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Sample records for algeria egypt libya

  1. Libya, Algeria and Egypt: crude oil potential from known deposits

    SciTech Connect

    Dietzman, W.D.; Rafidi, N.R.; Ross, T.A.

    1982-04-01

    An analysis is presented of the discovered crude oil resources, reserves, and estimated annual production from known fields of the Republics of Libya, Algeria, and Egypt. Proved reserves are defined as the remaining producible oil as of a specified date under operating practice in effect at that time and include estimated recoverable oil in undrilled portions of a given structure or structures. Also included in the proved reserve category are the estimated indicated additional volumes of recoverable oil from the entire oil reservoir where fluid injection programs have been started in a portion, or portions, of the reservoir. The indicated additional reserves (probable reserves) reported herein are the volumes of crude oil that might be obtained with the installation of secondary recovery or pressure maintenance operations in reservoirs where none have been previously installed. The sum of cumulative production, proved reserves, and probable reserves is defined as the ultimate oil recovery from known deposits; and resources are defined as the original oil in place (OOIP). An assessment was made of the availability of crude oil under three assumed sustained production rates for each country; an assessment was also made of each country's capability of sustaining production at, or near, the 1980 rates assuming different limiting reserve to production ratios. Also included is an estimate of the potential maximum producing capability from known deposits that might be obtained from known accumulations under certain assumptions, using a simple time series approach. The theoretical maximum oil production capability from known fields at any time is the maximum deliverability rate assuming there are no equipment, investment, market, or political constraints.

  2. Petroleum resources of Libya, Algeria, and Egypt. Foreign energy supply assessment series

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-03-01

    Part 1 of the report is a synopsis of each country's location, its exploration and development history, crude oil field production history, and markets. Part 2 discusses the production and reserve characteristics of the oil fields and status of the known crude oil resources. Part 3 provides an assessment of the ultimately recoverable crude oil and the possible future rate of availability of the crude oil. Part 4 discusses the status of the known and undiscovered natural gas resources, production, and markets. Part 5 is an overview of the petroleum geology of the three countries and the physical characteristics of their crude oils. Appendix A presents an annual resume of historical production by field and by basin for Libya; Appendix B shows the historical production by field and by basin for Algeria; Appendix C shows the historical production by field and by basin for Egypt; Appendix D provides production tables for each country. Data presented in Appendixes A through D are derived mostly from the April 1982 publication, Libya, Algeria and Egypt-Crude Oil Potential From Known Deposits DOE/EIA-0338, by William D. Dietzman, Naim R. Rafidi, and Thomas A. Ross. Appendix E is a geologic timetable.

  3. Plague outbreak in Libya, 2009, unrelated to plague in Algeria.

    PubMed

    Cabanel, Nicolas; Leclercq, Alexandre; Chenal-Francisque, Viviane; Annajar, Badereddin; Rajerison, Minoarisoa; Bekkhoucha, Souad; Bertherat, Eric; Carniel, Elisabeth

    2013-02-01

    After 25 years of no cases of plague, this disease recurred near Tobruk, Libya, in 2009. An epidemiologic investigation identified 5 confirmed cases. We determined ribotypes, Not1 restriction profiles, and IS100 and IS1541 hybridization patterns of strains isolated during this outbreak. We also analyzed strains isolated during the 2003 plague epidemic in Algeria to determine whether there were epidemiologic links between the 2 events. Our results demonstrate unambiguously that neighboring but independent plague foci coexist in Algeria and Libya. They also indicate that these outbreaks were most likely caused by reactivation of organisms in local or regional foci believed to be dormant (Libya) or extinct (Algeria) for decades, rather than by recent importation of Yersinia pestis from distant foci. Environmental factors favorable for plague reemergence might exist in this area and lead to reactivation of organisms in other ancient foci.

  4. Plague Outbreak in Libya, 2009, Unrelated to Plague in Algeria

    PubMed Central

    Cabanel, Nicolas; Leclercq, Alexandre; Chenal-Francisque, Viviane; Annajar, Badereddin; Rajerison, Minoarisoa; Bekkhoucha, Souad; Bertherat, Eric

    2013-01-01

    After 25 years of no cases of plague, this disease recurred near Tobruk, Libya, in 2009. An epidemiologic investigation identified 5 confirmed cases. We determined ribotypes, Not1 restriction profiles, and IS100 and IS1541 hybridization patterns of strains isolated during this outbreak. We also analyzed strains isolated during the 2003 plague epidemic in Algeria to determine whether there were epidemiologic links between the 2 events. Our results demonstrate unambiguously that neighboring but independent plague foci coexist in Algeria and Libya. They also indicate that these outbreaks were most likely caused by reactivation of organisms in local or regional foci believed to be dormant (Libya) or extinct (Algeria) for decades, rather than by recent importation of Yersinia pestis from distant foci. Environmental factors favorable for plague reemergence might exist in this area and lead to reactivation of organisms in other ancient foci. PMID:23347743

  5. Selected Bibliography of Educational Materials: Algeria, Libya, Morocco, Tunisia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Azzouz, Azzedine; And Others

    A 100-item bibliography with abstracts of books, newspaper articles, and periodical articles in English and French published predominantly in 1970 offers information on various aspects of education in Algeria, Libya, Morocco, and Tunisia. Emphasis is placed on sections dealing with: (1) educational philosophy, administration, statistics, and…

  6. Palynology and Stratigraphy of the Nubian Sandstone in Libya and Comparison with Egypt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tekbali, Ali; Hlal, Osama

    2013-04-01

    The so-called "Nubian Sandstone" outcrops along a wide area from Algeria to the Red Sea, forming two regressive phases. The lower phase is represented in Egypt by the Basal Clastic Unit, the Desert Rose Unit, the Abu Ballas Formation and the Matruh Shale. In Libya it is represented by the Mesak Sandstone, Sarir Sandstone, Cabao Sandstone and Kiklah Formation. In both countries, these successions are covered by a carbonate sequence, resulting from the Tethyan transgression during the Cenomanian. In Egypt however, the upper regressive phase is represented by the Taref Sandstone which was deposited during a brief period of active progradation, following the Tethyan incursion. This is not observed in Libya. Comparison of palynological studies in Libya with those documented by several authors in Egypt reveals that the "Nubian" facies in Libya were deposited before equivalent facies in Egypt. The Basal Clastic Unit, dated as Hautrauvian-Barremian, may be equivalent, at least to a part of the Neocomian Cabao Sandstone in NW Libya. Jarmah Member of the Mesak Formation in Libya was dated as Berriasian on the basis of Pilosisporites and Trilobosporites. This makes it older than any "Nubian" unit in Egypt. The Matruh Shale was assigned to the Aptian on the basis of Tricolpites, and the Abu Balls Formation 34 as Aptian-Albian on the basis of Tricolpites and Rousisporites radiatus. Whereas, there is no equivalent to the Aptian in NW Libya, the Aptian-Albian of Egypt is similar to Zone 1 of the Kiklah Formation and As Sarir Sandstone, which were dated as early Albian on the basis of Afropollis spp., and Perotriletes pannuceus, an Albian element not recorded in Egypt. The Plant Beds in southwestern Egypt were dated as Cenomanian on the basis of advanced angiosperm pollen. In Libya, equivalent bodies were considered Vraconian, representing the uppermost Albian, because it lacks Cenomanian pollen (e.g. Tricolpites mutabilis). Comparison of local sea-level changes with global sea

  7. Selected Bibliography of Educational Materials: Algeria, Libya, Morocco, Tunisia. Volume 6, Number 1, 1972.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Azzouz, Azzedine; And Others

    Annotations of articles, written in English, provide the content for a bibliography of educational materials written in French useful to those with an interest in North Africa. Sections on Algeria, Libya, Morocco, and Tunisia are preceded by a section on the Maghreb which deals with the special problems of illiteracy, multilingualism, and rapid…

  8. Selected Bibliography of Educational Materials: Algeria, Libya, Morocco, Tunisia. Volume 3, Numbers 2, 3, 1969.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Azzouz, Azzedine; And Others

    A two volume, 200-item bibliography with English abstracts of books and articles in English and French dating from 1957 offers information on various aspects of education in Algeria, Libya, Morocco, and Tunisia. Emphasis is placed on sections dealing with educational organization in primary, secondary, vocational, and higher education; and…

  9. Selected Bibliography of Materials; Algeria, Libya, Morocco, Tunisia. Volume 1, Number 2, 1967.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Azzouz, Azzedine; And Others

    A bibliography with abstracts of 106 items from books and articles covers materials on education in the Maghreb countries of Tunisia, Libya, Algeria, and Morocco. Special emphasis is given to the two problems besetting the area's educational system: illiteracy and multilingualism. The entries cover philosophy and theory of education,…

  10. Selected Bibliography of Educational Materials: Algeria, Libya, Morocco, Tunisia. Vol. 4 No. 3, 1970.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Azzouz, Azzedine, Comp.; And Others

    This report, part of a series of educational bibliographies from the Maghreb countries (Algeria, Morocco, and Tunisia) and Libya, consists of excerpts from periodicals published in those countries. Each entry is marked to indicate the particular country. The articles are organized under 13 major subjects that include: the structure of educational…

  11. Selected Bibliography of Educational Materials: Algeria, Libya, Morocco, Tunisia. Vol. 4, No. 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Azzouz, Azzedine; And Others

    A 100-item bibliography with abstracts of books, newspaper articles, and periodical articles in English and French published predominantly in 1970 offers information on various aspects of education in Algeria, Libya, Morocco, and Tunisia. Emphasis is placed on sections dealing with educational organization in primary, secondary, vocational, and…

  12. Selected Bibliography of Educational Materials: Algeria, Libya, Morocco, Tunisia. Vol. 1 No. 3 1967.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Azzouz, Azzedine; And Others

    This annotated compilation of 108 educational publications in Arabic, French, and English includes texts and data on elementary and secondary school curricula in the Maghreb countries (Tunisia, Morroco, Algeria, and Libya). Categories in this bibliography include--(1) Philosophy and Theory of Education, (2) Administration of the Educational…

  13. Selected Bibliography of Educational Materials: Maghreb, Algeria, Libya, Morocco, Tunisia. Vol. 9, No. 3, 1975.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Azzouz, Azzedine, Comp.; And Others

    The bibliography presents 91 English language annotations of newspaper articles, journals, and government publications about education in Algeria, Libya, Morocco, and Tunisia. Although the title also includes Maghreb, this issue does not contain any annotations for that country. All articles were published during the period July-September 1975.…

  14. Selected Bibliography of Educational Materials: Maghreb, Algeria, Libya, Morocco, Tunisia. Vol. 10, No. 4, 1976.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Azzouz, Azzedine; And Others

    Ninety-one English language annotations are presented of newspaper articles and government publications about education in Algeria, Libya, Morocco, and Tunisia. Most of the entries were published during the period October-December 1976. Organized by country, the references cover topics of philosophy and theory of education, teacher training,…

  15. Selected Bibliography of Educational Materials: Algeria, Libya, Morocco, Tunisia. Volume 6, Number 2, 1972.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Azzouz, Azzedine; And Others

    Annotations of articles, written in English, provide the content for an annotated bibliography of educational materials written in French useful to those with an interest in North Africa. Sections on Algeria, Libya, Morocco, and Tunisia cover topics such as the philosophy and theory of education, educational organization, adult education, teacher…

  16. Selected Bibliography of Educational Materials: Algeria, Libya, Morocco, Tunisia. Volume 3, Number 1, 1969.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Azzouz, Azzedine; And Others

    A 130-item bibliography with abstracts of books and articles in English and French provides information on various aspects of education (many of them language-related) in the Maghreb countries of Algeria, Libya, Morocco, and Tunisia. Each entry identifies the country with which it is concerned, and French titles are translated into English.…

  17. Selected Bibliography of Educational Materials: Algeria, Libya, Morocco, Tunisia. Volume 3, Number 4, 1969.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Azzouz, Azzedine; And Others

    A 100-item bibliography with abstracts of books, newspaper articles, and periodical articles in English and French dating from 1953 offers information on various aspects of education in Algeria, Libya, Morocco, and Tunisia. Emphasis is placed on sections dealing with educational organization in primary, secondary, vocational and higher education;…

  18. Selected Bibliography of Educational Materials: Algeria, Libya, Morocco, Tunisia. Volume 8, Number 1, 1974.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Azzouz, Azzedine; And Others

    This annotated bibliography contains 100 English-language annotations of newspapers and government publications covering educational topics of interest to North Africans. The majority of the items cited were published in 1974. Citations are categorized by country: Algeria, Libya, Morocco, and Tunisia. Within these major categories are subtopics…

  19. Selected Bibliography of Educational Materials: Algeria, Libya, Morocco, Tunisia. Volume 4, Number 1, 1970.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Azzouz, Azzedine, Comp.; And Others

    A 100-item bibliography with abstracts of books, newspaper articles, and periodical articles in English and French published predominantly in 1969 offers information on various aspects of education in Algeria, Libya, Morocco, and Tunisia. Emphasis is placed on sections dealing with educational organization in primary, secondary, vocational, and…

  20. Selected Bibliography of Educational Materials: Algeria, Libya, Morocco, Tunisia. Volume 2, Numbers 1, 2, 3, 1968.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Azzouz, Azzedine; And Others

    Three volumes comprise a 375-item bibliography with abstracts of books and articles in English, French, Italian, and Arabic that provides information on various aspects of education in the Maghreb countries of Algeria, Libya, Morocco, and Tunisia. Each entry identifies the country with which it is concerned, and foreign language titles are…

  1. Political economy of Maghribi oil: Change and development in Algeria and Libya

    SciTech Connect

    Vandewalle, D.J.

    1988-01-01

    In the wake of rapidly growing oil and natural gas revenues, Algeria and Libya during the 1970s adopted a state capitalist strategy in order to minimize the dislocations caused by continued reliance on the international economy and, in the long run, to move toward more self-reliant local economies. International political economy theories until now have paid relatively little attention to the impact of the state in the development process, assuming that state formation and bureaucratic development go hand in hand. But in Libya and Algeria they remained disjointed. This was further exacerbated by the rentier nature of their economies which allowed for the distribution of assets without real political participation. In Algeria a techno-bureaucratic elite, to which the state quickly lost control during the 1970s, was put in charge of development. By 1976 the inefficiencies of the public sector and the alignment of the techno-bureaucratic elite with an expanding private sector led Algeria back toward a more market-oriented development strategy. In Libya a much smaller population and larger revenues have allowed the Qadhdhafi government to prolong the state capitalists experiment without paying serious attention to either economic or political development.

  2. Mesozoic evolution of northeast African shelf margin, Libya and Egypt

    SciTech Connect

    Aadland, R.K.; Schamel, S.

    1989-03-01

    The present tectonic features of the northeast African shelf margin between the Nile delta and the Gulf of Sirte are products of (1) precursory late Paleozoic basement arches, (2) early Mesozoic rifting and plate separation, and (3) Late Cretaceous structural inversion. The 250 km-wide and highly differentiated Mesozoic passive margin in the Western Desert region of Egypt is developed above a broad northwest-trending Late Carboniferous basement arch. In northeastern Libya, in contrast, the passive margin is restricted to just the northernmost Cyrenaica platform, where subsidence was extremely rapid in the Jurassic and Early Cretaceous. The boundary between the Western Desert basin and the Cyrenaica platform is controlled by the western flank of the basement arch. In the middle Cretaceous (100-90 Ma), subsidence accelerated over large areas of the Western desert, further enhancing a pattern of east-west-trending subbasins. This phase of rapid subsidence was abruptly ended about 80 Ma by the onset of structural inversion that uplifted the northern Cyrenaica shelf margin and further differentiated the Western Desert subbasin along a northeasterly trend.

  3. Total petroleum systems of the Illizi Province, Algeria and Libya; Tanezzuft-Illizi

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Klett, T.R.

    2000-01-01

    Undiscovered conventional oil and gas resources were assessed within a total petroleum system of the Illizi Province (2056) as part of the U.S. Geological Survey World Petroleum Assessment 2000. The Illizi Province is in eastern Algeria and a small portion of western Libya. The province and its total petroleum system coincide with the Illizi Basin. Although several total petroleum systems may exist within the Illizi Province, only one ?composite? total petroleum system is identified. This total petroleum system comprises a single assessment unit. The main source rocks are the Silurian Tanezzuft Formation (or lateral equivalents) and Middle to Upper Devonian mudstone. The total petroleum system was named after the oldest major source rock and the basin in which it resides. The estimated means of the undiscovered conventional petroleum volumes in the Tanezzuft-Illizi Total Petroleum System are 2,814 million barrels of oil (MMBO), 27,785 billion cubic feet of gas (BCFG), and 873 million barrels of natural gas liquids (MMBNGL)

  4. Vocational Education in Algeria, Egypt, and Morocco: The Crisis and its Lessons.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salmi, Jamil

    1990-01-01

    Examines developments in vocational and technical education systems in Algeria, Egypt, and Morocco. Argues each system faces critical problems resulting from demographic pressures, educational demand, lack of funding, and job placement difficulties. Recommends programs should reflect industry's needs, urging integration between general and…

  5. Issues in Strategic Planning for Vocational Education: Lessons from Algeria, Egypt, and Morocco.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salmi, Jamil

    1991-01-01

    Although Algeria, Egypt, and Morocco have followed substantially different development strategies, they exhibit similar signs of crisis in vocational education. An integrated approach to planning that acknowledges social, financial, technological, and economic constraints could help coordinate general and vocational education and specialized…

  6. American equipment and technology can help satisfy demand for water: Algeria, Egypt, Morocco

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, G.A.

    1982-09-06

    The transfer of US equipment and technology to help North African and Middle East countries develop their water resources must include nonconventional technologies to help them augment existing water supplies. Water development in Morocco, Algeria, and Egypt to meet irrigation, sanitation, and economic development needs presents opportunities to US exporters and investors. This article summarizes the projects and needs in each of the three countries. (DCK)

  7. Situation Report--Algeria, Ecuador, New Zealand, Peru, Rhodesia, St. Lucia, and U.A.R. (Egypt).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Planned Parenthood Federation, London (England).

    Data relating to population and family planning in seven foreign countries are presented in these situation reports. Countries included are Algeria, Ecuador, New Zealand, Peru, Rhodesia, St. Lucia and U. A. R. (Egypt). Information is provided, where appropriate and available, under two topics, general background and family planning situation.…

  8. The path towards universal health coverage in the Arab uprising countries Tunisia, Egypt, Libya, and Yemen.

    PubMed

    Saleh, Shadi S; Alameddine, Mohamad S; Natafgi, Nabil M; Mataria, Awad; Sabri, Belgacem; Nasher, Jamal; Zeiton, Moez; Ahmad, Shaimaa; Siddiqi, Sameen

    2014-01-25

    The constitutions of many countries in the Arab world clearly highlight the role of governments in guaranteeing provision of health care as a right for all citizens. However, citizens still have inequitable health-care systems. One component of such inequity relates to restricted financial access to health-care services. The recent uprisings in the Arab world, commonly referred to as the Arab spring, created a sociopolitical momentum that should be used to achieve universal health coverage (UHC). At present, many countries of the Arab spring are considering health coverage as a priority in dialogues for new constitutions and national policy agendas. UHC is also the focus of advocacy campaigns of a number of non-governmental organisations and media outlets. As part of the health in the Arab world Series in The Lancet, this report has three overarching objectives. First, we present selected experiences of other countries that had similar social and political changes, and how these events affected their path towards UHC. Second, we present a brief overview of the development of health-care systems in the Arab world with regard to health-care coverage and financing, with a focus on Egypt, Libya, Tunisia, and Yemen. Third, we aim to integrate historical lessons with present contexts in a roadmap for action that addresses the challenges and opportunities for progression towards UHC.

  9. Algeria

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1983-07-01

    Algeria's hydrocarbon industry accounts for 98% of the nation's export earnings, 60-70% of the government's revenues, and 33% of the gross domestic product. Although oil production has declined, it will be replaced by production from Algeria's gas reserves, which rank fourth largest in the world. Official estimates put associated gas reserves at 20 trillion CF and nonassociated reserves at 99.57 TCF. By indexing the price of gas to the price of oil, Algeria plans to receive more realistic revenues for its gas exports. International trade is not the only outlet foreseen for Algerian reserves: by the year 2000, 77% of the gas output will be consumed domestically as the contribution of gas to overall energy requirements grows from 44% in 1979 to 60% in 1990, and the level of energy consumed triples during the same period, rising to 42 million tons/yr of oil equivalent.

  10. Algeria.

    PubMed

    1985-10-01

    Algeria is the 2nd largest state in Africa with a population of 22 million, 45% of which are urban and 57% under the age of 20. Almost all Algerians are Muslim. Education has become a real priority in Algeria and there are now more than 5 million students. Emphasis has begun to be placed on the establishment of technical institutes for training in skill areas needed to supply the nation's quickly expanding industrial sector. Presently there is a shortage of housing. The government of Algeria is centralized with guidance on fundamental issues coming from the periodic congresses of the FLN party and from its central committee between congresses. Laws remaining from the French colonial system are being amended to meet current Algerian needs. There has been relative political stability since 1965. Principal domestic objectives of the Algerian government are to achieve economic development through industrialization and increased agricultural productivity as well as raising the standard of living. The government basically controls the planning, development, and administration of the Algerian economy. The current 5-year economic development plan is financed heavily by hydrocarbon income. Despite the production of large quantities of food, Algeria must import 1/3 of its food to feed its growing population. However, at the same time, they provide a substantial amount of assistance to many of their neighbors. The armed forces are comprised of about 135,000 members and Algeria is considered a leading military power in the region. Its foreign policy is considered 1 of independence and nonalignment, and Algeria advocates the securing of a greater share of the world's wealth for developing countries by getting higher prices for the raw materials they produce. Relations with the US have improved since 1969 following the diplomatic break in realtions during the 1967 Arab-Israeli war. Most of the major political differences have been resolved.

  11. [Algeria].

    PubMed

    The capital of Algeria is Algiers. As of 1995, Algeria had a population of 27.9 million governed by a presidential regime. 1994 gross national product and per capita income were, respectively, $40.2 billion and $1470. Per capita income declined by 2.04% per year over the period 1985-94. In 1994, Algeria owed $29.898 billion, then being serviced at $5.4 billion. For the same year, Algeria exported $9.698 billion in goods and services and imported $12.919 billion. As of 1995, the population was growing in size by 2.2% annually. In 1992-93, life expectancy at birth was 67.1 years, the infant mortality rate was 55 per 1000 births, 88% had access to health services, and 68% had access to drinkable water. Other data are presented on the country's topography, climate and vegetation, demographics, principal cities, population distribution, religions, political structure, economics and finances, foreign commerce, and transportation and communications.

  12. Algeria.

    PubMed

    1988-11-01

    The 2nd largest state in Africa, the Democratic and Popular Republic of Algeria is in the Northwest region of Africa along the Mediterranean. 91% of the population of 23 million are situated along the Mediterranean. The government of Algeria parallels the government of the United States in structure containing an executive, legislative and judicial branch and based on a constitution. The roles of the government are discussed as are political conditions and the founding history of the present government. Also discussed is the Algerian defense and foreign relations. The majority of Algerians are Muslim and of Arab, Berber or Arab-Berber stock. The Berbers are the indigenous people of Algeria. European influence, particularly French, is still prevalent however. Natural resources include oil, natural gas, iron ore and uranium, and the most prevalent industries are involved with the production and processing of these resources. While Algeria has made great inroads in the areas of health and education, it still faces a growing problem: housing. Conditions for travel, i.e. transportation, communication, and health, are favorable.

  13. Egypt.

    PubMed

    1987-12-01

    Attention in this discussion of Egypt is directed to the following: geography; the people; history; government and political conditions; the economy; defense; foreign relations; and relations between Egypt and the US. The population totaled 50.5 million in 1986 with an annual growth rate of 2.8%. The infant mortality rate is 102/1000 (1986), and life expectancy is 58.3 years. Located in the northeastern corner of Africa, Egypt has a land area of about 1 million square kilometers and is bounded by the Mediterranean Sea, Libya, Sudan, the Red Sea, the Gulf of Aqaba, and Israel. Egypt is the most populous country in the Arab world. Egyptians are a fairly homogenous people of Hamitic origin. Mediterranean and Arab influences appear in the north, and there is some mixing in the south with the Nubians of northern Sudan. Egypt has been a unified state for over 5000 years, and archeological evidence indicates that a developed Egyptian society has existed for considerably longer. The constitution of Egypt provides for a strong executive with authority vested in an elected president who can appoint 1 or more vice presidents, a prime minister, and a cabinet. Egypt's legislative body has 458 members -- 448 popularly elected and 10 appointed by the president. Power is concentrated in the hands of the president and the National Democratic Party's majority in the People's Assembly, but opposition parties organize, publish their views, and represent their followers at various levels in the political system. The process of gradual political liberalization begun by Sadat has continued under Mubarak. In fiscal year 1987 the gross domestic product (GDP) reached about US$30 billion. Agriculture and services each contribute about 1/3 of GDP; the remainder comes from industry, petroleum, mining, electricity, and construction. At this time, the Egyptian economy faces several challenges. In 1986 the government of Egypt initiated a major review of economic policy and initiated an economic

  14. Mesozoic evolution of the northeast African shelf margin, Libya and Egypt

    SciTech Connect

    Aadland, R.K.; Schamel, S.

    1988-08-01

    The present tectonic features of the northeast African shelf margin between the Nile delta and the Gulf of Sirte are products of (1) precursory late Paleozoic basement arches, (2) early Mesozoic rifting and plate separation, and (3) Late Cretaceous structural inversion. Isopach and structural maps, cross sections, and sediment accumulation (geohistory) curves constructed from 89 wells in the Western Desert and 27 wells in northeastern Libya depict the structural and stratigraphic development of the northeast African shelf margin.

  15. Work-Based Learning Programmes for Young People in the Mediterranean Region: Algeria, Egypt, Israel, Jordan, Lebanon, Morocco, the Occupied Palestinian Territory, Syria, Tunisia and Turkey. Comparative Analyses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sweet, Richard

    2009-01-01

    This report examines programmes for youth that combine learning in classrooms with participation in work in 10 Mediterranean countries: Algeria, Egypt, Israel, Jordan, Lebanon, Morocco, the Occupied Palestinian Territory, Syria, Tunisia and Turkey. It is one element, together with the development of a network of policymakers and experts from the…

  16. Total petroleum systems of the Trias/Ghadames Province, Algeria, Tunisia, and Libya; the Tanezzuft-Oued Mya, Tanezzuft-Melrhir, and Tanezzuft-Ghadames

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Klett, T.R.

    2000-01-01

    Undiscovered conventional oil and gas resources were assessed within total petroleum systems of the Trias/Ghadames Province (2054) as part of the U.S. Geological Survey World Petroleum Assessment 2000. The Trias/Ghadames Province is in eastern Algeria, southern Tunisia, and westernmost Libya. The province and its total petroleum systems generally coincide with the Triassic Basin. The province includes the Oued Mya Basin, Melrhir Basin, and Ghadames (Berkine) Basin. Although several total petroleum systems may exist within each of these basins, only three ?composite? total petroleum systems were identified. Each total petroleum system occurs in a separate basin, and each comprises a single assessment unit. The main source rocks are the Silurian Tanezzuft Formation (or lateral equivalents) and Middle to Upper Devonian mudstone. Maturation history and the major migration pathways from source to reservoir are unique to each basin. The total petroleum systems were named after the oldest major source rock and the basin in which it resides. The estimated means of the undiscovered conventional petroleum volumes in total petroleum systems of the Trias/Ghadames Province are as follows: [MMBO, million barrels of oil; BCFG, billion cubic feet of gas; MMBNGL, million barrels of natural gas liquids] Total Petroleum System MMBO BCFG MMBNGL Tanezzuft-Oued Mya 830 2,341 110 Tanezzuft-Melrhir 1,875 4,887 269 Tanezzuft-Ghadames 4,461 12,035 908

  17. The transboundary non-renewable Nubian Aquifer System of Chad, Egypt, Libya and Sudan: classical groundwater questions and parsimonious hydrogeologic analysis and modelin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Voss, Clifford I.; Soliman, Safaa M.

    2014-01-01

    Parsimonious groundwater modeling provides insight into hydrogeologic functioning of the Nubian Aquifer System (NAS), the world’s largest non-renewable groundwater system (belonging to Chad, Egypt, Libya, and Sudan). Classical groundwater-resource issues exist (magnitude and lateral extent of drawdown near pumping centers) with joint international management questions regarding transboundary drawdown. Much of NAS is thick, containing a large volume of high-quality groundwater, but receives insignificant recharge, so water-resource availability is time-limited. Informative aquifer data are lacking regarding large-scale response, providing only local-scale information near pumps. Proxy data provide primary underpinning for understanding regional response: Holocene water-table decline from the previous pluvial period, after thousands of years, results in current oasis/sabkha locations where the water table still intersects the ground. Depletion is found to be controlled by two regional parameters, hydraulic diffusivity and vertical anisotropy of permeability. Secondary data that provide insight are drawdowns near pumps and isotope-groundwater ages (million-year-old groundwaters in Egypt). The resultant strong simply structured three-dimensional model representation captures the essence of NAS regional groundwater-flow behavior. Model forecasts inform resource management that transboundary drawdown will likely be minimal—a nonissue—whereas drawdown within pumping centers may become excessive, requiring alternative extraction schemes; correspondingly, significant water-table drawdown may occur in pumping centers co-located with oases, causing oasis loss and environmental impacts.

  18. The transboundary non-renewable Nubian Aquifer System of Chad, Egypt, Libya and Sudan: classical groundwater questions and parsimonious hydrogeologic analysis and modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voss, Clifford I.; Soliman, Safaa M.

    2014-03-01

    Parsimonious groundwater modeling provides insight into hydrogeologic functioning of the Nubian Aquifer System (NAS), the world's largest non-renewable groundwater system (belonging to Chad, Egypt, Libya, and Sudan). Classical groundwater-resource issues exist (magnitude and lateral extent of drawdown near pumping centers) with joint international management questions regarding transboundary drawdown. Much of NAS is thick, containing a large volume of high-quality groundwater, but receives insignificant recharge, so water-resource availability is time-limited. Informative aquifer data are lacking regarding large-scale response, providing only local-scale information near pumps. Proxy data provide primary underpinning for understanding regional response: Holocene water-table decline from the previous pluvial period, after thousands of years, results in current oasis/sabkha locations where the water table still intersects the ground. Depletion is found to be controlled by two regional parameters, hydraulic diffusivity and vertical anisotropy of permeability. Secondary data that provide insight are drawdowns near pumps and isotope-groundwater ages (million-year-old groundwaters in Egypt). The resultant strong simply structured three-dimensional model representation captures the essence of NAS regional groundwater-flow behavior. Model forecasts inform resource management that transboundary drawdown will likely be minimal—a nonissue—whereas drawdown within pumping centers may become excessive, requiring alternative extraction schemes; correspondingly, significant water-table drawdown may occur in pumping centers co-located with oases, causing oasis loss and environmental impacts.

  19. Effective groundwater modeling of the data-poor Nubian Aquifer System (Chad, Egypt, Libya, Sudan) - use of parsimony and 81Kr-based groundwater ages (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voss, C. I.; Soliman, S. M.; Aggarwal, P. K.

    2013-12-01

    Important information for management of large aquifer systems can be obtained via a parsimonious approach to groundwater modeling, in part, employing isotope-interpreted groundwater ages. ';Parsimonious' modeling implies active avoidance of overly-complex representations when constructing models. This approach is essential for evaluation of aquifer systems that lack informative hydrogeologic databases. Even in the most remote aquifers, despite lack of typical data, groundwater ages can be interpreted from isotope samples at only a few downstream locations. These samples incorporate hydrogeologic information from the entire upstream groundwater flowpath; thus, interpreted ages are among the most-effective information sources for groundwater model development. This approach is applied to the world's largest non-renewable aquifer, the transboundary Nubian Aquifer System (NAS) of Chad, Egypt, Libya and Sudan. In the NAS countries, water availability is a critical problem and NAS can reliably serve as a water supply for an extended future period. However, there are national concerns about transboundary impacts of water use by neighbors. These concerns include excessive depletion of shared groundwater by individual countries and the spread of water-table drawdown across borders, where neighboring country near-border shallow wells and oases may dry. Development of a parsimonious groundwater flow model, based on limited available NAS hydrogeologic data and on 81Kr groundwater ages below oases in Egypt, is a key step in providing a technical basis for international discussion concerning management of this non-renewable water resource. Simply-structured model analyses, undertaken as part of an IAEA/UNDP/GEF project, show that although the main transboundary issue is indeed drawdown crossing national boundaries, given the large scale of NAS and its plausible ranges of aquifer parameter values, the magnitude of transboundary drawdown will likely be small and may not be a

  20. A Mediterranean Rio Grande. Regional report 1: Egypt.

    PubMed

    1994-01-01

    This document concerns the impact of environmental problems on the economic life of people in Egypt and North Africa. With only a quarter of arable land, Egypt is incapable of feeding a population of 59 million people, and at the same time the economic condition has deteriorated. It has been estimated that Egypt needs to create about 450,000 jobs annually to keep up with additions to the labor force. Population growth, on the other hand, was projected to reach 81 million by 2010. In addition, Egypt is facing ever-growing water shortages with an estimate that within the next 20 years the demand for water will exceed the country's allotted share of Nile water by nearly 60%. Likewise, food shortages will likely be exacerbated by a continuous sea level rise through permanent flooding of agricultural lands. People in Libya, Tunisia, Algeria, and Morocco have migrated to Europe for several reasons: first, because of the steady population growth and unmet needs in family planning in these countries; second, because of the population pressures caused by the deterioration of the environment. Also, inadequate water supply has been affecting these countries. The prognosis for these countries must be cautious and conservative and their respective local governments must develop the programs that address these problems.

  1. A multidisciplinary study on Palaeozoic rocks of southern Libya

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meinhold, G.; Howard, J.; Le Heron, D. P.; Morton, A.; Abutarruma, Y.; Elgadry, M.; Phillips, R. J.; Strogen, D.; Thusu, B.; Whitham, A.

    2009-04-01

    Southern Libya is dominated by the intracratonic Murzuq and Kufra basins, separated by the Tibesti Massif. The Murzuq Basin, located in southwest Libya, extends into northwestern Chad, northern Niger and eastern Algeria and has been the focus of great interest for gas and oil exploration in recent years since the discovery of the El Sharara and the NC-174 (Elephant) fields in the western Murzuq Basin. Based on these discoveries, recent focus has shifted to the Kufra Basin, in southeast Libya, which extends into northern Chad, northwestern Sudan and straddles the border with Egypt. Although, the centre of the Murzuq Basin has been relatively well investigated by drilling and seismic profiles, the basin margins, however, lack a detailed geological investigation. In comparison, the Kufra Basin is underexplored with few boreholes drilled. Our studies focus on the eastern margin of the Murzuq Basin and the northern, eastern and western flanks of the Kufra Basin. Siliciclastic sediments of Infracambrian to Carboniferous age dominate the studied areas. Our objectives were to characterise the Infracambrian-Lower Palaeozoic stratigraphy, deduce the structural evolution of each study area, and to collect samples for follow-up analyses including provenance studies and biostratigraphy. In addition to outcrop-based fieldwork shallow boreholes up to 50 m depth were successfully drilled in the Silurian Tanezzuft Formation: a major hydrocarbon source rock unit in North Africa. The unweathered mudstones retrieved from one of the boreholes are rich in organic matter and have been used for biostratigraphical and geochemical investigations. The provenance study of the sandstone succession with heavy mineral analysis together with U-Pb zircon dating provides, for the first time, an understanding of the ancient source areas. Moreover, it is a useful test of the stratigraphic framework where biostratigraphic data are scarce. New data from this study are expected to lead to new

  2. Pharmaceutical Education in Libya.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Javaid, Karamat A.; And Others

    1981-01-01

    The Faculty of Pharmacy was started in 1975 at the University of Al-Faateh, Tripoli, Libya to train individuals to be pharmacists for Libya. The courses offered during four years at the faculty are stated and the departmental distribution of total credit hours is reported. (Author/MLW)

  3. Marshak Lectureship Talk: Women in Physics in Egypt and the Arab World

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El Sayed, Karimat

    2009-03-01

    Until the end of the 19th Century Science was not classified into different disciplines. The first woman named in the history of science was Merit Ptah (2700 BC) in Egypt's Valley of the Kings. In the new Egypt the first girl's school started in Cairo in 1873 and the first University in 1908. Only a few girls attended the University at that time, mainly studying the humanities. The first Egyptian woman physicist graduated in 1940 and received her PhD in nuclear physics in the USA. Nowadays the number of women in physics is increasing in all branches of physics, some of them are senior managers and others have been decorated with various prizes. In this talk some statistics will be given to show the percentage of women in physics in relation to other fields of science in Egypt. In Saudi Arabia the first girls' school started in 1964 and the first college for women, which was a section of King Abdul-Aziz University (where education is not mixed), started in 1975. I was the founder of the Physics Department of this women's section. Egyptians have played significant roles in teaching schoolchildren and university students of both sexes in all the Arab countries: Saudi Arabia, Sudan, Kuwait, Yemen, the Gulf States, Libya, Lebanon, Syria, and Jordan. But with respect to Algeria, Tunisia and Morocco, our role was limited, since classes are taught in French. Arab women living in the countries located east of Egypt still have many difficulties facing them, needing to overcome many technical, academic, and social problems, while women in the countries located west of Egypt have fewer problems. There were many problems in the early days of education in Egypt but the women of Egypt worked hard to gain the same rights as men and were able to pave the way for all Arab women. I myself met many difficulties in my early days. This talk will also describe the impact of the regional conference on Women in Physics in Africa and Middle East, which was held in Cairo in 2007.

  4. Biostratigraphic interpretation for the cyclic sedimentation in northwestern Libya

    SciTech Connect

    Tekbali, A.O.; Cornell, W.C. Dept. of Geological Sciences)

    1993-02-01

    Mesozoic sediments in western Libya are best exposed along the Jabal Nafusah escarpment. This northeast-southwest trending structure overlooks the Al Jifarah plain and extends more than 300 km westward to connect with a T-shaped anticlinorium in Algeria and Tunisia. The Al Aziziyan fault (normal, north side down) parallels the northern edge of the escarpment and marks its initial position. Alternate deposition of marine and continental sediments began in the Triassic before the formation of a major monocline in the Late Jurassic-Early Cretaceous time. Subsequent epiorogenic movements and isostatic adjustments initiated a westward sloping shelf along the southern edge of the Tethys. As a result, the eastern and central regions of western Libya were subjected to severe erosion and coalescing of unconformities towards the topographic highs, prior to the deposition of the overstepping Kiklah Formation. Geometrical and physical interpretation of the Mesozoic sediments in the region, combined with paleogeographic reconstruction indicate that the post-Hercynian epiorogenic adjustments and fluctuations of the Tethys resulted in local cyclic sedimentation. Accurate age assessment of the boundaries between the Jurassic-Early Cretaceous facies in northwestern Libya can be carried out on the basis of microfloral and faunal distribution and makes possible correlation of aquifers and probable oil-bearing sequences in western Libya.

  5. Exploration limited since '70s in Libya's Sirte basin

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, D. )

    1995-03-13

    Esso Standard made the first Libyan oil discovery in the western Ghadames basin in 1957. The Atshan-2 well tested oil from Devonian sandstones, and the play was a continuation of the Paleozoic trend found productive in the neighboring Edjeleh region of eastern Algeria. Exploration in the Sirte basin began in earnest in 1958. Within the next 10 years, 16 major oil fields had been discovered, each with recoverable reserves greater than 500 million bbl of oil. Libya currently produces under OPEC quota approximately 1.4 million b/d of oil, with discovered in-place reserves of 130 billion bbl of oil. The paper describes the structural framework, sedimentary basins of Libya, the Sirte basin, petroleum geology, play types, source rocks, generation and migration of hydrocarbons, oil reserves, potential, and acreage availability.

  6. English Teaching Profile: Algeria.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    British Council, London (England). English Language and Literature Div.

    A survey of the status and use of the English language in Algeria is presented. The following topics are outlined: (1) the role of English as a third language, (2) its place within the educational system at all levels and in each graduate institution, (3) the status of British expatriates teaching English in Algeria and of Algerian teachers of…

  7. A new species of Apidium (Anthropoidea, Parapithecidae) from the Sirt Basin, central Libya: First record of Oligocene primates from Libya.

    PubMed

    Beard, K Christopher; Coster, Pauline M C; Salem, Mustafa J; Chaimanee, Yaowalak; Jaeger, Jean-Jacques

    2016-01-01

    A new species of Apidium is the most common primate currently known from a newly discovered site near Zallah Oasis in the Sirt Basin of central Libya. Based on current knowledge of the associated fauna, this new species of Apidium is early Oligocene in age, being roughly contemporaneous with faunas from Quarries G and V in the upper part of the Jebel Qatrani Formation in Egypt that also contain species of Apidium. A phylogenetic analysis based on dental characters indicates that the new species of Apidium from Libya is the sister group of Apidium phiomense. Apidium bowni and Apidium moustafai from the Jebel Qatrani Formation in the Fayum are similar in age to the new species of Apidium from Libya, but both of these Egyptian species are more distantly related to A. phiomense from younger stratigraphic levels in the Fayum. This phylogenetic pattern underscores the benefit of enhanced geographic sampling of the fossil record, even in cases where local records are thought to be reasonably comprehensive and well documented. Oligocene parapithecids can be partitioned into two clades corresponding to the subfamilies Parapithecinae (containing Parapithecus and Simonsius) and Qatraniinae (including Qatrania and Apidium). Climatic deterioration during the early Oligocene may have impacted the macroevolutionary dynamics of early Afro-Arabian anthropoids by fostering the fragmentation of forest habitats, thereby promoting allopatric speciation among widespread populations of Apidium and other arboreal taxa.

  8. Center Pivot Irrigated Agriculture, Libya

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    A view of the Faregh Agricultural Station in the Great Calanscio Sand Sea, Libya (26.5N, 22.0E) about 300 miles southeast of Benghazi. A pattern of water wells have been drilled several miles apart to support a quarter mile center-pivot-swing-arm agricultural irrigation system. The crop grown is alfalfa which is eaten on location by flocks of sheep following the swing arm as it rotates. At maturity, the sheep are flown to market throughout Libya.

  9. [The population of Algeria].

    PubMed

    Cote, M

    1983-01-01

    Using data from the 1977 census for Algeria, demographic developments over the preceding 10 years are analyzed. Findings are presented concerning age distribution, economic activity, spatial distribution, urbanization, and internal migration. (summary in ENG)

  10. The Pasteurization of Algeria?

    PubMed

    Strachan, John

    2006-01-01

    This essay focuses on the anti-malarial campaigns of Edmond and Etienne Sergent in colonial Algeria during the period from 1900 to 1930. This Pasteur Institute of Algeria was part of an elaborate, global network of men and institutions that constituted the scientific empire of Third Republic France. It was deeply indebted to the methods pioneered by Pasteur and to the shared foundational myth that connected the overseas Pasteur Institutes to Paris. But the Sergent brothers' work operated within a dynamic context of international public health too. Algeria's European settlers had also worked out a creolized identity that was both dependent upon and distinct from metropolitan practices. Ultimately, the Pasteur Institute of Algeria bore the mark of the settler colonialism that had given rise to it.

  11. Libya: World Oil Report 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-08-01

    This paper reports that Libya is moving forward with plans to sell most of its crude as refined products and should have the capacity to handle most of its production, about 1.3 million bpd, by the mid-90s. Production was increased after the Iraqi invasion of Kuwait, and peak capacity could be over 1.5 million bopd. Exploration pace is still increasing but U.S. sanctions have taken their toll. Gas projects are advancing as officials push to develop and utilize more domestic gas reserves. Libya has commissioned a new gas processing plant in Sahl gas field in Sirte basin and plans are under way for development of Tahaddi field, Libya's largest gas field with 9 Tcf.

  12. Libya: A Future Arab Democracy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-03-21

    with the Berber tribes of North Africa. The eastern region of Cyrenaica is more closely associated with the Arab states of the Middle East...Springborg’s analysis is nationalism. Libya has a strong sense of national identity as well as a very homogeneous population that is 97% Berber /Arab

  13. Algeria: Country Status Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McFerren, Margaret

    A survey of the status of language usage in Algeria begins with an overview of the usage patterns of Arabic, the Berber languages, and French. The country's return to Arabic as its official language after independence from France in 1962 is discussed along with the resultant language planning, issues of language of instruction at the elementary,…

  14. Enzootic plague foci, Algeria

    PubMed Central

    Malek, M.A.; Hammani, A.; Beneldjouzi, A.; Bitam, I.

    2014-01-01

    In Algeria, PCR sequencing of pla, glpD and rpoB genes found Yersinia pestis in 18/237 (8%) rodents of five species, including Apodemus sylvaticus, previously undescribed as pestiferous; and disclosed three new plague foci. Multiple spacer typing confirmed a new Orientalis variant. Rodent survey should be reinforced in this country hosting reemerging plague. PMID:25834736

  15. Teaching Abroad: Algeria.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Agriopoulos, Michel

    1981-01-01

    Describes a program in Algeria which included the construction of a training facility to ease the shortage of semiskilled workers, particularly construction site electricians and instrument installers. Priorities were to define training needs, implement the program, and produce graduates as soon as possible. (JOW)

  16. Morocco and Algeria

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-15

    article title:  Where Europe meets Africa     View Larger ... create this cloud-free natural-color mosaic of southwestern Europe and northwestern Morocco and Algeria. The image extends from 48°N, ... Other formats available at JPL Africa and Europe meet in this natural-color mosaic from data during 2000 - 2002. ...

  17. Algeria: country profile.

    PubMed

    Harding, J

    1987-12-01

    Data are presented on the economy, the people, the population's health, and the culture in this country profile of Algeria. The population numbers 21.7 million. The infant mortality rate, used as a health indicator, is 81/1000 live births. Algeria's gross national product per capita is $2410 (US$15,390). Its main imports are machinery, transport equipment, food, tobacco, and consumer goods. The primary exports include oil, petroleum products, liquified natural gas, wine, and tobacco. Algeria's traditional Berber culture has survived occupation by Phoenicians, Romans, Arabs, and Europeans. The country is made up of an assortment of different social groups and ethnicities, and modern Algeria realized its unitary identity from the anti-colonial struggle. Recent laws allow freedom of association, an indication of growing pluralism in a state where opposition traditionally has been proscribed. 1987 marks the 25th anniversary of Algeria's independence, obtained after a long and bitter war with France. The victory of the Front de Liberation Nationale (FLN) was a signal for French settlers to leave in droves, and much of the country's managerial and technical expertise left with them. Yet, the FLN inherited a sound infrastructure on which to build a modern post-colonial society. Additionally, the country also was to benefit from plentiful hydrocarbon reserves, which guaranteed good foreign exchange earnings. One of the country's goals is to feed itself by investing in a long-neglected agricultural sector, yet presently oil and gas revenues continue to be the driving force behind development. The plans for increasing food production include greater scope for private farmers. A widening gap exists between those who espouse the old values forged by the liberation struggle and a younger generation, for whom the FLN's founding precepts and the leadership's old authoritarian style mean considerably less.

  18. Center of Gravity - Libya 1989

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-05-01

    of nuclear weapons proliferation.33 Obviously, chemical warfare (CW) proliferation needs to be added to this list, in view of the emerging Libyan CW...mass destruction and provide a low- cost, low-technology alternate to nuclear weapons. Reflect on Iraqi CW employment against their minority Kurdish...has nuclear ambitions. 55 This is in spite of being a 1975 signatory of the Nuclear Non-proliferation Treaty 56 Libya maintains a nuclear research

  19. Geology and hydrocarbon potential of the Hamada and Murzuq basins in western Libya

    SciTech Connect

    Kirmani, K.U.; Elhaj, F.

    1988-08-01

    The Hamada and Murzuq intracratonic basins of western Libya form a continuation of the Saharan basin which stretches from Algeria eastward into Tunisia and Libya. The tectonics and sedimentology of this region have been greatly influenced by the Caledonian and Hercynian orogenies. Northwest- and northeast-trending faults are characteristic of the broad, shallow basins. The Cambrian-Ordovician sediments are fluvial to shallow marine. The Silurian constitutes a complete sedimentary cycle, ranging from deep marine shales to shallow marine and deltaic sediments. The Devonian occupies a unique position between two major orogenies. The Mesozoic strata are relatively thin. The Triassic consists of well-developed continental sands, whereas the Jurassic and Cretaceous sediments are mainly lagoonal dolomites, evaporites, and shales. Silurian shales are the primary source rock in the area. The quality of the source rock appears to be better in the deeper part of the basin than on its periphery. The Paleozoic has the best hydrocarbon potential. Hydrocarbons have also been encountered in the Triassic and Carboniferous. In the Hamada basin, the best-known field is the El Hamra, with reserves estimated at 155 million bbl from the Devonian. Significant accumulations of oil have been found in the Silurian. Tlacsin and Tigi are two fields with Silurian production. In the Murzuq basin the Cambrian-Ordovician has the best production capability. However, substantial reserves need to be established before developing any field in this basin. Large areas still remain unexplored in western Libya.

  20. U.S. Geological Survey Assessment of Undiscovered Petroleum Resources of the Hamra Basin, Libya, 2006

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    2007-01-01

    The Hamra Basin Province encompasses approximately 244,100 square kilometers (94,250 square miles) and is entirely within Libya. One composite total petroleum system (TPS) was defined for this assessment; it extends from Libya westward into adjacent parts of Algeria and southern Tunisia. The Hamra Basin part of the TPS was subdivided into four assessment units for the purpose of resource assessment. The assessment units cover only 172,390 square kilometers of the Hamra Basin Province; the remaining area has little potential for undiscovered petroleum resources because of the absence of petroleum source rocks. Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the U.S. Geological Survey estimated mean volumes of 784 million barrels of crude oil, 4,748 billion cubic feet of natural gas, and 381 million barrels of natural gas liquids in the Hamra Basin of northwestern Libya. Most of the undiscovered crude oil and natural gas are interpreted to be in deeper parts of the Hamra Basin.

  1. 31 CFR 570.304 - Government of Libya.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Government of Libya. 570.304 Section....304 Government of Libya. The term Government of Libya includes: (a) The state and the Government of Libya, as well as any political subdivision, agency, or instrumentality thereof, and the Central Bank...

  2. 31 CFR 570.304 - Government of Libya.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Government of Libya. 570.304 Section....304 Government of Libya. The term Government of Libya includes: (a) The state and the Government of Libya, as well as any political subdivision, agency, or instrumentality thereof, and the Central Bank...

  3. Dendroagricultural Signal in Algeria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Touchan, R.; Kherchouche, D.; Anchukaitis, K. J.; Oudjehih, B.; Touchane, H.; Slimani, S.; Meko, D. M.

    2015-12-01

    Dalila Kherchouche2, Kevin J. Anchukaitis3, Bachir Oudjehih2, Hayat Touchan4, Said Slimani5, and David M. Meko1Drought is one of the main natural factors in declining tree-ring growth and the production of agricultural crops in Algeria. Here we will address the variability of growing conditions for wheat in Algeria with climatic data and a tree-ring reconstruction of January-June precipitation from ten Pinus halepensis tree-ring chronologies. A regression-based reconstruction equation explains up to 74% of the variance of precipitation in the 1970-2011 calibration period and cross validates well. Classification of dry years by the 30% percentile of observed precipitation (131 mm) yields a maximum length of drought of five years (1877-1881) and increasing frequency of dry years in the late 20th and early 21stcenturies. A correlation-based sensitivity analysis shows a similar pattern of dependence of tree-growth and wheat production on monthly and seasonal precipitation, but contrasting patterns of dependence on temperature. The patterns are interpreted by reference to phenology, growth phases, and - for wheat agricultural practices. We apply these interpretations to understand possible impacts of climate variability on the agricultural productivity of past civilizations in the Mediterranean. 2Institute of Veterinary and Agronomy Sciences, The University Hadj-Lakhdar, Batna 05000, Algeria, d.kherchouche@yahoo.fr and oudjehihbachir@yahoo.fr3University of Arizona, ENR2 Building, 1064 E Lowell Street, PO Box 210137, Tucson, AZ 85721-0137, kanchukaitis@email.arizona.edu4Faculty of Agriculture, University of Aleppo, Aleppo-Syria, dr.htouchan@gmail.com5Faculty of Biological Sciences and Agronomy, The University Mouloud Mammeri, Tizi Ouzou 15000, Algeria, slimanisaid@yahoo.fr1Laboratory of Tree Ring Research, The University of Arizona, 1215 E. Lowell St. Bldg. 45B, Tucson, AZ 85721, USA, dmeko@ltrr.arizona.edu

  4. Zoonotic Focus of Plague, Algeria

    PubMed Central

    Bitam, Idir; Baziz, Belkacem; Rolain, Jean-Marc; Belkaid, Miloud

    2006-01-01

    After an outbreak of human plague, 95 Xenopsylla cheopis fleas from Algeria were tested for Yersinia pestis with PCR methods. Nine fleas were definitively confirmed to be infected with Y. pestis biovar orientalis. Our results demonstrate the persistence of a zoonotic focus of Y. pestis in Algeria. PMID:17326957

  5. Ancient Egypt.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evers, Virginia

    This four-week fourth grade social studies unit dealing with religious dimensions in ancient Egyptian culture was developed by the Public Education Religion Studies Center at Wright State University. It seeks to help students understand ancient Egypt by looking at the people, the culture, and the people's world view. The unit begins with outlines…

  6. Africa; Expanding market creates more gas lines

    SciTech Connect

    Quarles, W.R.; Thiede, K.; Parent, L.

    1990-11-01

    The authors report on pipeline development activities in Africa. They discuss how a growing European market for gas has increased potential pipeline construction in Africa, especially for Algeria, Egypt, and Libya.

  7. The Department of Homeland Security Intelligence Enterprise: Operational Overview and Oversight Challenges for Congress

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-05-27

    in Afghanistan, Algeria, Bahrain, Bangladesh, Djibouti, Egypt, Eritrea, Indonesia, Iran, Iraq, Jordan, Kazakhstan, Kuwait, Lebanon, Libya, Malaysia ...at two hotels, a railway station, hospital, Jewish Center, cafe , and cinema. 164 were killed. All of these attacks involved mass casualties. All

  8. Medical education in Libya: the challenges.

    PubMed

    Benamer, Hani T S; Bakoush, Omran

    2009-06-01

    The history of medical education in Libya spans over a period of 40 years. Medical schools had a good and promising start in the 1970s. The graduates of the first few classes had a good impact on the health services in Libya. However, the medical schools did not embrace the immense changes that medical education experienced over the last two decades. This article aims to give a background on the medical education in Libya and explore the challenges facing it, which may help in gaining the initial momentum that seems to have been lost.

  9. Libya: Transition and U.S. Policy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-04-20

    country in July 2014. The Islamic State’s (IS) rise in parts of Libya has become a matter of deep concern among Libyans and the international community...build consensus among Libyans on national political, economic, or security matters . Security Council Resolution 2278, adopted on March 31, 2016...Congressional Research Service 8 The Islamic State Threat The presence and strengthening of Islamic State supporters in Libya have become matters of deep

  10. Libya: Background and U.S. Relations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-06-13

    influenced Libya’s position toward the Israeli-Palestinian conflict.5 Qadhafi and other Libyan officials met with Hamas figures Khaled Meshaal and PA...ambassadorship to Libya. CRS-12 16 Khaled El-Deeb,”Gadhafi: Regrets Reagan Died Before Being Tried for 1986 Air Strikes on Libya,” Associated Press, June 6...company expects to begin exploratory drilling in its new license areas in early 2006. Winners of the second batch of EPSA IV bids were announced on

  11. 76 FR 16459 - Prohibiting Exports Involving Libya by Executive Order

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-23

    ... COMMISSION Prohibiting Exports Involving Libya by Executive Order AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission... Government of Libya. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Grace Kim, Office of the General Counsel, U.S. Nuclear... . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Exports Involving the Government of Libya Suspended by Executive Order Under...

  12. East Europe Report, Economic and Industrial Affairs.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-05-31

    them~in North Africa— Algeria , Libya and Egypt. In the East African region, the list includes Ethiopia and Mozambique, and in West Africa, Nigeria, the...People’s Republic of the Congo and Angola. In Algeria , the GDR-construeted steel foundry became operational in late Febru- ary 1984, after the grey...34 Henningsdorf, and the Railroad Freight Car VEB Niesky supplied locomotives, passenger cars and freight cars, particularly to Egypt, Algeria and Tunisia

  13. Antimicrobial resistance in Libya: 1970-2011.

    PubMed

    Sifaw Ghenghesh, Khalifa; Rahouma, Amal; Tawil, Khaled; Zorgani, Abdulaziz; Franka, Ezzedin

    2013-01-01

    Resistance to antimicrobial agents is a major health problem that affects the whole world. Providing information on the past state of antimicrobial resistance in Libya may assist the health authorities in addressing the problem more effectively in the future. Information was obtained mainly from Highwire Press (including PubMed) search for the period 1970-2011 using the terms 'antibiotic resistance in Libya', 'antimicrobial resistance in Libya', 'tuberculosis in Libya', and 'primary and acquired resistance in Libya' in title and abstract. From 1970 to 2011 little data was available on antimicrobial resistance in Libya due to lack of surveillance and few published studies. Available data shows high resistance rates for Salmonella species in the late 1970s and has remained high to the present day. High prevalence rates (54-68%) of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) were reported in the last decade among S. aureus from patients with burns and surgical wound infections. No reports were found of vancomycin-resistant S. aureus (VRSA) or vancomycin-intermediate-resistant S. aureus (VISA) using standard methods from Libya up to the end of 2011. Reported rates of primary (i.e. new cases) and acquired (i.e. retreatment cases) multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) from the eastern region of Libya in 1971 were 16.6 and 33.3% and in 1976 were 8.6 and 14.7%, in western regions in 1984-1986 were 11 and 21.5% and in the whole country in 2011 were estimated at 3.4 and 29%, respectively. The problem of antibiotic resistance is very serious in Libya. The health authorities in particular and society in general should address this problem urgently. Establishing monitoring systems based on the routine testing of antimicrobial sensitivity and education of healthcare workers, pharmacists, and the community on the health risks associated with the problem and benefits of prudent use of antimicrobials are some steps that can be taken to tackle the problem in the future.

  14. Antimicrobial resistance in Libya: 1970-2011.

    PubMed

    Ghenghesh, Khalifa Sifaw; Rahouma, Amal; Tawil, Khaled; Zorgani, Abdulaziz; Franka, Ezzedin

    2013-03-27

    Resistance to antimicrobial agents is a major health problem that affects the whole world. Providing information on the past state of antimicrobial resistance in Libya may assist the health authorities in addressing the problem more effectively in the future. Information was obtained mainly from Highwire Press (including PubMed) search for the period 1970-2011 using the terms 'antibiotic resistance in Libya', 'antimicrobial resistance in Libya', 'tuberculosis in Libya', and 'primary and acquired resistance in Libya' in title and abstract. From 1970 to 2011 little data was available on antimicrobial resistance in Libya due to lack of surveillance and few published studies. Available data shows high resistance rates for Salmonella species in the late 1970s and has remained high to the present day. High prevalence rates (54-68%) of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) were reported in the last decade among S. aureus from patients with burns and surgical wound infections. No reports were found of vancomycin-resistant S. aureus (VRSA) or vancomycin-intermediate-resistant S. aureus (VISA) using standard methods from Libya up to the end of 2011. Reported rates of primary (i.e. new cases) and acquired (i.e. retreatment cases) multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) from the eastern region of Libya in 1971 were 16.6 and 33.3% and in 1976 were 8.6 and 14.7%, in western regions in 1984-1986 were 11 and 21.5% and in the whole country in 2011 were estimated at 3.4 and 29%, respectively. The problem of antibiotic resistance is very serious in Libya. The health authorities in particular and society in general should address this problem urgently. Establishing monitoring systems based on the routine testing of antimicrobial sensitivity and education of healthcare workers, pharmacists, and the community on the health risks associated with the problem and benefits of prudent use of antimicrobials are some steps that can be taken to tackle the problem in the future.

  15. Evidence for Late Ordovician glaciation of Al Kufrah Basin, Libya

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le Heron, Daniel Paul; Howard, James

    2010-09-01

    Fieldwork at the flanks of Al Kufrah Basin, Libya, reveals that Late Ordovician ice sheets were present in the eastern Sahara and that they extended northeastward toward Egypt. Evidence for grounded ice sheets is preserved at the both the southeastern (Jabal Azbah) and northern (Jabal az-Zalmah) basin margins. Characteristic soft-sediment deformation structures, including soft-sediment folds, small-scale faults and striated pavements indicate subglacial shearing and the formation of glacial erosion surfaces. These findings support the presence of a Late Ordovician ice margin in the eastern Sahara and add vital new constraints to reconstructions of the morphology of North African grounded ice sheets. Prior to our study, there existed two plausible models on ice sheet geometry. The first was that separate ice sheets - namely a north and west African ice sheet and an Arabian ice sheet - extended over this part of western North Gondwana. The second was that ice cover was continuous. The presence of a suite of subglacially-generated deformation structures adds considerable credence to the latter interpretation.

  16. Libya: Background and U.S. Relations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-11-04

    Congressional Research Service ˜ The Library of Congress CRS Report for Congress Received through the CRS Web Order Code RL33142 Libya: Background...insurance and guarantees from the Export- Import Bank or its agents (H. Rept. 109-265, November 2, 2005). CRS-12 24 Khaled El- Deeb ,”Gadhafi: Regrets...Khaled El Deeb , “Libya Pardons More Than 1,600 Criminals in Prison to Celebrate Gadhafi Coup,” Associated Press, Sept. 2, 2005. Minister Abd Al Rahman

  17. Libya: Background and U.S. Relations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-06-13

    Libya’s position toward the Israeli-Palestinian conflict.5 Qadhafi and other Libyan officials met with Hamas figures Khaled Meshaal and PA Foreign CRS...ambassadorship to Libya. CRS-12 16 Khaled El-Deeb,”Gadhafi: Regrets Reagan Died Before Being Tried for 1986 Air Strikes on Libya,” Associated Press, June 6, 2004...expects to begin exploratory drilling in its new license areas in early 2006. Winners of the second batch of EPSA IV bids were announced on October

  18. Libya: Background and U.S. Relations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-03-16

    Libya Claims Settlement Agreement and State Department letters of referral. This includes claims related to the Pan Am 103 bombing. Al Megrahi’s...Isratine.” In a January 2009 opinion editorial in the New York Times Qadhafi rejected the “tired rhetoric of partition and two-state solutions,” and...International, “France Eyes Libyan Deal,” August 1, 2006. 65 Antony Barnett, “MoD targets Libya and Iraq as ‘Priority’ Arms Sales Targets,” Observer (London

  19. Ancient Egypt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swamy, Ashwin Balegar

    This thesis involves development of an interactive GIS (Geographic Information System) based application, which gives information about the ancient history of Egypt. The astonishing architecture, the strange burial rituals and their civilization were some of the intriguing questions that motivated me towards developing this application. The application is a historical timeline starting from 3100 BC, leading up to 664 BC, focusing on the evolution of the Egyptian dynasties. The tool holds information regarding some of the famous monuments which were constructed during that era and also about the civilizations that co-existed. It also provides details about the religions followed by their kings. It also includes the languages spoken during those periods. The tool is developed using JAVA, a programing language and MOJO (Map Objects Java Objects) a product of ESRI (Environmental Science Research Institute) to create map objects, to provide geographic information. JAVA Swing is used for designing the user interface. HTML (Hyper Text Markup Language) pages are created to provide the user with more information related to the historic period. CSS (Cascade Style Sheets) and JAVA Scripts are used with HTML5 to achieve creative display of content. The tool is kept simple and easy for the user to interact with. The tool also includes pictures and videos for the user to get a feel of the historic period. The application is built to motivate people to know more about one of the prominent and ancient civilization of the Mediterranean world.

  20. Epidemic typhus imported from Algeria.

    PubMed

    Niang, M; Brouqui, P; Raoult, D

    1999-01-01

    We report epidemic typhus in a French patient returning from Algeria. The diagnosis was confirmed by serologic testing and the isolation of Rickettsia prowazekii in blood. Initially the patient was thought to have typhoid fever. Because body lice are prevalent in industrialized regions, the introduction of typhus to pediculosis-endemic areas poses a serious public health risk.

  1. A new early Oligocene mammal fauna from the Sirt Basin, central Libya: Biostratigraphic and paleobiogeographic implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coster, Pauline M. C.; Beard, K. Christopher; Salem, Mustafa J.; Chaimanee, Yaowalak; Brunet, Michel; Jaeger, Jean-Jacques

    2015-04-01

    We report the discovery of a new early Oligocene vertebrate fauna from the vicinity of Zallah Oasis in the Sirt Basin of central Libya. The Zallah Incision local fauna has been recovered from the base of a fluvial channel within a rock unit that has been mapped as "Continental and Transitional Marine Deposits." This rock unit has produced fossil vertebrates sporadically since the 1960s, but the Zallah Incision local fauna is the most diverse assemblage of fossil mammals currently known from this unit. In addition to lower vertebrates, the fauna includes an indeterminate sirenian, the anthracothere Bothriogenys, a new species of the hyracoid genus Thyrohyrax, new species of the hystricognathous rodent genera Metaphiomys and Neophiomys, Metaphiomys schaubi, and a new species of the parapithecid primate genus Apidium. The Zallah Incision local fauna from Libya appears to be close in age to Fayum quarries V and G in the Jebel Qatrani Formation of Egypt and the Taqah locality in the Ashawq Formation of Oman. Considered together, these early Oligocene faunas support a modest level of faunal provincialism across the northern part of Afro-Arabia during the early Oligocene.

  2. Estimated use of explosives in the mining industries of Algeria, Iran, Iraq, and Libya

    SciTech Connect

    Wilburn, D.R.; Russell, J.A.; Bleiwas, D.I.

    1995-09-01

    This work was performed under Memorandum of Agreement B291534 Between the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) and the United States Bureau of Mines. The Bureau of Mines authors are members of the Minerals Availability Field Office (MAFO) in Denver, CO, which uses an extensive network of information sources to develop and maintain the Minerals Availability database concerning mining and minerals properties worldwide. This study was initiated and directed by F. Heuze at LLNL. A previous study on the same subject had been commissioned by LLNL from the Mining Journal Research Services (MJRS) in London ,UK. Its results were integrated into this report. MJRS is shown as one of the numerous sources which were used for this work. All sources are listed in the report. This document is arranged in four sections, one for each country, in alphabetical order. Thie outline is the same for each country.

  3. Selected Bibliography of Educational Materials: Algeria, Libya, Morocco, Tunisia. Vol. 8, No. 3, 1974.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Azzouz, Azzedine; And Others

    This bibliography contains 100 English-language annotations of newspaper articles and government publications from four North African nations. All of the items were published July-September 1974. Annotations are categorized by topic: philosophy and theory of education, educational level, special adult education, teacher training, teaching methods…

  4. Selected Bibliography of Educational Materials: Algeria, Libya, Morocco, Tunisia, Volume 1 Number 4 1967.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Azzouz, Azzedine; And Others

    This is an annotated bibliography with abstracts of 110 entries including materials in English, French, and Arabic on educational organization, philosophy and theory, school administration, higher education, adult education, special problems, and structure of North Africa's educational organization. Vocational, religious, fine arts, and special…

  5. Selected Bibliography of Educational Materials: Algeria, Libya, Morocco, Tunisia. Volume 8, Number 2, 1974.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Azzouz, Azzedine; And Others

    This bibliography contains 100 English-language annotations of newspaper articles and government publications from four North African nations. Most of the items were published in 1974. Annotations are categorized by topic: philosophy and theory of education, educational level, adult education, teacher training, teaching methods and aids, artistic…

  6. Selected Bibliography of Educational Materials: Algeria, Libya, Morocco, Tunisia. Volume 7, Number 3, 1973.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Azzouz, Azzedine; And Others

    This bibliography includes English language annotations of newspapers and government publications covering educational materials of interest to North Africans (1) to raise the consciousness of their Islamic and Arabic heritages and (2) to adapt education to the problems of the multilingual population. Citations are categorized by country. Within…

  7. Selected Bibliography of Educational Materials: Algeria, Libya, Morocco, Tunisia. Vol. 7, No. 1, 1973.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Azzouz, Azzedine; And Others

    English language annotations of newspapers and government publications covering educational materials of interest to North Africans to (1) raise the consciousness of their Islamic and Arabic heritages (Arabization) and (2) to adapt education to the problems of the multilingual population are included in this bibliography. Citations are categorized…

  8. Selected Bibliography of Educational Materials: Algeria, Libya, Morocco, Tunisia. Volume 6, Number 4, 1972.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Azzouz, Azzedine

    English language annotations of newspapers and government publications covering educational materials of interest to North Africans to (1) raise the consciousness of their Islamic and Arabic heritages (Arabization) and (2) to adapt education to the problems of the multilingual population are included in this bibliography. Citations are categorized…

  9. Selected Bibliography of Educational Materials: Maghreb, Algeria, Libya, Morocco, Tunisia. Vol. 9, No. 4, 1975.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Azzouz, Azzedine, Comp.; And Others

    Ninety-six English language annotations of newspaper articles and government publications about education in five North African countries are contained in this bibliography. Drawing from materials primarily published during 1975 through 1976, the bibliography examines all aspects of education in those countries. Organized by country, the…

  10. Selected Bibliography of Educational Materials; Algeria, Libya, Morocco, Tunisia. Volume 5, Number 3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Azzouz, Azzedine; And Others

    Information on various aspects of education in the Maghreb countries is provided in this annotated bibliography which is part of an educational series. One hundred entries consisting primarily of works from newspaper and government documents and a few periodicals, published in those countries during 1971 and a few in 1972, comprise this work.…

  11. Selected Bibliography of Educational Materials: Algeria, Libya, Morocco, Tunisia. Vol. 8, No. 4, 1974.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Azzouz, Azzedine; And Others

    This bibliography contains 100 English-language annotations of newspaper articles and government publications from four North African nations. All of the items were published October-December 1974. Annotations are categorized by topic: philosophy and theory of education, educational level, adult education, special education, teacher training,…

  12. Selected Bibliography of Educational Materials: Algeria, Libya, Morocco, Tunisia. Vol. 7, No. 2, 1973.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Azzouz, Azzedine; And Others

    English language annotations of newspapers and government publications covering educational materials of interest to North Africans to 1) raise the consciousness of their Islamic and Arabic heritages (Arabization) and 2) to adapt education to the problems of the multilingual population are included in this bibliography. Citations are categorized…

  13. Selected Bibliography of Educational Materials: Maghreb, Algeria, Libya, Morocco, Tunisia. Vol. 10, No. 1, 1976.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Azzouz, Azzedine, Comp.; And Others

    Ninety English-language annotations of newspaper articles and government publications about education in five north African countries are contained in this bibliography. Drawing from materials published during the early months of 1976, the bibliography examines all aspects of education in those countries. Organized by country, the bibliography…

  14. Selected Bibliography of Educational Materials: Maghreb, Algeria, Libya, Morocco, Tunisia. Vol. 10, No. 3, 1976.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Azzouz, Azzedine; And Others

    The bibliography contains 94 English language annotations of newspaper articles and government publications about education in selected North African countries. Most of the entries were published during the period July-September 1976. Organized by country, the bibliography presents sources relating to educational philosophy and theory, teacher…

  15. Selected Bibliography of Educational Materials: Algeria, Libya, Morocco, Tunisia. Volume 7, Number 4, 1973.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Azzouz, Azzedine; And Others

    This annotated bibliography contains 108 English language annotations of newspapers and government publications covering educational materials of interest to North Africans. The materials relate a clear trend toward increased awareness of Arab and Islamic heritage and the adaptation of education to a multilingual population. Citations are…

  16. Selected Bibliography of Educational Materials: Maghreb, Algeria, Libya, Morocco, Tunisia. Vol. 10, No. 2, 1976.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Azzouz, Azzedine, Comp.; And Others

    The bibliography contains 92 English language annotations of newspaper articles and government publications about education in selected North African countries. All entries were published during 1976. Organized by country, the bibliography presents sources relating to educational philosophy and theory, educational administration, adult education,…

  17. Selected Bibliography of Educational Materials: Algeria, Libya, Morocco, Tunisia. Vol. 6, No. 3. 1972.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Azzouz, Azzedine; And Others

    English language annotations of articles from 13 French language periodicals covering educational materials of interest to North Africans are included in this annotated bibliography. Citations are categorized by country. Topics touch on philosophy and theory of education, educational statistics, education organization by grade and type, adult…

  18. Libya: Background and U.S. Relations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-12-03

    within the limits of public interest and principles of the Revolution.” In practice , criticism of the government and Qadhafi are restricted and often...landscape in line with Qadhafi’s principles . These trends also helped Qadhafi and his supporters maintain political control. Overseas, Qadhafi promoted...Country Report on Human Rights Practices in Libya (March 6, 2007) and from Amnesty International [http://web.amnesty.org/library/eng-lby/index], and Human

  19. Libya: Background and U.S. Relations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-08-06

    State Department, Libyan law provides for freedom of speech “within the limits of public interest and principles of the Revolution.” In practice ...Libya’s social landscape in line with Qadhafi’s principles . These trends also helped Qadhafi and his supporters maintain political control. Overseas...2008. 65 U.S. Department of State, Bureau of Democracy, Human Rights, and Labor, Country Reports on Human Rights Practices , Libya - 2006, March 6

  20. Libya: Background and U.S. Relations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-07-16

    related claims in accordance with the 2008 U.S.-Libya Claims Settlement Agreement and State Department letters of referral. This includes claims...proposes be called “Isratine.” In a January 2009 opinion editorial in the New York Times Qadhafi rejected the “tired rhetoric of partition and two...293. 17 Letter from the Great Libyan Arab Jamahiriyah to the President of the Security Council, reprinted in United Kingdom Foreign & Commonwealth

  1. What Future for Berber Languages in Algeria?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Houcine, Samira

    2011-01-01

    After Algeria wrenched its independence from France in 1962, the government newly formed decided to achieve Arabization. Standard Arabic became thus the official language of Algeria and the complete Arabization of all public institutions was voted in January 1991. Actually, the Algerian linguistic situation is one of multilingualism where Algerian…

  2. Algeria: Revolution, Army and Political Power

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zeraoui, Zidane

    2012-01-01

    Despite the numerous similarities among the Arab countries that explain the rapid popular movements since the end of 2010, the case of Algeria presents particular features. It shares the same inequalities and social challenges as the rest of the countries in the region. However, the revolutionary process in Algeria between 1954 and 1962 and the…

  3. Rights of the Child in Algeria.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mejia, Fernando

    This report to the United Nations Committee on the Rights of the Child contains observations of the World Organisation Against Torture (OMCT) concerning the application of the Convention on the Rights of the Child by Algeria. The report's introduction asserts that although OMCT welcomes legislative and institutional efforts made by Algeria since…

  4. Napoleon in Egypt.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fagan, Brian

    1989-01-01

    Recounts the 1798 Egyptian campaign of Napoleon Bonaparte, whose Scientific and Artistic Commission documented and described the glories of ancient Egypt. The expedition was a disaster by military standards, but the cultural legacies included the Rosetta Stone, and a chronicle entitled "Description de L'Egypte," which did much to…

  5. Ancient Egypt: History 380.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turk, Laraine D.

    "Ancient Egypt," an upper-division, non-required history course covering Egypt from pre-dynastic time through the Roman domination is described. General descriptive information is presented first, including the method of grading, expectation of student success rate, long-range course objectives, procedures for revising the course, major…

  6. Education in Egypt, 1978.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Youssef, Youssef Khalil, Ed.; Ibrahim, Fawzia El-Sayed, Ed.

    This publication of the National Center for Educational Research of Egypt describes the status of education in Egypt in 1978, with respect to administration, structure, the educational ladder including university education, as well as the quantitative side of education. It also briefly presents the historical background of Egyptian education, its…

  7. Education in Egypt, 1979.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Youssef, Youssef Khalil, Ed.

    This publication of the National Center for Educational Research of Egypt describes the status of education in Egypt in 1979, with respect to administration, structure, the educational ladder including university education, as well as the quantitative side of education. It also briefly presents the historical background of Egyptian education, its…

  8. [Demography and crises in Algeria].

    PubMed

    Cherrad, S E

    1996-01-01

    This article argues that demographic factors are an underlying cause of the many political, economic, social, and cultural crises that Algeria has experienced over the course of the 1990s. The author suggests that although the demography of the country is generally ignored when these issues are discussed, the rapid rate of population growth, which has caused the population to double in about 20 years, and the continued dependency burden, due to the fact that over 50% of the population are under age 20, are major causes of the country's current malaise.

  9. Algeria: World Oil Report 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-08-01

    This paper reports that Algeria is positioned to achieve important, new natural gas markets. Over half of its hydrocarbon income is from exports of gas and derived products, liquified petroleum gas (LPG) and condensates, which are not subject to Opec quotas. Officials are moving away from inflexible past policies and are becoming vastly more realistic now that foreign investment laws have been liberalized and there is a need to attract foreign investors. Sonatrach must address three key issues to consolidate recent progress. Sales to existing customers in Europe, like Italy, must be expanded; new customers and markets need to found: and U.S. liquified natural gas (LNG) markets must be revived.

  10. Algeria schedules onshore licensing round

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-08-17

    This paper reports that Algeria's Sonatrach will conduct its first international onshore exploration licensing round in a move designed to triple drilling activity in the country. A second round will follow next April. Sonatrach plans to drill 200 wells during 1991-95, which will require the current level of 37/year to be almost trebled toward the end of the period. To this end foreign operators are being courted in an open exploration bidding round. Deadline for bid submittal in Nov. 30. Companies may enter singly or in groups to form partnerships with Sonatrach. Foreign licensees will be able to take a maximum 49% of production under Algerian law.

  11. A Regional View of the Libya Montes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    The Libya Montes are a ring of mountains up-lifted by the giant impact that created the Isidis basin to the north. During 1999, this region became one of the top two that were being considered for the now-canceled Mars Surveyor 2001 Lander. The Isidis basin is very, very ancient. Thus, the mountains that form its rims would contain some of the oldest rocks available at the Martian surface, and a landing in this region might potentially provide information about conditions on early Mars. In May 1999, the wide angle cameras of the Mars Global Surveyor Mars Orbiter Camera system were used in what was called the 'Geodesy Campaign' to obtain nearly global maps of the planet in color and in stereo at resolutions of 240 m/pixel (787 ft/pixel) for the red camera and 480 m/pixel (1575 ft/pixel) for the blue. Shown here are color and stereo views constructed from mosaics of the Geodesy Campaign images for the Libya Montes region of Mars. After they formed by giant impact, the Libya Mountains and valleys were subsequently modified and eroded by other processes, including wind, impact cratering, and flow of liquid water to make the many small valleys that can be seen running northward in the scene. The pictures shown here cover nearly 122,000 square kilometers (47,000 square miles) between latitudes 0.1oN and 4.0oN, longitudes 271.5oW and 279.9oW. The mosaics are about 518 km (322 mi) wide by 235 km (146 mi)high. Red-blue '3-D' glasses are needed to view the stereo image.

  12. Libya: Background and U.S. Relations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-01-25

    amendment was withdrawn; however, the issue may be raised again during the second session of the 109th Congress. CRS-13 25 Khaled El-Deeb,”Gadhafi: Regrets...with the celebration of the 36th anniversary of the Libyan revolution on September CRS-17 31 Khaled El Deeb, “Libya Pardons More Than 1,600 Criminals...Petroleum have stated that the company expects to begin exploratory drilling in its new license areas in early 2006. Winners of the second batch of

  13. Brucellosis update in Libya and regional prospective.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Mohamed O; Abouzeed, Yousef M; Bennour, Emad M; van Velkinburgh, Jennifer C

    2015-02-01

    Brucellosis is a global bacterial zoonosis responsible for high morbidity in humans and significant livestock economic losses. While brucellosis remains a public health concern worldwide, its global geographic distribution is variable, largely due to different management schemes; however, paucity of information renders the status of brucellosis unclear and incomplete in many countries, especially those with low income and under-developed infrastructure. This short article summarizes and discusses recent important updates on brucellosis from the North African countries, with a particular brief emphasis on the current status and recent updates in Libya.

  14. Schools' Television in Egypt.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blezard, Dennis

    1980-01-01

    Chronicles the short (1970-77) and troubled history of instructional television in Egypt. Among the problems which led to the discontinuation of television programing for schools were production delays, inadequate repair service, and lack of training. (LLS)

  15. Cerescope: Algeria Seeks Better Training in Agriculture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ceres, 1979

    1979-01-01

    Recent changes and developments in Algeria's agricultural education program to meet the future needs for expertise at all levels in the rural sector are described. Training targets established in the national plan are detailed. (BT)

  16. Special Education through Neighbourhood Centers in Algeria.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boucebci, Mahfoud

    1981-01-01

    The article provides a survey of special education needs in Algeria with emphasis on the role of neighborhood centers which involve parents in the education of mentally handicapped children. Journal availability: see EC 133 861. (DB)

  17. Egypt and Red Sea

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    A panaramic view of eastern Egypt, The Red Sea and Saudi Arabia beyond (24.0N, 33.0E). In this desert country, where water is life, the high Aswan Dam and the impounded waters of the Nile River in the foreground assure water availability into the next century. The Red Sea beyond, part of the Suez Canal seaway, serves as a commercial link to the world and separates Egypt from Saudi Arabia.

  18. [Leprosy in Algeria. Apropos of an autochthonous case in the Wilaya de Tlemcen, Algeria].

    PubMed

    Boudghene-Stambouli, O; Merad-Boudia, A

    1989-01-01

    Leprosy is not a problem for public health in Algeria. For one century (from 1888 to 1987), a maximum of 250 cases were reported, only 75 of them were Algerians and 61 caught the disease in Algeria. Hence leprosy was mainly an imported disease. Will multiple exchanges with other countries increase the magnitude of the problem?

  19. Zygodon Hook. ex Taylor a new record to Libya.

    PubMed

    Youssef, S G M; Khaled, S Abd-El-Razik; Hamad, R B

    2009-12-15

    A new epiphytic moss, Zygodon catarinoi C. Garcia, F. Lara, Sérgio and Sim-Sim, was recorded from Libya for the first time. The new species is characterized by ovate to elliptic gemmae, narrowly lanceolate, loosely erect leaves, the abaxial surface of the costae in the distal 1/3-1/2 of the leaf covered with forked papillae, leaf lamina bistratose, rudimentary peristome and with cucullate smooth calyptra. This study is to collected the genus Zygodon growing on trunks of some trees in Al-Jebel Al-Akhdar (Libya) throughout the winter season (January-March, 2007) and May 2008, in order to revision the genus in Libya. The taxa moss flora of Libya after this record became 108.

  20. Libya: A Country in Transition Seeking to Assert its Influence.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-06-02

    MUM ZIL (and Subtitle) S. TYPE OF REPORT & PERIOD COVERED0 Libya: A Country in Transition Seeking to Assert Study Project ----------- S. PERFORMING ORG...independence period Libya was almost continuously poor during the thousands of years over which the history of the country extended. This was the...the paramount purposes of the administration. The Italian government during this thirty year period spent over 50 million Libyan pounds on public works

  1. State-Building Challenges in a Post-Revolution Libya

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-10-01

    political transition in post-Qadhafi Libya. There are more than 100 tribes and clans across Libya, divided across three main ethnicities: Arab, Berber ...erupted again in Libyan cities. The Berber groups, long oppressed under Qa- dhafi’s regime, resented their exclusion from power. The perception among... Berbers was that their signifi- cant numbers and substantial contribution during the civil war were not taken into account. Other protests over

  2. [An unusual genital ulcer in Algeria: soft chancre].

    PubMed

    Boudghene-Stambouli, O; Merad-Boudia, A

    1989-01-01

    Four cases of soft chancre have been observed in the service of Dermato-Venereology, CHU Tlemcen. Three were contracted in Morroco and one in Algeria. This affection which no long existed in Algeria, has reappeared through tourism.

  3. Space radar image of Wadi Kufra, Libya

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    The ability of a sophisticated radar instrument to image large regions of the world from space, using different frequencies that can penetrate dry sand cover, produced the discovery in this image: a previously unknown branch of an ancient river, buried under thousands of years of windblown sand in a region of the Sahara Desert in North Africa. This area is near the Kufra Oasis in southeast Libya, centered at 23.3 degrees north latitude, 22.9 degrees east longitude. The image was acquired by the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-band Synthetic Aperture (SIR-C/X-SAR) imaging radar when it flew aboard the space shuttle Endeavour on its 60th orbit on October 4, 1994. This SIR-C image reveals a system of old, now inactive stream valleys, called 'paleodrainage systems,

  4. [Status quo and progress of Chinese acupuncture in Algeria].

    PubMed

    Huang, Yisheng

    2015-10-01

    The development of Chinese acupuncture in Algeria and realistic working status in recent years is in- troduced. From five aspects, including general condition of acupuncture in Algeria, clinical application and analysis, of acupuncture, promotion and publicity of acupuncture, existing problem and deficiency, and awards and honor, the status quo and progress of Chinese acupuncture in Algeria are discussed in detail.

  5. Animal brucellosis in Egypt.

    PubMed

    Wareth, Gamal; Hikal, Ahmed; Refai, Mohamed; Melzer, Falk; Roesler, Uwe; Neubauer, Heinrich

    2014-11-13

    Brucellosis is a highly contagious zoonosis that affects the public health and economic performance of endemic as well as non-endemic countries. In developing nations, brucellosis is often a very common but neglected disease. The purpose of this review is to provide insight about brucellosis in animal populations in Egypt and help to understand the situation from 1986 to 2013. A total of 67 national and international scientific publications on serological investigations, isolation, and biotyping studies from 1986 to 2013 were reviewed to verify the current status of brucellosis in animal populations in Egypt. Serological investigations within the national surveillance program give indirect proof for the presence of brucellosis in cattle, buffaloes, sheep, goats, and camels in Egypt. Serologic testing for brucellosis is a well-established procedure in Egypt, but most of the corresponding studies do not follow the scientific standards. B. melitensis biovar (bv) 3, B. abortus bv 1, and B. suis bv 1 have been isolated from farm animals and Nile catfish. Brucellosis is prevalent nationwide in many farm animal species. There is an obvious discrepancy between official seroprevalence data and data from scientific publications. The need for a nationwide survey to genotype circulating Brucellae is obvious. The epidemiologic situation of brucellosis in Egypt is unresolved and needs clarification.

  6. Dwarfs in ancient Egypt.

    PubMed

    Kozma, Chahira

    2006-02-15

    Ancient Egypt was one of the most advanced and productive civilizations in antiquity, spanning 3000 years before the "Christian" era. Ancient Egyptians built colossal temples and magnificent tombs to honor their gods and religious leaders. Their hieroglyphic language, system of organization, and recording of events give contemporary researchers insights into their daily activities. Based on the record left by their art, the ancient Egyptians documented the presence of dwarfs in almost every facet of life. Due to the hot dry climate and natural and artificial mummification, Egypt is a major source of information on achondroplasia in the old world. The remains of dwarfs are abundant and include complete and partial skeletons. Dwarfs were employed as personal attendants, animal tenders, jewelers, and entertainers. Several high-ranking dwarfs especially from the Old Kingdom (2700-2190 BCE) achieved important status and had lavish burial places close to the pyramids. Their costly tombs in the royal cemeteries and the inscriptions on their statutes indicate their high-ranking position in Egyptian society and their close relation to the king. Some of them were Seneb, Pereniankh, Khnumhotpe, and Djeder. There were at least two dwarf gods, Ptah and Bes. The god Ptah was associated with regeneration and rejuvenation. The god Bes was a protector of sexuality, childbirth, women, and children. He was a favored deity particularly during the Greco-Roman period. His temple was recently excavated in the Baharia oasis in the middle of Egypt. The burial sites and artistic sources provide glimpses of the positions of dwarfs in daily life in ancient Egypt. Dwarfs were accepted in ancient Egypt; their recorded daily activities suggest assimilation into daily life, and their disorder was not shown as a physical handicap. Wisdom writings and moral teachings in ancient Egypt commanded respect for dwarfs and other individuals with disabilities.

  7. Nile River Delta, Egypt

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    The Nile River Delta of Egypt (30.0N, 31.0E) irrigated by the Nile River and its many distributaries, is some of the richest farm land in the world and home to some 45 million people, over half of Egypt's population. The capital city of Cairo is at the apex of the delta. Just across the river from Cairo can be seen the ancient three big pyramids and sphinx at Giza and the Suez Canal is just to the right of the delta.

  8. Surgery in Egypt.

    PubMed

    el-Zawahry, M D; Ramzy, A F; el-Sahwi, E; Bahnasy, A F; Khafaga, M; Rizk-Allah, M A; Abou el-Hoda, M F

    1997-07-01

    The history of medicine can never be complete without referral to ancient Egyptian medicine. Imhotep has been identified as the god of medicine. There are 13 faculties of medicine in Egypt; the oldest is the Kasr El Aini Faculty, which started in 1925. We review undergraduate and postgraduate education in Egypt. The Egyptian Society of Surgeons organizes the scientific surgical activities. Schistosomiasis is a national health problem. Health care is provided by many types of hospitals, including university, teaching, Ministry of Public Health, military, and private hospitals.

  9. Eyewitness introduction to Egypt: "The gift of the Nile".

    PubMed

    Brown, Geraldine

    2009-01-01

    Northeastern corner of Africa, lying at the crossroads between the two continents of Europe and Asia (in the Sinai Peninsula), while bordering Libya, Sudan, Israel and the Red Sea. Egypt is the most ancient tourist country in the world. Several health fact-finding missions in the last few years were made to this small country that is frequently defined by the Valley of the Nile. With the spreading deserts on either side, or a very rich heritage of ancient relics, these scenic vistas are without equal elsewhere in the world. Although there are significant cultural differences among the population, Egypt has a long history of ethnic and religious compassion. Among the many rarities, main tourist attractions include the three great Pyramids of Giza and the Sphinx, amazing ancient wonders of the world. These fact-finding missions included how health and medical care are defined, how people and culture are intertwined with its physical features, land use, and the economy and its resources.

  10. Molecular investigation of foot-and-mouth disease virus in domestic bovids from Gharbia, Egypt.

    PubMed

    Elhaig, Mahmoud Mohey; Elsheery, Mohamed Nagi

    2014-12-01

    An outbreak of foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) affecting cattle and water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) occurred in Egypt during 2012/2013. The present study was undertaken to determine the current strains of the FMD virus (FMDV) and the prevalence of FMD among cattle and buffalo in Gharbia, Egypt. The diagnostic sensitivity of two RT-PCR assays for the detection of FMDV was evaluated. The results revealed that SAT2 was the causative agent. The percentage of infected of animals varied with the detection method, ranging from 62.5 % by the untranslated region (UTR) RT-PCR to 75.6 % by SAT2 RT-PCR. The overall prevalence and mortality rates were 100 and 21 %, respectively. The mortality was higher in buffalo (23.3 %) than it was in cattle (17 %). A partial sequence of SAT2 was identical (90-100 %) to Egyptian isolates and was close in similarity to sequences from Sudan and Libya. In conclusion, FMD in Egypt is caused by SAT2. No other serotypes were detected. The results of this study provided the valuable data regarding the epidemiology of SAT2 in cattle and water buffalo from Egypt, which strengthens the need to change the strategies of both control and prevention that help to prevent the spread of the disease.

  11. 78 FR 11547 - Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to Libya

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-15

    ... Emergency With Respect to Libya #0; #0; #0; Presidential Documents #0; #0; #0;#0;Federal Register / Vol. 78... ] Notice of February 13, 2013 Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to Libya On February 25..., and close associates who took extreme measures against the people of Libya, including by using...

  12. Assessment of the Knowledge of Blast Injuries Management among Physicians Working in Tripoli Hospitals (Libya).

    PubMed

    Oun, Abdulhakim M; Hadida, Elmokhtar M; Stewart, Charles

    2017-03-08

    Introduction No study on hospital staff preparedness for managing blast injuries has been conducted in Libya. The internal conflict in Libya since 2011 and the difficulties faced by the hospitals has highlighted the need for such studies. Hypothesis Physicians working in Tripoli (capital city Libya) hospitals are inadequately prepared for the management of blast injuries.

  13. 3 CFR - Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to Libya

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... to Libya Presidential Documents Other Presidential Documents Notice of February 23, 2012 Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to Libya On February 25, 2011, by Executive Order 13566, I... took extreme measures against the people of Libya, including by using weapons of war, mercenaries,...

  14. 15 CFR 764.7 - Activities involving items that may have been illegally exported or reexported to Libya.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... have been illegally exported or reexported to Libya. 764.7 Section 764.7 Commerce and Foreign Trade... items that may have been illegally exported or reexported to Libya. (a) Introduction. As set forth in... have been illegally exported or reexported to Libya before the comprehensive embargo on Libya...

  15. 15 CFR 764.7 - Activities involving items that may have been illegally exported or reexported to Libya.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... have been illegally exported or reexported to Libya. 764.7 Section 764.7 Commerce and Foreign Trade... items that may have been illegally exported or reexported to Libya. (a) Introduction. As set forth in... have been illegally exported or reexported to Libya before the comprehensive embargo on Libya...

  16. 15 CFR 764.7 - Activities involving items that may have been illegally exported or reexported to Libya.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... have been illegally exported or reexported to Libya. 764.7 Section 764.7 Commerce and Foreign Trade... items that may have been illegally exported or reexported to Libya. (a) Introduction. As set forth in... have been illegally exported or reexported to Libya before the comprehensive embargo on Libya...

  17. 15 CFR 764.7 - Activities involving items that may have been illegally exported or reexported to Libya.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... have been illegally exported or reexported to Libya. 764.7 Section 764.7 Commerce and Foreign Trade... items that may have been illegally exported or reexported to Libya. (a) Introduction. As set forth in... have been illegally exported or reexported to Libya before the comprehensive embargo on Libya...

  18. 15 CFR 764.7 - Activities involving items that may have been illegally exported or reexported to Libya.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... have been illegally exported or reexported to Libya. 764.7 Section 764.7 Commerce and Foreign Trade... items that may have been illegally exported or reexported to Libya. (a) Introduction. As set forth in... have been illegally exported or reexported to Libya before the comprehensive embargo on Libya...

  19. Ancient Egypt: Personal Perspectives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolinski, Arelene

    This teacher resource book provides information on ancient Egypt via short essays, photographs, maps, charts, and drawings. Egyptian social and religious life, including writing, art, architecture, and even the practice of mummification, is conveniently summarized for the teacher or other practitioner in a series of one to three page articles with…

  20. Egypt's National Education Debate.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cook, Bradley James

    2000-01-01

    Examines the vigorous dialectic occurring among intellectuals, religious leaders, and politicians trying to define the appropriate role of Islam in Egyptian education. Discusses the call for the Islamization of education in contemporary Egypt, aspects of Islamic law, the position of the state on religious education, and the influence of a small…

  1. Mixed fluvial systems of Messak Sandstone, a deposit of Nubian lithofacies, southwestern Libya

    SciTech Connect

    Lorenz, J.C.

    1987-05-01

    The Messak Sandstone is a coarse to pebbly, tabular cross-bedded, Lower Cretaceous deposit of the widespread Nubian lithofacies. It was deposited at the northern edge of the Murzuq basin in southwestern Libya. Although the sedimentary record is predominantly one of braided fluvial systems, a common subfacies within the formation is interpreted to record the passage of straight-crested sand waves across laterally migrating point bars in sinuous rivers, similar to the pattern documented by Singh and Kumar on the modern Ganga and Yamuna Rivers. Because the sand waves were larger on the lower parts of the point bars, lateral migration created diagnostic thinning-upward, unidirectional cosets of tabular cross-beds as well as fining-upward, grain-size trends. Common, thick, interbedded claystones, deposited in associated paludal and lacustrine environments, and high variance in cross-bed dispersion patterns also suggest the local presence of sinuous fluvial systems within the overall braided regime. The Messak Sandstone contains some of the features that led Harms et al to propose an unconventional low-sinuosity fluvial environment for the Nubian lithofacies in Egypt, and the continuously high water levels of this model may explain channel-scale clay drapes and overturned cross-beds in the Messak. However, most of the Messak characteristics are incompatible with the low-sinuosity model, suggesting instead that the fluvial channels in the Murzuq basin alternated between braided and high-sinuosity patterns.

  2. Mixed fluvial systems of the Messak Sandstone, a deposit of the Nubian lithofacies, southwestern Libya

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lorenz, John C.

    1987-11-01

    The Messak Sandstone is a coarse-grained to pebbly, tabular-crossbedded deposit of the widespread nubian lithofacies. It was deposited during Late Jurassic and/or Early Cretaceous time at the northern edge of the Murzuq basin, in southwestern Libya. Although the sedimentary record is predominantly one of braided fluvial systems, a common subfacies within the formation is interpreted to record the passage of straight-crested sand waves across laterally migrating point bars in sinuous rivers, similar to parts of the modern Ganga and Yamuna rivers. Because the sand waves were larger on the lower parts of the point bar, lateral migration created diagnostic thinning-upward cosets of tabular crossbeds, as well as fining-upward grain-size trends. Common thick, interbedded claystones, deposited in associated paludal and lacustrine environments, and high variance in crossbed dispersion patterns, also suggest the local presence of sinuous fluvial systems within the overall braided regime. The Messak Sandstone contains some of the features that led to the proposal of an unconventional low-sinuosity fluvial environment for the Nubian lithofacies in Egypt, and the continuously high water levels of this model may explain channel-scale clay drapes and overturned crossbeds in the Messak. However, most of the Messak characteristics are incompatible with a low-sinuosity model, suggesting instead that the fluvial channels in the Murzuq basin alternated between braided and high-sinuosity channel patterns.

  3. Solar-hydrogen energy system model for Libya

    SciTech Connect

    Eljrushi, G.S.

    1987-01-01

    A solar-hydrogen energy-system model for Libya was developed, obtaining relationships for and between the main energy and energy related parameters of Libya and the world. The parameters included are: population, energy demand, fossil-fuel production, fossil-fuel resources, hydrogen production, hydrogen introduction rates, energy prices, gross domestic product, pollution and quality of life. The trends of these parameters with and without hydrogen introduction were investigated over a period of time - through the year 2100. The results indicate that the fossil-fuel resources in Libya could be exhausted, due to production for local and export demands, within three to four decades unless serious measures for reducing production are taken. The results indicate that adopting solar-hydrogen energy system would extend the availability of fossil-fuel resources for a longer time period, reduce pollution, improve quality of life and establish a permanent energy system for Libya. It also shows that eventually Libya could export hydrogen in lieu of oil and natural gas.

  4. The origin of Cenozoic magmatism of Libya

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stuart, Finlay; Masoud, Abdelmoniem; Mark, Darren

    2014-05-01

    Cenozoic volcanic provinces cover 66,000 km2 of Libya. The main fields are aligned NNW-SSE where NE-SW trending structural features intersect the main regional uplift structures. They form some of the largest volcanic provinces in North Africa yet despite their size and relative accessibility they have been not studied in detail. We are engaged in a new study of the geochemistry (major-trace elements, REE, Sr-Nd-Pb isotopes) and geochronology (40Ar/39Ar and cosmogenic 3He) of basalts of the four main Cenozoic volcanic provinces (Garian, Jabal Al Hasawinah, Jabal As Sawda and Jabal Al Haruj) in order to elucidate the nature and origin of the volcanism. The volcanic fields are dominated by basaltic flows, with small volumes of phonolites present at Garian and Jabal Al Hasawinah. Basalt piles rarely exceed a few 10s metres thick and the presence of NW-SE trending dykes on the periphery of most fields implies that existing flows probably represent the latest phase of a protracted volcanic history in each region. The basalts tend to be alkali to mildly alkali. Compositional variation is dominated by fractional crystalisation with little indication of crustal contamination. Trace element and REE support an origin in 5 to 15 % melts of heterogeneous sub-lithosphere mantle. Nd and Sr isotopic composition of the Garian and Jabal Al Haruj basalts (0.5128-0.51294 and 0.703-0.704) overlap the Cenozoic volcanism of southern Italy characterized by Etna and Pantelleria. This is typical of the common European asthenosphere mantle reservoir, and lacks the influence of enriched mantle present in other North African Cenozoic basalt provinces. There has been no systematic change in the location of volcanism with time that is indicative of plate movement over a fixed mantle hotspot. The major pulse of basaltic volcanism in the northern (Garian) and southern (Jabal Al Haruj) provinces overlap in time (6-1 Ma,) while Jabal Al Hasawinah and Jabal As Sawda basalts were erupted

  5. The oldest African bat from the early Eocene of El Kohol (Algeria)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ravel, Anthony; Marivaux, Laurent; Tabuce, Rodolphe; Adaci, Mohammed; Mahboubi, Mohammed; Mebrouk, Fateh; Bensalah, Mustapha

    2011-05-01

    The Afro-Arabian Paleogene fossil record of Chiroptera is very poor. In North Africa and Arabia, this record is limited, thus far, to a few localities mainly in Tunisia (Chambi, late early Eocene), Egypt (Fayum, late Eocene to early Oligocene), and Sultanate of Oman (Taqah, early Oligocene). It consists primarily of isolated teeth or mandible fragments. Interestingly, these African fossil bats document two modern groups (Vespertilionoidea and Rhinolophoidea) from the early Eocene, while the bat fossil record of the same epoch of North America, Eurasia, and Australia principally includes members of the "Eochiroptera." This paraphyletic group contains all primitive microbats excluding modern families. In Algeria, the region of Brezina, southeast of the Atlas Mountains, is famous for the early Eocene El Kohol Formation, which has yielded one of the earliest mammalian faunas of the African landmass. Recent fieldwork in the same area has led to the discovery of a new vertebrate locality, including isolated teeth of Chiroptera. These fossils represent the oldest occurrence of Chiroptera in Africa, thus extending back the record of the group to the middle early Eocene (Ypresian) on that continent. The material consists of an upper molar and two fragments of lower molars. The dental character association matches that of "Eochiroptera." As such, although very fragmentary, the material testifies to the first occurrence of "Eochiroptera" in Algeria, and by extension in Africa. This discovery demonstrates that this basal group of Chiroptera had a worldwide distribution during the early Paleogene.

  6. Childhood urolithiasis in north-western Libya.

    PubMed

    Halim, M Ben; Bash-Agha, I; Elfituri, O; Turki, M; Hawas, A

    2012-01-01

    The study reviews causes of urolithiasis and its manifestations in North-West (NW) Libya. Libyan childhood urolithiasis accounted for 3.6% of nephrology out-patient work load. There were 59 children with urolithiasis, including 34 boys and 25 girls with a mean age of 2.8 ± 2.42 years. Urolithiasis was more common among younger age groups (P = 0.001) and in boys with primary oxaluria and infective etiology. The causes of urolithiasis included metabolic stones in 64%, infective in 26%, and it was idiopathic in 10%. Overall, family history of renal stone disease was elicited in 59%; it was 92% in patients with primary oxaluria. The main presenting features were abdominal pain (27%), gross hematuria (22%), associated urinary tract infection (UTI; 24%), and stone release in 19%. Stone location was bilateral in 64%, multiple in 68%, and in the upper tract in 93% (P = 0.05). Important complications encountered included chronic renal failure (13%), hydronephrosis (34%), systemic hypertension (8%), and rickets in 17%. Calcium oxalate was the most prominent constituent, seen in 41% of the calculi, followed by struvite (21%), uric acid (10%), carbapatite (7%), and cystine (3.5%). Diagnostically helpful findings were family history, age at presentation, UTI by urease producing organisms, rickets, imaging and chemical analysis of calculi. Early detection and prompt treatment helps in preventing long-term sequelae in patients with urolithiasis.

  7. Vocational Training and Rural Development in Algeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boumaza, S.; Gara, A.

    1973-01-01

    Better organization of the agricultural sector, expansion of production capabilities, increased employment, satisfaction of the country's needs, and improved productivity are the guidelines considered in the planning and development of the agricultural vocational training system in Algeria. Charts illustrate and clarify the organization of this…

  8. Documentation and Development. Experience in Algeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tchuigoua, J. Founou

    1972-01-01

    A description of the activities of the Documentation, Library and Archives Department of the Algiers Chamber of Commerce and Industry, which is run by a small staff on a modest budget, provides documentation services for the staff of the Chamber of Commerce and also assists other centers in Algeria. (Author)

  9. Animal Diseases Caused by Orbiviruses, Algeria

    PubMed Central

    Madani, Hafsa; Casal, Jordi; Alba, Anna; Allepuz, Alberto; Cêtre-Sossah, Catherine; Hafsi, Leila; Kount-Chareb, Houria; Bouayed-Chaouach, Nadera; Saadaoui, Hassiba

    2011-01-01

    Antibodies against bluetongue virus were detected in cattle, sheep, goats, and camels in Algeria in 2008. Antibodies against epizootic hemorrhagic disease virus were detected in cattle, but antibodies against African horse sickness virus were not detected in horses and mules. Epizootic hemorrhagic disease in northern Africa poses a major risk for the European Union. PMID:22172371

  10. Library-Information Education in Algeria.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boumarafi, B. B.; Haythornthwaite, J.

    1988-01-01

    Reviews the development of educational programs for library technicians, librarians, and information professionals in Algeria and describes the current educational structure. Topics discussed include the need for improvements in curriculum development, teaching staff development, library facilities, and the use of information technologies. (CLB)

  11. [Demography and social problems in Algeria].

    PubMed

    Benissad, M E

    1982-01-01

    A review of current population trends in Algeria is presented. Sections are included on fertility, mortality, projections, spatial distribution, employment and economic development, and the development of emigration. Some social problems associated with demographic factors are also considered, such as education, housing, and food supplies.

  12. An Integrated Geophysical study of the Lithospheric Structure Beneath Libya

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, W. A.; Doser, D. I.; Keller, R. G.

    2003-12-01

    The tectonic evolution of Libya has yielded a complex crustal structure, which is composed of a series of basins and uplifts. A considerable amount of oil exploration has been undertaken in the area and numerous studies have been published on the shallow (<10km depth) geology and geophysics of the region. In addition, over 6000 gravity measurements are available for the northern Libya region. We are using these data in conjunction with other geologic and geophysical control to construct a 3-D model of density/geology for northern Libya and surrounding regions. Knowing the surface geology and having a digital elevation model and observed gravity value at specified stations, we first calculate the gravity contribution for polygonal areas assuming infinite depth. We then calculate the gravitational contribution for the same polygonal area using the Paleozoic surface as the elevation, assuming uniform density for the volume of rocks below the Paleozoic surface. Subtracting the value calculated at the Paleozoic layer from the gravitational value at the surface yields a gravitational value matching that of the layer between the surface and the top of the Paleozoic layer. The same procedure is then repeated for the top of the Precambrian, the Moho, etc. The 3-D model will then be used to develop a regional velocity model that can be verified/modified by analysis of regional seismic waveform data we are collecting from earthquakes occurring within northern Libya. Northern Libya is the most seismologically active and highly faulted portion of the country. For this reason we have collected thirteen Landsat 5 satellite images covering the most seismically active and structurally significant regions of northeast and northwest Libya. The satellite images have been mosaicked using a seamless mosaicking technology based on ENVI's cutline feathering approached. The resulting mosaicked figures were then overlain with the previously mapped faults analyzed to identify the more recent

  13. Mental health in Egypt.

    PubMed

    Okasha, Ahmed

    2005-01-01

    The concepts and management of mental health in Egypt are presented from the Pharaonic era through the Islamic Renaissance until today. Papyri from the Pharaonic period show that Soma and Psyche were not differentiated and mental disorders were described as symptoms of the heart and uterus. Although theories of causation were of a mystical nature, mental disorders were treated on a somatic basis. In the Islamic era, mental patients were neither maltreated nor tortured as a consequence of the belief that they may be possessed by a good Moslem genie. In the 14th century mental disorders was one of the four departments in Cairo's Kalawoon Hospital, a precursor of the place of psychiatry in general hospitals that was accepted in Europe six centuries later. The mental health services in Egypt today are described, and transcultural studies carried out in Egypt of the prevalence and phenomenology of anxiety, schizophrenia, depression, suicide, conversion and obsessive compulsive disorders are reviewed. The psychiatric services for children are in their infancy. Since 1983 the common and semi-accepted use of hashish has been joined by abuse by heroin and other substances.

  14. Modern Professionalism in Libya: Attitudes of University Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Nouri, Qais N.

    1975-01-01

    This article discusses research which studies the attitudes of university students in Libya toward various aspects of occupational life. Findings include 1) that students have a limited enthusiasm for higher education and professional training, and 2) that female students have a high receptivity and readiness to venture into male dominated…

  15. Dysgenic Fertility, Intelligence and Family Size in Libya

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Shahomee, Alsedig Abdalgadr; Lynn, Richard; Abdalla, Saleh El-ghmary

    2013-01-01

    The Standard Progressive Matrices (SPM) was administered to a sample of 592 16 year old school students in Libya. There was a small negative correlation of -0.14 between SPM scores and the number of siblings, indicating only marginal dysgenic fertility. Supplementary material giving the data is given online. (Contains 1 table.)

  16. Environmental Technological Education in a Developing Country--Libya.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walters, A. H.; And Others

    1981-01-01

    Presents an overview of environmental and developmental issues and concerns of Libya focusing on water resources, agriculture, and industrialization. Identifies the need for an environmental program coordinated by a council and for environmental technological education programs and materials specifically designed for Libyan students. (DC)

  17. Non-Linearities in Returns to Education in Libya.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arabsheibani, Reza G.; Manfor, Lamine

    2001-01-01

    Results of study of personal return on investment in years of schooling in Libya indicate that association is nonlinear, unlike the results of similar studies, which found a linear association between level of schooling and earnings. Finds largest marginal return after 8 years of schooling, a nondiploma year. (Contains 17 references.) (PKP)

  18. Energy Crisis: Libya's and Nigeria's Role. Resource Packet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    African-American Inst., New York, NY. School Services Div.

    This resource packet contains practical suggestions and resource materials to help secondary teachers teach about Libya's and Nigeria's roles in the energy crisis. Students become acquainted with the governments and cultures of the two countries, examine their social problems, and learn how the Libyan and Nigerian governments are using money from…

  19. NATO in Libya: Implications on the Future of the Alliance

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-02-16

    NATO in Libya: Implications on the Future of the Alliance by Captain Timothy P. Sheridan United States Navy...United States Army War College Class of 2012 DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT: A Approved for Public Release Distribution is Unlimited This manuscript...Government. The U.S. Army War College is accredited by the Commission on Higher Education of the Middle States Association of Colleges and

  20. Modern Egypt: A Development Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott, Rosalind; And Others

    Egypt is a culture which combines the traditional with the modern. This text aims to foster an appreciation of Egypt as a changing culture facing the challenges of development. Topics included are: (1) Village Life; (2) Urban Life; (3) Nile; (4) Government; (5) Agriculture; (6) Economy; (7) Health/Games; (8) Education; (9) Religion; (10)…

  1. Oil and gas developments in North Africa in 1985

    SciTech Connect

    Michel, R.C.

    1986-10-01

    Petroleum rights in the 6 North African countries (Algeria, Egypt, Libya, Morocco, Sudan, and Tunisia) covered in this paper were 1,839,817 km/sup 2/ at the end of 1985, a decrease of 3% from the 1,896,446 km/sup 2/ held at the end of 1984. This decrease mainly is due to significant relinquishments made in Algeria, Egypt, and Tunisia. Morocco, however, had an increase of 18,087 km/sup 2/. Oil discoveries were reported in Algeria (possibly 5), Libya (at least 2), and Egypt (16). Only 1 gas find was made (in Morocco). According to sparse information, development drilling may have decreased markedly during 1985. Oil and condensate production increased by 3.1% to approximately 3,054,000 b/d compared to about 2,963,400 b/d in 1984. No statistics are currently available on gas production in North Africa. 8 figures, 27 tables.

  2. Cancers in Eastern Libya: First results from Benghazi Medical Center

    PubMed Central

    Bodalal, Zuhir; Azzuz, Raouf; Bendardaf, Riyad

    2014-01-01

    AIM: To study the pattern of cancer incidence and determine the incidence rates in Eastern Libya (for the first time in a decade). METHODS: A hospital-based registry of cancer patients was formed using records from the primary oncology center in eastern Libya - focusing on those diagnosed in the year 2012. RESULTS: The most common malignancies in men were cancers of the colon (22.3%, n = 90), lung (20.3%, n = 82), prostate (16.1%, n = 65), pancreas (4.2%, n = 17) and liver (4.2%, n = 17). For women, they were found to be cancers of the breast (41.5%, n = 213), colon (16.4%, n = 84), uterus (8%, n = 41), ovary (5.5%, n = 28) and pancreas (3.1%, n = 16). Additionally age-standardized rates (ASR) were determined for Libya. The different cities and towns in eastern Libya were compared for any variation. The city of Beida in particular was found to have a remarkably high incidence of gastric cancer. The different findings were discussed and comparisons were made with past literature as well as the incidence rates for neighbouring countries. The incidence rates given for the eastern region showed differences from previously reported values (i.e., the rate of colon cancer was the highest in North Africa whereas other malignancies occurred less frequently). Potential explanations for the urban-rural difference as well as the difference in incidence rates were put forth. The significance of this study is that it establishes a baseline of cancer incidence which should be the backbone for any future national cancer plan in Libya. CONCLUSION: Proper surveillance programs need to be in place and healthcare policy should be adjusted to take into account the more prevalent and pressing cancers in society. PMID:24876750

  3. Armed Escort for Special Air Operations -- An Operational Concept

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-06-01

    integration of rescue helicopters and protective fighters was "done informally and ten years later, when the first Air Rescue Service choppers arrived...Algeria, Angola, Cuba, Egypt, Guinea, Ethiopia, India, Iraq, Kuwait, Libya, Somalia, Tanzania , N. Yemen, Peru, Vietnam SA-7 This Soviet equivalent of the

  4. The Role of Education and Training in Enhancing Labour Productivity in Arab Countries in Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    ElObeidy, Ahmed A.

    2016-01-01

    Labour productivity in Arab countries is low by international standards and this problem occurs in Arab countries both inside and outside Africa. There are 10 Arab countries in Africa: Egypt, Libya, Tunisia, Algeria, Morocco, Mauritania, Sudan, Somalia, Djibouti and Comoros. Enhancing labour productivity is a major challenge for Arab countries.…

  5. Assessment of the Spectral Stability of Libya 4, Libya 1, and Mauritania 2 Sites Using Earth Observing One Hyperion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Choi, Taeyoung; Xiong, Xiaoxiong; Angal, Amit; Chander, Gyanesh; Qu, John J.

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to formulate a methodology to assess the spectral stability of the Libya 4, Libya 1, and Mauritania 2 pseudo-invariant calibration sites (PICS) using Earth Observing One (EO-1) Hyperion sensor. All the available Hyperion collections, downloaded from the Earth Explorer website, were utilized for the three PICS. In each site, a reference spectrum is selected at a specific day in the vicinity of the region of interest (ROI) defined by Committee on Earth Observation Satellites (CEOS). A series of ROIs are predefined in the along-track direction with 196 spectral top-of-atmosphere reflectance values in each ROI. Based on the reference ROI spectrum, the spectral stability of these ROIs is evaluated by average deviations (ADs) and spectral angle mapper (SAM) methods in the specific ranges of time and geo-spatial locations. Time and ROI location-dependent SAM and AD results are very stable within +/- 2 deg and +/-1.7% of 1sigma standard deviations. Consequently, the Libya 4, Mauritania 2, and Libya 1 CEOS selected PICS are spectrally stable targets within the time and spatial swath ranges of the Hyperion collections.

  6. [The occurrence of animal sarcocystiosis in Algeria].

    PubMed

    Nedjari, M

    2003-01-01

    Investigations to occurrence of Sarcocystiosis of domestic animals in Algeria were carried out by different methods--Immunofluorescence (IFAT), macroscopic and microscopic examinations of muscle, coproscopia. Positive results could be found in intermediate hosts--362 of 537 cattle, 188 of 292 sheep, 13 of 57 horses and in the final hosts dogs and cats. Muscle-probes from cattle contained S. cruzi (58.7 respectively 61.0%), S. hirsuta (48.9 respectively 35.0%), from sheep S. tenella (61.0 respectively 59.6%, S. arieticanis (38.8 respectively 40.3%), from horses S. bertrami (24.5%). IFAT-data of extensy: 64.5% in cattle, 60.5% in sheep. First time in Algeria could be found S. hominis (2.3 respectively 3.9%).

  7. Mediterranean Security Into the Coming Millennium

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1999-01-01

    Spain, Syria, Tunisia; 35 * two states at risk of failing ( Algeria and Russia), and ten having experienced various degrees of failure (Albania, Bosnia...of organized crime control/ connection (Corsica, Cyprus, Sardinia , and Sicily); * two major (Morocco and Russia) and two minor drug producers (Lebanon...FRY, FYROM, Turkey, Iran, Iraq, Russia) or by political/religious motivations 36 (Morocco, Algeria , Tunisia, Libya, Egypt, Israel, Iran, Iraq

  8. Burden of fungal infections in Algeria.

    PubMed

    Chekiri-Talbi, M; Denning, D W

    2017-02-21

    We report for the first time in Algeria and provide burden estimates. We searched for existing data and estimated the incidence and prevalence of fungal diseases based on the population at risk and available epidemiological data. Demographic data were derived from the National Office of Statistics (Office National des Statistiques: ONS), World Health Organization (WHO), The Joint Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS) and national published reports. When no data existed, risk populations were used to estimate frequencies of fungal infections, using previously described methodology. Algeria has 40.4 million inhabitants, and probably at least 568,900 (1.41%) of Algerians have a serious fungal infection each year. Recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis (485,000) and fungal asthma (72,000) are probably the commonest problems, as there are over 1 million adult asthmatics. Candidaemia is estimated in 2,020 people, invasive aspergillosis in 2,865 people, and intra-abdominal candidiasis in 303 people; these are the most common life-threatening problems. AIDS is uncommon, but cancer is not (45,000 new cases of cancer including 1,500 in children), nor is COPD (an estimated 317,762 patients, of whom 20.3% are admitted to hospital each year). A focus on improving the diagnosis and epidemiological data related to fungal infection is necessary in Algeria.

  9. Organ transplantation in Egypt.

    PubMed

    Paris, Wayne; Nour, Bakr

    2010-09-01

    Concern has increasingly been expressed about the growing number of reports of medical personnel participating in the transplantation of human organs or tissues taken from the bodies of executed prisoners, handicapped patients, or poor persons who have agreed to part with their organs for commercial purposes. Such behavior has been universally considered as ethically and morally reprehensible, yet in some parts of the world the practice continues to flourish. The concept of justice demands that every person have an equal right to life, and to protect this right, society has an obligation to ensure that every person has equal access to medical care. Regrettably, the Egyptian system does not legally recognize brain death and continues to allow the buying and selling of organs. For more than 30 years in Egypt, the ability to pay has determined who receives an organ and economic need has determined who will be the donor. As transplant professionals, it is important that we advocate on behalf of all patients, potential recipients, and donors and for those who are left out and not likely to receive a donor organ in an economically based system. Current issues associated with this debate are reviewed and recommendations about how to address them in Egypt are discussed.

  10. Oral health in Libya: addressing the future challenges.

    PubMed

    Peeran, Syed Wali; Altaher, Omar Basheer; Peeran, Syed Ali; Alsaid, Fatma Mojtaba; Mugrabi, Marei Hamed; Ahmed, Aisha Mojtaba; Grain, Abdulgader

    2014-01-01

    Libya is a vast country situated in North Africa, having a relatively better functioning economy with a scanty population. This article is the first known attempt to review the current state of oral health care in Libya and to explore the present trends and future challenges. Libyan health system, oral health care, and human resources with the present status of dental education are reviewed comprehensively. A bibliographic study of oral health research and publications has been carried out. The results point toward a common indicator that oral health-related research is low. Strategies have to be developed to educate the medical and dental professionals, to update the current curriculum and enable the system to be competent in all aspects of oral health care management.

  11. Oral health in Libya: addressing the future challenges

    PubMed Central

    Peeran, Syed Wali; Altaher, Omar Basheer; Peeran, Syed Ali; Alsaid, Fatma Mojtaba; Mugrabi, Marei Hamed; Ahmed, Aisha Mojtaba; Grain, Abdulgader

    2014-01-01

    Libya is a vast country situated in North Africa, having a relatively better functioning economy with a scanty population. This article is the first known attempt to review the current state of oral health care in Libya and to explore the present trends and future challenges. Libyan health system, oral health care, and human resources with the present status of dental education are reviewed comprehensively. A bibliographic study of oral health research and publications has been carried out. The results point toward a common indicator that oral health–related research is low. Strategies have to be developed to educate the medical and dental professionals, to update the current curriculum and enable the system to be competent in all aspects of oral health care management. PMID:24666627

  12. The schistosomiasis problem in Egypt.

    PubMed

    Mobarak, A B

    1982-01-01

    This report provides an overview of past and current efforts to control schistosomiasis in Egypt, describes recent trends, and analyzes factors responsible for changes in transmission. For the purpose of long-term planning and developing control strategies, the country has been divided into eight geographic zones: Suez Canal Zone, Sainai, Nile Delta, Guiza, Fayoum, Middle Egypt, Upper Egypt, and the High Dam Lake Zone. Overall control priorities are examined and the strategy for each zone is described. The most recent information on changes in epidemiologic patterns of schistosomiasis in Egypt is mentioned, as well as the introduction of newer therapeutic agents. Lastly, the role of outside funding agencies in supporting schistosomiasis control is examined.

  13. Security Challenges in Libya and the Sahel: Workshop Report

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-12-01

    rule of law in the country. Third, Salafism and violent extremism appear to be gaining momentum, with the country’s east as the movement’s hub. It...have become entrenched in local organized crime groups; and some have joined the jihadist/rejectionist movement. In the east, where Salafism and...insurgency to take hold in the country. While there is a real sense in the U.S. that eastern Libya has fallen under the sway of Salafism , workshop

  14. Anzio to Libya: Strategic Direction in Coalition Warfare

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-03-22

    anchored three miles from the beach enjoying their last meals of double-rations, extra chocolate bars and conducting last minute equipment checking.23...operating under United Nations mandate. In tying operations to UNSCR 1973, NATO politically handcuffed itself since China and Russia are permanent...Roosevelt’s desire to engage and support Russia , and Stalin’s hope that the Italian campaign meant survival for the Red Army. In Libya, the balancing act of

  15. [The wild boar of Egypt].

    PubMed

    Manlius, N; Gautier, A

    1999-07-01

    The wild boar, Sus scrofa, is not a typical member of the Egyptian wild fauna, although it appears to have lived in the Nile Delta and other suitable regions in the north of the country. However, historic populations were probably of mixed origin, including feral domestic pigs. It is incorrect, as is sometimes still done, to include the wild boar in the iconographic bestiary of Ancient Egypt and assume that the domestic pigs of Ancient Egypt derive from local wild boars.

  16. Incidence of mandibular fractures in Eastern part of Libya.

    PubMed

    Elgehani, Rafa-Abdelsalam; Orafi, Maraai-Idris

    2009-10-01

    The objective of this retrospective study is to evaluate the incidence of mandibular fractures in the eastern part of Libya and to present our experience in treating this type of facial fracture. We analyzed factors such as the incidence of age, sex, time distribution, cause and site of the fracture and the associated injuries in 493 patients presenting a total of 666 mandibular fractures. These patients were treated at Al-Jala Trauma Hospital, Benghazi-Libya between 2000 and 2006. The results were obtained from 432 males and 61 females, for which the ages ranged from 8 months to 72 years. The maximum number of the patients was recorded in 2004, and the busiest month was May. The most common cause of fracture was road traffic accidents and the most common site was the parasymphysis. Among those treated with closed reduction were 241 patients, whereas 201 patients were treated with open reduction. In conclusion, we found that the results were similar to most studies from developing countries and were in contrast to other studies. This may be due factors such as geography, socioeconomic trends, religion, road traffic legislation and seasons, which differ from one country to another. The period during which there was an embargo in Libya also appears to have affected the results.

  17. The application of GIS in identifying mineral resources in Libya

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rekhibi, Soliman; Wadi, Monira; Said, Ali

    2012-04-01

    In any country, natural mineral resources are considered the back-bone for the development of the industry and the country's economical growth. Exploration and mining for mineral ores and manufacturing and marketing these ores will add value to the country's national income. Geographic Information Systems (GIS) technology has an advantage over other information systems because it combines the conventional query operations with the ability to display and analyze spatial data from maps, satellite imagery, and aerial photography. Knowing the importance of mineral ores as a pilar of the economy this paper concentrates on mineral resources in Libya. Geographic information systems (GIS) was used for identifying mineral resources in Libya. Geodatabases were designed and all available information were stored in these geodatabases. The information was collected from scientific researchers, and geological and mining studies. The database also, included the Libyan international boundaries, the administrative boundaries and the oil and gas fields and pipelines, and such maps as geophysical and geological maps. Thus a comprehensive database was created containing all the information available concerning mineral resources in Libya.

  18. 78 FR 23626 - Waiver of Restriction on Assistance to the Central Government of Libya

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-19

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF STATE Waiver of Restriction on Assistance to the Central Government of Libya Pursuant to Section 7031(b)(3) of the...(b)(1) of the Act with respect to Libya and I hereby waive this restriction. This determination...

  19. 75 FR 16226 - Waiver of Restriction on Assistance to the Government of Libya

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-31

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF STATE Waiver of Restriction on Assistance to the Government of Libya Pursuant to section 7086(c)(2) of the... section 7086(c)(1) of the Act with respect to the Government of Libya, and I hereby waive such...

  20. 78 FR 56768 - Waiver of Restriction on Assistance to the Central Government of Libya

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-13

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF STATE Waiver of Restriction on Assistance to the Central Government of Libya Pursuant to Section 7031(b)(3) of the... the Act and similar provisions of law in prior year Acts with respect to Libya, and I hereby...

  1. 76 FR 30001 - Amendment to the International Traffic in Arms Regulations: Libya

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-24

    ... Traffic in Arms Regulations (ITAR) to update the policy regarding Libya to reflect the United Nations....gov . Attn: Part 126, Libya. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: On February 26, 2011, the United Nations... sales to certain countries. * * * * * (c) Exports and sales prohibited by United Nations...

  2. [Medical General Inspector Debenedetti and Algeria (1956-1961)].

    PubMed

    Linon, Pierre-Jean

    2005-01-01

    M.G.I. Debenedetti was appointed as director of French Military Health Service in June 1956 for seven years, during the war of Algeria where he travelled eight times. Thus, he surveyed the good organisation of the Military Health Service in Algeria from 1956 to 1961 when he had his last journey in this country. This paper tries to report his career, his survey of the French Military Health Service on the theatre of operations, of the hospitals and of the Free Medical Care of Algeria.

  3. Oil and gas developments in North Africa in 1986

    SciTech Connect

    Michel, R.C.

    1987-10-01

    Licensed oil acreage in the 6 North Africa countries (Algeria, Egypt, Libya, Morocco, Sudan and Tunisia) totaled 1,500,000 km/sup 2/ at the end of 1986, down 290,000 km/sup 2/ from 1985. About 50% of the relinquishments were in Libya. Most oil and gas discoveries were made in Egypt (16 oil and 2 gas). Several oil finds were reported in onshore Libya, and 1 was reported in Algeria in the southeastern Sahara. According to available statistics, development drilling decreased from 1985 levels, except in Tunisia. A 6.3% decline in oil production took place in 1986, falling below the 3 million bbl level (2,912,000 b/d). Only sparse data are released on the gas output in North Africa. 6 figures, 27 tables.

  4. [Epidemiological data on scorpion envenomation in Algeria].

    PubMed

    Hellal, H; Guerinik, M; Griene, L; Laid, Y; Mesbah, S; Merad, R; Alamir, B

    2012-08-01

    The scorpion envenomation is a major public health problem in Algeria. Given this fact, the Ministry of Health has developed a national strategy for prevention and control based on the training of health personnel, information, education and communication, and standardization of care on the basis of a therapeutic consensus. The monitoring and evaluation activities are carried out by epidemiological indicators through the implementation of an information system based in the services of Epidemiology, INSP (National Institute of Public Health) and Prevention Department of the Health Ministry. The information carriers are report cards implemented in different health facilities that collect data on bites and deaths from scorpion envenomation. Summaries of notifications from the wilayas are collected monthly, and processed by the Epi info software using monitoring indicators. From 1991 to 2010, there has been a stagnation in the number of stings with an average of 50,000 cases per year, but mortality decreased from more than 100 deaths in the last fifty years to 50 nowadays. The higher proportion of stings was recorded during the summer period. The most affected group is from 15 to 49 years which constitute the workforce, but children from 5 to 14 years rank first in terms of mortality. But these rates vary across years and regions. Despite all these efforts, the scorpion envenomation in Algeria remains of concern and our main challenges are to strengthen cross-sectional actions at the local level and improving the quality of care.

  5. [Assisted returns to country of origin: a study of Algeria].

    PubMed

    Benattig, R

    1989-01-01

    The author analyzes trends in government-assisted return migration to Algeria. Factors considered include employment and occupational status and individual and family readjustment to the local community. (SUMMARY IN ENG AND SPA)

  6. Economic and Geopolitical Integration between Morocco and Algeria

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-09-01

    each other; they must face the new challenges in their respective countries, as well as that poised from outside: Globalization. Morocco and Algeria...overview of the situation in Morocco and Algeria. The second chapter attempts to show the extent to which economic integration can resolve the two...presidential assassination. Economically after independence, the two countries followed different orientations. In Morocco , a more liberal stance was

  7. Determinants of survival in patients receiving dialysis in Libya.

    PubMed

    Alashek, Wiam A; McIntyre, Christopher W; Taal, Maarten W

    2013-04-01

    Maintenance dialysis is associated with reduced survival when compared with the general population. In Libya, information about outcomes on dialysis is scarce. This study, therefore, aimed to provide the first comprehensive analysis of survival in Libyan dialysis patients. This prospective multicenter study included all patients in Libya who had been receiving dialysis for >90 days in June 2009. Sociodemographic and clinical data were collected upon enrollment and survival status after 1 year was determined. Two thousand two hundred seventy-three patients in 38 dialysis centers were followed up for 1 year. The majority were receiving hemodialysis (98.8%). Sixty-seven patients were censored due to renal transplantation, and 46 patients were lost to follow-up. Thus, 2159 patients were followed up for 1 year. Four hundred fifty-eight deaths occurred, (crude annual mortality rate of 21.2%). Of these, 31% were due to ischemic heart disease, 16% cerebrovascular accidents, and 16% due to infection. Annual mortality rate was 0% to 70% in different dialysis centers. Best survival was in age group 25 to 34 years. Binary logistic regression analysis identified age at onset of dialysis, physical dependency, diabetes, and predialysis urea as independent determinants of increased mortality. Patients receiving dialysis in Libya have a crude 1-year mortality rate similar to most developed countries, but the mean age of the dialysis population is much lower, and this outcome is thus relatively poor. As in most countries, cardiovascular disease and infection were the most common causes of death. Variation in mortality rates between different centers suggests that survival could be improved by promoting standardization of best practice.

  8. Paternal lineages in Libya inferred from Y-chromosome haplogroups.

    PubMed

    Triki-Fendri, Soumaya; Sánchez-Diz, Paula; Rey-González, Danel; Ayadi, Imen; Carracedo, Ángel; Rebai, Ahmed

    2015-06-01

    Many studies based on genetic diversity of North African populations have contributed to elucidate the modelling of the genetic landscape in this region. North Africa is considered as a distinct spatial-temporal entity on geographic, archaeological, and historical grounds, which has undergone the influence of different human migrations along its shaping. For instance, Libya, a North African country, was first inhabited by Berbers and then colonized by a variety of ethnic groups like Phoenicians, Greeks, Romans, Arabs and, in recent times, Italians. In this study, we contribute to clarify the genetic variation of Libya and consequently, of North African modern populations, by the study of Libyan male lineages. A total of 22 Y-chromosome-specific SNPs were genotyped in a sample of 175 Libyan males, allowing the characterization of 18 Y-chromosomal haplogroups. The obtained data revealed a predominant Northwest African component represented by haplogroup E-M81 (33.7%) followed by J(xJ1a,J2)-M304 (27.4%), which is postulated to have a Middle Eastern origin. The comparative study with other populations (∼5,400 individuals from North Africa, Middle East, Sub-Saharan Africa, and Europe) revealed a general genetic homogeneity among North African populations (FST = 5.3 %; P-value < 0.0001). Overall, the Y-haplogroup diversity in Libya and in North Africa is characterized by two genetic components. The first signature is typical of Berber-speaking people (E-M81), the autochthonous inhabitants, whereas the second is (J(xJ1a,J2)-M304), originating from Arabic populations. This is in agreement with the hypothesis of an Arabic expansion from the Middle East, shaping the North African genetic landscape.

  9. Cervical cancer in north-eastern Libya: 2000-2008.

    PubMed

    Ben Khaial, F; Bodalal, Z; Elramli, A; Elkhwsky, F; Eltaguri, A; Bendardaf, R

    2014-08-01

    Libya is a country with a low population, listed under the EMRO. Using registers and patient records from a major primary oncology clinic, data was gathered from Libyan cervical cancer patients and various parameters were studied across 9 years. Out of 4,090 female cancer cases during the study period, 1.8% were cervical cancer (n = 74). The average age of presentation was 53 years, with most of the cases (60%, n = 44) being premenopausal. Approximately 65% (n = 48) of cervical cancer patients are diagnosed at later stages (i.e. stages III and IV). The majority of these cases are squamous cell carcinoma (83.8%, n = 62), while 16.2% (n = 12) were found to be adenocarcinoma. Patients with squamous cell carcinoma presented at later stages more often than those with adenocarcinoma. Human papilloma virus was strongly implicated in cervical cancer, with 94% (n = 63) of those who were tested being positive for HPV-16 (82.5%, n = 52) and HPV-18 (12.7%, n = 8). Diagnosis was most frequently made through biopsy (97.3%, n = 72) as opposed to Pap smears (2.7%, n = 2). Most Libyan patients were put through chemotherapy (75%, n = 55) and triple therapy (surgery with combined chemotherapy and radiotherapy) was the most common (38%, n = 28) modality of treatment. Comparisons were made between Libya and other nations, either in the developed world or neighbouring countries. The major problem of cervical cancer in Libya is delayed presentation and hence, all the recommendations focus on increased awareness for the populace, implementation of a national cancer control plan and a national screening programme.

  10. Solar Energy for Rural Egypt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdelsalam, Tarek I.; Darwish, Ziad; Hatem, Tarek M.

    Egypt is currently experiencing the symptoms of an energy crisis, such as electricity outage and high deficit, due to increasing rates of fossil fuels consumption. Conversely, Egypt has a high solar availability of more than 18.5 MJ daily. Additionally, Egypt has large uninhabited deserts on both sides of the Nile valley and Sinai Peninsula, which both represent more than 96.5 % of the nation's total land area. Therefore, solar energy is one of the promising solutions for the energy shortage in Egypt. Furthermore, these vast lands are advantageous for commissioning large-scaled solar power projects, not only in terms of space availability, but also of availability of high quality silicon (sand) required for manufacturing silicon wafers used in photovoltaic (PV) modules. Also, rural Egypt is considered market a gap for investors, due to low local competition, and numerous remote areas that are not connected to the national electricity grid. Nevertheless, there are some obstacles that hinder the progress of solar energy in Egypt; for instance, the lack of local manufacturing capabilities, security, and turbulent market in addition to other challenges. This paper exhibits an experience of the authors designing and installing decentralized PV solar systems, with a total rated power of about 11 kW, installed at two rural villages in at the suburbs of Fayoum city, in addition to a conceptual design of a utility scale, 2 MW, PV power plant to be installed in Kuraymat. The outcomes of this experience asserted that solar PV systems can be a more technically and economically feasible solution for the energy problem in rural villages.

  11. Prevalence of hydatid cysts in slaughtered animals in Sirte, Libya.

    PubMed

    Kassem, Hamed H; Abdel-Kader, Abdel-Kader M; Nass, Sedigh Ahmed

    2013-04-01

    The prevalence of cystic echinococcosis was studied among the livestock slaughtered in abattoir of Sirte, Libya during the period July 2004 to May 2005. The overall infection rate of 4.9% in sheep, 2.4% in goats, 2.7% in camels and 15% in cattle were observed. The increase in prevalence with age of the animals was statistically significant in the four species. In female goats, examined infection was higher in the male. Liver had higher hydatid cysts than lungs in sheep, goat while infected lungs had higher in camel.

  12. Infectious diseases in ancient Egypt.

    PubMed

    Brier, Bob

    2004-03-01

    Techniques for studying infectious disease in the ancient world are discussed. A brief survey of infectious diseases, such as schistosomiasis and malaria, in ancient Egypt is presented, and the physical traces of these diseases are examined. A discussion of the ancient Egyptian physician's response to infectious disease is included. There are two substantial sources of evidence for infectious diseases-physical remains and descriptions in Egyptian medical papyri. This preliminary survey suggests that ancient Egypt was far from the idyllic paradise on the Nile that some historians would like to imagine.

  13. Cryptogenic Tuberculosis - 1990 Cairo - Egypt

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-01-01

    AD-A269 664 i l•l lI ,iI I i h4Ji PUBLICATION REPORT 1753 SEP TE5195, 31/93EYP CRYPTOGENIC TUBERCULOSIS - 1990 CAIRO - EGYPT BY Z. Farid, M.E...FUNDING NUMBERS Cryptogenic Tuberculosis - 1990 Cairo - Egypt PE- 61102A WU- 3M161102BS13.AK.311 6. AUTHORjS) Farid, Z., Kilpatrick, M.E. and Kamal...is unlimited. 13- A8B TRACT %’ 4 , n ;.’ Please see attached. DTIC 7T-3 t A 2-d~~t (r’ oa Dist__ _._ .S pecial. Cryptogenic tuberculosis ; Prolonged

  14. Mesozoic rift basins in western desert of Egypt, their southern extension and impact on future exploration

    SciTech Connect

    Taha, M.A. )

    1988-08-01

    Rift basins are a primary target of exploration in east, central, and west Africa. These intracratonic rift basins range in age from the Triassic to the Neogene and are filled with lagoonal-lacustrine sand-shale sequences. Several rift basins may be present in the Western Desert of Egypt. In the northeastern African platform, the Mesozoic Tethyan strand lines were previously interpreted to have limited southern extension onto the continent. This concept, based upon a relatively limited amount of subsurface data, has directed and focused the exploration for oil and gas to the northernmost 120 km of the Western Desert of Egypt. Recent well and geophysical data indicate a southerly extension of mesozoic rift basins several hundred kilometers inland from the Mediterranean Sea. Shushan/Faghur and Abu Gharadig/Bahrein basins may represent subparallel Mesozoic basins, trending northeast-southwest. Marine Oxfordian-Kimmeridgian sediments were recently reported from wells drilled approximately 500 km south of the present-day Mediterranean shoreline. The link of these basins with the Sirte basin to the southwest in Libya is not well understood. Exploration is needed to evaluate the hydrocarbon potential of such basins.

  15. Groundwater potential for irrigation in the East Oweinat area, Western Desert Egypt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nour, S.

    1996-04-01

    The Nubia Sandstone aquifer system is one of the most extensive groundwater systems in North Africa, covering an area of about 2,000,000 km2, including parts of Egypt, Libya, Sudan, and Chad. In the Western Desert of Egypt, the Nubian formation has a thermal gradient of 1.1 5°C 100 m-1 with the exception of the East Oweinat area, located in the southern part of the Western Desert. This is the only part of this huge system where ground-water occurs under unconfmed conditions in an area where the Nubian sandstone crops out and is underlain by shallow basement rocks; in this area groundwater has no thermal characteristics. The aquifer system in the East Oweinat area attains a relatively high hydraulic conductivity. The direction of groundwater flow is generally northeastwards but is distorted at faults and fracture zones. Chemical analyses of groundwater in the area indicate a low salt content and suitability for irrigation purposes. As the estimated recharge to the area is low compared with the foreseen irrigation water requirement, the development of groundwater in the East Oweinat should be based on groundwater mining. Although the evaluation of the groundwater resources in East Oweinat has indicated that groundwater can be extracted at a rate of 4.7×106 m3 d-1, the long-term economics of extraction that can sustain large-scale development projects has to be assessed.

  16. On Naval Actions and Reactions in Limited Warfare

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-05-01

    CV Albania 40 3 Algeria x 22/12 7/ 4 3 Angola 22/ 6 Argentina x x 12 9/ 9 6/ 6 7 Bahrain x 32/ 8 Bangladesh 26/ 4 3 Brazil x x 8 23/ 9 9/ 1 7 Brunei 6...or landSSMs+ASMs t e Argentina Argentina Algeria n Brazil Brazil Argentina t China China Brazil Egypt Egypt China T India India Cuba h Pakistan Libya...Level of Threat Blue Water Undersea Coastal Potential IF Argentina Argentina Argentina Potent gg Brazil Brazil Brazil Peru Peru Cuba Peru Chile Chile

  17. Prevalence of equine viral arteritis in Algeria.

    PubMed

    Laabassi, F; Amelot, G; Laugier, C; Zientara, S; Nasri, A M; Hans, A

    2014-12-01

    In order to determine the prevalence of equine viral arteritis in Algeria, 268 sera from non-vaccinated horses were collected from the western and eastern regions. Serological analysis of the sera, which were collected from 2009 to 2011, was performed using the virus neutralisation test, as described by the World Organisation for Animal Health. Overall, 20 sera (7.46%) were seropositive, 152 (56.71%) were negative and 96 sera (35.82%) were cytotoxic. Equine arteritis virus (EAV) seroprevalence was significantly higher in the western region (Tiaret) than in the eastern region (Barika and El-Eulma). Interestingly, more than 20% of the tested horses over 16 years old were seropositive for EAV. However, EAV prevalence did not depend on either horse breed or horse gender. This study is the first to describe the circulation of EAV in the Algerian horse population.

  18. [The reappearance of chancroid in Algeria].

    PubMed

    Boudghene-Stambouli, O; Merad-Boudia, A; Aissa-Mamoun, A

    1992-01-01

    After 35 observations of the chancroid observed in the department of dermato-venereology of the University Hospital of Tlemcen (West Algeria) from August 1988 to December 1991, we are led to analyze the flare of this sexual transmitted disease. The principal affected subjects are single male no older than 30 years, having had sexual intercourse with prostitutes (30/35). Less than 10 days (19/29) after the sexual contacts, the ulcer appears, and most often unique (25/35), mildly painful, accompanied frequently by adenopathies (31/35). The contamination took place mainly in Bel Abbès--city located at 90 km from Tlemcen--(12 cases), in Tlemcen (4 cases) and Morocco (5 cases). The treatment based on sulfonamides, erythromycin and tetracycline or doxycycline, has been constantly efficient. No concomitant HIV infection has been revealed. The chancroid is the first STD observed in our department in 1991, and also, the first cause for genital ulcer.

  19. Alexandria (Al Iskandariya), Egypt

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    This image of Alexandria was taken by astronauts on board the International Space Station in December 2000 using an Electronic Still Camera. A wider-angle view (STS088-739-90) taken from the Space Shuttle in December 1998 is available for context. Alexandria (Al Iskandariya) occupies a T-shaped peninsula and strip of land separating the Mediterranean from Lake Mariout. Originally the town was built upon a mole (stone breakwater) called Heptastadium, which joined the island of Pharos (see referenced website, below) to the mainland. Since then sedimentary deposits have widened the mole. Since 1905, when the 370,000 Alexandrians lived in an area of about 4 sq km between the two harbors, the city (population 4 million; see referenced website, below) has grown beyond its medieval walls and now occupies an area of about 300 sq km. The Mahmudiya Canal, connecting Alexandria with the Nile, runs to the south of the city and, by a series of locks, enters the harbor of the principal port of Egypt (note ships). The reddish and ochre polygons west of Lake Mariout are salt-evaporation, chemical-storage, and water-treatment ponds within the coastal lagoon. Reference Youssef Halim and Fatma Abou Shouk, 2000, Human impacts on Alexandria's marine environment: UNESCO, Coastal Regions and Small Islands Unit (CSI), Coastal Management Sourcebooks 2 (accessed December 20, 2000) Additional photographs taken by astronauts can be viewed at NASA-JSC's Gateway to Astronaut Photography of Earth. Image ISS001-ESC-5025 provided by the Earth Sciences and Image Analysis Laboratory, Johnson Space Center.

  20. Geology, Murzuk oil development could boost S. W. Libya prospects

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, D. )

    1995-03-06

    With the recent involvement of Repsol, Total, and OMV in developing the 2 billion bbl oil-in-place Murzuk field complex, an infrastructure will be finally constructed in western Libya which will act as a precursor to more exploration activity and development projects in the Murzuk and Ghadames basins. Murzuk, an intra-cratonic sag basin, is a huge ladle-shaped structural basin covering more than 400,000 sq km and extending beyond the borders of southern Libya. The structure of the area is quite simple. The sub-horizontal or gently dipping strata are faulted and the faults are most frequently parallel to the anticlinal axis. Tectonic movements affected the basin to a greater or lesser degree from early Paleozoic (Caledonian) to post-Eocene (Alpine) times. The paper describes the exploration history; stratigraphy; the Ordovician, Silurian and Devonian, and Carboniferous reservoirs; source rocks; oil gravity and gas content; hydrogeologic constraints; aquifer influence on hydrocarbon accumulation; geologic structures; Murzuk field development; and acreage availability.

  1. Team Egypt! Integrating the Disciplines.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenwald, Amanda Welsh

    2000-01-01

    Describes a unit on Egypt used in an interdisciplinary curriculum that involves activities in social studies, art, science, language (Latin), and computers. Explains that each discipline is assessed separately in order to reward students' strengths. Highlights the benefits of interdisciplinary curricula. (CMK)

  2. Skeletal dysplasia in ancient Egypt.

    PubMed

    Kozma, Chahira

    2008-12-01

    The ancient Egyptian civilization lasted for over 3000 years and ended in 30 BCE. Many aspects of ancient Egyptian culture, including the existence of skeletal dysplasias, and in particular achondroplasia, are well known through the monuments and records that survived until modern times. The hot and dry climate in Egypt allowed for the preservation of bodies and skeletal anomalies. The oldest dwarf skeleton, the Badarian skeleton (4500 BCE), possibly represents an epiphyseal disorder. Among the remains of dwarfs with achondroplasia from ancient Egypt (2686-2190 BCE), exists a skeleton of a pregnant female, believed to have died during delivery with a baby's remains in situ. British museums have partial skeletons of dwarfs with achondroplasia, humeri probably affected with mucopolysaccharidoses, and a skeleton of a child with osteogenesis imperfecta. Skeletal dysplasia is also found among royal remains. The mummy of the pharaoh Siptah (1342-1197 BCE) shows a deformity of the left leg and foot. A mummified fetus, believed to be the daughter of king Tutankhamun, has scoliosis, spina bifida, and Sprengel deformity. In 2006 I reviewed the previously existing knowledge of dwarfism in ancient Egypt. The purpose of this second historical review is to add to that knowledge with an expanded contribution. The artistic documentation of people with skeletal dysplasia from ancient Egypt is plentiful including hundreds of amulets, statues, and drawing on tomb and temple walls. Examination of artistic reliefs provides a glance of the role of people with skeletal dysplasia and the societal attitudes toward them. Both artistic evidence and moral teachings in ancient Egypt reveal wide integration of individuals with disabilities into the society.

  3. 77 FR 56985 - Honoring the Victims of the Attack in Benghazi, Libya

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-17

    ... Victims of the Attack in Benghazi, Libya By the President of the United States of America A Proclamation As a mark of respect for the memory of John Christopher Stevens, United States Ambassador to...

  4. 3 CFR - Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to Libya

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... declared a national emergency pursuant to the International Emergency Economic Powers Act (50 U.S.C. 1701... Libya and posed a serious risk to its stability. We are in the process of winding down the sanctions...

  5. Egypt: Background and U.S. Relations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-09-13

    visited Egypt, promising to “help Egypt deal with its economic challenges, including meeting immediate financial concerns, providing debt relief...MONITORING AGENCY NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) 10. SPONSOR/MONITOR’S ACRONYM(S) 11. SPONSOR/MONITOR’S REPORT NUMBER(S) 12. DISTRIBUTION/AVAILABILITY STATEMENT ...negotiating with Egypt the terms for obligating funds that have already been appropriated by Congress, such as up to $1 billion in bilateral debt

  6. Selecting Indicators For The Sustainable Development of Residential Neighborhoods in Tripoli, Libya

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elgadi, Ahmed. A.; Hakim Ismail, Lokman; Bargi, Walid A. Al; Suliman. Ali, Ahmed

    2016-11-01

    The government of Libya aims to position Libya as one of the most sustainable countries in the region, with the hope that this success will create an inspiring example for surrounding countries. To achieve this, an indicator based assessment framework needs to be developed to assess neighborhood sustainability in Libya as it is important in achieving sustainable urban development. The aim of this paper is to identify a significant set of indicators to assess the sustainable development in Tripoli, Libya. Firstly, a number of indicators for sustainable development from various studies were collected into a preliminary list. The list of indicators was then assessed and filtered by experts in the industry, thus resulting in 50 assessment indicators that are relevant to the sustainable development in Tripoli, Libya. Based on measurement issues, 50 indicators were then grouped into 30 main indices or themes that reflect either sustainable economic, environmental, social, or institutional indicators. Therefore, the final sustainable neighborhood assessment framework will hopefully be used as assessment framework or guidelines in strategic planning for the development of sustainable neighborhood in Tripoli, Libya.

  7. Safsaf Oasis, Egypt

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    These images show two views of a region of south-central Egypt, each taken by a different type of spaceborne sensor. On the left is an optical image from the Landsat Thematic Mapper, and on the right is a radar image from the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR). This comparison shows that the visible and infrared wavelengths of Landsat are only sensitive to the materials on the surface, while the radar wavelengths of SIR-C/X-SAR can penetrate the thin sand cover in this arid region to reveal details hidden below the surface. Field studies in this area indicate that the L-band radar can penetrate as much as 2 meters (6.5 feet) of very dry sand to image buried rock structures. Ancient drainage channels, shown at the bottom of this image, are filled with sand more than 2 meters (6.5 feet) thick and therefore appear dark because the radar waves cannot penetrate them. Only the most recently active channels are visible in the Landsat scene. Some geologic structures at the surface are visible in both images. However, many buried features, such as rock fractures and the blue circular granite bodies in the upper center of the image on the right, are visible only to the radar. The Safsaf Oasis is located near the bright yellow feature in the lower left center of the Landsat image. Scientists are using the penetrating capabilities of radar imaging in desert areas to study structural geology, mineral exploration, ancient climates, water resources and archaeology. Each image is 30.8 kilometers by 25.6 kilometers (19.1 miles by 15.9 miles) and is centered at 22.7 degrees north latitude, 29.3 degrees east longitude. North is toward the upper right. In the Landsat image, the colors are assigned as follows: red is Band 7 (mid-infrared); green is Band 4 (near infrared); and blue is Band 1 (visible blue light). The colors assigned to the radar frequencies and polarizations are as follows: red is L-band, horizontally transmitted and received; green

  8. Economic development, mobility and traffic accidents in Algeria.

    PubMed

    Bougueroua, M; Carnis, L

    2016-07-01

    The aim of this contribution is to estimate the impact of road economic conditions and mobility on traffic accidents for the case of Algeria. Using the cointegration approach and vector error correction model (VECM), we will examine simultaneously short term and long-term impacts between the number of traffic accidents, fuel consumption and gross domestic product (GDP) per capital, over the period 1970-2013. The main results of the estimation show that the number of traffic accidents in Algeria is positively influenced by the GDP per capita in the short and long term. It implies that a higher economic development worsens the road safety situation. However, the new traffic rules adopted in 2009 have an impact on the forecast trend of traffic accidents, meaning efficient public policy could improve the situation. This result calls for a strong political commitment with effective countermeasures for avoiding the further deterioration of road safety record in Algeria.

  9. Petroleum potential of the Reggane Basin, Algeria

    SciTech Connect

    Boudjema, A.; Hamel, M.; Mohamedi, A.; Lounissi, R. )

    1990-05-01

    The intracratonic Reggane basin is located on the Saharan platform, southwest of Algeria. The basin covers an area of approximately 140,000 km{sup 2}, extending between the Eglab shield in the south and the Ougarta ranges in the north. Although exploration started in the early 1950s, only a few wells were drilled in this basin. Gas was discovered with a number of oil shows. The sedimentary fill, mainly Paleozoic shales and sandstones, has a thickness exceeding 5,000 m in the central part of the basin. The reservoirs are Cambrian-Ordovician, Siegenian, Emsian, Tournaisian, and Visean sandstones with prospective petrophysical characteristics. Silurian Upper Devonian and, to a lesser extent Carboniferous shales are the main source rocks. An integrated study was done to assess the hydrocarbon potential of this basin. Tectonic evolution source rocks and reservoirs distribution maturation analyses followed by kinetic modeling, and hydrogeological conditions were studied. Results indicate that gas accumulations could be expected in the central and deeper part of the basin, and oil reservoirs could be discovered on the basin edge.

  10. Diabetes mellitus and Ramadan in Algeria

    PubMed Central

    Chentli, Farida; Azzoug, Said; Amani, Mohammed El Amine; Elgradechi, Aldjia

    2013-01-01

    Ramadan, one of the five pillars of Islam, is a holy month in Algeria where diabetes mellitus (DM) is more frequent in urban areas with a frequency which varies from 8 to 16%. DM complications are broadly as frequent as in developed countries, except for neuropathy which seems more frequent. Despite contraindications which are regularly explained to our patients and despite the flexible side of Islam toward chronic diseases, most Algerian people with DM insist on fasting. Not fasting is considered a sin and shameful. There are also other reasons put forward by diabetic persons, such as very strong religious faith, habit of fasting together with the whole family since an early age, solidarity with the family, friends, and neighbors, and finally and probably because of the desire to appear “normal” and share a festive and a spiritual atmosphere of Ramadan. As in other Muslim countries, severe hypoglycemia the main motive of hospitalizations during the holy month, ketoacidosis, dehydration, orthostatic hypotension and thrombosis are some of the complications which Algerian people with DM are exposed to when fasting. PMID:24251192

  11. Typhoid fever: misuse of Widal test in Libya.

    PubMed

    Zorgani, Abdulaziz; Ziglam, Hisham

    2014-06-11

    The worldwide gold standard of diagnosing of enteric fever depends on the isolation of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi from a patient's bone marrow and/or blood culture. In Libya clinicians are heavily dependent on the Widal test for diagnosis of enteric fever which has been used without determining the locally appropriate threshold titer, because the laboratories lack the skilled, experienced personnel and appropriate facilities to detect and serotype Salmonella isolates. To improve the diagnosis process, clinical management and reliability of public health measures, there is an urgent need for the effective training of laboratory technicians and to provide resources to culture Salmonella species according to published guidelines. Clinicians should understand the limitations of Widal test and recognize that it cannot be expected to give a reliable diagnosis.

  12. Occurrence of Trichinella spp. in wild animals in northwestern Libya.

    PubMed

    Hosni, M M; Maghrbi, A A El; Ganghish, K S

    2013-01-01

    The present study determined the occurrence of Trichinella spp. in captured and some perished wildlife animals which included 70 hedgehogs, 19 red foxes, 13 common jackals and 8 crested porcupines in northwestern Libya. Muscle samples of these animals were examined by trichinoscopy. Trichinella larvae were detected only in 4 (5.7%) of the hedgehogs (Erinaceus algirus) and 2 (10.5%) of the red foxes (Vulpes vulpes). Larvae were found in the muscles of the diaphragm, abdomen, tongue, forelimb, hindlimb and intercostal muscles. Examination of tissue sections revealed the presence of numerous cysts within the muscle fibers containing one or more coiled or elongated larvae. Inflammatory cell infiltration was observed around the cysts especially at their poles. Results indicated the importance of wild animals as reservoirs of Trichinella larvae and their role in the transmission of the disease to other wild and domestic animals as well as humans.

  13. Regional geothermal exploration in Egypt

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morgan, P.; Boulos, F. K.; Swanberg, C. A.

    1983-01-01

    A study is presented of the evaluation of the potential geothermal resources of Egypt using a thermal gradient/heat flow technique and a groundwater temperature/chemistry technique. Existing oil well bottom-hole temperature data, as well as subsurface temperature measurements in existing boreholes, were employed for the thermal gradient/heat flow investigation before special thermal gradient holes were drilled. The geographic range of the direct subsurface thermal measurements was extended by employing groundwater temperature and chemistry data. Results show the presence of a regional thermal high along the eastern margin of Egypt with a local thermal anomaly in this zone. It is suggested that the sandstones of the Nubian Formation may be a suitable reservoir for geothermal fluids. These findings indicate that temperatures of 150 C or higher may be found in this reservoir in the Gulf of Suez and Red Sea coastal zones where it lies at a depth of 4 km and deeper.

  14. The Methanol Poisoning Outbreaks in Libya 2013 and Kenya 2014

    PubMed Central

    Rostrup, Morten; Edwards, Jeffrey K.; Abukalish, Mohamed; Ezzabi, Masoud; Some, David; Ritter, Helga; Menge, Tom; Abdelrahman, Ahmed; Rootwelt, Rebecca; Janssens, Bart; Lind, Kyrre; Paasma, Raido; Hovda, Knut Erik

    2016-01-01

    Background Outbreaks of methanol poisoning occur frequently on a global basis, affecting poor and vulnerable populations. Knowledge regarding methanol is limited, likely many cases and even outbreaks go unnoticed, with patients dying unnecessarily. We describe findings from the first three large outbreaks of methanol poisoning where Médecins Sans Frontières (MSF) responded, and evaluate the benefits of a possible future collaboration between local health authorities, a Non-Governmental Organisation and international expertise. Methods Retrospective study of three major methanol outbreaks in Libya (2013) and Kenya (May and July 2014). Data were collected from MSF field personnel, local health personnel, hospital files, and media reports. Findings In Tripoli, Libya, over 1,000 patients were poisoned with a reported case fatality rate of 10% (101/1,066). In Kenya, two outbreaks resulted in approximately 341 and 126 patients, with case fatality rates of 29% (100/341) and 21% (26/126), respectively. MSF launched an emergency team with international experts, medications and equipment, however, the outbreaks were resolving by the time of arrival. Interpretation Recognition of an outbreak of methanol poisoning and diagnosis seem to be the most challenging tasks, with significant delay from time of first presentations to public health warnings being issued. In spite of the rapid response from an emergency team, the outbreaks were nearly concluded by the time of arrival. A major impact on the outcome was not seen, but large educational trainings were conducted to increase awareness and knowledge about methanol poisoning. Based on this training, MSF was able to send a local emergency team during the second outbreak, supporting that such an approach could improve outcomes. Basic training, simplified treatment protocols, point-of-care diagnostic tools, and early support when needed, are likely the most important components to impact the consequences of methanol poisoning

  15. Cataract surgery in ancient Egypt.

    PubMed

    Blomstedt, Patric

    2014-03-01

    Ophthalmology was one of the most important specialties in Egyptian medicine, and more specialists are known in this field than in any other. This specialization seems, however, to have been of a purely noninvasive nature. Even though it has been claimed that cataract surgery was performed in pharaonic Egypt, careful analysis of the sources does not support the claim. No example of cataract surgery or of any other invasive ophthalmologic procedure can be found in the original sources.

  16. Abdominal Tuberculosis in Cairo, Egypt

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-01-01

    COW 03 PUBLICATION REPORT 94-30227 * ABDOMINAL TUBERCULOSIS IN CAIRO, BY RWIavni 0. IHibbs6 M. Kuanmm ad Z. Fun .Y .~ ... W I Form ApprovedREPORT...Leave blank) 2. REPORT DATE 3. REPORT TYPE AND DATES COVERED 8 April 1993 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE S. FUNDING NUMBERS Abdominal Tuberculosis in Cairo...abdominal tuberculosis patients seen at Abbassia Fever Hospital in Cairo, Egypt from January 1990 to August 1992 are described; their mean age was 21.5

  17. Orthopedic surgery in ancient Egypt

    PubMed Central

    Blomstedt, Patric

    2014-01-01

    Background — Ancient Egypt might be considered the cradle of medicine. The modern literature is, however, sometimes rather too enthusiastic regarding the procedures that are attributed an Egyptian origin. I briefly present and analyze the claims regarding orthopedic surgery in Egypt, what was actually done by the Egyptians, and what may have been incorrectly ascribed to them. Methods — I reviewed the original sources and also the modern literature regarding surgery in ancient Egypt, concentrating especially on orthopedic surgery. Results — As is well known, both literary sources and the archaeological/osteological material bear witness to treatment of various fractures. The Egyptian painting, often claimed to depict the reduction of a dislocated shoulder according to Kocher’s method, is, however, open to interpretation. Therapeutic amputations are never depicted or mentioned in the literary sources, while the specimens suggested to demonstrate such amputations are not convincing. Interpretation — The ancient Egyptians certainly treated fractures of various kinds, and with varying degrees of success. Concerning the reductions of dislocated joints and therapeutic amputations, there is no clear evidence for the existence of such procedures. It would, however, be surprising if dislocations were not treated, even though they have not left traces in the surviving sources. Concerning amputations, the general level of Egyptian surgery makes it unlikely that limb amputations were done, even if they may possibly have been performed under extraordinary circumstances. PMID:25140982

  18. Astronomy Education Challenges in Egypt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El Fady Beshara Morcos, Abd

    2015-08-01

    One of the major challenges in Egypt is the quality of education. Egypt has made significant progress towards achieving the Education for All and the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). Many associations and committees as education reform program and education support programs did high efforts in supporting scientific thinking through the scientific clubs. The current state of astronomical education in Egypt has been developed. Astronomy became a part in both science and geography courses of primary, preparatory and secondary stages. Nowadays the Egyptian National Committee for Astronomy, put on its shoulders the responsibility of revising of astronomy parts in the education courses, beside preparation of some training programs for teachers of different stages of educations, in collaboration with ministry of education. General lectures program has been prepared and started in public places , schools and universities. Many TV and Radio programs aiming to spread astronomical culture were presented. In the university stage new astronomy departments are established and astrophysics courses are imbedded in physics courses even in some private universities.

  19. A Study of Hydrogeological Conditions of the Nubian Sandstone Aguifer in the Area between Abu Simbel and Toschka, Western Desert, Egypt.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dahab, K. A.; Ebraheem, A. M.; El Sayed, E. A.

    2001-05-01

    A Study of Hydrogeological Conditions of the Nubian Sandstone Aquifer in the Area between Abu Simbel and Toschka, Western Desert, Egypt. By K. A. Dahab*, A. M. Ebraheem**, and E. El Sayed*** *Geology Department, Faculty of Science, Menofia University, Shibin El Kom, Egypt. ** Geology Department, Faculty of Science, Assiut University, Assiut, Egypt. *** Geology Department, Faculty of Science, Minia University, Minia, Egypt. The Nubian Sandstone Aquifer in the area between Toschka and Abu Simbil is small portion of the very well known Nubian Sandstone Aquifer System in the Eastern Sahara, which covers the entire area of southwest Egypt, southeast Libya, northeast Chad, and northern Sudan. Toscha area is currently the site of intensive drilling and development for a huge land reclamation project. The drilling information was used to study the hydrogeological setting of the Nubian Sandstone aquifer in the area. The obtained results indicate that the lithological characteristics and tectonic setting is strongly affecting the groundwater flow pattern as well as the aquifer potentiality of the nubian sandstone aquifer in the area. The aquifer potentiality in this area is low if compared to that of east Oweinat or Dakhla areas. The aquifer is mainly composed of hard ferruginous sandstone with great shale and clay intercalation with a thickness ranging from 140 to 230 meters. Groundwater in this aquifer belongs to fresh to slightly brackish type (salinity is ranging from 240 to 1300 ppm). Ion dominance ordering reveals that sodium cation is mostly predominating over calcium and magnesium whereas chloride is predominant over sulfate and bicarbonate. The groundwater is related to meteoric origin. The high concentration of sodium, chloride, and sulfates reflect leaching and dissolution processes of gypsiferous shales and clay as well as long residence time of water.

  20. Short note: The track of a new cradle of mankind in Sahelo-Saharan Africa (Chad, Libya, Egypt, Cameroon)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brunet, Michel; MPFT

    2010-11-01

    This paper deals with the impact of the successive discovery of two early hominids from Mio-Pliocene of Chad ( Australopithecus bahrelghazali, nicknamed Abel dated to 3.5 Ma and Sahelanthropus tchadensis, nicknamed Toumaï dated to 7 Ma) on our understanding of how far back go the roots of mankind and what kind of environment they lived in. These discoveries introduce new geographic and phylogenetic paradigms to explain the African evolution of our prehuman ancestors.

  1. Egypt: Beyond Pharaohs, Feluccas and Fellahin.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holt, Evelyn R.

    In a random study of five middle school social studies textbooks available for adoption in the state of Indiana in 1984, great variation in the treatment of Egypt was noted. Coverage of contemporary history was incomplete in all cases. All texts dealt with Egypt's ancient history, but what was reported was questionable. Only one text addressed in…

  2. Women--Sex Objects in Ancient Egypt.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mutimer, Brian T. P.

    Although it has been said that the women in Ancient Egypt enjoyed a reasonable state of social and professional equality with men, this paper presents an alternate theory--that women were second-class citizens whose physical prowess was secondary to their role as sex objects. It appears that men and women in Ancient Egypt often participated in the…

  3. Gender, Sibship Composition, and Education in Egypt

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tfaily, Rania

    2016-01-01

    This article examines the relationship between gender, sibship, and education over time in Egypt, focusing on how the number, sex, and birth order configuration of siblings affected boys' and girls' education during 1991-2008, a period characterized by significant social and economic changes in Egypt. This study disaggregates schooling into…

  4. Inclusiveness in Higher Education in Egypt

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cupito, Emily; Langsten, Ray

    2011-01-01

    In Egypt, before 1952, education, especially higher education, was the province of a privileged few. After the 1952 Revolution, in pursuit of social justice and economic development, Egypt's leaders eliminated fees, instituted a universal admission examination, promised government employment to all graduates of higher education, and expanded the…

  5. Egypt: Background and U.S. Relations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-12-12

    smuggling of illegal workers, prostitutes, and even Palestinian brides for grooms inside Gaza. It is not uncommon for Palestinian smugglers to bribe security...Egypt in a difficult diplomatic position. On the one hand, Egypt has attempted to symbolically support international efforts to alleviate the

  6. 75 FR 58353 - Business Development Mission to Egypt and Morocco

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-24

    ... International Trade Administration Business Development Mission to Egypt and Morocco Mission Description The U.S... Business Development Mission to explore ports and infrastructure development opportunities in Egypt (Cairo... Eastern and Southern European markets. Commercial Setting Egypt Egypt is strategically located at...

  7. Weathering of Ordinary Chondrites from Algeria and Australia as a Climatic Indicator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bland, P. A.; Berry, F. J.; Pillinger, C. T.

    1995-09-01

    Introduction: Recently it has been recognized that ordinary chondrite meteorites resident in desert regions may preserve information about the climate at the time of their arrival on Earth in the degree to which they are weathered [1], providing that a stable surface has existed at the accumulation site. We present here a comparison of ^57Fe Mossbauer spectroscopy data for additional meteorites for which terrestrial ages exist, recovered from Reg el Acfer, Algeria and the Nullarbor Region, Australia. Results and Discussion: The data presented in Fig. 1 compare abundance of ferric iron oxide/oxyhydroxide species against terrestrial age [2, 3] for ordinary chondrites from Australia (a) and Algeria (b). Even with an increased dataset for Australian meteorites (compared to that already presented [1]) the initial hypothesis remains intact i.e. meteorite weathering over time is sensitive to changes in climate. Peaks in oxidation at around 2,000, 7,000 and 23,000 years correspond to periods of speleothem formation [4] and high lake level status [5]. Similarly, a period of low oxidation between 12,000-20,000 years is mirrored in low lake level status [5] and aridity in the Nullarbor [6]. The mechanism by which meteorites may record palaeoclimatic information is given in [1]. A correlation that strengthens our case is that where data from both H and L(LL) chondrites are available (i.e. around 7,000-8,000 years) the two plots are similar, indicating a broadscale environmental effect. In contrast, the distribution for meteorites from the Acfer region appears to be more random, with no correlation between H and L(LL) data. The difference may be related to the stability of the respective accumulation surfaces. The surface of the Nullarbor appears to have been stable over the last 30,000 years [7]. The Algerian and Libyan Sahara, however, has experienced several episodes of active fluvial processes over the last 10,000 years [8] which may have profoundly effected the meteorites

  8. What Do Mobiles Speak in Algeria? Evidence from SMS Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mostari, Hind Amel

    2009-01-01

    When Algeria opened its markets to foreign investment starting from the early 2000s, a technological boom occurred, including the expansion of mobile phone use. New technologies have had a considerable impact on the Algerian diglossic situation, in recent decades, and have contributed in the democratisation of the local dialects, which are being…

  9. Pre-School Education in Morocco and Algeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bouzoubaa, Khadija; Benghabrit-Remaoun, Nouria

    2004-01-01

    This article is an analysis of the current state of early childhood care in the Maghreb, in particular in Morocco and Algeria, where the pre-schooling rate for 5-year-olds is on the increase. Extending pre-school infrastructures and the need to create unified curricula have been among the most urgent questions to be tackled over the last decade in…

  10. Algerian orphans and colonial Christianity in Algeria, 1866-1939.

    PubMed

    Taithe, Bertrand

    2006-01-01

    This article considers the exceptional fate of the orphan survivors of the great Algerian demographic crisis of the late 1860s who subsequently converted to Catholicism. Using a prosopographical approach, this study seeks to highlight the complexities of national identity in France and to explore some of the racial tensions emerging in Algeria in the late nineteenth century.

  11. [The necessity of controlling population growth in Algeria].

    PubMed

    Sari, D

    1990-01-01

    The case is made for controlling Algeria's rapid rate of population growth. The author notes that at the present rate of growth the population is doubling every 20 years. The decline in the labor market and increases in unemployment and underemployment are also examined. The need for strong population policies and programs is stressed.

  12. Algeria to use gas to meet energy demands

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-12-01

    Sonelgaz, Algeria's natural gas distribution monopoly, plans to supply all major towns in the country with natural gas for domestic energy demands by 1989. The utility uses copper tubing in residences and plastic pipe for distribution mains and services to the houses for new construction and conversion to natural gas from LPG systems.

  13. Application of the loss estimation tool QLARM in Algeria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosset, P.; Trendafiloski, G.; Yelles, K.; Semmane, F.; Wyss, M.

    2009-04-01

    During the last six years, WAPMERR has used Quakeloss for real-time loss estimation for more than 440 earthquakes worldwide. Loss reports, posted with an average delay of 30 minutes, include a map showing the average degree of damage in settlements near the epicenter, the total number of fatalities, the total number of injured, and a detailed list of casualties and damage rates in these settlements. After the M6.7 Boumerdes earthquake in 2003, we reported 1690-3660 fatalities. The official death toll was around 2270. Since the El Asnam earthquake, seismic events in Algeria have killed about 6,000 people, injured more than 20,000 and left more than 300,000 homeless. On average, one earthquake with the potential to kill people (M>5.4) happens every three years in Algeria. In the frame of a collaborative project between WAPMERR and CRAAG, we propose to calibrate our new loss estimation tool QLARM (qlarm.ethz.ch) and estimate human losses for future likely earthquakes in Algeria. The parameters needed for this calculation are the following. (1) Ground motion relation and soil amplification factors (2) distribution of building stock and population into vulnerability classes of the European Macroseismic Scale (EMS-98) as given in the PAGER database and (3) population by settlement. Considering the resolution of the available data, we construct 1) point city models for cases where only summary data for the city are available and, 2) discrete city models when data regarding city districts are available. Damage and losses are calculated using: (a) vulnerability models pertinent to EMS-98 vulnerability classes previously validated with the existing ones in Algeria (Tipaza and Chlef) (b) building collapse models pertinent to Algeria as given in the World Housing Encyclopedia and, (c) casualty matrices pertinent to EMS-98 vulnerability classes assembled from HAZUS casualty rates. As a first trial, we simulated the 2003 Boumerdes earthquake to check the validity of the proposed

  14. A New Vision of Professional Development for University Teachers in Libya "It's Not an Event, It Is a Process"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suwaed, Hameda; Rahouma, Wesam

    2015-01-01

    Being a university teacher in the Libya is most of the time described as a challenge. In the case of the current unstable situation in Libya, the task is formidable in many cases. This paper investigates the challenges encountered by Alzawia university teachers in four colleges. It attempts to answer the following questions: what are the…

  15. 76 FR 28503 - Identification of Three Entities as Government of Libya Entities Pursuant to Executive Order 13566

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-17

    ... Office of Foreign Assets Control Identification of Three Entities as Government of Libya Entities... Transactions Related to Libya.'' DATES: The identification by the Director of OFAC of the three entities... issued Executive Order 13566, ``Blocking Property and Prohibiting Certain Transactions Related to...

  16. 3 CFR 8861 - Proclamation 8861 of September 12, 2012. Honoring the Victims of the Attack in Benghazi, Libya

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 3 The President 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Proclamation 8861 of September 12, 2012. Honoring the Victims of the Attack in Benghazi, Libya 8861 Proclamation 8861 Presidential Documents..., LibyaBy the President of the United States of America A Proclamation As a mark of respect for the...

  17. First GNSS results in the Oran area (northwestern Algeria)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    bougrine, amina; Nocquet, Jean-Mathieu; Yelles-Chaouche, Abdelkarim; Lammali, Kamel; Bacha, Wahab; Terki, Toufik

    2016-04-01

    Sparse results along northern Algeria are so far available to better understand how Nubia/Eurasia convergence is accommodated in the western Mediterranean and quantitatively assess seismic potential in that area. In this study, we show new GNSS results in the Tellian atlas in western Algeria. The studied area encompasses the Mleta basin bordered in the north by the Murdjadjo range, which is thought to be the locus of the large 1790 earthquake (estimated magnitude 7.5 Bouhadad, 2001). This area includes the city of Oran, the second most populated city of Algeria. The GNSS network includes 18 sites, spanning 180km East-West along the coast of Algeria and 40 km inland, with inter-site distance of 15 km. It has been observed in 2008, 2012 and 2013 for enabling velocity to be estimated at the 1 mm/yr. GNSS Data have been processed using GAMIT/GLOBK software, together with 04 permanent sites in Algeria and 87 IGS sites surrounding the area of study. Uncertainties on campaign results have been rescaled according to the analysis of the nearby CGPS time series. The recorded seismicity and the obtained GNSS velocity field from the three campaigns with a five years span, indicate that this region is tectonically active and subjected to significant horizontal motions. A regional NW displacement of 2-4mm/yr in the Eurasia stable reference frame is consistent with the expected Nubia-Eurasia motion. The obtained velocity field in the Nubian fixed reference frame gives a slow strain rate less than 2mm/yr representing the strain rate accommodated across the Murdjadjo range and the different features around the Mlena basin.

  18. [The extension of cutaneous leishmaniasis in Algeria. Apropos of 25 cases observed in Wilaya de Tlemcen (West Algeria)].

    PubMed

    Boudghene-Stambouli, O; Merad-Boudia, A

    1991-01-01

    Following 25 observations, 19 of which are autochtonous, the authors bring to attention the problem of the cutaneous leishmaniasis in Algeria. Actually, this affection touches all the regions. The west part, supposed sofar untouched, has seen the hatching of a foyer in Tlemcen.

  19. [Urinary schistosomiasis in ancient Egypt].

    PubMed

    Ziskind, Bernard

    2009-12-01

    First described by Theodor Bilharz in 1851, Schistosoma haematobium, the worm responsible for urinary schistosomiasis, was a major health problem along the Nile Valley until the present days. Haematuria, the main symptom of this parasitic disease, was known and treated in Egyptian medical papyri since 1550 B.C. A relationship between haematuria and the god Seth was envisaged. Sir Marc Armand Ruffer, pioneer of paleopathology, found (1910) calcified Schistosoma eggs in Egyptian mummies of the xxth dynasty, establishing that bilharzia plagued ancient Egypt people. The ELISA method demonstrated the Schistosoma circulating anodic antigen in 45% of mummies studied.

  20. Serious fungal infections in Egypt.

    PubMed

    Zaki, S M; Denning, D W

    2017-02-17

    We aimed to estimate the burden of serious fungal infections in Egypt, currently unknown, based on the size of the populations at risk and available epidemiological data. Data were obtained from the World Health Organization (WHO), the Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS), and published reports with clearcut denominators. When no data existed, risk populations were used to estimate frequencies of fungal infections, using previously described methodology. The population of Egypt in 2011 was ∼82,500,000; 31% children, and 8% women >60 years of age. Amongst about 21.8 million women aged 15-50 years, recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis (≥4 episodes/year) is estimated to occur in 1.3 million (3,169/100,000 females). Using a low international average rate of 5/100,000, we estimate 4,127 cases of candidaemia, and 619 patients with intra-abdominal candidiasis. Amongst the survivors of pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) in Egypt in 2012, 319 new cases of chronic pulmonary aspergillosis (CPA) are likely, a prevalence of 1,005 post-TB and a total prevalence estimate of 3,015 CPA patients in all. Asthma is common in Egypt, affecting 9.4% of adults, 5.35 million, and so ABPA and SAFS were estimated in around 162/100,000 and 214/100,000 respectively. Invasive aspergillosis is estimated to affect 495 patients following leukaemia therapy, there are an estimated 37 cases in renal and liver transplant recipients, and an estimated 132 patients develop IA in the context of lung cancer. Amongst 641,000 COPD admissions to hospital each year, 8,337 patients develop IA. The total HIV-infected population is small, with an estimated 6,500 patients, 2,500 not on antiretroviral therapy. Amongst HIV-infected patients, 38 (0.6%) cases of cryptococcal meningitis and 125 (1.9%) cases of Pneumocystis pneumonia are estimated each year. Fungal keratitis is common, with 28-55% (mean 40%) of corneal infections being fungal, an estimated total of 11,550 cases. The present study indicates

  1. A comparison of abdominal and vaginal hysterectomies in Benghazi, Libya.

    PubMed

    Agnaeber, K; Bodalal, Z

    2013-08-01

    We performed a comparative study between abdominal and vaginal hysterectomies using clinical data from Al-Jamhouria hospital (one of the largest maternity hospitals in Eastern Libya). Various parameters were taken into consideration: the rates of each type (and their subtypes); average age of patients; indications; causes; postoperative complications; and duration of stay in the hospital afterwards. Conclusions and recommendations were drawn from the results of this study. In light of the aforementioned parameters, it was found that: (1) abdominal hysterectomies were more common than vaginal hysterectomies (p < 0.001); (2) patients admitted for abdominal hysterectomies are younger than those admitted for vaginal hysterectomies (p < 0.001); (3) the most common indication for an abdominal hysterectomy was menstrual disturbances, while for vaginal hysterectomies it was vaginal prolapse; (4) the histopathological cause for abdominal and vaginal hysterectomies were observed and the most common were found to be leiomyomas and atrophic endometrium; (5) there was no significant difference between the two routes in terms of postoperative complications; (6) patients who were admitted for abdominal hysterectomies spent a longer amount of time in the hospital (p < 0.01). It was concluded that efforts should be made to further pursue vaginal and laparoscopic hysterectomies as a viable option to the more conventional abdominal route.

  2. Hydrocarbon provinces and productive trends in Libya and adjacent areas

    SciTech Connect

    Missallati, A.A. Ltd., Tripoli )

    1988-08-01

    According to the age of major reservoirs, hydrocarbon occurrences in Libya and adjacent areas can be grouped into six major systems which, according to their geographic locations, can be classified into two major hydrocarbon provinces: (1) Sirte-Pelagian basins province, with major reservoirs ranging from middle-late Mesozoic to early Tertiary, and (2) Murzog-Ghadames basins province, with major reservoirs ranging from early Paleozoic to early Mesozoic. In the Sirte-Pelagian basins province, hydrocarbons have been trapped in structural highs or in stratigraphic wedge-out against structural highs and in carbonate buildups. Here, hydrocarbon generation is characterized by the combined effect of abundant structural relief and reservoir development in the same hydrocarbon systems of the same age, providing an excellent example of hydrocarbon traps in sedimentary basins that have undergone extensive tensional fracturing in a shallow marine environment. In the Murzog-Ghadames basins province, hydrocarbons have been trapped mainly in structural highs controlled by paleostructural trends as basement arches which acted as focal points for oil migration and accumulation.

  3. Hydrocarbon potential of Middle Eocene carbonates, Sirt Basin, Libya

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swei, Giuma H.; Tucker, Maurice E.

    2015-11-01

    Deposition of Middle Eocene carbonates in the Sirt Basin in Libya has been the subject of considerable study in recent years because of the importance of sediments of this age as hydrocarbon reservoirs. The Gialo Formation is an important gas-producing reservoir in the Assumood, Sahl and other nearby fields. The gas which is generated from the gas-prone Sirt Shale source rock of the northern Ajdabiya Trough probably migrated in to the Assumood Ridge from the northeast through late Cretaceous, Paleocene and early Eocene carbonates, before being trapped beneath the Augila Shale (Upper Eocene) which is the principal regional seal in the area. This integrated study has enhanced our understanding of reservoir heterogeneity and hydrocarbon potential of the Gialo carbonates and should lead to improved exploration in the future. Reservoir quality in the Gialo Formation is a function of grain types, pore types, grain size, sorting, cementation and compaction, and predicting areas of high reservoir quality has proved difficult; exploration should be oriented to positioning wells into the main trend of the mid-ramp, nummulite accumulation. Different nummulite facies can be reservoirs depending on their diagenetic history. A diagenetic reduction in porosity must be distinguished from a lack of porosity resulting from an unfavourable depositional environment, so that exploration alternatives can be assessed. This integrated study has demonstrated the presence of suitable reservoir rocks, hydrocarbon traps and the close proximity of potential source rocks. These features should encourage further hydrocarbon exploration in the area.

  4. Cyclic transgressive and regressive sequences, Paleocene Suite, Sirte basin, Libya

    SciTech Connect

    Abushagur, S.A.

    1986-05-01

    The Farrud lithofacies represent the main reservoir rock of the Ghani oil field and Western Concession Eleven of the Sirte basin, Libya. Eight microfacies are recognized in the Farrud lithofacies in the Ghani field area: (1) bryozoan-bioclastic (shallow, warm, normal marine shelf deposits); (2) micrite (suggesting quiet, low-energy conditions such as may have existed in a well-protected lagoon); (3) dasycladacean (very shallow, normal marine environment); (4) bioclastic (very shallow, normal marine environment with moderate to vigorous energy); (5) mgal (very shallow, normal marine environment in a shelf lagoon); (6) pelletal-skeletal (deposition within slightly agitated waters of a sheltered lagoon with restricted circulation); (7) dolomicrite (fenestrate structures indicating a high intertidal environment of deposition); and (8) anhydrite (supratidal environment). The Paleocene suite of the Farrud lithofacies generally shows a prograding, regressive sequence of three facies: (1) supratidal facies, characterized by nonfossiliferous anhydrite, dolomite, and dolomitic pelletal carbonate mudstone; (2) intertidal to very shallow subtidal facies, characterized by fossiliferous, pelletal, carbonate mudstone and skeletal calcarenite; and (3) subtidal facies, characterized by a skeletal, pelletal, carbonate mudstone. Source rocks were primarily organic-rich shales overlying the Farrud reservoir rock. Porosity and permeability were developed in part by such processes as dolomitization, leaching, and fracturing in the two progradational, regressive carbonate facies. Hydrocarbons were trapped by a supratidal, anhydrite cap rock.

  5. Subtype Distribution of Blastocystis Isolates in Sebha, Libya

    PubMed Central

    Abdulsalam, Awatif M.; Ithoi, Init; Al-Mekhlafi, Hesham M.; Al-Mekhlafi, Abdulsalam M.; Ahmed, Abdulhamid; Surin, Johari

    2013-01-01

    Background Blastocystis is a genetically diverse and a common intestinal parasite of humans with a controversial pathogenic potential. This study was carried out to identify the Blastocystis subtypes and their association with demographic and socioeconomic factors among outpatients living in Sebha city, Libya. Methods/Findings Blastocystis in stool samples were cultured followed by isolation, PCR amplification of a partial SSU rDNA gene, cloning, and sequencing. The DNA sequences of isolated clones showed 98.3% to 100% identity with the reference Blastocystis isolates from the Genbank. Multiple sequence alignment showed polymorphism from one to seven base substitution and/or insertion/deletion in several groups of non-identical nucleotides clones. Phylogenetic analysis revealed three assemblage subtypes (ST) with ST1 as the most prevalent (51.1%) followed by ST2 (24.4%), ST3 (17.8%) and mixed infections of two concurrent subtypes (6.7%). Blastocystis ST1 infection was significantly associated with female (P = 0.009) and low educational level (P = 0.034). ST2 was also significantly associated with low educational level (P= 0.008) and ST3 with diarrhoea (P = 0.008). Conclusion Phylogenetic analysis of Libyan Blastocystis isolates identified three different subtypes; with ST1 being the predominant subtype and its infection was significantly associated with female gender and low educational level. More extensive studies are needed in order to relate each Blastocystis subtype with clinical symptoms and potential transmission sources in this community. PMID:24376805

  6. Clinical and parasitological study on scabies in Sirte, Libya.

    PubMed

    Fathy, Fouad M; El-Kasah, Fathi; El-Ahwal, Abdulla M

    2010-12-01

    The present work aimed to determine the risk factors, clinical and parasitological skin lesion features and effective drug regimens. Study was carried out on 200 patients referred to dermatology outpatient clinics in Sirte-Libya. Each was subjected to detailed questionnaire, dermatological skin examination, parasitological skin scraping test (SST), burrow ink test (BIT), drug administration and follow up. Results revealed that females 59%, children 37.5% and military personnel 18% of immigrant families were particularly prone to scabies infestation. Effective risk factors included overcrowding, bed sharing, low hygienic and education levels. Commonest skin lesions included erythematous papules 93%, excoriated papules 77.5%, burrows 66%, pustulation 31%, vesicles 21.5 and nodules 3%. Predilection lesion sites were hand 86%, wrist 82%, abdomen 56%, male external genitalia 64.5% and female breast 28%. Specific SST was positive in 67.3% of cases, particularly sensitive in early cases with short itching duration. BIT was positive in 62%. Topical permethrin proved more effective than precipitated sulpher with cure rates of of 100% and 85.3% in 21% and 75% of cases, respectively. Ivermectin was 100% effective in 4% of cases.

  7. Impact of Geoethics in Egypt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    AbdelMakosud, kholoud Mohamed; Ezzat, Nada

    2016-04-01

    Geoethics, is a new term that could be unknown in the Arab world,where its translation in Arabic language make some kind of problems,with special emphasis on Egypt; spreading this term and the importance of it to professionals and un professionals is not an easy task.Culture and awareness problems face us on dealing with it. In this working paper the researchers study two levels of educational samples, the first one is of young geo-scientists and the other one is of young people of different disciplines to make over view survey (monitoring the base level) about knowing geoethics and another survey after applying some lectures and workshops to the same samples to monitor the second level. The aim of the research is to find out how people will accept this term and its application and how we can spread it through community with different effective ways. In Egypt there are some kind of culture problems could affect on spreading of any new concept, these problems could be overcome by some scientific, social and culture recommendations, these recommendations could be applied in both Arab countries and African Countries with few modifications.

  8. Dental surgery in ancient Egypt.

    PubMed

    Blomstedt, Patric

    2013-01-01

    Many different surgical procedures have over the years been attributed to the ancient Egyptians. This is also true regarding the field of dental surgery. The existence of dentists in ancient Egypt is documented and several recipes exist concerning dental conditions. However, no indications of dental surgery are found in the medical papyri or in the visual arts. Regarding the osteological material/mummies, the possible indications of dental surgery are few and weak. There is not a single example of a clear tooth extraction, nor of a filling or of an artificial tooth. The suggested examples of evacuation of apical abscesses can be more readily explained as outflow sinuses. Regarding the suggested bridges, these are constituted of one find likely dating to the Old Kingdom, and one possibly, but perhaps more likely, dating to the Ptolemaic era. Both seem to be too weak to have served any possible practical purpose in a living patient, and the most likely explanation would be to consider them as a restoration performed during the mummification process. Thus, while a form of dentistry did certainly exist in ancient Egypt, there is today no evidence of dental surgery.

  9. NATO’s New Front Line: The Growing Importance of the Southern Tier

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-08-01

    littoral of Africa and includes Mauritania, Morocco, Algeria, Tunisia, and Libya. Gerard Chaliand and Jean -Pierre Rageau, Strategic Atlas: A Comparative...battles in the Transcaucasus region, respectively. 10. Inge R. Pinto -Dobering, South-North Migration: The Challenge of the 1990s, PSIS Occasional Paper...Middle East and North Africa, New York: Frost and Sullivan, 1989, Egypt, p. FS-2. Pinto -Dobering, South-North Migration, p. 32 and p. 31, respectively

  10. Africa: Prosperous times

    SciTech Connect

    1996-08-01

    Political instability and corruption is the rule, rather than the exception, in Africa`s main producing regions, but exploration and production prospects there are bright and attractive to foreign operators. The paper discusses exploration, drilling, resource development, and production in Nigeria, Libya, Algeria, Egypt, Angola, Congo, Gabon, and Tunisia. The other countries of Africa are briefly mentioned, i.e., Cameroon, Cote D`Ivoire, South Africa, Sudan, Namibia, Equatorial Guinea, Eritrea, Zaire, Mozambique, Ghana, Niger, and Seychelles.

  11. China’s Pursuit of Africa’s Natural Resources, (CSL Issue Paper, Volume 1-09, June 2009)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-06-01

    located in the states of Algeria, Democratic Republic of Congo, Egypt, Ethiopia , Liberia, Libya, Morocco, Mozambique, Nigeria, Namibia , Sudan, Tunisia... differences and Africa’s colonial heritage. Long a friend of Africa in its self-declared role as leader of the developing world, China is in the midst of a...They include environmental security and climate change; urbanization; increased energy prices; and extremist ideology. Each of these issues has the

  12. Area Handbook Series: Egypt: A Country Study

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-01-01

    has been unable to prevent young Coptic Christians from acting on their own to counter acts of violence against their religious centers and property...Party, and the Young Egypt (Misr al Fatah) Party became eligible to run for election. The Supreme Administrative Court rejected, however, the...state with an increase in the power of these provincial lords , particular- ly in Upper Egypt. The Old Kingdom ended when the central administration col

  13. Equine cryptosporidial infection associated with Cryptosporidium hedgehog genotype in Algeria.

    PubMed

    Laatamna, Abd Elkarim; Wagnerová, Pavla; Sak, Bohumil; Květoňová, Dana; Aissi, Miriem; Rost, Michael; Kváč, Martin

    2013-10-18

    Faecal samples from two horse farms in Algeria keeping Arabian, Thoroughbred, and Barb horses were examined for the presence of Cryptosporidium in 2010-2011. A total of 138 faecal samples (16 from a farm keeping 50 animals and 122 from a farm with 267 horses) were screened for Cryptosporidium spp. infection using molecular tools. DNA was extracted from all samples. Nested PCR was performed to amplify fragments of the SSU rDNA and gp60 genes to determine the presence of Cryptosporidium species and genotypes. Sequence analyses of SSU and gp60 genes revealed four animals positive for the presence of subtype XIIIa A22R9 of the Cryptosporidium hedgehog genotype. The infections were not associated with diarrhoea. This study reports, for the first time, the occurrence of Cryptosporidium in Algeria and the first occurrence of the hedgehog genotype in horses. These findings support the potential role of infected horses in sylvatic-domestic transmission of Cryptosporidium.

  14. Active tectonics of the Oran (Algeria) Quaternary plain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    youcef, Bouhadad; rabah, Bensalem; e-hadi, oubaiche

    2016-04-01

    The Oran region, in north-western Algeria, has been hit several times in the past by destructive moderate-sized and strong earthquakes. The Oran October 9th , 1790 (I0= X) was among the strongest seismic events in the western Mediterranean area comparable, if we consider the described effects, to the El- Asnam (1980, Ms=7.3) and Zemmouri (2003, Mw=6.8) earthquakes. Such strong seismic events requires the presence of major active geological structures that are re-activated several times in the past. In this work we present results of a multi- disciplinary study combining geomorphic analysis, field earthquake geological investigations and geophysical methods, undertaken to study the southern border of the Oran Quaternary plain. A 50 km long, SW-dipping and NE-SW trending active fault has been identified that showing clear quaternary deformation. Keywords: earthquake geology, active fault, geomorphic, geophysics, Algeria.

  15. Islamic Movements in Algeria and the Strategy of Violence

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-03-23

    Islamic Movements in Algeria and the Strategy of Violence FORMAT : Strategy Research Project DATE: 23 March 2011 WORD COUNT: 7,820 PAGES: 32...James D Le Sueur after the party‟s victory in the first round of parliamentary elections, stated: Democracy is one of the numerous nefarious...democratic model , dealing with man‟s spiritual element besides his human and social aspects. For Ben Nabi the development of democracy in Islam needs not

  16. The chronostratigraphy of the Haua Fteah cave (Cyrenaica, northeast Libya).

    PubMed

    Douka, Katerina; Jacobs, Zenobia; Lane, Christine; Grün, Rainer; Farr, Lucy; Hunt, Chris; Inglis, Robyn H; Reynolds, Tim; Albert, Paul; Aubert, Maxime; Cullen, Victoria; Hill, Evan; Kinsley, Leslie; Roberts, Richard G; Tomlinson, Emma L; Wulf, Sabine; Barker, Graeme

    2014-01-01

    The 1950s excavations by Charles McBurney in the Haua Fteah, a large karstic cave on the coast of northeast Libya, revealed a deep sequence of human occupation. Most subsequent research on North African prehistory refers to his discoveries and interpretations, but the chronology of its archaeological and geological sequences has been based on very early age determinations. This paper reports on the initial results of a comprehensive multi-method dating program undertaken as part of new work at the site, involving radiocarbon dating of charcoal, land snails and marine shell, cryptotephra investigations, optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) dating of sediments, and electron spin resonance (ESR) dating of tooth enamel. The dating samples were collected from the newly exposed and cleaned faces of the upper 7.5 m of the ∼14.0 m-deep McBurney trench, which contain six of the seven major cultural phases that he identified. Despite problems of sediment transport and reworking, using a Bayesian statistical model the new dating program establishes a robust framework for the five major lithostratigraphic units identified in the stratigraphic succession, and for the major cultural units. The age of two anatomically modern human mandibles found by McBurney in Layer XXXIII near the base of his Levalloiso-Mousterian phase can now be estimated to between 73 and 65 ka (thousands of years ago) at the 95.4% confidence level, within Marine Isotope Stage (MIS) 4. McBurney's Layer XXV, associated with Upper Palaeolithic Dabban blade industries, has a clear stratigraphic relationship with Campanian Ignimbrite tephra. Microlithic Oranian technologies developed following the climax of the Last Glacial Maximum and the more microlithic Capsian in the Younger Dryas. Neolithic pottery and perhaps domestic livestock were used in the cave from the mid Holocene but there is no certain evidence for plant cultivation until the Graeco-Roman period.

  17. Epidemiology of Visceral Leishmaniasis in Algeria: An Update

    PubMed Central

    Adel, Amel; Boughoufalah, Amel; Saegerman, Claude; De Deken, Redgi; Bouchene, Zahida; Soukehal, Abdelkrim; Berkvens, Dirk; Boelaert, Marleen

    2014-01-01

    Visceral leishmaniasis (VL), a zoonotic disease caused by Leishmania infantum, is endemic in Algeria. This report describes a retrospective epidemiological study conducted on human VL to document the epidemiological profile at national level. All human VL cases notified by the National Institute of Public Health between 1998 and 2008 were investigated. In parallel all VL cases admitted to the university hospitals of Algiers were surveyed to estimate the underreporting ratio. Fifteen hundred and sixty-two human VL cases were reported in Algeria between 1998–2008 with an average annual reported incidence rate of 0.45 cases per 100,000 inhabitants, of which 81.42% were in the age range of 0–4 years. Cases were detected year-round, with a peak notification in May and June. One hundred and seventy patients were admitted to the university hospitals in Algiers in the same period, of which less than one in ten had been officially notified. Splenomegaly, fever, pallor and pancytopenia were the main clinical and laboratory features. Meglumine antimoniate was the first-line therapy for paediatric VL whereas the conventional amphotericin B was used for adult patients. Visceral leishmaniasis in Algeria shows the epidemiological profile of a paediatric disease with a decrease of the annual reported incidence rate. However, vigilance is required because of huge underreporting and an apparent propagation towards the south. PMID:24949958

  18. Petroleum geology of the major producing basins of Algeria

    SciTech Connect

    Attar, A.; Chaouch, A.

    1988-08-01

    The South Atlas flexure divides Algeria into two contrasting geologic provinces: (1) the Saharan Atlas and offshore region in the north, both of which are part of the Mediterranean basin, and (2) the Saharan platform on the south, part of the North African craton. The limits of the various sedimentary basins on the Saharan platform are tied to late Paleozoic (Hercynian) crustal reactivation. Comparable structurally controlled basins in northern Algeria are the products of Mesozoic-Recent tectonism. The spatial and temporal distribution of hydrocarbons in the Algerian Sahara can be understood in terms of the geologic evolution of the region. Analysis of areas of proven hydrocarbon reserves permits the following generalizations. (1) There is a concentration of oil and gas fields northeast of a northwest-southeast-trending line connecting Hassi R'Mel with In Amenas. Production is also established in the Sbaa basin and in northern Algeria, where recent discoveries have been made in, respectively, upper Paleozoic and Mesozoic reservoirs. (2) Hydrocarbon are present throughout the entire sedimentary column, but major production currently is restricted to the lower Paleozoic (Cambrian-Ordovician and Lower Devonian) and Triassic reservoirs.

  19. Paleontology, paleobiogeography and paleoecology of Carolia-bearing beds from the Late Eocene rocks at Nile-Fayum Divide, Egypt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El-Shazly, Soheir H.; Abdel-Gawad, Gouda I.; Salama, Yasser F.; Sayed, Dina M.

    2016-12-01

    The Paleontological study of the Carolia-bearing beds in (Qasr El-Sagha Formation) at Nile-Fayum Divide reveals the presences of thirteen species (three gastropods, six oysters and four Carolias). The paleobiogeography of these fauna indicates that genus Carolia Cantraine, 1838 was first recorded from the Lower Eocene of Egypt and Indian-Pakistani Region and spread out throughout the Tethyan province, West Africa and North and South America and its last occurrence was in the Early Miocene of North America. It shows also that, the first appearance of Ostrea (T.) multicostata (Deshayes, 1832) was in the Paleocene of Tunis and Algeria, and spread during the Eocene into India, northwestern Europe and the entire northern African regions. However, Cubitostrea (Cubitostrea) cubitus (Deshayes, 1832) was first reported in the Middle Eocene of France and spread to Texas in North America and North Africa. The statistical study on genus Carolia indicates that the distance between the byssal muscle scar and the retractor muscle scar increases with the increase of the left valve convexity. The paleoecological study of these faunal groups shows that, the predation and the parasitic elements as well as the stress environmental factors, caused the extinction of genus Carolia at the end of Late Eocene in Egypt.

  20. 76 FR 14271 - Unexpected Urgent Refugee and Migration Needs Related to Libya

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-16

    ... Migration Needs Related to Libya Memorandum for the Secretary of State By the authority vested in me as President by the Constitution and the laws of the United States, including section 2(c)(1) of the Migration... Migration Assistance Fund, for the purpose of meeting unexpected and urgent refugee and migration...

  1. Factors Influencing the Acceptance of E-Learning Adoption in Libya's Higher Education Institutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benghet, Mahfoud; Helfert, Markus

    2014-01-01

    The growing influence of technologies on all aspects of life, including the education sector, requires developing countries to follow the example of the developed countries and adopt technology in their education systems. Libya has been able to boost its economic and educational position over the years, and this brings it to the concern of…

  2. Oral cancer in Libya and development of regional oral cancer registries: A review

    PubMed Central

    BenNasir, E.; El Mistiri, M.; McGowan, R.; Katz, R.V.

    2015-01-01

    The aims of this paper are three-fold: (1) to summarize the current epidemiological data on oral cancer in Libya as reported in the published literature and as compared to other national oral cancer rates in the region; (2) to present both the history of the early development, and future goals, of population-based oral cancer tumor registries in Libya as they partner with the more established regional and international population-based cancer tumor registries; and, (3) to offer recommendations that will likely be required in the near future if these nascent, population-based Libyan oral cancer registries are to establish themselves as on-going registries for describing the oral cancer disease patterns and risk factors in Libya as well as for prevention and treatment. This comprehensive literature review revealed that the current baseline incidence of oral cancer in Libya is similar to those of other North Africa countries and China, but is relatively low compared to the United Kingdom, the United States, and India. The recently established Libyan National Cancer Registry Program, initiated in 2007, while envisioning five cooperating regional cancer registries, continues to operate at a relatively suboptimal level. Lack of adequate levels of national funding continue to plague its development…and the accompanying quality of service that could be provided to the Libyan people. PMID:26644751

  3. 76 FR 68313 - Amendment to the International Traffic in Arms Regulations: Libya and UNSCR 2009

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-04

    ... modifications to the United Nations Security Council arms embargo of Libya adopted in September 2011. DATES... INFORMATION: On September 16, 2011, the United Nations Security Council adopted resolution 2009, which... On February 26, 2011, the United Nations Security Council adopted Resolution 1970, paragraph 9...

  4. 78 FR 47179 - Amendment to the International Traffic in Arms Regulations: Libya and UNSCR 2095

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-05

    ... resolution 2095 adopted by the United Nations Security Council. DATES: This rule is effective August 5, 2013... . ATTN: Regulatory Change, Libya. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: On March 14, 2013, the United Nations... use of United Nations personnel, representatives of the media, and humanitarian and...

  5. AISAT-1: the First Step into Space for Algeria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oussedik, A.; Bekhti, M.; Sun, W.; Sweeting, M. N., , Sir

    2002-01-01

    AlSat-1, the first Algerian national satellite of seven microsatellites in the Disaster Monitoring Constellation (DMC), will be launched in September 2002. Micro satellites for Nigeria, United Kingdom, Turkey and Thailand will be launched into the same orbit by the second DMC launch in April 2003, whilst microsatellites for China and Vietnam will be launched into the same orbit by the third DMC launch in January 2004. In a constellation with six other satellites, Algeria will be able to access global images for daily global disaster mitigation, national remote sensing applications, commercial space exploitation and international co-operation with both developed and developing countries. A team of eleven (11) Algerian engineers has been trained at Surrey through the AlSat-1 project. They have covered the following disciplines: System Engineering, ADCS, Power, RF, OBDH, Mechanical and Launch Interface, Earth Observation Payload, GPS, Operation, TTC and Propulsion. AlSat-1, the first space asset of the country, provides indigenous national space capability, unique independent Earth observation and international co-operation opportunities. The country has received this first step into space very well. Following the success of the AlSat-1 programme, a National Space Agency is under construction in Algeria with all the necessary facilities, and the government has approved the budget for a second earth observation microsatellite, AlSat-2. This 2.5m high-resolution remote sensing satellite will be used essentially for mapping and environmental applications. The team trained at Surrey will build the majority of AlSat-2 in the National Space Centre in Algeria using the technologies acquired from Surrey. A further technology transfer and training programme will be carried out through this more demanding mission. The paper will present the AlSat-1 programme and its benefits to Algeria. The proposed AlSat-2 project and the establishment of a national space agency, based on the

  6. Characterization of Avian Influenza and Newcastle Disease Viruses from Poultry in Libya.

    PubMed

    Kammon, Abdulwahab; Heidari, Alireza; Dayhum, Abdunaser; Eldaghayes, Ibrahim; Sharif, Monier; Monne, Isabela; Cattoli, Giovanni; Asheg, Abdulatif; Farhat, Milad; Kraim, Elforjani

    2015-09-01

    On March 2013, the Libyan poultry industry faced severe outbreaks due to mixed infections of APMV-1 (Newcastle disease) and low pathogenic avian influenza (AI) of the H9N2 subtype which were causing high mortality and great economic losses. APMV-1 and H9N2 were isolated and characterized. Genetic sequencing of the APMV-1/chicken/Libya/13VIR/ 7225-1/2013 isolate revealed the presence of a velogenic APMV-1 belonging to lineage 5 (GRRRQKR*F Lin.5) or genotype VII in class II, according to the nomenclature in use. Three AI viruses of the H9N2 subtype, namely A/avian/Libya/13VIR7225-2/2013, A/avian/Libya/13VIR7225-3/2013, and A/avian/Libya/13VIR7225-5/2013, were isolated and found to belong to the G1 lineage. Analysis of amino acid sequences showed that the analyzed H9N2 viruses contained the amino acid Leu at position 226 (H3 numbering) at the receptor binding site of the HA, responsible for human virus-like receptor specificity. On March 2014, an outbreak of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) virus of the H5N1 subtype was diagnosed in a backyard poultry farm in an eastern region of Libya. The H5N1 isolate (A/chicken/Libya/14VIR2749-16/2014) was detected by real time RT-PCR (rRT-PCR). Genetic characterization of the HA gene revealed that the identified subtype was highly pathogenic, belonged to the 2.2.1 lineage, and clustered with recent Egyptian viruses. This study revealed the presence of a velogenic APMV-1 genotype and of two influenza subtypes, namely HPAI H5N1 and H9N2, which are of major interest for public and animal health. Considering these findings, more investigations must be undertaken to establish and implement adequate influenza surveillance programs; this would allow better study of the epidemiology of APMV-1 genotype VII in Libya and evaluation of the current vaccination strategies.

  7. Did the sterile insect technique or weather eradicate screwworms (Diptera:Calliphoridae) from Libya?

    PubMed

    Krafsur, E S; Lindquist, D A

    1996-11-01

    The American screwworm, Cochliomyia hominivorax Coquerel, was detected in northwestern Libya in 1988. By August 1990, a screwworm epizootic extended over 26,000 km2 but collapsed in December and disappeared in April 1991. The relative contributions of winter weather and sterile insect releases on screwworm eradication in Libya were assessed by using temperature data and population demography. A screwworm overwintering threshold mean temperature of approximately 9.7 degrees C for 3 mo is supported strongly by published experimental and epizootiological data. In Libya, temperatures were above this overwintering threshold at Zawia, Sorman, and Tripoli weather stations. At Gharyan, in the interior highlands, mean winter temperatures from 1 December 1990 to 28 February 1991 were less than the putative overwintering threshold. No kill of screwworm pupae or adults was likely as a result of low temperatures near any weather station in the winter of 1990-1991. Evidence of screwworm overwintering in 1990-1991 was provided by the detection of a natural infestation in April and trap captures of numerous wild adult females in February, March, and April. Successful screwworm overwintering was highly probable in the coastal plain of Libya but unlikely in much of the interior highlands. The high rate of animal inspections by eradication personnel achieved as much as a 30% chance of detecting a screwworm case in domestic animals. Generation times and expectation of life among feral adult flies were estimated. Case reports for January to June 1991 were consistently less than estimates based on historical experience in Libya 1989-1990 and in Texas 1962-1983. Phenological simulations of sterile mating rates in feral screwworm flies supports the contention that sterile fly releases led to a greatly reduced case incidence from January to the time that eradication was declared in October 1991.

  8. 77 FR 71777 - Trade Mission to Egypt and Kuwait

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-04

    ... International Trade Administration Trade Mission to Egypt and Kuwait AGENCY: International Trade Administration... Trade Mission to Egypt and Kuwait March 10-14, 2013, published at 77 FR 33439, June 6, 2012 to revise... Mission to Egypt and Kuwait March 10-14, 2013, published at 77 FR 33439, June 6, 2012. Due to...

  9. Diphtheria immunity status in Egypt.

    PubMed

    Redwan, El-Rashdy M; El-Awady, Mostafa K

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine immune status to corynebacterium diphtheria by screening for protective antibodies in a sample of Egyptian population. The study population consisted of 709 healthy subjects aged from 2 months to 105 years, inhabitants of 6 regions of Egypt. The study utilized Enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) to measure serum levels IgG antibodies reactive with diphtheria toxoid. Levels of diphtheria toxoid antibody > or = 0.1 IU/ ml were defined as immune/protected, 23.9 % of the population were found to be susceptible to diphtheria (IgG level < 0.01 IU/ml), 43% had basic protection (0.01-0.09 IU/ml), and 33.1% were fully protected (0.1 IU/ml). The results revealed that serum levels of antitoxin antibodies decreased in old ages (< 60 y) with the females being more susceptible then males. These results recommend a booster immunization for the susceptible age groups.

  10. Northeast Egypt as seen from STS-58

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    This oblique view, looking northeast from central Egypt, shows great expanses of the sand covered and rocky Western Desert in the foreground (bottom). The dark patches bottom right are the Dakhla Oases on the south side of an escarpment. The northern half of Egypt's Nile appears here, from about the latitude of Luxor to the delta. Green colors indicate the small area of crops which feed Egypt's population of 55 million. The Nile Delta is partly obscured by a band of clouds, but can be discerned at the coast as a flattened triangle of green. The smaller triangle close by is the Falyum Basin, a depression irrigated by water from the Nile. The coast of the Mediterranean Sea appears left.

  11. Women's position and family planning in Egypt.

    PubMed

    Govindasamy, P; Malhotra, A

    1996-01-01

    In this report, data from the 1988 Egypt Demographic and Health Survey are used to address some of the most frequently raised questions about the relationship between gender inequality and reproductive behavior. The findings from binomial and multinomial logit models show that while the relationship between women's position and fertility control in Egypt is complex, some clear, broad patterns exist that have important theoretical and policy implications. First, although women's status in Egypt is clearly multidimensional, the reproductive aspect of women's position has a strong connection with the nonreproductive dimensions. Second, the case of the continued use of education and employment as proxies of women's position, especially in relationship to fertility control, is considerably discredited by the results. Finally, the findings indicate that Egyptian culture supports gender equality in the form of interaction and negotiation rather than women's autonomy.

  12. Characteristics of rheumatoid arthritis in Algeria: a multicenter study.

    PubMed

    Slimani, Samy; Abbas, Abdelmalek; Ben Ammar, Amina; Kebaili, Djemaa; Ali, El Hadi; Rahal, Fadia; Khamari, Mohamed Choukri; Baltache, Ayada; Khider, Imene; Chiheub, Riad; Khelif, Khireddine; Akbi, Sabrina; Rahmani, Salima; Dahou-Makhloufi, Chafia; Brahimi-Mazouni, Nadjia; Abtroun-Benmadi, Sabira; Ladjouze-Rezig, Aicha

    2014-09-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the epidemiology of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) in North Africa to that of Western countries. We have enrolled in a cross-sectional study all consecutive patients presenting with the diagnosis of RA according to the 1987 ACR criteria, and during a 5-month period, patients were included in 11 centers across northern Algeria. Demographics, clinical data, and health assessment questionnaires (HAQ) were collected for each patient. We have estimated means, standard deviations, and 95 % confidence intervals for all parameters. Of the 249 patients (213 females and 36 males) enrolled in the study, 10 (4 %) had juvenile onset of the disease. The mean age was 50.1 ± 14.5 years, and the mean duration of RA was 8.4 ± 7.8 years. In terms of comorbidities, 18.9 % of patients reported hypertension and 5.2 % had diabetes. The mean DAS28 at inclusion was 4.3 (95 % CI 4.1-4.5); 14.0 % were in remission (DAS28 ≤ 2.6). The mean HAQ score was 0.81 ± 0.82. Rheumatoid factor was positive in 78.5 % of cases, and anti-citrullinated protein/peptide antibodies, when measured, was positive in 69.0 % of cases. Seronegative patients were older and had a relatively less severe disease. For treatment, 89.7 % of patients were taking disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drugs and only 4 % were taking biologics (rituximab); 90.8 % of patients were taking glucocorticoids, and none of the patients satisfied the recommended calcium intake guidelines. RA in Algeria is more common in women. Compared to reports from Western countries, RA in Algeria appears to be less aggressive, with more dominant seronegative oligoarthritis forms. The remission rate is comparable to that of Western populations.

  13. Prevalence of Entamoeba histolytica, Giardia lamblia, and Cryptosporidium spp. in Libya: 2000–2015

    PubMed Central

    Ghenghesh, Khalifa Sifaw; Ghanghish, Khaled; BenDarif, Elloulu T.; Shembesh, Khaled; Franka, Ezzadin

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The intestinal protozoa Entamoeba histolytica, Giardia lamblia, and Cryptosporidium spp. are the causative agents of giardiasis, amebiasis, and cryptosporidiosis, respectively. Adequate knowledge of the geographical distribution of parasites and the demographic variables that influence their prevalence is important for effective control of infection in at-risk populations. Methods The data were obtained by an English language literature search of Medline and PubMed for papers using the search terms ‘intestinal parasites and Libya, G. lamblia and Libya, E. histolytica and Libya and Cryptosporidium and Libya’ for the period 2000–2015. Results The data obtained for the period 2000–2015 showed prevalence rates of 0.8–36.6% (mean 19.9%) for E. histolytica/dispar, 1.2–18.2% (mean 4.6%) for G. lamblia and 0.9–13% (mean 3.4%) for Cryptosporidium spp. among individuals in Libya with gastroenteritis (GE). On the other hand, prevalence rates of 0.8–16.3% (mean 8.3%), 1.8–28.8% (mean 4.8%), and 1.0–2.5% (mean=2.4), respectively, were observed for individuals without GE. The mean prevalence rate of E. histolytica/dispar was significantly higher among individuals with GE compared with those without GE (p<0.0000001, OR=2.74). No significant difference in prevalence rate of the three organisms was found according to gender, but most of infections were observed in children aged 10 years or younger. Conclusion The reviewed data suggest that E. histolytica, G. lamblia, and Cryptosporidium spp. may play a minor role in GE in Libya. The observed high prevalence rates of E. histolytica/dispar reported from Libya could be due mainly to the non-pathogenic E. dispar and E. moshkovskii. However, more studies are needed in the future using E. histolytica-specific enzyme immunoassays and/or molecular methods to confirm this observation. PMID:27363524

  14. Hercynian Granite and Related Mineralisation in Beni Snouss, Western Algeria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nacera, Hadj Mohamed; Abdelhak, Boutaleb

    2016-10-01

    The purpose of this research is to describe the mineralisation related to the Hercynian granite located in western Algeria by combining geologic, tectonic, mineralogical and fluid inclusion studies. Quartz veins bearing sulphides occur in close spatial association with granitoids, which, representing hydrothermal activities associated with them. Visible but rare gold occurs in a very small quantity connected with arsenopyrite. Barite veins and stock works are developed in the granites where are observed at Mallal and Bouabdous. The vein varies in thickness from a few centimetres up to 2 meters, and their length varies from 10 up to up 100 m. Most of veins are N50 - N75 and 60 to 90 dip.

  15. Time of foaling in Arabian mares raised in Tiaret, Algeria

    PubMed Central

    Meliani, Samia; Benallou, Bouabdellah; Halbouche, Miloud; Haddouche, Zohra

    2013-01-01

    Objective To enhance effectiveness of reproduction management in Arabian mares, factors influencing the time of foaling were investigated in this study. Methods Data were collected at the National Haras of Tiaret in Algeria from 2003 to 2010. The foaling time of 255 Arabian pure bred mares, aged from 3 to 20 years were used for this study. Results A total of 78.07% of foaling happens between 7 pm and 6 am. Conclusions The influence of the month of foaling and the sex of the foal, on the time of foaling was statically significant. PMID:23835758

  16. Bioactive phenylpropanoids from Daucus crinitus Desf. from Algeria.

    PubMed

    Lanfranchi, Don-Antoine; Laouer, Hocine; El Kolli, Meriem; Prado, Soizic; Maulay-Bailly, Christine; Baldovini, Nicolas

    2010-02-24

    The volatile constituents of Daucus crinitus Desf. from Algeria were analyzed by GC and GC-MS, The main constituent was isochavicol isobutyrate (39.0%), an uncommon phenylpropanoid. By synthesis of a series of homologous esters, it was also possible to determine the presence of small amounts of isochavicol propionate, which has never been described previously as a natural product. The antibacterial and antifungal activities of the whole essential oil, of these two esters, and of isochavicol itself were investigated against a wide range of bacteria and fungi. Additionally, their antimalarial and antiradical properties were also evaluated, showing an interesting antiplasmodial activity of isochavicol.

  17. [Pediatric cancerology in Algeria. Current status and perspectives].

    PubMed

    Aguercif, M; Meziane, F

    1988-01-01

    Pediatric oncohematology represents 40% of our daily activity. Its management is analyzed and conditions of its development discussed. In underdeveloped countries, financial, human and management health resources are severely limited. Far less than 8.5% of national product (estimated necessary for a health service to meet population requirements) are spent in Algeria. Then rationing health services is implicit and eventually left to physicians. Limited access to hospitals is more drastic to children than to adults. Paediatricians have therefore to manage their activity to get best value for money spent on health care, training and research.

  18. Payload Bay and Great Western Sand Sea, Algeria, Africa

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    Patterns of yellow and orange dunes of the Great Western Sand Sea of Algeria (29.5N, 1.5W) contrast with the black folded sedimentary rocks in the central Sahara Desert. A small dry riverbed, along the line between the thick sands and the black rocks brings in sediment from the Atlas Mountains of Morocco. Southwest winds blow sand from the bed to form a thick sand sheet on the downwind side of the river to contrast with the thin upwind dune strips.

  19. LL and E awarded E and D contract area in eastern Algeria

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-12-07

    This paper reports that a Louisiana Land and Exploration Co. unit has been awarded on exploration and production contract in Algeria by state oil company Enterprise Nationale Sonatrach. LL and E Algeria Ltd.'s contract covers two blocks in the central Ghadames oil basin of eastern Algeria. LL and E said the contract, yet to be submitted for government approval, calls for a minimum investment of $33 million during a 5 year work program that includes seismic acquisition and drilling a minimum of three wildcats.

  20. Viewpoint: methanol poisoning outbreak in Libya: a need for policy reforms.

    PubMed

    Taleb, Ziyad Ben; Bahelah, Raed

    2014-11-01

    We address the controversies surrounding a 2013 outbreak of methanol poisoning in Tripoli, Libya. We critically examine and systematically analyze the outbreak to highlight the lessons learned from this disaster and how to act properly to prevent similar outbreaks in future. Many health problems have been directly attributed to drinking alcohol; the type and quality of alcohol determines the detrimental effects. An unregulated and flourishing black market in alcohol is among the factors behind the Libyan tragedy, where approximately 90 deaths and about 1000 hospital admissions were reported. We reviewed gaps in local and regional alcohol policy, and highlighted the issue of illegally produced and home-made alcohol. Collaboration between countries in the region plus critical health and policy reforms in Libya, with emphasis on public health preparedness, can dramatically decrease morbidity and mortality associated with such outbreaks.

  1. [Targeting abattoirs to control cystic echinococcosis in Algeria].

    PubMed

    Benchikh ElFegoun, M C; Kohil, K; L'Ollivier, C; Lleu, M; Babelhadj, B; Piarroux, M; Gharbi, M; Piarroux, R

    2016-08-01

    Cystic echinococcosis (CE) is an important anthropozoonotic parasitic common in Algeria. The predominant life cycle of E. granulosus is a synanthropic cycle with domestic dogs as definitive hosts and livestock animals as intermediate hosts. Slaughter activity represents a potential source for dogs to access infected offal. The aim of the present study was to determine if the contact between dogs and potentially infected offal was possible in licensed abattoirs. Eighty-one private and public abattoirs located in eastern Algeria were assessed with respect to their level of protection against the intrusion of dogs.We have demonstrated that in 42 % of these abattoirs, dogs could easily come in contact with potentially parasitized offal. The most common incorrect practices were the dumping of offal freely into the environment, the feeding of dogs with offal, and the leaving of unattended offal in an unsealed chamber. Overall, some hazardous practices remained common customs of workers, and enough abattoirs remain non-compliant that the cattledog domestic cycle of CE is unlikely to be broken. Hence, some recommended measures to interrupt parasite transmission include the following: recognition of the importance of abattoirs in the maintenance of canine echinococcosis, the controlled and proper disposal of offal, the abolishment of the custom of feeding dogs with infected offal and improvements in the level of health education of abattoir staff.

  2. CO2-storage assessment and effective capacity in Algeria.

    PubMed

    Aktouf, Abdelouahab; Bentellis, Abdelhakim

    2016-01-01

    Deep saline aquifers widely distributed deep in the earth offer the greatest CO2 storage potential in all current geological CO2 storage approaches. The western region of the Saharan platform in Algeria includes several sedimentary basins characterized by a large production of dry gas with high CO2 rates sometimes exceeding 9 %. To reduce CO2 emissions, these basins were analyzed to identify those with the largest potential for the geological sequestration of CO2 (GSC). The evaluation methodology applied to determine the basin potential is based on qualitative geological and practical criteria to which we have assigned normalized numerical values. This evaluation method allows us to quantitatively compare and evaluate the basins in Algeria. Estimations of the CO2 storage capacities of several structures in the sedimentary Ahnet-Gourara Basin, which has the greatest potential for GSC, vary from 1 Gt to over 5 Gt. Based on cautious estimations, these geologic structures should be able to contain the entire volume of the CO2 emitted over the next three decades at least.

  3. Ionizing radiations, underground world and nuclear tests in Algeria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chama, Allel

    2010-05-01

    Today, the exposure to ionizing radiations, is still a real great physical hazard in the world at various levels until the nuclear tests which led to a rich and lawful debate, and needs the installation of preventive rules through technical and medical aspects during the use of the radioactive sources, (theradioprotection). Concerning the occupational health, the pathology of the ionizing radiations is repaired under occupational disease. Our interest is to highlight this physical hazard, which represents an important chapter of the occupational pathology in its effects and prevention of the workers exposed in Algeria. The second aim of the paper is to highlight the historical aspect of the risk of ionizing radiations and consequences causes by the French nuclear tests in In Eker (underground galleries of the mountain of Hoggar in the south of Algeria in 1961), whose effects present a great damage on the health of the Algerian captive, and "workers", indigenous population and environment until now. This event deserves its place as much as that of Hiroshima and Nagasaki (1945).

  4. Ground-water resources of the Bengasi area, Cyrenaica, United Kingdom of Libya

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Doyel, William Watson; Maguire, Frank J.

    1964-01-01

    The Benpsi area of Libya, in the northwestern part of the Province of Cyrenaica (Wilayat Barqah), is semiarid, and available ground-water supplies in the area are relatively small. Potable ground water from known sources is reserved for the present and future needs of the city, and no surface-water supplies are available in the area. This investigation to evaluate known, as well as potential, water supplies in the area was undertaken as part of a larger program of ground-water investigations in Libya under the auspices of the U. S. Operations Mission to Libya and the Government of Libya. A ground-water reservoir underlies the Bengasi area, in which the water occurs in solution channels, cavities, and other openings in Miocene limestone. The reservoir is recharged directly by rainfall on the area and by infiltration from ephemeral streams (wadis) rising in Al Jabal al Akhar to the east. In the Baninah and Al Fuwayhit areas the ground-water reservoir yields water of fair quality and in sufficient quantity for the current (1959) needs. of the Bengasi city supply. The test-drilling program in the area south and southeast of Bengasi indicates that water in sufficient quantity for additional public supply probably can be obtained in some localities from wells. The water, however, is moderately to highly mineralized and would require treatment or demineralization before it could be used for additional public supply. Much of the water could be used directly for irrigation, but careful attention would have to be given to cultivation, drainage, and cropping practices. The hazard of saltwater encroachment also exists if large-scale withdrawals are undertaken in the coastal zones.

  5. Distribution of terrestrial age and petrologic type of meteorites from western Libya

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jull, A. J. T.; Donahue, D. J.; Wlotzka, F.; Palme, H.

    1990-01-01

    A group of 54 meteorites have been recovered from Daraj, Western Libya. After assessment of pairing of samples, using petrologic criteria, C-14 terrestrial ages were obtained on 13 samples selected from 9 different fall events. Eleven of the ages range from 3500 to 7600 years, with only two samples having ages in excess of 10,000 years. The cutoff in ages may be related to the timing of climatic changes in the Hammadah al Hamra.

  6. Epidemiology and aetiology of dialysis-treated end-stage kidney disease in Libya

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The extent and the distribution of end stage kidney disease (ESKD) in Libya have not been reported despite provision of dialysis over 4 decades. This study aimed to develop the first comprehensive description of the epidemiology of dialysis-treated ESKD in Libya. Methods Structured demographic and clinical data were obtained regarding all adult patients treated at all maintenance dialysis facilities (n=39) in Libya from May to September 2009. Subsequently data were collected prospectively on all new patients who started dialysis from September 2009 to August 2010. Population estimates were obtained from the Libyan national statistics department. The age and gender breakdown of the population in each region was obtained from mid-2009 population estimates based on 2006 census data. Results The prevalence of dialysis-treated ESKD was 624 per million population (pmp). 85% of prevalent patients were aged <65 years and 58% were male. The prevalence of ESKD varied considerably with age with a peak at 55–64 years (2475 pmp for males; 2197 pmp for females). The annual incidence rate was 282 pmp with some regional variation and a substantially higher rate in the South (617 pmp). The most common cause of ESKD among prevalent and incident patients was diabetes. Other important causes were glomerulonephritis, hypertensive nephropathy and congenital or hereditary diseases. Conclusions Libya has a relatively high prevalence and incidence of dialysis-treated ESKD. As the country prepares to redevelop its healthcare system it is hoped that these data will guide strategies for the prevention of CKD and planning for the provision of renal replacement therapy. PMID:22682181

  7. English Teaching Profile: Arab Republic of Egypt.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    British Council, London (England). English Language and Literature Div.

    This profile of the English language teaching situation in Egypt examines the role of English in society and in the educational system. The status of English as the main foreign language and as the medium of instruction in a small number of influential schools is discussed as well as the extent and content of the university English course. Also…

  8. Toward replacement fertility in Egypt and Tunisia.

    PubMed

    Eltigani, Eltigani E

    2009-09-01

    Egypt and Tunisia began their fertility transition at almost identical fertility levels and at roughly the same time period, yet the difference in the pace of decline has been such that the total fertility rate (TFR) in Tunisia reached replacement level by the year 2001, whereas the TFR in Egypt remains above three live births per woman. This article draws on the secondary literature and on several nationally representative surveys from the two countries between 1978 and 2005 to provide empirical evidence of the difference in the pace of fertility decline and to analyze the determinants of the differential. Findings include (a) variation across the two countries in the consistency of fertility decline among the segments of the population leading the transition; (b) that the success of each country's family planning program was influenced by the role of political leaders and the extent of the program's integration within socioeconomic development objectives; (c) that the impact of contraception on TFR decline became an important factor in the mid-1980s; and (d) that the greatest determinant of the discrepancy in the pace of fertility decline is the disparity in age at marriage, which rose more significantly in Tunisia than in Egypt. The latter finding indicates that reaching replacement fertility in Egypt hinges primarily on further declines in marital fertility, resulting from reduction of wanted fertility and from an expansion of family planning program coverage and improved efficiency of service delivery and use.

  9. Detection of Strawberry Viruses in Egypt

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    As part of a USAID-MERC funded project, ‘Disease-indexing and mass propagation of superior strawberry cultivars’, an effort was made to evaluate the virus status of strawberries in Egypt. Diagnostic reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) tests for Strawberry mottle, Strawberry cri...

  10. Earth's motions in pharaonic Egypt: Religious interpretations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jambon, Emmanuel

    This paper will deal with the representations of the earth's movements in pharaonic Egypt. At first, testimonies of an ancient literary pattern, the "sky and earth" figure, will be observed, and then, the pictures where earth is represented "alone". We will explore the different ways the Egyptians depicted and interpreted this phenomena through various texts.

  11. Women's "Justification" of Domestic Violence in Egypt

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yount, Kathryn M.; Li, Li

    2009-01-01

    We explored the influences of women's social learning, marital resources and constraints, and exposure to norms about women's family roles on their views about wife hitting or beating among 5,450 participants in the 2005 Egypt Demographic and Health Survey. One half justified wife hitting or beating for some reason. Women from rural areas who were…

  12. Reading Habits of Adults in Egypt.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scales, Alice M.; Zikri, Lawrence B.

    Investigating the reading habits of adults in Egypt, East Africa, a study examined 294 Egyptians (233 males and 61 females) in post-secondary education in Cairo, and in the industrial cities of Shopra El-Khema, and Impapa, El-Giza. Marital status, sex, and occupation were used to group the subjects. Subjects completed a 29-item questionnaire…

  13. Multicenter study of brucellosis in Egypt.

    PubMed

    Samaha, Hassan; Al-Rowaily, Meshref; Khoudair, Ramadan M; Ashour, Hossam M

    2008-12-01

    Brucellosis causes appreciable economic losses in livestock. Examination of milk and tissues from animals in Egypt for Brucella spp. showed increased prevalence rates of serologically reactive animals. All isolates were B. melitensis biovar 3. One Brucella sp. was isolated from milk of serologically nonreactive buffaloes.

  14. Journey to Egypt: A Board Game

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Selvidge, Ellen

    2006-01-01

    This author describes how her elementary students first became interested in studying ancient Egypt. Her students' interest in the ancient Egyptian studies began when a student checked out a library book on Egyptology that contained colorful images and was soon swarmed by interested classmates. Many of her students began practicing writing…

  15. Censorship and Security Agents Pervade Egypt's Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mills, Andrew

    2008-01-01

    This article offers a glimpse into one of the many ways in which the Egyptian government and the campus administrators it appoints are slowly and persistently squeezing the life out of universities in Cairo, Egypt. Classroom discussions are monitored, faculty appointments and academic research are scrutinized, and faculty participation in outside…

  16. Megaliths and Neolithic astronomy in southern Egypt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malville, J. Mckim; Wendorf, Fred; Mazar, Ali A.; Schild, Romauld

    1998-04-01

    The Sahara west of the Nile in southern Egypt was hyperarid and unoccupied during most of the Late Pleistocene epoch. About 11,000 years ago the summer monsoons of central Africa moved into Egypt, and temporary lakes or playas were formed. The Nabta Playa depression, which is one of the largest in southern Egypt, is a kidney-shaped basin of roughly 10km by 7km in area. We report the discovery of megalithic alignments and stone circles next to locations of Middle and Late Neolithic communities at Nabta, which suggest the early development of a complex society. The southward shift of the monsoons in the Late Neolithic age rendered the area once again hyperarid and uninhabitable some 4,800 radiocarbon years before the present (years BP). This well-determined date establishes that the ceremonial complex of Nabta, which has alignments to cardinal and solstitial directions, was a very early megalithic expression of ideology and astronomy. Five megalithic alignments within the playa deposits radiate outwards from megalithic structures, which may have been funerary structures. The organization of the megaliths suggests a symbolic geometry that integrated death, water, and the Sun. An exodus from the Nubian Desert at ~4,800 years BP may have stimulated social differentiation and cultural complexity in predynastic Upper Egypt.

  17. Review of Parasitic Zoonoses in Egypt

    PubMed Central

    Youssef, Ahmed I.; Uga, Shoji

    2014-01-01

    This review presents a comprehensive picture of the zoonotic parasitic diseases in Egypt, with particular reference to their relative prevalence among humans, animal reservoirs of infection, and sources of human infection. A review of the available literature indicates that many parasitic zoonoses are endemic in Egypt. Intestinal infections of parasitic zoonoses are widespread and are the leading cause of diarrhea, particularly among children and residents of rural areas. Some parasitic zoonoses are confined to specific geographic areas in Egypt, such as cutaneous leishmaniasis and zoonotic babesiosis in the Sinai. Other areas have a past history of a certain parasitic zoonoses, such as visceral leishmaniasis in the El-Agamy area in Alexandria. As a result of the implementation of control programs, a marked decrease in the prevalence of other zoonoses, such as schistosomiasis and fascioliasis has been observed. Animal reservoirs of parasitic zoonoses have been identified in Egypt, especially in rodents, stray dogs and cats, as well as vectors, typically mosquitoes and ticks, which constitute potential risks for disease transmission. Prevention and control programs against sources and reservoirs of zoonoses should be planned by public health and veterinary officers based on reliable information from systematic surveillance. PMID:24808742

  18. Video Usage in Egypt: Limits and Effects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    El-Fawal, Nagwa Amin

    A review of research conducted in Egypt to assess the impact of videocassette recorders (VCRs) on society and on other communication media indicates that the use of VCRs--a new phenomenon in mass communication in that country--has been accelerating over the past five years as more people have been gradually exposed to the advantages of unlimited…

  19. Special Education in Egypt: An Overview.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ghobrial, Talaat Mansour; Vance, H. Robert

    During the past three decades, there has been a growing concern for handicapped children and youth in Egypt. Current legislation recognizes the rights of the handicapped, and the Egyptian government supports the care, education, rehabilitation, and personal/social adjustment of handicapped citizens. The responsibility for the disabled is divided…

  20. Directory of Adult Education Agencies in Egypt.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    El-Bashary, Ahmed, Comp.

    The directory of Adult Education Agencies in Egypt is a listing of six different types of organizations: national bodies and central agencies; teachers' training institutes and research institutions; adult education institutions (governmental); adult education institutions (non-governmental); central libraries and documentation centers; and…

  1. Legal improvements brighten North Africa production outlook

    SciTech Connect

    1997-05-12

    North Africa`s three main oil producing countries soon will reap benefits of past moves by their governments to encourage investment by international companies. Production of crude oil and natural gas in Algeria, Egypt, and Libya is ready to increase from suppressed levels of the recent past, says International Energy Agency, Paris. The gains are possible despite political risks, total reserves accounting for only 4% of the world`s crude reserves, and oil prices well below levels of the 1980s, when the countries` flow rates peaked. The reason: producing oil in North Africa is profitable. In a recent study entitled North Africa Oil and Gas, IEA attributes the bright production outlook to improvements that the countries` governments have made in the past decade to hydrocarbon laws and the fiscal terms they offer international investors. According to announced plans, the three countries` combined capacity to produce crude oil will rise 18% by the year 2000 to 3.65 million b/d, and a further gain of 700,000 b/d is possible. IEA expects production capacity for natural gas to increase 50% from its 1995 level by 2000 to a combined 139.4 billion cu m/year. This paper discusses production capacities, Algeria`s record, improvements in Egypt, and Libya`s changes.

  2. The potential distribution of Phlebotomus papatasi (Diptera: Psychodidae) in Libya based on ecological niche model.

    PubMed

    Abdel-Dayem, M S; Annajar, B B; Hanafi, H A; Obenauer, P J

    2012-05-01

    The increased cases of cutaneous leishmaniasis vectored by Phlebotomus papatasi (Scopoli) in Libya have driven considerable effort to develop a predictive model for the potential geographical distribution of this disease. We collected adult P. papatasi from 17 sites in Musrata and Yefern regions of Libya using four different attraction traps. Our trap results and literature records describing the distribution of P. papatasi were incorporated into a MaxEnt algorithm prediction model that used 22 environmental variables. The model showed a high performance (AUC = 0.992 and 0.990 for training and test data, respectively). High suitability for P. papatasi was predicted to be largely confined to the coast at altitudes <600 m. Regions south of 300 degrees N latitude were calculated as unsuitable for this species. Jackknife analysis identified precipitation as having the most significant predictive power, while temperature and elevation variables were less influential. The National Leishmaniasis Control Program in Libya may find this information useful in their efforts to control zoonotic cutaneous leishmaniasis. Existing records are strongly biased toward a few geographical regions, and therefore, further sand fly collections are warranted that should include documentation of such factors as soil texture and humidity, land cover, and normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) data to increase the model's predictive power.

  3. Sand Dune Ridge Alignment Effects on Surface BRF over Libya-4 Calibration Site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Govaerts, Yves

    2015-12-01

    The Libya-4 desert area, located in the Great Sand Sea, is one of the most important bright desert CEOS pseudo-invariant calibration sites by its size and radiometric stability. This site is intensively used for radiometer drift monitoring, sensor intercalibration and as an absolute calibration reference based on simulated radiances traceable to the SI standard. The Libya-4 morphology is composed of oriented sand dunes shaped by dominant winds. The effects of sand dune spatial organization on the surface bidirectional reflectance factor is analyzed in this paper using Raytran, a 3D radiative transfer model. The topography is characterized with the 30 m resolution ASTER digital elevation model. Four different regions-of-interest sizes, ranging from 10 km up to 100 km, are analyzed. Results show that sand dunes generate more backscattering than forward scattering at the surface. The mean surface reflectance averaged over different viewing and illumination angles is pretty much independent of the size of the selected area, though the standard deviation differs. Sun azimuth position has an effect on the surface reflectance field, which is more pronounced for high Sun zenith angles. Such 3D azimuthal effects should be taken into account to decrease the simulated radiance uncertainty over Libya-4 below 3% for wavelengths larger than 600 nm..

  4. Coarse-resolution Ecology of Etiological Agent, Vector, and Reservoirs of Zoonotic Cutaneous Leishmaniasis in Libya.

    PubMed

    Samy, Abdallah M; Annajar, Badereddin B; Dokhan, Mostafa Ramadhan; Boussaa, Samia; Peterson, A Townsend

    2016-02-01

    Cutaneous leishmaniasis ranks among the tropical diseases least known and most neglected in Libya. World Health Organization reports recognized associations of Phlebotomus papatasi, Psammomys obesus, and Meriones spp., with transmission of zoonotic cutaneous leishmaniasis (ZCL; caused by Leishmania major) across Libya. Here, we map risk of ZCL infection based on occurrence records of L. major, P. papatasi, and four potential animal reservoirs (Meriones libycus, Meriones shawi, Psammomys obesus, and Gerbillus gerbillus). Ecological niche models identified limited risk areas for ZCL across the northern coast of the country; most species associated with ZCL transmission were confined to this same region, but some had ranges extending to central Libya. All ENM predictions were significant based on partial ROC tests. As a further evaluation of L. major ENM predictions, we compared predictions with 98 additional independent records provided by the Libyan National Centre for Disease Control (NCDC); all of these records fell inside the belt predicted as suitable for ZCL. We tested ecological niche similarity among vector, parasite, and reservoir species and could not reject any null hypotheses of niche similarity. Finally, we tested among possible combinations of vector and reservoir that could predict all recent human ZCL cases reported by NCDC; only three combinations could anticipate the distribution of human cases across the country.

  5. Sand dune ridge alignment effects on surface BRF over the Libya-4 CEOS calibration site.

    PubMed

    Govaerts, Yves M

    2015-02-03

    The Libya-4 desert area, located in the Great Sand Sea, is one of the most important bright desert CEOS pseudo-invariant calibration sites by its size and radiometric stability. This site is intensively used for radiometer drift monitoring, sensor intercalibration and as an absolute calibration reference based on simulated radiances traceable to the SI standard. The Libya-4 morphology is composed of oriented sand dunes shaped by dominant winds. The effects of sand dune spatial organization on the surface bidirectional reflectance factor is analyzed in this paper using Raytran, a 3D radiative transfer model. The topography is characterized with the 30 m resolution ASTER digital elevation model. Four different regions-of-interest sizes, ranging from 10 km up to 100 km, are analyzed. Results show that sand dunes generate more backscattering than forward scattering at the surface. The mean surface reflectance averaged over different viewing and illumination angles is pretty much independent of the size of the selected area, though the standard deviation differs. Sun azimuth position has an effect on the surface reflectance field, which is more pronounced for high Sun zenith angles. Such 3D azimuthal effects should be taken into account to decrease the simulated radiance uncertainty over Libya-4 below 3% for wavelengths larger than 600 nm.

  6. Coarse-resolution Ecology of Etiological Agent, Vector, and Reservoirs of Zoonotic Cutaneous Leishmaniasis in Libya

    PubMed Central

    Samy, Abdallah M.; Annajar, Badereddin B.; Dokhan, Mostafa Ramadhan; Boussaa, Samia; Peterson, A. Townsend

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Cutaneous leishmaniasis ranks among the tropical diseases least known and most neglected in Libya. World Health Organization reports recognized associations of Phlebotomus papatasi, Psammomys obesus, and Meriones spp., with transmission of zoonotic cutaneous leishmaniasis (ZCL; caused by Leishmania major) across Libya. Here, we map risk of ZCL infection based on occurrence records of L. major, P. papatasi, and four potential animal reservoirs (Meriones libycus, Meriones shawi, Psammomys obesus, and Gerbillus gerbillus). Ecological niche models identified limited risk areas for ZCL across the northern coast of the country; most species associated with ZCL transmission were confined to this same region, but some had ranges extending to central Libya. All ENM predictions were significant based on partial ROC tests. As a further evaluation of L. major ENM predictions, we compared predictions with 98 additional independent records provided by the Libyan National Centre for Disease Control (NCDC); all of these records fell inside the belt predicted as suitable for ZCL. We tested ecological niche similarity among vector, parasite, and reservoir species and could not reject any null hypotheses of niche similarity. Finally, we tested among possible combinations of vector and reservoir that could predict all recent human ZCL cases reported by NCDC; only three combinations could anticipate the distribution of human cases across the country. PMID:26863317

  7. Sand Dune Ridge Alignment Effects on Surface BRF over the Libya-4 CEOS Calibration Site

    PubMed Central

    Govaerts, Yves M.

    2015-01-01

    The Libya-4 desert area, located in the Great Sand Sea, is one of the most important bright desert CEOS pseudo-invariant calibration sites by its size and radiometric stability. This site is intensively used for radiometer drift monitoring, sensor intercalibration and as an absolute calibration reference based on simulated radiances traceable to the SI standard. The Libya-4 morphology is composed of oriented sand dunes shaped by dominant winds. The effects of sand dune spatial organization on the surface bidirectional reflectance factor is analyzed in this paper using Raytran, a 3D radiative transfer model. The topography is characterized with the 30 m resolution ASTER digital elevation model. Four different regions-of-interest sizes, ranging from 10 km up to 100 km, are analyzed. Results show that sand dunes generate more backscattering than forward scattering at the surface. The mean surface reflectance averaged over different viewing and illumination angles is pretty much independent of the size of the selected area, though the standard deviation differs. Sun azimuth position has an effect on the surface reflectance field, which is more pronounced for high Sun zenith angles. Such 3D azimuthal effects should be taken into account to decrease the simulated radiance uncertainty over Libya-4 below 3% for wavelengths larger than 600 nm. PMID:25654721

  8. Tin Bider: A Complex Impact Crater in the Central Saharan Platform (Algeria)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belhai, D. B.; Sahoui, R. S.

    2014-09-01

    The circular structure of Tin Bider is located in the northeast of the Tadmaït (Algeria), This structure about 6000 m in diameter, shows three main concentric rings and a central peak in cretaceous target rocks.

  9. The Libya Montes Region on Mars: Geology, Mineralogy, and Possible Habitable Environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tirsch, D.; Erkeling, G.; Bishop, J. L.; Jaumann, R.; Bamberg, M.

    2011-12-01

    In the framework of the Helmholtz Association of German Research Centres (HGF) 'Planetary Evolution and Life' one major goal of the topic 4000 (Geological Context of Life) group is to focus on geological processes and landforms that have been active around the Noachian/Hesperian boundary, i.e. 3.7 Ga ago. This period might be the most promising era for the search for clues about habitable environments as it is the time of global climate change and the probable Late Heavy Bombardment on Mars. Analysis of geological processes acting at that time might provide further insight into the climate conditions of this period. Main phases of fluvial activity in the Libya Montes region on Mars occurred around this time period. The Libya Montes highland region is located at the southern edge of Isidis Planitia and was heavily modified by multiple episodic phases of aqueous activity predominantly acting in Noachian and Hesperian times. Dendritic and longitudinal valley networks dissect the mountainous massifs and ridges. The co-occurrence of both valley types is particularly interesting. Dendritic valleys indicate precipitation-induced surface runoff, whereas the water release mechanism of the longitudinal valleys was groundwater sapping, probably triggered by volcanism. Age dating revealed that the dendritic valleys were active around 4 Ga ago, whereas the average longitudinal valley activity was dated to 3.7 Ga, indicating a change in the erosive environment at the Noachian/Hesperian transition. Altered surface lithology, as detected by CRISM, evidences an intense and long-term influence of aqueous processes. Al-rich clays found in a deltaic deposit located at the central part of the Libya Montes/Isidis boundary provide evidence for long-term availability of water and aqueous alteration. Al-rich phyllosilicates detected at the bottom of the fluvial deposit indicate a lacustrine environment. Olivine-rich materials found in the Libya Montes are associated possibly with

  10. Predominance of CRF06_cpx and Transmitted HIV Resistance in Algeria: Update 2013-2014.

    PubMed

    Abdellaziz, Akila; Papuchon, Jennifer; Khaled, Safia; Ouerdane, Dalila; Fleury, Hervé; Recordon-Pinson, Patricia

    2016-04-01

    Since 2008, no data on HIV diversity or the transmission rate of HIV resistance mutations in naive patients have been presented for Algeria, a country of MENA region. Between 2013 and 2014, we studied 152 samples including 89 naive patients. The current study describes the change in HIV diversity in Algeria with the predominance of CRF06_cpx and the huge increase of transmitted HIV resistance, which now reaches 15%.

  11. Adapting to climate change: water distribution in BBA City, Algeria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeroual, A.; Meddi, M.; Assani, A. A.

    2015-04-01

    For over 20 years, the eastern Algeria region has had significant rainfall deficits that resulted in severe droughts, which seriously affected the availability of water for drinking. Owing to considerations of affordability, drinking water is systematically underpriced because water is essential for life. Such a low price results in water being used inefficiently. This research presents the impact that a high leakage level in the water distribution network has on the water service price in BBA (Bordj Bou Arréridj) city and expected future water resources management scenarios in BBA watersheds by taking into account to the river flow simulated by GR2M using the outputs of climate models with emissions scenarios A1 and A1B. The analysis of the results shows a large economy can be made with regard to water losses, reaching up to 47% saving of the produced water volume; also, BBA city is expected to experience water stress before 2030.

  12. New species of Pseudachorutes (Collembola: Neanuridae) from Northeastern Algeria.

    PubMed

    Zoughailech, Abdelmalek; Hamra-Kroua, Salah; Deharveng, Louis

    2016-08-31

    Three new species of Pseudachorutes are described from the Collo massif in northeastern Algeria, all three with morphological features unique or rare in the genus. P. deficiens sp. nov. lacks chaeta E on the labium, a character only retrieved in P. ouatilouensis Najt & Weiner, 1997 from New Caledonia, from which it differs by the presence of chaeta a2 on Th. II and of chaeta M on tibiotarsus. P. octosensillatus sp. nov. is the only species of the genus that have 8 S-chaetae on Ant IV. P. labiatus sp. nov. has 3 x-papillae on the labium, like P. cf. indiana Christiansen & Bellinger, 1980 from Alaska, from which it differs by the presence of chaeta a2 on Th. II and a lower number of vesicles in PAO (5-6 vs 10-14).

  13. Analysis of drought areas in northern Algeria using Markov chains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lazri, Mourad; Ameur, Soltane; Brucker, Jean Michel; Lahdir, Mourad; Sehad, Mounir

    2015-02-01

    The present work studies the trends in drought in northern Algeria. This region was marked by a severe, wide-ranging and persistent drought due to its extraordinary rainfall deficit. In this study, drought classes are identified using SPI (standardized precipitation index) values. A Markovian approach is adopted to discern the probabilistic behaviour of the time series of the drought. Thus, a transition probability matrix is constructed from drought distribution maps. The trends in changes in drought types and the distribution area are analyzed. The results show that the probability of class severe/extreme drought increases considerably rising from the probability of 0.2650 in 2005 to a stable probability of 0.5756 in 2041.

  14. Sbaa basin: A new oil-producing regino in Algeria

    SciTech Connect

    Baghdadli, S.M.

    1988-08-01

    Discovery of a paraffinic oil in 1980 in the Adrar area, the west part of the Algerian Sahara within the Sbaa half-graben depression, opens a new oil- and gas-bearing region in Algeria. The oil and gas fields are located on highly faulted structures generated by differential movements of basement blocks. Oil deposits are connected with tidal sandy sediments of Strunian and Tournaisian age and occur at depths of 500 to 1,000 m (1,640 to 3,280 ft). Gas and wet gas deposits are related to sandstone reservoirs of Cambrian-Ordovician age at depths of 1,500 to 2,000 m (4,920 to 6,562 ft).

  15. Management of Disused Radioactive Sealed Sources in Egypt - 13512

    SciTech Connect

    Mohamed, Y.T.; Hasan, M.A.; Lasheen, Y.F.

    2013-07-01

    The future safe development of nuclear energy and progressive increasing use of sealed sources in medicine, research, industry and other fields in Egypt depends on the safe and secure management of disused radioactive sealed sources. In the past years have determined the necessity to formulate and apply the integrated management program for radioactive sealed sources to assure harmless and ecological rational management of disused sealed sources in Egypt. The waste management system in Egypt comprises operational and regulatory capabilities. Both of these activities are performed under legislations. The Hot Laboratories and Waste Management Center HLWMC, is considered as a centralized radioactive waste management facility in Egypt by law 7/2010. (authors)

  16. Radiocarbon-based chronology for dynastic Egypt.

    PubMed

    Bronk Ramsey, Christopher; Dee, Michael W; Rowland, Joanne M; Higham, Thomas F G; Harris, Stephen A; Brock, Fiona; Quiles, Anita; Wild, Eva M; Marcus, Ezra S; Shortland, Andrew J

    2010-06-18

    The historical chronologies for dynastic Egypt are based on reign lengths inferred from written and archaeological evidence. These floating chronologies are linked to the absolute calendar by a few ancient astronomical observations, which remain a source of debate. We used 211 radiocarbon measurements made on samples from short-lived plants, together with a Bayesian model incorporating historical information on reign lengths, to produce a chronology for dynastic Egypt. A small offset (19 radiocarbon years older) in radiocarbon levels in the Nile Valley is probably a growing-season effect. Our radiocarbon data indicate that the New Kingdom started between 1570 and 1544 B.C.E., and the reign of Djoser in the Old Kingdom started between 2691 and 2625 B.C.E.; both cases are earlier than some previous historical estimates.

  17. Ostrich (Struthio camelus) production in Egypt.

    PubMed

    Cooper, R G; Mahrose, K M A; El-Shafei, M; Marai, I F M

    2008-06-01

    This review discusses the historical, developmental and practices of ostrich farming in Egypt. In the early 20th century, ostrich farming was very important for production of ostrich feathers and documents were produced to perfect the art of procuring the plumes from the birds and subsequently processing them. Pharaohs used ostrich feathers for adornment. Of 43 provinces, 12 were featured in 2003-2004 as farming ostriches: Alexandria, Al-Behera, Al-Dakahlia, Al-Wadi Al-Gadid, Aswan, Cairo, El-Sharkia, Geiza, Ismailia, Kafr-El-Sheikh, Matrouh and Nubaria. Abattoirs and tanneries specialising in ostrich handling are limited to two. Egypt has numerous strengths and opportunities to develop its ostrich sector. Rising meat prices suggest that fresh ostrich meat is unaffordable to many locals. Funds may be allocated to local advertising campaigns to promote ostrich meat; provision of incentives to farmers; and improving the capacity of abattoirs.

  18. Dental health and disease in ancient Egypt.

    PubMed

    Forshaw, R J

    2009-04-25

    In ancient Egypt the exceptionally dry climate together with the unique burial customs has resulted in the survival of large numbers of well-preserved skeletal and mummified remains. Examinations of these remains together with an analysis of the surviving documentary, archaeological and ethnographic evidence has enabled a detailed picture of the dental health of these ancient people to be revealed, perhaps more so than for any other civilisation in antiquity. In this, the first of two articles, the dental pathological conditions that afflicted the ancient Egyptians is considered. The commonest finding is that of tooth wear, which was often so excessive that it resulted in pulpal exposure. Multiple abscesses were frequently seen, but caries was not a significant problem. Overall the findings indicate that the various pathological conditions and non-pathological abnormalities of teeth evident in dentitions in the twenty-first century were also manifest in ancient Egypt, although the incidences of these conditions varies considerably between the civilisations.

  19. [Concepts of the heart in Ancient Egypt].

    PubMed

    Ziskind, Bernard; Halioua, Bruno

    2004-03-01

    The heart was regarded in Ancient Egypt as the organic motor of the body and also the seat of intelligence, an important religious and spiritual symbol. It was considered as one of the eight parts of human body. Counter to other organs it had to be kept carefully intact in the mummy to ensure its eternal life. In Ancient Egypt, the concept of heart included three constituents: heart-haty, heart-ib, and the spiritual seat of intelligence, emotion and memory. The hieroglyphs representing the heart early in the first dynasty were drawn with eight vessels attached to it. Egyptian doctors have elaborated an original conception of cardiovascular physiology which endured 30 centuries.

  20. Benchmarking performance: Environmental impact statements in Egypt

    SciTech Connect

    Badr, El-Sayed A.; Zahran, Ashraf A.; Cashmore, Matthew

    2011-04-15

    Environmental impact assessment (EIA) was formally introduced in Egypt in 1994. This short paper evaluates 'how well' the EIA process is working in practice in Egypt, by reviewing the quality of 45 environmental impact statements (EISs) produced between 2000 and 2007 for a variety of project types. The Lee and Colley review package was used to assess the quality of the selected EISs. About 69% of the EISs sampled were found to be of a satisfactory quality. An assessment of the performance of different elements of the EIA process indicates that descriptive tasks tend to be performed better than scientific tasks. The quality of core elements of EIA (e.g., impact prediction, significance evaluation, scoping and consideration of alternatives) appears to be particularly problematic. Variables that influence the quality of EISs are identified and a number of broad recommendations are made for improving the effectiveness of the EIA system.

  1. First evidence of enterobiasis in ancient Egypt.

    PubMed

    Horne, P D

    2002-10-01

    The oldest and most common parasite for which we have direct evidence, in the New World, is Enterobius vernicularis. Numerous archaeological sites, especially in the arid American southwest, have yielded fecal samples positive for pinworm ova, some of these dating back 10,000 yr. Reports of pinworm from the Old World are scarce. This article reports the first evidence of pinworm infection from Roman-occupied (30 BC-AD 395) Egypt.

  2. Living donor liver transplantation in Egypt

    PubMed Central

    Marwan, Ibrahim

    2016-01-01

    In Egypt there is no doubt that chronic liver diseases are a major health concern. Hepatitis C virus (HCV) prevalence among the 15−59 years age group is estimated to be 14.7%. The high prevalence of chronic liver diseases has led to increasing numbers of Egyptian patients suffering from end stage liver disease (ESLD), necessitating liver transplantation (LT). We reviewed the evolution of LT in Egypt and the current status. A single center was chosen as an example to review the survival and mortality rates. To date, deceased donor liver transplantation (DDLT) has not been implemented in any program though Egyptian Parliament approved the law in 2010. Living donor liver transplantation (LDLT) seemed to be the only logical choice to save many patients who are in desperate need for LT. By that time, there was increase in number of centers doing LDLT (13 centers) and increase in number of LDLT cases [2,400] with improvement of the results. Donor mortality rate is 1.66 per 1,000 donors; this comprised four donors in the Egyptian series. The exact recipient survival is not accurately known however, and the one-year, three-year and five-year survival were 73.17%, 70.83% and 64.16% respectively in the International Medical Center (IMC) in a series of 145 adult to adult living donor liver transplantation (AALDLT) cases. There was no donor mortality in this series. LDLT are now routinely and successfully performed in Egypt with reasonable donor and recipient outcomes. Organ shortage remains the biggest hurdle facing the increasing need for LT. Although LDLT had reasonable outcomes, it carries considerable risks to healthy donors. For example, it lacks cadaveric back up, and is not feasible for all patients. The initial success in LDLT should drive efforts to increase the people awareness about deceased organ donation in Egypt. PMID:27115003

  3. Living donor liver transplantation in Egypt.

    PubMed

    Amer, Khaled E; Marwan, Ibrahim

    2016-04-01

    In Egypt there is no doubt that chronic liver diseases are a major health concern. Hepatitis C virus (HCV) prevalence among the 15-59 years age group is estimated to be 14.7%. The high prevalence of chronic liver diseases has led to increasing numbers of Egyptian patients suffering from end stage liver disease (ESLD), necessitating liver transplantation (LT). We reviewed the evolution of LT in Egypt and the current status. A single center was chosen as an example to review the survival and mortality rates. To date, deceased donor liver transplantation (DDLT) has not been implemented in any program though Egyptian Parliament approved the law in 2010. Living donor liver transplantation (LDLT) seemed to be the only logical choice to save many patients who are in desperate need for LT. By that time, there was increase in number of centers doing LDLT (13 centers) and increase in number of LDLT cases [2,400] with improvement of the results. Donor mortality rate is 1.66 per 1,000 donors; this comprised four donors in the Egyptian series. The exact recipient survival is not accurately known however, and the one-year, three-year and five-year survival were 73.17%, 70.83% and 64.16% respectively in the International Medical Center (IMC) in a series of 145 adult to adult living donor liver transplantation (AALDLT) cases. There was no donor mortality in this series. LDLT are now routinely and successfully performed in Egypt with reasonable donor and recipient outcomes. Organ shortage remains the biggest hurdle facing the increasing need for LT. Although LDLT had reasonable outcomes, it carries considerable risks to healthy donors. For example, it lacks cadaveric back up, and is not feasible for all patients. The initial success in LDLT should drive efforts to increase the people awareness about deceased organ donation in Egypt.

  4. Egypt: Background and U.S. Relations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-02-08

    December 6, 2005, U.S. State Department Deputy Spokesman Adam Ereli remarked that “We’ve also seen a number of developments over the past couple weeks...when Egypt hosted the signing of an Israeli-Palestinian agreement for implementing past commitments and meetings between then Secretary of State...Mubarak. Over the past several years, Mubarak’s forty-one year old son, Gamal, increasingly has become involved at the highest levels of the NDP, though

  5. Egypt: Background and U.S. Relations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-06-27

    Egypt from sliding into a dark tunnel of conflict, internal fighting, criminality, accusations of treason, sectarian discord and the collapse of state...order to assist exports18 and tourism , the Central Bank has tried to manage the gradual devaluation of the currency (Egyptian Pound), which has slid...have the travel ban on the Americans who remained at the U.S. Embassy in Cairo lifted. Reportedly, U.S. officials and lawmakers threatened not only

  6. Nile River, Lake Nasser, Aswan Dam, Egypt

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    Egypt's High Aswan Dam on the Nile River at the first cataracts, Nile River, (24.0N, 33.0E) was completed in 1971 to provide cheap hydroelectric power and to regulate the historically uneven flow of the Nile River. The contrast between the largely base rock desert east of the Nile versus the sand covered desert west of the river and the ancient irrigated floodplain downstream from the damsite is clearly shown.

  7. Egypt: Background and U.S. Relations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-06-19

    Saudi Arabia as countries that “have a great distance still to travel” in making democratic reforms. Egyptian Foreign Minister Ahmed Abul Gheit...Egypt’s Inshas reactor and providing them to agents of Israel’s Mossad intelligence service in return for $17,000. Earlier in the year, Egypt asked the...genocide,” and has denounced the U.S. imposition of sanctions on the Sudanese government. According to Egyptian Foreign Minister Ahmed Abul Gheit, “Sanctions

  8. Integrated Human Futures Modeling in Egypt

    SciTech Connect

    Passell, Howard D.; Aamir, Munaf Syed; Bernard, Michael Lewis; Beyeler, Walter E.; Fellner, Karen Marie; Hayden, Nancy Kay; Jeffers, Robert Fredric; Keller, Elizabeth James Kistin; Malczynski, Leonard A.; Mitchell, Michael David; Silver, Emily; Tidwell, Vincent C.; Villa, Daniel; Vugrin, Eric D.; Engelke, Peter; Burrow, Mat; Keith, Bruce

    2016-01-01

    The Integrated Human Futures Project provides a set of analytical and quantitative modeling and simulation tools that help explore the links among human social, economic, and ecological conditions, human resilience, conflict, and peace, and allows users to simulate tradeoffs and consequences associated with different future development and mitigation scenarios. In the current study, we integrate five distinct modeling platforms to simulate the potential risk of social unrest in Egypt resulting from the Grand Ethiopian Renaissance Dam (GERD) on the Blue Nile in Ethiopia. The five platforms simulate hydrology, agriculture, economy, human ecology, and human psychology/behavior, and show how impacts derived from development initiatives in one sector (e.g., hydrology) might ripple through to affect other sectors and how development and security concerns may be triggered across the region. This approach evaluates potential consequences, intended and unintended, associated with strategic policy actions that span the development-security nexus at the national, regional, and international levels. Model results are not intended to provide explicit predictions, but rather to provide system-level insight for policy makers into the dynamics among these interacting sectors, and to demonstrate an approach to evaluating short- and long-term policy trade-offs across different policy domains and stakeholders. The GERD project is critical to government-planned development efforts in Ethiopia but is expected to reduce downstream freshwater availability in the Nile Basin, fueling fears of negative social and economic impacts that could threaten stability and security in Egypt. We tested these hypotheses and came to the following preliminary conclusions. First, the GERD will have an important short-term impact on water availability, food production, and hydropower production in Egypt, depending on the short- term reservoir fill rate. Second, the GERD will have a very small impact on

  9. Lyme borreliosis: A neglected zoonosis in Egypt.

    PubMed

    Elhelw, Rehab A; El-Enbaawy, Mona I; Samir, Ahmed

    2014-12-01

    Borrelia burgdorferi, the causal organism of Lyme borreliosis. In Egypt, available data about the occurrence of Lyme disease are scarce and no structured studies documented the presence of Lyme borreliosis in Egyptian animals and tick reservoirs verifying its zoonotic evidence. Besides, no successful trials to isolate B. burgdorferi from clinical samples have occurred. This study was conducted to investigate B. burgdorferi infection as an emerging zoonosis neglected in Egypt. A total number of 92 animals, tick and human companion specimens were collected and subjected for culture, PCR and/or serodetection. B. burgdorferi has been detected and isolated from Egyptian animal breeds. We also detected the presence of outer surface protein A gene of B. burgdorferi by PCR as well as anti-B. burgdorferi IgM by ELISA in human contacts who were suffering from fever of unknown origin. This report represents the first systematic study on animals associated with patients suffering from febrile illness to confirm the emerging of such neglected zoonosis in Egypt.

  10. Plague in Arab Maghreb, 1940–2015: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Malek, Maliya Alia; Bitam, Idir; Drancourt, Michel

    2016-01-01

    We reviewed the epidemiology of 49 plague outbreaks that resulted in about 7,612 cases in 30 localities in the Arabic Maghreb (Mauritania, Morocco, Algeria, Tunisia, Libya, and Egypt) over 75 years. Between 1940 and 1950, most cases recorded in Morocco (75%) and Egypt (20%), resulted from plague imported to Mediterranean harbors and transmitted by rat ectoparasites. By contrast, the re-emergence of plague in the southern part of Western Sahara in 1953 and in northeast Libya in 1976 was traced to direct contact between nomadic populations and infected goats and camels in natural foci, including the consumption of contaminated meat, illustrating this neglected oral route of contamination. Further familial outbreaks were traced to human ectoparasite transmission. Efforts to identify the factors contributing to natural foci may guide where to focus the surveillance of sentinel animals in order to eradicate human plague, if not Yersinia pestis from the Arab Maghreb. PMID:27376053

  11. AIR SHIPMENT OF HIGHLY ENRICHED URANIUM SPENT NUCLEAR FUEL FROM ROMANIA AND LIBYA

    SciTech Connect

    Christopher Landers; Igor Bolshinsky; Ken Allen; Stanley Moses

    2010-07-01

    In June 2009 Romania successfully completed the world’s first air shipment of highly enriched uranium (HEU) spent nuclear fuel transported in Type B(U) casks under existing international laws and without special exceptions for the air transport licenses. Special 20-foot ISO shipping containers and cask tiedown supports were designed to transport Russian TUK 19 shipping casks for the Romanian air shipment and the equipment was certified for all modes of transport, including road, rail, water, and air. In December 2009 Libya successfully used this same equipment for a second air shipment of HEU spent nuclear fuel. Both spent fuel shipments were transported by truck from the originating nuclear facilities to nearby commercial airports, were flown by commercial cargo aircraft to a commercial airport in Yekaterinburg, Russia, and then transported by truck to their final destinations at the Production Association Mayak facility in Chelyabinsk, Russia. Both air shipments were performed under the Russian Research Reactor Fuel Return Program (RRRFR) as part of the U.S. National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) Global Threat Reduction Initiative (GTRI). The Romania air shipment of 23.7 kg of HEU spent fuel from the VVR S research reactor was the last of three HEU fresh and spent fuel shipments under RRRFR that resulted in Romania becoming the 3rd RRRFR participating country to remove all HEU. Libya had previously completed two RRRFR shipments of HEU fresh fuel so the 5.2 kg of HEU spent fuel air shipped from the IRT 1 research reactor in December made Libya the 4th RRRFR participating country to remove all HEU. This paper describes the equipment, preparations, and license approvals required to safely and securely complete these two air shipments of spent nuclear fuel.

  12. Plate tectonics and offshore boundary delimitation: Tunisia-Libya case at the International Court of Justice

    SciTech Connect

    Stanley, D.J.

    1983-03-01

    Advances in the technology for exploiting resources of the oceans, particularly recovery of hydrocarbons and minerals in deep water, is benefiting a growing number of nations. At the same time, however, economic and political pressures have induced concern and there is now a much increased emphasis on jurisdiction to divide the offshore areas between the 132 coastal nations. Negotiations affect research operations at sea and, in consequence, marine scientists have been made aware of offshore problems as highlighted by the Law of the Sea Treaty (UNCLOS III) and complications arising from the legal versus scientific definitions of continental shelves and margins. The first major offshore boundary case of international scope where plate tectonics has constituted a significant argument is the one recently brought before the International Court of Justice by Libya and Tunisia concerning the delimitation of their continental shelves. Of the two parties, Libya placed the greatest emphasis on this concept as a means to determine natural prolongation of its land territory into and under the sea. Tunisia contested Libya's use of the whole of the African continental landmass as a reference unit; in Tunisia's view, considerations of geography, geomorphology, and bathymetry are at least as relevant as are those of geology. In its landmark judgment (February 1982) - which almost certainly will have far-reaching consequences in future such boundary delimitation cases - the court pronounced that It is the outcome, not the evolution in the long-distant past, which is of importance, and that it is the present-day configuration of the coasts and sea bed which are the main factors to be considered, not geology.

  13. Stratigraphy of the Neogene Sahabi units in the Sirt Basin, northeast Libya

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El-Shawaihdi, M. H.; Mozley, P. S.; Boaz, N. T.; Salloum, F.; Pavlakis, P.; Muftah, A.; Triantaphyllou, M.

    2016-06-01

    A revision of the nomenclature of lithostratigraphic units of Neogene strata at As Sahabi, northeast Libya, is presented, based on new fieldwork conducted during 2006-2008. The Sahabi units are correlated across the Ajdabya Sheet (NH 34-6) in northeastern Libya. Major conclusions are: (1) Miocene (Langhian through Messinian) strata are predominantly carbonate and should be referred to as formation "M"; (2) A local unconformity of Miocene (early Messinian) age overlies strata of the formation "M"; (3) This unconformity is overlain by Messinian gypsiferous sand and mud (formerly formation "P" and partially member "T"), which are designated as the "lower member" (gypsiferous) of the Sahabi Formation; (4) The "lower member" is overlain by sand and mud of late Messinian age (formerly partially member "T" and members "U1", "UD", and "U2") in a generally fining-upwards sequence, and are designated as the "upper member" (non-gypsiferous) of the Sahabi Formation; (5) The latest Miocene sand and mud of the "upper member" are capped by an unconformity that is correlated with the regression and desiccation of the Mediterranean Sea during the Messinian Salinity Crisis and with Eosahabi Channel cutting; (6) The unconformity is overlain by Pliocene medium, coarse, and pebbly sands, which are referred to as the Qarat Weddah Formation (formerly Garet Uedda Formation); (7) The Pliocene sands of Qarat Weddah Formation are overlain by carbonate soil (calcrete) of Late Pliocene age, which is referred to as formation "Z" (formerly member "Z"). The major outcome of this study is a revised stratigraphic description and nomenclature of the Sahabi units that helps to provide a formal and unified context for understanding paleontological discoveries in northeastern Libya, which will serve to facilitate a broader correlation of the Sahabi units with their equivalents elsewhere in Africa and in Europe and Asia.

  14. Ordovician ironstone sedimentation in Ougarta Ranges: North Western Sahara (Algeria)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guerrak, S.

    The distribution of oolitic ironstones (OIS) of the Sahara Platform allows the distinction of two types of deposits: "Extensive Ironstone Deposition" type (EXID) and "Local Ironstone Deposition type" (LOID). Within Ordovician Formations of Ougarta ranges (Western Sahara) twelve oolitic ironstone beds of EXID type occur. The nature of ironstones within the sedimentary succession allows the distinction of two degrees of "Relative Oolitic Sedimentation Rates" (ROSR I and ROSR II), linked successively to the thickness and to the duration of the deposition. Markov chain analysis applied to the sedimentological study, suggests that ironstones are located at the bottom of fining-upward sequences and therefore, deposited in shallow shelf environments under transgressive conditions. The ironstones grouped into three facies types: a micro-conglomeratic facies (FMC), a facies with ooliths scattered in a quartz-rich matrix (detrital facies: FOD), and a facies with ooliths scattered in a quartz-poor groundmass (non-detrital facies: FOND). The mineralogy is mainly composed of hematite, chamosite, geothite, siderite and quartz. Sedimentological facts and petrographical features suggest for the oolitization, an intrasedimentary process of accretion developed in a quiet environment. Ordovician oolitic ironstones of the Ougarta region are included in a "Paleozoic North African Ironstone Belt" extending from the Oro to Libya and developed along the margin of Gondwana craton. This belt may be compared to the peri-Atlantic "North american Ironstone Belt" of Ordovician and Silurian age, but developed in a foreland basin bordered by the Taconic Orogen.

  15. Mrar formation of western Libya - evolution of an early Carboniferous delta system

    SciTech Connect

    Whitbread, T.; Kelling, G.

    1982-08-01

    The Lower Carboniferous Mrar Formation is exposed extensively along the southern margin of the Ghadames basin in northwest Libya. The basal part of the Mrar forms the cap rock and possible hydrocarbon source for many of the producing reservoirs in the underlying Tahara sandstones. Furthermore, the Mrar itself is known to contain significant gas shows southwest of the outcrop, associated with some oil potential. The Mrar formation was deposited in a deltaic environment which developed on the northern part of the stable Saharan platform. The history of the Mrar formation's deposition is discussed. (JMT)

  16. Distribution of terrestrial age and petrologic type of meteorites from western Libya

    SciTech Connect

    Jull, A.J.T.; Donahue, D.J. ); Wlotzka, F.; Palme, H. )

    1990-10-01

    A group of 54 meteorites have been recovered from Daraj, Western Libya. After assessment of pairing of samples, using petrologic criteria, {sup 14}C terrestrial ages were obtained on 13 samples selected from 9 different fall events. Eleven of the ages range from 3,500 to 7,600 years, with only two samples having ages in excess of 10,000 years. The cut-off in ages may be related to the timing of climatic changes in the Hammadah al Hamra.

  17. Gravity study of Libya;Evaluation and Integration with Geological Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ben Suleman, abdunnur; Saheel, Ahmed

    2016-04-01

    Libya is located on the Mediterranean foreland of the African Shield and covers an area of approximately 1.8 million square kilometers. Since Early Paleozoic time, Libya has been a site of deposition of large sheets of continental clastics and several transgressions and regressions by the seas with consequent accumulations of a wide variety of sedimentary rocks. Several tectonic cycles affected the area and shaped the geological setting of the country. However, the regional geology and the structural framework have been highly influenced by the Caledonian, Hercynian, and Alpine tectonic events. As a result, a total of seven sedimentary basins, namely Ghadames, Murzuq, Al Kufra, Al Butnan, Sirt, and the Offshore Pelagian Basin, were developed and were separated by intervening uplifts and platforms ( Gargaf, Tibesti, Nafusah and Cyrenaica platform). Apart from Sirt and the offshore basins, all the above mentioned basins are active since Early Paleozoic time and received several thousand feet of sediments. The capability of providing regional information on the structure of sedimentary basins makes gravity mapping, in conjunction with geological information, potentially powerful tools. In this study we used gravity mapping as our primary tool of investigation however, we also used all available geological information to better understand the regional tectonics. The gravity dataset that were used in the Gravity compilation project of Libya is not homogenous. As a result, some irregularities, apparent spikes or misties, and large shifts were obtained and were taken into consideration. Evaluation of gravity Maps of Libya and their integration with geological data provide a better understanding of the role that gravity mapping plays in the geological exploration of sedimentary basins. Results confirm the known Sirt Basin regional tectonic elements and the possible presence of NW-SE lateral wrench tectonics, crossing Ajdabiya Trough at the center of Sirt Basin. The

  18. Prevalence, predictors and clinical significance of Blastocystis sp. in Sebha, Libya

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Blastocystis sp. has a worldwide distribution and is often the most common human intestinal protozoan reported in children and adults in developing countries. The clinical relevance of Blastocystis sp. remains controversial. This study was undertaken to determine the prevalence of Blastocystis infection and its association with gastrointestinal symptoms among outpatients in Sebha city, Libya. Methods A total of 380 stool samples were collected from outpatients attending the Central Laboratory in Sebha, Libya for routine stool examination. The presence of Blastocystis sp. was screened comparing light microscopy of direct smears against in vitro cultivation. Demographic and socioeconomic information were collected with a standardized questionnaire. Results The overall prevalence of Blastocystis infection was 22.1%. The prevalence was significantly higher among patients aged ≥18 years compared to those aged < 18 years (29.4% vs 9.9%; x2 = 19.746; P < 0.001), and in males compared to females (26.4% vs 17.5%; x2 = 4.374; P = 0.036). Univariate analysis showed significant associations between Blastocystis infection and the occupational status (P = 0.017), family size (P = 0.023) and educational level (P = 0.042) of the participants. Multiple logistic regression analysis confirmed that the age of ≥ 18 years (OR = 5.7; 95% CI = 2.21; 9.86) and occupational status (OR = 2.2; 95% CI = 1.02, 4.70) as significant predictors of Blastocystis infection among this population. In those who had only Blastocystis infection but no other gastrointestinal parasitic infections, the prevalence of gastrointestinal symptoms was higher compared to those without Blastocystis infection (35.3% vs 13.2%; x2 = 25.8; P < 0.001). The most common symptoms among these patients were abdominal pain (76.4%), flatulence (41.1%) and diarrhoea (21.5%). Conclusions Blastocystis sp. is prevalent and associated with

  19. Libya: foreign health-care workers sentenced to death for deliberate infection.

    PubMed

    Mysko, Barbara

    2004-12-01

    On 6 May 2004, five Bulgarian nurses and a Palestinian doctor accused of deliberately infecting 426 children with HIV were sentenced to death by the Benghazi Criminal Court in Libya. The execution is to be carried out by firing squad. The panel of five judges also sentenced a sixth Bulgarian, a doctor, to four years' imprisonment. The doctor originally faced the same charges as the others, but instead was convicted of illegally changing foreign currency. The court did not explain the modification of charges.

  20. Cultural Diversity or Cultural Imperialism: Liberal Education in Egypt.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blanks, David R.

    1998-01-01

    A faculty member's experience at the American University in Cairo (Egypt) reveals that pluralism and tolerance are western concepts, even within the college curriculum. National identity affords cultural stability: where the American melting-pot experience is reinforced by the notion of cultural diversity, the national identity of Egypt is…

  1. Integrate the Arts. The Art of Ancient Egypt.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parks, Mary

    1996-01-01

    Presents three art projects that can bring to life the study of ancient Egypt for elementary students. After researching Egypt's history and culture, students can create King Tut masks, make Cleopatra headdresses, and craft cartouche pendants. The article describes the materials needed and steps required to complete each project. (SM)

  2. Power and Gender in Ancient Egypt: The Case of Hatshepsut

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hilliard, Kristina; Wurtzel, Kate

    2009-01-01

    Hatshepsut (1479-1458 B.C.E) ruled New Kingdom Egypt for roughly 20 years as one of the few female pharaohs in the history of ancient Egypt. Her rule began when her husband died and her stepson was too young to be pharaoh. To legitimize her role as pharaoh, Hatshepsut began a significant building campaign by constructing numerous images, temples,…

  3. Technologies Applied in the Toshka Project of Egypt

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wahby, Wafeek S.

    2004-01-01

    The Toshka Project, located in Egypt, involves excavating a canal to carry about 380 billion ft[supercript 3] of water every year from Lake Nasser to the Toshka Depression, southwest of Aswan. This will eventually create a new valley to the River Nile in the western desert of Egypt in addition to the currently existing prehistoric river course.…

  4. Tech Talk for Social Studies Teachers: Ancient Egypt.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pahl, Ronald H.

    1998-01-01

    Presents an annotated bibliography of 10 Web sites concerning ancient Egypt that have materials appropriate for social studies classes. Includes virtual tours of Egypt and specific temples, explorations of the pyramids, archaeological and geographic information, and information on the Egyptian "Book of the Dead." (MJP)

  5. Resource Unit on Egypt for the Intermediate Grades.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Husbands, Kenneth; Taylor, Bob

    Resources for teaching about modern and ancient Egypt are provided in this guide for intermediate grade social studies teachers. Material includes: a detailed outline for a unit on Egypt which contains a geographic overview followed by sections on the Nile River Valley, agriculture, the pharaohs, religion, architecture, science, hieroglyphics,…

  6. A SURVEY OF CYST NEMATODES (HETERODERA SPP.) IN NORTHERN EGYPT

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Information concerning the occurrence and distribution of cyst nematodes (Heterodera spp.) in Egypt is important to assess their potential to cause economic damage to crop plants. A nematode survey was conducted in Alexandria and El-Behera Governorates in northern Egypt to identify the species of cy...

  7. Student Academic Freedom in Egypt: Perceptions of University Education Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zain-Al-Dien, Muhammad M.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate student academic freedom from the university education students' point of view in Egypt. This study adopted a survey research design in which the questionnaire was the main data collection instrument. The study participants comprised 800 university education students in Egypt. The result of the…

  8. Separate but Equal: Segregated Religious Education in Egypt's Public Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Isaac, John

    2012-01-01

    The Arab Spring exposed the hidden secrets of Egyptian society to the global community. In spite of the insatiable media attention paid to the Mubarak regime and the toll it took on the entire country, Egypt's education system received little attention. For decades, Egypt's public schools have forced students to attend segregated classes, based on…

  9. [Evolution of tinea capitis observed in mycology laboratory of institute Pasteur of Algeria from1995 to 2015].

    PubMed

    Hamroune, Z; Mazouz, A; Benelmouffok, A-B; Kellou, D

    2016-12-01

    Tinea capitis are common in Algeria and are a frequent reason for consultation. This mycosis affects children and rarely adults. This is a retrospective study over a period of 20 years from 1995 to 2015 at the mycology laboratory of the Pasteur institute of Algeria.

  10. An Exploration of Foreign Language Teachers' Beliefs about Curriculum Innovation in Algeria: A Socio-Political Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bellalem, Fouzi

    2008-01-01

    Recent political and economic developments in Algeria have brought about reforms of the educational system. A new curriculum was introduced as part of these reforms. This study explores the beliefs of French and English school teachers about curriculum innovation in Algeria. The study is positioned in the qualitative research tradition and looks…

  11. Aetiological factors of Budd-Chiari syndrome in Algeria

    PubMed Central

    Afredj, Nawel; Guessab, Nawal; Nani, Abdelbasset; Faraoun, Sid Ahmed; Ouled Cheikh, Ibtissem; Kerbouche, Rafik; Hannoun, Djouhar; Amir, Zine Charef; Ait Kaci, Hayet; Bentabak, Kamel; Plessier, Aurélie; Valla, Dominique-Charles; Cazals-Hatem, Valerie; Denninger, Marie-Hélène; Boucekkine, Tadjeddine; Debzi, Nabil

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To study the clinical presentation of Budd-Chiari syndrome (BCS) and identify the aetiologies of this disease in Algeria. METHODS: Patients with BCS, hospitalised in our unit from January 2004 until June 2010 were included and the aetiological factors were assessed. Patients presenting a BCS in the setting of advanced-stage cirrhosis or a liver transplantation were excluded from the study. The diagnosis was established when an obstruction of hepatic venous outflow (thrombosis, stenosis or compression) was demonstrated. We diagnosed myeloproliferative disease (MPD) by bone marrow biopsy and V617F JAK2 mutation. Anti-phospholipid syndrome (APLS) was detected by the presence of anticardiolipin antibodies, anti-β2 glycoprotein antibodies and Lupus anticoagulant. We also detected paroxysmal nocturnal haemoglobinuria (PNH) by flow cytometry. Celiac disease and Behçet disease were systematically investigated in our patients. Hereditary anticoagulant protein deficiencies were also assessed. We tested our patients for the G20210A mutation at Beaujon Hospital. Imaging procedures were performed to determine a local cause of BCS, such as a hydatid cyst or a liver tumour. RESULTS: One hundred and fifteen patients were included. Mean follow up: 32.12 mo. Mean age: 34.41 years, M/F = 0.64. Chronic presentation was frequent: 63.5%. The revealing symptoms for the BCS were ascites (74.8%) and abdominal pain (42.6%). The most common site of thrombosis was the hepatic veins (72.2%). Involvement of the inferior vena cava alone was observed in 3 patients. According to the radiological investigations, BCS was primary in 94.7% of the cases (n = 109) and secondary in 5.2% (n = 6). An aetiology was identified in 77.4% of the patients (n = 89); it was multifactorial in 27% (n = 31). The predominant aetiology of BCS in our patients was a myeloproliferative disease, observed in 34.6% of cases. APLS was found in 21.7% and celiac disease in 11.4%. Other acquired conditions were: PNH (n

  12. Triticale development in Algeria: genetic gains through decades.

    PubMed

    Abdelkader, Benbelkacem; Fatiha, Sadli

    2014-01-01

    Algeria started working on triticale since the late seventies, it was first as a scientific curiosity (1974-1980), the production of this crop began in the early eighties and expanded well for a decade (10.000ha) then decreased for another decade due to lack of subsidies and serious interest from decision makers putting all their effort in wheat production which is the predominant crop in the country. Since the 1990s up to date, it is developing again mainly based on feed market requirements (20.500ha in 2001) and a better consideration by stakeholders. Triticale is now developed by the informal seed system. Triticale is grown in Algeria under a wide range of soil and climatic conditions, including dryland and marginal soils. Under high input and rainfall environments, the best triticale cultivars have comparable grain yield with wheat but slightly lower to barley. This advantage is larger under dry conditions. Our study was dealing with an evaluation of the progress made in time since their introduction and selection of triticale varieties. The study was conducted on twenty five varieties and advanced lines, selected in the different phases of triticale development, during the three last seasons (2009 - 2012) in two contrasting regions (semi arid and high input environment) showed very interesting results and a linear improvement in grain yield and its components, and also in the feeding quality traits. The improvement was apparent in both sites; although result data was higher in number in the high input environment, the increase rate was larger in the semi arid area of study. In the favorable area, grain yield increased from 2.94t/ha for the varieties developed in the early phase (late 1970s), to 3.98t/ha for the varieties released in the second phase (1990s) up to 5.45t/ha for the latest varieties developed in the 2000s. Grain yield increased in the dry area from 2.42t/ha to 4.92t/ha. The trend is almost the same for all yield components and even for forage

  13. Distribution and variability of deformed wing virus of honeybees (Apis mellifera) in the Middle East and North Africa.

    PubMed

    Haddad, Nizar Jamal; Noureddine, Adjlane; Al-Shagour, Banan; Loucif-Ayad, Wahida; El-Niweiri, Mogbel A A; Anaswah, Eman; Hammour, Wafaa Abu; El-Obeid, Dany; Imad, Albaba; Shebl, Mohamed A; Almaleky, Abdulhusien Sehen; Nasher, Abdullah; Walid, Nagara; Bergigui, Mohamed Fouad; Yañez, Orlando; de Miranda, Joachim R

    2017-02-01

    Three hundred and eleven honeybee samples from 12 countries in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) (Jordan, Lebanon, Syria, Iraq, Egypt, Libya, Tunisia, Algeria, Morocco, Yemen, Palestine, and Sudan) were analyzed for the presence of deformed wing virus (DWV). The prevalence of DWV throughout the MENA region was pervasive, but variable. The highest prevalence was found in Lebanon and Syria, with prevalence dropping in Palestine, Jordan, and Egypt before increasing slightly moving westwards to Algeria and Morocco Phylogenetic analysis of a 194 nucleotide section of the DWV Lp gene did not identify any significant phylogenetic resolution among the samples, although the sequences did show consistent regional clustering, including an interesting geographic gradient from Morocco through North Africa to Jordan and Syria. The sequences revealed several clear variability hotspots in the deduced amino acid sequence, which furthermore showed some patterns of regional identity. Furthermore, the sequence variants from the Middle East and North Africa appear more numerous and diverse than those from Europe.

  14. Situation Report--Bahrain, Central African Republic, Gabon, Iraq, Jordan, Kuwait, Lesotho, Libya, Saudi Arabia, Swaziland, Syria, Yemen Arab Republic.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Planned Parenthood Federation, London (England).

    Data relating to population and family planning in twelve foreign countries are presented in these situation reports. Countries included are Bahrain, Central African Republic, Gabon, Iraq, Jordan, Kuwait, Lesotho, Libya, Saudi Arabia, Swaziland, Syria, and Yemen Arab Republic. Information is provided, where appropriate and available, under two…

  15. Optimal Maintenance Works for the Aborshada Road in the Western Region of Libya

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Youssef, Medhat Abdelrahman; Elbasher, Abdelbary Altayb

    2014-09-01

    In this research, the condition of a road pavement was investigated for the Aborshada Road in the Gharian region of Libya to determine the optimal maintenance works. Previously, a simple engineering judgment was the only procedure followed by the Gharian municipal engineers for evaluating pavements and prioritizing maintenance. The surface condition of the Aborshada Road pavement was investigated using "the Pavement Condition Index (PCI)" visual technique. The pavement was inspected to survey the different distresses in each sample unit. Ninteen pavement distresses were classified according to the PCI standards (PCI for roads and parking lots became an ASTM standard in 2007 (D6433-07)). It was necessary to know the most common distresses of the Aborshada Road to provide assistance for the decision maker in his evaluation of the pavement and the optimum repair method to be selected. This study reveals the actual performance of the pavements and suggests the research required for dealing with the pavement maintenance problem in Libya, especially in the western region. The best maintenance alternative for Aborshada Road was Case No. 3 (Potholes, Long. & Trans. Cracking and Alligator Crack Maintenance). Also, the most common pavement distresses on the Aborshada Road were Distress Nos. 1, 3, 6, 7, 10 and 13 according to the ASTM - D6433-07 classification

  16. Libya’s Post-Qaddafi Transition: The Nation-Building Challenge

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-01-01

    pomed.org/ wordpress /wp-content/ uploads/2012/07/Libyan-Party-List-Results.pdf). Figure 2. Share of Seats won by Islamist Parties in Egypt, Tunisia, and...Middle East Democracy, “Libyan Election Party List Results: Seats Per Party by District,” undated (as of October 22, 2012: http://pomed.org/ wordpress

  17. Emergence of Carbapenemase-Producing Escherichia coli Isolated from Companion Animals in Algeria.

    PubMed

    Yousfi, Massilia; Touati, Abdelaziz; Mairi, Assia; Brasme, Lucien; Gharout-Sait, Alima; Guillard, Thomas; De Champs, Christophe

    2016-06-01

    The emergence and worldwide spread of carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae is of great concern to public health. The aim of this study was to investigate the occurrence of carbapenemase-producing Escherichia coli in companion animals in Algeria. Two hundred fecal samples were obtained from healthy and diseased dogs and cats in one veterinary office and private owners in Bejaia city, Algeria, during November 2014 to March 2015. Isolates were screened by polymerase chain reaction for the presence of carbapenemase, acquired plasmidic AmpC (pAmpC) and extended-spectrum beta-lactamase genes. Five carbapenemase-producing E. coli isolates were detected including four OXA-48-producing isolates and one isolate producing NDM-5. Coexpression of ESBL and pAmpC genes was observed in these isolates. Phylogenetic grouping revealed that these isolates belonged to A and D phylogroups. The results of this study show that carbapenemase-producing E. coli spread to the companion animals in Algeria.

  18. Egypt site of first CSM marketing audit.

    PubMed

    1982-01-01

    The 1st application of the marketing audit concept to a CSM project was implemented in Egypt's Family of the Future (FOF) contraceptive social marketing program in 1982. The audit defined the basic mission of the FOF as one of assisting the government in achieving its long range family planning goals. The stated FOF objectives are as follows: to create an awareness or an increase in demand for family planning services, particularly among the lower socioeconomic strata in urban Egypt; to establish and maintain a reliable supply mechanism to make FOF products more readily acceptable and available from pharmacies; and to consolidate the CSM operations and services first in the greater Cairo area and then expand to other urban areas in Egypt. The core strategy of the FOF incorporates several elements, including intensive media based advertising and personal promotion to promote the concept of family planning and to educate the general public about contraceptive alternatives. FOF product prices are considerably lower than commercial prices. Dr. Alan R. Andreasen, who conducted the audit on behalf of the FOF technical assistance contractor, noted that the FOF is growing rapidly and stated that the audit recommendations were intended to help FOF management. Dr. Andreasen conducted interviews with all the senior personnel at FOF and met with various specialized staff members such as the Public Relations Manager. Dr. Andreasen noted that at the time of the audit the FOF could claim major accomplishments in creating an awareness of the need for family planning and in product sales. From the time products were launched in 1979 through 1981 condom sales increased 260%. Foaming tablet sales increased more than 320% and IUD sales increased nearly 330%. The introduction of the Copper 7 IUD accounted for 35% of the growth of IUD sales in 1981. Couple years of protection (CYP) provided by all products increased from 45,533 in 1979 to 190,831 in 1981, an increase over 300%. The

  19. Oedematous skin disease of buffalo in Egypt.

    PubMed

    Selim, S A

    2001-05-01

    This review covers a historical view and etiology of oedematous skin disease which affects buffalo in Egypt, the microbiology of Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis causing the disease: its virulence; clinical signs; mechanism of pathogenesis; histopathology; mode of transmission; immunological aspects; treatment and control. It is concluded that C. pseudotuberculosis serotype II is the main cause of OSD and exotoxin phospholipase D and its lipid contents of the cell wall are the major causes of pathogenesis. After declaring the role of Hippobosca equina in transmission of the causative agent among buffaloes, control of OSD is now available.

  20. [The patients' view in Ancient Egypt].

    PubMed

    Herrmann, Sabine

    2008-01-01

    Although many medical texts are preserved from Ancient Egypt, these texts are giving only little information about the relationship between the Egyptian doctor and the patient. The aim of this article is to draw the reader's attention to personal documents such as letters between members of the royal court or private persons as well as to literary texts from the New Kingdom until the Roman Period. The article does also focus on Mesopotamian legal texts (Codex Hammurapi) and letters from the kingdom of Mari.

  1. Astronomy at Nabta Playa, Southern Egypt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McKim Malville, J.

    Nabta Playa may contain the oldest human-made features with astronomical alignments in Egypt. In the Late and Terminal Neolithic (7,500-5,400 BP), nomadic pastoralists built a ceremonial center on the western shore of Nabta Playa, consisting of some 30 complex megalithic structures, stone circles, and lines of megaliths crossing the playa. The megaliths may once have aligned with Arcturus, the Belt of Orion, Sirius, and α Cen. Reorientations of the northern set of megaliths suggest a response to precession. Elaborate burials at the nearby cemetery at Gebel Ramlah indicate the nomads consisted of Mediterranean and sub-Saharan populations with little social stratification.

  2. Lake Nasser and Toshka Lakes, Egypt

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Lake Nasser (center) and the Toshka Lakes (center left) glow emerald green and black in this MODIS true-color image acquired March 8, 2002. Located on and near the border of Egypt and Norther Sudan, these lakes are an oasis of water in between the Nubian (lower right) and Libyan Deserts (upper left). Also visible are the Red Sea (in the upper right) and the Nile River (running north from Lake Nasser). Credit: Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team, NASA/GSFC

  3. Egypt: Background and U.S. Relations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-05-12

    agricultural output, large domestic market , and strategic location between the Mediterranean and Red Seas. Most importantly, the British saw Egypt as vital to...the Fundación para las Relaciones Internacionales y el Diálogo Exterior (FRIDE), March 6, 2008. 17 Steven A. Cook, "Adrift on the Nile: The Limits of...widespread due to Israel’s total blockade of Gaza, Hamas’s demand for weapons, and the lack of viable economic alternatives to black market activity on

  4. [Antimicrobial activity of Actinomycetale isolated from the lagoon in Algeria].

    PubMed

    Alliouch-Kerboua, Chérifa; Gacemi Kirane, Djamila; La Scola, Bernard

    2015-01-01

    In the aim of the study of the taxonomy and the antimicrobial activity, a strain of actinomycete SM2/2GF which was isolated from sediment of the lagoon El-Mellah which is situated in the city of El-Kala in the Northeast of Algeria, was tested against diverse pathogenic microorganisms and against a Gram-negative bacterium Pseudomonas alcaliphila which was isolated from water of the lagoon El-Mellah. The phenotypic and the molecular characteristics show that the isolate SM2/2GF belongs to the kind Streptomyces. This strain showed an antimicrobial activity against a Gram-negative bacterium Pseudomonas alcaliphila and the positive-Gram bacteria as Staphylococcus aureus, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), Bacillus subtilis, Enterococcus faecalis, as well as the yeast Candida albicans. It has no activity against Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The interesting antimicrobial activity of the strain SM2/2GF against the pathogenic microorganisms could encourage further researches on one or several bioactive molecules which it secretes.

  5. Trypanosomiasis of camels (Camelus dromedarius) in Algeria: First report

    PubMed Central

    Bennoune, Omar; Adili, Nezar; Amri, Khaled; Bennecib, Lakhdar; Ayachi, Ammar

    2013-01-01

    Camel trypanosomosis is a life-threatening disease in the camel species and responsible for severe economic losses either in milk or meat productions. This study was carried out on the south-east area of Algeria on 100 camels of various ages and either sex from two herds. Microscopic examination of blood smears revealed higher levels of trypanosomosis caused by Trypanosoma evansi, an elongated parasite with a kinetoplast and a single nucleus located in its half-length and one flagellum with great heterogeneity. This first investigation reveals higher infection rate than those observed in other countries using blood smears, the trypanosomosis attack has reached an alarming level and the occurrence of trypanosomosis at this high level on blood smears is like "the tree that hides the forest" and make up a serious and potential danger both on animal and public health. Therefore, radical preventive and offensive drastic measures must be taken against this menacing disease at the critical points to prevent the economic losses and to avoid possible human transmission. PMID:25568684

  6. Sandstorms as indicators of Land degradation in Algeria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirche, azziz; Oukil, youcef; Boughani, madjid; Nedjraoui, dalila; Salamani, mostefa

    2013-04-01

    : Land degradation, is an important environmental issue in arid lands, especially in Algeria's high plateaus. The Algerian steppes, the most widespread rangelands in the North African countries, occupy a pivotal position between the north, hilly and humid (called the tell), with a limited area (approximately 5%) and the south, the Sahara, which represents the largest area of the country (approximately 86%) and the largest desert of the planet .The main vegetation units constituted by Stipa tenacissima a key species , constituted 2/3 of the landscape in 1978 and occupies in 2012 only 1/10. The vegetation cover reached 40% in the seventies and is generally less than 10% nowadays. The increase of both population and livestock leads to a high pressure on this fragile ecosystems aggravated by the huge drought in the eighties (1980-1988). It results a tremendous soil degradation and sand encroachment. This study emphasizes on the correlation between the desertification steps and the occurrence of sandstorms. It appears that a high correlation is observed and reflect perfectly the land degradation . The recent decrease of sand storms, after a decennium, shows a re-greening, that must be distinguished of an absence of desertification. It appears that sandstorms , could be an interesting indicator, to monitor land degradation.

  7. Mutagenic and genotoxic effects of Guelma's urban wastewater, Algeria.

    PubMed

    Tabet, Mouna; Abda, Ahlem; Benouareth, Djamel E; Liman, Recep; Konuk, Muhsin; Khallef, Messaouda; Taher, Ali

    2015-02-01

    Assessment of water pollution and its effect upon river biotic communities and human health is indispensable to develop control and management strategies. In this study, the mutagenicity and genotoxicity of urban wastewater of the city of Guelma in Algeria were examined between April 2012 and April 2013. For this, two biological tests, namely Amesand chromosomal aberrations (CA) test in Allium cepa root tips were employed on the samples collected from five different sampling stages (S1-S5). In Ames test, two strains of Salmonella typhimurium TA98 and TA100 with or without metabolic activation (S9-mix) were used. All water samples were found to be mutagenic to S. typhimurium TA98 with or without S9-mix. A significant decrease in mitotic index (MI) was observed with a decrease in the percentage of cells in the prophase and an increase in the telophase. Main aberrations observed were anaphase bridges, disturbed anaphase-telophase cells, vagrants and stickiness in anaphase-telophase cells. All treatments of wastewater in April 2012, at S5 in July 2012, at S1 and S5 in November 2012, at S5 in February 2013, and at S1 in April 2013 induced CA when compared to the negative control. Some physicochemical parameters and heavy metals (Cd, Pb, and Cu) were also recorded in the samples examined.

  8. Spectral Analyses of Aqueous Outcrops at Libya Montes and Their Relationship To Nearby Olivine- and Pyroxene-Bearing Rocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bishop, J. L.; Tornabene, L. L.; Tirsch, D.; McGuire, P. C.; Hash, C.; Mustard, J. F.; Murchie, S. L.; Jaumann, R.

    2011-12-01

    Libya Montes, situated at the southern edge of the Isidis Basin where olivine- and pyroxene-bearing lithologies were identified with OMEGA[1] and TES/THEMIS[2], contains dense valley networks indicating long-term aqueous processes prevailed here [3, 4]. CRISM data have shown phyllosilicate and carbonate signatures in rocks that exhibit layered textures in HiRISE imagery. We are investigating the mineralogy of these aqueous outcrops using CRISM data and are examining the stratigraphy of the layered units in context with the mafic materials using HiRISE and HRSC DEMs. CRISM spectra of two regions characteristic of aqueous material at Libya Montes are shown in the figure along with mixture spectra [5]. These CRISM spectra are likely mixtures of Fe/Mg-phyllosilicate, carbonate, and olivine. Understanding the nature of the aqueous deposits at Libya Montes has potentially far-reaching applications for the greater Isidis region. Mg-rich carbonates were found at the northwestern edge of Isidis Planitia at Nili Fossae [6]. If similar processes formed phyllosilicates and carbonates at Nili Fossae and Libya Montes then these processes could be widespread. Learning the stratigraphy of the aqueous units at Libya Montes with respect to each other and the olivine-bearing rocks will provide insights into the geochemical history and timeline of the region. [1] Mustard et al. (2007) JGR 112, doi:10.1029/2006JE002834. [2] Tornabene et al. (2008) JGR 113, doi:10.1029/2007JE002988. [3] Crumpler & Tanaka (2003) JGR 108, doi: 8010.1029/2002JE002040. [4] Jaumann et al. (2010) EPSL 294, 272-290. [5] Perry et al. (2011) LPSC #1554. [6] Ehlmann et al. (2008) Science 322, 1828-1832.

  9. First report of Aedes (Stegomyia) albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae) in Oran, West of Algeria.

    PubMed

    Benallal, K E; Allal-Ikhlef, A; Benhamouda, K; Schaffner, F; Harrat, Z

    2016-12-01

    The increasing globalisation of trades, human movements and environmental changes facilitate the introduction and the establishment of the invasive Asian tiger mosquito Aedes albopictus outside its native geographical area. Alerted by the complaints about mosquito biting which occurred daytime for the inhabitants of the seaside town Ain Turk (West of Algeria), an entomological survey was conducted in December 2015 to determine the origin of this nuisance. Among the collected mosquitoes, specimens of Ae. albopictus (2 males, 3 females and 3 pupae) were collected. This is the first observation of that invasive mosquito in the west of Algeria which confirms its presence and establishment in Mediterranean Africa.

  10. [Epidemiology of cervical cancer in a region of western Algeria, 2006-2010].

    PubMed

    Boublenza, L; Hadef, K; Beldjillali, H; Chabni, N; Reguegba, D; Meguenni, K

    2013-05-01

    The authors present a retrospective analysis of data about cervical cancer from 2006 through 2010 in the province (wilaya) of Tlemcen (Algeria). During this five-year study period, 196 cases of cervical cancer were recorded, with a mean age at onset of 48.5 years. These cervical cancers accounted for 13% of all gynecologic cancers. It is the second leading cancer among women in this province, with an incidence of 13.3 per 100 000 women. The health authorities in Algeria must set up an organized screening policy and appropriate treatment to reduce the mortality rate from this cancer.

  11. Chapter 3: neurology in ancient Egypt.

    PubMed

    York, George K; Steinberg, David A

    2010-01-01

    Neurology, in the modern sense, did not exist in ancient Egypt, where medicine was a compound of natural, magical and religious elements, with different practitioners for each form of healing. Nevertheless, Egyptian doctors made careful observations of illness and injury, some of which involved the nervous system. Modern scholars have three sources of information about Egyptian medicine: papyri, inscriptions, and mummified remains. These tell us that the Egyptians had words for the skull, brain, vertebrae, spinal fluid and meninges, though they do not say if they assigned any function to them. They described unconsciousness, quadriparesis, hemiparesis and dementia. We can recognize neurological injuries, such as traumatic hemiparesis and cervical dislocation with paraplegia, in the well known Edwin Smith surgical papyrus. Similarly recognizable in the Ebers papyrus is a description of migraine. An inscription from the tomb of the vizier Weshptah, dated c. 2455 BCE, seems to describe stroke, and Herodotus describes epilepsy in Hellenistic Egypt. We have very little understanding of how Egyptian physicians organized these observations, but we may learn something of Egyptian culture by examining them. At the same time, modern physicians feel some connection to Egyptian physicians and can plausibly claim to be filling a similar societal role.

  12. Transnasal excerebration surgery in ancient Egypt.

    PubMed

    Fanous, Andrew A; Couldwell, William T

    2012-04-01

    Ancient Egyptians were pioneers in many fields, including medicine and surgery. Our modern knowledge of anatomy, pathology, and surgical techniques stems from discoveries and observations made by Egyptian physicians and embalmers. In the realm of neurosurgery, ancient Egyptians were the first to elucidate cerebral and cranial anatomy, the first to describe evidence for the role of the spinal cord in the transmission of information from the brain to the extremities, and the first to invent surgical techniques such as trepanning and stitching. In addition, the transnasal approach to skull base and intracranial structures was first devised by Egyptian embalmers to excerebrate the cranial vault during mummification. In this historical vignette, the authors examine paleoradiological and other evidence from ancient Egyptian skulls and mummies of all periods, from the Old Kingdom to Greco-Roman Egypt, to shed light on the development of transnasal surgery in this ancient civilization. The authors confirm earlier observations concerning the laterality of this technique, suggesting that ancient Egyptian excerebration techniques penetrated the skull base mostly on the left side. They also suggest that the original technique used to access the skull base in ancient Egypt was a transethmoidal one, which later evolved to follow a transsphenoidal route similar to the one used today to gain access to pituitary lesions.

  13. Risk factors for developing hepatocellular carcinoma in Egypt.

    PubMed

    Omar, Ashraf; Abou-Alfa, Ghassan K; Khairy, Ahmed; Omar, Heba

    2013-12-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a common disorder worldwide and ranks 2nd and 6th most common cancer among men and women in Egypt. HCC has a rising incidence in Egypt mostly due to high prevalence of viral hepatitis and its complications. Proper management requires the interaction of multidisciplinary HCC clinic to choose the most appropriate plan. The different modalities of treatment include resection (surgery or transplantation), local ablation, chemoembolization, radioembolization and molecular targeted therapies. This paper summarizes both the environmental and host related risk factors of HCC in Egypt including well-established risk factors such as hepatitis virus infection, aflatoxin, as well as possible risk factors.

  14. Gender discrimination for women with diabetes mellitus in Algeria

    PubMed Central

    Chentli, Farida; Azzoug, Said; Meskine, Djamila; El Gradechi, Aldjia

    2014-01-01

    Background: Nowadays diabetes mellitus (DM) is one of the greatest global challenges. Its expansion varies from an area to another according to genetic, traditions, socio-economic conditions, and stress. In Algeria, as in other emerging countries undergoing an epidemiological transition, noncommunicable diseases are sharply increasing. After high blood pressure, DM is now the second metabolic disease. But are women more concerned by DM since obesity frequency is higher in females? Can we assert that there is a sort of sex discrimination for DM complications? Materials and Methods: To answer these questions we took into account published documents carried in Algerian population. But, as those were very scarce, we also considered newspapers articles, some documents published by health minister department, posters and oral communications of the Algerian Society of Endocrinology and Diabetology, and our clinical experience. We also have done a small survey to get our patients’ opinions. Results and Conclusion: At the first sight, it seems gender discrimination between men and women cannot exist since most epidemiological studies showed that both sexes are broadly and equally affected by DM, except for old aged females who are the most affected. When we reconsidered the problem, and when we compared past results to those obtained after the terrorism period, many studies showed a sort of gender difference. Apart from gestational DM, which is increasing sharply, some complications and death related to DM are prevailing in women. Coronary diseases and cerebral vascular accidents are more frequent in women too, especially the young ones and those suffering from DM. These complications are probably due to the recent and rapid modification in women's lifestyle with a strong reduction in physical activity, eating disorders, hormonal contraception, and high sensitivity to perceived stress secondary to the near past stressing life and/or to numerous responsibilities taken by

  15. Geology and hydrocarbon potential of the Oued Mya basin, Algeria

    SciTech Connect

    Benamrane, O.; Messaoudi, M.; Messelles, H. )

    1993-09-01

    The Oued Mya hydrocarbon system is located in the Sahara basin. It is one of the best producing basins in Algeria, along with the Ghadames and Illizi basins. The stratigraphic section consists of Paleozoic and Mesozoic, and is about 5000 m thick. This intracratonic basin is limited to the north by the Toughourt saddle, and to the west and east it is flanked by regional arches, Allal-Tilghemt and Amguid-Hassi Messaoud, which culminate in the super giant Hassi Messaoud and Hassi R'mel hydrocarbon accumulations, respectively, producing oil from the Cambrian sands and gas from the Trissic sands. The primary source rock in this basin is lower Silurian shale, with an average thickness of 50 m and a total organic carbon of 6% (14% in some cases). Results of maturation modeling indicate that the lower Silurian source is in the oil window. The Ordovician shales are also source rocks, but in a second order. Clastic reservoirs are in the Trissic sequence, which is mainly fluvial deposits with complex alluvial channels, and the main target in the basin. Clastic reservoirs in the lower Devonian section have a good hydrocarbon potential east of the basin through a southwest-northwest orientation. The Late Trissic-Early Jurassic evaporites that overlie the Triassic clastic interval and extend over the entire Oued Mya basin, are considered to be a super-seal evaporite package, which consists predominantly of anhydrite and halite. For paleozoic targets, a large number of potential seals exist within the stratigraphic column. This super seal does not present oil dismigration possibilities. We can infer that a large amount of the oil generated by the Silurian source rock from the beginning of Cretaceous until now still is not discovered and significantly greater volumes could be trapped within structure closures and mixed or stratigraphic traps related to the fluvial Triassic sandstones, marine Devonian sands, and Cambrian-Ordovician reservoirs.

  16. Synchronous mid-Holocene climate deteriorations in circum-Mediterranean and their links with ancient civilizations: first speloethem and archeological evidences from N-Algeria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruan, Jiaoyang; Kherbouche, Farid; Genty, Dominique; Cheng, Hai; Dewilde, Fabien; Blamart, Dominique

    2015-04-01

    Over the last decades, ancient civilizations during the Holocene were heavily studied at many places around the Mediterranean region such as Libya and Italy, and changes in the past social activities were widely assumed to be linked to regional climate variability. However, in many cases the climatic records were apart from the archaeological sites and the archaeological chronologies were not well constrained, which makes these links uncertain. Here we present a 230Th-dated decadal resolution climate record for 6034-3185yr BP based on the δ18O and δ13C analyses of two overlapping stalagmites from Gueldaman GLD1 Cave (36°26'N, 4°34'E, 507 m asl), N-Algeria. Recent archaeological work in this cave brought first information about the Neolithisation process since ca 7000yr cal BP in the region where little was known before. Together with new charcoal 14C dates from the digging sections we test the link between past climate change and human activities in the cave. GLD1 stalagmite records reveal a dry event at ca 5700-5500yr BP and a drying trend toward extreme aridity, since ca 4700yr BP, peaking at ca 4200yr BP. These climatic deteriorations in N-Algeria, within dating errors, are synchronous with dry phases observed on speleothem records from central (Corchia Cave and Renella Cave, Italy) and eastern (Soreq Cave, Israel) Mediterranean. Specifically, climatic condition was harsher at ca 4200yr BP than at ca 5700-5500yr BP in central and W-Mediterranean; while it was harsher at ca 5700-5500yr BP in E-Mediterranean. The new 14C dates relatively well anchor the age of sediment layers with the richest anthropogenic deposits (i.e. charcoal, bone and Neolithic pottery) to ca 4900-4400yr cal BP, coinciding with the wettest period inferred from the stalagmite records. Shortly following this period, archaeological remains were becoming very rare in the sediments, which might be the consequence of establishing extremely arid phase at ca 4200yr BP. This suggests a possible

  17. Mitigation options for the industrial sector in Egypt

    SciTech Connect

    Gelil, I.A.; El-Touny, S.; Korkor, H.

    1996-12-31

    Though its contribution to the global Greenhouse gases emission is relatively small, Egypt has signed and ratified the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UN FCCC) and has been playing an active role in the international efforts to deal with such environmental challenges. Energy efficiency has been one of the main strategies that Egypt has adopted to improve environmental quality and enhance economic competitiveness. This paper highlights three initiatives currently underway to improve energy efficiency of the Egyptian industry. The first is a project that has been recently completed by OECP to assess potential GHG mitigation options available in Egypt`s oil refineries. The second initiative is an assessment of GHG mitigation potential in the Small and Medium size Enterprises (SME) in the Mediterranean city of Alexandria. The third one focuses on identifying demand side management options in some industrial electricity consumers in the same city.

  18. African oil plays

    SciTech Connect

    Clifford, A.J. )

    1989-09-01

    The vast continent of Africa hosts over eight sedimentary basins, covering approximately half its total area. Of these basins, only 82% have entered a mature exploration phase, 9% have had little or no exploration at all. Since oil was first discovered in Africa during the mid-1950s, old play concepts continue to bear fruit, for example in Egypt and Nigeria, while new play concepts promise to become more important, such as in Algeria, Angola, Chad, Egypt, Gabon, and Sudan. The most exciting developments of recent years in African oil exploration are: (1) the Gamba/Dentale play, onshore Gabon; (2) the Pinda play, offshore Angola; (3) the Lucula/Toca play, offshore Cabinda; (4) the Metlaoui play, offshore Libya/Tunisia; (5) the mid-Cretaceous sand play, Chad/Sudan; and (6) the TAG-I/F6 play, onshore Algeria. Examples of these plays are illustrated along with some of the more traditional oil plays. Where are the future oil plays likely to develop No doubt, the Saharan basins of Algeria and Libya will feature strongly, also the presalt of Equatorial West Africa, the Central African Rift System and, more speculatively, offshore Ethiopia and Namibia, and onshore Madagascar, Mozambique, and Tanzania.

  19. Developing Urban Environment Indicators for Neighborhood Sustainability Assessment in Tripoli-Libya

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elgadi, Ahmed. A.; Hakim Ismail, Lokman; Abass, Fatma; Ali, Abdelmuniem

    2016-11-01

    Sustainability assessment frameworks are becoming increasingly important to assist in the transition towards a sustainable urban environment. The urban environment is an effective system and requires regular monitoring and evaluation through a set of relevant indicators. The indicator provides information about the state of the environment through the production value of quantity. The indicator creates sustainability assessment requests to be considered on all spatial scales to specify efficient information of urban environment sustainability in Tripoli-Libya. Detailed data is necessary to assess environmental modification in the urban environment on a local scale and ease the transfer of this information to national and global stages. This paper proposes a set of key indicators to monitor urban environmental sustainability developments of Libyan residential neighborhoods. The proposed environmental indicator framework measures the sustainability performance of an urban environment through 13 sub-categories consisting of 21 indicators. This paper also explains the theoretical foundations for the selection of all indicators with reference to previous studies.

  20. Physical, mental, emotional and social health status of adolescents and youths in Benghazi, Libya.

    PubMed

    Salam, A A; Alshekteria, A A; Mohammed, H A A; Al Abar, N M; Al Jhany, M M; Al Flah, F

    2012-06-01

    Adolescence and youth are stages of life that other great opportunities for reduction of future health needs. A cross-sectional study was carried out to assess the physical, mental, emotional and social health status of adolescents and youths attending 2 large universities in Benghazi city, Libya, and to determine variables associated with their health status. Stratified sampling was used to select 383 students aged 17-24 years and data were collected by face-to-face interview and self-administered questionnaires. Major health problems were depression/anxiety and pain/discomfort, and these were suffered by significantly more females than males. Mental health was at the transitional stage in Dabrowski's emotional development theory (spontaneous multilevel disintegration). Females had higher levels of emotional development. Regular physical activity was practised by 34.7% overall (25.8% of women) and 17.2% were smokers. The main social activity was visiting family members.

  1. Iatrogenic illness in the paediatric intensive care unit at Gharian teaching hospital, Libya.

    PubMed

    Ismail, A M; Shedeed, S A

    2012-02-01

    The aim of this prospective follow-up study wasto determine the incidence and risk factors of iatrogenic illness and the outcome among cases admitted to the paediatric intensive care unit in ateaching hospital in Libya. The incidence of iatrogenic complications was 22.9% among 423 cases admitted over a 1-year period. Human error (18.4%) followed by machine defects (4.5%) were the most common causes of complications. The overall mortality rate was 7.6% and was significantly higher in iatrogenic cases than others (13.4% versus 5.8%). Paediatric risk of mortality (PRISM) score was a good predictor of risk of iatrogenic illness. Both mortality and occurrence of iatrogenic illness were significantly associated with: higher PRISM score, use of mechanical ventilation, higher bed occupancy rate in the unit, presence of respiratory and neurological diseases, prolonged duration of stay in the intensive care unit and younger age of the child.

  2. Population genetics of 17 Y-STR markers in West Libya (Tripoli region).

    PubMed

    Triki-Fendri, Soumaya; Sánchez-Diz, Paula; Rey-González, Danel; Ayadi, Imen; Alfadhli, Suad; Rebai, Ahmed; Carracedo, Ángel

    2013-05-01

    Seventeen Y-chromosomal Short Tandem Repeats (Y-STR) included in the AmpFlSTR Y-filer PCR Amplification kit (Applied Biosystems) (DYS19, DYS389I, DYS389II, DYS390, DYS391, DYS392, DYS393, DYS385ab, DYS437, DYS438, DYS439, DYS448, DYS456, DYS458, DYS635 and GATA H4) were genotyped in a population sample of 176 unrelated males from western Libya (Tripoli region). A total of 142 different haplotypes were found, 124 being unique. Haplotype diversity was 0.9950. Both R(ST) pairwise analyses and multidimensional scaling plot show a close genetic relationship between Tripoli and North African populations.

  3. Seismic stratigraphy and deformational styles of the offshore Cyrenaica (Libya) and bordering Mediterranean Ridge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yem, Lionel Mbida; Camera, Laurent; Mascle, Jean; Ribodetti, Alessandra

    2011-04-01

    Off northwest Libya the Cyrenaica foreland basin domain and its Pan-African continental crust, which constitute the African promontory, are overthrusted by the Mediterranean Ridge Complex. The thrust belt contact and its seismic stratigraphy have been analysed using pre-stack depth-migrated multichannel seismic (MCS) lines recorded during the MEDISIS survey (2002). The geometry and sedimentary distribution analysis through the wedge-top depocentres allow reconstruction of schematic cross-sections of the tectono-sedimentary wedge that includes two major thrust sequences separated by an apparently poorly deformed transition zone. Based on time-space variation of several piggyback basins, we propose that these thrust sequences relate to distinct phases of shortening. (1) A first event, which probably occurred just prior to the Messinian crisis in latest Miocene (Tortonian times?) and (2) A second event, that has finally led to the present-day overthrusting of the Mediterranean Ridge over the Libyan continental slope.

  4. Trace fossils and depositional environments in the Hawaz Formation, Middle Ordovician, western Libya

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gibert, Jordi M. de; Ramos, Emilio; Marzo, Mariano

    2011-04-01

    The ichnology of the Middle Ordovician Hawaz Formation in the Gargaf uplift (W Libya) is here reported. Eleven ichnogenera have been identified in this shallow marine formation: Arthrophycus, Bergaueria, Cruziana, Daedalus, Lockeia, cf. Psammichnites, Planolites, Rusophycus, Skolithos, Teichichnus and Thalassinoides. Their distribution is clearly linked with lithofacies and depositional paleoenvironments. Nearshore to shoreface sandstone facies are characterized by dense, piperock occurrences of Skolithos, which is a characteristic association in high-energy, sediment-shifting, shallow marine settings in the lower Paleozoic. This Skolithos ichnofacies is related to regressive sand belts prograding during high-stand sea level conditions. In contrast, heterolithic facies, most abundant in transgressive intervals, are dominated by horizontal burrows and trails, characteristic of the Cruziana ichnofacies. Higher diversity is achieved in those heterolithics found as forming part of the storm-dominated facies association, while similar facies associated to tidal deposits exhibit a less variety and abundance of traces indicating less favorable ecological conditions.

  5. Echinococcosis in Libya. III. Further studies on the prevalence of Echinococcus granulosus in dogs.

    PubMed

    Awan, M A; Gusbi, A M; Beesley, W N

    1990-10-01

    Of 92 dogs examined for Echinococcus granulosus at five sites in Libya from April 1985 to September 1988 33 (35.9%) were infected, the prevalences ranging from 60% (Zawiyah) and 52.0% (Tripoli) in the north-west, to 28.6% (Benghazi) and 28.5% (Darna) in the north-east. None of eight dogs at Al-Kufra, in the south-eastern desert, were infected. Twenty dogs each had two to 200 worms, nine had 201-1000 worms and four each had over 1000 worms (one dog in Tripoli had 17,120 worms). Most infections were seen in dogs aged three to four years; 45.4% of bitches and 35.4% of males were infected.

  6. Schistosomiasis and cancer in egypt: review.

    PubMed

    Khaled, Hussein

    2013-09-01

    Schistosomiasis is not known to be associated with any malignant disease other than bladder cancer. Bladder cancer is still the most common malignant tumor among males in Egypt and some African and Middle East countries. However, the frequency rate of bladder cancer has declined significantly during the last 25 years. This drop is mainly related to the control of Schistosomiasis. Many studies have elucidated the pathogenic events of Schistosomal-related bladder cancer with a suggested theory of pathogenesis. Furthermore, the disease presents with a distinct clinicopathologic profile that is quite different from bladder cancer elsewhere with younger age at presentation, more male predominance, more invasive stages, and occurrence of squamous cell carcinoma pathologic subtype. However, recent data suggest that this profile has been dramatically changed over the past 25 years leading to minimization of the differences between its features in Egypt and that in Western countries. Management of muscle-invasive localized disease is mainly surgery with 5-year survival rates of 30-50%. Although still a debatable issue, adjuvant and neoadjuvant chemotherapy and radiotherapy have improved treatment outcomes including survival and bladder preservation rates in most studies. This controversy emphasizes the need of individualized treatment options based on a prognostic index or other factors that can define the higher risk groups where more aggressive therapy is needed. The treatment for locally advanced and/or metastatic disease has passed through a series of clinical trials since 1970s. These phase II and III trials have included the use of single agent and combination of chemotherapy and radiotherapy regimens. The current standard of systemic chemotherapy of generally fit patients is now the gemcitabine-cisplatin combination. In conclusion, a changing pattern of bladder cancer in Egypt is clearly observed. This is mainly due to the success in the control of Schistosomiasis

  7. Serotype Distribution and Antimicrobial Resistance of Streptococcus pneumoniae Isolated in Algiers, Algeria

    PubMed Central

    Ramdani-Bouguessa, Nadjia; Rahal, Kheira

    2003-01-01

    There are few data on antibiotic resistance of Streptococcus pneumoniae in Algeria. Among 309 strains, 34.6% were penicillin G-nonsusceptible S. pneumoniae strains (25.2% were intermediate and 9.4% were resistant). Serotypes 1, 5, 14, and 6 were the most frequent in invasive child infections. A multicenter study to standardize the national guidelines is needed. PMID:12543703

  8. Teaching Morality and Religion in Nineteenth-Century Colonial Algeria: Gender and the Civilising Mission

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rogers, Rebecca

    2011-01-01

    Historians have long presented France's "civilizing mission" within its colonies in secular terms ignoring women's presence as both actors and subjects. This is particularly true in Algeria where the colonial government's explicitly prohibited proselytism. This article emphasizes women's roles pursuing both secular and religious goals in…

  9. Helping to Meet Today's Energy Demands: Natural Gas Technician Training in Algeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dutton, Bernard

    1976-01-01

    The training program, located in Arzew, Algeria, is designed to train technicians in all phases of gas technology. The program provides classroom instruction, on-the-job training, and language instruction. The different phases involved in the training program are described. (EC)

  10. 78 FR 23625 - Waiver of Restriction on Assistance to the Central Government of Algeria

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-19

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF STATE Waiver of Restriction on Assistance to the Central Government of Algeria Pursuant to Section 7031(b)(3) of the Department of State, Foreign Operations, and Related Programs Appropriations Act, 2012 (Div. I, Pub. L. 112-74) (``the Act''), and Department...

  11. 78 FR 56767 - Waiver of Restriction on Assistance to the Central Government of Algeria

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-13

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF STATE Waiver of Restriction on Assistance to the Central Government of Algeria Pursuant to Section 7031(b)(3) of the Department of State, Foreign Operations, and Related Programs Appropriations Act, 2012 (Div. I, Pub. L.112-74) (``the Act''), as carried forward...

  12. 75 FR 14479 - Waiver of Restriction on Assistance to the Central Government of Algeria

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-25

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF STATE Waiver of Restriction on Assistance to the Central Government of Algeria Pursuant to section 7086(c)(2) of the Department of State, Foreign Operations, and Related Programs Appropriations Act, 2010 (Division F, Pub. L. 111-117) (``the Act''), and...

  13. Cost-effectiveness of pre-participation screening of athletes with ECG in Europe and Algeria.

    PubMed

    Assanelli, Deodato; Levaggi, Rosella; Carré, François; Sharma, Sanjay; Deligiannis, Asterios; Mellwig, Klaus Peter; Tahmi, Mohamed; Vinetti, Giovanni; Aliverti, Paola

    2015-03-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of ECG in combination with family and personal history and physical examination in order to detect cardiovascular diseases that might cause sudden death in athletes. The study was conducted on a cohort of 6,634, mainly young professional and recreational athletes, 1,071 from Algeria and 5,563 from Europe (France, Germany and Greece). Each athlete underwent medical history, physical examination, and resting 12-lead ECG. 293 athletes (4.4 %), 149 in Europe (2.7 %) and 144 in Algeria (13.4 %) required further tests, and 56 were diagnosed with cardiovascular disease and thus disqualified. The cost-effectiveness ratio (CER) was calculated as the ratio between the cost of screening and the number of statistical life-years saved by the intervention. The estimated reduced risk of death deriving from treatment or disqualification resulted in the saving of 79.1 statistical life-years in Europe and 136.3 in Algeria. CER of screening was 4,071 purchasing-power-parity-adjusted US dollars ($PPP) in Europe and 582 $PPP in Algeria. The results of this study strongly support the utilisation of 12-lead ECG in the pre-participation screening of young athletes, especially in countries where secondary preventive care is not highly developed.

  14. Nile River, Lake Nasser, Aswan High Dam, Egypt, Africa

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    Lake Nasser, (24.0N, 33.0E) at the Aswan High Dam on the Nile River, in Egypt is the world's second largest artificial lake, extending 500 km, in length and about 5000 sq. km. in area. The lake has a storage capacity sufficient to irrigate farms in Egypt and Sudan year round allowing up to three harvests per year. Other benefits include year round river navagation, hydroelectric power, more fish harvests, reduced flooding and more industrial employment. opportunites.

  15. An Epidemiological Study of Cutaneous Leishmaniasis in Al-Jabal Al-Gharbi, Libya

    PubMed Central

    Abdellatif, Manal Z. M.; El-Mabrouk, Khamis

    2013-01-01

    Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) is an endemic parasitic infection in the Mediterranean region, including Libya and its Al-jabal Al-gharbi province. We aimed at studying the occupational relevance as well as other epidemiological aspects of CL. We investigated 140 CL cases who attended at Gharyan outpatient polyclinic during a period of 6 months in 2009. CL infection was clinically diagnosed and confirmed by demonstration of Leishmania parasites on smears from lesions. Our findings showed that males were more affected than females (P=0.04), and people above 10-years were more affected than younger ones (P=0.0001). A significant percent of CL cases belonged to Al-Kawasem subprovince (P=0.0001). Farm-related activities were the most frequent occupations among CL cases (P=0.04). In addition to farm workers, housewives and students are at risk groups since they are engaged at farm activities. Moreover, those who have occupations that require staying outdoors for a part of night, e.g., policemen, are also at risk. Compared to children, adult CL patients had multiple lesions (P=0.001) that were more prevalent in their upper and lower extremities than the face (P=0.0001). We conclude that CL is a major health problem in Al-jabal Al-gharbi province of Libya. The presence of rodents and sandflies makes it a suitable environment for Leishmania to spread in an endemic epidemiological pattern. Being engaged in farming activities or outdoor occupations increases the risk of infection. Various clinical patterns of CL suggest the presence of more than 1 species of Leishmania at Al-jabal Al-gharbi province. We propose that the 2 species responsible for CL in this area are L. major and L. tropica. Further investigations to identify the leishmanial species responsible for CL at Al-jabal Al-gharbi together with adoption of preventive and control programs are needed. PMID:23467624

  16. Spatiotemporal investigation of long-term seasonal temperature variability in Libya

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elsharkawy, S. G.; Elmallah, E. S.

    2016-09-01

    Throughout this work, spatial and temporal variations of seasonal surface air temperature have been investigated. Moreover, the effects of relative internal (teleconnection) and external (solar) forcing on surface air temperature variability have been examined. Seasonal temperature time series covering 30 different meteorological locations and lasting over the last century are considered. These locations are classified into two groups based on their spatial distribution. One represents Coast Libya Surface Air Temperature (CLSAT), contains 19 locations, and the other represents Desert Libya Surface Air Temperature (DLSAT), contains 11 locations. Average temperature departure test is applied to investigate the nature of temperature variations. Temperature trends are analyzed using the nonparametric Mann-Kendall test and their coefficients are calculated using Sen's slope estimate. Cross-correlation and spectral analysis techniques are also applied. Our results showed temperature deviation from average within a band of ± 2°C at coast region, while ± 4°C at desert region. Extreme behavior intensions between summer and winter temperatures at coast region are noticed. Segmentation process declared reversal cooling/warming behavior within temperature records for all seasons. Desert region shows warming trend for all seasons with higher coefficients than obtained at coast region. Results obtained for spectral analysis show different short and medium signals and concluded that not only the spectral properties are different for different geographical regions but also different for different climatic seasons on regional scale as well. Cross-correlation results showed that highest influence for Rz upon coastal temperature is always in conjunction with highest influence of NAO upon coastal temperature during the period 1981-2010. Desert region does not obey this phenomenon, where highest temperature-NAO correlations at desert during autumn and winter seasons are not

  17. An epidemiological study of cutaneous leishmaniasis in Al-jabal Al-gharbi, Libya.

    PubMed

    Abdellatif, Manal Z M; El-Mabrouk, Khamis; Ewis, Ashraf A

    2013-02-01

    Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) is an endemic parasitic infection in the Mediterranean region, including Libya and its Al-jabal Al-gharbi province. We aimed at studying the occupational relevance as well as other epidemiological aspects of CL. We investigated 140 CL cases who attended at Gharyan outpatient polyclinic during a period of 6 months in 2009. CL infection was clinically diagnosed and confirmed by demonstration of Leishmania parasites on smears from lesions. Our findings showed that males were more affected than females (P=0.04), and people above 10-years were more affected than younger ones (P=0.0001). A significant percent of CL cases belonged to Al-Kawasem subprovince (P=0.0001). Farm-related activities were the most frequent occupations among CL cases (P=0.04). In addition to farm workers, housewives and students are at risk groups since they are engaged at farm activities. Moreover, those who have occupations that require staying outdoors for a part of night, e.g., policemen, are also at risk. Compared to children, adult CL patients had multiple lesions (P=0.001) that were more prevalent in their upper and lower extremities than the face (P=0.0001). We conclude that CL is a major health problem in Al-jabal Al-gharbi province of Libya. The presence of rodents and sandflies makes it a suitable environment for Leishmania to spread in an endemic epidemiological pattern. Being engaged in farming activities or outdoor occupations increases the risk of infection. Various clinical patterns of CL suggest the presence of more than 1 species of Leishmania at Al-jabal Al-gharbi province. We propose that the 2 species responsible for CL in this area are L. major and L. tropica. Further investigations to identify the leishmanial species responsible for CL at Al-jabal Al-gharbi together with adoption of preventive and control programs are needed.

  18. Uterine involution and progesterone level during the postpartum period in Barbary ewes in north Libya

    PubMed Central

    Medan, M.S.; EL-Daek, T.

    2015-01-01

    The objectives of the present study were to determine the time of uterine involution and ovarian activity using ultrasound examination and progesterone assay. Weekly progesterone levels were measured starting one week postpartum until two weeks after the 1st postpartum estrus in Barbary ewes lambed during winter in AL-Bayda city, north of Libya. A total of 15 Barbary ewes were used in the present study distributed in three groups according to the month of lambing as group 1 (lambed in January), group 2 (lambed in February) and group 3 (lambed in March). Ewes were examined weekly by trans-rectal ultrasound to check involution of the uterus starting one week after lambing until complete uterine involution. Blood samples were collected from the jugular vein, and serum was separated and stored at -20 °C until measuring progesterone using ELISA. Results showed that uterine involution completed at day 35 postpartum in groups 1 and 2, while it occurred at day 28 in group 3. The mean progesterone level was basal (less than 1 ng/ml) for a long period and started to increase at days 119, 99 and 77 postpartum in group 1, 2 and 3, respectively. One ewe did not show estrus at all during the period of study in group 2 and there were no growing follicles on their ovaries. The obtained results indicate that, uterine involution as determined by ultrasound completed earlier in ewes lambed in March than those lambed in February or January. Also, progesterone level and ultrasound examination showed that there was no ovarian activity for a longtime after parturition indicating that reproduction in Barbary ewes tends to be seasonal in AL-Bayda city, north Libya. PMID:26623357

  19. Absolute Calibration of Optical Satellite Sensors Using Libya 4 Pseudo Invariant Calibration Site

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mishra, Nischal; Helder, Dennis; Angal, Amit; Choi, Jason; Xiong, Xiaoxiong

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to report the improvements in an empirical absolute calibration model developed at South Dakota State University using Libya 4 (+28.55 deg, +23.39 deg) pseudo invariant calibration site (PICS). The approach was based on use of the Terra MODIS as the radiometer to develop an absolute calibration model for the spectral channels covered by this instrument from visible to shortwave infrared. Earth Observing One (EO-1) Hyperion, with a spectral resolution of 10 nm, was used to extend the model to cover visible and near-infrared regions. A simple Bidirectional Reflectance Distribution function (BRDF) model was generated using Terra Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) observations over Libya 4 and the resulting model was validated with nadir data acquired from satellite sensors such as Aqua MODIS and Landsat 7 (L7) Enhanced Thematic Mapper (ETM+). The improvements in the absolute calibration model to account for the BRDF due to off-nadir measurements and annual variations in the atmosphere are summarized. BRDF models due to off-nadir viewing angles have been derived using the measurements from EO-1 Hyperion. In addition to L7 ETM+, measurements from other sensors such as Aqua MODIS, UK-2 Disaster Monitoring Constellation (DMC), ENVISAT Medium Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MERIS) and Operational Land Imager (OLI) onboard Landsat 8 (L8), which was launched in February 2013, were employed to validate the model. These satellite sensors differ in terms of the width of their spectral bandpasses, overpass time, off-nadir-viewing capabilities, spatial resolution and temporal revisit time, etc. The results demonstrate that the proposed empirical calibration model has accuracy of the order of 3% with an uncertainty of about 2% for the sensors used in the study.

  20. Hepatitis B virus and hepatitis C virus in medical waste handlers in Tripoli, Libya.

    PubMed

    Franka, E; El-Zoka, A H; Hussein, A H; Elbakosh, M M; Arafa, A K; Ghenghesh, K S

    2009-07-01

    Medical waste handlers (MWHs) are at risk of exposure to serious viral infections. No data are available on the prevalence of hepatitis B virus (HBV), hepatitis C virus (HCV) or human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) among MWHs in Libya. During a one-year period (January to December 2004) blood samples from 300 (59 females) MWHs employed by a local contractor in Tripoli and 300 blood samples from non-medical waste handlers (NMWHs) who had no direct or indirect contact with medical waste were examined for HBV, HCV and HIV using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. HBV was detected in 7 (2.3%) and 1 (0.3%) and HCV in 8 (2.7%) and 0 (0.0%) of MWHs and NMWHs, respectively. Significant differences were observed in the detection rates of HBV (OR: 7.14; P<0.04) and HCV (OR: undefined; P<0.005) in MWHs when compared with NMWHs. HIV was not detected in both groups. Of the MWHs studied, 21% were immunised against HBV and 7% were trained to handle medical waste. In addition, 99.7% wore overalls, 57.7% thick disposable gloves, 55% boots and 17.7% masks while handling medical waste. In conclusion, prevalence rates of HBV and HCV were significantly higher in MWHs than those in NMWHs examined. Training, immunisation, and post-exposure protection of MWHs, in addition to proper management of medical waste by the health authorities, may significantly reduce the risk of acquiring infectious agents by MWHs in Libya.

  1. Stratification and mobility in contemporary Egypt.

    PubMed

    Nagi, Saad Z; Nagi, Omar

    2011-01-01

    The objectives in this statement are to characterize and explain the patterns of change in stratification and mobility in Egypt, over the last half century, by placing them within conceptual, explanatory, and historical contexts. First, literature relevant to the primary concepts of "class" and "status", is reviewed. Second, four institutions whose influence is fundamental in shaping these patterns are identified to form an explanatory context: family, polity, economy, and education. And third, an historical account is presented to demonstrate the interplay of these institutions and their consequences for stratification and mobility. For this, four periods are identified that are marked by change in the dominance of institutions and their corresponding influence on stratification and mobility. In addition to data available in relevant literature, this analysis utilizes primary data generated through a national probability household survey.

  2. The practice of dentistry in ancient Egypt.

    PubMed

    Forshaw, R J

    2009-05-09

    This paper addresses the questions of whether a dental profession existed in ancient Egypt and if it did then considers whether these practitioners were operative dental surgeons as we know them today or whether they were pharmacists. Evidence from hieroglyphic inscriptions, from the dentitions of the surviving mummified and skeletal remains, and from ancient documents and artefacts are examined. The conclusion would suggest that operative dental treatment if it did exist at all was extremely limited. The dental treatment that appears to have been provided was mainly restricted to pharmaceutical preparations that were either applied to the gingival and mucosal tissues or used as mouthwashes, and these at best may only have provided some short term relief. It seems apparent that many ancient Egyptians suffered from widespread and painful dental disease, which the available treatments can have done relatively little to alleviate.

  3. Vascular medicine and surgery in ancient Egypt.

    PubMed

    Barr, Justin

    2014-07-01

    Lauded alike by ancient civilizations and modern society, pharaonic Egyptian medicine remains an object of fascination today. This article discusses its surprisingly sophisticated understanding of a cardiovascular system. The term "cardiovascular system," however, carries assumptions and meanings to a modern audience, especially readers of this journal, which simply do not apply when considering ancient conceptions of the heart and vessels. For lack of better language, this article will use "cardiovascular" and similar terms while recognizing the anachronistic inaccuracy. After briefly summarizing ancient Egyptian medicine generally, it will review the anatomy, pathology, and treatment of the vasculature. The practice of mummification in ancient Egypt provides a unique opportunity for paleopathology, and the conclusion will explore evidence of arterial disease from a modern scientific perspective.

  4. Environmental impact of pesticides in Egypt.

    PubMed

    Mansour, Sameeh A

    2008-01-01

    The first use of petroleum-derived pesticides in Egyptian agriculture was initiated in 1950. Early applications consisted of distributing insecticidal dusts containing DDT/BHC/S onto cotton fields. This practice was followed by use of toxaphene until 1961. Carbamates, organophosphates, and synthetic pyrethroids were subsequently used, mainly for applications to cotton. In addition to the use of about 1 million metric tons (t) of pesticides in the agricultural sector over a 50-yr period, specific health and environmental problems are documented in this review. Major problems represented and discussed in this review are human poisoning, incidental toxicity to farm animals, insect pest resistance, destruction of beneficial parasites and predators, contamination of food by pesticide residues, and pollution of environmental ecosystems. Several reports reveal that chlorinated hydrocarbon pesticide residues are still detectable in several environmental compartments; however, these residues are in decline. Since 1990, there is a growing movement toward reduced consumption of traditional pesticides and a tendency to expand use of biopesticides, including "Bt," and plant incorporated protectants (PIPs). On the other hand, DDT and lindane were used for indoor and hygienic purposes as early as 1952. Presently, indoor use of pesticides for pest control is widespread in Egypt. Accurate information concerning the types and amounts of Egyptian household pesticide use, or numbers of poisoning or contamination incidents, is unavailable. Generally, use of indoor pesticides is inadequately managed. The results of a survey of Egyptian farmers' attitudes toward pesticides and their behavior in using them garnered new insights as to how pesticides should be better controlled and regulated in Egypt.

  5. Dust Plume off the Coast of Egypt

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    Dwarfing the Nile, a river of dust flowed out of the deserts of northern Egypt on May 19, 2007. As the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on NASA's Terra satellite passed overhead at 12:05 p.m. local time in Cairo, the sensor captured this image of the dust spreading northward over the Mediterranean Sea from the sandy deserts that span the country. At the margins of the plume, ribbons and ripples of dust are translucent, allowing a glimpse of the desert and water beneath, but in the center, the cloud is opaque, revealing nothing of the surface below. The part of north-central Egypt hidden by the dust plume is the Qattara Depression, the country's lowest point. Dipping down to 133 meters below sea level (436 feet), the depression is home to sandy deserts and dry lake beds that occasionally flood. The sand and fine, lake bed sediments are easily lofted into the air by strong winds that scour the area in late winter and early spring. In the eastern (right-hand) part of the image, the Nile River is lined by narrow ribbons of dull green vegetation. The fan-shaped delta is dotted with tan-colored spots, marking the location of cities and towns. The Nile Valley and Delta make up only a small fraction of the country's total land area, yet they support almost the entire population. The large image provided above has a spatial resolution (level of detail) of 250 meters per pixel. The MODIS Rapid Response Team provides this image in additional resolutions. The Earth Observatory also provides a 250-meter-resolution KMZ file of this image for use with Google Earth.

  6. The determinants of labor migration in Egypt.

    PubMed

    Greenwood, M J

    1969-08-01

    The factors which affect individual decisions with regard to geographic movement in Egypt are examined and the magnitude in which each factor exerts its influence on aggregate geographic labor supply adjustments is estimated. The spatial unit used in the study is the administrative region, of which there are 25. No effort is made to esimate the impact which migration has had on the origin or destination region. The migrant will presumably choose that destination which, given his information, the migrant thinks will be best. The model which is employed attempts to explain gross interregional migration without the explicit introduction of an individual decision function. Rather, migration is related to certain aggregate proxy variables. Among the independent variables employed in the analysis are (origin and destination) income, education, urbanization, and population. The other explanatory variable used is the distance between region i and region j. The migration measure employed refers to cumulative male migration which occurred prior to 1960; the independent variables are defined for a given point in time (1960). The independent variables explain a reasonably large percentage of the variance in migration between regions in Egypt. All variables were significant at the 5% level or better. The findings indicate that distance acts as an important impediment to migration. Migration is away from low wage and toward high wage regions, which may have contributed to a narrowing of regional wage differentials. Migrants are attracted to regions which have large populations and to regions which have a large percentage of urban to total population. A tendency exists for migrants to come from regions with large populations. There is also some tendency for migrants to come from regions which have a relatively large urban population. Migrants do not appear to come from regions with high educational levels.

  7. Geodiversity assessment of the Sinai Peninsula, Egypt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torab, Magdy; Farghaly, Enas

    2015-04-01

    The Sinai Peninsula is a triangular plateau lies in NE corner of Egypt, its head in the south at Ras Mohammed and its other sides between the Gulf of Aqaba and Gulf of Suez and the triangle base on the Mediterranean Sea. Sinai Peninsula is the most attractive region from the geological, geomorphological and environmental stand points of view because it displays a variety of simple and complex structural and landforms, (Abu Al-Izz,1971). In general, Sinai Peninsula reflects all geologic column of Egypt. Geomorphologically, Sinai Peninsula comprises many geomorphologic units such as mountains blocks, cliffs, isolated hills, wadies, hogbacks, questas, sand ridges, muddy and marshy lands, lakes and shorelines. This paper aims to define and measure geodiversity assessment index of the Sinai Peninsula as the quantitative variety of geological, topographical, geomorphological, hydrological and soil features. Some geodiversity indices maps for the above features produced for Sinai Peninsula were based on the methodology presented by (Pereira et al, 2012), it depends upon calculate of some geodiversity elements for overlay grid of the study area, which divided topographic, geological maps of the Sinai Peninsula with scale 1:500000 and satellite image (landsat 8, 27th October 2014, 12 bands, 30m). It divided into 743 squares (10x10 km), and some partial geodiversity indices such as geological, topographical, geomorphological, hydrological and soil indices were calculated by counting the number of each element inside each square, then the overall geodiversity index map produced by calculate the total number of all indices inside each square, the geodiversity index map were classified into some gradual categories by using isolines: very low, low, medium, high and very high.

  8. Seroprevalence of brucellosis in animals and human populations in the western mountains region in Libya, December 2006-January 2008.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, M O; Elmeshri, S E; Abuzweda, A R; Blauo, M; Abouzeed, Y M; Ibrahim, A; Salem, H; Alzwam, F; Abid, S; Elfahem, A; Elrais, A

    2010-07-29

    Brucellosis is a global zoonotic disease, endemic in North African countries and around the Mediterranean.A prospective study of Brucella seroprevalence was conducted in north-western Libya (western mountains region). Blood samples collected over 13 months in the period December 2006 to January 2008 from 561 animals (goats, sheep, cattle and camels) and 546 human volunteers were tested for Brucella using the Rose Bengal test, tube agglutination test and ELISA assays. Amongst livestock, 31% of goats and 42% of cattle were seropositive. Human samples showed a high seropositivity of 40%, with 95 (43%) of the 221 positive samples positive for IgM, indicating active or recent infection. Control measures are needed to reduce this high prevalence of brucellosis in Libya.

  9. Prevalence of hepatitis B and C virus infections and their related risk factors in Libya: a national seroepidemiological survey.

    PubMed

    Elzouki, A-N; Smeo, M-N; Sammud, M; Elahmer, O; Daw, M; Furarah, A; Abudher, A; Mohamed, M K

    2013-07-01

    A high prevalence of hepatitis B (HBV) and C virus (HCV) infections has been reported among specific patient groups in Libya; a survey was thus designed to determine the extent of the problem at the national level. A multi-stage sampling design covering all administrative areas of Libya was applied, covering > 65,000 individuals of all age groups. All subjects gave a blood sample and completed a questionnaire on demographic and risk behaviour data. The prevalence of HBV surface antigen (HBsAg) and anti-HCV were 2.2% and 1.3% respectively. The prevalence of anti-HCV increased with age, rising gradually after age 30 years, in contrast to a stable prevalence of HBsAg in all age groups 10+ years. Age-adjusted risk factors for HCV infection were previous hospitalization, surgical operations, previous blood transfusions and intravenous drug use; for HBV infection only family exposure or contact with HBV case were identified.

  10. Isolation, Identification and Molecular Typing of Cryptococcus neoformans from Pigeon Droppings and Other Environmental Sources in Tripoli, Libya.

    PubMed

    Ellabib, Mohamed S; Aboshkiwa, Mohamed A; Husien, Walid M; D'Amicis, Roberta; Cogliati, Massimo

    2016-08-01

    Cryptococcus neoformans and C. gattii are the major cause of fungal meningitis, a potentially lethal mycosis. Since pigeon excreta and other environmental sources can be considered a significant environmental reservoir of this species in urban areas, 100 samples of pigeon excreta and 420 samples from Eucalyptus camaldulensis and Olea europaea (olive tree) around the city of Tripoli, Libya, were collected. C. neoformans was isolated and identified using standard biochemical assays from 46 samples: 34 from pigeon droppings, 3 from Eucalyptus trees and 9 from olive trees. Molecular typing revealed that all isolates from pigeon droppings belonged to molecular type VNI (C. neoformans var. grubii) and mating type αA, whereas those from trees included also the molecular type VNII and VNIII (AD hybrids). The present study reports, for the first time, information about the distribution of species, mating types and molecular types of C. neoformans/C. gattii species complex in Libya.

  11. Valleys, paleolakes and possible shorelines at the Libya Montes/Isidis boundary: Implications for the hydrologic evolution of Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erkeling, G.; Reiss, D.; Hiesinger, H.; Poulet, F.; Carter, J.; Ivanov, M. A.; Hauber, E.; Jaumann, R.

    2012-05-01

    We describe the results of our morphologic, stratigraphic and mineralogic investigations of fluvial landforms, paleolakes and possible shoreline morphologies at the Libya Montes/Isidis Planitia boundary. The landforms are indicative of aqueous activity and standing bodies of water, including lakes, seas and oceans, that are attributed to a complex hydrologic cycle that may have once existed on Mars in the Noachian (>3.7 Ga) and perhaps also in the Hesperian (>3.1 Ga). Our observations of the Libya Montes/Isidis Planitia boundary between 85°/86.5°E and 1.8°/5°N suggest, that (1) the termination of valley networks between roughly -2500 and -2800 m coincide with lake-size ponding in basins within the Libya Montes, (2) an alluvial fan and a possible delta, layered morphologies and associated Al-phyllosilicates identified within bright, polygonally fractured material at the front of the delta deposits are interpreted to be the results of fluvial activity and discharge into a paleolake, (3) the Arabia "shoreline" appears as a series of possible coastal cliffs at about -3600 and -3700 m indicating two distinct still stands and wave-cut action of a paleosea that temporarily filled the Isidis basin the Early Hesperian, and (4) the Deuteronilus "shoreline" appears at -3800 m and is interpreted to be a result of the proposed sublimation residue of a frozen sea that might have filled the Isidis basin, similar to the Vastitas Borealis Formation (VBF) identified in the northern lowlands. We interpret the morphologic-geologic setting and associated mineral assemblages of the Libya Montes/Isidis Planitia boundary as results of fluvial activity, lake-size standing bodies of water and an environmental change over time toward decreasing water availability and a cold and dry climate.

  12. Africa: Unrest and restrictive terms limit abundant potential. [Oil and gas exploration and development in Africa

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-08-01

    This paper summarizes the drilling and exploration activity of the oil and gas industries of Egypt, Libya, Tunisia, Algeria, Morocco, Nigeria, Cameroon, Gabon, the Congo, Angola, and South Africa. Information is provided on current and predicted trends in well drilling activities (both onshore and offshore), numbers of new wells, footage information, production statistics and what fields accounted for this production, and planned new exploration activities. The paper also describes the current status of government policies and political problems affecting the oil and gas industry.

  13. Africa's natural gas: potentialities and letdowns

    SciTech Connect

    Baladian, K.

    1983-11-01

    Although Africa has experienced 10 times less hydrocarbon exploration than Western Europe, its proved gas reserves already amount to 220-223 trillion CF or 7% of world reserves, while Europe holds 6% or 167 TCF. Yet Africa marketed only 1.3 TCF in 1982 against Europe's 6.5 TCF. Because of the lack of domestic demand for gas, Africa flares up to 21% of its gas output. Algeria is the continent's primary gas consumer, with Egypt, Libya, and Nigeria trying to expand local gas markets. The vast majority of marketed African gas goes to Europe, either as gas sent through the Trans-Med pipeline or as LNG via tanker.

  14. Turmoil doesn`t dampen enthusiasm

    SciTech Connect

    1997-08-01

    The paper discusses the outlook for the African gas and oil industries. Though Africa remains politically and economically volatile, its vast energy potential is becoming increasingly attractive to foreign oil and gas companies. Separate evaluations are given for Algeria, Egypt, Nigeria, Angola, Libya, Congo, Gabon, Tunisia, Cameroon, Cote D`Ivoire, and briefly for South Africa, Sudan, Equatorial Guinea, Ghana, Zaire, Benin, Mozambique, Chad, Namibia, Tanzania, Eritrea, Guinea-Bissau, Senegal, Morocco, Sao Tome and Principe, Ethiopia, Niger, Madagascar, Rwanda, Mauritania, Seychelles, Uganda, and Liberia.

  15. U-Pb LA-ICP-MS detrital zircon ages from the Cambrian of Al Qarqaf Arch, central-western Libya: Provenance of the West Gondwanan sand sea at the dawn of the early Palaeozoic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Altumi, Muftah Mahmud; Elicki, Olaf; Linnemann, Ulf; Hofmann, Mandy; Sagawe, Anja; Gärtner, Andreas

    2013-03-01

    the Pan-African cycle in the Trans-Saharan Belt (Pharussian and Dahomeyean belts) and of the peri-Gondwanan terranes (Cadomia). This conclusion is in accordance with published data from the Hoggar (Tassilis, Algeria) and from southwestern (eastern Murzuq Basin) and southeastern Libya (Al Kufrah Basin). In comparison to the strong input of Neoproterozoic zircon grains, input from the Palaeoproterozoic and Archaean sources of the cratonic basement (Saharan Metacraton and West African craton) is relatively limited. The exact source of the exotic Mesoproterozoic zircons remains problematic. The presented data lead to the conclusion that the centre of early Palaeozoic thermal subsidence in central-northern Africa has to be located in the region of the Saharan Metacraton. The distinct unconformity at the base of the Cambrian Hasawnah Formation indicates major uplift and considerable denudation in the latest Neoproterozoic to early Cambrian time interval. Because of the conspicuous maturity of the Hasawnah Formation siliciclastic deposits, a coeval intense chemical weathering under warm to humid climatic conditions in low to moderate southern latitudes and the formation of a Gondwanan peneplain is indicated.

  16. Views of Ancient Egypt. Teacher's Guide. School Arts: Looking/Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Downs, Linda; Brenner, Carla

    This teaching guide discusses ancient Egyptian culture, the lithographs made by Napoleon's scientists in 1798-99 to study and record every aspect of Egypt, the world's subsequent fascination with Egypt, ancient Egyptian architecture, Egyptian writing, and archeologists' illustrations of Egypt. The guide suggests activities for elementary school,…

  17. Fulbright-Hays Summer Seminars Abroad Program 1989. Egypt: Transition to the Modern World.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Office of International Education (ED), Washington, DC.

    This document consists of four papers on various aspects of development in Egypt prepared by participants in the Fulbright-Hays Seminars Abroad Program in Egypt in 1989. Four of the papers are descriptive, one is a lesson plan. The papers included are: (1) "Egypt: Transition to Modern Times" (Katherine Jensen) focuses on the role of…

  18. Shari’a Law, Cult Violence and System Change in Egypt: The Dilemma Facing President Mubarak.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-04-05

    they appear to be oblivious to the widespread unease.’ How long will the masses tolerate a system that seemingly worm against them? Obviously no one...a French cheese popular in Egypt. See Mubarak’s Egypt, p. 20. 21. The Egypt of Nasser and Sadat, p. 221. 31 ...secondary and university education

  19. Ambient lead measurements in Cairo, Egypt

    SciTech Connect

    Howes, J.E. Jr.; Labib, M.; Samaha, N.; Sabry, M.; Araby, H.E.

    1999-07-01

    The Cairo Air Improvement Project (CAIP) has established a network of 36 stations to monitor airborne lead levels in the Greater Cairo Area. Data obtained during the first 4 months of the monitoring program indicates that lead levels in ambient air significantly exceed the Government of Egypt's (GOE) Law Number 4 (1994) limit of 1 {micro} g/m{sup 3} (annual mean) in areas downwind of secondary lead smelters and in heavily trafficked areas. The highest mean and single sampling event lead levels were observed in the heavily industrialized areas of Shoubra el-Kheima and Tebbin. At two sites in Shoubra el-Kheima, mean and maximum lead levels were determined to be approximately 20 {micro} g/m{sup 3} and 79 {micro} g/m{sup 3}, respectively. At three sites located in areas of high motor vehicle traffic in the central part of the city, the mean lead level was about 4 {micro} g/m{sup 3} and the maximum levels ranged from approximately 10 x 20 {micro} g/m{sup 3}. Of the remainder of the sites, the mean lead concentrations were 2fd3 {micro} g/m{sup 3} at three sites, 1 P2 {mu} g/m{sup 3} at 16 sites, and below 1 {micro} g/m{sup 3} at eight sites. Lead levels in areas devoted primarily to residential use were generally less than 2 {micro} g/m{sup 3}. The maximum mean monthly PM{sub 10} lead value measured at fugitive emission monitoring sites near lead smelters was approximately 73 {micro} g/m{sup 3}. The maximum lead concentration measured during a single sampling event was 180 {micro} g/m{sup 3}. Generally lower lead levels were observed in December due to regulation action that resulted in some suspension of smelting operations and to approximately 180-degree wind direction shifts that typically occur during this period of the year. The GOE is working vigorously to eliminate the lead problem in Egypt through implementation of the Lead Exposure Action Plan (LEAP). A major component of LEAP is the Lead Smelter Action Plan (LSAP).

  20. Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism Diversity in Cephalosporium maydis from Egypt.

    PubMed

    Saleh, Amgad A; Zeller, Kurt A; Ismael, Abou-Serie M; Fahmy, Zeinab M; El-Assiuty, Elhamy M; Leslie, John F

    2003-07-01

    ABSTRACT Cephalosporium maydis, the causal agent of late wilt of maize, was first described in Egypt in the 1960s, where it can cause yield losses of up to 40% in susceptible plantings. We characterized 866 isolates of C. maydis collected from 14 governates in Egypt, 7 in the Nile River Delta and 7 in southern (Middle and Upper) Egypt, with amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) markers. The four AFLP primer-pair combinations generated 68 bands, 25 of which were polymorphic, resulting in 52 clonal haplotypes that clustered the 866 isolates into four phylogenetic lineages. Three lineages were found in both the Nile River Delta and southern Egypt. Lineage IV, the most diverse group (20 haplotypes), was recovered only from governates in the Nile River Delta. In some locations, one lineage dominated (up to 98% of the isolates recovered) and, from some fields, only a single haplotype was recovered. Under field conditions in Egypt, there is no evidence that C. maydis reproduces sexually. The nonuniform geographic distribution of the pathogen lineages within the country could be due to differences in climate or in the farming system, because host material differs in susceptibility and C. maydis lineages differ in pathogenicity.

  1. Recent temporal and spatial temperature changes in Egypt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Domroes, Manfred; El-Tantawi, Attia

    2005-01-01

    In order to detect and to estimate trends of temperature change in Egypt, trend analyses applying the least-squares method and the non-parametric Mann-Kendall test for trends were carried out at six stations for the period 1941-2000 (60 years), and at nine stations for the period 1971-2000 (30 years).According to the trend computations for the period 1941-2000, variable temperature trends over time and space have been observed. Decreasing trends of the mean annual temperature were observed in northern Egypt and (weakly) increasing trends in southern Egypt. Seasonally, positive trends prevailed in summer compared with negative trends in winter. For the recent period, 1971-2000, positive trends were computed for the mean annual and mean minimum temperatures at all stations except Port Said in northern Egypt, where the annual trend was weakly negative. The mean maximum temperature trends were, however, negative at most stations. Seasonally, a definite trend of warming occurred in summer, in contrast to the observations of a global temperature increase in winter.A principal component analysis was applied to compute the all-Egypt temperature trends. For the observation period, 1941-2000, decreasing trends were shown for annual, maximum, winter and autumn temperatures and increasing trends for minimum, winter and spring temperatures. For the recent period, 1971-2000, all trends were positive except maximum temperature.

  2. "Breaking the bureaucracy": drug registration and neocolonial relations in Egypt.

    PubMed

    Rubinstein, R A

    1998-06-01

    According to the Egyptian Ministry of Health, the per capita use of prescription drugs in Egypt is amongst the highest in the world. Multinational pharmaceutical companies license their proprietary products for manufacture and sale in Egypt through their Egyptian subsidiaries. A Ministry of Health Committee reviews and approves for sale all drugs marketed in the country. Aside from being an extremely lucrative market itself, approval of a drug for sale and manufacture in Egypt also opens to the pharmaceutical companies other markets in the Arab world. The Egyptian drug approval process is thus both important for assuring the health of Egyptian nationals and a high-stakes activity for the pharmaceutical companies. This paper examines the social relations and interactions of multinational pharmaceutical representatives in Egypt with Egyptian researchers in relation to the Ministry of Health's drug approval process. From time-to-time events focus attention on the huge financial rewards reaped by multinational pharmaceutical companies from their activities in lesser developed countries. This attention not infrequently has revealed the "drugging of the Third World" as a result of actions by expatriate multinational pharmaceutical officials. Indigenous review procedures such as those established by the Egyptian Ministry of Health might guard against such external exploitation. This paper shows how in place of external exploitation, indigenous pharmaceutical company officials have manipulated local patterns of social interaction to construct a system of reciprocal obligations which may frustrate intended safeguards, and by reconstructing colonial institutional structures, creates a pattern of neocolonialism in Egypt.

  3. Impact of the 2011 Libyan conflict on road traffic injuries in Benghazi, Libya

    PubMed Central

    Bodalal, Zuhir; Bendardaf, Riyad; Ambarek, Mohammed; Nagelkerke, Nico

    2015-01-01

    Background Road traffic injuries (RTIs) are a major public health concern in Libya. In the light of the armed conflict in Libya that broke out on February 2011 and the subsequent instability, the rate and pattern of RTIs was studied. Methods RTI patient data were gathered from Al-Jalaa hospital, the main trauma center in Benghazi, from 2010 to 2011. Various parameters [i.e. age, gender, nationality, method of entry, receiving department, intensive care unit (ICU) admission, duration of stay, method of discharge, and fatalities] were compared with data from the previous year (2010), and statistical analyses were performed (t-test, chi-square, and Poisson regression). Results During the conflict period, 15.8% (n=2,221) of hospital admissions were RTIs, that is, a rate of 6.08 RTI cases per day, levels not seen for 5 years (t=−5.719, p<0.001). The presence of armed conflict was found to have caused a significant 28% decrease in the trend of RTIs over the previous 10 years (B=−0.327, CI=−0.38–−0.28, p<0.001). February and March, the peak period of active combat in Benghazi, witnessed the lowest number of RTIs during the conflict period. The average age of an RTI decreased to 28.35±16.3 years (t=−7.257, p<0.001) with significantly more males (84.1%, n=1,755) being affected (χ2=4.595, p=0.032, df=1). There was an increase in the proportion of younger aged patients (from 0 to 29 years) (χ2=29.874, p<0.001, df=8). More patients required admission to the ICU (χ2=36.808, p<0.001, df=8), and the mortality of an RTI increased to 5.2% (n=116) (χ2=48.882, p<0.001, df=6). Conclusion There were fewer RTIs during the conflict period; however, those that occurred had higher morbidity and mortality. The profile of an RTI victims also changed to an increased prominence of young males and motorcyclists. Further research is required to propose and analyze possible interventions. PMID:25673038

  4. Ground water in the Sirte area, Tripolitania, United Kingdom of Libya

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ogilbee, William

    1964-01-01

    The present study of the ground-water conditions in the Sirte area was made during December 1961 and March-April 1962 at the request of officials of the Government of Libya. Particular attention was given to the potential of the fresh-water aquifer near Qasr Bu Itadi as a source of water for Sirte. The Sirte area lies on the southern coast of the Mediterranean Sea about 450 kilometers east-southeast of Tripoli, cocapital of Libya. Although the area receives some winter precipitation, the climate is arid. The surface rocks of the area are chiefly Miocene limestone containing marl, clay, and some sandstone, though Quaternary deposits occur along the wadis and mantle the Miocene rocks in the coastal plain. Fresh ground water occurs locally in Recent sand dunes near Zaafran and in Miocene limestone near Qasr Bu Hadi, south of a probable fault. Elsewhere in the Sirte area, ground water occurs generally in Tertiary rocks but contains 3,000 or more parts per million of dissolved solids. To establish the hydraulic characteristics of the fresh-water aquifer in the Qasr Bu Itadi area, two test wells were drilled and a controlled pumping test was made. The coefficient of transmissibility was found to be about 25,000 gallons per day per foot (13.68 cubic meters per hour per meter), and the coefficient of storage, about 0.00055. The pumping test also established the presence of two barrier-type hydraulic boundaries for the aquifer, one about 250 meters westward and another about 535 meters northward from well 9a. The first boundary is probably the small anticline on which stands the fort of Qasr Bu Itadi; the second boundary is probably a northwest trending fault. Using the transmissibility and storage coefficients derived from the pumping test, the writer concludes that (1) the total draft from the fresh-water aquifer should not exceed 13.5 cubic meters per hour and (2) production wells should be at least 3 kilometers south of well 9a.

  5. The Kufrah paleodrainage system in Libya: A past connection to the Mediterranean Sea?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paillou, Philippe; Tooth, Stephen; Lopez, Sylvia

    2012-08-01

    Paillou et al. (2009) mapped a 900 km-long paleodrainage system in eastern Libya, the Kufrah River, that could have linked the southern Kufrah Basin to the Mediterranean coast through the Sirt Basin, possibly as long ago as the Middle Miocene. We study here the potential connection between the terminal part of the Kufrah River and the Mediterranean Sea through the Wadi Sahabi paleochannel, which may have constituted the northern extension of the lower Kufrah River paleodrainage system. New analysis of SRTM-derived topography combined with Synthetic Aperture Radar images from the Japanese PALSAR orbital sensor allowed the mapping of seven main paleochannels located west of the Kufrah River, each of which is likely to have formed a tributary that supplied water and sediment to the main paleodrainage system. The northernmost four paleochannels probably originated from the Al Haruj relief, a Pliocene alkaline basaltic intracontinental volcanic field, and potentially connected to the Wadi Sahabi paleochannel. The remaining three paleochannels are in the more southerly location of the Sarir Calanscio, North-East of the Tibesti mountains, and barely present a topographic signature in SRTM data. They end in the dunes of the Calanscio Sand Sea, forming alluvial fans. The most southern paleochannel, known as Wadi Behar Belama, was previously mapped by Pachur (1996) using LANDSAT-TM images, and was interpreted by Osborne et al. (2008) as representing part of an uninterrupted sediment pathway from the Tibesti mountains to the Mediterranean Sea. Processing of SRTM topographic data revealed local depressions which allow to connect the seven paleochannels and possibly the terminal alluvial fan of the Kufrah River to the Wadi Sahabi paleochannel, through a 400 km-long, south-north oriented, paleocorridor. These new findings support our previous hypothesis that proposed a connection between the lower Kufrah River in the region of the Sarir Dalmah and the Wadi Sahabi paleochannel

  6. Seismic hazard assessments at Islamic Cairo, Egypt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khalil, A. E.; Deif, A.; Abdel Hafiez, H. E.

    2015-12-01

    Islamic Cairo is one of the important Islamic monumental complexes in Egypt, near the center of present-day metropolitan Cairo. The age of these buildings is up to one thousand years. Unfortunately, many of the buildings are suffering from huge mishandling that may lead to mass damage. Many buildings and masjids were partially and totally collapsed because of 12th October 1992 Cairo earthquake that took place at some 25 km from the study area with a magnitude Mw = 5.8. Henceforth, potential damage assessments there are compulsory. The deterministic and probabilistic techniques were used to predict the expected future large earthquakes' strong-motion characteristics in the study area. The current study started with compiling the available studies concerned with the distribution of the seismogenic sources and earthquake catalogs. The deterministic method is used to provide a description of the largest earthquake effect on the area of interest, while the probabilistic method, on the other hand, is used to define the uniform hazard curves at three time periods 475, 950, 2475 years. Both deterministic and probabilistic results were obtained for bedrock conditions and the resulted hazard levels were deaggregated to identify the contribution of each seismic source to the total hazard. Moreover, the results obtained show that the expected seismic activities combined with the present situation of the buildings pose high alert to rescue both the cultural heritage and expected human losses.

  7. Implications of terrain movements in Egypt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nassar, Mohamed M.

    1988-10-01

    The purpose of this paper is to study the causes of localized terrain movements in Egypt. The motivation behind this research has been the vast progress in constructing huge engineering structures (dams, bridge,, tall buildings, etc.) as well as extending the urban activities in many new cities. These must be properly studied to ensure their safety versus their cost and other economic factors. In addition, the recent tendency is towards building nuclear power stations whose locations must be carefully investigated against the hazard and danger of inevitable atomic leakage, especially in the case of seismically active regions. Also the discovery of new oil wells and mines and the effects of future depletion require considerable attention from qualified investigators. The relative tectonic movements of North Africa and Southern Europe, the seismic activities around the Alexandria region, the presence of faults related to the region of the High Dam and its reservoir in Aswan, the erosion of the banks of the River Nile and its islands as well as coastal lines along the Mediterranean and the Red Sea, and the deformation and damage to large buildings in the Cairo area are examined here as a few examples of the implications of the earth's deformations within Egyptian territory. Strong recommendations are made concerning the necessity of studying and monitoring the terrain movements in the areas where new cities, large engineering constructions and power plants are planned to be erected.

  8. Congenital hand anomalies in Upper Egypt

    PubMed Central

    Abulezz, Tarek; Talaat, Mohamed; Elsani, Asem; Allam, Karam

    2016-01-01

    Background: Congenital hand anomalies are numerous and markedly variant. Their significance is attributed to the frequent occurrence and their serious social, psychological and functional impacts on patient's life. Patients and Methods: This is a follow-up study of 64 patients with hand anomalies of variable severity. All patients were presented to Plastic Surgery Department of Sohag University Hospital in a period of 24 months. Results: This study revealed that failure of differentiation and duplication deformities were the most frequent, with polydactyly was the most common anomaly encountered. The mean age of presentation was 6 years and female to male ratio was 1.46:1. Hand anomalies were either isolated, associated with other anomalies or part of a syndrome. Conclusion: Incidence of congenital hand anomalies in Upper Egypt is difficult to be estimated due to social and cultural concepts, lack of education, poor registration and deficient medical survey. Management of hand anomalies should be individualised, carefully planned and started as early as possible to achieve the best outcome. PMID:27833283

  9. Vector snail control in Qalyub, Egypt

    PubMed Central

    van der Schalie, Henry

    1958-01-01

    The author describes a pilot study in vector snail control carried out in 1953-54 by the Bilharziasis Control Project in Qalyub, Egypt. After giving a brief description of the site chosen for the Project—an area of some 5000 acres (2000 hectares) under perennial irrigation—he presents a detailed account of the various snail surveys of the irrigation canals and drains and of the molluscicidal treatment of infested channels. He points out that despite the thoroughness of the surveying and treatment the snails were not completely eliminated from the area and stresses that the high cost of the molluscicide used (copper sulfate) would prohibit its widespread and continual use. He considers, however, that pending the perfection of such long-term bilharziasis control measures as improved sanitation, better treatment facilities, and health education of the public, snail control is of the first importance and determined efforts should be made to find more efficient and cheaper methods of effecting it. PMID:13585074

  10. Familial aggregation of colorectal cancer in Egypt.

    PubMed

    Soliman, A S; Bondy, M L; Levin, B; El-Badawy, S; Khaled, H; Hablas, A; Ismail, S; Adly, M; Mahgoub, K G; McPherson, R S; Beasley, R P

    1998-09-11

    We have investigated the familial aggregation of colorectal cancer and hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer (HNPCC) in Egypt because of the high incidence of colorectal cancer in Egyptian children and young adults and the prevalence of consanguinity there. In a pilot study, we conducted detailed interviews with 111 Egyptian colorectal cancer patients and 111 healthy Egyptian controls about their family histories of colorectal cancer, and other cancers, consanguinity, age at diagnosis, symptoms and recurrence. Eight patients (7.2%) had one or more first- or second-degree relatives under age 40 with colorectal cancer, suggestive of HNPCC by the Amsterdam criteria. One of these families had a typical history of HNPCC, with 4 relatives having colorectal cancer in 3 generations; 3 of these relatives were younger than age 45 at colon cancer diagnosis, and other relatives had extracolonic tumors. Another 14 patients (12.6%) had a first- or second-degree relative with a family history of other neoplasms such as endometrial, urinary and hepatobiliary cancers that could also be related to HNPCC. Four patients with early-onset colon cancer and a family history of other HNPCC-related cancers reported that their parents were first-degree cousins.

  11. Probabilistic earthquake hazard analysis for Cairo, Egypt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Badawy, Ahmed; Korrat, Ibrahim; El-Hadidy, Mahmoud; Gaber, Hanan

    2016-04-01

    Cairo is the capital of Egypt and the largest city in the Arab world and Africa, and the sixteenth largest metropolitan area in the world. It was founded in the tenth century (969 ad) and is 1046 years old. It has long been a center of the region's political and cultural life. Therefore, the earthquake risk assessment for Cairo has a great importance. The present work aims to analysis the earthquake hazard of Cairo as a key input's element for the risk assessment. The regional seismotectonics setting shows that Cairo could be affected by both far- and near-field seismic sources. The seismic hazard of Cairo has been estimated using the probabilistic seismic hazard approach. The logic tree frame work was used during the calculations. Epistemic uncertainties were considered into account by using alternative seismotectonics models and alternative ground motion prediction equations. Seismic hazard values have been estimated within a grid of 0.1° × 0.1 ° spacing for all of Cairo's districts at different spectral periods and four return periods (224, 615, 1230, and 4745 years). Moreover, the uniform hazard spectra have been calculated at the same return periods. The pattern of the contour maps show that the highest values of the peak ground acceleration is concentrated in the eastern zone's districts (e.g., El Nozha) and the lowest values at the northern and western zone's districts (e.g., El Sharabiya and El Khalifa).

  12. Familial cluster of exposure to a confirmed rabid dog in travelers to Algeria.

    PubMed

    Antwi, Sylvie; Parola, Philippe; Sow, Doudou; Sornin, Victoria; Henrion, Maxime; Gautret, Philippe

    2017-01-09

    A 10 person-family originating from Algeria traveled in rural Algeria for the purpose of visiting friends and relatives without seeking pre-travel advice, did not received pre-travel rabies immunization, and were exposed to a confirmed rabid dog including 8 within less than 4 days of arrival. Three received suckling mouse brain rabies vaccine although WHO strongly recommends that its production and administration be discontinued and seven received insufficient doses of equine rabies immune globulin abroad. Rabies treatment was completed on returning to France. This reports underline the fact that travelers visiting friends and relatives in dog rabies endemic country are at high risk of rabies exposure and unaware of such a risk in most instances. Rabies risk warning should be reinforced and rabies pre-exposure vaccination should be considered in all individuals traveling to North Africa (and to sub-Saharan Africa) whatever the duration of stay.

  13. [The population explosion in Algeria: the causes, the effects, and the solutions].

    PubMed

    Muller, H

    1990-01-01

    "For decades Algeria has had one of the highest population growth rates in the world, arising directly from a steady gap between deathrates and birthrates. The reasons are of a complex social, economic and cultural kind, such as high infant mortality, traditionally early marriage, family models largely determined by religion, the common practice of child labour and other factors. As a consequence of the mismatch between economic and demographic growth the society is confronted by growing mass unemployment, underemployment, food supply problems, housing shortages and ecological crises. The critical economic situation in the eighties reduced the prospects for constraining the population explosion by quickly conquering socioeconomic underdevelopment. Nowadays Algeria is deliberately following a programme for family planning, which is also supported to a certain extent by the Islamic clergy." (SUMMARY IN ENG)

  14. Meningoencephalitis due to the amoeboflagellate Naegleria fowleri in ruminants in Algeria.

    PubMed

    Benterki, Mohamed Seghir; Ayachi, Ammar; Bennoune, Omar; Régoudis, Estelle; Pélandakis, Michel

    2016-01-01

    Primary amoebic meningoencephalitis (PAM) is a fatal infection in most cases, caused by the amoeba flagellate Naegleria fowleri. This report describes the first cases of PAM in Algeria, in a cow and a ewe from Batna, north-eastern Algeria. The death of both ruminants occurred a week after the first clinical manifestations. The cerebrospinal fluid, after staining with May-Grünwald-Giemsa, showed the presence of amoebae cells. Histological sections revealed numerous amoebae in all parts of the brain. The presence of N. fowleri was confirmed using a species-specific real-time PCR in histological tissue sections. The two PAM cases were reported during the hot season, and the source of infection is very likely the water where the cattle came to drink. Particular attention should be focused on this type of infection in aquatic environments when the temperature is high and preventive measures must be taken to avoid the proliferation of N. fowleri.

  15. Meningoencephalitis due to the amoeboflagellate Naegleria fowleri in ruminants in Algeria

    PubMed Central

    Benterki, Mohamed Seghir; Ayachi, Ammar; Bennoune, Omar; Régoudis, Estelle; Pélandakis, Michel

    2016-01-01

    Primary amoebic meningoencephalitis (PAM) is a fatal infection in most cases, caused by the amoeba flagellate Naegleria fowleri. This report describes the first cases of PAM in Algeria, in a cow and a ewe from Batna, north-eastern Algeria. The death of both ruminants occurred a week after the first clinical manifestations. The cerebrospinal fluid, after staining with May-Grünwald-Giemsa, showed the presence of amoebae cells. Histological sections revealed numerous amoebae in all parts of the brain. The presence of N. fowleri was confirmed using a species-specific real-time PCR in histological tissue sections. The two PAM cases were reported during the hot season, and the source of infection is very likely the water where the cattle came to drink. Particular attention should be focused on this type of infection in aquatic environments when the temperature is high and preventive measures must be taken to avoid the proliferation of N. fowleri. PMID:26979770

  16. Decision support for sustainable urban drainage system management: a case study of Jijel, Algeria.

    PubMed

    Benzerra, Abbas; Cherrared, Marzouk; Chocat, Bernard; Cherqui, Frédéric; Zekiouk, Tarik

    2012-06-30

    This paper aims to develop a methodology to support the sustainable management of Urban Drainage Systems (UDSs) in Algeria. This research is motivated by the various difficulties that the National Sanitation Office (ONA) has in managing this complex infrastructure. The method mainly consists of two approaches: the top-down approach and the bottom-up approach. The former facilitates the identification of factors related to a sustainable UDS, the development priorities and the criteria available to managers. The latter assesses UDS performance using the weighted sum method to aggregate indicators or criteria weighted using the Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP). The method is demonstrated through its application to the UDS in the city of Jijel, Algeria.

  17. Performances and failure of field-aged PV modules operating in Saharan region of Algeria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sadok, M.; Benyoucef, B.; Othmani, M.; Mehdaoui, A.

    2016-07-01

    This article deals with behaviour of PV modules, of different technologies and manufacturers, exposed for long periods in Saharan region of Algeria. These modules are exposed in Adrar in the south-western part of Algeria. The study uses experimental I-V curves of PV modules for determining their performances. The datasheet information of modules will be useful in determination of degradation rates of the modules. Three types of modules have been tested: Photowatt (PWX 500), UDTS-50 and Isofoton (I-75 and I-100 serials). Results showed that Isofoton I-100 modules present the highest degradation rate while the lowest degradation rate was reached with I-75 serial. However, these rates tallies with other studies. The visual inspection of the modules has revealed various kinds of failures and defects responsible of performances drop (EVA browning, delamination, burn marks,…).

  18. Nematodes parasitizing Trachurus trachurus (L.) and Boops boops (L.) from Algeria.

    PubMed

    Ichalal, Keltoum; Ramdane, Zouhir; Ider, Djamila; Kacher, Mohammed; Iguerouada, Mokrane; Trilles, Jean-Paul; Courcot, Luci; Amara, Rachid

    2015-11-01

    A total of 455 Boops boops (Linnaeus, 1758) and 953 Trachurus trachurus Linnaeus, 1758 from the east coast of Algeria were examined for their parasitic Nematoda. Two hundred ninety-five specimens of larval stages L3 and L4 were collected from the peritoneal cavity of these two examined fishes. Photonic and scanning electronic microscopy (SEM) studies were performed on these larvae specimens in order to characterize their morphology. Two different species of Nematoda (Anisikidae) were identified: Anisakis simplex (Rudolphi, 1809) and Hysterothylacium aduncum (Rudolphi, 1802). These two parasitic species were reported for the first time on T. trachurus and B. boops from the eastern coast of Algeria. These parasites were attached on different organs in the abdominal cavity (particularly on ovaries and testes). The infestation rate changed according to the month and the host size. The parasitism did not show a significant negative impact on the condition of the examined fishes.

  19. Impact of urban and industrial effluents on the coastal marine environment in Oran, Algeria.

    PubMed

    Tayeb, A; Chellali, M R; Hamou, A; Debbah, S

    2015-09-15

    In Algeria most of the urban waste water is dumped without treatment into the Sea. It is tremendously important to assess the consequences of organic matter rich sewage on marine ecosystem. In this study we investigated the effects of industrial and urban sewage on the dissolved oxygen (O2), chemical oxygen demand (COD), biochemical oxygen demands (BOD5), pH, salinity, electrical conductivity (EC), Metal element (Hg, Pb, Cu, Ni, Cr, Cd), petroleum hydrocarbons (HC), oil and grease (OG) in Bay of Oran, Algeria. A ten-year follow-up research showed that the concentrations of oil and grease released into the bionetwork are of higher ecological impact and this needs to be given the desired consideration. Information on bathing water quality revealed that the most beaches in Oran are under the national environmental standard limit.

  20. Energy consumption renewable energy development and environmental impact in Algeria - Trend for 2030

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sahnoune, F.; Imessad, K.; Bouakaz, D. M.

    2017-02-01

    The study provides a detailed analysis of the energy production and consumption in Algeria and the associated CO2 emissions. Algeria is an important energy producer (oil and natural gas). The production is currently around 155 MToe. The total primary energy consumption amounted to about 58 MToe equivalent to 1.46 Toe/capita. The energy demand is still increasing, an average annual growth rate of more than 6% per year during the last decade. The growth rate for electricity production was almost twice that of the total energy consumption. In 2015, the installed capacity of the electricity generation plants reached 17.6 GW. Electricity consumption was 64.6 TWh and is expected to reach at least 75 TWh in 2020 and 130 TWh in 2030. The already high electricity demand will double by 2030. In the structure of final energy consumption, the transport sector ranks first (36%), natural gas consumption ranks second (28.5%), followed by electricity production (27.7%). By activity, the energy sector is the main source of CO2 emissions, about ¾ of the total and this sector has the most important potential for mitigation measures. CO2 emissions from this energy sector amounted to 112.2 MT CO2 as follows: 33% transport, 31% electricity production and 26% from natural gas combustion for residential use. The integration of renewable sources in the energy mix represents for Algeria a major challenge. In 2015, Algeria adopted an ambitious program for development of renewable energy. The target is to achieve 22 GW capacity of electricity from renewable by 2030 to reach a rate of 27 % of national electricity generation through renewable sources. By implementing this program, CO2 emissions of power generation will be reduced by more than 18% in 2030.

  1. Uranium-series disequilibrium data for tooth fragments from the fossil hominid site at Ternifine, Algeria.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Szabo, B. J.

    1982-01-01

    I report here analyses of elephant molar-tooth fragments that were submitted by the late K.P.Oakley for uranium-series dating. The tooth fragments were collected by the late C. Arambourg from Pleistocene sand in association with the hominid fossils of Ternifine Man, Algeria. Of the results reported the minimum age of over 360 000 yr BP for the enamel appears to be the most reliable. -Authors

  2. Deoxynivalenol-producing ability of Fusarium culmorum strains and their impact on infecting barley in Algeria.

    PubMed

    Yekkour, Amine; Toumatia, Omrane; Meklat, Atika; Verheecke, Carol; Sabaou, Nasserdine; Zitouni, Abdelghani; Mathieu, Florence

    2015-06-01

    The cereal-pathogenic Fusarium culmorum (W.G. Smith), causal agent of various blights and rot diseases, is considered as a chronic fungus of economic concern worldwide including North African countries such as Algeria. This pathogen produces a wide range of mycotoxins, amongst which the type B-trichothecene deoxynivalenol (DON). In addition to its acute and chronic side effects in livestock and humans, DON is believed to play a determinant role in the pathogenesis toward Triticeae. However, regardless its significant occurrence and impact, little is known about trichothecenes-producing ability of F. culmorum infecting cereals in Algeria. The PCR assay based on Tri genes of 12 F. culmorum strains (designated Fc1-Fc12), which were recovered from several cropping areas of North Algeria, revealed their trichothecenes-producing ability with 3-AcDON genotype. The molecular prediction was confirmed by HPLC analysis. All strains were able to produce the toxin at detectable levels. Strains Fc1 and Fc12 were the highest producers of this mycotoxin with 220 and 230 µg g(-1), respectively. The evaluation of pathogenic ability of strains through a barley infesting experiment exhibited the significant disease impact of most strains. Significant correlation between the DON-producing ability of strains and the increase in both disease severity (r = 0.88, P = 0.05) and disease occurrence (r = 0.70, P = 0.05) was observed. Chemotyping of F. culmorum isolates and evaluation of their pathogenic ability are reported for the first time for isolates from Algeria, and highlights the important potential of F. culmorum to contaminate cultivated cereal with DON trichothecenes.

  3. Molecular characterization of Echinococcus granulosus sensu stricto and Echinococcus canadensis in humans and livestock from Algeria.

    PubMed

    Zait, Houria; Kouidri, Mokhtaria; Grenouillet, Florence Elisabeth; Umhang, Gérald; Millon, Laurence; Hamrioui, Boussad; Grenouillet, Frédéric

    2016-06-01

    In Algeria, previous studies investigated genotypes of Echinococcus granulosus sensu lato in animals and identified E. granulosus sensu stricto (s.s.) genotypes G1 and G3 whereas Echinococcus canadensis genotype G6 was only reported from dromedary cysts. Molecular data on human cystic echinococcosis (CE) were limited. We implemented a large genotyping study of hydatid cysts from humans and livestock animals to specify CE's molecular epidemiology and the genetic diversity in Algeria. Fifty-four human CE cysts from patients predominantly admitted in surgical units from Mustapha Hospital, Algiers, and 16 cysts from livestock animals gathered in two geographically distinct slaughterhouses, Tiaret and Tamanrasset, were collected. Molecular characterization was performed using sequencing of two mitochondrial genes, cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) and NADH dehydrogenase subunit I (NDI). In humans, G1 of E. granulosus s.s. was the main genotype (90.7 %); four samples (7.4 %) were characterized as E. granulosus s.s. G3 and one cyst as E. canadensis G6 (1.8 %). This molecular confirmation of E. canadensis G6 human infection in Algeria was observed in a Tuareg female living in a desertic area in Tamanrasset. All cysts from sheep, cattle, and goat were identified as E. granulosus s.s. G1 and the two cysts originating from dromedary as E. canadensis G6. Twenty concatenated haplotypes (COI + NDI) were characterized. Among E. granulosus s.s., one haplotype (HL1) was highly predominant in both humans and animals cysts (71.6 %). This study revealed main occurrence of E. granulosus s.s. in humans and livestock animals, with description of a predominant shared haplotype corresponding to the main worldwide observed haplotype E.granulosus s.s. G1. E. canadensis G6 was limited to South Algeria, in dromedary as well as in human.

  4. New data on aphid fauna (Hemiptera, Aphididae) in Algeria.

    PubMed

    Laamari, Malik; d'Acier, Armelle Coeur; Jousselin, Emmanuelle

    2013-01-01

    A survey of aphids was carried out during the period 2008-2011 in different regions of Algeria by collecting and identifying aphids and their host plants. Aphids were collected from 46 host plants. Forty-six species were reported including thirty-six species which were recorded for the first time in this country and thirty species which were recorded for the first time in the Maghreb (North Africa). This study extends the number of known Algerian aphid to 156 species.

  5. [Edmond Sergent (1876-1969) and the Pasteur Institute of Algeria].

    PubMed

    de la Tribonnière, X

    2000-01-01

    Edmond Sergent, supported by a distinguished team of colleagues, directed the Pasteur Institute of Algeria for over 60 years, from 1900 to 1963. As a student of Emile Roux, Sergent had received a Pasteurian training. His institute devoted extensive study to malaria. Sergent defined the concept of prevention and extended it to other pathologies. For many years, the Institute persevered in carrying out successful antimalarial campaigns such that Algeria was freed of the disease. In 1916-1917, Sergent and his brother were called upon to organise anti-malarial efforts for the Armée d'Orient. By way of systematic and energetic curative and prophylactic measures, they were able to eradicate the disease. In 1908, the Sergent brothers were the first to discover the role of the louse in the transmission of another disease, relapsing fever. The Pasteur Institute team also discovered the sand fly vector which transmits the parasite causing leishmaniasis. The Sergents found a new form of oculonasal myiasis, called "Thimni". In addition, they led effective campaigns against tuberculosis based on BCG vaccination administered throughout Algeria. The Pasteur Institute of Algeria conducted important research in plant and animal diseases. For example, they detected a trypanosome agent causing dromedary "debab", as well as its vector, the horsefly. They also studied in depth bovine piroplasmosis, which causes widespread and destructive disease, and demonstrated the role of the tick in promoting transmission generally. Their work in botany included the discovery that a Fusarium-type fungus was the causal agent for "baïoudh", the main disease of date palms. They also demonstrated the basic role of the fruit fly in alcoholic grape fermentation.

  6. Medicinal plants used by traditional healers from South-West Algeria: An ethnobotanical study

    PubMed Central

    Benarba, Bachir

    2016-01-01

    Background/Aim: This study aimed to document and analyzes the local knowledge of medicinal plants’ use by traditional healers in South-west Algeria. Methods: The ethnobotanical survey was conducted in two Saharian regions of South-west of Algeria: Adrar and Bechar. In total, 22 local traditional healers were interviewed using semi-structured questionnaire and open questions. Use value (UV), fidelity level (FL), and informant consensus factor (FIC) were used to analyze the obtained data. Results: Our results showed that 83 medicinal plants species belonging to 38 families are used by traditional healers from South-west of Algeria to treat several ailments. Lamiaceae, Asteraceae, Apiaceae, and Fabaceae were the most dominant families with 13, 8, 6, and 4 species, respectively. Leaves were the plant parts mostly used (36%), followed by seeds (18%), aerial parts (17%) and roots (12%). Furthermore, a decoction was the major mode of preparation (49%), and oral administration was the most preferred (80%). Thymus vulgaris L. (UV = 1.045), Zingiber officinale Roscoe (UV = 0.863), Trigonella foenum-graecum L. (UV=0.590), Rosmarinus officinalis L. (UV = 0.545), and Ruta chalepensis L. (UV = 0.5) were the most frequently species used by local healers. A great informant consensus has been demonstrated for kidney (0.727), cancer (0.687), digestive (0.603), and respiratory diseases. Conclusion: This study revealed rich ethnomedicinal knowledge in South-west Algeria. The reported species with high UV, FL, and FIC could be of great interest for further pharmacological studies. PMID:27757260

  7. African refugees in Egypt: trauma, loss, and cultural adjustment.

    PubMed

    Henry, Hani M

    2012-08-01

    This study examined the influence of pre-immigration trauma on the acculturation process of refugees, as reflected in the manifestations of their continuing bonds with native cultures. Six African refugees who sought refuge in Egypt because of wars and political persecution were interviewed about the circumstances of their departure from their home countries, as well as their life experiences in Egypt. All participants kept continuing bonds with their native cultures, but these bonds manifested differently depending on their ability to assimilate pre-immigration trauma and cultural losses. Participants who successfully assimilated both pre-immigration trauma and cultural losses developed continuing bonds with their native cultures that helped them (a) integrate the Egyptian culture into their life experiences and (b) tolerate difficult political conditions in Egypt. Participants who could not assimilate their pre-immigration trauma and cultural losses also developed continuing bonds with their native culture, but these bonds only provided them with solace.

  8. Meningeal preservation in a child mummy from Ancient Egypt.

    PubMed

    Isidro, Albert; Herrerin, Jesús

    2017-01-26

    Over many centuries, the ancient Egyptians developed a method of preserving bodies so they would remain lifelike. Mummification of bodies was originally a natural process in Egypt, which evolved to a sophisticated embalming system to preserve the individual for the afterlife. Afterwards, mummification continued to be practiced in Egypt for some three thousand years, lasting until the end of the Christian era In the Coptic necropolis of Qarara (Middle Egypt) a total of 17 mummified individuals were studied during the 2012 campaign. One of them was a 6 to 8 old-year male child, which damaged skull allowed us to see the meningeal structures covering the entire cranial vault, in absence of brain remains. This finding in a child mummy is very exceptional, as reflected in the specialized literature.

  9. No rheumatoid arthritis in ancient Egypt: a reappraisal.

    PubMed

    Kwiecinski, Jakub; Rothschild, Bruce M

    2016-06-01

    Antiquity of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) remains controversial, and its origins in Americas or in the Old World are disputed. Proponents of the latter frequently refer to RA in ancient Egypt, but validity of those claims has never been examined. Review of all reported RA cases from ancient Egypt revealed that none of them represent real RA, instead being either examples of changing naming conventions or of imprecise diagnostic criteria. Most cases represented osteoarthritis or spondyloarthropathies. Also review of preserved ancient Egyptian medical writings revealed many descriptions of musculoskeletal disorders, but none of them resembled RA. This suggests that RA was absent in ancient Egypt and supports the hypothesis of the New World origin of RA and its subsequent global spread in the last several centuries.

  10. Television minidramas: social marketing and evaluation in Egypt.

    PubMed

    Lane, S D

    1997-06-01

    Television has been extensively used to communicate health messages for over a decade in Egypt. Viewers of the evening soap operas have been seeing six commercials for family planning, oral rehydration solution (ORS), and immunizations. People of all social classes can sing the jingles of the most popular ads. The producers of these health spots use increasingly sophisticated story lines, settings, and characters representing rural peasants, played by popular and well-liked actors. Evaluation of the content and impact of these messages has lagged behind the creative sophistication of their production. This article reviews the context and content of televised health messages in Egypt during the 1980s, critically assesses the evaluation of mass media health education, and suggests strategies for more effective evaluation. The author worked for some years with a private donor agency that funded the production of a number of televised health commercials in Egypt.

  11. Hepatitis C in Egypt – past, present, and future

    PubMed Central

    Elgharably, Ahmed; Gomaa, Asmaa I; Crossey, Mary ME; Norsworthy, Peter J; Waked, Imam; Taylor-Robinson, Simon D

    2017-01-01

    Hepatitis C viral infection is endemic in Egypt with the highest prevalence rate in the world. It is widely accepted that the implementation of mass population antischistosomal treatment involving administration of tartar emetic injections (from 1950s to 1980s) led to widespread infection. What is less well known, however, is that these schemes were implemented by the Egyptian Ministry of Health on the advice of the World Health Organization. There has been a spectrum of treatments to target the public health disaster represented by the hepatitis C problem in Egypt: from the use of PEGylated interferon to the recent use of direct acting antiviral drugs. Some new treatments have shown >90% efficacy. However, cost is a key barrier to access these new medicines. This is coupled with a growing population, limited resources, and a lack of infection control practices which means Egypt still faces significant disease control issues today. PMID:28053553

  12. Education in Egypt and Egyptian response to eclipses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hady, A.

    2006-08-01

    Astronomy and space science educations started in Egypt at the university level since 1939 at Department of Astronomy and Meteorology, Cairo University. Undergraduate and graduate education in Egypt will be discussed in this work. About 15 students yearly obtain their PhD degrees in Astronomy from the Egyptian universities. Seven International groups under my supervision have done the total solar Eclipse observations that took place on 29 March 2006, in El-Saloum (Egypt). The results of observations and photos will be discussed. Egyptian-French group have done the total solar eclipse observations that took place on 25 February 1952 in Khartoum by using Worthington Camera. The research groups of Astrophysics in Cairo University and Helwan observatory are interested in the fields of solar physics, binary stars, celestial mechanics, interstellar matter and galaxies. Most of the researches have been published in national scientific journals, and some of them were published in International Journals.

  13. Biomphalaria alexandrina in Egypt: past, present and future.

    PubMed

    Abou-El-Naga, Iman F

    2013-09-01

    The African species of Biomphalaria appeared as a result of the relatively recent west-to-east trans-Atlantic dispersal of the Biomphalaria glabrata-like taxon. In Egypt, Biomphalaria alexandrina is the intermediate host for Schistosoma mansoni. Biomphalaria alexandrina originated in the area between Alexandria and Rosetta and has historically been confined to the Nile Delta. Schistosoma mansoni reached Egypt via infected slaves and baboons from the Land of Punt through migrations that occurred as early as the Vth Dynasty. The suggestion of the presence of Schistosoma mansoni infection in Lower Egypt during Pharaonic times is discussed despite the fact that that there is no evidence of such infection in Egyptian mummies. It is only recently that Biomphalaria alexandrina colonized the Egyptian Nile from the Delta to Lake Nasser. This change was likely due to the construction of huge water projects, the development of new water resources essential for land reclamation projects and the movement of refugees from the Suez Canal zone to the Delta and vice versa. The situation with respect to Biomphalaria in Egypt has become complicated in recent years by the detection of Biomphalaria glabrata and a hybrid between both species; however, follow-up studies have demonstrated the disappearance of such species within Egypt. The National Schistosoma Control Program has made great strides with respect to the eradication of schistosoma; however, there has unfortunately been a reemergence of Schistosoma mansoni resistant to praziquantel. There are numerous factors that may influence the prevalence of snails in Egypt, including the construction of water projects, the increase in reclaimed areas, global climate change and pollution. Thus, continued field studies in addition to the cooperation of several scientists are needed to obtain an accurate representation of the status of this species. In addition, the determination of the genome sequence for Biomphalaria alexandrina and the

  14. Molecular detection of Anaplasma platys and Ehrlichia canis in dogs from Kabylie, Algeria.

    PubMed

    Dahmani, Mustapha; Loudahi, Abdelghani; Mediannikov, Oleg; Fenollar, Florence; Raoult, Didier; Davoust, Bernard

    2015-03-01

    Ehrlichia canis and Anaplasma platys are bacteria belonging to the Anaplasmataceae family that cause acute, self-limiting and sometimes fatal vector-borne infections in dogs. These bacteria have been reported worldwide and are transmitted mainly by Rhipicephalus sanguineus. Aside from a report on E. canis once in 1935, no other Anaplasmataceae bacteria have been reported in Algeria to date. The aim of this study was to identify the microbial species implicated in ehrlichiosis and anaplasmosis by a molecular epidemiological survey in dogs. The study was carried out in Kabylie, in northeast Algeria. Sampling was performed in 11 municipalities in the province of Tizi Ouzou and 2 municipalities in the province of Béjaïa. Peripheral blood samples from 110 dogs were screened by qPCR, which is capable of identifying most Anaplasmataceae bacteria. Out of 110, a total of 13 samples screened positive (7/110 E. canis and 6/110 A. platys), and two genetic variants of A. platys and one of E. canis were identified. This is the first study to report the presence of A. platys in dogs from Algeria using a molecular investigative method. This survey was conducted in early spring. As tick activity can affect the prevalence of these pathogens in dogs, further investigations are needed to establish the year-round prevalence of these infections.

  15. Technico-economic assessment of hybrid diesel-photovoltaic power plant in the south of Algeria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kadri, A. Y.; Hamidat, A.

    2016-07-01

    In Algeria, Electrical energy demand has knew a significant growth in recent years. The important increase in demand is due to the development of industrial and commercial sectors, and the comfort of residents customers by using multiple equipment of household such as the TV, ventilator, especially air-conditioners in the south of Algeria. To address the problem of imbalance between supply and demand, it is compulsory to add other units of productions of electricity. These units can be use conventional sources or renewable energy sources. This study focuses on the feasibility of hybridizing diesel power plants supplying the isolated villages in southern Algeria by the introduction of PV systems. The town of Djanet was taken as a case study. The comparison between the different technical and economic parameters allows determining the contribution of the hybridization of conventional resources of production. However, the cost-effectiveness based on the net present cost (NPC) is estimated at 176, 054.208 for the hybrid system and 194, 965.280 for all Diesel system. In terms of the cost per kWh produced by the two systems, the kWh produced by the hybrid system is less expensive than the kWh produced by any conventional diesel system is 0.551 / kWh against 0.610 / kWh. The results also show that the hybrid system provides coverage of the expected load in the future.

  16. Silurian shale origin for light oil, condensate, and gas in Algeria and the Middle East

    SciTech Connect

    Zumberge, J.E.; Macko, S. Engel, M.

    1996-12-31

    Two of the largest gas fields in the world, Hasi R`Mel, Algeria and North Dome, Qatar, also contain substantial condensate and light oil reserves. Gas to source rock geochemical correlation is difficult due to the paucity of molecular parameters in the former although stable isotope composition is invaluable. However, by correlating source rocks with light oils and condensates associated with gas production using traditional geochemical parameters such as biomarkers and isotopes, a better understanding of the origin of the gas is achieved. Much of the crude oil in the Ghadames/Illizi Basins of Algeria has long been thought to have been generated from Silurian shales. New light oil discoveries in Saudi Arabia have also been shown to originate in basal euxinic Silurian shales. Key sterane and terpane biomarkers as well as the stable carbon isotopic compositions of the C15+ saturate and aromatic hydrocarbon fractions allow for the typing of Silurian-sourced, thermally mature light oils in Algeria and the Middle East. Even though biomarkers are often absent due to advanced thermal maturity, condensates can be correlated to the light oils using (1) carbon isotopes of the residual heavy hydrocarbon fractions, (2) light hydrocarbon distributions (e.g., C7 composition), and (3) compound specific carbon isotopic composition of the light hydrocarbons. The carbon isotopes of the C2-C4 gas components ran then be compared to the associated condensate and light oil isotopic composition.

  17. Silurian shale origin for light oil, condensate, and gas in Algeria and the Middle East

    SciTech Connect

    Zumberge, J.E. ); Macko, S. ) Engel, M. )

    1996-01-01

    Two of the largest gas fields in the world, Hasi R'Mel, Algeria and North Dome, Qatar, also contain substantial condensate and light oil reserves. Gas to source rock geochemical correlation is difficult due to the paucity of molecular parameters in the former although stable isotope composition is invaluable. However, by correlating source rocks with light oils and condensates associated with gas production using traditional geochemical parameters such as biomarkers and isotopes, a better understanding of the origin of the gas is achieved. Much of the crude oil in the Ghadames/Illizi Basins of Algeria has long been thought to have been generated from Silurian shales. New light oil discoveries in Saudi Arabia have also been shown to originate in basal euxinic Silurian shales. Key sterane and terpane biomarkers as well as the stable carbon isotopic compositions of the C15+ saturate and aromatic hydrocarbon fractions allow for the typing of Silurian-sourced, thermally mature light oils in Algeria and the Middle East. Even though biomarkers are often absent due to advanced thermal maturity, condensates can be correlated to the light oils using (1) carbon isotopes of the residual heavy hydrocarbon fractions, (2) light hydrocarbon distributions (e.g., C7 composition), and (3) compound specific carbon isotopic composition of the light hydrocarbons. The carbon isotopes of the C2-C4 gas components ran then be compared to the associated condensate and light oil isotopic composition.

  18. [News of antibiotic resistance among Gram-negative bacilli in Algeria].

    PubMed

    Baba Ahmed-Kazi Tani, Z; Arlet, G

    2014-06-01

    Antibiotic resistance has become a major public health problem in Algeria. Indeed the past decade, we have seen a significant increase in resistance to antibiotics especially in Gram-negative bacilli. Resistance to β-lactams in enterobacteria is dominated by the production of ESBL CTX-M-3 and CTX-M-15. The strains producing these enzymes are often the cause of potentially serious infections in both hospital and community settings. Identified plasmid cephalosporinases are CMY-2, CMY-12 and DHA-1. The isolation of strains of Enterobacteriaceae and Pseudomonas aeruginosa producing carbapenemases is rare in Algeria. Some Enterobacteriaceae producing OXA-48 or VIM-19 have been reported; so far, only VIM-2 has been identified in P. aeruginosa. However, the situation regarding the strains of Acinetobacter baumannii resistant to carbapenemases seems to be more disturbing. The carbapenemase OXA-23 is the most common and seems to be endemic in the north. The carbapenemase NDM-1 has also been identified. Resistance to aminoglycosides is marked by the identification armA gene associated with blaCTX-M genes in strains of Salmonella sp. Several other resistance genes have been identified sporadically in strains of Enterobacteriaceae, P. aeruginosa and A. baumannii. Resistance genes to fluoroquinolones are more recent identification in Algeria. The most common are the Qnr determinants followed by the bifunctional enzyme AAC[6']-Ib-cr. Resistance to sulfonamides and trimethoprim was also reported in Enterobacteriaceae strains in the west of the country.

  19. Chemical and Antimicrobial Profiling of Propolis from Different Regions within Libya

    PubMed Central

    Siheri, Weam; Zhang, Tong; Ebiloma, Godwin Unekwuojo; Biddau, Marco; Woods, Nicola; Hussain, Muattaz Yassein; Clements, Carol J.; Fearnley, James; Ebel, RuAngelie Edrada; Paget, Timothy; Muller, Sylke; Carter, Katharine C.; Ferro, Valerie A.; De Koning, Harry P.; Watson, David G.

    2016-01-01

    Extracts from twelve samples of propolis collected from different regions of Libya were tested for their activity against Trypanosoma brucei, Leishmania donovani, Plasmodium falciparum, Crithidia fasciculata and Mycobacterium marinum and the cytotoxicity of the extracts was tested against mammalian cells. All the extracts were active to some degree against all of the protozoa and the mycobacterium, exhibiting a range of EC50 values between 1.65 and 53.6 μg/ml. The toxicity against mammalian cell lines was only moderate; the most active extract against the protozoan species, P2, displayed an IC50 value of 53.2 μg/ml. The extracts were profiled by using liquid chromatography coupled to high resolution mass spectrometry. The data sets were extracted using m/z Mine and the accurate masses of the features extracted were searched against the Dictionary of Natural Products (DNP). A principal component analysis (PCA) model was constructed which, in combination with hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA), divided the samples into five groups. The outlying groups had different sets of dominant compounds in the extracts, which could be characterised by their elemental composition. Orthogonal partial least squares (OPLS) analysis was used to link the activity of each extract against the different micro-organisms to particular components in the extracts. PMID:27195790

  20. Carbon and oxygen isotope variations of the Middle-Late Triassic Al Aziziyah Formation, northwest Libya

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moustafa, Mohamed S. H.; Pope, Michael C.; Grossman, Ethan L.; Mriheel, Ibrahim Y.

    2016-06-01

    This study presents the δ13C and δ18O records from whole rock samples of the Middle-Late Triassic (Ladinian-Carnian) Al Aziziyah Formation that were deposited on a gently sloping carbonate ramp within the Jifarah Basin of Northwest Libya. The Al Aziziyah Formation consists of gray limestone, dolomite, and dolomitic limestone interbedded with shale. The Ghryan Dome and Kaf Bates sections were sampled and analyzed for carbon and oxygen isotope chemostratigraphy to integrate high-resolution carbon isotope data with an outcrop-based stratigraphy, to provide better age control of the Al Aziziyah Formation. This study also discusses the relation between the facies architecture of the Al Aziziyah Formation and the carbon isotope values. Seven stages of relative sea level rise and fall within the Ghryan Dome were identified based on facies stacking patterns, field observations and carbon stable isotopes. The Al Aziziyah Formation δ13C chemostratigraphic curve can be partially correlated with the Triassic global δ13C curve. This correlation indicates that the Al Aziziyah Formation was deposited during the Ladinian and early Carnian. No straight-forward relationship is seen between δ13C and relative sea level probably because local influences complicated systematic environmental and diagenetic isotopic effects associated with sea level change.

  1. Pregnancy outcomes in Benghazi, Libya, before and during the armed conflict in 2011.

    PubMed

    Bodalal, Z; Agnaeber, K; Nagelkerke, N; Stirling, B; Temmerman, M; Degomme, O

    2014-04-03

    Stressful life events experienced by pregnant women may lead to adverse obstetric outcomes. This study in Benghazi compared the rates of preterm, low-birth-weight and caesarean-section births at Al-Jamhouria hospital in the months before and during the armed conflict in Libya in 2011. Data were collected on all women admitted to the delivery ward during February to May 2011 (the months of the most active fighting in the city) (n = 7096), and October to December 2010 (the months immediately before the war) (n = 5935). Compared with the preceding months there was a significant rise during the conflict in the rate of deliveries involving preterm (3.6% versus 2.5%) and low-birth-weight (10.1% versus 8.5%) infants and caesarean sections (26.9% versus 25.3%). Psychosocial stress may have been a factor (among others) in an increase in negative pregnancy outcomes, and obstetric hospitals should be aware of these issues in times of war.

  2. Quantifying Libya-4 Surface Reflectance Heterogeneity With WorldView-1, 2 and EO-1 Hyperion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Neigh, Christopher S. R.; McCorkel, Joel; Middleton, Elizabeth M.

    2015-01-01

    The land surface imaging (LSI) virtual constellation approach promotes the concept of increasing Earth observations from multiple but disparate satellites. We evaluated this through spectral and spatial domains, by comparing surface reflectance from 30-m Hyperion and 2-m resolution WorldView-2 (WV-2) data in the Libya-4 pseudoinvariant calibration site. We convolved and resampled Hyperion to WV-2 bands using both cubic convolution and nearest neighbor (NN) interpolation. Additionally, WV-2 and WV-1 same-date imagery were processed as a cross-track stereo pair to generate a digital terrain model to evaluate the effects from large (>70 m) linear dunes. Agreement was moderate to low on dune peaks between WV-2 and Hyperion (R2 <; 0.4) but higher in areas of lower elevation and slope (R2 > 0.6). Our results provide a satellite sensor intercomparison protocol for an LSI virtual constellation at high spatial resolution, which should start with geolocation of pixels, followed by NN interpolation to avoid tall dunes that enhance surface reflectance differences across this internationally utilized site.

  3. Antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of essential oils of Satureja thymbra growing wild in Libya.

    PubMed

    Giweli, Abdulhmid; Džamić, Ana M; Soković, Marina; Ristić, Mihailo S; Marin, Petar D

    2012-04-26

    The composition of essential oil isolated from Satureja thymbra, growing wild in Libya, was analyzed by GC and GC-MS. The essential oil was characterized by γ-terpinene (39.23%), thymol (25.16%), p-cymene (7.17%) and carvacrol (4.18%) as the major constituents. Antioxidant activity was analyzed using the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging method. It possessed strong antioxidant activity (IC50 = 0.0967 mg/mL). The essential oil was also screened for its antimicrobial activity against eight bacterial and eight fungal species, showing excellent antimicrobial activity against the microorganisms used, in particular against the fungi. The oil of S. thymbra showed bacteriostatic activity at 0.001-0.1 mg/mL and was bactericidal at 0.002-0.2 mg/mL; fungistatic effects at 0.001-0.025 mg/mL and fungicidal effects at 0.001-0.1 mg/mL. The main constituents thymol, carvacrol and γ-terpinene also showed strong antimicrobial activity. The commercial fungicide bifonazole showed much lower antifungal activity than the tested oil.

  4. Prevalence of autistic spectrum disorders in Tripoli, Libya: the need for more research and planned services.

    PubMed

    Zeglam, A M; Maound, A J

    2012-02-01

    Data on autism are lacking for Libya. We conducted a hospital-based study in the Neurodevelopment Clinic of AI-Khadra Hospital in Tripoli to estimate the prevalence of autistic spectrum disorders in children attending the clinic. All children referred to the clinic between 2005 and 2009 with a diagnosis of speech and language disorders or behavioural difficulties were assessed. There were 38 508 children in total seen during 2005-09,180 of whom had a history of delayed speech and language and/or behavioural difficulties. Of the 180, 128 children were diagnosed with autistic spectrum disorder: 99 had classical autism, giving the prevalence of about 4 in 1000. The male:female ratio for autistic spectrum disorders was 4:1 and for autism was 4.5:1. The most common age at presentation was 2-5 years (58%) and 56% presented 6-18 months after the onset of symptoms. Physicians should consider autism in the differential diagnosis of any child presenting with a speech and language disorder and/or behavioural difficulties.

  5. Population genetic data for 17 Y STR markers from Benghazi (East Libya).

    PubMed

    Elmrghni, Samir; Coulson-Thomas, Yvette M; Kaddura, Mahmoud; Dixon, Ron A; Williams, D Ross

    2012-03-01

    The seventeen Y-STR loci included in the AmpFℓSTR(®) Yfiler™ PCR Amplification kit (DYS19, DYS389I, DYS389II, DYS390, DYS391, DYS392, DYS393, DYS385a/b, DYS438, DYS439, DYS437, DYS448, DYS458, DYS456, DYS635, and Y-GATA-H4) were used to type a sample population of 238 males from eastern Libya (Benghazi region). Of 238 observed haplotypes, 214 were unique (90%) and 24 (10%) were found more than once. The 17 loci gave a discriminating power of 0.999. DYS458 showed the highest diversity as a single-locus marker (0.73). Allelic frequencies and gene diversities for each Y-STR locus were determined. The high haplotype diversity and discrimination capacity (0.996) demonstrate the utility of these loci for human identification in forensic applications. Comparative analysis with Y-STR datasets of relevant populations and submission of the haplotypes to the Y-STR Haplotype Reference Database (YHRD) was undertaken.

  6. Case study of a sabkha sedimentary environment: Mallahat al Bariquah, Libya

    SciTech Connect

    Krason, J.

    1987-05-01

    The importance of the sabkha sedimentary environment for formation and/or accumulation of hydrocarbons, salts, and various metalliferous mineral deposits has been recognized by many geologists. A sabkha in which sedimentation and the formation of salt deposits and hydrocarbons is in progress is located along the Mediterranean Sea coast, in northwestern Libya and northeastern Tunisia. The sabkha Mallahat al Bariquah was drilled in a regular grid at 1-km spacing; 63 holes have been completed. The sabkha and its vicinity were geologically mapped (1:20,000). Several hundred core and loose rock samples were thoroughly examined with regard to the lithology, mineralogy, paleontology, and chemical composition. The chemistry of brine from each drill hole and solar pan was determined. Three 24-hour pumping tests were performed, and the hydrogeological conditions of the sabkha were analyzed in detail. Economically valuable bedded salt reserves of 170,800,000 MT of NaCl were discovered and proven. Additionally, over 30 million MT of potassium, magnesium, and sodium salts including bromides are recoverable from the brine. Although marine-coastal sabkhas are common, the extensive scope of this study is unique. Mallahat al Bariquah sabkha is not unique with regard to its geographic, climatic, or sedimentary environments. Therefore, Mallahat al Bariquah can be considered as a model applicable in exploration for and study of similar sedimentary environments in other geographic regions and older geologic epochs.

  7. Nutritional Status Of Under-Five Children In Libya; A National Population-Based Survey

    PubMed Central

    Adel, El Taguri; Marie-Françoise, Rolland-Cachera; Mahmud Salaheddin, M; Najeeb, Elmrzougi; Ahmed, Abdel Monem; Ibrahim, Betilmal; Gerard, Lenoir

    2008-01-01

    Aim To describe the nutritional status of children under-five years of age in Libya. Population and methods A secondary analysis of data of 5348 children taken from a national representative, two-stage, cluster-sample survey that was performed in 1995. Results: Prevalence rates of underweight, wasting, stunting, and overweight were determined using standard definitions in reference to newly established WHO growth charts. The study revealed that 4.3% of children were underweight, 3.7% wasted, 20.7% stunted, and 16.2% overweight. Seventy percent of children had normal weight. Undernutrition was more likely to be found in males, in rural areas, and in underprivileged groups. Overweight was more likely found in urban, privileged groups. Wasting was more common in arid regions; stunting was more common in mountainous regions of Al-Akhdar, Al-Gharbi, and in Sirt. Al-Akhdar had the highest prevalence of overweight. Conclusion The country had a low prevalence of underweight and wasting, moderate prevalence of stunting, and high prevalence of overweight. The country is in the early stages of transition with evidence of dual-burden in some regions. Similar surveys are needed to verify secular trends of these nutritional problems, particularly overweight. PMID:21499476

  8. Volcano-tectonics of the Al Haruj Volcanic Province, Central Libya

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elshaafi, Abdelsalam; Gudmundsson, Agust

    2016-10-01

    The Al Haruj intra-continental Volcanic Province (AHVP), located at the south-western margin of the Sirt Basin, hosts the most extensive and recent volcanic activity in Libya - which is considered typical for plate interiors. From north to south the AHVP is divided into two subprovinces, namely Al Haruj al Aswad and Al Haruj al Abiyad. The total area of the AHVP is around 42,000 km2. Despite the great size of the AHVP, its volcano-tectonic evolution and activity have received very little attention and are poorly documented and understood. Here we present new field data, and analytical and numerical results, on the volcano-tectonics of the AHVP. The length/thickness ratio of 47 dykes and volcanic fissures were measured to estimate magmatic overpressure at the time of eruption. The average dyke (length/thickness) ratio of 421 indicates magmatic overpressures during the associate fissure eruptions of 8-19 MPa (depending on host-rock elastic properties). Spatial distributions of 432 monogenetic eruptions sites/points (lava shields, pyroclastic cones) in the AHVP reveal two main clusters, one in the south and another in the north. Aligned eruptive vents show the dominating strike of volcanic fissures/feeder-dykes as WNW-ESE to NW-SE, coinciding with the orientation of one of main fracture/fault zones. Numerical modelling and field observations suggest that some feeder-dykes may have used steeply dipping normal-fault zones as part of their paths to the surface.

  9. Ectoparasites infestation of free-ranging hedgehog (Etelerix algirus) in north western Libya.

    PubMed

    Hosni, M M; Maghrbi, A A El

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of ectoparasites in hedgehogs (Etelerix algirus) in north western region of Libya. Seventy hedgehogs were sampled, and 39 (55.7%) were infested with external parasites. A total of 44 ticks, 491 fleas were collected from the infested hedgehogs and four species of ectoparasites were identified, one mite (Sarcoptes scabiei), one tick (Rhipicephalus appendiculatus) and two fleas (Xenopsylla cheopis and Ctenocephalides canis). For ectoparasites, 10/39 (25.6%) were infested by S. scabiei, 8/39 (20.5%) by Rh. appendiculatus and 11/39 (28.2%) by fleas. The prevalence of mixed infestation with S. scabiei and C. canis was 3(7.7%), Rh. appendiculatus and C. canis was 2 (5.1%) and infestation by two species of fleas was 5 (12.8%). The overall mixed infestation was 10 (25.6%). We concluded that the hedgehogs may play an important role in spreading external parasites and transmission of diseases from one region to another and from wildlife animals to domestic animals and human.

  10. Monophyletic HIV type 1 CRF02-AG in a nosocomial outbreak in Benghazi, Libya.

    PubMed

    Visco-Comandini, Ubaldo; Cappiello, Giuseppina; Liuzzi, Giuseppina; Tozzi, Valerio; Anzidei, Gianfranco; Abbate, Isabella; Amendola, Alessandra; Bordi, Licia; Budabbus, Mohamed A; Eljhawi, Osama A; Mehabresh, Mahdi I; Girardi, Enrico; Antinori, Andrea; Capobianchi, Maria R; Sönnerborg, Anders; Ippolito, Giuseppe

    2002-07-01

    A cluster of HIV-1 infection has been identified in Libya in 1999, involving 402 children admitted to "El-Fath" Children's Hospital in Benghazi (BCH) during 1998 and 19 of their mothers. Nosocomial transmission has been indicated as responsible for the spread of infection. Out of this group, 104 children and 19 adult women have been followed at the National Institute for Infectious Diseases L. Spallanzani in Rome during 1 year. At BCH, all children had received intravenous infusions but not blood or blood products. A single child receiving a blood transfusion in 1997 and the 17 infected mothers were never hospitalized in Benghazi. In addition, two nurses were diagnosed as HIV-1 infected. In 40 subjects out of this group HIV-1 gag, env, and pol fragments were amplified and sequenced. The phylogenetic analyses showed that a monophyletic recombinant HIV-1 form CRF02-AG was infecting all of the HIV-1-seropositive patients admitted at BCH with no close similarities to the other CRF02-AG reported to GenBank. A different strain was found in the child infected by blood transfusion. The data thus suggest a highly contagious nosocomial spread of HIV-1 infection and possibly transmission of the virus from child to mother during breastfeeding in connection with primary HIV-1 infection.

  11. Gaudeamus lavocati sp. nov. (Rodentia, Hystricognathi) from the early Oligocene of Zallah, Libya: first African caviomorph?

    PubMed

    Coster, Pauline; Benammi, Mouloud; Lazzari, Vincent; Billet, Guillaume; Martin, Thomas; Salem, Mustafa; Bilal, Awad Abolhassan; Chaimanee, Yaowalak; Schuster, Mathieu; Valentin, Xavier; Brunet, Michel; Jaeger, Jean-Jacques

    2010-08-01

    A new African species of hystricognathous rodent, Gaudeamus lavocati sp. nov., is described herein from the early Oligocene deposits of Zallah locality (Sirt basin, Central Libya). The dental morphology of this species is very close to that of some earliest South American caviomorphs. It allows a reinterpretation of molar crest homologies among earliest caviomorphs, pentalophodonty being confirmed as the plesiomorphic molar condition in Caviomorpha. This morphological resemblance argues for close affinities between Gaudeamus and earliest South American hystricognaths. Cladistic analysis supports Gaudeamus lavocati sp. nov. as the first known African representative of Caviomorpha, implying that its ancestors were part of the African phiomyid group that crossed the South Atlantic by a direct immigration route. Alternatively, the series of derived dental features of Gaudeamus could also be interpreted as evolutionary synchronous convergences of an African hystricognath lineage towards the specialized pattern of some caviomorphs. However, the high level of similarities concerning teeth morphology and enamel microstructure and the similar age of fossiliferous strata on both continents make this interpretation less probable. The phylogenetic position of this taxon is of considerable importance because it represents an enigmatic component of the phiomorph-caviomorph radiation in Africa and appears as a new clue toward the understanding of caviomorph origins.

  12. Endogenous and nonimpact origin of the Arkenu circular structures (al-Kufrah basin—SE Libya)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cigolini, Corrado; di Martino, Mario; Laiolo, Marco; Coppola, Diego; Rossetti, Piergiorgio; Morelli, Marco

    2012-11-01

    The twin Arkenu circular structures (ACS), located in the al-Kufrah basin in southeastern Libya, were previously considered as double impact craters (the "Arkenu craters"). The ACS consist of a NE (Arkenu 1) and a SW structure (Arkenu 2), with approximate diameters of about 10 km. They are characterized by two shallow depressions surrounded by concentric circular ridges and silica-impregnated sedimentary dikes cut by local faults. Our field, petrographic, and textural observations exclude that the ACS have an impact origin. In fact, we did not observe any evidence of shock metamorphism, such as planar deformation features in the quartz grains of the collected samples, and the previously reported "shatter cones" are wind-erosion features in sandstones (ventifacts). Conversely, the ACS should be regarded as a "paired" intrusion of porphyritic stocks of syenitic composition that inject the Nubia Formation and form a rather simple and eroded ring dike complex. Stock emplacement was followed by hydrothermal activity that involved the deposition of massive magnetite-hematite horizons (typical of iron oxide copper-gold deposits). Their origin was nearly coeval with the development of silicified dikes in the surroundings. Plugs of tephritic-phonolitic rocks and lamprophyres (monchiquites) inject the Nubian sandstone along conjugate fracture zones, trending NNW-SSE and NE-SW, that crosscut the structural axis of the basin.

  13. Mapping of a major paleodrainage system in eastern Libya using orbital imaging radar: The Kufrah River

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paillou, Philippe; Schuster, Mathieu; Tooth, Stephen; Farr, Tom; Rosenqvist, Ake; Lopez, Sylvia; Malezieux, Jean-Marie

    2009-01-01

    Over the last few decades, remote sensing has revealed buried river channels in a number of regions worldwide, in many cases providing evidence of dramatic paleoenvironmental changes over Cenozoic time scales. Using orbital radar satellite imagery, we mapped a major paleodrainage system in eastern Libya, that could have linked the Kufrah Basin to the Mediterranean coast through the Sirt Basin, possibly as far back as the middle Miocene. Synthetic Aperture Radar images from the PALSAR sensor clearly reveal a 900 km-long river system, which starts with three main tributaries (north-eastern Tibesti, northern Uweinat and western Gilf Kebir/Abu Ras) that connect in the Kufrah oasis region. The river system then flows north through the Jebel Dalmah, and forms a large alluvial fan in the Sarir Dalmah. The sand dunes of the Calanscio Sand Sea prevent deep orbital radar penetration and preclude detailed reconstruction of any possible connection to the Mediterranean Sea, but a 300 km-long link to the Gulf of Sirt through the Wadi Sahabi paleochannel is likely. If this connection is confirmed, and its Miocene antiquity is established, then the Kufrah River, comparable in length to the Egyptian Nile, will have important implications for the understanding of the past environments and climates of northern Africa from the middle Miocene to the Holocene.

  14. The Essene's sister sect in Egypt: another medical site?

    PubMed

    Moss, G A

    2002-12-01

    The Essenes were, allegedly, the authors of the Dead Sea Scrolls and were settled by the Dead Sea. An ancient source locates their sister sect, The 'Therapeutae', as being by the shores of Lake Mareotis in Egypt. No scholar has previously sought to locate where exactly on Lake Mareotis they were settled. Using clues from Essene sites around the Dead Sea, an attempt is made to suggest a specific location for the Therapeutae. Since there are signs of medical activity at many of the Essene sites, a site with medical association is also sought for the location of the Essene's sister sect in Egypt. A suitable site is found at Canopus.

  15. Post-Revolution Egypt: The Roy Adaptation Model in Community.

    PubMed

    Buckner, Britton S; Buckner, Ellen B

    2015-10-01

    The 2011 Arab Spring swept across the Middle East creating profound instability in Egypt, a country already challenged with poverty and internal pressures. To respond to this crisis, Catholic Relief Services led a community-based program called "Egypt Works" that included community improvement projects and psychosocial support. Following implementation, program outcomes were analyzed using the middle-range theory of adaptation to situational life events, based on the Roy adaptation model. The comprehensive, community-based approach facilitated adaptation, serving as a model for applying theory in post-crisis environments.

  16. The Regional Environmental Impacts of Atmospheric Aerosols over Egypt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zakey, Ashraf; Ibrahim, Alaa

    2015-04-01

    Identifying the origin (natural versus anthropogenic) and the dynamics of aerosols over Egypt at varying temporal and spatial scales provide valuable knowledge on the regional climate impacts of aerosols and their ultimate connections to the Earth's regional climate system at the MENA region. At regional scale, Egypt is exposed to air pollution with levels exceeding typical air-quality standards. This is particularly true for the Nile Delta region, being at the crossroads of different aerosol species originating from local urban-industrial and biomass-burning activities, regional dust sources, and European pollution from the north. The Environmental Climate Model (EnvClimA) is used to investigate both of the biogenic and anthropogenic aerosols over Egypt. The dominant natural aerosols over Egypt are due to the sand and dust storms, which frequently occur during the transitional seasons (spring and autumn). In winter, the maximum frequency reaches 2 to 3 per day in the north, which decreases gradually southward with a frequency of 0.5-1 per day. Monitoring one of the most basic aerosol parameters, the aerosol optical depth (AOD), is a main experimental and modeling task in aerosol studies. We used the aerosol optical depth to quantify the amount and variability of aerosol loading in the atmospheric column over a certain areas. The aerosols optical depth from the model is higher in spring season due to the impacts of dust activity over Egypt as results of the westerly wind, which carries more dust particles from the Libyan Desert. The model result shows that the mass load of fine aerosols has a longer life-time than the coarse aerosols. In autumn season, the modelled aerosol optical depth tends to increase due to the biomass burning in the delta of Egypt. Natural aerosol from the model tends to scatter the solar radiation while most of the anthropogenic aerosols tend to absorb the longwave solar radiation. The overall results indicate that the AOD is lowest in winter

  17. Africa planned gas lines will meet future demand

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-11-01

    The burgeoning European market for natural gas is expected to create major gas line construction. The potential for North Africa looks particularly promising in 1991. Italy's ENI has proposed a 6,000-km (3,728-mi) gas network in North Africa to connect gas-rich Libya and Algeria with Morocco and Mauritania, making large volumes available to the European market. According to the proposal, a gas line would run from the Sirte Basin in Libya west to Mauritania. Extending the line eastward through Egypt and on to the Arabian Peninsula would provide export access. In this paper initial studies are examine reserve projections for the next 20 years, then based on results, a transmission/distribution network will be designed, including an offshore gathering system.

  18. Calibration and validation of earthquake catastrophe models. Case study: Impact Forecasting Earthquake Model for Algeria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trendafiloski, G.; Gaspa Rebull, O.; Ewing, C.; Podlaha, A.; Magee, B.

    2012-04-01

    Calibration and validation are crucial steps in the production of the catastrophe models for the insurance industry in order to assure the model's reliability and to quantify its uncertainty. Calibration is needed in all components of model development including hazard and vulnerability. Validation is required to ensure that the losses calculated by the model match those observed in past events and which could happen in future. Impact Forecasting, the catastrophe modelling development centre of excellence within Aon Benfield, has recently launched its earthquake model for Algeria as a part of the earthquake model for the Maghreb region. The earthquake model went through a detailed calibration process including: (1) the seismic intensity attenuation model by use of macroseismic observations and maps from past earthquakes in Algeria; (2) calculation of the country-specific vulnerability modifiers by use of past damage observations in the country. The use of Benouar, 1994 ground motion prediction relationship was proven as the most appropriate for our model. Calculation of the regional vulnerability modifiers for the country led to 10% to 40% larger vulnerability indexes for different building types compared to average European indexes. The country specific damage models also included aggregate damage models for residential, commercial and industrial properties considering the description of the buildings stock given by World Housing Encyclopaedia and the local rebuilding cost factors equal to 10% for damage grade 1, 20% for damage grade 2, 35% for damage grade 3, 75% for damage grade 4 and 100% for damage grade 5. The damage grades comply with the European Macroseismic Scale (EMS-1998). The model was validated by use of "as-if" historical scenario simulations of three past earthquake events in Algeria M6.8 2003 Boumerdes, M7.3 1980 El-Asnam and M7.3 1856 Djidjelli earthquake. The calculated return periods of the losses for client market portfolio align with the

  19. ASTER View of Sharm El Sheik, Egypt

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    The Red Sea golf resort in Sharm El Sheik, Egypt, where President Clinton met with Israeli Prime Minister Ehud Barak and Palestinian Authority President Yasser Arafat, stands out against the desert landscape in this image acquired on August 25, 2000.

    This image of the southern tip of the Sinai Peninsula shows an area about 30 by 40 kilometers (19 by 25 miles) in the visible and near infrared wavelength region. Vegetation appears in red. The blue areas in the water at the top and bottom of the image are coral reefs. The airport is visible just to the north of the golf resort.

    Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18, 1999, on NASA's Terra satellite. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of International Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products. Dr. Anne Kahle at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif., is the U.S. Science team leader; Moshe Pniel of JPL is the project manager. ASTER is the only high resolution imaging sensor on Terra. The primary goal of the ASTER mission is to obtain high-resolution image data in 14 channels over the entire land surface, as well as black and white stereo images. With revisit time of between 4 and 16 days, ASTER will provide the capability for repeat coverage of changing areas on Earth's surface.

    The broad spectral coverage and high spectral resolution of ASTER will provide scientists in numerous disciplines with critical information for surface mapping, and monitoring dynamic conditions and temporal change. Example applications are: monitoring glacial advances and retreats, monitoring potentially active volcanoes, identifying crop stress, determining cloud morphology and physical properties, wetlands Evaluation, thermal pollution monitoring, coral reef degradation, surface temperature mapping of soils and geology

  20. [Light and blindness in ancient Egypt].

    PubMed

    Maria Rosso, Ana

    2010-01-01

    In Ancient Egypt, light and fire, which were closely related to the Sun God Ra, were the sources of life and well-being, while the dark meant danger and death. Similar to death, darkness drops on human beings in deep sleep and they enter a space inhabited by shadows. Dreams were believed to reveal an unknown world, to give the sleeper a glimpse into the future. Vision attracts distant objects and their light, on the other hand, can hurt the eyes like a burning flame. Eyes were the most important organ in Egyptian thought, as they allowed perception of the real world. Their importance has been immortalised in the myth of the Eye of Horus that explains the role of either eye. One represents the moonlight, which disperses the darkness of the night, and the other represents the sunshine, which creates life, and both could also represents the power of human intellect. Blindness, in turn, congenital or disease-related, was considered a divine punishment. A man, thus handicapped, would sink in a state of uncertainty and darkness. To protect the eyes from blindness, people used drops and ointments, which were believed to chase away all kinds of insects and demons that threatened with a variety of eye infections. Egyptian eye doctors or physicians, carried a special kit that contained green chrysocolla and a black kohl makeup, highly appreciated as prophylaxis because they personified Osiris' humours or body fluids. These products were offered to Gods to restore the brightness of divine glance and incite sun and moon to spread their beneficial light.

  1. Exploiting serological data to understand the epidemiology of foot-and-mouth disease virus serotypes circulating in Libya

    PubMed Central

    Eldaghayes, Ibrahim; Dayhum, Abdunaser; Kammon, Abdulwahab; Sharif, Monier; Ferrari, Giancarlo; Bartels, Christianus; Sumption, Keith; King, Donald P.; Grazioli, Santina; Brocchi, Emiliana

    2017-01-01

    Sporadic outbreaks of foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) have occurred in Libya for almost fifty years. During the spring of 2013, a countrywide serosurvey was undertaken to assess the level of FMD virus circulation and identify FMD virus serotypes in the country. A total of 4221 sera were collected, comprising samples from large ruminants (LR; n=1428 samples from 357 farms) and small ruminants (SR; n=2793 samples from 141 farms). FMD sero-prevalence of NSP antibodies determined by ELISA were 19.0% (271/1428) with 95% CI (16.9 – 21.0) and 13.5% (378/2793) with 95% CI (12.3 – 14.8) for LR and SR samples, respectively. The sero-prevalence of NSP antibodies in LR was 12.3% and 19.8% for age group < 1 year and ≥ 1 year, respectively (X2= 4.95, P= 0.026), while in SR was 3.7%, 13.6% and 21.3% for age group < 1 year, 1-2 year and > 2 year, respectively (X2= 118.1, P= 0.000). These observed NSP serologic profiles support the hypothesis of an endemic level of FMD circulation in Libya. All positive sera were tested for SP antibodies for O, A and SAT-2 FMD virus serotypes. Serotype O was the dominant circulating serotype followed by serotype A, while evidence of SAT-2 was not found. These data provide an insight into the wider epidemiology of FMD in Libya, and contribute to field and laboratory investigations that during 2013 serotype O (O/ME-SA/Ind-2001 lineage) was isolated from clinical samples collected from the country. PMID:28180094

  2. Exploiting serological data to understand the epidemiology of foot-and-mouth disease virus serotypes circulating in Libya.

    PubMed

    Eldaghayes, Ibrahim; Dayhum, Abdunaser; Kammon, Abdulwahab; Sharif, Monier; Ferrari, Giancarlo; Bartels, Christianus; Sumption, Keith; King, Donald P; Grazioli, Santina; Brocchi, Emiliana

    2017-01-01

    Sporadic outbreaks of foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) have occurred in Libya for almost fifty years. During the spring of 2013, a countrywide serosurvey was undertaken to assess the level of FMD virus circulation and identify FMD virus serotypes in the country. A total of 4221 sera were collected, comprising samples from large ruminants (LR; n=1428 samples from 357 farms) and small ruminants (SR; n=2793 samples from 141 farms). FMD sero-prevalence of NSP antibodies determined by ELISA were 19.0% (271/1428) with 95% CI (16.9 - 21.0) and 13.5% (378/2793) with 95% CI (12.3 - 14.8) for LR and SR samples, respectively. The sero-prevalence of NSP antibodies in LR was 12.3% and 19.8% for age group < 1 year and ≥ 1 year, respectively (X(2)= 4.95, P= 0.026), while in SR was 3.7%, 13.6% and 21.3% for age group < 1 year, 1-2 year and > 2 year, respectively (X(2)= 118.1, P= 0.000). These observed NSP serologic profiles support the hypothesis of an endemic level of FMD circulation in Libya. All positive sera were tested for SP antibodies for O, A and SAT-2 FMD virus serotypes. Serotype O was the dominant circulating serotype followed by serotype A, while evidence of SAT-2 was not found. These data provide an insight into the wider epidemiology of FMD in Libya, and contribute to field and laboratory investigations that during 2013 serotype O (O/ME-SA/Ind-2001 lineage) was isolated from clinical samples collected from the country.

  3. Geology of Libya Montes and the Interbasin Plains of Northern Tyrrhena Terra, Mars: Project Introduction and First Year Work Plan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Skiner, J. A., Jr.; Rogers, A. D.; Seelos, K. D.

    2009-01-01

    The highland-lowland boundary (HLB) of Mars is interpreted to be a complex tectonic and erosional transition that may hold evidence for past geologic processes and environments. The HLB-abutting margin of the Libya Montes and the interbasin plains of northern Tyrrhena Terra display an exceptional view of the earliest to middle history of Mars that has yet to be fully characterized. This region contains some of the oldest exposed materials on the Martian surface as well as aqueous mineral signatures that may be potential chemical artifacts of early highland formational processes. However, a full understanding of the regions geologic and stratigraphic evolution is remarkably lacking. Some outstanding questions regarding the geologic evolution of Libya Montes and northern Tyrrhena Terra in-clude: Does combining geomorphology and composition advance our understanding of the region s evolution? Can highland materials be subdivided into stratigraphically discrete rock and sediment sequences? What do major physiographic transitions imply about the balanced tectonism, climate change, and erosion? Where is the erosional origin and what is the post-depositional history of channel and plains units? When and in what types of environments did aqueous mineral signatures arise? This abstract introduces the geologic setting, science rationale, and first year work plan of a recently-funded 4-year geologic mapping proposal (project year = calendar year). The objective is to delineate the geologic evolution of Libya Montes and northern Tyrrhena Terra at 1:1M scale using both classical geomorphological and compositional mapping techniques. The funded quadrangles are MTMs 00282, -05282, -10282, 00277, -05277, and -10277.

  4. A new structural interpretation relating NW Libya to the Hun Graben, western Sirt Basin based on a new paleostress inversion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdunaser, K. M.; McCaffrey, K. J. W.

    2015-12-01

    The present study is based on fault-slip data (striated fault planes with known sense of slip) measured in outcrops in two structural domains located along the Hun Graben, western Sirt Basin (150 fault-slip data) and the Jifarah Basin and Nafusah Uplift, northwest Libya (200 fault-slip data). Pre-existing field data collected in two previous studies were reprocessed using standard inversion methods in MyFaultTM(v. 1.03) stereonet software, produced by Pangaea Scientific Ltd.

  5. The Great Pyramid Builders: An Integrated Theme on Ancient Egypt

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stone, Brian

    2008-01-01

    This article describes a themed classroom project designed to teach about the culture and civilization of ancient Egypt. In preparing the project, it is noted that teachers should remember that different learning styles, including activities that provide meaningful experiences, are appropriate in accommodating the various ways children learn.…

  6. [Egypt: Selected Readings, Egyptian Mummies, and the Egyptian Pyramid.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Museum of Natural History, Washington, DC.

    This resource packet presents information and resources on ancient Egypt. The bibliography includes readings divided into five sections: (1) "General Information" (46 items); (2) "Religion" (8 items); (3) "Art" (8 items); (4) "Hieroglyphics" (6 items); and (5) selections "For Young Readers" (11…

  7. 78 FR 14979 - Trade Mission to Egypt and Kuwait

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-08

    ... parliament, and has held a Presidential election. In the meantime, the United States remains committed to a... goods, as well as a key destination for American companies seeking to do business in the region. Egypt..., business luncheon with American Chamber of Commerce and U.S. Ambassador's networking reception. Monday...

  8. First report of NDM-1-producing Pseudomonas aeruginosa in Egypt.

    PubMed

    Zafer, Mai Mahmoud; Amin, Mady; El Mahallawy, Hadir; Ashour, Mohammed Seif El-Din; Al Agamy, Mohamed

    2014-12-01

    This work reports the occurrence of New Delhi metallo-beta-lactamase 1 (NDM-1) in metallo-beta-lactamase-producing Pseudomonas aeruginosa in Egypt for the first time, and the presence of more than one blaMBL gene in carbapenem-resistant P. aeruginosa.

  9. Adaptations of International Standards on Educational Leadership Preparation in Egypt

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Purinton, Ted; Khalil, Dalia

    2016-01-01

    This paper is a case study of one leadership preparation program, utilizing US school leadership standards and practices, offered in Egypt. This case study illuminates how cultural and policy distinctions impact differing necessities of educational leadership, and how those necessities conflict or concur with the international standards and…

  10. Design a Book: A Quest in Ancient Egypt

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooper, David

    2005-01-01

    This article describes a classroom project that combines creative writing, basic book design, and social studies content. During this project, the authors' seventh grade students research a variety of ancient Egyptian archaeological sites while reviewing course material from a unit of study on ancient Egypt, practice project management skills…

  11. Islamic Law and Legal Education in Modern Egypt

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nakissa, Aria Daniel

    2012-01-01

    This dissertation examines the transmission of Islamic legal knowledge in modern Egypt. It is based on two years of ethnographic fieldwork in Cairo among formally trained Islamic scholars. With governmental permission, I was able to attend classes at both al-Azhar's Faculty of Shari'ah and Cairo University's Dar al-'Ulum. I also participated in…

  12. Political Culture and the Nature of Political Participation in Egypt.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-06-01

    Nasser’s Egypt, Austin: Univ. of Texas Press, 1971. Meisel, J.H., The Myth of the Ruling Class: Gaetano Mosca and the Elite, Ann Arbor: Univ. of Michigan... Mosca called the "second strata of the ruling class" - the strata without which the leadership could not 27 rule (Meisel 1962, p. 217]. The clientage

  13. Angles of Elevation of the Pyramids of Egypt.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Arthur F.

    1982-01-01

    The nature and history of the construction of pyramids in Egypt is detailed. It is noted that one can only theorize about why the Egyptians used particular angles of elevation. It is thought, perhaps, that new clues will provide a clear solution to this mystery as additional artifacts and hieroglyphics are discovered. (MP)

  14. Tackling Poverty-Migration Linkages: Evidence from Ghana and Egypt

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sabates-Wheeler, Rachel; Sabates, Ricardo; Castaldo, Adriana

    2008-01-01

    Are migrants able to use the migration experience to their benefit, that is to improve their livelihoods, and is this result nuanced by whether migrants are poor or non-poor? This paper explores these questions quantitatively using data on migrants and non-migrants from Ghana and Egypt. It describes the main challenges in the empirical literature…

  15. The northern lakes of Egypt: Encounters with a wetland environment

    SciTech Connect

    Parmenter, B.M.

    1991-01-01

    Five lakes fringe the northern coast of Egypt. Together they represent 25% of the remaining wetland habitat in the Mediterranean basin. Residents of these lakes traditionally exploited a wide variety of resources. Today these lakes face a number of threats to their existence, including large-scale reclamation and water pollution. Agricultural authorities, engineers, fishery managers, and conservationists in Egypt and abroad debate about how best to manage and develop the lake region's resources, but few of these groups understand or communicate with one another, or with residents of lake communities. This study explores how these various groups encounter the coastal lakes of Egypt, focusing particularly on Lakes Manzala and Burullus. Its purpose is to explore the ways in which the lakes, their resources and their inhabitants have been evaluated, and to analyze how underlying preconceptions, goals and structures of professional discourse influence such evaluations. The thesis is that environmental management is in reality not a rational plan but a process. Egypt is currently attempting to develop a coherent strategy to remedy its environmental problems without adversely affecting economic growth.

  16. Overview on health research ethics in Egypt and North Africa.

    PubMed

    Marzouk, Diaa; Abd El Aal, Wafaa; Saleh, Azza; Sleem, Hany; Khyatti, Meriem; Mazini, Loubna; Hemminki, Kari; Anwar, Wagida A

    2014-08-01

    Developing countries, including Egypt and North African countries, need to improve their quality of research by enhancing international cooperation and exchanges of scientific information, as well as competing for obtaining international funds to support research activities. Research must comply with laws and other requirements for research that involves human subjects. The purpose of this article is to overview the status of health research ethics in Egypt and North African countries, with reference to other Middle Eastern countries. The EU and North African Migrants: Health and Health Systems project (EUNAM) has supported the revision of the status of health research ethics in Egypt and North African countries, by holding meetings and discussions to collect information about research ethics committees in Egypt, and revising the structure and guidelines of the committees, as well as reviewing the literature concerning ethics activities in the concerned countries. This overview has revealed that noticeable efforts have been made to regulate research ethics in certain countries in the Middle East. This can be seen in the new regulations, which contain the majority of protections mentioned in the international guidelines related to research ethics. For most of the internationally registered research ethics committees in North African countries, the composition and functionality reflect the international guidelines. There is growing awareness of research ethics in these countries, which extends to teaching efforts to undergraduate and postgraduate medical students.

  17. African Refugees in Egypt: Trauma, Loss, and Cultural Adjustment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henry, Hani M.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the influence of pre-immigration trauma on the acculturation process of refugees, as reflected in the manifestations of their continuing bonds with native cultures. Six African refugees who sought refuge in Egypt because of wars and political persecution were interviewed about the circumstances of their departure from their…

  18. The Politics of Educational Transfer and Policymaking in Egypt

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ibrahim, Ali S.

    2010-01-01

    For the past two centuries, western modern education has informed education policies and practices in Egypt. However, few researchers have analyzed the historical or current politics of educational transfer in this country. This article investigates the ways in which foreign transfer has influenced Egyptian education, both historically and…

  19. Burden of stroke in Egypt: current status and opportunities.

    PubMed

    Abd-Allah, Foad; Moustafa, Ramez Reda

    2014-12-01

    Middle East and North Africa (MENA) countries have a diversity of populations with similar life style, dietary habits, and vascular risk factors that may influence stroke risk, prevalence, types, and disease burden. Egypt is the most populated nation in the Middle East with an estimated 85.5 million people. In Egypt, according to recent estimates, the overall prevalence rate of stroke is high with a crude prevalence rate of 963/100,000 inhabitants. In spite of disease burden, yet there is a huge evidence practice gap. The recommended treatments for ischemic stroke that are guideline include systematic supportive care in a stroke unit or stroke center is still deficient. In addition, the frequency of thrombolysis in Egypt is very low for many reasons; the major one is that the health insurance system is not covering thrombolysis therapy in nonprivate sectors so patients must cover the costs using their own personal savings; otherwise, they will not receive treatment. Another important factor is the pronounced delay in prehospital and in hospital management of acute stroke. Improvement of stroke care in Egypt should be achieved through multi and interdisciplinary approach including public awareness, physicians' education, and synergistic approach to stroke care with Emergency Medical System.

  20. Arab Spring Impact on Executive Education in Egypt

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wafa, Dina

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to study the impact of the Arab Spring on public administration programs in Egypt, with a special focus on executive education programs. Design/Methodology/Approach: The study draws on stakeholder analysis, and uses both primary and secondary data. Findings: The author describes the impact of the Arab Spring…