation of a Multigrid Scheme for the Incompressible Navier-Stokes Equations
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Swanson, R. C.
2004-01-01
A fast multigrid solver for the steady, incompressible Navier-Stokes equations is presented. The multigrid solver is based upon a factorizable discrete scheme for the velocity-pressure form of the Navier-Stokes equations. This scheme correctly distinguishes between the advection-diffusion and elliptic parts of the operator, allowing efficient smoothers to be constructed. To evaluate the multigrid algorithm, solutions are computed for flow over a flat plate, parabola, and a Karman-Trefftz airfoil. Both nonlifting and lifting airfoil flows are considered, with a Reynolds number range of 200 to 800. Convergence and accuracy of the algorithm are discussed. Using Gauss-Seidel line relaxation in alternating directions, multigrid convergence behavior approaching that of O(N) methods is achieved. The computational efficiency of the numerical scheme is compared with that of Runge-Kutta and implicit upwind based multigrid methods.
Multigrid approaches to non-linear diffusion problems on unstructured meshes
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Mavriplis, Dimitri J.; Bushnell, Dennis M. (Technical Monitor)
2001-01-01
The efficiency of three multigrid methods for solving highly non-linear diffusion problems on two-dimensional unstructured meshes is examined. The three multigrid methods differ mainly in the manner in which the nonlinearities of the governing equations are handled. These comprise a non-linear full approximation storage (FAS) multigrid method which is used to solve the non-linear equations directly, a linear multigrid method which is used to solve the linear system arising from a Newton linearization of the non-linear system, and a hybrid scheme which is based on a non-linear FAS multigrid scheme, but employs a linear solver on each level as a smoother. Results indicate that all methods are equally effective at converging the non-linear residual in a given number of grid sweeps, but that the linear solver is more efficient in cpu time due to the lower cost of linear versus non-linear grid sweeps.
Algebraic turbulence modeling for unstructured and adaptive meshes
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Mavriplis, Dimitri J.
1990-01-01
An algebraic turbulence model based on the Baldwin-Lomax model, has been implemented for use on unstructured grids. The implementation is based on the use of local background structured turbulence meshes. At each time-step, flow variables are interpolated from the unstructured mesh onto the background structured meshes, the turbulence model is executed on these meshes, and the resulting eddy viscosity values are interpolated back to the unstructured mesh. Modifications to the algebraic model were required to enable the treatment of more complicated flows, such as confluent boundary layers and wakes. The model is used in conjuction with an efficient unstructured multigrid finite-element Navier-Stokes solver in order to compute compressible turbulent flows on fully unstructured meshes. Solutions about single and multiple element airfoils are obtained and compared with experimental data.
Textbook Multigrid Efficiency for the Steady Euler Equations
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Roberts, Thomas W.; Sidilkover, David; Swanson, R. C.
2004-01-01
A fast multigrid solver for the steady incompressible Euler equations is presented. Unlike time-marching schemes, this approach uses relaxation of the steady equations. Application of this method results in a discretization that correctly distinguishes between the advection and elliptic parts of the operator, allowing efficient smoothers to be constructed. Solvers for both unstructured triangular grids and structured quadrilateral grids have been written. Computations for channel flow and flow over a nonlifting airfoil have computed. Using Gauss-Seidel relaxation ordered in the flow direction, textbook multigrid convergence rates of nearly one order-of-magnitude residual reduction per multigrid cycle are achieved, independent of the grid spacing. This approach also may be applied to the compressible Euler equations and the incompressible Navier-Stokes equations.
Implementing abstract multigrid or multilevel methods
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Douglas, Craig C.
1993-01-01
Multigrid methods can be formulated as an algorithm for an abstract problem that is independent of the partial differential equation, domain, and discretization method. In such an abstract setting, problems not arising from partial differential equations can be treated. A general theory exists for linear problems. The general theory was motivated by a series of abstract solvers (Madpack). The latest version was motivated by the theory. Madpack now allows for a wide variety of iterative and direct solvers, preconditioners, and interpolation and projection schemes, including user callback ones. It allows for sparse, dense, and stencil matrices. Mildly nonlinear problems can be handled. Also, there is a fast, multigrid Poisson solver (two and three dimensions). The type of solvers and design decisions (including language, data structures, external library support, and callbacks) are discussed. Based on the author's experiences with two versions of Madpack, a better approach is proposed. This is based on a mixed language formulation (C and FORTRAN + preprocessor). Reasons for not using FORTRAN, C, or C++ (individually) are given. Implementing the proposed strategy is not difficult.
Performance Models for the Spike Banded Linear System Solver
Manguoglu, Murat; Saied, Faisal; Sameh, Ahmed; Grama, Ananth
2011-01-01
With availability of large-scale parallel platforms comprised of tens-of-thousands of processors and beyond, there is significant impetus for the development of scalable parallel sparse linear system solvers and preconditioners. An integral part of this design process is the development of performance models capable of predicting performance and providing accurate cost models for the solvers and preconditioners. There has been some work in the past on characterizing performance of the iterative solvers themselves. In this paper, we investigate the problem of characterizing performance and scalability of banded preconditioners. Recent work has demonstrated the superior convergence properties and robustness of banded preconditioners,more » compared to state-of-the-art ILU family of preconditioners as well as algebraic multigrid preconditioners. Furthermore, when used in conjunction with efficient banded solvers, banded preconditioners are capable of significantly faster time-to-solution. Our banded solver, the Truncated Spike algorithm is specifically designed for parallel performance and tolerance to deep memory hierarchies. Its regular structure is also highly amenable to accurate performance characterization. Using these characteristics, we derive the following results in this paper: (i) we develop parallel formulations of the Truncated Spike solver, (ii) we develop a highly accurate pseudo-analytical parallel performance model for our solver, (iii) we show excellent predication capabilities of our model – based on which we argue the high scalability of our solver. Our pseudo-analytical performance model is based on analytical performance characterization of each phase of our solver. These analytical models are then parameterized using actual runtime information on target platforms. An important consequence of our performance models is that they reveal underlying performance bottlenecks in both serial and parallel formulations. All of our results are validated
Lazarov, R; Pasciak, J; Jones, J
2002-02-01
Construction, analysis and numerical testing of efficient solution techniques for solving elliptic PDEs that allow for parallel implementation have been the focus of the research. A number of discretization and solution methods for solving second order elliptic problems that include mortar and penalty approximations and domain decomposition methods for finite elements and finite volumes have been investigated and analyzed. Techniques for parallel domain decomposition algorithms in the framework of PETC and HYPRE have been studied and tested. Hierarchical parallel grid refinement and adaptive solution methods have been implemented and tested on various model problems. A parallel code implementing the mortar method with algebraically constructed multiplier spaces was developed.
Conduct of the International Multigrid Conference
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Mccormick, S.
1984-01-01
The 1983 International Multigrid Conference was held at Colorado's Copper Mountain Ski Resort, April 5-8. It was organized jointly by the Institute for Computational Studies at Colorado State University, U.S.A., and the Gasellschaft fur Mathematik und Datenverarbeitung Bonn, F.R. Germany, and was sponsored by the Air Force Office of Sponsored Research and National Aeronautics and Space Administration Headquarters. The conference was attended by 80 scientists, divided by institution almost equally into private industry, research laboratories, and academia. Fifteen attendees came from countries other than the U.S.A. In addition to the fruitful discussions, the most significant factor of the conference was of course the lectures. The lecturers include most of the leaders in the field of multigrid research. The program offered a nice integrated blend of theory, numerical studies, basic research, and applications. Some of the new areas of research that have surfaced since the Koln-Porz conference include: the algebraic multigrid approach; multigrid treatment of Euler equations for inviscid fluid flow problems; 3-D problems; and the application of MG methods on vector and parallel computers.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jakub, F.; Mayer, B.
2015-10-01
The recently developed three-dimensional TenStream radiative transfer solver was integrated into the UCLA-LES cloud resolving model. This work documents the overall performance of the TenStream solver as well as the technical challenges migrating from 1-D schemes to 3-D schemes. In particular the employed Monte-Carlo-Spectral-Integration needed to be re-examined in conjunction with 3-D radiative transfer. Despite the fact that the spectral sampling has to be performed uniformly over the whole domain, we find that the Monte-Carlo-Spectral-Integration remains valid. To understand the performance characteristics of the coupled TenStream solver, we conducted weak- as well as strong-scaling experiments. In this context, we investigate two matrix-preconditioner (GAMG and block-jacobi ILU) and find that algebraic multigrid preconditioning performs well for complex scenes and highly parallelized simulations. The TenStream solver is tested for up to 4096 cores and shows a parallel scaling efficiency of 80-90 % on various supercomputers. Compared to the widely employed 1-D δ-Eddington two-stream solver, the computational costs for the radiative transfer solver alone increases by a factor of five to ten.
General purpose nonlinear system solver based on Newton-Krylov method.
2013-12-01
KINSOL is part of a software family called SUNDIALS: SUite of Nonlinear and Differential/Algebraic equation Solvers [1]. KINSOL is a general-purpose nonlinear system solver based on Newton-Krylov and fixed-point solver technologies [2].
Towards Optimal Multigrid Efficiency for the Navier-Stokes Equations
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Swanson, R. C.
2001-01-01
A fast multigrid solver for the steady incompressible Navier-Stokes equations is presented. Unlike time-marching schemes, this approach uses relaxation of the steady equations. Application of this method results in a discretization that correctly distinguishes between the advection and elliptic parts of the operator, allowing efficient smoothers to be constructed. Numerical solutions are shown for flow over a flat plate and a Karman-Trefftz airfoil. Using collective Gauss-Seidel line relaxation in both the vertical and horizontal directions, multigrid convergence behavior approaching that of O(N) methods is achieved. The computational efficiency of the numerical scheme is compared with that of a Runge-Kutta based multigrid method.
Crane, N K; Parsons, I D; Hjelmstad, K D
2002-03-21
Adaptive mesh refinement selectively subdivides the elements of a coarse user supplied mesh to produce a fine mesh with reduced discretization error. Effective use of adaptive mesh refinement coupled with an a posteriori error estimator can produce a mesh that solves a problem to a given discretization error using far fewer elements than uniform refinement. A geometric multigrid solver uses increasingly finer discretizations of the same geometry to produce a very fast and numerically scalable solution to a set of linear equations. Adaptive mesh refinement is a natural method for creating the different meshes required by the multigrid solver. This paper describes the implementation of a scalable adaptive multigrid method on a distributed memory parallel computer. Results are presented that demonstrate the parallel performance of the methodology by solving a linear elastic rocket fuel deformation problem on an SGI Origin 3000. Two challenges must be met when implementing adaptive multigrid algorithms on massively parallel computing platforms. First, although the fine mesh for which the solution is desired may be large and scaled to the number of processors, the multigrid algorithm must also operate on much smaller fixed-size data sets on the coarse levels. Second, the mesh must be repartitioned as it is adapted to maintain good load balancing. In an adaptive multigrid algorithm, separate mesh levels may require separate partitioning, further complicating the load balance problem. This paper shows that, when the proper optimizations are made, parallel adaptive multigrid algorithms perform well on machines with several hundreds of processors.
Geometric multigrid for an implicit-time immersed boundary method
Guy, Robert D.; Philip, Bobby; Griffith, Boyce E.
2014-10-12
The immersed boundary (IB) method is an approach to fluid-structure interaction that uses Lagrangian variables to describe the deformations and resulting forces of the structure and Eulerian variables to describe the motion and forces of the fluid. Explicit time stepping schemes for the IB method require solvers only for Eulerian equations, for which fast Cartesian grid solution methods are available. Such methods are relatively straightforward to develop and are widely used in practice but often require very small time steps to maintain stability. Implicit-time IB methods permit the stable use of large time steps, but efficient implementations of such methodsmore » require significantly more complex solvers that effectively treat both Lagrangian and Eulerian variables simultaneously. Moreover, several different approaches to solving the coupled Lagrangian-Eulerian equations have been proposed, but a complete understanding of this problem is still emerging. This paper presents a geometric multigrid method for an implicit-time discretization of the IB equations. This multigrid scheme uses a generalization of box relaxation that is shown to handle problems in which the physical stiffness of the structure is very large. Numerical examples are provided to illustrate the effectiveness and efficiency of the algorithms described herein. Finally, these tests show that using multigrid as a preconditioner for a Krylov method yields improvements in both robustness and efficiency as compared to using multigrid as a solver. They also demonstrate that with a time step 100–1000 times larger than that permitted by an explicit IB method, the multigrid-preconditioned implicit IB method is approximately 50–200 times more efficient than the explicit method.« less
Geometric multigrid for an implicit-time immersed boundary method
Guy, Robert D.; Philip, Bobby; Griffith, Boyce E.
2014-10-12
The immersed boundary (IB) method is an approach to fluid-structure interaction that uses Lagrangian variables to describe the deformations and resulting forces of the structure and Eulerian variables to describe the motion and forces of the fluid. Explicit time stepping schemes for the IB method require solvers only for Eulerian equations, for which fast Cartesian grid solution methods are available. Such methods are relatively straightforward to develop and are widely used in practice but often require very small time steps to maintain stability. Implicit-time IB methods permit the stable use of large time steps, but efficient implementations of such methods require significantly more complex solvers that effectively treat both Lagrangian and Eulerian variables simultaneously. Moreover, several different approaches to solving the coupled Lagrangian-Eulerian equations have been proposed, but a complete understanding of this problem is still emerging. This paper presents a geometric multigrid method for an implicit-time discretization of the IB equations. This multigrid scheme uses a generalization of box relaxation that is shown to handle problems in which the physical stiffness of the structure is very large. Numerical examples are provided to illustrate the effectiveness and efficiency of the algorithms described herein. Finally, these tests show that using multigrid as a preconditioner for a Krylov method yields improvements in both robustness and efficiency as compared to using multigrid as a solver. They also demonstrate that with a time step 100–1000 times larger than that permitted by an explicit IB method, the multigrid-preconditioned implicit IB method is approximately 50–200 times more efficient than the explicit method.
A Hexahedral Multigrid Approach for Simulating Cuts in Deformable Objects.
Dick, C; Georgii, J; Westermann, R
2011-11-01
We present a hexahedral finite element method for simulating cuts in deformable bodies using the corotational formulation of strain at high computational efficiency. Key to our approach is a novel embedding of adaptive element refinements and topological changes of the simulation grid into a geometric multigrid solver. Starting with a coarse hexahedral simulation grid, this grid is adaptively refined at the surface of a cutting tool until a finest resolution level, and the cut is modeled by separating elements along the cell faces at this level. To represent the induced discontinuities on successive multigrid levels, the affected coarse grid cells are duplicated and the resulting connectivity components are distributed to either side of the cut. Drawing upon recent work on octree and multigrid schemes for the numerical solution of partial differential equations, we develop efficient algorithms for updating the systems of equations of the adaptive finite element discretization and the multigrid hierarchy. To construct a surface that accurately aligns with the cuts, we adapt the splitting cubes algorithm to the specific linked voxel representation of the simulation domain we use. The paper is completed by a convergence analysis of the finite element solver and a performance comparison to alternative numerical solution methods. These investigations show that our approach offers high computational efficiency and physical accuracy, and that it enables cutting of deformable bodies at very high resolutions. PMID:21173453
A parallel multigrid-based preconditioner for the 3D heterogeneous high-frequency Helmholtz equation
Riyanti, C.D. . E-mail: C.D.Riyanti@tudelft.nl; Kononov, A.; Erlangga, Y.A.; Vuik, C.; Oosterlee, C.W.; Plessix, R.-E.; Mulder, W.A.
2007-05-20
We investigate the parallel performance of an iterative solver for 3D heterogeneous Helmholtz problems related to applications in seismic wave propagation. For large 3D problems, the computation is no longer feasible on a single processor, and the memory requirements increase rapidly. Therefore, parallelization of the solver is needed. We employ a complex shifted-Laplace preconditioner combined with the Bi-CGSTAB iterative method and use a multigrid method to approximate the inverse of the resulting preconditioning operator. A 3D multigrid method with 2D semi-coarsening is employed. We show numerical results for large problems arising in geophysical applications.
Multigrid time-accurate integration of Navier-Stokes equations
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Arnone, Andrea; Liou, Meng-Sing; Povinelli, Louis A.
1993-01-01
Efficient acceleration techniques typical of explicit steady-state solvers are extended to time-accurate calculations. Stability restrictions are greatly reduced by means of a fully implicit time discretization. A four-stage Runge-Kutta scheme with local time stepping, residual smoothing, and multigridding is used instead of traditional time-expensive factorizations. Some applications to natural and forced unsteady viscous flows show the capability of the procedure.
Unstructured multigrid through agglomeration
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Venkatakrishnan, V.; Mavriplis, D. J.; Berger, M. J.
1993-01-01
In this work the compressible Euler equations are solved using finite volume techniques on unstructured grids. The spatial discretization employs a central difference approximation augmented by dissipative terms. Temporal discretization is done using a multistage Runge-Kutta scheme. A multigrid technique is used to accelerate convergence to steady state. The coarse grids are derived directly from the given fine grid through agglomeration of the control volumes. This agglomeration is accomplished by using a greedy-type algorithm and is done in such a way that the load, which is proportional to the number of edges, goes down by nearly a factor of 4 when moving from a fine to a coarse grid. The agglomeration algorithm has been implemented and the grids have been tested in a multigrid code. An area-weighted restriction is applied when moving from fine to coarse grids while a trivial injection is used for prolongation. Across a range of geometries and flows, it is shown that the agglomeration multigrid scheme compares very favorably with an unstructured multigrid algorithm that makes use of independent coarse meshes, both in terms of convergence and elapsed times.
Large-Scale Parallel Viscous Flow Computations using an Unstructured Multigrid Algorithm
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Mavriplis, Dimitri J.
1999-01-01
The development and testing of a parallel unstructured agglomeration multigrid algorithm for steady-state aerodynamic flows is discussed. The agglomeration multigrid strategy uses a graph algorithm to construct the coarse multigrid levels from the given fine grid, similar to an algebraic multigrid approach, but operates directly on the non-linear system using the FAS (Full Approximation Scheme) approach. The scalability and convergence rate of the multigrid algorithm are examined on the SGI Origin 2000 and the Cray T3E. An argument is given which indicates that the asymptotic scalability of the multigrid algorithm should be similar to that of its underlying single grid smoothing scheme. For medium size problems involving several million grid points, near perfect scalability is obtained for the single grid algorithm, while only a slight drop-off in parallel efficiency is observed for the multigrid V- and W-cycles, using up to 128 processors on the SGI Origin 2000, and up to 512 processors on the Cray T3E. For a large problem using 25 million grid points, good scalability is observed for the multigrid algorithm using up to 1450 processors on a Cray T3E, even when the coarsest grid level contains fewer points than the total number of processors.
Adaptive Multigrid Solution of Stokes' Equation on CELL Processor
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Elgersma, M. R.; Yuen, D. A.; Pratt, S. G.
2006-12-01
We are developing an adaptive multigrid solver for treating nonlinear elliptic partial-differential equations, needed for mantle convection problems. Since multigrid is being used for the complete solution, not just as a preconditioner, spatial difference operators are kept nearly diagonally dominant by increasing density of the coarsest grid in regions where coefficients have rapid spatial variation. At each time step, the unstructured coarse grid is refined in regions where coefficients associated with the differential operators or boundary conditions have rapid spatial variation, and coarsened in regions where there is more gradual spatial variation. For three-dimensional problems, the boundary is two-dimensional, and regions where coefficients change rapidly are often near two-dimensional surfaces, so the coarsest grid is only fine near two-dimensional subsets of the three-dimensional space. Coarse grid density drops off exponentially with distance from boundary surfaces and rapid-coefficient-change surfaces. This unstructured coarse grid results in the number of coarse grid voxels growing proportional to surface area, rather than proportional to volume. This results in significant computational savings for the coarse-grid solution. This coarse-grid solution is then refined for the fine-grid solution, and multigrid methods have memory usage and runtime proportional to the number of fine-grid voxels. This adaptive multigrid algorithm is being implemented on the CELL processor, where each chip has eight floating point processors and each processor operates on four floating point numbers each clock cycle. Both the adaptive grid algorithm and the multigrid solver have very efficient parallel implementations, in order to take advantage of the CELL processor architecture.
Multigrid solution of the Navier-Stokes equations on highly stretched grids with defect correction
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Sockol, Peter M.
1993-01-01
Relaxation-based multigrid solvers for the steady incompressible Navier-Stokes equations are examined to determine their computational speed and robustness. Four relaxation methods with a common discretization have been used as smoothers in a single tailored multigrid procedure. The equations are discretized on a staggered grid with first order upwind used for convection in the relaxation process on all grids and defect correction to second order central on the fine grid introduced once per multigrid cycle. A fixed W(1,1) cycle with full weighting of residuals is used in the FAS multigrid process. The resulting solvers have been applied to three 2D flow problems, over a range of Reynolds numbers, on both uniform and highly stretched grids. In all cases the L(sub 2) norm of the velocity changes is reduced to 10(exp -6) in a few 10's of fine grid sweeps. The results from this study are used to draw conclusions on the strengths and weaknesses of the individual relaxation schemes as well as those of the overall multigrid procedure when used as a solver on highly stretched grids.
Multigrid on massively parallel architectures
Falgout, R D; Jones, J E
1999-09-17
The scalable implementation of multigrid methods for machines with several thousands of processors is investigated. Parallel performance models are presented for three different structured-grid multigrid algorithms, and a description is given of how these models can be used to guide implementation. Potential pitfalls are illustrated when moving from moderate-sized parallelism to large-scale parallelism, and results are given from existing multigrid codes to support the discussion. Finally, the use of mixed programming models is investigated for multigrid codes on clusters of SMPs.
Multigrid-based 'shifted-Laplacian' preconditioning for the time-harmonic elastic wave equation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rizzuti, G.; Mulder, W. A.
2016-07-01
We investigate the numerical performance of an iterative solver for a frequency-domain finite-difference discretization of the isotropic elastic wave equation. The solver is based on the 'shifted-Laplacian' preconditioner, originally designed for the acoustic wave equation. This preconditioner represents a discretization of a heavily damped wave equation and can be efficiently inverted by a multigrid iteration. However, the application of multigrid to the elastic case is not straightforward because standard methods, such as point-Jacobi, fail to smooth the S-wave wavenumber components of the error when high P-to-S velocity ratios are present. We consider line smoothers as an alternative and apply local-mode analysis to evaluate the performance of the various components of the multigrid preconditioner. Numerical examples in 2-D demonstrate the efficacy of our method.
A multigrid preconditioner for the semiconductor equations
Meza, J.C.; Tuminaro, R.S.
1994-12-31
Currently, integrated circuits are primarily designed in a {open_quote}trial and error{close_quote} fashion. That is, prototypes are built and improved via experimentation and testing. In the near future, however, it may be possible to significantly reduce the time and cost of designing new devices by using computer simulations. To accurately perform these complex simulations in three dimensions, however, new algorithms and high performance computers are necessary. In this paper the authors discuss the use of multigrid preconditioning inside a semiconductor device modeling code, DANCIR. The DANCIR code is a full three-dimensional simulator capable of computing steady-state solutions of the drift-diffusion equations for a single semiconductor device and has been used to simulate a wide variety of different devices. At the inner core of DANCIR is a solver for the nonlinear equations that arise from the spatial discretization of the drift-diffusion equations on a rectangular grid. These nonlinear equations are resolved using Gummel`s method which requires three symmetric linear systems to be solved within each Gummel iteration. It is the resolution of these linear systems which comprises the dominant computational cost of this code. The original version of DANCIR uses a Cholesky preconditioned conjugate gradient algorithm to solve these linear systems. Unfortunately, this algorithm has a number of disadvantages: (1) it takes many iterations to converge (if it converges), (2) it can require a significant amount of computing time, and (3) it is not very parallelizable. To improve the situation, the authors consider a multigrid preconditioner. The multigrid method uses iterations on a hierarchy of grids to accelerate the convergence on the finest grid.
An efficient non-linear multigrid procedure for the incompressible Navier-Stokes equations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sivaloganathan, S.; Shaw, G. J.
An efficient Full Approximation multigrid scheme for finite volume discretizations of the Navier-Stokes equations is presented. The algorithm is applied to the driven cavity test problem. Numerical results are presented and a comparison made with PACE, a Rolls-Royce industrial code, which uses the SIMPLE pressure correction method as an iterative solver.
Multigrid Methods for Fully Implicit Oil Reservoir Simulation
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Molenaar, J.
1996-01-01
In this paper we consider the simultaneous flow of oil and water in reservoir rock. This displacement process is modeled by two basic equations: the material balance or continuity equations and the equation of motion (Darcy's law). For the numerical solution of this system of nonlinear partial differential equations there are two approaches: the fully implicit or simultaneous solution method and the sequential solution method. In the sequential solution method the system of partial differential equations is manipulated to give an elliptic pressure equation and a hyperbolic (or parabolic) saturation equation. In the IMPES approach the pressure equation is first solved, using values for the saturation from the previous time level. Next the saturations are updated by some explicit time stepping method; this implies that the method is only conditionally stable. For the numerical solution of the linear, elliptic pressure equation multigrid methods have become an accepted technique. On the other hand, the fully implicit method is unconditionally stable, but it has the disadvantage that in every time step a large system of nonlinear algebraic equations has to be solved. The most time-consuming part of any fully implicit reservoir simulator is the solution of this large system of equations. Usually this is done by Newton's method. The resulting systems of linear equations are then either solved by a direct method or by some conjugate gradient type method. In this paper we consider the possibility of applying multigrid methods for the iterative solution of the systems of nonlinear equations. There are two ways of using multigrid for this job: either we use a nonlinear multigrid method or we use a linear multigrid method to deal with the linear systems that arise in Newton's method. So far only a few authors have reported on the use of multigrid methods for fully implicit simulations. Two-level FAS algorithm is presented for the black-oil equations, and linear multigrid for
Some Aspects of Multigrid Methods on Non-Structured Meshes
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Guillard, H.; Marco, N.
1996-01-01
To solve a given fine mesh problem, the design of a multigrid method requires the definition of coarse levels, associated coarse grid operators and inter-grid transfer operators. For non-structured simplified meshes, these definitions can rely on the use of non-nested triangulations. These definitions can also be founded on agglomeration/aggregation techniques in a purely algebraic manner. This paper analyzes these two options, shows the connections of the volume-agglomeration method with algebraic methods and proposes a new definition of prolongation operator suitable for the application of the volume-agglomeration method to elliptic problems.
Multigrid contact detection method
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
He, Kejing; Dong, Shoubin; Zhou, Zhaoyao
2007-03-01
Contact detection is a general problem of many physical simulations. This work presents a O(N) multigrid method for general contact detection problems (MGCD). The multigrid idea is integrated with contact detection problems. Both the time complexity and memory consumption of the MGCD are O(N) . Unlike other methods, whose efficiencies are influenced strongly by the object size distribution, the performance of MGCD is insensitive to the object size distribution. We compare the MGCD with the no binary search (NBS) method and the multilevel boxing method in three dimensions for both time complexity and memory consumption. For objects with similar size, the MGCD is as good as the NBS method, both of which outperform the multilevel boxing method regarding memory consumption. For objects with diverse size, the MGCD outperform both the NBS method and the multilevel boxing method. We use the MGCD to solve the contact detection problem for a granular simulation system based on the discrete element method. From this granular simulation, we get the density property of monosize packing and binary packing with size ratio equal to 10. The packing density for monosize particles is 0.636. For binary packing with size ratio equal to 10, when the number of small particles is 300 times as the number of big particles, the maximal packing density 0.824 is achieved.
Preconditioners for the spectral multigrid method
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Phillips, T. N.; Zang, T. A.; Hussaini, M. Y.
1983-01-01
The systems of algebraic equations which arise from spectral discretizations of elliptic equations are full and direct solutions of them are rarely feasible. Iterative methods are an attractive alternative because Fourier transform techniques enable the discrete matrix-vector products to be computed with nearly the same efficiency as is possible for corresponding but sparse finite difference discretizations. For realistic Dirichlet problems preconditioning is essential for acceptable convergence rates. A brief description of Chebyshev spectral approximations and spectral multigrid methods for elliptic problems is given. A survey of preconditioners for Dirichlet problems based on second-order finite difference methods is made. New preconditioning techniques based on higher order finite differences and on the spectral matrix itself are presented. The preconditioners are analyzed in terms of their spectra and numerical examples are presented.
Preconditioners for the spectral multigrid method
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Phillips, T. N.; Hussaini, M. Y.; Zang, T. A.
1986-01-01
The systems of algebraic equations which arise from spectral discretizations of elliptic equations are full and direct solutions of them are rarely feasible. Iterative methods are an attractive alternative because Fourier transform techniques enable the discrete matrix-vector products to be computed with nearly the same efficiency as is possible for corresponding but sparse finite difference discretizations. For realistic Dirichlet problem preconditioning is essential for acceptable convergence rates. A brief description of Chebyshev spectral approximations and spectral multigrid methods for elliptic problems is given. A survey of preconditioners for Dirichlet problems based on second-order finite difference methods is made. New preconditioning techniques based on higher order finite differences and on the spectral matrix itself are presented. The preconditioners are analyzed in terms of their spectra and numerical examples are presented.
Simulation of viscous flows using a multigrid-control volume finite element method
Hookey, N.A.
1994-12-31
This paper discusses a multigrid control volume finite element method (MG CVFEM) for the simulation of viscous fluid flows. The CVFEM is an equal-order primitive variables formulation that avoids spurious solution fields by incorporating an appropriate pressure gradient in the velocity interpolation functions. The resulting set of discretized equations is solved using a coupled equation line solver (CELS) that solves the discretized momentum and continuity equations simultaneously along lines in the calculation domain. The CVFEM has been implemented in the context of both FMV- and V-cycle multigrid algorithms, and preliminary results indicate a five to ten fold reduction in execution times.
Adaptive Multigrid Algorithm for the Lattice Wilson-Dirac Operator
Babich, R.; Brower, R. C.; Rebbi, C.; Brannick, J.; Clark, M. A.; Manteuffel, T. A.; McCormick, S. F.; Osborn, J. C.
2010-11-12
We present an adaptive multigrid solver for application to the non-Hermitian Wilson-Dirac system of QCD. The key components leading to the success of our proposed algorithm are the use of an adaptive projection onto coarse grids that preserves the near null space of the system matrix together with a simplified form of the correction based on the so-called {gamma}{sub 5}-Hermitian symmetry of the Dirac operator. We demonstrate that the algorithm nearly eliminates critical slowing down in the chiral limit and that it has weak dependence on the lattice volume.
Adaptive multigrid algorithm for the lattice Wilson-Dirac operator.
Babich, R; Brannick, J; Brower, R C; Clark, M A; Manteuffel, T A; McCormick, S F; Osborn, J C; Rebbi, C
2010-11-12
We present an adaptive multigrid solver for application to the non-Hermitian Wilson-Dirac system of QCD. The key components leading to the success of our proposed algorithm are the use of an adaptive projection onto coarse grids that preserves the near null space of the system matrix together with a simplified form of the correction based on the so-called γ5-Hermitian symmetry of the Dirac operator. We demonstrate that the algorithm nearly eliminates critical slowing down in the chiral limit and that it has weak dependence on the lattice volume. PMID:21231217
Fast multigrid solution of the advection problem with closed characteristics
Yavneh, I.; Venner, C.H.; Brandt, A.
1996-12-31
The numerical solution of the advection-diffusion problem in the inviscid limit with closed characteristics is studied as a prelude to an efficient high Reynolds-number flow solver. It is demonstrated by a heuristic analysis and numerical calculations that using upstream discretization with downstream relaxation-ordering and appropriate residual weighting in a simple multigrid V cycle produces an efficient solution process. We also derive upstream finite-difference approximations to the advection operator, whose truncation terms approximate {open_quotes}physical{close_quotes} (Laplacian) viscosity, thus avoiding spurious solutions to the homogeneous problem when the artificial diffusivity dominates the physical viscosity.
Algorithms and data structures for adaptive multigrid elliptic solvers
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Vanrosendale, J.
1983-01-01
Adaptive refinement and the complicated data structures required to support it are discussed. These data structures must be carefully tuned, especially in three dimensions where the time and storage requirements of algorithms are crucial. Another major issue is grid generation. The options available seem to be curvilinear fitted grids, constructed on iterative graphics systems, and unfitted Cartesian grids, which can be constructed automatically. On several grounds, including storage requirements, the second option seems preferrable for the well behaved scalar elliptic problems considered here. A variety of techniques for treatment of boundary conditions on such grids are reviewed. A new approach, which may overcome some of the difficulties encountered with previous approaches, is also presented.
Lin, Paul T. Shadid, John N.; Sala, Marzio; Tuminaro, Raymond S.; Hennigan, Gary L.; Hoekstra, Robert J.
2009-09-20
In this study results are presented for the large-scale parallel performance of an algebraic multilevel preconditioner for solution of the drift-diffusion model for semiconductor devices. The preconditioner is the key numerical procedure determining the robustness, efficiency and scalability of the fully-coupled Newton-Krylov based, nonlinear solution method that is employed for this system of equations. The coupled system is comprised of a source term dominated Poisson equation for the electric potential, and two convection-diffusion-reaction type equations for the electron and hole concentration. The governing PDEs are discretized in space by a stabilized finite element method. Solution of the discrete system is obtained through a fully-implicit time integrator, a fully-coupled Newton-based nonlinear solver, and a restarted GMRES Krylov linear system solver. The algebraic multilevel preconditioner is based on an aggressive coarsening graph partitioning of the nonzero block structure of the Jacobian matrix. Representative performance results are presented for various choices of multigrid V-cycles and W-cycles and parameter variations for smoothers based on incomplete factorizations. Parallel scalability results are presented for solution of up to 10{sup 8} unknowns on 4096 processors of a Cray XT3/4 and an IBM POWER eServer system.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lin, Paul T.; Shadid, John N.; Sala, Marzio; Tuminaro, Raymond S.; Hennigan, Gary L.; Hoekstra, Robert J.
2009-09-01
In this study results are presented for the large-scale parallel performance of an algebraic multilevel preconditioner for solution of the drift-diffusion model for semiconductor devices. The preconditioner is the key numerical procedure determining the robustness, efficiency and scalability of the fully-coupled Newton-Krylov based, nonlinear solution method that is employed for this system of equations. The coupled system is comprised of a source term dominated Poisson equation for the electric potential, and two convection-diffusion-reaction type equations for the electron and hole concentration. The governing PDEs are discretized in space by a stabilized finite element method. Solution of the discrete system is obtained through a fully-implicit time integrator, a fully-coupled Newton-based nonlinear solver, and a restarted GMRES Krylov linear system solver. The algebraic multilevel preconditioner is based on an aggressive coarsening graph partitioning of the nonzero block structure of the Jacobian matrix. Representative performance results are presented for various choices of multigrid V-cycles and W-cycles and parameter variations for smoothers based on incomplete factorizations. Parallel scalability results are presented for solution of up to 108 unknowns on 4096 processors of a Cray XT3/4 and an IBM POWER eServer system.
Kinds of Knowledge in Algebra.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Lewis, Clayton
Solving equations in elementary algebra requires knowledge of the permitted operations, and knowledge of what operation to use at a given point in the solution process. While just these kinds of knowledge would be adequate for an ideal solver, human solvers appear to need and use other kinds of knowledge. First, many errors seem to indicate that…
Assessment of Linear Finite-Difference Poisson-Boltzmann Solvers
Wang, Jun; Luo, Ray
2009-01-01
CPU time and memory usage are two vital issues that any numerical solvers for the Poisson-Boltzmann equation have to face in biomolecular applications. In this study we systematically analyzed the CPU time and memory usage of five commonly used finite-difference solvers with a large and diversified set of biomolecular structures. Our comparative analysis shows that modified incomplete Cholesky conjugate gradient and geometric multigrid are the most efficient in the diversified test set. For the two efficient solvers, our test shows that their CPU times increase approximately linearly with the numbers of grids. Their CPU times also increase almost linearly with the negative logarithm of the convergence criterion at very similar rate. Our comparison further shows that geometric multigrid performs better in the large set of tested biomolecules. However, modified incomplete Cholesky conjugate gradient is superior to geometric multigrid in molecular dynamics simulations of tested molecules. We also investigated other significant components in numerical solutions of the Poisson-Boltzmann equation. It turns out that the time-limiting step is the free boundary condition setup for the linear systems for the selected proteins if the electrostatic focusing is not used. Thus, development of future numerical solvers for the Poisson-Boltzmann equation should balance all aspects of the numerical procedures in realistic biomolecular applications. PMID:20063271
Assessment of linear finite-difference Poisson-Boltzmann solvers.
Wang, Jun; Luo, Ray
2010-06-01
CPU time and memory usage are two vital issues that any numerical solvers for the Poisson-Boltzmann equation have to face in biomolecular applications. In this study, we systematically analyzed the CPU time and memory usage of five commonly used finite-difference solvers with a large and diversified set of biomolecular structures. Our comparative analysis shows that modified incomplete Cholesky conjugate gradient and geometric multigrid are the most efficient in the diversified test set. For the two efficient solvers, our test shows that their CPU times increase approximately linearly with the numbers of grids. Their CPU times also increase almost linearly with the negative logarithm of the convergence criterion at very similar rate. Our comparison further shows that geometric multigrid performs better in the large set of tested biomolecules. However, modified incomplete Cholesky conjugate gradient is superior to geometric multigrid in molecular dynamics simulations of tested molecules. We also investigated other significant components in numerical solutions of the Poisson-Boltzmann equation. It turns out that the time-limiting step is the free boundary condition setup for the linear systems for the selected proteins if the electrostatic focusing is not used. Thus, development of future numerical solvers for the Poisson-Boltzmann equation should balance all aspects of the numerical procedures in realistic biomolecular applications. PMID:20063271
Directional Agglomeration Multigrid Techniques for High-Reynolds Number Viscous Flows
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Mavriplis, Dimitri J.
1998-01-01
A preconditioned directional-implicit agglomeration algorithm is developed for solving two- and three-dimensional viscous flows on highly anisotropic unstructured meshes of mixed-element types. The multigrid smoother consists of a pre-conditioned point- or line-implicit solver which operates on lines constructed in the unstructured mesh using a weighted graph algorithm. Directional coarsening or agglomeration is achieved using a similar weighted graph algorithm. A tight coupling of the line construction and directional agglomeration algorithms enables the use of aggressive coarsening ratios in the multigrid algorithm, which in turn reduces the cost of a multigrid cycle. Convergence rates which are independent of the degree of grid stretching are demonstrated in both two and three dimensions. Further improvement of the three-dimensional convergence rates through a GMRES technique is also demonstrated.
Fast and Robust Sixth Order Multigrid Computation for 3D Convection Diffusion Equation.
Wang, Yin; Zhang, Jun
2010-10-15
We present a sixth order explicit compact finite difference scheme to solve the three dimensional (3D) convection diffusion equation. We first use multiscale multigrid method to solve the linear systems arising from a 19-point fourth order discretization scheme to compute the fourth order solutions on both the coarse grid and the fine grid. Then an operator based interpolation scheme combined with an extrapolation technique is used to approximate the sixth order accurate solution on the fine grid. Since the multigrid method using a standard point relaxation smoother may fail to achieve the optimal grid independent convergence rate for solving convection diffusion equation with a high Reynolds number, we implement the plane relaxation smoother in the multigrid solver to achieve better grid independency. Supporting numerical results are presented to demonstrate the efficiency and accuracy of the sixth order compact scheme (SOC), compared with the previously published fourth order compact scheme (FOC). PMID:21151737
Wilson, John D.; Naff, Richard L.
2004-01-01
A geometric multigrid solver (GMG), based in the preconditioned conjugate gradient algorithm, has been developed for solving systems of equations resulting from applying the cell-centered finite difference algorithm to flow in porous media. This solver has been adapted to the U.S. Geological Survey ground-water flow model MODFLOW-2000. The documentation herein is a description of the solver and the adaptation to MODFLOW-2000.
Highly scalable linear solvers on thousands of processors.
Domino, Stefan Paul; Karlin, Ian; Siefert, Christopher; Hu, Jonathan Joseph; Robinson, Allen Conrad; Tuminaro, Raymond Stephen
2009-09-01
In this report we summarize research into new parallel algebraic multigrid (AMG) methods. We first provide a introduction to parallel AMG. We then discuss our research in parallel AMG algorithms for very large scale platforms. We detail significant improvements in the AMG setup phase to a matrix-matrix multiplication kernel. We present a smoothed aggregation AMG algorithm with fewer communication synchronization points, and discuss its links to domain decomposition methods. Finally, we discuss a multigrid smoothing technique that utilizes two message passing layers for use on multicore processors.
Sixth Copper Mountain Conference on Multigrid Methods. Final report
Not Available
1994-07-01
During the 5-day meeting, 112 half-hour talks on current research topics were presented. Session topics included: fluids, domain decomposition, iterative methods, Basics I and II, adaptive methods, nonlinear filtering, CFD I, II, and III, applications, transport, algebraic solvers, supercomputing, and student paper winners.
Multigrid-Based Methodology for Implicit Solvation Models in Periodic DFT.
Garcia-Ratés, Miquel; López, Núria
2016-03-01
Continuum solvation models have become a widespread approach for the study of environmental effects in Density Functional Theory (DFT) methods. Adding solvation contributions mainly relies on the solution of the Generalized Poisson Equation (GPE) governing the behavior of the electrostatic potential of a system. Although multigrid methods are especially appropriate for the solution of partial differential equations, up to now, their use is not much extended in DFT-based codes because of their high memory requirements. In this Article, we report the implementation of an accelerated multigrid solver-based approach for the treatment of solvation effects in the Vienna ab initio Simulation Package (VASP). The stated implicit solvation model, named VASP-MGCM (VASP-Multigrid Continuum Model), uses an efficient and transferable algorithm for the product of sparse matrices that highly outperforms serial multigrid solvers. The calculated solvation free energies for a set of molecules, including neutral and ionic species, as well as adsorbed molecules on metallic surfaces, agree with experimental data and with simulation results obtained with other continuum models. PMID:26771105
Multigrid methods for isogeometric discretization.
Gahalaut, K P S; Kraus, J K; Tomar, S K
2013-01-01
We present (geometric) multigrid methods for isogeometric discretization of scalar second order elliptic problems. The smoothing property of the relaxation method, and the approximation property of the intergrid transfer operators are analyzed. These properties, when used in the framework of classical multigrid theory, imply uniform convergence of two-grid and multigrid methods. Supporting numerical results are provided for the smoothing property, the approximation property, convergence factor and iterations count for V-, W- and F-cycles, and the linear dependence of V-cycle convergence on the smoothing steps. For two dimensions, numerical results include the problems with variable coefficients, simple multi-patch geometry, a quarter annulus, and the dependence of convergence behavior on refinement levels [Formula: see text], whereas for three dimensions, only the constant coefficient problem in a unit cube is considered. The numerical results are complete up to polynomial order [Formula: see text], and for [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text] smoothness. PMID:24511168
Multigrid methods for isogeometric discretization
Gahalaut, K.P.S.; Kraus, J.K.; Tomar, S.K.
2013-01-01
We present (geometric) multigrid methods for isogeometric discretization of scalar second order elliptic problems. The smoothing property of the relaxation method, and the approximation property of the intergrid transfer operators are analyzed. These properties, when used in the framework of classical multigrid theory, imply uniform convergence of two-grid and multigrid methods. Supporting numerical results are provided for the smoothing property, the approximation property, convergence factor and iterations count for V-, W- and F-cycles, and the linear dependence of V-cycle convergence on the smoothing steps. For two dimensions, numerical results include the problems with variable coefficients, simple multi-patch geometry, a quarter annulus, and the dependence of convergence behavior on refinement levels ℓ, whereas for three dimensions, only the constant coefficient problem in a unit cube is considered. The numerical results are complete up to polynomial order p=4, and for C0 and Cp-1 smoothness. PMID:24511168
Comparative Convergence Analysis of Nonlinear AMLI-Cycle Multigrid
Hu, Xiaozhe; Vassilevski, Panayot S.; Xu, Jinchao
2013-04-30
The purpose of our paper is to provide a comprehensive convergence analysis of the nonlinear algebraic multilevel iteration (AMLI)-cycle multigrid (MG) method for symmetric positive definite problems. We show that the nonlinear AMLI-cycle MG method is uniformly convergent, based on classical assumptions for approximation and smoothing properties. Furthermore, under only the assumption that the smoother is convergent, we show that the nonlinear AMLI-cycle method is always better (or not worse) than the respective V-cycle MG method. Finally, numerical experiments are presented to illustrate the theoretical results.
Rotor-stator interaction analysis using the Navier-Stokes equations and a multigrid method
Arnone, A.; Pacciani, R.
1996-10-01
A recently developed, time-accurate multigrid viscous solver has been extended to the analysis of unsteady rotor-stator interaction. In the proposed method, a fully implicit discretization is used to remove stability limitations. By means of a dual time-stepping approach, a four-stage Runge-Kutta scheme is used in conjunction with several accelerating techniques typical of steady-state solvers, instead of traditional time-expensive factorizations. The accelerating strategies include local time stepping, residual smoothing, and multigrid. Two-dimensional viscous calculations of unsteady rotor-stator interaction in the first stage of a modern gas turbine are presented. The stage analysis is based on the introduction of several blade passages to approximate the stator:rotor count ratio. Particular attention is dedicated to grid dependency in space and time as well as to the influence of the number of blades included in the calculations.
Multigrid for locally refined meshes
Shapira, Y.
1999-12-01
A multilevel method for the solution of finite element schemes on locally refined meshes is introduced. For isotropic diffusion problems, the condition number of the two-level method is bounded independently of the mesh size and the discontinuities in the diffusion coefficient. The curves of discontinuity need not be aligned with the coarse mesh. Indeed, numerical applications with 10 levels of local refinement yield a rapid convergence of the corresponding 10-level, multigrid V-cycle and other multigrid cycles which are more suitable for parallelism even when the discontinuities are invisible on most of the coarse meshes.
Implementation and Optimization of miniGMG - a Compact Geometric Multigrid Benchmark
Williams, Samuel; Kalamkar, Dhiraj; Singh, Amik; Deshpande, Anand M.; Straalen, Brian Van; Smelyanskiy, Mikhail; Almgren, Ann; Dubey, Pradeep; Shalf, John; Oliker, Leonid
2012-12-01
Multigrid methods are widely used to accelerate the convergence of iterative solvers for linear systems used in a number of different application areas. In this report, we describe miniGMG, our compact geometric multigrid benchmark designed to proxy the multigrid solves found in AMR applications. We explore optimization techniques for geometric multigrid on existing and emerging multicore systems including the Opteron-based Cray XE6, Intel Sandy Bridge and Nehalem-based Infiniband clusters, as well as manycore-based architectures including NVIDIA's Fermi and Kepler GPUs and Intel's Knights Corner (KNC) co-processor. This report examines a variety of novel techniques including communication-aggregation, threaded wavefront-based DRAM communication-avoiding, dynamic threading decisions, SIMDization, and fusion of operators. We quantify performance through each phase of the V-cycle for both single-node and distributed-memory experiments and provide detailed analysis for each class of optimization. Results show our optimizations yield significant speedups across a variety of subdomain sizes while simultaneously demonstrating the potential of multi- and manycore processors to dramatically accelerate single-node performance. However, our analysis also indicates that improvements in networks and communication will be essential to reap the potential of manycore processors in large-scale multigrid calculations.
Multistage Schemes with Multigrid for Euler and Navier-Strokes Equations: Components and Analysis
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Swanson, R. C.; Turkel, Eli
1997-01-01
A class of explicit multistage time-stepping schemes with centered spatial differencing and multigrids are considered for the compressible Euler and Navier-Stokes equations. These schemes are the basis for a family of computer programs (flow codes with multigrid (FLOMG) series) currently used to solve a wide range of fluid dynamics problems, including internal and external flows. In this paper, the components of these multistage time-stepping schemes are defined, discussed, and in many cases analyzed to provide additional insight into their behavior. Special emphasis is given to numerical dissipation, stability of Runge-Kutta schemes, and the convergence acceleration techniques of multigrid and implicit residual smoothing. Both the Baldwin and Lomax algebraic equilibrium model and the Johnson and King one-half equation nonequilibrium model are used to establish turbulence closure. Implementation of these models is described.
New convergence estimates for multigrid algorithms
Bramble, J.H.; Pasciak, J.E.
1987-10-01
In this paper, new convergence estimates are proved for both symmetric and nonsymmetric multigrid algorithms applied to symmetric positive definite problems. Our theory relates the convergence of multigrid algorithms to a ''regularity and approximation'' parameter ..cap alpha.. epsilon (0, 1) and the number of relaxations m. We show that for the symmetric and nonsymmetric ..nu.. cycles, the multigrid iteration converges for any positive m at a rate which deteriorates no worse than 1-cj/sup -(1-//sup ..cap alpha..//sup )///sup ..cap alpha../, where j is the number of grid levels. We then define a generalized ..nu.. cycle algorithm which involves exponentially increasing (for example, doubling) the number of smoothings on successively coarser grids. We show that the resulting symmetric and nonsymmetric multigrid iterations converge for any ..cap alpha.. with rates that are independent of the mesh size. The theory is presented in an abstract setting which can be applied to finite element multigrid and finite difference multigrid methods.
Multigrid lattice Boltzmann method for accelerated solution of elliptic equations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Patil, Dhiraj V.; Premnath, Kannan N.; Banerjee, Sanjoy
2014-05-01
A new solver for second-order elliptic partial differential equations (PDEs) based on the lattice Boltzmann method (LBM) and the multigrid (MG) technique is presented. Several benchmark elliptic equations are solved numerically with the inclusion of multiple grid-levels in two-dimensional domains at an optimal computational cost within the LB framework. The results are compared with the corresponding analytical solutions and numerical solutions obtained using the Stone's strongly implicit procedure. The classical PDEs considered in this article include the Laplace and Poisson equations with Dirichlet boundary conditions, with the latter involving both constant and variable coefficients. A detailed analysis of solution accuracy, convergence and computational efficiency of the proposed solver is given. It is observed that the use of a high-order stencil (for smoothing) improves convergence and accuracy for an equivalent number of smoothing sweeps. The effect of the type of scheduling cycle (V- or W-cycle) on the performance of the MG-LBM is analyzed. Next, a parallel algorithm for the MG-LBM solver is presented and then its parallel performance on a multi-core cluster is analyzed. Lastly, a practical example is provided wherein the proposed elliptic PDE solver is used to compute the electro-static potential encountered in an electro-chemical cell, which demonstrates the effectiveness of this new solver in complex coupled systems. Several orders of magnitude gains in convergence and parallel scaling for the canonical problems, and a factor of 5 reduction for the multiphysics problem are achieved using the MG-LBM.
Application of an unstructured grid flow solver to planes, trains and automobiles
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Spragle, Gregory S.; Smith, Wayne A.; Yadlin, Yoram
1993-01-01
Rampant, an unstructured flow solver developed at Fluent Inc., is used to compute three-dimensional, viscous, turbulent, compressible flow fields within complex solution domains. Rampant is an explicit, finite-volume flow solver capable of computing flow fields using either triangular (2d) or tetrahedral (3d) unstructured grids. Local time stepping, implicit residual smoothing, and multigrid techniques are used to accelerate the convergence of the explicit scheme. The paper describes the Rampant flow solver and presents flow field solutions about a plane, train, and automobile.
Bordner, J.; Saied, F.
1996-12-31
GLab3D is an enhancement of an interactive environment (MGLab) for experimenting with iterative solvers and multigrid algorithms. It is implemented in MATLAB. The new version has built-in 3D elliptic pde`s and several iterative methods and preconditioners that were not available in the original version. A sparse direct solver option has also been included. The multigrid solvers have also been extended to 3D. The discretization and pde domains are restricted to standard finite differences on the unit square/cube. The power of this software studies in the fact that no programming is needed to solve, for example, the convection-diffusion equation in 3D with TFQMR and a customized V-cycle preconditioner, for a variety of problem sizes and mesh Reynolds, numbers. In addition to the graphical user interface, some sample drivers are included to show how experiments can be composed using the underlying suite of problems and solvers.
Robust Multigrid Smoothers for Three Dimensional Elliptic Equations with Strong Anisotropies
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Llorente, Ignacio M.; Melson, N. Duane
1998-01-01
We discuss the behavior of several plane relaxation methods as multigrid smoothers for the solution of a discrete anisotropic elliptic model problem on cell-centered grids. The methods compared are plane Jacobi with damping, plane Jacobi with partial damping, plane Gauss-Seidel, plane zebra Gauss-Seidel, and line Gauss-Seidel. Based on numerical experiments and local mode analysis, we compare the smoothing factor of the different methods in the presence of strong anisotropies. A four-color Gauss-Seidel method is found to have the best numerical and architectural properties of the methods considered in the present work. Although alternating direction plane relaxation schemes are simpler and more robust than other approaches, they are not currently used in industrial and production codes because they require the solution of a two-dimensional problem for each plane in each direction. We verify the theoretical predictions of Thole and Trottenberg that an exact solution of each plane is not necessary and that a single two-dimensional multigrid cycle gives the same result as an exact solution, in much less execution time. Parallelization of the two-dimensional multigrid cycles, the kernel of the three-dimensional implicit solver, is also discussed. Alternating-plane smoothers are found to be highly efficient multigrid smoothers for anisotropic elliptic problems.
A multigrid method for a model of the implicit immersed boundary equations
Guy, Robert; Philip, Bobby
2012-01-01
Explicit time stepping schemes for the immersed boundary method require very small time steps in order to maintain stability. Solving the equations that arise from an implicit discretization is difficult. Recently, several different approaches have been proposed, but a complete understanding of this problem is still emerging. A multigrid method is developed and explored for solving the equations in an implicit time discretization of a model of the immersed boundary equations. The model problem consists of a scalar Poisson equation with conformation-dependent singular forces on an immersed boundary. This model does not include the inertial terms or the incompressibility constraint. The method is more efficient than an explicit method, but the efficiency gain is limited. The multigrid method alone may not be an effective solver, but when used as a preconditioner for Krylov methods, the speed-up over the explicit time method is substantial. For example, depending on the constitutive law for the boundary force, with a time step 100 times larger than the explicit method, the implicit method is about 15-100 times more efficient than the explicit method. A very attractive feature of this method is that the efficiency of the multigrid preconditioned Krylov solver is shown to be independent of the number of immersed boundary points.
2004-03-01
Amesos is the Direct Sparse Solver Package in Trilinos. The goal of Amesos is to make AX=S as easy as it sounds, at least for direct methods. Amesos provides interfaces to a number of third party sparse direct solvers, including SuperLU, SuperLU MPI, DSCPACK, UMFPACK and KLU. Amesos provides a common object oriented interface to the best sparse direct solvers in the world. A sparse direct solver solves for x in Ax = b. wheremore » A is a matrix and x and b are vectors (or multi-vectors). A sparse direct solver flrst factors A into trinagular matrices L and U such that A = LU via gaussian elimination and then solves LU x = b. Switching amongst solvers in Amesos roquires a change to a single parameter. Yet, no solver needs to be linked it, unless it is used. All conversions between the matrices provided by the user and the format required by the underlying solver is performed by Amesos. As new sparse direct solvers are created, they will be incorporated into Amesos, allowing the user to simpty link with the new solver, change a single parameter in the calling sequence, and use the new solver. Amesos allows users to specify whether the matrix has changed. Amesos can be used anywhere that any sparse direct solver is needed.« less
Stanley, Vendall S.; Heroux, Michael A.; Hoekstra, Robert J.; Sala, Marzio
2004-03-01
Amesos is the Direct Sparse Solver Package in Trilinos. The goal of Amesos is to make AX=S as easy as it sounds, at least for direct methods. Amesos provides interfaces to a number of third party sparse direct solvers, including SuperLU, SuperLU MPI, DSCPACK, UMFPACK and KLU. Amesos provides a common object oriented interface to the best sparse direct solvers in the world. A sparse direct solver solves for x in Ax = b. where A is a matrix and x and b are vectors (or multi-vectors). A sparse direct solver flrst factors A into trinagular matrices L and U such that A = LU via gaussian elimination and then solves LU x = b. Switching amongst solvers in Amesos roquires a change to a single parameter. Yet, no solver needs to be linked it, unless it is used. All conversions between the matrices provided by the user and the format required by the underlying solver is performed by Amesos. As new sparse direct solvers are created, they will be incorporated into Amesos, allowing the user to simpty link with the new solver, change a single parameter in the calling sequence, and use the new solver. Amesos allows users to specify whether the matrix has changed. Amesos can be used anywhere that any sparse direct solver is needed.
Massively parallel fast elliptic equation solver for three dimensional hydrodynamics and relativity
Sholl, P.L.; Wilson, J.R.; Mathews, G.J.; Avila, J.H.
1995-01-01
Through the work proposed in this document we expect to advance the forefront of large scale computational efforts on massively parallel distributed-memory multiprocessors. We will develop tools for effective conversion to a parallel implementation of sequential numerical methods used to solve large systems of partial differential equations. The research supported by this work will involve conversion of a program which does state of the art modeling of multi-dimensional hydrodynamics, general relativity and particle transport in energetic astrophysical environments. The proposed parallel algorithm development, particularly the study and development of fast elliptic equation solvers, could significantly benefit this program and other applications involving solutions to systems of differential equations. We shall develop a data communication manager for distributed memory computers as an aid in program conversions to a parallel environment and implement it in the three dimensional relativistic hydrodynamics program discussed below; develop a concurrent system/concurrent subgrid multigrid method. Currently, five systems are approximated sequentially using multigrid successive overrelaxation. Results from an iteration cycle of one multigrid system are used in following multigrid systems iterations. We shall develop a multigrid algorithm for simultaneous computation of the sets of equations. In addition, we shall implement a method for concurrent processing of the subgrids in each of the multigrid computations. The conditions for convergence of the method will be examined. We`ll compare this technique to other parallel multigrid techniques, such as distributed data/sequential subgrids and the Parallel Superconvergent Multigrid of Frederickson and McBryan. We expect the results of these studies to offer insight and tools both for the selection of new algorithms as well as for conversion of existing large codes for massively parallel architectures.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lavery, N.; Taylor, C.
1999-07-01
Multigrid and iterative methods are used to reduce the solution time of the matrix equations which arise from the finite element (FE) discretisation of the time-independent equations of motion of the incompressible fluid in turbulent motion. Incompressible flow is solved by using the method of reduce interpolation for the pressure to satisfy the Brezzi-Babuska condition. The k-l model is used to complete the turbulence closure problem. The non-symmetric iterative matrix methods examined are the methods of least squares conjugate gradient (LSCG), biconjugate gradient (BCG), conjugate gradient squared (CGS), and the biconjugate gradient squared stabilised (BCGSTAB). The multigrid algorithm applied is based on the FAS algorithm of Brandt, and uses two and three levels of grids with a V-cycling schedule. These methods are all compared to the non-symmetric frontal solver. Copyright
Elliptic Solvers for Adaptive Mesh Refinement Grids
Quinlan, D.J.; Dendy, J.E., Jr.; Shapira, Y.
1999-06-03
We are developing multigrid methods that will efficiently solve elliptic problems with anisotropic and discontinuous coefficients on adaptive grids. The final product will be a library that provides for the simplified solution of such problems. This library will directly benefit the efforts of other Laboratory groups. The focus of this work is research on serial and parallel elliptic algorithms and the inclusion of our black-box multigrid techniques into this new setting. The approach applies the Los Alamos object-oriented class libraries that greatly simplify the development of serial and parallel adaptive mesh refinement applications. In the final year of this LDRD, we focused on putting the software together; in particular we completed the final AMR++ library, we wrote tutorials and manuals, and we built example applications. We implemented the Fast Adaptive Composite Grid method as the principal elliptic solver. We presented results at the Overset Grid Conference and other more AMR specific conferences. We worked on optimization of serial and parallel performance and published several papers on the details of this work. Performance remains an important issue and is the subject of continuing research work.
The multigrid preconditioned conjugate gradient method
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Tatebe, Osamu
1993-01-01
A multigrid preconditioned conjugate gradient method (MGCG method), which uses the multigrid method as a preconditioner of the PCG method, is proposed. The multigrid method has inherent high parallelism and improves convergence of long wavelength components, which is important in iterative methods. By using this method as a preconditioner of the PCG method, an efficient method with high parallelism and fast convergence is obtained. First, it is considered a necessary condition of the multigrid preconditioner in order to satisfy requirements of a preconditioner of the PCG method. Next numerical experiments show a behavior of the MGCG method and that the MGCG method is superior to both the ICCG method and the multigrid method in point of fast convergence and high parallelism. This fast convergence is understood in terms of the eigenvalue analysis of the preconditioned matrix. From this observation of the multigrid preconditioner, it is realized that the MGCG method converges in very few iterations and the multigrid preconditioner is a desirable preconditioner of the conjugate gradient method.
Teaching Algebra without Algebra
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Kalman, Richard S.
2008-01-01
Algebra is, among other things, a shorthand way to express quantitative reasoning. This article illustrates ways for the classroom teacher to convert algebraic solutions to verbal problems into conversational solutions that can be understood by students in the lower grades. Three reasonably typical verbal problems that either appeared as or…
New iterative solvers for the NAG Libraries
Salvini, S.; Shaw, G.
1996-12-31
The purpose of this paper is to introduce the work which has been carried out at NAG Ltd to update the iterative solvers for sparse systems of linear equations, both symmetric and unsymmetric, in the NAG Fortran 77 Library. Our current plans to extend this work and include it in our other numerical libraries in our range are also briefly mentioned. We have added to the Library the new Chapter F11, entirely dedicated to sparse linear algebra. At Mark 17, the F11 Chapter includes sparse iterative solvers, preconditioners, utilities and black-box routines for sparse symmetric (both positive-definite and indefinite) linear systems. Mark 18 will add solvers, preconditioners, utilities and black-boxes for sparse unsymmetric systems: the development of these has already been completed.
Using SPARK as a Solver for Modelica
Wetter, Michael; Wetter, Michael; Haves, Philip; Moshier, Michael A.; Sowell, Edward F.
2008-06-30
Modelica is an object-oriented acausal modeling language that is well positioned to become a de-facto standard for expressing models of complex physical systems. To simulate a model expressed in Modelica, it needs to be translated into executable code. For generating run-time efficient code, such a translation needs to employ algebraic formula manipulations. As the SPARK solver has been shown to be competitive for generating such code but currently cannot be used with the Modelica language, we report in this paper how SPARK's symbolic and numerical algorithms can be implemented in OpenModelica, an open-source implementation of a Modelica modeling and simulation environment. We also report benchmark results that show that for our air flow network simulation benchmark, the SPARK solver is competitive with Dymola, which is believed to provide the best solver for Modelica.
A Parallel Multigrid Method for Neutronics Applications
Alcouffe, Raymond E.
2001-01-01
The multigrid method has been shown to be the most effective general method for solving the multi-dimensional diffusion equation encountered in neutronics. This being the method of choice, we develop a strategy for implementing the multigrid method on computers of massively parallel architecture. This leads us to strategies for parallelizing the relaxation, contraction (interpolation), and prolongation operators involved in the method. We then compare the efficiency of our parallel multigrid with other parallel methods for solving the diffusion equation on selected problems encountered in reactor physics.
Extending the applicability of multigrid methods
Brannick, J; Brezina, M; Falgout, R; Manteuffel, T; McCormick, S; Ruge, J; Sheehan, B; Xu, J; Zikatanov, L
2006-09-25
Multigrid methods are ideal for solving the increasingly large-scale problems that arise in numerical simulations of physical phenomena because of their potential for computational costs and memory requirements that scale linearly with the degrees of freedom. Unfortunately, they have been historically limited by their applicability to elliptic-type problems and the need for special handling in their implementation. In this paper, we present an overview of several recent theoretical and algorithmic advances made by the TOPS multigrid partners and their collaborators in extending applicability of multigrid methods. Specific examples that are presented include quantum chromodynamics, radiation transport, and electromagnetics.
Robust parallel iterative solvers for linear and least-squares problems, Final Technical Report
Saad, Yousef
2014-01-16
The primary goal of this project is to study and develop robust iterative methods for solving linear systems of equations and least squares systems. The focus of the Minnesota team is on algorithms development, robustness issues, and on tests and validation of the methods on realistic problems. 1. The project begun with an investigation on how to practically update a preconditioner obtained from an ILU-type factorization, when the coefficient matrix changes. 2. We investigated strategies to improve robustness in parallel preconditioners in a specific case of a PDE with discontinuous coefficients. 3. We explored ways to adapt standard preconditioners for solving linear systems arising from the Helmholtz equation. These are often difficult linear systems to solve by iterative methods. 4. We have also worked on purely theoretical issues related to the analysis of Krylov subspace methods for linear systems. 5. We developed an effective strategy for performing ILU factorizations for the case when the matrix is highly indefinite. The strategy uses shifting in some optimal way. The method was extended to the solution of Helmholtz equations by using complex shifts, yielding very good results in many cases. 6. We addressed the difficult problem of preconditioning sparse systems of equations on GPUs. 7. A by-product of the above work is a software package consisting of an iterative solver library for GPUs based on CUDA. This was made publicly available. It was the first such library that offers complete iterative solvers for GPUs. 8. We considered another form of ILU which blends coarsening techniques from Multigrid with algebraic multilevel methods. 9. We have released a new version on our parallel solver - called pARMS [new version is version 3]. As part of this we have tested the code in complex settings - including the solution of Maxwell and Helmholtz equations and for a problem of crystal growth.10. As an application of polynomial preconditioning we considered the
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Liu, C.; Liu, Z.
1993-01-01
The fourth-order finite-difference scheme with fully implicit time-marching presently used to computationally study the spatial instability of planar Poiseuille flow incorporates a novel treatment for outflow boundary conditions that renders the buffer area as short as one wavelength. A semicoarsening multigrid method accelerates convergence for the implicit scheme at each time step; a line-distributive relaxation is developed as a robust fast solver that is efficient for anisotropic grids. Computational cost is no greater than that of explicit schemes, and excellent agreement with linear theory is obtained.
A Full Multi-Grid Method for the Solution of the Cell Vertex Finite Volume Cauchy-Riemann Equations
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Borzi, A.; Morton, K. W.; Sueli, E.; Vanmaele, M.
1996-01-01
The system of inhomogeneous Cauchy-Riemann equations defined on a square domain and subject to Dirichlet boundary conditions is considered. This problem is discretised by using the cell vertex finite volume method on quadrilateral meshes. The resulting algebraic problem is overdetermined and the solution is defined in a least squares sense. By this approach a consistent algebraic problem is obtained which differs from the original one by O(h(exp 2)) perturbations of the right-hand side. A suitable cell-based convergent smoothing iteration is presented which is naturally linked to the least squares formulation. Hence, a standard multi-grid algorithm is reported which combines the given smoother and cell-based transfer operators. Some remarkable reduction properties of these operators are shown. A full multi-grid method is discussed which solves the discrete problem to the level of truncation error by employing one multi-grid cycle at each current level of discretisation. Experiments and applications of the full multi-grid scheme are presented.
Multigrid Methods for Mesh Relaxation
O'Brien, M J
2006-06-12
When generating a mesh for the initial conditions for a computer simulation, you want the mesh to be as smooth as possible. A common practice is to use equipotential mesh relaxation to smooth out a distorted computational mesh. Typically a Laplace-like equation is set up for the mesh coordinates and then one or more Jacobi iterations are performed to relax the mesh. As the zone count gets really large, the Jacobi iteration becomes less and less effective and we are stuck with our original unrelaxed mesh. This type of iteration can only damp high frequency errors and the smooth errors remain. When the zone count is large, almost everything looks smooth so relaxation cannot solve the problem. In this paper we examine a multigrid technique which effectively smooths out the mesh, independent of the number of zones.
An automatic multigrid method for the solution of sparse linear systems
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Shapira, Yair; Israeli, Moshe; Sidi, Avram
1993-01-01
An automatic version of the multigrid method for the solution of linear systems arising from the discretization of elliptic PDE's is presented. This version is based on the structure of the algebraic system solely, and does not use the original partial differential operator. Numerical experiments show that for the Poisson equation the rate of convergence of our method is equal to that of classical multigrid methods. Moreover, the method is robust in the sense that its high rate of convergence is conserved for other classes of problems: non-symmetric, hyperbolic (even with closed characteristics) and problems on non-uniform grids. No double discretization or special treatment of sub-domains (e.g. boundaries) is needed. When supplemented with a vector extrapolation method, high rates of convergence are achieved also for anisotropic and discontinuous problems and also for indefinite Helmholtz equations. A new double discretization strategy is proposed for finite and spectral element schemes and is found better than known strategies.
Performance of Nonlinear Finite-Difference Poisson-Boltzmann Solvers.
Cai, Qin; Hsieh, Meng-Juei; Wang, Jun; Luo, Ray
2010-01-12
We implemented and optimized seven finite-difference solvers for the full nonlinear Poisson-Boltzmann equation in biomolecular applications, including four relaxation methods, one conjugate gradient method, and two inexact Newton methods. The performance of the seven solvers was extensively evaluated with a large number of nucleic acids and proteins. Worth noting is the inexact Newton method in our analysis. We investigated the role of linear solvers in its performance by incorporating the incomplete Cholesky conjugate gradient and the geometric multigrid into its inner linear loop. We tailored and optimized both linear solvers for faster convergence rate. In addition, we explored strategies to optimize the successive over-relaxation method to reduce its convergence failures without too much sacrifice in its convergence rate. Specifically we attempted to adaptively change the relaxation parameter and to utilize the damping strategy from the inexact Newton method to improve the successive over-relaxation method. Our analysis shows that the nonlinear methods accompanied with a functional-assisted strategy, such as the conjugate gradient method and the inexact Newton method, can guarantee convergence in the tested molecules. Especially the inexact Newton method exhibits impressive performance when it is combined with highly efficient linear solvers that are tailored for its special requirement. PMID:24723843
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ţene, Matei; Al Kobaisi, Mohammed Saad; Hajibeygi, Hadi
2016-09-01
This paper introduces an Algebraic MultiScale method for simulation of flow in heterogeneous porous media with embedded discrete Fractures (F-AMS). First, multiscale coarse grids are independently constructed for both porous matrix and fracture networks. Then, a map between coarse- and fine-scale is obtained by algebraically computing basis functions with local support. In order to extend the localization assumption to the fractured media, four types of basis functions are investigated: (1) Decoupled-AMS, in which the two media are completely decoupled, (2) Frac-AMS and (3) Rock-AMS, which take into account only one-way transmissibilities, and (4) Coupled-AMS, in which the matrix and fracture interpolators are fully coupled. In order to ensure scalability, the F-AMS framework permits full flexibility in terms of the resolution of the fracture coarse grids. Numerical results are presented for two- and three-dimensional heterogeneous test cases. During these experiments, the performance of F-AMS, paired with ILU(0) as second-stage smoother in a convergent iterative procedure, is studied by monitoring CPU times and convergence rates. Finally, in order to investigate the scalability of the method, an extensive benchmark study is conducted, where a commercial algebraic multigrid solver is used as reference. The results show that, given an appropriate coarsening strategy, F-AMS is insensitive to severe fracture and matrix conductivity contrasts, as well as the length of the fracture networks. Its unique feature is that a fine-scale mass conservative flux field can be reconstructed after any iteration, providing efficient approximate solutions in time-dependent simulations.
Elliptic Solvers with Adaptive Mesh Refinement on Complex Geometries
Phillip, B.
2000-07-24
Adaptive Mesh Refinement (AMR) is a numerical technique for locally tailoring the resolution computational grids. Multilevel algorithms for solving elliptic problems on adaptive grids include the Fast Adaptive Composite grid method (FAC) and its parallel variants (AFAC and AFACx). Theory that confirms the independence of the convergence rates of FAC and AFAC on the number of refinement levels exists under certain ellipticity and approximation property conditions. Similar theory needs to be developed for AFACx. The effectiveness of multigrid-based elliptic solvers such as FAC, AFAC, and AFACx on adaptively refined overlapping grids is not clearly understood. Finally, a non-trivial eye model problem will be solved by combining the power of using overlapping grids for complex moving geometries, AMR, and multilevel elliptic solvers.
Convergence of Defect-Correction and Multigrid Iterations for Inviscid Flows
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Diskin, Boris; Thomas, James L.
2011-01-01
Convergence of multigrid and defect-correction iterations is comprehensively studied within different incompressible and compressible inviscid regimes on high-density grids. Good smoothing properties of the defect-correction relaxation have been shown using both a modified Fourier analysis and a more general idealized-coarse-grid analysis. Single-grid defect correction alone has some slowly converging iterations on grids of medium density. The convergence is especially slow for near-sonic flows and for very low compressible Mach numbers. Additionally, the fast asymptotic convergence seen on medium density grids deteriorates on high-density grids. Certain downstream-boundary modes are very slowly damped on high-density grids. Multigrid scheme accelerates convergence of the slow defect-correction iterations to the extent determined by the coarse-grid correction. The two-level asymptotic convergence rates are stable and significantly below one in most of the regions but slow convergence is noted for near-sonic and very low-Mach compressible flows. Multigrid solver has been applied to the NACA 0012 airfoil and to different flow regimes, such as near-tangency and stagnation. Certain convergence difficulties have been encountered within stagnation regions. Nonetheless, for the airfoil flow, with a sharp trailing-edge, residuals were fast converging for a subcritical flow on a sequence of grids. For supercritical flow, residuals converged slower on some intermediate grids than on the finest grid or the two coarsest grids.
A GPU-accelerated flow solver for incompressible two-phase fluid flows
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Codyer, Stephen; Raessi, Mehdi; Khanna, Gaurav
2011-11-01
We present a numerical solver for incompressible, immiscible, two-phase fluid flows that is accelerated by using Graphics Processing Units (GPUs). The Navier-Stokes equations are solved by the projection method, which involves solving a pressure Poisson problem at each time step. A second-order discretization of the Poisson problem leads to a sparse matrix with five and seven diagonals for two- and three-dimensional simulations, respectively. Running a serial linear algebra solver on a single CPU can take 50-99.9% of the total simulation time to solve the above system for pressure. To remove this bottleneck, we utilized the large parallelization capabilities of GPUs; we developed a linear algebra solver based on the conjugate gradient iterative method (CGIM) by using CUDA 4.0 libraries and compared its performance with CUSP, an open-source, GPU library for linear algebra. Compared to running the CGIM solver on a single CPU core, for a 2D case, our GPU solver yields speedups of up to 88x in solver time and 81x overall time on a single GPU card. In 3D cases, the speedups are up to 81x (solver) and 15x (overall). Speedup is faster at higher grid resolutions and our GPU solver outperforms CUSP. Current work examines the acceleration versus a parallel CGIM CPU solver.
Higher-order ice-sheet modelling accelerated by multigrid on graphics cards
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Brædstrup, Christian; Egholm, David
2013-04-01
Higher-order ice flow modelling is a very computer intensive process owing primarily to the nonlinear influence of the horizontal stress coupling. When applied for simulating long-term glacial landscape evolution, the ice-sheet models must consider very long time series, while both high temporal and spatial resolution is needed to resolve small effects. The use of higher-order and full stokes models have therefore seen very limited usage in this field. However, recent advances in graphics card (GPU) technology for high performance computing have proven extremely efficient in accelerating many large-scale scientific computations. The general purpose GPU (GPGPU) technology is cheap, has a low power consumption and fits into a normal desktop computer. It could therefore provide a powerful tool for many glaciologists working on ice flow models. Our current research focuses on utilising the GPU as a tool in ice-sheet and glacier modelling. To this extent we have implemented the Integrated Second-Order Shallow Ice Approximation (iSOSIA) equations on the device using the finite difference method. To accelerate the computations, the GPU solver uses a non-linear Red-Black Gauss-Seidel iterator coupled with a Full Approximation Scheme (FAS) multigrid setup to further aid convergence. The GPU finite difference implementation provides the inherent parallelization that scales from hundreds to several thousands of cores on newer cards. We demonstrate the efficiency of the GPU multigrid solver using benchmark experiments.
FAS multigrid calculations of three dimensional flow using non-staggered grids
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Matovic, D.; Pollard, A.; Becker, H. A.; Grandmaison, E. W.
1993-01-01
Grid staggering is a well known remedy for the problem of velocity/pressure coupling in incompressible flow calculations. Numerous inconveniences occur, however, when staggered grids are implemented, particularly when a general-purpose code, capable of handling irregular three-dimensional domains, is sought. In several non-staggered grid numerical procedures proposed in the literature, the velocity/pressure coupling is achieved by either pressure or velocity (momentum) averaging. This approach is not convenient for simultaneous (block) solvers that are preferred when using multigrid methods. A new method is introduced in this paper that is based upon non-staggered grid formulation with a set of virtual cell face velocities used for pressure/velocity coupling. Instead of pressure or velocity averaging, a momentum balance at the cell face is used as a link between the momentum and mass balance constraints. The numerical stencil is limited to 9 nodes (in 2D) or 27 nodes (in 3D), both during the smoothing and inter-grid transfer, which is a convenient feature when a block point solver is applied. The results for a lid-driven cavity and a cube in a lid-driven cavity are presented and compared to staggered grid calculations using the same multigrid algorithm. The method is shown to be stable and produce a smooth (wiggle-free) pressure field.
A Fast Poisson Solver with Periodic Boundary Conditions for GPU Clusters in Various Configurations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rattermann, Dale Nicholas
Fast Poisson solvers using the Fast Fourier Transform on uniform grids are especially suited for parallel implementation, making them appropriate for portability on graphical processing unit (GPU) devices. The goal of the following work was to implement, test, and evaluate a fast Poisson solver for periodic boundary conditions for use on a variety of GPU configurations. The solver used in this research was FLASH, an immersed-boundary-based method, which is well suited for complex, time-dependent geometries, has robust adaptive mesh refinement/de-refinement capabilities to capture evolving flow structures, and has been successfully implemented on conventional, parallel supercomputers. However, these solvers are still computationally costly to employ, and the total solver time is dominated by the solution of the pressure Poisson equation using state-of-the-art multigrid methods. FLASH improves the performance of its multigrid solvers by integrating a parallel FFT solver on a uniform grid during a coarse level. This hybrid solver could then be theoretically improved by replacing the highly-parallelizable FFT solver with one that utilizes GPUs, and, thus, was the motivation for my research. In the present work, the CPU-utilizing parallel FFT solver (PFFT) used in the base version of FLASH for solving the Poisson equation on uniform grids has been modified to enable parallel execution on CUDA-enabled GPU devices. New algorithms have been implemented to replace the Poisson solver that decompose the computational domain and send each new block to a GPU for parallel computation. One-dimensional (1-D) decomposition of the computational domain minimizes the amount of network traffic involved in this bandwidth-intensive computation by limiting the amount of all-to-all communication required between processes. Advanced techniques have been incorporated and implemented in a GPU-centric code design, while allowing end users the flexibility of parameter control at runtime in
Multicloud: Multigrid convergence with a meshless operator
Katz, Aaron Jameson, Antony
2009-08-01
The primary objective of this work is to develop and test a new convergence acceleration technique we call multicloud. Multicloud is well-founded in the mathematical basis of multigrid, but relies on a meshless operator on coarse levels. The meshless operator enables extremely simple and automatic coarsening procedures for arbitrary meshes using arbitrary fine level discretization schemes. The performance of multicloud is compared with established multigrid techniques for structured and unstructured meshes for the Euler equations on two-dimensional test cases. Results indicate comparable convergence rates per unit work for multicloud and multigrid. However, because of its mesh and scheme transparency, multicloud may be applied to a wide array of problems with no modification of fine level schemes as is often required with agglomeration techniques. The implication is that multicloud can be implemented in a completely modular fashion, allowing researchers to develop fine level algorithms independent of the convergence accelerator for complex three-dimensional problems.
Spectral multigrid methods for elliptic equations
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Zang, T. A.; Wong, Y. S.; Hussaini, M. Y.
1981-01-01
An alternative approach which employs multigrid concepts in the iterative solution of spectral equations was examined. Spectral multigrid methods are described for self adjoint elliptic equations with either periodic or Dirichlet boundary conditions. For realistic fluid calculations the relevant boundary conditions are periodic in at least one (angular) coordinate and Dirichlet (or Neumann) in the remaining coordinates. Spectral methods are always effective for flows in strictly rectangular geometries since corners generally introduce singularities into the solution. If the boundary is smooth, then mapping techniques are used to transform the problem into one with a combination of periodic and Dirichlet boundary conditions. It is suggested that spectral multigrid methods in these geometries can be devised by combining the techniques.
Multigrid Methods for Nonlinear Problems: An Overview
Henson, V E
2002-12-23
Since their early application to elliptic partial differential equations, multigrid methods have been applied successfully to a large and growing class of problems, from elasticity and computational fluid dynamics to geodetics and molecular structures. Classical multigrid begins with a two-grid process. First, iterative relaxation is applied, whose effect is to smooth the error. Then a coarse-grid correction is applied, in which the smooth error is determined on a coarser grid. This error is interpolated to the fine grid and used to correct the fine-grid approximation. Applying this method recursively to solve the coarse-grid problem leads to multigrid. The coarse-grid correction works because the residual equation is linear. But this is not the case for nonlinear problems, and different strategies must be employed. In this presentation we describe how to apply multigrid to nonlinear problems. There are two basic approaches. The first is to apply a linearization scheme, such as the Newton's method, and to employ multigrid for the solution of the Jacobian system in each iteration. The second is to apply multigrid directly to the nonlinear problem by employing the so-called Full Approximation Scheme (FAS). In FAS a nonlinear iteration is applied to smooth the error. The full equation is solved on the coarse grid, after which the coarse-grid error is extracted from the solution. This correction is then interpolated and applied to the fine grid approximation. We describe these methods in detail, and present numerical experiments that indicate the efficacy of them.
Multigrid Approach to Incompressible Viscous Cavity Flows
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Wood, William A.
1996-01-01
Two-dimensional incompressible viscous driven-cavity flows are computed for Reynolds numbers on the range 100-20,000 using a loosely coupled, implicit, second-order centrally-different scheme. Mesh sequencing and three-level V-cycle multigrid error smoothing are incorporated into the symmetric Gauss-Seidel time-integration algorithm. Parametrics on the numerical parameters are performed, achieving reductions in solution times by more than 60 percent with the full multigrid approach. Details of the circulation patterns are investigated in cavities of 2-to-1, 1-to-1, and 1-to-2 depth to width ratios.
A multigrid method for variational inequalities
Oliveira, S.; Stewart, D.E.; Wu, W.
1996-12-31
Multigrid methods have been used with great success for solving elliptic partial differential equations. Penalty methods have been successful in solving finite-dimensional quadratic programs. In this paper these two techniques are combined to give a fast method for solving obstacle problems. A nonlinear penalized problem is solved using Newton`s method for large values of a penalty parameter. Multigrid methods are used to solve the linear systems in Newton`s method. The overall numerical method developed is based on an exterior penalty function, and numerical results showing the performance of the method have been obtained.
Some multigrid algorithms for SIMD machines
Dendy, J.E. Jr.
1996-12-31
Previously a semicoarsening multigrid algorithm suitable for use on SIMD architectures was investigated. Through the use of new software tools, the performance of this algorithm has been considerably improved. The method has also been extended to three space dimensions. The method performs well for strongly anisotropic problems and for problems with coefficients jumping by orders of magnitude across internal interfaces. The parallel efficiency of this method is analyzed, and its actual performance on the CM-5 is compared with its performance on the CRAY-YMP. A standard coarsening multigrid algorithm is also considered, and we compare its performance on these two platforms as well.
Highly indefinite multigrid for eigenvalue problems
Borges, L.; Oliveira, S.
1996-12-31
Eigenvalue problems are extremely important in understanding dynamic processes such as vibrations and control systems. Large scale eigenvalue problems can be very difficult to solve, especially if a large number of eigenvalues and the corresponding eigenvectors need to be computed. For solving this problem a multigrid preconditioned algorithm is presented in {open_quotes}The Davidson Algorithm, preconditioning and misconvergence{close_quotes}. Another approach for solving eigenvalue problems is by developing efficient solutions for highly indefinite problems. In this paper we concentrate on the use of new highly indefinite multigrid algorithms for the eigenvalue problem.
Application of p-Multigrid to Discontinuous Galerkin Formulations of the Poisson Equation
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Helenbrook, B. T.; Atkins, H. L.
2006-01-01
We investigate p-multigrid as a solution method for several different discontinuous Galerkin (DG) formulations of the Poisson equation. Different combinations of relaxation schemes and basis sets have been combined with the DG formulations to find the best performing combination. The damping factors of the schemes have been determined using Fourier analysis for both one and two-dimensional problems. One important finding is that when using DG formulations, the standard approach of forming the coarse p matrices separately for each level of multigrid is often unstable. To ensure stability the coarse p matrices must be constructed from the fine grid matrices using algebraic multigrid techniques. Of the relaxation schemes, we find that the combination of Jacobi relaxation with the spectral element basis is fairly effective. The results using this combination are p sensitive in both one and two dimensions, but reasonable convergence rates can still be achieved for moderate values of p and isotropic meshes. A competitive alternative is a block Gauss-Seidel relaxation. This actually out performs a more expensive line relaxation when the mesh is isotropic. When the mesh becomes highly anisotropic, the implicit line method and the Gauss-Seidel implicit line method are the only effective schemes. Adding the Gauss-Seidel terms to the implicit line method gives a significant improvement over the line relaxation method.
Parallel multigrid preconditioner for the cardiac bidomain model.
Weber dos Santos, Rodrigo; Plank, Gernot; Bauer, Steffen; Vigmond, Edward J
2004-11-01
The bidomain equations are widely used for the simulation of electrical activity in cardiac tissue but are computationally expensive, limiting the size of the problem which can be modeled. The purpose of this study is to determine more efficient ways to solve the elliptic portion of the bidomain equations, the most computationally expensive part of the computation. Specifically, we assessed the performance of a parallel multigrid (MG) preconditioner for a conjugate gradient solver. We employed an operator splitting technique, dividing the computation in a parabolic equation, an elliptical equation, and a nonlinear system of ordinary differential equations at each time step. The elliptic equation was solved by the preconditioned conjugate gradient method, and the traditional block incomplete LU parallel preconditioner (ILU) was compared to MG. Execution time was minimized for each preconditioner by adjusting the fill-in factor for ILU, and by choosing the optimal number of levels for MG. The parallel implementation was based on the PETSc library and we report results for up to 16 nodes on a distributed cluster, for two and three dimensional simulations. A direct solver was also available to compare results for single processor runs. MG was found to solve the system in one third of the time required by ILU but required about 40% more memory. Thus, MG offered an attractive tradeoff between memory usage and speed, since its performance lay between those of the classic iterative methods (slow and low memory consumption) and direct methods (fast and high memory consumption). Results suggest the MG preconditioner is well suited for quickly and accurately solving the bidomain equations. PMID:15536898
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Atkins, Harold
1991-01-01
A multiple block multigrid method for the solution of the three dimensional Euler and Navier-Stokes equations is presented. The basic flow solver is a cell vertex method which employs central difference spatial approximations and Runge-Kutta time stepping. The use of local time stepping, implicit residual smoothing, multigrid techniques and variable coefficient numerical dissipation results in an efficient and robust scheme is discussed. The multiblock strategy places the block loop within the Runge-Kutta Loop such that accuracy and convergence are not affected by block boundaries. This has been verified by comparing the results of one and two block calculations in which the two block grid is generated by splitting the one block grid. Results are presented for both Euler and Navier-Stokes computations of wing/fuselage combinations.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhu, Yu; Cangellaris, Andreas C.
2002-05-01
A new finite element methodology is presented for fast and robust numerical simulation of three-dimensional electromagnetic wave phenomena. The new methodology combines nested multigrid techniques with the ungauged vector and scalar potential formulation of the finite element method. The finite element modeling is performed on nested meshes over the computational domain of interest. The iterative solution of the finite element matrix on the finest mesh is performed using the conjugate gradient method, while the nested multigrid vector and scalar potential algorithm acts as the preconditioner for the iterative solver. Numerical experiments from the application of the new methodology to three-dimensional electromagnetic scattering are used to demonstrate its superior numerical convergence and efficient memory usage.
Time-accurate Navier-Stokes calculations with multigrid acceleration
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Melson, N. Duane; Atkins, Harold L.; Sanetrik, Mark D.
1993-01-01
A numerical scheme to solve the unsteady Navier-Stokes equations is described. The scheme is implemented by modifying the multigrid-multiblock version of the steady Navier-Stokes equations solver, TLNS3D. The scheme is fully implicit in time and uses TLNS3D to iteratively invert the equations at each physical time step. The design objective of the scheme is unconditional stability (at least for first- and second-order discretizations of the physical time derivatives). With unconditional stability, the choice of the time step is based on the physical phenomena to be resolved rather than limited by numerical stability which is especially important for high Reynolds number viscous flows, where the spatial variation of grid cell size can be as much as six orders of magnitude. An analysis of the iterative procedure and the implementation of this procedure in TLNS3D are discussed. Numerical results are presented to show both the capabilities of the scheme and its speed up relative to the use of global minimum time stepping. Reductions in computational times of an order of magnitude are demonstrated.
Spectral multigrid methods for elliptic equations II
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Zang, T. A.; Wong, Y. S.; Hussaini, M. Y.
1984-01-01
A detailed description of spectral multigrid methods is provided. This includes the interpolation and coarse-grid operators for both periodic and Dirichlet problems. The spectral methods for periodic problems use Fourier series and those for Dirichlet problems are based upon Chebyshev polynomials. An improved preconditioning for Dirichlet problems is given. Numerical examples and practical advice are included.
Spectral multigrid methods for elliptic equations 2
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Zang, T. A.; Wong, Y. S.; Hussaini, M. Y.
1983-01-01
A detailed description of spectral multigrid methods is provided. This includes the interpolation and coarse-grid operators for both periodic and Dirichlet problems. The spectral methods for periodic problems use Fourier series and those for Dirichlet problems are based upon Chebyshev polynomials. An improved preconditioning for Dirichlet problems is given. Numerical examples and practical advice are included.
Relaxation schemes for Chebyshev spectral multigrid methods
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kang, Yimin; Fulton, Scott R.
1993-01-01
Two relaxation schemes for Chebyshev spectral multigrid methods are presented for elliptic equations with Dirichlet boundary conditions. The first scheme is a pointwise-preconditioned Richardson relaxation scheme and the second is a line relaxation scheme. The line relaxation scheme provides an efficient and relatively simple approach for solving two-dimensional spectral equations. Numerical examples and comparisons with other methods are given.
Multigrid Methods in Electronic Structure Calculations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Briggs, Emil
1996-03-01
Multigrid techniques have become the method of choice for a broad range of computational problems. Their use in electronic structure calculations introduces a new set of issues when compared to traditional plane wave approaches. We have developed a set of techniques that address these issues and permit multigrid algorithms to be applied to the electronic structure problem in an efficient manner. In our approach the Kohn-Sham equations are discretized on a real-space mesh using a compact representation of the Hamiltonian. The resulting equations are solved directly on the mesh using multigrid iterations. This produces rapid convergence rates even for ill-conditioned systems with large length and/or energy scales. The method has been applied to both periodic and non-periodic systems containing over 400 atoms and the results are in very good agreement with both theory and experiment. Example applications include a vacancy in diamond, an isolated C60 molecule, and a 64-atom cell of GaN with the Ga d-electrons in valence which required a 250 Ry cutoff. A particular strength of a real-space multigrid approach is its ready adaptability to massively parallel computer architectures. The compact representation of the Hamiltonian is especially well suited to such machines. Tests on the Cray-T3D have shown nearly linear scaling of the execution time up to the maximum number of processors (512). The MPP implementation has been used for studies of a large Amyloid Beta Peptide (C_146O_45N_42H_210) found in the brains of Alzheimers disease patients. Further applications of the multigrid method will also be described. (in collaboration D. J. Sullivan and J. Bernholc)
Parallel performance investigations of an unstructured mesh Navier-Stokes solver
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Mavriplis, Dimitri J.
2000-01-01
A Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes solver based on unstructured mesh techniques for analysis of high-lift configurations is described. The method makes use of an agglomeration multigrid solver for convergence acceleration. Implicit line-smoothing is employed to relieve the stiffness associated with highly stretched meshes. A GMRES technique is also implemented to speed convergence at the expense of additional memory usage. The solver is cache efficient and fully vectorizable, and is parallelized using a two-level hybrid MPI-OpenMP implementation suitable for shared and/or distributed memory architectures, as well as clusters of shared memory machines. Convergence and scalability results are illustrated for various high-lift cases.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Martinez-Carranza, J.; Falaggis, K.; Kozacki, T.; Kujawinska, Malgorzata
2013-05-01
The transport of intensity equation (TIE) describes the relation between the object phase and the intensity distribution in the Fresnel region and can be used as a non-interferometric technique to estimate the phase distribution of an object. A number of techniques have been developed to solve the TIE. In this work we focus on one popular class of Poisson solvers that are based on Fourier and the Multigrid techniques. The aim of this paper is to present an analysis of these types of TIE solvers taking into account the effect of the boundary condition, i.e. the Neumann Boundary Condition (NBC), the Dirichlet Boundary Condition (DBC), and the Periodic Boundary Condition (PBC). This analysis, which depends on the location of an object wave-front in the detector plane, aims to identify the advantages and disadvantage of these kinds of solvers and to provide the rules for choice of the best fitted boundary condition.
Textbook Multigrid Efficiency for Computational Fluid Dynamics Simulations
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Brandt, Achi; Thomas, James L.; Diskin, Boris
2001-01-01
Considerable progress over the past thirty years has been made in the development of large-scale computational fluid dynamics (CFD) solvers for the Euler and Navier-Stokes equations. Computations are used routinely to design the cruise shapes of transport aircraft through complex-geometry simulations involving the solution of 25-100 million equations; in this arena the number of wind-tunnel tests for a new design has been substantially reduced. However, simulations of the entire flight envelope of the vehicle, including maximum lift, buffet onset, flutter, and control effectiveness have not been as successful in eliminating the reliance on wind-tunnel testing. These simulations involve unsteady flows with more separation and stronger shock waves than at cruise. The main reasons limiting further inroads of CFD into the design process are: (1) the reliability of turbulence models; and (2) the time and expense of the numerical simulation. Because of the prohibitive resolution requirements of direct simulations at high Reynolds numbers, transition and turbulence modeling is expected to remain an issue for the near term. The focus of this paper addresses the latter problem by attempting to attain optimal efficiencies in solving the governing equations. Typically current CFD codes based on the use of multigrid acceleration techniques and multistage Runge-Kutta time-stepping schemes are able to converge lift and drag values for cruise configurations within approximately 1000 residual evaluations. An optimally convergent method is defined as having textbook multigrid efficiency (TME), meaning the solutions to the governing system of equations are attained in a computational work which is a small (less than 10) multiple of the operation count in the discretized system of equations (residual equations). In this paper, a distributed relaxation approach to achieving TME for Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes (RNAS) equations are discussed along with the foundations that form the
Lecture Notes on Multigrid Methods
Vassilevski, P S
2010-06-28
The Lecture Notes are primarily based on a sequence of lectures given by the author while been a Fulbright scholar at 'St. Kliment Ohridski' University of Sofia, Sofia, Bulgaria during the winter semester of 2009-2010 academic year. The notes are somewhat expanded version of the actual one semester class he taught there. The material covered is slightly modified and adapted version of similar topics covered in the author's monograph 'Multilevel Block-Factorization Preconditioners' published in 2008 by Springer. The author tried to keep the notes as self-contained as possible. That is why the lecture notes begin with some basic introductory matrix-vector linear algebra, numerical PDEs (finite element) facts emphasizing the relations between functions in finite dimensional spaces and their coefficient vectors and respective norms. Then, some additional facts on the implementation of finite elements based on relation tables using the popular compressed sparse row (CSR) format are given. Also, typical condition number estimates of stiffness and mass matrices, the global matrix assembly from local element matrices are given as well. Finally, some basic introductory facts about stationary iterative methods, such as Gauss-Seidel and its symmetrized version are presented. The introductory material ends up with the smoothing property of the classical iterative methods and the main definition of two-grid iterative methods. From here on, the second part of the notes begins which deals with the various aspects of the principal TG and the numerous versions of the MG cycles. At the end, in part III, we briefly introduce algebraic versions of MG referred to as AMG, focusing on classes of AMG specialized for finite element matrices.
Vandewalle, S.
1994-12-31
Time-stepping methods for parabolic partial differential equations are essentially sequential. This prohibits the use of massively parallel computers unless the problem on each time-level is very large. This observation has led to the development of algorithms that operate on more than one time-level simultaneously; that is to say, on grids extending in space and in time. The so-called parabolic multigrid methods solve the time-dependent parabolic PDE as if it were a stationary PDE discretized on a space-time grid. The author has investigated the use of multigrid waveform relaxation, an algorithm developed by Lubich and Ostermann. The algorithm is based on a multigrid acceleration of waveform relaxation, a highly concurrent technique for solving large systems of ordinary differential equations. Another method of this class is the time-parallel multigrid method. This method was developed by Hackbusch and was recently subject of further study by Horton. It extends the elliptic multigrid idea to the set of equations that is derived by discretizing a parabolic problem in space and in time.
Multigrid calculations of 3-D turbulent viscous flows
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Yokota, Jeffrey W.
1989-01-01
Convergence properties of a multigrid algorithm, developed to calculate compressible viscous flows, are analyzed by a vector sequence eigenvalue estimate. The full 3-D Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes equations are integrated by an implicit multigrid scheme while a k-epsilon turbulence model is solved, uncoupled from the flow equations. Estimates of the eigenvalue structure for both single and multigrid calculations are compared in an attempt to analyze the process as well as the results of the multigrid technique. The flow through an annular turbine is used to illustrate the scheme's ability to calculate complex 3-D flows.
Agglomeration multigrid for viscous turbulent flows
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Mavriplis, D. J.; Venkatakrishnan, V.
1994-01-01
Agglomeration multigrid, which has been demonstrated as an efficient and automatic technique for the solution of the Euler equations on unstructured meshes, is extended to viscous turbulent flows. For diffusion terms, coarse grid discretizations are not possible, and more accurate grid transfer operators are required as well. A Galerkin coarse grid operator construction and an implicit prolongation operator are proposed. Their suitability is evaluated by examining their effect on the solution of Laplace's equation. The resulting strategy is employed to solve the Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes equations for aerodynamic flows. Convergence rates comparable to those obtained by a previously developed non-nested mesh multigrid approach are demonstrated, and suggestions for further improvements are given.
Textbook Multigrid Efficiency for Fluid Simulations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Thomas, James L.
Recent advances in achieving textbook multigrid efficiency for fluid simulations are presented. Textbook multigrid efficiency is defined as attaining the solution to the governing system of equations in a computational work that is a small multiple of the operation counts associated with discretizing the system. Strategies are reviewed to attain this efficiency by exploiting the factorizability properties inherent to a range of fluid simulations, including the compressible Navier-Stokes equations. Factorizability is used to separate the elliptic and hyperbolic factors contributing to the target system; each of the factors can then be treated individually and optimally. Boundary regions and discontinuities are addressed with separate (local) treatments. New formulations and recent calculations demonstrating the attainment of textbook efficiency for aerodynamic simulations are shown.
Updated users' guide for TAWFIVE with multigrid
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Melson, N. Duane; Streett, Craig L.
1989-01-01
A program for the Transonic Analysis of a Wing and Fuselage with Interacted Viscous Effects (TAWFIVE) was improved by the incorporation of multigrid and a method to specify lift coefficient rather than angle-of-attack. A finite volume full potential multigrid method is used to model the outer inviscid flow field. First order viscous effects are modeled by a 3-D integral boundary layer method. Both turbulent and laminar boundary layers are treated. Wake thickness effects are modeled using a 2-D strip method. A brief discussion of the engineering aspects of the program is given. The input, output, and use of the program are covered in detail. Sample results are given showing the effects of boundary layer corrections and the capability of the lift specification method.
Multigrid shallow water equations on an FPGA
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jeffress, Stephen; Duben, Peter; Palmer, Tim
2015-04-01
A novel computing technology for multigrid shallow water equations is investigated. As power consumption begins to constrain traditional supercomputing advances, weather and climate simulators are exploring alternative technologies that achieve efficiency gains through massively parallel and low power architectures. In recent years FPGA implementations of reduced complexity atmospheric models have shown accelerated speeds and reduced power consumption compared to multi-core CPU integrations. We continue this line of research by designing an FPGA dataflow engine for a mulitgrid version of the 2D shallow water equations. The multigrid algorithm couples grids of variable resolution to improve accuracy. We show that a significant reduction of precision in the floating point representation of the fine grid variables allows greater parallelism and thus improved overall peformance while maintaining accurate integrations. Preliminary designs have been constructed by software emulation. Results of the hardware implementation will be presented at the conference.
Grandchild of the frequency: Decomposition multigrid method
Dendy, J.E. Jr.; Tazartes, C.C.
1994-12-31
Previously the authors considered the frequency decomposition multigrid method and rejected it because it was not robust for problems with discontinuous coefficients. In this paper they show how to modify the method so as to obtain such robustness while retaining robustness for problems with anisotropic coefficients. They also discuss application of this method to a problem arising in global ocean modeling on the CM-5.
An optimal iterative solver for the Stokes problem
Wathen, A.; Silvester, D.
1994-12-31
Discretisations of the classical Stokes Problem for slow viscous incompressible flow gives rise to systems of equations in matrix form for the velocity u and the pressure p, where the coefficient matrix is symmetric but necessarily indefinite. The square submatrix A is symmetric and positive definite and represents a discrete (vector) Laplacian and the submatrix C may be the zero matrix or more generally will be symmetric positive semi-definite. For `stabilised` discretisations (C {ne} 0) and descretisations which are inherently `stable` (C = 0) and so do not admit spurious pressure components even as the mesh size, h approaches zero, the Schur compliment of the matrix has spectral condition number independent of h (given also that B is bounded). Here the authors will show how this property together with a multigrid preconditioner only for the Laplacian block A yields an optimal solver for the Stokes problem through use of the Minimum Residual iteration. That is, combining Minimum Residual iteration for the matrix equation with a block preconditioner which comprises a small number of multigrid V-cycles for the Laplacian block A together with a simple diagonal scaling block provides an iterative solution procedure for which the computational work grows only linearly with the problem size.
Element Agglomeration Algebraic Multilevel Monte-Carlo Library
2015-02-19
ElagMC is a parallel C++ library for Multilevel Monte Carlo simulations with algebraically constructed coarse spaces. ElagMC enables Multilevel variance reduction techniques in the context of general unstructured meshes by using the specialized element-based agglomeration techniques implemented in ELAG (the Element-Agglomeration Algebraic Multigrid and Upscaling Library developed by U. Villa and P. Vassilevski and currently under review for public release). The ElabMC library can support different type of deterministic problems, including mixed finite element discretizations of subsurface flow problems.
Element Agglomeration Algebraic Multilevel Monte-Carlo Library
2015-02-19
ElagMC is a parallel C++ library for Multilevel Monte Carlo simulations with algebraically constructed coarse spaces. ElagMC enables Multilevel variance reduction techniques in the context of general unstructured meshes by using the specialized element-based agglomeration techniques implemented in ELAG (the Element-Agglomeration Algebraic Multigrid and Upscaling Library developed by U. Villa and P. Vassilevski and currently under review for public release). The ElabMC library can support different type of deterministic problems, including mixed finite element discretizationsmore » of subsurface flow problems.« less
AN ADAPTIVE PARTICLE-MESH GRAVITY SOLVER FOR ENZO
Passy, Jean-Claude; Bryan, Greg L.
2014-11-01
We describe and implement an adaptive particle-mesh algorithm to solve the Poisson equation for grid-based hydrodynamics codes with nested grids. The algorithm is implemented and extensively tested within the astrophysical code Enzo against the multigrid solver available by default. We find that while both algorithms show similar accuracy for smooth mass distributions, the adaptive particle-mesh algorithm is more accurate for the case of point masses, and is generally less noisy. We also demonstrate that the two-body problem can be solved accurately in a configuration with nested grids. In addition, we discuss the effect of subcycling, and demonstrate that evolving all the levels with the same timestep yields even greater precision.
A Navier-Stokes solver for turbomachinery applications
Arnone, A.; Swanson, R.C. )
1993-04-01
A computer code for solving the Reynolds-averaged full Navier-Stokes equations has been developed and applied using H- and C-type grids. The Baldwin-Lomax eddy-viscosity model is used for turbulence closure. The integration in time is based on an explicit four-stage Runge-Kutta scheme. Local time stepping, variable coefficient implicit residual smoothing, and a full multigrid method have been implemented to accelerate steady-state calculations. A grid independence analysis is presented for a transonic rotor blade. Comparisons with experimental data show that the code is an accurate viscous solver and can give very good blade-to-blade predictions for engineering applications.
Canonical-variables multigrid method for steady-state Euler equations
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Taasan, Shlomo
1994-01-01
A novel approach for the solution of inviscid flow problems for subsonic compressible flows is described. The approach is based on canonical forms of the equations, in which subsystems governed by hyperbolic operators are separated from those governed by elliptic ones. The discretizations used as well as the iterative techniques for the different subsystems are inherently different. Hyperbolic parts, which describe, in general, propagation phenomena, are discretized using upwind schemes and are solved by marching techniques. Elliptic parts, which are directionally unbiased, are discretized using h-elliptic central discretizations, and are solved by pointwise relaxations together with coarse grid acceleration. The resulting discretization schemes introduce artificial viscosity only for the hyperbolic parts of the system; thus a smaller total artificial viscosity is used, while the multigrid solvers used are much more efficient. Solutions of the subsonic compressible Euler equations are achieved at the same efficiency as the full potential equation.
Multigrid Method for Modeling Multi-Dimensional Combustion with Detailed Chemistry
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Zheng, Xiaoqing; Liu, Chaoqun; Liao, Changming; Liu, Zhining; McCormick, Steve
1996-01-01
A highly accurate and efficient numerical method is developed for modeling 3-D reacting flows with detailed chemistry. A contravariant velocity-based governing system is developed for general curvilinear coordinates to maintain simplicity of the continuity equation and compactness of the discretization stencil. A fully-implicit backward Euler technique and a third-order monotone upwind-biased scheme on a staggered grid are used for the respective temporal and spatial terms. An efficient semi-coarsening multigrid method based on line-distributive relaxation is used as the flow solver. The species equations are solved in a fully coupled way and the chemical reaction source terms are treated implicitly. Example results are shown for a 3-D gas turbine combustor with strong swirling inflows.
Barnes, Derek N; George, John S; Ng, Kwong T
2008-09-01
Currently the resolution of the head models used in electroencephalography (EEG) studies is limited by the speed of the forward solver. Here, we present a parallel finite difference technique that can reduce the solution time of the governing Poisson equation for a head model. Multiple processors are used to work on the problem simultaneously in order to speed up the solution and provide the memory for solving large problems. The original computational domain is divided into multiple rectangular partitions. Each partition is then assigned to a processor, which is responsible for all the computations and inter-processor communication associated with the nodes in that particular partition. Since the forward solution time is mainly spent on solving the associated matrix equation, it is desirable to find the optimum matrix solver. A detailed comparison of various iterative solvers was performed for both isotropic and anisotropic realistic head models constructed from MRI images. The conjugate gradient (CG) method preconditioned with an advanced geometric multigrid technique was found to provide the best overall performance. For an anisotropic model with 256 x 128 x 256 cells, this technique provides a speedup of 508 on 32 processors over the serial CG solution, with a speedup of 20.1 and 25.3 through multigrid preconditioning and parallelization, respectively. PMID:18478286
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Schaufele, Christopher; Zumoff, Nancy
Earth Algebra is an entry level college algebra course that incorporates the spirit of the National Council of Teachers of Mathematics (NCTM) Curriculum and Evaluation Standards for School Mathematics at the college level. The context of the course places mathematics at the center of one of the major current concerns of the world. Through…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Cavanagh, Sean
2009-01-01
As educators and policymakers search for ways to prepare students for the rigors of algebra, teachers in the Helena, Montana, school system are starting early by attempting to nurture students' algebraic-reasoning ability, as well as their basic number skills, in early elementary school, rather than waiting until middle or early high school.…
Structured Multifrontal Sparse Solver
2014-05-01
StruMF is an algebraic structured preconditioner for the interative solution of large sparse linear systems. The preconditioner corresponds to a multifrontal variant of sparse LU factorization in which some dense blocks of the factors are approximated with low-rank matrices. It is algebraic in that it only requires the linear system itself, and the approximation threshold that determines the accuracy of individual low-rank approximations. Favourable rank properties are obtained using a block partitioning which is amore » refinement of the partitioning induced by nested dissection ordering.« less
Kotulski, Joseph D.; Womble, David E.; Greenberg, David; Driessen, Brian
2004-03-01
PLIRIS is an object-oriented solver built on top of a previous matrix solver used in a number of application codes. Puns solves a linear system directly via LU factorization with partial pivoting. The user provides the linear system in terms of Epetra Objects including a matrix and right-hand-sides. The user can then factor the matrix and perform the forward and back solve at a later time or solve for multiple right-hand-sides at once. This package is used when dense matrices are obtained in the problem formulation. These dense matrices occur whenever boundary element techniques are chosen for the solution procedure. This has been used in electromagnetics for both static and frequency domain problems.
2004-03-01
PLIRIS is an object-oriented solver built on top of a previous matrix solver used in a number of application codes. Puns solves a linear system directly via LU factorization with partial pivoting. The user provides the linear system in terms of Epetra Objects including a matrix and right-hand-sides. The user can then factor the matrix and perform the forward and back solve at a later time or solve for multiple right-hand-sides at once. This packagemore » is used when dense matrices are obtained in the problem formulation. These dense matrices occur whenever boundary element techniques are chosen for the solution procedure. This has been used in electromagnetics for both static and frequency domain problems.« less
Development of advanced Navier-Stokes solver
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Yoon, Seokkwan
1994-01-01
The objective of research was to develop and validate new computational algorithms for solving the steady and unsteady Euler and Navier-Stokes equations. The end-products are new three-dimensional Euler and Navier-Stokes codes that are faster, more reliable, more accurate, and easier to use. The three-dimensional Euler and full/thin-layer Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes equations for compressible/incompressible flows are solved on structured hexahedral grids. The Baldwin-Lomax algebraic turbulence model is used for closure. The space discretization is based on a cell-centered finite-volume method augmented by a variety of numerical dissipation models with optional total variation diminishing limiters. The governing equations are integrated in time by an implicit method based on lower-upper factorization and symmetric Gauss-Seidel relaxation. The algorithm is vectorized on diagonal planes of sweep using two-dimensional indices in three dimensions. Convergence rates and the robustness of the codes are enhanced by the use of an implicit full approximation storage multigrid method.
Semi-coarsening multigrid methods for parallel computing
Jones, J.E.
1996-12-31
Standard multigrid methods are not well suited for problems with anisotropic coefficients which can occur, for example, on grids that are stretched to resolve a boundary layer. There are several different modifications of the standard multigrid algorithm that yield efficient methods for anisotropic problems. In the paper, we investigate the parallel performance of these multigrid algorithms. Multigrid algorithms which work well for anisotropic problems are based on line relaxation and/or semi-coarsening. In semi-coarsening multigrid algorithms a grid is coarsened in only one of the coordinate directions unlike standard or full-coarsening multigrid algorithms where a grid is coarsened in each of the coordinate directions. When both semi-coarsening and line relaxation are used, the resulting multigrid algorithm is robust and automatic in that it requires no knowledge of the nature of the anisotropy. This is the basic multigrid algorithm whose parallel performance we investigate in the paper. The algorithm is currently being implemented on an IBM SP2 and its performance is being analyzed. In addition to looking at the parallel performance of the basic semi-coarsening algorithm, we present algorithmic modifications with potentially better parallel efficiency. One modification reduces the amount of computational work done in relaxation at the expense of using multiple coarse grids. This modification is also being implemented with the aim of comparing its performance to that of the basic semi-coarsening algorithm.
Toward textbook multigrid efficiency for fully implicit resistive magnetohydrodynamics
Adams, Mark F.; Samtaney, Ravi; Brandt, Achi
2013-12-14
Multigrid methods can solve some classes of elliptic and parabolic equations to accuracy below the truncation error with a work-cost equivalent to a few residual calculations – so-called “textbook” multigrid efficiency. We investigate methods to solve the system of equations that arise in time dependent magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) simulations with textbook multigrid efficiency. We apply multigrid techniques such as geometric interpolation, full approximate storage, Gauss-Seidel smoothers, and defect correction for fully implicit, nonlinear, second-order finite volume discretizations of MHD. We apply these methods to a standard resistive MHD benchmark problem, the GEM reconnection problem, and add a strong magnetic guide field, which is a critical characteristic of magnetically confined fusion plasmas. We show that our multigrid methods can achieve near textbook efficiency on fully implicit resistive MHD simulations.
Toward textbook multigrid efficiency for fully implicit resistive magnetohydrodynamics
Adams, Mark F.; Samtaney, Ravi; Brandt, Achi
2010-09-01
Multigrid methods can solve some classes of elliptic and parabolic equations to accuracy below the truncation error with a work-cost equivalent to a few residual calculations – so-called ‘‘textbook” multigrid efficiency. We investigate methods to solve the system of equations that arise in time dependent magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) simulations with textbook multigrid efficiency. We apply multigrid techniques such as geometric interpolation, full approximate storage, Gauss–Seidel smoothers, and defect correction for fully implicit, nonlinear, second-order finite volume discretizations of MHD. We apply these methods to a standard resistive MHD benchmark problem, the GEM reconnection problem, and add a strong magnetic guide field,more » which is a critical characteristic of magnetically confined fusion plasmas. We show that our multigrid methods can achieve near textbook efficiency on fully implicit resistive MHD simulations.« less
Toward textbook multigrid efficiency for fully implicit resistive magnetohydrodynamics
Adams, Mark F.; Samtaney, Ravi; Brandt, Achi
2010-09-01
Multigrid methods can solve some classes of elliptic and parabolic equations to accuracy below the truncation error with a work-cost equivalent to a few residual calculations – so-called ‘‘textbook” multigrid efficiency. We investigate methods to solve the system of equations that arise in time dependent magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) simulations with textbook multigrid efficiency. We apply multigrid techniques such as geometric interpolation, full approximate storage, Gauss–Seidel smoothers, and defect correction for fully implicit, nonlinear, second-order finite volume discretizations of MHD. We apply these methods to a standard resistive MHD benchmark problem, the GEM reconnection problem, and add a strong magnetic guide field, which is a critical characteristic of magnetically confined fusion plasmas. We show that our multigrid methods can achieve near textbook efficiency on fully implicit resistive MHD simulations.
Toward textbook multigrid efficiency for fully implicit resistive magnetohydrodynamics
Adams, Mark F.; Samtaney, Ravi; Brandt, Achi
2010-09-01
Multigrid methods can solve some classes of elliptic and parabolic equations to accuracy below the truncation error with a work-cost equivalent to a few residual calculations - so-called 'textbook' multigrid efficiency. We investigate methods to solve the system of equations that arise in time dependent magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) simulations with textbook multigrid efficiency. We apply multigrid techniques such as geometric interpolation, full approximate storage, Gauss-Seidel smoothers, and defect correction for fully implicit, nonlinear, second-order finite volume discretizations of MHD. We apply these methods to a standard resistive MHD benchmark problem, the GEM reconnection problem, and add a strong magnetic guide field, which is a critical characteristic of magnetically confined fusion plasmas. We show that our multigrid methods can achieve near textbook efficiency on fully implicit resistive MHD simulations.
Agglomeration multigrid for the three-dimensional Euler equations
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Venkatakrishnan, V.; Mavriplis, D. J.
1994-01-01
A multigrid procedure that makes use of coarse grids generated by the agglomeration of control volumes is advocated as a practical approach for solving the three dimensional Euler equations on unstructured grids about complex configurations. It is shown that the agglomeration procedure can be tailored to achieve certain coarse grid properties such as the sizes of the coarse grids and aspect ratios of the coarse grid cells. The agglomeration is done as a preprocessing step and runs in linear time. The implications for multigrid of using arbitrary polyhedral coarse grids are discussed. The agglomeration multigrid technique compares very favorably with existing multigrid procedures both in terms of convergence rates and elapsed times. The main advantage of the present approach is the ease with which coarse grids of any desired degree of coarseness may be generated in three dimensions, without being constrained by considerations of geometry. Inviscid flows over a variety of complex configurations are computed using the agglomeration multigrid strategy.
Preconditioned Iterative Solver
2002-08-01
AztecOO contains a collection of preconditioned iterative methods for the solution of sparse linear systems of equations. In addition to providing many of the common algebraic preconditioners and basic iterative methods, AztecOO can be easily extended to interact with user-provided preconditioners and matrix operators.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kuzmin, Dmitri; Möller, Matthias; Gurris, Marcel
Flux limiting for hyperbolic systems requires a careful generalization of the design principles and algorithms introduced in the context of scalar conservation laws. In this chapter, we develop FCT-like algebraic flux correction schemes for the Euler equations of gas dynamics. In particular, we discuss the construction of artificial viscosity operators, the choice of variables to be limited, and the transformation of antidiffusive fluxes. An a posteriori control mechanism is implemented to make the limiter failsafe. The numerical treatment of initial and boundary conditions is discussed in some detail. The initialization is performed using an FCT-constrained L 2 projection. The characteristic boundary conditions are imposed in a weak sense, and an approximate Riemann solver is used to evaluate the fluxes on the boundary. We also present an unconditionally stable semi-implicit time-stepping scheme and an iterative solver for the fully discrete problem. The results of a numerical study indicate that the nonlinearity and non-differentiability of the flux limiter do not inhibit steady state convergence even in the case of strongly varying Mach numbers. Moreover, the convergence rates improve as the pseudo-time step is increased.
Multigrid solution strategies for adaptive meshing problems
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Mavriplis, Dimitri J.
1995-01-01
This paper discusses the issues which arise when combining multigrid strategies with adaptive meshing techniques for solving steady-state problems on unstructured meshes. A basic strategy is described, and demonstrated by solving several inviscid and viscous flow cases. Potential inefficiencies in this basic strategy are exposed, and various alternate approaches are discussed, some of which are demonstrated with an example. Although each particular approach exhibits certain advantages, all methods have particular drawbacks, and the formulation of a completely optimal strategy is considered to be an open problem.
A diagonally inverted LU implicit multigrid scheme
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Yokota, Jeffrey W.; Caughey, David A.; Chima, Rodrick V.
1988-01-01
A new Diagonally Inverted LU Implicit scheme is developed within the framework of the multigrid method for the 3-D unsteady Euler equations. The matrix systems that are to be inverted in the LU scheme are treated by local diagonalizing transformations that decouple them into systems of scalar equations. Unlike the Diagonalized ADI method, the time accuracy of the LU scheme is not reduced since the diagonalization procedure does not destroy time conservation. Even more importantly, this diagonalization significantly reduces the computational effort required to solve the LU approximation and therefore transforms it into a more efficient method of numerically solving the 3-D Euler equations.
2007-03-01
HPCCG is a simple PDE application and preconditioned conjugate gradient solver that solves a linear system on a beam-shaped domain. Although it does not address many performance issues present in real engineering applications, such as load imbalance and preconditioner scalability, it can serve as a first "sanity test" of new processor design choices, inter-connect network design choices and the scalability of a new computer system. Because it is self-contained, easy to compile and easily scaledmore » to 100s or 1000s of porcessors, it can be an attractive study code for computer system designers.« less
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Sidilkover, David
1997-01-01
Some important advances took place during the last several years in the development of genuinely multidimensional upwind schemes for the compressible Euler equations. In particular, a robust, high-resolution genuinely multidimensional scheme which can be used for any of the flow regimes computations was constructed. This paper summarizes briefly these developments and outlines the fundamental advantages of this approach.
Oasis: A high-level/high-performance open source Navier-Stokes solver
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mortensen, Mikael; Valen-Sendstad, Kristian
2015-03-01
Oasis is a high-level/high-performance finite element Navier-Stokes solver written from scratch in Python using building blocks from the FEniCS project (fenicsproject.org). The solver is unstructured and targets large-scale applications in complex geometries on massively parallel clusters. Oasis utilizes MPI and interfaces, through FEniCS, to the linear algebra backend PETSc. Oasis advocates a high-level, programmable user interface through the creation of highly flexible Python modules for new problems. Through the high-level Python interface the user is placed in complete control of every aspect of the solver. A version of the solver, that is using piecewise linear elements for both velocity and pressure, is shown to reproduce very well the classical, spectral, turbulent channel simulations of Moser et al. (1999). The computational speed is strongly dominated by the iterative solvers provided by the linear algebra backend, which is arguably the best performance any similar implicit solver using PETSc may hope for. Higher order accuracy is also demonstrated and new solvers may be easily added within the same framework.
A robust multilevel simultaneous eigenvalue solver
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Costiner, Sorin; Taasan, Shlomo
1993-01-01
Multilevel (ML) algorithms for eigenvalue problems are often faced with several types of difficulties such as: the mixing of approximated eigenvectors by the solution process, the approximation of incomplete clusters of eigenvectors, the poor representation of solution on coarse levels, and the existence of close or equal eigenvalues. Algorithms that do not treat appropriately these difficulties usually fail, or their performance degrades when facing them. These issues motivated the development of a robust adaptive ML algorithm which treats these difficulties, for the calculation of a few eigenvectors and their corresponding eigenvalues. The main techniques used in the new algorithm include: the adaptive completion and separation of the relevant clusters on different levels, the simultaneous treatment of solutions within each cluster, and the robustness tests which monitor the algorithm's efficiency and convergence. The eigenvectors' separation efficiency is based on a new ML projection technique generalizing the Rayleigh Ritz projection, combined with a technique, the backrotations. These separation techniques, when combined with an FMG formulation, in many cases lead to algorithms of O(qN) complexity, for q eigenvectors of size N on the finest level. Previously developed ML algorithms are less focused on the mentioned difficulties. Moreover, algorithms which employ fine level separation techniques are of O(q(sub 2)N) complexity and usually do not overcome all these difficulties. Computational examples are presented where Schrodinger type eigenvalue problems in 2-D and 3-D, having equal and closely clustered eigenvalues, are solved with the efficiency of the Poisson multigrid solver. A second order approximation is obtained in O(qN) work, where the total computational work is equivalent to only a few fine level relaxations per eigenvector.
Multigrid calculation of three-dimensional turbomachinery flows
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Caughey, David A.
1989-01-01
Research was performed in the general area of computational aerodynamics, with particular emphasis on the development of efficient techniques for the solution of the Euler and Navier-Stokes equations for transonic flows through the complex blade passages associated with turbomachines. In particular, multigrid methods were developed, using both explicit and implicit time-stepping schemes as smoothing algorithms. The specific accomplishments of the research have included: (1) the development of an explicit multigrid method to solve the Euler equations for three-dimensional turbomachinery flows based upon the multigrid implementation of Jameson's explicit Runge-Kutta scheme (Jameson 1983); (2) the development of an implicit multigrid scheme for the three-dimensional Euler equations based upon lower-upper factorization; (3) the development of a multigrid scheme using a diagonalized alternating direction implicit (ADI) algorithm; (4) the extension of the diagonalized ADI multigrid method to solve the Euler equations of inviscid flow for three-dimensional turbomachinery flows; and also (5) the extension of the diagonalized ADI multigrid scheme to solve the Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes equations for two-dimensional turbomachinery flows.
Convergence acceleration of the Proteus computer code with multigrid methods
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Demuren, A. O.; Ibraheem, S. O.
1995-01-01
This report presents the results of a study to implement convergence acceleration techniques based on the multigrid concept in the two-dimensional and three-dimensional versions of the Proteus computer code. The first section presents a review of the relevant literature on the implementation of the multigrid methods in computer codes for compressible flow analysis. The next two sections present detailed stability analysis of numerical schemes for solving the Euler and Navier-Stokes equations, based on conventional von Neumann analysis and the bi-grid analysis, respectively. The next section presents details of the computational method used in the Proteus computer code. Finally, the multigrid implementation and applications to several two-dimensional and three-dimensional test problems are presented. The results of the present study show that the multigrid method always leads to a reduction in the number of iterations (or time steps) required for convergence. However, there is an overhead associated with the use of multigrid acceleration. The overhead is higher in 2-D problems than in 3-D problems, thus overall multigrid savings in CPU time are in general better in the latter. Savings of about 40-50 percent are typical in 3-D problems, but they are about 20-30 percent in large 2-D problems. The present multigrid method is applicable to steady-state problems and is therefore ineffective in problems with inherently unstable solutions.
Operator induced multigrid algorithms using semirefinement
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Decker, Naomi; Vanrosendale, John
1989-01-01
A variant of multigrid, based on zebra relaxation, and a new family of restriction/prolongation operators is described. Using zebra relaxation in combination with an operator-induced prolongation leads to fast convergence, since the coarse grid can correct all error components. The resulting algorithms are not only fast, but are also robust, in the sense that the convergence rate is insensitive to the mesh aspect ratio. This is true even though line relaxation is performed in only one direction. Multigrid becomes a direct method if an operator-induced prolongation is used, together with the induced coarse grid operators. Unfortunately, this approach leads to stencils which double in size on each coarser grid. The use of an implicit three point restriction can be used to factor these large stencils, in order to retain the usual five or nine point stencils, while still achieving fast convergence. This algorithm achieves a V-cycle convergence rate of 0.03 on Poisson's equation, using 1.5 zebra sweeps per level, while the convergence rate improves to 0.003 if optimal nine point stencils are used. Numerical results for two and three dimensional model problems are presented, together with a two level analysis explaining these results.
Operator induced multigrid algorithms using semirefinement
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Decker, Naomi Henderson; Van Rosendale, John
1989-01-01
A variant of multigrid, based on zebra relaxation, and a new family of restriction/prolongation operators is described. Using zebra relaxation in combination with an operator-induced prolongation leads to fast convergence, since the coarse grid can correct all error components. The resulting algorithms are not only fast, but are also robust, in the sense that the convergence rate is insensitive to the mesh aspect ratio. This is true even though line relaxation is performed in only one direction. Multigrid becomes a direct method if an operator-induced prolongation is used, together with the induced coarse grid operators. Unfortunately, this approach leads to stencils which double in size on each coarser grid. The use of an implicit three point restriction can be used to factor these large stencils, in order to retain the usual five or nine point stencils, while still achieving fast convergence. This algorithm achieves a V-cycle convergence rate of 0.03 on Poisson's equation, using 1.5 zebra sweeps per level, while the convergence rate improves to 0.003 if optimal nine point stencils are used. Numerical results for two- and three-dimensional model problems are presented, together with a two level analysis explaining these results.
The Development of a Factorizable Multigrid Algorithm for Subsonic and Transonic Flow
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Roberts, Thomas W.
2001-01-01
The factorizable discretization of Sidilkover for the compressible Euler equations previously demonstrated for channel flows has been extended to external flows.The dissipation of the original scheme has been modified to maintain stability for moderately stretched grids. The discrete equations are solved by symmetric collective Gauss-Seidel relaxation and FAS multigrid. Unlike the earlier work ordering the grid vertices in the flow direction has been found to be unnecessary. Solutions for essential incompressible flow (Mach 0.01) and supercritical flows have obtained for a Karman-Trefftz airfoil with it conformally mapped grid,as well as a NACA 0012 on an algebraically generated grid. The current work demonstrates nearly 0(n) convergence for subsonic and slightly transonic flows.
Convergence acceleration of the Proteus computer code with multigrid methods
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Demuren, A. O.; Ibraheem, S. O.
1992-01-01
Presented here is the first part of a study to implement convergence acceleration techniques based on the multigrid concept in the Proteus computer code. A review is given of previous studies on the implementation of multigrid methods in computer codes for compressible flow analysis. Also presented is a detailed stability analysis of upwind and central-difference based numerical schemes for solving the Euler and Navier-Stokes equations. Results are given of a convergence study of the Proteus code on computational grids of different sizes. The results presented here form the foundation for the implementation of multigrid methods in the Proteus code.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cools, S.; Vanroose, W.
2016-03-01
This paper improves the convergence and robustness of a multigrid-based solver for the cross sections of the driven Schrödinger equation. Adding a Coupled Channel Correction Step (CCCS) after each multigrid (MG) V-cycle efficiently removes the errors that remain after the V-cycle sweep. The combined iterative solution scheme (MG-CCCS) is shown to feature significantly improved convergence rates over the classical MG method at energies where bound states dominate the solution, resulting in a fast and scalable solution method for the complex-valued Schrödinger break-up problem for any energy regime. The proposed solver displays optimal scaling; a solution is found in a time that is linear in the number of unknowns. The method is validated on a 2D Temkin-Poet model problem, and convergence results both as a solver and preconditioner are provided to support the O (N) scalability of the method. This paper extends the applicability of the complex contour approach for far field map computation (Cools et al. (2014) [10]).
Parallel tridiagonal equation solvers
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Stone, H. S.
1974-01-01
Three parallel algorithms were compared for the direct solution of tridiagonal linear systems of equations. The algorithms are suitable for computers such as ILLIAC 4 and CDC STAR. For array computers similar to ILLIAC 4, cyclic odd-even reduction has the least operation count for highly structured sets of equations, and recursive doubling has the least count for relatively unstructured sets of equations. Since the difference in operation counts for these two algorithms is not substantial, their relative running times may be more related to overhead operations, which are not measured in this paper. The third algorithm, based on Buneman's Poisson solver, has more arithmetic operations than the others, and appears to be the least favorable. For pipeline computers similar to CDC STAR, cyclic odd-even reduction appears to be the most preferable algorithm for all cases.
Amesos2 Templated Direct Sparse Solver Package
2011-05-24
Amesos2 is a templated direct sparse solver package. Amesos2 provides interfaces to direct sparse solvers, rather than providing native solver capabilities. Amesos2 is a derivative work of the Trilinos package Amesos.
Progress with multigrid schemes for hypersonic flow problems
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Radespiel, R.; Swanson, R. C.
1991-01-01
Several multigrid schemes are considered for the numerical computation of viscous hypersonic flows. For each scheme, the basic solution algorithm uses upwind spatial discretization with explicit multistage time stepping. Two level versions of the various multigrid algorithms are applied to the two dimensional advection equation, and Fourier analysis is used to determine their damping properties. The capabilities of the multigrid methods are assessed by solving three different hypersonic flow problems. Some new multigrid schemes based on semicoarsening strategies are shown to be quite effective in relieving the stiffness caused by the high aspect ratio cells required to resolve high Reynolds number flows. These schemes exhibit good convergence rates for Reynolds numbers up to 200 x 10(exp 6) and Mach numbers up to 25.
Progress with multigrid schemes for hypersonic flow problems
Radespiel, R.; Swanson, R.C.
1995-01-01
Several multigrid schemes are considered for the numerical computation of viscous hypersonic flows. For each scheme, the basic solution algorithm employs upwind spatial discretization with explicit multistage time stepping. Two-level versions of the various multigrid algorithms are applied to the two-dimensional advection equation, and Fourier analysis is used to determine their damping properties. The capabilities of the multigrid methods are assessed by solving three different hypersonic flow problems. Some new multigrid schemes based on semicoarsening strategies are shown to be quite effective in relieving the stiffness caused by the high-aspect-ratio cells required to resolve high Reynolds number flows. These schemes exhibit good convergence rates for Reynolds numbers up to 200 X 10{sup 6} and Mach numbers up to 25. 32 refs., 31 figs., 1 tab.
On the connection between multigrid and cyclic reduction
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Merriam, M. L.
1984-01-01
A technique is shown whereby it is possible to relate a particular multigrid process to cyclic reduction using purely mathematical arguments. This technique suggest methods for solving Poisson's equation in 1-, 2-, or 3-dimensions with Dirichlet or Neumann boundary conditions. In one dimension the method is exact and, in fact, reduces to cyclic reduction. This provides a valuable reference point for understanding multigrid techniques. The particular multigrid process analyzed is referred to here as Approximate Cyclic Reduction (ACR) and is one of a class known as Multigrid Reduction methods in the literature. It involves one approximation with a known error term. It is possible to relate the error term in this approximation with certain eigenvector components of the error. These are sharply reduced in amplitude by classical relaxation techniques. The approximation can thus be made a very good one.
Multigrid techniques for the numerical solution of the diffusion equation
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Phillips, R. E.; Schmidt, F. W.
1984-01-01
An accurate numerical solution of diffusion problems containing large local gradients can be obtained with a significant reduction in computational time by using a multigrid computational scheme. The spatial domain is covered with sets of uniform square grids of different sizes. The finer grid patterns overlap the coarse grid patterns. The finite-difference expressions for each grid pattern are solved independently by iterative techniques. Two interpolation methods were used to establish the values of the potential function on the fine grid boundaries with information obtained from the coarse grid solution. The accuracy and computational requirements for solving a test problem by a simple multigrid and a multilevel-multigrid method were compared. The multilevel-multigrid method combined with a Taylor series interpolation scheme was found to be best.
Multigrid-based reconstruction algorithm for quantitative photoacoustic tomography
Li, Shengfu; Montcel, Bruno; Yuan, Zhen; Liu, Wanyu; Vray, Didier
2015-01-01
This paper proposes a multigrid inversion framework for quantitative photoacoustic tomography reconstruction. The forward model of optical fluence distribution and the inverse problem are solved at multiple resolutions. A fixed-point iteration scheme is formulated for each resolution and used as a cost function. The simulated and experimental results for quantitative photoacoustic tomography reconstruction show that the proposed multigrid inversion can dramatically reduce the required number of iterations for the optimization process without loss of reliability in the results. PMID:26203371
Multigrid-based reconstruction algorithm for quantitative photoacoustic tomography.
Li, Shengfu; Montcel, Bruno; Yuan, Zhen; Liu, Wanyu; Vray, Didier
2015-07-01
This paper proposes a multigrid inversion framework for quantitative photoacoustic tomography reconstruction. The forward model of optical fluence distribution and the inverse problem are solved at multiple resolutions. A fixed-point iteration scheme is formulated for each resolution and used as a cost function. The simulated and experimental results for quantitative photoacoustic tomography reconstruction show that the proposed multigrid inversion can dramatically reduce the required number of iterations for the optimization process without loss of reliability in the results. PMID:26203371
Matrix-dependent multigrid-homogenization for diffusion problems
Knapek, S.
1996-12-31
We present a method to approximately determine the effective diffusion coefficient on the coarse scale level of problems with strongly varying or discontinuous diffusion coefficients. It is based on techniques used also in multigrid, like Dendy`s matrix-dependent prolongations and the construction of coarse grid operators by means of the Galerkin approximation. In numerical experiments, we compare our multigrid-homogenization method with homogenization, renormalization and averaging approaches.
Spectral multigrid methods with applications to transonic potential flow
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Streett, C. L.; Zang, T. A.; Hussaini, M. Y.
1983-01-01
Spectral multigrid methods are demonstrated to be a competitive technique for solving the transonic potential flow equation. The spectral discretization, the relaxation scheme, and the multigrid techniques are described in detail. Significant departures from current approaches are first illustrated on several linear problems. The principal applications and examples, however, are for compressible potential flow. These examples include the relatively challenging case of supercritical flow over a lifting airfoil.
Spectral multigrid methods with applications to transonic potential flow
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Streett, C. L.; Zang, T. A.; Hussaini, M. Y.
1985-01-01
Spectral multigrid methods are demonstrated to be a competitive technique for solving the transonic potential flow equation. The spectral discretization, the relaxation scheme, and the multigrid techniques are described in detail. Significant departures from current approaches are first illustrated on several linear problems. The principal applications and examples, however, are for compressible potential flow. These examples include the relatively challenging case of supercritical flow over a lifting airfoil.
Applications of multigrid software in the atmospheric sciences
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Adams, J.; Garcia, R.; Gross, B.; Hack, J.; Haidvogel, D.; Pizzo, V.
1992-01-01
Elliptic partial differential equations from different areas in the atmospheric sciences are efficiently and easily solved utilizing the multigrid software package named MUDPACK. It is demonstrated that the multigrid method is more efficient than other commonly employed techniques, such as Gaussian elimination and fixed-grid relaxation. The efficiency relative to other techniques, both in terms of storage requirement and computational time, increases quickly with grid size.
Numerical linear algebra for reconstruction inverse problems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nachaoui, Abdeljalil
2004-01-01
Our goal in this paper is to discuss various issues we have encountered in trying to find and implement efficient solvers for a boundary integral equation (BIE) formulation of an iterative method for solving a reconstruction problem. We survey some methods from numerical linear algebra, which are relevant for the solution of this class of inverse problems. We motivate the use of our constructing algorithm, discuss its implementation and mention the use of preconditioned Krylov methods.
A Multigrid Algorithm for Immersed Interface Problems
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Adams, Loyce
1996-01-01
Many physical problems involve interior interfaces across which the coefficients in the problem, the solution, its derivatives, the flux, or the source term may have jumps. These interior interfaces may or may not align with a underlying Cartesian grid. Zhilin Li, in his dissertation, showed how to discretize such elliptic problems using only a Cartesian grid and the known jump conditions to second order accuracy. In this paper, we describe how to apply the full multigrid algorithm in this context. In particular, the restriction, interpolation, and coarse grid problem will be described. Numerical results for several model problems are given to demonstrate that good rates can be obtained even when jumps in the coefficients are large and do not align with the grid.
Multigrid algorithms for tensor network states.
Dolfi, Michele; Bauer, Bela; Troyer, Matthias; Ristivojevic, Zoran
2012-07-13
The widely used density matrix renormalization group (DRMG) method often fails to converge in systems with multiple length scales, such as lattice discretizations of continuum models and dilute or weakly doped lattice models. The local optimization employed by DMRG to optimize the wave function is ineffective in updating large-scale features. Here we present a multigrid algorithm that solves these convergence problems by optimizing the wave function at different spatial resolutions. We demonstrate its effectiveness by simulating bosons in continuous space and study nonadiabaticity when ramping up the amplitude of an optical lattice. The algorithm can be generalized to tensor network methods and combined with the contractor renormalization group method to study dilute and weakly doped lattice models. PMID:23030148
A Critical Study of Agglomerated Multigrid Methods for Diffusion
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Nishikawa, Hiroaki; Diskin, Boris; Thomas, James L.
2011-01-01
Agglomerated multigrid techniques used in unstructured-grid methods are studied critically for a model problem representative of laminar diffusion in the incompressible limit. The studied target-grid discretizations and discretizations used on agglomerated grids are typical of current node-centered formulations. Agglomerated multigrid convergence rates are presented using a range of two- and three-dimensional randomly perturbed unstructured grids for simple geometries with isotropic and stretched grids. Two agglomeration techniques are used within an overall topology-preserving agglomeration framework. The results show that multigrid with an inconsistent coarse-grid scheme using only the edge terms (also referred to in the literature as a thin-layer formulation) provides considerable speedup over single-grid methods but its convergence deteriorates on finer grids. Multigrid with a Galerkin coarse-grid discretization using piecewise-constant prolongation and a heuristic correction factor is slower and also grid-dependent. In contrast, grid-independent convergence rates are demonstrated for multigrid with consistent coarse-grid discretizations. Convergence rates of multigrid cycles are verified with quantitative analysis methods in which parts of the two-grid cycle are replaced by their idealized counterparts.
Advanced discretizations and multigrid methods for liquid crystal configurations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Emerson, David B.
addition, we present two novel, optimally scaling, multigrid approaches for these systems based on Vanka- and Braess-Sarazin-type relaxation. Both approaches outperform direct methods and represent highly efficient and scalable iterative solvers. Finally, a three-dimensional problem considering the effects of geometrically patterned surfaces is presented, which gives rise to a nonlinear anisotropic reaction-diffusion equation. Well-posedness is shown for the intermediate linearization systems of the proposed Newton linearization. The configurations under consideration are part of ongoing physics research seeking new bistable configurations induced by geometric nano-patterning.
A fast parallel solver for the forward problem in electrical impedance tomography.
Jehl, Markus; Dedner, Andreas; Betcke, Timo; Aristovich, Kirill; Klöfkorn, Robert; Holder, David
2015-01-01
Electrical impedance tomography (EIT) is a noninvasive imaging modality, where imperceptible currents are applied to the skin and the resulting surface voltages are measured. It has the potential to distinguish between ischaemic and haemorrhagic stroke with a portable and inexpensive device. The image reconstruction relies on an accurate forward model of the experimental setup. Because of the relatively small signal in stroke EIT, the finite-element modeling requires meshes of more than 10 million elements. To study the requirements in the forward modeling in EIT and also to reduce the time for experimental image acquisition, it is necessary to reduce the run time of the forward computation. We show the implementation of a parallel forward solver for EIT using the Dune-Fem C++ library and demonstrate its performance on many CPU's of a computer cluster. For a typical EIT application a direct solver was significantly slower and not an alternative to iterative solvers with multigrid preconditioning. With this new solver, we can compute the forward solutions and the Jacobian matrix of a typical EIT application with 30 electrodes on a 15-million element mesh in less than 15 min. This makes it a valuable tool for simulation studies and EIT applications with high precision requirements. It is freely available for download. PMID:25069109
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Yang, Cheng I.; Guo, Yan-Hu; Liu, C.- H.
1996-01-01
The analysis and design of a submarine propulsor requires the ability to predict the characteristics of both laminar and turbulent flows to a higher degree of accuracy. This report presents results of certain benchmark computations based on an upwind, high-resolution, finite-differencing Navier-Stokes solver. The purpose of the computations is to evaluate the ability, the accuracy and the performance of the solver in the simulation of detailed features of viscous flows. Features of interest include flow separation and reattachment, surface pressure and skin friction distributions. Those features are particularly relevant to the propulsor analysis. Test cases with a wide range of Reynolds numbers are selected; therefore, the effects of the convective and the diffusive terms of the solver can be evaluated separately. Test cases include flows over bluff bodies, such as circular cylinders and spheres, at various low Reynolds numbers, flows over a flat plate with and without turbulence effects, and turbulent flows over axisymmetric bodies with and without propulsor effects. Finally, to enhance the iterative solution procedure, a full approximation scheme V-cycle multigrid method is implemented. Preliminary results indicate that the method significantly reduces the computational effort.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Ilin, Andrew V.
2006-01-01
The Magnetic Field Solver computer program calculates the magnetic field generated by a group of collinear, cylindrical axisymmetric electromagnet coils. Given the current flowing in, and the number of turns, axial position, and axial and radial dimensions of each coil, the program calculates matrix coefficients for a finite-difference system of equations that approximates a two-dimensional partial differential equation for the magnetic potential contributed by the coil. The program iteratively solves these finite-difference equations by use of the modified incomplete Cholesky preconditioned-conjugate-gradient method. The total magnetic potential as a function of axial (z) and radial (r) position is then calculated as a sum of the magnetic potentials of the individual coils, using a high-accuracy interpolation scheme. Then the r and z components of the magnetic field as functions of r and z are calculated from the total magnetic potential by use of a high-accuracy finite-difference scheme. Notably, for the finite-difference calculations, the program generates nonuniform two-dimensional computational meshes from nonuniform one-dimensional meshes. Each mesh is generated in such a way as to minimize the numerical error for a benchmark one-dimensional magnetostatic problem.
Parallel Auxiliary Space AMG Solver for $H(div)$ Problems
Kolev, Tzanio V.; Vassilevski, Panayot S.
2012-12-18
We present a family of scalable preconditioners for matrices arising in the discretization of $H(div)$ problems using the lowest order Raviart--Thomas finite elements. Our approach belongs to the class of “auxiliary space''--based methods and requires only the finite element stiffness matrix plus some minimal additional discretization information about the topology and orientation of mesh entities. Also, we provide a detailed algebraic description of the theory, parallel implementation, and different variants of this parallel auxiliary space divergence solver (ADS) and discuss its relations to the Hiptmair--Xu (HX) auxiliary space decomposition of $H(div)$ [SIAM J. Numer. Anal., 45 (2007), pp. 2483--2509] and to the auxiliary space Maxwell solver AMS [J. Comput. Math., 27 (2009), pp. 604--623]. Finally, an extensive set of numerical experiments demonstrates the robustness and scalability of our implementation on large-scale $H(div)$ problems with large jumps in the material coefficients.
A Nonlinear Modal Aeroelastic Solver for FUN3D
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Goldman, Benjamin D.; Bartels, Robert E.; Biedron, Robert T.; Scott, Robert C.
2016-01-01
A nonlinear structural solver has been implemented internally within the NASA FUN3D computational fluid dynamics code, allowing for some new aeroelastic capabilities. Using a modal representation of the structure, a set of differential or differential-algebraic equations are derived for general thin structures with geometric nonlinearities. ODEPACK and LAPACK routines are linked with FUN3D, and the nonlinear equations are solved at each CFD time step. The existing predictor-corrector method is retained, whereby the structural solution is updated after mesh deformation. The nonlinear solver is validated using a test case for a flexible aeroshell at transonic, supersonic, and hypersonic flow conditions. Agreement with linear theory is seen for the static aeroelastic solutions at relatively low dynamic pressures, but structural nonlinearities limit deformation amplitudes at high dynamic pressures. No flutter was found at any of the tested trajectory points, though LCO may be possible in the transonic regime.
Sherlock Holmes, Master Problem Solver.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Ballew, Hunter
1994-01-01
Shows the connections between Sherlock Holmes's investigative methods and mathematical problem solving, including observations, characteristics of the problem solver, importance of data, questioning the obvious, learning from experience, learning from errors, and indirect proof. (MKR)
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Dinar, N.
1978-01-01
Several aspects of multigrid methods are briefly described. The main subjects include the development of very efficient multigrid algorithms for systems of elliptic equations (Cauchy-Riemann, Stokes, Navier-Stokes), as well as the development of control and prediction tools (based on local mode Fourier analysis), used to analyze, check and improve these algorithms. Preliminary research on multigrid algorithms for time dependent parabolic equations is also described. Improvements in existing multigrid processes and algorithms for elliptic equations were studied.
A fast solver for the Ornstein-Zernike equations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kelley, C. T.; Pettitt, B. Montgomery
2004-07-01
In this paper, we report on the design and analysis of a multilevel method for the solution of the Ornstein-Zernike Equations and related systems of integro-algebraic equations. Our approach is based on an extension of the Atkinson-Brakhage method, with Newton-GMRES used as the coarse mesh solver. We report on several numerical experiments to illustrate the effectiveness of the method. The problems chosen are related to simple short ranged fluids with continuous potentials. Speedups over traditional methods for a given accuracy are reported. The new multilevel method is roughly six times faster than Newton-GMRES and 40 times faster than Picard.
Mapping robust parallel multigrid algorithms to scalable memory architectures
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Overman, Andrea; Vanrosendale, John
1993-01-01
The convergence rate of standard multigrid algorithms degenerates on problems with stretched grids or anisotropic operators. The usual cure for this is the use of line or plane relaxation. However, multigrid algorithms based on line and plane relaxation have limited and awkward parallelism and are quite difficult to map effectively to highly parallel architectures. Newer multigrid algorithms that overcome anisotropy through the use of multiple coarse grids rather than relaxation are better suited to massively parallel architectures because they require only simple point-relaxation smoothers. In this paper, we look at the parallel implementation of a V-cycle multiple semicoarsened grid (MSG) algorithm on distributed-memory architectures such as the Intel iPSC/860 and Paragon computers. The MSG algorithms provide two levels of parallelism: parallelism within the relaxation or interpolation on each grid and across the grids on each multigrid level. Both levels of parallelism must be exploited to map these algorithms effectively to parallel architectures. This paper describes a mapping of an MSG algorithm to distributed-memory architectures that demonstrates how both levels of parallelism can be exploited. The result is a robust and effective multigrid algorithm for distributed-memory machines.
Mapping robust parallel multigrid algorithms to scalable memory architectures
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Overman, Andrea; Vanrosendale, John
1993-01-01
The convergence rate of standard multigrid algorithms degenerates on problems with stretched grids or anisotropic operators. The usual cure for this is the use of line or plane relaxation. However, multigrid algorithms based on line and plane relaxation have limited and awkward parallelism and are quite difficult to map effectively to highly parallel architectures. Newer multigrid algorithms that overcome anisotropy through the use of multiple coarse grids rather than line relaxation are better suited to massively parallel architectures because they require only simple point-relaxation smoothers. The parallel implementation of a V-cycle multiple semi-coarsened grid (MSG) algorithm or distributed-memory architectures such as the Intel iPSC/860 and Paragon computers is addressed. The MSG algorithms provide two levels of parallelism: parallelism within the relaxation or interpolation on each grid and across the grids on each multigrid level. Both levels of parallelism must be exploited to map these algorithms effectively to parallel architectures. A mapping of an MSG algorithm to distributed-memory architectures that demonstrate how both levels of parallelism can be exploited is described. The results is a robust and effective multigrid algorithm for distributed-memory machines.
A Critical Study of Agglomerated Multigrid Methods for Diffusion
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Thomas, James L.; Nishikawa, Hiroaki; Diskin, Boris
2009-01-01
Agglomerated multigrid techniques used in unstructured-grid methods are studied critically for a model problem representative of laminar diffusion in the incompressible limit. The studied target-grid discretizations and discretizations used on agglomerated grids are typical of current node-centered formulations. Agglomerated multigrid convergence rates are presented using a range of two- and three-dimensional randomly perturbed unstructured grids for simple geometries with isotropic and highly stretched grids. Two agglomeration techniques are used within an overall topology-preserving agglomeration framework. The results show that multigrid with an inconsistent coarse-grid scheme using only the edge terms (also referred to in the literature as a thin-layer formulation) provides considerable speedup over single-grid methods but its convergence deteriorates on finer grids. Multigrid with a Galerkin coarse-grid discretization using piecewise-constant prolongation and a heuristic correction factor is slower and also grid-dependent. In contrast, grid-independent convergence rates are demonstrated for multigrid with consistent coarse-grid discretizations. Actual cycle results are verified using quantitative analysis methods in which parts of the cycle are replaced by their idealized counterparts.
Migration of vectorized iterative solvers to distributed memory architectures
Pommerell, C.; Ruehl, R.
1994-12-31
Both necessity and opportunity motivate the use of high-performance computers for iterative linear solvers. Necessity results from the size of the problems being solved-smaller problems are often better handled by direct methods. Opportunity arises from the formulation of the iterative methods in terms of simple linear algebra operations, even if this {open_quote}natural{close_quotes} parallelism is not easy to exploit in irregularly structured sparse matrices and with good preconditioners. As a result, high-performance implementations of iterative solvers have attracted a lot of interest in recent years. Most efforts are geared to vectorize or parallelize the dominating operation-structured or unstructured sparse matrix-vector multiplication, or to increase locality and parallelism by reformulating the algorithm-reducing global synchronization in inner products or local data exchange in preconditioners. Target architectures for iterative solvers currently include mostly vector supercomputers and architectures with one or few optimized (e.g., super-scalar and/or super-pipelined RISC) processors and hierarchical memory systems. More recently, parallel computers with physically distributed memory and a better price/performance ratio have been offered by vendors as a very interesting alternative to vector supercomputers. However, programming comfort on such distributed memory parallel processors (DMPPs) still lags behind. Here the authors are concerned with iterative solvers and their changing computing environment. In particular, they are considering migration from traditional vector supercomputers to DMPPs. Application requirements force one to use flexible and portable libraries. They want to extend the portability of iterative solvers rather than reimplementing everything for each new machine, or even for each new architecture.
Interactive multigrid refinement for deformable image registration.
Zhou, Wu; Xie, Yaoqin
2013-01-01
Deformable image registration is the spatial mapping of corresponding locations between images and can be used for important applications in radiotherapy. Although numerous methods have attempted to register deformable medical images automatically, such as salient-feature-based registration (SFBR), free-form deformation (FFD), and demons, no automatic method for registration is perfect, and no generic automatic algorithm has shown to work properly for clinical applications due to the fact that the deformation field is often complex and cannot be estimated well by current automatic deformable registration methods. This paper focuses on how to revise registration results interactively for deformable image registration. We can manually revise the transformed image locally in a hierarchical multigrid manner to make the transformed image register well with the reference image. The proposed method is based on multilevel B-spline to interactively revise the deformable transformation in the overlapping region between the reference image and the transformed image. The resulting deformation controls the shape of the transformed image and produces a nice registration or improves the registration results of other registration methods. Experimental results in clinical medical images for adaptive radiotherapy demonstrated the effectiveness of the proposed method. PMID:24232828
Twisted Quantum Toroidal Algebras
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jing, Naihuan; Liu, Rongjia
2014-09-01
We construct a principally graded quantum loop algebra for the Kac-Moody algebra. As a special case a twisted analog of the quantum toroidal algebra is obtained together with the quantum Serre relations.
Multigrid and multilevel domain decomposition for unstructured grids
Chan, T.; Smith, B.
1994-12-31
Multigrid has proven itself to be a very versatile method for the iterative solution of linear and nonlinear systems of equations arising from the discretization of PDES. In some applications, however, no natural multilevel structure of grids is available, and these must be generated as part of the solution procedure. In this presentation the authors will consider the problem of generating a multigrid algorithm when only a fine, unstructured grid is given. Their techniques generate a sequence of coarser grids by first forming an approximate maximal independent set of the vertices and then applying a Cavendish type algorithm to form the coarser triangulation. Numerical tests indicate that convergence using this approach can be as fast as standard multigrid on a structured mesh, at least in two dimensions.
A multigrid solution method for mixed hybrid finite elements
Schmid, W.
1996-12-31
We consider the multigrid solution of linear equations arising within the discretization of elliptic second order boundary value problems of the form by mixed hybrid finite elements. Using the equivalence of mixed hybrid finite elements and non-conforming nodal finite elements, we construct a multigrid scheme for the corresponding non-conforming finite elements, and, by this equivalence, for the mixed hybrid finite elements, following guidelines from Arbogast/Chen. For a rectangular triangulation of the computational domain, this non-conforming schemes are the so-called nodal finite elements. We explicitly construct prolongation and restriction operators for this type of non-conforming finite elements. We discuss the use of plain multigrid and the multilevel-preconditioned cg-method and compare their efficiency in numerical tests.
Analysis of multigrid algorithms for nonsymmetric and indefinite elliptic problems
Bramble, J.H.; Pasciak, J.E.; Xu, J.
1988-10-01
We prove some new estimates for the convergence of multigrid algorithms applied to nonsymmetric and indefinite elliptic boundary value problems. We provide results for the so-called 'symmetric' multigrid schemes. We show that for the variable V-script-cycle and the W-script-cycle schemes, multigrid algorithms with any amount of smoothing on the finest grid converge at a rate that is independent of the number of levels or unknowns, provided that the initial grid is sufficiently fine. We show that the V-script-cycle algorithm also converges (under appropriate assumptions on the coarsest grid) but at a rate which may deteriorate as the number of levels increases. This deterioration for the V-script-cycle may occur even in the case of full elliptic regularity. Finally, the results of numerical experiments are given which illustrate the convergence behavior suggested by the theory.
Seventh Copper Mountain Conference on Multigrid Methods. Part 2
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Melson, N. Duane (Editor); Manteuffel, Tom A. (Editor); McCormick, Steve F. (Editor); Douglas, Craig C. (Editor)
1996-01-01
The Seventh Copper Mountain Conference on Multigrid Methods was held on April 2-7, 1995 at Copper Mountain, Colorado. This book is a collection of many of the papers presented at the conference and so represents the conference proceedings. NASA Langley graciously provided printing of this document so that all of the papers could be presented in a single forum. Each paper was reviewed by a member of the conference organizing committee under the coordination of the editors. The vibrancy and diversity in this field are amply expressed in these important papers, and the collection clearly shows the continuing rapid growth of the use of multigrid acceleration techniques.
Multigrid Methods for Aerodynamic Problems in Complex Geometries
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Caughey, David A.
1995-01-01
Work has been directed at the development of efficient multigrid methods for the solution of aerodynamic problems involving complex geometries, including the development of computational methods for the solution of both inviscid and viscous transonic flow problems. The emphasis is on problems of complex, three-dimensional geometry. The methods developed are based upon finite-volume approximations to both the Euler and the Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes equations. The methods are developed for use on multi-block grids using diagonalized implicit multigrid methods to achieve computational efficiency. The work is focused upon aerodynamic problems involving complex geometries, including advanced engine inlets.
Development and Application of Agglomerated Multigrid Methods for Complex Geometries
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Nishikawa, Hiroaki; Diskin, Boris; Thomas, James L.
2010-01-01
We report progress in the development of agglomerated multigrid techniques for fully un- structured grids in three dimensions, building upon two previous studies focused on efficiently solving a model diffusion equation. We demonstrate a robust fully-coarsened agglomerated multigrid technique for 3D complex geometries, incorporating the following key developments: consistent and stable coarse-grid discretizations, a hierarchical agglomeration scheme, and line-agglomeration/relaxation using prismatic-cell discretizations in the highly-stretched grid regions. A signi cant speed-up in computer time is demonstrated for a model diffusion problem, the Euler equations, and the Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes equations for 3D realistic complex geometries.
Fast Multigrid Techniques in Total Variation-Based Image Reconstruction
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Oman, Mary Ellen
1996-01-01
Existing multigrid techniques are used to effect an efficient method for reconstructing an image from noisy, blurred data. Total Variation minimization yields a nonlinear integro-differential equation which, when discretized using cell-centered finite differences, yields a full matrix equation. A fixed point iteration is applied with the intermediate matrix equations solved via a preconditioned conjugate gradient method which utilizes multi-level quadrature (due to Brandt and Lubrecht) to apply the integral operator and a multigrid scheme (due to Ewing and Shen) to invert the differential operator. With effective preconditioning, the method presented seems to require Omicron(n) operations. Numerical results are given for a two-dimensional example.
Some multigrid algorithms for elliptic problems on data parallel machines
Bandy, V.A.; Dendy, J.E. Jr.; Spangenberg, W.H.
1998-01-01
Previously a semicoarsening multigrid algorithm suitable for use on data parallel architectures was investigated. Through the use of new software tools, the performance of this algorithm has been considerably improved. The method has also been extended to three space dimensions. The method performs well for strongly anisotropic problems and for problems with coefficients jumping by orders of magnitude across internal interfaces. The parallel efficiency of this method is analyzed, and its actual performance on the CM-5 is compared with its performance on the CRAY Y-MP and the Sparc-5. A standard coarsening multigrid algorithm is also considered, and they compare its performance on these three platforms as well.
Vectorizable multigrid algorithms for transonic-flow calculations
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Melson, N. D.
1986-01-01
The analysis and the incorporation into a multigrid scheme of several vectorizable algorithms are discussed. von Neumann analyses of vertical-line, horizontal-line, and alternating-direction ZEBRA algorithms were performed; and the results were used to predict their multigrid damping rates. The algorithms were then successfully implemented in a transonic conservative full-potential computer program. The convergence acceleration effect of multiple grids is shown, and the convergence rates of the vectorizable algorithms are compared with those of standard successive-line overrelaxation (SLOR) algorithms.
Multigrid solution of internal flows using unstructured solution adaptive meshes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Smith, Wayne A.; Blake, Kenneth R.
1992-11-01
This is the final report of the NASA Lewis SBIR Phase 2 Contract Number NAS3-25785, Multigrid Solution of Internal Flows Using Unstructured Solution Adaptive Meshes. The objective of this project, as described in the Statement of Work, is to develop and deliver to NASA a general three-dimensional Navier-Stokes code using unstructured solution-adaptive meshes for accuracy and multigrid techniques for convergence acceleration. The code will primarily be applied, but not necessarily limited, to high speed internal flows in turbomachinery.
Algebraic vs physical N = 6 3-algebras
Cantarini, Nicoletta; Kac, Victor G.
2014-01-15
In our previous paper, we classified linearly compact algebraic simple N = 6 3-algebras. In the present paper, we classify their “physical” counterparts, which actually appear in the N = 6 supersymmetric 3-dimensional Chern-Simons theories.
General complex polynomial root solver
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Skowron, J.; Gould, A.
2012-12-01
This general complex polynomial root solver, implemented in Fortran and further optimized for binary microlenses, uses a new algorithm to solve polynomial equations and is 1.6-3 times faster than the ZROOTS subroutine that is commercially available from Numerical Recipes, depending on application. The largest improvement, when compared to naive solvers, comes from a fail-safe procedure that permits skipping the majority of the calculations in the great majority of cases, without risking catastrophic failure in the few cases that these are actually required.
3D inversion based on multi-grid approach of magnetotelluric data from Northern Scandinavia
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cherevatova, M.; Smirnov, M.; Korja, T. J.; Egbert, G. D.
2012-12-01
In this work we investigate the geoelectrical structure of the cratonic margin of Fennoscandian Shield by means of magnetotelluric (MT) measurements carried out in Northern Norway and Sweden during summer 2011-2012. The project Magnetotellurics in the Scandes (MaSca) focuses on the investigation of the crust, upper mantle and lithospheric structure in a transition zone from a stable Precambrian cratonic interior to a passive continental margin beneath the Caledonian Orogen and the Scandes Mountains in western Fennoscandia. Recent MT profiles in the central and southern Scandes indicated a large contrast in resistivity between Caledonides and Precambrian basement. The alum shales as a highly conductive layers between the resistive Precambrian basement and the overlying Caledonian nappes are revealed from this profiles. Additional measurements in the Northern Scandes were required. All together data from 60 synchronous long period (LMT) and about 200 broad band (BMT) sites were acquired. The array stretches from Lofoten and Bodo (Norway) in the west to Kiruna and Skeleftea (Sweden) in the east covering an area of 500x500 square kilometers. LMT sites were occupied for about two months, while most of the BMT sites were measured during one day. We have used new multi-grid approach for 3D electromagnetic (EM) inversion and modelling. Our approach is based on the OcTree discretization where the spatial domain is represented by rectangular cells, each of which might be subdivided (recursively) into eight sub-cells. In this simplified implementation the grid is refined only in the horizontal direction, uniformly in each vertical layer. Using multi-grid we manage to have a high grid resolution near the surface (for instance, to tackle with galvanic distortions) and lower resolution at greater depth as the EM fields decay in the Earth according to the diffusion equation. We also have a benefit in computational costs as number of unknowns decrease. The multi-grid forward
NITSOL: A Newton iterative solver for nonlinear systems
Pernice, M.; Walker, H.F.
1996-12-31
Newton iterative methods, also known as truncated Newton methods, are implementations of Newton`s method in which the linear systems that characterize Newton steps are solved approximately using iterative linear algebra methods. Here, we outline a well-developed Newton iterative algorithm together with a Fortran implementation called NITSOL. The basic algorithm is an inexact Newton method globalized by backtracking, in which each initial trial step is determined by applying an iterative linear solver until an inexact Newton criterion is satisfied. In the implementation, the user can specify inexact Newton criteria in several ways and select an iterative linear solver from among several popular {open_quotes}transpose-free{close_quotes} Krylov subspace methods. Jacobian-vector products used by the Krylov solver can be either evaluated analytically with a user-supplied routine or approximated using finite differences of function values. A flexible interface permits a wide variety of preconditioning strategies and allows the user to define a preconditioner and optionally update it periodically. We give details of these and other features and demonstrate the performance of the implementation on a representative set of test problems.
Optimum plane selection for transport-of-intensity-equation-based solvers.
Martinez-Carranza, J; Falaggis, K; Kozacki, T
2014-10-20
Deterministic single beam phase retrieval techniques based on the transport of intensity equation (TIE) use the axial intensity derivative obtained from a series of intensities recorded along the propagation axis as an input to the TIE-based solver. The common belief is that, when reducing the error present in the axial intensity derivative, there will be minimal error in the retrieved phase. Thus, reported optimization schemes of measurement condition focuses on the minimization of error in the axial intensity derivative. As it is shown in this contribution, this assumption is not correct and leads to underestimating the value of plane separation, which increases the phase retrieval errors and sensitivity to noise of the TIE-based measurement system. Therefore, in this paper, a detailed analysis that shows the existence of an optimal separation that minimizes the error in the retrieved phase for a given TIE-based solver is carried out. The developed model is used to derive analytical expressions that provide an optimal plane separation for a given number of planes and level of noise for the case of equidistant plane separation. The obtained results are derived for the widely used Fourier-transform-based TIE solver, but it is shown that they can also be applied to multigrid-based techniques. PMID:25402794
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kevlahan, N. N.; Vasilyev, O. V.; Yuen, D. A.
2003-12-01
An adaptive multilevel wavelet collocation method for solving multi-dimensional elliptic problems with localized structures is developed. The method is based on the general class of multi-dimensional second generation wavelets and is an extension of the dynamically adaptive second generation wavelet collocation method for evolution problems. Wavelet decomposition is used for grid adaptation and interpolation, while O(N) hierarchical finite difference scheme, which takes advantage of wavelet multilevel decomposition, is used for derivative calculations. The multilevel structure of the wavelet approximation provides a natural way to obtain the solution on a near optimal grid. In order to accelerate the convergence of the iterative solver, an iterative procedure analogous to the multigrid algorithm is developed. For the problems with slowly varying viscosity simple diagonal preconditioning works. For problems with large laterally varying viscosity contrasts either direct solver on shared-memory machines or multilevel iterative solver with incomplete LU preconditioner may be used. The method is demonstrated for the solution of a number of two-dimensional elliptic test problems with both constant and spatially varying viscosity with multiscale character.
Recent developments in multigrid methods for the steady Euler equations
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Jespersen, D. C.
1984-01-01
The solution by multigrid techniques of the steady inviscid compressible equations of gas dynamics, the Euler equations is investigated. Steady two dimensional transonic flow over an airfoil section is studied intensively. Most of the material is applicable to three dimensional flow problems of aerodynamic interest.
A multigrid nonoscillatory method for computing high speed flows
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Li, C. P.; Shieh, T. H.
1993-01-01
A multigrid method using different smoothers has been developed to solve the Euler equations discretized by a nonoscillatory scheme up to fourth order accuracy. The best smoothing property is provided by a five-stage Runge-Kutta technique with optimized coefficients, yet the most efficient smoother is a backward Euler technique in factored and diagonalized form. The singlegrid solution for a hypersonic, viscous conic flow is in excellent agreement with the solution obtained by the third order MUSCL and Roe's method. Mach 8 inviscid flow computations for a complete entry probe have shown that the accuracy is at least as good as the symmetric TVD scheme of Yee and Harten. The implicit multigrid method is four times more efficient than the explicit multigrid technique and 3.5 times faster than the single-grid implicit technique. For a Mach 8.7 inviscid flow over a blunt delta wing at 30 deg incidence, the CPU reduction factor from the three-level multigrid computation is 2.2 on a grid of 37 x 41 x 73 nodes.
Multigrid and cyclic reduction applied to the Helmholtz equation
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Brackenridge, Kenneth
1993-01-01
We consider the Helmholtz equation with a discontinuous complex parameter and inhomogeneous Dirichlet boundary conditions in a rectangular domain. A variant of the direct method of cyclic reduction (CR) is employed to facilitate the design of improved multigrid (MG) components, resulting in the method of CR-MG. We demonstrate the improved convergence properties of this method.
Multigrid methods for bifurcation problems: The self adjoint case
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Taasan, Shlomo
1987-01-01
This paper deals with multigrid methods for computational problems that arise in the theory of bifurcation and is restricted to the self adjoint case. The basic problem is to solve for arcs of solutions, a task that is done successfully with an arc length continuation method. Other important issues are, for example, detecting and locating singular points as part of the continuation process, switching branches at bifurcation points, etc. Multigrid methods have been applied to continuation problems. These methods work well at regular points and at limit points, while they may encounter difficulties in the vicinity of bifurcation points. A new continuation method that is very efficient also near bifurcation points is presented here. The other issues mentioned above are also treated very efficiently with appropriate multigrid algorithms. For example, it is shown that limit points and bifurcation points can be solved for directly by a multigrid algorithm. Moreover, the algorithms presented here solve the corresponding problems in just a few work units (about 10 or less), where a work unit is the work involved in one local relaxation on the finest grid.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
National Council of Teachers of Mathematics, Inc., Reston, VA.
This is a reprint of the historical capsules dealing with algebra from the 31st Yearbook of NCTM,"Historical Topics for the Mathematics Classroom." Included are such themes as the change from a geometric to an algebraic solution of problems, the development of algebraic symbolism, the algebraic contributions of different countries, the origin and…
Figueroa-O'Farrill, Jose Miguel
2009-11-15
We phrase deformations of n-Leibniz algebras in terms of the cohomology theory of the associated Leibniz algebra. We do the same for n-Lie algebras and for the metric versions of n-Leibniz and n-Lie algebras. We place particular emphasis on the case of n=3 and explore the deformations of 3-algebras of relevance to three-dimensional superconformal Chern-Simons theories with matter.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Duncan, Comer; Jones, Jim
1993-01-01
A key ingredient in the simulation of self-gravitating astrophysical fluid dynamical systems is the gravitational potential and its gradient. This paper focuses on the development of a mixed method multigrid solver of the Poisson equation formulated so that both the potential and the Cartesian components of its gradient are self-consistently and accurately generated. The method achieves this goal by formulating the problem as a system of four equations for the gravitational potential and the three Cartesian components of the gradient and solves them using a distributed relaxation technique combined with conventional full multigrid V-cycles. The method is described, some tests are presented, and the accuracy of the method is assessed. We also describe how the method has been incorporated into our three-dimensional hydrodynamics code and give an example of an application to the collision of two stars. We end with some remarks about the future developments of the method and some of the applications in which it will be used in astrophysics.
Assessment of an Explicit Algebraic Reynolds Stress Model
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Carlson, Jan-Renee
2005-01-01
This study assesses an explicit algebraic Reynolds stress turbulence model in the in the three-dimensional Reynolds averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) solver, ISAAC (Integrated Solution Algorithm for Arbitrary Con gurations). Additionally, it compares solutions for two select configurations between ISAAC and the RANS solver PAB3D. This study compares with either direct numerical simulation data, experimental data, or empirical models for several different geometries with compressible, separated, and high Reynolds number flows. In general, the turbulence model matched data or followed experimental trends well, and for the selected configurations, the computational results of ISAAC closely matched those of PAB3D using the same turbulence model.
Quantum cluster algebras and quantum nilpotent algebras
Goodearl, Kenneth R.; Yakimov, Milen T.
2014-01-01
A major direction in the theory of cluster algebras is to construct (quantum) cluster algebra structures on the (quantized) coordinate rings of various families of varieties arising in Lie theory. We prove that all algebras in a very large axiomatically defined class of noncommutative algebras possess canonical quantum cluster algebra structures. Furthermore, they coincide with the corresponding upper quantum cluster algebras. We also establish analogs of these results for a large class of Poisson nilpotent algebras. Many important families of coordinate rings are subsumed in the class we are covering, which leads to a broad range of applications of the general results to the above-mentioned types of problems. As a consequence, we prove the Berenstein–Zelevinsky conjecture [Berenstein A, Zelevinsky A (2005) Adv Math 195:405–455] for the quantized coordinate rings of double Bruhat cells and construct quantum cluster algebra structures on all quantum unipotent groups, extending the theorem of Geiß et al. [Geiß C, et al. (2013) Selecta Math 19:337–397] for the case of symmetric Kac–Moody groups. Moreover, we prove that the upper cluster algebras of Berenstein et al. [Berenstein A, et al. (2005) Duke Math J 126:1–52] associated with double Bruhat cells coincide with the corresponding cluster algebras. PMID:24982197
Time-domain Raman analytical forward solvers.
Martelli, Fabrizio; Binzoni, Tiziano; Sekar, Sanathana Konugolu Venkata; Farina, Andrea; Cavalieri, Stefano; Pifferi, Antonio
2016-09-01
A set of time-domain analytical forward solvers for Raman signals detected from homogeneous diffusive media is presented. The time-domain solvers have been developed for two geometries: the parallelepiped and the finite cylinder. The potential presence of a background fluorescence emission, contaminating the Raman signal, has also been taken into account. All the solvers have been obtained as solutions of the time dependent diffusion equation. The validation of the solvers has been performed by means of comparisons with the results of "gold standard" Monte Carlo simulations. These forward solvers provide an accurate tool to explore the information content encoded in the time-resolved Raman measurements. PMID:27607645
A generalized gyrokinetic Poisson solver
Lin, Z.; Lee, W.W.
1995-03-01
A generalized gyrokinetic Poisson solver has been developed, which employs local operations in the configuration space to compute the polarization density response. The new technique is based on the actual physical process of gyrophase-averaging. It is useful for nonlocal simulations using general geometry equilibrium. Since it utilizes local operations rather than the global ones such as FFT, the new method is most amenable to massively parallel algorithms.
On unstructured grids and solvers
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Barth, T. J.
1990-01-01
The fundamentals and the state-of-the-art technology for unstructured grids and solvers are highlighted. Algorithms and techniques pertinent to mesh generation are discussed. It is shown that grid generation and grid manipulation schemes rely on fast multidimensional searching. Flow solution techniques for the Euler equations, which can be derived from the integral form of the equations are discussed. Sample calculations are also provided.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gutierrez A., Natalia A.
2014-06-01
A model to determinate the reproductive basic number, detonated Ro, for the case of population with heterogeneity in sexual activity and proportionate mixing is solved using computer algebra and SMT solvers. Specifically Maple and Z3 were used. The code for the solution of the model was written in Z3-Python, but it can also be played by Z3-SMT-Lib. Ro represents an algebraic synthesis of every epidemiological parameter. Numerical simulations were done to prove the effectiveness of the model and the code. The algebraic structure of Ro suggests the possible control measurements that should be implemented to avoid the propagation of the sexual transmitted diseases. The obtained results are important on the computational epidemiology field. As a future investigation, it is suggested to apply the STM solvers to analyze models for other kinds of epidemic diseases.
AQUASOL: An efficient solver for the dipolar Poisson–Boltzmann–Langevin equation
Koehl, Patrice; Delarue, Marc
2010-01-01
The Poisson–Boltzmann (PB) formalism is among the most popular approaches to modeling the solvation of molecules. It assumes a continuum model for water, leading to a dielectric permittivity that only depends on position in space. In contrast, the dipolar Poisson–Boltzmann–Langevin (DPBL) formalism represents the solvent as a collection of orientable dipoles with nonuniform concentration; this leads to a nonlinear permittivity function that depends both on the position and on the local electric field at that position. The differences in the assumptions underlying these two models lead to significant differences in the equations they generate. The PB equation is a second order, elliptic, nonlinear partial differential equation (PDE). Its response coefficients correspond to the dielectric permittivity and are therefore constant within each subdomain of the system considered (i.e., inside and outside of the molecules considered). While the DPBL equation is also a second order, elliptic, nonlinear PDE, its response coefficients are nonlinear functions of the electrostatic potential. Many solvers have been developed for the PB equation; to our knowledge, none of these can be directly applied to the DPBL equation. The methods they use may adapt to the difference; their implementations however are PBE specific. We adapted the PBE solver originally developed by Holst and Saied [J. Comput. Chem. 16, 337 (1995)] to the problem of solving the DPBL equation. This solver uses a truncated Newton method with a multigrid preconditioner. Numerical evidences suggest that it converges for the DPBL equation and that the convergence is superlinear. It is found however to be slow and greedy in memory requirement for problems commonly encountered in computational biology and computational chemistry. To circumvent these problems, we propose two variants, a quasi-Newton solver based on a simplified, inexact Jacobian and an iterative self-consistent solver that is based directly on
AQUASOL: An efficient solver for the dipolar Poisson-Boltzmann-Langevin equation.
Koehl, Patrice; Delarue, Marc
2010-02-14
The Poisson-Boltzmann (PB) formalism is among the most popular approaches to modeling the solvation of molecules. It assumes a continuum model for water, leading to a dielectric permittivity that only depends on position in space. In contrast, the dipolar Poisson-Boltzmann-Langevin (DPBL) formalism represents the solvent as a collection of orientable dipoles with nonuniform concentration; this leads to a nonlinear permittivity function that depends both on the position and on the local electric field at that position. The differences in the assumptions underlying these two models lead to significant differences in the equations they generate. The PB equation is a second order, elliptic, nonlinear partial differential equation (PDE). Its response coefficients correspond to the dielectric permittivity and are therefore constant within each subdomain of the system considered (i.e., inside and outside of the molecules considered). While the DPBL equation is also a second order, elliptic, nonlinear PDE, its response coefficients are nonlinear functions of the electrostatic potential. Many solvers have been developed for the PB equation; to our knowledge, none of these can be directly applied to the DPBL equation. The methods they use may adapt to the difference; their implementations however are PBE specific. We adapted the PBE solver originally developed by Holst and Saied [J. Comput. Chem. 16, 337 (1995)] to the problem of solving the DPBL equation. This solver uses a truncated Newton method with a multigrid preconditioner. Numerical evidences suggest that it converges for the DPBL equation and that the convergence is superlinear. It is found however to be slow and greedy in memory requirement for problems commonly encountered in computational biology and computational chemistry. To circumvent these problems, we propose two variants, a quasi-Newton solver based on a simplified, inexact Jacobian and an iterative self-consistent solver that is based directly on the PBE
Multigrid solution of incompressible turbulent flows by using two-equation turbulence models
Zheng, X.; Liu, C.; Sung, C.H.
1996-12-31
Most of practical flows are turbulent. From the interest of engineering applications, simulation of realistic flows is usually done through solution of Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes equations and turbulence model equations. It has been widely accepted that turbulence modeling plays a very important role in numerical simulation of practical flow problem, particularly when the accuracy is of great concern. Among the most used turbulence models today, two-equation models appear to be favored for the reason that they are more general than algebraic models and affordable with current available computer resources. However, investigators using two-equation models seem to have been more concerned with the solution of N-S equations. Less attention is paid to the solution method for the turbulence model equations. In most cases, the turbulence model equations are loosely coupled with N-S equations, multigrid acceleration is only applied to the solution of N-S equations due to perhaps the fact the turbulence model equations are source-term dominant and very stiff in sublayer region.
Frequency Domain Modelling by a Direct-Iterative Solver: A Space and Wavelet Approach
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hustedt, B.; Operto, S.; Virieux, J.
2002-12-01
complex wave propagation phenomena spatial aliasing of interpolated fields is unavoidable and should be in principle corrected through V- and W-cycles used in multigrid techniques. This aliasing-error correction is costly and convergence cannot be guaranteed. Therefore, we propose a wavelet-based FDFD strategy, called the Direct-Iterative-Wavelet Solver (DIWS). The wavelet basis transformation provides a decomposition of the signal on a sequence of resolution grids. Instead of bilinear interpolation, we formally recast the coarse-grid solution in the wavelet expansion of the desired fine-grid solution. The coarse-grid solution approximates the scaling coefficients in the fine-grid wavelet expansion, while all other fine-grid wavelet coefficients are unknown, therefore set to zero. We construct the complex impedance matrix A and right-hand-side b in the wavelet domain. Then, the iterative solver is applied in the wavelet space, which fills-in all missing fine-grid wavelet coefficients. The final wavefield is obtained by an inverse wavelet transform. Additional V- and W-cycles, as required for the DISS approach, are unnecessary for the DIWS scheme. The formal expansion of fields into an orthogonal wavelet basis permits the construction of the true solution projected on each resolution grid, where all interactions between sub-grids of different resolution are accounted by the wavele decomposition. We have implemented the DISS and DIWS strategy for the first-order hyperbolic system of equation, that allows SH-wave propagation simulations in structurally complex heterogeneous media. We illustrate the performance of both schemes for the complex Marmousi model.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Jentink, Thomas Neil; Usab, William J., Jr.
1990-01-01
An explicit, Multigrid algorithm was written to solve the Euler and Navier-Stokes equations with special consideration given to the coarse mesh boundary conditions. These are formulated in a manner consistent with the interior solution, utilizing forcing terms to prevent coarse-mesh truncation error from affecting the fine-mesh solution. A 4-Stage Hybrid Runge-Kutta Scheme is used to advance the solution in time, and Multigrid convergence is further enhanced by using local time-stepping and implicit residual smoothing. Details of the algorithm are presented along with a description of Jameson's standard Multigrid method and a new approach to formulating the Multigrid equations.
On multigrid methods for the Navier-Stokes Computer
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Nosenchuck, D. M.; Krist, S. E.; Zang, T. A.
1988-01-01
The overall architecture of the multipurpose parallel-processing Navier-Stokes Computer (NSC) being developed by Princeton and NASA Langley (Nosenchuck et al., 1986) is described and illustrated with extensive diagrams, and the NSC implementation of an elementary multigrid algorithm for simulating isotropic turbulence (based on solution of the incompressible time-dependent Navier-Stokes equations with constant viscosity) is characterized in detail. The present NSC design concept calls for 64 nodes, each with the performance of a class VI supercomputer, linked together by a fiber-optic hypercube network and joined to a front-end computer by a global bus. In this configuration, the NSC would have a storage capacity of over 32 Gword and a peak speed of over 40 Gflops. The multigrid Navier-Stokes code discussed would give sustained operation rates of about 25 Gflops.
The Sixth Copper Mountain Conference on Multigrid Methods, part 1
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Melson, N. Duane (Editor); Manteuffel, T. A. (Editor); Mccormick, S. F. (Editor)
1993-01-01
The Sixth Copper Mountain Conference on Multigrid Methods was held on 4-9 Apr. 1993, at Copper Mountain, CO. This book is a collection of many of the papers presented at the conference and as such represents the conference proceedings. NASA LaRC graciously provided printing of this document so that all of the papers could be presented in a single forum. Each paper was reviewed by a member of the conference organizing committee under the coordination of the editors. The multigrid discipline continues to expand and mature, as is evident from these proceedings. The vibrancy in this field is amply expressed in these important papers, and the collection clearly shows its rapid trend to further diversity and depth.
The Sixth Copper Mountain Conference on Multigrid Methods, part 2
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Melson, N. Duane (Editor); Mccormick, Steve F. (Editor); Manteuffel, Thomas A. (Editor)
1993-01-01
The Sixth Copper Mountain Conference on Multigrid Methods was held on April 4-9, 1993, at Copper Mountain, Colorado. This book is a collection of many of the papers presented at the conference and so represents the conference proceedings. NASA Langley graciously provided printing of this document so that all of the papers could be presented in a single forum. Each paper was reviewed by a member of the conference organizing committee under the coordination of the editors. The multigrid discipline continues to expand and mature, as is evident from these proceedings. The vibrancy in this field is amply expressed in these important papers, and the collection clearly shows its rapid trend to further diversity and depth.
An adaptive multigrid model for hurricane track prediction
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Fulton, Scott R.
1993-01-01
This paper describes a simple numerical model for hurricane track prediction which uses a multigrid method to adapt the model resolution as the vortex moves. The model is based on the modified barotropic vorticity equation, discretized in space by conservative finite differences and in time by a Runge-Kutta scheme. A multigrid method is used to solve an elliptic problem for the streamfunction at each time step. Nonuniform resolution is obtained by superimposing uniform grids of different spatial extent; these grids move with the vortex as it moves. Preliminary numerical results indicate that the local mesh refinement allows accurate prediction of the hurricane track with substantially less computer time than required on a single uniform grid.
Linear Multigrid Techniques in Self-consistent Electronic Structure Calculations
Fattebert, J-L
2000-05-23
Ab initio DFT electronic structure calculations involve an iterative process to solve the Kohn-Sham equations for an Hamiltonian depending on the electronic density. We discretize these equations on a grid by finite differences. Trial eigenfunctions are improved at each step of the algorithm using multigrid techniques to efficiently reduce the error at all length scale, until self-consistency is achieved. In this paper we focus on an iterative eigensolver based on the idea of inexact inverse iteration, using multigrid as a preconditioner. We also discuss how this technique can be used for electrons described by general non-orthogonal wave functions, and how that leads to a linear scaling with the system size for the computational cost of the most expensive parts of the algorithm.
Seventh Copper Mountain Conference on Multigrid Methods. Part 1
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Melson, N. Duane; Manteuffel, Tom A.; McCormick, Steve F.; Douglas, Craig C.
1996-01-01
The Seventh Copper Mountain Conference on Multigrid Methods was held on 2-7 Apr. 1995 at Copper Mountain, Colorado. This book is a collection of many of the papers presented at the conference and so represents the conference proceedings. NASA Langley graciously provided printing of this document so that all of the papers could be presented in a single forum. Each paper was reviewed by a member of the conference organizing committee under the coordination of the editors. The multigrid discipline continues to expand and mature, as is evident from these proceedings. The vibrancy in this field is amply expressed in these important papers, and the collection shows its rapid trend to further diversity and depth.
Multi-grid calculation of transonic potential flows
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Caughey, D. A.; Shmilovich, A.
1985-01-01
The finite-volume method discussed by Jameson and Caughey (1977), and Caughey and Jameson (1979, 1980) has made it possible to calculate the transonic potential flow past any configuration for which a suitable boundary-conforming coordinate grid can be constructed. However, computations for practical three-dimensional problems have remained quite expensive in terms of the required computer time. The reason for this is primarily related to the large number of grid cells necessary for adequate resolution in these complex three-dimensional problems, taking into account the large number of iterations required to achieve even modest convergence on these fine grids. The present chapter provides a description of work directed at removing this latter difficulty by making use of the multigrid method. Attention is given to finite-volume formulation, multigrid iteration, geometrical aspects, and computed results.
Segmented Domain Decomposition Multigrid For 3-D Turbomachinery Flows
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Celestina, M. L.; Adamczyk, J. J.; Rubin, S. G.
2001-01-01
A Segmented Domain Decomposition Multigrid (SDDMG) procedure was developed for three-dimensional viscous flow problems as they apply to turbomachinery flows. The procedure divides the computational domain into a coarse mesh comprised of uniformly spaced cells. To resolve smaller length scales such as the viscous layer near a surface, segments of the coarse mesh are subdivided into a finer mesh. This is repeated until adequate resolution of the smallest relevant length scale is obtained. Multigrid is used to communicate information between the different grid levels. To test the procedure, simulation results will be presented for a compressor and turbine cascade. These simulations are intended to show the ability of the present method to generate grid independent solutions. Comparisons with data will also be presented. These comparisons will further demonstrate the usefulness of the present work for they allow an estimate of the accuracy of the flow modeling equations independent of error attributed to numerical discretization.
A parallel multigrid method for data-driven multiprocessor systems
Lin, C.H.; Gaudiot, J.L.; Proskurowski, W.
1989-12-31
The multigrid algorithm (MG) is recognized as an efficient and rapidly converging method to solve a wide family of partial differential equations (PDE). When this method is implemented on a multiprocessor system, its major drawback is the low utilization of processors. Due to the sequentiality of the standard algorithm, the fine grid levels cannot start relaxation until the coarse grid levels complete their own relaxation. Indeed, of all processors active on the fine two dimensional grid level only one fourth will be active at the coarse grid level, leaving full 75% idle. In this paper, a novel parallel V-cycle multigrid (PVM) algorithm is proposed to cure the idle processors` problem. Highly programmable systems such as data-flow architectures are then applied to support this new algorithm. The experiments based on the proposed architecture show that the convergence rate of the new algorithm is about twice faster than that of the standard method and twice as efficient system utilization is achieved.
Multigrid for hypersonic viscous two- and three-dimensional flows
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Turkel, E.; Swanson, R. C.; Vatsa, V. N.; White, J. A.
1991-01-01
The use of a multigrid method with central differencing to solve the Navier-Stokes equations for hypersonic flows is considered. The time-dependent form of the equations is integrated with an explicit Runge-Kutta scheme accelerated by local time stepping and implicit residual smoothing. Variable coefficients are developed for the implicit process that remove the diffusion limit on the time step, producing significant improvement in convergence. A numerical dissipation formulation that provides good shock-capturing capability for hypersonic flows is presented. This formulation is shown to be a crucial aspect of the multigrid method. Solutions are given for two-dimensional viscous flow over a NACA 0012 airfoil and three-dimensional viscous flow over a blunt biconic.
Learning Algebra in a Computer Algebra Environment
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Drijvers, Paul
2004-01-01
This article summarises a doctoral thesis entitled "Learning algebra in a computer algebra environment, design research on the understanding of the concept of parameter" (Drijvers, 2003). It describes the research questions, the theoretical framework, the methodology and the results of the study. The focus of the study is on the understanding of…
Realizations of Galilei algebras
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nesterenko, Maryna; Pošta, Severin; Vaneeva, Olena
2016-03-01
All inequivalent realizations of the Galilei algebras of dimensions not greater than five are constructed using the algebraic approach proposed by Shirokov. The varieties of the deformed Galilei algebras are discussed and families of one-parametric deformations are presented in explicit form. It is also shown that a number of well-known and physically interesting equations and systems are invariant with respect to the considered Galilei algebras or their deformations.
Monolithic multigrid methods for two-dimensional resistive magnetohydrodynamics
Adler, James H.; Benson, Thomas R.; Cyr, Eric C.; MacLachlan, Scott P.; Tuminaro, Raymond S.
2016-01-06
Magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) representations are used to model a wide range of plasma physics applications and are characterized by a nonlinear system of partial differential equations that strongly couples a charged fluid with the evolution of electromagnetic fields. The resulting linear systems that arise from discretization and linearization of the nonlinear problem are generally difficult to solve. In this paper, we investigate multigrid preconditioners for this system. We consider two well-known multigrid relaxation methods for incompressible fluid dynamics: Braess--Sarazin relaxation and Vanka relaxation. We first extend these to the context of steady-state one-fluid viscoresistive MHD. Then we compare the two relaxationmore » procedures within a multigrid-preconditioned GMRES method employed within Newton's method. To isolate the effects of the different relaxation methods, we use structured grids, inf-sup stable finite elements, and geometric interpolation. Furthermore, we present convergence and timing results for a two-dimensional, steady-state test problem.« less
Finite Element Interface to Linear Solvers
Williams, Alan
2005-03-18
Sparse systems of linear equations arise in many engineering applications, including finite elements, finite volumes, and others. The solution of linear systems is often the most computationally intensive portion of the application. Depending on the complexity of problems addressed by the application, there may be no single solver capable of solving all of the linear systems that arise. This motivates the desire to switch an application from one solver librwy to another, depending on the problem being solved. The interfaces provided by solver libraries differ greatly, making it difficult to switch an application code from one library to another. The amount of library-specific code in an application Can be greatly reduced by having an abstraction layer between solver libraries and the application, putting a common "face" on various solver libraries. One such abstraction layer is the Finite Element Interface to Linear Solvers (EEl), which has seen significant use by finite element applications at Sandia National Laboratories and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory.
Finite Element Interface to Linear Solvers (FEI) version 2.9 : users guide and reference manual.
Williams, Alan B.
2005-02-01
The Finite Element Interface to Linear Solvers (FEI) is a linear system assembly library. Sparse systems of linear equations arise in many computational engineering applications, and the solution of linear systems is often the most computationally intensive portion of the application. Depending on the complexity of problems addressed by the application, there may be no single solver package capable of solving all of the linear systems that arise. This motivates the need to switch an application from one solver library to another, depending on the problem being solved. The interfaces provided by various solver libraries for data assembly and problem solution differ greatly, making it difficult to switch an application code from one library to another. The amount of library-specific code in an application can be greatly reduced by having an abstraction layer that puts a 'common face' on various solver libraries. The FEI has seen significant use by finite element applications at Sandia National Laboratories and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. The original FEI offered several advantages over using linear algebra libraries directly, but also imposed significant limitations and disadvantages. A new set of interfaces has been added with the goal of removing the limitations of the original FEI while maintaining and extending its strengths.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Iachello, Franco
1995-01-01
An algebraic formulation of quantum mechanics is presented. In this formulation, operators of interest are expanded onto elements of an algebra, G. For bound state problems in nu dimensions the algebra G is taken to be U(nu + 1). Applications to the structure of molecules are presented.
Orientation in operator algebras
Alfsen, Erik M.; Shultz, Frederic W.
1998-01-01
A concept of orientation is relevant for the passage from Jordan structure to associative structure in operator algebras. The research reported in this paper bridges the approach of Connes for von Neumann algebras and ourselves for C*-algebras in a general theory of orientation that is of geometric nature and is related to dynamics. PMID:9618457
Developing Thinking in Algebra
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Mason, John; Graham, Alan; Johnson-Wilder, Sue
2005-01-01
This book is for people with an interest in algebra whether as a learner, or as a teacher, or perhaps as both. It is concerned with the "big ideas" of algebra and what it is to understand the process of thinking algebraically. The book has been structured according to a number of pedagogic principles that are exposed and discussed along the way,…
Connecting Arithmetic to Algebra
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Darley, Joy W.; Leapard, Barbara B.
2010-01-01
Algebraic thinking is a top priority in mathematics classrooms today. Because elementary school teachers lay the groundwork to develop students' capacity to think algebraically, it is crucial for teachers to have a conceptual understanding of the connections between arithmetic and algebra and be confident in communicating these connections. Many…
Applied Algebra Curriculum Modules.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Texas State Technical Coll., Marshall.
This collection of 11 applied algebra curriculum modules can be used independently as supplemental modules for an existing algebra curriculum. They represent diverse curriculum styles that should stimulate the teacher's creativity to adapt them to other algebra concepts. The selected topics have been determined to be those most needed by students…
Profiles of Algebraic Competence
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Humberstone, J.; Reeve, R.A.
2008-01-01
The algebraic competence of 72 12-year-old female students was examined to identify profiles of understanding reflecting different algebraic knowledge states. Beginning algebraic competence (mapping abilities: word-to-symbol and vice versa, classifying, and solving equations) was assessed. One week later, the nature of assistance required to map…
Ternary Virasoro - Witt algebra.
Zachos, C.; Curtright, T.; Fairlie, D.; High Energy Physics; Univ. of Miami; Univ. of Durham
2008-01-01
A 3-bracket variant of the Virasoro-Witt algebra is constructed through the use of su(1,1) enveloping algebra techniques. The Leibniz rules for 3-brackets acting on other 3-brackets in the algebra are discussed and verified in various situations.
3DRISM Multigrid Algorithm for Fast Solvation Free Energy Calculations.
Sergiievskyi, Volodymyr P; Fedorov, Maxim V
2012-06-12
In this paper we present a fast and accurate method for modeling solvation properties of organic molecules in water with a main focus on predicting solvation (hydration) free energies of small organic compounds. The method is based on a combination of (i) a molecular theory, three-dimensional reference interaction sites model (3DRISM); (ii) a fast multigrid algorithm for solving the high-dimensional 3DRISM integral equations; and (iii) a recently introduced universal correction (UC) for the 3DRISM solvation free energies by properly scaled molecular partial volume (3DRISM-UC, Palmer et al., J. Phys.: Condens. Matter2010, 22, 492101). A fast multigrid algorithm is the core of the method because it helps to reduce the high computational costs associated with solving the 3DRISM equations. To facilitate future applications of the method, we performed benchmarking of the algorithm on a set of several model solutes in order to find optimal grid parameters and to test the performance and accuracy of the algorithm. We have shown that the proposed new multigrid algorithm is on average 24 times faster than the simple Picard method and at least 3.5 times faster than the MDIIS method which is currently actively used by the 3DRISM community (e.g., the MDIIS method has been recently implemented in a new 3DRISM implicit solvent routine in the recent release of the AmberTools 1.4 molecular modeling package (Luchko et al. J. Chem. Theory Comput. 2010, 6, 607-624). Then we have benchmarked the multigrid algorithm with chosen optimal parameters on a set of 99 organic compounds. We show that average computational time required for one 3DRISM calculation is 3.5 min per a small organic molecule (10-20 atoms) on a standard personal computer. We also benchmarked predicted solvation free energy values for all of the compounds in the set against the corresponding experimental data. We show that by using the proposed multigrid algorithm and the 3DRISM-UC model, it is possible to obtain good
Computer algebra and operators
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Fateman, Richard; Grossman, Robert
1989-01-01
The symbolic computation of operator expansions is discussed. Some of the capabilities that prove useful when performing computer algebra computations involving operators are considered. These capabilities may be broadly divided into three areas: the algebraic manipulation of expressions from the algebra generated by operators; the algebraic manipulation of the actions of the operators upon other mathematical objects; and the development of appropriate normal forms and simplification algorithms for operators and their actions. Brief descriptions are given of the computer algebra computations that arise when working with various operators and their actions.
Multigrid methods and the surface consistent equations of Geophysics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Millar, John
The surface consistent equations are a large linear system that is frequently used in signal enhancement for land seismic surveys. Different signatures may be consistent with a particular dynamite (or other) source. Each receiver and the conditions around the receiver will have different impact on the signal. Seismic deconvolution operators, amplitude corrections and static shifts of traces are calculated using the surface consistent equations, both in commercial and scientific seismic processing software. The system of equations is singular, making direct methods such as Gaussian elimination impossible to implement. Iterative methods such as Gauss-Seidel and conjugate gradient are frequently used. A limitation in the nature of the methods leave the long wavelengths of the solution poorly resolved. To reduce the limitations of traditional iterative methods, we employ a multigrid method. Multigrid methods re-sample the entire system of equations on a more coarse grid. An iterative method is employed on the coarse grid. The long wavelengths of the solutions that traditional iterative methods were unable to resolve are calculated on the reduced system of equations. The coarse estimate can be interpolated back up to the original sample rate, and refined using a standard iterative procedure. Multigrid methods provide more accurate solutions to the surface consistent equations, with the largest improvement concentrated in the long wavelengths. Synthetic models and tests on field data show that multigrid solutions to the system of equations can significantly increase the resolution of the seismic data, when used to correct both static time shifts and in calculating deconvolution operators. The first chapter of this thesis is a description of the physical model we are addressing. It reviews some of the literature concerning the surface consistent equations, and provides background on the nature of the problem. Chapter 2 contains a review of iterative and multigrid methods
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jouvet, Guillaume
2015-04-01
In this paper, a multilayer generalisation of the Shallow Shelf Approximation (SSA) is considered. In this recent hybrid ice flow model, the ice thickness is divided into thin layers, which can spread out, contract and slide over each other in such a way that the velocity profile is layer-wise constant. Like the SSA (1-layer model), the multilayer model can be reformulated as a minimisation problem. However, unlike the SSA, the functional to be minimised involves a new penalisation term for the interlayer jumps of the velocity, which represents the vertical shear stresses induced by interlayer sliding. Taking advantage of this reformulation, numerical solvers developed for the SSA can be naturally extended layer-wise or column-wise. Numerical results show that the column-wise extension of a Newton multigrid solver proves to be robust in the sense that its convergence is barely influenced by the number of layers and the type of ice flow. In addition, the multilayer formulation appears to be naturally better conditioned than the one of the first-order approximation to face the anisotropic conditions of the sliding-dominant ice flow of ISMIP-HOM experiments.
Jouvet, Guillaume
2015-04-15
In this paper, a multilayer generalisation of the Shallow Shelf Approximation (SSA) is considered. In this recent hybrid ice flow model, the ice thickness is divided into thin layers, which can spread out, contract and slide over each other in such a way that the velocity profile is layer-wise constant. Like the SSA (1-layer model), the multilayer model can be reformulated as a minimisation problem. However, unlike the SSA, the functional to be minimised involves a new penalisation term for the interlayer jumps of the velocity, which represents the vertical shear stresses induced by interlayer sliding. Taking advantage of this reformulation, numerical solvers developed for the SSA can be naturally extended layer-wise or column-wise. Numerical results show that the column-wise extension of a Newton multigrid solver proves to be robust in the sense that its convergence is barely influenced by the number of layers and the type of ice flow. In addition, the multilayer formulation appears to be naturally better conditioned than the one of the first-order approximation to face the anisotropic conditions of the sliding-dominant ice flow of ISMIP-HOM experiments.
Multigrid method for the equilibrium equations of elasticity using a compact scheme
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Taasan, S.
1986-01-01
A compact difference scheme is derived for treating the equilibrium equations of elasticity. The scheme is inconsistent and unstable. A multigrid method which takes into account these properties is described. The solution of the discrete equations, up to the level of discretization errors, is obtained by this method in just two multigrid cycles.
Multigrid solution of the convection-diffusion equation with high-Reynolds number
Zhang, Jun
1996-12-31
A fourth-order compact finite difference scheme is employed with the multigrid technique to solve the variable coefficient convection-diffusion equation with high-Reynolds number. Scaled inter-grid transfer operators and potential on vectorization and parallelization are discussed. The high-order multigrid method is unconditionally stable and produces solution of 4th-order accuracy. Numerical experiments are included.
A Fast and Robust Poisson-Boltzmann Solver Based on Adaptive Cartesian Grids.
Boschitsch, Alexander H; Fenley, Marcia O
2011-05-10
An adaptive Cartesian grid (ACG) concept is presented for the fast and robust numerical solution of the 3D Poisson-Boltzmann Equation (PBE) governing the electrostatic interactions of large-scale biomolecules and highly charged multi-biomolecular assemblies such as ribosomes and viruses. The ACG offers numerous advantages over competing grid topologies such as regular 3D lattices and unstructured grids. For very large biological molecules and multi-biomolecule assemblies, the total number of grid-points is several orders of magnitude less than that required in a conventional lattice grid used in the current PBE solvers thus allowing the end user to obtain accurate and stable nonlinear PBE solutions on a desktop computer. Compared to tetrahedral-based unstructured grids, ACG offers a simpler hierarchical grid structure, which is naturally suited to multigrid, relieves indirect addressing requirements and uses fewer neighboring nodes in the finite difference stencils. Construction of the ACG and determination of the dielectric/ionic maps are straightforward, fast and require minimal user intervention. Charge singularities are eliminated by reformulating the problem to produce the reaction field potential in the molecular interior and the total electrostatic potential in the exterior ionic solvent region. This approach minimizes grid-dependency and alleviates the need for fine grid spacing near atomic charge sites. The technical portion of this paper contains three parts. First, the ACG and its construction for general biomolecular geometries are described. Next, a discrete approximation to the PBE upon this mesh is derived. Finally, the overall solution procedure and multigrid implementation are summarized. Results obtained with the ACG-based PBE solver are presented for: (i) a low dielectric spherical cavity, containing interior point charges, embedded in a high dielectric ionic solvent - analytical solutions are available for this case, thus allowing rigorous
Application of multi-grid methods for solving the Navier-Stokes equations
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Demuren, A. O.
1989-01-01
The application of a class of multi-grid methods to the solution of the Navier-Stokes equations for two-dimensional laminar flow problems is discussed. The methods consist of combining the full approximation scheme-full multi-grid technique (FAS-FMG) with point-, line-, or plane-relaxation routines for solving the Navier-Stokes equations in primitive variables. The performance of the multi-grid methods is compared to that of several single-grid methods. The results show that much faster convergence can be procured through the use of the multi-grid approach than through the various suggestions for improving single-grid methods. The importance of the choice of relaxation scheme for the multi-grid method is illustrated.
Application of multi-grid methods for solving the Navier-Stokes equations
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Demuren, A. O.
1989-01-01
This paper presents the application of a class of multi-grid methods to the solution of the Navier-Stokes equations for two-dimensional laminar flow problems. The methods consists of combining the full approximation scheme-full multi-grid technique (FAS-FMG) with point-, line- or plane-relaxation routines for solving the Navier-Stokes equations in primitive variables. The performance of the multi-grid methods is compared to those of several single-grid methods. The results show that much faster convergence can be procured through the use of the multi-grid approach than through the various suggestions for improving single-grid methods. The importance of the choice of relaxation scheme for the multi-grid method is illustrated.
The analysis of multigrid algorithms for pseudodifferential operators of order minus one
Bramble, J.H.; Leyk, Z.; Pasciak, J.E. ||
1994-10-01
Multigrid algorithms are developed to solve the discrete systems approximating the solutions of operator equations involving pseudodifferential operators of order minus one. Classical multigrid theory deals with the case of differential operators of positive order. The pseudodifferential operator gives rise to a coercive form on H{sup {minus}1/2}({Omega}). Effective multigrid algorithms are developed for this problem. These algorithms are novel in that they use the inner product on H{sup {minus}1}({Omega}) as a base inner product for the multigrid development. The authors show that the resulting rate of iterative convergence can, at worst, depend linearly on the number of levels in these novel multigrid algorithms. In addition, it is shown that the convergence rate is independent of the number of levels (and unknowns) in the case of a pseudodifferential operator defined by a single-layer potential. Finally, the results of numerical experiments illustrating the theory are presented. 19 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs.
A generalized BPX multigrid framework covering nonnested V-cycle methods
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Duan, Huo-Yuan; Gao, Shao-Qin; Tan, Roger C. E.; Zhang, Shangyou
2007-03-01
More than a decade ago, Bramble, Pasciak and Xu developed a framework in analyzing the multigrid methods with nonnested spaces or noninherited quadratic forms. It was subsequently known as the BPX multigrid framework, which was widely used in the analysis of multigrid and domain decomposition methods. However, the framework has an apparent limit in the analysis of nonnested V-cycle methods, and it produces a variable V-cycle, or nonuniform convergence rate V-cycle methods, or other nonoptimal results in analysis thus far. This paper completes a long-time effort in extending the BPX multigrid framework so that it truly covers the nonnested V-cycle. We will apply the extended BPX framework to the analysis of many V-cycle nonnested multigrid methods. Some of them were proven previously only for two-level and W-cycle iterations. Some numerical results are presented to support the theoretical analysis of this paper.
MACSYMA's symbolic ordinary differential equation solver
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Golden, J. P.
1977-01-01
The MACSYMA's symbolic ordinary differential equation solver ODE2 is described. The code for this routine is delineated, which is of interest because it is written in top-level MACSYMA language, and may serve as a good example of programming in that language. Other symbolic ordinary differential equation solvers are mentioned.
KLU2 Direct Linear Solver Package
2012-01-04
KLU2 is a direct sparse solver for solving unsymmetric linear systems. It is related to the existing KLU solver, (in Amesos package and also as a stand-alone package from University of Florida) but provides template support for scalar and ordinal types. It uses a left looking LU factorization method.
Improving Resource-Unaware SAT Solvers
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hölldobler, Steffen; Manthey, Norbert; Saptawijaya, Ari
The paper discusses cache utilization in state-of-the-art SAT solvers. The aim of the study is to show how a resource-unaware SAT solver can be improved by utilizing the cache sensibly. The analysis is performed on a CDCL-based SAT solver using a subset of the industrial SAT Competition 2009 benchmark. For the analysis, the total cycles, the resource stall cycles, the L2 cache hits and the L2 cache misses are traced using sample based profiling. Based on the analysis, several techniques - some of which have not been used in SAT solvers so far - are proposed resulting in a combined speedup up to 83% without affecting the search path of the solver. The average speedup on the benchmark is 60%. The new techniques are also applied to MiniSAT2.0 improving its runtime by 20% on average.
Belos Block Linear Solvers Package
2004-03-01
Belos is an extensible and interoperable framework for large-scale, iterative methods for solving systems of linear equations with multiple right-hand sides. The motivation for this framework is to provide a generic interface to a collection of algorithms for solving large-scale linear systems. Belos is interoperable because both the matrix and vectors are considered to be opaque objects--only knowledge of the matrix and vectors via elementary operations is necessary. An implementation of Balos is accomplished viamore » the use of interfaces. One of the goals of Belos is to allow the user flexibility in specifying the data representation for the matrix and vectors and so leverage any existing software investment. The algorithms that will be included in package are Krylov-based linear solvers, like Block GMRES (Generalized Minimal RESidual) and Block CG (Conjugate-Gradient).« less
Accelerating sparse linear algebra using graphics processing units
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Spagnoli, Kyle E.; Humphrey, John R.; Price, Daniel K.; Kelmelis, Eric J.
2011-06-01
The modern graphics processing unit (GPU) found in many standard personal computers is a highly parallel math processor capable of over 1 TFLOPS of peak computational throughput at a cost similar to a high-end CPU with excellent FLOPS-to-watt ratio. High-level sparse linear algebra operations are computationally intense, often requiring large amounts of parallel operations and would seem a natural fit for the processing power of the GPU. Our work is on a GPU accelerated implementation of sparse linear algebra routines. We present results from both direct and iterative sparse system solvers. The GPU execution model featured by NVIDIA GPUs based on CUDA demands very strong parallelism, requiring between hundreds and thousands of simultaneous operations to achieve high performance. Some constructs from linear algebra map extremely well to the GPU and others map poorly. CPUs, on the other hand, do well at smaller order parallelism and perform acceptably during low-parallelism code segments. Our work addresses this via hybrid a processing model, in which the CPU and GPU work simultaneously to produce results. In many cases, this is accomplished by allowing each platform to do the work it performs most naturally. For example, the CPU is responsible for graph theory portion of the direct solvers while the GPU simultaneously performs the low level linear algebra routines.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Rostand, Philippe
1988-01-01
The incorporation of algebraic turbulence models in a solver for the 2-D compressible Navier-Stokes equations using triangular grids is described. A practical way to use the Cebeci Smith model, and to modify it in separated regions is proposed. The ability of the model to predict high speed, perfect gas boundary layers is investigated from a numerical point of view.
BOLD response analysis by iterated local multigrid priors.
da Rocha Amaral, Selene; Rabbani, Said R; Caticha, Nestor
2007-06-01
We present a non parametric Bayesian multiscale method to characterize the Hemodynamic Response HR as function of time. This is done by extending and adapting the Multigrid Priors (MGP) method proposed in (S.D.R. Amaral, S.R. Rabbani, N. Caticha, Multigrid prior for a Bayesian approach to fMRI, NeuroImage 23 (2004) 654-662; N. Caticha, S.D.R. Amaral, S.R. Rabbani, Multigrid Priors for fMRI time series analysis, AIP Conf. Proc. 735 (2004) 27-34). We choose an initial HR model and apply the MGP method to assign a posterior probability of activity for every pixel. This can be used to construct the map of activity. But it can also be used to construct the posterior averaged time series activity for different regions. This permits defining a new model which is only data-dependent. Now in turn it can be used as the model behind a new application of the MGP method to obtain another posterior probability of activity. The method converges in just a few iterations and is quite independent of the original HR model, as long as it contains some information of the activity/rest state of the patient. We apply this method of HR inference both to simulated and real data of blocks and event-related experiments. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves are used to measure the number of errors with respect to a few hyperparameters. We also study the deterioration of the results for real data, under information loss. This is done by decreasing the signal to noise ratio and also by decreasing the number of images available for analysis and compare the robustness to other methods. PMID:17258909
User documentation for PVODE, an ODE solver for parallel computers
Hindmarsh, A.C., LLNL
1998-05-01
PVODE is a general purpose ordinary differential equation (ODE) solver for stiff and nonstiff ODES It is based on CVODE [5] [6], which is written in ANSI- standard C PVODE uses MPI (Message-Passing Interface) [8] and a revised version of the vector module in CVODE to achieve parallelism and portability PVODE is intended for the SPMD (Single Program Multiple Data) environment with distributed memory, in which all vectors are identically distributed across processors In particular, the vector module is designed to help the user assign a contiguous segment of a given vector to each of the processors for parallel computation The idea is for each processor to solve a certain fixed subset of the ODES To better understand PVODE, we first need to understand CVODE and its historical background The ODE solver CVODE, which was written by Cohen and Hindmarsh, combines features of two earlier Fortran codes, VODE [l] and VODPK [3] Those two codes were written by Brown, Byrne, and Hindmarsh. Both use variable-coefficient multi-step integration methods, and address both stiff and nonstiff systems (Stiffness is defined as the presence of one or more very small damping time constants ) VODE uses direct linear algebraic techniques to solve the underlying banded or dense linear systems of equations in conjunction with a modified Newton method in the stiff ODE case On the other hand, VODPK uses a preconditioned Krylov iterative method [2] to solve the underlying linear system User-supplied preconditioners directly address the dominant source of stiffness Consequently, CVODE implements both the direct and iterative methods Currently, with regard to the nonlinear and linear system solution, PVODE has three method options available. functional iteration, Newton iteration with a diagonal approximate Jacobian, and Newton iteration with the iterative method SPGMR (Scaled Preconditioned Generalized Minimal Residual method) Both CVODE and PVODE are written in such a way that other linear
A Richer Understanding of Algebra
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Foy, Michelle
2008-01-01
Algebra is one of those hard-to-teach topics where pupils seem to struggle to see it as more than a set of rules to learn, but this author recently used the software "Grid Algebra" from ATM, which engaged her Year 7 pupils in exploring algebraic concepts for themselves. "Grid Algebra" allows pupils to experience number, pre-algebra, and algebra…
Spectral multigrid methods for the solution of homogeneous turbulence problems
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Erlebacher, G.; Zang, T. A.; Hussaini, M. Y.
1987-01-01
New three-dimensional spectral multigrid algorithms are analyzed and implemented to solve the variable coefficient Helmholtz equation. Periodicity is assumed in all three directions which leads to a Fourier collocation representation. Convergence rates are theoretically predicted and confirmed through numerical tests. Residual averaging results in a spectral radius of 0.2 for the variable coefficient Poisson equation. In general, non-stationary Richardson must be used for the Helmholtz equation. The algorithms developed are applied to the large-eddy simulation of incompressible isotropic turbulence.
A multigrid method for N-component nucleation.
van Putten, Dennis S; Glazenborg, Simon P; Hagmeijer, Rob; Venner, Cornelis H
2011-07-01
A multigrid algorithm has been developed enabling more efficient solution of the cluster size distribution for N-component nucleation from the Becker-Döring equations. The theoretical derivation is valid for an arbitrary number of condensing components, making the simulation of many-component nucleating systems feasible. A steady state ternary nucleation problem is defined to demonstrate its efficiency. The results are used as a validation for existing nucleation theories. The non-steady state ternary problem provides useful insight into the initial stages of the nucleation process. We observe that for the ideal mixture the main nucleation flux bypasses the saddle point. PMID:21744895
Conjugate gradient coupled with multigrid for an indefinite problem
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Gozani, J.; Nachshon, A.; Turkel, E.
1984-01-01
An iterative algorithm for the Helmholtz equation is presented. This scheme was based on the preconditioned conjugate gradient method for the normal equations. The preconditioning is one cycle of a multigrid method for the discrete Laplacian. The smoothing algorithm is red-black Gauss-Seidel and is constructed so it is a symmetric operator. The total number of iterations needed by the algorithm is independent of h. By varying the number of grids, the number of iterations depends only weakly on k when k(3)h(2) is constant. Comparisons with a SSOR preconditioner are presented.
Connecting Algebra and Chemistry.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
O'Connor, Sean
2003-01-01
Correlates high school chemistry curriculum with high school algebra curriculum and makes the case for an integrated approach to mathematics and science instruction. Focuses on process integration. (DDR)
Rost, D; Assaad, F; Blümer, N
2013-05-01
We present an algorithm for solving the self-consistency equations of the dynamical mean-field theory (DMFT) with high precision and efficiency at low temperatures. In each DMFT iteration, the impurity problem is mapped to an auxiliary Hamiltonian, for which the Green function is computed by combining determinantal quantum Monte Carlo (BSS-QMC) calculations with a multigrid extrapolation procedure. The method is numerically exact, i.e., yields results which are free of significant Trotter errors, but retains the BSS advantage, compared to direct QMC impurity solvers, of linear (instead of cubic) scaling with the inverse temperature. The new algorithm is applied to the half-filled Hubbard model close to the Mott transition; detailed comparisons with exact diagonalization, Hirsch-Fye QMC, and continuous-time QMC are provided. PMID:23767655
GARDNER, P.R.
2006-04-01
Sudoku, also known as Number Place, is a logic-based placement puzzle. The aim of the puzzle is to enter a numerical digit from 1 through 9 in each cell of a 9 x 9 grid made up of 3 x 3 subgrids (called ''regions''), starting with various digits given in some cells (the ''givens''). Each row, column, and region must contain only one instance of each numeral. Completing the puzzle requires patience and logical ability. Although first published in a U.S. puzzle magazine in 1979, Sudoku initially caught on in Japan in 1986 and attained international popularity in 2005. Last fall, after noticing Sudoku puzzles in some newspapers and magazines, I attempted a few just to see how hard they were. Of course, the difficulties varied considerably. ''Obviously'' one could use Trial and Error but all the advice was to ''Use Logic''. Thinking to flex, and strengthen, those powers, I began to tackle the puzzles systematically. That is, when I discovered a new tactical rule, I would write it down, eventually generating a list of ten or so, with some having overlap. They served pretty well except for the more difficult puzzles, but even then I managed to develop an additional three rules that covered all of them until I hit the Oregonian puzzle shown. With all of my rules, I could not seem to solve that puzzle. Initially putting my failure down to rapid mental fatigue (being unable to hold a sufficient quantity of information in my mind at one time), I decided to write a program to implement my rules and see what I had failed to notice earlier. The solver, too, failed. That is, my rules were insufficient to solve that particular puzzle. I happened across a book written by a fellow who constructs such puzzles and who claimed that, sometimes, the only tactic left was trial and error. With a trial and error routine implemented, my solver successfully completed the Oregonian puzzle, and has successfully solved every puzzle submitted to it since.
ALPS - A LINEAR PROGRAM SOLVER
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Viterna, L. A.
1994-01-01
Linear programming is a widely-used engineering and management tool. Scheduling, resource allocation, and production planning are all well-known applications of linear programs (LP's). Most LP's are too large to be solved by hand, so over the decades many computer codes for solving LP's have been developed. ALPS, A Linear Program Solver, is a full-featured LP analysis program. ALPS can solve plain linear programs as well as more complicated mixed integer and pure integer programs. ALPS also contains an efficient solution technique for pure binary (0-1 integer) programs. One of the many weaknesses of LP solvers is the lack of interaction with the user. ALPS is a menu-driven program with no special commands or keywords to learn. In addition, ALPS contains a full-screen editor to enter and maintain the LP formulation. These formulations can be written to and read from plain ASCII files for portability. For those less experienced in LP formulation, ALPS contains a problem "parser" which checks the formulation for errors. ALPS creates fully formatted, readable reports that can be sent to a printer or output file. ALPS is written entirely in IBM's APL2/PC product, Version 1.01. The APL2 workspace containing all the ALPS code can be run on any APL2/PC system (AT or 386). On a 32-bit system, this configuration can take advantage of all extended memory. The user can also examine and modify the ALPS code. The APL2 workspace has also been "packed" to be run on any DOS system (without APL2) as a stand-alone "EXE" file, but has limited memory capacity on a 640K system. A numeric coprocessor (80X87) is optional but recommended. The standard distribution medium for ALPS is a 5.25 inch 360K MS-DOS format diskette. IBM, IBM PC and IBM APL2 are registered trademarks of International Business Machines Corporation. MS-DOS is a registered trademark of Microsoft Corporation.
A scalable 2-D parallel sparse solver
Kothari, S.C.; Mitra, S.
1995-12-01
Scalability beyond a small number of processors, typically 32 or less, is known to be a problem for existing parallel general sparse (PGS) direct solvers. This paper presents a parallel general sparse PGS direct solver for general sparse linear systems on distributed memory machines. The algorithm is based on the well-known sequential sparse algorithm Y12M. To achieve efficient parallelization, a 2-D scattered decomposition of the sparse matrix is used. The proposed algorithm is more scalable than existing parallel sparse direct solvers. Its scalability is evaluated on a 256 processor nCUBE2s machine using Boeing/Harwell benchmark matrices.
SIERRA framework version 4 : solver services.
Williams, Alan B.
2005-02-01
Several SIERRA applications make use of third-party libraries to solve systems of linear and nonlinear equations, and to solve eigenproblems. The classes and interfaces in the SIERRA framework that provide linear system assembly services and access to solver libraries are collectively referred to as solver services. This paper provides an overview of SIERRA's solver services including the design goals that drove the development, and relationships and interactions among the various classes. The process of assembling and manipulating linear systems will be described, as well as access to solution methods and other operations.
Multigrid properties of upwind-biased data reconstructions
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Warren, Gary P.; Roberts, Thomas W.
1993-01-01
The multigrid properties of two data reconstruction methods used for achieving second-order spatial accuracy when solving the two-dimensional Euler equations are examined. The data reconstruction methods are used with an implicit upwind algorithm which uses linearized backward-Euler time-differencing. The solution of the resulting linear system is performed by an iterative procedure. In the present study only regular quadrilateral grids are considered, so a red-black Gauss-Seidel iteration is used. Although the Jacobian is approximated by first-order upwind extrapolation, two alternative data reconstruction techniques for the flux integral that yield higher-order spatial accuracy at steady state are examined. The first method, probably most popular for structured quadrilateral grids, is based on estimating the cell gradients using one-dimensional reconstruction along curvilinear coordinates. The second method is based on Green's theorem. Analysis and numerical results for the two dimensional Euler equations show that data reconstruction based on Green's theorem has superior multigrid properties as compared to the one-dimensional data reconstruction method.
Multigrid MALDI mass spectrometry imaging (mMALDI MSI).
Urbanek, Annett; Hölzer, Stefan; Knop, Katrin; Schubert, Ulrich S; von Eggeling, Ferdinand
2016-05-01
Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry imaging (MALDI MSI) is an important technique for the spatially resolved molecular analysis of tissue sections. The selection of matrices influences the resulting mass spectra to a high degree. For extensive and simultaneous analysis, the application of different matrices to one tissue sample is desirable. To date, only a single matrix could be applied to a tissue section per experiment. However, repetitive removal of the matrix makes this approach time-consuming and damaging to tissue samples. To overcome these drawbacks, we developed a multigrid MALDI MSI technique (mMALDI MSI) that relies on automated inkjet printing to place differing matrices onto predefined dot grids. We used a cooled printhead to prevent cavitation of low viscosity solvents in the printhead nozzle. Improved spatial resolution of the dot grids was achieved by using a triple-pulse procedure that reduced droplet volume. The matrices can either be applied directly to the thaw-mounted tissue sample or by precoating the slide followed by mounting of the tissue sample. During the MALDI imaging process, we were able to precisely target different matrix point grids with the laser to simultaneously produce distinct mass spectra. Unlike the standard method, the prespotting approach optimizes the spectra quality, avoids analyte delocalization, and enables subsequent hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) staining. Graphical Abstract Scheme of the pre-spotted multigrid MALDI MSI workflow. PMID:27039200
Three dimensional unstructured multigrid for the Euler equations
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Mavriplis, D. J.
1991-01-01
The three dimensional Euler equations are solved on unstructured tetrahedral meshes using a multigrid strategy. The driving algorithm consists of an explicit vertex-based finite element scheme, which employs an edge-based data structure to assemble the residuals. The multigrid approach employs a sequence of independently generated coarse and fine meshes to accelerate the convergence to steady-state of the fine grid solution. Variables, residuals and corrections are passed back and forth between the various grids of the sequence using linear interpolation. The addresses and weights for interpolation are determined in a preprocessing stage using linear interpolation. The addresses and weights for interpolation are determined in a preprocessing stage using an efficient graph traversal algorithm. The preprocessing operation is shown to require a negligible fraction of the CPU time required by the overall solution procedure, while gains in overall solution efficiencies greater than an order of magnitude are demonstrated on meshes containing up to 350,000 vertices. Solutions using globally regenerated fine meshes as well as adaptively refined meshes are given.
A Cell-Centered Multigrid Algorithm for All Grid Sizes
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Gjesdal, Thor
1996-01-01
Multigrid methods are optimal; that is, their rate of convergence is independent of the number of grid points, because they use a nested sequence of coarse grids to represent different scales of the solution. This nesting does, however, usually lead to certain restrictions of the permissible size of the discretised problem. In cases where the modeler is free to specify the whole problem, such constraints are of little importance because they can be taken into consideration from the outset. We consider the situation in which there are other competing constraints on the resolution. These restrictions may stem from the physical problem (e.g., if the discretised operator contains experimental data measured on a fixed grid) or from the need to avoid limitations set by the hardware. In this paper we discuss a modification to the cell-centered multigrid algorithm, so that it can be used br problems with any resolution. We discuss in particular a coarsening strategy and choice of intergrid transfer operators that can handle grids with both an even or odd number of cells. The method is described and applied to linear equations obtained by discretization of two- and three-dimensional second-order elliptic PDEs.
A multigrid method for variable coefficient Maxwell's equations
Jones, J E; Lee, B
2004-05-13
This paper presents a multigrid method for solving variable coefficient Maxwell's equations. The novelty in this method is the use of interpolation operators that do not produce multilevel commutativity complexes that lead to multilevel exactness. Rather, the effects of multilevel exactness are built into the level equations themselves--on the finest level using a discrete T-V formulation, and on the coarser grids through the Galerkin coarsening procedure of a T-V formulation. These built-in structures permit the levelwise use of an effective hybrid smoother on the curl-free near-nullspace components, and these structures permit the development of interpolation operators for handling the curl-free and divergence-free error components separately, with the resulting block diagonal interpolation operator not satisfying multilevel commutativity but having good approximation properties for both of these error components. Applying operator-dependent interpolation for each of these error components leads to an effective multigrid scheme for variable coefficient Maxwell's equations, where multilevel commutativity-based methods can degrade. Numerical results are presented to verify the effectiveness of this new scheme.
Constructive interference II: Semi-chaotic multigrid methods
Douglas, C.C.
1994-12-31
Parallel computer vendors have mostly decided to move towards multi-user, multi-tasking per node machines. A number of these machines already exist today. Self load balancing on these machines is not an option to the users except when the user can convince someone to boot the entire machine in single user mode, which may have to be done node by node. Chaotic relaxation schemes were considered for situations like this as far back as the middle 1960`s. However, very little convergence theory exists. Further, what exists indicates that this is not really a good method. Besides chaotic relaxation, chaotic conjugate direction and minimum residual methods are explored as smoothers for symmetric and nonsymmetric problems. While having each processor potentially going off in a different direction from the rest is not what one would strive for in a unigrid situation, the change of grid procedures in multigrid provide a natural way of aiming all of the processors in the right direction. The author presents some new results for multigrid methods in which synchronization of the calculations on one or more levels is not assumed. However, he assumes that he knows how far out of synch neighboring subdomains are with respect to each other. Thus the author can show that the combination of a limited chaotic smoother and coarse level corrections produces a better algorithm than would be expected.
Euler solvers for transonic applications
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Vanleer, Bram
1989-01-01
The 1980s may well be called the Euler era of applied aerodynamics. Computer codes based on discrete approximations of the Euler equations are now routinely used to obtain solutions of transonic flow problems in which the effects of entropy and vorticity production are significant. Such codes can even predict separation from a sharp edge, owing to the inclusion of artificial dissipation, intended to lend numerical stability to the calculation but at the same time enforcing the Kutta condition. One effect not correctly predictable by Euler codes is the separation from a smooth surface, and neither is viscous drag; for these some form of the Navier-Stokes equation is needed. It, therefore, comes as no surprise to observe that the Navier-Stokes has already begun before Euler solutions were fully exploited. Moreover, most numerical developments for the Euler equations are now constrained by the requirement that the techniques introduced, notably artificial dissipation, must not interfere with the new physics added when going from an Euler to a full Navier-Stokes approximation. In order to appreciate the contributions of Euler solvers to the understanding of transonic aerodynamics, it is useful to review the components of these computational tools. Space discretization, time- or pseudo-time marching and boundary procedures, the essential constituents are discussed. The subject of grid generation and grid adaptation to the solution are touched upon only where relevant. A list of unanswered questions and an outlook for the future are covered.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Ferencz, Donald C.; Viterna, Larry A.
1991-01-01
ALPS is a computer program which can be used to solve general linear program (optimization) problems. ALPS was designed for those who have minimal linear programming (LP) knowledge and features a menu-driven scheme to guide the user through the process of creating and solving LP formulations. Once created, the problems can be edited and stored in standard DOS ASCII files to provide portability to various word processors or even other linear programming packages. Unlike many math-oriented LP solvers, ALPS contains an LP parser that reads through the LP formulation and reports several types of errors to the user. ALPS provides a large amount of solution data which is often useful in problem solving. In addition to pure linear programs, ALPS can solve for integer, mixed integer, and binary type problems. Pure linear programs are solved with the revised simplex method. Integer or mixed integer programs are solved initially with the revised simplex, and the completed using the branch-and-bound technique. Binary programs are solved with the method of implicit enumeration. This manual describes how to use ALPS to create, edit, and solve linear programming problems. Instructions for installing ALPS on a PC compatible computer are included in the appendices along with a general introduction to linear programming. A programmers guide is also included for assistance in modifying and maintaining the program.
On the parallel efficiency of the Frederickson-McBryan multigrid
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Decker, Naomi H.
1990-01-01
To take full advantage of the parallelism in a standard multigrid algorithm requires as many processors as points. However, since coarse grids contain fewer points, most processors are idle during the coarse grid iterations. Frederickson and McBryan claim that retaining all points on all grid levels (using all processors) can lead to a superconvergent algorithm. The purpose of this work is to show that the parellel superconvergent multigrid (PSMG) algorithm of Frederickson and McBryan, though it achieves perfect processor utilization, is no more efficient than a parallel implementation of standard multigrid methods. PSMG is simply a new and perhaps simpler way of achieving the same results.
Solving nonlinear heat conduction problems with multigrid preconditioned Newton-Krylov methods
Rider, W.J.; Knoll, D.A.
1997-09-01
Our objective is to investigate the utility of employing multigrid preconditioned Newton-Krylov methods for solving initial value problems. Multigrid based method promise better performance from the linear scaling associated with them. Our model problem is nonlinear heat conduction which can model idealized Marshak waves. Here we will investigate the efficiency of using a linear multigrid method to precondition a Krylov subspace method. In effect we will show that a fixed point nonlinear iterative method provides an effective preconditioner for the nonlinear problem.
Extending Clause Learning of SAT Solvers with Boolean Gröbner Bases
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zengler, Christoph; Küchlin, Wolfgang
We extend clause learning as performed by most modern SAT Solvers by integrating the computation of Boolean Gröbner bases into the conflict learning process. Instead of learning only one clause per conflict, we compute and learn additional binary clauses from a Gröbner basis of the current conflict. We used the Gröbner basis engine of the logic package Redlog contained in the computer algebra system Reduce to extend the SAT solver MiniSAT with Gröbner basis learning. Our approach shows a significant reduction of conflicts and a reduction of restarts and computation time on many hard problems from the SAT 2009 competition.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Merlin, Ethan M.
2013-01-01
This article describes how the author has developed tasks for students that address the missed "essence of the matter" of algebraic transformations. Specifically, he has found that having students practice "perceiving" algebraic structure--by naming the "glue" in the expressions, drawing expressions using…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Levy, Alissa Beth
2012-01-01
The California Department of Education (CDE) has long asserted that success Algebra I by Grade 8 is the goal for all California public school students. In fact, the state's accountability system penalizes schools that do not require all of their students to take the Algebra I end-of-course examination by Grade 8 (CDE, 2009). In this…
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lawson, C. L.; Krogh, F. T.; Gold, S. S.; Kincaid, D. R.; Sullivan, J.; Williams, E.; Hanson, R. J.; Haskell, K.; Dongarra, J.; Moler, C. B.
1982-01-01
The Basic Linear Algebra Subprograms (BLAS) library is a collection of 38 FORTRAN-callable routines for performing basic operations of numerical linear algebra. BLAS library is portable and efficient source of basic operations for designers of programs involving linear algebriac computations. BLAS library is supplied in portable FORTRAN and Assembler code versions for IBM 370, UNIVAC 1100 and CDC 6000 series computers.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Cavanagh, Sean
2008-01-01
A popular humorist and avowed mathphobe once declared that in real life, there's no such thing as algebra. Kathie Wilson knows better. Most of the students in her 8th grade class will be thrust into algebra, the definitive course that heralds the beginning of high school mathematics, next school year. The problem: Many of them are about three…
Parallelizing alternating direction implicit solver on GPUs
Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)
We present a parallel Alternating Direction Implicit (ADI) solver on GPUs. Our implementation significantly improves existing implementations in two aspects. First, we address the scalability issue of existing Parallel Cyclic Reduction (PCR) implementations by eliminating their hardware resource con...
Optimization of solver for gas flow modeling
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Savichkin, D.; Dodulad, O.; Kloss, Yu
2014-05-01
The main purpose of the work is optimization of the solver for rarefied gas flow modeling based on the Boltzmann equation. Optimization method is based on SIMD extensions for ×86 processors. Computational code is profiled and manually optimized with SSE instructions. Heat flow, shock waves and Knudsen pump are modeled with optimized solver. Dependencies of computational time from mesh sizes and CPU capabilities are provided.
A parallel PCG solver for MODFLOW.
Dong, Yanhui; Li, Guomin
2009-01-01
In order to simulate large-scale ground water flow problems more efficiently with MODFLOW, the OpenMP programming paradigm was used to parallelize the preconditioned conjugate-gradient (PCG) solver with in this study. Incremental parallelization, the significant advantage supported by OpenMP on a shared-memory computer, made the solver transit to a parallel program smoothly one block of code at a time. The parallel PCG solver, suitable for both MODFLOW-2000 and MODFLOW-2005, is verified using an 8-processor computer. Both the impact of compilers and different model domain sizes were considered in the numerical experiments. Based on the timing results, execution times using the parallel PCG solver are typically about 1.40 to 5.31 times faster than those using the serial one. In addition, the simulation results are the exact same as the original PCG solver, because the majority of serial codes were not changed. It is worth noting that this parallelizing approach reduces cost in terms of software maintenance because only a single source PCG solver code needs to be maintained in the MODFLOW source tree. PMID:19563427
Finite Element Interface to Linear Solvers
2005-03-18
Sparse systems of linear equations arise in many engineering applications, including finite elements, finite volumes, and others. The solution of linear systems is often the most computationally intensive portion of the application. Depending on the complexity of problems addressed by the application, there may be no single solver capable of solving all of the linear systems that arise. This motivates the desire to switch an application from one solver librwy to another, depending on themore » problem being solved. The interfaces provided by solver libraries differ greatly, making it difficult to switch an application code from one library to another. The amount of library-specific code in an application Can be greatly reduced by having an abstraction layer between solver libraries and the application, putting a common "face" on various solver libraries. One such abstraction layer is the Finite Element Interface to Linear Solvers (EEl), which has seen significant use by finite element applications at Sandia National Laboratories and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory.« less
Proteus-MOC: A 3D deterministic solver incorporating 2D method of characteristics
Marin-Lafleche, A.; Smith, M. A.; Lee, C.
2013-07-01
A new transport solution methodology was developed by combining the two-dimensional method of characteristics with the discontinuous Galerkin method for the treatment of the axial variable. The method, which can be applied to arbitrary extruded geometries, was implemented in PROTEUS-MOC and includes parallelization in group, angle, plane, and space using a top level GMRES linear algebra solver. Verification tests were performed to show accuracy and stability of the method with the increased number of angular directions and mesh elements. Good scalability with parallelism in angle and axial planes is displayed. (authors)
PSPIKE: A Parallel Hybrid Sparse Linear System Solver
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Manguoglu, Murat; Sameh, Ahmed H.; Schenk, Olaf
The availability of large-scale computing platforms comprised of tens of thousands of multicore processors motivates the need for the next generation of highly scalable sparse linear system solvers. These solvers must optimize parallel performance, processor (serial) performance, as well as memory requirements, while being robust across broad classes of applications and systems. In this paper, we present a new parallel solver that combines the desirable characteristics of direct methods (robustness) and effective iterative solvers (low computational cost), while alleviating their drawbacks (memory requirements, lack of robustness). Our proposed hybrid solver is based on the general sparse solver PARDISO, and the “Spike” family of hybrid solvers. The resulting algorithm, called PSPIKE, is as robust as direct solvers, more reliable than classical preconditioned Krylov subspace methods, and much more scalable than direct sparse solvers. We support our performance and parallel scalability claims using detailed experimental studies and comparison with direct solvers, as well as classical preconditioned Krylov methods.
Semigroups and computer algebra in algebraic structures
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bijev, G.
2012-11-01
Some concepts in semigroup theory can be interpreted in several algebraic structures. A generalization fA,B,fA,B(X) = A(X')B of the complement operator (') on Boolean matrices is made, where A and B denote any rectangular Boolean matrices. While (') is an isomorphism between Boolean semilattices, the generalized complement operator is homomorphism in the general case. The map fA,B and its general inverse (fA,B)+ have quite similar properties to those in the linear algebra and are useful for solving linear equations in Boolean matrix algebras. For binary relations on a finite set, necessary and sufficient conditions for the equation αξβ = γ to have a solution ξ are proved. A generalization of Green's equivalence relations in semigroups for rectangular matrices is proposed. Relationships between them and the Moore-Penrose inverses are investigated. It is shown how any generalized Green's H-class could be constructed by given its corresponding linear subspaces and converted into a group isomorphic to a linear group. Some information about using computer algebra methods concerning this paper is given.
Accuracy and Efficiency in Fixed-Point Neural ODE Solvers.
Hopkins, Michael; Furber, Steve
2015-10-01
Simulation of neural behavior on digital architectures often requires the solution of ordinary differential equations (ODEs) at each step of the simulation. For some neural models, this is a significant computational burden, so efficiency is important. Accuracy is also relevant because solutions can be sensitive to model parameterization and time step. These issues are emphasized on fixed-point processors like the ARM unit used in the SpiNNaker architecture. Using the Izhikevich neural model as an example, we explore some solution methods, showing how specific techniques can be used to find balanced solutions. We have investigated a number of important and related issues, such as introducing explicit solver reduction (ESR) for merging an explicit ODE solver and autonomous ODE into one algebraic formula, with benefits for both accuracy and speed; a simple, efficient mechanism for cancelling the cumulative lag in state variables caused by threshold crossing between time steps; an exact result for the membrane potential of the Izhikevich model with the other state variable held fixed. Parametric variations of the Izhikevich neuron show both similarities and differences in terms of algorithms and arithmetic types that perform well, making an overall best solution challenging to identify, but we show that particular cases can be improved significantly using the techniques described. Using a 1 ms simulation time step and 32-bit fixed-point arithmetic to promote real-time performance, one of the second-order Runge-Kutta methods looks to be the best compromise; Midpoint for speed or Trapezoid for accuracy. SpiNNaker offers an unusual combination of low energy use and real-time performance, so some compromises on accuracy might be expected. However, with a careful choice of approach, results comparable to those of general-purpose systems should be possible in many realistic cases. PMID:26313605
Uniform convergence of multigrid V-cycle iterations for indefinite and nonsymmetric problems
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bramble, James H.; Kwak, Do Y.; Pasciak, Joseph E.
1993-01-01
In this paper, we present an analysis of a multigrid method for nonsymmetric and/or indefinite elliptic problems. In this multigrid method various types of smoothers may be used. One type of smoother which we consider is defined in terms of an associated symmetric problem and includes point and line, Jacobi, and Gauss-Seidel iterations. We also study smoothers based entirely on the original operator. One is based on the normal form, that is, the product of the operator and its transpose. Other smoothers studied include point and line, Jacobi, and Gauss-Seidel. We show that the uniform estimates for symmetric positive definite problems carry over to these algorithms. More precisely, the multigrid iteration for the nonsymmetric and/or indefinite problem is shown to converge at a uniform rate provided that the coarsest grid in the multilevel iteration is sufficiently fine (but not depending on the number of multigrid levels).
Uniform convergence of multigrid v-cycle iterations for indefinite and nonsymmetric problems
Bramble, J.H. . Dept. of Mathematics); Kwak, D.Y. . Dept. of Mathematics); Pasciak, J.E. . Dept. of Applied Science)
1994-12-01
In this paper, an analysis of a multigrid method for nonsymmetric and/or indefinite elliptic problems is presented. In this multigrid method various types of smothers may be used. One type of smoother considered is defined in terms of an associated symmetric problem and includes point and line, Jacobi, and Gauss-Seidel iterations. Smothers based entirely on the original operator are also considered. One smoother is based on the normal form, that is, the product of the operator and its transpose. Other smothers studied include point and line, Jacobi, and Gauss-Seidel. It is shown that the uniform estimates for symmetric positive definite problems carry over to these algorithms. More precisely, the multigrid iteration for the nonsymmetric and/or indefinite problem is shown to converge at a uniform rate provided that the coarsest grid in the multilevel iteration is sufficiently fine (but not dependent on the number of multigrid levels).
Lie algebra extensions of current algebras on S3
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kori, Tosiaki; Imai, Yuto
2015-06-01
An affine Kac-Moody algebra is a central extension of the Lie algebra of smooth mappings from S1 to the complexification of a Lie algebra. In this paper, we shall introduce a central extension of the Lie algebra of smooth mappings from S3 to the quaternization of a Lie algebra and investigate its root space decomposition. We think this extension of current algebra might give a mathematical tool for four-dimensional conformal field theory as Kac-Moody algebras give it for two-dimensional conformal field theory.
Leibniz algebras associated with representations of filiform Lie algebras
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ayupov, Sh. A.; Camacho, L. M.; Khudoyberdiyev, A. Kh.; Omirov, B. A.
2015-12-01
In this paper we investigate Leibniz algebras whose quotient Lie algebra is a naturally graded filiform Lie algebra nn,1. We introduce a Fock module for the algebra nn,1 and provide classification of Leibniz algebras L whose corresponding Lie algebra L / I is the algebra nn,1 with condition that the ideal I is a Fock nn,1-module, where I is the ideal generated by squares of elements from L. We also consider Leibniz algebras with corresponding Lie algebra nn,1 and such that the action I ×nn,1 → I gives rise to a minimal faithful representation of nn,1. The classification up to isomorphism of such Leibniz algebras is given for the case of n = 4.
A Conforming Multigrid Method for the Pure Traction Problem of Linear Elasticity: Mixed Formulation
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lee, Chang-Ock
1996-01-01
A multigrid method using conforming P-1 finite element is developed for the two-dimensional pure traction boundary value problem of linear elasticity. The convergence is uniform even as the material becomes nearly incompressible. A heuristic argument for acceleration of the multigrid method is discussed as well. Numerical results with and without this acceleration as well as performance estimates on a parallel computer are included.
The multigrid algorithm applied to a degenerate equation: A convergence analysis
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Almendral Vázquez, Ariel; Fredrik Nielsen, Bjørn
2009-03-01
In this paper we analyze the convergence properties of the Multigrid Method applied to the Black-Scholes differential equation arising in mathematical finance. We prove, for the discretized single-asset Black-Scholes equation, that the multigrid V-cycle possesses optimal convergence properties. Furthermore, through a series of numerical experiments we test the performance of the method for single-asset option problems. Throughout the paper we focus on models of European options.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Fay, John F.
1990-01-01
A calculation is made of the stability of various relaxation schemes for the numerical solution of partial differential equations. A multigrid acceleration method is introduced, and its effects on stability are explored. A detailed stability analysis of a simple case is carried out and verified by numerical experiment. It is shown that the use of multigrids can speed convergence by several orders of magnitude without adversely affecting stability.
Copper Mountain conference on multigrid methods. Preliminary proceedings -- List of abstracts
1995-12-31
This report contains abstracts of the papers presented at the conference. Papers cover multigrid algorithms and applications of multigrid methods. Applications include the following: solution of elliptical problems; electric power grids; fluid mechanics; atmospheric data assimilation; thermocapillary effects on weld pool shape; boundary-value problems; prediction of hurricane tracks; modeling multi-dimensional combustion and detailed chemistry; black-oil reservoir simulation; image processing; and others.
Coreflections in Algebraic Quantum Logic
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jacobs, Bart; Mandemaker, Jorik
2012-07-01
Various generalizations of Boolean algebras are being studied in algebraic quantum logic, including orthomodular lattices, orthomodular po-sets, orthoalgebras and effect algebras. This paper contains a systematic study of the structure in and between categories of such algebras. It does so via a combination of totalization (of partially defined operations) and transfer of structure via coreflections.
Multigrid hierarchical simulated annealing method for reconstructing heterogeneous media.
Pant, Lalit M; Mitra, Sushanta K; Secanell, Marc
2015-12-01
A reconstruction methodology based on different-phase-neighbor (DPN) pixel swapping and multigrid hierarchical annealing is presented. The method performs reconstructions by starting at a coarse image and successively refining it. The DPN information is used at each refinement stage to freeze interior pixels of preformed structures. This preserves the large-scale structures in refined images and also reduces the number of pixels to be swapped, thereby resulting in a decrease in the necessary computational time to reach a solution. Compared to conventional single-grid simulated annealing, this method was found to reduce the required computation time to achieve a reconstruction by around a factor of 70-90, with the potential of even higher speedups for larger reconstructions. The method is able to perform medium sized (up to 300(3) voxels) three-dimensional reconstructions with multiple correlation functions in 36-47 h. PMID:26764849
Multigrid methods for differential equations with highly oscillatory coefficients
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Engquist, Bjorn; Luo, Erding
1993-01-01
New coarse grid multigrid operators for problems with highly oscillatory coefficients are developed. These types of operators are necessary when the characters of the differential equations on coarser grids or longer wavelengths are different from that on the fine grid. Elliptic problems for composite materials and different classes of hyperbolic problems are practical examples. The new coarse grid operators can be constructed directly based on the homogenized differential operators or hierarchically computed from the finest grid. Convergence analysis based on the homogenization theory is given for elliptic problems with periodic coefficients and some hyperbolic problems. These are classes of equations for which there exists a fairly complete theory for the interaction between shorter and longer wavelengths in the problems. Numerical examples are presented.
Development of a multigrid transonic potential flow code for cascades
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Steinhoff, John
1992-01-01
Finite-volume methods for discretizing transonic potential flow equations have proven to be very flexible and accurate for both two and three dimensional problems. Since they only use local properties of the mapping, they allow decoupling of the grid generation from the rest of the problem. A very effective method for solving the discretized equations and converging to a solution is the multigrid-ADI technique. It has been successfully applied to airfoil problems where O type, C type and slit mappings have been used. Convergence rates for these cases are more than an order of magnitude faster than with relaxation techniques. In this report, we describe a method to extend the above methods, with the C type mappings, to airfoil cascade problems.
Adaptive multigrid domain decomposition solutions for viscous interacting flows
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Rubin, Stanley G.; Srinivasan, Kumar
1992-01-01
Several viscous incompressible flows with strong pressure interaction and/or axial flow reversal are considered with an adaptive multigrid domain decomposition procedure. Specific examples include the triple deck structure surrounding the trailing edge of a flat plate, the flow recirculation in a trough geometry, and the flow in a rearward facing step channel. For the latter case, there are multiple recirculation zones, of different character, for laminar and turbulent flow conditions. A pressure-based form of flux-vector splitting is applied to the Navier-Stokes equations, which are represented by an implicit lowest-order reduced Navier-Stokes (RNS) system and a purely diffusive, higher-order, deferred-corrector. A trapezoidal or box-like form of discretization insures that all mass conservation properties are satisfied at interfacial and outflow boundaries, even for this primitive-variable, non-staggered grid computation.
Development of a New and Fast Linear Solver for Multi-component Reactive Transport Simulation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Qiao, C.; Li, L.; Bao, C.; Hu, X.; Johns, R.; Xu, J.
2013-12-01
Reactive transport models (RTM) have been extensively used to understand the coupling between solute transport and (bio) geochemical reactions in complex earth systems. RTM typically involves a large number of primary and secondary species with a complex reaction network in large domains. The computational expenses increase significantly with the number of grid blocks and the number of chemical species. Within both the operator splitting approach (OS) and the global implicit approach (GI) that are commonly used, the steps that involve Newton-Raphson method are typically one of the most time-consuming parts (up to 80% to 90% of CPU times). Under such circumstances, accelerating reactive transport simulation is very essential. In this research, we present a physics-based linear system solution strategy for general reactive transport models with many species. We observed up to five times speed up for the linear solver portion of the simulations in our test cases. Our new linear solver takes advantage of the sparsity of the Jacobian matrix arising from the reaction network. The Jacobian matrix for the speciation problem is typically considered as a dense matrix and solved with a direct method such as Gaussian elimination. For the reactive transport problem, the graph of the local Jacobian matrix has a one-to-one correspondence to the reaction network graph. The Jacobian matrix is commonly sparse and has the same sparsity structure for the same reaction network. We developed a strategy that performs a minimum degree of reordering and symbolic factorization to determine the non-zero pattern at the beginning of the OS and GI simulation. During the speciation calculation in OS, we calculate the L and U factors and solve the triangular matrices according to the non-zero pattern. For GI, our strategy can be applied to inverse the diagonal blocks in the block-Jacobi preconditioner and smoothers of the multigrid preconditioners in iterative solvers. Our strategy is naturally
Developing Algebraic Thinking.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Alejandre, Suzanne
2002-01-01
Presents a teaching experience that resulted in students getting to a point of full understanding of the kinesthetic activity and the algebra behind it. Includes a lesson plan for a traffic jam activity. (KHR)
Algebraic integrability: a survey.
Vanhaecke, Pol
2008-03-28
We give a concise introduction to the notion of algebraic integrability. Our exposition is based on examples and phenomena, rather than on detailed proofs of abstract theorems. We mainly focus on algebraic integrability in the sense of Adler-van Moerbeke, where the fibres of the momentum map are affine parts of Abelian varieties; as it turns out, most examples from classical mechanics are of this form. Two criteria are given for such systems (Kowalevski-Painlevé and Lyapunov) and each is illustrated in one example. We show in the case of a relatively simple example how one proves algebraic integrability, starting from the differential equations for the integrable vector field. For Hamiltonian systems that are algebraically integrable in the generalized sense, two examples are given, which illustrate the non-compact analogues of Abelian varieties which typically appear in such systems. PMID:17588863
Algebraic Semantics for Narrative
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Kahn, E.
1974-01-01
This paper uses discussion of Edmund Spenser's "The Faerie Queene" to present a theoretical framework for explaining the semantics of narrative discourse. The algebraic theory of finite automata is used. (CK)
Aprepro - Algebraic Preprocessor
2005-08-01
Aprepro is an algebraic preprocessor that reads a file containing both general text and algebraic, string, or conditional expressions. It interprets the expressions and outputs them to the output file along witht the general text. Aprepro contains several mathematical functions, string functions, and flow control constructs. In addition, functions are included that, with some additional files, implement a units conversion system and a material database lookup system.
Geometric Algebra for Physicists
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Doran, Chris; Lasenby, Anthony
2007-11-01
Preface; Notation; 1. Introduction; 2. Geometric algebra in two and three dimensions; 3. Classical mechanics; 4. Foundations of geometric algebra; 5. Relativity and spacetime; 6. Geometric calculus; 7. Classical electrodynamics; 8. Quantum theory and spinors; 9. Multiparticle states and quantum entanglement; 10. Geometry; 11. Further topics in calculus and group theory; 12. Lagrangian and Hamiltonian techniques; 13. Symmetry and gauge theory; 14. Gravitation; Bibliography; Index.
Covariant deformed oscillator algebras
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Quesne, Christiane
1995-01-01
The general form and associativity conditions of deformed oscillator algebras are reviewed. It is shown how the latter can be fulfilled in terms of a solution of the Yang-Baxter equation when this solution has three distinct eigenvalues and satisfies a Birman-Wenzl-Murakami condition. As an example, an SU(sub q)(n) x SU(sub q)(m)-covariant q-bosonic algebra is discussed in some detail.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hiley, B. J.
In this chapter, we examine in detail the non-commutative symplectic algebra underlying quantum dynamics. By using this algebra, we show that it contains both the Weyl-von Neumann and the Moyal quantum algebras. The latter contains the Wigner distribution as the kernel of the density matrix. The underlying non-commutative geometry can be projected into either of two Abelian spaces, so-called `shadow phase spaces'. One of these is the phase space of Bohmian mechanics, showing that it is a fragment of the basic underlying algebra. The algebraic approach is much richer, giving rise to two fundamental dynamical time development equations which reduce to the Liouville equation and the Hamilton-Jacobi equation in the classical limit. They also include the Schrödinger equation and its wave-function, showing that these features are a partial aspect of the more general non-commutative structure. We discuss briefly the properties of this more general mathematical background from which the non-commutative symplectic algebra emerges.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Rostand, Philippe
1989-01-01
The incorporation of algebraic turbulence models in a solver for the 2-D compressible Navier-Stokes equations using triangular grids is described. A practial way to use the Cebeci Smith model, and to modify it in separated regions is proposed. The ability of the model to predict high speed, perfect gas boundary layers is investigated from a numerical point of view.
DG Poisson algebra and its universal enveloping algebra
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lü, JiaFeng; Wang, XingTing; Zhuang, GuangBin
2016-05-01
In this paper, we introduce the notions of differential graded (DG) Poisson algebra and DG Poisson module. Let $A$ be any DG Poisson algebra. We construct the universal enveloping algebra of $A$ explicitly, which is denoted by $A^{ue}$. We show that $A^{ue}$ has a natural DG algebra structure and it satisfies certain universal property. As a consequence of the universal property, it is proved that the category of DG Poisson modules over $A$ is isomorphic to the category of DG modules over $A^{ue}$. Furthermore, we prove that the notion of universal enveloping algebra $A^{ue}$ is well-behaved under opposite algebra and tensor product of DG Poisson algebras. Practical examples of DG Poisson algebras are given throughout the paper including those arising from differential geometry and homological algebra.
Efficient multilevel eigensolvers with applications to data analysis tasks.
Kushnir, Dan; Galun, Meirav; Brandt, Achi
2010-08-01
Multigrid solvers proved very efficient for solving massive systems of equations in various fields. These solvers are based on iterative relaxation schemes together with the approximation of the "smooth" error function on a coarser level (grid). We present two efficient multilevel eigensolvers for solving massive eigenvalue problems that emerge in data analysis tasks. The first solver, a version of classical algebraic multigrid (AMG), is applied to eigenproblems arising in clustering, image segmentation, and dimensionality reduction, demonstrating an order of magnitude speedup compared to the popular Lanczos algorithm. The second solver is based on a new, much more accurate interpolation scheme. It enables calculating a large number of eigenvectors very inexpensively. PMID:20558872
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shi, Yu; Liang, Long; Ge, Hai-Wen; Reitz, Rolf D.
2010-03-01
Acceleration of the chemistry solver for engine combustion is of much interest due to the fact that in practical engine simulations extensive computational time is spent solving the fuel oxidation and emission formation chemistry. A dynamic adaptive chemistry (DAC) scheme based on a directed relation graph error propagation (DRGEP) method has been applied to study homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) engine combustion with detailed chemistry (over 500 species) previously using an R-value-based breadth-first search (RBFS) algorithm, which significantly reduced computational times (by as much as 30-fold). The present paper extends the use of this on-the-fly kinetic mechanism reduction scheme to model combustion in direct-injection (DI) engines. It was found that the DAC scheme becomes less efficient when applied to DI engine simulations using a kinetic mechanism of relatively small size and the accuracy of the original DAC scheme decreases for conventional non-premixed combustion engine. The present study also focuses on determination of search-initiating species, involvement of the NOx chemistry, selection of a proper error tolerance, as well as treatment of the interaction of chemical heat release and the fuel spray. Both the DAC schemes were integrated into the ERC KIVA-3v2 code, and simulations were conducted to compare the two schemes. In general, the present DAC scheme has better efficiency and similar accuracy compared to the previous DAC scheme. The efficiency depends on the size of the chemical kinetics mechanism used and the engine operating conditions. For cases using a small n-heptane kinetic mechanism of 34 species, 30% of the computational time is saved, and 50% for a larger n-heptane kinetic mechanism of 61 species. The paper also demonstrates that by combining the present DAC scheme with an adaptive multi-grid chemistry (AMC) solver, it is feasible to simulate a direct-injection engine using a detailed n-heptane mechanism with 543 species
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vollebregt, E. A. H.
2014-01-01
This paper presents our new solver BCCG+FAI for solving elastic normal contact problems. This is a comprehensible approach that is based on the Conjugate Gradients (CG) algorithm and that uses FFTs. A first novel aspect is the definition of the “FFT-based Approximate Inverse” preconditioner. The underlying idea is that the inverse matrix can be approximated well using a Toeplitz or block-Toeplitz form, which can be computed using the FFT of the original matrix elements. This preconditioner makes the total number of CG iterations effectively constant in 2D and very slowly increasing in 3D problems. A second novelty is how we deal with a prescribed total force. This uses a deflation technique in such a way that CGs convergence and finite termination properties are maintained. Numerical results show that this solver is more effective than existing CG-based strategies, such that it can compete with Multi-Grid strategies over a much larger problem range. In our opinion it could be the new method of choice because of its simple structure and elegant theory, and because robust performance is achieved independently of any problem specific parameters.
Verification of continuum drift kinetic equation solvers in NIMROD
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Held, E. D.; Kruger, S. E.; Ji, J.-Y.; Belli, E. A.; Lyons, B. C.
2015-03-01
Verification of continuum solutions to the electron and ion drift kinetic equations (DKEs) in NIMROD [C. R. Sovinec et al., J. Comp. Phys. 195, 355 (2004)] is demonstrated through comparison with several neoclassical transport codes, most notably NEO [E. A. Belli and J. Candy, Plasma Phys. Controlled Fusion 54, 015015 (2012)]. The DKE solutions use NIMROD's spatial representation, 2D finite-elements in the poloidal plane and a 1D Fourier expansion in toroidal angle. For 2D velocity space, a novel 1D expansion in finite elements is applied for the pitch angle dependence and a collocation grid is used for the normalized speed coordinate. The full, linearized Coulomb collision operator is kept and shown to be important for obtaining quantitative results. Bootstrap currents, parallel ion flows, and radial particle and heat fluxes show quantitative agreement between NIMROD and NEO for a variety of tokamak equilibria. In addition, velocity space distribution function contours for ions and electrons show nearly identical detailed structure and agree quantitatively. A Θ-centered, implicit time discretization and a block-preconditioned, iterative linear algebra solver provide efficient electron and ion DKE solutions that ultimately will be used to obtain closures for NIMROD's evolving fluid model.
Verification of continuum drift kinetic equation solvers in NIMROD
Held, E. D.; Ji, J.-Y.; Kruger, S. E.; Belli, E. A.; Lyons, B. C.
2015-03-15
Verification of continuum solutions to the electron and ion drift kinetic equations (DKEs) in NIMROD [C. R. Sovinec et al., J. Comp. Phys. 195, 355 (2004)] is demonstrated through comparison with several neoclassical transport codes, most notably NEO [E. A. Belli and J. Candy, Plasma Phys. Controlled Fusion 54, 015015 (2012)]. The DKE solutions use NIMROD's spatial representation, 2D finite-elements in the poloidal plane and a 1D Fourier expansion in toroidal angle. For 2D velocity space, a novel 1D expansion in finite elements is applied for the pitch angle dependence and a collocation grid is used for the normalized speed coordinate. The full, linearized Coulomb collision operator is kept and shown to be important for obtaining quantitative results. Bootstrap currents, parallel ion flows, and radial particle and heat fluxes show quantitative agreement between NIMROD and NEO for a variety of tokamak equilibria. In addition, velocity space distribution function contours for ions and electrons show nearly identical detailed structure and agree quantitatively. A Θ-centered, implicit time discretization and a block-preconditioned, iterative linear algebra solver provide efficient electron and ion DKE solutions that ultimately will be used to obtain closures for NIMROD's evolving fluid model.
Steady potential solver for unsteady aerodynamic analyses
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hoyniak, Dan
1994-01-01
Development of a steady flow solver for use with LINFLO was the objective of this report. The solver must be compatible with LINFLO, be composed of composite mesh, and have transonic capability. The approaches used were: (1) steady flow potential equations written in nonconservative form; (2) Newton's Method; (3) implicit, least-squares, interpolation method to obtain finite difference equations; and (4) matrix inversion routines from LINFLO. This report was given during the NASA LeRC Workshop on Forced Response in Turbomachinery in August of 1993.
ODE System Solver W. Krylov Iteration & Rootfinding
Hindmarsh, Alan C.
1991-09-09
LSODKR is a new initial value ODE solver for stiff and nonstiff systems. It is a variant of the LSODPK and LSODE solvers, intended mainly for large stiff systems. The main differences between LSODKR and LSODE are the following: (a) for stiff systems, LSODKR uses a corrector iteration composed of Newton iteration and one of four preconditioned Krylov subspace iteration methods. The user must supply routines for the preconditioning operations, (b) Within the corrector iteration, LSODKR does automatic switching between functional (fixpoint) iteration and modified Newton iteration, (c) LSODKR includes the ability to find roots of given functions of the solution during the integration.
ODE System Solver W. Krylov Iteration & Rootfinding
1991-09-09
LSODKR is a new initial value ODE solver for stiff and nonstiff systems. It is a variant of the LSODPK and LSODE solvers, intended mainly for large stiff systems. The main differences between LSODKR and LSODE are the following: (a) for stiff systems, LSODKR uses a corrector iteration composed of Newton iteration and one of four preconditioned Krylov subspace iteration methods. The user must supply routines for the preconditioning operations, (b) Within the corrector iteration,more » LSODKR does automatic switching between functional (fixpoint) iteration and modified Newton iteration, (c) LSODKR includes the ability to find roots of given functions of the solution during the integration.« less
Wave Speeds, Riemann Solvers and Artificial Viscosity
Rider, W.J.
1999-07-18
A common perspective on the numerical solution of the equation Euler equations for shock physics is examined. The common viewpoint is based upon the selection of nonlinear wavespeeds upon which the dissipation (implicit or explicit) is founded. This perspective shows commonality between Riemann solver based method (i.e. Godunov-type) and artificial viscosity (i.e. von Neumann-Richtmyer). As an example we derive an improved nonlinear viscous stabilization of a Richtmyer-Lax-Wendroff method. Additionally, we will define a form of classical artificial viscosity based upon the HLL Riemann solver.
Structured adaptive grid generation using algebraic methods
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Yang, Jiann-Cherng; Soni, Bharat K.; Roger, R. P.; Chan, Stephen C.
1993-01-01
of points to the grid redistribution scheme. The evaluation of the weighting mesh is accomplished by utilizing the weight function representing the solution variation and the equidistribution law. The selection of the weight function plays a key role in grid adaptation. A new weight function utilizing a properly weighted boolean sum of various flowfield characteristics is defined. The redistribution scheme is developed utilizing Non-Uniform Rational B-Splines (NURBS) representation. The application of NURBS representation results in a well distributed smooth grid by maintaining the fidelity of the geometry associated with boundary curves. Several algebraic methods are applied to smooth and/or nearly orthogonalize the grid lines. An elliptic solver is utilized to smooth the grid lines if there are grid crossings. Various computational examples of practical interest are presented to demonstrate the success of these methods.
WBNFLOW: Multi-grid/multi-block potential solver for compressible flow. User's guide
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Diegian, Wang
1992-12-01
The user manual for the flow solver WBNFLOW, a code that computes a full potential solution around wing/body/nacelle configurations including a propeller slipstream, is presented. The code is written in FORTRAN-77. The method for solution is based on the full approximation storage multigrid method using both the incomplete lower upper decomposition and the strongly implicit procedure as the smoothing algorithm. The code is very competitive in terms of computational efficiency. Topology, freestream conditions, slipstream condition, and computational parameters are all specified in input files. The code has capability to handle variations in these. There are two codes to prepare the main input files. One is a code JOBPRE1 to generate an input file including the freestream condition, the organization of the cycle for running the solution on a sequence of grids, and also some parameters. Another is a code WBNGRID to generate the grid input file for this code. When the user executes WBNFLOW, the input files are analyzed and obvious errors are fed out in an output file. Output files also contain configuration surface pressure distributions, number of supersonic points in the flow field, and convergence history.
The design and implementation of a parallel unstructured Euler solver using software primitives
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Das, R.; Mavriplis, D. J.; Saltz, J.; Gupta, S.; Ponnusamy, R.
1992-01-01
This paper is concerned with the implementation of a three-dimensional unstructured grid Euler-solver on massively parallel distributed-memory computer architectures. The goal is to minimize solution time by achieving high computational rates with a numerically efficient algorithm. An unstructured multigrid algorithm with an edge-based data structure has been adopted, and a number of optimizations have been devised and implemented in order to accelerate the parallel communication rates. The implementation is carried out by creating a set of software tools, which provide an interface between the parallelization issues and the sequential code, while providing a basis for future automatic run-time compilation support. Large practical unstructured grid problems are solved on the Intel iPSC/860 hypercube and Intel Touchstone Delta machine. The quantitative effect of the various optimizations are demonstrated, and we show that the combined effect of these optimizations leads to roughly a factor of three performance improvement. The overall solution efficiency is compared with that obtained on the CRAY-YMP vector supercomputer.
Parallel linear algebra library for the Denelcor HEP
Dongarra, J.J.; Sorensen, D.C.
1984-10-01
This paper discusses the implementation of a library of algorithms for problems in linear algebra on the Denelcor HEP. The package includes some of the most heavily used subroutines from LINPACK, that is, solution of linear systems based on LU, Cholesky, and QR factorizations as well as the appropriate triangular solvers. The concept followed is to code these routines in terms of high-level modules, which provides a vehicle to achieve both transportability and efficiency across a wide range of architectures. We discuss this concept in the context of a numerical linear algebra software library which is adaptable to highly parallel computing systems. However, the concept is expected to applicable to other libraries as well.
A mimetic spectral element solver for the Grad-Shafranov equation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Palha, A.; Koren, B.; Felici, F.
2016-07-01
In this work we present a robust and accurate arbitrary order solver for the fixed-boundary plasma equilibria in toroidally axisymmetric geometries. To achieve this we apply the mimetic spectral element formulation presented in [56] to the solution of the Grad-Shafranov equation. This approach combines a finite volume discretization with the mixed finite element method. In this way the discrete differential operators (∇, ∇×, ∇ṡ) can be represented exactly and metric and all approximation errors are present in the constitutive relations. The result of this formulation is an arbitrary order method even on highly curved meshes. Additionally, the integral of the toroidal current Jϕ is exactly equal to the boundary integral of the poloidal field over the plasma boundary. This property can play an important role in the coupling between equilibrium and transport solvers. The proposed solver is tested on a varied set of plasma cross sections (smooth and with an X-point) and also for a wide range of pressure and toroidal magnetic flux profiles. Equilibria accurate up to machine precision are obtained. Optimal algebraic convergence rates of order p + 1 and geometric convergence rates are shown for Soloviev solutions (including high Shafranov shifts), field-reversed configuration (FRC) solutions and spheromak analytical solutions. The robustness of the method is demonstrated for non-linear test cases, in particular on an equilibrium solution with a pressure pedestal.
Amesos2 and Belos: Direct and Iterative Solvers for Large Sparse Linear Systems
Bavier, Eric; Hoemmen, Mark; Rajamanickam, Sivasankaran; Thornquist, Heidi
2012-01-01
Solvers for large sparse linear systems come in two categories: direct and iterative. Amesos2, a package in the Trilinos software project, provides direct methods, and Belos, another Trilinos package, provides iterative methods. Amesos2 offers a common interface to many different sparse matrix factorization codes, and can handle any implementation of sparse matrices and vectors, via an easy-to-extend C++ traits interface. It can also factor matrices whose entries have arbitrary “Scalar” type, enabling extended-precision and mixed-precision algorithms. Belos includes many different iterative methods for solving large sparse linear systems and least-squares problems. Unlike competing iterative solver libraries, Belos completely decouples themore » algorithms from the implementations of the underlying linear algebra objects. This lets Belos exploit the latest hardware without changes to the code. Belos favors algorithms that solve higher-level problems, such as multiple simultaneous linear systems and sequences of related linear systems, faster than standard algorithms. The package also supports extended-precision and mixed-precision algorithms. Together, Amesos2 and Belos form a complete suite of sparse linear solvers.« less
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Roitman, Michael
2008-08-01
In this paper we prove that for any commutative (but in general non-associative) algebra A with an invariant symmetric non-degenerate bilinear form there is a graded vertex algebra V = V0 Å V2 Å V3 Å ¼, such that dim V0 = 1 and V2 contains A. We can choose V so that if A has a unit e, then 2e is the Virasoro element of V, and if G is a finite group of automorphisms of A, then G acts on V as well. In addition, the algebra V can be chosen with a non-degenerate invariant bilinear form, in which case it is simple.
Abstract Algebra for Algebra Teaching: Influencing School Mathematics Instruction
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Wasserman, Nicholas H.
2016-01-01
This article explores the potential for aspects of abstract algebra to be influential for the teaching of school algebra (and early algebra). Using national standards for analysis, four primary areas common in school mathematics--and their progression across elementary, middle, and secondary mathematics--where teaching may be transformed by…
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Nishida, Brian A.; Langhi, Ronald G.; Bencze, Daniel P.
1991-01-01
A multiblock/multigrid computation of the inviscid flow over a wing-mounted propfan transport with propwash is presented. An explicit multistage scheme drives the integral Euler equations to a steady state solution, while an actuator disk approximates the slipstream effects of the propfan blades. Practical applications of detailed surface gridding, multiple block field grids and multigrid convergence acceleration are demonstrated.
Computer Program For Linear Algebra
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Krogh, F. T.; Hanson, R. J.
1987-01-01
Collection of routines provided for basic vector operations. Basic Linear Algebra Subprogram (BLAS) library is collection from FORTRAN-callable routines for employing standard techniques to perform basic operations of numerical linear algebra.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Shahshahani, M.
1991-01-01
The performance characteristics are discussed of certain algebraic geometric codes. Algebraic geometric codes have good minimum distance properties. On many channels they outperform other comparable block codes; therefore, one would expect them eventually to replace some of the block codes used in communications systems. It is suggested that it is unlikely that they will become useful substitutes for the Reed-Solomon codes used by the Deep Space Network in the near future. However, they may be applicable to systems where the signal to noise ratio is sufficiently high so that block codes would be more suitable than convolutional or concatenated codes.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bouwknegt, Peter
1988-06-01
We investigate extensions of the Virasoro algebra by a single primary field of integer or halfinteger conformal dimension Δ. We argue that for vanishing structure constant CΔΔΔ, the extended conformal algebra can only be associative for a generic c-value if Δ=1/2, 1, 3/2, 2 or 3. For the other Δ<=5 we compute the finite set of allowed c-values and identify the rational solutions. The case CΔΔΔ≠0 is also briefly discussed. I would like to thank Kareljan Schoutens for discussions and Sander Bais for a careful reading of the manuscript.
Multigrid optimal mass transport for image registration and morphing
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rehman, Tauseef ur; Tannenbaum, Allen
2007-02-01
In this paper we present a computationally efficient Optimal Mass Transport algorithm. This method is based on the Monge-Kantorovich theory and is used for computing elastic registration and warping maps in image registration and morphing applications. This is a parameter free method which utilizes all of the grayscale data in an image pair in a symmetric fashion. No landmarks need to be specified for correspondence. In our work, we demonstrate significant improvement in computation time when our algorithm is applied as compared to the originally proposed method by Haker et al [1]. The original algorithm was based on a gradient descent method for removing the curl from an initial mass preserving map regarded as 2D vector field. This involves inverting the Laplacian in each iteration which is now computed using full multigrid technique resulting in an improvement in computational time by a factor of two. Greater improvement is achieved by decimating the curl in a multi-resolutional framework. The algorithm was applied to 2D short axis cardiac MRI images and brain MRI images for testing and comparison.
Application of the multigrid method to grid generation
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Ohring, S.
1980-01-01
The multigrid method (MGM), used to numerically solve the pair of nonlinear elliptic equations commonly used to generate two dimensional boundary-fitted coordinate systems is discussed. Two different geometries are considered: one involving a coordinate system fitted about a circle and the other selected for an impinging jet flow problem. Two different relaxation schemes are tried: one is successive point overrelaxation and the other is a four-color scheme vectorizeable to take advantage of a parallel processor computer for greater computational speed. Results using MGM are compared with those using SOR (doing successive overrelaxations with the corresponding relaxation scheme on the fine grid only). It is found that MGM becomes significantly more effective than SOR as more accuracy is demanded and as more corrective grids, or more grid points, are used. For the accuracy required, it is found that MGM is two to three times faster than SOR in computing time. With the four-color relaxation scheme as applied to the impinging jet problem, the advantage of MGM over SOR is not as great. This may be due to the effect of a poor initial guess on MGM for this problem.
Teaching Arithmetic and Algebraic Expressions
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Subramaniam, K.; Banerjee, Rakhi
2004-01-01
A teaching intervention study was conducted with sixth grade students to explore the interconnections between students' growing understanding of arithmetic expressions and beginning algebra. Three groups of students were chosen, with two groups receiving instruction in arithmetic and algebra, and one group in algebra without arithmetic. Students…
Assessing Elementary Algebra with STACK
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Sangwin, Christopher J.
2007-01-01
This paper concerns computer aided assessment (CAA) of mathematics in which a computer algebra system (CAS) is used to help assess students' responses to elementary algebra questions. Using a methodology of documentary analysis, we examine what is taught in elementary algebra. The STACK CAA system, http://www.stack.bham.ac.uk/, which uses the CAS…
Spinors in the hyperbolic algebra
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ulrych, S.
2006-01-01
The three-dimensional universal complex Clifford algebra Cbar3,0 is used to represent relativistic vectors in terms of paravectors. In analogy to the Hestenes spacetime approach spinors are introduced in an algebraic form. This removes the dependance on an explicit matrix representation of the algebra.
Multigrid on unstructured grids using an auxiliary set of structured grids
Douglas, C.C.; Malhotra, S.; Schultz, M.H.
1996-12-31
Unstructured grids do not have a convenient and natural multigrid framework for actually computing and maintaining a high floating point rate on standard computers. In fact, just the coarsening process is expensive for many applications. Since unstructured grids play a vital role in many scientific computing applications, many modifications have been proposed to solve this problem. One suggested solution is to map the original unstructured grid onto a structured grid. This can be used as a fine grid in a standard multigrid algorithm to precondition the original problem on the unstructured grid. We show that unless extreme care is taken, this mapping can lead to a system with a high condition number which eliminates the usefulness of the multigrid method. Theorems with lower and upper bounds are provided. Simple examples show that the upper bounds are sharp.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Glick, David
1995-01-01
Presents a technique that helps students concentrate more on the science and less on the mechanics of algebra while dealing with introductory physics formulas. Allows the teacher to do complex problems at a lower level and not be too concerned about the mathematical abilities of the students. (JRH)
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Ketterlin-Geller, Leanne R.; Jungjohann, Kathleen; Chard, David J.; Baker, Scott
2007-01-01
Much of the difficulty that students encounter in the transition from arithmetic to algebra stems from their early learning and understanding of arithmetic. Too often, students learn about the whole number system and the operations that govern that system as a set of procedures to solve addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division problems.…
Computer Algebra versus Manipulation
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Zand, Hossein; Crowe, David
2004-01-01
In the UK there is increasing concern about the lack of skill in algebraic manipulation that is evident in students entering mathematics courses at university level. In this note we discuss how the computer can be used to ameliorate some of the problems. We take as an example the calculations needed in three dimensional vector analysis in polar…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Boiteau, Denise; Stansfield, David
This document describes mathematical programs on the basic concepts of algebra produced by Louisiana Public Broadcasting. Programs included are: (1) "Inverse Operations"; (2) "The Order of Operations"; (3) "Basic Properties" (addition and multiplication of numbers and variables); (4) "The Positive and Negative Numbers"; and (5) "Using Positive…
Thinking Visually about Algebra
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Baroudi, Ziad
2015-01-01
Many introductions to algebra in high school begin with teaching students to generalise linear numerical patterns. This article argues that this approach needs to be changed so that students encounter variables in the context of modelling visual patterns so that the variables have a meaning. The article presents sample classroom activities,…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Kennedy, John
This text provides information and exercises on arithmetic topics which should be mastered before a student enrolls in an Elementary Algebra course. Section I describes the fundamental properties and relationships of whole numbers, focusing on basic operations, divisibility tests, exponents, order of operations, prime numbers, greatest common…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Nwabueze, Kenneth K.
2004-01-01
The current emphasis on flexible modes of mathematics delivery involving new information and communication technology (ICT) at the university level is perhaps a reaction to the recent change in the objectives of education. Abstract algebra seems to be one area of mathematics virtually crying out for computer instructional support because of the…
A positivity-preserving, implicit defect-correction multigrid method for turbulent combustion
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wasserman, M.; Mor-Yossef, Y.; Greenberg, J. B.
2016-07-01
A novel, robust multigrid method for the simulation of turbulent and chemically reacting flows is developed. A survey of previous attempts at implementing multigrid for the problems at hand indicated extensive use of artificial stabilization to overcome numerical instability arising from non-linearity of turbulence and chemistry model source-terms, small-scale physics of combustion, and loss of positivity. These issues are addressed in the current work. The highly stiff Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) equations, coupled with turbulence and finite-rate chemical kinetics models, are integrated in time using the unconditionally positive-convergent (UPC) implicit method. The scheme is successfully extended in this work for use with chemical kinetics models, in a fully-coupled multigrid (FC-MG) framework. To tackle the degraded performance of multigrid methods for chemically reacting flows, two major modifications are introduced with respect to the basic, Full Approximation Storage (FAS) approach. First, a novel prolongation operator that is based on logarithmic variables is proposed to prevent loss of positivity due to coarse-grid corrections. Together with the extended UPC implicit scheme, the positivity-preserving prolongation operator guarantees unconditional positivity of turbulence quantities and species mass fractions throughout the multigrid cycle. Second, to improve the coarse-grid-correction obtained in localized regions of high chemical activity, a modified defect correction procedure is devised, and successfully applied for the first time to simulate turbulent, combusting flows. The proposed modifications to the standard multigrid algorithm create a well-rounded and robust numerical method that provides accelerated convergence, while unconditionally preserving the positivity of model equation variables. Numerical simulations of various flows involving premixed combustion demonstrate that the proposed MG method increases the efficiency by a factor of
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, Ming; Yao, JingTao
2004-04-01
The XML is a new standard for data representation and exchange on the Internet. There are studies on XML query languages as well as XML algebras in literature. However, attention has not been paid to research on XML algebras for data mining due to partially the fact that there is no widely accepted definition of XML mining tasks. This paper tries to examine the XML mining tasks and provide guidelines to design XML algebras for data mining. Some summarization and comparison have been done to existing XML algebras. We argue that by adding additional operators for mining tasks, XML algebras may work well for data mining with XML documents.
Inverse airfoil design procedure using a multigrid Navier-Stokes method
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Malone, J. B.; Swanson, R. C.
1991-01-01
The Modified Garabedian McFadden (MGM) design procedure was incorporated into an existing 2-D multigrid Navier-Stokes airfoil analysis method. The resulting design method is an iterative procedure based on a residual correction algorithm and permits the automated design of airfoil sections with prescribed surface pressure distributions. The new design method, Multigrid Modified Garabedian McFadden (MG-MGM), is demonstrated for several different transonic pressure distributions obtained from both symmetric and cambered airfoil shapes. The airfoil profiles generated with the MG-MGM code are compared to the original configurations to assess the capabilities of the inverse design method.
Vectorizable multigrid algorithms for transonic flow calculations. M.S. Thesis
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Melson, N. D.
1985-01-01
The analysis and incorporation into a multigrid scheme of several vectorizable algorithms are discussed. Von Neumann analyses of vertical line, horizontal line, and alternating direction ZEBRA algorithms were performed; and the results were used to predict their multigrid damping rates. The algorithms were then successfully implemented in a transonic conservative full-potential computer program. The convergence acceleration effect of multiple grids is shown and the convergence rates of the vectorizable algorithms are compared to the convergence rates of standard successive line overrelaxation (SLOR) algorithms.
A multigrid algorithm for the cell-centered finite difference scheme
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Ewing, Richard E.; Shen, Jian
1993-01-01
In this article, we discuss a non-variational V-cycle multigrid algorithm based on the cell-centered finite difference scheme for solving a second-order elliptic problem with discontinuous coefficients. Due to the poor approximation property of piecewise constant spaces and the non-variational nature of our scheme, one step of symmetric linear smoothing in our V-cycle multigrid scheme may fail to be a contraction. Again, because of the simple structure of the piecewise constant spaces, prolongation and restriction are trivial; we save significant computation time with very promising computational results.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Thompson, C. P.; Leaf, G. K.; Vanrosendale, J.
1991-01-01
An algorithm is described for the solution of the laminar, incompressible Navier-Stokes equations. The basic algorithm is a multigrid based on a robust, box-based smoothing step. Its most important feature is the incorporation of automatic, dynamic mesh refinement. This algorithm supports generalized simple domains. The program is based on a standard staggered-grid formulation of the Navier-Stokes equations for robustness and efficiency. Special grid transfer operators were introduced at grid interfaces in the multigrid algorithm to ensure discrete mass conservation. Results are presented for three models: the driven-cavity, a backward-facing step, and a sudden expansion/contraction.
Multigrid for the Galerkin least squares method in linear elasticity: The pure displacement problem
Yoo, Jaechil
1996-12-31
Franca and Stenberg developed several Galerkin least squares methods for the solution of the problem of linear elasticity. That work concerned itself only with the error estimates of the method. It did not address the related problem of finding effective methods for the solution of the associated linear systems. In this work, we prove the convergence of a multigrid (W-cycle) method. This multigrid is robust in that the convergence is uniform as the parameter, v, goes to 1/2 Computational experiments are included.
Verifying a Local Generic Solver in Coq
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hofmann, Martin; Karbyshev, Aleksandr; Seidl, Helmut
Fixpoint engines are the core components of program analysis tools and compilers. If these tools are to be trusted, special attention should be paid also to the correctness of such solvers. In this paper we consider the local generic fixpoint solver RLD which can be applied to constraint systems {x}sqsupseteq fx,{x}in V, over some lattice {D} where the right-hand sides f x are given as arbitrary functions implemented in some specification language. The verification of this algorithm is challenging, because it uses higher-order functions and relies on side effects to track variable dependences as they are encountered dynamically during fixpoint iterations. Here, we present a correctness proof of this algorithm which has been formalized by means of the interactive proof assistant Coq.
Aleph Field Solver Challenge Problem Results Summary.
Hooper, Russell; Moore, Stan Gerald
2015-01-01
Aleph models continuum electrostatic and steady and transient thermal fields using a finite-element method. Much work has gone into expanding the core solver capability to support enriched mod- eling consisting of multiple interacting fields, special boundary conditions and two-way interfacial coupling with particles modeled using Aleph's complementary particle-in-cell capability. This report provides quantitative evidence for correct implementation of Aleph's field solver via order- of-convergence assessments on a collection of problems of increasing complexity. It is intended to provide Aleph with a pedigree and to establish a basis for confidence in results for more challeng- ing problems important to Sandia's mission that Aleph was specifically designed to address.
Domain decomposition for the SPN solver MINOS
Jamelot, Erell; Baudron, Anne-Marie; Lautard, Jean-Jacques
2012-07-01
In this article we present a domain decomposition method for the mixed SPN equations, discretized with Raviart-Thomas-Nedelec finite elements. This domain decomposition is based on the iterative Schwarz algorithm with Robin interface conditions to handle communications. After having described this method, we give details on how to optimize the convergence. Finally, we give some numerical results computed in a realistic 3D domain. The computations are done with the MINOS solver of the APOLLO3 (R) code. (authors)
A perspective on unstructured grid flow solvers
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Venkatakrishnan, V.
1995-01-01
This survey paper assesses the status of compressible Euler and Navier-Stokes solvers on unstructured grids. Different spatial and temporal discretization options for steady and unsteady flows are discussed. The integration of these components into an overall framework to solve practical problems is addressed. Issues such as grid adaptation, higher order methods, hybrid discretizations and parallel computing are briefly discussed. Finally, some outstanding issues and future research directions are presented.
On Dunkl angular momenta algebra
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Feigin, Misha; Hakobyan, Tigran
2015-11-01
We consider the quantum angular momentum generators, deformed by means of the Dunkl operators. Together with the reflection operators they generate a subalgebra in the rational Cherednik algebra associated with a finite real reflection group. We find all the defining relations of the algebra, which appear to be quadratic, and we show that the algebra is of Poincaré-Birkhoff-Witt (PBW) type. We show that this algebra contains the angular part of the Calogero-Moser Hamiltonian and that together with constants it generates the centre of the algebra. We also consider the gl( N ) version of the subalge-bra of the rational Cherednik algebra and show that it is a non-homogeneous quadratic algebra of PBW type as well. In this case the central generator can be identified with the usual Calogero-Moser Hamiltonian associated with the Coxeter group in the harmonic confinement.
Algebraic connectivity and graph robustness.
Feddema, John Todd; Byrne, Raymond Harry; Abdallah, Chaouki T.
2009-07-01
Recent papers have used Fiedler's definition of algebraic connectivity to show that network robustness, as measured by node-connectivity and edge-connectivity, can be increased by increasing the algebraic connectivity of the network. By the definition of algebraic connectivity, the second smallest eigenvalue of the graph Laplacian is a lower bound on the node-connectivity. In this paper we show that for circular random lattice graphs and mesh graphs algebraic connectivity is a conservative lower bound, and that increases in algebraic connectivity actually correspond to a decrease in node-connectivity. This means that the networks are actually less robust with respect to node-connectivity as the algebraic connectivity increases. However, an increase in algebraic connectivity seems to correlate well with a decrease in the characteristic path length of these networks - which would result in quicker communication through the network. Applications of these results are then discussed for perimeter security.
MILAMIN 2 - Fast MATLAB FEM solver
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dabrowski, Marcin; Krotkiewski, Marcin; Schmid, Daniel W.
2013-04-01
MILAMIN is a free and efficient MATLAB-based two-dimensional FEM solver utilizing unstructured meshes [Dabrowski et al., G-cubed (2008)]. The code consists of steady-state thermal diffusion and incompressible Stokes flow solvers implemented in approximately 200 lines of native MATLAB code. The brevity makes the code easily customizable. An important quality of MILAMIN is speed - it can handle millions of nodes within minutes on one CPU core of a standard desktop computer, and is faster than many commercial solutions. The new MILAMIN 2 allows three-dimensional modeling. It is designed as a set of functional modules that can be used as building blocks for efficient FEM simulations using MATLAB. The utilities are largely implemented as native MATLAB functions. For performance critical parts we use MUTILS - a suite of compiled MEX functions optimized for shared memory multi-core computers. The most important features of MILAMIN 2 are: 1. Modular approach to defining, tracking, and discretizing the geometry of the model 2. Interfaces to external mesh generators (e.g., Triangle, Fade2d, T3D) and mesh utilities (e.g., element type conversion, fast point location, boundary extraction) 3. Efficient computation of the stiffness matrix for a wide range of element types, anisotropic materials and three-dimensional problems 4. Fast global matrix assembly using a dedicated MEX function 5. Automatic integration rules 6. Flexible prescription (spatial, temporal, and field functions) and efficient application of Dirichlet, Neuman, and periodic boundary conditions 7. Treatment of transient and non-linear problems 8. Various iterative and multi-level solution strategies 9. Post-processing tools (e.g., numerical integration) 10. Visualization primitives using MATLAB, and VTK export functions We provide a large number of examples that show how to implement a custom FEM solver using the MILAMIN 2 framework. The examples are MATLAB scripts of increasing complexity that address a given
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cavaglieri, Daniele; Bewley, Thomas; Mashayek, Ali
2015-11-01
We present a new code, Diablo 2.0, for the simulation of the incompressible NSE in channel and duct flows with strong grid stretching near walls. The code leverages the fractional step approach with a few twists. New low-storage IMEX (implicit-explicit) Runge-Kutta time-marching schemes are tested which are superior to the traditional and widely-used CN/RKW3 (Crank-Nicolson/Runge-Kutta-Wray) approach; the new schemes tested are L-stable in their implicit component, and offer improved overall order of accuracy and stability with, remarkably, similar computational cost and storage requirements. For duct flow simulations, our new code also introduces a new smoother for the multigrid solver for the pressure Poisson equation. The classic approach, involving alternating-direction zebra relaxation, is replaced by a new scheme, dubbed tweed relaxation, which achieves the same convergence rate with roughly half the computational cost. The code is then tested on the simulation of a shear flow instability in a duct, a classic problem in fluid mechanics which has been the object of extensive numerical modelling for its role as a canonical pathway to energetic turbulence in several fields of science and engineering.
Marquette, Ian
2013-07-15
We introduce the most general quartic Poisson algebra generated by a second and a fourth order integral of motion of a 2D superintegrable classical system. We obtain the corresponding quartic (associative) algebra for the quantum analog, extend Daskaloyannis construction obtained in context of quadratic algebras, and also obtain the realizations as deformed oscillator algebras for this quartic algebra. We obtain the Casimir operator and discuss how these realizations allow to obtain the finite-dimensional unitary irreducible representations of quartic algebras and obtain algebraically the degenerate energy spectrum of superintegrable systems. We apply the construction and the formula obtained for the structure function on a superintegrable system related to type I Laguerre exceptional orthogonal polynomials introduced recently.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dankova, T. S.; Rosensteel, G.
1998-10-01
Mean field theory has an unexpected group theoretic mathematical foundation. Instead of representation theory which applies to most group theoretic quantum models, Hartree-Fock and Hartree-Fock-Bogoliubov have been formulated in terms of coadjoint orbits for the groups U(n) and O(2n). The general theory of mean fields is formulated for an arbitrary Lie algebra L of fermion operators. The moment map provides the correspondence between the Hilbert space of microscopic wave functions and the dual space L^* of densities. The coadjoint orbits of the group in the dual space are phase spaces on which time-dependent mean field theory is equivalent to a classical Hamiltonian dynamical system. Indeed it forms a finite-dimensional Lax system. The mean field theories for the Elliott SU(3) and symplectic Sp(3,R) algebras are constructed explicitly in the coadjoint orbit framework.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Beigie, Darin
2014-01-01
Most people who are attracted to STEM-related fields are drawn not by a desire to take mathematics tests but to create things. The opportunity to create an algebra drawing gives students a sense of ownership and adventure that taps into the same sort of energy that leads a young person to get lost in reading a good book, building with Legos®,…
Vertex Algebras, Kac-Moody Algebras, and the Monster
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Borcherds, Richard E.
1986-05-01
It is known that the adjoint representation of any Kac-Moody algebra A can be identified with a subquotient of a certain Fock space representation constructed from the root lattice of A. I define a product on the whole of the Fock space that restricts to the Lie algebra product on this subquotient. This product (together with a infinite number of other products) is constructed using a generalization of vertex operators. I also construct an integral form for the universal enveloping algebra of any Kac-Moody algebra that can be used to define Kac-Moody groups over finite fields, some new irreducible integrable representations, and a sort of affinization of any Kac-Moody algebra. The ``Moonshine'' representation of the Monster constructed by Frenkel and others also has products like the ones constructed for Kac-Moody algebras, one of which extends the Griess product on the 196884-dimensional piece to the whole representation.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Palmkvist, Jakob
2014-01-01
We introduce an infinite-dimensional Lie superalgebra which is an extension of the U-duality Lie algebra of maximal supergravity in D dimensions, for 3 ⩽ D ⩽ 7. The level decomposition with respect to the U-duality Lie algebra gives exactly the tensor hierarchy of representations that arises in gauge deformations of the theory described by an embedding tensor, for all positive levels p. We prove that these representations are always contained in those coming from the associated Borcherds-Kac-Moody superalgebra, and we explain why some of the latter representations are not included in the tensor hierarchy. The most remarkable feature of our Lie superalgebra is that it does not admit a triangular decomposition like a (Borcherds-)Kac-Moody (super)algebra. Instead the Hodge duality relations between level p and D - 2 - p extend to negative p, relating the representations at the first two negative levels to the supersymmetry and closure constraints of the embedding tensor.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Cleaveland, Rance; Luettgen, Gerald; Natarajan, V.
1999-01-01
This paper surveys the semantic ramifications of extending traditional process algebras with notions of priority that allow for some transitions to be given precedence over others. These enriched formalisms allow one to model system features such as interrupts, prioritized choice, or real-time behavior. Approaches to priority in process algebras can be classified according to whether the induced notion of preemption on transitions is global or local and whether priorities are static or dynamic. Early work in the area concentrated on global pre-emption and static priorities and led to formalisms for modeling interrupts and aspects of real-time, such as maximal progress, in centralized computing environments. More recent research has investigated localized notions of pre-emption in which the distribution of systems is taken into account, as well as dynamic priority approaches, i.e., those where priority values may change as systems evolve. The latter allows one to model behavioral phenomena such as scheduling algorithms and also enables the efficient encoding of real-time semantics. Technically, this paper studies the different models of priorities by presenting extensions of Milner's Calculus of Communicating Systems (CCS) with static and dynamic priority as well as with notions of global and local pre- emption. In each case the operational semantics of CCS is modified appropriately, behavioral theories based on strong and weak bisimulation are given, and related approaches for different process-algebraic settings are discussed.
Palmkvist, Jakob
2014-01-15
We introduce an infinite-dimensional Lie superalgebra which is an extension of the U-duality Lie algebra of maximal supergravity in D dimensions, for 3 ⩽ D ⩽ 7. The level decomposition with respect to the U-duality Lie algebra gives exactly the tensor hierarchy of representations that arises in gauge deformations of the theory described by an embedding tensor, for all positive levels p. We prove that these representations are always contained in those coming from the associated Borcherds-Kac-Moody superalgebra, and we explain why some of the latter representations are not included in the tensor hierarchy. The most remarkable feature of our Lie superalgebra is that it does not admit a triangular decomposition like a (Borcherds-)Kac-Moody (super)algebra. Instead the Hodge duality relations between level p and D − 2 − p extend to negative p, relating the representations at the first two negative levels to the supersymmetry and closure constraints of the embedding tensor.
Eigensystem analysis of classical relaxation techniques with applications to multigrid analysis
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lomax, Harvard; Maksymiuk, Catherine
1987-01-01
Classical relaxation techniques are related to numerical methods for solution of ordinary differential equations. Eigensystems for Point-Jacobi, Gauss-Seidel, and SOR methods are presented. Solution techniques such as eigenvector annihilation, eigensystem mixing, and multigrid methods are examined with regard to the eigenstructure.
Fast Tree Multigrid Transport Application for the Simplified P{sub 3} Approximation
Kotiluoto, Petri
2001-07-15
Calculation of neutron flux in three-dimensions is a complex problem. A novel approach for solving complicated neutron transport problems is presented, based on the tree multigrid technique and the Simplified P{sub 3} (SP{sub 3}) approximation. Discretization of the second-order elliptic SP{sub 3} equations is performed for a regular three-dimensional octree grid by using an integrated scheme. The octree grid is generated directly from STL files, which can be exported from practically all computer-aided design-systems. Marshak-like boundary conditions are utilized. Iterative algorithms are constructed for SP{sub 3} approximation with simple coarse-to-fine prolongation and fine-to-coarse restriction operations of the tree multigrid technique. Numerical results are presented for a simple cylindrical homogeneous one-group test case and for a simplistic two-group pressurized water reactor pressure vessel fluence calculation benchmark. In the former homogeneous test case, a very good agreement with 1.6% maximal deviation compared with DORT results was obtained. In the latter test case, however, notable discrepancies were observed. These comparisons show that the tree multigrid technique is capable of solving three-dimensional neutron transport problems with a very low computational cost, but that the SP{sub 3} approximation itself is not satisfactory for all problems. However, the tree multigrid technique is a very promising new method for neutron transport.
A multigrid method for steady Euler equations on unstructured adaptive grids
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Riemslagh, Kris; Dick, Erik
1993-01-01
A flux-difference splitting type algorithm is formulated for the steady Euler equations on unstructured grids. The polynomial flux-difference splitting technique is used. A vertex-centered finite volume method is employed on a triangular mesh. The multigrid method is in defect-correction form. A relaxation procedure with a first order accurate inner iteration and a second-order correction performed only on the finest grid, is used. A multi-stage Jacobi relaxation method is employed as a smoother. Since the grid is unstructured a Jacobi type is chosen. The multi-staging is necessary to provide sufficient smoothing properties. The domain is discretized using a Delaunay triangular mesh generator. Three grids with more or less uniform distribution of nodes but with different resolution are generated by successive refinement of the coarsest grid. Nodes of coarser grids appear in the finer grids. The multigrid method is started on these grids. As soon as the residual drops below a threshold value, an adaptive refinement is started. The solution on the adaptively refined grid is accelerated by a multigrid procedure. The coarser multigrid grids are generated by successive coarsening through point removement. The adaption cycle is repeated a few times. Results are given for the transonic flow over a NACA-0012 airfoil.
A multigrid LU-SSOR scheme for approximate Newton iteration applied to the Euler equations
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Yoon, Seokkwan; Jameson, Antony
1986-01-01
A new efficient relaxation scheme in conjunction with a multigrid method is developed for the Euler equations. The LU SSOR scheme is based on a central difference scheme and does not need flux splitting for Newton iteration. Application to transonic flow shows that the new method surpasses the performance of the LU implicit scheme.
A fast multigrid algorithm for energy minimization under planar density constraints.
Ron, D.; Safro, I.; Brandt, A.; Mathematics and Computer Science; Weizmann Inst. of Science
2010-09-07
The two-dimensional layout optimization problem reinforced by the efficient space utilization demand has a wide spectrum of practical applications. Formulating the problem as a nonlinear minimization problem under planar equality and/or inequality density constraints, we present a linear time multigrid algorithm for solving a correction to this problem. The method is demonstrated in various graph drawing (visualization) instances.
A multigrid Newton-Krylov method for flux-limited radiation diffusion
Rider, W.J.; Knoll, D.A.; Olson, G.L.
1998-09-01
The authors focus on the integration of radiation diffusion including flux-limited diffusion coefficients. The nonlinear integration is accomplished with a Newton-Krylov method preconditioned with a multigrid Picard linearization of the governing equations. They investigate the efficiency of the linear and nonlinear iterative techniques.
Compactly Generated de Morgan Lattices, Basic Algebras and Effect Algebras
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Paseka, Jan; Riečanová, Zdenka
2010-12-01
We prove that a de Morgan lattice is compactly generated if and only if its order topology is compatible with a uniformity on L generated by some separating function family on L. Moreover, if L is complete then L is (o)-topological. Further, if a basic algebra L (hence lattice with sectional antitone involutions) is compactly generated then L is atomic. Thus all non-atomic Boolean algebras as well as non-atomic lattice effect algebras (including non-atomic MV-algebras and orthomodular lattices) are not compactly generated.
Locally finite dimensional Lie algebras
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hennig, Johanna
We prove that in a locally finite dimensional Lie algebra L, any maximal, locally solvable subalgebra is the stabilizer of a maximal, generalized flag in an integrable, faithful module over L. Then we prove two structure theorems for simple, locally finite dimensional Lie algebras over an algebraically closed field of characteristic p which give sufficient conditions for the algebras to be of the form [K(R, *), K( R, *)] / (Z(R) ∩ [ K(R, *), K(R, *)]) for a simple, locally finite dimensional associative algebra R with involution *. Lastly, we explore the noncommutative geometry of locally simple representations of the diagonal locally finite Lie algebras sl(ninfinity), o( ninfinity), and sp(n infinity).
Quantum computation using geometric algebra
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Matzke, Douglas James
This dissertation reports that arbitrary Boolean logic equations and operators can be represented in geometric algebra as linear equations composed entirely of orthonormal vectors using only addition and multiplication Geometric algebra is a topologically based algebraic system that naturally incorporates the inner and anticommutative outer products into a real valued geometric product, yet does not rely on complex numbers or matrices. A series of custom tools was designed and built to simplify geometric algebra expressions into a standard sum of products form, and automate the anticommutative geometric product and operations. Using this infrastructure, quantum bits (qubits), quantum registers and EPR-bits (ebits) are expressed symmetrically as geometric algebra expressions. Many known quantum computing gates, measurement operators, and especially the Bell/magic operators are also expressed as geometric products. These results demonstrate that geometric algebra can naturally and faithfully represent the central concepts, objects, and operators necessary for quantum computing, and can facilitate the design and construction of quantum computing tools.
Verburgt, Lukas M
2016-01-01
This paper provides a detailed account of the period of the complex history of British algebra and geometry between the publication of George Peacock's Treatise on Algebra in 1830 and William Rowan Hamilton's paper on quaternions of 1843. During these years, Duncan Farquharson Gregory and William Walton published several contributions on 'algebraical geometry' and 'geometrical algebra' in the Cambridge Mathematical Journal. These contributions enabled them not only to generalize Peacock's symbolical algebra on the basis of geometrical considerations, but also to initiate the attempts to question the status of Euclidean space as the arbiter of valid geometrical interpretations. At the same time, Gregory and Walton were bound by the limits of symbolical algebra that they themselves made explicit; their work was not and could not be the 'abstract algebra' and 'abstract geometry' of figures such as Hamilton and Cayley. The central argument of the paper is that an understanding of the contributions to 'algebraical geometry' and 'geometrical algebra' of the second generation of 'scientific' symbolical algebraists is essential for a satisfactory explanation of the radical transition from symbolical to abstract algebra that took place in British mathematics in the 1830s-1840s. PMID:26806075
On the cohomology of Leibniz conformal algebras
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, Jiao
2015-04-01
We construct a new cohomology complex of Leibniz conformal algebras with coefficients in a representation instead of a module. The low-dimensional cohomology groups of this complex are computed. Meanwhile, we construct a Leibniz algebra from a Leibniz conformal algebra and prove that the category of Leibniz conformal algebras is equivalent to the category of equivalence classes of formal distribution Leibniz algebras.
Assessing Algebraic Solving Ability: A Theoretical Framework
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Lian, Lim Hooi; Yew, Wun Thiam
2012-01-01
Algebraic solving ability had been discussed by many educators and researchers. There exists no definite definition for algebraic solving ability as it can be viewed from different perspectives. In this paper, the nature of algebraic solving ability in terms of algebraic processes that demonstrate the ability in solving algebraic problem is…
Approximate Riemann solvers for the Godunov SPH (GSPH)
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Puri, Kunal; Ramachandran, Prabhu
2014-08-01
The Godunov Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics (GSPH) method is coupled with non-iterative, approximate Riemann solvers for solutions to the compressible Euler equations. The use of approximate solvers avoids the expensive solution of the non-linear Riemann problem for every interacting particle pair, as required by GSPH. In addition, we establish an equivalence between the dissipative terms of GSPH and the signal based SPH artificial viscosity, under the restriction of a class of approximate Riemann solvers. This equivalence is used to explain the anomalous “wall heating” experienced by GSPH and we provide some suggestions to overcome it. Numerical tests in one and two dimensions are used to validate the proposed Riemann solvers. A general SPH pairing instability is observed for two-dimensional problems when using unequal mass particles. In general, Ducowicz Roe's and HLLC approximate Riemann solvers are found to be suitable replacements for the iterative Riemann solver in the original GSPH scheme.
Evaluating the performance of the two-phase flow solver interFoam
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Deshpande, Suraj S.; Anumolu, Lakshman; Trujillo, Mario F.
2012-01-01
The performance of the open source multiphase flow solver, interFoam, is evaluated in this work. The solver is based on a modified volume of fluid (VoF) approach, which incorporates an interfacial compression flux term to mitigate the effects of numerical smearing of the interface. It forms a part of the C + + libraries and utilities of OpenFOAM and is gaining popularity in the multiphase flow research community. However, to the best of our knowledge, the evaluation of this solver is confined to the validation tests of specific interest to the users of the code and the extent of its applicability to a wide range of multiphase flow situations remains to be explored. In this work, we have performed a thorough investigation of the solver performance using a variety of verification and validation test cases, which include (i) verification tests for pure advection (kinematics), (ii) dynamics in the high Weber number limit and (iii) dynamics of surface tension-dominated flows. With respect to (i), the kinematics tests show that the performance of interFoam is generally comparable with the recent algebraic VoF algorithms; however, it is noticeably worse than the geometric reconstruction schemes. For (ii), the simulations of inertia-dominated flows with large density ratios {\\sim }\\mathscr {O}(10^3) yielded excellent agreement with analytical and experimental results. In regime (iii), where surface tension is important, consistency of pressure-surface tension formulation and accuracy of curvature are important, as established by Francois et al (2006 J. Comput. Phys. 213 141-73). Several verification tests were performed along these lines and the main findings are: (a) the algorithm of interFoam ensures a consistent formulation of pressure and surface tension; (b) the curvatures computed by the solver converge to a value slightly (10%) different from the analytical value and a scope for improvement exists in this respect. To reduce the disruptive effects of spurious
Tezaur, I. K.; Perego, M.; Salinger, A. G.; Tuminaro, R. S.; Price, S. F.
2015-04-27
This paper describes a new parallel, scalable and robust finite element based solver for the first-order Stokes momentum balance equations for ice flow. The solver, known as Albany/FELIX, is constructed using the component-based approach to building application codes, in which mature, modular libraries developed as a part of the Trilinos project are combined using abstract interfaces and template-based generic programming, resulting in a final code with access to dozens of algorithmic and advanced analysis capabilities. Following an overview of the relevant partial differential equations and boundary conditions, the numerical methods chosen to discretize the ice flow equations are described, alongmore » with their implementation. The results of several verification studies of the model accuracy are presented using (1) new test cases for simplified two-dimensional (2-D) versions of the governing equations derived using the method of manufactured solutions, and (2) canonical ice sheet modeling benchmarks. Model accuracy and convergence with respect to mesh resolution are then studied on problems involving a realistic Greenland ice sheet geometry discretized using hexahedral and tetrahedral meshes. Also explored as a part of this study is the effect of vertical mesh resolution on the solution accuracy and solver performance. The robustness and scalability of our solver on these problems is demonstrated. Lastly, we show that good scalability can be achieved by preconditioning the iterative linear solver using a new algebraic multilevel preconditioner, constructed based on the idea of semi-coarsening.« less
Tezaur, I. K.; Perego, M.; Salinger, A. G.; Tuminaro, R. S.; Price, S. F.
2015-04-27
This paper describes a new parallel, scalable and robust finite element based solver for the first-order Stokes momentum balance equations for ice flow. The solver, known as Albany/FELIX, is constructed using the component-based approach to building application codes, in which mature, modular libraries developed as a part of the Trilinos project are combined using abstract interfaces and template-based generic programming, resulting in a final code with access to dozens of algorithmic and advanced analysis capabilities. Following an overview of the relevant partial differential equations and boundary conditions, the numerical methods chosen to discretize the ice flow equations are described, along with their implementation. The results of several verification studies of the model accuracy are presented using (1) new test cases for simplified two-dimensional (2-D) versions of the governing equations derived using the method of manufactured solutions, and (2) canonical ice sheet modeling benchmarks. Model accuracy and convergence with respect to mesh resolution are then studied on problems involving a realistic Greenland ice sheet geometry discretized using hexahedral and tetrahedral meshes. Also explored as a part of this study is the effect of vertical mesh resolution on the solution accuracy and solver performance. The robustness and scalability of our solver on these problems is demonstrated. Lastly, we show that good scalability can be achieved by preconditioning the iterative linear solver using a new algebraic multilevel preconditioner, constructed based on the idea of semi-coarsening.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tezaur, I. K.; Perego, M.; Salinger, A. G.; Tuminaro, R. S.; Price, S. F.
2015-04-01
This paper describes a new parallel, scalable and robust finite element based solver for the first-order Stokes momentum balance equations for ice flow. The solver, known as Albany/FELIX, is constructed using the component-based approach to building application codes, in which mature, modular libraries developed as a part of the Trilinos project are combined using abstract interfaces and template-based generic programming, resulting in a final code with access to dozens of algorithmic and advanced analysis capabilities. Following an overview of the relevant partial differential equations and boundary conditions, the numerical methods chosen to discretize the ice flow equations are described, along with their implementation. The results of several verification studies of the model accuracy are presented using (1) new test cases for simplified two-dimensional (2-D) versions of the governing equations derived using the method of manufactured solutions, and (2) canonical ice sheet modeling benchmarks. Model accuracy and convergence with respect to mesh resolution are then studied on problems involving a realistic Greenland ice sheet geometry discretized using hexahedral and tetrahedral meshes. Also explored as a part of this study is the effect of vertical mesh resolution on the solution accuracy and solver performance. The robustness and scalability of our solver on these problems is demonstrated. Lastly, we show that good scalability can be achieved by preconditioning the iterative linear solver using a new algebraic multilevel preconditioner, constructed based on the idea of semi-coarsening.
DPS--a computerised diagnostic problem solver.
Bartos, P; Gyárfas, F; Popper, M
1982-01-01
The paper contains a short description of the DPS system which is a computerized diagnostic problem solver. The system is under development of the Research Institute of Medical Bionics in Bratislava, Czechoslovakia. Its underlying philosophy yields from viewing the diagnostic process as process of cognitive problem solving. The implementation of the system is based on the methods of Artificial Intelligence and utilisation of production systems and frame theory should be noted in this context. Finally a list of program modules and their characterisation is presented. PMID:6811229
Updates to the NEQAIR Radiation Solver
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Cruden, Brett A.; Brandis, Aaron M.
2014-01-01
The NEQAIR code is one of the original heritage solvers for radiative heating prediction in aerothermal environments, and is still used today for mission design purposes. This paper discusses the implementation of the first major revision to the NEQAIR code in the last five years, NEQAIR v14.0. The most notable features of NEQAIR v14.0 are the parallelization of the radiation computation, reducing runtimes by about 30×, and the inclusion of mid-wave CO2 infrared radiation.
Input-output-controlled nonlinear equation solvers
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Padovan, Joseph
1988-01-01
To upgrade the efficiency and stability of the successive substitution (SS) and Newton-Raphson (NR) schemes, the concept of input-output-controlled solvers (IOCS) is introduced. By employing the formal properties of the constrained version of the SS and NR schemes, the IOCS algorithm can handle indefiniteness of the system Jacobian, can maintain iterate monotonicity, and provide for separate control of load incrementation and iterate excursions, as well as having other features. To illustrate the algorithmic properties, the results for several benchmark examples are presented. These define the associated numerical efficiency and stability of the IOCS.
Introduction to COFFE: The Next-Generation HPCMP CREATE-AV CFD Solver
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Glasby, Ryan S.; Erwin, J. Taylor; Stefanski, Douglas L.; Allmaras, Steven R.; Galbraith, Marshall C.; Anderson, W. Kyle; Nichols, Robert H.
2016-01-01
HPCMP CREATE-AV Conservative Field Finite Element (COFFE) is a modular, extensible, robust numerical solver for the Navier-Stokes equations that invokes modularity and extensibility from its first principles. COFFE implores a flexible, class-based hierarchy that provides a modular approach consisting of discretization, physics, parallelization, and linear algebra components. These components are developed with modern software engineering principles to ensure ease of uptake from a user's or developer's perspective. The Streamwise Upwind/Petrov-Galerkin (SU/PG) method is utilized to discretize the compressible Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) equations tightly coupled with a variety of turbulence models. The mathematics and the philosophy of the methodology that makes up COFFE are presented.
Nonlinear Solver Approaches for the Diffusive Wave Approximation to the Shallow Water Equations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Collier, N.; Knepley, M.
2015-12-01
The diffusive wave approximation to the shallow water equations (DSW) is a doubly-degenerate, nonlinear, parabolic partial differential equation used to model overland flows. Despite its challenges, the DSW equation has been extensively used to model the overland flow component of various integrated surface/subsurface models. The equation's complications become increasingly problematic when ponding occurs, a feature which becomes pervasive when solving on large domains with realistic terrain. In this talk I discuss the various forms and regularizations of the DSW equation and highlight their effect on the solvability of the nonlinear system. In addition to this analysis, I present results of a numerical study which tests the applicability of a class of composable nonlinear algebraic solvers recently added to the Portable, Extensible, Toolkit for Scientific Computation (PETSc).
Improving the energy efficiency of sparse linear system solvers on multicore and manycore systems.
Anzt, H; Quintana-Ortí, E S
2014-06-28
While most recent breakthroughs in scientific research rely on complex simulations carried out in large-scale supercomputers, the power draft and energy spent for this purpose is increasingly becoming a limiting factor to this trend. In this paper, we provide an overview of the current status in energy-efficient scientific computing by reviewing different technologies used to monitor power draft as well as power- and energy-saving mechanisms available in commodity hardware. For the particular domain of sparse linear algebra, we analyse the energy efficiency of a broad collection of hardware architectures and investigate how algorithmic and implementation modifications can improve the energy performance of sparse linear system solvers, without negatively impacting their performance. PMID:24842036
Implementation of Advanced Two Equation Turbulence Models in the USM3D Unstructured Flow Solver
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Wang, Qun-Zhen; Massey, Steven J.; Abdol-Hamid, Khaled S.
2000-01-01
USM3D is a widely-used unstructured flow solver for simulating inviscid and viscous flows over complex geometries. The current version (version 5.0) of USM3D, however, does not have advanced turbulence models to accurately simulate complicated flow. We have implemented two modified versions of the original Jones and Launder k-epsilon "two-equation" turbulence model and the Girimaji algebraic Reynolds stress model in USM3D. Tests have been conducted for three flat plate boundary layer cases, a RAE2822 airfoil and an ONERA M6 wing. The results are compared with those from direct numerical simulation, empirical formulae, theoretical results, and the existing Spalart-Allmaras one-equation model.
Navier-Stokes calculations on multi-element airfoils using a chimera-based solver
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Jasper, Donald W.; Agrawal, Shreekant; Robinson, Brian A.
1993-01-01
A study of Navier-Stokes calculations of flows about multielement airfoils using a chimera grid approach is presented. The chimera approach utilizes structured, overlapped grids which allow great flexibility of grid arrangement and simplifies grid generation. Calculations are made for two-, three-, and four-element airfoils, and modeling of the effect of gap distance between elements is demonstrated for a two element case. Solutions are obtained using the thin-layer form of the Reynolds averaged Navier-Stokes equations with turbulence closure provided by the Baldwin-Lomax algebraic model or the Baldwin-Barth one equation model. The Baldwin-Barth turbulence model is shown to provide better agreement with experimental data and to dramatically improve convergence rates for some cases. Recently developed, improved farfield boundary conditions are incorporated into the solver for greater efficiency. Computed results show good comparison with experimental data which include aerodynamic forces, surface pressures, and boundary layer velocity profiles.
A mathematical basis for automated structured grid generation with close coupling to the flow solver
Barnette, D.W.
1998-02-01
The first two truncation error terms resulting from finite differencing the convection terms in the two-dimensional Navier-Stokes equations are examined for the purpose of constructing two-dimensional grid generation schemes. These schemes are constructed such that the resulting grid distributions drive the error terms to zero. Two sets of equations result, one for each error term, that show promise in generating grids that provide more accurate flow solutions and possibly faster convergence. One set results in an algebraic scheme that drives the first truncation term to zero, and the other a hyperbolic scheme that drives the second term to zero. Also discussed is the possibility of using the schemes in sequentially constructing a grid in an iterative algorithm involving the flow solver. In essence, the process is envisioned to generate not only a flow field solution but the grid as well, rendering the approach a hands-off method for grid generation
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Novotna, Jarmila; Hoch, Maureen
2008-01-01
Many students have difficulties with basic algebraic concepts at high school and at university. In this paper two levels of algebraic structure sense are defined: for high school algebra and for university algebra. We suggest that high school algebra structure sense components are sub-components of some university algebra structure sense…