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Sample records for algeria egypt libya

  1. Libya, Algeria and Egypt: crude oil potential from known deposits

    SciTech Connect

    Dietzman, W.D.; Rafidi, N.R.; Ross, T.A.

    1982-04-01

    An analysis is presented of the discovered crude oil resources, reserves, and estimated annual production from known fields of the Republics of Libya, Algeria, and Egypt. Proved reserves are defined as the remaining producible oil as of a specified date under operating practice in effect at that time and include estimated recoverable oil in undrilled portions of a given structure or structures. Also included in the proved reserve category are the estimated indicated additional volumes of recoverable oil from the entire oil reservoir where fluid injection programs have been started in a portion, or portions, of the reservoir. The indicated additional reserves (probable reserves) reported herein are the volumes of crude oil that might be obtained with the installation of secondary recovery or pressure maintenance operations in reservoirs where none have been previously installed. The sum of cumulative production, proved reserves, and probable reserves is defined as the ultimate oil recovery from known deposits; and resources are defined as the original oil in place (OOIP). An assessment was made of the availability of crude oil under three assumed sustained production rates for each country; an assessment was also made of each country's capability of sustaining production at, or near, the 1980 rates assuming different limiting reserve to production ratios. Also included is an estimate of the potential maximum producing capability from known deposits that might be obtained from known accumulations under certain assumptions, using a simple time series approach. The theoretical maximum oil production capability from known fields at any time is the maximum deliverability rate assuming there are no equipment, investment, market, or political constraints.

  2. Petroleum resources of Libya, Algeria, and Egypt. Foreign energy supply assessment series

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-03-01

    Part 1 of the report is a synopsis of each country's location, its exploration and development history, crude oil field production history, and markets. Part 2 discusses the production and reserve characteristics of the oil fields and status of the known crude oil resources. Part 3 provides an assessment of the ultimately recoverable crude oil and the possible future rate of availability of the crude oil. Part 4 discusses the status of the known and undiscovered natural gas resources, production, and markets. Part 5 is an overview of the petroleum geology of the three countries and the physical characteristics of their crude oils. Appendix A presents an annual resume of historical production by field and by basin for Libya; Appendix B shows the historical production by field and by basin for Algeria; Appendix C shows the historical production by field and by basin for Egypt; Appendix D provides production tables for each country. Data presented in Appendixes A through D are derived mostly from the April 1982 publication, Libya, Algeria and Egypt-Crude Oil Potential From Known Deposits DOE/EIA-0338, by William D. Dietzman, Naim R. Rafidi, and Thomas A. Ross. Appendix E is a geologic timetable.

  3. Palynology and Stratigraphy of the Nubian Sandstone in Libya and Comparison with Egypt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tekbali, Ali; Hlal, Osama

    2013-04-01

    The so-called "Nubian Sandstone" outcrops along a wide area from Algeria to the Red Sea, forming two regressive phases. The lower phase is represented in Egypt by the Basal Clastic Unit, the Desert Rose Unit, the Abu Ballas Formation and the Matruh Shale. In Libya it is represented by the Mesak Sandstone, Sarir Sandstone, Cabao Sandstone and Kiklah Formation. In both countries, these successions are covered by a carbonate sequence, resulting from the Tethyan transgression during the Cenomanian. In Egypt however, the upper regressive phase is represented by the Taref Sandstone which was deposited during a brief period of active progradation, following the Tethyan incursion. This is not observed in Libya. Comparison of palynological studies in Libya with those documented by several authors in Egypt reveals that the "Nubian" facies in Libya were deposited before equivalent facies in Egypt. The Basal Clastic Unit, dated as Hautrauvian-Barremian, may be equivalent, at least to a part of the Neocomian Cabao Sandstone in NW Libya. Jarmah Member of the Mesak Formation in Libya was dated as Berriasian on the basis of Pilosisporites and Trilobosporites. This makes it older than any "Nubian" unit in Egypt. The Matruh Shale was assigned to the Aptian on the basis of Tricolpites, and the Abu Balls Formation 34 as Aptian-Albian on the basis of Tricolpites and Rousisporites radiatus. Whereas, there is no equivalent to the Aptian in NW Libya, the Aptian-Albian of Egypt is similar to Zone 1 of the Kiklah Formation and As Sarir Sandstone, which were dated as early Albian on the basis of Afropollis spp., and Perotriletes pannuceus, an Albian element not recorded in Egypt. The Plant Beds in southwestern Egypt were dated as Cenomanian on the basis of advanced angiosperm pollen. In Libya, equivalent bodies were considered Vraconian, representing the uppermost Albian, because it lacks Cenomanian pollen (e.g. Tricolpites mutabilis). Comparison of local sea-level changes with global sea

  4. Selected Bibliography of Educational Materials: Algeria, Libya, Morocco, Tunisia. Volume 6, Number 2, 1972.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Azzouz, Azzedine; And Others

    Annotations of articles, written in English, provide the content for an annotated bibliography of educational materials written in French useful to those with an interest in North Africa. Sections on Algeria, Libya, Morocco, and Tunisia cover topics such as the philosophy and theory of education, educational organization, adult education, teacher…

  5. Selected Bibliography of Educational Materials: Maghreb, Algeria, Libya, Morocco, Tunisia. Vol. 10, No. 4, 1976.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Azzouz, Azzedine; And Others

    Ninety-one English language annotations are presented of newspaper articles and government publications about education in Algeria, Libya, Morocco, and Tunisia. Most of the entries were published during the period October-December 1976. Organized by country, the references cover topics of philosophy and theory of education, teacher training,…

  6. Selected Bibliography of Educational Materials: Algeria, Libya, Morocco, Tunisia. Volume 8, Number 1, 1974.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Azzouz, Azzedine; And Others

    This annotated bibliography contains 100 English-language annotations of newspapers and government publications covering educational topics of interest to North Africans. The majority of the items cited were published in 1974. Citations are categorized by country: Algeria, Libya, Morocco, and Tunisia. Within these major categories are subtopics…

  7. Selected Bibliography of Educational Materials: Algeria, Libya, Morocco, Tunisia. Vol. 4 No. 3, 1970.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Azzouz, Azzedine, Comp.; And Others

    This report, part of a series of educational bibliographies from the Maghreb countries (Algeria, Morocco, and Tunisia) and Libya, consists of excerpts from periodicals published in those countries. Each entry is marked to indicate the particular country. The articles are organized under 13 major subjects that include: the structure of educational…

  8. Selected Bibliography of Educational Materials: Algeria, Libya, Morocco, Tunisia. Vol. 1 No. 3 1967.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Azzouz, Azzedine; And Others

    This annotated compilation of 108 educational publications in Arabic, French, and English includes texts and data on elementary and secondary school curricula in the Maghreb countries (Tunisia, Morroco, Algeria, and Libya). Categories in this bibliography include--(1) Philosophy and Theory of Education, (2) Administration of the Educational…

  9. Selected Bibliography of Educational Materials: Maghreb, Algeria, Libya, Morocco, Tunisia. Vol. 9, No. 3, 1975.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Azzouz, Azzedine, Comp.; And Others

    The bibliography presents 91 English language annotations of newspaper articles, journals, and government publications about education in Algeria, Libya, Morocco, and Tunisia. Although the title also includes Maghreb, this issue does not contain any annotations for that country. All articles were published during the period July-September 1975.…

  10. Selected Bibliography of Materials; Algeria, Libya, Morocco, Tunisia. Volume 1, Number 2, 1967.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Azzouz, Azzedine; And Others

    A bibliography with abstracts of 106 items from books and articles covers materials on education in the Maghreb countries of Tunisia, Libya, Algeria, and Morocco. Special emphasis is given to the two problems besetting the area's educational system: illiteracy and multilingualism. The entries cover philosophy and theory of education,…

  11. Mesozoic evolution of northeast African shelf margin, Libya and Egypt

    SciTech Connect

    Aadland, R.K.; Schamel, S.

    1989-03-01

    The present tectonic features of the northeast African shelf margin between the Nile delta and the Gulf of Sirte are products of (1) precursory late Paleozoic basement arches, (2) early Mesozoic rifting and plate separation, and (3) Late Cretaceous structural inversion. The 250 km-wide and highly differentiated Mesozoic passive margin in the Western Desert region of Egypt is developed above a broad northwest-trending Late Carboniferous basement arch. In northeastern Libya, in contrast, the passive margin is restricted to just the northernmost Cyrenaica platform, where subsidence was extremely rapid in the Jurassic and Early Cretaceous. The boundary between the Western Desert basin and the Cyrenaica platform is controlled by the western flank of the basement arch. In the middle Cretaceous (100-90 Ma), subsidence accelerated over large areas of the Western desert, further enhancing a pattern of east-west-trending subbasins. This phase of rapid subsidence was abruptly ended about 80 Ma by the onset of structural inversion that uplifted the northern Cyrenaica shelf margin and further differentiated the Western Desert subbasin along a northeasterly trend.

  12. The path towards universal health coverage in the Arab uprising countries Tunisia, Egypt, Libya, and Yemen.

    PubMed

    Saleh, Shadi S; Alameddine, Mohamad S; Natafgi, Nabil M; Mataria, Awad; Sabri, Belgacem; Nasher, Jamal; Zeiton, Moez; Ahmad, Shaimaa; Siddiqi, Sameen

    2014-01-25

    The constitutions of many countries in the Arab world clearly highlight the role of governments in guaranteeing provision of health care as a right for all citizens. However, citizens still have inequitable health-care systems. One component of such inequity relates to restricted financial access to health-care services. The recent uprisings in the Arab world, commonly referred to as the Arab spring, created a sociopolitical momentum that should be used to achieve universal health coverage (UHC). At present, many countries of the Arab spring are considering health coverage as a priority in dialogues for new constitutions and national policy agendas. UHC is also the focus of advocacy campaigns of a number of non-governmental organisations and media outlets. As part of the health in the Arab world Series in The Lancet, this report has three overarching objectives. First, we present selected experiences of other countries that had similar social and political changes, and how these events affected their path towards UHC. Second, we present a brief overview of the development of health-care systems in the Arab world with regard to health-care coverage and financing, with a focus on Egypt, Libya, Tunisia, and Yemen. Third, we aim to integrate historical lessons with present contexts in a roadmap for action that addresses the challenges and opportunities for progression towards UHC. PMID:24452045

  13. Situation Report--Algeria, Ecuador, New Zealand, Peru, Rhodesia, St. Lucia, and U.A.R. (Egypt).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Planned Parenthood Federation, London (England).

    Data relating to population and family planning in seven foreign countries are presented in these situation reports. Countries included are Algeria, Ecuador, New Zealand, Peru, Rhodesia, St. Lucia and U. A. R. (Egypt). Information is provided, where appropriate and available, under two topics, general background and family planning situation.…

  14. Algeria

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1983-07-01

    Algeria's hydrocarbon industry accounts for 98% of the nation's export earnings, 60-70% of the government's revenues, and 33% of the gross domestic product. Although oil production has declined, it will be replaced by production from Algeria's gas reserves, which rank fourth largest in the world. Official estimates put associated gas reserves at 20 trillion CF and nonassociated reserves at 99.57 TCF. By indexing the price of gas to the price of oil, Algeria plans to receive more realistic revenues for its gas exports. International trade is not the only outlet foreseen for Algerian reserves: by the year 2000, 77% of the gas output will be consumed domestically as the contribution of gas to overall energy requirements grows from 44% in 1979 to 60% in 1990, and the level of energy consumed triples during the same period, rising to 42 million tons/yr of oil equivalent.

  15. Algeria.

    PubMed

    1988-11-01

    The 2nd largest state in Africa, the Democratic and Popular Republic of Algeria is in the Northwest region of Africa along the Mediterranean. 91% of the population of 23 million are situated along the Mediterranean. The government of Algeria parallels the government of the United States in structure containing an executive, legislative and judicial branch and based on a constitution. The roles of the government are discussed as are political conditions and the founding history of the present government. Also discussed is the Algerian defense and foreign relations. The majority of Algerians are Muslim and of Arab, Berber or Arab-Berber stock. The Berbers are the indigenous people of Algeria. European influence, particularly French, is still prevalent however. Natural resources include oil, natural gas, iron ore and uranium, and the most prevalent industries are involved with the production and processing of these resources. While Algeria has made great inroads in the areas of health and education, it still faces a growing problem: housing. Conditions for travel, i.e. transportation, communication, and health, are favorable. PMID:12178069

  16. Egypt.

    PubMed

    1987-12-01

    Attention in this discussion of Egypt is directed to the following: geography; the people; history; government and political conditions; the economy; defense; foreign relations; and relations between Egypt and the US. The population totaled 50.5 million in 1986 with an annual growth rate of 2.8%. The infant mortality rate is 102/1000 (1986), and life expectancy is 58.3 years. Located in the northeastern corner of Africa, Egypt has a land area of about 1 million square kilometers and is bounded by the Mediterranean Sea, Libya, Sudan, the Red Sea, the Gulf of Aqaba, and Israel. Egypt is the most populous country in the Arab world. Egyptians are a fairly homogenous people of Hamitic origin. Mediterranean and Arab influences appear in the north, and there is some mixing in the south with the Nubians of northern Sudan. Egypt has been a unified state for over 5000 years, and archeological evidence indicates that a developed Egyptian society has existed for considerably longer. The constitution of Egypt provides for a strong executive with authority vested in an elected president who can appoint 1 or more vice presidents, a prime minister, and a cabinet. Egypt's legislative body has 458 members -- 448 popularly elected and 10 appointed by the president. Power is concentrated in the hands of the president and the National Democratic Party's majority in the People's Assembly, but opposition parties organize, publish their views, and represent their followers at various levels in the political system. The process of gradual political liberalization begun by Sadat has continued under Mubarak. In fiscal year 1987 the gross domestic product (GDP) reached about US$30 billion. Agriculture and services each contribute about 1/3 of GDP; the remainder comes from industry, petroleum, mining, electricity, and construction. At this time, the Egyptian economy faces several challenges. In 1986 the government of Egypt initiated a major review of economic policy and initiated an economic

  17. Mesozoic evolution of the northeast African shelf margin, Libya and Egypt

    SciTech Connect

    Aadland, R.K.; Schamel, S.

    1988-08-01

    The present tectonic features of the northeast African shelf margin between the Nile delta and the Gulf of Sirte are products of (1) precursory late Paleozoic basement arches, (2) early Mesozoic rifting and plate separation, and (3) Late Cretaceous structural inversion. Isopach and structural maps, cross sections, and sediment accumulation (geohistory) curves constructed from 89 wells in the Western Desert and 27 wells in northeastern Libya depict the structural and stratigraphic development of the northeast African shelf margin.

  18. Work-Based Learning Programmes for Young People in the Mediterranean Region: Algeria, Egypt, Israel, Jordan, Lebanon, Morocco, the Occupied Palestinian Territory, Syria, Tunisia and Turkey. Comparative Analyses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sweet, Richard

    2009-01-01

    This report examines programmes for youth that combine learning in classrooms with participation in work in 10 Mediterranean countries: Algeria, Egypt, Israel, Jordan, Lebanon, Morocco, the Occupied Palestinian Territory, Syria, Tunisia and Turkey. It is one element, together with the development of a network of policymakers and experts from the…

  19. Total petroleum systems of the Trias/Ghadames Province, Algeria, Tunisia, and Libya; the Tanezzuft-Oued Mya, Tanezzuft-Melrhir, and Tanezzuft-Ghadames

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Klett, T.R.

    2000-01-01

    Undiscovered conventional oil and gas resources were assessed within total petroleum systems of the Trias/Ghadames Province (2054) as part of the U.S. Geological Survey World Petroleum Assessment 2000. The Trias/Ghadames Province is in eastern Algeria, southern Tunisia, and westernmost Libya. The province and its total petroleum systems generally coincide with the Triassic Basin. The province includes the Oued Mya Basin, Melrhir Basin, and Ghadames (Berkine) Basin. Although several total petroleum systems may exist within each of these basins, only three ?composite? total petroleum systems were identified. Each total petroleum system occurs in a separate basin, and each comprises a single assessment unit. The main source rocks are the Silurian Tanezzuft Formation (or lateral equivalents) and Middle to Upper Devonian mudstone. Maturation history and the major migration pathways from source to reservoir are unique to each basin. The total petroleum systems were named after the oldest major source rock and the basin in which it resides. The estimated means of the undiscovered conventional petroleum volumes in total petroleum systems of the Trias/Ghadames Province are as follows: [MMBO, million barrels of oil; BCFG, billion cubic feet of gas; MMBNGL, million barrels of natural gas liquids] Total Petroleum System MMBO BCFG MMBNGL Tanezzuft-Oued Mya 830 2,341 110 Tanezzuft-Melrhir 1,875 4,887 269 Tanezzuft-Ghadames 4,461 12,035 908

  20. The transboundary non-renewable Nubian Aquifer System of Chad, Egypt, Libya and Sudan: classical groundwater questions and parsimonious hydrogeologic analysis and modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voss, Clifford I.; Soliman, Safaa M.

    2014-03-01

    Parsimonious groundwater modeling provides insight into hydrogeologic functioning of the Nubian Aquifer System (NAS), the world's largest non-renewable groundwater system (belonging to Chad, Egypt, Libya, and Sudan). Classical groundwater-resource issues exist (magnitude and lateral extent of drawdown near pumping centers) with joint international management questions regarding transboundary drawdown. Much of NAS is thick, containing a large volume of high-quality groundwater, but receives insignificant recharge, so water-resource availability is time-limited. Informative aquifer data are lacking regarding large-scale response, providing only local-scale information near pumps. Proxy data provide primary underpinning for understanding regional response: Holocene water-table decline from the previous pluvial period, after thousands of years, results in current oasis/sabkha locations where the water table still intersects the ground. Depletion is found to be controlled by two regional parameters, hydraulic diffusivity and vertical anisotropy of permeability. Secondary data that provide insight are drawdowns near pumps and isotope-groundwater ages (million-year-old groundwaters in Egypt). The resultant strong simply structured three-dimensional model representation captures the essence of NAS regional groundwater-flow behavior. Model forecasts inform resource management that transboundary drawdown will likely be minimal—a nonissue—whereas drawdown within pumping centers may become excessive, requiring alternative extraction schemes; correspondingly, significant water-table drawdown may occur in pumping centers co-located with oases, causing oasis loss and environmental impacts.

  1. The transboundary non-renewable Nubian Aquifer System of Chad, Egypt, Libya and Sudan: classical groundwater questions and parsimonious hydrogeologic analysis and modelin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Voss, Clifford I.; Soliman, Safaa M.

    2014-01-01

    Parsimonious groundwater modeling provides insight into hydrogeologic functioning of the Nubian Aquifer System (NAS), the world’s largest non-renewable groundwater system (belonging to Chad, Egypt, Libya, and Sudan). Classical groundwater-resource issues exist (magnitude and lateral extent of drawdown near pumping centers) with joint international management questions regarding transboundary drawdown. Much of NAS is thick, containing a large volume of high-quality groundwater, but receives insignificant recharge, so water-resource availability is time-limited. Informative aquifer data are lacking regarding large-scale response, providing only local-scale information near pumps. Proxy data provide primary underpinning for understanding regional response: Holocene water-table decline from the previous pluvial period, after thousands of years, results in current oasis/sabkha locations where the water table still intersects the ground. Depletion is found to be controlled by two regional parameters, hydraulic diffusivity and vertical anisotropy of permeability. Secondary data that provide insight are drawdowns near pumps and isotope-groundwater ages (million-year-old groundwaters in Egypt). The resultant strong simply structured three-dimensional model representation captures the essence of NAS regional groundwater-flow behavior. Model forecasts inform resource management that transboundary drawdown will likely be minimal—a nonissue—whereas drawdown within pumping centers may become excessive, requiring alternative extraction schemes; correspondingly, significant water-table drawdown may occur in pumping centers co-located with oases, causing oasis loss and environmental impacts.

  2. Effective groundwater modeling of the data-poor Nubian Aquifer System (Chad, Egypt, Libya, Sudan) - use of parsimony and 81Kr-based groundwater ages (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voss, C. I.; Soliman, S. M.; Aggarwal, P. K.

    2013-12-01

    Important information for management of large aquifer systems can be obtained via a parsimonious approach to groundwater modeling, in part, employing isotope-interpreted groundwater ages. ';Parsimonious' modeling implies active avoidance of overly-complex representations when constructing models. This approach is essential for evaluation of aquifer systems that lack informative hydrogeologic databases. Even in the most remote aquifers, despite lack of typical data, groundwater ages can be interpreted from isotope samples at only a few downstream locations. These samples incorporate hydrogeologic information from the entire upstream groundwater flowpath; thus, interpreted ages are among the most-effective information sources for groundwater model development. This approach is applied to the world's largest non-renewable aquifer, the transboundary Nubian Aquifer System (NAS) of Chad, Egypt, Libya and Sudan. In the NAS countries, water availability is a critical problem and NAS can reliably serve as a water supply for an extended future period. However, there are national concerns about transboundary impacts of water use by neighbors. These concerns include excessive depletion of shared groundwater by individual countries and the spread of water-table drawdown across borders, where neighboring country near-border shallow wells and oases may dry. Development of a parsimonious groundwater flow model, based on limited available NAS hydrogeologic data and on 81Kr groundwater ages below oases in Egypt, is a key step in providing a technical basis for international discussion concerning management of this non-renewable water resource. Simply-structured model analyses, undertaken as part of an IAEA/UNDP/GEF project, show that although the main transboundary issue is indeed drawdown crossing national boundaries, given the large scale of NAS and its plausible ranges of aquifer parameter values, the magnitude of transboundary drawdown will likely be small and may not be a

  3. A multidisciplinary study on Palaeozoic rocks of southern Libya

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meinhold, G.; Howard, J.; Le Heron, D. P.; Morton, A.; Abutarruma, Y.; Elgadry, M.; Phillips, R. J.; Strogen, D.; Thusu, B.; Whitham, A.

    2009-04-01

    Southern Libya is dominated by the intracratonic Murzuq and Kufra basins, separated by the Tibesti Massif. The Murzuq Basin, located in southwest Libya, extends into northwestern Chad, northern Niger and eastern Algeria and has been the focus of great interest for gas and oil exploration in recent years since the discovery of the El Sharara and the NC-174 (Elephant) fields in the western Murzuq Basin. Based on these discoveries, recent focus has shifted to the Kufra Basin, in southeast Libya, which extends into northern Chad, northwestern Sudan and straddles the border with Egypt. Although, the centre of the Murzuq Basin has been relatively well investigated by drilling and seismic profiles, the basin margins, however, lack a detailed geological investigation. In comparison, the Kufra Basin is underexplored with few boreholes drilled. Our studies focus on the eastern margin of the Murzuq Basin and the northern, eastern and western flanks of the Kufra Basin. Siliciclastic sediments of Infracambrian to Carboniferous age dominate the studied areas. Our objectives were to characterise the Infracambrian-Lower Palaeozoic stratigraphy, deduce the structural evolution of each study area, and to collect samples for follow-up analyses including provenance studies and biostratigraphy. In addition to outcrop-based fieldwork shallow boreholes up to 50 m depth were successfully drilled in the Silurian Tanezzuft Formation: a major hydrocarbon source rock unit in North Africa. The unweathered mudstones retrieved from one of the boreholes are rich in organic matter and have been used for biostratigraphical and geochemical investigations. The provenance study of the sandstone succession with heavy mineral analysis together with U-Pb zircon dating provides, for the first time, an understanding of the ancient source areas. Moreover, it is a useful test of the stratigraphic framework where biostratigraphic data are scarce. New data from this study are expected to lead to new

  4. Libya: spotlight.

    PubMed

    1984-01-01

    Libya's population at 3.7 million is small but growing so rapidly that it should double by 2000. At this time 90% of the population live in less than 25% of the land area, and 40% live in 1 of the 2 major cities, Tripoli and Benghazi. Since oil was discovered in the 1950s, Libya's economy has been almost totally dependent upon petroleum exports. Prices have dropped sharply since 1980 because of the world oil glut, but oil still provides a rich income. The government has used the substantial oil revenues for ambitious construction projects, expansion of educational and health facilities, and creation of a modern defense establishment to foster economic development and political strength. Libya has enjoyed remarkable improvements in living standards and school enrollment over the past 30 years. Literacy increased from 23% for men and 2% for women to 73% for men and 40% for women since the 1950s. Prior to 1950, Libya's population grew at less than 2% annually, but since then declining mortality, high birthrates, and increasing immigration have caused growth rates to soar above 4%. Consistent with Arab tradition, Libyans favor large families. Women marry at around age 17 and bear an average of 7 children. The Moslem culture disapproves of women working outside the home, and only about 5% do so. The government encourages the high birthrates to increase the small native population. Importation of modern contraceptive is illegal, and family planning does not receive government support although maternal and child health projects do. The increases in education and labor force participation of women may lead to lower fertility in the future. The average Libyan's life expectancy was 43 during the 1950s and about 190 of every 1000 babies died before their 1st birthday. In the 1980s life expectancy is up to about 65, and infant mortality down to 90/1000 births. The mortality decline can be directly attributed to vaccination campaigns carried out during the late 1950s and the

  5. Late middle Eocene epoch of Libya yields earliest known radiation of African anthropoids.

    PubMed

    Jaeger, Jean-Jacques; Beard, K Christopher; Chaimanee, Yaowalak; Salem, Mustafa; Benammi, Mouloud; Hlal, Osama; Coster, Pauline; Bilal, Awad A; Duringer, Philippe; Schuster, Mathieu; Valentin, Xavier; Marandat, Bernard; Marivaux, Laurent; Métais, Eddy; Hammuda, Omar; Brunet, Michel

    2010-10-28

    Reconstructing the early evolutionary history of anthropoid primates is hindered by a lack of consensus on both the timing and biogeography of anthropoid origins. Some prefer an ancient (Cretaceous) origin for anthropoids in Africa or some other Gondwanan landmass, whereas others advocate a more recent (early Cenozoic) origin for anthropoids in Asia, with subsequent dispersal of one or more early anthropoid taxa to Africa. The oldest undoubted African anthropoid primates described so far are three species of the parapithecid Biretia from the late middle Eocene Bir El Ater locality of Algeria and the late Eocene BQ-2 site in the Fayum region of northern Egypt. Here we report the discovery of the oldest known diverse assemblage of African anthropoids from the late middle Eocene Dur At-Talah escarpment in central Libya. The primate assemblage from Dur At-Talah includes diminutive species pertaining to three higher-level anthropoid clades (Afrotarsiidae, Parapithecidae and Oligopithecidae) as well as a small species of the early strepsirhine primate Karanisia. The high taxonomic diversity of anthropoids at Dur At-Talah indicates either a much longer interval of anthropoid evolution in Africa than is currently documented in the fossil record or the nearly synchronous colonization of Africa by multiple anthropoid clades at some time during the middle Eocene epoch. PMID:20981098

  6. Biostratigraphic interpretation for the cyclic sedimentation in northwestern Libya

    SciTech Connect

    Tekbali, A.O.; Cornell, W.C. Dept. of Geological Sciences)

    1993-02-01

    Mesozoic sediments in western Libya are best exposed along the Jabal Nafusah escarpment. This northeast-southwest trending structure overlooks the Al Jifarah plain and extends more than 300 km westward to connect with a T-shaped anticlinorium in Algeria and Tunisia. The Al Aziziyan fault (normal, north side down) parallels the northern edge of the escarpment and marks its initial position. Alternate deposition of marine and continental sediments began in the Triassic before the formation of a major monocline in the Late Jurassic-Early Cretaceous time. Subsequent epiorogenic movements and isostatic adjustments initiated a westward sloping shelf along the southern edge of the Tethys. As a result, the eastern and central regions of western Libya were subjected to severe erosion and coalescing of unconformities towards the topographic highs, prior to the deposition of the overstepping Kiklah Formation. Geometrical and physical interpretation of the Mesozoic sediments in the region, combined with paleogeographic reconstruction indicate that the post-Hercynian epiorogenic adjustments and fluctuations of the Tethys resulted in local cyclic sedimentation. Accurate age assessment of the boundaries between the Jurassic-Early Cretaceous facies in northwestern Libya can be carried out on the basis of microfloral and faunal distribution and makes possible correlation of aquifers and probable oil-bearing sequences in western Libya.

  7. Exploration limited since '70s in Libya's Sirte basin

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, D. )

    1995-03-13

    Esso Standard made the first Libyan oil discovery in the western Ghadames basin in 1957. The Atshan-2 well tested oil from Devonian sandstones, and the play was a continuation of the Paleozoic trend found productive in the neighboring Edjeleh region of eastern Algeria. Exploration in the Sirte basin began in earnest in 1958. Within the next 10 years, 16 major oil fields had been discovered, each with recoverable reserves greater than 500 million bbl of oil. Libya currently produces under OPEC quota approximately 1.4 million b/d of oil, with discovered in-place reserves of 130 billion bbl of oil. The paper describes the structural framework, sedimentary basins of Libya, the Sirte basin, petroleum geology, play types, source rocks, generation and migration of hydrocarbons, oil reserves, potential, and acreage availability.

  8. Marshak Lectureship Talk: Women in Physics in Egypt and the Arab World

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El Sayed, Karimat

    2009-03-01

    Until the end of the 19th Century Science was not classified into different disciplines. The first woman named in the history of science was Merit Ptah (2700 BC) in Egypt's Valley of the Kings. In the new Egypt the first girl's school started in Cairo in 1873 and the first University in 1908. Only a few girls attended the University at that time, mainly studying the humanities. The first Egyptian woman physicist graduated in 1940 and received her PhD in nuclear physics in the USA. Nowadays the number of women in physics is increasing in all branches of physics, some of them are senior managers and others have been decorated with various prizes. In this talk some statistics will be given to show the percentage of women in physics in relation to other fields of science in Egypt. In Saudi Arabia the first girls' school started in 1964 and the first college for women, which was a section of King Abdul-Aziz University (where education is not mixed), started in 1975. I was the founder of the Physics Department of this women's section. Egyptians have played significant roles in teaching schoolchildren and university students of both sexes in all the Arab countries: Saudi Arabia, Sudan, Kuwait, Yemen, the Gulf States, Libya, Lebanon, Syria, and Jordan. But with respect to Algeria, Tunisia and Morocco, our role was limited, since classes are taught in French. Arab women living in the countries located east of Egypt still have many difficulties facing them, needing to overcome many technical, academic, and social problems, while women in the countries located west of Egypt have fewer problems. There were many problems in the early days of education in Egypt but the women of Egypt worked hard to gain the same rights as men and were able to pave the way for all Arab women. I myself met many difficulties in my early days. This talk will also describe the impact of the regional conference on Women in Physics in Africa and Middle East, which was held in Cairo in 2007.

  9. Dust Plumes off Libya

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    Two-toned dust plumes blew northward off the coast of Libya on October 26, 2007, as the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on NASA's Terra satellite took this picture. While plumes in the west are beige, reminiscent of the Sahara's sands, the plumes in the east are distinctly darker. The differences in color can be traced to the plumes's varied origins.

  10. seismicity and seismotectonics of Libya

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ben Suleman, abdunnur

    2015-04-01

    Libya, located at the central Mediterranean margin of the African shield, underwent many episodes of orogenic activity that shaped its geological setting. The present day deformation of Libya is the result of the Eurasia-Africa continental collision. The tectonic evolution of Libya has yielded a complex crustal structure that is composed of a series of basins and uplifts. This study aims to explain in detail the seismicity and seismotectonics of Libya using new data recorded by the recently established Libyan National Seismograph Network (LNSN) incorporating other available geophysical and geological information. Detailed investigations of the Libyan seismicity indicates that Libya has experienced earthquakes of varying magnitudes The seismic activity of Libya shows dominant trends of Seismicity with most of the seismic activity concentrated along the northern coastal areas. Four major clusters of Seismicity were quit noticeable. Fault plane solution was estimated for 20 earthquakes recorded by the Libyan National Seismograph Network in northwestern and northeastern Libya. Results of fault plane solution suggest that normal faulting was dominant in the westernmost part of Libya; strike slip faulting was dominant in northern-central part of Libya. The northern-eastern part of the country suggests that dip-dip faulting were more prevalent.

  11. Center Pivot Irrigated Agriculture, Libya

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    A view of the Faregh Agricultural Station in the Great Calanscio Sand Sea, Libya (26.5N, 22.0E) about 300 miles southeast of Benghazi. A pattern of water wells have been drilled several miles apart to support a quarter mile center-pivot-swing-arm agricultural irrigation system. The crop grown is alfalfa which is eaten on location by flocks of sheep following the swing arm as it rotates. At maturity, the sheep are flown to market throughout Libya.

  12. A new species of Apidium (Anthropoidea, Parapithecidae) from the Sirt Basin, central Libya: First record of Oligocene primates from Libya.

    PubMed

    Beard, K Christopher; Coster, Pauline M C; Salem, Mustafa J; Chaimanee, Yaowalak; Jaeger, Jean-Jacques

    2016-01-01

    A new species of Apidium is the most common primate currently known from a newly discovered site near Zallah Oasis in the Sirt Basin of central Libya. Based on current knowledge of the associated fauna, this new species of Apidium is early Oligocene in age, being roughly contemporaneous with faunas from Quarries G and V in the upper part of the Jebel Qatrani Formation in Egypt that also contain species of Apidium. A phylogenetic analysis based on dental characters indicates that the new species of Apidium from Libya is the sister group of Apidium phiomense. Apidium bowni and Apidium moustafai from the Jebel Qatrani Formation in the Fayum are similar in age to the new species of Apidium from Libya, but both of these Egyptian species are more distantly related to A. phiomense from younger stratigraphic levels in the Fayum. This phylogenetic pattern underscores the benefit of enhanced geographic sampling of the fossil record, even in cases where local records are thought to be reasonably comprehensive and well documented. Oligocene parapithecids can be partitioned into two clades corresponding to the subfamilies Parapithecinae (containing Parapithecus and Simonsius) and Qatraniinae (including Qatrania and Apidium). Climatic deterioration during the early Oligocene may have impacted the macroevolutionary dynamics of early Afro-Arabian anthropoids by fostering the fragmentation of forest habitats, thereby promoting allopatric speciation among widespread populations of Apidium and other arboreal taxa. PMID:26767957

  13. Libya: World Oil Report 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-08-01

    This paper reports that Libya is moving forward with plans to sell most of its crude as refined products and should have the capacity to handle most of its production, about 1.3 million bpd, by the mid-90s. Production was increased after the Iraqi invasion of Kuwait, and peak capacity could be over 1.5 million bopd. Exploration pace is still increasing but U.S. sanctions have taken their toll. Gas projects are advancing as officials push to develop and utilize more domestic gas reserves. Libya has commissioned a new gas processing plant in Sahl gas field in Sirte basin and plans are under way for development of Tahaddi field, Libya's largest gas field with 9 Tcf.

  14. Teaching Abroad: Algeria.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Agriopoulos, Michel

    1981-01-01

    Describes a program in Algeria which included the construction of a training facility to ease the shortage of semiskilled workers, particularly construction site electricians and instrument installers. Priorities were to define training needs, implement the program, and produce graduates as soon as possible. (JOW)

  15. Enzootic plague foci, Algeria.

    PubMed

    Malek, M A; Hammani, A; Beneldjouzi, A; Bitam, I

    2015-03-01

    In Algeria, PCR sequencing of pla, glpD and rpoB genes found Yersinia pestis in 18/237 (8%) rodents of five species, including Apodemus sylvaticus, previously undescribed as pestiferous; and disclosed three new plague foci. Multiple spacer typing confirmed a new Orientalis variant. Rodent survey should be reinforced in this country hosting reemerging plague. PMID:25834736

  16. Enzootic plague foci, Algeria

    PubMed Central

    Malek, M.A.; Hammani, A.; Beneldjouzi, A.; Bitam, I.

    2014-01-01

    In Algeria, PCR sequencing of pla, glpD and rpoB genes found Yersinia pestis in 18/237 (8%) rodents of five species, including Apodemus sylvaticus, previously undescribed as pestiferous; and disclosed three new plague foci. Multiple spacer typing confirmed a new Orientalis variant. Rodent survey should be reinforced in this country hosting reemerging plague. PMID:25834736

  17. Algeria: country profile.

    PubMed

    Harding, J

    1987-12-01

    Data are presented on the economy, the people, the population's health, and the culture in this country profile of Algeria. The population numbers 21.7 million. The infant mortality rate, used as a health indicator, is 81/1000 live births. Algeria's gross national product per capita is $2410 (US$15,390). Its main imports are machinery, transport equipment, food, tobacco, and consumer goods. The primary exports include oil, petroleum products, liquified natural gas, wine, and tobacco. Algeria's traditional Berber culture has survived occupation by Phoenicians, Romans, Arabs, and Europeans. The country is made up of an assortment of different social groups and ethnicities, and modern Algeria realized its unitary identity from the anti-colonial struggle. Recent laws allow freedom of association, an indication of growing pluralism in a state where opposition traditionally has been proscribed. 1987 marks the 25th anniversary of Algeria's independence, obtained after a long and bitter war with France. The victory of the Front de Liberation Nationale (FLN) was a signal for French settlers to leave in droves, and much of the country's managerial and technical expertise left with them. Yet, the FLN inherited a sound infrastructure on which to build a modern post-colonial society. Additionally, the country also was to benefit from plentiful hydrocarbon reserves, which guaranteed good foreign exchange earnings. One of the country's goals is to feed itself by investing in a long-neglected agricultural sector, yet presently oil and gas revenues continue to be the driving force behind development. The plans for increasing food production include greater scope for private farmers. A widening gap exists between those who espouse the old values forged by the liberation struggle and a younger generation, for whom the FLN's founding precepts and the leadership's old authoritarian style mean considerably less. PMID:12315296

  18. Spotlight: Egypt.

    PubMed

    1998-12-01

    Egypt is the most populous country in the Arab world and the second most populous country in Africa, with 65.5 million people living in a land area of 384,344 square miles as of mid-1998. There were 28 births and 6 deaths per 1000 population, as well as 63 infant deaths for every 1000 live births, and a population growing in size at 2.2% annually. The average Egyptian woman has 3.6 births during her reproductive lifetime and life expectancy is 65 years for men and 69 years for women. Egypt has major issues to address with regard to the management and use of its water resources, balancing the protection and use of rural lands, and expanding industry while protecting the air, water, and land. Much of Egypt's water is polluted and its soil damaged and depleted due to irrigation-related salinization. With Cairo and Alexandria already densely populated, the proportion of Egypt's population expected to live in urban areas should exceed 60% by 2025. Almost all of Egypt's population lives along the banks of the Nile and its delta, almost all of the country's agricultural production occurs on 5% of that land, and less than 1% of the land is protected. Population momentum will cause Egypt's population to grow a projected 51% by 2025 even though 47% of married women use some form of contraception. 51% of Egyptian adults are literate and tense relations with Israel influence Egypt's public expenditures and foreign assistance. PMID:12348893

  19. Geology and hydrocarbon potential of the Hamada and Murzuq basins in western Libya

    SciTech Connect

    Kirmani, K.U.; Elhaj, F.

    1988-08-01

    The Hamada and Murzuq intracratonic basins of western Libya form a continuation of the Saharan basin which stretches from Algeria eastward into Tunisia and Libya. The tectonics and sedimentology of this region have been greatly influenced by the Caledonian and Hercynian orogenies. Northwest- and northeast-trending faults are characteristic of the broad, shallow basins. The Cambrian-Ordovician sediments are fluvial to shallow marine. The Silurian constitutes a complete sedimentary cycle, ranging from deep marine shales to shallow marine and deltaic sediments. The Devonian occupies a unique position between two major orogenies. The Mesozoic strata are relatively thin. The Triassic consists of well-developed continental sands, whereas the Jurassic and Cretaceous sediments are mainly lagoonal dolomites, evaporites, and shales. Silurian shales are the primary source rock in the area. The quality of the source rock appears to be better in the deeper part of the basin than on its periphery. The Paleozoic has the best hydrocarbon potential. Hydrocarbons have also been encountered in the Triassic and Carboniferous. In the Hamada basin, the best-known field is the El Hamra, with reserves estimated at 155 million bbl from the Devonian. Significant accumulations of oil have been found in the Silurian. Tlacsin and Tigi are two fields with Silurian production. In the Murzuq basin the Cambrian-Ordovician has the best production capability. However, substantial reserves need to be established before developing any field in this basin. Large areas still remain unexplored in western Libya.

  20. Dendroagricultural Signal in Algeria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Touchan, R.; Kherchouche, D.; Anchukaitis, K. J.; Oudjehih, B.; Touchane, H.; Slimani, S.; Meko, D. M.

    2015-12-01

    Dalila Kherchouche2, Kevin J. Anchukaitis3, Bachir Oudjehih2, Hayat Touchan4, Said Slimani5, and David M. Meko1Drought is one of the main natural factors in declining tree-ring growth and the production of agricultural crops in Algeria. Here we will address the variability of growing conditions for wheat in Algeria with climatic data and a tree-ring reconstruction of January-June precipitation from ten Pinus halepensis tree-ring chronologies. A regression-based reconstruction equation explains up to 74% of the variance of precipitation in the 1970-2011 calibration period and cross validates well. Classification of dry years by the 30% percentile of observed precipitation (131 mm) yields a maximum length of drought of five years (1877-1881) and increasing frequency of dry years in the late 20th and early 21stcenturies. A correlation-based sensitivity analysis shows a similar pattern of dependence of tree-growth and wheat production on monthly and seasonal precipitation, but contrasting patterns of dependence on temperature. The patterns are interpreted by reference to phenology, growth phases, and - for wheat agricultural practices. We apply these interpretations to understand possible impacts of climate variability on the agricultural productivity of past civilizations in the Mediterranean. 2Institute of Veterinary and Agronomy Sciences, The University Hadj-Lakhdar, Batna 05000, Algeria, d.kherchouche@yahoo.fr and oudjehihbachir@yahoo.fr3University of Arizona, ENR2 Building, 1064 E Lowell Street, PO Box 210137, Tucson, AZ 85721-0137, kanchukaitis@email.arizona.edu4Faculty of Agriculture, University of Aleppo, Aleppo-Syria, dr.htouchan@gmail.com5Faculty of Biological Sciences and Agronomy, The University Mouloud Mammeri, Tizi Ouzou 15000, Algeria, slimanisaid@yahoo.fr1Laboratory of Tree Ring Research, The University of Arizona, 1215 E. Lowell St. Bldg. 45B, Tucson, AZ 85721, USA, dmeko@ltrr.arizona.edu

  1. Zoonotic Focus of Plague, Algeria

    PubMed Central

    Bitam, Idir; Baziz, Belkacem; Rolain, Jean-Marc; Belkaid, Miloud

    2006-01-01

    After an outbreak of human plague, 95 Xenopsylla cheopis fleas from Algeria were tested for Yersinia pestis with PCR methods. Nine fleas were definitively confirmed to be infected with Y. pestis biovar orientalis. Our results demonstrate the persistence of a zoonotic focus of Y. pestis in Algeria. PMID:17326957

  2. Africa; Expanding market creates more gas lines

    SciTech Connect

    Quarles, W.R.; Thiede, K.; Parent, L.

    1990-11-01

    The authors report on pipeline development activities in Africa. They discuss how a growing European market for gas has increased potential pipeline construction in Africa, especially for Algeria, Egypt, and Libya.

  3. Ancient Egypt.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evers, Virginia

    This four-week fourth grade social studies unit dealing with religious dimensions in ancient Egyptian culture was developed by the Public Education Religion Studies Center at Wright State University. It seeks to help students understand ancient Egypt by looking at the people, the culture, and the people's world view. The unit begins with outlines…

  4. Evidence for Late Ordovician glaciation of Al Kufrah Basin, Libya

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le Heron, Daniel Paul; Howard, James

    2010-09-01

    Fieldwork at the flanks of Al Kufrah Basin, Libya, reveals that Late Ordovician ice sheets were present in the eastern Sahara and that they extended northeastward toward Egypt. Evidence for grounded ice sheets is preserved at the both the southeastern (Jabal Azbah) and northern (Jabal az-Zalmah) basin margins. Characteristic soft-sediment deformation structures, including soft-sediment folds, small-scale faults and striated pavements indicate subglacial shearing and the formation of glacial erosion surfaces. These findings support the presence of a Late Ordovician ice margin in the eastern Sahara and add vital new constraints to reconstructions of the morphology of North African grounded ice sheets. Prior to our study, there existed two plausible models on ice sheet geometry. The first was that separate ice sheets - namely a north and west African ice sheet and an Arabian ice sheet - extended over this part of western North Gondwana. The second was that ice cover was continuous. The presence of a suite of subglacially-generated deformation structures adds considerable credence to the latter interpretation.

  5. The first true deserticolous species of Buthus Leach, 1815 from Algeria (Scorpiones: Buthidae); Ecological and biogeographic considerations.

    PubMed

    Sadine, Salah Eddine; Bissati, Samia; Lourenço, Wilson R

    2016-01-01

    Since the early 2000s, the genus Buthus Leach, 1815 (family Buthidae) has been the subject of an important number of studies. These concerned particularly the species belonging to the 'Buthus occitanus' complex. A number of populations previously considered as subspecies or varieties of B. occitanus Leach were raised to the rank of species, but also many new species have been described. Most of the species considered in these studies come from North Africa, in particular from Morocco, Mauritania, Chad, Sudan and Egypt, but only two new species were recorded from Algeria. At present, one more new species of Buthus is described from the Algerian Saharan Desert, raising the number of confirmed Buthus in Algeria to five. Since most Buthus species from North Africa, and in particular those from Algeria, inhabit more mesic environments than the Saharan Central compartment, the new species appears as the first true deserticolous species found in this country. PMID:26632450

  6. A Valley in the Libya Montes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] (A) [figure removed for brevity, see original site] (B) [figure removed for brevity, see original site] (C)

    This Mars Global Surveyor Mars Orbiter Camera narrow angle image (top) shows an intermountain valley floor in the Libya Montes region of Mars. Its regional setting is seen in the wide angle color mosaic (Figure A). The Libya Montes were formed by the giant impact that created the ancient Isidis basin. The Libya Mountains and valleys--like the one shown here--were subsequently modified and eroded by other processes, including wind, impact cratering, and flow of liquid water to make the small valley that runs across the middle of the scene. Until the mission was canceled, the Libya Montes region was among the top two candidates for the Mars Surveyor 2001 Lander. This image, illuminated by sunlight from the left, covers an area 3 kilometers (1.9 miles) wide and 19 kilometers (11.8 miles) long. The scene is located near 1.5oN, 278.4oW and was acquired on June 27, 1999. The high resolution color view (top) was created by combining the colors derived from Mars Orbiter Camera Wide Angle views of the region obtained in May 1999 (Figures A and B) with the high resolution view obtained in June 1999 (Figure C).

  7. A new early Oligocene mammal fauna from the Sirt Basin, central Libya: Biostratigraphic and paleobiogeographic implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coster, Pauline M. C.; Beard, K. Christopher; Salem, Mustafa J.; Chaimanee, Yaowalak; Brunet, Michel; Jaeger, Jean-Jacques

    2015-04-01

    We report the discovery of a new early Oligocene vertebrate fauna from the vicinity of Zallah Oasis in the Sirt Basin of central Libya. The Zallah Incision local fauna has been recovered from the base of a fluvial channel within a rock unit that has been mapped as "Continental and Transitional Marine Deposits." This rock unit has produced fossil vertebrates sporadically since the 1960s, but the Zallah Incision local fauna is the most diverse assemblage of fossil mammals currently known from this unit. In addition to lower vertebrates, the fauna includes an indeterminate sirenian, the anthracothere Bothriogenys, a new species of the hyracoid genus Thyrohyrax, new species of the hystricognathous rodent genera Metaphiomys and Neophiomys, Metaphiomys schaubi, and a new species of the parapithecid primate genus Apidium. The Zallah Incision local fauna from Libya appears to be close in age to Fayum quarries V and G in the Jebel Qatrani Formation of Egypt and the Taqah locality in the Ashawq Formation of Oman. Considered together, these early Oligocene faunas support a modest level of faunal provincialism across the northern part of Afro-Arabia during the early Oligocene.

  8. Selected Bibliography of Educational Materials: Algeria, Libya, Morocco, Tunisia. Volume 7, Number 4, 1973.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Azzouz, Azzedine; And Others

    This annotated bibliography contains 108 English language annotations of newspapers and government publications covering educational materials of interest to North Africans. The materials relate a clear trend toward increased awareness of Arab and Islamic heritage and the adaptation of education to a multilingual population. Citations are…

  9. Estimated use of explosives in the mining industries of Algeria, Iran, Iraq, and Libya

    SciTech Connect

    Wilburn, D.R.; Russell, J.A.; Bleiwas, D.I.

    1995-09-01

    This work was performed under Memorandum of Agreement B291534 Between the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) and the United States Bureau of Mines. The Bureau of Mines authors are members of the Minerals Availability Field Office (MAFO) in Denver, CO, which uses an extensive network of information sources to develop and maintain the Minerals Availability database concerning mining and minerals properties worldwide. This study was initiated and directed by F. Heuze at LLNL. A previous study on the same subject had been commissioned by LLNL from the Mining Journal Research Services (MJRS) in London ,UK. Its results were integrated into this report. MJRS is shown as one of the numerous sources which were used for this work. All sources are listed in the report. This document is arranged in four sections, one for each country, in alphabetical order. Thie outline is the same for each country.

  10. Ancient Egypt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swamy, Ashwin Balegar

    This thesis involves development of an interactive GIS (Geographic Information System) based application, which gives information about the ancient history of Egypt. The astonishing architecture, the strange burial rituals and their civilization were some of the intriguing questions that motivated me towards developing this application. The application is a historical timeline starting from 3100 BC, leading up to 664 BC, focusing on the evolution of the Egyptian dynasties. The tool holds information regarding some of the famous monuments which were constructed during that era and also about the civilizations that co-existed. It also provides details about the religions followed by their kings. It also includes the languages spoken during those periods. The tool is developed using JAVA, a programing language and MOJO (Map Objects Java Objects) a product of ESRI (Environmental Science Research Institute) to create map objects, to provide geographic information. JAVA Swing is used for designing the user interface. HTML (Hyper Text Markup Language) pages are created to provide the user with more information related to the historic period. CSS (Cascade Style Sheets) and JAVA Scripts are used with HTML5 to achieve creative display of content. The tool is kept simple and easy for the user to interact with. The tool also includes pictures and videos for the user to get a feel of the historic period. The application is built to motivate people to know more about one of the prominent and ancient civilization of the Mediterranean world.

  11. Antimicrobial resistance in Libya: 1970–2011

    PubMed Central

    Ghenghesh, Khalifa Sifaw; Rahouma, Amal; Tawil, Khaled; Zorgani, Abdulaziz; Franka, Ezzedin

    2013-01-01

    Resistance to antimicrobial agents is a major health problem that affects the whole world. Providing information on the past state of antimicrobial resistance in Libya may assist the health authorities in addressing the problem more effectively in the future. Information was obtained mainly from Highwire Press (including PubMed) search for the period 1970–2011 using the terms ‘antibiotic resistance in Libya’, ‘antimicrobial resistance in Libya’, ‘tuberculosis in Libya’, and ‘primary and acquired resistance in Libya’ in title and abstract. From 1970 to 2011 little data was available on antimicrobial resistance in Libya due to lack of surveillance and few published studies. Available data shows high resistance rates for Salmonella species in the late 1970s and has remained high to the present day. High prevalence rates (54–68%) of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) were reported in the last decade among S. aureus from patients with burns and surgical wound infections. No reports were found of vancomycin-resistant S. aureus (VRSA) or vancomycin-intermediate-resistant S. aureus (VISA) using standard methods from Libya up to the end of 2011. Reported rates of primary (i.e. new cases) and acquired (i.e. retreatment cases) multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) from the eastern region of Libya in 1971 were 16.6 and 33.3% and in 1976 were 8.6 and 14.7%, in western regions in 1984–1986 were 11 and 21.5% and in the whole country in 2011 were estimated at 3.4 and 29%, respectively. The problem of antibiotic resistance is very serious in Libya. The health authorities in particular and society in general should address this problem urgently. Establishing monitoring systems based on the routine testing of antimicrobial sensitivity and education of healthcare workers, pharmacists, and the community on the health risks associated with the problem and benefits of prudent use of antimicrobials are some steps that can be taken to tackle the

  12. Rights of the Child in Algeria.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mejia, Fernando

    This report to the United Nations Committee on the Rights of the Child contains observations of the World Organisation Against Torture (OMCT) concerning the application of the Convention on the Rights of the Child by Algeria. The report's introduction asserts that although OMCT welcomes legislative and institutional efforts made by Algeria since…

  13. Algeria: Revolution, Army and Political Power

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zeraoui, Zidane

    2012-01-01

    Despite the numerous similarities among the Arab countries that explain the rapid popular movements since the end of 2010, the case of Algeria presents particular features. It shares the same inequalities and social challenges as the rest of the countries in the region. However, the revolutionary process in Algeria between 1954 and 1962 and the…

  14. What Future for Berber Languages in Algeria?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Houcine, Samira

    2011-01-01

    After Algeria wrenched its independence from France in 1962, the government newly formed decided to achieve Arabization. Standard Arabic became thus the official language of Algeria and the complete Arabization of all public institutions was voted in January 1991. Actually, the Algerian linguistic situation is one of multilingualism where Algerian…

  15. Algeria`s gas resources: A global evaluation and perspectives

    SciTech Connect

    Takherist, D.; Attar, A.; Drid, M.

    1995-08-01

    With more than 3 Tcm of proven recoverable reserves, Algeria is considered to play a major role in the gas market. If the export capacity is now about 20 Bcm , Sonatrach expects to reach, after the renovation of some industrial units, a level of nearly 27 Bcm, starting in 1996. Here we discuss the geological and geographical distribution of the proven gas reserves. Many consistent fields, except the Hassi R`Mel giant field, are not yet been developed the existing infrastructure network and near-futur projects will allow Sonatrach to produce more than 60 Bcm per year, from now until the year 2000. This objective entails a serious effort in exploration and development activities. If we try to estimate ultimate resources by geochemical modeling, considering only the two min source rocks and the volumes of gas generated-expelled after the min period of trap formation, we find about 160 Tcf of dry gas and 16 Tcf of condensate that can be explored. Our experience with the existing discovered fields, our knowledge of well-defined traps, reservoirs and seals, and the success ratio in the 30 past years, basin by basin, shows that about 36 Tcf can be considered as yet to be discovered. These two numbers indicate that Algeria`s gas potential is underexplored at present. The use of new technologies such as high-resolution and 3D seismic in exploration, and stimulation operations and horizontal well drilling in development-production, is an urgent need. Updating the legislative framework, which will extend laws applicable to liquid hydrocarbon to include gas, will constitute an attractive opportunity for more partnership, permitting the introduction of new ideas and technologies.

  16. Photovoltaic systems sizing for Algeria

    SciTech Connect

    Arab, A.H.; Driss, B.A.; Amimeur, R.; Lorenzo, E.

    1995-02-01

    The purpose of this work is to develop an optimization method applicable to stand-alone photovoltaic systems as a function of its reliability. For a given loss-of-load probability (LLP), there are many combinations of battery capacity and photovoltaic array peak power. The problem consists in determining the couple which corresponds to a minimum total system cost. The method has been applied to various areas all over Algeria taking into account various climatic zones. The parameter used to define the different climatic zones is the clearness index KT for all the considered sites. The period of the simulation system is 10 years. 5 refs., 4 figs., 5 tabs.

  17. A Regional View of the Libya Montes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    The Libya Montes are a ring of mountains up-lifted by the giant impact that created the Isidis basin to the north. During 1999, this region became one of the top two that were being considered for the now-canceled Mars Surveyor 2001 Lander. The Isidis basin is very, very ancient. Thus, the mountains that form its rims would contain some of the oldest rocks available at the Martian surface, and a landing in this region might potentially provide information about conditions on early Mars. In May 1999, the wide angle cameras of the Mars Global Surveyor Mars Orbiter Camera system were used in what was called the 'Geodesy Campaign' to obtain nearly global maps of the planet in color and in stereo at resolutions of 240 m/pixel (787 ft/pixel) for the red camera and 480 m/pixel (1575 ft/pixel) for the blue. Shown here are color and stereo views constructed from mosaics of the Geodesy Campaign images for the Libya Montes region of Mars. After they formed by giant impact, the Libya Mountains and valleys were subsequently modified and eroded by other processes, including wind, impact cratering, and flow of liquid water to make the many small valleys that can be seen running northward in the scene. The pictures shown here cover nearly 122,000 square kilometers (47,000 square miles) between latitudes 0.1oN and 4.0oN, longitudes 271.5oW and 279.9oW. The mosaics are about 518 km (322 mi) wide by 235 km (146 mi)high. Red-blue '3-D' glasses are needed to view the stereo image.

  18. Brucellosis update in Libya and regional prospective

    PubMed Central

    Ahmed, Mohamed O; Abouzeed, Yousef M; Bennour, Emad M; van Velkinburgh, Jennifer C

    2015-01-01

    Brucellosis is a global bacterial zoonosis responsible for high morbidity in humans and significant livestock economic losses. While brucellosis remains a public health concern worldwide, its global geographic distribution is variable, largely due to different management schemes; however, paucity of information renders the status of brucellosis unclear and incomplete in many countries, especially those with low income and under-developed infrastructure. This short article summarizes and discusses recent important updates on brucellosis from the North African countries, with a particular brief emphasis on the current status and recent updates in Libya. PMID:25578285

  19. Cerescope: Algeria Seeks Better Training in Agriculture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ceres, 1979

    1979-01-01

    Recent changes and developments in Algeria's agricultural education program to meet the future needs for expertise at all levels in the rural sector are described. Training targets established in the national plan are detailed. (BT)

  20. Ancient Egypt: History 380.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turk, Laraine D.

    "Ancient Egypt," an upper-division, non-required history course covering Egypt from pre-dynastic time through the Roman domination is described. General descriptive information is presented first, including the method of grading, expectation of student success rate, long-range course objectives, procedures for revising the course, major course…

  1. Napoleon in Egypt.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fagan, Brian

    1989-01-01

    Recounts the 1798 Egyptian campaign of Napoleon Bonaparte, whose Scientific and Artistic Commission documented and described the glories of ancient Egypt. The expedition was a disaster by military standards, but the cultural legacies included the Rosetta Stone, and a chronicle entitled "Description de L'Egypte," which did much to popularize…

  2. Prevalence of echinococcosis in street dogs in Tripole District, Libya.

    PubMed

    Ben Musa, Najla A; Sadek, Gehan S

    2007-12-01

    Cystic echinococcosis due to E. granulosus is a serious public health and livestock economy problem in Libya. Kato thick smear examination of 50 street dogs stools showed that they had Echinococcus granulosus (58%), Taenia spp. (14%), Diplydium caninum (16%), Toxocara canis (121%) and 20% were parasite-free. The stool examination using Kato thick smear was more sensitive and more specific that the indirect haemaggutination test. The results were discussed with general review of the disease in Libya. PMID:18383781

  3. Multicriteria analysis in hazards assessment in Libya

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeleňáková, Martina; Gargar, Ibrahim; Purcz, Pavol

    2012-11-01

    Environmental hazards (natural and man-made) have always constituted problem in many developing and developed countries. Many applications proved that these problems could be solved through planning studies and detailed information about these prone areas. Determining time and location and size of the problem are important for decision makers for planning and management activities. It is important to know the risk represented by those hazards and take actions to protect against them. Multicriteria analysis methods - Analytic hierarchy process, Pairwise comparison, Ranking method are used to analyse which is the most dangerous hazard facing Libya country. The multicriteria analysis ends with a more or less stable ranking of the given alternatives and hence a recommendation as to which alternative(s) problems should be preferred. Regarding our problem of environmental risk assessment, the result will be a ranking or categorisation of hazards with regard to their risk level.

  4. 78 FR 47179 - Amendment to the International Traffic in Arms Regulations: Libya and UNSCR 2095

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-05

    ... International Traffic in Arms Regulations (ITAR) to update the defense trade policy regarding Libya to reflect... (for previous ITAR amendments regarding Libya defense trade policy, see ``Amendment to the International Traffic in Arms Regulations: Libya,'' RIN 1400-AC83, 76 FR 30001, and ``Amendment to...

  5. Studying and analyzing the formation and dynamics of the black cloud over Cairo, Egypt, using a multi sensor approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El-Askary, H. M.; Prasad, A. K.; Marey, H. M.; El-Raey, M. E.; Asrar, G. R.; Kafatos, M.

    2012-04-01

    In the past decade, episodes of severe air pollution from biomass burning and/or industrial activities, known as the "black cloud" have occurred over Cairo, and the Nile Delta region situated on the eastern side of the Sahara desert in Egypt, during the autumn season. Previous studies have attributed the increased pollution levels during the black cloud season only to the biomass or open burning of agricultural waste, vehicular, industrial emissions, and secondary aerosols. However, new multi-sensor observations (column and vertical profiles) from satellites, dust transport models and associated meteorology present a different picture of the autumn pollution. It was found that the same region receives as well numerous dust storms along with the anthropogenic aerosols during same season. Such complex combination of these aerosols results in poor air quality and poses significant health hazards for the population in this region. In this study, data from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MODIS) along with the Multiangle Imaging Spectroradiometer (MISR) are used with meteorological data and trajectory analyses to determine the cause of these events. MODIS fire counts highlighted the anthropogenic component of the dense cloud resulting from the burning of agricultural waste after harvest season. Synchronous MISR data show that these fires create low altitude (<500 m) plumes of smoke and aerosols which flow over Cairo in a few hours, as confirmed by Hybrid Single Particle Lagrangian Integrated Trajectory (HYSPLIT) forward trajectory analysis. Much of the burning occurs at night, when a thermal inversion constrains the plumes to remain in the boundary layer (BL). Convection during the day raises the BL, dispersing these smoke particles until the next night. However, we have found a dust transport pathway along the Mauritania/Mali/Algeria/Libya/Egypt axis that significantly affects NE Africa, especially the Nile Delta region, during the biomass burning season

  6. Intraspecific variation in Schistosoma haematobium from Algeria.

    PubMed

    Kechemir, N; Théron, A

    1997-03-01

    A comparative analysis has been carried out between two populations of Schistosoma haematobium using the same intermediate snail host, Bulinus truncatus, but originating from two distinct ecological areas of Algeria: Khemis-El-Khechna in a sub-humid mediterranean zone and Djanet in a saharan bioclimatic zone. Four parameters have been studied: the growth rate of adult worms, size and shape of the eggs, chronobiology of cercarial emergence and the compatibility with the intermediate host. Results showing divergences for all the characters studied are discussed for the origin of this intraspecific polymorphism of S. haematobium in Algeria. PMID:9166441

  7. Mixed fluvial systems of the Messak Sandstone, a deposit of the Nubian lithofacies, southwestern Libya

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lorenz, John C.

    1987-11-01

    The Messak Sandstone is a coarse-grained to pebbly, tabular-crossbedded deposit of the widespread nubian lithofacies. It was deposited during Late Jurassic and/or Early Cretaceous time at the northern edge of the Murzuq basin, in southwestern Libya. Although the sedimentary record is predominantly one of braided fluvial systems, a common subfacies within the formation is interpreted to record the passage of straight-crested sand waves across laterally migrating point bars in sinuous rivers, similar to parts of the modern Ganga and Yamuna rivers. Because the sand waves were larger on the lower parts of the point bar, lateral migration created diagnostic thinning-upward cosets of tabular crossbeds, as well as fining-upward grain-size trends. Common thick, interbedded claystones, deposited in associated paludal and lacustrine environments, and high variance in crossbed dispersion patterns, also suggest the local presence of sinuous fluvial systems within the overall braided regime. The Messak Sandstone contains some of the features that led to the proposal of an unconventional low-sinuosity fluvial environment for the Nubian lithofacies in Egypt, and the continuously high water levels of this model may explain channel-scale clay drapes and overturned crossbeds in the Messak. However, most of the Messak characteristics are incompatible with a low-sinuosity model, suggesting instead that the fluvial channels in the Murzuq basin alternated between braided and high-sinuosity channel patterns.

  8. Mixed fluvial systems of Messak Sandstone, a deposit of Nubian lithofacies, southwestern Libya

    SciTech Connect

    Lorenz, J.C.

    1987-05-01

    The Messak Sandstone is a coarse to pebbly, tabular cross-bedded, Lower Cretaceous deposit of the widespread Nubian lithofacies. It was deposited at the northern edge of the Murzuq basin in southwestern Libya. Although the sedimentary record is predominantly one of braided fluvial systems, a common subfacies within the formation is interpreted to record the passage of straight-crested sand waves across laterally migrating point bars in sinuous rivers, similar to the pattern documented by Singh and Kumar on the modern Ganga and Yamuna Rivers. Because the sand waves were larger on the lower parts of the point bars, lateral migration created diagnostic thinning-upward, unidirectional cosets of tabular cross-beds as well as fining-upward, grain-size trends. Common, thick, interbedded claystones, deposited in associated paludal and lacustrine environments, and high variance in cross-bed dispersion patterns also suggest the local presence of sinuous fluvial systems within the overall braided regime. The Messak Sandstone contains some of the features that led Harms et al to propose an unconventional low-sinuosity fluvial environment for the Nubian lithofacies in Egypt, and the continuously high water levels of this model may explain channel-scale clay drapes and overturned cross-beds in the Messak. However, most of the Messak characteristics are incompatible with the low-sinuosity model, suggesting instead that the fluvial channels in the Murzuq basin alternated between braided and high-sinuosity patterns.

  9. An Integrated Geophysical study of the Lithospheric Structure Beneath Libya

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, W. A.; Doser, D. I.; Keller, R. G.

    2003-12-01

    The tectonic evolution of Libya has yielded a complex crustal structure, which is composed of a series of basins and uplifts. A considerable amount of oil exploration has been undertaken in the area and numerous studies have been published on the shallow (<10km depth) geology and geophysics of the region. In addition, over 6000 gravity measurements are available for the northern Libya region. We are using these data in conjunction with other geologic and geophysical control to construct a 3-D model of density/geology for northern Libya and surrounding regions. Knowing the surface geology and having a digital elevation model and observed gravity value at specified stations, we first calculate the gravity contribution for polygonal areas assuming infinite depth. We then calculate the gravitational contribution for the same polygonal area using the Paleozoic surface as the elevation, assuming uniform density for the volume of rocks below the Paleozoic surface. Subtracting the value calculated at the Paleozoic layer from the gravitational value at the surface yields a gravitational value matching that of the layer between the surface and the top of the Paleozoic layer. The same procedure is then repeated for the top of the Precambrian, the Moho, etc. The 3-D model will then be used to develop a regional velocity model that can be verified/modified by analysis of regional seismic waveform data we are collecting from earthquakes occurring within northern Libya. Northern Libya is the most seismologically active and highly faulted portion of the country. For this reason we have collected thirteen Landsat 5 satellite images covering the most seismically active and structurally significant regions of northeast and northwest Libya. The satellite images have been mosaicked using a seamless mosaicking technology based on ENVI's cutline feathering approached. The resulting mosaicked figures were then overlain with the previously mapped faults analyzed to identify the more recent

  10. The oldest African bat from the early Eocene of El Kohol (Algeria)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ravel, Anthony; Marivaux, Laurent; Tabuce, Rodolphe; Adaci, Mohammed; Mahboubi, Mohammed; Mebrouk, Fateh; Bensalah, Mustapha

    2011-05-01

    The Afro-Arabian Paleogene fossil record of Chiroptera is very poor. In North Africa and Arabia, this record is limited, thus far, to a few localities mainly in Tunisia (Chambi, late early Eocene), Egypt (Fayum, late Eocene to early Oligocene), and Sultanate of Oman (Taqah, early Oligocene). It consists primarily of isolated teeth or mandible fragments. Interestingly, these African fossil bats document two modern groups (Vespertilionoidea and Rhinolophoidea) from the early Eocene, while the bat fossil record of the same epoch of North America, Eurasia, and Australia principally includes members of the "Eochiroptera." This paraphyletic group contains all primitive microbats excluding modern families. In Algeria, the region of Brezina, southeast of the Atlas Mountains, is famous for the early Eocene El Kohol Formation, which has yielded one of the earliest mammalian faunas of the African landmass. Recent fieldwork in the same area has led to the discovery of a new vertebrate locality, including isolated teeth of Chiroptera. These fossils represent the oldest occurrence of Chiroptera in Africa, thus extending back the record of the group to the middle early Eocene (Ypresian) on that continent. The material consists of an upper molar and two fragments of lower molars. The dental character association matches that of "Eochiroptera." As such, although very fragmentary, the material testifies to the first occurrence of "Eochiroptera" in Algeria, and by extension in Africa. This discovery demonstrates that this basal group of Chiroptera had a worldwide distribution during the early Paleogene.

  11. The oldest African bat from the early Eocene of El Kohol (Algeria).

    PubMed

    Ravel, Anthony; Marivaux, Laurent; Tabuce, Rodolphe; Adaci, Mohammed; Mahboubi, Mohammed; Mebrouk, Fateh; Bensalah, Mustapha

    2011-05-01

    The Afro-Arabian Paleogene fossil record of Chiroptera is very poor. In North Africa and Arabia, this record is limited, thus far, to a few localities mainly in Tunisia (Chambi, late early Eocene), Egypt (Fayum, late Eocene to early Oligocene), and Sultanate of Oman (Taqah, early Oligocene). It consists primarily of isolated teeth or mandible fragments. Interestingly, these African fossil bats document two modern groups (Vespertilionoidea and Rhinolophoidea) from the early Eocene, while the bat fossil record of the same epoch of North America, Eurasia, and Australia principally includes members of the "Eochiroptera." This paraphyletic group contains all primitive microbats excluding modern families. In Algeria, the region of Brezina, southeast of the Atlas Mountains, is famous for the early Eocene El Kohol Formation, which has yielded one of the earliest mammalian faunas of the African landmass. Recent fieldwork in the same area has led to the discovery of a new vertebrate locality, including isolated teeth of Chiroptera. These fossils represent the oldest occurrence of Chiroptera in Africa, thus extending back the record of the group to the middle early Eocene (Ypresian) on that continent. The material consists of an upper molar and two fragments of lower molars. The dental character association matches that of "Eochiroptera." As such, although very fragmentary, the material testifies to the first occurrence of "Eochiroptera" in Algeria, and by extension in Africa. This discovery demonstrates that this basal group of Chiroptera had a worldwide distribution during the early Paleogene. PMID:21442243

  12. Documentation and Development. Experience in Algeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tchuigoua, J. Founou

    1972-01-01

    A description of the activities of the Documentation, Library and Archives Department of the Algiers Chamber of Commerce and Industry, which is run by a small staff on a modest budget, provides documentation services for the staff of the Chamber of Commerce and also assists other centers in Algeria. (Author)

  13. Animal Diseases Caused by Orbiviruses, Algeria

    PubMed Central

    Madani, Hafsa; Casal, Jordi; Alba, Anna; Allepuz, Alberto; Cêtre-Sossah, Catherine; Hafsi, Leila; Kount-Chareb, Houria; Bouayed-Chaouach, Nadera; Saadaoui, Hassiba

    2011-01-01

    Antibodies against bluetongue virus were detected in cattle, sheep, goats, and camels in Algeria in 2008. Antibodies against epizootic hemorrhagic disease virus were detected in cattle, but antibodies against African horse sickness virus were not detected in horses and mules. Epizootic hemorrhagic disease in northern Africa poses a major risk for the European Union. PMID:22172371

  14. Eyewitness introduction to Egypt: "The gift of the Nile".

    PubMed

    Brown, Geraldine

    2009-01-01

    Northeastern corner of Africa, lying at the crossroads between the two continents of Europe and Asia (in the Sinai Peninsula), while bordering Libya, Sudan, Israel and the Red Sea. Egypt is the most ancient tourist country in the world. Several health fact-finding missions in the last few years were made to this small country that is frequently defined by the Valley of the Nile. With the spreading deserts on either side, or a very rich heritage of ancient relics, these scenic vistas are without equal elsewhere in the world. Although there are significant cultural differences among the population, Egypt has a long history of ethnic and religious compassion. Among the many rarities, main tourist attractions include the three great Pyramids of Giza and the Sphinx, amazing ancient wonders of the world. These fact-finding missions included how health and medical care are defined, how people and culture are intertwined with its physical features, land use, and the economy and its resources. PMID:19927898

  15. Dwarfs in ancient Egypt.

    PubMed

    Kozma, Chahira

    2006-02-15

    Ancient Egypt was one of the most advanced and productive civilizations in antiquity, spanning 3000 years before the "Christian" era. Ancient Egyptians built colossal temples and magnificent tombs to honor their gods and religious leaders. Their hieroglyphic language, system of organization, and recording of events give contemporary researchers insights into their daily activities. Based on the record left by their art, the ancient Egyptians documented the presence of dwarfs in almost every facet of life. Due to the hot dry climate and natural and artificial mummification, Egypt is a major source of information on achondroplasia in the old world. The remains of dwarfs are abundant and include complete and partial skeletons. Dwarfs were employed as personal attendants, animal tenders, jewelers, and entertainers. Several high-ranking dwarfs especially from the Old Kingdom (2700-2190 BCE) achieved important status and had lavish burial places close to the pyramids. Their costly tombs in the royal cemeteries and the inscriptions on their statutes indicate their high-ranking position in Egyptian society and their close relation to the king. Some of them were Seneb, Pereniankh, Khnumhotpe, and Djeder. There were at least two dwarf gods, Ptah and Bes. The god Ptah was associated with regeneration and rejuvenation. The god Bes was a protector of sexuality, childbirth, women, and children. He was a favored deity particularly during the Greco-Roman period. His temple was recently excavated in the Baharia oasis in the middle of Egypt. The burial sites and artistic sources provide glimpses of the positions of dwarfs in daily life in ancient Egypt. Dwarfs were accepted in ancient Egypt; their recorded daily activities suggest assimilation into daily life, and their disorder was not shown as a physical handicap. Wisdom writings and moral teachings in ancient Egypt commanded respect for dwarfs and other individuals with disabilities. PMID:16380966

  16. Surgery in Egypt.

    PubMed

    el-Zawahry, M D; Ramzy, A F; el-Sahwi, E; Bahnasy, A F; Khafaga, M; Rizk-Allah, M A; Abou el-Hoda, M F

    1997-07-01

    The history of medicine can never be complete without referral to ancient Egyptian medicine. Imhotep has been identified as the god of medicine. There are 13 faculties of medicine in Egypt; the oldest is the Kasr El Aini Faculty, which started in 1925. We review undergraduate and postgraduate education in Egypt. The Egyptian Society of Surgeons organizes the scientific surgical activities. Schistosomiasis is a national health problem. Health care is provided by many types of hospitals, including university, teaching, Ministry of Public Health, military, and private hospitals. PMID:9230851

  17. Occupational health in Egypt.

    PubMed

    El-Ata, Gehad Ahmed Abo; Arnaout, Said N

    2002-01-01

    This review aims to evaluate current occupational health services (OHS) in Egypt. The authors begin with a background on the geography, population, and economy, and then briefly describe the labor force. They discuss the legislative aspects of OHS (including health insurance) and the environment; OHS training and education; and activities such as research, inspection, environmental monitoring, and management of occupational diseases. Occupational accidents and diseases, registered during 2000, are analyzed. Problems with OHS administration in Egypt are presented, along with relevant countermeasures. Various promotion and support measures for administrative policy are prioritized and discussed. PMID:12028958

  18. Nile River Delta, Egypt

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    The Nile River Delta of Egypt (30.0N, 31.0E) irrigated by the Nile River and its many distributaries, is some of the richest farm land in the world and home to some 45 million people, over half of Egypt's population. The capital city of Cairo is at the apex of the delta. Just across the river from Cairo can be seen the ancient three big pyramids and sphinx at Giza and the Suez Canal is just to the right of the delta.

  19. Nile Delta, Egypt

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    The Nile Delta of Egypt (30.0N, 31.0E) irrigated by the Nile River and its many distributaries, is some of the richest farm land in the world and home to some 45 million people, over half of Egypt's population of 57 million. The capital city of Cairo is at the apex of the delta in the middle of the scene. Across the river from Cairo can be seen the three big pyramids and sphinx at Giza and the Suez Canal is just to the right of the delta.

  20. Dysgenic Fertility, Intelligence and Family Size in Libya

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Shahomee, Alsedig Abdalgadr; Lynn, Richard; Abdalla, Saleh El-ghmary

    2013-01-01

    The Standard Progressive Matrices (SPM) was administered to a sample of 592 16 year old school students in Libya. There was a small negative correlation of -0.14 between SPM scores and the number of siblings, indicating only marginal dysgenic fertility. Supplementary material giving the data is given online. (Contains 1 table.)

  1. Environmental Technological Education in a Developing Country--Libya.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walters, A. H.; And Others

    1981-01-01

    Presents an overview of environmental and developmental issues and concerns of Libya focusing on water resources, agriculture, and industrialization. Identifies the need for an environmental program coordinated by a council and for environmental technological education programs and materials specifically designed for Libyan students. (DC)

  2. Ancient Egypt: Personal Perspectives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolinski, Arelene

    This teacher resource book provides information on ancient Egypt via short essays, photographs, maps, charts, and drawings. Egyptian social and religious life, including writing, art, architecture, and even the practice of mummification, is conveniently summarized for the teacher or other practitioner in a series of one to three page articles with…

  3. Egypt's National Education Debate.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cook, Bradley James

    2000-01-01

    Examines the vigorous dialectic occurring among intellectuals, religious leaders, and politicians trying to define the appropriate role of Islam in Egyptian education. Discusses the call for the Islamization of education in contemporary Egypt, aspects of Islamic law, the position of the state on religious education, and the influence of a small…

  4. Language Treatment in Egypt.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jernudd, Bjorn H.; Garrison, Gary L.

    This is a collection of eight essays dealing with various aspects of language treatment in Egypt. The first essay attempts a tentative typology characterizing the role of the Arabic language as a unifying or divisive force within and among the countries in which it is spoken as a native language. This essay also makes some initial reflections on…

  5. Cancers in Eastern Libya: First results from Benghazi Medical Center

    PubMed Central

    Bodalal, Zuhir; Azzuz, Raouf; Bendardaf, Riyad

    2014-01-01

    AIM: To study the pattern of cancer incidence and determine the incidence rates in Eastern Libya (for the first time in a decade). METHODS: A hospital-based registry of cancer patients was formed using records from the primary oncology center in eastern Libya - focusing on those diagnosed in the year 2012. RESULTS: The most common malignancies in men were cancers of the colon (22.3%, n = 90), lung (20.3%, n = 82), prostate (16.1%, n = 65), pancreas (4.2%, n = 17) and liver (4.2%, n = 17). For women, they were found to be cancers of the breast (41.5%, n = 213), colon (16.4%, n = 84), uterus (8%, n = 41), ovary (5.5%, n = 28) and pancreas (3.1%, n = 16). Additionally age-standardized rates (ASR) were determined for Libya. The different cities and towns in eastern Libya were compared for any variation. The city of Beida in particular was found to have a remarkably high incidence of gastric cancer. The different findings were discussed and comparisons were made with past literature as well as the incidence rates for neighbouring countries. The incidence rates given for the eastern region showed differences from previously reported values (i.e., the rate of colon cancer was the highest in North Africa whereas other malignancies occurred less frequently). Potential explanations for the urban-rural difference as well as the difference in incidence rates were put forth. The significance of this study is that it establishes a baseline of cancer incidence which should be the backbone for any future national cancer plan in Libya. CONCLUSION: Proper surveillance programs need to be in place and healthcare policy should be adjusted to take into account the more prevalent and pressing cancers in society. PMID:24876750

  6. Aqueous Alteration at a Delta in Eastern Libya Montes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bishop, Janice L.; Tirsch, Daniela; Tornabene, Livio L.; Seelos, Frank P.; Erkeling, Gino; Hiesinger, Harald; Jaumann, Ralf

    2015-04-01

    Libya Montes hosts ancient Noachian basalt altered by hydrothermal action from the Isidis impact, olivine- and pyroxene-bearing lavas from the Syrtis volcanic outflows, multiple craters that have excavated these geologic units, and numerous Hesperian-Amazonian-aged fluvial features that carved channels across the surface and may have transported material downward towards Isidis. Mineralogical analyses of a delta region in Eastern Libya Montes using recently available MTR3 CRISM images have revealed the presence of carbonate in additional to Al-, Fe-, and Mg-bearing phyllosilicates. We are investigating the origins of these aqueous components through stratigraphical and morphological analyses. We hypothesize that the carbonate and Fe/Mg-phyllosilicates are alteration products of the ancient basalt and that the Al-smectite formed as a result of the delta and more recent lacustrine or fluvial processes. The Al-smectite spectral features are most consistent with beidellite, which forms at elevated temperatures compared to montmorillonite. We seek to determine if the beidellite likely formed in warm delta waters or if it may have formed via burial diagenesis and was then excavated by the delta. Newly developed CRISM parameters are being utilized for analysis of the MTR3 versions of CRISM images FRT0000B0CB and FRT0001E2F2 in the fan and delta region of eastern Libya Montes. The MTR3 images feature joined short-wavelength and long-wavelength images and improved spectral signals through new atmospheric separation and noise removal techniques. This enables better detection of spectral signatures from small outcrops of aqueous components. We have placed these new CRISM mineral maps over HRSC stereo images to evaluate the stratigraphy of the aqueous components in relation to the ancient basalt and Syrtis lavas as in previous analyses of the central Libya Montes region. Coordinated CRISM-HiRISE views are expected to provide insights into the morphologies of the aqueous units

  7. Interaction between the North-West Sahara Aquifer and the seismically active intraplate Hun Graben Fault system, Libya

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamling, I. J.; Aoudia, A.

    2011-12-01

    The North-West Sahara Aquifer System (NWSAS) covers an area of ~1 million km2 spanning the countries of Algeria, Tunisia and Libya. The system is composed of two main aquifers, the Complexe Terminal (CT) and the deeper Continental Intercalaire (CI). Over the last ~40 years these aquifers have been increasingly exploited in order to provide water to these countries. There are estimated to be ~7000 drill sites across the aquifer, 4000 in Algeria, 2000 in Tunisia and a further ~1000 in Libya. Land subsidence, caused by anthropogenic activities such as groundwater pumping, is a global problem and has been observed in a number of places around the world. Here we investigate fault controlled subsidence related to the extraction of water in North Western Libya. Located ~600 km south east of Tripoli, the Hun Graben separates the Sirte Basin to the east from the Hamada al Hamra Platform to the west and lies on the eastern boundary of the North-West Sahara Aquifer System (NWSAS). The graben is composed of two border faults extending for ~130 km from the town of Hun to the north west. These faults, bounding the eastern and western margins of the graben, are known to be seismically active and were responsible for the magnitude 7.1 earthquake in 1935. Due to the lack of ground based instrumentation, there are currently no estimates of slip along these structures. Here we use ERS and Envisat SAR images acquired over the last 20 years and form a number of interferograms to study interseismic strain accumulation along these structures. Satellite Radar Interferometry (InSAR) is a widely used technique for monitoring deformation of the Earth's surface. By differencing the phase from two radar images acquired at different times, maps of range change between the radar and ground can be obtained with millimetre precision. Our analysis over the graben suggests that neither of the two border faults are actively deforming and therefore the causes of intraplate large earthquakes such as

  8. Assessment of the Spectral Stability of Libya 4, Libya 1, and Mauritania 2 Sites Using Earth Observing One Hyperion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Choi, Taeyoung; Xiong, Xiaoxiong; Angal, Amit; Chander, Gyanesh; Qu, John J.

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to formulate a methodology to assess the spectral stability of the Libya 4, Libya 1, and Mauritania 2 pseudo-invariant calibration sites (PICS) using Earth Observing One (EO-1) Hyperion sensor. All the available Hyperion collections, downloaded from the Earth Explorer website, were utilized for the three PICS. In each site, a reference spectrum is selected at a specific day in the vicinity of the region of interest (ROI) defined by Committee on Earth Observation Satellites (CEOS). A series of ROIs are predefined in the along-track direction with 196 spectral top-of-atmosphere reflectance values in each ROI. Based on the reference ROI spectrum, the spectral stability of these ROIs is evaluated by average deviations (ADs) and spectral angle mapper (SAM) methods in the specific ranges of time and geo-spatial locations. Time and ROI location-dependent SAM and AD results are very stable within +/- 2 deg and +/-1.7% of 1sigma standard deviations. Consequently, the Libya 4, Mauritania 2, and Libya 1 CEOS selected PICS are spectrally stable targets within the time and spatial swath ranges of the Hyperion collections.

  9. Oil and gas developments in North Africa in 1985

    SciTech Connect

    Michel, R.C.

    1986-10-01

    Petroleum rights in the 6 North African countries (Algeria, Egypt, Libya, Morocco, Sudan, and Tunisia) covered in this paper were 1,839,817 km/sup 2/ at the end of 1985, a decrease of 3% from the 1,896,446 km/sup 2/ held at the end of 1984. This decrease mainly is due to significant relinquishments made in Algeria, Egypt, and Tunisia. Morocco, however, had an increase of 18,087 km/sup 2/. Oil discoveries were reported in Algeria (possibly 5), Libya (at least 2), and Egypt (16). Only 1 gas find was made (in Morocco). According to sparse information, development drilling may have decreased markedly during 1985. Oil and condensate production increased by 3.1% to approximately 3,054,000 b/d compared to about 2,963,400 b/d in 1984. No statistics are currently available on gas production in North Africa. 8 figures, 27 tables.

  10. [Medical education in Egypt].

    PubMed

    Barnard, H

    2002-06-15

    Modern medical training in Egypt was started by Antoine Clot Bey in 1837 and became part of the university programme in 1919. At present, it comprises six years of university education, followed by one year of internships and one year of compulsory employment with a state-owned hospital. There are now 13 medical faculties in Egypt, using three different curricula: traditional, Islamic and innovative. Their implementation is hampered by the large number of students (15,500 men and 7500 women), the low salaries and motivation of the instructors, the teaching in English rather than Arabic and the lack of recent study materials. It is therefore rather difficult to compare the effectiveness of the Egyptian system with that in the Netherlands. Due partly to the differences in language and culture, Dutch authorities are reluctant to recognise Egyptian medical diplomas. PMID:12092309

  11. Oral health in Libya: addressing the future challenges.

    PubMed

    Peeran, Syed Wali; Altaher, Omar Basheer; Peeran, Syed Ali; Alsaid, Fatma Mojtaba; Mugrabi, Marei Hamed; Ahmed, Aisha Mojtaba; Grain, Abdulgader

    2014-01-01

    Libya is a vast country situated in North Africa, having a relatively better functioning economy with a scanty population. This article is the first known attempt to review the current state of oral health care in Libya and to explore the present trends and future challenges. Libyan health system, oral health care, and human resources with the present status of dental education are reviewed comprehensively. A bibliographic study of oral health research and publications has been carried out. The results point toward a common indicator that oral health-related research is low. Strategies have to be developed to educate the medical and dental professionals, to update the current curriculum and enable the system to be competent in all aspects of oral health care management. PMID:24666627

  12. Oral health in Libya: addressing the future challenges

    PubMed Central

    Peeran, Syed Wali; Altaher, Omar Basheer; Peeran, Syed Ali; Alsaid, Fatma Mojtaba; Mugrabi, Marei Hamed; Ahmed, Aisha Mojtaba; Grain, Abdulgader

    2014-01-01

    Libya is a vast country situated in North Africa, having a relatively better functioning economy with a scanty population. This article is the first known attempt to review the current state of oral health care in Libya and to explore the present trends and future challenges. Libyan health system, oral health care, and human resources with the present status of dental education are reviewed comprehensively. A bibliographic study of oral health research and publications has been carried out. The results point toward a common indicator that oral health–related research is low. Strategies have to be developed to educate the medical and dental professionals, to update the current curriculum and enable the system to be competent in all aspects of oral health care management. PMID:24666627

  13. The application of GIS in identifying mineral resources in Libya

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rekhibi, Soliman; Wadi, Monira; Said, Ali

    2012-04-01

    In any country, natural mineral resources are considered the back-bone for the development of the industry and the country's economical growth. Exploration and mining for mineral ores and manufacturing and marketing these ores will add value to the country's national income. Geographic Information Systems (GIS) technology has an advantage over other information systems because it combines the conventional query operations with the ability to display and analyze spatial data from maps, satellite imagery, and aerial photography. Knowing the importance of mineral ores as a pilar of the economy this paper concentrates on mineral resources in Libya. Geographic information systems (GIS) was used for identifying mineral resources in Libya. Geodatabases were designed and all available information were stored in these geodatabases. The information was collected from scientific researchers, and geological and mining studies. The database also, included the Libyan international boundaries, the administrative boundaries and the oil and gas fields and pipelines, and such maps as geophysical and geological maps. Thus a comprehensive database was created containing all the information available concerning mineral resources in Libya.

  14. Implementation of geodetic networks in northern Algeria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lammali, K. L.

    2009-04-01

    Northern Algeria, located along the Eurasiatic-African boundary plate is characterised by a moderate to strong seismic activity. During History, some violent earthquakes occurred mainly in the Atlas region, particularly in the Tellian area, leading sometimes to destruction of major cities of Algeria (Algiers, 1716; Oran, 1790; Blida, 1825…). In order to improve the knowledge of the deformation pattern of the Atlasic region, and more globally of the African-Eurasiatic plate boundary along the Algerian margin, the Research Center of Astronomy, Astrophysics and Geophysics (CRAAG) started since two year to implement two major projects: - The REGAT (REseau Géodésique de l'Atlas), consists on a set of 20 continuous GPS stations deployed in the Atlas region, from the coastal area to the Sahara Platform. At this time, fourteen stations have been already installed. The first stations (Algiers-Bouzaréah, Tamanrasset…) of this basic network are producing data since 3 years. First time series are analysed. In 2009, it is projected to extend this network by another set of 50 stations. - The second project consisting in deployment semi permanent GPS networks around four seismogenic basins and active fault areas. Many surveys have been already carried out in the following region. 1) Oran region, west Algeria 2) The Chelif basin (El Asnam region) 3) The Mitidja basin (from Tipaza to Dellys) 4) The Ain Smara (Constantine region) and Sigus (Guelma) faulting In other hand, levelling measurements have been made around the El Asnam seismogenic fault responsible of the important earthquake of October 10 th, 1980 (M:7.3)

  15. 3 CFR - Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to Libya

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 3 The President 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to Libya Presidential Documents Other Presidential Documents Notice of February 23, 2012 Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to Libya On February 25, 2011, by Executive Order 13566, I declared a national emergency pursuant to...

  16. 78 FR 11547 - Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to Libya

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-15

    ..., February 13, 2013. [FR Doc. 2013-03809 Filed 2-14-13; 11:15 am] Billing code 3295-F3 ... Emergency With Respect to Libya #0; #0; #0; Presidential Documents #0; #0; #0;#0;Federal Register / Vol. 78... ] Notice of February 13, 2013 Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to Libya On February...

  17. 3 CFR - Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to Libya

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 3 The President 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to Libya Presidential Documents Other Presidential Documents Notice of February 13, 2013 Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to Libya On February 25, 2011, by Executive Order 13566, I declared a national emergency pursuant to...

  18. [Sexuality in Ancient Egypt].

    PubMed

    Androutsos, G; Marketos, S

    1994-10-01

    The present article explores the sexuality in ancient Egypt. In particular in this article are presented the ways of concubinage (marriage, concubinage, adultery), the incest, loves of the pharaohs and of the common people, the freedom of choice in garments, the status of the hetairas and of the whores, the sexual perversions (male and female homosexuality, necrophilia, sodomism, bestiality, rape, masturbation, exhibitionism), the operations of the genitals (circumcision, excision, castration) and finally the level of knowledge in gynaecology, fertility, contraception and obstetrics that even today demands our admiration. PMID:7858632

  19. Egypt at the crossroads.

    PubMed

    Hinrichsen, D

    1992-01-01

    Egypt is the location of the 1994 International Population and Development Conference. Conditions in Egypt due to expected population growth rates are anticipated as headed for "ecological breakdown." There is loss of prime agricultural land to urban expansion and difficulties in providing employment and vital services. The fertility decline to 4 children/family is still inadequate to meet resource needs; a 2-child family norm must be adopted because the country can barely meet the needs of 90 million people. Cairo is becoming a mega-city of squatter settlements and slums. Population densities approach 140,000/sq. kilometers. The family planning (FP) program receives top political support. The contraceptive prevalence rate has risen to just over 50%, a 10% increase since 1988. Egypt is the first Muslim country to surpass the 50% mark. Credit for this accomplishment is given to public information and education campaigns to reduce family size, expansion of maternal and child health services and FP, the cooperation of Muslim clerics, and better educated women. Nongovernmental organizations have played an active role in FP. The future challenge is to improve services and outreach and keep up with demand. Attitudes in rural areas have changed, so that desiring children to help with farm work is the exception. Progress on arresting environmental destruction has not been as successful. There are still poor irrigation practices. The breadbasket the Nile River sustained no longer exists; Egypt is a net importer of food. Water shortages and water quality limit productivity. 57.2 billion cu. meters out of 58.4 billion cu. meters of freshwater available from the Nile River are used primarily for irrigation of the 17.6 million hectares of agricultural land along the river and its delta. Salts have polluted the river from fertilizers and pesticides and municipal and industrial wastes. Industrial dumping is illegal, but continues. Treatment plants are inadequate and water pipes

  20. Subsidence history in basins of northern Algeria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bracene, Rabah; Patriat, Martin; Ellouz, Nadine; Gaulier, Jean-Michel

    2003-02-01

    The Tellian foreland in Algeria represents a part of the southern Tethyan margin during the Mesozoic. Its tectonic evolution includes a rifting stage during the Triassic and Liassic times characterised by tilted blocks and early diapiric events during the Liassic, a post-rift regime from Middle Jurassic up to the Late Cretaceous and basin inversion during the Tertiary related to the African and European plates convergence. The subsidence modelling supported by surface and subsurface data integration emphasises different subsidence phases. Liassic subsidence phase under Tethyan and Atlantic control related to crustal thinning. Late Jurassic, Cretaceous and Tertiary subsidence phases, where the first one is linked to diapiric events and the second in eastern Algeria to the effects of the rifting event developed more easterly in the Gulf of Gabès and Sirte. The last one is flexural and occurs in foreland basins during the Tertiary. Taking into account the subsidence record of each structural domain, a correlation between tectonic events and the subsidence phases can be established.

  1. New Apterodontinae (Hyaenodontida) from the Eocene Locality of Dur At-Talah (Libya): Systematic, Paleoecological and Phylogenetical Implications

    PubMed Central

    Grohé, Camille; Morlo, Michael; Chaimanee, Yaowalak; Blondel, Cécile; Coster, Pauline; Valentin, Xavier; Salem, Mustapha; Bilal, Awad A.; Jaeger, Jean-Jacques; Brunet, Michel

    2012-01-01

    The African Hyaenodontida, mainly known from the Late Eocene and Early Oligocene Fayum depression in Egypt, show a very poor diversity in oldest Paleogene localities. Here we report new hyaenodontidans found in the late Middle Eocene deposits of Dur At-Talah (Central Libya), known to have recorded the earliest radiation of African anthropoids. The new hyaenodontidan remains are represented by dental and postcranial specimens comprising the historical material discovered by R.J.G. Savage in the last century and that of the recent Franco-Libyan campaigns. This material includes two apterodontines, in particular a subcomplete skeleton of Apterodon langebadreae nov. sp., bringing new postcranial elements to the fossil record of the genus Apterodon. Anatomical analysis of the postcranial remains of Dur At-Talah suggests a semi-aquatic lifestyle for Apterodon, a completely unusual locomotion pattern among hyaenodontidans. We also perform the first cladistic analysis of hyaenodontidans including apterodontines: Apterodon and Quasiapterodon appear close relatives to “hyainailourines”, in particular to the African Oligo-Miocene Metasinopa species. Apterodon langebadreae nov. sp. could be the most primitive species of the genus, confirming an African origin of the Apterodontinae and a further dispersion event to Europe before the early Oligocene. These data enhance our knowledge of early hyaenodontidan diversification into Africa and underline how crucial is the understanding of their evolutionary history for the improvement of Paleogene paleobiogeographic scenarii. PMID:23185292

  2. Organ transplantation in Egypt.

    PubMed

    Paris, Wayne; Nour, Bakr

    2010-09-01

    Concern has increasingly been expressed about the growing number of reports of medical personnel participating in the transplantation of human organs or tissues taken from the bodies of executed prisoners, handicapped patients, or poor persons who have agreed to part with their organs for commercial purposes. Such behavior has been universally considered as ethically and morally reprehensible, yet in some parts of the world the practice continues to flourish. The concept of justice demands that every person have an equal right to life, and to protect this right, society has an obligation to ensure that every person has equal access to medical care. Regrettably, the Egyptian system does not legally recognize brain death and continues to allow the buying and selling of organs. For more than 30 years in Egypt, the ability to pay has determined who receives an organ and economic need has determined who will be the donor. As transplant professionals, it is important that we advocate on behalf of all patients, potential recipients, and donors and for those who are left out and not likely to receive a donor organ in an economically based system. Current issues associated with this debate are reviewed and recommendations about how to address them in Egypt are discussed. PMID:20929113

  3. Paleocene stratigraphy in Egypt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farouk, Sherif

    2016-01-01

    The Egyptian Paleocene is widely distributed with vertical and lateral facies changes geographically separated and subject to different tectonic and sedimentary regimes. Five coeval facies associations of the Paleocene outcrops are identified and named from south to north: Garra El-Arbain, Nile Valley, Farafra, Sinai, and Southern Galala. Ten Paleocene third-order depositional sequences (Ds Da1 to Ds Th9) are tentatively distinguished in Egypt. These are bounded at their base and top by ten sequence boundaries (Eg.Da-1, Eg.Da-2, Eg.Da-3, Eg.Da-4, Eg.Da-5, Eg.Da-6, Eg.Se-7, Eg.Th.-8, Eg.Th.-9, and Eg.Eo-10). The relative ages and correlation of the Paleocene depositional sequences are based on planktonic foraminiferal biostratigraphy. Comparison of identified Paleocene sequences in and outside Egypt are referred to eustatic sea-level changes and partly to regional tectonics events, which have caused hiatuses of variable durations and different configurations of Paleocene sedimentary regimes from place to place.

  4. Transect workshop held in Egypt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barazangi, Muawia

    A workshop on the progress of the Global Geoscience Transects (GGT) project in the Middle East and Africa (see maps) was held January 15-17 in Cairo, Egypt. (Transect plans in the region have been described in Eos, 69, p. 124). It was jointly organized and funded by the Egyptian National Committee of Geodesy and Geophysics and the International Lithosphere Program coordinating Committee CC-7 of GGT. A. Ashour of Cairo University, Egypt, chaired the workshop; the general secretary was S. Riad of Assiut University, Egypt, who was responsible for most of the organization, scheduling and implementation of the workshop.

  5. Cervical cancer in north-eastern Libya: 2000-2008.

    PubMed

    Ben Khaial, F; Bodalal, Z; Elramli, A; Elkhwsky, F; Eltaguri, A; Bendardaf, R

    2014-08-01

    Libya is a country with a low population, listed under the EMRO. Using registers and patient records from a major primary oncology clinic, data was gathered from Libyan cervical cancer patients and various parameters were studied across 9 years. Out of 4,090 female cancer cases during the study period, 1.8% were cervical cancer (n = 74). The average age of presentation was 53 years, with most of the cases (60%, n = 44) being premenopausal. Approximately 65% (n = 48) of cervical cancer patients are diagnosed at later stages (i.e. stages III and IV). The majority of these cases are squamous cell carcinoma (83.8%, n = 62), while 16.2% (n = 12) were found to be adenocarcinoma. Patients with squamous cell carcinoma presented at later stages more often than those with adenocarcinoma. Human papilloma virus was strongly implicated in cervical cancer, with 94% (n = 63) of those who were tested being positive for HPV-16 (82.5%, n = 52) and HPV-18 (12.7%, n = 8). Diagnosis was most frequently made through biopsy (97.3%, n = 72) as opposed to Pap smears (2.7%, n = 2). Most Libyan patients were put through chemotherapy (75%, n = 55) and triple therapy (surgery with combined chemotherapy and radiotherapy) was the most common (38%, n = 28) modality of treatment. Comparisons were made between Libya and other nations, either in the developed world or neighbouring countries. The major problem of cervical cancer in Libya is delayed presentation and hence, all the recommendations focus on increased awareness for the populace, implementation of a national cancer control plan and a national screening programme. PMID:24800833

  6. Paternal lineages in Libya inferred from Y-chromosome haplogroups.

    PubMed

    Triki-Fendri, Soumaya; Sánchez-Diz, Paula; Rey-González, Danel; Ayadi, Imen; Carracedo, Ángel; Rebai, Ahmed

    2015-06-01

    Many studies based on genetic diversity of North African populations have contributed to elucidate the modelling of the genetic landscape in this region. North Africa is considered as a distinct spatial-temporal entity on geographic, archaeological, and historical grounds, which has undergone the influence of different human migrations along its shaping. For instance, Libya, a North African country, was first inhabited by Berbers and then colonized by a variety of ethnic groups like Phoenicians, Greeks, Romans, Arabs and, in recent times, Italians. In this study, we contribute to clarify the genetic variation of Libya and consequently, of North African modern populations, by the study of Libyan male lineages. A total of 22 Y-chromosome-specific SNPs were genotyped in a sample of 175 Libyan males, allowing the characterization of 18 Y-chromosomal haplogroups. The obtained data revealed a predominant Northwest African component represented by haplogroup E-M81 (33.7%) followed by J(xJ1a,J2)-M304 (27.4%), which is postulated to have a Middle Eastern origin. The comparative study with other populations (∼5,400 individuals from North Africa, Middle East, Sub-Saharan Africa, and Europe) revealed a general genetic homogeneity among North African populations (FST = 5.3 %; P-value < 0.0001). Overall, the Y-haplogroup diversity in Libya and in North Africa is characterized by two genetic components. The first signature is typical of Berber-speaking people (E-M81), the autochthonous inhabitants, whereas the second is (J(xJ1a,J2)-M304), originating from Arabic populations. This is in agreement with the hypothesis of an Arabic expansion from the Middle East, shaping the North African genetic landscape. PMID:25677690

  7. Rota Viral Infection: A Significant Disease Burden to Libya

    PubMed Central

    ALKOSHI, Salem; ERNST, Kacey; MAIMAITI, Namaitijiang; DAHLUI, Maznah

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Background Rotavirus is a common infection causing 450,000 deaths annually primarily in children 5 years and below. Despite the high burden of disease, little is known about the epidemiology of rotavirus in Libya. The aim of this study was to estimate the rotavirus disease burden among Libyan children. Methods A cross-sectional study was carried out prospectively among children 5 years old and below between August 2012 and April 2013. Stool samples of children with diarrhea attending the outpatient department or admitted to the pediatric wards, at three public hospitals within the northwestern region of Libya were tested for rotavirus. The seasonality, symptomology demographics and outcomes of rotavirus cases were determined and compared to other diarrhea illnesses. An estimated incidence rate per 100,000 children aged 5 years and below was determined. Results A total of 545 children with diarrhea were identified for participation. Results of rotavirus immunoassays determined 57% of cases were caused by rotavirus. Inpatients were more likely to be rotavirus positive than outpatients (58% vs. 53%, P<0.05), Most rotavirus positive cases (86%) were found among children below 2 years of age. Rotaviral cases peaked in the winter, constituting 76% of diarrheal illness in February and very few rotavirus cases in the summer months. The incidence rate of rotavirus diarrhea was estimated at 640/100,000 children aged 5 years and below. Conclusion Rotavirus infection poses a significant disease burden in Libya. Preventive measures such as proper hygiene should be emphasized. Introduction of vaccination against rotavirus into the national immunization program should be examined, as it would likely be a cost-effective investment. PMID:26060697

  8. Prevalence of hydatid cysts in slaughtered animals in Sirte, Libya.

    PubMed

    Kassem, Hamed H; Abdel-Kader, Abdel-Kader M; Nass, Sedigh Ahmed

    2013-04-01

    The prevalence of cystic echinococcosis was studied among the livestock slaughtered in abattoir of Sirte, Libya during the period July 2004 to May 2005. The overall infection rate of 4.9% in sheep, 2.4% in goats, 2.7% in camels and 15% in cattle were observed. The increase in prevalence with age of the animals was statistically significant in the four species. In female goats, examined infection was higher in the male. Liver had higher hydatid cysts than lungs in sheep, goat while infected lungs had higher in camel. PMID:23697014

  9. Oil and gas developments in North Africa in 1986

    SciTech Connect

    Michel, R.C.

    1987-10-01

    Licensed oil acreage in the 6 North Africa countries (Algeria, Egypt, Libya, Morocco, Sudan and Tunisia) totaled 1,500,000 km/sup 2/ at the end of 1986, down 290,000 km/sup 2/ from 1985. About 50% of the relinquishments were in Libya. Most oil and gas discoveries were made in Egypt (16 oil and 2 gas). Several oil finds were reported in onshore Libya, and 1 was reported in Algeria in the southeastern Sahara. According to available statistics, development drilling decreased from 1985 levels, except in Tunisia. A 6.3% decline in oil production took place in 1986, falling below the 3 million bbl level (2,912,000 b/d). Only sparse data are released on the gas output in North Africa. 6 figures, 27 tables.

  10. Prevalence of equine viral arteritis in Algeria.

    PubMed

    Laabassi, F; Amelot, G; Laugier, C; Zientara, S; Nasri, A M; Hans, A

    2014-12-01

    In order to determine the prevalence of equine viral arteritis in Algeria, 268 sera from non-vaccinated horses were collected from the western and eastern regions. Serological analysis of the sera, which were collected from 2009 to 2011, was performed using the virus neutralisation test, as described by the World Organisation for Animal Health. Overall, 20 sera (7.46%) were seropositive, 152 (56.71%) were negative and 96 sera (35.82%) were cytotoxic. Equine arteritis virus (EAV) seroprevalence was significantly higher in the western region (Tiaret) than in the eastern region (Barika and El-Eulma). Interestingly, more than 20% of the tested horses over 16 years old were seropositive for EAV. However, EAV prevalence did not depend on either horse breed or horse gender. This study is the first to describe the circulation of EAV in the Algerian horse population. PMID:25812220

  11. Environmental health in Egypt.

    PubMed

    Anwar, Wagida A

    2003-08-01

    Egypt shares most of the environmental problems of developing countries. One of the most important health and environmental problems is air pollution resulting from using fuel, burning operations, and the increase of automobile exhaust in cities. Moreover, the deficiency of efficient sanitation services and water pollution caused by the breaking down of old and consumed water networks, as well as the various problems in construction, designing and maintenance of sewage system resulted in the appearance and prevalence of communicable and non-communicable diseases. There are several examples of exposure to chemical genotoxicants, and lifestyle exposures in the population, which create unique combinations of environmental risk factors for diseases such as cancer. Environmental factors may interact with infection and lead to enhancement of carcinogenicity processes. Currently, there is a growing interest in environmental mutagenicity and carcinogenicity research. The use of different biomarkers and genetic susceptibility testing can contribute effectively to risk assessment. The Government of Egypt recognizes and deals seriously with these problems. The State Ministry of Environment has initiated new policies that include risk minimization, law enforcement, treatment of pollution at source, mitigation procedures and inter-sectorial collaboration. The Ministry of Health and Population recognized the link between economic development, environment and health. It elaborated a national environment health strategy in accordance with the format of the regional and global environmental health policy. This strategy identified priority areas, which requires further action to be taken and to be implemented. Environmental health was included as one of the four main objectives of the strategic Healthy Egyptians 2010 Initiative. Specific objectives and plans for the initiative are presented. PMID:12971689

  12. Geology, Murzuk oil development could boost S. W. Libya prospects

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, D. )

    1995-03-06

    With the recent involvement of Repsol, Total, and OMV in developing the 2 billion bbl oil-in-place Murzuk field complex, an infrastructure will be finally constructed in western Libya which will act as a precursor to more exploration activity and development projects in the Murzuk and Ghadames basins. Murzuk, an intra-cratonic sag basin, is a huge ladle-shaped structural basin covering more than 400,000 sq km and extending beyond the borders of southern Libya. The structure of the area is quite simple. The sub-horizontal or gently dipping strata are faulted and the faults are most frequently parallel to the anticlinal axis. Tectonic movements affected the basin to a greater or lesser degree from early Paleozoic (Caledonian) to post-Eocene (Alpine) times. The paper describes the exploration history; stratigraphy; the Ordovician, Silurian and Devonian, and Carboniferous reservoirs; source rocks; oil gravity and gas content; hydrogeologic constraints; aquifer influence on hydrocarbon accumulation; geologic structures; Murzuk field development; and acreage availability.

  13. 76 FR 30001 - Amendment to the International Traffic in Arms Regulations: Libya

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-24

    ...The Department of State is amending the International Traffic in Arms Regulations (ITAR) to update the policy regarding Libya to reflect the United Nations Security Council arms embargoes adopted in February and...

  14. Seismic hazard studies in Egypt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohamed, Abuo El-Ela A.; El-Hadidy, M.; Deif, A.; Abou Elenean, K.

    2012-12-01

    The study of earthquake activity and seismic hazard assessment of Egypt is very important due to the great and rapid spreading of large investments in national projects, especially the nuclear power plant that will be held in the northern part of Egypt. Although Egypt is characterized by low seismicity, it has experienced occurring of damaging earthquake effect through its history. The seismotectonic sitting of Egypt suggests that large earthquakes are possible particularly along the Gulf of Aqaba-Dead Sea transform, the Subduction zone along the Hellenic and Cyprean Arcs, and the Northern Red Sea triple junction point. In addition some inland significant sources at Aswan, Dahshour, and Cairo-Suez District should be considered. The seismic hazard for Egypt is calculated utilizing a probabilistic approach (for a grid of 0.5° × 0.5°) within a logic-tree framework. Alternative seismogenic models and ground motion scaling relationships are selected to account for the epistemic uncertainty. Seismic hazard values on rock were calculated to create contour maps for four ground motion spectral periods and for different return periods. In addition, the uniform hazard spectra for rock sites for different 25 periods, and the probabilistic hazard curves for Cairo, and Alexandria cities are graphed. The peak ground acceleration (PGA) values were found close to the Gulf of Aqaba and it was about 220 gal for 475 year return period. While the lowest (PGA) values were detected in the western part of the western desert and it is less than 25 gal.

  15. Mesozoic rift basins in western desert of Egypt, their southern extension and impact on future exploration

    SciTech Connect

    Taha, M.A. )

    1988-08-01

    Rift basins are a primary target of exploration in east, central, and west Africa. These intracratonic rift basins range in age from the Triassic to the Neogene and are filled with lagoonal-lacustrine sand-shale sequences. Several rift basins may be present in the Western Desert of Egypt. In the northeastern African platform, the Mesozoic Tethyan strand lines were previously interpreted to have limited southern extension onto the continent. This concept, based upon a relatively limited amount of subsurface data, has directed and focused the exploration for oil and gas to the northernmost 120 km of the Western Desert of Egypt. Recent well and geophysical data indicate a southerly extension of mesozoic rift basins several hundred kilometers inland from the Mediterranean Sea. Shushan/Faghur and Abu Gharadig/Bahrein basins may represent subparallel Mesozoic basins, trending northeast-southwest. Marine Oxfordian-Kimmeridgian sediments were recently reported from wells drilled approximately 500 km south of the present-day Mediterranean shoreline. The link of these basins with the Sirte basin to the southwest in Libya is not well understood. Exploration is needed to evaluate the hydrocarbon potential of such basins.

  16. Emergence of foot-and-mouth disease virus SAT 2 in Egypt during 2012.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, H A; Salem, S A H; Habashi, A R; Arafa, A A; Aggour, M G A; Salem, G H; Gaber, A S; Selem, O; Abdelkader, S H; Knowles, N J; Madi, M; Valdazo-González, B; Wadsworth, J; Hutchings, G H; Mioulet, V; Hammond, J M; King, D P

    2012-12-01

    The epidemiology of foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) in North Africa is complicated by the co-circulation of endemic FMD viruses (FMDV), as well as sporadic incursions of exotic viral strains from the Middle East and Sub-Saharan Africa. This report describes the molecular characterization of SAT 2 FMD viruses that have caused widespread field outbreaks of FMD in Egypt during February and March 2012. Phylogenetic analysis showed that viruses from these outbreaks fell into two distinct lineages within the SAT 2 topotype VII, which were distinct from a contemporary SAT 2 lineage of the same toptype from Libya. These were the first FMD outbreaks due to this serotype in Egypt since 1950 and required the development of a tailored real-time reverse-transcription PCR assay that can be used in the laboratory to distinguish FMD viruses of these lineages from other endemic FMD viruses that might be present in North Africa. These data highlight the ease by which FMDV can cross international boundaries and emphasize the importance of deploying systems to continuously monitor the global epidemiology of this disease. PMID:23025522

  17. Solar Energy for Rural Egypt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdelsalam, Tarek I.; Darwish, Ziad; Hatem, Tarek M.

    Egypt is currently experiencing the symptoms of an energy crisis, such as electricity outage and high deficit, due to increasing rates of fossil fuels consumption. Conversely, Egypt has a high solar availability of more than 18.5 MJ daily. Additionally, Egypt has large uninhabited deserts on both sides of the Nile valley and Sinai Peninsula, which both represent more than 96.5 % of the nation's total land area. Therefore, solar energy is one of the promising solutions for the energy shortage in Egypt. Furthermore, these vast lands are advantageous for commissioning large-scaled solar power projects, not only in terms of space availability, but also of availability of high quality silicon (sand) required for manufacturing silicon wafers used in photovoltaic (PV) modules. Also, rural Egypt is considered market a gap for investors, due to low local competition, and numerous remote areas that are not connected to the national electricity grid. Nevertheless, there are some obstacles that hinder the progress of solar energy in Egypt; for instance, the lack of local manufacturing capabilities, security, and turbulent market in addition to other challenges. This paper exhibits an experience of the authors designing and installing decentralized PV solar systems, with a total rated power of about 11 kW, installed at two rural villages in at the suburbs of Fayoum city, in addition to a conceptual design of a utility scale, 2 MW, PV power plant to be installed in Kuraymat. The outcomes of this experience asserted that solar PV systems can be a more technically and economically feasible solution for the energy problem in rural villages.

  18. A survey of mites on farm animals in Libya.

    PubMed

    Gabaj, M M; Beesley, W N; Awan, M A

    1992-10-01

    In 1985-1988, 2287 farm animals (cattle, camels, sheep, goats, horses, donkeys, dogs and rabbits) suspected of carrying parasitic mites were examined at 58 farms throughout Libya. Mites were identified on 1303 of these animals. The commonest parasites on cattle were Psoroptes and Chorioptes, on camels and sheep were Sarcoptes and Psoroptes, and on goats were Sarcoptes and Demodex. Infested horses carrier Psoroptes or Chorioptes, and one donkey carried Sarcoptes. Otodectes was common on dogs, but Sarcoptes was rare and no Demodex were seen. Rabbits often had psoroptic ear mange or sarcoptic body mange. Dermanyssus gallinae and Ornithonyssus bursa were seen on chickens, but no mites were found on pigeons, ducks or turkeys. PMID:1288436

  19. Occurrence of Trichinella spp. in wild animals in northwestern Libya

    PubMed Central

    Hosni, M.M.; Maghrbi, A.A. El; Ganghish, K.S.

    2013-01-01

    The present study determined the occurrence of Trichinella spp. in captured and some perished wildlife animals which included 70 hedgehogs, 19 red foxes, 13 common jackals and 8 crested porcupines in northwestern Libya. Muscle samples of these animals were examined by trichinoscopy. Trichinella larvae were detected only in 4 (5.7%) of the hedgehogs (Erinaceus algirus) and 2 (10.5%) of the red foxes (Vulpes vulpes). Larvae were found in the muscles of the diaphragm, abdomen, tongue, forelimb, hindlimb and intercostal muscles. Examination of tissue sections revealed the presence of numerous cysts within the muscle fibers containing one or more coiled or elongated larvae. Inflammatory cell infiltration was observed around the cysts especially at their poles. Results indicated the importance of wild animals as reservoirs of Trichinella larvae and their role in the transmission of the disease to other wild and domestic animals as well as humans. PMID:26623318

  20. Occurrence of Trichinella spp. in wild animals in northwestern Libya.

    PubMed

    Hosni, M M; Maghrbi, A A El; Ganghish, K S

    2013-01-01

    The present study determined the occurrence of Trichinella spp. in captured and some perished wildlife animals which included 70 hedgehogs, 19 red foxes, 13 common jackals and 8 crested porcupines in northwestern Libya. Muscle samples of these animals were examined by trichinoscopy. Trichinella larvae were detected only in 4 (5.7%) of the hedgehogs (Erinaceus algirus) and 2 (10.5%) of the red foxes (Vulpes vulpes). Larvae were found in the muscles of the diaphragm, abdomen, tongue, forelimb, hindlimb and intercostal muscles. Examination of tissue sections revealed the presence of numerous cysts within the muscle fibers containing one or more coiled or elongated larvae. Inflammatory cell infiltration was observed around the cysts especially at their poles. Results indicated the importance of wild animals as reservoirs of Trichinella larvae and their role in the transmission of the disease to other wild and domestic animals as well as humans. PMID:26623318

  1. Ovine paratuberculosis: a confirmed case of Johne's disease in Libya.

    PubMed

    Sharif, M A M; Farhat, M E; Kraim, E S; Altrabulsi, N A; Kammon, A M; Dayhum, A S; Eldaghayes, I M

    2013-01-01

    Paratuberculosis (Johne's disease) was suspected in a herd of approximately 300 sheep after weight loss and scouring had increased in adult animals despite repeated treatment with anthelmintics, antibiotics, multivitamins and minerals. The herd is located near Tarhouna city. Herd history revealed that a total of 60 ewes showed clinical symptoms and deaths during the last two years. The last case that we attended was submitted to the National Center of Animal Health (NCAH) for a detailed laboratory examination. Gross pathological and histological examination of tissue samples revealed results that were highly comparable with Johne's disease. A definitive diagnosis was made only by histopathological identification of Mycobacterium paratuberculosis in the intestines using Ziehl-Neelsen stain. This is the first documented case of M. paratuberculosis in sheep in Libya. PMID:26623326

  2. [Urolithiasis in children in West Algeria].

    PubMed

    Harrache, D; Mesri, A; Addou, A; Semmoud, A; Lacour, B; Daudon, M

    1997-01-01

    We analyzed a series of 61 stones from children aged 3 to 14 years old using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The calculi were collected from urology departments of the University Hospitals of Oran, Sidi-Bel-Abbès and Mostaganem in West Algeria. This series is the first investigation concerning the composition of stones in children based on infrared analysis. Calculi were more frequent in males (75.4%) and mainly localized in the bladder (55.8%). Upper urinary tract calculi were more frequent in children over the age of 10 years, and the sex ratio was about 1. Calcium oxalate monohydrate was present in 70.5% of stones and was the main component in 50.8% of cases both in whole stones and nuclei. In contrast, calcium oxalate dihydrate was the main component in only 9.8% of calculi although it was present in 75.4% of stones. Ammonium urate was detected in 29.5% of stones and was always the main component of nuclei. Uric acid, observed in 31.1% of calculi, was the major constituent in 14.7% of stones and 19.7% of nuclei. Magnesium ammonium phosphate was observed in 24.6% of stones as a consequence of urinary tract infection by urea-splitting bacteria. Our observations emphasized that the anatomical location of stone and their composition were in accordance with those previously reported in other countries. PMID:9245253

  3. [Factitious lithiasis: Case report from Western Algeria].

    PubMed

    Chettouh-Harrache, Djamila; Amar, A; Taleb, S; Bouhacina, N; Auberthie, R

    2004-01-01

    A 19-year-old woman with recurrent lithiasis was admitted to the urology department for renal colic. Although radiologic examinations and laboratory tests were negative, the patient regularly brought into consultations small "stones", resembling gravel, that she said had been spontaneously expelled. These 42 samples were the object of a preliminary morphological analysis under a binocular magnifier to detect their particulate components. A non-metabolic origin was suspected from the organoleptic characteristics of their surfaces and sections. In view of the diversity of the materials of these apparently false calculi, methods of precise physical analysis were necessary to ascertain their exact origin and thereby confirm the diagnosis of factitious lithiasis. The use of two methods of physical analysis, infrared spectrophotometry and x-ray diffraction, enabled us to determine their exact chemical and mineralogical composition. The samples claimed to be of urinary origin actually consisted of exogenous products of various compositions. Some samples were made of pure calcite, others of mixed calcite and silicates. Moreover several samples of the patient's first morning urine showed no correlation between the nature of the crystalluria and the composition of these stones. These tests made it possible to direct the clinician towards useful complementary investigations. This strange case represents 0.1% of the urinary calculi analysed in Western Algeria. PMID:15745877

  4. Petroleum potential of the Reggane Basin, Algeria

    SciTech Connect

    Boudjema, A.; Hamel, M.; Mohamedi, A.; Lounissi, R. )

    1990-05-01

    The intracratonic Reggane basin is located on the Saharan platform, southwest of Algeria. The basin covers an area of approximately 140,000 km{sup 2}, extending between the Eglab shield in the south and the Ougarta ranges in the north. Although exploration started in the early 1950s, only a few wells were drilled in this basin. Gas was discovered with a number of oil shows. The sedimentary fill, mainly Paleozoic shales and sandstones, has a thickness exceeding 5,000 m in the central part of the basin. The reservoirs are Cambrian-Ordovician, Siegenian, Emsian, Tournaisian, and Visean sandstones with prospective petrophysical characteristics. Silurian Upper Devonian and, to a lesser extent Carboniferous shales are the main source rocks. An integrated study was done to assess the hydrocarbon potential of this basin. Tectonic evolution source rocks and reservoirs distribution maturation analyses followed by kinetic modeling, and hydrogeological conditions were studied. Results indicate that gas accumulations could be expected in the central and deeper part of the basin, and oil reservoirs could be discovered on the basin edge.

  5. The Methanol Poisoning Outbreaks in Libya 2013 and Kenya 2014

    PubMed Central

    Rostrup, Morten; Edwards, Jeffrey K.; Abukalish, Mohamed; Ezzabi, Masoud; Some, David; Ritter, Helga; Menge, Tom; Abdelrahman, Ahmed; Rootwelt, Rebecca; Janssens, Bart; Lind, Kyrre; Paasma, Raido; Hovda, Knut Erik

    2016-01-01

    Background Outbreaks of methanol poisoning occur frequently on a global basis, affecting poor and vulnerable populations. Knowledge regarding methanol is limited, likely many cases and even outbreaks go unnoticed, with patients dying unnecessarily. We describe findings from the first three large outbreaks of methanol poisoning where Médecins Sans Frontières (MSF) responded, and evaluate the benefits of a possible future collaboration between local health authorities, a Non-Governmental Organisation and international expertise. Methods Retrospective study of three major methanol outbreaks in Libya (2013) and Kenya (May and July 2014). Data were collected from MSF field personnel, local health personnel, hospital files, and media reports. Findings In Tripoli, Libya, over 1,000 patients were poisoned with a reported case fatality rate of 10% (101/1,066). In Kenya, two outbreaks resulted in approximately 341 and 126 patients, with case fatality rates of 29% (100/341) and 21% (26/126), respectively. MSF launched an emergency team with international experts, medications and equipment, however, the outbreaks were resolving by the time of arrival. Interpretation Recognition of an outbreak of methanol poisoning and diagnosis seem to be the most challenging tasks, with significant delay from time of first presentations to public health warnings being issued. In spite of the rapid response from an emergency team, the outbreaks were nearly concluded by the time of arrival. A major impact on the outcome was not seen, but large educational trainings were conducted to increase awareness and knowledge about methanol poisoning. Based on this training, MSF was able to send a local emergency team during the second outbreak, supporting that such an approach could improve outcomes. Basic training, simplified treatment protocols, point-of-care diagnostic tools, and early support when needed, are likely the most important components to impact the consequences of methanol poisoning

  6. Economic development, mobility and traffic accidents in Algeria.

    PubMed

    Bougueroua, M; Carnis, L

    2016-07-01

    The aim of this contribution is to estimate the impact of road economic conditions and mobility on traffic accidents for the case of Algeria. Using the cointegration approach and vector error correction model (VECM), we will examine simultaneously short term and long-term impacts between the number of traffic accidents, fuel consumption and gross domestic product (GDP) per capital, over the period 1970-2013. The main results of the estimation show that the number of traffic accidents in Algeria is positively influenced by the GDP per capita in the short and long term. It implies that a higher economic development worsens the road safety situation. However, the new traffic rules adopted in 2009 have an impact on the forecast trend of traffic accidents, meaning efficient public policy could improve the situation. This result calls for a strong political commitment with effective countermeasures for avoiding the further deterioration of road safety record in Algeria. PMID:27070081

  7. Alexandria (Al Iskandariya), Egypt

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    This image of Alexandria was taken by astronauts on board the International Space Station in December 2000 using an Electronic Still Camera. A wider-angle view (STS088-739-90) taken from the Space Shuttle in December 1998 is available for context. Alexandria (Al Iskandariya) occupies a T-shaped peninsula and strip of land separating the Mediterranean from Lake Mariout. Originally the town was built upon a mole (stone breakwater) called Heptastadium, which joined the island of Pharos (see referenced website, below) to the mainland. Since then sedimentary deposits have widened the mole. Since 1905, when the 370,000 Alexandrians lived in an area of about 4 sq km between the two harbors, the city (population 4 million; see referenced website, below) has grown beyond its medieval walls and now occupies an area of about 300 sq km. The Mahmudiya Canal, connecting Alexandria with the Nile, runs to the south of the city and, by a series of locks, enters the harbor of the principal port of Egypt (note ships). The reddish and ochre polygons west of Lake Mariout are salt-evaporation, chemical-storage, and water-treatment ponds within the coastal lagoon. Reference Youssef Halim and Fatma Abou Shouk, 2000, Human impacts on Alexandria's marine environment: UNESCO, Coastal Regions and Small Islands Unit (CSI), Coastal Management Sourcebooks 2 (accessed December 20, 2000) Additional photographs taken by astronauts can be viewed at NASA-JSC's Gateway to Astronaut Photography of Earth. Image ISS001-ESC-5025 provided by the Earth Sciences and Image Analysis Laboratory, Johnson Space Center.

  8. Abdominal Burkitt-type lymphomas in Algeria.

    PubMed Central

    Ladjadj, Y.; Philip, T.; Lenoir, G. M.; Tazerout, F. Z.; Bendisari, K.; Boukheloua, R.; Biron, P.; Brunat-Mentigny, M.; Aboulola, M.

    1984-01-01

    In a previous retrospective analysis from the principal paediatric centres of Algeria, Burkitt-type lymphomas (BL) were shown to account for around 46.5% of the total childhood non-Hodgkin's malignant lymphomas in that country. In the present study, a series of 49 abdominal BL from the Paediatric Clinic of Surgery, Mustapha Hospital, Algiers, has been studied. The age distribution shows a peak between 4 and 5 years of age, and the sex ratio is (M:F) 2.26:1. The disease is characterized by a rapid evolution in the absence of therapy. The major problem is an explosive form of the disease, which at present seems difficult to control in this country. Fifteen of the 49 patients (30.6%) died before completion of the first course of chemotherapy; however, complete remission (CR) was obtained for 30 patients (61%). Overall survival was 42.85% (21/49), whereas survival of patients who reached CR is 70% (21/30). When CR was obtained, deaths were related to cerebrospinal fluid involvement, local recurrence, secondary bone marrow involvement or therapeutic accidents. All patients alive with no evidence of disease (NED) 8-months after CR can be considered definitively cured. Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) serology performed on 31 BL patients and on a control group of 25 children with other malignant tumours showed that most Algerian BL have elevated EBV titres. A search for viral markers within malignant cells in 17 patients indicated that 88% (15/17) of the BL cases were EBV-associated. Analysis of the immunological and cytogenetic data showed that, as in the rest of the world, these BL cases involve proliferation of B-cell-type lymphocytes, with characteristic cytogenetic translocations involving chromosome 8. This report represents the most detailed description so far of BL from an area in non-equatorial Africa and the first report of a large series from North Africa. PMID:6324843

  9. Weathering of Ordinary Chondrites from Algeria and Australia as a Climatic Indicator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bland, P. A.; Berry, F. J.; Pillinger, C. T.

    1995-09-01

    Introduction: Recently it has been recognized that ordinary chondrite meteorites resident in desert regions may preserve information about the climate at the time of their arrival on Earth in the degree to which they are weathered [1], providing that a stable surface has existed at the accumulation site. We present here a comparison of ^57Fe Mossbauer spectroscopy data for additional meteorites for which terrestrial ages exist, recovered from Reg el Acfer, Algeria and the Nullarbor Region, Australia. Results and Discussion: The data presented in Fig. 1 compare abundance of ferric iron oxide/oxyhydroxide species against terrestrial age [2, 3] for ordinary chondrites from Australia (a) and Algeria (b). Even with an increased dataset for Australian meteorites (compared to that already presented [1]) the initial hypothesis remains intact i.e. meteorite weathering over time is sensitive to changes in climate. Peaks in oxidation at around 2,000, 7,000 and 23,000 years correspond to periods of speleothem formation [4] and high lake level status [5]. Similarly, a period of low oxidation between 12,000-20,000 years is mirrored in low lake level status [5] and aridity in the Nullarbor [6]. The mechanism by which meteorites may record palaeoclimatic information is given in [1]. A correlation that strengthens our case is that where data from both H and L(LL) chondrites are available (i.e. around 7,000-8,000 years) the two plots are similar, indicating a broadscale environmental effect. In contrast, the distribution for meteorites from the Acfer region appears to be more random, with no correlation between H and L(LL) data. The difference may be related to the stability of the respective accumulation surfaces. The surface of the Nullarbor appears to have been stable over the last 30,000 years [7]. The Algerian and Libyan Sahara, however, has experienced several episodes of active fluvial processes over the last 10,000 years [8] which may have profoundly effected the meteorites

  10. What Do Mobiles Speak in Algeria? Evidence from SMS Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mostari, Hind Amel

    2009-01-01

    When Algeria opened its markets to foreign investment starting from the early 2000s, a technological boom occurred, including the expansion of mobile phone use. New technologies have had a considerable impact on the Algerian diglossic situation, in recent decades, and have contributed in the democratisation of the local dialects, which are being…

  11. Pre-School Education in Morocco and Algeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bouzoubaa, Khadija; Benghabrit-Remaoun, Nouria

    2004-01-01

    This article is an analysis of the current state of early childhood care in the Maghreb, in particular in Morocco and Algeria, where the pre-schooling rate for 5-year-olds is on the increase. Extending pre-school infrastructures and the need to create unified curricula have been among the most urgent questions to be tackled over the last decade in…

  12. Short note: The track of a new cradle of mankind in Sahelo-Saharan Africa (Chad, Libya, Egypt, Cameroon)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brunet, Michel; MPFT

    2010-11-01

    This paper deals with the impact of the successive discovery of two early hominids from Mio-Pliocene of Chad ( Australopithecus bahrelghazali, nicknamed Abel dated to 3.5 Ma and Sahelanthropus tchadensis, nicknamed Toumaï dated to 7 Ma) on our understanding of how far back go the roots of mankind and what kind of environment they lived in. These discoveries introduce new geographic and phylogenetic paradigms to explain the African evolution of our prehuman ancestors.

  13. Application of the loss estimation tool QLARM in Algeria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosset, P.; Trendafiloski, G.; Yelles, K.; Semmane, F.; Wyss, M.

    2009-04-01

    During the last six years, WAPMERR has used Quakeloss for real-time loss estimation for more than 440 earthquakes worldwide. Loss reports, posted with an average delay of 30 minutes, include a map showing the average degree of damage in settlements near the epicenter, the total number of fatalities, the total number of injured, and a detailed list of casualties and damage rates in these settlements. After the M6.7 Boumerdes earthquake in 2003, we reported 1690-3660 fatalities. The official death toll was around 2270. Since the El Asnam earthquake, seismic events in Algeria have killed about 6,000 people, injured more than 20,000 and left more than 300,000 homeless. On average, one earthquake with the potential to kill people (M>5.4) happens every three years in Algeria. In the frame of a collaborative project between WAPMERR and CRAAG, we propose to calibrate our new loss estimation tool QLARM (qlarm.ethz.ch) and estimate human losses for future likely earthquakes in Algeria. The parameters needed for this calculation are the following. (1) Ground motion relation and soil amplification factors (2) distribution of building stock and population into vulnerability classes of the European Macroseismic Scale (EMS-98) as given in the PAGER database and (3) population by settlement. Considering the resolution of the available data, we construct 1) point city models for cases where only summary data for the city are available and, 2) discrete city models when data regarding city districts are available. Damage and losses are calculated using: (a) vulnerability models pertinent to EMS-98 vulnerability classes previously validated with the existing ones in Algeria (Tipaza and Chlef) (b) building collapse models pertinent to Algeria as given in the World Housing Encyclopedia and, (c) casualty matrices pertinent to EMS-98 vulnerability classes assembled from HAZUS casualty rates. As a first trial, we simulated the 2003 Boumerdes earthquake to check the validity of the proposed

  14. 76 FR 28503 - Identification of Three Entities as Government of Libya Entities Pursuant to Executive Order 13566

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-17

    ... Office of Foreign Assets Control Identification of Three Entities as Government of Libya Entities... Department's Office of Foreign Assets Control (``OFAC'') is publishing the names of three entities identified... Transactions Related to Libya.'' DATES: The identification by the Director of OFAC of the three...

  15. 76 FR 25783 - Identification of Thirty Entities as Governemnt of Libya Entities Pursuant to Executive Order 13566

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-05

    ...) 214446019; Fax No. (218) 213610306; Fax No. (218) 214448878 13. NATIONAL OIL CORPORATION (a.k.a. LIBYA NATIONAL OIL CORPORATION; a.k.a. LNOC; a.k.a. NATIONAL OIL CORPORATION--LIBYA; a.k.a. NOC), National Oil..., 2011 Identifications 1. ARABIAN GULF OIL COMPANY (a.k.a. AGOCO), AGOCO Building, P.O. Box 263, Al...

  16. A New Vision of Professional Development for University Teachers in Libya "It's Not an Event, It Is a Process"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suwaed, Hameda; Rahouma, Wesam

    2015-01-01

    Being a university teacher in the Libya is most of the time described as a challenge. In the case of the current unstable situation in Libya, the task is formidable in many cases. This paper investigates the challenges encountered by Alzawia university teachers in four colleges. It attempts to answer the following questions: what are the…

  17. First GNSS results in the Oran area (northwestern Algeria)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    bougrine, amina; Nocquet, Jean-Mathieu; Yelles-Chaouche, Abdelkarim; Lammali, Kamel; Bacha, Wahab; Terki, Toufik

    2016-04-01

    Sparse results along northern Algeria are so far available to better understand how Nubia/Eurasia convergence is accommodated in the western Mediterranean and quantitatively assess seismic potential in that area. In this study, we show new GNSS results in the Tellian atlas in western Algeria. The studied area encompasses the Mleta basin bordered in the north by the Murdjadjo range, which is thought to be the locus of the large 1790 earthquake (estimated magnitude 7.5 Bouhadad, 2001). This area includes the city of Oran, the second most populated city of Algeria. The GNSS network includes 18 sites, spanning 180km East-West along the coast of Algeria and 40 km inland, with inter-site distance of 15 km. It has been observed in 2008, 2012 and 2013 for enabling velocity to be estimated at the 1 mm/yr. GNSS Data have been processed using GAMIT/GLOBK software, together with 04 permanent sites in Algeria and 87 IGS sites surrounding the area of study. Uncertainties on campaign results have been rescaled according to the analysis of the nearby CGPS time series. The recorded seismicity and the obtained GNSS velocity field from the three campaigns with a five years span, indicate that this region is tectonically active and subjected to significant horizontal motions. A regional NW displacement of 2-4mm/yr in the Eurasia stable reference frame is consistent with the expected Nubia-Eurasia motion. The obtained velocity field in the Nubian fixed reference frame gives a slow strain rate less than 2mm/yr representing the strain rate accommodated across the Murdjadjo range and the different features around the Mlena basin.

  18. Safsaf Oasis, Egypt

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    These images show two views of a region of south-central Egypt, each taken by a different type of spaceborne sensor. On the left is an optical image from the Landsat Thematic Mapper, and on the right is a radar image from the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR). This comparison shows that the visible and infrared wavelengths of Landsat are only sensitive to the materials on the surface, while the radar wavelengths of SIR-C/X-SAR can penetrate the thin sand cover in this arid region to reveal details hidden below the surface. Field studies in this area indicate that the L-band radar can penetrate as much as 2 meters (6.5 feet) of very dry sand to image buried rock structures. Ancient drainage channels, shown at the bottom of this image, are filled with sand more than 2 meters (6.5 feet) thick and therefore appear dark because the radar waves cannot penetrate them. Only the most recently active channels are visible in the Landsat scene. Some geologic structures at the surface are visible in both images. However, many buried features, such as rock fractures and the blue circular granite bodies in the upper center of the image on the right, are visible only to the radar. The Safsaf Oasis is located near the bright yellow feature in the lower left center of the Landsat image. Scientists are using the penetrating capabilities of radar imaging in desert areas to study structural geology, mineral exploration, ancient climates, water resources and archaeology. Each image is 30.8 kilometers by 25.6 kilometers (19.1 miles by 15.9 miles) and is centered at 22.7 degrees north latitude, 29.3 degrees east longitude. North is toward the upper right. In the Landsat image, the colors are assigned as follows: red is Band 7 (mid-infrared); green is Band 4 (near infrared); and blue is Band 1 (visible blue light). The colors assigned to the radar frequencies and polarizations are as follows: red is L-band, horizontally transmitted and received; green

  19. Clinical and parasitological study on scabies in Sirte, Libya.

    PubMed

    Fathy, Fouad M; El-Kasah, Fathi; El-Ahwal, Abdulla M

    2010-12-01

    The present work aimed to determine the risk factors, clinical and parasitological skin lesion features and effective drug regimens. Study was carried out on 200 patients referred to dermatology outpatient clinics in Sirte-Libya. Each was subjected to detailed questionnaire, dermatological skin examination, parasitological skin scraping test (SST), burrow ink test (BIT), drug administration and follow up. Results revealed that females 59%, children 37.5% and military personnel 18% of immigrant families were particularly prone to scabies infestation. Effective risk factors included overcrowding, bed sharing, low hygienic and education levels. Commonest skin lesions included erythematous papules 93%, excoriated papules 77.5%, burrows 66%, pustulation 31%, vesicles 21.5 and nodules 3%. Predilection lesion sites were hand 86%, wrist 82%, abdomen 56%, male external genitalia 64.5% and female breast 28%. Specific SST was positive in 67.3% of cases, particularly sensitive in early cases with short itching duration. BIT was positive in 62%. Topical permethrin proved more effective than precipitated sulpher with cure rates of of 100% and 85.3% in 21% and 75% of cases, respectively. Ivermectin was 100% effective in 4% of cases. PMID:21268539

  20. Cyclic transgressive and regressive sequences, Paleocene Suite, Sirte basin, Libya

    SciTech Connect

    Abushagur, S.A.

    1986-05-01

    The Farrud lithofacies represent the main reservoir rock of the Ghani oil field and Western Concession Eleven of the Sirte basin, Libya. Eight microfacies are recognized in the Farrud lithofacies in the Ghani field area: (1) bryozoan-bioclastic (shallow, warm, normal marine shelf deposits); (2) micrite (suggesting quiet, low-energy conditions such as may have existed in a well-protected lagoon); (3) dasycladacean (very shallow, normal marine environment); (4) bioclastic (very shallow, normal marine environment with moderate to vigorous energy); (5) mgal (very shallow, normal marine environment in a shelf lagoon); (6) pelletal-skeletal (deposition within slightly agitated waters of a sheltered lagoon with restricted circulation); (7) dolomicrite (fenestrate structures indicating a high intertidal environment of deposition); and (8) anhydrite (supratidal environment). The Paleocene suite of the Farrud lithofacies generally shows a prograding, regressive sequence of three facies: (1) supratidal facies, characterized by nonfossiliferous anhydrite, dolomite, and dolomitic pelletal carbonate mudstone; (2) intertidal to very shallow subtidal facies, characterized by fossiliferous, pelletal, carbonate mudstone and skeletal calcarenite; and (3) subtidal facies, characterized by a skeletal, pelletal, carbonate mudstone. Source rocks were primarily organic-rich shales overlying the Farrud reservoir rock. Porosity and permeability were developed in part by such processes as dolomitization, leaching, and fracturing in the two progradational, regressive carbonate facies. Hydrocarbons were trapped by a supratidal, anhydrite cap rock.

  1. Hydrocarbon provinces and productive trends in Libya and adjacent areas

    SciTech Connect

    Missallati, A.A. Ltd., Tripoli )

    1988-08-01

    According to the age of major reservoirs, hydrocarbon occurrences in Libya and adjacent areas can be grouped into six major systems which, according to their geographic locations, can be classified into two major hydrocarbon provinces: (1) Sirte-Pelagian basins province, with major reservoirs ranging from middle-late Mesozoic to early Tertiary, and (2) Murzog-Ghadames basins province, with major reservoirs ranging from early Paleozoic to early Mesozoic. In the Sirte-Pelagian basins province, hydrocarbons have been trapped in structural highs or in stratigraphic wedge-out against structural highs and in carbonate buildups. Here, hydrocarbon generation is characterized by the combined effect of abundant structural relief and reservoir development in the same hydrocarbon systems of the same age, providing an excellent example of hydrocarbon traps in sedimentary basins that have undergone extensive tensional fracturing in a shallow marine environment. In the Murzog-Ghadames basins province, hydrocarbons have been trapped mainly in structural highs controlled by paleostructural trends as basement arches which acted as focal points for oil migration and accumulation.

  2. A comparison of abdominal and vaginal hysterectomies in Benghazi, Libya.

    PubMed

    Agnaeber, K; Bodalal, Z

    2013-08-01

    We performed a comparative study between abdominal and vaginal hysterectomies using clinical data from Al-Jamhouria hospital (one of the largest maternity hospitals in Eastern Libya). Various parameters were taken into consideration: the rates of each type (and their subtypes); average age of patients; indications; causes; postoperative complications; and duration of stay in the hospital afterwards. Conclusions and recommendations were drawn from the results of this study. In light of the aforementioned parameters, it was found that: (1) abdominal hysterectomies were more common than vaginal hysterectomies (p < 0.001); (2) patients admitted for abdominal hysterectomies are younger than those admitted for vaginal hysterectomies (p < 0.001); (3) the most common indication for an abdominal hysterectomy was menstrual disturbances, while for vaginal hysterectomies it was vaginal prolapse; (4) the histopathological cause for abdominal and vaginal hysterectomies were observed and the most common were found to be leiomyomas and atrophic endometrium; (5) there was no significant difference between the two routes in terms of postoperative complications; (6) patients who were admitted for abdominal hysterectomies spent a longer amount of time in the hospital (p < 0.01). It was concluded that efforts should be made to further pursue vaginal and laparoscopic hysterectomies as a viable option to the more conventional abdominal route. PMID:23919862

  3. Kaiy (traditional cautery) in Benghazi, Libya: complications versus effectiveness

    PubMed Central

    Farid, Mona Kamal; El-Mansoury, Abdulla

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The practice of Kaiy (Cautery) as a traditional therapy is not science based though it is widely practiced worldwide. In Libya, in particular, it is commonly used with no any report or publication to emphasis on its positive or negative impact. This work was undertaken to highlight the complications and disadvantages of kaiy in the Libyan societies as it seems to cause more harm than benefit for the patient. Methods We conducted a questionnaire-based survey in the period from the first of March to the end of April (two months) of the year 2013, on fifty patients who were collected from different hospitals in Benghazi city, and who had experienced Kaiy therapy for different diseases. Results We found that kaiy application is more common among non educated patients (30 patients, 60%). Most of patients (45 cases, 90%) followed their relatives’ advice and that 32 cases (63.5%) did not improve and show undesirable manifestations and complications. Conclusion This study has shown that Kaiy therapy is associated with considerable health risks; therefore, we recommend discouraging and restricting its application. PMID:26848345

  4. Hydrocarbon potential of Middle Eocene carbonates, Sirt Basin, Libya

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swei, Giuma H.; Tucker, Maurice E.

    2015-11-01

    Deposition of Middle Eocene carbonates in the Sirt Basin in Libya has been the subject of considerable study in recent years because of the importance of sediments of this age as hydrocarbon reservoirs. The Gialo Formation is an important gas-producing reservoir in the Assumood, Sahl and other nearby fields. The gas which is generated from the gas-prone Sirt Shale source rock of the northern Ajdabiya Trough probably migrated in to the Assumood Ridge from the northeast through late Cretaceous, Paleocene and early Eocene carbonates, before being trapped beneath the Augila Shale (Upper Eocene) which is the principal regional seal in the area. This integrated study has enhanced our understanding of reservoir heterogeneity and hydrocarbon potential of the Gialo carbonates and should lead to improved exploration in the future. Reservoir quality in the Gialo Formation is a function of grain types, pore types, grain size, sorting, cementation and compaction, and predicting areas of high reservoir quality has proved difficult; exploration should be oriented to positioning wells into the main trend of the mid-ramp, nummulite accumulation. Different nummulite facies can be reservoirs depending on their diagenetic history. A diagenetic reduction in porosity must be distinguished from a lack of porosity resulting from an unfavourable depositional environment, so that exploration alternatives can be assessed. This integrated study has demonstrated the presence of suitable reservoir rocks, hydrocarbon traps and the close proximity of potential source rocks. These features should encourage further hydrocarbon exploration in the area.

  5. Regional geothermal exploration in Egypt

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morgan, P.; Boulos, F. K.; Swanberg, C. A.

    1983-01-01

    A study is presented of the evaluation of the potential geothermal resources of Egypt using a thermal gradient/heat flow technique and a groundwater temperature/chemistry technique. Existing oil well bottom-hole temperature data, as well as subsurface temperature measurements in existing boreholes, were employed for the thermal gradient/heat flow investigation before special thermal gradient holes were drilled. The geographic range of the direct subsurface thermal measurements was extended by employing groundwater temperature and chemistry data. Results show the presence of a regional thermal high along the eastern margin of Egypt with a local thermal anomaly in this zone. It is suggested that the sandstones of the Nubian Formation may be a suitable reservoir for geothermal fluids. These findings indicate that temperatures of 150 C or higher may be found in this reservoir in the Gulf of Suez and Red Sea coastal zones where it lies at a depth of 4 km and deeper.

  6. Epidemic of mesothelioma in Egypt.

    PubMed

    Gaafar, R M; Eldin, N H Aly

    2005-07-01

    Asbestos has been recognized in Egypt since a long time as ancient Egyptians were using it in mummification. Mesothelioma in Egypt is mainly attributed to environmental origin with a high incidence of women and young adults affected. The incidence of mesothelioma is rising in Egypt. Epidemiological data for 635 malignant mesothelioma (MM) patients over 4 years in the third Millennium were collected from the National Cancer Institute (NCI), Cairo University and Abbassia Chest hospital. This number is more than four times the number diagnosed in the previous 11 years at NCI. A clinicopathological study was done for 100 malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) patients and showed that asbestos exposure and SV40 positivity were evident in 67% and 60% of cases, respectively. The median survival was 14.3 months and the 1 and 2 year survival rates were 60% and 27%, respectively. Evaluation of p53 and pRb immunohistochemically showed that pRb alteration was related to poor survival. Other biological prognostic factors such as EGFR, HER-2, glutathione S transferase (GST) and MDR were evaluated in 50 cases. Overexpression of EGFR was correlated with lack of clinical benefit and poor survival. GST potentiated the effect of EGFR on survival. The use of EGFR inhibitors may have a role in the treatment of MM. Asbestos in Cairo is a silent killer and measures toward eliminating it entirely or at least strictly controlling human contact with this dangerous carcinogen have to be taken in order to combat the coming epidemic of mesothelioma in Egypt. PMID:15950794

  7. Experience with NORPLANT in Egypt.

    PubMed

    Shaaban, M M

    1993-04-01

    Experience with the contraceptive NORPLANT in Egypt dates back to early 1980 when the first multicentre trial was initiated. To date, more than 3000 women have received this contraceptive at the Assiut University Family Clinic alone. Analysis of the overall experience in this clinic has indicated a 5-year cumulative continuation rate of 51 and a pregnancy rate of 1.8 per 100 women. Clinical pharmacology studies pertaining to the safety of NORPLANT in our community have indicated no deleterious effect on the lipid profile, liver functions and blood coagulation system. Two studies conducted in Egypt have indicated that the initiation of NORPLANT use shortly after delivery does not have any unfavourable effect on lactational performance, or on physical or psychomotor development of the breast-fed infants. This is particularly important in Arab and Moslem cultures where prolonged breast-feeding is emphasized. A study utilizing focus-group discussion to assess users' attitudes to NORPLANT has indicated the need to improve the informational/educational package given in the service by emphasizing certain cultural considerations. On the whole, this first implant method has proven to be safe and acceptable in Egypt, where there is a special need for long-term methods for contraception, particularly as sterilization is not socially acceptable. PMID:8489755

  8. Orthopedic surgery in ancient Egypt

    PubMed Central

    Blomstedt, Patric

    2014-01-01

    Background — Ancient Egypt might be considered the cradle of medicine. The modern literature is, however, sometimes rather too enthusiastic regarding the procedures that are attributed an Egyptian origin. I briefly present and analyze the claims regarding orthopedic surgery in Egypt, what was actually done by the Egyptians, and what may have been incorrectly ascribed to them. Methods — I reviewed the original sources and also the modern literature regarding surgery in ancient Egypt, concentrating especially on orthopedic surgery. Results — As is well known, both literary sources and the archaeological/osteological material bear witness to treatment of various fractures. The Egyptian painting, often claimed to depict the reduction of a dislocated shoulder according to Kocher’s method, is, however, open to interpretation. Therapeutic amputations are never depicted or mentioned in the literary sources, while the specimens suggested to demonstrate such amputations are not convincing. Interpretation — The ancient Egyptians certainly treated fractures of various kinds, and with varying degrees of success. Concerning the reductions of dislocated joints and therapeutic amputations, there is no clear evidence for the existence of such procedures. It would, however, be surprising if dislocations were not treated, even though they have not left traces in the surviving sources. Concerning amputations, the general level of Egyptian surgery makes it unlikely that limb amputations were done, even if they may possibly have been performed under extraordinary circumstances. PMID:25140982

  9. Astronomy Education Challenges in Egypt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El Fady Beshara Morcos, Abd

    2015-08-01

    One of the major challenges in Egypt is the quality of education. Egypt has made significant progress towards achieving the Education for All and the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). Many associations and committees as education reform program and education support programs did high efforts in supporting scientific thinking through the scientific clubs. The current state of astronomical education in Egypt has been developed. Astronomy became a part in both science and geography courses of primary, preparatory and secondary stages. Nowadays the Egyptian National Committee for Astronomy, put on its shoulders the responsibility of revising of astronomy parts in the education courses, beside preparation of some training programs for teachers of different stages of educations, in collaboration with ministry of education. General lectures program has been prepared and started in public places , schools and universities. Many TV and Radio programs aiming to spread astronomical culture were presented. In the university stage new astronomy departments are established and astrophysics courses are imbedded in physics courses even in some private universities.

  10. Gender, Sibship Composition, and Education in Egypt

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tfaily, Rania

    2016-01-01

    This article examines the relationship between gender, sibship, and education over time in Egypt, focusing on how the number, sex, and birth order configuration of siblings affected boys' and girls' education during 1991-2008, a period characterized by significant social and economic changes in Egypt. This study disaggregates schooling into…

  11. Egypt: Beyond Pharaohs, Feluccas and Fellahin.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holt, Evelyn R.

    In a random study of five middle school social studies textbooks available for adoption in the state of Indiana in 1984, great variation in the treatment of Egypt was noted. Coverage of contemporary history was incomplete in all cases. All texts dealt with Egypt's ancient history, but what was reported was questionable. Only one text addressed in…

  12. Women--Sex Objects in Ancient Egypt.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mutimer, Brian T. P.

    Although it has been said that the women in Ancient Egypt enjoyed a reasonable state of social and professional equality with men, this paper presents an alternate theory--that women were second-class citizens whose physical prowess was secondary to their role as sex objects. It appears that men and women in Ancient Egypt often participated in the…

  13. Inclusiveness in Higher Education in Egypt

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cupito, Emily; Langsten, Ray

    2011-01-01

    In Egypt, before 1952, education, especially higher education, was the province of a privileged few. After the 1952 Revolution, in pursuit of social justice and economic development, Egypt's leaders eliminated fees, instituted a universal admission examination, promised government employment to all graduates of higher education, and expanded the…

  14. The chronostratigraphy of the Haua Fteah cave (Cyrenaica, northeast Libya).

    PubMed

    Douka, Katerina; Jacobs, Zenobia; Lane, Christine; Grün, Rainer; Farr, Lucy; Hunt, Chris; Inglis, Robyn H; Reynolds, Tim; Albert, Paul; Aubert, Maxime; Cullen, Victoria; Hill, Evan; Kinsley, Leslie; Roberts, Richard G; Tomlinson, Emma L; Wulf, Sabine; Barker, Graeme

    2014-01-01

    The 1950s excavations by Charles McBurney in the Haua Fteah, a large karstic cave on the coast of northeast Libya, revealed a deep sequence of human occupation. Most subsequent research on North African prehistory refers to his discoveries and interpretations, but the chronology of its archaeological and geological sequences has been based on very early age determinations. This paper reports on the initial results of a comprehensive multi-method dating program undertaken as part of new work at the site, involving radiocarbon dating of charcoal, land snails and marine shell, cryptotephra investigations, optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) dating of sediments, and electron spin resonance (ESR) dating of tooth enamel. The dating samples were collected from the newly exposed and cleaned faces of the upper 7.5 m of the ∼14.0 m-deep McBurney trench, which contain six of the seven major cultural phases that he identified. Despite problems of sediment transport and reworking, using a Bayesian statistical model the new dating program establishes a robust framework for the five major lithostratigraphic units identified in the stratigraphic succession, and for the major cultural units. The age of two anatomically modern human mandibles found by McBurney in Layer XXXIII near the base of his Levalloiso-Mousterian phase can now be estimated to between 73 and 65 ka (thousands of years ago) at the 95.4% confidence level, within Marine Isotope Stage (MIS) 4. McBurney's Layer XXV, associated with Upper Palaeolithic Dabban blade industries, has a clear stratigraphic relationship with Campanian Ignimbrite tephra. Microlithic Oranian technologies developed following the climax of the Last Glacial Maximum and the more microlithic Capsian in the Younger Dryas. Neolithic pottery and perhaps domestic livestock were used in the cave from the mid Holocene but there is no certain evidence for plant cultivation until the Graeco-Roman period. PMID:24331954

  15. Epidemiology of flea infestation of ruminants in Libya.

    PubMed

    Kaal, J F; Baker, K; Torgerson, P R

    2006-11-01

    The results of an epidemiological and clinical study of flea infestations of farm animals in northern Libya is reported. Of 12,130 sheep examined from 124 flocks, 150 sheep were found to be infested with fleas from 50 different flocks. Likewise 23 goats from 2981 examined, and 11 calves from 1124 cattle examined were infested No fleas were recovered from camels or horses. Of 1861 fleas recovered from farm livestock, 1857 were Ctenocephalides felis strongylus and 4 were Pulex irritans. Dogs from farms and local clinics were also examined. Eight farms dogs were found to be infested with P. irritans. Of 79 infested dogs examined in veterinary clinics, 53 were found infested with P. irritans, 11 with Ctenocephalides felis felis, 12 had a mixed infestation of P. irritans and C. felis felis. Single dogs had mixed infestation of P. irritans and C. canis; C. felis felis and C. canis; and P. irritans, C. felis felis and Echidnophaga gallinacia. C. felis felis was also found on 15 infested cats. C. felis felis was never found on large farm animals despite frequently sharing their environment with dogs or cats. Likewise C. felis stongylus was never isolated from dogs or cats. This is consistent with the hypothesis that C. felis strongylus has become adapted to large farm animals, whilst C. felis felis is better adapted to dogs and cats. However, four stockmen were found infested with a total of 176 C. felis strongylus, which suggests that this subspecies is also a potential zoonosis. A significantly higher proportion of intensive farms had animals with flea infestation compared to semi-intensive farms. Fleas were not found in nomadic herds. Infested farm animals often presented with excoriation, alopecia, pruritus and hyperkeratitis particularly on the lower limbs. These signs are consistent with the generation of flea-bite hypersensitivity. PMID:16962246

  16. Plague reappearance in Algeria after 50 years, 2003.

    PubMed

    Bertherat, Eric; Bekhoucha, Souad; Chougrani, Saada; Razik, Fathia; Duchemin, Jean B; Houti, Leila; Deharib, Larbi; Fayolle, Corinne; Makrerougrass, Banaouda; Dali-Yahia, Radia; Bellal, Ramdan; Belhabri, Leila; Chaieb, Amina; Tikhomirov, Evgueni; Carniel, Elisabeth

    2007-10-01

    An outbreak of plague occurred in the region of Oran, Algeria, from June to July 2003. Algeria had not reported this disease for >50 years. Eighteen bubonic cases were identified, and Yersinia pestis was isolated from 6 patients. Except for the index case-patient, all patients recovered. Targeted chemoprophylaxis, sanitation, and vector control played a crucial role in controlling the outbreak. Epidemiologic and biomolecular findings strongly suggested the existence of a local animal reservoir during this period, but its origin (resurgence or re-importation) could not be determined. This sudden and unexpected reemergence of plague, close to an important commercial seaport, is a textbook illustration of a public health event of international importance. It also demonstrates that the danger of plague reoccurrence is not limited to the currently indexed natural foci. PMID:18257987

  17. Equine cryptosporidial infection associated with Cryptosporidium hedgehog genotype in Algeria.

    PubMed

    Laatamna, Abd Elkarim; Wagnerová, Pavla; Sak, Bohumil; Květoňová, Dana; Aissi, Miriem; Rost, Michael; Kváč, Martin

    2013-10-18

    Faecal samples from two horse farms in Algeria keeping Arabian, Thoroughbred, and Barb horses were examined for the presence of Cryptosporidium in 2010-2011. A total of 138 faecal samples (16 from a farm keeping 50 animals and 122 from a farm with 267 horses) were screened for Cryptosporidium spp. infection using molecular tools. DNA was extracted from all samples. Nested PCR was performed to amplify fragments of the SSU rDNA and gp60 genes to determine the presence of Cryptosporidium species and genotypes. Sequence analyses of SSU and gp60 genes revealed four animals positive for the presence of subtype XIIIa A22R9 of the Cryptosporidium hedgehog genotype. The infections were not associated with diarrhoea. This study reports, for the first time, the occurrence of Cryptosporidium in Algeria and the first occurrence of the hedgehog genotype in horses. These findings support the potential role of infected horses in sylvatic-domestic transmission of Cryptosporidium. PMID:23731858

  18. Plague Reappearance in Algeria after 50 Years, 2003

    PubMed Central

    Bekhoucha, Souad; Chougrani, Saada; Razik, Fathia; Duchemin, Jean B.; Houti, Leila; Deharib, Larbi; Fayolle, Corinne; Makrerougrass, Banaouda; Dali-Yahia, Radia; Bellal, Ramdan; Belhabri, Leila; Chaieb, Amina; Tikhomirov, Evgueni; Carniel, Elisabeth

    2007-01-01

    An outbreak of plague occurred in the region of Oran, Algeria, from June to July 2003. Algeria had not reported this disease for >50 years. Eighteen bubonic cases were identified, and Yersinia pestis was isolated from 6 patients. Except for the index case-patient, all patients recovered. Targeted chemoprophylaxis, sanitation, and vector control played a crucial role in controlling the outbreak. Epidemiologic and biomolecular findings strongly suggested the existence of a local animal reservoir during this period, but its origin (resurgence or re-importation) could not be determined. This sudden and unexpected reemergence of plague, close to an important commercial seaport, is a textbook illustration of a public health event of international importance. It also demonstrates that the danger of plague reoccurrence is not limited to the currently indexed natural foci. PMID:18257987

  19. Active tectonics of the Oran (Algeria) Quaternary plain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    youcef, Bouhadad; rabah, Bensalem; e-hadi, oubaiche

    2016-04-01

    The Oran region, in north-western Algeria, has been hit several times in the past by destructive moderate-sized and strong earthquakes. The Oran October 9th , 1790 (I0= X) was among the strongest seismic events in the western Mediterranean area comparable, if we consider the described effects, to the El- Asnam (1980, Ms=7.3) and Zemmouri (2003, Mw=6.8) earthquakes. Such strong seismic events requires the presence of major active geological structures that are re-activated several times in the past. In this work we present results of a multi- disciplinary study combining geomorphic analysis, field earthquake geological investigations and geophysical methods, undertaken to study the southern border of the Oran Quaternary plain. A 50 km long, SW-dipping and NE-SW trending active fault has been identified that showing clear quaternary deformation. Keywords: earthquake geology, active fault, geomorphic, geophysics, Algeria.

  20. Petroleum geology of the major producing basins of Algeria

    SciTech Connect

    Attar, A.; Chaouch, A.

    1988-08-01

    The South Atlas flexure divides Algeria into two contrasting geologic provinces: (1) the Saharan Atlas and offshore region in the north, both of which are part of the Mediterranean basin, and (2) the Saharan platform on the south, part of the North African craton. The limits of the various sedimentary basins on the Saharan platform are tied to late Paleozoic (Hercynian) crustal reactivation. Comparable structurally controlled basins in northern Algeria are the products of Mesozoic-Recent tectonism. The spatial and temporal distribution of hydrocarbons in the Algerian Sahara can be understood in terms of the geologic evolution of the region. Analysis of areas of proven hydrocarbon reserves permits the following generalizations. (1) There is a concentration of oil and gas fields northeast of a northwest-southeast-trending line connecting Hassi R'Mel with In Amenas. Production is also established in the Sbaa basin and in northern Algeria, where recent discoveries have been made in, respectively, upper Paleozoic and Mesozoic reservoirs. (2) Hydrocarbon are present throughout the entire sedimentary column, but major production currently is restricted to the lower Paleozoic (Cambrian-Ordovician and Lower Devonian) and Triassic reservoirs.

  1. Epidemiology of Visceral Leishmaniasis in Algeria: An Update

    PubMed Central

    Adel, Amel; Boughoufalah, Amel; Saegerman, Claude; De Deken, Redgi; Bouchene, Zahida; Soukehal, Abdelkrim; Berkvens, Dirk; Boelaert, Marleen

    2014-01-01

    Visceral leishmaniasis (VL), a zoonotic disease caused by Leishmania infantum, is endemic in Algeria. This report describes a retrospective epidemiological study conducted on human VL to document the epidemiological profile at national level. All human VL cases notified by the National Institute of Public Health between 1998 and 2008 were investigated. In parallel all VL cases admitted to the university hospitals of Algiers were surveyed to estimate the underreporting ratio. Fifteen hundred and sixty-two human VL cases were reported in Algeria between 1998–2008 with an average annual reported incidence rate of 0.45 cases per 100,000 inhabitants, of which 81.42% were in the age range of 0–4 years. Cases were detected year-round, with a peak notification in May and June. One hundred and seventy patients were admitted to the university hospitals in Algiers in the same period, of which less than one in ten had been officially notified. Splenomegaly, fever, pallor and pancytopenia were the main clinical and laboratory features. Meglumine antimoniate was the first-line therapy for paediatric VL whereas the conventional amphotericin B was used for adult patients. Visceral leishmaniasis in Algeria shows the epidemiological profile of a paediatric disease with a decrease of the annual reported incidence rate. However, vigilance is required because of huge underreporting and an apparent propagation towards the south. PMID:24949958

  2. Molecular basis of alpha-thalassemia in Algeria.

    PubMed

    Mesbah-Amroun, Hamida; Rouabhi, Fatiha; Ducrocq, Rolande; Elion, Jacques

    2008-01-01

    An epidemiological molecular study was carried out to evaluate the spectrum and allelic frequency of alpha-thalassemia (alpha-thal) defects in Algeria. A series of 153 randomly selected blood donors was screened for 10 alpha-thal alleles described in the Mediterranean area. In addition, six unrelated cases with hematological and biochemical data suggestive of Hb H disease were investigated. Our data revealed an allele frequency of 4.6%. The presence of alpha(0)-thal determinants (-alpha(20.5) and --MED I) was observed both in Hb H patients and in the randomly collected samples. Overall, the -alpha(3.7) deletion was the most prevalent allele (2.9%), followed by the alpha(Nco I)alpha (HBA2:c.1A>G) allele (0.6%) and by the alpha(Hph I)alpha (HBA2:c.95 + 2_95 + 6delTGAGG), -alpha(20.5), --(MED I) alleles (0.3% each). The -alpha(4.2) deletion was observed in only one Hb H patient. These results outline the heterogeneity of the alpha-thal alleles in Algeria which reflects the anthropological history of the country. Because of their frequency, alpha-thal alleles are probably frequent modulators of prevalent beta-globin gene-related hemoglobinopathies in Algeria. PMID:18473243

  3. Paleogeography of the Eosahabi River in Libya: New insights into the mineralogy, geochemistry and paleontology of Member U1 of the Sahabi Formation, northeastern Libya

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muftah, A. M.; Pavlakis, P.; Godelitsas, A.; Gamaletsos, P.; Boaz, N.

    2013-02-01

    A large paleo-river of Miocene age traversing Libya from south to north has been previously demonstrated by seismic, stratigraphic, paleontological, and remote sensing data. The depositional environment of As Sahabi Formation in north central Libya is this large and now extinct Eosahabi River. However, the source of this major African river has remained controversial. Dark-colored sedimentary material with magnetic properties suggested a source from the basaltic Haruj as Aswad massif in south central Libya. To test this hypothesis, mineralogical and geochemical study of clayey sediments from three localities, P25, P28 and P96c, from fossiliferous Member U1 of the As Sahabi Formation, were carried out. Results strongly indicate very mature and re-processed sediments of continental origin, and felsic sources with no basaltic contribution. Thus the origin can be traced to an upland area of outcrop of rocks of Precambrian continental origin in northeastern Chad. An alternative scenario is that the Sahabi sediments originated from Precambrian outcrops in Ethiopia through an east-west river connection with the Nile. We consider this hypothesis unlikely, since it is based only on remote sensing data, and lacks any time control or geological supporting evidence. The abundant vertebrate fauna from the Sahabi Formation shows strong similarities with penecontemporaneous fossil faunas in Chad and is supportive of an origin of the Eosahabi River in Neogene mega-Lake Chad.

  4. 76 FR 14271 - Unexpected Urgent Refugee and Migration Needs Related to Libya

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-16

    ..., 2011 [FR Doc. 2011-6263 Filed 3-15-11; 8:45 am] Billing code 4710-10-P ... Migration Needs Related to Libya Memorandum for the Secretary of State By the authority vested in me as President by the Constitution and the laws of the United States, including section 2(c)(1) of the...

  5. 76 FR 68313 - Amendment to the International Traffic in Arms Regulations: Libya and UNSCR 2009

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-04

    ... modifications to the United Nations Security Council arms embargo of Libya adopted in September 2011. DATES... INFORMATION: On September 16, 2011, the United Nations Security Council adopted resolution 2009, which... On February 26, 2011, the United Nations Security Council adopted Resolution 1970, paragraph 9...

  6. 77 FR 56985 - Honoring the Victims of the Attack in Benghazi, Libya

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-17

    ... thirty-seventh. (Presidential Sig.) [FR Doc. 2012-22951 Filed 9-14-12; 8:45 am] Billing code 3295-F2-P ... Victims of the Attack in Benghazi, Libya By the President of the United States of America A Proclamation..., and American personnel killed in the senseless attack on our diplomatic facility in Benghazi, by...

  7. Oral cancer in Libya and development of regional oral cancer registries: A review

    PubMed Central

    BenNasir, E.; El Mistiri, M.; McGowan, R.; Katz, R.V.

    2015-01-01

    The aims of this paper are three-fold: (1) to summarize the current epidemiological data on oral cancer in Libya as reported in the published literature and as compared to other national oral cancer rates in the region; (2) to present both the history of the early development, and future goals, of population-based oral cancer tumor registries in Libya as they partner with the more established regional and international population-based cancer tumor registries; and, (3) to offer recommendations that will likely be required in the near future if these nascent, population-based Libyan oral cancer registries are to establish themselves as on-going registries for describing the oral cancer disease patterns and risk factors in Libya as well as for prevention and treatment. This comprehensive literature review revealed that the current baseline incidence of oral cancer in Libya is similar to those of other North Africa countries and China, but is relatively low compared to the United Kingdom, the United States, and India. The recently established Libyan National Cancer Registry Program, initiated in 2007, while envisioning five cooperating regional cancer registries, continues to operate at a relatively suboptimal level. Lack of adequate levels of national funding continue to plague its development…and the accompanying quality of service that could be provided to the Libyan people. PMID:26644751

  8. The screwworm fly in Libya: a threat to the livestock industry of the Old World.

    PubMed

    Gabaj, M M; Wyatt, N P; Pont, A C; Beesley, W N; Awan, M A; Gusbi, A M; Benhaj, K M

    1989-09-23

    The screwworm fly, Cochliomyia hominivorax (Coquerel), is the most serious insect pest of cattle in the New World. It has recently been recorded in Libya, where it appears to have become established. This article documents these recent finds, and provides background information on the recognition of the fly, its biology, distribution and importance. PMID:2815502

  9. 3 CFR - Unexpected Urgent Refugee and Migration Needs Related to Libya

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 3 The President 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Unexpected Urgent Refugee and Migration Needs... of March 7, 2011 Unexpected Urgent Refugee and Migration Needs Related to Libya Memorandum for the... States, including section 2(c)(1) of the Migration and Refugee Assistance Act of 1962 (the “Act”),...

  10. Oral cancer in Libya and development of regional oral cancer registries: A review.

    PubMed

    BenNasir, E; El Mistiri, M; McGowan, R; Katz, R V

    2015-10-01

    The aims of this paper are three-fold: (1) to summarize the current epidemiological data on oral cancer in Libya as reported in the published literature and as compared to other national oral cancer rates in the region; (2) to present both the history of the early development, and future goals, of population-based oral cancer tumor registries in Libya as they partner with the more established regional and international population-based cancer tumor registries; and, (3) to offer recommendations that will likely be required in the near future if these nascent, population-based Libyan oral cancer registries are to establish themselves as on-going registries for describing the oral cancer disease patterns and risk factors in Libya as well as for prevention and treatment. This comprehensive literature review revealed that the current baseline incidence of oral cancer in Libya is similar to those of other North Africa countries and China, but is relatively low compared to the United Kingdom, the United States, and India. The recently established Libyan National Cancer Registry Program, initiated in 2007, while envisioning five cooperating regional cancer registries, continues to operate at a relatively suboptimal level. Lack of adequate levels of national funding continue to plague its development…and the accompanying quality of service that could be provided to the Libyan people. PMID:26644751

  11. Factors Influencing the Acceptance of E-Learning Adoption in Libya's Higher Education Institutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benghet, Mahfoud; Helfert, Markus

    2014-01-01

    The growing influence of technologies on all aspects of life, including the education sector, requires developing countries to follow the example of the developed countries and adopt technology in their education systems. Libya has been able to boost its economic and educational position over the years, and this brings it to the concern of…

  12. Africa: Prosperous times

    SciTech Connect

    1996-08-01

    Political instability and corruption is the rule, rather than the exception, in Africa`s main producing regions, but exploration and production prospects there are bright and attractive to foreign operators. The paper discusses exploration, drilling, resource development, and production in Nigeria, Libya, Algeria, Egypt, Angola, Congo, Gabon, and Tunisia. The other countries of Africa are briefly mentioned, i.e., Cameroon, Cote D`Ivoire, South Africa, Sudan, Namibia, Equatorial Guinea, Eritrea, Zaire, Mozambique, Ghana, Niger, and Seychelles.

  13. The Kamil Crater in Egypt.

    PubMed

    Folco, Luigi; Di Martino, Mario; El Barkooky, Ahmed; D'Orazio, Massimo; Lethy, Ahmed; Urbini, Stefano; Nicolosi, Iacopo; Hafez, Mahfooz; Cordier, Carole; van Ginneken, Matthias; Zeoli, Antonio; Radwan, Ali M; El Khrepy, Sami; El Gabry, Mohamed; Gomaa, Mahomoud; Barakat, Aly A; Serra, Romano; El Sharkawi, Mohamed

    2010-08-13

    We report on the detection in southern Egypt of an impact crater 45 meters in diameter with a pristine rayed structure. Such pristine structures are typically observed on atmosphereless rocky or icy planetary bodies in the solar system. This feature and the association with an iron meteorite impactor and shock metamorphism provides a unique picture of small-scale hypervelocity impacts on Earth's crust. Contrary to current geophysical models, ground data indicate that iron meteorites with masses of the order of tens of tons can penetrate the atmosphere without substantial fragmentation. PMID:20651117

  14. Characterization of Avian Influenza and Newcastle Disease Viruses from Poultry in Libya.

    PubMed

    Kammon, Abdulwahab; Heidari, Alireza; Dayhum, Abdunaser; Eldaghayes, Ibrahim; Sharif, Monier; Monne, Isabela; Cattoli, Giovanni; Asheg, Abdulatif; Farhat, Milad; Kraim, Elforjani

    2015-09-01

    On March 2013, the Libyan poultry industry faced severe outbreaks due to mixed infections of APMV-1 (Newcastle disease) and low pathogenic avian influenza (AI) of the H9N2 subtype which were causing high mortality and great economic losses. APMV-1 and H9N2 were isolated and characterized. Genetic sequencing of the APMV-1/chicken/Libya/13VIR/ 7225-1/2013 isolate revealed the presence of a velogenic APMV-1 belonging to lineage 5 (GRRRQKR*F Lin.5) or genotype VII in class II, according to the nomenclature in use. Three AI viruses of the H9N2 subtype, namely A/avian/Libya/13VIR7225-2/2013, A/avian/Libya/13VIR7225-3/2013, and A/avian/Libya/13VIR7225-5/2013, were isolated and found to belong to the G1 lineage. Analysis of amino acid sequences showed that the analyzed H9N2 viruses contained the amino acid Leu at position 226 (H3 numbering) at the receptor binding site of the HA, responsible for human virus-like receptor specificity. On March 2014, an outbreak of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) virus of the H5N1 subtype was diagnosed in a backyard poultry farm in an eastern region of Libya. The H5N1 isolate (A/chicken/Libya/14VIR2749-16/2014) was detected by real time RT-PCR (rRT-PCR). Genetic characterization of the HA gene revealed that the identified subtype was highly pathogenic, belonged to the 2.2.1 lineage, and clustered with recent Egyptian viruses. This study revealed the presence of a velogenic APMV-1 genotype and of two influenza subtypes, namely HPAI H5N1 and H9N2, which are of major interest for public and animal health. Considering these findings, more investigations must be undertaken to establish and implement adequate influenza surveillance programs; this would allow better study of the epidemiology of APMV-1 genotype VII in Libya and evaluation of the current vaccination strategies. PMID:26478162

  15. AISAT-1: the First Step into Space for Algeria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oussedik, A.; Bekhti, M.; Sun, W.; Sweeting, M. N., , Sir

    2002-01-01

    AlSat-1, the first Algerian national satellite of seven microsatellites in the Disaster Monitoring Constellation (DMC), will be launched in September 2002. Micro satellites for Nigeria, United Kingdom, Turkey and Thailand will be launched into the same orbit by the second DMC launch in April 2003, whilst microsatellites for China and Vietnam will be launched into the same orbit by the third DMC launch in January 2004. In a constellation with six other satellites, Algeria will be able to access global images for daily global disaster mitigation, national remote sensing applications, commercial space exploitation and international co-operation with both developed and developing countries. A team of eleven (11) Algerian engineers has been trained at Surrey through the AlSat-1 project. They have covered the following disciplines: System Engineering, ADCS, Power, RF, OBDH, Mechanical and Launch Interface, Earth Observation Payload, GPS, Operation, TTC and Propulsion. AlSat-1, the first space asset of the country, provides indigenous national space capability, unique independent Earth observation and international co-operation opportunities. The country has received this first step into space very well. Following the success of the AlSat-1 programme, a National Space Agency is under construction in Algeria with all the necessary facilities, and the government has approved the budget for a second earth observation microsatellite, AlSat-2. This 2.5m high-resolution remote sensing satellite will be used essentially for mapping and environmental applications. The team trained at Surrey will build the majority of AlSat-2 in the National Space Centre in Algeria using the technologies acquired from Surrey. A further technology transfer and training programme will be carried out through this more demanding mission. The paper will present the AlSat-1 programme and its benefits to Algeria. The proposed AlSat-2 project and the establishment of a national space agency, based on the

  16. Impact of Geoethics in Egypt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    AbdelMakosud, kholoud Mohamed; Ezzat, Nada

    2016-04-01

    Geoethics, is a new term that could be unknown in the Arab world,where its translation in Arabic language make some kind of problems,with special emphasis on Egypt; spreading this term and the importance of it to professionals and un professionals is not an easy task.Culture and awareness problems face us on dealing with it. In this working paper the researchers study two levels of educational samples, the first one is of young geo-scientists and the other one is of young people of different disciplines to make over view survey (monitoring the base level) about knowing geoethics and another survey after applying some lectures and workshops to the same samples to monitor the second level. The aim of the research is to find out how people will accept this term and its application and how we can spread it through community with different effective ways. In Egypt there are some kind of culture problems could affect on spreading of any new concept, these problems could be overcome by some scientific, social and culture recommendations, these recommendations could be applied in both Arab countries and African Countries with few modifications.

  17. Teaching Morality and Religion in Nineteenth-Century Colonial Algeria: Gender and the Civilising Mission

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rogers, Rebecca

    2011-01-01

    Historians have long presented France's "civilizing mission" within its colonies in secular terms ignoring women's presence as both actors and subjects. This is particularly true in Algeria where the colonial government's explicitly prohibited proselytism. This article emphasizes women's roles pursuing both secular and religious goals in Algeria.…

  18. Prevalence of Entamoeba histolytica, Giardia lamblia, and Cryptosporidium spp. in Libya: 2000–2015

    PubMed Central

    Ghenghesh, Khalifa Sifaw; Ghanghish, Khaled; BenDarif, Elloulu T.; Shembesh, Khaled; Franka, Ezzadin

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The intestinal protozoa Entamoeba histolytica, Giardia lamblia, and Cryptosporidium spp. are the causative agents of giardiasis, amebiasis, and cryptosporidiosis, respectively. Adequate knowledge of the geographical distribution of parasites and the demographic variables that influence their prevalence is important for effective control of infection in at-risk populations. Methods The data were obtained by an English language literature search of Medline and PubMed for papers using the search terms ‘intestinal parasites and Libya, G. lamblia and Libya, E. histolytica and Libya and Cryptosporidium and Libya’ for the period 2000–2015. Results The data obtained for the period 2000–2015 showed prevalence rates of 0.8–36.6% (mean 19.9%) for E. histolytica/dispar, 1.2–18.2% (mean 4.6%) for G. lamblia and 0.9–13% (mean 3.4%) for Cryptosporidium spp. among individuals in Libya with gastroenteritis (GE). On the other hand, prevalence rates of 0.8–16.3% (mean 8.3%), 1.8–28.8% (mean 4.8%), and 1.0–2.5% (mean=2.4), respectively, were observed for individuals without GE. The mean prevalence rate of E. histolytica/dispar was significantly higher among individuals with GE compared with those without GE (p<0.0000001, OR=2.74). No significant difference in prevalence rate of the three organisms was found according to gender, but most of infections were observed in children aged 10 years or younger. Conclusion The reviewed data suggest that E. histolytica, G. lamblia, and Cryptosporidium spp. may play a minor role in GE in Libya. The observed high prevalence rates of E. histolytica/dispar reported from Libya could be due mainly to the non-pathogenic E. dispar and E. moshkovskii. However, more studies are needed in the future using E. histolytica-specific enzyme immunoassays and/or molecular methods to confirm this observation. PMID:27363524

  19. Characteristics of rheumatoid arthritis in Algeria: a multicenter study.

    PubMed

    Slimani, Samy; Abbas, Abdelmalek; Ben Ammar, Amina; Kebaili, Djemaa; Ali, El Hadi; Rahal, Fadia; Khamari, Mohamed Choukri; Baltache, Ayada; Khider, Imene; Chiheub, Riad; Khelif, Khireddine; Akbi, Sabrina; Rahmani, Salima; Dahou-Makhloufi, Chafia; Brahimi-Mazouni, Nadjia; Abtroun-Benmadi, Sabira; Ladjouze-Rezig, Aicha

    2014-09-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the epidemiology of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) in North Africa to that of Western countries. We have enrolled in a cross-sectional study all consecutive patients presenting with the diagnosis of RA according to the 1987 ACR criteria, and during a 5-month period, patients were included in 11 centers across northern Algeria. Demographics, clinical data, and health assessment questionnaires (HAQ) were collected for each patient. We have estimated means, standard deviations, and 95 % confidence intervals for all parameters. Of the 249 patients (213 females and 36 males) enrolled in the study, 10 (4 %) had juvenile onset of the disease. The mean age was 50.1 ± 14.5 years, and the mean duration of RA was 8.4 ± 7.8 years. In terms of comorbidities, 18.9 % of patients reported hypertension and 5.2 % had diabetes. The mean DAS28 at inclusion was 4.3 (95 % CI 4.1-4.5); 14.0 % were in remission (DAS28 ≤ 2.6). The mean HAQ score was 0.81 ± 0.82. Rheumatoid factor was positive in 78.5 % of cases, and anti-citrullinated protein/peptide antibodies, when measured, was positive in 69.0 % of cases. Seronegative patients were older and had a relatively less severe disease. For treatment, 89.7 % of patients were taking disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drugs and only 4 % were taking biologics (rituximab); 90.8 % of patients were taking glucocorticoids, and none of the patients satisfied the recommended calcium intake guidelines. RA in Algeria is more common in women. Compared to reports from Western countries, RA in Algeria appears to be less aggressive, with more dominant seronegative oligoarthritis forms. The remission rate is comparable to that of Western populations. PMID:24633899

  20. Neotectonic deformation model of the Northern Algeria from Paleomagnetic data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Derder, M. E. M.; Henry, B.; Maouche, S.; Amenna, M.; Bayou, B.; Djellit, H.; Ymel, H.; Gharbi, S.; Abtout, A.; Ayache, M.

    2012-04-01

    The seismic activity of the Western Mediterranean area is partly concentrated in northern Africa, particularly in northern Algeria, as it is shown by the strongest recent earthquakes of "Zemmouri" 21 May 2003 Mw=6.9 and the "El Asnam" 10 October 1980 Ms= 7.3. This seismicity is due to the tectonic activity related to the convergence between Africa and Eurasia plates since at least the Oligocene. The deformation is mostly compressional with associated folds, strike-slip faults and thrusts, and a direction of shortening between N-S and NNW-SSE. This convergence involves a tectonic transpression which is expressed by active deformation along the plate boundary. In northern Algeria, the seismicity is concentrated in a coastal E-W thin band zone (the Tell Atlas). Active structures define there NE-SW trending folds and NE-SW sinistral transpressive faults, which affect the intermountain and coastal Neogene to Quaternary sedimentary basins (e.g. " Cheliff "basin, " Mitidja "basin, …). These reverse faults are associated with NW-SE to E-W strike-slips deep faults. The active tectonics could be explained by a simple blocks rotation kinematics model. In order to test the validity of this kinematic model, three different paleomagnetic studies have been conducted. The first one concerned the "Cheliff" basin where sedimentary Neogene formations were extensively sampled (66 sites). The second study was carried out on Miocene andesite and dacite rocks cropping out along the northern coastal zone of the "Cheliff" basin ("Beni Haoua" area, 19 sites). The third study has been carried out on the Miocene magmatic rocks (rhyolites and basalts) cropping out north-eastern part of the "Mitidja" basin ("Cap Djinet" - "Boumerdes" area, 23 sites). The obtained results show existence of paleomagnetic clockwise rotations in all the studied areas and then validates the kinematics block rotation model. Accordingly, the deformation related to the convergence between the Africa and Eurasia

  1. Mossbauer Spectra of Weathered H5 Ordinary Chondrites from Reg EL Acfer, Algeria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berry, F.; Oates, G.; Bland, P.; Pillinger, C. T.

    1992-07-01

    Approximately 380 meteorite specimens have been retrieved from the Acfer region of the Sahara desert, Algeria. To date, 26 of these have been classified H5 (Bischoff et al., 1990, 1991, 1992). Being the most common meteorite type and having a tightly constrained mineralogy (Mason, 1965), H5 chondrites are ideal candidates for investigating terrestrial weathering products in meteorites. Arid climate, uniform topography, and lack of a concentration/movement mechanism makes it likely that meteorites throughout Reg el Acfer were weathered by a common mechanism. Jull et al. (1991) showed a correlation in meteorites from Roosevelt County between terrestrial ^14C ages and a qualitative weathering scale. An aim of the present study is to provide a quantitative measure of weathering for the Acfer region that might allow an estimate of terrestrial age, as well as information on pairing. Meteorite Specimens: Approximately 1 g of sample was used, prepared by grinding under acetone to prevent oxidation during crushing, until a homogenized powder was produced. Mossbauer spectra were recorded at 298 degrees K with a microprocessor controlled Mossbauer spectrometer using a ^57Co/Rh source. Drive velocity was calibrated with the same source and a metallic iron foil. Results: The H5 chondrite Acfer 146 (Bischoff, forthcoming Meteoritical Bulletin) was found on 19/11/90 at coordinates 27 degrees 38'N, 4 degrees 05'E. This meteorite gave a spectrum dominated by quadrupole split absorption characteristics of Fe^2+ in a forsteritic olivine structure. A sample of the outer crust showed the additional presence of Fe^3+. XRD was insensitive to the unequivocal identification of the phases present in the two samples and given that the Mossbauer parameters of the hydrolyzed Fe^3+ species and ferric oxyhydroxides are very similar it is not possible at this stage to identify the oxidized phase. Clearly, however, the results demonstrate the sensitivity of Mossbauer spectroscopy to the products

  2. Plate tectonics and offshore boundary delimitation: Tunisia-Libya case at the International Court of Justice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stanley, Daniel Jean

    1982-03-01

    The first major offshore boundary dispute where plate tectonics constituted a significant argument was recently brought before the International Court of Justice by Libya and Tunisia concerning the delimitation of their continental shelves. Libya placed emphasis on this concept to determine natural prolongation of its land territory under the sea. Tunisia contested use of the entire African continental landmass as a reference unit and views geography, geomorphology and bathymetry as relevant as geology. The Court pronounced that “It is the outcome, not the evolution in the long-distant past, which is of importance.” Moreover, it is the present-day configuration of coasts and seabed that are the main factors, not geology.

  3. Ground-water resources of the Bengasi area, Cyrenaica, United Kingdom of Libya

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Doyel, William Watson; Maguire, Frank J.

    1964-01-01

    The Benpsi area of Libya, in the northwestern part of the Province of Cyrenaica (Wilayat Barqah), is semiarid, and available ground-water supplies in the area are relatively small. Potable ground water from known sources is reserved for the present and future needs of the city, and no surface-water supplies are available in the area. This investigation to evaluate known, as well as potential, water supplies in the area was undertaken as part of a larger program of ground-water investigations in Libya under the auspices of the U. S. Operations Mission to Libya and the Government of Libya. A ground-water reservoir underlies the Bengasi area, in which the water occurs in solution channels, cavities, and other openings in Miocene limestone. The reservoir is recharged directly by rainfall on the area and by infiltration from ephemeral streams (wadis) rising in Al Jabal al Akhar to the east. In the Baninah and Al Fuwayhit areas the ground-water reservoir yields water of fair quality and in sufficient quantity for the current (1959) needs. of the Bengasi city supply. The test-drilling program in the area south and southeast of Bengasi indicates that water in sufficient quantity for additional public supply probably can be obtained in some localities from wells. The water, however, is moderately to highly mineralized and would require treatment or demineralization before it could be used for additional public supply. Much of the water could be used directly for irrigation, but careful attention would have to be given to cultivation, drainage, and cropping practices. The hazard of saltwater encroachment also exists if large-scale withdrawals are undertaken in the coastal zones.

  4. [Targeting abattoirs to control cystic echinococcosis in Algeria].

    PubMed

    Benchikh ElFegoun, M C; Kohil, K; L'Ollivier, C; Lleu, M; Babelhadj, B; Piarroux, M; Gharbi, M; Piarroux, R

    2016-08-01

    Cystic echinococcosis (CE) is an important anthropozoonotic parasitic common in Algeria. The predominant life cycle of E. granulosus is a synanthropic cycle with domestic dogs as definitive hosts and livestock animals as intermediate hosts. Slaughter activity represents a potential source for dogs to access infected offal. The aim of the present study was to determine if the contact between dogs and potentially infected offal was possible in licensed abattoirs. Eighty-one private and public abattoirs located in eastern Algeria were assessed with respect to their level of protection against the intrusion of dogs.We have demonstrated that in 42 % of these abattoirs, dogs could easily come in contact with potentially parasitized offal. The most common incorrect practices were the dumping of offal freely into the environment, the feeding of dogs with offal, and the leaving of unattended offal in an unsealed chamber. Overall, some hazardous practices remained common customs of workers, and enough abattoirs remain non-compliant that the cattledog domestic cycle of CE is unlikely to be broken. Hence, some recommended measures to interrupt parasite transmission include the following: recognition of the importance of abattoirs in the maintenance of canine echinococcosis, the controlled and proper disposal of offal, the abolishment of the custom of feeding dogs with infected offal and improvements in the level of health education of abattoir staff. PMID:27251548

  5. CO2-storage assessment and effective capacity in Algeria.

    PubMed

    Aktouf, Abdelouahab; Bentellis, Abdelhakim

    2016-01-01

    Deep saline aquifers widely distributed deep in the earth offer the greatest CO2 storage potential in all current geological CO2 storage approaches. The western region of the Saharan platform in Algeria includes several sedimentary basins characterized by a large production of dry gas with high CO2 rates sometimes exceeding 9 %. To reduce CO2 emissions, these basins were analyzed to identify those with the largest potential for the geological sequestration of CO2 (GSC). The evaluation methodology applied to determine the basin potential is based on qualitative geological and practical criteria to which we have assigned normalized numerical values. This evaluation method allows us to quantitatively compare and evaluate the basins in Algeria. Estimations of the CO2 storage capacities of several structures in the sedimentary Ahnet-Gourara Basin, which has the greatest potential for GSC, vary from 1 Gt to over 5 Gt. Based on cautious estimations, these geologic structures should be able to contain the entire volume of the CO2 emitted over the next three decades at least. PMID:27462486

  6. Ionizing radiations, underground world and nuclear tests in Algeria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chama, Allel

    2010-05-01

    Today, the exposure to ionizing radiations, is still a real great physical hazard in the world at various levels until the nuclear tests which led to a rich and lawful debate, and needs the installation of preventive rules through technical and medical aspects during the use of the radioactive sources, (theradioprotection). Concerning the occupational health, the pathology of the ionizing radiations is repaired under occupational disease. Our interest is to highlight this physical hazard, which represents an important chapter of the occupational pathology in its effects and prevention of the workers exposed in Algeria. The second aim of the paper is to highlight the historical aspect of the risk of ionizing radiations and consequences causes by the French nuclear tests in In Eker (underground galleries of the mountain of Hoggar in the south of Algeria in 1961), whose effects present a great damage on the health of the Algerian captive, and "workers", indigenous population and environment until now. This event deserves its place as much as that of Hiroshima and Nagasaki (1945).

  7. Coarse-resolution Ecology of Etiological Agent, Vector, and Reservoirs of Zoonotic Cutaneous Leishmaniasis in Libya

    PubMed Central

    Samy, Abdallah M.; Annajar, Badereddin B.; Dokhan, Mostafa Ramadhan; Boussaa, Samia; Peterson, A. Townsend

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Cutaneous leishmaniasis ranks among the tropical diseases least known and most neglected in Libya. World Health Organization reports recognized associations of Phlebotomus papatasi, Psammomys obesus, and Meriones spp., with transmission of zoonotic cutaneous leishmaniasis (ZCL; caused by Leishmania major) across Libya. Here, we map risk of ZCL infection based on occurrence records of L. major, P. papatasi, and four potential animal reservoirs (Meriones libycus, Meriones shawi, Psammomys obesus, and Gerbillus gerbillus). Ecological niche models identified limited risk areas for ZCL across the northern coast of the country; most species associated with ZCL transmission were confined to this same region, but some had ranges extending to central Libya. All ENM predictions were significant based on partial ROC tests. As a further evaluation of L. major ENM predictions, we compared predictions with 98 additional independent records provided by the Libyan National Centre for Disease Control (NCDC); all of these records fell inside the belt predicted as suitable for ZCL. We tested ecological niche similarity among vector, parasite, and reservoir species and could not reject any null hypotheses of niche similarity. Finally, we tested among possible combinations of vector and reservoir that could predict all recent human ZCL cases reported by NCDC; only three combinations could anticipate the distribution of human cases across the country. PMID:26863317

  8. Oestrus ovis as a Cause of Red Eye in Aljabal Algharbi, Libya

    PubMed Central

    Abdellatif, Manal Z. M.; Elmazar, Hesham M. F.; Essa, Amna B.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To study the common presenting signs of external ophthalmomyiasis caused by Oestrus ovis larvae in Aljabal Algharbi province, Libya. Materials and Methods: A prospective non- comparative study was conducted from September 2009 to July 2010 at the Gharian outpatient clinic, Gharian, Aljabal Algharbi, Libya. The common presenting features of patients with external ophthalmomyiasis and data on the organism that caused the disease were collected. Results: Twenty one cases diagnosed with external ophthalmomyiasis were recorded. There were fourteen males (66.67%) and seven females (33.33%) in the cohort. The mean age was 14.29 ± 3.46 years (range, 8 years to 22 years: males; 13.39 ± 3.03 years and females; 16.67 ± 3.75 years). The main complaint was redness (100.00%), itching (71.43%) and tearing (57.14%). Twelve patients (57.14%) were from rural areas and 9 patients (42.9%) were from urban areas. The causative organism was found to be first instar of Oestrus ovis larvae. Conclusion: External ophthalmomyiasis caused by Oestrus ovis can cause red eye in patients from Aljabal Algharbi, Libya and requires careful examination to ensure early diagnosis and proper treatment. PMID:22224020

  9. Sand Dune Ridge Alignment Effects on Surface BRF over Libya-4 Calibration Site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Govaerts, Yves

    2015-12-01

    The Libya-4 desert area, located in the Great Sand Sea, is one of the most important bright desert CEOS pseudo-invariant calibration sites by its size and radiometric stability. This site is intensively used for radiometer drift monitoring, sensor intercalibration and as an absolute calibration reference based on simulated radiances traceable to the SI standard. The Libya-4 morphology is composed of oriented sand dunes shaped by dominant winds. The effects of sand dune spatial organization on the surface bidirectional reflectance factor is analyzed in this paper using Raytran, a 3D radiative transfer model. The topography is characterized with the 30 m resolution ASTER digital elevation model. Four different regions-of-interest sizes, ranging from 10 km up to 100 km, are analyzed. Results show that sand dunes generate more backscattering than forward scattering at the surface. The mean surface reflectance averaged over different viewing and illumination angles is pretty much independent of the size of the selected area, though the standard deviation differs. Sun azimuth position has an effect on the surface reflectance field, which is more pronounced for high Sun zenith angles. Such 3D azimuthal effects should be taken into account to decrease the simulated radiance uncertainty over Libya-4 below 3% for wavelengths larger than 600 nm..

  10. Sand dune ridge alignment effects on surface BRF over the Libya-4 CEOS calibration site.

    PubMed

    Govaerts, Yves M

    2015-01-01

    The Libya-4 desert area, located in the Great Sand Sea, is one of the most important bright desert CEOS pseudo-invariant calibration sites by its size and radiometric stability. This site is intensively used for radiometer drift monitoring, sensor intercalibration and as an absolute calibration reference based on simulated radiances traceable to the SI standard. The Libya-4 morphology is composed of oriented sand dunes shaped by dominant winds. The effects of sand dune spatial organization on the surface bidirectional reflectance factor is analyzed in this paper using Raytran, a 3D radiative transfer model. The topography is characterized with the 30 m resolution ASTER digital elevation model. Four different regions-of-interest sizes, ranging from 10 km up to 100 km, are analyzed. Results show that sand dunes generate more backscattering than forward scattering at the surface. The mean surface reflectance averaged over different viewing and illumination angles is pretty much independent of the size of the selected area, though the standard deviation differs. Sun azimuth position has an effect on the surface reflectance field, which is more pronounced for high Sun zenith angles. Such 3D azimuthal effects should be taken into account to decrease the simulated radiance uncertainty over Libya-4 below 3% for wavelengths larger than 600 nm. PMID:25654721

  11. Sand Dune Ridge Alignment Effects on Surface BRF over the Libya-4 CEOS Calibration Site

    PubMed Central

    Govaerts, Yves M.

    2015-01-01

    The Libya-4 desert area, located in the Great Sand Sea, is one of the most important bright desert CEOS pseudo-invariant calibration sites by its size and radiometric stability. This site is intensively used for radiometer drift monitoring, sensor intercalibration and as an absolute calibration reference based on simulated radiances traceable to the SI standard. The Libya-4 morphology is composed of oriented sand dunes shaped by dominant winds. The effects of sand dune spatial organization on the surface bidirectional reflectance factor is analyzed in this paper using Raytran, a 3D radiative transfer model. The topography is characterized with the 30 m resolution ASTER digital elevation model. Four different regions-of-interest sizes, ranging from 10 km up to 100 km, are analyzed. Results show that sand dunes generate more backscattering than forward scattering at the surface. The mean surface reflectance averaged over different viewing and illumination angles is pretty much independent of the size of the selected area, though the standard deviation differs. Sun azimuth position has an effect on the surface reflectance field, which is more pronounced for high Sun zenith angles. Such 3D azimuthal effects should be taken into account to decrease the simulated radiance uncertainty over Libya-4 below 3% for wavelengths larger than 600 nm. PMID:25654721

  12. Opportunities for woody crop production using treated wastewater in Egypt

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Nile River provides nearly 97% of Egypt's freshwater supply. Egypt's share of Nile waters is allocated according to international treaty obligations and is fixed at 55.5 billion cubic meters annually. As a result, Egypt will not be able to meet increasing water demand using freshwater from the N...

  13. Sedimentary cover in the South Western Desert of Egypt as deduced from Bouguer gravity and drill-hole data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Senosy, M. M.; Youssef, M. M.; Abdel Zaher, M.

    2013-06-01

    The Western Desert, Egypt includes the major groundwater aquifer in the country. It is apart from the Major Sahara Nubian Aquifer which is present in Sudan, Chad, Egypt and Libya. Thickness of this aquifer is changed laterally from south to north and also from west to east. The changes may structurally or litheologicalley control. The present study is focused on using of Bouguer gravity anomaly mapped at a scale of 1:500,000 and the lithological logs of about 120 deep wells used to determine the thickness of the sedimentary sequence containing the main Nubian sandstone water aquifer in important area of Egypt. The area is located in the southern part of the Western Desert bounded by the latitudes 22°00'-26°30'N, and longitudes 28°30'-33°00'E. The predominant structures affecting the basement rocks and the sedimentary cover were traced and analyzed. The gravity stripping approach was applied to eliminate the gravity effects caused by sedimentary sequence and to separate density anomalies within the sedimentary fill from the influence of rocks at deeper levels in the crystalline crust. The study indicated that the surface of the basement rocks is highly rugged and mostly controlled by structures which have a direct effect on thickness variation of the sedimentary cover all over the area. Regionally the area is characterized by two major intracratonic basins (the Dahkla Basin and the Nile valley Basin) separated by a NE-SW trending swell of the Kharga uplift and bounded at the south by the Oweinat-Bir Safsaf-Aswan uplift. These major tectonic units are controlled by fault structures trending in N-S, E-W, NE-SW, NW-SE, which cut the basement rocks and extend upward in the sedimentary cover. The maximum thickness of sandstone formations is recorded at west Oweinat, west Kurkur, southwest of Aswan, Gramashin, Dakhla oasis and some localities west of Sohag and Qena towns. At these localities the thickness ranges between 600 and 900 m. As this formation is the main

  14. Comparison of health care financing in Egypt and Cuba: lessons for health reform in Egypt.

    PubMed

    Gericke, C A

    2005-01-01

    Egypt and Cuba are both lower-middle income countries with a history of socialist rule, which have embarked on economic liberalization since the 1990s. Cuba has achieved exemplary health status whereas health status in Egypt is lower than could be expected for its level of income. In this article, health care financing mechanisms in both countries are analysed on their effectiveness, efficiency, and equity, with the objective of identifying the determinants of success in the Cuban health system from which valuable lessons for current health reforms in Egypt may be derived. PMID:16761679

  15. Tin Bider: A Complex Impact Crater in the Central Saharan Platform (Algeria)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belhai, D. B.; Sahoui, R. S.

    2014-09-01

    The circular structure of Tin Bider is located in the northeast of the Tadmaït (Algeria), This structure about 6000 m in diameter, shows three main concentric rings and a central peak in cretaceous target rocks.

  16. Predominance of CRF06_cpx and Transmitted HIV Resistance in Algeria: Update 2013-2014.

    PubMed

    Abdellaziz, Akila; Papuchon, Jennifer; Khaled, Safia; Ouerdane, Dalila; Fleury, Hervé; Recordon-Pinson, Patricia

    2016-04-01

    Since 2008, no data on HIV diversity or the transmission rate of HIV resistance mutations in naive patients have been presented for Algeria, a country of MENA region. Between 2013 and 2014, we studied 152 samples including 89 naive patients. The current study describes the change in HIV diversity in Algeria with the predominance of CRF06_cpx and the huge increase of transmitted HIV resistance, which now reaches 15%. PMID:26529365

  17. Egypt's petrogas plans gas for Cairo homes

    SciTech Connect

    Sharman, R.B.

    1981-12-01

    The first phase of Egypt's program to ultimately convert 640,000 LPG users to natural gas will cover four Cairo suburbs, supply about 160,000 customers, modify some 300,000 appliances, and switch two power plants to gas firing. The Abu el Gharadig field 155 miles west of the city will supply the gas via a new 38-mile transmission line. Most of the new distribution system will use polyethylene pipe. BGC's international Consultancy Service is helping Egypt's Petrogas plan and supervise the ambitious project.

  18. New species of Pseudachorutes (Collembola: Neanuridae) from Northeastern Algeria.

    PubMed

    Zoughailech, Abdelmalek; Hamra-Kroua, Salah; Deharveng, Louis

    2016-01-01

    Three new species of Pseudachorutes are described from the Collo massif in northeastern Algeria, all three with morphological features unique or rare in the genus. P. deficiens sp. nov. lacks chaeta E on the labium, a character only retrieved in P. ouatilouensis Najt & Weiner, 1997 from New Caledonia, from which it differs by the presence of chaeta a2 on Th. II and of chaeta M on tibiotarsus. P. octosensillatus sp. nov. is the only species of the genus that have 8 S-chaetae on Ant IV. P. labiatus sp. nov. has 3 x-papillae on the labium, like P. cf. indiana Christiansen & Bellinger, 1980 from Alaska, from which it differs by the presence of chaeta a2 on Th. II and a lower number of vesicles in PAO (5-6 vs 10-14). PMID:27615903

  19. Adapting to climate change: water distribution in BBA City, Algeria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeroual, A.; Meddi, M.; Assani, A. A.

    2015-04-01

    For over 20 years, the eastern Algeria region has had significant rainfall deficits that resulted in severe droughts, which seriously affected the availability of water for drinking. Owing to considerations of affordability, drinking water is systematically underpriced because water is essential for life. Such a low price results in water being used inefficiently. This research presents the impact that a high leakage level in the water distribution network has on the water service price in BBA (Bordj Bou Arréridj) city and expected future water resources management scenarios in BBA watersheds by taking into account to the river flow simulated by GR2M using the outputs of climate models with emissions scenarios A1 and A1B. The analysis of the results shows a large economy can be made with regard to water losses, reaching up to 47% saving of the produced water volume; also, BBA city is expected to experience water stress before 2030.

  20. Level of natural and artificial radioactivity in Algeria.

    PubMed

    Baggoura, B; Noureddine, A; Benkrid, M

    1998-07-01

    A national environmental sampling program was carried out during 1993 to determine natural and artificial radionuclides contents in the (0-15 cm) upper layer of the soil. The main objective was to establish a radioactive reference level in the whole territory, since 131I, 134Cs and 137Cs were detected in most of the analysed samples collected right after the Chernobyl accident (May 1986). Soil samples were analysed by direct counting by gamma-ray spectrometry. In addition, terrestrial gamma-ray dose rates in air have been measured out of doors throughout Algeria. In each of the 48 administrative divisions of the country selected sites were chosen to collect soil samples and measure gamma-ray dose rates. The gamma-emitting radionuclides resulting from the radioactive decay of 238U and 232Th, 40K and 137Cs were detected in most of the analysed samples. Radioactivity concentrations in Bq kg-1 dry mass in soil samples of 226Ra, 214Pb, 214Bi, 212Pb, 228Ac, 40K and 137Cs range between (5-176), (2-107), (3-65), (2-97), (3-144), (36-1405) and (0.3-41) respectively. In addition, six selected soil samples were analysed to determine plutonium isotopes contents. Radioactivity concentrations in Bq kg-1 dry mass of 238Pu and 239 + 240Pu vary between (0.012-0.013) and (0.24-0.61) respectively. The dose rates in air measured over the whole country were found to range between 20 and 133 nGy h-1. Presence of 137Cs has been clearly observed. An approach has been made to determine its origin, considering the global fallout, the Chernobyl accident and the French nuclear bomb tests in the 60s as the main potential sources. It is concluded that Algeria has indeed been affected by the Chernobyl accident. PMID:9570102

  1. [Spread of Leishmania major to the north of Algeria].

    PubMed

    Boudrissa, A; Cherif, K; Kherrachi, I; Benbetka, S; Bouiba, L; Boubidi, S C; Benikhlef, R; Arrar, L; Hamrioui, B; Harrat, Z

    2012-02-01

    Since a long time, Leishmania major and L. infantum foci in Algeria were geographically separated by the mountains of the Tell Atlas which represent a natural barrier. Recently, a new focus of cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) has emerged in the village of El M'hir, located on the north side of the chain of the Tell Atlas, in the basin of the Soummam. During the period 2004-2010, 152 CL cases have been registered and 12 isolates were obtained from patients who declared never having been outside the village the last years. The identification of the parasites showed that all strains belonged to L major MON-25. Investigations on the reservoir hosts showed the presence of the sand rat (Psammomys obesus), for the first time, in this locality. Five strains isolated from this rodent belonged to L. major MON-25. The sand rat, which is usually observed around the chotts in the Saharan and steppe areas, acts as the main reservoir of L. major in Algeria. Its presence in the new focus of El M'hir is reported for the first time. Entomological surveys carried out in 2009 showed the predominance of two sandfly species: Phlebotomus papatasi and P. perniciosus. The first one is known as a vector of L major in the Algerian Sahara. This study highlights the spread of L. major from the arid zones towards the semi arid areas, particularly in the Soummam valley. Climate changes and desertification observed in the steppe area northern Sahara could play a role in the extension of the disease. PMID:22170408

  2. Review of Parasitic Zoonoses in Egypt

    PubMed Central

    Youssef, Ahmed I.; Uga, Shoji

    2014-01-01

    This review presents a comprehensive picture of the zoonotic parasitic diseases in Egypt, with particular reference to their relative prevalence among humans, animal reservoirs of infection, and sources of human infection. A review of the available literature indicates that many parasitic zoonoses are endemic in Egypt. Intestinal infections of parasitic zoonoses are widespread and are the leading cause of diarrhea, particularly among children and residents of rural areas. Some parasitic zoonoses are confined to specific geographic areas in Egypt, such as cutaneous leishmaniasis and zoonotic babesiosis in the Sinai. Other areas have a past history of a certain parasitic zoonoses, such as visceral leishmaniasis in the El-Agamy area in Alexandria. As a result of the implementation of control programs, a marked decrease in the prevalence of other zoonoses, such as schistosomiasis and fascioliasis has been observed. Animal reservoirs of parasitic zoonoses have been identified in Egypt, especially in rodents, stray dogs and cats, as well as vectors, typically mosquitoes and ticks, which constitute potential risks for disease transmission. Prevention and control programs against sources and reservoirs of zoonoses should be planned by public health and veterinary officers based on reliable information from systematic surveillance. PMID:24808742

  3. Women's "Justification" of Domestic Violence in Egypt

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yount, Kathryn M.; Li, Li

    2009-01-01

    We explored the influences of women's social learning, marital resources and constraints, and exposure to norms about women's family roles on their views about wife hitting or beating among 5,450 participants in the 2005 Egypt Demographic and Health Survey. One half justified wife hitting or beating for some reason. Women from rural areas who were…

  4. New leaf diseases of barley in Egypt.

    PubMed

    Mehiar, F F; El-Deen, E; Wasfy, H; El-Samra, I A

    1976-01-01

    Leaf diseases of barley were observed also in Egypt. From leaves of barley were isolated: Helminthosporium teres, H. gramineum, Stemphylium vesicarium, Alternaria triticina, Vlocladium chartarum, Acnemonium kiliense, Stemphylium spec. accompanied with the Pleospora stage. Inoculations on both attached and detached leaves showed that all the tested fungi were pathogenic, except Acremonium kiliense and Ulocladium chartarum. PMID:1037183

  5. Supply and Demand for Graduates in Egypt.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arabsheibani, Gholamreza

    1991-01-01

    Data from a sample of university graduates in Egypt are used to test the effect of a mismatch in higher education policy and labor demand on future employment patterns. The results are delayed employment or underemployment and consequent lowering of lifetime earnings of college graduates. (MSE)

  6. Video Usage in Egypt: Limits and Effects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    El-Fawal, Nagwa Amin

    A review of research conducted in Egypt to assess the impact of videocassette recorders (VCRs) on society and on other communication media indicates that the use of VCRs--a new phenomenon in mass communication in that country--has been accelerating over the past five years as more people have been gradually exposed to the advantages of unlimited…

  7. Multicenter Study of Brucellosis in Egypt

    PubMed Central

    Samaha, Hassan; Al-Rowaily, Meshref; Khoudair, Ramadan M.

    2008-01-01

    Brucellosis causes appreciable economic losses in livestock. Examination of milk and tissues from animals in Egypt for Brucella spp. showed increased prevalence rates of serologically reactive animals. All isolates were B. melitensis biovar 3. One Brucella sp. was isolated from milk of serologically nonreactive buffaloes. PMID:19046520

  8. Detection of Strawberry Viruses in Egypt

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    As part of a USAID-MERC funded project, ‘Disease-indexing and mass propagation of superior strawberry cultivars’, an effort was made to evaluate the virus status of strawberries in Egypt. Diagnostic reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) tests for Strawberry mottle, Strawberry cri...

  9. Censorship and Security Agents Pervade Egypt's Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mills, Andrew

    2008-01-01

    This article offers a glimpse into one of the many ways in which the Egyptian government and the campus administrators it appoints are slowly and persistently squeezing the life out of universities in Cairo, Egypt. Classroom discussions are monitored, faculty appointments and academic research are scrutinized, and faculty participation in outside…

  10. Journey to Egypt: A Board Game

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Selvidge, Ellen

    2006-01-01

    This author describes how her elementary students first became interested in studying ancient Egypt. Her students' interest in the ancient Egyptian studies began when a student checked out a library book on Egyptology that contained colorful images and was soon swarmed by interested classmates. Many of her students began practicing writing…

  11. Plate tectonics and offshore boundary delimitation: Tunisia-Libya case at the International Court of Justice

    SciTech Connect

    Stanley, D.J.

    1983-03-01

    Advances in the technology for exploiting resources of the oceans, particularly recovery of hydrocarbons and minerals in deep water, is benefiting a growing number of nations. At the same time, however, economic and political pressures have induced concern and there is now a much increased emphasis on jurisdiction to divide the offshore areas between the 132 coastal nations. Negotiations affect research operations at sea and, in consequence, marine scientists have been made aware of offshore problems as highlighted by the Law of the Sea Treaty (UNCLOS III) and complications arising from the legal versus scientific definitions of continental shelves and margins. The first major offshore boundary case of international scope where plate tectonics has constituted a significant argument is the one recently brought before the International Court of Justice by Libya and Tunisia concerning the delimitation of their continental shelves. Of the two parties, Libya placed the greatest emphasis on this concept as a means to determine natural prolongation of its land territory into and under the sea. Tunisia contested Libya's use of the whole of the African continental landmass as a reference unit; in Tunisia's view, considerations of geography, geomorphology, and bathymetry are at least as relevant as are those of geology. In its landmark judgment (February 1982) - which almost certainly will have far-reaching consequences in future such boundary delimitation cases - the court pronounced that It is the outcome, not the evolution in the long-distant past, which is of importance, and that it is the present-day configuration of the coasts and sea bed which are the main factors to be considered, not geology.

  12. Seismicity and gravimetric studies of Cyrenaica platform and adjacent regions, northeastern Libya

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ben Suleman, abdunnur

    2013-04-01

    Cyrenaica, located in northeastern Libya, consists of two distinct tectonic provinces; the tectonically unstable northern Cyrenaica and the more stable Cyernaican platform to the south. This study represents detailed investigations that aim to focus on the structure and tectonic setting through a detailed Seismicity and gravity analysis. Seismicity of northeastern Libya is documented back to 262 A.D. when an earthquake destroyed the city of Ceryne. The same area was destroyed by an earthquake in 365 A.D, The city of Al-Maraj was heavily damaged in 1963 by an earthquake measuring 5,3 in the Richter scale. Data collected by the recently established Libyan National Seismograph Network confirms that northeastern Libya is seismically active with most of the activity concentrates on the northern part particularly in the city of Al-Maraj area. Seismic activity is also noticeable in the offshore area. Focal mechanism studies for a number of earthquakes recorded by the Libyan National Seismograph Network suggest that normal faulting is predominant. A gravity data base collected from a variety of sources was compiled to generate a Bouguer gravity anomaly map that represents the basic map used in the overall interpretations, as well as in generating more specialized gravity maps used in the detailed investigations. The Bouguer gravity map demonstrates that the northern inverted basins of Cyrenaica and the coastal plain of Al-Jabal Al-Akhdar show a raped northward increase in gravity values to up to 130 Mgal. In addition a series of steep faults that separates the unstable Al-Jabal Al-Akhdar from the more stable Cyrenaica platform as well as other faults within the platform were well delineated.

  13. Seawater Intrusion and groundwater quality of the coastal area in Tripoli region, Libya

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdalla, Rashid; Rinder, Thomas; Dietzel, Martin; Leis, Albrecht

    2010-05-01

    In Libya groundwater is the main source of freshwater, providing a vital supplement to surface water sources. Groundwater availability and quality are however, vulnerable both to climate change and over-abstraction. In Libyan cities where the water table has lowered there has been a consequent impact on agricultural activities. Groundwater aquifers are either renewable or non-renewable. The renewable aquifers are those located in the north coastal strip with high precipitation rates. The large non-renewable sedimentary groundwater basins cover extensive areas in the central and southern parts of Libya and contribute large quantities of freshwater for local use, industrial and agricultural development. Seawater intrusion is a problem in the coastal areas of Libya. Most productive agricultural fields are in the northern coastal areas of the country where irrigation predominantly relies on groundwater. Seawater has moved inland because of heavy exploitation of the Miocene-Quaternary aquifer in order to meet the increasing water demand. The physical and chemical parameters of groundwater such as electrical conductivity, pH, temperature and individual ion content were determined. Most of the wells showed high values of electrical conductivity. The increase of water salinity is directly related to the extreme pumping of shallow coastal aquifers and movement of seawater towards inland. In some samples the increase of salinity corresponds to the ions abundant in seawater. In those solutions molar ratios of Cl/Br indicate influence of seawater intrusion. According to mixing calculations between fresh groundwater of the study area and Mediterranean seawater, the estimated concentration of seawater ranges from 10 to 15 wt%.

  14. Stratigraphy of the Neogene Sahabi units in the Sirt Basin, northeast Libya

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El-Shawaihdi, M. H.; Mozley, P. S.; Boaz, N. T.; Salloum, F.; Pavlakis, P.; Muftah, A.; Triantaphyllou, M.

    2016-06-01

    A revision of the nomenclature of lithostratigraphic units of Neogene strata at As Sahabi, northeast Libya, is presented, based on new fieldwork conducted during 2006-2008. The Sahabi units are correlated across the Ajdabya Sheet (NH 34-6) in northeastern Libya. Major conclusions are: (1) Miocene (Langhian through Messinian) strata are predominantly carbonate and should be referred to as formation "M"; (2) A local unconformity of Miocene (early Messinian) age overlies strata of the formation "M"; (3) This unconformity is overlain by Messinian gypsiferous sand and mud (formerly formation "P" and partially member "T"), which are designated as the "lower member" (gypsiferous) of the Sahabi Formation; (4) The "lower member" is overlain by sand and mud of late Messinian age (formerly partially member "T" and members "U1", "UD", and "U2") in a generally fining-upwards sequence, and are designated as the "upper member" (non-gypsiferous) of the Sahabi Formation; (5) The latest Miocene sand and mud of the "upper member" are capped by an unconformity that is correlated with the regression and desiccation of the Mediterranean Sea during the Messinian Salinity Crisis and with Eosahabi Channel cutting; (6) The unconformity is overlain by Pliocene medium, coarse, and pebbly sands, which are referred to as the Qarat Weddah Formation (formerly Garet Uedda Formation); (7) The Pliocene sands of Qarat Weddah Formation are overlain by carbonate soil (calcrete) of Late Pliocene age, which is referred to as formation "Z" (formerly member "Z"). The major outcome of this study is a revised stratigraphic description and nomenclature of the Sahabi units that helps to provide a formal and unified context for understanding paleontological discoveries in northeastern Libya, which will serve to facilitate a broader correlation of the Sahabi units with their equivalents elsewhere in Africa and in Europe and Asia.

  15. AIR SHIPMENT OF HIGHLY ENRICHED URANIUM SPENT NUCLEAR FUEL FROM ROMANIA AND LIBYA

    SciTech Connect

    Christopher Landers; Igor Bolshinsky; Ken Allen; Stanley Moses

    2010-07-01

    In June 2009 Romania successfully completed the world’s first air shipment of highly enriched uranium (HEU) spent nuclear fuel transported in Type B(U) casks under existing international laws and without special exceptions for the air transport licenses. Special 20-foot ISO shipping containers and cask tiedown supports were designed to transport Russian TUK 19 shipping casks for the Romanian air shipment and the equipment was certified for all modes of transport, including road, rail, water, and air. In December 2009 Libya successfully used this same equipment for a second air shipment of HEU spent nuclear fuel. Both spent fuel shipments were transported by truck from the originating nuclear facilities to nearby commercial airports, were flown by commercial cargo aircraft to a commercial airport in Yekaterinburg, Russia, and then transported by truck to their final destinations at the Production Association Mayak facility in Chelyabinsk, Russia. Both air shipments were performed under the Russian Research Reactor Fuel Return Program (RRRFR) as part of the U.S. National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) Global Threat Reduction Initiative (GTRI). The Romania air shipment of 23.7 kg of HEU spent fuel from the VVR S research reactor was the last of three HEU fresh and spent fuel shipments under RRRFR that resulted in Romania becoming the 3rd RRRFR participating country to remove all HEU. Libya had previously completed two RRRFR shipments of HEU fresh fuel so the 5.2 kg of HEU spent fuel air shipped from the IRT 1 research reactor in December made Libya the 4th RRRFR participating country to remove all HEU. This paper describes the equipment, preparations, and license approvals required to safely and securely complete these two air shipments of spent nuclear fuel.

  16. Gravity study of Libya;Evaluation and Integration with Geological Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ben Suleman, abdunnur; Saheel, Ahmed

    2016-04-01

    Libya is located on the Mediterranean foreland of the African Shield and covers an area of approximately 1.8 million square kilometers. Since Early Paleozoic time, Libya has been a site of deposition of large sheets of continental clastics and several transgressions and regressions by the seas with consequent accumulations of a wide variety of sedimentary rocks. Several tectonic cycles affected the area and shaped the geological setting of the country. However, the regional geology and the structural framework have been highly influenced by the Caledonian, Hercynian, and Alpine tectonic events. As a result, a total of seven sedimentary basins, namely Ghadames, Murzuq, Al Kufra, Al Butnan, Sirt, and the Offshore Pelagian Basin, were developed and were separated by intervening uplifts and platforms ( Gargaf, Tibesti, Nafusah and Cyrenaica platform). Apart from Sirt and the offshore basins, all the above mentioned basins are active since Early Paleozoic time and received several thousand feet of sediments. The capability of providing regional information on the structure of sedimentary basins makes gravity mapping, in conjunction with geological information, potentially powerful tools. In this study we used gravity mapping as our primary tool of investigation however, we also used all available geological information to better understand the regional tectonics. The gravity dataset that were used in the Gravity compilation project of Libya is not homogenous. As a result, some irregularities, apparent spikes or misties, and large shifts were obtained and were taken into consideration. Evaluation of gravity Maps of Libya and their integration with geological data provide a better understanding of the role that gravity mapping plays in the geological exploration of sedimentary basins. Results confirm the known Sirt Basin regional tectonic elements and the possible presence of NW-SE lateral wrench tectonics, crossing Ajdabiya Trough at the center of Sirt Basin. The

  17. Fungi associated with the hairs of goat and sheep in libya.

    PubMed

    El-Said, A H M; Sohair, T H; El-Hadi, A G

    2009-06-01

    The mycoflora on the hair in 25 samples of each of goats and sheep collected from Libya was analyzed using two isolation methods at 25℃. Seventy species and 3 varieties belonging to 31 genera were collected from the two substrates. The hairs of sheep were polluted with fungi than goat, contained high total counts and number of genera and species. Two species of true dermatophytes were isolated namely Trichophyton rubrum and T. terrestre. Several keratiophilic species were isolated of which Chrysosporium indicum, C. keratinophilum and C. tropicum were the most prevalent. The commonest saprophytes in order of frequency were members of the genera Aspergillus, Penicillium, Emericella, Alternaria and Cochliobolus. PMID:23983514

  18. Mrar formation of western Libya - evolution of an early Carboniferous delta system

    SciTech Connect

    Whitbread, T.; Kelling, G.

    1982-08-01

    The Lower Carboniferous Mrar Formation is exposed extensively along the southern margin of the Ghadames basin in northwest Libya. The basal part of the Mrar forms the cap rock and possible hydrocarbon source for many of the producing reservoirs in the underlying Tahara sandstones. Furthermore, the Mrar itself is known to contain significant gas shows southwest of the outcrop, associated with some oil potential. The Mrar formation was deposited in a deltaic environment which developed on the northern part of the stable Saharan platform. The history of the Mrar formation's deposition is discussed. (JMT)

  19. Another approaching storm on the desert. Egypt.

    PubMed

    Werner, D

    1991-01-01

    Examining Egypt's health care crisis, this article discusses the political factors that have led to such a state. Although Egypt possesses considerable resources and receives vast amounts of US foreign aid, the health status of its people is poor. Infant mortality rate stands at 67/1000 live births; the poor nutritional status of children has not improved over the past 10 years; 1/3 of all children are moderately to severely stunted in growth. The author attributes these woeful conditions to the country's political and economic policies. At one time or another, Egypt has allied itself with USSR or the US, and has generally retained only the worst features of socialism and the free market. While operating as a police state, Egypt has moved towards a free market that has led to the concentration of wealth. The author points out how medical care and medical school reflect the political and economic system. The government guarantees free health care for all and a job to all medical school graduates. But doctors now have to wait 7 years to obtain a post. Many have begun practicing private medicine, and many have become corrupt. The author also singles out the country's diarrhea control program as an indication of the impending health care disaster. Though hailed as high successful, the cost has been exceptionally high, and USAID funding will soon cease. Furthermore, mothers have not been taught self-reliance, but have been made to depend on commercially produced oral rehydration packets. Despite the severity of the social problems, Egypt's security forces have so far succeeded in suppressing popular opposition. But the author does detect hopeful signs in the many active progressive groups, and in particular, in the great social accomplishments of the governor of the providence of Ismailia. PMID:12159260

  20. Triticale development in Algeria: genetic gains through decades.

    PubMed

    Abdelkader, Benbelkacem; Fatiha, Sadli

    2014-01-01

    Algeria started working on triticale since the late seventies, it was first as a scientific curiosity (1974-1980), the production of this crop began in the early eighties and expanded well for a decade (10.000ha) then decreased for another decade due to lack of subsidies and serious interest from decision makers putting all their effort in wheat production which is the predominant crop in the country. Since the 1990s up to date, it is developing again mainly based on feed market requirements (20.500ha in 2001) and a better consideration by stakeholders. Triticale is now developed by the informal seed system. Triticale is grown in Algeria under a wide range of soil and climatic conditions, including dryland and marginal soils. Under high input and rainfall environments, the best triticale cultivars have comparable grain yield with wheat but slightly lower to barley. This advantage is larger under dry conditions. Our study was dealing with an evaluation of the progress made in time since their introduction and selection of triticale varieties. The study was conducted on twenty five varieties and advanced lines, selected in the different phases of triticale development, during the three last seasons (2009 - 2012) in two contrasting regions (semi arid and high input environment) showed very interesting results and a linear improvement in grain yield and its components, and also in the feeding quality traits. The improvement was apparent in both sites; although result data was higher in number in the high input environment, the increase rate was larger in the semi arid area of study. In the favorable area, grain yield increased from 2.94t/ha for the varieties developed in the early phase (late 1970s), to 3.98t/ha for the varieties released in the second phase (1990s) up to 5.45t/ha for the latest varieties developed in the 2000s. Grain yield increased in the dry area from 2.42t/ha to 4.92t/ha. The trend is almost the same for all yield components and even for forage

  1. Optimal Maintenance Works for the Aborshada Road in the Western Region of Libya

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Youssef, Medhat Abdelrahman; Elbasher, Abdelbary Altayb

    2014-09-01

    In this research, the condition of a road pavement was investigated for the Aborshada Road in the Gharian region of Libya to determine the optimal maintenance works. Previously, a simple engineering judgment was the only procedure followed by the Gharian municipal engineers for evaluating pavements and prioritizing maintenance. The surface condition of the Aborshada Road pavement was investigated using "the Pavement Condition Index (PCI)" visual technique. The pavement was inspected to survey the different distresses in each sample unit. Ninteen pavement distresses were classified according to the PCI standards (PCI for roads and parking lots became an ASTM standard in 2007 (D6433-07)). It was necessary to know the most common distresses of the Aborshada Road to provide assistance for the decision maker in his evaluation of the pavement and the optimum repair method to be selected. This study reveals the actual performance of the pavements and suggests the research required for dealing with the pavement maintenance problem in Libya, especially in the western region. The best maintenance alternative for Aborshada Road was Case No. 3 (Potholes, Long. & Trans. Cracking and Alligator Crack Maintenance). Also, the most common pavement distresses on the Aborshada Road were Distress Nos. 1, 3, 6, 7, 10 and 13 according to the ASTM - D6433-07 classification

  2. Human Cystic Echinococcosis in the Nalut District of Western Libya: A Clinico-epidemiological Study

    PubMed Central

    Mohamed, Rabie M.; Abdel-Hafeez, Ekhlas H.; Belal, Usama S.; Norose, Kazumi; Aosai, Fumie

    2014-01-01

    Human cystic echinococcosis (CE) is an endemic disease in the Mediterranean area that has not yet been fully documented in western Libya. The present study describes the clinico-epidemiologic profile of CE in western Libya’s Nalut district. From April 2008 to July 2011, 36 cases of CE were confirmed following surgical removal of cysts. The cysts were most frequently found in the liver (61.1%), followed by the lungs (19.4%), kidneys (11.1%), peritoneal cavity (11.1%), and spleen (5.6%). Among the 36 patients, 6 possessed plural cysts and 3 had cysts in 2 organs. Blood samples from this group were examined for the presence of serum anti-hydatid IgG antibodies, which revealed positivity in 25 patients (69.4%). An additional 300 blood samples were collected randomly from the inpatient and outpatient clinics at Nalut Hospital. Twenty-seven samples (9%) were found to be positive for the anti-hydatid IgG antibody among which the prevalence of infection tended to be higher in men (12%) than in women (6%). This study demonstrates that CE is a major parasitic infectious disease of public health significance in Libya, notably in the western part of the country, and that disease awareness needs to be raised nationwide. PMID:25589882

  3. The Qasr As Sahabi succession and the Neogene evolution of the Sirte Basin (Libya)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carmignani, L.; Giammarino, S.; Giglia, G.; Pertusati, P. C.

    The Neogene succession in Libya is characterized by three main sedimentary cycles: 1) A Middle Miocene cycle, involving the whole coastal area of Libya, composed of platform limestones in Cyrenaica and Tripolitania and of deeper deposits in the central part of the Sirte Basin; 2) A Tortonian-Messinian cycle, composed of evaporitic, lagoonal and shallow oolitic deposits, well documented paleontologically in Sirtica between 30° and 31° lat. N. and above all near Qasr As Sahabi. These deposits are found westwards as far as A1 Khums, where they unconformably lie on the Cretaceous and older rocks. Northwards, they surround the structural high of Cyrenaica to beyond Benghazi. Along the western margin of Cyrenaica they lie on Middle Miocene limestones, and to the N-NW on the Eocene. They are bounded landwards by a scarp of marine erosion ("Upper Cyrenaica Escarpment") which models a system of normal faults; 3) A cycle composed of presumed Pliocene coastal or brackish deposits covering a paleomorphology cut during the Upper Messinian regression. South of Cyrenaica, the Pliocene transgression extends beyond the Upper Miocene coastline as far as the A1 Jaghbub oasis. Seawards, the Pliocene cycle deposits are cut by another scarp ("Lower Cyrenaica Escarpment"). The interval between this scarp and the sea is covered by a further transgressive cycle of Tyrrhenian age.

  4. An Exploration of Foreign Language Teachers' Beliefs about Curriculum Innovation in Algeria: A Socio-Political Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bellalem, Fouzi

    2008-01-01

    Recent political and economic developments in Algeria have brought about reforms of the educational system. A new curriculum was introduced as part of these reforms. This study explores the beliefs of French and English school teachers about curriculum innovation in Algeria. The study is positioned in the qualitative research tradition and looks…

  5. 3 CFR 8861 - Proclamation 8861 of September 12, 2012. Honoring the Victims of the Attack in Benghazi, Libya

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 3 The President 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Proclamation 8861 of September 12, 2012. Honoring..., LibyaBy the President of the United States of America A Proclamation As a mark of respect for the memory... senseless attack on our diplomatic facility in Benghazi, by the authority vested in me as President of...

  6. 76 FR 35719 - Unexpected Urgent Refugee and Migration Needs Related to Libya and C[ocirc]te d'Ivoire

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-20

    ... Sig.) THE WHITE HOUSE, Washington, June 8, 2011 [FR Doc. 2011-15441 Filed 6-17-11; 8:45 am] Billing... Migration Needs Related to Libya and C te d'Ivoire Memorandum for the Secretary of State By the authority...) of the Migration and Refugee Assistance Act of 1962 (the ``Act''), as amended (22 U.S.C....

  7. The Tripoli, Libya, Earthquake of September 4, 1974: Implications for the active tectonics of the central Mediterranean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Westaway, Rob

    1990-04-01

    Source parameters have been determined for the earthquake (Ms 5.6) that occurred offshore of Tripoli, Libya, on September 4, 1974. One nodal plane of its focal mechanism has dip 37°, strike 297°, and rake -141°, indicating oblique normal faulting. This nodal plane is subparallel to many west-northwest striking normal faults in the epicentral area and is most likely the fault plane, indicating a component of right-lateral strike-slip with slip vector azimuth N84°E. Inversion of long-period teleseismic body waves indicates 12-km centroid depth and 0.4 × 1018 N m seismic moment. A much larger earthquake (Ms 7.0) on April 19, 1935, that occurred in the same zone of active oblique normal faults ˜400 km farther southeast near Sirte probably involved similar slip sense. This zone, for which the name "Tunisia-Libya seismic zone" appears appropriate, has overall northwest-southeast extent ˜1000 km from northern Libya to between Tunisia and Sicily. It takes up a change in motion direction relative to stable Europe from west of north inside the African plate to between N30°E and N50°E in the Ionian Sea between Sicily, southernmost peninsular Italy, southwest Greece, and Libya. This suggested motion direction of Sicily relative to stable Europe agrees with independent estimates from fault slip rates and senses elsewhere in Italy.

  8. Situation Report--Bahrain, Central African Republic, Gabon, Iraq, Jordan, Kuwait, Lesotho, Libya, Saudi Arabia, Swaziland, Syria, Yemen Arab Republic.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Planned Parenthood Federation, London (England).

    Data relating to population and family planning in twelve foreign countries are presented in these situation reports. Countries included are Bahrain, Central African Republic, Gabon, Iraq, Jordan, Kuwait, Lesotho, Libya, Saudi Arabia, Swaziland, Syria, and Yemen Arab Republic. Information is provided, where appropriate and available, under two…

  9. 3 CFR - Unexpected Urgent Refugee and Migration Needs Related to Libya and Côte d'Ivoire

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 3 The President 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Unexpected Urgent Refugee and Migration Needs... Determination No. 2011-11 of June 8, 2011 Unexpected Urgent Refugee and Migration Needs Related to Libya and... Constitution and the laws of the United States, including section 2(c)(1) of the Migration and...

  10. Management of Disused Radioactive Sealed Sources in Egypt - 13512

    SciTech Connect

    Mohamed, Y.T.; Hasan, M.A.; Lasheen, Y.F.

    2013-07-01

    The future safe development of nuclear energy and progressive increasing use of sealed sources in medicine, research, industry and other fields in Egypt depends on the safe and secure management of disused radioactive sealed sources. In the past years have determined the necessity to formulate and apply the integrated management program for radioactive sealed sources to assure harmless and ecological rational management of disused sealed sources in Egypt. The waste management system in Egypt comprises operational and regulatory capabilities. Both of these activities are performed under legislations. The Hot Laboratories and Waste Management Center HLWMC, is considered as a centralized radioactive waste management facility in Egypt by law 7/2010. (authors)

  11. Plague in Arab Maghreb, 1940-2015: A Review.

    PubMed

    Malek, Maliya Alia; Bitam, Idir; Drancourt, Michel

    2016-01-01

    We reviewed the epidemiology of 49 plague outbreaks that resulted in about 7,612 cases in 30 localities in the Arabic Maghreb (Mauritania, Morocco, Algeria, Tunisia, Libya, and Egypt) over 75 years. Between 1940 and 1950, most cases recorded in Morocco (75%) and Egypt (20%), resulted from plague imported to Mediterranean harbors and transmitted by rat ectoparasites. By contrast, the re-emergence of plague in the southern part of Western Sahara in 1953 and in northeast Libya in 1976 was traced to direct contact between nomadic populations and infected goats and camels in natural foci, including the consumption of contaminated meat, illustrating this neglected oral route of contamination. Further familial outbreaks were traced to human ectoparasite transmission. Efforts to identify the factors contributing to natural foci may guide where to focus the surveillance of sentinel animals in order to eradicate human plague, if not Yersinia pestis from the Arab Maghreb. PMID:27376053

  12. Plague in Arab Maghreb, 1940–2015: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Malek, Maliya Alia; Bitam, Idir; Drancourt, Michel

    2016-01-01

    We reviewed the epidemiology of 49 plague outbreaks that resulted in about 7,612 cases in 30 localities in the Arabic Maghreb (Mauritania, Morocco, Algeria, Tunisia, Libya, and Egypt) over 75 years. Between 1940 and 1950, most cases recorded in Morocco (75%) and Egypt (20%), resulted from plague imported to Mediterranean harbors and transmitted by rat ectoparasites. By contrast, the re-emergence of plague in the southern part of Western Sahara in 1953 and in northeast Libya in 1976 was traced to direct contact between nomadic populations and infected goats and camels in natural foci, including the consumption of contaminated meat, illustrating this neglected oral route of contamination. Further familial outbreaks were traced to human ectoparasite transmission. Efforts to identify the factors contributing to natural foci may guide where to focus the surveillance of sentinel animals in order to eradicate human plague, if not Yersinia pestis from the Arab Maghreb. PMID:27376053

  13. Sandstorms as indicators of Land degradation in Algeria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirche, azziz; Oukil, youcef; Boughani, madjid; Nedjraoui, dalila; Salamani, mostefa

    2013-04-01

    : Land degradation, is an important environmental issue in arid lands, especially in Algeria's high plateaus. The Algerian steppes, the most widespread rangelands in the North African countries, occupy a pivotal position between the north, hilly and humid (called the tell), with a limited area (approximately 5%) and the south, the Sahara, which represents the largest area of the country (approximately 86%) and the largest desert of the planet .The main vegetation units constituted by Stipa tenacissima a key species , constituted 2/3 of the landscape in 1978 and occupies in 2012 only 1/10. The vegetation cover reached 40% in the seventies and is generally less than 10% nowadays. The increase of both population and livestock leads to a high pressure on this fragile ecosystems aggravated by the huge drought in the eighties (1980-1988). It results a tremendous soil degradation and sand encroachment. This study emphasizes on the correlation between the desertification steps and the occurrence of sandstorms. It appears that a high correlation is observed and reflect perfectly the land degradation . The recent decrease of sand storms, after a decennium, shows a re-greening, that must be distinguished of an absence of desertification. It appears that sandstorms , could be an interesting indicator, to monitor land degradation.

  14. The 2003 Boumerdes, Algeria earthquake: Regional moment tensor analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Braunmiller, Jochen; Bernardi, Fabrizio

    2005-03-01

    We used regional broadband seismograms to determine seismic moment tensors for the destructive May 21, 2003 Boumerdes (Algeria) Mw = 7.0 earthquake and its larger aftershocks. Fully automatic inversions using near-real time data provided solutions for seven Mw >= 4.7 events within 90 minutes after event occurrence. After adding off-line data, we manually obtained 30 solutions (Mw >= 3.8) from May 2003 to January 2004. All have shallow source depths (6-21 km). The median P-axis orientation (338°) of 24 thrust and four strike-slip events is consistent with Africa-Eurasia plate motion (330°). The main shock hypocenter at 8-10 km depth at the coastline and its shallow southward dip (25° +/- 5°) puts the fault surface trace 15-20 km offshore, consistent with documented seafloor deformation at the base of the continental slope. A main shock rupture length of about 50 km is deduced from first day aftershocks and location of strike-slip events. The strike-slip events probably define the western rupture end and indicate a left-step of main convergence. Fault strike variability of thrust events suggests fault orientation changes and possibly fault segmentation.

  15. Trypanosomiasis of camels (Camelus dromedarius) in Algeria: First report.

    PubMed

    Bennoune, Omar; Adili, Nezar; Amri, Khaled; Bennecib, Lakhdar; Ayachi, Ammar

    2013-01-01

    Camel trypanosomosis is a life-threatening disease in the camel species and responsible for severe economic losses either in milk or meat productions. This study was carried out on the south-east area of Algeria on 100 camels of various ages and either sex from two herds. Microscopic examination of blood smears revealed higher levels of trypanosomosis caused by Trypanosoma evansi, an elongated parasite with a kinetoplast and a single nucleus located in its half-length and one flagellum with great heterogeneity. This first investigation reveals higher infection rate than those observed in other countries using blood smears, the trypanosomosis attack has reached an alarming level and the occurrence of trypanosomosis at this high level on blood smears is like "the tree that hides the forest" and make up a serious and potential danger both on animal and public health. Therefore, radical preventive and offensive drastic measures must be taken against this menacing disease at the critical points to prevent the economic losses and to avoid possible human transmission. PMID:25568684

  16. Trypanosomiasis of camels (Camelus dromedarius) in Algeria: First report

    PubMed Central

    Bennoune, Omar; Adili, Nezar; Amri, Khaled; Bennecib, Lakhdar; Ayachi, Ammar

    2013-01-01

    Camel trypanosomosis is a life-threatening disease in the camel species and responsible for severe economic losses either in milk or meat productions. This study was carried out on the south-east area of Algeria on 100 camels of various ages and either sex from two herds. Microscopic examination of blood smears revealed higher levels of trypanosomosis caused by Trypanosoma evansi, an elongated parasite with a kinetoplast and a single nucleus located in its half-length and one flagellum with great heterogeneity. This first investigation reveals higher infection rate than those observed in other countries using blood smears, the trypanosomosis attack has reached an alarming level and the occurrence of trypanosomosis at this high level on blood smears is like "the tree that hides the forest" and make up a serious and potential danger both on animal and public health. Therefore, radical preventive and offensive drastic measures must be taken against this menacing disease at the critical points to prevent the economic losses and to avoid possible human transmission. PMID:25568684

  17. [Our surgical heritage. Surgery in ancient Egypt].

    PubMed

    Oelschlegel, F F; Luther, B; Arnst, C B

    1986-01-01

    In its 3,000 years History the surgery of the Old Egypt came on to an important development. Some of the antique instruments used in traumatology, the general surgery and in cosmetic-plastic operations, are in a scarcely modified manner employed for the same purposes in modern surgical interventions nowadays. The surgical diagnostics and therapy of that time is demonstrated by the surgical instruments stock being in the possession of the "Agyptisches Museum" of the "Staatlichen Museen zu Berlin". The surgery of Egypt transferred its leading part to the prosperous medical schools of Greece at the late period of the Old Egyptian empire (1085-332 B.C.). Its surgical diagnostics and therapy depending on an empirical rationalism, the applied instruments but also its ethical attitude towards the patients have been one of the dedisive bases influencing the development of the surgery in the antiquity. PMID:3532623

  18. [Concepts of the heart in Ancient Egypt].

    PubMed

    Ziskind, Bernard; Halioua, Bruno

    2004-03-01

    The heart was regarded in Ancient Egypt as the organic motor of the body and also the seat of intelligence, an important religious and spiritual symbol. It was considered as one of the eight parts of human body. Counter to other organs it had to be kept carefully intact in the mummy to ensure its eternal life. In Ancient Egypt, the concept of heart included three constituents: heart-haty, heart-ib, and the spiritual seat of intelligence, emotion and memory. The hieroglyphs representing the heart early in the first dynasty were drawn with eight vessels attached to it. Egyptian doctors have elaborated an original conception of cardiovascular physiology which endured 30 centuries. PMID:15067585

  19. Benchmarking performance: Environmental impact statements in Egypt

    SciTech Connect

    Badr, El-Sayed A.; Zahran, Ashraf A.; Cashmore, Matthew

    2011-04-15

    Environmental impact assessment (EIA) was formally introduced in Egypt in 1994. This short paper evaluates 'how well' the EIA process is working in practice in Egypt, by reviewing the quality of 45 environmental impact statements (EISs) produced between 2000 and 2007 for a variety of project types. The Lee and Colley review package was used to assess the quality of the selected EISs. About 69% of the EISs sampled were found to be of a satisfactory quality. An assessment of the performance of different elements of the EIA process indicates that descriptive tasks tend to be performed better than scientific tasks. The quality of core elements of EIA (e.g., impact prediction, significance evaluation, scoping and consideration of alternatives) appears to be particularly problematic. Variables that influence the quality of EISs are identified and a number of broad recommendations are made for improving the effectiveness of the EIA system.

  20. Living donor liver transplantation in Egypt

    PubMed Central

    Marwan, Ibrahim

    2016-01-01

    In Egypt there is no doubt that chronic liver diseases are a major health concern. Hepatitis C virus (HCV) prevalence among the 15−59 years age group is estimated to be 14.7%. The high prevalence of chronic liver diseases has led to increasing numbers of Egyptian patients suffering from end stage liver disease (ESLD), necessitating liver transplantation (LT). We reviewed the evolution of LT in Egypt and the current status. A single center was chosen as an example to review the survival and mortality rates. To date, deceased donor liver transplantation (DDLT) has not been implemented in any program though Egyptian Parliament approved the law in 2010. Living donor liver transplantation (LDLT) seemed to be the only logical choice to save many patients who are in desperate need for LT. By that time, there was increase in number of centers doing LDLT (13 centers) and increase in number of LDLT cases [2,400] with improvement of the results. Donor mortality rate is 1.66 per 1,000 donors; this comprised four donors in the Egyptian series. The exact recipient survival is not accurately known however, and the one-year, three-year and five-year survival were 73.17%, 70.83% and 64.16% respectively in the International Medical Center (IMC) in a series of 145 adult to adult living donor liver transplantation (AALDLT) cases. There was no donor mortality in this series. LDLT are now routinely and successfully performed in Egypt with reasonable donor and recipient outcomes. Organ shortage remains the biggest hurdle facing the increasing need for LT. Although LDLT had reasonable outcomes, it carries considerable risks to healthy donors. For example, it lacks cadaveric back up, and is not feasible for all patients. The initial success in LDLT should drive efforts to increase the people awareness about deceased organ donation in Egypt. PMID:27115003

  1. Living donor liver transplantation in Egypt.

    PubMed

    Amer, Khaled E; Marwan, Ibrahim

    2016-04-01

    In Egypt there is no doubt that chronic liver diseases are a major health concern. Hepatitis C virus (HCV) prevalence among the 15-59 years age group is estimated to be 14.7%. The high prevalence of chronic liver diseases has led to increasing numbers of Egyptian patients suffering from end stage liver disease (ESLD), necessitating liver transplantation (LT). We reviewed the evolution of LT in Egypt and the current status. A single center was chosen as an example to review the survival and mortality rates. To date, deceased donor liver transplantation (DDLT) has not been implemented in any program though Egyptian Parliament approved the law in 2010. Living donor liver transplantation (LDLT) seemed to be the only logical choice to save many patients who are in desperate need for LT. By that time, there was increase in number of centers doing LDLT (13 centers) and increase in number of LDLT cases [2,400] with improvement of the results. Donor mortality rate is 1.66 per 1,000 donors; this comprised four donors in the Egyptian series. The exact recipient survival is not accurately known however, and the one-year, three-year and five-year survival were 73.17%, 70.83% and 64.16% respectively in the International Medical Center (IMC) in a series of 145 adult to adult living donor liver transplantation (AALDLT) cases. There was no donor mortality in this series. LDLT are now routinely and successfully performed in Egypt with reasonable donor and recipient outcomes. Organ shortage remains the biggest hurdle facing the increasing need for LT. Although LDLT had reasonable outcomes, it carries considerable risks to healthy donors. For example, it lacks cadaveric back up, and is not feasible for all patients. The initial success in LDLT should drive efforts to increase the people awareness about deceased organ donation in Egypt. PMID:27115003

  2. Nile River, Lake Nasser, Aswan Dam, Egypt

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    Egypt's High Aswan Dam on the Nile River at the first cataracts, Nile River, (24.0N, 33.0E) was completed in 1971 to provide cheap hydroelectric power and to regulate the historically uneven flow of the Nile River. The contrast between the largely base rock desert east of the Nile versus the sand covered desert west of the river and the ancient irrigated floodplain downstream from the damsite is clearly shown.

  3. First evidence of enterobiasis in ancient Egypt.

    PubMed

    Horne, P D

    2002-10-01

    The oldest and most common parasite for which we have direct evidence, in the New World, is Enterobius vernicularis. Numerous archaeological sites, especially in the arid American southwest, have yielded fecal samples positive for pinworm ova, some of these dating back 10,000 yr. Reports of pinworm from the Old World are scarce. This article reports the first evidence of pinworm infection from Roman-occupied (30 BC-AD 395) Egypt. PMID:12435149

  4. Integrated Human Futures Modeling in Egypt

    SciTech Connect

    Passell, Howard D.; Aamir, Munaf Syed; Bernard, Michael Lewis; Beyeler, Walter E.; Fellner, Karen Marie; Hayden, Nancy Kay; Jeffers, Robert Fredric; Keller, Elizabeth James Kistin; Malczynski, Leonard A.; Mitchell, Michael David; Silver, Emily; Tidwell, Vincent C.; Villa, Daniel; Vugrin, Eric D.; Engelke, Peter; Burrow, Mat; Keith, Bruce

    2016-01-01

    The Integrated Human Futures Project provides a set of analytical and quantitative modeling and simulation tools that help explore the links among human social, economic, and ecological conditions, human resilience, conflict, and peace, and allows users to simulate tradeoffs and consequences associated with different future development and mitigation scenarios. In the current study, we integrate five distinct modeling platforms to simulate the potential risk of social unrest in Egypt resulting from the Grand Ethiopian Renaissance Dam (GERD) on the Blue Nile in Ethiopia. The five platforms simulate hydrology, agriculture, economy, human ecology, and human psychology/behavior, and show how impacts derived from development initiatives in one sector (e.g., hydrology) might ripple through to affect other sectors and how development and security concerns may be triggered across the region. This approach evaluates potential consequences, intended and unintended, associated with strategic policy actions that span the development-security nexus at the national, regional, and international levels. Model results are not intended to provide explicit predictions, but rather to provide system-level insight for policy makers into the dynamics among these interacting sectors, and to demonstrate an approach to evaluating short- and long-term policy trade-offs across different policy domains and stakeholders. The GERD project is critical to government-planned development efforts in Ethiopia but is expected to reduce downstream freshwater availability in the Nile Basin, fueling fears of negative social and economic impacts that could threaten stability and security in Egypt. We tested these hypotheses and came to the following preliminary conclusions. First, the GERD will have an important short-term impact on water availability, food production, and hydropower production in Egypt, depending on the short- term reservoir fill rate. Second, the GERD will have a very small impact on

  5. Capital projects: Egypt case study. Technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Lieberson, J.; Stallard, J.

    1994-03-01

    This report assesses the US Agency for International Development`s (A.I.D.`s) capital assistance program in Egypt in terms of both its commercial benefits for the United States and its developmental benefits for Egypt. In regard to the first aspect, the study found that few A.I.D.-funded projects or studies generated either participation by other donors or follow-on sales for U.S. companies. The report places much of the blame for this on U.S. firms` failure to take advantage of a clear opportunity to develop the Egyptian commercial market. Findings regarding the developmental benefits of the projects are mixed. (1) The projects helped support strong private sector growth in Egypt through the 1980`s. Nonetheless, their economic and financial rates of return were generally disappointing. (2) The projects were built to a high technical standard, but their sustainability is in doubt. (3) The pursuit of commercial advantage for U.S. firms did not distort the developmental goals of the projects. Overall, the report attributes the disappointing economic results of A.I.D.`s capital assistance program to a poor policy environment, which the reforms pursued in connection with the program did little to change.

  6. Lyme borreliosis: A neglected zoonosis in Egypt.

    PubMed

    Elhelw, Rehab A; El-Enbaawy, Mona I; Samir, Ahmed

    2014-12-01

    Borrelia burgdorferi, the causal organism of Lyme borreliosis. In Egypt, available data about the occurrence of Lyme disease are scarce and no structured studies documented the presence of Lyme borreliosis in Egyptian animals and tick reservoirs verifying its zoonotic evidence. Besides, no successful trials to isolate B. burgdorferi from clinical samples have occurred. This study was conducted to investigate B. burgdorferi infection as an emerging zoonosis neglected in Egypt. A total number of 92 animals, tick and human companion specimens were collected and subjected for culture, PCR and/or serodetection. B. burgdorferi has been detected and isolated from Egyptian animal breeds. We also detected the presence of outer surface protein A gene of B. burgdorferi by PCR as well as anti-B. burgdorferi IgM by ELISA in human contacts who were suffering from fever of unknown origin. This report represents the first systematic study on animals associated with patients suffering from febrile illness to confirm the emerging of such neglected zoonosis in Egypt. PMID:25239124

  7. Power and Gender in Ancient Egypt: The Case of Hatshepsut

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hilliard, Kristina; Wurtzel, Kate

    2009-01-01

    Hatshepsut (1479-1458 B.C.E) ruled New Kingdom Egypt for roughly 20 years as one of the few female pharaohs in the history of ancient Egypt. Her rule began when her husband died and her stepson was too young to be pharaoh. To legitimize her role as pharaoh, Hatshepsut began a significant building campaign by constructing numerous images, temples,…

  8. Separate but Equal: Segregated Religious Education in Egypt's Public Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Isaac, John

    2012-01-01

    The Arab Spring exposed the hidden secrets of Egyptian society to the global community. In spite of the insatiable media attention paid to the Mubarak regime and the toll it took on the entire country, Egypt's education system received little attention. For decades, Egypt's public schools have forced students to attend segregated classes, based on…

  9. A SURVEY OF CYST NEMATODES (HETERODERA SPP.) IN NORTHERN EGYPT

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Information concerning the occurrence and distribution of cyst nematodes (Heterodera spp.) in Egypt is important to assess their potential to cause economic damage to crop plants. A nematode survey was conducted in Alexandria and El-Behera Governorates in northern Egypt to identify the species of cy...

  10. 77 FR 71777 - Trade Mission to Egypt and Kuwait

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-04

    ... Trade Mission to Egypt and Kuwait March 10-14, 2013, published at 77 FR 33439, June 6, 2012 to revise... Mission to Egypt and Kuwait March 10-14, 2013, published at 77 FR 33439, June 6, 2012. Due to the... is needed to allow for additional recruitment and marketing in support of the mission....

  11. Technologies Applied in the Toshka Project of Egypt

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wahby, Wafeek S.

    2004-01-01

    The Toshka Project, located in Egypt, involves excavating a canal to carry about 380 billion ft[supercript 3] of water every year from Lake Nasser to the Toshka Depression, southwest of Aswan. This will eventually create a new valley to the River Nile in the western desert of Egypt in addition to the currently existing prehistoric river course.…

  12. 75 FR 58353 - Business Development Mission to Egypt and Morocco

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-24

    ... International Trade Administration Business Development Mission to Egypt and Morocco Mission Description The U.S... Business Development Mission to explore ports and infrastructure development opportunities in Egypt (Cairo... infrastructure development with 46 different projects valued at over $16 billion. The majority of these...

  13. Tech Talk for Social Studies Teachers: Ancient Egypt.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pahl, Ronald H.

    1998-01-01

    Presents an annotated bibliography of 10 Web sites concerning ancient Egypt that have materials appropriate for social studies classes. Includes virtual tours of Egypt and specific temples, explorations of the pyramids, archaeological and geographic information, and information on the Egyptian "Book of the Dead." (MJP)

  14. Integrate the Arts. The Art of Ancient Egypt.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parks, Mary

    1996-01-01

    Presents three art projects that can bring to life the study of ancient Egypt for elementary students. After researching Egypt's history and culture, students can create King Tut masks, make Cleopatra headdresses, and craft cartouche pendants. The article describes the materials needed and steps required to complete each project. (SM)

  15. Resource Unit on Egypt for the Intermediate Grades.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Husbands, Kenneth; Taylor, Bob

    Resources for teaching about modern and ancient Egypt are provided in this guide for intermediate grade social studies teachers. Material includes: a detailed outline for a unit on Egypt which contains a geographic overview followed by sections on the Nile River Valley, agriculture, the pharaohs, religion, architecture, science, hieroglyphics,…

  16. Cultural Diversity or Cultural Imperialism: Liberal Education in Egypt.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blanks, David R.

    1998-01-01

    A faculty member's experience at the American University in Cairo (Egypt) reveals that pluralism and tolerance are western concepts, even within the college curriculum. National identity affords cultural stability: where the American melting-pot experience is reinforced by the notion of cultural diversity, the national identity of Egypt is…

  17. 78 FR 14979 - Trade Mission to Egypt and Kuwait

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-08

    ... Trade Mission to Egypt April 14-16, 2013, published at 78 FR 7752, February 4, 2013. The effect of this... participation in the U.S. Trade Mission to Egypt and Kuwait March 10-14, 2013, published at 77 FR 33439, June 6, 2012. In 77 FR 71777, December 4, 2012, the Department of Commerce announced that the...

  18. Student Academic Freedom in Egypt: Perceptions of University Education Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zain-Al-Dien, Muhammad M.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate student academic freedom from the university education students' point of view in Egypt. This study adopted a survey research design in which the questionnaire was the main data collection instrument. The study participants comprised 800 university education students in Egypt. The result of the…

  19. Palaeozoic gas charging in the Ahnet-Timimoun basin, Algeria

    SciTech Connect

    Cawley, S.J.; Wilson, N.P.; Primmer, T.

    1995-08-01

    The Ahnet-Timimoun Basin, Southern Algeria, contains significant gas reserves expelled from originally oil prone Silurian and Frasnian shales. The gas is reservoired in Devonian and Carboniferous clastics in inversion anticlines formed, primarily, during the Hercynian orogeny. Integration of organic and inorganic geochemical techniques, such as AFTA, ZFTA, fluid inclusion analysis, vitrinite and chitinizoan reflectance, is entirely consistent with gas generation 300 +/- 30MY, immediately prior to or synchronous with the Hercynian orogeny. Data from gas fields has shown the remobilisation of gas during post Hercynian tectonics. A {open_quotes}two-event{close_quotes} heating/cooling history is proposed: (1) Maximum burial and palaeotemperature at ca. 300 +/- 30MY prior to or synchronous with Hercynian uplift and cooling. (2) Cooling from a secondary peak (lower than maximum) palaeotemperature at ca. 30-60My following Creataceous burial. Calibrated thermal modelling indicates that Palaeozoic source rocks were heated above 200{degrees}C in the Late Carboniferous. Such high temperatures are consistent with the widespread occurrence of pyrophyllite in Silurian shales. Two end-member thermal models can account for the observed maturities. The first is a constant high Pre-Hercynian heat flow which rapidly decreases during Hercynian uplift to remain at Present day values of 50-75mW/m{sup 2}. Gas expulsion in this case commences much earlier than trap formation. The second is {open_quotes}normal{close_quotes} heat flow of ca. 50mW/m{sup 2} until ca. 310My with a rapid increase at ca. 290My followed by an equally rapid drop to constant present day values - in this model, petroleum generation and expulsion is late in relation to structuring.

  20. Natural radionuclide concentrations in two phosphate ores of east Algeria.

    PubMed

    Lakehal, Ch; Ramdhane, M; Boucenna, A

    2010-05-01

    Ore is considered as an important source of many elements such as the iron, phosphorus, and uranium. Concerning the natural radionuclides, their concentrations vary from an ore to other depending on the chemical composition of each site. In this work, two phosphate ores found in East of Algeria have been chosen to assess the activity concentration of natural radionuclides represented mainly by three natural radioactive series (238)U, (235)U and (232)Th, and the primordial radionuclide (40)K where they were determined using ultra-low background, high-resolution gamma-ray spectroscopy. The measured activity concentrations of radioactive series ranged from 6.2 +/- 0.4 to 733 +/- 33 Bq.kg(-1) for the (232)Th series, from 249 +/- 16 to 547 +/- 39 Bq.kg(-1) for the (238)U series, around 24.2 +/- 2.5 Bq.kg(-1) for the (235)U series, and from 1.4 +/- 0.2 to 6.7 +/- 0.7 Bq.kg(-1) for (40)K. To assess exposure to gamma radiation in the two ores, from specific activities of (232)Th, (40)K and (226)Ra, three indexes were determined: Radium equivalent (Ra(eq)), external and internal hazard indexes (H(ex) and H(in)), their values ranged from 831 +/- 8 to 1298 +/- 14 Bq.kg(-1) for Ra(eq), from 2.2 +/- 0.4 to 3.5 +/- 0.7 Bq.kg(-1) for H(ex), and from 4.2 +/- 0.7 to 4.5 +/- 0.7 Bq.kg(-1) for H(in). PMID:20303630

  1. Geology and hydrocarbon potential of the Oued Mya basin, Algeria

    SciTech Connect

    Benamrane, O.; Messaoudi, M.; Messelles, H. )

    1993-09-01

    The Oued Mya hydrocarbon system is located in the Sahara basin. It is one of the best producing basins in Algeria, along with the Ghadames and Illizi basins. The stratigraphic section consists of Paleozoic and Mesozoic, and is about 5000 m thick. This intracratonic basin is limited to the north by the Toughourt saddle, and to the west and east it is flanked by regional arches, Allal-Tilghemt and Amguid-Hassi Messaoud, which culminate in the super giant Hassi Messaoud and Hassi R'mel hydrocarbon accumulations, respectively, producing oil from the Cambrian sands and gas from the Trissic sands. The primary source rock in this basin is lower Silurian shale, with an average thickness of 50 m and a total organic carbon of 6% (14% in some cases). Results of maturation modeling indicate that the lower Silurian source is in the oil window. The Ordovician shales are also source rocks, but in a second order. Clastic reservoirs are in the Trissic sequence, which is mainly fluvial deposits with complex alluvial channels, and the main target in the basin. Clastic reservoirs in the lower Devonian section have a good hydrocarbon potential east of the basin through a southwest-northwest orientation. The Late Trissic-Early Jurassic evaporites that overlie the Triassic clastic interval and extend over the entire Oued Mya basin, are considered to be a super-seal evaporite package, which consists predominantly of anhydrite and halite. For paleozoic targets, a large number of potential seals exist within the stratigraphic column. This super seal does not present oil dismigration possibilities. We can infer that a large amount of the oil generated by the Silurian source rock from the beginning of Cretaceous until now still is not discovered and significantly greater volumes could be trapped within structure closures and mixed or stratigraphic traps related to the fluvial Triassic sandstones, marine Devonian sands, and Cambrian-Ordovician reservoirs.

  2. Gender discrimination for women with diabetes mellitus in Algeria

    PubMed Central

    Chentli, Farida; Azzoug, Said; Meskine, Djamila; El Gradechi, Aldjia

    2014-01-01

    Background: Nowadays diabetes mellitus (DM) is one of the greatest global challenges. Its expansion varies from an area to another according to genetic, traditions, socio-economic conditions, and stress. In Algeria, as in other emerging countries undergoing an epidemiological transition, noncommunicable diseases are sharply increasing. After high blood pressure, DM is now the second metabolic disease. But are women more concerned by DM since obesity frequency is higher in females? Can we assert that there is a sort of sex discrimination for DM complications? Materials and Methods: To answer these questions we took into account published documents carried in Algerian population. But, as those were very scarce, we also considered newspapers articles, some documents published by health minister department, posters and oral communications of the Algerian Society of Endocrinology and Diabetology, and our clinical experience. We also have done a small survey to get our patients’ opinions. Results and Conclusion: At the first sight, it seems gender discrimination between men and women cannot exist since most epidemiological studies showed that both sexes are broadly and equally affected by DM, except for old aged females who are the most affected. When we reconsidered the problem, and when we compared past results to those obtained after the terrorism period, many studies showed a sort of gender difference. Apart from gestational DM, which is increasing sharply, some complications and death related to DM are prevailing in women. Coronary diseases and cerebral vascular accidents are more frequent in women too, especially the young ones and those suffering from DM. These complications are probably due to the recent and rapid modification in women's lifestyle with a strong reduction in physical activity, eating disorders, hormonal contraception, and high sensitivity to perceived stress secondary to the near past stressing life and/or to numerous responsibilities taken by

  3. Kamikazes: youth serving youth in a dangerous climate. Algeria.

    PubMed

    Gataa, R

    1995-01-01

    The Algerian Family Planning Association (FPA) launched its youth project in July 1993 in Oran. The first project of its kind in the Arab world, members call themselves Kamikazes in recognition of the hostile climate they face. The project's goal was to deal with social, cultural, and health problems. They also designed the project's logo, a cartoon booklet on the dangers of AIDS, and a T-shirt for members to wear. They based their activities in the local government-run information center. Between 15 and 25 years old, from a wide variety of social backgrounds, the young people drew up a list of common problems: drugs, alcohol, smoking, relationships with the opposite sex, abortion, contraception, sex education, AIDS, homosexuality, unemployment, the lack of clubs for young people, delinquency, lack of communication between parents and children, the repression of women, the lack of popular entertainment for young people, and the shortage of books. This project now is to be extended to Algiers and other cities. Over an 8-month period, the committee received instruction in contraception and combatting drug addition, participated in a workshop on empowerment and self esteem, and were trained in role-playing techniques. In their first 18 months of existence, the Kamikazes in Oran have succeeded in involving over 1000 of their peers. They have had particular success in reaching teenagers in secondary schools. One of the most valuable aspects of the project has been the sessions held with gynecologists and psychologists on sexual development, relationships between the sexes, and the avoidance of unwanted pregnancies, abortion, and sexually transmitted diseases. The success of the Oran Kamikaze project bodes well for the extension of the project to other parts of Algeria and indeed to some other countries of the Arab world. PMID:12319368

  4. Pontobulbar palsy and sensorineural deafness (Brown-Vialetto-van Laere syndrome): the first case from Libya.

    PubMed

    Dakhil, Fathi O; Bensreiti, Salah M; Zew, Mohammad H

    2010-08-01

    We report the first case of Brown-Vialetto-van Laere syndrome from Libya. A 27-year-old female patient with progressive pontobulbar palsy, sensorineural deafness and generalized muscle weakness is described. Although she was born to consanguineous first cousin parents, she was the only one affected among five brothers and six sisters. The first symptoms appeared at the age of 18 years with tinnitus, weakness and unsteadiness that progressed over the course of a few weeks to deafness, blurring of vision, dysphagia, and dysarthria. Over the last nine years her symptoms progressed slowly, although interrupted with periods of rapid deterioration. Fifty-eight cases have been reported since the first case was described in 1894. PMID:20001484

  5. Sirte Basin, north-central Libya: Cretaceous rifting above a fixed mantle hotspot?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Houten, Franklyn B.

    1983-02-01

    The complex pattern of horsts and grabens in the Sirte Basin may have developed when Mesozoic drift of the African plate put north-central Libya over a fixed mantle hotspot in Early Cretaceous time (140 to 100 m.y. ago). Significant change in the motion of the plate during the prolonged residence above a hypothetical Cameroon plume may have produced stress that fragmented thinned and weakened lithosphere. Successive uplift and subsidence along a reconstructed track of the plume, as well as in the Sirte Basin, are compatible with predicted effects of the drift of northern Africa over a fixed mantle hotspot. This speculation suggests a plausible alternative to the possibility that rifting throughout northern Africa in Early Cretaceous time may have been produced along a wide zone of extension between two African plates when they were at rest relative to underlying plumes.

  6. An abelisaurid (Dinosauria: Theropoda) tooth from the Lower Cretaceous Chicla formation of Libya

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Joshua B.; Dalla Vecchia, Fabio M.

    2006-10-01

    An isolated theropod dinosaur tooth discovered in 1984 near Nalut in northwestern Libya is the only known dinosaur record from the Aptian-Albian (Lower Cretaceous) Chicla Formation in the Jabal Nafusah region of the country. The tooth was re-examined in an effort to better ascertain its taxonomic affinities. A stepwise discriminant function analysis compared the Libyan tooth to the dentitions of 24 other theropods and classified the tooth with cranial material from the Late Cretaceous of India previously referred to the abelisaurid Indosuchus. The temporal and paleogeographic "distance" separating the Libyan specimen from " Indosuchus" indicates that the former cannot pertain to that genus. However, the results of the analysis and synapomorphies of Abelisauridae present on the Libyan crown indicate that it can be referred to the clade, thus contributing to the growing record of Abelisauridae in the Cretaceous of mainland Africa.

  7. Population genetics of 17 Y-STR markers in West Libya (Tripoli region).

    PubMed

    Triki-Fendri, Soumaya; Sánchez-Diz, Paula; Rey-González, Danel; Ayadi, Imen; Alfadhli, Suad; Rebai, Ahmed; Carracedo, Ángel

    2013-05-01

    Seventeen Y-chromosomal Short Tandem Repeats (Y-STR) included in the AmpFlSTR Y-filer PCR Amplification kit (Applied Biosystems) (DYS19, DYS389I, DYS389II, DYS390, DYS391, DYS392, DYS393, DYS385ab, DYS437, DYS438, DYS439, DYS448, DYS456, DYS458, DYS635 and GATA H4) were genotyped in a population sample of 176 unrelated males from western Libya (Tripoli region). A total of 142 different haplotypes were found, 124 being unique. Haplotype diversity was 0.9950. Both R(ST) pairwise analyses and multidimensional scaling plot show a close genetic relationship between Tripoli and North African populations. PMID:23473875

  8. Seismic stratigraphy and deformational styles of the offshore Cyrenaica (Libya) and bordering Mediterranean Ridge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yem, Lionel Mbida; Camera, Laurent; Mascle, Jean; Ribodetti, Alessandra

    2011-04-01

    Off northwest Libya the Cyrenaica foreland basin domain and its Pan-African continental crust, which constitute the African promontory, are overthrusted by the Mediterranean Ridge Complex. The thrust belt contact and its seismic stratigraphy have been analysed using pre-stack depth-migrated multichannel seismic (MCS) lines recorded during the MEDISIS survey (2002). The geometry and sedimentary distribution analysis through the wedge-top depocentres allow reconstruction of schematic cross-sections of the tectono-sedimentary wedge that includes two major thrust sequences separated by an apparently poorly deformed transition zone. Based on time-space variation of several piggyback basins, we propose that these thrust sequences relate to distinct phases of shortening. (1) A first event, which probably occurred just prior to the Messinian crisis in latest Miocene (Tortonian times?) and (2) A second event, that has finally led to the present-day overthrusting of the Mediterranean Ridge over the Libyan continental slope.

  9. Cosmogenic Records in 18 Ordinary Chondrites from the Dar Al Gani Region, Libya. 1; Noble Gases

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schultz, L.; Franke, L.; Welten, K. C.; Nishiizumi, K.; Jull, A. J. T.

    2003-01-01

    In the last decade thousands of meteorites have been recovered from hot deserts in the Sahara and Oman. One of the main meteorite concentration surfaces in the Sahara is the Dar al Gani plateau in Libya, which covers a total area of 8000 km2. More than 1000 meteorites have been reported from this area. The geological setting, meteorite pairings and the meteorite density of the Dar al Gani (DaG) field are described in more detail in [1]. In this work we report concentrations of the noble gas isotopes of He, Ne, Ar as well as 84Kr and 132Xe in 18 DaG meteorites. In a separate paper we will report the cosmogenic radionuclides [2]. We discuss the thermal history and cosmic-ray exposure (CRE) history of these meteorites, and evaluate the effects of the hot desert environment on the noble gas record.

  10. Aqueous outcrops at Libya Montes, Mars: A close eye on morphology and mineralogy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tirsch, Daniela; Bishop, Janice L.; Voigt, Joana; Tornabene, Livio L.; Erkeling, Gino; Hiesinger, Harald; Jaumann, Ralf

    2015-04-01

    We present the results of a photogeological mapping, morphological and spectral analyses of a geologically diverse region at the border of Libya Montes and Isidis Planitia that were applied using coordinated analyses of mineralogy from CRISM images and surface features from HiRISE and CTX images, as well as topographical information from HRSC DTMs. The Libya Montes are part of the southern rim-complex of the Isidis impact basin on Mars. The region is characterized by pre-Noachian and Noachian aged highland rocks alternating with multiple sedimentary units of Noachian to Amazonian age, some of them heavily dissected by dense valley networks. The region experienced a complex history of impact, volcanic, tectonic, fluvial and aeolian modification processes resulting in the geology observed today. The geological history of the region as revealed by the analysis comprises an emplacement of olivine-rich lava onto ancient basaltic bedrock, which was later covered by pyroxene-rich caprock. This latter extended top unit might either represent lava layers, presumably originating from the Syrtis Major province, or indurated mud flows emplaced by mud volcanism. The analyses suggest that the ancient bedrock has been partially altered to Fe-/Mg-smectites through hydrothermal alteration (presumably triggered by the Isidis impact) and/or hydrous alteration caused by fluvial activity. These clays feature a variety of morphologies and stratigraphical exposures. Some outcrops of the Fe-rich and Mg-rich smectites are intermixed with carbonates in places. The carbonate detections suggest aqueous alteration that is associated with Mg-/Fe-rich fluids under a CO2-rich atmosphere. Al-smectite have also been detected in morphologically diverse outcrops and may have been formed later via alteration of pyroxene-bearing caprock. The variability in phyllosilicates and presence of carbonates implies a changing alteration environment.

  11. Absolute Calibration of Optical Satellite Sensors Using Libya 4 Pseudo Invariant Calibration Site

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mishra, Nischal; Helder, Dennis; Angal, Amit; Choi, Jason; Xiong, Xiaoxiong

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to report the improvements in an empirical absolute calibration model developed at South Dakota State University using Libya 4 (+28.55 deg, +23.39 deg) pseudo invariant calibration site (PICS). The approach was based on use of the Terra MODIS as the radiometer to develop an absolute calibration model for the spectral channels covered by this instrument from visible to shortwave infrared. Earth Observing One (EO-1) Hyperion, with a spectral resolution of 10 nm, was used to extend the model to cover visible and near-infrared regions. A simple Bidirectional Reflectance Distribution function (BRDF) model was generated using Terra Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) observations over Libya 4 and the resulting model was validated with nadir data acquired from satellite sensors such as Aqua MODIS and Landsat 7 (L7) Enhanced Thematic Mapper (ETM+). The improvements in the absolute calibration model to account for the BRDF due to off-nadir measurements and annual variations in the atmosphere are summarized. BRDF models due to off-nadir viewing angles have been derived using the measurements from EO-1 Hyperion. In addition to L7 ETM+, measurements from other sensors such as Aqua MODIS, UK-2 Disaster Monitoring Constellation (DMC), ENVISAT Medium Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MERIS) and Operational Land Imager (OLI) onboard Landsat 8 (L8), which was launched in February 2013, were employed to validate the model. These satellite sensors differ in terms of the width of their spectral bandpasses, overpass time, off-nadir-viewing capabilities, spatial resolution and temporal revisit time, etc. The results demonstrate that the proposed empirical calibration model has accuracy of the order of 3% with an uncertainty of about 2% for the sensors used in the study.

  12. Uterine involution and progesterone level during the postpartum period in Barbary ewes in north Libya

    PubMed Central

    Medan, M.S.; EL-Daek, T.

    2015-01-01

    The objectives of the present study were to determine the time of uterine involution and ovarian activity using ultrasound examination and progesterone assay. Weekly progesterone levels were measured starting one week postpartum until two weeks after the 1st postpartum estrus in Barbary ewes lambed during winter in AL-Bayda city, north of Libya. A total of 15 Barbary ewes were used in the present study distributed in three groups according to the month of lambing as group 1 (lambed in January), group 2 (lambed in February) and group 3 (lambed in March). Ewes were examined weekly by trans-rectal ultrasound to check involution of the uterus starting one week after lambing until complete uterine involution. Blood samples were collected from the jugular vein, and serum was separated and stored at -20 °C until measuring progesterone using ELISA. Results showed that uterine involution completed at day 35 postpartum in groups 1 and 2, while it occurred at day 28 in group 3. The mean progesterone level was basal (less than 1 ng/ml) for a long period and started to increase at days 119, 99 and 77 postpartum in group 1, 2 and 3, respectively. One ewe did not show estrus at all during the period of study in group 2 and there were no growing follicles on their ovaries. The obtained results indicate that, uterine involution as determined by ultrasound completed earlier in ewes lambed in March than those lambed in February or January. Also, progesterone level and ultrasound examination showed that there was no ovarian activity for a longtime after parturition indicating that reproduction in Barbary ewes tends to be seasonal in AL-Bayda city, north Libya. PMID:26623357

  13. Spatiotemporal investigation of long-term seasonal temperature variability in Libya

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elsharkawy, S. G.; Elmallah, E. S.

    2016-09-01

    Throughout this work, spatial and temporal variations of seasonal surface air temperature have been investigated. Moreover, the effects of relative internal (teleconnection) and external (solar) forcing on surface air temperature variability have been examined. Seasonal temperature time series covering 30 different meteorological locations and lasting over the last century are considered. These locations are classified into two groups based on their spatial distribution. One represents Coast Libya Surface Air Temperature (CLSAT), contains 19 locations, and the other represents Desert Libya Surface Air Temperature (DLSAT), contains 11 locations. Average temperature departure test is applied to investigate the nature of temperature variations. Temperature trends are analyzed using the nonparametric Mann-Kendall test and their coefficients are calculated using Sen's slope estimate. Cross-correlation and spectral analysis techniques are also applied. Our results showed temperature deviation from average within a band of ± 2°C at coast region, while ± 4°C at desert region. Extreme behavior intensions between summer and winter temperatures at coast region are noticed. Segmentation process declared reversal cooling/warming behavior within temperature records for all seasons. Desert region shows warming trend for all seasons with higher coefficients than obtained at coast region. Results obtained for spectral analysis show different short and medium signals and concluded that not only the spectral properties are different for different geographical regions but also different for different climatic seasons on regional scale as well. Cross-correlation results showed that highest influence for Rz upon coastal temperature is always in conjunction with highest influence of NAO upon coastal temperature during the period 1981-2010. Desert region does not obey this phenomenon, where highest temperature-NAO correlations at desert during autumn and winter seasons are not

  14. Synchronous mid-Holocene climate deteriorations in circum-Mediterranean and their links with ancient civilizations: first speloethem and archeological evidences from N-Algeria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruan, Jiaoyang; Kherbouche, Farid; Genty, Dominique; Cheng, Hai; Dewilde, Fabien; Blamart, Dominique

    2015-04-01

    Over the last decades, ancient civilizations during the Holocene were heavily studied at many places around the Mediterranean region such as Libya and Italy, and changes in the past social activities were widely assumed to be linked to regional climate variability. However, in many cases the climatic records were apart from the archaeological sites and the archaeological chronologies were not well constrained, which makes these links uncertain. Here we present a 230Th-dated decadal resolution climate record for 6034-3185yr BP based on the δ18O and δ13C analyses of two overlapping stalagmites from Gueldaman GLD1 Cave (36°26'N, 4°34'E, 507 m asl), N-Algeria. Recent archaeological work in this cave brought first information about the Neolithisation process since ca 7000yr cal BP in the region where little was known before. Together with new charcoal 14C dates from the digging sections we test the link between past climate change and human activities in the cave. GLD1 stalagmite records reveal a dry event at ca 5700-5500yr BP and a drying trend toward extreme aridity, since ca 4700yr BP, peaking at ca 4200yr BP. These climatic deteriorations in N-Algeria, within dating errors, are synchronous with dry phases observed on speleothem records from central (Corchia Cave and Renella Cave, Italy) and eastern (Soreq Cave, Israel) Mediterranean. Specifically, climatic condition was harsher at ca 4200yr BP than at ca 5700-5500yr BP in central and W-Mediterranean; while it was harsher at ca 5700-5500yr BP in E-Mediterranean. The new 14C dates relatively well anchor the age of sediment layers with the richest anthropogenic deposits (i.e. charcoal, bone and Neolithic pottery) to ca 4900-4400yr cal BP, coinciding with the wettest period inferred from the stalagmite records. Shortly following this period, archaeological remains were becoming very rare in the sediments, which might be the consequence of establishing extremely arid phase at ca 4200yr BP. This suggests a possible

  15. Cost-effectiveness of pre-participation screening of athletes with ECG in Europe and Algeria.

    PubMed

    Assanelli, Deodato; Levaggi, Rosella; Carré, François; Sharma, Sanjay; Deligiannis, Asterios; Mellwig, Klaus Peter; Tahmi, Mohamed; Vinetti, Giovanni; Aliverti, Paola

    2015-03-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of ECG in combination with family and personal history and physical examination in order to detect cardiovascular diseases that might cause sudden death in athletes. The study was conducted on a cohort of 6,634, mainly young professional and recreational athletes, 1,071 from Algeria and 5,563 from Europe (France, Germany and Greece). Each athlete underwent medical history, physical examination, and resting 12-lead ECG. 293 athletes (4.4 %), 149 in Europe (2.7 %) and 144 in Algeria (13.4 %) required further tests, and 56 were diagnosed with cardiovascular disease and thus disqualified. The cost-effectiveness ratio (CER) was calculated as the ratio between the cost of screening and the number of statistical life-years saved by the intervention. The estimated reduced risk of death deriving from treatment or disqualification resulted in the saving of 79.1 statistical life-years in Europe and 136.3 in Algeria. CER of screening was 4,071 purchasing-power-parity-adjusted US dollars ($PPP) in Europe and 582 $PPP in Algeria. The results of this study strongly support the utilisation of 12-lead ECG in the pre-participation screening of young athletes, especially in countries where secondary preventive care is not highly developed. PMID:25164412

  16. Classification of non-Hodgkin lymphoma in Algeria according to the World Health Organization classification.

    PubMed

    Boudjerra, Nadia; Perry, Anamarija M; Audouin, Josée; Diebold, Jacques; Nathwani, Bharat N; MacLennan, Kenneth A; Müller-Hermelink, Hans K; Bast, Martin; Boilesen, Eugene; Armitage, James O; Weisenburger, Dennis D

    2015-04-01

    The relative distribution of non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) subtypes differs markedly around the world. The aim of this study was to report this distribution in Algeria. A panel of four hematopathologists classified 197 consecutive cases according to the World Health Organization classification, including 87.3% B-cell and 12.7% T- or natural killer (NK)-cell NHLs. This series was compared with similar cohorts from Western Europe (WEU) and North America (NA). Algeria had a significantly higher frequency of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL: 52.8%) and a lower frequency of follicular lymphoma (FL: 13.2%) compared with WEU (DLBCL: 32.2%; FL: 20.0%) and NA (DLBCL: 29.3%; FL: 33.6%). The frequency of mantle cell lymphoma was lower in Algeria (2.5%) compared with WEU (8.3%). Smaller differences were also found among the NK/T-cell lymphomas. In conclusion, we found important differences between Algeria and Western countries, and further epidemiologic studies are needed to explain these differences. PMID:25012941

  17. Helping to Meet Today's Energy Demands: Natural Gas Technician Training in Algeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dutton, Bernard

    1976-01-01

    The training program, located in Arzew, Algeria, is designed to train technicians in all phases of gas technology. The program provides classroom instruction, on-the-job training, and language instruction. The different phases involved in the training program are described. (EC)

  18. Women in Egypt: new roles and realities.

    PubMed

    Lesch, A M; Sullivan, E L

    1986-01-01

    This is an extensive background presentation on the recent changes in Egyptian society, followed by results of a survey of attitudes toward family planning and the role of women. There have been remarkable social changes in Egypt recently, accompanied by rapid growth of the densely packed population. Virtually all of Egypt's 50 million people live on the banks of the Nile, 12 million of them in Cairo. Family planning has been government policy since 1981; the IUD and the pill are commonly used; but sterilization and abortion are illegal except for certain medical indications. Family subsidies and many public services have been eliminated, and even the lower classes are feeling the pinch of high cost of living, to the extent of desiring to balance their family size with their income. The survey was conducted by 35 students of the American University in Cairo, targeting middle and upper class adults, middle and upper class students, and lower class workers and domestics. The subjects were selected to be known to the interviewers to increase reliability of the data. This design created bias in the results, a preponderance of urban, student, single, childless and upper class subjects relative to the general population. The most common trend in the survey results was a conservatism among men, the lower class or less educated, or the rural lower classes. For example most women wanted 2 children, while those with traditional views valued male children and questioned the rights of women to be educated, to work outside the home, and to use contraception. The survey found that few people knew much about Egypt's Personal Status Law of 1979, which specifies women's rights regarding divorce, alimony, child support, and male polygamy. Women faced with divorce, however, rapidly learn their rights. This study revealed a consensus toward egalitarian values, along with distinct discord between the classes and sexes, and conflict between modern development and traditional roles for

  19. Astronomy at Nabta Playa, Southern Egypt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McKim Malville, J.

    Nabta Playa may contain the oldest human-made features with astronomical alignments in Egypt. In the Late and Terminal Neolithic (7,500-5,400 BP), nomadic pastoralists built a ceremonial center on the western shore of Nabta Playa, consisting of some 30 complex megalithic structures, stone circles, and lines of megaliths crossing the playa. The megaliths may once have aligned with Arcturus, the Belt of Orion, Sirius, and α Cen. Reorientations of the northern set of megaliths suggest a response to precession. Elaborate burials at the nearby cemetery at Gebel Ramlah indicate the nomads consisted of Mediterranean and sub-Saharan populations with little social stratification.

  20. Lake Nasser and Toshka Lakes, Egypt

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Lake Nasser (center) and the Toshka Lakes (center left) glow emerald green and black in this MODIS true-color image acquired March 8, 2002. Located on and near the border of Egypt and Norther Sudan, these lakes are an oasis of water in between the Nubian (lower right) and Libyan Deserts (upper left). Also visible are the Red Sea (in the upper right) and the Nile River (running north from Lake Nasser). Credit: Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team, NASA/GSFC

  1. Egypt site of first CSM marketing audit.

    PubMed

    1982-01-01

    The 1st application of the marketing audit concept to a CSM project was implemented in Egypt's Family of the Future (FOF) contraceptive social marketing program in 1982. The audit defined the basic mission of the FOF as one of assisting the government in achieving its long range family planning goals. The stated FOF objectives are as follows: to create an awareness or an increase in demand for family planning services, particularly among the lower socioeconomic strata in urban Egypt; to establish and maintain a reliable supply mechanism to make FOF products more readily acceptable and available from pharmacies; and to consolidate the CSM operations and services first in the greater Cairo area and then expand to other urban areas in Egypt. The core strategy of the FOF incorporates several elements, including intensive media based advertising and personal promotion to promote the concept of family planning and to educate the general public about contraceptive alternatives. FOF product prices are considerably lower than commercial prices. Dr. Alan R. Andreasen, who conducted the audit on behalf of the FOF technical assistance contractor, noted that the FOF is growing rapidly and stated that the audit recommendations were intended to help FOF management. Dr. Andreasen conducted interviews with all the senior personnel at FOF and met with various specialized staff members such as the Public Relations Manager. Dr. Andreasen noted that at the time of the audit the FOF could claim major accomplishments in creating an awareness of the need for family planning and in product sales. From the time products were launched in 1979 through 1981 condom sales increased 260%. Foaming tablet sales increased more than 320% and IUD sales increased nearly 330%. The introduction of the Copper 7 IUD accounted for 35% of the growth of IUD sales in 1981. Couple years of protection (CYP) provided by all products increased from 45,533 in 1979 to 190,831 in 1981, an increase over 300%. The

  2. First MAGDAS installation at Fayum in Egypt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahrous, A.; Ghamry, E.; Elhawary, R.; Fathy, I.; Yamazaki, Y.; Abe, S.; Uozumi, T.; Yumoto, K.

    2010-09-01

    We have installed the first MAGDAS magnetometer at Fayum in Egypt. The ambient temperature in the initial sensor house varied more than ±4 °C in one day (24 h period). This variation made the magnetic data useless. To correct this problem, (1) a new sensor house was re-constructed which reduced the diurnal variation to less than ±1 °C, and (2) the "Uozumi Temperature Correction Method" was introduced. As a result, good data is now arriving in real time at a central facility in Japan.

  3. First Results from MAGDAS Station in Egypt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahrous, Ayman; Yumoto, K.; El-Gamry, Essam; Yassin, Nabil

    We present here the testing and first results from MAGnetic Data Acquisition Systems (MAG- DAS). The station is located in a magnetic-clean area in Fayum (Mag. Lat. = 22.91, Mag. Lon. = 103.06) in order to monitor the geomagnetic field over central Egypt. The magnetic field digital data is obtained at the sampling rate of 1/16 seconds. The ambient magnetic field, expressed by horizontal (H), declination (D), and vertical (Z) components, are digitized by using the field-canceling coils for the dynamic range of ±64,000nT/16 bit to estimate the total magnetic field by adding the three components.

  4. Photovoltaics: alternative energy opportunities in Egypt

    SciTech Connect

    Gadomski, C.R.

    1987-10-01

    Government subsidies for electricity have discouraged the growth of an alternative energy market, but economic problems and high utility bills are changing the market as the demand for electricity expands. Although the past five-year plan only called for five percent of Egypt's energy to come from renewable sources, the development of solar power plants, wind power, and resource recovery could raise that to seven percent. Planners are looking to joint ventures and technology transfers to get the stagnant alternative energy industry moving. 2 figures.

  5. [The patients' view in Ancient Egypt].

    PubMed

    Herrmann, Sabine

    2008-01-01

    Although many medical texts are preserved from Ancient Egypt, these texts are giving only little information about the relationship between the Egyptian doctor and the patient. The aim of this article is to draw the reader's attention to personal documents such as letters between members of the royal court or private persons as well as to literary texts from the New Kingdom until the Roman Period. The article does also focus on Mesopotamian legal texts (Codex Hammurapi) and letters from the kingdom of Mari. PMID:19830954

  6. Isolation, Identification and Molecular Typing of Cryptococcus neoformans from Pigeon Droppings and Other Environmental Sources in Tripoli, Libya.

    PubMed

    Ellabib, Mohamed S; Aboshkiwa, Mohamed A; Husien, Walid M; D'Amicis, Roberta; Cogliati, Massimo

    2016-08-01

    Cryptococcus neoformans and C. gattii are the major cause of fungal meningitis, a potentially lethal mycosis. Since pigeon excreta and other environmental sources can be considered a significant environmental reservoir of this species in urban areas, 100 samples of pigeon excreta and 420 samples from Eucalyptus camaldulensis and Olea europaea (olive tree) around the city of Tripoli, Libya, were collected. C. neoformans was isolated and identified using standard biochemical assays from 46 samples: 34 from pigeon droppings, 3 from Eucalyptus trees and 9 from olive trees. Molecular typing revealed that all isolates from pigeon droppings belonged to molecular type VNI (C. neoformans var. grubii) and mating type αA, whereas those from trees included also the molecular type VNII and VNIII (AD hybrids). The present study reports, for the first time, information about the distribution of species, mating types and molecular types of C. neoformans/C. gattii species complex in Libya. PMID:26943725

  7. African oil plays

    SciTech Connect

    Clifford, A.J. )

    1989-09-01

    The vast continent of Africa hosts over eight sedimentary basins, covering approximately half its total area. Of these basins, only 82% have entered a mature exploration phase, 9% have had little or no exploration at all. Since oil was first discovered in Africa during the mid-1950s, old play concepts continue to bear fruit, for example in Egypt and Nigeria, while new play concepts promise to become more important, such as in Algeria, Angola, Chad, Egypt, Gabon, and Sudan. The most exciting developments of recent years in African oil exploration are: (1) the Gamba/Dentale play, onshore Gabon; (2) the Pinda play, offshore Angola; (3) the Lucula/Toca play, offshore Cabinda; (4) the Metlaoui play, offshore Libya/Tunisia; (5) the mid-Cretaceous sand play, Chad/Sudan; and (6) the TAG-I/F6 play, onshore Algeria. Examples of these plays are illustrated along with some of the more traditional oil plays. Where are the future oil plays likely to develop No doubt, the Saharan basins of Algeria and Libya will feature strongly, also the presalt of Equatorial West Africa, the Central African Rift System and, more speculatively, offshore Ethiopia and Namibia, and onshore Madagascar, Mozambique, and Tanzania.

  8. Dental health and disease in ancient Egypt.

    PubMed

    Forshaw, R J

    2009-04-25

    In ancient Egypt the exceptionally dry climate together with the unique burial customs has resulted in the survival of large numbers of well-preserved skeletal and mummified remains. Examinations of these remains together with an analysis of the surviving documentary, archaeological and ethnographic evidence has enabled a detailed picture of the dental health of these ancient people to be revealed, perhaps more so than for any other civilisation in antiquity. In this, the first of two articles, the dental pathological conditions that afflicted the ancient Egyptians is considered. The commonest finding is that of tooth wear, which was often so excessive that it resulted in pulpal exposure. Multiple abscesses were frequently seen, but caries was not a significant problem. Overall the findings indicate that the various pathological conditions and non-pathological abnormalities of teeth evident in dentitions in the twenty-first century were also manifest in ancient Egypt, although the incidences of these conditions varies considerably between the civilisations. PMID:19396207

  9. Transnasal excerebration surgery in ancient Egypt.

    PubMed

    Fanous, Andrew A; Couldwell, William T

    2012-04-01

    Ancient Egyptians were pioneers in many fields, including medicine and surgery. Our modern knowledge of anatomy, pathology, and surgical techniques stems from discoveries and observations made by Egyptian physicians and embalmers. In the realm of neurosurgery, ancient Egyptians were the first to elucidate cerebral and cranial anatomy, the first to describe evidence for the role of the spinal cord in the transmission of information from the brain to the extremities, and the first to invent surgical techniques such as trepanning and stitching. In addition, the transnasal approach to skull base and intracranial structures was first devised by Egyptian embalmers to excerebrate the cranial vault during mummification. In this historical vignette, the authors examine paleoradiological and other evidence from ancient Egyptian skulls and mummies of all periods, from the Old Kingdom to Greco-Roman Egypt, to shed light on the development of transnasal surgery in this ancient civilization. The authors confirm earlier observations concerning the laterality of this technique, suggesting that ancient Egyptian excerebration techniques penetrated the skull base mostly on the left side. They also suggest that the original technique used to access the skull base in ancient Egypt was a transethmoidal one, which later evolved to follow a transsphenoidal route similar to the one used today to gain access to pituitary lesions. PMID:22224784

  10. The nature of plague in late eighteenth-century Egypt.

    PubMed

    Mikhail, Alan

    2008-01-01

    This article uses an examination of the 1791 plague in Egypt to explore the relationships among disease, famine, flood, drought, and death in late eighteenth-century Egypt. It analyzes how plague functioned as part of a regular biophysical pathology of the environment in which the disease came and went as one iteration in a cycle that included famine, wind, flood, drought, price inflation, and revolt. Using the works of Egyptian chroniclers, archival materials, secondary studies, and traveler accounts, this article integrates plague into the study of the Egyptian environment by showing how it was a regular and expected part of life in Egypt. PMID:18622069

  11. Epidemiology and clinical findings of colorectal carcinoma in two tertiary care hospitals in Benghazi, Libya

    PubMed Central

    Elzouki, Abdel-Naser; Habel, Salah; Alsoaeiti, Saeid; Abosedra, Adam; Khan, Fahmi

    2014-01-01

    Aim: The aim is to determine the pattern of patients with colorectal cancer (CRC) seen in two tertiary hospitals in Benghazi, Libya. Materials and methods: The cohort includes all patients of CRC who were presented between January 2007 and December 2009 to the Oncology Department, Aljomhoria Hospital and 7th October Hospital, Benghazi. Patient's age, gender, clinical presentation, location of cancer involvement, and histopathologic diagnosis were reviewed. Tumor staging was carried out according to Astler Coller modification of Duke's system, dividing it into stage A to C depending upon the extent of local involvement and regional node spread. Stage D was added to account for distant metastasis in accordance with Turnbull modification. Results: A total of 152 patients with CRC were included, 84 males (55%) and 68 females (45%) with a male to female ratio of 1.2:1.0. The mean age was 57.4 ± 12.92 years (range 21–87 years). 18 (11.8%) patients were below 40 years of age. The most common presenting symptoms were rectal bleeding and abdominal pain and were together present in 71% of the patients. The majority (67.8%) of tumors arise from rectum and sigmoid colon. More than one-third of the patients had poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma. Sixty patients (39.5%) presented in stage D, whereas 30.9% (47/152) and 29.6% (45/152) of patients were in stage B and stage C, respectively. None of the patients had stage A at presentation. The radiological evaluation showed presence of liver metastasis in 14 patients (9.2%) and pulmonary metastasis in two patients (1.3%). Anemia was found in 56 patients (36.8%). It was more common in females (P = 0.01) and in the right sided tumors (66.7%) than left sided tumors (29.5%) (P = 0.001). Conclusion: The majority of CRC patients in Benghazi were diagnosed in locally advanced or metastatic stage. In order to achieve early detection of CRC, a comprehensive cancer education program and screening of high risk population for CRC should be

  12. Impact of the 2011 Libyan conflict on road traffic injuries in Benghazi, Libya

    PubMed Central

    Bodalal, Zuhir; Bendardaf, Riyad; Ambarek, Mohammed; Nagelkerke, Nico

    2015-01-01

    Background Road traffic injuries (RTIs) are a major public health concern in Libya. In the light of the armed conflict in Libya that broke out on February 2011 and the subsequent instability, the rate and pattern of RTIs was studied. Methods RTI patient data were gathered from Al-Jalaa hospital, the main trauma center in Benghazi, from 2010 to 2011. Various parameters [i.e. age, gender, nationality, method of entry, receiving department, intensive care unit (ICU) admission, duration of stay, method of discharge, and fatalities] were compared with data from the previous year (2010), and statistical analyses were performed (t-test, chi-square, and Poisson regression). Results During the conflict period, 15.8% (n=2,221) of hospital admissions were RTIs, that is, a rate of 6.08 RTI cases per day, levels not seen for 5 years (t=−5.719, p<0.001). The presence of armed conflict was found to have caused a significant 28% decrease in the trend of RTIs over the previous 10 years (B=−0.327, CI=−0.38–−0.28, p<0.001). February and March, the peak period of active combat in Benghazi, witnessed the lowest number of RTIs during the conflict period. The average age of an RTI decreased to 28.35±16.3 years (t=−7.257, p<0.001) with significantly more males (84.1%, n=1,755) being affected (χ2=4.595, p=0.032, df=1). There was an increase in the proportion of younger aged patients (from 0 to 29 years) (χ2=29.874, p<0.001, df=8). More patients required admission to the ICU (χ2=36.808, p<0.001, df=8), and the mortality of an RTI increased to 5.2% (n=116) (χ2=48.882, p<0.001, df=6). Conclusion There were fewer RTIs during the conflict period; however, those that occurred had higher morbidity and mortality. The profile of an RTI victims also changed to an increased prominence of young males and motorcyclists. Further research is required to propose and analyze possible interventions. PMID:25673038

  13. Ground water in the Sirte area, Tripolitania, United Kingdom of Libya

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ogilbee, William

    1964-01-01

    The present study of the ground-water conditions in the Sirte area was made during December 1961 and March-April 1962 at the request of officials of the Government of Libya. Particular attention was given to the potential of the fresh-water aquifer near Qasr Bu Itadi as a source of water for Sirte. The Sirte area lies on the southern coast of the Mediterranean Sea about 450 kilometers east-southeast of Tripoli, cocapital of Libya. Although the area receives some winter precipitation, the climate is arid. The surface rocks of the area are chiefly Miocene limestone containing marl, clay, and some sandstone, though Quaternary deposits occur along the wadis and mantle the Miocene rocks in the coastal plain. Fresh ground water occurs locally in Recent sand dunes near Zaafran and in Miocene limestone near Qasr Bu Hadi, south of a probable fault. Elsewhere in the Sirte area, ground water occurs generally in Tertiary rocks but contains 3,000 or more parts per million of dissolved solids. To establish the hydraulic characteristics of the fresh-water aquifer in the Qasr Bu Itadi area, two test wells were drilled and a controlled pumping test was made. The coefficient of transmissibility was found to be about 25,000 gallons per day per foot (13.68 cubic meters per hour per meter), and the coefficient of storage, about 0.00055. The pumping test also established the presence of two barrier-type hydraulic boundaries for the aquifer, one about 250 meters westward and another about 535 meters northward from well 9a. The first boundary is probably the small anticline on which stands the fort of Qasr Bu Itadi; the second boundary is probably a northwest trending fault. Using the transmissibility and storage coefficients derived from the pumping test, the writer concludes that (1) the total draft from the fresh-water aquifer should not exceed 13.5 cubic meters per hour and (2) production wells should be at least 3 kilometers south of well 9a.

  14. Alkhurma hemorrhagic fever in travelers returning from Egypt, 2010.

    PubMed

    Carletti, Fabrizio; Castilletti, Concetta; Di Caro, Antonino; Capobianchi, Maria R; Nisii, Carla; Suter, Fredy; Rizzi, Marco; Tebaldi, Alessandra; Goglio, Antonio; Passerini Tosi, Cristiana; Ippolito, Giuseppe

    2010-12-01

    Two travelers returning to Italy from southern Egypt were hospitalized with a fever of unknown origin. Test results showed infection with Alkhurma virus. The geographic distribution of this virus could be broader than previously thought. PMID:21122237

  15. Alkhurma Hemorrhagic Fever in Travelers Returning from Egypt, 2010

    PubMed Central

    Carletti, Fabrizio; Castilletti, Concetta; Di Caro, Antonino; Capobianchi, Maria R.; Nisii, Carla; Suter, Fredy; Rizzi, Marco; Tebaldi, Alessandra; Goglio, Antonio; Tosi, Cristiana Passerini

    2010-01-01

    Two travelers returning to Italy from southern Egypt were hospitalized with a fever of unknown origin. Test results showed infection with Alkhurma virus. The geographic distribution of this virus could be broader than previously thought. PMID:21122237

  16. Mitigation options for the industrial sector in Egypt

    SciTech Connect

    Gelil, I.A.; El-Touny, S.; Korkor, H.

    1996-12-31

    Though its contribution to the global Greenhouse gases emission is relatively small, Egypt has signed and ratified the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UN FCCC) and has been playing an active role in the international efforts to deal with such environmental challenges. Energy efficiency has been one of the main strategies that Egypt has adopted to improve environmental quality and enhance economic competitiveness. This paper highlights three initiatives currently underway to improve energy efficiency of the Egyptian industry. The first is a project that has been recently completed by OECP to assess potential GHG mitigation options available in Egypt`s oil refineries. The second initiative is an assessment of GHG mitigation potential in the Small and Medium size Enterprises (SME) in the Mediterranean city of Alexandria. The third one focuses on identifying demand side management options in some industrial electricity consumers in the same city.

  17. Turmoil doesn`t dampen enthusiasm

    SciTech Connect

    1997-08-01

    The paper discusses the outlook for the African gas and oil industries. Though Africa remains politically and economically volatile, its vast energy potential is becoming increasingly attractive to foreign oil and gas companies. Separate evaluations are given for Algeria, Egypt, Nigeria, Angola, Libya, Congo, Gabon, Tunisia, Cameroon, Cote D`Ivoire, and briefly for South Africa, Sudan, Equatorial Guinea, Ghana, Zaire, Benin, Mozambique, Chad, Namibia, Tanzania, Eritrea, Guinea-Bissau, Senegal, Morocco, Sao Tome and Principe, Ethiopia, Niger, Madagascar, Rwanda, Mauritania, Seychelles, Uganda, and Liberia.

  18. Africa: Unrest and restrictive terms limit abundant potential. [Oil and gas exploration and development in Africa

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-08-01

    This paper summarizes the drilling and exploration activity of the oil and gas industries of Egypt, Libya, Tunisia, Algeria, Morocco, Nigeria, Cameroon, Gabon, the Congo, Angola, and South Africa. Information is provided on current and predicted trends in well drilling activities (both onshore and offshore), numbers of new wells, footage information, production statistics and what fields accounted for this production, and planned new exploration activities. The paper also describes the current status of government policies and political problems affecting the oil and gas industry.

  19. Africa's natural gas: potentialities and letdowns

    SciTech Connect

    Baladian, K.

    1983-11-01

    Although Africa has experienced 10 times less hydrocarbon exploration than Western Europe, its proved gas reserves already amount to 220-223 trillion CF or 7% of world reserves, while Europe holds 6% or 167 TCF. Yet Africa marketed only 1.3 TCF in 1982 against Europe's 6.5 TCF. Because of the lack of domestic demand for gas, Africa flares up to 21% of its gas output. Algeria is the continent's primary gas consumer, with Egypt, Libya, and Nigeria trying to expand local gas markets. The vast majority of marketed African gas goes to Europe, either as gas sent through the Trans-Med pipeline or as LNG via tanker.

  20. Nile River, Lake Nasser, Aswan High Dam, Egypt, Africa

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    Lake Nasser, (24.0N, 33.0E) at the Aswan High Dam on the Nile River, in Egypt is the world's second largest artificial lake, extending 500 km, in length and about 5000 sq. km. in area. The lake has a storage capacity sufficient to irrigate farms in Egypt and Sudan year round allowing up to three harvests per year. Other benefits include year round river navagation, hydroelectric power, more fish harvests, reduced flooding and more industrial employment. opportunites.

  1. Vascular medicine and surgery in ancient Egypt.

    PubMed

    Barr, Justin

    2014-07-01

    Lauded alike by ancient civilizations and modern society, pharaonic Egyptian medicine remains an object of fascination today. This article discusses its surprisingly sophisticated understanding of a cardiovascular system. The term "cardiovascular system," however, carries assumptions and meanings to a modern audience, especially readers of this journal, which simply do not apply when considering ancient conceptions of the heart and vessels. For lack of better language, this article will use "cardiovascular" and similar terms while recognizing the anachronistic inaccuracy. After briefly summarizing ancient Egyptian medicine generally, it will review the anatomy, pathology, and treatment of the vasculature. The practice of mummification in ancient Egypt provides a unique opportunity for paleopathology, and the conclusion will explore evidence of arterial disease from a modern scientific perspective. PMID:24970660

  2. The road to recovery: Egypt's healthcare reform.

    PubMed

    Haley, Donald Robert; Bég, Sama A

    2012-01-01

    As many industrial and third-world countries recover from the severe economic crisis of a global recession, they continue to struggle with its negative effect on their healthcare systems. Healthcare reform has become a leading policy agenda item for most countries. This is especially true for countries in the developing world who are struggling to allocate very limited resources to meet the growing health needs of their residents and the expectations of global health. In the late 1990s, the Egyptian government, in conjunction with the United States Agency for International Development, initiated a Health Sector Reform Program (HSRP) to completely reform the way healthcare was financed, organized and delivered with the intent to extend healthcare coverage to all of its citizens. Although some successes have resulted from the HSRP, Egypt's new government leaders will need to be informed on policies that may more effectively improve the health of the Egyptian population. PMID:21638310

  3. The practice of dentistry in ancient Egypt.

    PubMed

    Forshaw, R J

    2009-05-01

    This paper addresses the questions of whether a dental profession existed in ancient Egypt and if it did then considers whether these practitioners were operative dental surgeons as we know them today or whether they were pharmacists. Evidence from hieroglyphic inscriptions, from the dentitions of the surviving mummified and skeletal remains, and from ancient documents and artefacts are examined. The conclusion would suggest that operative dental treatment if it did exist at all was extremely limited. The dental treatment that appears to have been provided was mainly restricted to pharmaceutical preparations that were either applied to the gingival and mucosal tissues or used as mouthwashes, and these at best may only have provided some short term relief. It seems apparent that many ancient Egyptians suffered from widespread and painful dental disease, which the available treatments can have done relatively little to alleviate. PMID:19424250

  4. Egypt: urban growth encroaches on farmland.

    PubMed

    1981-12-01

    In 1980 Egypt's population was 42 million, with 9 million, or 21%, residing in metropolitan Cairo. Throughout the country the urban population makes up about 44% of the total population; in the 2 largest cities, Cairo and Alexandria, public utilities and basic services are becoming more and more ineffective. The problem is complicated by the fact that the urban population is concentrated along the Nile valley, which is the most fertile, cultivated, and well watered area of the country. An estimated 20,000 acres of farmland are lost each year to urban spread, while the government spends an average $2 million yearly to subsidize food imports. The Egyptian government is not only aiming at reducing natural growth through the provision of free family planning services, but it is encouraging rural development and trying to raise the standard of living for farmers. A strategy to redistribute the population into smaller cities or on land suitable for reclamation is also being planned. PMID:12311455

  5. Meningoencephalitis due to the amoeboflagellate Naegleria fowleri in ruminants in Algeria.

    PubMed

    Benterki, Mohamed Seghir; Ayachi, Ammar; Bennoune, Omar; Régoudis, Estelle; Pélandakis, Michel

    2016-01-01

    Primary amoebic meningoencephalitis (PAM) is a fatal infection in most cases, caused by the amoeba flagellate Naegleria fowleri. This report describes the first cases of PAM in Algeria, in a cow and a ewe from Batna, north-eastern Algeria. The death of both ruminants occurred a week after the first clinical manifestations. The cerebrospinal fluid, after staining with May-Grünwald-Giemsa, showed the presence of amoebae cells. Histological sections revealed numerous amoebae in all parts of the brain. The presence of N. fowleri was confirmed using a species-specific real-time PCR in histological tissue sections. The two PAM cases were reported during the hot season, and the source of infection is very likely the water where the cattle came to drink. Particular attention should be focused on this type of infection in aquatic environments when the temperature is high and preventive measures must be taken to avoid the proliferation of N. fowleri. PMID:26979770

  6. Meningoencephalitis due to the amoeboflagellate Naegleria fowleri in ruminants in Algeria

    PubMed Central

    Benterki, Mohamed Seghir; Ayachi, Ammar; Bennoune, Omar; Régoudis, Estelle; Pélandakis, Michel

    2016-01-01

    Primary amoebic meningoencephalitis (PAM) is a fatal infection in most cases, caused by the amoeba flagellate Naegleria fowleri. This report describes the first cases of PAM in Algeria, in a cow and a ewe from Batna, north-eastern Algeria. The death of both ruminants occurred a week after the first clinical manifestations. The cerebrospinal fluid, after staining with May-Grünwald-Giemsa, showed the presence of amoebae cells. Histological sections revealed numerous amoebae in all parts of the brain. The presence of N. fowleri was confirmed using a species-specific real-time PCR in histological tissue sections. The two PAM cases were reported during the hot season, and the source of infection is very likely the water where the cattle came to drink. Particular attention should be focused on this type of infection in aquatic environments when the temperature is high and preventive measures must be taken to avoid the proliferation of N. fowleri. PMID:26979770

  7. Decision support for sustainable urban drainage system management: a case study of Jijel, Algeria.

    PubMed

    Benzerra, Abbas; Cherrared, Marzouk; Chocat, Bernard; Cherqui, Frédéric; Zekiouk, Tarik

    2012-06-30

    This paper aims to develop a methodology to support the sustainable management of Urban Drainage Systems (UDSs) in Algeria. This research is motivated by the various difficulties that the National Sanitation Office (ONA) has in managing this complex infrastructure. The method mainly consists of two approaches: the top-down approach and the bottom-up approach. The former facilitates the identification of factors related to a sustainable UDS, the development priorities and the criteria available to managers. The latter assesses UDS performance using the weighted sum method to aggregate indicators or criteria weighted using the Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP). The method is demonstrated through its application to the UDS in the city of Jijel, Algeria. PMID:22387329

  8. Nematodes parasitizing Trachurus trachurus (L.) and Boops boops (L.) from Algeria.

    PubMed

    Ichalal, Keltoum; Ramdane, Zouhir; Ider, Djamila; Kacher, Mohammed; Iguerouada, Mokrane; Trilles, Jean-Paul; Courcot, Luci; Amara, Rachid

    2015-11-01

    A total of 455 Boops boops (Linnaeus, 1758) and 953 Trachurus trachurus Linnaeus, 1758 from the east coast of Algeria were examined for their parasitic Nematoda. Two hundred ninety-five specimens of larval stages L3 and L4 were collected from the peritoneal cavity of these two examined fishes. Photonic and scanning electronic microscopy (SEM) studies were performed on these larvae specimens in order to characterize their morphology. Two different species of Nematoda (Anisikidae) were identified: Anisakis simplex (Rudolphi, 1809) and Hysterothylacium aduncum (Rudolphi, 1802). These two parasitic species were reported for the first time on T. trachurus and B. boops from the eastern coast of Algeria. These parasites were attached on different organs in the abdominal cavity (particularly on ovaries and testes). The infestation rate changed according to the month and the host size. The parasitism did not show a significant negative impact on the condition of the examined fishes. PMID:26220559

  9. Performances and failure of field-aged PV modules operating in Saharan region of Algeria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sadok, M.; Benyoucef, B.; Othmani, M.; Mehdaoui, A.

    2016-07-01

    This article deals with behaviour of PV modules, of different technologies and manufacturers, exposed for long periods in Saharan region of Algeria. These modules are exposed in Adrar in the south-western part of Algeria. The study uses experimental I-V curves of PV modules for determining their performances. The datasheet information of modules will be useful in determination of degradation rates of the modules. Three types of modules have been tested: Photowatt (PWX 500), UDTS-50 and Isofoton (I-75 and I-100 serials). Results showed that Isofoton I-100 modules present the highest degradation rate while the lowest degradation rate was reached with I-75 serial. However, these rates tallies with other studies. The visual inspection of the modules has revealed various kinds of failures and defects responsible of performances drop (EVA browning, delamination, burn marks,…).

  10. Impact of urban and industrial effluents on the coastal marine environment in Oran, Algeria.

    PubMed

    Tayeb, A; Chellali, M R; Hamou, A; Debbah, S

    2015-09-15

    In Algeria most of the urban waste water is dumped without treatment into the Sea. It is tremendously important to assess the consequences of organic matter rich sewage on marine ecosystem. In this study we investigated the effects of industrial and urban sewage on the dissolved oxygen (O2), chemical oxygen demand (COD), biochemical oxygen demands (BOD5), pH, salinity, electrical conductivity (EC), Metal element (Hg, Pb, Cu, Ni, Cr, Cd), petroleum hydrocarbons (HC), oil and grease (OG) in Bay of Oran, Algeria. A ten-year follow-up research showed that the concentrations of oil and grease released into the bionetwork are of higher ecological impact and this needs to be given the desired consideration. Information on bathing water quality revealed that the most beaches in Oran are under the national environmental standard limit. PMID:26164780

  11. [The population explosion in Algeria: the causes, the effects, and the solutions].

    PubMed

    Muller, H

    1990-01-01

    "For decades Algeria has had one of the highest population growth rates in the world, arising directly from a steady gap between deathrates and birthrates. The reasons are of a complex social, economic and cultural kind, such as high infant mortality, traditionally early marriage, family models largely determined by religion, the common practice of child labour and other factors. As a consequence of the mismatch between economic and demographic growth the society is confronted by growing mass unemployment, underemployment, food supply problems, housing shortages and ecological crises. The critical economic situation in the eighties reduced the prospects for constraining the population explosion by quickly conquering socioeconomic underdevelopment. Nowadays Algeria is deliberately following a programme for family planning, which is also supported to a certain extent by the Islamic clergy." (SUMMARY IN ENG) PMID:12343404

  12. Common occurrence of zoonotic pathogen Cryptosporidium meleagridis in broiler chickens and turkeys in Algeria.

    PubMed

    Baroudi, Djamel; Khelef, Djamel; Goucem, Rachid; Adjou, Karim T; Adamu, Haileeyesus; Zhang, Hongwei; Xiao, Lihua

    2013-09-23

    Only a small number of birds have been identified by molecular techniques as having Cryptosporidium meleagridis, the third most important species for human cryptosporidiosis. In this study, using PCR-RFLP analysis of the small subunit (SSU) rRNA gene, we examined the ileum of 90 dead chickens from 23 farms and 57 dead turkeys from 16 farms in Algeria for Cryptosporidium spp. C. meleagridis-positive specimens were subtyped by sequence analysis of the 60 kDa glycoprotein gene. Cryptosporidium infection rates were 34% and 44% in chickens and turkeys, respectively, with all positive turkeys (25) and most positive chickens (26/31) having C. meleagridis. All C. meleagridis specimens belonged to a new subtype family. The frequent occurrence of C. meleagridis in chickens and turkeys illustrates the potential for zoonotic transmission of cryptosporidiosis in Algeria. PMID:23498647

  13. Dust Plume off the Coast of Egypt

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    Dwarfing the Nile, a river of dust flowed out of the deserts of northern Egypt on May 19, 2007. As the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on NASA's Terra satellite passed overhead at 12:05 p.m. local time in Cairo, the sensor captured this image of the dust spreading northward over the Mediterranean Sea from the sandy deserts that span the country. At the margins of the plume, ribbons and ripples of dust are translucent, allowing a glimpse of the desert and water beneath, but in the center, the cloud is opaque, revealing nothing of the surface below. The part of north-central Egypt hidden by the dust plume is the Qattara Depression, the country's lowest point. Dipping down to 133 meters below sea level (436 feet), the depression is home to sandy deserts and dry lake beds that occasionally flood. The sand and fine, lake bed sediments are easily lofted into the air by strong winds that scour the area in late winter and early spring. In the eastern (right-hand) part of the image, the Nile River is lined by narrow ribbons of dull green vegetation. The fan-shaped delta is dotted with tan-colored spots, marking the location of cities and towns. The Nile Valley and Delta make up only a small fraction of the country's total land area, yet they support almost the entire population. The large image provided above has a spatial resolution (level of detail) of 250 meters per pixel. The MODIS Rapid Response Team provides this image in additional resolutions. The Earth Observatory also provides a 250-meter-resolution KMZ file of this image for use with Google Earth.

  14. Endomyocardial fibrosis in Egypt: an illustrated review.

    PubMed Central

    Rashwan, M. A.; Ayman, M.; Ashour, S.; Hassanin, M. M.; Zeina, A. A.

    1995-01-01

    The detailed features of right sided endomyocardial fibrosis are described in 15 out of 10,000 consecutive patients who all had infection with Schistosoma mansoni and came from rural Egypt. Laboratory investigations, 12 lead electrocardiography, chest radiography, and Doppler echocardiography were performed in all patients. Cardiac catheterisation and angiography were performed in eight. Endomyocardial biopsy specimens were obtained from the right ventricles of two patients and pericardial biopsy specimens from two. Pericardiocentesis was performed in all patients. All patients were infected with S mansoni and had schistosomal hepatic fibrosis and ascites. Eleven had splenomegaly. All patients had raised cervical venous pressure with prominent Y descent and atrial fibrillation. Eosinophilia was notably absent. Echocardiography showed apical fibrosis in the right ventricle, obliteration of the ventricle, and moderate to massive exudative pericardial effusion in all patients. Calcification and fibrosis extended into the right ventricular outflow tracts in two patients. Huge right atrial thrombi occurred in five patients. Tricuspid regurgitation (grades I-II) was detected in 11 patients by Doppler ultrasonography. Haemodynamic and angiographic data confirmed the pure right sided restrictive pathophysiology. Pericardial biopsy specimens showed perivascular inflammatory infiltrates in two patients and a schistosomal granuloma in one. Endocardial biopsy specimens showed dense fibrosis with many fibroblasts. Endomyocardial fibrosis in Egypt is unique in several aspects. It always affected only the right side of the heart. Calcification and fibrosis extended to the right ventricular outflow tract. Pericardial inflammatory reaction was present. The relation to schistosomiasis and the link to periportal hepatic fibrosis in these patients is intriguing. Images PMID:7727191

  15. Carbon and oxygen isotope variations of the Middle-Late Triassic Al Aziziyah Formation, northwest Libya

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moustafa, Mohamed S. H.; Pope, Michael C.; Grossman, Ethan L.; Mriheel, Ibrahim Y.

    2016-06-01

    This study presents the δ13C and δ18O records from whole rock samples of the Middle-Late Triassic (Ladinian-Carnian) Al Aziziyah Formation that were deposited on a gently sloping carbonate ramp within the Jifarah Basin of Northwest Libya. The Al Aziziyah Formation consists of gray limestone, dolomite, and dolomitic limestone interbedded with shale. The Ghryan Dome and Kaf Bates sections were sampled and analyzed for carbon and oxygen isotope chemostratigraphy to integrate high-resolution carbon isotope data with an outcrop-based stratigraphy, to provide better age control of the Al Aziziyah Formation. This study also discusses the relation between the facies architecture of the Al Aziziyah Formation and the carbon isotope values. Seven stages of relative sea level rise and fall within the Ghryan Dome were identified based on facies stacking patterns, field observations and carbon stable isotopes. The Al Aziziyah Formation δ13C chemostratigraphic curve can be partially correlated with the Triassic global δ13C curve. This correlation indicates that the Al Aziziyah Formation was deposited during the Ladinian and early Carnian. No straight-forward relationship is seen between δ13C and relative sea level probably because local influences complicated systematic environmental and diagenetic isotopic effects associated with sea level change.

  16. Chemical and Antimicrobial Profiling of Propolis from Different Regions within Libya

    PubMed Central

    Siheri, Weam; Zhang, Tong; Ebiloma, Godwin Unekwuojo; Biddau, Marco; Woods, Nicola; Hussain, Muattaz Yassein; Clements, Carol J.; Fearnley, James; Ebel, RuAngelie Edrada; Paget, Timothy; Muller, Sylke; Carter, Katharine C.; Ferro, Valerie A.; De Koning, Harry P.; Watson, David G.

    2016-01-01

    Extracts from twelve samples of propolis collected from different regions of Libya were tested for their activity against Trypanosoma brucei, Leishmania donovani, Plasmodium falciparum, Crithidia fasciculata and Mycobacterium marinum and the cytotoxicity of the extracts was tested against mammalian cells. All the extracts were active to some degree against all of the protozoa and the mycobacterium, exhibiting a range of EC50 values between 1.65 and 53.6 μg/ml. The toxicity against mammalian cell lines was only moderate; the most active extract against the protozoan species, P2, displayed an IC50 value of 53.2 μg/ml. The extracts were profiled by using liquid chromatography coupled to high resolution mass spectrometry. The data sets were extracted using m/z Mine and the accurate masses of the features extracted were searched against the Dictionary of Natural Products (DNP). A principal component analysis (PCA) model was constructed which, in combination with hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA), divided the samples into five groups. The outlying groups had different sets of dominant compounds in the extracts, which could be characterised by their elemental composition. Orthogonal partial least squares (OPLS) analysis was used to link the activity of each extract against the different micro-organisms to particular components in the extracts. PMID:27195790

  17. Intraplate stresses and the subsidence history of the Sirte Basin (Libya)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Der Meer, Freek; Cloetingh, Sierd

    1993-11-01

    Results of quantitative analysis of subsidence data from 20 wells covering six major basement blocks from the Sirte Basin (Libya) are presented. Following the Late Cretaceous onset of extension and associated collapse of the Sirte Arch, the tectonic history post-dating this event can be separated into four distinct phases: (1) minor subsidence during the Late Cretaceous; (2) differential fault tectonics and reactivation of basement faults during latest Cretaceous to Paleocene; (3) regional uplift and subsidence during the Eocene; (4) minor subsidence during the Early Oligocene and Early Miocene. A Late Cretaceous-Paleocene stretching phase of finite duration can explain the overall patterns of observed tectonic subsidence during the syn- and post-rift evolution of the Sirte Basin. Strong short-term deviations from thermally induced long-term subsidence observed during the Eocene can be explained by intraplate compression and subsequent stress release related to changes in Atlantic flowline geometry. Modelling of the observed tectonic subsidence for the Sirte Basin yields estimates of extension in excess of estimates inferred from displacements along high-angle normal faults. The effect of late-stage intraplate compression on tectonic subsidence may cause part of the observed discrepancy between estimates of crustal extension.

  18. Quantifying Libya-4 Surface Reflectance Heterogeneity With WorldView-1, 2 and EO-1 Hyperion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Neigh, Christopher S. R.; McCorkel, Joel; Middleton, Elizabeth M.

    2015-01-01

    The land surface imaging (LSI) virtual constellation approach promotes the concept of increasing Earth observations from multiple but disparate satellites. We evaluated this through spectral and spatial domains, by comparing surface reflectance from 30-m Hyperion and 2-m resolution WorldView-2 (WV-2) data in the Libya-4 pseudoinvariant calibration site. We convolved and resampled Hyperion to WV-2 bands using both cubic convolution and nearest neighbor (NN) interpolation. Additionally, WV-2 and WV-1 same-date imagery were processed as a cross-track stereo pair to generate a digital terrain model to evaluate the effects from large (>70 m) linear dunes. Agreement was moderate to low on dune peaks between WV-2 and Hyperion (R2 <; 0.4) but higher in areas of lower elevation and slope (R2 > 0.6). Our results provide a satellite sensor intercomparison protocol for an LSI virtual constellation at high spatial resolution, which should start with geolocation of pixels, followed by NN interpolation to avoid tall dunes that enhance surface reflectance differences across this internationally utilized site.

  19. Pregnancy outcomes in Benghazi, Libya, before and during the armed conflict in 2011.

    PubMed

    Bodalal, Z; Agnaeber, K; Nagelkerke, N; Stirling, B; Temmerman, M; Degomme, O

    2014-03-01

    Stressful life events experienced by pregnant women may lead to adverse obstetric outcomes. This study in Benghazi compared the rates of preterm, low-birth-weight and caesarean-section births at Al-Jamhouria hospital in the months before and during the armed conflict in Libya in 2011. Data were collected on all women admitted to the delivery ward during February to May 2011 (the months of the most active fighting in the city) (n = 7096), and October to December 2010 (the months immediately before the war) (n = 5935). Compared with the preceding months there was a significant rise during the conflict in the rate of deliveries involving preterm (3.6% versus 2.5%) and low-birth-weight (10.1% versus 8.5%) infants and caesarean sections (26.9% versus 25.3%). Psychosocial stress may have been a factor (among others) in an increase in negative pregnancy outcomes, and obstetric hospitals should be aware of these issues in times of war. PMID:24950075

  20. Population genetic data for 17 Y STR markers from Benghazi (East Libya).

    PubMed

    Elmrghni, Samir; Coulson-Thomas, Yvette M; Kaddura, Mahmoud; Dixon, Ron A; Williams, D Ross

    2012-03-01

    The seventeen Y-STR loci included in the AmpFℓSTR(®) Yfiler™ PCR Amplification kit (DYS19, DYS389I, DYS389II, DYS390, DYS391, DYS392, DYS393, DYS385a/b, DYS438, DYS439, DYS437, DYS448, DYS458, DYS456, DYS635, and Y-GATA-H4) were used to type a sample population of 238 males from eastern Libya (Benghazi region). Of 238 observed haplotypes, 214 were unique (90%) and 24 (10%) were found more than once. The 17 loci gave a discriminating power of 0.999. DYS458 showed the highest diversity as a single-locus marker (0.73). Allelic frequencies and gene diversities for each Y-STR locus were determined. The high haplotype diversity and discrimination capacity (0.996) demonstrate the utility of these loci for human identification in forensic applications. Comparative analysis with Y-STR datasets of relevant populations and submission of the haplotypes to the Y-STR Haplotype Reference Database (YHRD) was undertaken. PMID:21640679

  1. Patient satisfaction with quality of primary health care in Benghazi, Libya

    PubMed Central

    Salam, Asharaf Abdul; Alshekteria, Amina Abdulla; Abd Alhadi, Hana; Ahmed, Mariam; Mohammed, Anees

    2010-01-01

    Introduction The Libyan National Health System (LNHS) is debated for the paradox of its performance versus impact. It has poor performance, but the national health statistics are good and competitive. There are concerted efforts to manage health care services and to regain the lost trust. A primary health care (PHC) system that focuses on preventive and promotive care is the core focus of LNHS efforts. Objectives To assess patient satisfaction with quality of PHC assessed in terms of (a) customer profile, (b) patient satisfaction, and (c) health care-seeking behavior. Methodology A sample of nine health centers and seven polyclinics from various locations in Benghazi, Libya were selected for gathering information by structured face-to-face interviews. A total of 310 beneficiaries were interviewed by using an Arabic translation of the Charleston Psychiatric Outpatient Satisfaction Scale. Results The beneficiaries appear to be quite satisfied with the quality of services. Geographical zone, marital status of beneficiary, and type of facility are satisfaction-related factors. There are preferences for facilities located within the City Centre over those located elsewhere. There is also an interaction effect of the geographical zone and the type of facility in creating differences in satisfaction. Conclusions A customer-friendly facility concept that emphasizes reception, physician interaction, and cordiality shall add value. Polyclinics require more attention as does the Al Slawy area. A few utility services might also be considered. PMID:21483587

  2. Emerging cutaneous leishmaniasis in Sirte-Libya: epidemiology, recognition and management.

    PubMed

    Fathy, Fouad M; El-Kasah, Fathi; El-Ahwal, Abdulla M

    2009-12-01

    The present work aimed to determine the risk factors, lesion pattern and effective therapy of emerging ZCL in Sirte-Libya. The study was carried out on 163 patients referred to health centers of Al-Gadaheya and Al-Hisha villages in the years 2006 & 2007. Methods consisted of a predesigned questionnaire (personal and demographic data), clinical examination of lesions, and parasitological examination by slit smear, treatment and follow up. Results showed an annual incidence of 0.95%, with onset peak during autumn months. Important local risk factors included: increased occupational exposure of farmers and construction worker to infection from fat sand rat burrows, facilitated by lack of prevention knowledge and prophylactic measures; close association of bad-ventilated animal shelters to houses, and increased soil moisture by warm spring ponds. The majority of lesions were multiple (73%) located on legs, arms, and face 66.8%, 52.1% and 41.1%. Most lesions were active 1-2 month duration and 1-3 cm size, ulcerative type (77.3%), and papulo-nodular (21.5%). Giemsa slit smear proved quite reliable for active lesions, confirmed 79.5% of lesions. The majority of lesions (60.1%) were treated by intra-lesional Pentostam. Systemic route was restricted to facial, over-joint, multiple or large lesions producing, good response in 31.9%. Cryotherapy and oral Fluconazole gave satisfactory response in 5.5% & 2.5% of cases. PMID:20120753

  3. Ectoparasites infestation of free-ranging hedgehog (Etelerix algirus) in north western Libya.

    PubMed

    Hosni, M M; Maghrbi, A A El

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of ectoparasites in hedgehogs (Etelerix algirus) in north western region of Libya. Seventy hedgehogs were sampled, and 39 (55.7%) were infested with external parasites. A total of 44 ticks, 491 fleas were collected from the infested hedgehogs and four species of ectoparasites were identified, one mite (Sarcoptes scabiei), one tick (Rhipicephalus appendiculatus) and two fleas (Xenopsylla cheopis and Ctenocephalides canis). For ectoparasites, 10/39 (25.6%) were infested by S. scabiei, 8/39 (20.5%) by Rh. appendiculatus and 11/39 (28.2%) by fleas. The prevalence of mixed infestation with S. scabiei and C. canis was 3(7.7%), Rh. appendiculatus and C. canis was 2 (5.1%) and infestation by two species of fleas was 5 (12.8%). The overall mixed infestation was 10 (25.6%). We concluded that the hedgehogs may play an important role in spreading external parasites and transmission of diseases from one region to another and from wildlife animals to domestic animals and human. PMID:26623333

  4. 'A tract that is wholly sand:' engineering military environments in Libya.

    PubMed

    Heefner, Gretchen

    2016-03-01

    In the late 1940s and early 1950s engineers from the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers constructed military facilities across newly independent Libya. This article examines how the local environment - namely the Sahara - shaped how these engineers planned for and carried out their assigned tasks. Though engineers initially hoped to apply experiences from the U.S. to things such as runway construction, they quickly learned that blowing sand, high temperatures and locust invasions could stymie their efforts. Engineers had to rethink what they thought they knew about things as mundane as concrete mixtures and wind-bearing loads. In doing so they created new networks of knowledge about building in hostile environments. Indeed, though long ignored in the scholarly literature on engineering, aviation and U.S. strategic deployments, the environment is everywhere in the documentary record about postwar military construction programs. This article, like the people it considers, takes the sand seriously. In doing so it also illuminates the surprisingly intimate ways that national security meets the everyday. PMID:26847400

  5. Endogenous and nonimpact origin of the Arkenu circular structures (al-Kufrah basin—SE Libya)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cigolini, Corrado; di Martino, Mario; Laiolo, Marco; Coppola, Diego; Rossetti, Piergiorgio; Morelli, Marco

    2012-11-01

    The twin Arkenu circular structures (ACS), located in the al-Kufrah basin in southeastern Libya, were previously considered as double impact craters (the "Arkenu craters"). The ACS consist of a NE (Arkenu 1) and a SW structure (Arkenu 2), with approximate diameters of about 10 km. They are characterized by two shallow depressions surrounded by concentric circular ridges and silica-impregnated sedimentary dikes cut by local faults. Our field, petrographic, and textural observations exclude that the ACS have an impact origin. In fact, we did not observe any evidence of shock metamorphism, such as planar deformation features in the quartz grains of the collected samples, and the previously reported "shatter cones" are wind-erosion features in sandstones (ventifacts). Conversely, the ACS should be regarded as a "paired" intrusion of porphyritic stocks of syenitic composition that inject the Nubia Formation and form a rather simple and eroded ring dike complex. Stock emplacement was followed by hydrothermal activity that involved the deposition of massive magnetite-hematite horizons (typical of iron oxide copper-gold deposits). Their origin was nearly coeval with the development of silicified dikes in the surroundings. Plugs of tephritic-phonolitic rocks and lamprophyres (monchiquites) inject the Nubian sandstone along conjugate fracture zones, trending NNW-SSE and NE-SW, that crosscut the structural axis of the basin.

  6. Ectoparasites infestation of free-ranging hedgehog (Etelerix algirus) in north western Libya

    PubMed Central

    Hosni, M.M.; Maghrbi, A.A. El

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of ectoparasites in hedgehogs (Etelerix algirus) in north western region of Libya. Seventy hedgehogs were sampled, and 39 (55.7%) were infested with external parasites. A total of 44 ticks, 491 fleas were collected from the infested hedgehogs and four species of ectoparasites were identified, one mite (Sarcoptes scabiei), one tick (Rhipicephalus appendiculatus) and two fleas (Xenopsylla cheopis and Ctenocephalides canis). For ectoparasites, 10/39 (25.6%) were infested by S. scabiei, 8/39 (20.5%) by Rh. appendiculatus and 11/39 (28.2%) by fleas. The prevalence of mixed infestation with S. scabiei and C. canis was 3(7.7%), Rh. appendiculatus and C. canis was 2 (5.1%) and infestation by two species of fleas was 5 (12.8%). The overall mixed infestation was 10 (25.6%). We concluded that the hedgehogs may play an important role in spreading external parasites and transmission of diseases from one region to another and from wildlife animals to domestic animals and human. PMID:26623333

  7. Recovery process of the mineral sphalerite of Chaabet El Hamra's deposit (Algeria)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Begar, A.; Djeghlal, M.

    2012-06-01

    The present study rests on the treatment's process optimization by flotation of the Chaabet El Hamra's zinc ore (Algeria), for the optimization parameters relating to the production. The choice of parameter to optimize for flotation, and the arrangements and the scheme's initial flotation, while considering the studies already undertaken, all this has enabled us to better focus our work, while minimizing the consumption of reagents in different tests, This has resulted in successful outcomes.

  8. Molecular characterization of Echinococcus granulosus sensu stricto and Echinococcus canadensis in humans and livestock from Algeria.

    PubMed

    Zait, Houria; Kouidri, Mokhtaria; Grenouillet, Florence Elisabeth; Umhang, Gérald; Millon, Laurence; Hamrioui, Boussad; Grenouillet, Frédéric

    2016-06-01

    In Algeria, previous studies investigated genotypes of Echinococcus granulosus sensu lato in animals and identified E. granulosus sensu stricto (s.s.) genotypes G1 and G3 whereas Echinococcus canadensis genotype G6 was only reported from dromedary cysts. Molecular data on human cystic echinococcosis (CE) were limited. We implemented a large genotyping study of hydatid cysts from humans and livestock animals to specify CE's molecular epidemiology and the genetic diversity in Algeria. Fifty-four human CE cysts from patients predominantly admitted in surgical units from Mustapha Hospital, Algiers, and 16 cysts from livestock animals gathered in two geographically distinct slaughterhouses, Tiaret and Tamanrasset, were collected. Molecular characterization was performed using sequencing of two mitochondrial genes, cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) and NADH dehydrogenase subunit I (NDI). In humans, G1 of E. granulosus s.s. was the main genotype (90.7 %); four samples (7.4 %) were characterized as E. granulosus s.s. G3 and one cyst as E. canadensis G6 (1.8 %). This molecular confirmation of E. canadensis G6 human infection in Algeria was observed in a Tuareg female living in a desertic area in Tamanrasset. All cysts from sheep, cattle, and goat were identified as E. granulosus s.s. G1 and the two cysts originating from dromedary as E. canadensis G6. Twenty concatenated haplotypes (COI + NDI) were characterized. Among E. granulosus s.s., one haplotype (HL1) was highly predominant in both humans and animals cysts (71.6 %). This study revealed main occurrence of E. granulosus s.s. in humans and livestock animals, with description of a predominant shared haplotype corresponding to the main worldwide observed haplotype E.granulosus s.s. G1. E. canadensis G6 was limited to South Algeria, in dromedary as well as in human. PMID:27021186

  9. Uranium-series disequilibrium data for tooth fragments from the fossil hominid site at Ternifine, Algeria.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Szabo, B. J.

    1982-01-01

    I report here analyses of elephant molar-tooth fragments that were submitted by the late K.P.Oakley for uranium-series dating. The tooth fragments were collected by the late C. Arambourg from Pleistocene sand in association with the hominid fossils of Ternifine Man, Algeria. Of the results reported the minimum age of over 360 000 yr BP for the enamel appears to be the most reliable. -Authors

  10. Estimation of Seismic Hazard Parameters in the Northern Part of Algeria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamdache, M.; Bezzeghoud, M.; Mokrane, A.

    -In this study, the procedure of the earthquake hazard evaluation recently developed by Kijko and Sellevoll (1992) is used to estimate seismic hazard parameters in the northern part of Algeria. The new method differs from the conventional one because it incorporates the uncertainty of earthquake magnitude, and accepts mixed data containing large historical events and recent complete catalogue. The importance of the method lies in its ability to estimate from incomplete and uncertain data files the parameter b of the Gutenberg-Richter relationship, the annual activity rate λ of event and the maximum possible magnitude mmax . In this method, the earthquake process is considered to be of the Poisson type with an annual activity rate λ, and with a doubly truncated exponential distribution of earthquake magnitude with parameter β.The northern part of Algeria is subdivided into three zones. For each zone, estimation of b-value, the annual activity rate λ and the expected maximum magnitude are obtained. The mean return period and the probability of non-exceedence of some magnitude during a time period T = 50 and 100 years are computed.The results obtained in this study using this methodology, give a prior picture of seismic hazard in the northern part of Algeria. In some regions (Mitidja and Chelif basins) these results corroborate not only with the observation, but also with seismotectonic results.

  11. Technico-economic assessment of hybrid diesel-photovoltaic power plant in the south of Algeria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kadri, A. Y.; Hamidat, A.

    2016-07-01

    In Algeria, Electrical energy demand has knew a significant growth in recent years. The important increase in demand is due to the development of industrial and commercial sectors, and the comfort of residents customers by using multiple equipment of household such as the TV, ventilator, especially air-conditioners in the south of Algeria. To address the problem of imbalance between supply and demand, it is compulsory to add other units of productions of electricity. These units can be use conventional sources or renewable energy sources. This study focuses on the feasibility of hybridizing diesel power plants supplying the isolated villages in southern Algeria by the introduction of PV systems. The town of Djanet was taken as a case study. The comparison between the different technical and economic parameters allows determining the contribution of the hybridization of conventional resources of production. However, the cost-effectiveness based on the net present cost (NPC) is estimated at 176, 054.208 for the hybrid system and 194, 965.280 for all Diesel system. In terms of the cost per kWh produced by the two systems, the kWh produced by the hybrid system is less expensive than the kWh produced by any conventional diesel system is 0.551 / kWh against 0.610 / kWh. The results also show that the hybrid system provides coverage of the expected load in the future.

  12. Emergence of Carbapenemase-Producing Escherichia coli Isolated from Companion Animals in Algeria.

    PubMed

    Yousfi, Massilia; Touati, Abdelaziz; Mairi, Assia; Brasme, Lucien; Gharout-Sait, Alima; Guillard, Thomas; De Champs, Christophe

    2016-06-01

    The emergence and worldwide spread of carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae is of great concern to public health. The aim of this study was to investigate the occurrence of carbapenemase-producing Escherichia coli in companion animals in Algeria. Two hundred fecal samples were obtained from healthy and diseased dogs and cats in one veterinary office and private owners in Bejaia city, Algeria, during November 2014 to March 2015. Isolates were screened by polymerase chain reaction for the presence of carbapenemase, acquired plasmidic AmpC (pAmpC) and extended-spectrum beta-lactamase genes. Five carbapenemase-producing E. coli isolates were detected including four OXA-48-producing isolates and one isolate producing NDM-5. Coexpression of ESBL and pAmpC genes was observed in these isolates. Phylogenetic grouping revealed that these isolates belonged to A and D phylogroups. The results of this study show that carbapenemase-producing E. coli spread to the companion animals in Algeria. PMID:26741510

  13. The Sergent brothers and the antimalarial campaigns in Algeria (1902-1948).

    PubMed

    Dedet, J-P

    2008-12-01

    Edmond and Etienne Sergent, "the Sergent brothers", were both born in Algeria. They both studied medicine at the Algiers Medical School and then followed the Course of Microbiology of Emile Roux at the Institut Pasteur in Paris (1899-1900). From 1900, they were put in charge of a permanent mission aimed at antimalarial control in Algeria, which was supervised by the Institut Pasteur. The first campaign was carried out during the summer of 1902 at a station of the East Algerian Railway Company. The success of this mission lead to the creation of the Antimalaric Department of Algeria in 1904, which was directed by Etienne Sergent for the duration his life. This antimalarial programme was progressively extended to many other locations. The programme was optimized between 1927 and 1947, in the experimental field study of the Ouled Mendil Marsh, where global environmental measures and drainage lead to settlement of farms, the families of which did not suffered from malaria. At a time when neither insecticides nor synthetic antimalarial drug existed, antimalarial control measures that were developed tended to target human reservoirs and the mosquito vectors. The extension of the programme across the Algerian territory lead to a decrease of both malaria endemicity and extension of affected areas. PMID:20055231

  14. 78 FR 45285 - Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition Determinations: “Egypt's Mysterious Book...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-26

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF STATE Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition Determinations: ``Egypt's Mysterious Book of the..., 2003), I hereby determine that the objects to be included in the exhibition ``Egypt's Mysterious...

  15. Calibration and validation of earthquake catastrophe models. Case study: Impact Forecasting Earthquake Model for Algeria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trendafiloski, G.; Gaspa Rebull, O.; Ewing, C.; Podlaha, A.; Magee, B.

    2012-04-01

    Calibration and validation are crucial steps in the production of the catastrophe models for the insurance industry in order to assure the model's reliability and to quantify its uncertainty. Calibration is needed in all components of model development including hazard and vulnerability. Validation is required to ensure that the losses calculated by the model match those observed in past events and which could happen in future. Impact Forecasting, the catastrophe modelling development centre of excellence within Aon Benfield, has recently launched its earthquake model for Algeria as a part of the earthquake model for the Maghreb region. The earthquake model went through a detailed calibration process including: (1) the seismic intensity attenuation model by use of macroseismic observations and maps from past earthquakes in Algeria; (2) calculation of the country-specific vulnerability modifiers by use of past damage observations in the country. The use of Benouar, 1994 ground motion prediction relationship was proven as the most appropriate for our model. Calculation of the regional vulnerability modifiers for the country led to 10% to 40% larger vulnerability indexes for different building types compared to average European indexes. The country specific damage models also included aggregate damage models for residential, commercial and industrial properties considering the description of the buildings stock given by World Housing Encyclopaedia and the local rebuilding cost factors equal to 10% for damage grade 1, 20% for damage grade 2, 35% for damage grade 3, 75% for damage grade 4 and 100% for damage grade 5. The damage grades comply with the European Macroseismic Scale (EMS-1998). The model was validated by use of "as-if" historical scenario simulations of three past earthquake events in Algeria M6.8 2003 Boumerdes, M7.3 1980 El-Asnam and M7.3 1856 Djidjelli earthquake. The calculated return periods of the losses for client market portfolio align with the

  16. Geology of Libya Montes and the Interbasin Plains of Northern Tyrrhena Terra, Mars: Project Introduction and First Year Work Plan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Skiner, J. A., Jr.; Rogers, A. D.; Seelos, K. D.

    2009-01-01

    The highland-lowland boundary (HLB) of Mars is interpreted to be a complex tectonic and erosional transition that may hold evidence for past geologic processes and environments. The HLB-abutting margin of the Libya Montes and the interbasin plains of northern Tyrrhena Terra display an exceptional view of the earliest to middle history of Mars that has yet to be fully characterized. This region contains some of the oldest exposed materials on the Martian surface as well as aqueous mineral signatures that may be potential chemical artifacts of early highland formational processes. However, a full understanding of the regions geologic and stratigraphic evolution is remarkably lacking. Some outstanding questions regarding the geologic evolution of Libya Montes and northern Tyrrhena Terra in-clude: Does combining geomorphology and composition advance our understanding of the region s evolution? Can highland materials be subdivided into stratigraphically discrete rock and sediment sequences? What do major physiographic transitions imply about the balanced tectonism, climate change, and erosion? Where is the erosional origin and what is the post-depositional history of channel and plains units? When and in what types of environments did aqueous mineral signatures arise? This abstract introduces the geologic setting, science rationale, and first year work plan of a recently-funded 4-year geologic mapping proposal (project year = calendar year). The objective is to delineate the geologic evolution of Libya Montes and northern Tyrrhena Terra at 1:1M scale using both classical geomorphological and compositional mapping techniques. The funded quadrangles are MTMs 00282, -05282, -10282, 00277, -05277, and -10277.

  17. A new structural interpretation relating NW Libya to the Hun Graben, western Sirt Basin based on a new paleostress inversion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdunaser, K. M.; McCaffrey, K. J. W.

    2015-12-01

    The present study is based on fault-slip data (striated fault planes with known sense of slip) measured in outcrops in two structural domains located along the Hun Graben, western Sirt Basin (150 fault-slip data) and the Jifarah Basin and Nafusah Uplift, northwest Libya (200 fault-slip data). Pre-existing field data collected in two previous studies were reprocessed using standard inversion methods in MyFaultTM(v. 1.03) stereonet software, produced by Pangaea Scientific Ltd.

  18. New investigation on the choice of the tailored geopotential model for Algeria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daho, S. A. Benahmed; Fairhead, J. D.; Zeggai, A.; Ghezali, B.; Derkaoui, A.; Gourine, B.; Khelifa, S.

    2008-03-01

    The choice of the best geopotential model to reduce geodetic data is one of the critical steps in computing the geoid. Several studies have shown that the geopotential models tailored to regional or local gravity data are best suited for high precision geoid computations. Since 2000 a number of geoid models for Algeria have been produced by Geodetic Laboratory of the National Centre of Space Techniques. In particular 5' × 5' geoid models were generated in 2000, [ Benahmed Daho, S. A., 2000. The new gravimetric geoid in Algeria. IGeS Bulletin No. 10 of the International Geoid Service (IGeS). ISSN 1128-3955. pp. 78-84.] and in 2004 [ Benahmed Daho, S.A., Fairhead, J.D., 2004. A new quasigeoid computation from gravity and GPS data in Algeria. Newton's Bulletin No. 2. A Joint Bulletin of the Bureau Gravimétrique International and of the International Geoid Service. ISSN 1810-8547. pp. 52-59.] using different data sets and techniques. Although these results were satisfactory and internally consistent they do no have the required accuracy to be able to transform a GPS ellipsoidal height to an orthometric height. During the same time and with the recent satellite missions CHAMP and GRACE several new global gravity models were released. These lead to substantial improvements of our knowledge of the long-wavelength part of the Earth's gravity field, and thereby of the long-wavelengths of the geoid. For the computation of a new gravimetric geoid model for Algeria we need a new investigation on the choice of the best and optimal geopotential model for the combined solution with local gravimetric and topographic data using the remove-restore technique. In this paper, an analysis was carried out to define the geopotential model, which fits best the local gravity field in Algeria. Six global geopotential models are used in this study: The new GRACE satellite-only and combined models EIGEN-GRACE02S and GGM02C, combined CHAMP and GRACE model EIGEN-CG01C, combined CHAMP and

  19. Fulbright-Hays Summer Seminars Abroad Program 1989. Egypt: Transition to the Modern World.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Office of International Education (ED), Washington, DC.

    This document consists of four papers on various aspects of development in Egypt prepared by participants in the Fulbright-Hays Seminars Abroad Program in Egypt in 1989. Four of the papers are descriptive, one is a lesson plan. The papers included are: (1) "Egypt: Transition to Modern Times" (Katherine Jensen) focuses on the role of women in…

  20. Views of Ancient Egypt. Teacher's Guide. School Arts: Looking/Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Downs, Linda; Brenner, Carla

    This teaching guide discusses ancient Egyptian culture, the lithographs made by Napoleon's scientists in 1798-99 to study and record every aspect of Egypt, the world's subsequent fascination with Egypt, ancient Egyptian architecture, Egyptian writing, and archeologists' illustrations of Egypt. The guide suggests activities for elementary school,…

  1. Opportunities for woody crop production using treated wastewater in Egypt, I. Afforestation strategies.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Nile River provides nearly 97% of Egypt's freshwater supply. Egypt's share of Nile waters is allocated according to international treaty obligations and is fixed at 55.5 billion cubic meters annually. As a result, Egypt will not be able to meet increasing water demand using freshwater from the ...

  2. A review on fascioliasis in Egypt.

    PubMed

    Haseeb, Ahmad N; el-Shazly, Atef M; Arafa, Magdy A S; Morsy, Ayman T A

    2002-04-01

    Fascioliasis, caused by Fasciola species, is a disease of herbivorous animals. It has a worldwide distribution in a large variety of grass-grazing animals as sheep, goats, cattle, buffaloes, horses and rabbits. In Egypt, donkeys and camels as well, are hosts for F. gigantica. Fascioliasis may occasionally affect man. Human infection causes serious hepatic pathological sequences that add to the already known threats to the liver of the Egyptian population. Two clinical stages are recognized in human fascioliasis. An acute stage coincides with the larval migration and worm maturation in the hepatic tissue, and a chronic stage coincides with the persistence of Fasciola worms in the bile ducts. Human infection with fascioliasis was very sporadic until the last three decades where clinical cases and outbreaks were reported. The estimated the number of people currently having fascioliasis to be 360,000 in Bolivia, 20,000 in Ecuador, 830,000 in Egypt, 10,000 in Islamic Republic of Iran, 742,000 in Peru, and 37,000 in Yemen. The total estimated number of people infected is 2.4 million in 61 countries and that the number at risk is more than 180 million throughout the world. Human fascioliasis has to be differentially diagnosed from some diseases as acute hepatitis, infection with other liver flukes as schistosomiasis, visceral toxocariasis, biliary tract diseases and hepatic amoebiasis. The parasitological diagnosis is based on identification of eggs in stool, duodenal contents or bile, also by the recovery of adult worm during surgical exploration, after treatment or at autopsy. However, the eggs may be present in very small number at irregular intervals, hence difficult to be found. Besides, the eggs may be transiently present in stool after ingestion of raw or undercooked liver from infected animals. The direct methods of diagnosing the egg are usually unsatisfactory. The symptoms may be present for several weeks before eggs are recovered in stool. Thus, the serologic

  3. Onshore and offshore basins of northeast Libya: Their origin and hydrocarbon potential

    SciTech Connect

    Shegewi, O.M.

    1992-01-01

    A comprehensive data base of more than 3000 km of seismic lines, gravity and magnetic data, more than 30 subsurface well logs, and surface geology data were utilized to examine and interpret the sedimentary and tectonic history of the onshore and offshore parts of Northeast Libya and their hydrocarbon potential. The Dernah-Tobruk and Benghazi offshore basins form the northern parts of the study area. The Cyrenaica Stable Platform represents the southern parts. The Sirual Trough stretches E-W and opens into the Antelat Trough in the west. Between these elements is the uplifted areas of the Al Jabal Al Akhdar. Six principal tectonic phases were responsible for the formation and development of these structural elements: the pre-Mesozoic phase, the Triassic-Jurassic rifting phase, the Neocomian and the Aptian-Albian renewed rifting phases, the Late Cretaceous-Paleocene uplifting phase; and the Eocene-Middle Oligocene rifting phase. Oceanic crust of probable Aptian-Albian age is evident on the seismic lines north of the master fault marking the southern boundary of the rift separating the north African plate and Apulia. The western boundary of the Dernah High displayed clearly NE-SW strike-slip movement of these trajectories. Oceanic crust is also present west of the Dernah High. Positive gravity and magnetic anomalies traverse parallel to the boundary of this oceanic plate Mesogea. The prerequisites for commercial hydrocarbon production are present in abundance. Reservoirs ranging in age from Paleozoic clastics in the Cyrenaica Stable Platform to Mesozoic and Tertiary carbonates throughout the rest of the region. Several deep sites for the generation of hydrocarbons were also present, including the rifted northern parts of the Dernah-Tobruk basin, the Antelat Trough and the Cyrenaica Passive Margin. The Cretaceous and Tertiary section in the study area contain several potential seal rocks. Several potential trap types are also present.

  4. Petrogenesis of Cenozoic volcanic rocks in the NW sector of the Gharyan volcanic field, Libya

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lustrino, Michele; Cucciniello, Ciro; Melluso, Leone; Tassinari, Colombo C. G.; dè Gennaro, Roberto; Serracino, Marcello

    2012-12-01

    The north-western sector of the Gharyan volcanic field (northern Libya) consists of trachytic-phonolitic domes emplaced between ~ 41 and 38 Ma, and small-volume mafic alkaline volcanic centres (basanites, tephrites, alkali basalts, hawaiites and rare benmoreites) of Middle Miocene-Pliocene age (~ 12-2 Ma). Two types of trachytes and phonolites have been recognized on the basis of petrography, mineralogy and geochemistry. Type-1 trachytes and phonolites display a smooth spoon-shaped REE pattern without negative Europium anomalies. Type-2 trachytes and phonolites show a remarkable Eu negative anomaly, higher concentration in HFSE (Nbsbnd Tasbnd Zrsbnd Hf), REE and Ti than Type-1 rocks. The origin of Type-1 trachytes and phonolites is compatible with removal of clinopyroxene, plagioclase, alkali feldspar, amphibole, magnetite and titanite starting from benmoreitic magmas, found in the same outcrops. Type-2 trachytes and phonolites could be the result of extensive fractional crystallization starting from mafic alkaline magma, without removal of titanite. In primitive mantle-normalized diagrams, the mafic rocks (Mg# = 62-68, Cr up to 514 ppm, Ni up to 425 ppm) show peaks at Nb and Ta and troughs at K. These characteristics, coupled with low 87Sr/86Sr(i) (0.7033-0.7038) and positive ɛNd (from + 4.2 to + 5.3) features typical of the mafic anorogenic magmas of the northern African plate and of HIMU-OIB-like magma in general. The origin of the mafic rocks is compatible from a derivation from low degree partial melting (3-9%) shallow mantle sources in the spinel/garnet facies, placed just below the rigid plate in the uppermost low-velocity zone. The origin of the igneous activity is considered linked to passive lithospheric thinning related to the development of continental rifts like those of Sicily Channel (e.g., Pantelleria and Linosa) and Sardinia (e.g., Campidano Graben) in the Central-Western Mediterranean Sea.

  5. Assessment of Ultracamd Performance in AN Arid Environment - Case Study in Libya

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gneeniss, A. S.; Mills, J. P.; Miller, P. E.

    2011-09-01

    Large format digital aerial cameras are now in widespread commercial operation. Despite the advantages of the new cameras over their traditional film counterparts, systematic image errors have been observed in all existing large format digital cameras. Organizations such as the USGS and EuroSDR have therefore focused efforts on calibration, validation and certification of digital camera systems. However, to-date, few studies have assessed the effects of extreme temperature and humidity variations on these camera systems, and the potential for self-calibration in this respect. This research addresses these issues through investigation of the UltraCamD, with test data acquired over a range of climatic zones in Libya. This presentation will report the preliminary results of self-calibration using a bundle block adjustment for an UltraCamD system, based upon aerial data acquired for two test sites during a single field campaign. The datasets were flown at two different flying heights and incorporate differing block geometries. A SOCET SET (v5.4.1) digital photogrammetric workstation was used to triangulate the imagery with investigation of different tie point densities. Following this, a self-calibrating bundle block adjustment was performed using the BLUH software provided by the University of Hannover. Initial testing investigated the influence of tie point density and different coordinate systems and datums on the bundle adjustment results. Further testing was then performed within BLUH in order to determine the optimal set of additional parameters, compensating for systematic image errors and impact upon object space coordinates of independent check points and ground control points.

  6. Cenomanian-Turonian biostratigraphy of the Jardas Al Abid area, Al Jabal Al Akhdar, northeast Libya

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El Qot, Gamal M.; Abdulsamad, Esam O.

    2016-09-01

    The Upper Cenomanian-Turonian succession exposed at Jardas al'Abid area consists mainly of carbonates with siliciclastic intercalations. This succession is subdivided lithostratigraphically into: Qasr al'Abid (Late Cenomanian) and Al Baniyah (Late Cenomanian-Coniacian) formations. This sequence is relatively rich in macrofossil assemblages especially bivalves, gastropods, and echinoids with rare ammonites. Based on the first occurrence (FO) and last occurrence (LO) of some index species of these macrofossil groups, an integrated biostratigraphic framework has been constructed. The studied Cenomanian-Turonian sequence is subdivided biostratigraphically into three ammonite biozones; Pseudaspidoceras pseudonodosoides Total Range Zone, Choffaticeras segne Total Range Zone, and Coilopoceras requienianum Total Range Zone. Based on the rest of macrofossil assemblages other than the ammonites, eight biozones were recognized; Mecaster batnensis Total Range Zone, Ceratostreon flabellatum-Neithea dutrugei Acme Zone, Costagyra olisiponensis Acme Zone, Pycnodonte (Phygraea) vesicularis vesiculosa Acme Zone, Mytiloides labiatus Total Range Zone = Mecaster turonensis Acme Zone, Rachiosoma rectilineatum-Curvostrea rouvillei-Tylostoma (T.) globosum Assemblage Zone, Radiolites sp.-Apricardia? matheroni Total Range Zone, and Nerinea requieniana Total Range Zone. Most of the proposed biozones are recorded for the first time from Libya. The integration among these biozones as well as local and inter-regional correlation of the biozones have been discussed. The stage boundaries of the studied stratigraphic intervals are discussed, where the Cenomanian/Turonian boundary is delineated at the last occurrence (LO) of Pseudaspidoceras pseudonodosoides (Choffat), while the Turonian/Coniacian boundary is delineated arbitrary being agree with the LO of the Turonian fauna.

  7. Solar energy distribution over Egypt using cloudiness from Meteosat photos

    SciTech Connect

    Mosalam Shaltout, M.A.; Hassen, A.H. )

    1990-01-01

    In Egypt, there are 10 ground stations for measuring the global solar radiation, and five stations for measuring the diffuse solar radiation. Every day at noon, the Meteorological Authority in Cairo receives three photographs of cloudiness over Egypt from the Meteosat satellite, one in the visible, and two in the infra-red bands (10.5-12.5 {mu}m) and (5.7-7.1 {mu}m). The monthly average cloudiness for 24 sites over Egypt are measured and calculated from Meteosat observations during the period 1985-1986. Correlation analysis between the cloudiness observed by Meteosat and global solar radiation measured from the ground stations is carried out. It is found that, the correlation coefficients are about 0.90 for the simple linear regression, and increase for the second and third degree regressions. Also, the correlation coefficients for the cloudiness with the diffuse solar radiation are about 0.80 for the simple linear regression, and increase for the second and third degree regression. Models and empirical relations for estimating the global and diffuse solar radiation from Meteosat cloudiness data over Egypt are deduced and tested. Seasonal maps for the global and diffuse radiation over Egypt are carried out.

  8. Africa planned gas lines will meet future demand

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-11-01

    The burgeoning European market for natural gas is expected to create major gas line construction. The potential for North Africa looks particularly promising in 1991. Italy's ENI has proposed a 6,000-km (3,728-mi) gas network in North Africa to connect gas-rich Libya and Algeria with Morocco and Mauritania, making large volumes available to the European market. According to the proposal, a gas line would run from the Sirte Basin in Libya west to Mauritania. Extending the line eastward through Egypt and on to the Arabian Peninsula would provide export access. In this paper initial studies are examine reserve projections for the next 20 years, then based on results, a transmission/distribution network will be designed, including an offshore gathering system.

  9. Petroleum potential of Western Desert of Egypt

    SciTech Connect

    Wood, D.S.

    1984-09-01

    The Western Desert of Egypt, despite many discouragements, has major potential as a petroleum province. Approximately 150 exploratory wells have discovered nine commercial oil and gas fields, with flows of oil or gas recorded from an additional 21 wells. All discoveries have been in marine inner shelf sandstones and carbonates that range from Aptian to Turonian in age. Potential reservoir rocks are known in Paleozoic to Tertiary sedimentary rocks. Mature source rocks have been recognized in the Devonian and in Jurassic to Upper Cretaceous strata. Despite these favorable factors, in-place reserves of only 800 million bbl of oil and condensate, and up to 1185 bcf of natural gas have been found. Almost all exploration has been limited to the drilling of relatively small onshore structures and no giant fields have been found. New investigations utilizing a broad regional tectonic framework provide a means both of recognizing the more prospective provinces of the Western Desert and for understanding the structural evolution in terms of the timing of growth folding and growth faulting. Particular attention should be given to testing the lower part of the Cretaceous and Jurassic. The Paleozoic section also warrants further attention as demonstrated by a review of drilling results and by indications from gravity data. The new investigations indicate a considerable potential within the Western Desert for discovery of small to moderate-size accumulations of oil and gas. More exploration should test these features, which although high-risk leads, may contain giant fields.

  10. Limitations of navigation through Nubaria canal, Egypt

    PubMed Central

    Samuel, Magdy G.

    2013-01-01

    Alexandria port is the main Egyptian port at the Mediterranean Sea. It is connected to the Nile River through Nubaria canal, which is a main irrigation canal. The canal was designed to irrigate eight hundred thousand acres of agricultural lands, along its course which extends 100 km. The canal has three barrages and four locks to control the flow and allow light navigation by some small barges. Recently, it was decided to improve the locks located on the canal. More than 40 million US$ was invested in these projects. This decision was taken to allow larger barges and increase the transported capacity through the canal. On the other hand, navigation through canals and restricted shallow waterways is affected by several parameters related to both the channel and the vessel. Navigation lane width as well as vessel speed and maneuverability are affected by both the channel and vessel dimensions. Moreover, vessel dimensions and speed will affect the canal stability. In Egypt, there are no guide rules for navigation through narrow and shallow canals such Nubaria. This situation threatens the canal stability and safety of navigation through it. This paper discussed the characteristics of Nubaria canal and the guide rules for navigation in shallow restricted water ways. Dimensions limitation for barges navigating through Nubaria canal is presented. New safe operation rules for navigation in Nubaria canal are also presented. Moreover, the implication of navigation through locks on canal discharge is estimated. PMID:25685482

  11. A review of cryptosporidiosis in Egypt.

    PubMed

    Youssef, Fouad G; Adib, Ibrahim; Riddle, Mark S; Schlett, Carey D

    2008-04-01

    Cryptosporidiosis, a parasitic zoonosis, while typically a short-term infection, has a global distribution and can cause severe illness in children and other vulnerable populations. In order to inform local and regional public health personnel and providers, the authors conducted a comprehensive review of Cryptosporidium parvum (Cp) epidemiology in Egypt to establish what is known, identify critical knowledge gaps, and develop a basis for future directions in mitigating the burden associated with this illness among Egyptians and similar countries. A total of 61 published studies between 1985 & 2006 were reviewed. Nineteen studies examined immunocompetent individuals with diarrhea presenting to inpatient or outpatient clinics with a Cp prevalence ranging from 0% - 47% (median 9%, IQR 3-15%). Identified risk factors, at risk populations, ecology, environmental findings, as well as a quality assessment of the published literature are discussed. The building blocks are in place to design studies aimed at defining the disease, societal burden and evaluating public health interventions aimed at disrupting water and zoonotic transmission modalities using the most current molecular techniques. Cp diarrhea is but one of the many causes of diarrhea among Egyptians, but efforts to control this disease should also serve well to mitigate a number of infectious causes of diarrhea and given the track record of previous work hopping to see advances in the near future. PMID:19143117

  12. Probabilistic earthquake hazard analysis for Cairo, Egypt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Badawy, Ahmed; Korrat, Ibrahim; El-Hadidy, Mahmoud; Gaber, Hanan

    2016-04-01

    Cairo is the capital of Egypt and the largest city in the Arab world and Africa, and the sixteenth largest metropolitan area in the world. It was founded in the tenth century (969 ad) and is 1046 years old. It has long been a center of the region's political and cultural life. Therefore, the earthquake risk assessment for Cairo has a great importance. The present work aims to analysis the earthquake hazard of Cairo as a key input's element for the risk assessment. The regional seismotectonics setting shows that Cairo could be affected by both far- and near-field seismic sources. The seismic hazard of Cairo has been estimated using the probabilistic seismic hazard approach. The logic tree frame work was used during the calculations. Epistemic uncertainties were considered into account by using alternative seismotectonics models and alternative ground motion prediction equations. Seismic hazard values have been estimated within a grid of 0.1° × 0.1 ° spacing for all of Cairo's districts at different spectral periods and four return periods (224, 615, 1230, and 4745 years). Moreover, the uniform hazard spectra have been calculated at the same return periods. The pattern of the contour maps show that the highest values of the peak ground acceleration is concentrated in the eastern zone's districts (e.g., El Nozha) and the lowest values at the northern and western zone's districts (e.g., El Sharabiya and El Khalifa).

  13. Byssinosis in the Cotton Industry of Egypt

    PubMed Central

    Batawi, Mostafa A. El

    1962-01-01

    An epidemiological investigation in 11 ginneries representing the ginning industry in Egypt demonstrated the existence of byssinosis among 38·4% of the workers. Studies of two pressing plants and two card-rooms in Alexandria showed a prevalence of byssinosis of 52·6% and 26·6% respectively. The ages of those exposed and the duration of exposure were considered in relation to the prevalence of byssinosis, and it appears that a short duration of exposure in ginning may result in early manifestations of byssinosis at a relatively young age. The interruption of exposure due to seasonal activity in ginning and partially in pressing resulted in a higher proportion of workers with the early stages of the disease. This contrasted with results in carding where exposure is continuous, and a higher proportion of workers have later stages of the disease. This suggests a delay in the progress of the disease due to periodic interruption of exposure. The comparison between the prevalence of byssinosis and that of chronic bronchitis has shown that these diseases are not necessarily associated, although additional stress due to dust exposure in chronic bronchitis is not denied. PMID:13875361

  14. Seismic hazard assessments at Islamic Cairo, Egypt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khalil, A. E.; Deif, A.; Abdel Hafiez, H. E.

    2015-12-01

    Islamic Cairo is one of the important Islamic monumental complexes in Egypt, near the center of present-day metropolitan Cairo. The age of these buildings is up to one thousand years. Unfortunately, many of the buildings are suffering from huge mishandling that may lead to mass damage. Many buildings and masjids were partially and totally collapsed because of 12th October 1992 Cairo earthquake that took place at some 25 km from the study area with a magnitude Mw = 5.8. Henceforth, potential damage assessments there are compulsory. The deterministic and probabilistic techniques were used to predict the expected future large earthquakes' strong-motion characteristics in the study area. The current study started with compiling the available studies concerned with the distribution of the seismogenic sources and earthquake catalogs. The deterministic method is used to provide a description of the largest earthquake effect on the area of interest, while the probabilistic method, on the other hand, is used to define the uniform hazard curves at three time periods 475, 950, 2475 years. Both deterministic and probabilistic results were obtained for bedrock conditions and the resulted hazard levels were deaggregated to identify the contribution of each seismic source to the total hazard. Moreover, the results obtained show that the expected seismic activities combined with the present situation of the buildings pose high alert to rescue both the cultural heritage and expected human losses.

  15. Roman literary and epigraphic sources for the study of historical seismicity in Algeria circa 42-420 ad

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferdi, Sabah; Harbi, Assia

    2014-04-01

    The seismicity of Algeria since the nineteenth century is relatively well documented. However, compared with the numerous damaging earthquakes that are documented since 1850, fewer than a dozen reports of earthquakes are listed for the pre-1850 ad period, suggesting that the historical record is missing a substantial number of earthquakes. This paper examines the use of literary and epigraphic sources relevant to the investigation of seismicity in Algeria during Roman times. We provide examples where the meager written literary record may be supplemented with appropriate archaeological and epigraphic data describing damage to ancient Roman sites. The examples show that collaboration between earth scientists and archeologists is of utility in improving the seismic record and highlights the need for further study of data sources and repositories located both inside and outside of Algeria.

  16. No rheumatoid arthritis in ancient Egypt: a reappraisal.

    PubMed

    Kwiecinski, Jakub; Rothschild, Bruce M

    2016-06-01

    Antiquity of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) remains controversial, and its origins in Americas or in the Old World are disputed. Proponents of the latter frequently refer to RA in ancient Egypt, but validity of those claims has never been examined. Review of all reported RA cases from ancient Egypt revealed that none of them represent real RA, instead being either examples of changing naming conventions or of imprecise diagnostic criteria. Most cases represented osteoarthritis or spondyloarthropathies. Also review of preserved ancient Egyptian medical writings revealed many descriptions of musculoskeletal disorders, but none of them resembled RA. This suggests that RA was absent in ancient Egypt and supports the hypothesis of the New World origin of RA and its subsequent global spread in the last several centuries. PMID:26650735

  17. Modeling the Spatial Spread of Rift Valley Fever in Egypt

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Daozhou; Cosner, Chris; Cantrell, Robert Stephen; Beier, John C.; Ruan, Shigui

    2013-01-01

    Rift Valley fever (RVF) is a severe viral zoonosis in Africa and the Middle East that harms both human health and livestock production. It is believed that RVF in Egypt has been repeatedly introduced by the importation of infected animals from Sudan. In this paper, we propose a three-patch model for the process by which animals enter Egypt from Sudan, are moved up the Nile, and then consumed at population centers. The basic reproduction number for each patch is introduced and then the threshold dynamics of the model are established. We simulate an interesting scenario showing a possible explanation of the observed phenomenon of the geographic spread of RVF in Egypt. PMID:23377629

  18. Political challenges to biomedical universalism: kidney failure among Egypt's poor.

    PubMed

    Hamdy, Sherine F

    2013-01-01

    Why do patients in need of kidney transplants in Egypt decline offers of kidney donation from their family members out of reluctance to cause them harm? Is it not universally the case that a living donor could live in complete health with a single remaining kidney? To address this conundrum, I discuss a case study from Egypt, in which patients reveal social, political, and environmental stresses on organ function that challenge the presumed universal efficacy and safety of kidney transplantation. I demonstrate that the biomedical position on the tolerable risks posed to the living donor is conditional and premised on particular social and historical contingencies that can be misaligned when applied in other contexts. Drawing on the work of Margaret Lock, I illustrate how analytical contributions of medical anthropologists can shed light on a political and public health impasse about how to legally regulate organ transplantation in Egypt. PMID:23768221

  19. Is There a Need for a Focused Health Care Service for Children with Autistic Spectrum Disorders? A Keyhole Look at This Problem in Tripoli, Libya

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zeglam, Adel M.; Maouna, Ameena

    2012-01-01

    Background: Autism is a global disorder, but relatively little is known about its presentation and occurrence in many developing countries, including Libya. Aims: 1.) To estimate the prevalence of autistic spectrum disorders in children referred to Al-Khadra hospital (KH). 2.) To increase the awareness among pediatrician and primary health care…

  20. The Regional Environmental Impacts of Atmospheric Aerosols over Egypt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zakey, Ashraf; Ibrahim, Alaa

    2015-04-01

    Identifying the origin (natural versus anthropogenic) and the dynamics of aerosols over Egypt at varying temporal and spatial scales provide valuable knowledge on the regional climate impacts of aerosols and their ultimate connections to the Earth's regional climate system at the MENA region. At regional scale, Egypt is exposed to air pollution with levels exceeding typical air-quality standards. This is particularly true for the Nile Delta region, being at the crossroads of different aerosol species originating from local urban-industrial and biomass-burning activities, regional dust sources, and European pollution from the north. The Environmental Climate Model (EnvClimA) is used to investigate both of the biogenic and anthropogenic aerosols over Egypt. The dominant natural aerosols over Egypt are due to the sand and dust storms, which frequently occur during the transitional seasons (spring and autumn). In winter, the maximum frequency reaches 2 to 3 per day in the north, which decreases gradually southward with a frequency of 0.5-1 per day. Monitoring one of the most basic aerosol parameters, the aerosol optical depth (AOD), is a main experimental and modeling task in aerosol studies. We used the aerosol optical depth to quantify the amount and variability of aerosol loading in the atmospheric column over a certain areas. The aerosols optical depth from the model is higher in spring season due to the impacts of dust activity over Egypt as results of the westerly wind, which carries more dust particles from the Libyan Desert. The model result shows that the mass load of fine aerosols has a longer life-time than the coarse aerosols. In autumn season, the modelled aerosol optical depth tends to increase due to the biomass burning in the delta of Egypt. Natural aerosol from the model tends to scatter the solar radiation while most of the anthropogenic aerosols tend to absorb the longwave solar radiation. The overall results indicate that the AOD is lowest in winter

  1. Post-Revolution Egypt: The Roy Adaptation Model in Community.

    PubMed

    Buckner, Britton S; Buckner, Ellen B

    2015-10-01

    The 2011 Arab Spring swept across the Middle East creating profound instability in Egypt, a country already challenged with poverty and internal pressures. To respond to this crisis, Catholic Relief Services led a community-based program called "Egypt Works" that included community improvement projects and psychosocial support. Following implementation, program outcomes were analyzed using the middle-range theory of adaptation to situational life events, based on the Roy adaptation model. The comprehensive, community-based approach facilitated adaptation, serving as a model for applying theory in post-crisis environments. PMID:26396214

  2. Behavior of the Sq Diurnal Magnetic Variation over Egypt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghamry, E.; Mahrous, A.; El-Hawary, R.; Yumoto, K.

    2011-12-01

    The diurnal variation of the solar quiet (Sq) in the geomagnetic north-south component (H) and geomagnetic eastwest component (D), along the Magnetic Data Acquisition System (MAGDAS) stations in Egypt during year 2009 have been studied. MAGDAS was successfully installed at two stations in Egypt Fayum (FYM) and Aswan (ASW). Several forms of Abnormal Quiet Days (AQDs) have been found in both of Sq (H) and Sq (D). These AQDs of Sq (H) are expected to be related to counter or reversed electrojet while AQDs of Sq (D) is presumably due to the currents of the (2, 3) mode.

  3. Hepatitis C virus genotypes in north eastern Algeria: A retrospective study

    PubMed Central

    Rouabhia, Samir; Sadelaoud, Mourad; Chaabna-Mokrane, Karima; Toumi, Wided; Abenavoli, Ludovico

    2013-01-01

    AIM: To determine the frequency of various hepatitis C virus (HCV) genotypes present in patients from north eastern Algeria. METHODS: This is a retrospective cross-sectional study of 435 HCV infected patients from northeast Algeria, detected in the Sadelaoud laboratory and diagnosed between January 2010 and December 2012. The patients were diagnosed with HCV infection in their local hospitals and referred to be assessed for HCV genotype before the antiviral treatment. Demographic information (sex, age and address), genotype, subtype and viral load were retrieved from the patient medical records. The serum samples were tested by the type-specific genotyping assay. RESULTS: The majority of the patients (82.5%) were from the central part of the examined region (P = 0.002). The mean age of the patients studied was 53.6 ± 11.5 years. HCV genotype 1 was the most frequent (88.7%), followed by genotypes 2 (8.5%), 4 (1.1%), 3 (0.9%) and 5 (0.2%). Genotype 6 was not detected in these patients. Mixed infection across the HCV subtypes was detected in twenty patients (4.6%). The genotype distribution was related to age and region. Genotype 1 was significantly less frequent in the ≥ 60 age group than in the younger age group (OR = 0.2; 95%CI: 0.1-0.5, P < 0.001). Furthermore, genotype 1 was more frequent in the central part of the examined region than elsewhere (P < 0.01). CONCLUSION: The HCV genotype (type 1b was dominant) distribution in Algeria is different from those in other northern countries of Africa. PMID:23898373

  4. Cervical carcinoma in Algiers, Algeria: human papillomavirus and lifestyle risk factors.

    PubMed

    Hammouda, Doudja; Muñoz, Nubia; Herrero, Rolando; Arslan, Annie; Bouhadef, Anissa; Oublil, Malika; Djedeat, Belhout; Fontanière, Bernard; Snijders, Peter; Meijer, Chris; Franceschi, Silvia

    2005-01-20

    We conducted a hospital-based case-control study in Algiers, Algeria. A total of 198 cervical carcinoma (CC) cases (including 15 adeno- and adenosquamous carcinomas) and 202 age-matched control women were included. Human papillomavirus (HPV) DNA in cervical cells was evaluated using a PCR assay. Odds ratios and corresponding confidence intervals were computed by means of unconditional multiple logistic regression models. HPV infection was detected in 97.7% of CC cases and 12.4% of control women (OR = 635). Nineteen different HPV types were found. HPV 16 was the most common type in both CC cases and control women, followed by HPV 18 and 45. Twelve types (HPV 16, 18, 31, 33, 35, 39, 45, 51, 52, 56, 66 and 73) were found as single infections in CC cases. Multiple HPV infections did not show a higher odds ratio for CC than single infections. In addition to HPV infection, husband's extramarital sexual relationships with other women (OR = 4.8) or prostitutes (OR = 3.2), residing in a rural environment for most of one's life (OR = 4.9) and indicators of poor sanitation or poor hygiene were the strongest risk factors for CC. Oral contraceptive use was unrelated to CC risk, while multiparity emerged as a significant risk factor after adjustment for sexual habits. Intrauterine device users showed a lower CC risk than nonusers. The role of major risk factors, except inside toilet, was confirmed in the analysis restricted to HPV-positive women. The distribution of HPV types in CC cases and control women in Algeria is more similar to the one found in Europe than the one in sub-Saharan Africa, where HPV 16 is less prevalent. A vaccine against HPV 16 and 18 may be effective in more than 3/4 of CCs in Algeria. PMID:15455386

  5. [From the Local to the Global: French Military Surgeons, Algeria, and "Tropical Pathologies" (1830-1880)].

    PubMed

    Fredj, Claire

    2015-01-01

    Up to the 1860s, understanding of the disease consists first of a reflection on the ground and the situation of people on this place. This includes the writing of medical topographies and the development of a new science: medical geography. How could extra-European territories contribute to this knowledge and how this knowledge about tropics and their pathologies could contribute to the formation of an epidemiological reflection at a global level? This contribution tries to suggest the role of military doctors in this process, the importance of Algeria in this intellectual training and, finally, how this work on the "hot" countries contributed to the structuring of a professional identity. PMID:26902057

  6. New data on aphid fauna (Hemiptera, Aphididae) in Algeria

    PubMed Central

    Laamari, Malik; d’Acier, Armelle Coeur; Jousselin, Emmanuelle

    2013-01-01

    Abstract A survey of aphids was carried out during the period 2008-2011 in different regions of Algeria by collecting and identifying aphids and their host plants. Aphids were collected from 46 host plants. Forty-six species were reported including thirty-six species which were recorded for the first time in this country and thirty species which were recorded for the first time in the Maghreb (North Africa). This study extends the number of known Algerian aphid to 156 species. PMID:24039520

  7. Cellulosic and hemicellulosic fractions dosage of Pistacia atlantica Desf. subsp. atlantica leaves in western Algeria.

    PubMed

    A, El Zerey-Belaskri; Benhassaini, H; Naimi, W; Rahoui, S

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to valorise a deciduous tree called Pistacia atlantica. Cell wall polysaccharides (cellulose and hemicelluloses) were isolated and dosed from mature and young pistachio leaves. The samples were collected from six different locations in the Sidi Bel Abbes region (western Algeria). The wall residue yield varied from 39.06% to 69.5%.The cellulose and the hemicellulose's cell wall yield varied from 21.25% to 40.6% and from 0.11% to 13.6%, respectively [corrected]. In the mature leaves, the cellulosic fraction is more important than the hemicellulosic fraction. The highest yield is noted in the young leaves. PMID:23323625

  8. Evidence for bloc rotation tectonics in the seismic Cheliff basin (northern Algeria) from paleomagnetic investigations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El-M. Derder, Mohamed; Henry, Bernard; Amenna, Mohamed; Bayou, Boualem; Maouche, Said; Besse, Jean; Ayache, Mohamed; Abtout, Abdeslam

    2010-05-01

    The seismic activity in the Western Mediterranean area is mainly concentrated in northern Africa, particularly in northern Algeria, as it was shown by the 21 May 2003 Boumerdes and the 10 October 1980 El Asnam earthquakes (of moment magnitudes Mw =6.9, and Ms= 7.3 respectively), which were among the strongest recent ones recorded in the western Mediterranean area. This seismicity is due to the convergence between Africa and Eurasia plates since at least the Oligocene. This convergence involves a transpression tectonic with N-S to NNW-SSE direction of shortening, which is expressed by active deformations along the boundary of these two plates. In Algeria, the seismicity is focused in a coastal zone (the Tell Atlas) in the northern part of the country. Active structures define there NE-SW trending folds and NE-SW sinistral transpressive faults, which affect the intermountain and coastal basins of Neogene to Quaternary age (e.g. " Cheliff "basin, " Mitidja "basin). These reverse faults are coupled with NW-SE to E-W trending strike-slip deep faults. The active deformation in northern Algeria could thus be explained by a kinematic model of bloc rotation: the transpression tectonics with NNW-SSE direction of convergence defines NE-SW oriented blocs, which have been possibly subjected to clockwise rotation. The aim of this study is to look for such blocks rotation in the "Cheliff" basin (northern Algeria), by using the paleomagnetic tool. A paleomagnetic study has been thus conducted on the midlle Miocene, Tortonian, Messinian and Pliocene sedimentary rocks cropping out on the eastern part of this basin. The study is still in progress, but despite the very weak intensity of the Natural Remanent Magnetization (NRM) measured on the samples, and the frequently observed magnetization instability during the thermal demagnetization, the preliminary results show that clockwise rotations have affected different sites of the studied area. The magnitude of these rotations varies

  9. Two new species of the genus Prosopistoma (Ephemeroptera: Prosopistomatidae) from Iraq and Algeria.

    PubMed

    Bojková, Jindřiška; Soldán, Tomáš

    2015-01-01

    In addition to the three so far known species of Prosopistoma Latreille, 1833 from West Palaearctic region, P. pennigerum (Müller, 1785), P. oronti Alouf, 1977 and P. orhanelicum Dalkıran, 2009, two new species are described based on larvae. Prosopistoma helenae sp. n. has been found in Iraq (Tigris River in Mosul) and Prosopistoma alaini sp. n. in Algeria (Oued Isser, Sidi Abdelli). Critical distinguishing characters of all West-Palaearctic species of Prosopistoma are discussed in detail. PMID:26624031

  10. Moho depth derived from gravity and magnetic data in the Southern Atlas Flexure (Algeria)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meliani, O.; Bourmatte, A.; Hamoudi, M.; Haddoum, H.; Quesnel, Y.

    2016-09-01

    Existing aeromagnetic and gravity data were used to study the structure of the Southern Atlas Flexure (SAF) in Algeria. Forward and inverse numerical modelings were applied, giving access to the depth of the Moho and the Curie depth in this area. Our results suggest a maximum crustal thickness of about 48 km, and a Curie depth of about 20 km. We then discuss the implications of those results on the regional structure of the SAF, also using cross-sections built using 2D-geological modeling.

  11. Selenium content in wheat and estimation of the selenium daily intake in different regions of Algeria.

    PubMed

    Beladel, B; Nedjimi, B; Mansouri, A; Tahtat, D; Belamri, M; Tchanchane, A; Khelfaoui, F; Benamar, M E A

    2013-01-01

    In this work, we have measured the selenium content in wheat produced locally in eight different regions of Algeria from east to west, and we have established the annual consumption of selenium for five socio-professional categories. Instrumental neutron activation analysis is used. The selenium levels in wheat samples varied from 21 (Tiaret) to 153 μg/kg (Khroub), with a mean value about 52 μg/kg. The mean of selenium daily consumption from ingestion of wheat per person in the eight regions varied from 32 to 52 μg/day which is close to the minimal FAO recommendation. PMID:23079485

  12. Chemotypes of essential oil of unripe galls of Pistacia atlantica Desf. from Algeria.

    PubMed

    Sifi, Ibrahim; Gourine, Nadhir; Gaydou, Emile M; Yousfi, Mohamed

    2015-01-01

    The essential oils (EOs) of unripe galls (from male and female plants) of a total number of 52 samples of Pistacia atlantica collected from different regions in Algeria were analysed by GC/MS and GC. The yields of the extraction of the EO by hydrodistillation vary from low to high values (0.08-1.89% v/w). The results of both methods of principal component analysis and hierarchical ascendant classification revealed the presence of two different chemotypes: α-pinene chemotype and α-pinene/sabinene/terpinen-4-ol chemotype. PMID:25707439

  13. Oil and development: The case of agriculture in Nigeria and Algeria

    SciTech Connect

    Bachrach, E.R.

    1988-01-01

    This thesis explores the relationship between the oil-boom of the 1970s and development outcomes and the prospects in two African OPEC states. The theoretical framework is provided by the political-economy literatures, both domestic and international. The research is carried out as a limited comparative study with a loosely constructed (before-during-after) interrupted time-series design. Algeria's greater success in managing it soil economy suggests further evidence supporting the promise of a mixed political-economy state model. State and societal complexions are identified, with a primarily qualitative methodology, to explain Nigerian and Algerian development outcomes on the heels of the oil decade.

  14. Oil and gas developments in North Africa in 1983

    SciTech Connect

    Nicod, M.A.

    1984-10-01

    Petroleum rights in the 6 countries (Algeria, Egypt, Libya, Morocco, Sudan, and Tunisia) covered by this paper amounted to 1,821,966 km/sup 2/ at the end of 1983, an 11% decrease from the 2,044,851 km/sup 2/ at the end of 1982. This decrease is mostly due to relinquishments in Sudan. Onshore seismic activity decreased in all countries except Sudan, where it slightly increased. Marine seismic activity increased by 85%, mostly due to significant efforts in Morocco and Egypt. Exploration drilling activity increased with 179 wildcats completed in 1983 compared to 166 in 1982. The success rate was 44.7% compared to 36% in 1982. No discoveries were made in Morocco. No new hydrocarbon province was discovered in 1983. Development drilling sharply increased in Egypt and remained at about the same levels in the other countries as in 1982. In Sudan, Chevron started in late September the first development drilling operations in Unity field. Oil production, with a daily average of 2,872,000 bbl, was at the same level as in 1982. In Egypt, 7 new fields went on-stream in the Gulf of Suez, 2 in the Western Desert, and 1 in the Eastern Desert. One field was put on-stream in Libya and 4 in Tunisia. Utilized gas production probably remained at the same level as in 1982 (2000 mmcf/day). 9 figures, 28 tables.

  15. [Light and blindness in ancient Egypt].

    PubMed

    Maria Rosso, Ana

    2010-01-01

    In Ancient Egypt, light and fire, which were closely related to the Sun God Ra, were the sources of life and well-being, while the dark meant danger and death. Similar to death, darkness drops on human beings in deep sleep and they enter a space inhabited by shadows. Dreams were believed to reveal an unknown world, to give the sleeper a glimpse into the future. Vision attracts distant objects and their light, on the other hand, can hurt the eyes like a burning flame. Eyes were the most important organ in Egyptian thought, as they allowed perception of the real world. Their importance has been immortalised in the myth of the Eye of Horus that explains the role of either eye. One represents the moonlight, which disperses the darkness of the night, and the other represents the sunshine, which creates life, and both could also represents the power of human intellect. Blindness, in turn, congenital or disease-related, was considered a divine punishment. A man, thus handicapped, would sink in a state of uncertainty and darkness. To protect the eyes from blindness, people used drops and ointments, which were believed to chase away all kinds of insects and demons that threatened with a variety of eye infections. Egyptian eye doctors or physicians, carried a special kit that contained green chrysocolla and a black kohl makeup, highly appreciated as prophylaxis because they personified Osiris' humours or body fluids. These products were offered to Gods to restore the brightness of divine glance and incite sun and moon to spread their beneficial light. PMID:21192112

  16. ASTER View of Sharm El Sheik, Egypt

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    The Red Sea golf resort in Sharm El Sheik, Egypt, where President Clinton met with Israeli Prime Minister Ehud Barak and Palestinian Authority President Yasser Arafat, stands out against the desert landscape in this image acquired on August 25, 2000.

    This image of the southern tip of the Sinai Peninsula shows an area about 30 by 40 kilometers (19 by 25 miles) in the visible and near infrared wavelength region. Vegetation appears in red. The blue areas in the water at the top and bottom of the image are coral reefs. The airport is visible just to the north of the golf resort.

    Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18, 1999, on NASA's Terra satellite. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of International Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products. Dr. Anne Kahle at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif., is the U.S. Science team leader; Moshe Pniel of JPL is the project manager. ASTER is the only high resolution imaging sensor on Terra. The primary goal of the ASTER mission is to obtain high-resolution image data in 14 channels over the entire land surface, as well as black and white stereo images. With revisit time of between 4 and 16 days, ASTER will provide the capability for repeat coverage of changing areas on Earth's surface.

    The broad spectral coverage and high spectral resolution of ASTER will provide scientists in numerous disciplines with critical information for surface mapping, and monitoring dynamic conditions and temporal change. Example applications are: monitoring glacial advances and retreats, monitoring potentially active volcanoes, identifying crop stress, determining cloud morphology and physical properties, wetlands Evaluation, thermal pollution monitoring, coral reef degradation, surface temperature mapping of soils and geology

  17. Groundwater sapping processes, Western Desert, Egypt.

    SciTech Connect

    Luo, W.; Arvidson, R.E.; Sultan, M.; Becker, R.; Crombie, M.K.; Sturchio, N.; El Alfy, Z.; Environmental Research; Washington Univ.; Egyptian Geological Survey and Mining Authority

    1997-01-01

    Depressions of the Western Desert of Egypt (specifically, Kharga, Farafra, and Kurkur regions) are mainly occupied by shales that are impermeable, but easily erodible by rainfall and runoff, whereas the surrounding plateaus are composed of limestones that are permeable and more resistant to fluvial erosion under semiarid to arid conditions. Scallop-shaped escarpment edges and stubby-looking channels that cut into the plateau units are suggestive of slumping of limestones by ground-water sapping at the limestone-shale interfaces, removal of slump blocks by weathering and fluvial erosion, and consequent scarp retreat. Spring-derived tufa deposits found near the limestone escarpments provide additional evidence for possible ground-water sapping during previous wet periods. A computer simulation model was developed to quantify the ground-water sapping processes, using a cellular automata algorithm with coupled surface runoff and ground-water flow for a permeable, resistant layer over an impermeable, friable unit. Erosion, deposition, slumping, and generation of spring-derived tufas were parametrically modeled. Simulations using geologically reasonable parameters demonstrate that relatively rapid erosion of the shales by surface runoff, ground-water sapping, and slumping of the limestones, and detailed control by hydraulic conductivity inhomogeneities associated with structures explain the depressions, escarpments, and associated landforms and deposits. Using episodic wet pulses, keyed by {delta}{sup 18}O deep-sea core record, the model produced tufa ages that are statistically consistent with the observed U/Th tufa ages. This result supports the hypothesis that northeastern African wet periods occurred during interglacial maxima. The {delta}{sup 18}O-forced model also replicates the decrease in fluvial and sapping activity over the past million years, as northeastern Africa became hyperarid. The model thus provides a promising predictive tool for studying long

  18. Seismic hazard assessment in Aswan, Egypt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deif, A.; Hamed, H.; Ibrahim, H. A.; Abou Elenean, K.; El-Amin, E.

    2011-12-01

    The study of earthquake activity and seismic hazard assessment around Aswan is very important due to the proximity of the Aswan High Dam. The Aswan High Dam is based on hard Precambrian bedrock and is considered to be the most important project in Egypt from the social, agricultural and electrical energy production points of view. The seismotectonic settings around Aswan strongly suggest that medium to large earthquakes are possible, particularly along the Kalabsha, Seiyal and Khor El-Ramla faults. The seismic hazard for Aswan is calculated utilizing the probabilistic approach within a logic-tree framework. Alternative seismogenic models and ground motion scaling relationships are selected to account for the epistemic uncertainty. Seismic hazard values on rock were calculated to create contour maps for eight ground motion spectral periods and for a return period of 475 years, which is deemed appropriate for structural design standards in the Egyptian building codes. The results were also displayed in terms of uniform hazard spectra for rock sites at the Aswan High Dam for return periods of 475 and 2475 years. In addition, the ground-motion levels are also deaggregated at the dam site, in order to provide insight into which events are the most important for hazard estimation. The peak ground acceleration ranges between 36 and 152 cm s-2 for return periods of 475 years (equivalent to 90% probability of non-exceedance in 50 years). Spectral hazard values clearly indicate that compared with countries of high seismic risk, the seismicity in the Aswan region can be described as low at most sites to moderate in the area between the Kalabsha and Seyial faults.

  19. Multiphase Fault Evolution in a Rotational Margin Setting: Offshore Sirte Basin, Libya

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maddock, Paul; McCaffrey, Ken; Imber, Jonathon

    2013-04-01

    The aims of this study are to present a new structural interpretation of a well-calibrated regional 2D seismic dataset to constrain the timing and style of faulting in the Sirte embayment, offshore Libya, a Mesozoic-Cenozoic extension of the Sirte basin onshore north Africa. Due to rotation of the African continent since the Mesozoic, present-day fault orientations are not the same as during fault formation at various times since the early Palaeozoic. The approach has therefore been to integrate a structural model with published plate tectonic reconstructions in order to progressively restore fault orientations throughout the evolution of the Sirte embayment. Multiple phases of rifting can be observed in the offshore area, with major faulting episodes during the Aptian-Albian, Upper Cretaceous, mid-Eocene and Oligocene. Paleozoic basement structures have a dominant role in controlling the locations of later faults. The model shows how pre-existing structures have been reactivated during the main Cretaceous basin-forming episode, with some deeply-rooted basement faults remaining active into the mid-late Cretaceous. The orientation of basement faults with respect to the inferred regional stress direction appears to be a key influence on the type of faulting observed. In many parts of the Sirte Embayment, active faulting during the later Mesozoic is concentrated in fault zones directly above, or in the immediate hanging wall of older, deeper faults. The dominant stress field since the Cretaceous is consistent with the onshore Sirte trend with extension generally to the NE-SW giving NW-SE striking faults and fault zones. The orientation of pre-Mesozoic faults can be shown to have rotated anti-clockwise by 40° between formation and Cretaceous deformation, with a further 17° to the present day giving a total rotation of 57°. While the present day onshore trend of NW-SE horst and graben blocks has the greatest influence on the structure of the Sirte embayment

  20. Petrogenesis of the Main Petrologic and Chronologic Volcanic Phases in the Gharyan Province, NW Libya.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gafeer, A.; Nabelek, P. I.

    2014-12-01

    Cenozoic Libyan volcanic fields are manifestations of tremendous episodic outpourings of basaltic lavas within the East Saharan Craton. The volcanic fields are confined to a NW-SE trend (N140°E) that stretches from the Mediterranean coast in the north to Tibesti (Libya-Chad border) in the south. The four major volcanic fields (Gharyan, As-Sawda, Al-Haruj, and Nuquay) show a systematic decrease in age starting from ~55 Ma in Gharyan (NW) to the Holocene in Nuquay (SE). This apparent trend in ages along with characteristics resembling oceanic island basalts (OIB's) prompted several authors to attribute their origin to the African plate moving over a hot spot (e.g. Conticelli et al. 1995; Woller and Fediuk 1980; Hegazy 1999). In the Gharyan province (GVP), the igneous activity was indeed episodic and lasted for at least 50 Ma. The large span of ages of these volcanic rocks within the same volcanic field makes the hot spot model at least equivocal. Whole rock analyses for the major petrologic and chronologic units suggest that the basaltic and phonolitic suites within the GVP had different primary sources. The basaltic rocks show smooth REE patterns. LREE/HREE fractionations of the eruptive pulses are inconsistent with their ages, suggesting that they represent different melt fractions generated from the same mantle source. Phonolites show very different REE patterns. The patterns are concave-upward with low TbN/YbN ratios (0.6-0.8). The origin of the GVP basaltic rocks is consistent with melts generated from metasomatized lithospheric mantle across the garnet-spinel transition zone. The most primitive (>7 wt % MgO) basalts were used to model mantle melting processes and indicate 3-10% melting of an amphibole-bearing, spinel/garnet mantle source. Rather than being related to a hot spot, the genesis of the Libyan lavas appears to have been caused by reactivation of lithospheric megastructures with asthenospheric upwelling, in relation to the Africa-Europe convergence.

  1. The petrology and geochemistry of Gharyan volcanic province of NW Libya

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Hafdh, N. M.; Gafeer, A. S.

    2015-04-01

    Gharyan Volcanic Province (GVP) is one of the four major outpouring volcanic provinces (Jabal as Sawda, Jabal Al Haruj, and Jabal Nuqay) in Libya. It culminates the extreme NNW-SSE linear trend with the other province which defines a systematic decrease in age from NWW to SSE. The voluminous petrologic and chronologic episode in GVP is the Old Lava Series (OLS). This OLS (55-50 Ma) is flown over 1000 km of Mesozoic rocks that are sliced by Wadi Ghan fault zone. The second cycle is represented by the phonolite-trachyte intrusions (40 Ma). Those intrusions occur in the form of laccoliths and plugs where Wadi Ghan fault zone has a conspicuous effect in their emplacement behavior. The Late Volcanic Center (LVC) is the main young volcanic activity in the province (<12 Ma). They show different mode of eruptions on the continuous plateau of OLS. Young Lava Series (YLS) are minor eruptions that have a distinctive appearance on the field and landsat image by occupying an ancient buried wadies. The compound phonolite laccoliths in Garyat Gamatat al-Gharyiha area increase in relief northwardly due to the imparity of denudation with the OLS flows at the southern portions of the area. One of those phonolite samples shows a crustal contamination due to its anomalous in Sr content. The radial pattern of OLS flows in urban area has some differentiation degree by their relative evolution from basalts to basaltic andesites. The chemistry of LVC in the same area does not show close concordance with the LVC basanitic suite of Busrewil and Wadsworth (1980). On other hand, the basaltic sill in Garyat Gamatat al-Gharyiha area is belonging to the LVC activity in GVP by their concordant with the geochemistry of LVC basanitic phase. The ultrabasic rocks in the investigated areas are four-phase lherzolite (olivine + orthopyroxene + clinopyroxene + spinel) restrict only in LVC phase as sub-rounded nodules. These xenoliths penetrate the whole crust with relatively large velocity by melts with

  2. Tackling Poverty-Migration Linkages: Evidence from Ghana and Egypt

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sabates-Wheeler, Rachel; Sabates, Ricardo; Castaldo, Adriana

    2008-01-01

    Are migrants able to use the migration experience to their benefit, that is to improve their livelihoods, and is this result nuanced by whether migrants are poor or non-poor? This paper explores these questions quantitatively using data on migrants and non-migrants from Ghana and Egypt. It describes the main challenges in the empirical literature…

  3. Islamic Law and Legal Education in Modern Egypt

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nakissa, Aria Daniel

    2012-01-01

    This dissertation examines the transmission of Islamic legal knowledge in modern Egypt. It is based on two years of ethnographic fieldwork in Cairo among formally trained Islamic scholars. With governmental permission, I was able to attend classes at both al-Azhar's Faculty of Shari'ah and Cairo University's Dar al-'Ulum. I…

  4. Molecular Detection of Some Strawberry Viruses in Egypt

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Strawberry plants exhibiting distinct virus-like symptoms (stunting, mottling, yellowing, vein clearing, vein necrosis and vein banding) were collected from strawberry production fields and nurseries in Qalubia Governorate, Egypt (about 20 km north of Cairo). Plants of 'Festival' and 'Sweet Charlie'...

  5. 78 FR 7752 - Trade Mission to Egypt and Kuwait

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-04

    ... Trade Mission to Egypt and Kuwait March 10-14, 2013, published at 77 FR 71777, December 4, 2012, to... FR 33439, June 6, 2012. In 77 FR 71777, December 4, 2012, the Department of Commerce announced that... cameras, infrared and radiological detectors, vessel tracking MIS, biometric scanners, personnel...

  6. African Refugees in Egypt: Trauma, Loss, and Cultural Adjustment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henry, Hani M.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the influence of pre-immigration trauma on the acculturation process of refugees, as reflected in the manifestations of their continuing bonds with native cultures. Six African refugees who sought refuge in Egypt because of wars and political persecution were interviewed about the circumstances of their departure from their…

  7. Locating the sciences in eighteenth-century Egypt.

    PubMed

    Murphy, Jane H

    2010-12-01

    In the last years of the eighteenth century, Egypt famously witnessed the practice of European sciences as embodied in the members of Bonaparte's Commission des sciences et des arts and the newly founded Institut d'Egypte. Less well known are the activities of local eighteenth-century Cairene religious scholars and military elites who were both patrons and practitioners of scientific expertise and producers of hundreds upon hundreds of manuscripts. Through the writings of the French naturalist Etienne Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire (1772-1844) and those of the Cairene scholar and chronicler Abd al-Rahmān al-Jabartī (1753-1825), I explore Egypt as a site for the practice of the sciences in the late eighteenth century, the palatial urban houses which the French made home to the Institut d'Egypte and their role before the French invasion, and the conception of the relationship between the sciences and social politics that each man sought. Ultimately, I argue that Geoffroy's struggle to create scientific neutrality in the midst of intensely tumultuous political realities came to a surprising head with his fixation on Paris as the site for the practice of natural history, while al-Jabartī's embrace of this entanglement of knowledge and power led to a vision of scientific expertise that was specifically located in his Cairene society, but which--as Geoffroy himself demonstrated--could be readily adapted almost anywhere. PMID:21553627

  8. Women's Family Power and Gender Preference in Minya, Egypt

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yount, Kathryn M.

    2005-01-01

    Structural and ideational theories are adapted to explore the influence of women's resources and ideational exposures on their family power and gender preferences in Minya, Egypt. Data from a household survey of 2,226 married women aged 15-54 years show that residence with marital kin decreases women's family power. Women in endogamous marriages…

  9. The USAID/Government of Egypt's Schistosomiasis Research Project (SRP).

    PubMed

    El Khoby, T; Galal, N; Fenwick, A

    1998-03-01

    Schistosomiasis is the major public health problem in rural Egypt, with almost six million Egyptians infected as at mid-1996. In 1983, the prevalence of schistosomiasis in rural Egypt was greater than 50%, but a ten-year campaign of diagnosis and treatment has reduced the prevalence and intensity of infection. Parallel to this campaign, the government of the USA has funded a research project to examine all aspects of schistosomiasis with a view to improving the control strategy. As outlined here by Taha El Khoby, Nabil Galal and Alan Fenwick, after almost ten years, the project's achievements include: assisting WHO in its attempts to develop a vaccine against schistosomiasis, developing a suspension formulation of praziquantel suitable for young children, and establishing a unit to monitor reports of resistance to praziquantel. In addition, a large epidemiological study has established the extent of the problem in Egypt. Slow-release formulation of niclosamide, health education material for use on TV, dipstick diagnostic tests, and evaluation of ultrasound as a diagnostic tool have also been achieved. As the project closes, Egypt is left with an effective strategy for the control of schistosomiasis and several back-up tools for use in the event of development of resistance to praziquantel. The Ministry of Health and Population has the basis of a Geographical Information System (GIS) unit and the country has a trained and equipped scientific community capable of biomedical research, and almost 100 scientific papers published on their work. PMID:17040713

  10. Fusulinid marble from Wadi Heimur area, Southeastern Desert, Egypt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmed, Abd-Elmohsen A.

    The discovery of Fusulina in the graphitic marble of Wadi Heimur area, located east of Lake Nasser has verified the Carboniferous age previously given by Ahmed and Mahmoud (1984) and Ahmed (1987) for the foraminiferal marble bands of the folded eugeosynclinal sequence outcropping in the Eastern Desert of Egypt.

  11. Design a Book: A Quest in Ancient Egypt

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooper, David

    2005-01-01

    This article describes a classroom project that combines creative writing, basic book design, and social studies content. During this project, the authors' seventh grade students research a variety of ancient Egyptian archaeological sites while reviewing course material from a unit of study on ancient Egypt, practice project management skills…

  12. [Egypt: Selected Readings, Egyptian Mummies, and the Egyptian Pyramid.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Museum of Natural History, Washington, DC.

    This resource packet presents information and resources on ancient Egypt. The bibliography includes readings divided into five sections: (1) "General Information" (46 items); (2) "Religion" (8 items); (3) "Art" (8 items); (4) "Hieroglyphics" (6 items); and (5) selections "For Young Readers" (11 items). The packet also includes readings on…

  13. Arab Spring Impact on Executive Education in Egypt

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wafa, Dina

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to study the impact of the Arab Spring on public administration programs in Egypt, with a special focus on executive education programs. Design/Methodology/Approach: The study draws on stakeholder analysis, and uses both primary and secondary data. Findings: The author describes the impact of the Arab Spring…

  14. Perfectionism and Self Concept among Primary School Children in Egypt

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tofaha, Gamal Al Sayed; Ramon, Patricia Robledo

    2010-01-01

    Introduction: The main purpose of this study is to explore the correlation between dimensions of perfectionism and self-concepts among school aged students in Egypt. Method: Two hundred-eighty four children (fifth and sixth graders) participated in this study. The mean age of the participants was 144.37 months, SD 6.36. Pearson correlation…

  15. Avian Influenza Vaccination of Poultry and Passive Case Reporting, Egypt

    PubMed Central

    Grosbois, Vladimir; Jobre, Yilma; Saad, Ahmed; El Nabi, Amira Abd; Galal, Shereen; Kalifa, Mohamed; El Kader, Soheir Abd; Dauphin, Gwenaëlle; Roger, François; Lubroth, Juan; Peyre, Marisa

    2012-01-01

    We investigated the influence of a mass poultry vaccination campaign on passive surveillance of highly pathogenic avian influenza subtype (H5N1) outbreaks among poultry in Egypt. Passive reporting dropped during the campaign, although probability of infection remained unchanged. Future poultry vaccination campaigns should consider this negative impact on reporting for adapting surveillance strategies. PMID:23171740

  16. Joint venture: Jacques Giordano Industries, France and REEFCO, Egypt

    SciTech Connect

    Giordano, J. ); Saleh, M.I. )

    1992-03-01

    Joint venture arrangements can provide mutually advantageous links between developed and developing countries. Jacques Giordano, President of Jacques Giordano Industries and Mohamed Ibrahim Saleh of REEFCO, Egypt describe their successful partnership which brings quality solar water heaters to the Egyptian market. The topics include technology transfer, manufacturing, marketing, legal aspects, financing, and government policy.

  17. Student Expectations and Graduate Market Performance in Egypt.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Psacharopoulos, George; Sanyal, Bikas

    1982-01-01

    Student expectations and actual labor market performance of a sample of Egypt's university graduates in 1978 are compared. It was found that economic rewards followed supply and demand, especially with regard to specialization. Expected or actual unemployment after graduation was found to be of short duration. (MSE)

  18. Scribing Work Songs at an Archeological Dig in Egypt

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poppe, Donna

    2011-01-01

    This article reports research conducted in the northeastern corner of Egypt's Nile Delta during an excavation at the Mendes archeological dig site in July-August, 2007. Donald Redford, Professor at Pennsylvania State University, accepted the author as the only nonarcheologist that year. In addition to duties of measuring, registering, and storing…

  19. The Great Pyramid Builders: An Integrated Theme on Ancient Egypt

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stone, Brian

    2008-01-01

    This article describes a themed classroom project designed to teach about the culture and civilization of ancient Egypt. In preparing the project, it is noted that teachers should remember that different learning styles, including activities that provide meaningful experiences, are appropriate in accommodating the various ways children learn.…

  20. Using Social Studies Themes to Investigate Modern Egypt

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hubbard, Janie

    2010-01-01

    Many elementary teachers explore the marvels of ancient Egypt with their students, as evidenced by the numerous available websites on this topic for teaching elementary history. The drama and mystery of ancient civilizations with treasures such as mummies, King Tut, and the Giza Pyramids are intriguing to children, yet there is another layer of…

  1. The Politics of Educational Transfer and Policymaking in Egypt

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ibrahim, Ali S.

    2010-01-01

    For the past two centuries, western modern education has informed education policies and practices in Egypt. However, few researchers have analyzed the historical or current politics of educational transfer in this country. This article investigates the ways in which foreign transfer has influenced Egyptian education, both historically and…

  2. MULTIPLE WATER REUSE IN POULTRY PROCESSING: CASE STUDY IN EGYPT

    EPA Science Inventory

    An industrial-scale multiple water reuse system was under investigation for a period of four years at a modern poultry processing plant in Alexandria, Egypt. The system involved: chlorination of cooling water from the compressor; reuse of this water in the chiller; successive tra...

  3. Employment Planning in Egypt: An Insurance Policy for the Future.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hansen, Bent; Radwan, Samir

    1982-01-01

    To help the unemployment problems of Egypt, the authors recommend the restructuring of agriculture; orientation of investment to foreign-exchange earning export industries; the phasing out of employment guarantees in the public sector combined with educational and training reforms; and contingency employment programs, concentrated on the…

  4. A review of the infection-associated cancers in North African countries.

    PubMed

    Hussein, Wafaa Mohamed; Anwar, Wagida A; Attaleb, Mohammed; Mazini, Loubna; Försti, Asta; Trimbitas, Roxana-Delia; Khyatti, Meriem

    2016-01-01

    Cancer is typically classified as a leading non-communicable disease; however, infectious agents, such as Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori), hepatitis B virus (HBV), hepatitis C virus (HCV) and human papilloma virus (HPV), contribute significantly to the pathogenesis of various cancers. Less developed countries, including countries of the North African (NA) region, endure the highest burden of infection-related cancers. The five most common infection-associated cancers in NA in order of incidence are bladder cancer, cervical cancer, liver cancer, stomach cancer, and nasopharyngeal carcinoma. This review aims to outline the epidemiologic pattern of infection-associated cancers in five NA countries (namely: Morocco, Algeria, Tunisia, Libya and Egypt) highlighting the similarities and differences across the region. The present study employed an initial literature review of peer-reviewed articles selected from PubMed, ScienceDirect and World Health Organization (WHO) databases based on key word searches without restriction on publication dates. Original research articles and reports written in French, as well as data from institutional reports and regional meeting abstracts were also included in this extensive review. Egypt, Libya, Tunisia, Algeria and Morocco were selected to be the focus of this review. PMID:27512409

  5. Patterns of inborn errors of metabolism: A 12 year single-center hospital-based study in Libya

    PubMed Central

    AlObaidy, Hanna

    2013-01-01

    Background: Inborn errors of metabolism (IEM) are mostly transmitted as autosomal recessive disorders and are therefore more frequent in countries with high consanguinity rates such as in the Arab world. Objective: To study the socio-demographic characteristics and the clinical presentation of IEM in Libyan children and to shed light on our experience in dealing with these disorders. Methods: This is a descriptive case series hospital-based study of 107 children attending the Metabolic Unit at El-Khadra Teaching Hospital (MUKH) in Tripoli, Libya. The study took place between January 2001 and December 2012. Information was collected from caregivers and from all available hospital records on the following variables: age, sex, birth order, place of residence, age at onset, presenting complaints and family history of the same illness. Results: During the 12-year study period, there were 55,422 live births at El-Khadra Teaching Hospital and 107 children were diagnosed with 46 different metabolic disorders. A significantly high consanguinity rate was observed (86.9%) among parents of the affected children. Family history of previous affected children was noted in 63.5% of cases. Male to female ratio was 1.18:1. The most frequent IEM cases were amino acids disorders (25%), carbohydrate disorders (14.9%), lysosomal storage diseases (14%), organic aciduria and energy metabolic defects (9.3% each). The main clinical presentations were jaundice, hepatomegaly and seizures. Most children presented between one and six months of age (43.4%); whereas the median age at diagnosis was eight months. Thirty-eight children (35.5%) were born at El-Khadra Hospital with IEM giving a birth prevalence of 1:1458 live births, (1:6158 for aminoaciduria and 1:6927 for carbohydrate disorders). Conclusion: IEM disorders are common in Libya. Efforts to enhance awareness among pediatricians and primary healthcare providers should be supported and encouraged as many diseases are still undiagnosed. It

  6. [Physicochemical quality of drinking water in Southern Algeria: study of excess mineral salts].

    PubMed

    Djellouli, H M; Taleb, S; Harrache-Chettouh, D; Djaroud, S

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the physicochemical composition of water intended for human consumption in several regions of Southern Algeria. Excess minerals in drinking water, including magnesium, calcium, sulfates and fluorides play a fundamental role in the prevention of urinary calculi, which are formed mainly from calcium oxalate. The ever-increasingly prevalence of this disorder and its recurrence make it a real public health problem in Algeria. The most elementary preventive treatment, recommended to all subjects with lithiasis, is to drink 2 to 3 L water distributed throughout the (24-hour) day. This study began by conducting a physicochemical analysis of the principal components of water from several sources. We will subsequently test it to examine the effects of its mineral salts on the crystallization kinetics of the principal component of calculi (calcium oxalate). The results indicate that 77.5 % of the samples had magnesium concentrations ([Mg 2+] > 50 mg/L), 95 % were sulfated, with sulfate ion concentrations exceeding the standard recommended by WHO ([SO4 2-] > 250 mg/L). Moreover, 57.5 % had excess fluoride levels, [F-] > 1.5 mg/L, and 65 % excessive calcium concentrations, with Ca 2+ > 150 mg/L. PMID:16061448

  7. Detection of a novel Rickettsia sp. in soft ticks (Acari: Argasidae) in Algeria.

    PubMed

    Lafri, Ismail; Leulmi, Hamza; Baziz-Neffah, Fadhila; Lalout, Reda; Mohamed, Chergui; Mohamed, Karakallah; Parola, Philippe; Bitam, Idir

    2015-01-01

    Argasid ticks are vectors of viral and bacterial agents that can infect humans and animals. In Africa, relapsing fever borreliae are neglected arthropod-borne pathogens that cause mild to deadly septicemia and miscarriage. It would be incredibly beneficial to be able to simultaneous detect and identify other pathogens transmitted by Argasid ticks. From 2012 to 2014, we conducted field surveys in 4 distinct areas of Algeria. We investigated the occurrence of soft ticks in rodent burrows and yellow-legged gull (Larus michahellis) nests in 10 study sites and collected 154 soft ticks. Molecular identification revealed the occurrence of two different soft tick genera and five species, including Carios capensis in yellow-legged gull nests and Ornithodoros occidentalis, Ornithodoros rupestris, Ornithodoros sonrai, Ornithodoros erraticus in rodent burrows. Rickettsial DNA was detected in 41/154, corresponding to a global detection rate of 26.6%. Sequences of the citrate synthase (gltA) gene suggest that this agent is a novel spotted fever group Rickettsia. For the first time in Algeria, we characterize a novel Rickettsia species by molecular means in soft ticks. PMID:26408401

  8. The Constantine (northeast Algeria) earthquake of October 27, 1985: surface ruptures and aftershock study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bounif, A.; Haessler, H.; Meghraoui, M.

    1987-10-01

    An earthquake of magnitude Ms = 6.0 (CSEM, Strasbourg) occurred at Constantine (Algeria) on 27 October 1985. This seismic event is the strongest felt in the Tellian Atlas since the El Asnam seismic crisis of October 10, 1980. A team from the Centre de Recherche d'Astronomie, d'Astrophysique et de Géophysique (CRAAG, Algeria), utilising 8 portable stations, registered the activity a few days after the main shock. The aftershocks follow a N045° direction, and show the existence of three ruptured segments. Cross sections display a remarkable vertical fault plane and suggest asperities in the rupture process. Surface breaks were found affecting Quaternary deposits. The principal segment is about 3.8 km long showing “enéchelon” cracks with left-lateral displacement while the main direction of the rupture is N055°. Although the vertical motion is small, the northwestern block shows a normal component of the main surface faulting, while the left-lateral displacement is about 10 cm. The strike-slip focal mechanism solution determined from the global seismic network and field observations are in good agreement.

  9. Ecological Status of Phlebotomine Sandflies (Diptera: Psychodidae) in Rural Communities of Northeastern Algeria

    PubMed Central

    Kabbout, Nacira; Merzoug, Djemoi; Chenchouni, Haroun

    2016-01-01

    Background: Algeria is among the most affected Mediterranean countries by leishmaniasis due to its large geographic extent and climatic diversity. The current study aimed to determine the ecological status (composition and diversity) of phlebotomine sandfly populations in the region of Oum El Bouaghi (Northeast Algeria). Methods: An entomological survey was conducted during the period May–October 2010 in rural communities of Oum El Bouaghi. Catches of sandflies were carried out using sticky traps in both domestic and peri-domestic environments of 16 sites located beneath two bioclimatic areas, sub-humid and semi-arid. Most of these sites have visceral and/or cutaneous leishmaniasis cases. Results: A total of 1,363 sandflies were captured and identified. They belong to two genera, Phlebotomus and Sergentomyia, and five species. The species Phlebotomus perniciosus, P. perfiliewi and Sergentomyia minuta were constants. Phlebotomus longicuspis was common and P. papatasi was accidental in the study sites. P. perniciosus and P. perfiliewi are the two possible species that contribute in leishmaniasis transmission across the study area due to their high densities (96 and 49 specimens/m2/night, respectively); these two species dominate other species in all study sites. Conclusion: Findings emphasize the key-role played by P. perniciosus, P. perfiliewi and S. minuta in outlining site similarities based on sandfly densities. The study confirms that the more susceptible sites to leishmaniasis, which hold high densities of these sandflies, were located south of the study area under a semi-arid climate. PMID:27047969

  10. [A social program for the control of zoonotic cutaneous leishmaniasis in M'Sila, Algeria].

    PubMed

    Cherif, Kamel; Boudrissa, Abdelkarim; Cherif, Mokhtar Hamdi; Harrat, Zoubir

    2012-01-01

    Zoonotic cutaneous leishmaniasis due to Leishmania major is a serious public health problem in Algeria. On average, 10,000 new cases are reported every year among the 15 million people at risk of infection. With an annual incidence of 561.8 per 100,000 inhabitants, M'Sila has seen the worst outbreak of the disease in Algeria since the historic outbreak in Biskra. The main reservoir of the disease is Psammomys obesus, a gerbil that feeds exclusively on Chenopodiaceae, a salt-tolerant plant under which it makes its burrow. Removing these plants around houses within a radius of 300 meters is one of the most effective control measures. As part of a social program of public works, a pilot project aimed at controlling the disease was undertaken in 2003 in the five worst affected cities in M'Sila. 396 unemployed young people were recruited to remove the plants before the transmission season. Over 3,600 hectares were treated. The number of cases decreased from 1,391 in 2003 to 965 in 2004 (31% reduction). These measures need to be implemented in all endemic areas of the country to better assess their effectiveness in preventing the disease. PMID:23473045

  11. Basin evolution and structural reconstruction of northeastern Morocco and northwestern Algeria

    SciTech Connect

    Scott, S. |

    1995-08-01

    The high plateau region of Morocco and northwestern Algeria contains a Permo-Triassic rift basin with over 8,000 meters of Paleozoic, Mesozoic and Tertiary sediments. The area exhibits many similarities to the prolific Triassic basins of neighboring Algeria. Previous impediments to exploration in the high plateau area focused on the inability to seismically image sub-salt, pre-Jurassic block faulted structures and the perceived lack of adequate source rocks. This study combined seismic and basin modelling techniques to decipher the pre-salt structures, interpret basin evolution, and access source rock potential. Large structural and stratigraphic features can now be discerned where Permo-Triassic block faulted structures are overlain by thick Triassic-Jurassic mobile evaporate seals and sourced by underlying Paleozoic shales. Contrary to the last published reports, over 20 years ago, oil and gas generation appears to have been continuous in the Carboniferous since 350 ma. Migration directly from the Carboniferous shales to Triassic conglomerates is envisaged with adequate seals provided by the overlying Triassic-Jurassic evaporate sequence. An earlier rapid pulse of oil and gas generation between 300-340 ma from the Silurian source rocks was probably too early to have resulted in hydrocarbon accumulation in the primary Triassic targets but if reservoir is present in the Carboniferous section, then those strata may have been sourced by the Silurian shales.

  12. Study of the active deformation of Mitidja (Tell Atlas, Algeria) by GPS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bacha, Wahab; Masson, Frederic; Yelles-Chaouche, Abdelkrim; Lammali, Kamel; Bellik, Amar; Hamai, Lamine

    2013-04-01

    A network was created in the Mitidja region around the capital Algiers (Algeria). It has been established to study the deformation of the region and the slow operation of flaws in it. The network was installed by a distribution of GPS stations according to structural domains existing in the region. Twelve bases spread across the study area, have been installed. The measurements were acquired by performing four measurement campaigns in 2006, 2007, 2009 and 2010, with sessions over a month of action. This work allowed the installation of a geodetic network of regional monitoring by methodology GPS in the zone of Mitidja (Tellian Atlas, Algeria). Four observation campaigns were carried out on this area with session's superiors in one month of measurements. The treatment was carried out with software GAMIT-GLOBK, the network is attached to several world stations IGS treated between 2000-2010, indexed in a precise frame of reference ITRF05. The results presented in this memory show a deformation in shortening ≤ 0.5 mm/an in the plain of Mitidja and the surrounding Solid masses.

  13. Forest Fires and Post - Fire Regeneration in Algeria Analysis with Satellite Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zegrar, Ahmed

    2016-07-01

    The Algerian forests are characterized by a particularly flammable material and fuel. The wind, the relief and the slope facilitates the propagation of fire. The use of remote sensing data multi-­dates, combined with other types of data of various kinds on the environment and forest burned, opens up interesting perspectives for the management of post-­fire regeneration. In this study the use of multi-­temporal remote sensing image Alsat-­1 and Landsat combined with other types of data concerning both background and burned down forest appears to be promising in evaluating and spatial and temporal effects of post fire regeneration. A spatial analysis taking into consideration the characteristics of the burned down site in the North West of Algeria, allowed to better account new factors to explain the regeneration and its temporal and spatial variation. We intended to show the potential use of remote sensing data from satellite ALSAT-­1, of spatial resolution of 32 m. . This approach allows showing the contribution of the data of Algerian satellite ALSAT in the detection and the well attended some forest fires in Algeria.

  14. Seismic anisotropy of northeastern Algeria from shear-wave splitting analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Radi, Zohir; Yelles-Chaouche, Abdelkrim; Bokelmann, Götz

    2015-11-01

    There are few studies of internal deformation under northern Africa; here we present such a study. We analyze teleseismic shear-wave splitting for northeast Algeria, to improve our knowledge of lithospheric and asthenospheric deformation mechanisms in this region. We study waveform data generated by tens of teleseismic events recorded at five recently installed broadband (BB) stations in Algeria. These stations cover an area 2° across, extending from the Tellian geological units in the North to the Saharan Atlas units in the South. Analysis of SKS-wave splitting results insignificant spatial variations in fast polarization orientation, over a scale length of at most 100 km. The seismic anisotropy shows three clear spatial patterns. A general ENE-WSW orientation is observed under the stations in the north. This polarization orientation follows the direction of the Tell Atlas mountain chain, which is perpendicular to the convergence direction between Africa and Eurasia. Delay times vary significantly across the region, between 0.6 and 2.0 s. At several stations there is an indication of a WNW-ESE polarization orientation, which is apparently related to a later geodynamic evolutionary phase in this region. A third pattern of seismic anisotropy emerges in the South, with an orientation of roughly N-S. We discuss these observations in light of geodynamic models and present-day geodetic motion.

  15. Human papillomavirus infection in a population-based sample of women in Algiers, Algeria.

    PubMed

    Hammouda, Doudja; Clifford, Gary M; Pallardy, Sophie; Ayyach, Ghassan; Chékiri, Asma; Boudrich, Arab; Snijders, Peter J F; van Kemenade, Folkert J; Meijer, Chris J L M; Bouhadef, Anissa; Zitouni, Zahia; Habib, Djamila; Ikezaren, Nadia; Franceschi, Silvia

    2011-05-01

    No data exist on the population prevalence of, nor risk factors for, human papillomavirus (HPV) infection in the predominantly Muslim countries of Northern Africa. Cervical specimens were obtained from 759 married women aged 15-65 years from the general population of Algiers, Algeria. Liquid-based cytology and HPV DNA detection, using a GP5+/6+-based polymerase chain reaction assay that detects 44 HPV types, were performed according to the standardized protocol of the International Agency for Research on Cancer HPV Prevalence Surveys. HPV prevalence in the general population was 6.3% (4.0% of high-risk types), with no significant variation by age. The prevalence of cervical abnormalities was 3.6%. HPV positivity was significantly higher among divorced women, women in polygamous marriages and those reporting husband's extramarital sexual relationships. HPV16/18 accounted for only 15% of HPV-positive women in the general population, compared with 77% of invasive cervical cancer diagnosed in the same city. In conclusion, we report that HPV infection among married women in Algeria is much lower than in sub-Saharan Africa and also lower than in the majority of high-resource countries. PMID:20607828

  16. High-Level Primary Clarithromycin Resistance of Helicobacter pylori in Algiers, Algeria: A Prospective Multicenter Molecular Study.

    PubMed

    Djennane-Hadibi, Fazia; Bachtarzi, Mohamed; Layaida, Karim; Ali Arous, Nassima; Nakmouche, Mhamed; Saadi, Berkane; Tazir, Mohamed; Ramdani-Bouguessa, Nadjia; Burucoa, Christophe

    2016-04-01

    Knowledge of local antibiotic resistance is crucial to adaptation for the choice of the optimal first-line treatment for Helicobacter pylori infection. Clarithromycin is a key component of the standard triple therapy largely used worldwide and, more particularly, in Algeria. Clarithromycin resistance is the main risk factor for treatment failure. The aim of this study was to evaluate, for the first time in Algeria, the prevalence of the primary resistance of H. pylori to clarithromycin. We conducted a prospective study (2008-2014) that included 195 Algerian patients referred for gastroduodenal endoscopy to two University Hospitals, one General Hospital, and several private gastroenterologists in Algiers (Algeria). One gastric biopsy was collected for the molecular detection of H. pylori and the mutations in 23S rRNA genes that confer resistance to clarithromycin with a quadruplex real-time PCR using Scorpion primers. The Scorpion PCR detected H. pylori DNA in 91 biopsies (47%). A mutation conferring resistance to clarithromycin was detected in 32 of the 91 positive patients (35%) and in 29 of the 88 positive patients never previously treated for an H. pylori infection (33%). The prevalence of primary resistance of H. pylori to clarithromycin was 33% in the Algerian population being studied. The high level of primary clarithromycin resistance in the H. pylori strains infecting the Algerian population that we report leads us to recommend the abandonment of the standard clarithromycin-based triple therapy as a first-line treatment in Algeria. PMID:26554340

  17. A Tour of Modern and Historic Egypt and Israel. Fulbright-Hays Summer Seminars Abroad Program, 2000 (Egypt and Israel).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holdren, Greg

    This curriculum unit supplement for middle school and secondary teachers helps students in grades 5-12 explore Egypt and Israel, in both ancient and modern contexts. The unit supplement begins with student objectives, such as practicing map and research skills and reviewing summary information concerning historic and current interests. It provides…

  18. An Experience Guide: Egypt and Israel 2000. Fulbright-Hays Summer Seminars Abroad Program, 2000 (Egypt and Israel).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feijoo, Laura

    This "experience guide," developed by a teacher who traveled in the region, aims to provide information on the culture, history, society, geography, and political aspects of Egypt and Israel. Intended for teachers, the guide can enhance lessons in world history. Each segment summarizes a topic and provides questions designed to encourage research,…

  19. Space Radar Image of Safsaf Oasis, Egypt

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    This three-frequency space radar image of south-central Egypt demonstrates the unique capability of imaging radar to penetrate thin sand cover in arid regions to reveal hidden details below the surface. Nearly all of the structures seen in this image are invisible to the naked eye and to conventional optical satellite sensors. Features appear in various colors because the three separate radar wavelengths are able to penetrate the sand to different depths. Areas that appear red or orange are places that can be seen only by the longest wavelength, L-band, and they are the deepest of the buried structures. Field studies in this area indicate L-band can penetrate as much as 2 meters (6.5 feet) of very dry sand to image buried rock structures. Ancient drainage channels at the bottom of the image are filled with sand more than 2 meters (6.5 feet) thick and therefore appear dark because the radar waves cannot penetrate them. The fractured orange areas at the top of the image and the blue circular structures in the center of the image are granitic areas that may contain mineral ore deposits. Scientists are using the penetrating capabilities of radar imaging in desert areas in studies of structural geology, mineral exploration, ancient climates, water resources and archaeology. This image is 51.9 kilometers by 30.2 kilometers (32.2 miles by 18.7 miles) and is centered at 22.7 degrees north latitude, 29.3degrees east longitude. North is toward the upper right. The colors are assigned to different radar frequencies and polarizations as follows: red is L-band, horizontally transmitted and received; green is C-band, horizontally transmitted and received; and blue is X-band, vertically transmitted and received. The image was acquired by the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) on April 16, 1994, on board the space shuttle Endeavour. SIR-C/X-SAR, a joint mission of the German, Italian and United States space agencies, is part of NASA's Mission

  20. Fluvio-lacustrine Landforms and Associated Phyllosilicates of a Paleolake at Libya Montes, Mars: Evidence of Complex Hydrologic activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erkeling, G.; Ivanov, M. A.; Reiss, D.; Hiesinger, H.; Bishop, J. L.; Tirsch, D.; Tornabene, L. L.; Jaumann, R.

    2015-10-01

    The last decades of Mars research have revealed numerous observations of past flowing and ponding of water on the surface of Mars, including channels, valleys, paleolakes, seas and oceans. A region on Mars with the highest density of fluvial and lacustrine landforms is the Noachian-aged Libya Montes highland at the southern rim of Isidis Planitia [e.g., 1-5]. In particular, a 60-km diameter crater paleolake site located at 85.8°E/2.7°N reveals a diverse and complex setting of fluvial and lacustrine landforms [4]. The dense appearance of valleys, fan-shaped deposits and associated mineral assemblages record the repeated occurrence of liquid, flowing and standing water and provide significant insights into the aqueous geologic record of Libya Montes. The complex hydrologic activity proposed for this crater lake site indicates a great potential for discovery of past environmental conditions that may have been favorable for life [4]. The complex geologic and geochemical nature of this site encouraged multiple proposals for candidate landing sites for future rover missions to Mars [e.g., 4,6,7]. Although this site has not yet been selected as a landing site due to difficulties meeting the engineering requirements of near-future missions to Mars, it has been monitored with high priority by recent Mars orbiter missions. New HiRISE images provide, together with the HRSC DEM for the geologic context (Fig.1), a terrific view into the paleolake site and, in particular, of the fan- shaped deposits. Here we present the morphologic maps of the deposits at HiRISE scale (Fig. 2-4) and added hyperspectral CRISM data to investigate the mineralogy in greater detail.

  1. Evidence from detrital zircons for recycling of Mesoproterozoic and Neoproterozoic crust recorded in Paleozoic and Mesozoic sandstones of southern Libya

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meinhold, Guido; Morton, Andrew C.; Fanning, C. Mark; Frei, Dirk; Howard, James P.; Phillips, Richard J.; Strogen, Dominic; Whitham, Andrew G.

    2011-12-01

    The geodynamic history of the Precambrian basement in central North Africa as well as the age and provenance of its sedimentary cover sequence are still poorly constrained. Here we present first detrital zircon ages (obtained by LA-SF-ICP-MS and SHRIMP) from Paleozoic and Mesozoic sandstones of the eastern Murzuq Basin, southern Libya, which unconformably overlie the Saharan Metacraton. Establishing the age and provenance of these sandstones has important implications for our understanding of the evolution of northern Gondwana during the Paleozoic, especially for reconstructions of paleo-source areas and transport paths. Detrital zircons from the sandstones show mainly early Paleozoic to Neoarchean ages with four main age populations, at 2750-2500 Ma (8%), 2200-1750 Ma (16%), 1060-920 Ma (18%), and 720-530 Ma (39%). About 13% of all concordant grains yield ages of 1600-1000 Ma. In addition, there are 9 zircon grains (0.7% of all concordant grains) with ages of 3600-2800 Ma. The presence of a high number of ca. 1 Ga zircons is enigmatic and their origin is controversial. Besides direct sourcing from ca. 1 Ga igneous rocks in eastern Chad and ca. 1 Ga igneous rocks along the southeastern margins of the Congo and Tanzania cratons, recycling of Neoproterozoic sediments containing ca. 1 Ga zircons is another alternative hypothesis to explain the presence of ca. 1 Ga zircons in the Paleozoic sedimentary sequence of central North Africa. The ubiquitous occurrence of ca. 1 Ga zircons in Paleozoic sediments of southern Libya provides insights into the correlation and paleotectonic arrangement of Gondwana-derived terranes, present, for example, in the eastern Mediterranean and in southwestern Europe. Current paleotectonic models of dextral terrane transport along the northern Gondwana margin during the early Paleozoic may need to be revised.

  2. Review of the petroleum geology of the western part of the Sirt Basin, Libya

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdunaser, K. M.

    2015-11-01

    The petroleum geology of the western part of the Sirt Basin is reviewed by source, reservoir, traps and seal type in addition to Oil migration by different mechanisms. In general the oil and gas accumulations within Sirt Basin are reservoired in granitic basement, sandstones and carbonates ranging in age from Pre-Cambrian to Oligocene, charged by syn and early postrift, Triassic and intra-Cretaceous organic rich lacustrine and restricted marine shales. This paper offers a broad overview on petroleum systems of the western Sirt Basin as a part of the complex, prolific and mature Sirt Basin which considered as one of tectonically active basins of Mesozoic-Cenozoic age in central northern Libya includes reviewing the potential source rocks and assesses their thermal maturity, petroleum generation potential, organic richness and distribution. Key factors responsible for hydrocarbon distribution described by source rock distribution maps, and hydrocarbon generation areas as well as stratigraphic distribution of oil and gas occurrences with field maps and cross-sections (analogues) and summary reservoir description have been shown. The oil to source correlation scheme suggests that most of the oil in the study area was derived from the Sirte Shale (Upper Cretaceous, Campanian/Turonian), whilst the reservoirs are ranging in age from Lower/Upper Cretaceous to the Eocene. Sandstones predominate in the Cretaceous and carbonates are the main reservoirs in the Tertiary. Several different play types have been described from the study area of the western part of the Sirt Basin dominated by the structural traps, which range from simple normal faults to more complex faults and fold structures associated with wrench faults. Structural traps are dominant in the Zallah Trough and are mainly related to Eocene deformation on the heavily faulted western side of the basin. In addition several types of stratigraphic traps are present in the study area and essentially they are

  3. Rift architecture and evolution: The Sirt Basin, Libya: The influence of basement fabrics and oblique tectonics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdunaser, K. M.; McCaffrey, K. J. W.

    2014-12-01

    The Cretaceous-Tertiary northwest-trending Sirt Basin system, Libya, is a rift/sag basin formed on Pan-African to Paleozoic-aged basement of North Africa. In this study, we investigate the rift-basin architecture and tectonic framework of the western Sirt Basin. Using remote sensed data, supported by borehole data from about 300 deep wells and surface geologic maps, we constructed geological cross sections and surface geology maps. Indication of the relative timing of structures and movement along faults has been determined where possible. Direction statistics for all the interpreted linear features acquired in the study area were calculated and given as a total distribution and then the totals are broken down by the major basin elements of the area. Hundreds of lineaments were recognized. Their lengths, range between a hundred meters up to hundreds of kilometers and the longest of the dominant trends are between N35W-N55W and between N55E-N65E which coincides with Sirt Basin structures. The produced rose diagrams reveal that the majority of the surface linear features in the region have four preferred orientations: N40-50W in the Zallah Trough, N45-55W in the Dur al Abd Trough, N35-55W in the Az Zahrah-Al Hufrah Platform, and in contrast in the Waddan Uplift a N55-65E trend. We recognize six lithostratigraphic sequences (phases) in the area's stratigraphic framework. A Pre-graben (Pre-rift) initiation stage involved the Pre-Cretaceous sediments formed before the main Sirt Basin subsidence. Then followed a Cretaceous to Eocene graben-fill stage that can divided into four structurally-active and structurally-inactive periods, and finally a terminal continental siliciclastics-rich package representing the post-rift stage of the development in post-Eocene time. In general five major fault systems dissect and divide the study area into geomorphological elevated blocks and depressions. Most of the oil fields present in the study area are associated with structural hinge

  4. Oil and gas developments in north Africa in 1987

    SciTech Connect

    Popescu, B.M.

    1988-10-01

    The recovery of international petroleum activity in 1987 was reflected slightly in the 6 North Africa countries covered in this report (Algeria, Egypt, Libya, Morocco, Sudan, and Tunisia). Licensed area increased marginally to about 2,594,000 km/sup 2/ (up 0.5% from 1986), whereas surface exploration and drilling decreased significantly (about 30% and 20%, respectively, from 1986 levels). The two OPEC-member countries adhered to imposed quotas, recording somewhat lower production levels in 1987 than in 1986; however, total production of the North Africa countries increased to 3,025,000 BOPD (up 2% from 1986) as Egypt recorded all-time highs for both liquids and natural gas production. 7 figs., 29 tabs.

  5. La langue etrangere: reflexion sur le statut de la langue francaise en Algerie (Foreign Language: Reflections on the Status of the French Language in Algeria).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morsly, Dalila

    1984-01-01

    The unstable linguistic situation in Algeria resulting from official "normalization" in a country in which French has strong colonial roots is discussed, as well as its effects on the status of French instruction. (MSE)

  6. Bloc tectonic rotations recorded in the Neogene and Quaternary magmatic rocks from Northwestern Algeria: preliminary paleomagnetic results.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El Messaoud Derder, Mohamed; Robion, Philippe; Maouche, Said; Bayou, Boualem; Amenna, Mohamed; Henry, Bernard; Missenard, Yves; Ouabadi, Aziouz; Bestandji, Rafik; Ayache, Mohamed

    2016-04-01

    The seismic activity of the Western Mediterranean area is partly concentrated in northern Africa, particularly in northern Algeria, as it was shown by the strong earthquakes of Zemmouri 21 May 2003 Mw=6.9 and the El Asnam 10 October 1980 Ms= 7.3. This seismicity is due to the convergence between Africa and Eurasia plates since the Oligocene. This convergence involves a tectonic transpression with N-S to NNW-SSE shortening direction, which is expressed by active deformation along the plate boundary. Along the Tellian Atlas (Northern Algeria), active structures define NE-SW trending folds and NE-SW sinistral transpressive faults affecting the intermountain and coastal Neogene to Quaternary sedimentary basins (e.g. Cheliff and Mitidja Plioquaternary intramontaneous basins, …). The NE-SW reverse active faults are coupled with NW-SE to E-W trending strike-slip deep faults. The active deformation in northern Algeria can be explained by a kinematics model of blocks rotation: the transpressive tectonics with NNW-SSE direction of convergence defines NE-SW oriented blocks, which have been subjected to clockwise rotation. In north Algeria, paleomagnetic studies were carried out in the central area, on Neogene sedimentary and magmatic formations (Derder et al, 2009, 2011; 2013). They pointed out tectonic rotation of large blocks, in agreement with the kinematic model. Narrow zones represent important shear zone with strong rotation of smaller blocks (Derder et al., 2013). A new paleomagnetic study was conducted on the recent magmatic rocks outcropping in the Northwestern Algeria, in order to validate this model on a regional scale. The study is still in progress and the preliminary results show presence of systematic clockwise blocks rotation. These results confirm that the Africa-Europe convergence is partly accommodated in northern Africa by blocks rotations. They highlight that rotations are not homogeneous in north Algeria and thus the importance of future works in this

  7. Validation of S-NPP VIIRS Day-Night Band and M Bands Performance Using Ground Reference Targets of Libya 4 and Dome C

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, Xuexia; Wu, Aisheng; Xiong, Xiaoxiong; Lei, Ning; Wang, Zhipeng; Chiang, Kwofu

    2015-01-01

    This paper provides methodologies developed and implemented by the NASA VIIRS Calibration Support Team (VCST) to validate the S-NPP VIIRS Day-Night band (DNB) and M bands calibration performance. The Sensor Data Records produced by the Interface Data Processing Segment (IDPS) and NASA Land Product Evaluation and Algorithm Testing Element (PEATE) are acquired nearly nadir overpass for Libya 4 desert and Dome C snow surfaces. In the past 3.5 years, the modulated relative spectral responses (RSR) change with time and lead to 3.8% increase on the DNB sensed solar irradiance and 0.1% or less increases on the M4-M7 bands. After excluding data before April 5th, 2013, IDPS DNB radiance and reflectance data are consistent with Land PEATE data with 0.6% or less difference for Libya 4 site and 2% or less difference for Dome C site. These difference are caused by inconsistent LUTs and algorithms used in calibration. In Libya 4 site, the SCIAMACHY spectral and modulated RSR derived top of atmosphere (TOA) reflectance are compared with Land PEATE TOA reflectance and they indicate a decrease of 1.2% and 1.3%, respectively. The radiance of Land PEATE DNB are compared with the simulated radiance from aggregated M bands (M4, M5, and M7). These data trends match well with 2% or less difference for Libya 4 site and 4% or less difference for Dome C. This study demonstrate the consistent quality of DNB and M bands calibration for Land PEATE products during operational period and for IDPS products after April 5th, 2013.

  8. Validation of S-NPP VIIRS Day-Night band and M bands performance using ground reference targets of Libya 4 and Dome C

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Xuexia; Wu, Aisheng; Xiong, Xiaoxiong; Lei, Ning; Wang, Zhipeng; Chiang, Kwofu

    2015-09-01

    This paper provides methodologies developed and implemented by the NASA VIIRS Calibration Support Team (VCST) to validate the S-NPP VIIRS Day-Night band (DNB) and M bands calibration performance. The Sensor Data Records produced by the Interface Data Processing Segment (IDPS) and NASA Land Product Evaluation and Algorithm Testing Element (PEATE) are acquired nearly nadir overpass for Libya 4 desert and Dome C snow surfaces. In the past 3.5 years, the modulated relative spectral responses (RSR) change with time and lead to 3.8% increase on the DNB sensed solar irradiance and 0.1% or less increases on the M4-M7 bands. After excluding data before April 5th, 2013, IDPS DNB radiance and reflectance data are consistent with Land PEATE data with 0.6% or less difference for Libya 4 site and 2% or less difference for Dome C site. These difference are caused by inconsistent LUTs and algorithms used in calibration. In Libya 4 site, the SCIAMACHY spectral and modulated RSR derived top of atmosphere (TOA) reflectance are compared with Land PEATE TOA reflectance and they indicate a decrease of 1.2% and 1.3%, respectively. The radiance of Land PEATE DNB are compared with the simulated radiance from aggregated M bands (M4, M5, and M7). These data trends match well with 2% or less difference for Libya 4 site and 4% or less difference for Dome C. This study demonstrate the consistent quality of DNB and M bands calibration for Land PEATE products during operational period and for IDPS products after April 5th, 2013.

  9. Early human settlements in Northern Africa: paleomagnetic evidence from the Ain Hanech Formation (northeastern Algeria)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parés, J. M.; Sahnouni, M.; Van der Made, J.; Pérez-González, A.; Harichane, Z.; Derradji, A.; Medig, M.

    2014-09-01

    The question of the earliest hominid settlements in northern Africa has been under debate for a number of years due to the lack of precise chronologies. Here we present new paleomagnetic data that supports an Olduvai Subchron age for the archaeological sites at Ain Hanech and El-Kherba, in northern Algeria. Our study is based on a 22 m-thick magnetostratigraphy of the Ain Hanech Formation, which includes contextualized Oldowan and Acheulian lithic tools. Characteristic remanent magnetization directions were obtained from both thermal and alternating field demagnetization procedures of specimens from twenty five sampled horizons. Our results reveal the presence of the Olduvai Subchron in the upper part of the stratigraphic section, constraining the age of these important archaeological sites in northern Africa.

  10. Essential oil analysis and antibacterial activity of Rosmarinus tournefortii from Algeria.

    PubMed

    Bendeddouche, Mansouria Souria; Benhassaini, Hachemi; Hazem, Zouaoui; Romane, Abderrahmane

    2011-10-01

    The volatile compounds obtained by hydrodistillation of the aerial parts of Rosmarinus tournefortii De Noé. growing wild in the occidental region of Algeria were analyzed by GC/MS. Thirty-six compounds were characterized representing 95.6% of the essential oil, with camphor (37.6%), 1,8-cineole (10.0%), p-cymene-7-ol (7.8%), and borneol (5.4%) as the major components. The antimicrobial activity was evaluated against three pathogenic bacteria: Gram-negative (Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa) and Gram-positive (Staphylococcus aureus). The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC; mg/mL) was determined by sub-culture on Muller Hinton agar plates. The essential oil exhibited strong antibacterial activity against E. coli and P. aeruginosa, and was also active against Staphylococcus aureus. PMID:22164796

  11. Blood-Borne Candidatus Borrelia algerica in a Patient with Prolonged Fever in Oran, Algeria.

    PubMed

    Fotso Fotso, Aurélien; Angelakis, Emmanouil; Mouffok, Nadjet; Drancourt, Michel; Raoult, Didier

    2015-11-01

    To improve the knowledge base of Borrelia in north Africa, we tested 257 blood samples collected from febrile patients in Oran, Algeria, between January and December 2012 for Borrelia species using flagellin gene polymerase chain reaction sequencing. A sequence indicative of a new Borrelia sp. named Candidatus Borrelia algerica was detected in one blood sample. Further multispacer sequence typing indicated this Borrelia sp. had 97% similarity with Borrelia crocidurae, Borrelia duttonii, and Borrelia recurrentis. In silico comparison of Candidatus B. algerica spacer sequences with those of Borrelia hispanica and Borrelia garinii revealed 94% and 89% similarity, respectively. Candidatus B. algerica is a new relapsing fever Borrelia sp. detected in Oran. Further studies may help predict its epidemiological importance. PMID:26416117

  12. Assessment of the petrochemical industry pollution on the Skikda bay, Algeria.

    PubMed

    Maachia, Leila; Boutefnouchet, Nafissa; Nafissa, Boutefnouchet; Bouzerna, Noureddine; Chettibi, Houria

    2005-12-01

    The Skikda bay is located in the northern part of Algeria. The area is in contact with a petrochemical industrial complex, which raw materials and final products contaminate the surrounding areas via atmospheric pollution as well as effluents, which are dumped into seawaters. To establish the effects of these pollutants and waste disposal on the vicinity of the bay, several samples were taken at different distances along the bay and the outfall pipes of the industrial complex. Subsequently, several chemical analyses were made to analyze the concentrations of hydrocarbons, CO[2], Ca(+2) and Mg(+2), chlorides and phosphates and the alkalinity present into the samples. Several concentrations of the above constituents are reported as a function of the different sites. PMID:16819102

  13. Ruminal paramphistomosis in cattle from northeastern Algeria: prevalence, parasite burdens and species identification

    PubMed Central

    Titi, Amal; Mekroud, Abdeslam; Chibat, Mohamed el Hadi; Boucheikhchoukh, Mehdi; Zein-Eddine, Rima; Djuikwo-Teukeng, Félicité F.; Vignoles, Philippe; Rondelaud, Daniel; Dreyfuss, Gilles

    2014-01-01

    Slaughterhouse samples were analysed over a two-year period (September 2010–August 2012) in Jijel (northeastern Algeria) in order to determine seasonal variations in the prevalence and intensity of bovine paramphistomosis in a Mediterranean climate and identify paramphistome species using molecular biology. In spring and summer, significantly higher prevalences and lower parasite burdens were noted in bull calves, thus indicating an effect of season on these parameters. In contrast, the differences among seasonal prevalences or among seasonal parasite burdens were not significant in the case of old cows. Eleven adult worms from the slaughterhouses of Jijel and three neighbouring departments (Constantine, El Tarf and Setif) were analysed using molecular markers for species identification. Two different species, Calicophoron daubneyi and C. microbothrium, were found. The presence of these two paramphistomids raises the question of their respective frequency in the definitive host and local intermediate hosts. PMID:25279553

  14. Evidence that clade A and clade B head lice live in sympatry and recombine in Algeria.

    PubMed

    Boutellis, A; Bitam, I; Fekir, K; Mana, N; Raoult, D

    2015-03-01

    Pediculus humanus L. (Psocodea: Pediculidae) can be characterized into three deeply divergent lineages (clades) based on mitochondrial DNA. Clade A consists of both head lice and clothing lice and is distributed worldwide. Clade B consists of head lice only and is mainly found in North and Central America, and in western Europe and Australia. Clade C, which consists only of head lice, is found in Ethiopia, Nepal and Senegal. Twenty-six head lice collected from pupils at different elementary schools in two localities in Algiers (Algeria) were analysed using molecular methods for genotyping lice (cytochrome b and the multi-spacer typing (MST) method. For the first time, we found clade B head lice in Africa living in sympatry with clade A head lice. The phylogenetic analysis of the concatenated sequences of these populations of head lice showed that clade A and clade B head lice had recombined, suggesting that interbreeding occurs when lice live in sympatry. PMID:25346378

  15. Draft genome sequence of Thermoactinomyces sp. strain AS95 isolated from a Sebkha in Thamelaht, Algeria.

    PubMed

    Bezuidt, Oliver K I; Gomri, Mohamed A; Pierneef, Rian; Van Goethem, Marc W; Kharroub, Karima; Cowan, Don A; Makhalanyane, Thulani P

    2016-01-01

    The members of the genus Thermoactinomyces are known for their protein degradative capacities. Thermoactinomyces sp. strain AS95 is a Gram-positive filamentous bacterium, isolated from moderately saline water in the Thamelaht region of Algeria. This isolate is a thermophilic aerobic bacterium with the capacity to produce extracellular proteolytic enzymes. This strain exhibits up to 99 % similarity with members of the genus Thermoactinomyces, based on 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity. Here we report on the phenotypic features of Thermoactinomyces sp. strain AS95 together with the draft genome sequence and its annotation. The genome of this strain is 2,558,690 bp in length (one chromosome, but no plasmid) with an average G + C content of 47.95 %, and contains 2550 protein-coding and 60 RNA genes together with 64 ORFs annotated as proteases. PMID:27617058

  16. Depositional systems and stratigraphy of Paleozoic and Lower Mesozoic rocks in outcrop, Tassili region, southwest Algeria

    SciTech Connect

    Hertig, S.P.; Tye, R.S.; Coffield, D.Q.; Howes, J.V.C. ); Ferhati, S. )

    1991-08-01

    Paleozoic to Lower Mesozoic strata of the southeastern Algerian Tassili are traditionally subdivided by regionally extensive unconformities such as the Pan African, Taconic, Caledonian, and Hercynian. Using outcrop data from southeastern Algeria, this classic approach is modified by reinterpreting the genesis of these unconformities and rock sequences. Five prominent sequences, defined within the Paleozoic and lower Mesozoic section, usually consist of a succession of lowstand, transgressive, and highstand system tracts separated by sequence boundaries or transgressive surfaces. The Pan-African, Taconic, Caledonian, and Hercynian unconformities are sequence boundaries. Important sequence boundaries also occur within the Ordovician and Silurian sections. These sequences correlate with subsurface data in the Illizi basin and provide a framework for renewed exploration in the subsurface of the Algerian Sahara, where more than 30 billion bbl of recoverable oil and oil equivalent have been generated and trapped.

  17. The oasis of Tiout in the southwest of Algeria: Water resources and sustainable development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hadidi, Abdelkader; Remini, Boualem; Habi, Mohamed; Saba, Djamel; Benmedjaed, Milloud

    2016-07-01

    The Tiout oasis is located in the municipality of Naama at the south west of Algeria is known by their ksour, the palm plantations and the good quality of their fruit and vegetables, in particular the dates and its varieties. This area contains enormous capacities of subsoil and superficial water. For several centuries, domestic consumption and the irrigation are carried out by the use of the traditional techniques of water collecting such as; the pendulum wells and foggaras them. Currently, this hydraulic heritage encounters technical and social problems, in particular with the contribution of drillings and the motor- pumps. The main issues are quoted: • Beating and draining of the water sources; • Degradation and abandonment of the traditional techniques.This study objective is to make an inventory of all the water sources in the study area, to study the impact of the modern technologies contribution on the ancestral techniques and finally to propose recommendations for the backup of the hydraulic heritage.

  18. Fluoride contents in groundwaters and the main consumed foods (dates and tea) in Southern Algeria region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Messaïtfa, Amar

    2008-07-01

    In the Algeria South, the dental fluorosis is a “silent” epidemic spreading within the populations. The present study was aimed to determine the fluoride content in water, dates and tea that are widely consumed. The results reveal that 35% of water wells had excessive fluoride levels (>1.5 mg/L). The eastern areas where dental decay is the most widespread pathology present the highest contents. Dates, tea and water are considerable sources of fluoride, with a daily contribution of 10, 20 and up to 70%, respectively. For these three sources, the daily intake of fluoride ingested by an adult exceeds the proposed safe threshold of 0.05-0.07 mg/kg day.

  19. Prevalence of bovine and human brucellosis in western Algeria: comparison of screening tests.

    PubMed

    Aggad, H; Boukraa, L

    2006-01-01

    A serological study was carried out in Tiaret province in western Algeria on 1032 cows distributed in 95 flocks to estimate the prevalence of Brucella infection and to compare the sensitivity and specificity of a range of agglutination tests. Screening tests showed 31.5% of herds positive using the buffered plate antigen test and 26.3% using the rose Bengal test compared with 15.7% with the complement fixation test. Using the complement fixation test as the gold standard for confirmatory tests, the Rivanol test was found to be more sensitive but less specific than tube agglutination in detecting brucellosis infection. Three isolates were identified from 105 blood samples from humans with brucellosis and 50 samples of milk and tissues from infected cows and they were all Brucella melitensis biovar 3. PMID:17037229

  20. [Leishmania infantum MON-1 isolated from a golden jackal (Canis aureus) in Grande Kabylie (Algeria)].

    PubMed

    Bessad, A; Mouloua, K; Kherrachi, I; Benbetka, S; Benikhlef, R; Mezai, G; Harrat, Z

    2012-02-01

    In the north of Algeria, Leishmania infantum is responsible for two clinical forms of leishmaniasis: visceral and cutaneous leishmaniasis, for which dogs are the only proven reservoir host. In this study, the authors report, for the first time, the isolation of L. infantum from a golden jackal (Canis aureus) trapped in the Illoulen ou Malou region (Grande Kabylie). Two isolates were thus obtained from bone marrow and spleen and were identified by starch gel isoenzyme electrophoresis as L. infantum MON-1, the widespread zymodeme in the north of the country. Leishmania parasites have also been detected by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in the biopsy of the spleen. The golden jackal, a prevalent wild canid in Northern Africa, could play a predominant role in the sylvatic foci of leishmaniasis and in the dissemination of the parasite in this region. PMID:21874583

  1. Subclinical mastitis in cattle in Algeria: frequency of occurrence and bacteriological isolates.

    PubMed

    Saidi, Radhwane; Khelef, Djamel; Kaidi, Rachid

    2013-01-01

    The present study was carried out to determine the prevalence of subclinical mastitis in cattle in eighteen herds in the center region of Algeria. Milk samples were collected from 560 quarters of 140 cows free of clinical mastitis. The samples were subjected to California Mastitis Test (CMT) and the positive samples were analysed by bacteriological culture and Speed Mam® Color. The overall quarter prevalence was 28.77% whilst animal prevalence was 28.57%.Bacteriological analysis showed that there was a wide range of bacteria that cause these infections. Staphylococcus aureus (40%) was found to be the most prevalent organism followed by Streptococcus spp. (12.5%), Enterobacteriaceae (2.5%), Pseudomonas spp. (2.5%), Staphylococcus aureus + Streptococcus spp. (12.5%), Streptococcus spp.+ Escherichia coli (7.5%), S. aureus + Mycoplasma spp.(7.5%), and S. aureus +Streptococcus spp.+ E. coli (5%). PMID:23718559

  2. Mesozoic and Cenozoic vertical movements in the Atlas system (Algeria, Morocco, Tunisia): An overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Lamotte, Dominique Frizon; Leturmy, Pascale; Missenard, Yves; Khomsi, Sami; Ruiz, Geoffrey; Saddiqi, Omar; Guillocheau, Francois; Michard, André

    2009-09-01

    The E-W trending Atlas System of Maghreb consists of weakly shortened, intra-continental fold belts associated with plateau areas ("Mesetas"), extending between the south-westernmost branch of the Mediterranean Alpine Belt (Rif-Tell) and the Sahara Platform. Although the Atlas system has been erected contemporaneously from Morocco to Algeria and Tunisia during the Middle Eocene to Recent, it displays a conspicuous longitudinal asymmetry, with i) Paleozoic outcrops restricted to its western part; ii) highest elevation occurring in the west, both in the Atlas System and its foreland (Anti-Atlas); iii) low elevation corridors (e.g. Hodna) and depressed foreland (Tunisian Chotts and Sahel area) in the east. We analyse the origin of these striking contrasts in relation with i) the Variscan heritage; ii) crustal vertical movements during the Mesozoic; iii) crustal shortening during the Cenozoic and finally, iv) the occurrence of a Miocene-Quaternary hot mantle anomaly in the west. The Maghreb lithosphere was affected by the Variscan orogeny, and thus thickened only in its western part. During the Late Permian-Triassic, a paleo-high formed in the west between the Central Atlantic and Alpine Tethys rift systems, giving birth to the emergent/poorly subsident West Moroccan Arch. During the late Middle Jurassic-Early Cretaceous, Morocco and western Algeria were dominantly emergent whereas rifting lasted on in eastern Algeria and Tunisia. We ascribe the uplift of the western regions to thermal doming, consistent with the Late Jurassic and Barremian gabbroic magmatism observed there. After the widespread transgression of the high stand Cenomanian-Turonian seas, the inversion of the Atlas System began during the Senonian as a consequence of the Africa-Eurasia convergence. Erosion affected three ENE-trending uplifted areas of NW Africa, which we consider as lithospheric anticlines related to the incipient Africa-Europe convergence. In contrast, in eastern Algeria and Tunisia a NW

  3. [Epidemiology of bacillary dysentery in Algeria. II. The seasonality of dysentery].

    PubMed

    Shkarin, V V; Ouchfoun, A; Minaev, V I; Naceur, D

    1983-04-01

    Morbidity rises during the period of summer and autumn are characteristic of bacterial dysentery in Algeria. During the last 18 years no essential changes in the seasonal character of bacterial dysentery were observed in the country taken as a whole. However, in different climatic and geographical zones of the country the seasonal character of dysentery greatly varies from one zone to another and essentially differs from the seasonal character of dysentery morbidity, typical of the country as a whole for many years. The most pronounced manifestations of seasonal rises are observed in the Sahara zone. The seasonal character of dysentery is formed mainly by morbidity among patients belonging to 3 age groups. The seasonal rises of dysentery can be probably explained by the complex of social and climatic factors, as well as by the biological features of the causative agents of this disease. PMID:6868889

  4. [Annual variations in plasma prolactin and testosterone concentrations in the Ouled-Djellal ram in Algeria].

    PubMed

    Darbeida, H; Brudieux, R; Ravault, J P

    1984-01-01

    Plasma concentrations of prolactin and testosterone were measured weekly, from November 1976 to December 1977, respectively in 29 and 10 Ouled-Djellal rams penned in the Algeria area. Plasma prolactin and testosterone levels exhibited concomitant seasonal variations: they were low in November-December, then they increased from January to maximal values in summer through two steps, the first in February-March, the second in June-July. Taken all around, the hormones changes paralleled those of photoperiod. The synchronism in annual variations of prolactin and testosterone secretory patterns is a feature of the Ouled-Djellal ram. Results are discussed in relation to effects of prolactin on testicular activity. PMID:6442184

  5. False color image of Safsaf Oasis in southern Egypt

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    This is a false color image of the uninhabited Safsaf Oasis in southern Egypt near the Egypt/Sudan border. It was produced from data obtained from the L-band and C-band radars that are part of the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar onboard the Shuttle Endeavour on April 9, 1994. The image is centered at 22 degrees North latitude, 29 degrees East longitude. It shows detailed structures of bedrock, and the dark blue sinuous lines are braided channels that occupy part of an old broad river valley. Virtually everything visible on this radar composite image cannot be seen either when standing on the ground or when viewing photographs or satellite images such as Landsat. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory alternative photo number is P-43920.

  6. Implementation of the Regulatory Authority Information System in Egypt

    SciTech Connect

    Carson, S.D.; Schetnan, R.; Hasan, A.; Mohamed, Y.T.

    2006-07-01

    As part of the implementation of a bar-code-based system to track radioactive sealed sources (RSS) in Egypt, the Regulatory Authority Information System Personal Digital Assistant (RAIS PDA) Application was developed to extend the functionality of the International Atomic Energy Agency's (IAEA's) RAIS database by allowing users to download RSS data from the database to a portable PDA equipped with a bar-code scanner. [1, 4] The system allows users in the field to verify radioactive sealed source data, gather radioactive sealed source audit information, and upload that data to the RAIS database. This paper describes the development of the RAIS PDA Application, its features, and how it will be implemented in Egypt. (authors)

  7. Monitoring the urbanization of the Nile Delta, Egypt.

    SciTech Connect

    Sultan, M.; Fiske, M.; Stein, T.; Gamal, M.; El Araby, H.; Madani, A.; Mehanee, S.; Becker, R.; Environmental Research; Washington Univ.; Cairo Univ. Center for Environmental Hazard Mitigation

    1999-11-01

    Comparisons of satellite images of the Nile Delta, acquired in 1972, 1984 and 1990, indicate that urban growth is endangering Egypt's agricultural productivity. Urban areas occupied a minimum of 3.6%, 4.7% and 5.7% of the Delta in 1972, 1984 and 1990, respectively, an increase of 58% in 18 years. Approximately half of this increase occurred between 1984 and 1990. If this trend continues, Egypt could lose 12% of its total agricultural area to urbanization by 2010. Despite the fact that growth is pronounced around the cities, it is the growth around the thousands of small villages that poses the largest threat to the agricultural productivity of the Nile Delta. The cumulative growth rate for the cities and large villages between 1972 and 1990 is 37%, and that for the small villages is 77% for the same time period.

  8. The practice and politics of archaeology in Egypt.

    PubMed

    Meskell, L

    2000-01-01

    Archaeologists working in Egypt have rarely considered the local/global ramifications and responsibilities of their field practices: many continue to operate under what might be termed the residual effects of colonialism. Taking an explicitly postcolonial stance I argue that there is much more at stake than the intellectual enterprise. This paper outlines the ways in which scholars could undertake a more engaged archaeology and how we might more closely be involved with the people and pasts of modern Egypt. The connected tensions of tourism and terrorism are foregrounded, demonstrating that heritage issues are salient to both spheres. Finally, I explore the nation's relationship to its pharaonic past over the past few centuries and include some contemporary articulations and representations. PMID:11193011

  9. Water resources management: case study of Sharkia governorate, Egypt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohamed, Y. A.; Rashad, M.

    2012-06-01

    Ministry of water resources and irrigation in Egypt is currently implementing projects that expand new cultivated area, and accordingly the supplies of Nile River to the Nile Delta will be negatively affected. So, Enormous interest toward water resources management has been taken in the Egyptian water sector. Conveyance infrastructure and irrigation technology has been gradually improved to ensure efficient distribution and utilization of scarce water resources. The present study is focused on the optimum utilization of water resources in Sharkia governorate, Egypt. Operational and planning distribution model is implemented on the selected case study (Sharkia governorate) to develop appropriate water plan. The gross revenue of all crops is correlated to surface water discharge, ground water discharge, surface water salinity, and ground water salinity. In addition, the effect of varying both surface and groundwater quantities and qualities on the gross revenue has been investigated. Moreover, the effect of limiting rice production on the gross revenue is allocated.

  10. Entropy of Egypt's virtual water trade gravity field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karakatsanis, Georgios; Bierbach, Sandra

    2016-04-01

    The study investigates the entropy of Egypt's virtual water trade gravity distribution, in order to provide a chart of Egypt's embodied water balance in agricultural trade, in relation to distances with its major counterparties. Moreover, our calculations on the amount of the embodied water traded between Egypt and each of its partners take place according to a combination of available data on the blue, green and grey water footprints as well as the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) database of traded amounts per crop type. A study on the virtual water trade gravity, enables us to enrich former related studies (Fracasso 2014; Fracasso, Sartori and Schiavo 2014) via examining Egypt's water supply dependence on the Nile River and if comparative advantages -purely from the side of water quantities- can be identified via recognizing which water footprint categories are particularly high. Additionally, this methodology can comprise -from a fundamental level- a guide for revealing the importance of water footprint types for Egypt's agricultural sector; hence, Egypt's potential comparative advantages, as far as quantitative water endowments are exclusively concerned (without consideration of water or crop prices). Although it is pointed out very correctly by various authors (Antonelli and Sartori 2014) that the virtual water trade concept does not incorporate many important aspects of water supply -such as heavy water price subsidizing- to be used accurately for the identification of comparative advantages, we consider that the purely quantitative examination can provide strong fundamental indications -especially for green and grey water footprints, which are hypothesized to be less sensitive to subsidizing. In overall, this effect can very well provide a primary indication on the organization of the global alimentation trade network (Yang et al. 2006). The gravity equation used contains water footprint data for the 15 top traded crops and the distances for Egypt

  11. Eastern region represents a worrying cluster of active hepatitis C in Algeria in 2012.

    PubMed

    Bensalem, Aïcha; Selmani, Karima; Hihi, Narjes; Bencherifa, Nesrine; Mostefaoui, Fatma; Kerioui, Cherif; Pineau, Pascal; Debzi, Nabil; Berkane, Saadi

    2016-08-01

    Algeria is the largest country of Africa, peopled with populations living a range of traditional/rural and modern/urban lifestyles. The variations of prevalence of chronic active hepatitis care poorly known on the Algerian territory. We conducted a retrospective survey on all patients (n = 998) referred to our institution in 2012 and confirmed by us for an active hepatitis C. Half of the hepatitis C virus (HCV) isolates were genotyped. Forty Algerian regions out of the 48 were represented in our study. Three geographical clusters (Aïn-Temouchent/SidiBelAbbes, Algiers, and a large Eastern region) with an excess of active hepatitis C were observed. Patients coming from the Eastern cluster (Batna, Khenchela, Oum el Bouaghi, and Tebessa) were strongly over-represented (49% of cases, OR = 14.5, P < 0.0001). The hallmarks of Eastern region were an excess of women (65% vs. 46% in the remaining population, P < 0.0001) and the almost exclusive presence of HCV genotype 1 (93% vs. 63%, P = 0.0001). The core of the epidemics was apparently located in Khenchela (odds ratio = 24.6, P < 0.0001). This situation is plausibly connected with nosocomial transmission or traditional practices as scarification (Hijama), piercing or tattooing, very lively in this region. Distinct hepatitis C epidemics are currently affecting Algerian population. The most worrying situation is observed in rural regions located east of Algeria. J. Med. Virol. 88:1394-1403, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26856380

  12. Remote sensing and Geomatics in the service of environment management: case study of eastern Algeria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arar, Abdelkrim; Chenchouni, Haroun

    In the early 70s, geomatics was referring to the combination of Earth measures with the com-puter science. It is now a crucial tool for decision-making in many areas such as environmental information systems and management of natural hazards. The use of classical statistics led to forget the first time in objects location, supplemented by the cartography, then found in an analysis in terms of residues, the spatial effects. GIS based software applications have been used widely for environment management and analysis studies. The usage of GIS in environmental risk management ranges from simple development of databases/inventory systems, to advanced GIS layers overlay, then to complex spatial decision-making systems for study of the impact of air, water and soil pollutions, ecological imbalance, and natural disasters on the environmental and human receptors. Moreover, as tools of geomatics, the methods of geostatistics and math-ematical morphology, when grouped in spatial statistics, they analyze the information directly in a geocoded structure. In this paper, the use of Geomatics tools (Remote Sensing and GIS) for the execution and spatial analysis of land cover in the eastern Algeria is discussed. This study highlights the advantages and limits of these tools and to know its potential for asses the natural environment. In addition, its aims firstly to create a multi-temporal database on land-cover that revealing different states and dynamics of land use in the study area from satel-lite images of Landsat. On the other hand, it is involved in the integration of GIS by creating a Digital Elevation Model "DEM" to carry out a spatial analysis that allows the assessment of the real surface for each class of land-cover, because without correction, DEM gives only surface of flat area. Moreover, this permits also to evaluate the spatiotemporal evolution and changes in land-cover and/or land-use. Keywords: East Algeria, Geomatics, GIS, land cover, remote sensing, spatial

  13. Characteristics of Salmonella contamination of broilers and slaughterhouses in the region of Constantine (Algeria).

    PubMed

    Elgroud, R; Zerdoumi, F; Benazzouz, M; Bouzitouna-Bentchouala, C; Granier, S A; Frémy, S; Brisabois, A; Dufour, B; Millemann, Y

    2009-03-01

    The present study provides the first data about the prevalence of Salmonella contamination of broilers and slaughterhouses in the region of Constantine, Algeria. The serotypes and anti-microbial resistance phenotypes of the isolates were determined, and risk factors contributing to the contamination were evaluated. A total of 2490 samples, 1800 originating from 30 broiler farms and 690 from 15 slaughterhouses, were taken during two periods: March 2005-June 2006 and September 2006-March 2007. Salmonella contamination concerned 37% of the broiler farms and 53% of the slaughterhouses. Among the 55 isolates recovered, 10 different serotypes were identified. The most frequently recovered serotypes in both slaughterhouses and breeder farms were S. Hadar (36%, n = 20), S. Virchow (16%, n = 9), S. Infantis (10.9%, n = 6), S. Albany (11%, n = 6) and S. Carnac (7%, n = 4). Isolates belonging to S. Heidelberg (2%, n = 1) and S. Rissen (2%, n = 1) were found only in farms, while those belonging to S. Typhimurium (9%, n = 5), S. Enteritidis (4%, n = 2) and S. Montevideo (2%, n = 1) were recovered only from slaughterhouses. Thirty-nine isolates (80%) were resistant to at least one anti-microbial and 51% were multi-resistant, i.e. resistant to two or more anti-microbial molecules. About 58% (n = 32) were resistant to streptomycin, 36% (n = 20) to tetracyclines, 27% (n = 15) to nalidixic acid, 13% (n = 7) to ofloxacin and one isolate to enrofloxacin. Finally, seven distinct anti-microbial resistance profiles were identified. In parallel, four risk factors were found to be significantly associated with Salmonella contamination. Together with the huge spread of Salmonella in the broiler production chain in Constantine, Algeria, these risk factors highlight the hazards of the broiler channels, particularly linked to poor technical and hygiene practices. PMID:18705656

  14. Middle miocene trachypatagus (Echinodermata, Echinoidea),from Egypt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ali, M. S. M.

    Two species of T rachypatagus, an echinoid restricted to the Mediterranean region: T. tuberculatus (Wright) and T. nehalae n. sp., are described from the Marmarica Limestone Formation (Langhian-Serravalhan) of Mediterranean Seacoast of Egypt. A third species of the same genus is considered to be new, but left in open nomenclature on account of the paucity of material. Stratigraphy of the studied sections, paleogeographic distribution and the habitat of the genus are discussed.

  15. Hazard estimation deduced from GPS and seismic data of Egypt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sayed Mohamed, Abdel-Monem

    Egypt rapidly growing development is accompanied by increasing levels of standard living particular in its urban areas. However, there is a limited experience in quantifying the sources of risk management in Egypt and in designing efficient strategies to keep away serious impacts of earthquakes. From the historical point of view and recent instrumental records, there are some seismo-active regions in Egypt, where some significant earthquakes had occurred in different places. The special tectonic features in Egypt: Aswan, Greater Cairo, Red Sea and Sinai Peninsula regions are the territories of a high seismic risk, which have to be monitored by up-to date technologies. The investigations of the seismic events and interpretations led to evaluate the seismic hazard for disaster prevention and for the safety of the dense populated regions and the vital national projects as the High Dam. In addition to the monitoring of the recent crustal movements, the most powerful technique of satellite geodesy GPS are used where geodetic networks are covering such seismo-active regions. The results from the data sets are compared and combined in order to determine the main characteristics of the deformation and hazard estimation for specified regions. The final compiled output from the seismological and geodetic analysis threw lights upon the geodynamical regime of these seismo-active regions and put Aswan and Greater Cairo under the lowest class according to horizontal crustal strains classifications. This work will serve a basis for the development of so-called catastrophic models and can be further used for catastrophic risk management. Also, this work is trying to evaluate risk of large catastrophic losses within the important regions including the High Dam, strategic buildings and archeological sites. Studies on possible scenarios of earthquakes and losses are a critical issue for decision making in insurance as a part of mitigation measures.

  16. An Ancient Egyptian Diagonal Star Table in Mallawi, Egypt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Symons, Sarah; Cockcroft, Robert

    2013-11-01

    A coffin belonging to an Egyptian Middle Kingdom official Hor-em-hetepu, on public display in the Mallawi Monuments Museum, Egypt, contains a previously-unpublished diagonal star table (or "diagonal star clock"). This table adds to the other twenty-four examples of this type of astronomical record or calendar from around 2100 B.C. The table displays a regular diagonal pattern of decan (star or asterism) names, with some interesting points of content, epigraphy, and typology.

  17. Lower Eocene carbonate facies of Egypt: paleogeographic and tectonic implications

    SciTech Connect

    Garrison, R.E.

    1983-03-01

    The northern Arabo-Nubian craton witnessed a major Late Cretaceous-early Tertiary marine transgression that culminated in the deposition of widespread shelf-sea carbonates during Early Eocene (Ypresian) time. Outer shelf facies characterize exposures in central Egypt (Assiut, Luxor, Kharga), and are composed primarily of rhythmically interbedded chalk and micritic limestone with minor intercalated marine hardgrounds. To the south (Kurkur-Dungul), these fine-grained lithologies give way to inner shelf foraminiferal wackestones and grainstones, typical Tethyan Nummulitic facies. Missing in southern Egypt is the restricted dolomitic evaporitic facies predicted by the Irwin model and observed in the lower Eocene of the Sirte basin to the west and the Arabian Platform to the east. Comparing the areal distribution of these lower Eocene carbonates to coeval facies developed across the remained of northern Africa and Arabia reveals the presence of a broad marine embayment which extended through central and eastern Egypt into northern Sudan during Ypresian time. The widespread subsidence that resulted in the development of this features may have been an effect of regional crustal attenuation preceding the rifting of the Red Sea. Concomitant with this regional subsidence were localized uplift and extensional block faulting in the vicinity of the incipient Red Sea rift (the Safaga-Quseir coastal plain). Here, lower Eocene carbonate facies are indicative of shallow water platforms developed on horst blocks, and deeper water, turbidite-fed basins in intervening grabens.

  18. Hotline in Egypt marks change in government attitude to AIDS.

    PubMed

    1995-10-01

    The first 24-hour AIDS hotline in the Arab world will open in Cairo, Egypt, in October 1995. The opening of the new service marks a change in attitude on the part of the Egyptian government, which has maintained a discreet AIDS control program in the past. Approval from religious leaders was necessary for the new program to begin; the United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF) played a prominent role in negotiations. The "Counsel and Hot Line Centre," which will be based in Imbala district, will employ 19 people, including two doctors and two psychologists. The Centre was funded with US$300,000 from the Ford Foundation. Currently, 478 persons with HIV infections and 110 people with AIDS have been reported. The ministry estimates that there are 5000-7000 persons with HIV infections in Egypt. Although these figures were greeted with suspicion by organizations outside of Egypt, subsequent testing has indicated low prevalence rates for this country, despite high tourism and a large population of migrant workers. PMID:12290451

  19. Prospects of effective microorganisms technology in wastes treatment in Egypt

    PubMed Central

    Shalaby, Emad A

    2011-01-01

    Sludge dewatering and treatment may cost as much as the wastewater treatment. Usually large proportion of the pollutants in wastewater is organic. They are attacked by saprophytic microorganisms, i.e. organisms that feed upon dead organic matter. Activity of organisms causes decomposition of organic matter and destroys them, where the bacteria convert the organic matter or other constituents in the wastewater to new cells, water, gases and other products. Demolition activities, including renovation/remodeling works and complete or selective removal/demolishing of existing structures either by man-made processes or by natural disasters, create an extensive amount of wastes. These demolition wastes are characterized as heterogeneous mixtures of building materials that are usually contaminated with chemicals and dirt. In developing countries, it is estimated that demolition wastes comprise 20% to 30% of the total annual solid wastes. In Egypt, the daily quantity of construction and demolition (C&D) waste has been estimated as 10 000 tones. That is equivalent to one third of the total daily municipal solid wastes generated per day in Egypt. The zabbaliin have since expanded their activities and now take the waste they collect back to their garbage villages where it is sorted into recyclable components: paper, plastics, rags, glass, metal and food. The food waste is fed to pigs and the other items are sold to recycling centers. This paper summarizes the wastewater and solid wastes management in Egypt now and future. PMID:23569767

  20. Prospects of effective microorganisms technology in wastes treatment in Egypt.

    PubMed

    Shalaby, Emad A

    2011-06-01

    Sludge dewatering and treatment may cost as much as the wastewater treatment. Usually large proportion of the pollutants in wastewater is organic. They are attacked by saprophytic microorganisms, i.e. organisms that feed upon dead organic matter. Activity of organisms causes decomposition of organic matter and destroys them, where the bacteria convert the organic matter or other constituents in the wastewater to new cells, water, gases and other products. Demolition activities, including renovation/remodeling works and complete or selective removal/demolishing of existing structures either by man-made processes or by natural disasters, create an extensive amount of wastes. These demolition wastes are characterized as heterogeneous mixtures of building materials that are usually contaminated with chemicals and dirt. In developing countries, it is estimated that demolition wastes comprise 20% to 30% of the total annual solid wastes. In Egypt, the daily quantity of construction and demolition (C&D) waste has been estimated as 10 000 tones. That is equivalent to one third of the total daily municipal solid wastes generated per day in Egypt. The zabbaliin have since expanded their activities and now take the waste they collect back to their garbage villages where it is sorted into recyclable components: paper, plastics, rags, glass, metal and food. The food waste is fed to pigs and the other items are sold to recycling centers. This paper summarizes the wastewater and solid wastes management in Egypt now and future. PMID:23569767

  1. Oil and gas developments in North Africa in 1984

    SciTech Connect

    Michel, R.C.

    1985-10-01

    Petroleum rights in the 6 North African countries (Algeria, Egypt, Libya, Morocco, Sudan, and Tunisia) covered in this paper were 1,906,065 km/sup 2/ at the end of 1984. An increase of 4.6% from the 1,821,966 km/sup 2/ in force at the end of 1983. This increase is due to large awards in the Sudan despite significant relinquishments elsewhere. Seismic surveys conducted during 1984 decreased to about 510.5 crew-months onshore and 29.5 crew-months offshore. However, exploration in and off Egypt was higher compared to 1983. Exploratory drilling was lower, with only 125 wells drilled compared to 179 tests completed in 1983. The main decrease was in Egypt and Sudan, but drilling in Libya resulted in 20 more completions. A significant oil discovery was made in the offshore part of the Sirte basin, off southwest Cyrenaica. The success rate in North America ranged from 19% to 50% (Libya). Development drilling increased during 1984, as higher activity appears to have taken place in 3 countries. Oil production, with an estimated daily rate of 2,952,570 bbl, was 2.8% from 1983 (2,871,460 BOPD). In Egypt, 7 fields located in the Gulf of Suez area went on stream during the year. Political unrest, which prevailed in southern Sudan during most of 1984, will likely delay the start-up of production in several fields. No statistics are available on gas production in North African countries. 9 figures, 27 tables.

  2. Oil and gas developments in North Africa in 1984

    SciTech Connect

    Michel, R.Ch.

    1985-10-01

    Petroleum rights in the 6 North African countries (Algeria, Egypt, Libya, Morocco, Sudan, and Tunisia) covered in this paper were 1,906,065 km/sup 2/ at the end of 1984, an increase of 4.6% from the 1,821,966 km/sup 2/ in force at the end of 1983. This increase is due to large awards in the Sudan despite significant relinquishments elsewhere. Seismic surveys conducted during 1984 decreased to about 510.5 crew-months onshore and 29.5 crew-months offshore. However, exploration in and off Egypt was higher compared to 1983. Exploratory drilling was lower, with only 125 wells drilled compared to 179 tests completed in 1983. The main decrease was in Egypt and Sudan, but drilling in Libya resulted in 20 more completions. A significant oil discovery was made in the offshore part of the Sirte basin, off southwest Cyrenaica. The success rate in North Africa ranged from 19% to 50% (Libya). Development drilling increased during 1984, as higher activity appears to have taken place in 3 countries. Oil production, with an estimated daily rate of 2,952,570 bbl, was up 2.8% from 1983 (2,871,460 BOPD). In Egypt, 7 fields located in the Gulf of Suez area went on stream during the year. Political unrest, which prevailed in southern Sudan during most of 1984, will likely delay the start-up of production in several fields. No statistics are available on gas production in North African countries.

  3. Education in Ancient and the Present Egypt: From 4000 B.C. to A.D. 1983.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elwan, Nour Eldin

    The discovery and deciphering of the Rosetta stone led to a rediscovery of Egypt's contribution to world culture and civilization. This document outlines the growth of knowledge and education in ancient Egypt and emphasizes the disciplines of science, medicine, art, philosophy, agriculture, and engineering. Ancient Egypt's decline and the…

  4. Family support for women's health-seeking behavior: a qualitative study in rural southern Egypt (Upper Egypt).

    PubMed

    Ohashi, Ayumi; Higuchi, Michiyo; Labeeb, Shokria Adly; Mohamed, Asmaa Ghareds; Chiang, Chifa; Aoyama, Atsuko

    2014-02-01

    This qualitative study investigated the influence of family support on women's health-seeking behavior in rural southern Egypt (Upper Egypt). We carried out separate focus group discussions (FGDs) with 3 groups (6 women with children under 5 years old, 6 men, and 4 elderly women, respectively) in a village in Assiut Governorate, an underprivileged region in Upper Egypt. The FGDs aimed to identify how different types of family support affected women's health-seeking behavior in areas including maternal health and common illnesses of women and children. Our results showed that maternal health issues were often discussed by husbands and wives, while mothers-in-law had little apparent influence. We also found that women could access support resources more easily than expected through their extended families. Our study showed that husbands had an important role in encouraging women's health in the family, while the effect of mothers-in-law on women's health-seeking behavior was not substantial. The study indicated that women received considerable support from co-resident family members, their natal family, and their neighbors, which helped women in seeking health services. PMID:25129988

  5. Karyological investigations and new chromosome number reports in Bellevalia Lapeyrouse, 1808 and Muscari Miller, 1758 (Asparagaceae) from Algeria

    PubMed Central

    Azizi, Nadjat; Amirouche, Rachid; Amirouche, Nabila

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Karyological investigations were carried out on four species of Bellevalia Lapeyrouse, 1808 and Muscari Miller, 1758 (Asparagaceae) sampled in contrasting bioclimatic conditions of Algeria. The endemic Bellevalia mauritanica Pomel, 1874 was found to have a tetraploid cytotype 2n = 4x = 16 and an octoploid 2n = 8x = 32 which is a new report. The chromosome number 2n = 2x = 18 in Muscari comosum (Linnaeus, 1753) Miller, 1768 and Muscari maritimum Desfontaines, 1798 was in conformity with earlier reports. The latter species reveals a lesser bimodality of the karyotype. Within Muscari neglectum Gussone ex Tenore, 1842 pentaploid (2n = 5x = 45), hexaploid (2n = 6x = 54) and very rare octoploid cytotype (2n = 8x = 72) have been reported in Algeria. Principal component analysis performed on basis of karyotype parameters, showed a segregation of the different cytotypes. This study provides new karyological information, which is discussed in a taxonomic context. PMID:27186346

  6. Karyological investigations and new chromosome number reports in Bellevalia Lapeyrouse, 1808 and Muscari Miller, 1758 (Asparagaceae) from Algeria.

    PubMed

    Azizi, Nadjat; Amirouche, Rachid; Amirouche, Nabila

    2016-01-01

    Karyological investigations were carried out on four species of Bellevalia Lapeyrouse, 1808 and Muscari Miller, 1758 (Asparagaceae) sampled in contrasting bioclimatic conditions of Algeria. The endemic Bellevalia mauritanica Pomel, 1874 was found to have a tetraploid cytotype 2n = 4x = 16 and an octoploid 2n = 8x = 32 which is a new report. The chromosome number 2n = 2x = 18 in Muscari comosum (Linnaeus, 1753) Miller, 1768 and Muscari maritimum Desfontaines, 1798 was in conformity with earlier reports. The latter species reveals a lesser bimodality of the karyotype. Within Muscari neglectum Gussone ex Tenore, 1842 pentaploid (2n = 5x = 45), hexaploid (2n = 6x = 54) and very rare octoploid cytotype (2n = 8x = 72) have been reported in Algeria. Principal component analysis performed on basis of karyotype parameters, showed a segregation of the different cytotypes. This study provides new karyological information, which is discussed in a taxonomic context. PMID:27186346

  7. Residual radionuclide concentrations and estimated radiation doses at the former French nuclear weapons test sites in Algeria.

    PubMed

    Danesi, P R; Moreno, J; Makarewicz, M; Louvat, D

    2008-11-01

    In order to assess the level of residual radioactivity and evaluate the radiological conditions at the former French nuclear testing sites of Reggane and Taourirt Tan Afella in the south of Algeria, the International Atomic Energy Agency, at the request of the government of Algeria, conducted a field mission to the sites in 1999. At these locations, France conducted a number of nuclear tests in the early 1960s. At the ground zero locality of the ''Gerboise Blanche'' atmospheric test (Reggane) and in the vicinity of a tunnel where radioactive lava was ejected during a poorly contained explosion (Taourirt Tan Afella), non-negligible levels of radioactive material could still be measured. Using the information collected and using realistic potential exposure scenarios, radiation doses to potential occupants and visitors to the sites were estimated. PMID:18513985

  8. Microearthquake studies in Egypt carried out by the geological survey of Egypt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boulos, Fouad K.; Morgan, Paul; Toppozada, Tousson R.

    1987-07-01

    Extensive microearthquake studies have been conducted in Egypt as a joint project between scientists from the Egyptian Geological Survey and Mining Authority (EGSMA) and U.S. scientists. At this stage, a great part of the data has been analyzed and two intensively active areas have been located: one in the Abu Dabbab area of the Eastern Desert, the second at the mouth of the Gulf of Suez near Gubal Island (Daggett et al., 1980). Both sites have been reported to be the epicenters of large earthquakes in 1955 and 1969, respectively. A few scattered earthquakes have also been located in the northern part of the Red Sea, some of which lie along its median axis (Daggett et al., 1986) adding to evidence for the medial opening of the northern Red Sea. After the occurrence of an earthquake (M = 5.5) in the Aswan region on 14 November 1981, continuous recording of the many aftershocks was carried out by EGSMA for about seven months from December 1981 to July 1982, when the temporary network was replaced by a network of telemetered seismographs installed and operated by Helwan Institute of Astronomy and Geophysics in cooperation with scientists from Lamont and Doherty Geological Observatory (LDGO). The majority of epicenters are concentrated in the vicinity of G. Marawa about 65 km upstream of Aswan Dam, along the E-W Kalabsha fault. The observed focal mechanism is consistent with a right-lateral strike-slip motion on the Kalabsha fault. Analysis of Aswan microearthquakes has been done by EGSMA in cooperation with scientists from California Division of Mines and Geology (CDMG).

  9. Mineralogy and morphology of geologic units at Libya Montes, Mars: Ancient aqueously derived outcrops, mafic flows, fluvial features, and impacts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bishop, Janice L.; Tirsch, Daniela; Tornabene, Livio L.; Jaumann, Ralf; McEwen, Alfred S.; McGuire, Patrick C.; Ody, Anouck; Poulet, Francois; Clark, Roger N.; Parente, Mario; McKeown, Nancy K.; Mustard, John F.; Murchie, Scott L.; Voigt, Joana; Aydin, Zeynep; Bamberg, Marlene; Petau, Andreas; Michael, Gregory; Seelos, Frank P.; Hash, Christopher D.; Swayze, Gregg A.; Neukum, Gerhard

    2013-03-01

    There is ample evidence of both ancient and long-lasting fluvial activity and chemical alteration in the Libya Montes region south of Isidis Basin. The region hosts Noachian to Amazonian aged surface rocks with extensive outcrops of olivine- and pyroxene-bearing material. Libya Montes also features surface outcrops and/or deposits hosting Fe/Mg-smectite, Fe/Mg-smectite mixed with carbonate and/or other Fe/Mg-rich phyllosilicates, and Al-smectite. These units likely formed through chemical alteration connected with hydrothermal activity resulting from the formation of the Isidis Basin and/or the pervasive fluvial activity throughout this region. The morphology and stratigraphy of the aqueous and mafic minerals are described using High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment and High Resolution Stereo Camera derived digital terrain models. Analyses of the Compact Reconnaissance Imaging Spectrometer for Mars spectra show variations in the chemistry of the Fe/Mg-smectite from nontronite-like exposures with spectral features near 2.29 and 2.4 µm more consistent with Fe3+2OH groups in the mineral structure, and saponite-like outcrops with spectral features near 2.31 and 2.38 µm characteristic of Mg2+3OH groups. These Fe/Mg-smectite bearing materials also have bands near 1.9 µm due to H2O and near 2.5 µm that could be due to the smectite, other phyllosilicates, and carbonates. All regions exhibiting carbonate features near 3.4-3.5 µm also have features consistent with the presence of olivine and Fe/Mg-smectite, indicating that the carbonate signatures occur in rocks likely containing a mixture of these minerals. The Al-smectite-bearing rocks have bands near 1.41, 1.91, and 2.19 µm that are more consistent with beidellite than other Al-phyllosilicates, indicating a higher-temperature or diagenetically processed origin for this material. Our interpretation of the geologic history of this region is that ancient Noachian basaltic crustal materials experienced extensive

  10. Algeria. United Nations. Department of International Economic and Social Affairs. Population Division. United Nations Fund for Population Activities UNFPA.

    PubMed

    1985-06-01

    Algeria's population grew from 8.7 million in 1950 to 16 million by 1975. The Algerian government's policy response to increasing growth is to encourage birth spacing, improve health and education, reduce mortality, encourage spatial restructuring, restrict emigration to France, and encourage Algerians in Europe to return home. Development planning began after Independence (1967); the current Development Plan (1985-1989) emphasizes agriculture and the development of the economic and social infrastructure. Population growth has been over 3% since 1970, but is expected to drop to 2.5% around the year 2000. The government's response focuses on providing contraceptive information, encouraging birth spacing, raising the marriage age of women from 14 to 16, and limiting the family allowance. Algerian mortality rates, especially for infants (109/1000), are unacceptable to the government, but Southern Algeria's harsh environment, rapid population growth, breast feeding decline, and other obstacles impede health improvement and mortality decline. The government considers Algeria's 8.7 (rural) and 8.2 (urban) fertility rates too high and has taken action to 1) develop birth spacing services, 2) educate the public (especially rural) on fertility control, and 3) conduct research on population determinants to aid in policy formulation. Abortion and sterilization for contraceptive purposes are illegal. Few foreigners now live in Algeria, and once high emigration to France (900,000 by 1973) has significantly declined; Algerians in Europe are encouraged to return home. The government's response to high internal migration includes 1) rural development; 2) development of secondary urban agglomerations, roads, railways, and air routes; 3) extension of university and health services networks; and 4) development of small and medium sized industries. PMID:12314290

  11. Community-Based Education in Egypt: Is It Achieving Its Stated Goals?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Langsten, Ray

    2016-01-01

    Egypt promises "education for all". Primary attendance and completion have increased substantially. Still, many children remain out of school. There remain questions about the quality of education. Since the early 1990s, community-based education (CBE) has been part of Egypt's educational programme. Community-based education is meant to…

  12. English Language Teaching in Egypt. At the Crossroads of Global Communication.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Monem, Doaa Abdul; El-Sokkary, Wael; Haddaway, Carol; Bickel, Beverly

    2001-01-01

    Discusses English language teaching in Egypt, where students are required to study English beginning in the fourth grade. Describes the educational requirements of Egyptians pursuing careers as English teachers, inservice training opportunities, overseas training programs, and future directions of English teaching in Egypt.(Author/VWL)

  13. Occurence of phytoparasitic nematodes associated with some crop plants in Northern Egypt

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Information concerning the occurrence and distribution of phytoparasitic nematodes in Egypt is very important for agricultural production. A nematode survey was conducted in northern Egypt to identify the genera and species of phytoparasitic nematodes associated with some crop plants. A total of 240...

  14. Negotiating Sustainability: Reclaiming Ecological Pathways to Bio-Cultural Regeneration in Egypt

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salem, Abeer Abdel Hamid

    2013-01-01

    What can an indigenous Egyptian paradigm for social evolution that represents the composite of bio-cultural diversities of Egypt and multiple bio-regions within it look like? With such exploratory inquiry in mind, this dissertation research focuses on analyzing the practice of development in Egypt through the lens of place, critiquing its…

  15. Arab Republic of Egypt: Review of Early Childhood Education and Human Capital Formation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ushiogi, Morikazu; Tanaka, Shinichira; O'Gara, Chloe; Sprague, David

    This report submitted to the World Bank analyzes the early childhood development (ECD) policies, strategies, and programs in Egypt in 2001. Information was gathered from documents, observations in kindergartens and nurseries, interviews with more than 50 teachers and parents, and a survey of policymakers and program managers in Cairo, Egypt. The…

  16. A Comparison between Rural Education in Egypt and the U.S.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cochran, Judith

    1990-01-01

    Compares Egypt and United States rural school systems. Countries share financial limitations, low salaries, and teacher turnover. Discusses Egypt's national curriculum, high student dropout rate, administrative problems, and possible solutions. Concludes that countries' rural education problems are similar but differ as to cause. (TES)

  17. 78 FR 23208 - Importation of Fresh Oranges and Tangerines From Egypt Into the United States

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-18

    ... evaluation document to determine the risk posed by peach fruit fly in oranges and tangerines from Egypt... neutralize peach fruit fly and Mediterranean fruit fly in oranges and tangerines. We are making the pest list... fly (Ceratitis capitata); however, imports of oranges from Egypt were suspended in July 2002 due...

  18. Opportunities for woody crop production using treated wastewater in Egypt. II. Irrigation strategies

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Egypt's share of Nile waters is allocated according to international treaty obligations and is fixed at 55.5 billion cubic meters annually. As a result, Egypt will not be able to meet increasing water demand using freshwater from the Nile and has been developing non-conventional wastewater reuse st...

  19. Continuing Threat of Influenza (H5N1) Virus Circulation in Egypt

    PubMed Central

    El-Shesheny, Rabeh; Kutkat, Mohamed A.; Kandeil, Ahmed M.; Mostafa, Ahmed; Ducatez, Mariette F.; McKenzie, Pamela P.; Govorkova, Elena A.; Nasraa, Mohamed H.; Webster, Robert G.; Webby, Richard J.; Ali, Mohamed A.

    2011-01-01

    Reservoirs for the continuing influenza (H5N1) outbreaks in Egypt are ill-defined. Through active surveillance, we detected highly pathogenic influenza subtype H5 viruses in all poultry sectors; incidence was 5%. No other subtypes were found. Continued circulation of influenza (H5N1) viruses in various regions and poultry sectors perpetuates human exposure in Egypt. PMID:22172626

  20. Eternal Egypt: Masterworks of Ancient Art from the British Museum. Learning from Exhibitions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Mark M.

    2001-01-01

    Introduces the exhibition "Eternal Egypt: Masterworks of Ancient Art from the British Museum" that explores the four major periods of Egyptian history. Provides background information on ancient Egypt and describes the art that was present in each of the four kingdoms. (CMK)

  1. E-Learning as an Alternative Strategy for Tourism Higher Education in Egypt

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Afifi, Galal M. H.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: This research aims to be one of the earliest studies to investigate tourism e-learning in Egypt, thus, it will initially shed light on the current standing of e-learning in Egypt before proceeding to: identify the present status of e-learning in Egyptian tourism higher education; explore the potential advantages and drawbacks of using…

  2. Access to Higher Education in Egypt: Examining Trends by University Sector

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buckner, Elizabeth

    2013-01-01

    Access to higher education in Egypt is expanding in both the public and private sectors. Using a nationally representative sample from the Survey of Young People in Egypt, this article is able to disaggregate patterns of access by both demographic group and university sector. Findings suggest that access in the public sector is governed strongly…

  3. School Psychology in Egypt: Results of the 2008 International School Psychology Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jimerson, Shane R.; Alghorani, Mohammad Adnan; Darweish, Abdel-Hameed; Abdelaziz, Mahmoud

    2010-01-01

    The International School Psychology Survey (ISPS) was used to gather information about the characteristics, training, roles, activities, preferences, research interests and the challenges experienced by school psychology specialists in Egypt. To the degree that the data are representative of the school psychology specialists Egypt, it appears that…

  4. 75 FR 3953 - Waiver of Restriction on Assistance to the Central Government of Egypt

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-25

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF STATE Waiver of Restriction on Assistance to the Central Government of Egypt Pursuant to section 7086(c)(2) of the... section 7086(c)(1) of the Act with respect to the Government of Egypt, and I hereby waive such...

  5. 78 FR 56768 - Waiver of Restriction on Assistance to the Central Government of Egypt

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-13

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF STATE Waiver of Restriction on Assistance to the Central Government of Egypt Pursuant to Section 7031(b)(3) of the... the Act and similar provisions of law in prior year Acts with respect to Egypt and I hereby waive...

  6. 78 FR 23625 - Waiver of Restriction on Assistance to the Central Government of Egypt

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-19

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF STATE Waiver of Restriction on Assistance to the Central Government of Egypt Pursuant to Section 7031(b)(3) of the... Section 7031(b)(1) of the Act with respect to Egypt and I hereby waive this restriction....

  7. 76 FR 31673 - Waiver of Restriction on Assistance to the Arab Republic of Egypt

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-01

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF STATE Waiver of Restriction on Assistance to the Arab Republic of Egypt Pursuant to Section 7086(c)(2) of the... Act with respect to the Arab Republic of Egypt and I hereby waive such restriction. This...

  8. 77 FR 24555 - Determination on Foreign Military Financing Assistance for Egypt

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-24

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] DEPARTMENT OF STATE Determination on Foreign Military Financing Assistance for Egypt Pursuant to section 7041(a)(1)(C) of the... Foreign Military Financing for Egypt, and I hereby waive this restriction. This determination shall...

  9. Avian Influenza A(H5N1) Virus in Egypt.

    PubMed

    Kayali, Ghazi; Kandeil, Ahmed; El-Shesheny, Rabeh; Kayed, Ahmed S; Maatouq, Asmaa M; Cai, Zhipeng; McKenzie, Pamela P; Webby, Richard J; El Refaey, Samir; Kandeel, Amr; Ali, Mohamed A

    2016-03-01

    In Egypt, avian influenza A subtype H5N1 and H9N2 viruses are enzootic in poultry. The control plan devised by veterinary authorities in Egypt to prevent infections in poultry focused mainly on vaccination and ultimately failed. Recently, widespread H5N1 infections in poultry and a substantial increase in the number of human cases of H5N1 infection were observed. We summarize surveillance data from 2009 through 2014 and show that avian influenza viruses are established in poultry in Egypt and are continuously evolving genetically and antigenically. We also discuss the epidemiology of human infection with avian influenza in Egypt and describe how the true burden of disease is underestimated. We discuss the failures of relying on vaccinating poultry as the sole intervention tool. We conclude by highlighting the key components that need to be included in a new strategy to control avian influenza infections in poultry and humans in Egypt. PMID:26886164

  10. Avian Influenza A(H5N1) Virus in Egypt

    PubMed Central

    Kandeil, Ahmed; El-Shesheny, Rabeh; Kayed, Ahmed S.; Maatouq, Asmaa M.; Cai, Zhipeng; McKenzie, Pamela P.; Webby, Richard J.; El Refaey, Samir; Kandeel, Amr; Ali, Mohamed A.

    2016-01-01

    In Egypt, avian influenza A subtype H5N1 and H9N2 viruses are enzootic in poultry. The control plan devised by veterinary authorities in Egypt to prevent infections in poultry focused mainly on vaccination and ultimately failed. Recently, widespread H5N1 infections in poultry and a substantial increase in the number of human cases of H5N1 infection were observed. We summarize surveillance data from 2009 through 2014 and show that avian influenza viruses are established in poultry in Egypt and are continuously evolving genetically and antigenically. We also discuss the epidemiology of human infection with avian influenza in Egypt and describe how the true burden of disease is underestimated. We discuss the failures of relying on vaccinating poultry as the sole intervention tool. We conclude by highlighting the key components that need to be included in a new strategy to control avian influenza infections in poultry and humans in Egypt. PMID:26886164

  11. Geochemistry of 24 Ma Basalts from Northeast Egypt: Implications for Small-Scale Convection Beneath the East African Rift System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Endress, C. A.; Furman, T.; Ali Abu El-Rus, M.

    2009-12-01

    Basalts ~24 Ma in the Cairo-Suez and Fayyum districts of NE Egypt represent the youngest and northernmost lavas potentially associated with the initiation of rifting of the Red Sea. The age of these basalts corresponds to a time period of significant regional magmatism that occurred subsequent to emplacement of 30 Ma flood basalts attributed to the Afar Plume in Ethiopia and Yemen. Beginning ~28 Ma, widespread magmatism occurred across supra-equatorial Africa in Hoggar (Algeria), Tibesti (Chad), Darfur (Sudan), Turkana (Kenya) and Samalat, Bahariya, Quesir and the Sinai Peninsula (Egypt) (e.g. Allegre et al., 1981; Meneisy, 1990; Baldridge et al., 1991; Wilson and Guiraud, 1992; Furman et al., 2006; Lucassen et al., 2008). Available geochemical and isotopic data indicate that Hoggar and Darfur basalts are similar to Turkana lavas, although no direct link between the N African lavas and the Kenya Plume has been made. New geochemical data on the NE Egyptian basalts provide insight into the thermochemical, isotopic, and mineralogical characteristics of the mantle beneath the region in which they were emplaced. The basalts are subalkaline with OIB-like incompatible trace element abundances and homogeneous major element, trace element and isotopic geochemistry. They display relatively flat ITE patterns, with notable positive Pb and negative P anomalies. Isotopic (143Nd/144Nd = 0.51274-0.51285, 87Sr/86Sr = 0.7049-0.7050) and trace element signatures (Ce/Pb = 16-22, Ba/Nb = 9-14, and La/Nb = 0.9-1.0) are consistent with melting of a sub-lithospheric source that has been slightly contaminated by continental crust during ascent and emplacement. The Pb isotopic ratios (206Pb/204Pb = 18.53-18.62, 207Pb/204Pb = 15.59-15.64, and 208Pb/204Pb = 38.80-39.00) in the Egyptian basalts are close to the range of those found in the 30 Ma Ethiopian flood basalts, which are distinct from the more highly radiogenic, high-μ type signature seen in basalts from Turkana, Darfur, and Hoggar

  12. Isolation of antibiotic-resistant pathogenic and potentially pathogenic bacteria from carpets of mosques in Tripoli, Libya

    PubMed Central

    Rahouma, Amal; Elghamoudi, Abdunabi; Nashnoush, Halima; Belhaj, Khalifa; Tawil, Khaled; Sifaw Ghenghesh, Khalifa

    2010-01-01

    Objective Isolation of potentially pathogenic bacteria from carpets in hospitals has been reported earlier, but not from carpets in mosques. The aim of the present study is to determine the pathogenic and potentially pathogenic bacteria that may exist on the carpets of mosques in Tripoli, Libya. Methods Dust samples from carpets were collected from 57 mosques in Tripoli. Samples were examined for pathogenic bacteria using standard bacteriological procedures. Susceptibility of isolated bacteria to antimicrobial agents was determined by the disc-diffusion method. Results Of dust samples examined, Salmonella spp. was detected in two samples (3.5%, 1 in group B and 1 in group C1), Escherichia coli in 16 samples (28.1%), Aeromonas spp. in one sample (1.8%), and Staphylococcus aureus in 12 samples (21.1%). Multiple drug resistance was observed in >16.7% of E. coli and in 25% of S. aureus. Conclusion Contamination of carpets in mosques of Tripoli with antibiotic-resistant pathogenic and potentially pathogenic bacteria may pose a health risk to worshipers, particularly, the very young, the old and the immunecompromised. Worshipers are encouraged to use personal praying mats when praying in mosques. PMID:21483559

  13. Study on human ophthalmomyiasis externa caused by Oestrus ovis larva, in Sirte-Libya: parasite features, clinical presentation and management.

    PubMed

    Fathy, Fouad M; El-Barghathi, Adam; El-Ahwal, Abdalla; El-Bagar, Shaban

    2006-04-01

    Oestrus ovis larva is by far the commonest cause of human ophthalmomyiasis. The larva usually limits it's activity to the conjunctiva and cornea, but, penetration of the eye is a potential complication. Misdiagnosis is common and the condition of acute catarrhal conjunctivitis is ascribed to other causes. The study included 20 patients referred to university hospital of Sirte, Libya. Results showed that the condition was more common among adult male shepherds and farmers in rural areas. Important criteria for diagnosis were; sudden mobile foreign body sensation with abrupt itching and lacrimation occurring in endemic area, in warm months even without history of fly strike. Effective treatment consisted of mechanical removal of the larva by the cotton swap mounting technique which resulted in rapid improvement. Suffocation of residual larvae was mediated by use of liberal amounts of topical antibiotics. Slit lamp examination of larva showed that it was small, translucent, avoid the light beam and easily overlooked. Detailed microscopic examination of larval surface structures revealed a multi-component attachment apparatus consisting of oral hooks, inter-segmental spines, caudal spines and a multi-layered spiny thoracic complex described for the first time. These injurious structures are believed to be responsible through inflicting direct mechanical damage for the observed haemorrhage, ulceration or even the potential invasion, as these changes were more obvious in neglected cases. So, early diagnosis and treatment are essential to avoid complications. PMID:16605116

  14. Impact of depositional facies on the distribution of diagenetic alterations in the Devonian shoreface sandstone reservoirs, Southern Ghadamis Basin, Libya

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khalifa, Muftah Ahmid; Morad, Sadoon

    2015-11-01

    The middle Devonian, shoreface quartz arenites (present-day burial depths 2833-2786 m) are important oil and gas reservoirs in the Ghadamis Basin, western Libya. This integrated petrographic and geochemical study aims to unravel the impact of depositional facies on distribution of diagenetic alterations and, consequently, related reservoir quality and heterogeneity of the sandstones. Eogenetic alterations include the formation of kaolinite, pseudomatrix, and pyrite. The mesogenetic alterations include cementation by quartz overgrowths, Fe-dolomite/ankerite, and illite, transformation of kaolinite to dickite, illitization of smectite, intergranular quartz dissolution, and stylolitization, and albitization of feldspar. The higher energy of deposition of the coarser-grained upper shoreface sandstones combined with less extensive chemical compaction and smaller amounts of quartz overgrowths account for their better primary reservoir quality compared to the finer-grained, middle-lower shoreface sandstones. The formation of kaolin in the upper and middle shoreface sandstones is attributed to a greater flux of meteoric water. More abundant quartz overgrowths in the middle and lower shoreface is attributed to a greater extent of stylolitization, which was promoted by more abundant illitic clays. This study demonstrated that linking the distribution of diagenetic alterations to depositional facies of shoreface sandstones leads to a better understanding of the impact of these alterations on the spatial and temporal variation in quality and heterogeneity of the reservoirs.

  15. The Tsunami Triggered by the El Asnam (Algeria) Earthquake of 1980: a New Hypothesis of Generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roger, J.; Hebert, H.; Briole, P.

    2009-12-01

    On the 10th of October 1980, a Mw=7.1 earthquake destroyed the town of El Asnam (actual Ech Cheliff, Northern Algeria) causing several thousands of casualties and leading to considerable economic losses for Algeria. This is the biggest instrumentally recorded earthquake in Africa. A lot of measurement campaigns have been immediately set up in order to constrain the fault rupture mechanisms principally using the numerous aftershocks. Then these studies furnish important information concerning principally the focal mechanisms in this area, the length and width of the rupture zone, the depth and the coseismic slip. But although the epicenter has been located about 45 km from the sea, and 15 km east of El Asnam, in the same area of the 1954 Orléansville earthquake (Mw=6.6), it is known to have triggered a small tsunami which was able to reach the south-eastern Spanish Coast in several locations where it has been recorded on tide gages. Thus six maregrams are available from Alicante to Algeciras Several previous studies present this tsunami as the result of a submarine mass failure as the 1954 event which led to the rupture of submarine phone cables. In this work we propose a rupture scenario based on previous studies results as geodetic measurements of vertical movements, aftershocks localization, focal mechanisms determination and identification of geological features among other things. We show that the seismic initial deformation itself, using Okada’s formulae, is able to disturb the sea surface near the Algerian Coast by several centimeters, even at this distance from the epicenter, and propagate a tsunami wave toward the Spanish Coast. The results are compared with historical records in terms of arrival times, polarity and wave amplitudes and discussed, especially concerning the integration of such inland earthquake in the catalog of the future Western Mediterranean Tsunami Warning System. This study was partially funded by the European project TRANSFER which

  16. Abortion and various associated risk factors in small ruminants in Algeria.

    PubMed

    Kardjadj, Moustafa; Kouidri, Brahim; Metref, Djamil; Luka, Pam Dachung; Ben-Mahdi, Meriem Hind

    2016-01-01

    Identification of the causes of abortion among the huge population of small ruminants in Algeria (≈31 millions heads), is an important task for the control of livestock productivity and viability scourges to the small ruminants industry. Optimal production and utilization is constrained by a number of factors: disease, poor feeding and low management skills. Therefore, in the present study the prevalence of abortion in Algerian small ruminant's flocks was estimated and its possible association was correlated with infectious (PPR, BT and Brucellosis seropositivity) and managerial (flock size, grazing system, type of farming, and contact with other flocks) risk factors. The present study showed an overall flock prevalence of small ruminant's abortion as 75.33% (113/150) [95% CI 71.72-78.94%]. The risk factor analysis using multivariable logistic regression recognized the north-western and the steppe region as well as PPR positivity as a risk factor for abortion in Algerian small ruminant's flocks. The odds of flock abortion was 11.47 [95% CI 2.39-54.88; P=0.002] and 10.31 [95% CI 1.28-82.88; P=0.028] times higher in north-western and steppe regions respectively compared to other region. Also the presence of PPRV infection in small ruminant flocks amplified the odds by 6 times [95% CI 2.221-17.427; P=0.001].Surprisingly, the univariate analysis for the other risk factors associated with abortions in Algerian small ruminant flocks indicated no statistically significant links with bluetongue (P=1.000) and brucellosis seropositivity (P=0.334). Flock size (P=0.574), type of farming (P=0.443), grazing system (P=0.117) and contact with other flocks (P=0.245) was also not statistically significant. Our results revealed that abortion in small ruminants is a challenge to farmers and PPR was chiefly linked to it. Therefore an effective vaccination and control programme is advocated for small ruminants in Algeria. PMID:26688562

  17. Sexual attitudes, preferences and infections in Ancient Egypt.

    PubMed Central

    Morton, R S

    1995-01-01

    This socio-sexual review of Ancient Egyptian society aims to increase awareness that the prevalence of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) is largely determined by the way a society is structured and how that structure functions. The prevalence of STDs in Ancient Egypt has been found to be low. This state of affairs was maintained for centuries. Although the structure of their society was rigidly hierarchical, Egyptian people made it function in an acceptable way. What might be learned is concerned more with prevention than cure. Whether this has any relevance today is discussed. Images PMID:7635496

  18. Diagenesis and porosity evolution of upper Cretaceous dolomites, northern Egypt

    SciTech Connect

    Holail, H.M.; Lohmann, K.C.

    1988-08-01

    Porosity patterns in the Upper Cretaceous marine carbonate sequence of northern Egypt record a complex history of diagenesis in marine, hypersaline, and meteoric waters. Depositional facies and fabrics suggest an overall upward-shallowing sequence which, in turn, is bounded above by a major pre-middle Eocene unconformity. Associated with this unconformity, subaerial exposure resulted in a regional influx of meteoric waters. In this context, analysis of the paragenetic relationships and geochemical character of diagenetic phases has allowed for unique determination of the timing and environments of porosity evolution within this sequence.

  19. The eye and its diseases in Ancient Egypt.

    PubMed

    Andersen, S R

    1997-06-01

    Based on a study of mummies, skeletons, burial rites, medical instruments, medicaments, literature and objets d'art from Ancient Egypt before the Hellenistic Period, the understanding of the eye, its diseases and their treatment at that time is described. Magic spells, religious rites and medical treatments, especially with eye ointments, were probably used often complementary to one another. We must be very cautious about our conclusions in regard to the effectiveness of the treatments. Eye diseases have been depicted only exceptionally in Egyptian art, except for blindness and 'symbolic blindness'. PMID:9253993

  20. Nile River, Lake Nasser, Aswan High Dam, Egypt

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    The Aswan High Dam, 2.5 miles across and 364 feet high, (24.0N, 33.0E) completed in 1971, was constructed to supply cheap hydroelectric power to both Egypt and Sudan by impounding, controling and regulating the flood waters of the Nile River in Lake Nasser, the world's second largest artifical lake. The lake extends over 500 miles in length, covers an area of some 2,000 square miles and is as much as 350 feet deep at the face of the dam.