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Sample records for alginate hydrogel beads

  1. Viscoelastic properties of mineralized alginate hydrogel beads.

    PubMed

    Olderøy, Magnus O; Xie, Minli; Andreassen, Jens-Petter; Strand, Berit L; Zhang, Zhibing; Sikorski, Pawel

    2012-07-01

    Alginate hydrogels have applications in biomedicine, ranging from delivery of cells and growth factors to wound management aids. However, they are mechanically soft and have shown little potential for the use in bone tissue engineering. Here, the viscoelastic properties of alginate hydrogel beads mineralized with calcium phosphate, both by a counter-diffusion (CD) and an enzymatic approach, are characterized by a micro-manipulation technique and mathematical modeling. Fabricated hydrogel materials have low mineral content (below 3 % of the total hydrogel mass, which corresponds to mineral content of up to 60 % of the dry mass) and low dry mass content (<5 %). For all samples compression and hold (relaxation after compression) data was collected and analyzed. The apparent Young's modulus of the mineralized beads was estimated by the Hertz model (compression data) and was shown to increase up to threefold upon mineralization. The enzymatically mineralized beads showed higher apparent Young's modulus compared to the ones mineralized by CD, even though the mineral content of the former was lower. Full compression-relaxation force-time profiles were analyzed using viscoelastic model. From this analysis, infinite and instantaneous Young's moduli were determined. Similarly, enzymatic mineralized beads, showed higher instantaneous and infinite Young's modulus, even if the degree of mineralization is lower then that achieved for CD method. This leads to the conclusion that both the degree of mineralization and the spatial distribution of mineral are important for the mechanical performance of the composite beads, which is in analogy to highly structured mineralized tissues found in many organisms.

  2. Fabrication of novel core-shell hybrid alginate hydrogel beads.

    PubMed

    Liu, Hongxia; Wang, Chaoyang; Gao, Quanxing; Liu, Xinxing; Tong, Zhen

    2008-03-01

    Novel hybrid alginate hydrogel beads with shells of porous CaCO3 microparticles were fabricated by templating water-in-oil emulsion and subsequent in situ gelation. Porous CaCO3 microparticles were self-assembled at interfaces of water-in-oil emulsion. Water droplets containing alginate in the emulsion were subsequently in situ gelated by Ca2+ released from CaCO3 through decreasing pH with slow hydrolysis of d-glucono-delta-lactone (GDL). The resulting hybrid beads with alginate gel cores and shells of porous CaCO3 microparticles were called colloidosomes. The packed density of CaCO3 microparticles in the shell increased with increasing the ratio of the CaCO3 microparticle weight to the water phase volume Mp/Vw and decreased with addition of NaCl into water. The size of the produced colloidosome beads was independent of Mp/Vw. Increasing the volume fraction of water Phi w to 0.5, some colloidosome beads deformed to nonspheral shape and even broken. Brilliant blue (BB) as a drug model was loaded into the colloidosome beads by being dissolved in the alginate aqueous solution before gelation. The BB release from the colloidosome beads was slowed down because of the formation of the shells of CaCO3 microparticles. The colloidosome beads may find applications as delivery vehicles for drugs, cosmetics, food supplements and living cell.

  3. Improving the controlled delivery formulations of caffeine in alginate hydrogel beads combined with pectin, carrageenan, chitosan and psyllium.

    PubMed

    Belščak-Cvitanović, Ana; Komes, Draženka; Karlović, Sven; Djaković, Senka; Spoljarić, Igor; Mršić, Gordan; Ježek, Damir

    2015-01-15

    Alginate-based blends consisting of carrageenan, pectin, chitosan or psyllium husk powder were prepared for assessment of the best formulation aimed at encapsulation of caffeine. Alginate-pectin blend exhibited the lowest viscosity and provided the smallest beads. Alginate-psyllium husk blend was characterised with higher viscosity, yielding the largest bead size and the highest caffeine encapsulation efficiency (83.6%). The release kinetics of caffeine indicated that the porosity of alginate hydrogel was not reduced sufficiently to retard the diffusion of caffeine from the beads. Chitosan coated alginate beads provided the most retarded release of caffeine in water. Morphological characteristics of beads encapsulating caffeine were adversely affected by freeze drying. Bitterness intensity of caffeine-containing beads in water was the lowest for alginate-psyllium beads and chitosan coated alginate beads. Higher sodium alginate concentration (3%) for production of hydrogel beads in combination with psyllium or chitosan coating would present the most favourable carrier systems for immobilization of caffeine.

  4. Bioglass/alginate composite hydrogel beads as cell carriers for bone regeneration.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Qiongyu; Han, Yan; Li, Haiyan; Chang, Jiang

    2014-01-01

    Cell carrier is a useful biomedical tool to deliver particular kind of cells to a specific site for cell therapy or tissue regeneration. In the current study, 45S5 bioglass (BG) was introduced into alginate (ALG) to generate BG/ALG composite hydrogel beads as cell carriers. The ions releasing behavior, dimensional stability and in vitro bioactivity of the beads were investigated. Results showed that the BG/ALG beads revealed similar calcium ion releasing behavior as compared with ALG beads. In addition, silicon ion releasing was detected in BG/ALG beads. BG/ALG and ALG beads shared similar dimensional stability, and BG/ALG beads could induce apatite deposition on their surface after being soaked in stimulated body fluid. Then, the effects of ion extracts from hydrogel beads on cell behavior were investigated. Results confirmed that extracts of BG/ALG beads could simulate proliferation and osteogenic differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells as well as angiogenesis of endothelial cells. Furthermore, MC3T3-E1 cells were successfully encapsulated in hydrogel beads. BG/ALG beads enhanced the cell proliferation and stimulated osteogenic differentiation of the encapsulated MC3T3-E1 cells as compared with ALG beads. Therefore, BG/ALG composite hydrogel beads loaded with bone forming cells may be useful tools for bone regeneration and tissue engineering applications.

  5. Magnetic/pH-sensitive κ-carrageenan/sodium alginate hydrogel nanocomposite beads: preparation, swelling behavior, and drug delivery.

    PubMed

    Mahdavinia, Gholam Reza; Rahmani, Zeinab; Karami, Shiva; Pourjavadi, Ali

    2014-01-01

    This work describes the preparation of magnetic and pH-sensitive beads based on κ-carrageenan and sodium alginate for use as drug-targeting carriers. Physical cross-linking using K(+)/Ca(2+) ions was applied to obtain ionic cross-linked magnetic hydrogel beads. The produced magnetite beads were thoroughly characterized by TEM, SEM/EDS, XRD, FTIR, and VSM techniques. While the water absorbency (WA) of magnetic beads was enhanced by increasing the weight ratio of κ-carrageenan, introducing magnetic nanoparticles caused a decrease in WA capacity from 15.4 to 6.3 g/g. Investigation on the swelling of the hydrogel beads in NaCl, KCl, and CaCl2 solutions revealed the disintegration of beads depending on the composition of hydrogel beads and the type of metal cations in swelling media. The swelling ratio of beads indicated pH-dependent properties with maximum water absorbing at pH 7.4. Also, it was found that the strength of pH-sensitivity of magnetic beads was low for beads with the high content of carrageenan component. The in vitro drug release studies from hydrogels exhibited significant behaviors on the subject of physiological-simulated pH values and external magnetic fields. The maximum cumulative releases obtained were 98 and 43% at pH values 7.4 and 1.2, respectively. The Introducing magnetite nanoparticles influenced the cumulative release of drug. PMID:25197770

  6. Magnetic hydrogel beads based on PVA/sodium alginate/laponite RD and studying their BSA adsorption.

    PubMed

    Mahdavinia, Gholam Reza; Mousanezhad, Sedigheh; Hosseinzadeh, Hamed; Darvishi, Farshad; Sabzi, Mohammad

    2016-08-20

    In this study double physically crosslinked magnetic hydrogel beads were developed by a simple method including solution mixing of sodium alginate and poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) containing magnetic laponite RD (Rapid Dispersion). Sodium alginate and PVA were physically crosslinked by Ca(2+) and freezing-thawing cycles, respectively. Magnetic laponite RD nanoparticles were incorporated into the system to create magnetic response and strengthen the hydrogels. All hybrids double physically crosslinked hydrogel beads were stable under different pH values without any disintegration. Furthermore, adsorption of bovine serum albumin (BSA) on the hydrogel beads was investigated on the subject of pH, ion strength, initial BSA concentration, and temperature. Nanocomposite beads exhibited maximum adsorption capacity for BSA at pH=4.5. The experimental adsorption isotherm data were well followed Langmuir model and based on this model the maximum adsorption capacity was obtained 127.3mgg(-1) at 308K. Thermodynamic parameters revealed spontaneous and monolayer adsorption of BSA on magnetic nanocomposites beads.

  7. Continuous flow adsorption of methylene blue by cellulose nanocrystal-alginate hydrogel beads in fixed bed columns.

    PubMed

    Mohammed, Nishil; Grishkewich, Nathan; Waeijen, Herman Ambrose; Berry, Richard M; Tam, Kam Chiu

    2016-01-20

    The adsorption behavior of methylene blue by cellulose nanocrystal-alginate (CNC-ALG) hydrogel beads in a fixed bed column was studied by varying the initial dye concentrations, bed depths and flow rates. An unusual phenomenon was observed in the early phase of the adsorption, and the phenomenon was elucidated by varying other critical design parameters, such as the flow direction, diameter of column and composition of adsorbent. The swelling and shrinkage of hydrogel beads during the adsorption was responsible for the anomalous concentration versus time profile of the adsorption process. The maximum adsorption capacity of the column was 255.5mg/g, which is in agreement with the batch study determined from the Langmuir adsorption isotherm. A comprehensive understanding on the adsorption mechanism of CNC-ALG hydrogel beads during the early stages of adsorption was derived from this study.

  8. Microencapsulation of probiotics in hydrogel particles: enhancing Lactococcus lactis subsp. cremoris LM0230 viability using calcium alginate beads.

    PubMed

    Yeung, Timothy W; Arroyo-Maya, Izlia J; McClements, David J; Sela, David A

    2016-04-01

    Probiotics are beneficial microbes often added to food products to enhance the health and wellness of consumers. A major limitation to producing efficacious functional foods containing probiotic cells is their tendency to lose viability during storage and gastrointestinal transit. In this study, the impact of encapsulating probiotics within food-grade hydrogel particles to mitigate sensitivity to environmental stresses was examined. Confocal fluorescence microscopy confirmed that Lactococcus lactis were trapped within calcium alginate beads formed by dripping a probiotic-alginate mixture into a calcium solution. Encapsulation improved the viability of the probiotics during aerobic storage: after seven days, less than a two-log reduction was observed in encapsulated cells stored at room temperature, demonstrating that a high concentration of cells survived relative to non-encapsulated bacteria. These hydrogel beads may have applications for improving the stability and efficacy of probiotics in functional foods.

  9. Biodegradable IPN hydrogel beads of pectin and grafted alginate for controlled delivery of diclofenac sodium.

    PubMed

    Giri, Tapan Kumar; Thakur, Deepa; Alexander, Amit; Ajazuddin; Badwaik, Hemant; Tripathy, Minaketan; Tripathi, Dulal Krishna

    2013-05-01

    A novel diclofenac sodium (DS) loaded interpenetrating polymer network (IPN) beads of pectin and hydrolyzed polyacrylamide-graft-sodium alginate (PAAm-g-SA) was developed through ionotropic gelation and covalent cross-linking. The graft copolymer was synthesized by free radical polymerization under the nitrogen atmosphere followed by alkaline hydrolysis. The grafting, alkaline hydrolysis, and characterization of beads were confirmed by Fourier transforms infrared spectroscopy. The crystalline structure of drug after encapsulation into IPN beads were evaluated by differential scanning colorimetry and X-ray diffraction analyses. DS encapsulation was up to 96.45 %. The effect of hydrolyzed graft copolymer/pectin ratios and glutaraldehyde concentration on drug release in acidic and phosphate buffer solutions were investigated. The release of drug was significantly increased with increase of pH. The release of drug depends on the extent of cross-linking. The results indicated that IPN beads of hydrolyzed PAAm-g-SA and pectin could be used for sustained release of DS.

  10. Retention and release of oil-in-water emulsions from filled hydrogel beads composed of calcium alginate: impact of emulsifier type and pH.

    PubMed

    Zeeb, Benjamin; Saberi, Amir Hossein; Weiss, Jochen; McClements, David Julian

    2015-03-21

    Delivery systems based on filled hydrogel particles (microgels) can be fabricated from natural food-grade lipids and biopolymers. The potential for controlling release characteristics by modulating the electrostatic interactions between emulsifier-coated lipid droplets and the biopolymer matrix within hydrogel particles was investigated. A multistage procedure was used to fabricate calcium alginate beads filled with lipid droplets stabilized by non-ionic, cationic, anionic, or zwitterionic emulsifiers. Oil-in-water emulsions stabilized by Tween 60, DTAB, SDS, or whey protein were prepared by microfluidization, mixed with various alginate solutions, and then microgels were formed by simple extrusion into calcium solutions. The microgels were placed into a series of buffer solutions with different pH values (2 to 11). Lipid droplets remained encapsulated under acidic and neutral conditions, but were released under highly basic conditions (pH 11) due to hydrogel swelling when the alginate concentration was sufficiently high. Lipid droplet release increased with decreasing alginate concentration, which could be attributed to an increase in the pore size of the hydrogel matrix. These results have important implications for the design of delivery systems to entrap and control the release of lipophilic bioactive components within filled hydrogel particles. PMID:25646949

  11. Protein crystallization in hydrogel beads.

    PubMed

    Willaert, Ronnie; Zegers, Ingrid; Wyns, Lode; Sleutel, Mike

    2005-09-01

    The use of hydrogel beads for the crystallization of proteins is explored in this contribution. The dynamic behaviour of the internal precipitant, protein concentration and relative supersaturation in a gel bead upon submerging the bead in a precipitant solution is characterized theoretically using a transient diffusion model. Agarose and calcium alginate beads have been used for the crystallization of a low-molecular-weight (14.4 kDa, hen egg-white lysozyme) and a high-molecular-weight (636.0 kDa, alcohol oxidase) protein. Entrapment of the protein in the agarose-gel matrix was accomplished using two methods. In the first method, a protein solution is mixed with the agarose sol solution. Gel beads are produced by immersing drops of the protein-agarose sol mixture in a cold paraffin solution. In the second method (which was used to produce calcium alginate and agarose beads), empty gel beads are first produced and subsequently filled with protein by diffusion from a bulk solution into the bead. This latter method has the advantage that a supplementary purification step is introduced (for protein aggregates and large impurities) owing to the diffusion process in the gel matrix. Increasing the precipitant, gel concentration and protein loading resulted in a larger number of crystals of smaller size. Consequently, agarose as well as alginate gels act as nucleation promoters. The supersaturation in a gel bead can be dynamically controlled by changing the precipitant and/or the protein concentration in the bulk solution. Manipulation of the supersaturation allowed the nucleation rate to be varied and led to the production of large crystals which were homogeneously distributed in the gel bead.

  12. 3D Cell Culture in Alginate Hydrogels

    PubMed Central

    Andersen, Therese; Auk-Emblem, Pia; Dornish, Michael

    2015-01-01

    This review compiles information regarding the use of alginate, and in particular alginate hydrogels, in culturing cells in 3D. Knowledge of alginate chemical structure and functionality are shown to be important parameters in design of alginate-based matrices for cell culture. Gel elasticity as well as hydrogel stability can be impacted by the type of alginate used, its concentration, the choice of gelation technique (ionic or covalent), and divalent cation chosen as the gel inducing ion. The use of peptide-coupled alginate can control cell–matrix interactions. Gelation of alginate with concomitant immobilization of cells can take various forms. Droplets or beads have been utilized since the 1980s for immobilizing cells. Newer matrices such as macroporous scaffolds are now entering the 3D cell culture product market. Finally, delayed gelling, injectable, alginate systems show utility in the translation of in vitro cell culture to in vivo tissue engineering applications. Alginate has a history and a future in 3D cell culture. Historically, cells were encapsulated in alginate droplets cross-linked with calcium for the development of artificial organs. Now, several commercial products based on alginate are being used as 3D cell culture systems that also demonstrate the possibility of replacing or regenerating tissue. PMID:27600217

  13. 3D Cell Culture in Alginate Hydrogels

    PubMed Central

    Andersen, Therese; Auk-Emblem, Pia; Dornish, Michael

    2015-01-01

    This review compiles information regarding the use of alginate, and in particular alginate hydrogels, in culturing cells in 3D. Knowledge of alginate chemical structure and functionality are shown to be important parameters in design of alginate-based matrices for cell culture. Gel elasticity as well as hydrogel stability can be impacted by the type of alginate used, its concentration, the choice of gelation technique (ionic or covalent), and divalent cation chosen as the gel inducing ion. The use of peptide-coupled alginate can control cell–matrix interactions. Gelation of alginate with concomitant immobilization of cells can take various forms. Droplets or beads have been utilized since the 1980s for immobilizing cells. Newer matrices such as macroporous scaffolds are now entering the 3D cell culture product market. Finally, delayed gelling, injectable, alginate systems show utility in the translation of in vitro cell culture to in vivo tissue engineering applications. Alginate has a history and a future in 3D cell culture. Historically, cells were encapsulated in alginate droplets cross-linked with calcium for the development of artificial organs. Now, several commercial products based on alginate are being used as 3D cell culture systems that also demonstrate the possibility of replacing or regenerating tissue.

  14. 3D Cell Culture in Alginate Hydrogels.

    PubMed

    Andersen, Therese; Auk-Emblem, Pia; Dornish, Michael

    2015-03-24

    This review compiles information regarding the use of alginate, and in particular alginate hydrogels, in culturing cells in 3D. Knowledge of alginate chemical structure and functionality are shown to be important parameters in design of alginate-based matrices for cell culture. Gel elasticity as well as hydrogel stability can be impacted by the type of alginate used, its concentration, the choice of gelation technique (ionic or covalent), and divalent cation chosen as the gel inducing ion. The use of peptide-coupled alginate can control cell-matrix interactions. Gelation of alginate with concomitant immobilization of cells can take various forms. Droplets or beads have been utilized since the 1980s for immobilizing cells. Newer matrices such as macroporous scaffolds are now entering the 3D cell culture product market. Finally, delayed gelling, injectable, alginate systems show utility in the translation of in vitro cell culture to in vivo tissue engineering applications. Alginate has a history and a future in 3D cell culture. Historically, cells were encapsulated in alginate droplets cross-linked with calcium for the development of artificial organs. Now, several commercial products based on alginate are being used as 3D cell culture systems that also demonstrate the possibility of replacing or regenerating tissue.

  15. Enhanced adsorption of cesium on PVA-alginate encapsulated Prussian blue-graphene oxide hydrogel beads in a fixed-bed column system.

    PubMed

    Jang, Jiseon; Lee, Dae Sung

    2016-10-01

    A continuous fixed-bed column study was performed using PVA-alginate encapsulated Prussian blue-graphene oxide (PB-GO) hydrogel beads as a novel adsorbent for the removal of cesium from aqueous solutions. The effects of different operating parameters, such as initial cesium concentration, pH, bed height, flow rate, and bead size, were investigated. The maximum adsorption capacity of the PB-GO hydrogel beads was 164.5mg/g at an initial cesium concentration of 5mM, bed height of 20cm, and flow rate of 0.83mL/min at pH 7. The Thomas, Adams-Bohart, and Yoon-Nelson models were applied to the experimental data to predict the breakthrough curves using non-linear regression. Although both the Thomas and Yoon-Nelson models showed good agreement with the experimental data, the Yoon-Nelson model was found to provide the best representation for cesium adsorption on the adsorbent, based on the χ(2) analysis. PMID:27372009

  16. Encapsulation optimization of lemon balm antioxidants in calcium alginate hydrogels.

    PubMed

    Najafi-Soulari, Samira; Shekarchizadeh, Hajar; Kadivar, Mahdi

    2016-11-01

    Calcium alginate hydrogel beads were used to encapsulate lemon balm extract. Chitosan layer was used to investigate the effect of hydrogel coating. To determine the interactions of antioxidant compounds of extract with encapsulation materials and its stability, microstructure of hydrogel beads was thoroughly monitored using scanning electron microscopy and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR). Total polyphenols content and antiradical activity of lemon balm extract were also evaluated before and after encapsulation. Three significant parameters (lemon balm extract, sodium alginate, and calcium chloride concentrations) were optimized by response surface methodology to obtain maximum encapsulation efficiency. The FTIR spectra showed no interactions between extract and polymers as there were no new band in spectra of alginate hydrogel after encapsulation of active compounds of lemon balm extract. The antioxidant activity of lemon balm extract did not change after encapsulation. Therefore, it was found that alginate is a suitable material for encapsulation of natural antioxidants. Sodium alginate solution concentration, 1.84%, lemon balm extract concentration, 0.4%, and calcium chloride concentration, 0.2% was determined to be the optimum condition to reach maximum encapsulation efficiency.

  17. Encapsulation optimization of lemon balm antioxidants in calcium alginate hydrogels.

    PubMed

    Najafi-Soulari, Samira; Shekarchizadeh, Hajar; Kadivar, Mahdi

    2016-11-01

    Calcium alginate hydrogel beads were used to encapsulate lemon balm extract. Chitosan layer was used to investigate the effect of hydrogel coating. To determine the interactions of antioxidant compounds of extract with encapsulation materials and its stability, microstructure of hydrogel beads was thoroughly monitored using scanning electron microscopy and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR). Total polyphenols content and antiradical activity of lemon balm extract were also evaluated before and after encapsulation. Three significant parameters (lemon balm extract, sodium alginate, and calcium chloride concentrations) were optimized by response surface methodology to obtain maximum encapsulation efficiency. The FTIR spectra showed no interactions between extract and polymers as there were no new band in spectra of alginate hydrogel after encapsulation of active compounds of lemon balm extract. The antioxidant activity of lemon balm extract did not change after encapsulation. Therefore, it was found that alginate is a suitable material for encapsulation of natural antioxidants. Sodium alginate solution concentration, 1.84%, lemon balm extract concentration, 0.4%, and calcium chloride concentration, 0.2% was determined to be the optimum condition to reach maximum encapsulation efficiency. PMID:27540886

  18. Binary immobilization of tyrosinase by using alginate gel beads and poly(acrylamide-co-acrylic acid) hydrogels.

    PubMed

    Yahşi, Ayşe; Sahin, Ferat; Demirel, Gökhan; Tümtürk, Hayrettin

    2005-09-15

    The use of the immobilized and the stable enzymes has immense potential in the enzymatic analysis of clinical, industrial and environmental samples. However, their widespread uses are limited due to the high cost of their production. In this study, binary immobilization of tyrosinase by using Ca-alginate and poly(acrylamide-co-acrylic acid) [P(AAm-co-AA)] was investigated. Maximum reaction rate (Vmax) and Michaelis-Menten constant (Km) were determined for the free and binary immobilized enzymes. The effects of pH, temperature, storage stability, reuse number and thermal stability on the free and immobilized tyrosinase were also examined. For the free and binary immobilized enzymes on Ca-alginate and P(AAm-co-AA), optimum pH was found to be 7 and 5, respectively. Optimum temperature of the free and immobilized enzymes was observed to be 30 and 35 degrees C, respectively. Reuse number, storage and thermal stability of the free tyrosinase were increased by a result of binary immobilization.

  19. An electrohydrodynamic bioprinter for alginate hydrogels containing living cells.

    PubMed

    Gasperini, Luca; Maniglio, Devid; Motta, Antonella; Migliaresi, Claudio

    2015-02-01

    In this work we present a bioprinting technique that exploits the electrohydrodynamic process to obtain a jet of liquid alginate beads containing cells. A printer is used to microfabricate hydrogels block by block following a bottom-up approach. Alginate beads constitute the building blocks of the microfabricated structures. The beads are placed at predefined position on a target substrate made of calcium-enriched gelatin, where they crosslink upon contact without the need of further postprocessing. The printed sample can be easily removed from the substrate at physiological temperature. Three-dimensional printing is accomplished by the deposition of multiple layers of hydrogel. We have investigated the parameters influencing the process, the compatibility of the printing procedure with cells, and their survival after printing.

  20. Preparation and cytotoxicity of N,N,N-trimethyl chitosan/alginate beads containing gold nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Martins, Alessandro F; Facchi, Suelen P; Monteiro, Johny P; Nocchi, Samara R; Silva, Cleiser T P; Nakamura, Celso V; Girotto, Emerson M; Rubira, Adley F; Muniz, Edvani C

    2015-01-01

    Polyelectrolyte complex beads based on N,N,N-trimethyl chitosan (TMC) and sodium alginate (ALG) were obtained. This biomaterial was characterised by FTIR, TGA/DTG, DSC and SEM analysis. The good properties of polyelectrolyte complex hydrogel beads were associated, for the first time, with gold nanoparticles (AuNPs). Through a straightforward methodology, AuNPs were encapsulated into the beads. The in vitro cytotoxicity assays on the Caco-2 colon cancer cells and healthy VERO cells showed that the beads presented good biocompatibility on both cell lines, whereas the beads loaded with gold nanoparticles (beads/AuNPs) was slightly cytotoxic on the Caco-2 and VERO cells.

  1. Novel alginate based nanocomposite hydrogels with incorporated silver nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Obradovic, Bojana; Stojkovska, Jasmina; Jovanovic, Zeljka; Miskovic-Stankovic, Vesna

    2012-01-01

    Alginate colloid solution containing electrochemically synthesized silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) was investigated regarding the nanoparticle stabilization and possibilities for production of alginate based nanocomposite hydrogels in different forms. AgNPs were shown to continue to grow in alginate solutions for additional 3 days after the synthesis by aggregative mechanism and Ostwald ripening. Thereafter, the colloid solution remains stable for 30 days and could be used alone or in mixtures with aqueous solutions of poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) and poly(N-vinyl-2-pyrrolidone) (PVP) while preserving AgNPs as verified by UV-Vis spectroscopy studies. We have optimized techniques for production of Ag/alginate microbeads and Ag/alginate/PVA beads, which were shown to efficiently release AgNPs decreasing the Escherichia coli concentration in suspensions for 99.9% over 24 h. Furthermore, Ag/hydrogel discs based on alginate, PVA and PVP were produced by freezing-thawing technique allowing adjustments of hydrogel composition and mechanical properties as demonstrated in compression studies performed in a biomimetic bioreactor. PMID:22203513

  2. Encapsulation of liquid smoke flavoring in ca-alginate and ca-alginate-chitosan beads.

    PubMed

    Petzold, Guillermo; Gianelli, María Pia; Bugueño, Graciela; Celan, Raymond; Pavez, Constanza; Orellana, Patricio

    2014-01-01

    Encapsulation is a technique used in foods that may protect some compounds with sensory impact, in particular flavoring as liquid smoke. We used the dripping method, obtaining two different layers for encapsulation of liquid smoke: calcium alginate and calcium alginate-chitosan. The results show that the load capacity of liquid smoke encapsulation reached values above 96 %. The beads exhibit syneresis at room temperature, but in opposite side, refrigeration temperature stabilizes the hydrogel of beads, allowing the samples loss weight less than 3 % after 72 h. Heated capsules with liquid smoke released several volatile compounds in the headspace and may identify 66 compounds. Among these volatile compounds, phenols derivatives can be considered sensory descriptors to contribute to the specific flavor of smoke. We conclude that the dripping method is highly efficient to encapsulate liquid smoke and released several volatile compounds, although it is necessary to minimize syneresis at room temperature.

  3. A Controlled Drug-Delivery Experiment Using Alginate Beads

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farrell, Stephanie; Vernengo, Jennifer

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes a simple, cost-effective experiment which introduces students to drug delivery and modeling using alginate beads. Students produce calcium alginate beads loaded with drug and measure the rate of release from the beads for systems having different stir rates, geometries, extents of cross-linking, and drug molecular weight.…

  4. Chitosan derivatives/reduced graphene oxide/alginate beads for small-molecule drug delivery.

    PubMed

    Chen, Kaihang; Ling, Yunzhi; Cao, Cong; Li, Xiaoyun; Chen, Xiao; Wang, Xiaoying

    2016-12-01

    This work reported chitosan derivatives (CSD)/reduced graphene oxide (rGO) blending with alginate to prepare hydrogel beads for small-molecule drug delivery for the first time. At the beginning, graphene oxide (GO) was successfully reduced using diverse CSD as reducing and stabilizing agents via facile heating. Then the obtained CSD/rGO was blended with alginate and crosslinked into hydrogel beads in CaCl2 solution. Finally, the beads were systematically evaluated as novel vehicles for pH-responsive small-molecule drug delivery. The optimal CSD/rGO/alginate beads showed a high drug-loading efficiency of 82.8% on small-molecule fluorescein sodium (FL), outstanding sustainable release of 71.6% upon 150h at a physiological pH and quick-release of 82.4% drug content at 20h in an acidic medium. Additionally, the cytotoxicity assay result suggested that the CSD/rGO/alginate beads showed negligible cytotoxicity to hepatic stellate cell lines, opening up possibilities for safe and efficient drug delivery. PMID:27612820

  5. Facile fabrication of organic-inorganic hybrid beads by aminated alginate enabled gelation and biomimetic mineralization.

    PubMed

    Li, Jian; Wu, Hong; Liang, Yanpeng; Jiang, Zhongyi; Jiang, Yanjun; Zhang, Lei

    2013-01-01

    Inspired by biomineralization, design and preparation of biomimetic organic-inorganic composites have become a hot issue and a research frontier in many areas, including enzyme engineering. In this research, a unique and facile method for fabricating organic-inorganic hybrid beads is proposed. Modified alginate with a dual function of gelation and mineralization was synthesized for fabrication of hybrid carriers for enzyme immobilization. With the aid of EDC/NHS conjugation chemistry, the amine groups from diethylene triamine were grafted onto alginate in a controllable way. The resultant aminated alginate served manifold functions: forming a hydrogel via Ca(2+)-cross-linking, inducing the biomimetic silicification and manipulating the distribution of silica nanoparticles. Owing to the compact polymer network structure and the homogeneous silica nanoparticle dispersion, the as-prepared NH2-alginate/silica hybrid beads displayed superior swelling resistance and mechanical stability to pure alginate beads. The hybrid beads were subsequently utilized for encapsulation of yeast alcohol dehydrogenase (YADH). It was found that the thermal stability, pH tolerance and storage stability of the immobilized enzyme were all improved without significantly lowering the catalytic activity.

  6. Optimization of alpha-amylase immobilization in calcium alginate beads.

    PubMed

    Ertan, Figen; Yagar, Hulya; Balkan, Bilal

    2007-01-01

    alpha-Amylase enzyme was produced by Aspergillus sclerotiorum under SSF conditions, and immobilized in calcium alginate beads. Effects of immobilization conditions, such as alginate concentration, CaCl(2) concentration, amount of loading enzyme, bead size, and amount of beads, on enzymatic activity were investigated. Optimum alginate and CaCl(2) concentration were found to be 3% (w/v). Using a loading enzyme concentration of 140 U mL(-1), and bead (diameter 3 mm) amount of 0.5 g, maximum enzyme activity was observed. Beads prepared at optimum immobilization conditions were suitable for up to 7 repeated uses, losing only 35% of their initial activity. Among the various starches tested, the highest enzyme activity (96.2%) was determined in soluble potato starch hydrolysis for 120 min at 40 degrees C.

  7. General Approach to the Immobilization of Glycoenzyme Chains Inside Calcium Alginate Beads for Bioassay.

    PubMed

    Mallardi, Antonia; Angarano, Valeria; Magliulo, Maria; Torsi, Luisa; Palazzo, Gerardo

    2015-11-17

    A general method to obtain the efficient entrapment of mixtures of glycoenzymes in calcium alginate hydrogel is proposed in this paper. As a proof of principle, three glycoenzymes acting in series (trehalase, glucose oxidase, and horseradish peroxidase) have been coimmobilized in calcium alginate beads. The release of the enzymes from the hydrogel mesh (leakage) is avoided by exploiting the enzyme's aggregation induced by the concanavalin A. The aggregation process has been monitored by dynamic light scattering technique, while both enzyme encapsulation efficiency and leakage have been quantified spectrophotometrically. Obtained data show an encapsulation efficiency above 95% and a negligible leakage from the beads when enzyme aggregates are larger than 300 nm. Operational stability of "as prepared" beads has been largely improved by a coating of alternated shells of polycation poly(diallyldimethylammonium chloride) and of alginate. As a test for the effectiveness of the overall procedure, analytical bioassays exploiting the enzyme-containing beads have been developed for the optical determination of glucose and trehalose, and limit of detection values of 0.2 and of 40 μM, respectively, have been obtained.

  8. Nanocellulose-alginate hydrogel for cell encapsulation.

    PubMed

    Park, Minsung; Lee, Dajung; Hyun, Jinho

    2015-02-13

    TEMPO-oxidized bacterial cellulose (TOBC)-sodium alginate (SA) composites were prepared to improve the properties of hydrogel for cell encapsulation. TOBC fibers were obtained using a TEMPO/NaBr/NaClO system at pH 10 and room temperature. The fibrillated TOBCs mixed with SA were cross-linked in the presence of Ca(2+) solution to form hydrogel composites. The compression strength and chemical stability of the TOBC/SA composites were increased compared with the SA hydrogel, which indicated that TOBC performed an important function in enhancing the structural, mechanical and chemical stability of the composites. Cells were successfully encapsulated in the TOBC/SA composites, and the viability of cells was investigated. TOBC/SA composites can be a potential candidate for cell encapsulation engineering. PMID:25458293

  9. Preparation of novel silica-coated alginate gel beads for efficient encapsulation of yeast alcohol dehydrogenase.

    PubMed

    Xu, Song-Wei; Lu, Yang; Li, Jian; Zhang, Yu-Fei; Jiang, Zhong-Yi

    2007-01-01

    Biomimetic formation has undoubtedly inspired the preparation of novel organic-inorganic hybrid composites. In this study, silica-coated alginate gel beads were prepared by coating the surface of alginate gel beads with silica film derived from tetramethoxysilane (TMOS). The composition and structure of the silica film were characterized by FT-IR and SEM equipped with EDX. The swelling behavior of silica-coated alginate gel beads was studied to be more stable against swelling than that of alginate gel beads. The results showed that silica-coated alginate gel beads exhibited appropriate diffusion property. The effective diffusion coefficient (D(e)) of NADH in silica-coated alginate beads was 1.76 x 10(-10) m2/s, while the effective diffusion coefficient in alginate beads was 1.84 x 10(-10) m2/s. The model enzyme yeast alcohol dehydrogenase (YADH) was encapsulated in silica-coated alginate and pure alginate beads, respectively. Enzyme leakage of YADH in alginate gel beads was determined to be 32%, while the enzyme leakage in silica-coated alginate gel beads was as low as 11%. Furthermore, the relative activity of YADH in alginate gel beads decreased almost to zero after 10 recycles, while the relative activity of YADH in silica-coated alginate gel beads was 81.3%. The recycling stability of YADH in silica-coated alginate gel beads was found to be increased significantly mainly due to the effective inhibition of enzyme leakage by compact silica film.

  10. Alginate hydrogel protects encapsulated hepatic HuH-7 cells against hepatitis C virus and other viral infections.

    PubMed

    Tran, Nhu-Mai; Dufresne, Murielle; Helle, François; Hoffmann, Thomas Walter; François, Catherine; Brochot, Etienne; Paullier, Patrick; Legallais, Cécile; Duverlie, Gilles; Castelain, Sandrine

    2014-01-01

    Cell microencapsulation in alginate hydrogel has shown interesting applications in regenerative medicine and the biomedical field through implantation of encapsulated tissue or for bioartificial organ development. Although alginate solution is known to have low antiviral activity, the same property regarding alginate gel has not yet been studied. The aim of this work is to investigate the potential protective effect of alginate encapsulation against hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection for a hepatic cell line (HuH-7) normally permissive to the virus. Our results showed that alginate hydrogel protects HuH-7 cells against HCV when the supernatant was loaded with HCV. In addition, alginate hydrogel blocked HCV particle release out of the beads when the HuH-7 cells were previously infected and encapsulated. There was evidence of interaction between the molecules of alginate hydrogel and HCV, which was dose- and incubation time-dependent. The protective efficiency of alginate hydrogel towards HCV infection was confirmed against a variety of viruses, whether or not they were enveloped. This promising interaction between an alginate matrix and viruses, whose chemical mechanisms are discussed, is of great interest for further medical therapeutic applications based on tissue engineering.

  11. Alginate Hydrogel Protects Encapsulated Hepatic HuH-7 Cells against Hepatitis C Virus and Other Viral Infections

    PubMed Central

    Tran, Nhu-Mai; Dufresne, Murielle; Helle, François; Hoffmann, Thomas Walter; François, Catherine; Brochot, Etienne; Paullier, Patrick; Legallais, Cécile; Duverlie, Gilles; Castelain, Sandrine

    2014-01-01

    Cell microencapsulation in alginate hydrogel has shown interesting applications in regenerative medicine and the biomedical field through implantation of encapsulated tissue or for bioartificial organ development. Although alginate solution is known to have low antiviral activity, the same property regarding alginate gel has not yet been studied. The aim of this work is to investigate the potential protective effect of alginate encapsulation against hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection for a hepatic cell line (HuH-7) normally permissive to the virus. Our results showed that alginate hydrogel protects HuH-7 cells against HCV when the supernatant was loaded with HCV. In addition, alginate hydrogel blocked HCV particle release out of the beads when the HuH-7 cells were previously infected and encapsulated. There was evidence of interaction between the molecules of alginate hydrogel and HCV, which was dose- and incubation time-dependent. The protective efficiency of alginate hydrogel towards HCV infection was confirmed against a variety of viruses, whether or not they were enveloped. This promising interaction between an alginate matrix and viruses, whose chemical mechanisms are discussed, is of great interest for further medical therapeutic applications based on tissue engineering. PMID:25310111

  12. Sustained release of vascular endothelial growth factor from calcium-induced alginate hydrogels reinforced by heparin and chitosan.

    PubMed

    Lee, K W; Yoon, J J; Lee, J H; Kim, S Y; Jung, H J; Kim, S J; Joh, J W; Lee, H H; Lee, D S; Lee, S K

    2004-10-01

    A possible alternative for immunosuppression is a microencapsulation technique using hydrogels, which have been utilized for cell immobilization and drug delivery systems. Angiogenesis is crucial for delivery of the metabolic products to the host tissues as well as to supply oxygen and nutrients to cells. The local delivery of angiogenic growth factors, such as VEGF and basic FGF, has been recently studied to enhance angiogenesis on peripheral tissue of graft. In this study, we evaluated sustained VEGF release with a model using hydrogels coated with chitosan and heparin in vitro. We fabricated calcium alginate gels and chitosan-coated calcium alginate gels. Heparinized chitosan-coated calcium-induced alginate hydrogel beads were prepared by soaking chitosan-coated calcium alginate gels in heparin solution. We compared the stability and VEGF release manner between three kinds of hydrogels. To compare the stability, 5 mL of each hydrogel was incubated with 20 mL PBS under the rotational culture. Compression forces were measured using a rheometer. The amount of VEGF released from the gels was measured by ELISA. The heparin-coated chitosan alginate hydrogels showed the highest surface stability among the three hydrogels. VEGF from the heparinized gel was released in sustained manner up to 10 days in vitro. Chitosan-coated alginate gels released 90% of loaded VEGF within 5 days. These results suggest that local delivery of VEGF using a heparinized hydrogel may provide a long-term supply of angiogenic growth factor that might induce new vessel formation in vivo.

  13. Wood mimetic hydrogel beads for enzyme immobilization.

    PubMed

    Park, Saerom; Kim, Sung Hee; Won, Keehoon; Choi, Joon Weon; Kim, Yong Hwan; Kim, Hyung Joo; Yang, Yung-Hun; Lee, Sang Hyun

    2015-01-22

    Wood component-based composite hydrogels have potential applications in biomedical fields owing to their low cost, biodegradability, and biocompatibility. The controllable properties of wood mimetic composites containing three major wood components are useful for enzyme immobilization. Here, lipase from Candida rugosa was entrapped in wood mimetic beads containing cellulose, xylan, and lignin by dissolving wood components with lipase in [Emim][Ac], followed by reconstitution. Lipase entrapped in cellulose/xylan/lignin beads in a 5:3:2 ratio showed the highest activity; this ratio is very similar to that in natural wood. The lipase entrapped in various wood mimetic beads showed increased thermal and pH stability. The half-life times of lipase entrapped in cellulose/alkali lignin hydrogel were 31- and 82-times higher than those of free lipase during incubation under denaturing conditions of high temperature and low pH, respectively. Owing to their biocompatibility, biodegradability, and controllable properties, wood mimetic hydrogel beads can be used to immobilize various enzymes for applications in the biomedical, bioelectronic, and biocatalytic fields.

  14. Comparative investigation of the binding characteristics of poly-L-lysine and chitosan on alginate hydrogel.

    PubMed

    Ren, Ying; Xie, Hongguo; Liu, Xiaocen; Bao, Jie; Yu, Weiting; Ma, Xiaojun

    2016-03-01

    The binding properties of poly-L-lysine and chitosan to alginate have been evaluated quantitatively and compared. Poly-L-lysine bound to alginate hydrogel more rapidly than chitosan as poly-L-lysine has a smaller molar hydrodynamic volume. In addition, poly-L-lysine showed a much higher binding capacity (6.14:1) for alginate hydrogel beads than chitosan (2.71:1), and a little higher binding stoichiometry (0.58) to sodium alginate molecules in solution than chitosan (0.49). An exothermic heat of alginate-poly-L-lysine complexes formation of 2.02 kJ/mol was detected. For alginate-chitosan complexes, the binding enthalpy has been seen to be -3.49 kJ/mol. The stability of the polyelectrolyte complexes was related to their binding enthalpy. The alginate-poly-L-lysine complexes could be disintegrated and rebuilt. By contrast, chitosan was bound with alginate in a steady state. These results provide fundamental insights regarding the structure and property relationships of macromolecules, and will be helpful in designing and selecting appropriate polymers.

  15. Serum albumin-alginate coated beads: mechanical properties and stability.

    PubMed

    Edwards-Lévy, F; Lévy, M C

    1999-11-01

    According to a previously described method, alginate beads were prepared from a Na-alginate solution containing propylene glycol alginate (PGA) and human serum albumin (HSA). The solution was added dropwise to a CaCl2 solution. The beads were treated with NaOH, which started the formation of amide bonds between HSA and PGA at the periphery, giving a membrane. Batches of beads with increasingly thick membranes were prepared using growing concentrations of NaOH, and studied with a texture analyser. When raising NaOH concentration, the rupture strength progressively increased, and the resistance strength to a deformation of 50% of total height also increased before slightly decreasing for the highest NaOH concentration. Variations of bead elasticity were also observed. When the beads were prepared with saline reducing gelation time from 10 to 5 min, and reaction time from 15 to 5 min, mechanical properties varied more progressively with the NaOH concentration, while the results became more reproducible. A series of assays conducted with 0.01 M NaOH confirmed the importance of using a short gelation time, and saline rather than water. Stability assays were also performed. The results were compared to those of alginate-polylysine coated beads and showed the interest of the transacylation method. PMID:10535819

  16. Preparation of alginate beads containing a prodrug of diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Yu-Tsai; Di Pasqua, Anthony J.; He, Weiling; Tsai, Tsuimin; Sueda, Katsuhiko; Zhang, Yong; Jay, Michael

    2012-01-01

    A penta-ethyl ester prodrug of the radionuclide decorporation agent diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA), which exists as an oily liquid, was encapsulated in alginate beads by the ionotropic gelation method. An optimal formulation was found by varying initial concentrations of DTPA pentaethyl ester, alginate polymer, Tween 80 surfactant and calcium chloride. All prepared alginate beads were ~1.6 mm in diameter, and the optimal formulation had loading and encapsulation efficiencies of 91.0 ± 1.1 and 72.6 ± 2.2%, respectively, and only 3.2 ± 0.8% water absorption after storage at room temperature in ~80% relative humidity. Moreover, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy showed that DTPA penta-ethyl ester did not react with excipients during formation of the DTPA penta-ethyl ester-containing alginate beads. Release of prodrug from alginate beads was via anomalous transport, and its stability enhanced by encapsulation. Collectively, these data suggest that this solid dosage form may be suitable for oral administration after radionuclide contamination. PMID:23399237

  17. Alginate and Algal-Based Beads for the Sorption of Metal Cations: Cu(II) and Pb(II)

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Shengye; Vincent, Thierry; Faur, Catherine; Guibal, Eric

    2016-01-01

    Alginate and algal-biomass (Laminaria digitata) beads were prepared by homogeneous Ca ionotropic gelation. In addition, glutaraldehyde-crosslinked poly (ethyleneimine) (PEI) was incorporated into algal beads. The three sorbents were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) coupled with energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX): the sorption occurs in the whole mass of the sorbents. Sorption experiments were conducted to evaluate the impact of pH, sorption isotherms, and uptake kinetics. A special attention was paid to the effect of drying (air-drying vs. freeze-drying) on the mass transfer properties. For alginate, freeze drying is required for maintaining the porosity of the hydrogel, while for algal-based sorbents the swelling of the material minimizes the impact of the drying procedure. The maximum sorption capacities observed from experiments were 415, 296 and 218 mg Pb g−1 and 112, 77 and 67 mg Cu g−1 for alginate, algal and algal/PEI beads respectively. Though the sorption capacities of algal-beads decreased slightly (compared to alginate beads), the greener and cheaper one-pot synthesis of algal beads makes this sorbent more competitive for environmental applications. PEI in algal beads decreases the sorption properties in the case of the sorption of metal cations under selected experimental conditions. PMID:27598128

  18. Alginate and Algal-Based Beads for the Sorption of Metal Cations: Cu(II) and Pb(II).

    PubMed

    Wang, Shengye; Vincent, Thierry; Faur, Catherine; Guibal, Eric

    2016-01-01

    Alginate and algal-biomass (Laminaria digitata) beads were prepared by homogeneous Ca ionotropic gelation. In addition, glutaraldehyde-crosslinked poly (ethyleneimine) (PEI) was incorporated into algal beads. The three sorbents were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) coupled with energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX): the sorption occurs in the whole mass of the sorbents. Sorption experiments were conducted to evaluate the impact of pH, sorption isotherms, and uptake kinetics. A special attention was paid to the effect of drying (air-drying vs. freeze-drying) on the mass transfer properties. For alginate, freeze drying is required for maintaining the porosity of the hydrogel, while for algal-based sorbents the swelling of the material minimizes the impact of the drying procedure. The maximum sorption capacities observed from experiments were 415, 296 and 218 mg Pb g(-1) and 112, 77 and 67 mg Cu g(-1) for alginate, algal and algal/PEI beads respectively. Though the sorption capacities of algal-beads decreased slightly (compared to alginate beads), the greener and cheaper one-pot synthesis of algal beads makes this sorbent more competitive for environmental applications. PEI in algal beads decreases the sorption properties in the case of the sorption of metal cations under selected experimental conditions. PMID:27598128

  19. Fabrication of cross-linked alginate beads using electrospraying for adenovirus delivery.

    PubMed

    Park, Hongkwan; Kim, Pyung-Hwan; Hwang, Taewon; Kwon, Oh-Joon; Park, Tae-Joon; Choi, Sung-Wook; Yun, Chae-Ok; Kim, Jung Hyun

    2012-05-10

    Cross-linked alginate beads containing adenovirus (Ad) were successfully fabricated using an electrospraying method to achieve the protection and release of Ad in a controlled manner. An aqueous alginate solution containing Ad was electrosprayed into an aqueous phase containing a cross-linking agent (calcium chloride) at different process variables (voltages, alginate concentrations, and flow rates). Alginate beads containing Ad were used for transduction of U343 glioma cells and the transduction efficiency of the alginate beads was measured by quantification of gene expression using a fluorescence-activated cell sorter at different time points. In vitro results of gene expression revealed that the Ad encapsulated in the alginate beads with 0.5 wt% of alginate concentration exhibited a high activity for a long period (over 7 days) and was released in a sustained manner from the alginate beads. The Ad-encapsulating alginate beads could be promising materials for local delivery of Ad at a high concentration into target sites.

  20. Effect of Alginate Concentration on Alginate-TiO2 Hydrogel for Lead Ion Removal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teoh, W. T.; Saito, N.; Sato, K.

    2011-03-01

    Alginate-TiO2 hydrogel was investigated for lead ion (Pb(II)) removal. By immobilizing TiO2 powder onto an alginate biopolymer, it is possible to utilize the ion exchange properties of the alginate and the photoreducibility of TiO2 to recover Pb(II). However, these photocatalytic activities degrade the alginate biopolymer in addition to removing Pb(II). This study examines photolytic degradation of alginate-TiO2 hydrogels prepared with alginate concentrations of 1, 1.5, 2, and 2.5%w/v; the same amount (0.4%w/v) of TiO2 was added to each alginate solution. The alginate-TiO2 hydrogels were formed by dripping the alginate-TiO2 suspension into a 0.2 M calcium chloride solution. The samples were washed and dried and then photoirradiated. The samples with alginate concentrations of 1 and 1.5%w/v were depolymerized, whereas the surface morphology of the sample that prepared from the 2%w/v alginate solution remained unchanged. The samples prepared from 1.5, 2, and 2.5%w/v alginate solutions had Pb(II) uptakes of 24.0, 39.8, and 39.7 mg/g, respectively.

  1. Controlled antiseptic release by alginate polymer films and beads.

    PubMed

    Liakos, Ioannis; Rizzello, Loris; Bayer, Ilker S; Pompa, Pier Paolo; Cingolani, Roberto; Athanassiou, Athanassia

    2013-01-30

    Biodegradable polymeric materials based on blending aqueous dispersions of natural polymer sodium alginate (NaAlg) and povidone iodine (PVPI) complex, which allow controlled antiseptic release, are presented. The developed materials are either free standing NaAlg films or Ca(2+)-cross-linked alginate beads, which properly combined with PVPI demonstrate antibacterial and antifungal activity, suitable for therapeutic applications, such as wound dressing. Glycerol was used as the plasticizing agent. Film morphology was studied by optical and atomic force microscopy. It was found that PVPI complex forms well dispersed circular micro-domains within the NaAlg matrix. The beads were fabricated by drop-wise immersion of NaAlg/PVPI/glycerol solutions into aqueous calcium chloride solutions to form calcium alginate beads encapsulating PVPI solution (CaAlg/PVPI). Controlled release of PVPI was possible when the composite films and beads were brought into direct contact with water or with moist media. Bactericidal and fungicidal properties of the materials were tested against Escherichia coli bacteria and Candida albicans fungi. The results indicated very efficient antibacterial and antifungal activity within 48 h. Controlled release of PVPI into open wounds is highly desired in clinical applications to avoid toxic doses of iodine absorption by the wound. A wide variety of applications are envisioned such as external and internal wound dressings with controlled antiseptic release, hygienic and protective packaging films for medical devices, and polymer beads as water disinfectants.

  2. Alginate hydrogel-mediated crystallization of calcium carbonate

    SciTech Connect

    Ma, Yufei; Feng, Qingling

    2011-05-15

    We documented a specific method for combining calcium ions and alginate molecules slowly and continuously in the mineralization system for the purpose of understanding the mediating function of alginate on the crystallization of calcium carbonate. The alginate was involved in the nucleation and the growth process of CaCO{sub 3}. The crystal size, morphology and roughness of crystal surface were significantly influenced by the type of the alginate, which could be accounted for by the length of the G blocks in alginate. A combination of Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and thermogravimetric analysis showed that there were the chemical interactions between the alginate and the mineral phase. This strategic approach revealed the biologically controlled CaCO{sub 3} mineralization within calcium alginate hydrogels via the selective nucleation and the confined crystallization of CaCO{sub 3}. The results presented here could contribute to the understanding of the mineralization process in hydrogel systems. -- Graphical abstract: Schematic illustration of the growth of calcite aggregates with different morphologies obtained from (a) Low G alginate gels and (b) High G alginate gels. Display Omitted highlights: > We use a specific method for combining calcium ions and alginate molecules slowly and continuously in the mineralization system to understand the mediating function of alginate on the crystallization of CaCO{sub 3} crystals. > The crystal size, morphology and crystal surface roughness are influenced by the length of G blocks in alginate. There are chemical interactions between the alginate and the mineral phase. > We propose a potential mechanism of CaCO{sub 3} crystallization within High G and Low G calcium alginate hydrogel.

  3. Impact of gelation period on modified locust bean-alginate interpenetrating beads for oral glipizide delivery.

    PubMed

    Dey, Paramita; Sa, Biswanath; Maiti, Sabyasachi

    2015-05-01

    In this work, the effect of hydrogelation period in the design of glipizide-loaded biopolymer-based interpenetrating network (IPN) beads was investigated. Carboxymethyl locust bean gum and sodium alginate IPN beads were prepared by ionic crosslinking method using aqueous aluminium chloride salt solution as gelation medium. The longer exposure of the IPN beads in the gelation medium caused a considerable loss of the drug (∼ 8%), and also affected their surface morphology and drug release performance. Spherical shape of the IPN beads was observed under scanning electron microscope (SEM). The diameter of IPN beads increased with increasing gelation time. The IPNs cured for 0.5h exhibited slower drug release kinetics in HCl (pH 1.2) and phosphate buffer (pH 7.4) solution than those incubated for 1-2h. The drug release occurred at a faster rate in phosphate buffer solution and continued for a minimum period of 8h. The IPNs cured for the lowest period obeyed polymer chain-relaxation phenomenon as dominating mechanism for drug release. However, all the IPNs followed anomalous mechanism of drug transport. The drug release corroborated well with pH-dependent swelling behaviors of the IPNs. Thus, IPN beads cured for 0.5h were found most suitable for controlled delivery of BCS class II anti-diabetic drug glipizide. PMID:25745842

  4. Core-shell hydrogel beads with extracellular matrix for tumor spheroid formation

    PubMed Central

    Yu, L.; Grist, S. M.; Nasseri, S. S.; Ni, C.; Cheung, K. C.

    2015-01-01

    Creating multicellular tumor spheroids is critical for characterizing anticancer treatments since they may provide a better model of the tumor than conventional monolayer culture. Moreover, tumor cell interaction with the extracellular matrix can determine cell organization and behavior. In this work, a microfluidic system was used to form cell-laden core-shell beads which incorporate elements of the extracellular matrix and support the formation of multicellular spheroids. The bead core (comprising a mixture of alginate, collagen, and reconstituted basement membrane, with gelation by temperature control) and shell (comprising alginate hydrogel, with gelation by ionic crosslinking) were simultaneously formed through flow focusing using a cooled flow path into the microfluidic chip. During droplet gelation, the alginate acts as a fast-gelling shell which aids in preventing droplet coalescence and in maintaining spherical droplet geometry during the slower gelation of the collagen and reconstituted basement membrane components as the beads warm up. After droplet gelation, the encapsulated MCF-7 cells proliferated to form uniform spheroids when the beads contained all three components: alginate, collagen, and reconstituted basement membrane. The dose-dependent response of the MCF-7 cell tumor spheroids to two anticancer drugs, docetaxel and tamoxifen, was compared to conventional monolayer culture. PMID:25945144

  5. Encapsulation of fibroblasts causes accelerated alginate hydrogel degradation.

    PubMed

    Hunt, N C; Smith, A M; Gbureck, U; Shelton, R M; Grover, L M

    2010-09-01

    Calcium-alginate hydrogel has been widely studied as a material for cell encapsulation for tissue engineering. At present, the effect that cells have on the degradation of alginate hydrogel is largely unknown. We have shown that fibroblasts encapsulated at a density of 7.5 x 10(5) cells ml(-1) in both 2% and 5% w/v alginate remain viable for at least 60 days. Rheological analysis was used to study how the mechanical properties exhibited by alginate hydrogel changed during 28 days in vitro culture. Alginate degradation was shown to occur throughout the study but was greatest within the first 7 days of culture for all samples, which correlated with a sharp release of calcium ions from the construct. Fibroblasts were shown to increase the rate of degradation during the first 7 days when compared with acellular samples in both 2% and 5% w/v gels, but after 28 days both acellular and cell-encapsulating samples retained disc-shaped morphologies and gel-like spectra. The results demonstrate that although at an early stage cells influence the mechanical properties of encapsulating alginate, over a longer period of culture, the hydrogels retain sufficient mechanical integrity to exhibit gel-like properties. This allows sustained immobilization of the cells at the desired location in vivo where they can produce extracellular matrix and growth factors to expedite the healing process.

  6. Patterning surface by site selective capture of biopolymer hydrogel beads.

    PubMed

    Guyomard-Lack, Aurélie; Moreau, Céline; Delorme, Nicolas; Marquis, Mélanie; Fang, Aiping; Bardeau, Jean-François; Cathala, Bernard

    2012-06-01

    This communication describes the fabrication of microstructured biopolymer surfaces by the site-selective capture of pectin hydrogel beads. A positively charged surface consisting of poly-L-lysine (PLL) was subjected to site-selective enzymatic degradation using patterned polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) stamps covalently modified with trypsin, according to the recently described method. The patterned surface was used to capture ionically cross-linked pectin beads. The desired patterning of the hydrogel surfaces was generated by site-selective immobilization of these pectin beads. The ability of the hydrogels to be dried and swollen in water was assessed.

  7. Patterning surface by site selective capture of biopolymer hydrogel beads.

    PubMed

    Guyomard-Lack, Aurélie; Moreau, Céline; Delorme, Nicolas; Marquis, Mélanie; Fang, Aiping; Bardeau, Jean-François; Cathala, Bernard

    2012-06-01

    This communication describes the fabrication of microstructured biopolymer surfaces by the site-selective capture of pectin hydrogel beads. A positively charged surface consisting of poly-L-lysine (PLL) was subjected to site-selective enzymatic degradation using patterned polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) stamps covalently modified with trypsin, according to the recently described method. The patterned surface was used to capture ionically cross-linked pectin beads. The desired patterning of the hydrogel surfaces was generated by site-selective immobilization of these pectin beads. The ability of the hydrogels to be dried and swollen in water was assessed. PMID:22326339

  8. Mechanical properties of alginate hydrogels manufactured using external gelation.

    PubMed

    Kaklamani, Georgia; Cheneler, David; Grover, Liam M; Adams, Michael J; Bowen, James

    2014-08-01

    Alginate hydrogels are commonly used in biomedical applications such as scaffolds for tissue engineering, drug delivery, and as a medium for cell immobilisation. Multivalent cations are often employed to create physical crosslinks between carboxyl and hydroxyl moieties on neighbouring polysaccharide chains, creating hydrogels with a range of mechanical properties. This work describes the manufacture and characterisation of sodium alginate hydrogels using the divalent cations Mg(2+), Ca(2+) and Sr(2+) to promote gelation via non-covalent crosslinks. Gelation time and Young׳s modulus are characterised as a function of cation and alginate concentrations. The implications of this work towards the use of environmental elasticity to control stem cell differentiation are discussed.

  9. Injectable hydrogels derived from phosphorylated alginic acid calcium complexes.

    PubMed

    Kim, Han-Sem; Song, Minsoo; Lee, Eun-Jung; Shin, Ueon Sang

    2015-06-01

    Phosphorylation of sodium alginate salt (NaAlg) was carried out using H3PO4/P2O5/Et3PO4 followed by acid-base reaction with Ca(OAc)2 to give phosphorylated alginic acid calcium complexes (CaPAlg), as a water dispersible alginic acid derivative. The modified alginate derivatives including phosphorylated alginic acid (PAlg) and CaPAlg were characterized by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy for (1)H, and (31)P nuclei, high resolution inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and thermogravimetric analysis. CaPAlg hydrogels were prepared simply by mixing CaPAlg solution (2w/v%) with NaAlg solution (2w/v%) in various ratios (2:8, 4:6, 6:4, 8:2) of volume. No additional calcium salts such as CaSO4 or CaCl2 were added externally. The gelation was completed within about 3-40min indicating a high potential of hydrogel delivery by injection in vivo. Their mechanical properties were tested to be ≤6.7kPa for compressive strength at break and about 8.4kPa/mm for elastic modulus. SEM analysis of the CaPAlg hydrogels showed highly porous morphology with interconnected pores of width in the range of 100-800μm. Cell culture results showed that the injectable hydrogels exhibited comparable properties to the pure alginate hydrogel in terms of cytotoxicity and 3D encapsulation of cells for a short time period. The developed injectable hydrogels showed suitable physicochemical and mechanical properties for injection in vivo, and could therefore be beneficial for the field of soft tissue engineering. PMID:25842118

  10. Entrapment of cross-linked cellulase colloids in alginate beads for hydrolysis of cellulose.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Le Truc; Lau, Yun Song; Yang, Kun-Lin

    2016-09-01

    Entrapment of enzymes in calcium alginate beads is a popular enzyme immobilization method. However, leaching of immobilized enzymes from the alginate beads is a common problem because enzyme molecules are much smaller than the pore size of alginate beads (∼200nm). To address this issue, we employ a millifluidic reactor to prepare cross-linked cellulase aggregate (XCA) colloids with a uniform size (∼300nm). Subsequently, these colloids are immobilized in calcium alginate beads as biocatalysts to hydrolyze cellulose substrates. By using fluorescent microscopy, we conclude that the immobilized XCA colloids distribute uniformly inside the beads and do not leach out from the beads after long-term incubation. Meanwhile, the pore size of the alginate beads is big enough for the cellulose substrates and fibers to diffuse into the beads for hydrolysis. For example, palm oil fiber and microcrystalline cellulose can be hydrolyzed within 48h and release reducing sugar concentrations up to 2.48±0.08g/l and 4.99±0.09g/l, respectively. Moreover, after 10 cycles of hydrolysis, 96.4% of the XCA colloids remain inside the alginate beads and retain 67% of the original activity. In contrast, free cellulase immobilized in the alginate beads loses its activity completely after 10 cycles. The strategy can also be used to prepare other types of cross-linked enzyme aggregates with high uniformity.

  11. Entrapment of cross-linked cellulase colloids in alginate beads for hydrolysis of cellulose.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Le Truc; Lau, Yun Song; Yang, Kun-Lin

    2016-09-01

    Entrapment of enzymes in calcium alginate beads is a popular enzyme immobilization method. However, leaching of immobilized enzymes from the alginate beads is a common problem because enzyme molecules are much smaller than the pore size of alginate beads (∼200nm). To address this issue, we employ a millifluidic reactor to prepare cross-linked cellulase aggregate (XCA) colloids with a uniform size (∼300nm). Subsequently, these colloids are immobilized in calcium alginate beads as biocatalysts to hydrolyze cellulose substrates. By using fluorescent microscopy, we conclude that the immobilized XCA colloids distribute uniformly inside the beads and do not leach out from the beads after long-term incubation. Meanwhile, the pore size of the alginate beads is big enough for the cellulose substrates and fibers to diffuse into the beads for hydrolysis. For example, palm oil fiber and microcrystalline cellulose can be hydrolyzed within 48h and release reducing sugar concentrations up to 2.48±0.08g/l and 4.99±0.09g/l, respectively. Moreover, after 10 cycles of hydrolysis, 96.4% of the XCA colloids remain inside the alginate beads and retain 67% of the original activity. In contrast, free cellulase immobilized in the alginate beads loses its activity completely after 10 cycles. The strategy can also be used to prepare other types of cross-linked enzyme aggregates with high uniformity. PMID:27318817

  12. Purification of alpha-amylases using magnetic alginate beads.

    PubMed

    Teotia, S; Gupta, M N

    2001-03-01

    Magnetic alginate beads were used to purify alpha-amylases from porcine pancreas, starchzyme, BAN 240L (a commercial purification from Bacillus subtilis), and wheat germ. The beads bound a significant level of alpha-amylase activity from porcine pancreas, BAN 240L, and wheat germ. In each case, the enzyme activity could be eluted by using 1.0 M maltose, a known competitive inhibitor of alpha-amylase. In the case of BAN 240L, 3.6-fold purification with 72% recovery of activity was observed. In the case of wheat germ enzyme, starting from the crude extract, 48-fold purification with 70% activity recovery was observed. Sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis analysis also indicated considerable purification in the latter case.

  13. Decolourisation of dyes under electro-Fenton process using Fe alginate gel beads.

    PubMed

    Rosales, E; Iglesias, O; Pazos, M; Sanromán, M A

    2012-04-30

    This study focuses on the application of electro-Fenton technique by use of catalytic activity of Fe alginate gel beads for the remediation of wastewater contaminated with synthetic dyes. The Fe alginate gel beads were evaluated for decolourisation of two typical dyes, Lissamine Green B and Azure B under electro-Fenton process. After characterization of Fe alginate gel beads, the pH effect on the process with Fe alginate beads and a comparative study of the electro-Fenton process with free Fe and Fe alginate bead was done. The results showed that the use of Fe alginate beads increases the efficiency of the process; moreover the developed particles show a physical integrity in a wide range of pH (2-8). Around 98-100% of dye decolourisation was obtained for both dyes by electro-Fenton process in successive batches. Therefore, the process was performed with Fe alginate beads in a bubble continuous reactor. High color removal (87-98%) was attained for both dyes operating at a residence time of 30 min, without operational problems and maintaining particle shapes throughout the oxidation process. Consequently, the stable performance of Fe alginate beads opens promising perspectives for fast and economical treatment of wastewater polluted by dyes or similar organic contaminants.

  14. In vivo behavior of hydrogel beads based on amidated pectins.

    PubMed

    Munjeri, O; Collett, J H; Fell, J T; Sharma, H L; Smith, A M

    1998-01-01

    Radio-labeled hydrogel beads, based on amidated pectin, have been produced by adding droplets of an amidated pectin solution to calcium chloride. Incorporation of model drugs into the beads and measurement of the dissolution rate showed that the properties of the beads were unaffected by the incorporation of the radiolabel. The labeled beads were used to carry out an in vivo study of their behavior in the gastrointestinal tract using human volunteers. The volunteers were given the beads after an overnight fast and images were obtained at frequent intervals during transit through the upper gastrointestinal tract and the colon. The beads exhibited rapid gastric emptying and proceeded to pass through the small intestine individually before regrouping at the ileo-caecal junction. Once in the colon, the beads again proceeded as individuals and evidence of the degradation of the beads was observed.

  15. Alginate hydrogels coated with chitosan for wound dressing.

    PubMed

    Straccia, Maria Cristina; d'Ayala, Giovanna Gomez; Romano, Ida; Oliva, Adriana; Laurienzo, Paola

    2015-05-11

    In this work, a coating of chitosan onto alginate hydrogels was realized using the water-soluble hydrochloride form of chitosan (CH-Cl), with the dual purpose of imparting antibacterial activity and delaying the release of hydrophilic molecules from the alginate matrix. Alginate hydrogels with different calcium contents were prepared by the internal setting method and coated by immersion in a CH-Cl solution. Structural analysis by cryo-scanning electron microscopy was carried out to highlight morphological alterations due to the coating layer. Tests in vitro with human mesenchymal stromal cells (MSC) were assessed to check the absence of toxicity of CH-Cl. Swelling, stability in physiological solution and release characteristics using rhodamine B as the hydrophilic model drug were compared to those of relative uncoated hydrogels. Finally, antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli was tested. Results show that alginate hydrogels coated with chitosan hydrochloride described here can be proposed as a novel medicated dressing by associating intrinsic antimicrobial activity with improved sustained release characteristics.

  16. Alginate Hydrogels Coated with Chitosan for Wound Dressing

    PubMed Central

    Straccia, Maria Cristina; Gomez d’Ayala, Giovanna; Romano, Ida; Oliva, Adriana; Laurienzo, Paola

    2015-01-01

    In this work, a coating of chitosan onto alginate hydrogels was realized using the water-soluble hydrochloride form of chitosan (CH-Cl), with the dual purpose of imparting antibacterial activity and delaying the release of hydrophilic molecules from the alginate matrix. Alginate hydrogels with different calcium contents were prepared by the internal setting method and coated by immersion in a CH-Cl solution. Structural analysis by cryo-scanning electron microscopy was carried out to highlight morphological alterations due to the coating layer. Tests in vitro with human mesenchymal stromal cells (MSC) were assessed to check the absence of toxicity of CH-Cl. Swelling, stability in physiological solution and release characteristics using rhodamine B as the hydrophilic model drug were compared to those of relative uncoated hydrogels. Finally, antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli was tested. Results show that alginate hydrogels coated with chitosan hydrochloride described here can be proposed as a novel medicated dressing by associating intrinsic antimicrobial activity with improved sustained release characteristics. PMID:25969981

  17. Evaluation of Fibroblasts Adhesion and Proliferation on Alginate-Gelatin Crosslinked Hydrogel

    PubMed Central

    Silva, Raquel; Roether, Judith A.; Kaschta, Joachim; Detsch, Rainer; Schubert, Dirk W.; Cicha, Iwona; Boccaccini, Aldo R.

    2014-01-01

    Due to the relatively poor cell-material interaction of alginate hydrogel, alginate-gelatin crosslinked (ADA-GEL) hydrogel was synthesized through covalent crosslinking of alginate di-aldehyde (ADA) with gelatin that supported cell attachment, spreading and proliferation. This study highlights the evaluation of the physico-chemical properties of synthesized ADA-GEL hydrogels of different compositions compared to alginate in the form of films. Moreover, in vitro cell-material interaction on ADA-GEL hydrogels of different compositions compared to alginate was investigated by using normal human dermal fibroblasts. Viability, attachment, spreading and proliferation of fibroblasts were significantly increased on ADA-GEL hydrogels compared to alginate. Moreover, in vitro cytocompatibility of ADA-GEL hydrogels was found to be increased with increasing gelatin content. These findings indicate that ADA-GEL hydrogel is a promising material for the biomedical applications in tissue-engineering and regeneration. PMID:25268892

  18. Detoxification of Hg(II) from aqueous and enzyme media: Pristine vs. tailored calcium alginate hydrogels.

    PubMed

    Sarkar, Kangkana; Ansari, Zarina; Sen, Kamalika

    2016-10-01

    Calcium alginate (CA) hydrogels were tailored using phenolic compounds (PC) like, thymol, morin, catechin, hesperidin, during their preparation. The PC incorporated gels show modified surface features as indicated by scanning electron microscopic images (SEM). The rheological studies show that excepting the hesperidin incorporated gels all the other kinds including calcium alginate pristine have similar mechanical strength. The hesperidine incorporated CA gels had the maximum capacity to adsorb Hg. The Freundlich adsorption isotherms show higher values of adsorption capacity for all PC incorporated CA beads than the pristine CA (PCA). The hesperidin incorporated CA gels were found to show the best adsorption condition at neutral pH and an optimum contact time of 2.5h at 25°C. Considering the possibility of ingested Hg detoxification from human alimentary tract, the hesperidin and morin incorporated CA beads were further modified through incorporation of cod liver oil as the digestion time of fat in stomach is higher. In vitro uptake capacities of Hg in pepsin and pancreatin containing enzyme media were studied with hesperidin and morin incorporated beads and their corresponding fat incorporated beads also. In the pepsin medium, there was no uptake by hesperidin and fat-hesperidin incorporated beads, which is possibly due to the higher acidity of the medium. But in pancreatin medium Hg was taken up by both kinds of beads. Morin and morin-fat incorporated beads were efficient to uptake Hg from both the pepsin and pancreatin medium. The tailored CA beads may therefore serve as efficient scaffolds to rescue Hg ingested individuals. PMID:27208797

  19. Oxidized alginate hydrogels as niche environments for corneal epithelial cells

    PubMed Central

    Wright, Bernice; De Bank, Paul A; Luetchford, Kim A; Acosta, Fernando R; Connon, Che J

    2014-01-01

    Chemical and biochemical modification of hydrogels is one strategy to create physiological constructs that maintain cell function. The aim of this study was to apply oxidised alginate hydrogels as a basis for development of a biomimetic niche for limbal epithelial stem cells that may be applied to treating corneal dysfunction. The stem phenotype of bovine limbal epithelial cells (LEC) and the viability of corneal epithelial cells (CEC) were examined in oxidised alginate gels containing collagen IV over a 3-day culture period. Oxidation increased cell viability (P ≤ 0.05) and this improved further with addition of collagen IV (P ≤ 0.01). Oxidised gels presented larger internal pores (diameter: 0.2–0.8 µm) than unmodified gels (pore diameter: 0.05–0.1 µm) and were significantly less stiff (P ≤ 0.001), indicating that an increase in pore size and a decrease in stiffness contributed to improved cell viability. The diffusion of collagen IV from oxidised alginate gels was similar to that of unmodified gels suggesting that oxidation may not affect the retention of extracellular matrix proteins in alginate gels. These data demonstrate that oxidised alginate gels containing corneal extracellular matrix proteins can influence corneal epithelial cell function in a manner that may impact beneficially on corneal wound healing therapy. © 2013 The Authors. Journal of Biomedical Materials Research Part A Published byWiley Periodicals, Inc. Part A: 102A: 3393–3400, 2014. PMID:24142706

  20. Towards antimicrobial yet bioactive Cu-alginate hydrogels.

    PubMed

    Madzovska-Malagurski, I; Vukasinovic-Sekulic, M; Kostic, D; Levic, S

    2016-06-15

    The simplest approach to enhance alginate hydrogel characteristics and functional properties is to replace the calcium in the process of alginate gelation with other metallic ions which are essential for living systems. Gelling of alginate with other ions and using modern encapsulation techniques can provide new delivery systems with required properties. Hence, in this study Cu-alginate hydrogels in the form of microbeads were produced by electrostatic extrusion using gelling solutions with Cu(II) concentrations in the range 13.5-270 mM and comprehensively characterized in vitro. The variation of gelling solution concentration influenced the microbead Cu(II) content, size, biomechanical properties, Cu(II) release and subsequently potential biomedical application. The formulations chosen for biomedical evaluation showed potential for antimicrobial and tissue engineering applications. Microbeads with higher Cu(II) loading (~100 μmol g(-1)) induced immediate bactericidal effects against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus. Conversely, Cu(II) release from microbeads with the Cu(II) content of ~60 μmol g(-1) was slower and they were suitable for promoting and maintaining chondrogenic phenotype of bovine calf chondrocytes in 3D culture. Results of this study have shown possibilities for tuning Cu-alginate properties for potential biomedical applications such as antimicrobial wound dressings, tissue engineering scaffolds or articular cartilage implants.

  1. Oxidized alginate hydrogels as niche environments for corneal epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Wright, Bernice; De Bank, Paul A; Luetchford, Kim A; Acosta, Fernando R; Connon, Che J

    2014-10-01

    Chemical and biochemical modification of hydrogels is one strategy to create physiological constructs that maintain cell function. The aim of this study was to apply oxidised alginate hydrogels as a basis for development of a biomimetic niche for limbal epithelial stem cells that may be applied to treating corneal dysfunction. The stem phenotype of bovine limbal epithelial cells (LEC) and the viability of corneal epithelial cells (CEC) were examined in oxidised alginate gels containing collagen IV over a 3-day culture period. Oxidation increased cell viability (P ≤ 0.05) and this improved further with addition of collagen IV (P ≤ 0.01). Oxidised gels presented larger internal pores (diameter: 0.2-0.8 µm) than unmodified gels (pore diameter: 0.05-0.1 µm) and were significantly less stiff (P ≤ 0.001), indicating that an increase in pore size and a decrease in stiffness contributed to improved cell viability. The diffusion of collagen IV from oxidised alginate gels was similar to that of unmodified gels suggesting that oxidation may not affect the retention of extracellular matrix proteins in alginate gels. These data demonstrate that oxidised alginate gels containing corneal extracellular matrix proteins can influence corneal epithelial cell function in a manner that may impact beneficially on corneal wound healing therapy.

  2. Immobilization of a Plant Lipase from Pachira aquatica in Alginate and Alginate/PVA Beads.

    PubMed

    Bonine, Bárbara M; Polizelli, Patricia Peres; Bonilla-Rodriguez, Gustavo O

    2014-01-01

    This study reports the immobilization of a new lipase isolated from oleaginous seeds of Pachira aquatica, using beads of calcium alginate (Alg) and poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA). We evaluated the morphology, number of cycles of reuse, optimum temperature, and temperature stability of both immobilization methods compared to the free enzyme. The immobilized enzymes were more stable than the free enzyme, keeping 60% of the original activity after 4 h at 50°C. The immobilized lipase was reused several times, with activity decreasing to approximately 50% after 5 cycles. Both the free and immobilized enzymes were found to be optimally active between 30 and 40°C.

  3. Heavy metal sorption by calcium alginate beads from Laminaria digitata.

    PubMed

    Papageorgiou, Sergios K; Katsaros, Fotios K; Kouvelos, Evangelos P; Nolan, John W; Le Deit, Herve; Kanellopoulos, Nick K

    2006-10-11

    Alginate with a high M/G ratio, extracted from Laminaria digitata, was evaluated for Cu(2+), Cd(2+) and Pb(2+) sorption in acidic solutions, in the form of calcium cross-linked beads. The high M/G ratio of alginate extracted from this algal species is most likely the determining factor for the increased adsorption capacity of the investigated metals, indicating that the mannuronic acid is responsible for the ion exchange mechanism. The data obtained from the batch experiments have been interpreted with Langmuir, Freundlich and Sips models. The Sips equation provided the best fit with the experimental results, indicating sorption sites heterogeneity for the material. The pH was found to have a significant effect on the process, with sorption capacity reaching a maximum at pH 4.5, indicating a competition mechanism between H(+) and metal ions. Kinetic experiments were performed at the optimum pH. For the interpretation of the kinetic experiments the Linear Adsorption Model was employed and diffusion coefficients were determined. The model fits the experimental data at higher concentrations, where the adsorbed quantity remains almost constant. Finally, a simplified expression of the batch kinetic adsorption model was employed. The model, predicts adequately, not only the diffusivity values, but also the concentration profiles inside the spherical particles.

  4. Modulation of drug release from glyceryl palmitostearate-alginate beads via heat treatment.

    PubMed

    Pongjanyakul, Thaned; Sungthongjeen, Srisagul; Puttipipatkhachorn, Satit

    2006-08-17

    Diclofenac calcium alginate (DCA) beads containing glyceryl palmitostearate (GPS) were prepared by ionotropic gelation method. The effect of GPS amount and heat treatment on characteristics of the DCA beads was investigated. Incorporation of GPS into the DCA beads increased particle size and entrapment efficiency of diclofenac sodium (DS), but decreased water uptake in distilled water, and DS release rate. The heat treatment caused the DCA beads to be irregular shape particles and to possess higher water uptake. A slower release rate of DS in distilled water was found because of interaction of DS and alginate polymer matrix, and a restriction of water sorption into the inside region of the beads, which caused by the shrinkage of the beads after heating. However, the heat treatment did not affect particle shape and water uptake in distilled water of the 3%GPS-DCA beads. Differential scanning calorimetric study showed that GPS in the DCA beads was resolidified to different polymorph after cooling. Furthermore, the micro-Raman spectra indicated the existence of DS in the GPS matrix particles in the beads due to the partition of DS into the melted GPS during heat treatment. This led to a decrease in release rate of DS in pH 6.8 phosphate buffer and a change in DS release pattern in distilled water. Thus, not only the calcium alginate matrix, but also the resolidified GPS matrix in the alginate beads controlled the DS release from the 3%GPS-DCA beads with heat treatment.

  5. Preparation and evaluation of sustained release calcium alginate beads and matrix tablets of acetazolamide.

    PubMed

    Barzegar-Jalali, M; Hanaee, J; Omidi, Y; Ghanbarzadeh, S; Ziaee, S; Bairami-Atashgah, R; Adibkia, K

    2013-02-01

    The aim of this study was to develop sustained release dosage forms of acetazolamide (ACZ) preparing its calcium alginate beads and matrix tablets. ACZ was incorporated into calcium alginate beads using microencapsulation method. Two methods were applied to prolong ACZ release rate. In the first method, the drug was incorporated into calcium alginate beads either alone or with various polymers in internal phase. The second method involved the preparation of matrix tablet from the beads benefiting direct compression method with or without various polymers in external phase. The release rate of these prepared formulations and an innovator's sustained-release capsule (Diamox®) were assessed. In-vitro dissolution studies revealed that the matrix tablets prepared by the second method containing NaCMC could sustain ACZ release properly and the drug released until 9 h. It was also found that several parameters such as concentration of sodium alginate, calcium chloride and ACZ; type and concentration of polymers; syringe needle size as well as distance between needle tip and surface of the calcium chloride could affect the properties of beads, matrix tablets and subsequently release profile. Preparation of polymer free beads, incorporation of polymers in internal phase of the beads and direct compression of the beads did not give sustained release property. Whereas, incorporation of NaCMC in the external phase of the beads in matrix tablets or in combination with alginate powder in directly compressed conventional tablets could produce dosage form with sustained release property similar to reference formulation. PMID:23447074

  6. Robust Optimization of Alginate-Carbopol 940 Bead Formulations

    PubMed Central

    López-Cacho, J. M.; González-R, Pedro L.; Talero, B.; Rabasco, A. M.; González-Rodríguez, M. L.

    2012-01-01

    Formulation process is a very complex activity which sometimes implicates taking decisions about parameters or variables to obtain the best results in a high variability or uncertainty context. Therefore, robust optimization tools can be very useful for obtaining high quality formulations. This paper proposes the optimization of different responses through the robust Taguchi method. Each response was evaluated like a noise variable, allowing the application of Taguchi techniques to obtain a response under the point of view of the signal to noise ratio. A L18 Taguchi orthogonal array design was employed to investigate the effect of eight independent variables involved in the formulation of alginate-Carbopol beads. Responses evaluated were related to drug release profile from beads (t50% and AUC), swelling performance, encapsulation efficiency, shape and size parameters. Confirmation tests to verify the prediction model were carried out and the obtained results were very similar to those predicted in every profile. Results reveal that the robust optimization is a very useful approach that allows greater precision and accuracy to the desired value. PMID:22645438

  7. Evaluation of an alginate-gelatine crosslinked hydrogel for bioplotting.

    PubMed

    Zehnder, Tobias; Sarker, Bapi; Boccaccini, Aldo R; Detsch, Rainer

    2015-04-08

    Using additive manufacturing to create hydrogel scaffolds which incorporate homogeneously distributed, immobilized cells in the context of biofabrication approaches represents an emerging and expanding field in tissue engineering. Applying hydrogels for additive manufacturing must consider the material processing properties as well as their influence on the immobilized cells. In this work alginate-dialdehyde (ADA), a partially oxidized alginate, was used as a basic material to improve the physico-chemical properties of the hydrogel for cell immobilization. At first, the processing ability of the gel using a bioplotter and the compatibility of the process with MG-63 osteoblast like cells were investigated. The metabolic and mitochondrial activities increased at the beginning of the incubation period and they balanced at a relatively high level after 14-28 days of incubation. During this incubation period the release of vascular endothelial growth factor-A also increased. After 28 days of incubation the cell morphology showed a spreading morphology and cells were seen to move out of the scaffold struts covering the whole scaffold structure. The reproducible processing capability of alginate-gelatine (ADA-GEL) and the compatibility with MG-63 cells were proven, thus the ADA-GEL material is highlighted as a promising matrix for applications in biofabrication.

  8. Okra (Hibiscus esculentus) gum-alginate blend mucoadhesive beads for controlled glibenclamide release.

    PubMed

    Sinha, Priyanka; Ubaidulla, U; Nayak, Amit Kumar

    2015-01-01

    The utility of isolated okra (Hibiscus esculentus) gum (OG) was evaluated as a potential sustained drug release polymer-blends with sodium alginate in the development of controlled glibenclamide release ionically-gelled beads for oral use. OG was isolated from okra fruits and its solubility, pH, viscosity and moisture content were studied. Glibenclamide-loaded OG-alginate blend beads were prepared using CaCl2 as cross-linking agent through ionic-gelation technique. These ionically gelled beads showed drug entrapment efficiency of 64.19 ± 2.02 to 91.86 ± 3.24%. The bead sizes were within 1.12 ± 0.11 to 1.28 ± 0.15 mm. These glibenclamide-loaded OG-alginate blend beads exhibited sustained in vitro drug release over a prolonged period of 8 h. The in vitro drug release from these OG-alginate beads were followed controlled-release (zero-order) pattern with super case-II transport mechanism. The beads were also characterized by SEM and FTIR. The swelling and degradation of these beads was influenced by the pH of the test medium. These beads also exhibited good mucoadhesivity with goat intestinal mucosa.

  9. Okra (Hibiscus esculentus) gum-alginate blend mucoadhesive beads for controlled glibenclamide release.

    PubMed

    Sinha, Priyanka; Ubaidulla, U; Nayak, Amit Kumar

    2015-01-01

    The utility of isolated okra (Hibiscus esculentus) gum (OG) was evaluated as a potential sustained drug release polymer-blends with sodium alginate in the development of controlled glibenclamide release ionically-gelled beads for oral use. OG was isolated from okra fruits and its solubility, pH, viscosity and moisture content were studied. Glibenclamide-loaded OG-alginate blend beads were prepared using CaCl2 as cross-linking agent through ionic-gelation technique. These ionically gelled beads showed drug entrapment efficiency of 64.19 ± 2.02 to 91.86 ± 3.24%. The bead sizes were within 1.12 ± 0.11 to 1.28 ± 0.15 mm. These glibenclamide-loaded OG-alginate blend beads exhibited sustained in vitro drug release over a prolonged period of 8 h. The in vitro drug release from these OG-alginate beads were followed controlled-release (zero-order) pattern with super case-II transport mechanism. The beads were also characterized by SEM and FTIR. The swelling and degradation of these beads was influenced by the pH of the test medium. These beads also exhibited good mucoadhesivity with goat intestinal mucosa. PMID:25312603

  10. Alginate beads of Captopril using galactomannan containing Senna tora gum, guar gum and locust bean gum.

    PubMed

    Pawar, Harshal A; Lalitha, K G; Ruckmani, K

    2015-05-01

    Gastro-retentive Captopril loaded alginate beads were prepared by an ionotropic gelation method using sodium alginate in combination with natural gums containing galactomannans (Senna tora seed gum, guar gum and locust bean gum) in the presence of calcium chloride. The process variables such as concentration of sodium alginate/natural polymer, concentration of calcium chloride, curing time, stirring speed and drying condition were optimized. Prepared beads were evaluated for various parameters such as flow property, drug content and entrapment efficiency, size and shape, and swelling index. Surface morphology of the beads was studied using scanning electron microscopy. In vitro mucoadhesion and in vitro drug release studies were carried out on the prepared beads. From the entrapment efficiency and dissolution study, it was concluded that galactomannans in combination with sodium alginate show sustained release property. The bead formulation F4 prepared using combination of sodium alginate and guar gums in the ratio 2:1 showed satisfactory sustained release for 12h. The release of Captopril from the prepared beads was found to be controlled by the swelling of the polymer followed by drug diffusion through the swelled polymer and slow erosion of the beads.

  11. Alginate beads of Captopril using galactomannan containing Senna tora gum, guar gum and locust bean gum.

    PubMed

    Pawar, Harshal A; Lalitha, K G; Ruckmani, K

    2015-05-01

    Gastro-retentive Captopril loaded alginate beads were prepared by an ionotropic gelation method using sodium alginate in combination with natural gums containing galactomannans (Senna tora seed gum, guar gum and locust bean gum) in the presence of calcium chloride. The process variables such as concentration of sodium alginate/natural polymer, concentration of calcium chloride, curing time, stirring speed and drying condition were optimized. Prepared beads were evaluated for various parameters such as flow property, drug content and entrapment efficiency, size and shape, and swelling index. Surface morphology of the beads was studied using scanning electron microscopy. In vitro mucoadhesion and in vitro drug release studies were carried out on the prepared beads. From the entrapment efficiency and dissolution study, it was concluded that galactomannans in combination with sodium alginate show sustained release property. The bead formulation F4 prepared using combination of sodium alginate and guar gums in the ratio 2:1 showed satisfactory sustained release for 12h. The release of Captopril from the prepared beads was found to be controlled by the swelling of the polymer followed by drug diffusion through the swelled polymer and slow erosion of the beads. PMID:25720832

  12. Digital microfluidic three-dimensional cell culture and chemical screening platform using alginate hydrogels

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Electro wetting-on-dielectric (EWOD) digital microfluidics (DMF) can be used to develop improved chemical screening platforms using 3-dimensional (3D) cell culture. Alginate hydrogels are one common method by which a 3D cell culture environment is created. This paper presents a study of alginate gelation on EWOD DMF and investigates designs to obtain uniform alginate hydrogels that can be repeatedly addressed by any desired liquids. A design which allows for gels to be retained in place during liquid delivery and removal without using any physical barriers or hydrophilic patterning of substrates is presented. A proof of concept screening platform is demonstrated by examining the effects of different concentrations of a test chemical on 3D cells in alginate hydrogels. In addition, the temporal effects of the various chemical concentrations on different hydrogel posts are demonstrated, thereby establishing the benefits of an EWOD DMF 3D cell culture and chemical screening platform using alginate hydrogels. PMID:25945142

  13. Digital microfluidic three-dimensional cell culture and chemical screening platform using alginate hydrogels.

    PubMed

    George, Subin M; Moon, Hyejin

    2015-03-01

    Electro wetting-on-dielectric (EWOD) digital microfluidics (DMF) can be used to develop improved chemical screening platforms using 3-dimensional (3D) cell culture. Alginate hydrogels are one common method by which a 3D cell culture environment is created. This paper presents a study of alginate gelation on EWOD DMF and investigates designs to obtain uniform alginate hydrogels that can be repeatedly addressed by any desired liquids. A design which allows for gels to be retained in place during liquid delivery and removal without using any physical barriers or hydrophilic patterning of substrates is presented. A proof of concept screening platform is demonstrated by examining the effects of different concentrations of a test chemical on 3D cells in alginate hydrogels. In addition, the temporal effects of the various chemical concentrations on different hydrogel posts are demonstrated, thereby establishing the benefits of an EWOD DMF 3D cell culture and chemical screening platform using alginate hydrogels. PMID:25945142

  14. Immobilization of a Plant Lipase from Pachira aquatica in Alginate and Alginate/PVA Beads

    PubMed Central

    Bonine, Bárbara M.; Polizelli, Patricia Peres; Bonilla-Rodriguez, Gustavo O.

    2014-01-01

    This study reports the immobilization of a new lipase isolated from oleaginous seeds of Pachira aquatica, using beads of calcium alginate (Alg) and poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA). We evaluated the morphology, number of cycles of reuse, optimum temperature, and temperature stability of both immobilization methods compared to the free enzyme. The immobilized enzymes were more stable than the free enzyme, keeping 60% of the original activity after 4 h at 50°C. The immobilized lipase was reused several times, with activity decreasing to approximately 50% after 5 cycles. Both the free and immobilized enzymes were found to be optimally active between 30 and 40°C. PMID:24818012

  15. The release rate of curcumin from calcium alginate beads regulated by food emulsifiers.

    PubMed

    Song, Shili; Wang, Zhen; Qian, Yuhua; Zhang, Lijie; Luo, Erfeng

    2012-05-01

    Curcumin-loaded alginate beads, which contain different food emulsifiers, have been prepared using CaCl₂ as the cross-linking agent. The controlled release of the curcumin from the beads was investigated at room temperature. For calcium alginate/Span-80/Tween-80 (A/S/T) formulations, almost all of the curcumin loaded in the beads was released into the medium within about 20 h, and the release rates could be regulated by changing the concentration of both Tween-80 and Span-80. However, for the systems of calcium alginate/Q-12A/F-18A (A/Q/F), about 60% of the curcumin loaded in the beads was released at the end of experiments. The studies of scanning electron microscopy indicated that the microstructure of the walls of beads could significantly vary with the concentration or type of emulsifiers. The Fourier transform infrared spectral measurements confirmed that the interactions between calcium alginate and polyglycerol fatty acid esters were stronger than that between calcium alginate and Tween-80/Span-80. The results of swelling studies demonstrated that the initial rates of water uptake for A/Q/F beads were higher than that for A/S/T beads. Moreover, the data of release rates were fitted by an empirical equation, which showed that the release mechanism of curcumin from the alginate gels varied with the composition of emulsifiers for the A/S/T systems. This work provides an important insight into the effect of food emulsifiers on the release rates of the curcumin from calcium alginate beads and will be helpful for the application of the systems in controlled release of other hydrophobic drug.

  16. Cryopreservation effects on recombinant myoblasts encapsulated in adhesive alginate hydrogels.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Hajira F; Sambanis, Athanassios

    2013-06-01

    Cell encapsulation in hydrogels is widely used in tissue engineering applications, including encapsulation of islets or other insulin-secreting cells in pancreatic substitutes. Use of adhesive, biofunctionalized hydrogels is receiving increasing attention as cell-matrix interactions in three-dimensional (3-D) environments can be important for various cell processes. With pancreatic substitutes, studies have indicated benefits of 3-D adhesion on the viability and/or function of insulin-secreting cells. As long-term storage of microencapsulated cells is critical for their clinical translation, cryopreservation of cells in hydrogels is being actively investigated. Previous studies have examined the cryopreservation response of cells encapsulated in non-adhesive hydrogels using conventional freezing and/or vitrification (ice-free cryopreservation); however, none have systematically compared the two cryopreservation methods with cells encapsulated within an adhesive 3-D environment. The latter would be significant, as evidence suggests adhesion influences the cellular response to cryopreservation. Thus, the objective of this study was to determine the response to conventional freezing and vitrification of insulin-secreting cells encapsulated in an adhesive biomimetic hydrogel. Recombinant insulin-secreting C2C12 myoblasts were encapsulated in oxidized RGD-alginate and cultured for 1 or 4days post-encapsulation, cryopreserved, and assessed up to 3days post-warming for metabolic activity and insulin secretion, and 1day post-warming for cell morphology. Besides certain transient differences in the vitrified group relative to the fresh control, both conventional freezing and vitrification maintained the metabolism, secretory activity, and morphology of the recombinant C2C12 cells. Thus, due to a simpler procedure and slightly superior results, conventional freezing is recommended over vitrification for the cryopreservation of C2C12 cells encapsulated in oxidized, RGD

  17. Release of angiogenic growth factors from cells encapsulated in alginate beads with bioactive glass.

    PubMed

    Keshaw, Hussila; Forbes, Alastair; Day, Richard M

    2005-07-01

    Attempts to stimulate therapeutic angiogenesis using gene therapy or delivery of recombinant growth factors, such as vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), have failed to demonstrate unequivocal efficacy in human trials. Bioactive glass stimulates fibroblasts to secrete significantly increased amounts of angiogenic growth factors and therefore has a number of potential applications in therapeutic angiogenesis. The aim of this study was to assess whether it is possible to encapsulate specific quantities of bioactive glass and fibroblasts into alginate beads, which will secrete growth factors capable of stimulating angiogenesis. Human fibroblasts (CCD-18Co) were encapsulated in alginate beads with specific quantities of 45S5 bioactive glass and incubated in culture medium (0-17 days). The conditioned medium was collected and assayed for VEGF or used to assess its ability to stimulate angiogenesis by measuring the proliferation of human dermal microvascular endothelial cells. At 17 days the beads were lysed and the amount of VEGF retained by the beads measured. Fibroblasts encapsulated in alginate beads containing 0.01% and 0.1% (w/v) 45S5 bioactive glass particles secreted increased quantities of VEGF compared with cells encapsulated with 0% or 1% (w/v) 45S5 bioactive glass particles. Lysed alginate beads containing 0.01% and 0.1% (w/v) 45S5 bioactive glass contained significantly more VEGF (p<0.01) compared with beads containing no glass particles. Endothelial cell proliferation was significantly increased (p<0.01) by conditioned medium collected from alginate beads containing 0.1% (w/v) 45S5 bioactive glass particles. The results of this study demonstrate that bioactive glass and fibroblasts can be successfully incorporated into alginate beads for use in delivering angiogenic growth factors. With further optimization, this technique offers a novel delivery device for stimulating therapeutic angiogenesis. PMID:15664644

  18. Characterization of an encapsulation device for the production of monodisperse alginate beads for cell immobilization.

    PubMed

    Serp, D; Cantana, E; Heinzen, C; Von Stockar, U; Marison, I W

    2000-10-01

    An encapsulation device, designed on the basis of the laminar jet break-up technique, is characterized for cell immobilization with different types of alginate. The principle of operation of the completely sterilizable encapsulator, together with techniques for the continuous production of beads from 250 microm to 1 mm in diameter, with a size distribution below 5%, at a flow rate of 1-15 mL/min, is described. A modification of the device, to incorporate an electrostatic potential between the alginate droplets and an internal electrode, results in enhanced monodispersity with no adverse effects on cell viability. The maximum cell loading capacity of the beads strongly depends on the nozzle diameter as well as the cells used. For the yeast Phaffia rhodozyma, it is possible to generate 700 microm alginate beads with an initial cell concentration of 1 x 10(8) cells/mL of alginate whereas only 1 x 10(6) cells/ml could be entrapped within 400 microm beads. The alginate beads have been characterized with respect to mechanical resistance and size distribution immediately after production and as a function of storage conditions. The beads remain stable in the presence of acetic acid, hydrochloric acid, water, basic water, and sodium ions. The latter stability applies when the ratio of sodium: calcium ions is less than 1/5. Complexing agents such as sodium citrate result in the rapid solubilization of the beads due to calcium removal. The presence of cells does not affect the mechanical resistance of the beads. Finally, the mechanical resistance of alginate beads can be doubled by treatment with 5-10 kDa chitosan, resulting in reduced leaching of cells.

  19. Biocompatible Double-Membrane Hydrogels from Cationic Cellulose Nanocrystals and Anionic Alginate as Complexing Drugs Codelivery.

    PubMed

    Lin, Ning; Gèze, Annabelle; Wouessidjewe, Denis; Huang, Jin; Dufresne, Alain

    2016-03-23

    A biocompatible hydrogel with a double-membrane structure is developed from cationic cellulose nanocrystals (CNC) and anionic alginate. The architecture of the double-membrane hydrogel involves an external membrane composed of neat alginate, and an internal composite hydrogel consolidates by electrostatic interactions between cationic CNC and anionic alginate. The thickness of the outer layer can be regulated by the adsorption duration of neat alginate, and the shape of the inner layer can directly determine the morphology and dimensions of the double-membrane hydrogel (microsphere, capsule, and filmlike shapes). Two drugs are introduced into the different membranes of the hydrogel, which will ensure the complexing drugs codelivery and the varied drugs release behaviors from two membranes (rapid drug release of the outer hydrogel, and prolonged drug release of the inner hydrogel). The double-membrane hydrogel containing the chemically modified cellulose nanocrystals (CCNC) in the inner membrane hydrogel can provide the sustained drug release ascribed to the "nano-obstruction effect" and "nanolocking effect" induced by the presence of CCNC components in the hydrogels. Derived from natural polysaccharides (cellulose and alginate), the novel double-membrane structure hydrogel material developed in this study is biocompatible and can realize the complexing drugs release with the first quick release of one drug and the successively slow release of another drug, which is expected to achieve the synergistic release effects or potentially provide the solution to drug resistance in biomedical application.

  20. Alginate-hyaluronan composite hydrogels accelerate wound healing process.

    PubMed

    Catanzano, O; D'Esposito, V; Acierno, S; Ambrosio, M R; De Caro, C; Avagliano, C; Russo, P; Russo, R; Miro, A; Ungaro, F; Calignano, A; Formisano, P; Quaglia, F

    2015-10-20

    In this paper we propose polysaccharide hydrogels combining alginate (ALG) and hyaluronan (HA) as biofunctional platform for dermal wound repair. Hydrogels produced by internal gelation were homogeneous and easy to handle. Rheological evaluation of gelation kinetics of ALG/HA mixtures at different ratios allowed understanding the HA effect on ALG cross-linking process. Disk-shaped hydrogels, at different ALG/HA ratio, were characterized for morphology, homogeneity and mechanical properties. Results suggest that, although the presence of HA does significantly slow down gelation kinetics, the concentration of cross-links reached at the end of gelation is scarcely affected. The in vitro activity of ALG/HA dressings was tested on adipose derived multipotent adult stem cells (Ad-MSC) and an immortalized keratinocyte cell line (HaCaT). Hydrogels did not interfere with cell viability in both cells lines, but significantly promoted gap closure in a scratch assay at early (1 day) and late (5 days) stages as compared to hydrogels made of ALG alone (p<0.01 and 0.001 for Ad-MSC and HaCaT, respectively). In vivo wound healing studies, conducted on a rat model of excised wound indicated that after 5 days ALG/HA hydrogels significantly promoted wound closure as compared to ALG ones (p<0.001). Overall results demonstrate that the integration of HA in a physically cross-linked ALG hydrogel can be a versatile strategy to promote wound healing that can be easily translated in a clinical setting.

  1. Adsorption of ochratoxin A from grape juice by yeast cells immobilised in calcium alginate beads.

    PubMed

    Farbo, Maria Grazia; Urgeghe, Pietro Paolo; Fiori, Stefano; Marceddu, Salvatore; Jaoua, Samir; Migheli, Quirico

    2016-01-18

    Grape juice can be easily contaminated with ochratoxin A (OTA), one of the known mycotoxins with the greatest public health significance. Among the different approaches to decontaminate juice from this mycotoxin, microbiological methods proved efficient, inexpensive and safe, particularly the use of yeast or yeast products. To ascertain whether immobilisation of the yeast biomass would lead to successful decontamination, alginate beads encapsulating Candida intermedia yeast cells were used in our experiments to evaluate their OTA-biosorption efficacy. Magnetic calcium alginate beads were also prepared by adding magnetite in the formulation to allow fast removal from the aqueous solution with a magnet. Calcium alginate beads were added to commercial grape juice spiked with 20 μg/kg OTA and after 48 h of incubation a significant reduction (>80%), of the total OTA content was achieved, while in the subsequent phases (72-120 h) OTA was slowly released into the grape juice by alginate beads. Biosorption properties of alginate-yeast beads were tested in a prototype bioreactor consisting in a glass chromatography column packed with beads, where juice amended with OTA was slowly flowed downstream. The adoption of an interconnected scaled-up bioreactor as an efficient and safe tool to remove traces of OTA from liquid matrices is discussed.

  2. Immobilization of lipase using hydrophilic polymers in the form of hydrogel beads.

    PubMed

    Betigeri, Seema S; Neau, Steven H

    2002-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to immobilize lipase (triacylglycerol ester hydrolase, E.C. 3.1.1.3) from Candida rugosa using various polymers in the form of beads, to evaluate enzyme loading, leaching, and activity; and to characterize the beads. Agarose, alginate, and chitosan were the polymers selected to immobilize lipase by entrapment. Agarose beads exhibited undesirable swelling in the leaching and activity medium and the polymer was not used further. Alginate or chitosan beads were prepared by ionic gelation using calcium chloride or sodium tripolyphosphate, respectively, as the cross-linking agent in the gelling solution. Some hatches of beads of each polymer were freeze dried. The results show that alginate beads leached substantially more enzyme than did chitosan beads. Entrapment efficiency, however, was the same for different chitosan levels as well as different alginate levels (43-50%). Activity in alginate was low at 240 +/- 33 and 220 +/- 26, compared to 1,110 +/- 51 and 1,150 +/- 11 units/ml in chitosan, for fresh and freeze-dried beads, respectively. The higher lipase activity in chitosan beads compared to that in alginate beads could be attributed to an alginate-enzyme interaction. It can be concluded that chitosan is a polymer worthy of pursuit to immobilize lipase.

  3. Chondrocyte Culture in Three Dimensional Alginate Sulfate Hydrogels Promotes Proliferation While Maintaining Expression of Chondrogenic Markers

    PubMed Central

    Mhanna, Rami; Kashyap, Aditya; Palazzolo, Gemma; Vallmajo-Martin, Queralt; Becher, Jana; Möller, Stephanie; Schnabelrauch, Matthias

    2014-01-01

    The loss of expression of chondrogenic markers during monolayer expansion remains a stumbling block for cell-based treatment of cartilage lesions. Here, we introduce sulfated alginate hydrogels as a cartilage biomimetic biomaterial that induces cell proliferation while maintaining the chondrogenic phenotype of encapsulated chondrocytes. Hydroxyl groups of alginate were converted to sulfates by incubation with sulfur trioxide–pyridine complex (SO3/pyridine), yielding a sulfated material cross-linkable with calcium chloride. Passage 3 bovine chondrocytes were encapsulated in alginate and alginate sulfate hydrogels for up to 35 days. Cell proliferation was five-fold higher in alginate sulfate compared with alginate (p=0.038). Blocking beta1 integrins in chondrocytes within alginate sulfate hydrogels significantly inhibited proliferation (p=0.002). Sulfated alginate increased the RhoA activity of chondrocytes compared with unmodified alginate, an increase that was blocked by β1 blocking antibodies (p=0.017). Expression and synthesis of type II collagen, type I collagen, and proteoglycan was not significantly affected by the encapsulation material evidenced by quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) and immunohistochemistry. Alginate sulfate constructs showed an opaque appearance in culture, whereas the unmodified alginate samples remained translucent. In conclusion, alginate sulfate provides a three dimensional microenvironment that promotes both chondrocyte proliferation and maintenance of the chondrogenic phenotype and represents an important advance for chondrocyte-based cartilage repair therapies providing a material in which cell expansion can be done in situ. PMID:24320935

  4. Alginate-polymethacrylate hybrid hydrogels with double ionic and covalent network for tissue engineering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schizzi, I.; Utzeri, R.; Castellano, M.; Stagnaro, P.

    2016-05-01

    Hydrogels based on alginates are very promising candidates to realize scaffolds for tissue engineering. Indeed, alginate hydrogels are able to mimic the extracellular matrix (ECM) thus promoting in vitro and/or in vivo cell growth; moreover, their capability of giving rise to highly porous structures can specifically favor the osteochondral tissue regeneration. However, mechanical properties of polymeric hydrogels are often inadequate to endow the final constructs with the required characteristics of elasticity and toughness. Here alginate/polymethacrylate hybrid hydrogels, with a suitable porous structure and characterized by a double network, ionic (from alginate) and covalent (from polymethacrylate) were designed and realized. The mechanical performance of these hybrid materials resulted, as expected, improved due to the double interconnected network, where the alginate portion provides the appropriate micro-environment mimicking the ECM, whereas the polymethacrylate portion acts as a reinforce.

  5. Immobilization of Escherichia coli novablue gamma-glutamyltranspeptidase in Ca-alginate-kappa-carrageenan beads.

    PubMed

    Hung, Chih-Peng; Lo, Huei-Fen; Hsu, Wen-Hwei; Chen, Shih-Chun; Lin, Long-Liu

    2008-08-01

    The recombinant Escherichia coli gamma-glutamyltranspeptidase (EcGGT) was immobilized in Ca-alginate-kappa-carrageenan beads. Effects of alginate concentration, amount of loading enzyme, and bead size on the entrapped activity were investigated. Optimum alginate concentration for EcGGT immobilization was found to be 2% (w/v). Using a loading enzyme concentration of 1.5 mg/g alginate, maximum enzyme activity was observed. With increase in bead size from 1.9 to 3.1 mm, the immobilization efficiency was decreased significantly because of mass transfer resistance. Thermal stability of the free EcGGT was increased as a result of the immobilization. Ca-alginate-kappa-carrageenan-EcGGT beads were suitable for up to six repeated uses, losing only 45% of their initial activity. Upon 30 days of storage the preserved activity of free and immobilized enzyme were found as 4% and 68%, respectively. The synthesis of L: -theanine was performed in 50 mM Tris-HCl buffer (pH 10) containing 25 mM L: -glutamine, 40 mM ethylamine, and 1.5 mg EcGGT/g alginate at 40 degrees C for 12 h, and a conversion rate of 27% was achieved.

  6. Chitosan coated alginate beads for the survival of microencapsulated Lactobacillus plantarum in pomegranate juice.

    PubMed

    Nualkaekul, Sawaminee; Lenton, Dominique; Cook, Michael T; Khutoryanskiy, Vitaliy V; Charalampopoulos, Dimitris

    2012-10-15

    This work studied the effect of multi-layer coating of alginate beads on the survival of encapsulated Lactobacillus plantarum in simulated gastric solution and during storage in pomegranate juice at 4°C. Uncoated, single and double chitosan coated beads were examined. The survival of the cells in simulated gastric solution (pH 1.5) was improved in the case of the chitosan coated beads by 0.5-2 logs compared to the uncoated beads. The cell concentration in pomegranate juice after six weeks of storage was higher than 5.5logCFU/mL for single and double coated beads, whereas for free cells and uncoated beads the cells died after 4 weeks of storage. In simulated gastric solution, the size of the beads decreased and their hardness increased with time; however, the opposite trend was observed for pomegranate juice, indicating that there is no correlation between cell survival and the hardness of the beads.

  7. Biological deterioration of alginate beads containing immobilized microalgae and bacteria during tertiary wastewater treatment.

    PubMed

    Cruz, Ivonne; Bashan, Yoav; Hernàndez-Carmona, Gustavo; de-Bashan, Luz E

    2013-11-01

    Secondary treatment of municipal wastewater affects the mechanical stability of polymer Ca-alginate beads containing the microalgae Chlorella vulgaris that are jointly immobilized with Azospirillum brasilense as treating agents whose presence do not affect bead stability. Nine strains of potential alginate-degrading bacteria were isolated from wastewater and identified, based on their nearly complete 16S rDNA sequence. Still, their population was relatively low. Attempts to enhance the strength of the beads, using different concentrations of alginate and CaCl2 or addition of either of three polymers (polyvinylpyrrolidone, polyvinyl alcohol, carboxymethylcellulose), CaCO3, or SrCl2, failed. Beads lost their mechanical strength after 24 h of incubation but not the integrity of their shape for at least 96 h, a fact that sustained successful tertiary wastewater treatment for 48 h. In small bioreactors, removal of phosphorus was low under sterile conditions but high in unsterile wastewater. Alginate beads did not absorb PO4 (-3) in sterile wastewater, but in natural wastewater, they contained PO4 (-3). Consequently, PO4 (-3) content declined in the wastewater. A supplement of 10 % beads (w/v) was significantly more efficient in removing nutrients than 4 %, especially in a jointly immobilized treatment where >90 % of PO4 (-3) and >50 % ammonium were removed. Tertiary wastewater treatment in 25-L triangular, airlift, autotrophic bioreactors showed, as in small bioreactors, very similar nutrient removal patterns, decline in bead strength phenomena, and increase in total bacteria during the wastewater treatment only in the presence of the immobilized treatment agents. This study demonstrates that partial biological degradation of alginate beads occurred during tertiary wastewater treatment, but the beads survive long enough to permit efficient nutrient removal. PMID:23354446

  8. Three-dimensional bioprinting of complex cell laden alginate hydrogel structures.

    PubMed

    Tabriz, Atabak Ghanizadeh; Hermida, Miguel A; Leslie, Nicholas R; Shu, Wenmiao

    2015-01-01

    Different bioprinting techniques have been used to produce cell-laden alginate hydrogel structures, however these approaches have been limited to 2D or simple three-dimension (3D) structures. In this study, a new extrusion based bioprinting technique was developed to produce more complex alginate hydrogel structures. This was achieved by dividing the alginate hydrogel cross-linking process into three stages: primary calcium ion cross-linking for printability of the gel, secondary calcium cross-linking for rigidity of the alginate hydrogel immediately after printing and tertiary barium ion cross-linking for long-term stability of the alginate hydrogel in culture medium. Simple 3D structures including tubes were first printed to ensure the feasibility of the bioprinting technique and then complex 3D structures such as branched vascular structures were successfully printed. The static stiffness of the alginate hydrogel after printing was 20.18 ± 1.62 KPa which was rigid enough to sustain the integrity of the complex 3D alginate hydrogel structure during the printing. The addition of 60 mM barium chloride was found to significantly extend the stability of the cross-linked alginate hydrogel from 3 d to beyond 11 d without compromising the cellular viability. The results based on cell bioprinting suggested that viability of U87-MG cells was 93 ± 0.9% immediately after bioprinting and cell viability maintained above 88% ± 4.3% in the alginate hydrogel over the period of 11 d. PMID:26689257

  9. Three-dimensional bioprinting of complex cell laden alginate hydrogel structures.

    PubMed

    Tabriz, Atabak Ghanizadeh; Hermida, Miguel A; Leslie, Nicholas R; Shu, Wenmiao

    2015-12-21

    Different bioprinting techniques have been used to produce cell-laden alginate hydrogel structures, however these approaches have been limited to 2D or simple three-dimension (3D) structures. In this study, a new extrusion based bioprinting technique was developed to produce more complex alginate hydrogel structures. This was achieved by dividing the alginate hydrogel cross-linking process into three stages: primary calcium ion cross-linking for printability of the gel, secondary calcium cross-linking for rigidity of the alginate hydrogel immediately after printing and tertiary barium ion cross-linking for long-term stability of the alginate hydrogel in culture medium. Simple 3D structures including tubes were first printed to ensure the feasibility of the bioprinting technique and then complex 3D structures such as branched vascular structures were successfully printed. The static stiffness of the alginate hydrogel after printing was 20.18 ± 1.62 KPa which was rigid enough to sustain the integrity of the complex 3D alginate hydrogel structure during the printing. The addition of 60 mM barium chloride was found to significantly extend the stability of the cross-linked alginate hydrogel from 3 d to beyond 11 d without compromising the cellular viability. The results based on cell bioprinting suggested that viability of U87-MG cells was 93 ± 0.9% immediately after bioprinting and cell viability maintained above 88% ± 4.3% in the alginate hydrogel over the period of 11 d.

  10. Radiation synthesis of PVP/alginate hydrogel containing nanosilver as wound dressing.

    PubMed

    Singh, Rita; Singh, Durgeshwer

    2012-11-01

    Hydrogels with polyvinyl pyrrolidone (PVP) and alginate were synthesized and silver nanoparticles were incorporated in hydrogel network using gamma radiation. PVP (10 and 15 %) in combination with 0.5 and 1 % alginate was gamma irradiated at different doses of 25 and 40 kGy. Maximum gel percent was obtained with 15 % PVP in combination with 0.5 % alginate. The fluid absorption capacity for the PVP/alginate hydrogels was about 1881-2361 % at 24 h. Moisture vapour transmission rate (MVTR) of hydrogels containing nanosilver at 24 h was 278.44 g/(m(2)h). The absorption capacity and moisture permeability of the PVP/alginate-nanosilver composite hydrogel dressings show the ability of the hydrogels to prevent fluid accumulation in exudating wound. The hydrogels containing nanosilver demonstrated strong antimicrobial effect and complete inhibition of microbial growth was observed with 70 ppm nanosilver dressings. PVP/alginate hydrogels containing nanosilver with efficient fluid handling capacity and antimicrobial activity was found suitable for use as wound dressing.

  11. Ex vivo mucoadhesion of different zinc-pectinate hydrogel beads.

    PubMed

    Hagesaether, Ellen; Bye, Ragnar; Sande, S Arne

    2008-01-22

    The objective of this study was to investigate the mucoadhesive properties of pre-swelled hydrogel beads made of six types of pectin from three manufacturers. The types of pectin differed mainly in the degree of methoxylation and degree of amidation. Zinc ions were used as cross-linking agent. The mucoadhesive properties were tested on an inverted fresh porcine small intestine attached to a rotating cylinder. Beads made of pectin with a high degree of methoxylation (70%) showed superior mucoadhesive results compared to the other formulations, which could be correlated to the lower amount of zinc in this formulation, subsequently leading to a lower amount of cross-linking and higher mobility of the polymer chains of these beads. This study therefore also indicated the importance of doing mucoadhesive measurements on relevant formulations, and not basing the understanding solely on investigating polymer solutions. Samples from different manufacturers produced the same results.

  12. Effect of immobilized cells in calcium alginate beads in alcoholic fermentation

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells were immobilized in calcium alginate and chitosan-covered calcium alginate beads and studied in the fermentation of glucose and sucrose for ethanol production. The batch fermentations were carried out in an orbital shaker and assessed by monitoring the concentration of substrate and product with HPLC. Cell immobilization in calcium alginate beads and chitosan-covered calcium alginate beads allowed reuse of the beads in eight sequential fermentation cycles of 10 h each. The final concentration of ethanol using free cells was 40 g L-1 and the yields using glucose and sucrose as carbon sources were 78% and 74.3%, respectively. For immobilized cells in calcium alginate beads, the final ethanol concentration from glucose was 32.9 ± 1.7 g L-1 with a 64.5 ± 3.4% yield, while the final ethanol concentration from sucrose was 33.5 ± 4.6 g L-1 with a 64.5 ± 8.6% yield. For immobilized cells in chitosan-covered calcium alginate beads, the ethanol concentration from glucose was 30.7 ± 1.4 g L-1 with a 61.1 ± 2.8% yield, while the final ethanol concentration from sucrose was 31.8 ± 6.9 g L-1 with a 62.1 ± 12.8% yield. The immobilized cells allowed eight 10 h sequential reuse cycles to be carried out with stable final ethanol concentrations. In addition, there was no need to use antibiotics and no contamination was observed. After the eighth cycle, there was a significant rupture of the beads making them inappropriate for reuse. PMID:23721664

  13. Effect of immobilized cells in calcium alginate beads in alcoholic fermentation.

    PubMed

    Duarte, Juliana C; Rodrigues, J Augusto R; Moran, Paulo J S; Valença, Gustavo P; Nunhez, José R

    2013-05-30

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells were immobilized in calcium alginate and chitosan-covered calcium alginate beads and studied in the fermentation of glucose and sucrose for ethanol production. The batch fermentations were carried out in an orbital shaker and assessed by monitoring the concentration of substrate and product with HPLC. Cell immobilization in calcium alginate beads and chitosan-covered calcium alginate beads allowed reuse of the beads in eight sequential fermentation cycles of 10 h each. The final concentration of ethanol using free cells was 40 g L-1 and the yields using glucose and sucrose as carbon sources were 78% and 74.3%, respectively. For immobilized cells in calcium alginate beads, the final ethanol concentration from glucose was 32.9 ± 1.7 g L-1 with a 64.5 ± 3.4% yield, while the final ethanol concentration from sucrose was 33.5 ± 4.6 g L-1 with a 64.5 ± 8.6% yield. For immobilized cells in chitosan-covered calcium alginate beads, the ethanol concentration from glucose was 30.7 ± 1.4 g L-1 with a 61.1 ± 2.8% yield, while the final ethanol concentration from sucrose was 31.8 ± 6.9 g L-1 with a 62.1 ± 12.8% yield. The immobilized cells allowed eight 10 h sequential reuse cycles to be carried out with stable final ethanol concentrations. In addition, there was no need to use antibiotics and no contamination was observed. After the eighth cycle, there was a significant rupture of the beads making them inappropriate for reuse.

  14. As(III) and As(V) removal from the aqueous phase via adsorption onto acid mine drainage sludge (AMDS) alginate beads and goethite alginate beads.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hongkyun; Kim, Dohyeong; Kim, Jongsik; Ji, Min-Kyu; Han, Young-Soo; Park, Young-Tae; Yun, Hyun-Shik; Choi, Jaeyoung

    2015-07-15

    Acid mine drainage sludge (AMDS) is a solid waste generated following the neutralization of acid mine drainage (AMD). This material entrapped in calcium alginate was investigated for the sorption of As(III) and As(V). Three different adsorbent materials were prepared: AMDS alginate beads (AABs), goethite alginate beads (GABs), and pure alginate beads. The effects of pH and the adsorption kinetics were investigated, and the adsorption isotherms were also evaluated. The optimum pH range using the AABs was determined to be within 2-10 for As(III) and 2-9 for As(V). Adsorption equilibrium data were evaluated using the Langmuir isotherm model, and the maximum adsorption capacity qmax was 18.25 and 4.97 mg g(-1) for As(III) on AAB and GAB, respectively, and 21.79 and 10.92 mg g(-1) for As(V) on AAB and GAB, respectively. The adsorption of As(III) and As(V) was observed to follow pseudo-second order kinetics. The As K-edge X-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) revealed that the adsorbed As(III) on the AABs was oxidized to As(V) via manganese oxide in the AMDS. PMID:25804789

  15. As(III) and As(V) removal from the aqueous phase via adsorption onto acid mine drainage sludge (AMDS) alginate beads and goethite alginate beads.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hongkyun; Kim, Dohyeong; Kim, Jongsik; Ji, Min-Kyu; Han, Young-Soo; Park, Young-Tae; Yun, Hyun-Shik; Choi, Jaeyoung

    2015-07-15

    Acid mine drainage sludge (AMDS) is a solid waste generated following the neutralization of acid mine drainage (AMD). This material entrapped in calcium alginate was investigated for the sorption of As(III) and As(V). Three different adsorbent materials were prepared: AMDS alginate beads (AABs), goethite alginate beads (GABs), and pure alginate beads. The effects of pH and the adsorption kinetics were investigated, and the adsorption isotherms were also evaluated. The optimum pH range using the AABs was determined to be within 2-10 for As(III) and 2-9 for As(V). Adsorption equilibrium data were evaluated using the Langmuir isotherm model, and the maximum adsorption capacity qmax was 18.25 and 4.97 mg g(-1) for As(III) on AAB and GAB, respectively, and 21.79 and 10.92 mg g(-1) for As(V) on AAB and GAB, respectively. The adsorption of As(III) and As(V) was observed to follow pseudo-second order kinetics. The As K-edge X-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) revealed that the adsorbed As(III) on the AABs was oxidized to As(V) via manganese oxide in the AMDS.

  16. Adipic acid dihydrazide treated partially oxidized alginate beads for sustained oral delivery of flurbiprofen.

    PubMed

    Maiti, Sabyasachi; Singha, Kamalika; Ray, Somasree; Dey, Paramita; Sa, Biswanath

    2009-01-01

    In this study, periodate oxidation of sodium alginate was controlled such that the oxidized alginate could form isolatable beads with Ca(+2) ions. The beads of oxidized alginate having a degree of oxidation 1 mol%, entrapped 89% flurbiprofen and released almost all of its content within 1.5 h in pH 7.2 phosphate buffer solution. The beads were covalently crosslinked with adipic dihydrazide (ADH) in addition to ionic crosslinks and were characterized. Scanning electron microscopy revealed that the beads were spherical having smooth surfaces. The drug entrapment efficiency decreased (90-86%) with increasing concentration of ADH (2-6% w/v) in the gelation medium. However, the beads prolonged the drug release in alkaline dissolution medium up to 8 h depending upon the concentration of ADH. The beads prepared with 2% ADH swelled more rapidly and led to faster drug release in either pH 1.2 HCl solution or pH 7.2 phosphate buffer solution. The swelling tendencies were reduced and the drug release became slower with higher concentrations in either fluid. The drug diffusion from the beads followed super case II transport mechanism. FTIR spectroscopy indicated stable nature of flurbiprofen in the beads and therefore had potential as sustained oral delivery system for the drug. PMID:19235554

  17. Survival of Bifidobacterium longum immobilized in calcium alginate beads in simulated gastric juices and bile salt solution.

    PubMed

    Lee, K Y; Heo, T R

    2000-02-01

    Bifidobacterium longum KCTC 3128 and HLC 3742 were independently immobilized (entrapped) in calcium alginate beads containing 2, 3, and 4% sodium alginate. When the bifidobacteria entrapped in calcium alginate beads were exposed to simulated gastric juices and a bile salt solution, the death rate of the cells in the beads decreased proportionally with an increase in both the alginate gel concentration and bead size. The initial cell numbers in the beads affected the numbers of survivors after exposure to these solutions; however, the death rates of the viable cells were not affected. Accordingly, a mathematical model was formulated which expressed the influences of several parameters (gel concentration, bead size, and initial cell numbers) on the survival of entrapped bifidobacteria after sequential exposure to simulated gastric juices followed by a bile salt solution. The model proposed in this paper may be useful for estimating the survival of bifidobacteria in beads and establishing optimal entrapment conditions.

  18. Stabilization of Aspergillus parasiticus cytosine deaminase by immobilization on calcium alginate beads improved enzyme operational stability.

    PubMed

    Zanna, H; Nok, A J; Ibrahim, S; Inuwa, H M

    2013-12-01

    Cytosine deaminase (CD) from Aspergillus parasiticus, which has half-life of 1.10 h at 37°C, was stabilized by immobilization on calcium alginate beads. The immobilized CD had pH and temperature optimum of 5 and 50°C respectively. The immobilized enzyme also stoichiometrically deaminated Cytosine and 5-fluorocytosine (5-FC) with the apparent K(M) values of 0.60 mM and 0.65 mM respectively, displaying activation energy of 10.72 KJ/mol. The immobilization of native CD on calcium alginate beads gave the highest yield of apparent enzymatic activity of 51.60% of the original activity and the enzymatic activity was lost exponentially at 37°C over 12 h with a half-life of 5.80 h. Hence, the operational stability of native CD can be improved by immobilization on calcium alginate beads.

  19. Electro-Fenton decolourisation of dyes in an airlift continuous reactor using iron alginate beads.

    PubMed

    Iglesias, O; Rosales, E; Pazos, M; Sanromán, M A

    2013-04-01

    In this study, electro-Fenton dye degradation was performed in an airlift continuous reactor configuration by harnessing the catalytic activity of Fe alginate gel beads. Electro-Fenton experiments were carried out in an airlift reactor with a working volume of 1.5 L, air flow of 1.5 L/min and 115 g of Fe alginate gel beads. An electric field was applied by two graphite bars connected to a direct current power supply with a constant potential drop. In this study, Lissamine Green B and Reactive Black 5 were selected as model dyes. Fe alginate gel beads can be used as an effective heterogeneous catalyst for the degradation of organic dyes in the electro-Fenton process, as they are more efficient than the conventional electrochemical techniques. At optimal working conditions (3 V and pH 2), the continuous process was performed. For both dyes, the degree of decolourisation increases when the residence time augments. Taking into account hydrodynamic and kinetic behaviour, a model to describe the reactor profile was obtained, and the standard deviation between experimental and theoretical data was lower than 6%. The results indicate the suitability of the electro-Fenton technique to oxidise polluted effluents in the presence of Fe alginate gel beads. Moreover, the operation is possible in a continuous airlift reactor, due to the entrapment of iron in the alginate matrix. PMID:22851224

  20. Hierarchically organization of biomineralized alginate beads for dual stimuli-responsive drug delivery.

    PubMed

    Yang, Liu; Shi, Jun; Zhou, Xiaofei; Cao, Shaokui

    2015-02-01

    Compartmentalized biomineralized alginate beads ranging from the micro to the visible scales with thermal- and pH-responsive drug delivery properties have been prepared via a one-step method in the present paper. Hollow multilayer microcapsules made of aliphatic poly(urethane-amine) (PUA) and sodium poly(styrenesulfonate) (PSS) serve as drug container to slow down the drug release. The results indicate that internal hollow multilayer microcapsules could hinder the permeation of the encapsulated Vitamin B2 (VB2) and retard the initial burst release of VB2. In addition, the drug release of compartmentalized biomineralized alginate beads exhibit distinguished pH- and thermal-dependent property due to pH-responsive alginate and the thermal-responsive aliphatic PUA. The drug release decreases when decreasing the pH value because the compact construction of alginate and biomineralized layer could prevent VB2 release from the beads. Moreover, the drug release is higher at 55 °C than that at 37 °C for the sake of the shrinkage of aliphatic PUA above its lower critical solution temperature (LCST). The results demonstrate that the compartmentalized biomineralized alginate beads show great potential as smart materials for controllable drug delivery.

  1. Electro-Fenton decolourisation of dyes in an airlift continuous reactor using iron alginate beads.

    PubMed

    Iglesias, O; Rosales, E; Pazos, M; Sanromán, M A

    2013-04-01

    In this study, electro-Fenton dye degradation was performed in an airlift continuous reactor configuration by harnessing the catalytic activity of Fe alginate gel beads. Electro-Fenton experiments were carried out in an airlift reactor with a working volume of 1.5 L, air flow of 1.5 L/min and 115 g of Fe alginate gel beads. An electric field was applied by two graphite bars connected to a direct current power supply with a constant potential drop. In this study, Lissamine Green B and Reactive Black 5 were selected as model dyes. Fe alginate gel beads can be used as an effective heterogeneous catalyst for the degradation of organic dyes in the electro-Fenton process, as they are more efficient than the conventional electrochemical techniques. At optimal working conditions (3 V and pH 2), the continuous process was performed. For both dyes, the degree of decolourisation increases when the residence time augments. Taking into account hydrodynamic and kinetic behaviour, a model to describe the reactor profile was obtained, and the standard deviation between experimental and theoretical data was lower than 6%. The results indicate the suitability of the electro-Fenton technique to oxidise polluted effluents in the presence of Fe alginate gel beads. Moreover, the operation is possible in a continuous airlift reactor, due to the entrapment of iron in the alginate matrix.

  2. Immobilization of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens MBL27 cells for enhanced antimicrobial protein production using calcium alginate beads.

    PubMed

    Kumaravel, Vijayalakshmi; Gopal, Suseela Rajakumar

    2010-12-01

    Cell immobilization is one of the common techniques for increasing the overall cell concentration and productivity. Bacillus amyloliquefaciens MBL27 cells were immobilized in calcium alginate beads and it is a promising method for repeated AMP (antimicrobial protein) production. The present study aimed at determining the optimal conditions for immobilization of B. amyloliquefaciens MBL27 cells in calcium alginate beads and the operational stability for enhanced production of the AMP. AMP production with free and immobilized cells was also done. In batch fermentation, maximum AMP production (7300 AU (arbitrary units)/ml against Staphylococcus aureus) was obtained with immobilized cells in shake flasks under optimized parameters such as 3% (w/v) sodium alginate, 136 mM CaCl2 with 350 alginate beads/flask of 2.7-3.0 mm diameter. In repeated cultivation, the highest activity was obtained after the second cycle of use and approx. 94% production was noted up to the fifth cycle. The immobilized cells of B. amyloliquefaciens MBL27 in alginate beads are more efficient for the production of AMP and had good stability. The potential application of AMP as a wound healant and the need for development of economical methods for improved production make whole cell immobilization an excellent alternative method for enhanced AMP production.

  3. Controlled mineralisation and recrystallisation of brushite within alginate hydrogels.

    PubMed

    Bjørnøy, Sindre H; Bassett, David C; Ucar, Seniz; Andreassen, Jens-Petter; Sikorski, Pawel

    2016-02-01

    Due to high solubility and fast resorption behaviour under physiological conditions, brushite (CaHPO4⋅2H2O, calcium monohydrogen phosphate dihydrate, dicalcium phosphate dihydrate) has great potential in bone regeneration applications, both in combination with scaffolds or as a component of calcium phosphate cements. The use of brushite in combination with hydrogels opens up possibilities for new cell-based tissue engineering applications of this promising material. However, published preparation methods of brushite composites, in which the mineral phase is precipitated within the hydrogel network, fail to offer the necessary degree of control over the mineral phase, content and distribution within the hydrogel matrix. The main focus of this study is to address these shortcomings by determining the precise fabrication parameters needed to prepare composites with controlled composition and properties. Composite alginate microbeads were prepared using a counter-diffusion technique, which allows for the simultaneous crosslinking of the hydrogel and precipitation of an inorganic mineral phase. Reliable nucleation of a desired mineral phase within the alginate network proved more challenging than simple aqueous precipitation. This was largely due to ion transport within the hydrogel producing concentration gradients that modified levels of supersaturation and favoured the nucleation of other phases such as hydroxyapatite and octacalcium phosphate, which would otherwise not form. To overcome this, the incorporation of brushite seed crystals resulted in good control during the mineral phase, and by adjusting the number of seeds and amount of precursor concentration, the amount of mineral could be tuned. The material was characterised with a range of physical techniques, including scanning electron microscopy, powder x-ray diffraction and Rietveld refinement, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and thermogravimetric analysis, in order to assess the mineral

  4. Magnetically and biologically active bead-patterned hydrogels.

    PubMed

    Pregibon, Daniel C; Toner, Mehmet; Doyle, Patrick S

    2006-05-23

    We present a new approach to the direct patterning of biologically and magnetically active microbeads in nonbiofouling polymer scaffolds for use in microfluidic devices. Briefly, the process involves treatment of a glass substrate, conformal contact bonding of a PDMS microchannel on the substrate, filling of the channel with beads and prepolymer solution, and UV-initiated photopolymerization of a mask-defined pattern using a standard inverted microscope. This versatile and simple method allows for the rapid fabrication of dispersed or packed bead patterns in poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) hydrogels that are covalently linked to glass surfaces. By exploiting the relative opacity of the microbeads used, we are able to create both partially exposed and fully encapsulated bead patterns. To demonstrate the utility of this new technology, we separated magnetic bead-bound B lymphocytes from T lymphocytes on a PEG-encapsulated magnetic filtration platform and also captured B cells directly on patterned, protein-decorated beads in a flow-through microfluidic device. Beyond cell sorting, the accurate patterning of industrially standardized, chemically diverse microbeads may have significant implications for microchip-based analyte detection.

  5. Controlled microfluidic production of alginate beads for in situ encapsulation of microbes

    SciTech Connect

    Kalyanaraman, Meenaa; Retterer, Scott T; McKnight, Timothy E; Ericson, Milton Nance; Allman, Steve L; Elkins, James G; Palumbo, Anthony Vito; Keller, Martin; Doktycz, Mitchel John

    2009-01-01

    The development and refinement of a microfluidic-based alginate bead generator system for bacterial encapsulation is presented. The resulting microgels have application for the encapsulation of single cells, and can allow for small scale, clonal expansion of thousands of isolated cells in parallel. PDMS based microfluidic chips were fabricated using conventional lithography techniques to produce both externally gelled and directly gelled alginate microspheres using a controlled, water-in-oil emulsion system. The production of directly gelled beads, formed by the in-chip mixing of aqueous alginate and calcium chloride solutions dispersed within an organic carrier flowstream is qualitatively compared to a system, which produces beads and relies on diffusion of a crosslinking agent from the carrier fluid to cause gelation (external gelation). While the direct gelation scheme allows the use of biocompatible oils as the organic carrier, it also has a detrimental effect on device stability often resulting in clogging and gel-streaming at the microfluidic interface of these solutions. A design for the continuous production of directly gelled beads was evaluated in terms of the threshold flow conditions and reagent concentrations that did not result in clogging or streaming. Monodisperse alginate microgels of 30 mum diameter were produced at frequencies of over 500 beads per second. The beads could be completely dispersed into aqueous media using an off-chip washing protocol to remove the organic phase. The microgels effectively encapsulated individual or small numbers of GFP-expressing Escherichia. coli, which could be subsequently clonally expanded. The described microfluidic platform is a robust front-end sample preparation technology that shows strong potential for use in drug delivery systems, biosensors, and other cell-based microcompartmentalization applications. The co-culturing of microbial colonies in a large population of alginate beads will allow for functional

  6. Immobilization of coacervate microcapsules in multilayer sodium alginate beads for efficient oral anticancer drug delivery.

    PubMed

    Feng, Chao; Song, Ruixi; Sun, Guohui; Kong, Ming; Bao, Zixian; Li, Yang; Cheng, Xiaojie; Cha, Dongsu; Park, Hyunjin; Chen, Xiguang

    2014-03-10

    We have designed and evaluated coacervate microcapsules-immobilized multilayer sodium alginate beads (CMs-M-ALG-Beads) for oral drug delivery. The CMs-M-ALG-Beads were prepared by immobilization of doxorubicin hydrochloride (DOX) loaded chitosan/carboxymethyl coacervate microcapsules (DOX:CS/CMCS-CMs) in the core and layers of the multilayer sodium alginate beads. The obtained CMs-M-ALG-beads exhibited layer-by-layer structure and rough surface with many nanoscale particles. The swelling characteristic and drug release results indicated that 4-layer CMs-M-ALG-Beads possessed favorable gastric acid tolerance (the swelling rate <5%, the cumulative drug release rate <3.8%). In small intestine, the intact DOX:CS/CMCS-CMs were able to rapidly release from CMs-M-ALG-Beads with the dissolution of ALG matrix. Ex vivo intestinal mucoadhesive and permeation showed that CMs-M-ALG-Beads exhibited continued growth for P(app) values of DOX, which was 1.07-1.15 folds and 1.28-1.38 folds higher than DOX:CS:CMCS-CMs in rat jejunum and ileum, respectively, demonstrating that CMs-M-ALG-Beads were able to enhance the absorption of DOX by controlled releasing DOX:CS/CMCS-CMs and prolonging the contact time between the DOX:CS/CMCS-CMs and small intestinal mucosa.

  7. Adsorption of a cationic surfactant by a magsorbent based on magnetic alginate beads.

    PubMed

    Obeid, Layaly; El Kolli, Nadia; Dali, Noëlle; Talbot, Delphine; Abramson, Sébastien; Welschbillig, Mathias; Cabuil, Valérie; Bée, Agnès

    2014-10-15

    Adsorption of cetylpyridinium chloride (CPC), a cationic surfactant, by magnetic alginate beads (MagAlgbeads) was investigated. The magnetic adsorbent (called magsorbent) was prepared by encapsulation of magnetic functionalized nanoparticles in an alginate gel. The influence on CPC adsorption of several parameters such as contact time, pH and initial surfactant concentration was studied. The equilibrium isotherm shows that adsorption occurs through both electrostatic interactions with charge neutralization of the carboxylate groups of the beads and hydrophobic interactions inducing the formation of surfactant aggregates in the beads. The dosage of calcium ions released in the solution turns out to be a useful tool for understanding the adsorption mechanisms. Adsorption is accompanied by a shrinking of the beads that corresponds to a 45% reduction of the volume. Adsorption kinetic experiments show that equilibrium time is strongly dependent on the surfactant concentration, which monitors the nature of the interactions. On the other hand, since the pH affects the ionization state of adsorption sites, adsorption depends on the pH solution, maximum adsorption being obtained in a large pH range (3.2-12) in agreement with the pKa value of alginate (pKa=3.4-4.2). Finally, due to the formation of micelle-like surfactants aggregates in the magnetic alginate beads, they could be used as a new efficient magsorbent for hydrophobic pollutants. PMID:25086393

  8. Enhancement of cell viability by fabrication of macroscopic 3D hydrogel scaffolds using an innovative cell-dispensing technique supplemented by preosteoblast-laden micro-beads.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hyeongjin; Ahn, Seunghyun; Chun, Wook; Kim, Geunhyung

    2014-04-15

    We propose a new cell-encapsulated dispensing method consisting of hydrogel struts, embedded with cell-laden micro-beads. To develop the scaffolds, we accommodated a three-axis robot dispensing system and aerosol spraying of a cross-linking agent to effect tentative surface gelation of hydrogel alginate struts. To show the feasibility of the method, we used pre-osteoblast (MC3T3-E1) cells. Using this technique, we obtained a reasonable cell viability (>90% after several culture periods) relative to that of a scaffold onto which cells were dispensed in the conventional manner, and successfully fabricated a realistic macroscopic pore-size in a controlled manner with 100% pore-interconnected 3D alginate hydrogel scaffolds of 20 mm × 20 mm × 6 mm.

  9. Starch filler and osmoprotectants improve the survival of rhizobacteria in dried alginate beads.

    PubMed

    Schoebitz, Mauricio; Simonin, Hélène; Poncelet, Denis

    2012-01-01

    This work deals with optimising the cell survival of rhizobacteria encapsulated in alginate beads filled with starch. Immobilisation of rhizobacteria was done by dripping alginate-starch solution mixed with rhizobacteria into a calcium solution. Beads were analysed based on matrix formulation, bacteria growth phase, osmoprotectants and nature of calcium solution. Maximum cell recovery was obtained on Raoultella terrigena grown in medium supplemented with trehalose and calcium gluconate as gelling agent. Furthermore, dried beads containing Azospirillum brasilense presented 76% of viable cells after one year of storage. The survival of rhizobacteria during the bioencapsulation process can be improved by incorporating starch on beads composition, varying the growth phase of cells and using trehalose in growth culture medium. This work provides a selection of appropriate methods to improve the surviving rate of encapsulated cells during their production and long-term storage (∼1 year at 4°C).

  10. Development of functionalized multi-walled carbon-nanotube-based alginate hydrogels for enabling biomimetic technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joddar, Binata; Garcia, Eduardo; Casas, Atzimba; Stewart, Calvin M.

    2016-08-01

    Alginate is a hydrogel commonly used for cell culture by ionically crosslinking in the presence of divalent Ca2+ ions. However these alginate gels are mechanically unstable, not permitting their use as scaffolds to engineer robust biological bone, breast, cardiac or tumor tissues. This issue can be addressed via encapsulation of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) serving as a reinforcing phase while being dispersed in a continuous phase of alginate. We hypothesized that adding functionalized MWCNT to alginate, would yield composite gels with distinctively different mechanical, physical and biological characteristics in comparison to alginate alone. Resultant MWCNT-alginate gels were porous, and showed significantly less degradation after 14 days compared to alginate alone. In vitro cell-studies showed enhanced HeLa cell adhesion and proliferation on the MWCNT-alginate compared to alginate. The extent of cell proliferation was greater when cultured atop 1 and 3 mg/ml MWCNT-alginate; although all MWCNT-alginates lead to enhanced cell cluster formation compared to alginate alone. Among all the MWCNT-alginates, the 1 mg/ml gels showed significantly greater stiffness compared to all other cases. These results provide an important basis for the development of the MWCNT-alginates as novel substrates for cell culture applications, cell therapy and tissue engineering.

  11. Development of functionalized multi-walled carbon-nanotube-based alginate hydrogels for enabling biomimetic technologies

    PubMed Central

    Joddar, Binata; Garcia, Eduardo; Casas, Atzimba; Stewart, Calvin M.

    2016-01-01

    Alginate is a hydrogel commonly used for cell culture by ionically crosslinking in the presence of divalent Ca2+ ions. However these alginate gels are mechanically unstable, not permitting their use as scaffolds to engineer robust biological bone, breast, cardiac or tumor tissues. This issue can be addressed via encapsulation of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) serving as a reinforcing phase while being dispersed in a continuous phase of alginate. We hypothesized that adding functionalized MWCNT to alginate, would yield composite gels with distinctively different mechanical, physical and biological characteristics in comparison to alginate alone. Resultant MWCNT-alginate gels were porous, and showed significantly less degradation after 14 days compared to alginate alone. In vitro cell-studies showed enhanced HeLa cell adhesion and proliferation on the MWCNT-alginate compared to alginate. The extent of cell proliferation was greater when cultured atop 1 and 3 mg/ml MWCNT-alginate; although all MWCNT-alginates lead to enhanced cell cluster formation compared to alginate alone. Among all the MWCNT-alginates, the 1 mg/ml gels showed significantly greater stiffness compared to all other cases. These results provide an important basis for the development of the MWCNT-alginates as novel substrates for cell culture applications, cell therapy and tissue engineering. PMID:27578567

  12. Development of functionalized multi-walled carbon-nanotube-based alginate hydrogels for enabling biomimetic technologies.

    PubMed

    Joddar, Binata; Garcia, Eduardo; Casas, Atzimba; Stewart, Calvin M

    2016-01-01

    Alginate is a hydrogel commonly used for cell culture by ionically crosslinking in the presence of divalent Ca(2+) ions. However these alginate gels are mechanically unstable, not permitting their use as scaffolds to engineer robust biological bone, breast, cardiac or tumor tissues. This issue can be addressed via encapsulation of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) serving as a reinforcing phase while being dispersed in a continuous phase of alginate. We hypothesized that adding functionalized MWCNT to alginate, would yield composite gels with distinctively different mechanical, physical and biological characteristics in comparison to alginate alone. Resultant MWCNT-alginate gels were porous, and showed significantly less degradation after 14 days compared to alginate alone. In vitro cell-studies showed enhanced HeLa cell adhesion and proliferation on the MWCNT-alginate compared to alginate. The extent of cell proliferation was greater when cultured atop 1 and 3 mg/ml MWCNT-alginate; although all MWCNT-alginates lead to enhanced cell cluster formation compared to alginate alone. Among all the MWCNT-alginates, the 1 mg/ml gels showed significantly greater stiffness compared to all other cases. These results provide an important basis for the development of the MWCNT-alginates as novel substrates for cell culture applications, cell therapy and tissue engineering. PMID:27578567

  13. Optically clear alginate hydrogels for spatially controlled cell entrapment and culture at microfluidic electrode surfaces.

    PubMed

    Betz, Jordan F; Cheng, Yi; Tsao, Chen-Yu; Zargar, Amin; Wu, Hsuan-Chen; Luo, Xiaolong; Payne, Gregory F; Bentley, William E; Rubloff, Gary W

    2013-05-21

    We describe an innovation in the immobilization, culture, and imaging of cells in calcium alginate within microfluidic devices. This technique allows unprecedented optical access to the entirety of the calcium alginate hydrogel, enabling observation of growth and behavior in a chemical and mechanical environment favored by many kinds of cells.

  14. Immobilization of thermoalkalophilic recombinant esterase enzyme by entrapment in silicate coated Ca-alginate beads and its hydrolytic properties.

    PubMed

    Gülay, Seçkin; Şanlı-Mohamed, Gülşah

    2012-04-01

    Thermoalkalophilic esterase enzyme from Balçova (Agamemnon) geothermal site were aimed to be immobilized effectively via a simple and cost-effective protocol in silicate coated Calcium alginate (Ca-alginate) beads by entrapment. The optimal immobilization conditions of enzyme in Ca-alginate beads were investigated and obtained with 2% alginate using 0.5mg/ml enzyme and 0.7 M CaCl(2) solution. In order to prevent enzyme from leaking out of the gel beads, Ca-alginate beads were then coated with silicate. Enzyme loading efficiency and immobilization yield for silicate coated beads was determined as 98.1% and 71.27%, respectively and compared with non-coated ones which were 68.5% and 45.80%, respectively. Surface morphologies, structure and elemental analysis of both silicate coated and non-coated alginate beads were also compared using Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FT-IR) and Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) equipped with Energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX). Moreover, silicate coated alginate beads enhanced reusability of esterase in continuous processes compared to non-coated beads. The hydrolytic properties of free and immobilized enzyme in terms of storage and thermal stability as well as the effects of the temperature and pH were determined. It was observed that operational, thermal and storage stabilities of the esterase were increased with immobilization. PMID:22309712

  15. Immobilization of thermoalkalophilic recombinant esterase enzyme by entrapment in silicate coated Ca-alginate beads and its hydrolytic properties.

    PubMed

    Gülay, Seçkin; Şanlı-Mohamed, Gülşah

    2012-04-01

    Thermoalkalophilic esterase enzyme from Balçova (Agamemnon) geothermal site were aimed to be immobilized effectively via a simple and cost-effective protocol in silicate coated Calcium alginate (Ca-alginate) beads by entrapment. The optimal immobilization conditions of enzyme in Ca-alginate beads were investigated and obtained with 2% alginate using 0.5mg/ml enzyme and 0.7 M CaCl(2) solution. In order to prevent enzyme from leaking out of the gel beads, Ca-alginate beads were then coated with silicate. Enzyme loading efficiency and immobilization yield for silicate coated beads was determined as 98.1% and 71.27%, respectively and compared with non-coated ones which were 68.5% and 45.80%, respectively. Surface morphologies, structure and elemental analysis of both silicate coated and non-coated alginate beads were also compared using Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FT-IR) and Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) equipped with Energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX). Moreover, silicate coated alginate beads enhanced reusability of esterase in continuous processes compared to non-coated beads. The hydrolytic properties of free and immobilized enzyme in terms of storage and thermal stability as well as the effects of the temperature and pH were determined. It was observed that operational, thermal and storage stabilities of the esterase were increased with immobilization.

  16. Silver nanoparticle-alginate composite beads for point-of-use drinking water disinfection.

    PubMed

    Lin, Shihong; Huang, Rixiang; Cheng, Yingwen; Liu, Jie; Lau, Boris L T; Wiesner, Mark R

    2013-08-01

    Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs)-alginate composite beads were synthesized using three different approaches as filler materials of packed columns for simultaneous filtration-disinfection as an alternative portable water treatment process. The prepared composite beads were packed into a column through which Escherichia coli containing water was filtered to evaluate the disinfection efficacy. Excellent disinfection performance (no detectable viable colony) was achieved with a hydraulic retention time (HRT) as short as 1 min (the shortest tested) with the SGR (Simultaneous-Gelation-Reduction) and AR (Adsorption-Reduction) beads that were prepared using in situ reduction of Ag(+). Comparatively, the SGR beads released significantly less Ag(+)/AgNPs than the AR beads did within the same HRT. From the results of this study it was identified that SGR may be the best choice among all three different synthesis approaches in that the SGR beads can achieve satisfactory bactericidal performance with a relatively low material consumption rate.

  17. Swelling and drug release behavior of metformin HCl-loaded tamarind seed polysaccharide-alginate beads.

    PubMed

    Nayak, Amit Kumar; Pal, Dilipkumar; Santra, Kousik

    2016-01-01

    The paper describes the preparation, characterization, in vitro swelling and in vitro drug release of metformin HCl-loaded tamarind seed polysaccharide (TSP)-alginate beads were prepared by ionotropic-gelation technique and using CaCl2 as cross-linker. The prepared beads exhibited 32.73 ± 1.41% of drug loading (%), 94.86 ± 3.92% of drug encapsulation efficiency (%), and 1.24 ± 0.07 mm of average bead size. The bead surface morphology was analyzed by SEM. The drug-polymer interaction in the bead matrix was analyzed by FTIR analyses. These metformin HCl-loaded ionotropically gelled TSP-alginate beads demonstrated sustained in vitro drug release profile over 10h. These in vitro drug release exhibited pH-dependent drug release behavior. The in vitro drug release from these metformin HCl-loaded beads followed controlled-release (zero-order) pattern with super case-II transport mechanism. The swelling and degradation of these metformin HCl-loaded polymeric beads were found to be influenced by the pH of test mediums.

  18. Swelling and drug release behavior of metformin HCl-loaded tamarind seed polysaccharide-alginate beads.

    PubMed

    Nayak, Amit Kumar; Pal, Dilipkumar; Santra, Kousik

    2016-01-01

    The paper describes the preparation, characterization, in vitro swelling and in vitro drug release of metformin HCl-loaded tamarind seed polysaccharide (TSP)-alginate beads were prepared by ionotropic-gelation technique and using CaCl2 as cross-linker. The prepared beads exhibited 32.73 ± 1.41% of drug loading (%), 94.86 ± 3.92% of drug encapsulation efficiency (%), and 1.24 ± 0.07 mm of average bead size. The bead surface morphology was analyzed by SEM. The drug-polymer interaction in the bead matrix was analyzed by FTIR analyses. These metformin HCl-loaded ionotropically gelled TSP-alginate beads demonstrated sustained in vitro drug release profile over 10h. These in vitro drug release exhibited pH-dependent drug release behavior. The in vitro drug release from these metformin HCl-loaded beads followed controlled-release (zero-order) pattern with super case-II transport mechanism. The swelling and degradation of these metformin HCl-loaded polymeric beads were found to be influenced by the pH of test mediums. PMID:26472516

  19. Purification of Lysozyme by Intrinsically Shielded Hydrogel Beads

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Cong; Zhang, R.; Wang, L.; Bowyer, A.; Eisenthal, R.; Shen, Yehua; Hubble, J.

    2013-07-01

    Macro-sized intrinsically shielded hydrogel beads have been prepared from BSA and CM-dextran grafted with CB using a technique based on freeze-thawing gelation method. The size of the beads lies in around 500 μm. Isothemal titration calorimetry (ITC) showed that the relative binding affinities of the lysozyme for CB, compared with BSA, at pH 3.0 was stronger than that at pH 7.4. They were employed for the affinity separation of lysozyme using chromatography column. Their adsorption capacity for lysozyme at pH 3.0 is higher than that at pH 9. In a binary mixture of lysozyme and ovalbumin, the beads showed very high selectivity toward lysozyme. Lysozyme of very high purity (> 93%) was obtained from a mixture of lysozyme and ovalbumin, and 85% from egg white solution. The results indicate that the macro-sized bead can be used for the separation, purification, and recovery of lysozyme in a chromatograph column.

  20. Evaluation of the Effect of Psyllium on the Viability of Lactobacillus Acidophilus in Alginate-Polyl Lysine Beads

    PubMed Central

    Esmaeilzadeh, Jaleh; Nazemiyeh, Hossein; Maghsoodi, Maryam; Lotfipour, Farzaneh

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Psylliumseeds are used in traditional herbal medicine to treat various disorders. Moreover, as a soluble fiber, psyllium has potential to stimulate bacterial growth in digestive system. We aimed to substitute alkali-extractable polysaccharides of psyllium for alginate in beads with second coat of poly-l-lysine to coat Lactobacillus acidophilus. Methods: Beads were prepared using extrusion technique. Poly-l-lysine as second coat was incorporated on optimum alginate/psyllium beads using immersion technique. Beads were characterized in terms of size, encapsulation efficiency, integrity and bacterial survival in harsh conditions. Results: Beads with narrow size distribution ranging from 1.85 ± 0.05 to 2.40 ± 0.18 mm with encapsulation efficiency higher than 96% were achieved. Psyllium concentrations in beads did not produce constant trend in bead sizes. Surface topography by SEM showed that substitution of psyllium enhanced integrity of obtained beads. Psyllium successfully protected the bacteria against acidic condition and lyophilization equal to alginate in the beads. Better survivability with beads of alginate/psyllium-poly-l-lysine was achieved with around 2 log rise in bacterial count in acid condition compared to the corresponding single coat beads. Conclusion: Alginate/psyllium (1:2) beads with narrow size distribution and high encapsulation efficiency of the bacteria have been achieved. Presence of psyllium produced a much smoother and integrated surface texture for the beads with sufficient protection of the bacteria against acidic condition as much as alginate. Considering the health benefits of psyllium and its prebiotic activity, psyllium can be beneficially replaced in part for alginate in probiotic coating. PMID:27766217

  1. Facile synthesis of antibacterial chitosan/CuO bio-nanocomposite hydrogel beads.

    PubMed

    Farhoudian, Sana; Yadollahi, Mehdi; Namazi, Hassan

    2016-01-01

    CuO nanoparticles were synthesized in situ during the formation of physically cross-linked chitosan hydrogel beads using sodium tripolyphosphate as the cross-linker. The aim of the study was to investigate whether these nanocomposite beads have the potential to be used in drug delivery applications. The formation of CuO nanoparticles (CuONPs) in the hydrogels was confirmed by X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy studies. SEM micrographs revealed the formation of CuONPs with size range of 10-25 nm within the hydrogel matrix. Furthermore, the antibacterial and swelling properties of the beads were studied. The prepared nanocomposite hydrogels showed a pH sensitive swelling behavior. The CuO nanocomposite hydrogels have rather higher swelling in different aqueous solutions in comparison with neat hydrogel. The nanocomposite hydrogels demonstrated good antibacterial effects against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus bacteria.

  2. Time-dependent fluorescence Stokes shift and molecular-scale dynamics in alginate solutions and hydrogels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dandapat, Manika; Mandal, Debabrata

    2015-05-01

    Alginates are water-soluble polysaccharides that bind metal cations like Ca2+, producing hydrogels. Here, we have determined time-dependent fluorescence Stokes shift of a guest fluorophore to elucidate molecular length-scale local dynamics within alginate-based solutions and hydrogels. We find a major bulk water-like fast response emanating from large water pools interspersed between the polysaccharide chains, together with a minor but significant slow response. The possible origin of the latter is discussed in terms of either water molecules constituting the polysaccharide hydration shells or ion distribution and diffusion around the fluorophore dipole, or microscopic structural inhomogeneity inside the alginate-based media.

  3. Crosslinker effects on functional properties of alginate/N-succinylchitosan based hydrogels.

    PubMed

    Straccia, Maria Cristina; Romano, Ida; Oliva, Adriana; Santagata, Gabriella; Laurienzo, Paola

    2014-08-01

    In this paper, physico-chemical, mechanical and antimicrobial properties of hydrogels based on alginate/N-succinylchitosan blends crosslinked by calcium or zinc ions containing cellulose microfibers were investigated and discussed. With respect to plain alginate hydrogels, the addition of N-succinylchitosan significantly improved properties such as swelling degree and stability in saline solution. The water vapour transmission rate confirmed that all the hydrogels were able to assure a moist wound environment. Morphological analysis showed a good embedding of fibres within the zinc crosslinked hydrogels. In addition, zinc-crosslinked hydrogels evidenced antimicrobial activity against two common skin pathogenic bacteria, Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli. Cytotoxicity assays proved that the amount of zinc released is slightly over the toxic level. Overall, the characteristics of the zinc-crosslinked hydrogels showed their potential interest as materials for wound dressing.

  4. Simultaneous removal of phenol, Cu and Cd from water with corn cob silica-alginate beads.

    PubMed

    Shim, Jaehong; Lim, Jeong-Muk; Shea, Patrick J; Oh, Byung-Taek

    2014-05-15

    Phenol and heavy metals in petroleum waste are environmental and human health concerns, but physicochemical removal is often cost-prohibitive and can produce toxic secondary products and treatment residues. An environmentally benign alternative combines corn cob silica with alginate and immobilized bacteria into beads for treating contaminated water. The concentration of phenol was decreased >92% by Pseudomonas putida YNS1 on aliginate-silica beads (2%, w/v) after equilibrating for 96h with water containing 214mg phenol/L. GC-MS analysis indicated formation of benzoquinone and other polar products. Beads containing corn cob silica decreased Cu concentrations by 84-88% and Cd by 83-87% within 24h. In a mixture of 114mg phenol, 43mg Cu and 51mg Cd/L, phenol removal (93% within 96h) only occurred with beads containing the silica and bacterial strain. Beads containing corn cob silica removed >97% of the Cu and >99% of the Cd, critical for reducing toxicity to the bacteria. Beads with the immobilized strain removed phenol when zeolite was used instead of corn cob silica, but beads with silica were more effective for Cu and Cd removal. Results show the potential of corn cob silica combined with alginate and immobilized bacteria for removing phenol and heavy metals from contaminated water. PMID:24685529

  5. Direct infection of Spodoptera litura by Photorhabdus luminescens encapsulated in alginate beads.

    PubMed

    Rajagopal, R; Mohan, Sharad; Bhatnagar, Raj K

    2006-09-01

    Actively growing cultures of Photorhabdus luminescens were encapsulated in sodium alginate beads and examined for their ability to infect insect hosts. These beads, containing approximately 2.5 x 10(7)Photorhabdus cells per bead, when mixed with sterilized soil and exposed to Spodoptera litura larvae resulted in 100% mortality in 48 h, while the use of alginate encapsulated Heterorhabditis nematode resulted in 40% mortality after 72 h. The bacteria were reisolated from the dead insect thus proving Koch's postulates and demonstrating the ability of P. luminescens to kill the insect host on their own, independent of the symbiont nematode. The LC(50) dose of Photorhabdus cells was estimated at 1010 cells per larva for killing S. litura 6th instar larvae in 48 h.

  6. Crystal growth of calcium carbonate in silk fibroin/sodium alginate hydrogel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ming, Jinfa; Zuo, Baoqi

    2014-01-01

    As known, silk fibroin-like protein plays a pivotal role during the formation of calcium carbonate (CaCO3) crystals in the nacre sheets. Here, we have prepared silk fibroin/sodium alginate nanofiber hydrogels to serve as templates for calcium carbonate mineralization. In this experiment, we report an interesting finding of calcium carbonate crystal growth in the silk fibroin/sodium alginate nanofiber hydrogels by the vapor diffusion method. The experimental results indicate calcium carbonate crystals obtained from nanofiber hydrogels with different proportions of silk fibroin/sodium alginate are mixture of calcite and vaterite with unusual morphologies. Time-dependent growth study was carried out to investigate the crystallization process. It is believed that nanofiber hydrogels play an important role in the process of crystallization. This study would help in understanding the function of organic polymers in natural mineralization, and provide a novel pathway in the design and synthesis of new materials related unique morphology and structure.

  7. Novel etherified locust bean gum-alginate hydrogels for controlled release of glipizide.

    PubMed

    Dey, Paramita; Maiti, Sabyasachi; Sa, Biswanath

    2013-01-01

    On many occasions, homopolysaccharide hydrogel networks alone are not suitable for controlled drug delivery. In this study, interpenetrating networks (IPNs) of sodium alginate (ALG) and etherified locust bean gum (ELBG) were developed through ionotropic gelation with Al(3+) ions, tested for glipizide release, and were compared with homopolymer hydrogel networks. The degree of reticulation in IPNs was explained by the neutralization equivalent, tensile strength measurement, and drying kinetics of drug-free hydrogels. IPNs afforded a maximum of 94.40 ± 0.35% drug entrapment efficiency and exhibited slower drug release profiles up to 8 h. Al(3+)-ALG network almost completed the release of embedded drug in 3.5 h; however, the homopolymer Al(3+)-ELBG network discharged their content at a slow, uniform rate up to 8 h like the IPNs. All the networks appeared spherical under scanning electron microscope. In all cases, a faster drug release rate was assumed in phosphate buffer (pH 7.4) than in KCl/HCl buffer (pH 1.2) solution. The pH-responsive swelling of the beads was responsible for the variable drug release rate in different media. NonFickian diffusion mechanism was operative for the transport of drug from the IPNs. Moreover, IPNs gained appreciation for their better mechanical strength (63.79 ± 1.59 MPa) than Al(3+)-ELBG network. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, differential scanning calorimetry, and X-ray diffraction analyses indicated a compatible environment for drug encapsualtion and release from the IPNs. The drug release curves of Al(3+)-ELBG and IPNs were found similar to a reference product. Hence, Al(3+)-ELBG and IPNs could be useful in controlling diabetes over longer periods.

  8. Effects of Chitin Whiskers on Physical Properties and Osteoblast Culture of Alginate Based Nanocomposite Hydrogels.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yao; Yao, Mengyu; Zheng, Xing; Liang, Xichao; Su, Xiaojuan; Zhang, Yu; Lu, Ang; Zhang, Lina

    2015-11-01

    Novel nanocomposite hydrogels composed of polyelectrolytes alginate and chitin whiskers with biocompatibility were successfully fabricated based on the pH-induced charge shifting behavior of chitin whiskers. The chitin whiskers with mean length and width of 300 and 20 nm were uniformly dispersed in negatively charged sodium alginate aqueous solution, leading to the formation of the homogeneous nanocomposite hydrogels. The experimental results indicated that their mechanical properties were significantly improved compared to alginate hydrogel and the swelling trends were inhibited as a result of the strong electrostatic interactions between the chitin whiskers and alginate. The nanocomposite hydrogels exhibited certain crystallinity and hierarchical structure with nanoscale chitin whiskers, similar to the structure of the native extracellular matrix. Moreover, the nanocomposite hydrogels were successfully applied as bone scaffolds for MC3T3-E1 osteoblast cells, showing their excellent biocompatibility and low cytotoxicity. The results of fluorescent micrographs and scanning electronic microscope (SEM) images revealed that the addition of chitin whiskers into the nanocomposite hydrogels markedly promoted the cell adhesion and proliferation of the osteoblast cells. The biocompatible nanocomposite hydrogels have potential application in bone tissue engineering. PMID:26393272

  9. Effects of Chitin Whiskers on Physical Properties and Osteoblast Culture of Alginate Based Nanocomposite Hydrogels.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yao; Yao, Mengyu; Zheng, Xing; Liang, Xichao; Su, Xiaojuan; Zhang, Yu; Lu, Ang; Zhang, Lina

    2015-11-01

    Novel nanocomposite hydrogels composed of polyelectrolytes alginate and chitin whiskers with biocompatibility were successfully fabricated based on the pH-induced charge shifting behavior of chitin whiskers. The chitin whiskers with mean length and width of 300 and 20 nm were uniformly dispersed in negatively charged sodium alginate aqueous solution, leading to the formation of the homogeneous nanocomposite hydrogels. The experimental results indicated that their mechanical properties were significantly improved compared to alginate hydrogel and the swelling trends were inhibited as a result of the strong electrostatic interactions between the chitin whiskers and alginate. The nanocomposite hydrogels exhibited certain crystallinity and hierarchical structure with nanoscale chitin whiskers, similar to the structure of the native extracellular matrix. Moreover, the nanocomposite hydrogels were successfully applied as bone scaffolds for MC3T3-E1 osteoblast cells, showing their excellent biocompatibility and low cytotoxicity. The results of fluorescent micrographs and scanning electronic microscope (SEM) images revealed that the addition of chitin whiskers into the nanocomposite hydrogels markedly promoted the cell adhesion and proliferation of the osteoblast cells. The biocompatible nanocomposite hydrogels have potential application in bone tissue engineering.

  10. Entrapment of iron nanoparticles in calcium alginate beads for groundwater remediation applications.

    PubMed

    Bezbaruah, Achintya N; Krajangpan, Sita; Chisholm, Bret J; Khan, Eakalak; Bermudez, Juan J Elorza

    2009-07-30

    Zero-valent iron nanoparticles (nZVI) have been successfully entrapped in biopolymer, calcium (Ca)-alginate beads. The study has demonstrated the potential use of this technique in environmental remediation using nitrate as a model contaminant. Ca-alginate beads show promise as an entrapment medium for nZVI for possible use in groundwater remediation. Based on scanning electron microscopy images it can be inferred that the alginate gel cluster acts as a bridge that binds the nZVI particles together. Kinetic experiments with 100, 60, and 20mg NO(3)(-)-NL(-1) indicate that 50-73% nitrate-N removal was achieved with entrapped nZVI as compared to 55-73% with bare nZVI over a 2-h period. The controls ran simultaneously show little NO(3)(-)-N removal. Statistical analysis indicates that there was no significant difference between the reaction rates of bare and entrapped nZVI. The authors have shown for the first time that nZVI can be effectively entrapped in Ca-alginate beads and no significant decrease in the reactivity of nZVI toward the model contaminant (nitrate here) was observed after the entrapment.

  11. Tapioca starch blended alginate mucoadhesive-floating beads for intragastric delivery of Metoprolol Tartrate.

    PubMed

    Biswas, Nikhil; Sahoo, Ranjan Kumar

    2016-02-01

    The objective of the study was to develop tapioca starch blended alginate mucoadhesive-floating beads for the intragastric delivery of Metoprolol Tartrate (MT). The beads were prepared by ionotropic gelation method using calcium chloride as crosslinker and gas forming calcium carbonate (CaCO3) as floating inducer. The alginate gel beads having 51-58% entrapped MT showed 90% release within 45 min in gastric medium (pH 1.2). Tapioca starch blending markedly improved the entrapment efficiency (88%) and sustained the release for 3-4 h. A 12% w/w HPMC coating on these beads extended the release upto 9-11 h. In vitro wash off and buoyancy test in gastric media revealed that the beads containing CaCO3 has gastric residence of more than 12 h. In vitro optimized multi-unit formulation consisting of immediate and sustained release mucoadhesive-floating beads (40:60) showed good initial release of 42% MT within 1h followed by a sustained release of over 90% for 11 h. Pharmacokinetic study performed in rabbit model showed that the relative oral bioavailability of MT after administration of oral solution, sustain release and optimized formulation was 51%, 67% and 87%, respectively. Optimized formulation showed a higher percent inhibition of isoprenaline induced heart rate in rabbits for almost 12 h.

  12. Formulation optimization and evaluation of jackfruit seed starch-alginate mucoadhesive beads of metformin HCl.

    PubMed

    Nayak, Amit Kumar; Pal, Dilipkumar

    2013-08-01

    The present study deals with the formulation optimization of jackfruit (Artocarpus heterophyllus Lam., family: Moraceae) seed starch (JFSS)-alginate mucoadhesive beads containing metformin HCl through ionotropic gelation using 3(2) factorial design. The effect of sodium alginate to JFSS ratio and CaCl2 concentration on the drug encapsulation efficiency (DEE, %), and cumulative drug release at 10h (R10h, %) was optimized. The optimized beads containing metformin HCl showed DEE of 97.48±3.92%, R10h of 65.70±2.22%, and mean diameter of 1.16±0.11mm. The in vitro drug release from these beads was followed controlled-release (zero-order) pattern with super case-II transport mechanism. The beads were also characterized by SEM and FTIR. The swelling and degradation of these beads were influenced by pH of the test medium. The optimized beads also exhibited good mucoadhesivity and significant hypoglycemic effect in alloxan-induced diabetic rats over prolonged period after oral administration.

  13. Formulation optimization and evaluation of jackfruit seed starch-alginate mucoadhesive beads of metformin HCl.

    PubMed

    Nayak, Amit Kumar; Pal, Dilipkumar

    2013-08-01

    The present study deals with the formulation optimization of jackfruit (Artocarpus heterophyllus Lam., family: Moraceae) seed starch (JFSS)-alginate mucoadhesive beads containing metformin HCl through ionotropic gelation using 3(2) factorial design. The effect of sodium alginate to JFSS ratio and CaCl2 concentration on the drug encapsulation efficiency (DEE, %), and cumulative drug release at 10h (R10h, %) was optimized. The optimized beads containing metformin HCl showed DEE of 97.48±3.92%, R10h of 65.70±2.22%, and mean diameter of 1.16±0.11mm. The in vitro drug release from these beads was followed controlled-release (zero-order) pattern with super case-II transport mechanism. The beads were also characterized by SEM and FTIR. The swelling and degradation of these beads were influenced by pH of the test medium. The optimized beads also exhibited good mucoadhesivity and significant hypoglycemic effect in alloxan-induced diabetic rats over prolonged period after oral administration. PMID:23628586

  14. Preservation of viability and antibacterial activity of Lactobacillus spp. in calcium alginate beads.

    PubMed

    Brachkova, Mariya I; Duarte, Maria A; Pinto, João F

    2010-12-23

    The objective of the study was to produce calcium alginate beads able to deliver Lactobacillus spp. (Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG, Lactobacillus bulgaricus and Lactobacillus lactis) with preserved viability and antibacterial activity. Four types of beads, containing entrapped (E), surface and entrapped (ES), surface (S) and concentrated surface and entrapped lactobacilli (C(ES)) were prepared and physically characterized. The antibacterial activity of lactobacilli cultures before and after immobilization, freeze-drying and throughout storage was studied in relationship to the viable number of lactobacilli. Multi-resistant clinical isolates (methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, vancomycine-resistant Enterococcus faecalis, VIM-2-metalo-β-lactamase producing Pseudomonas aeruginosa and CTX-M-15-β-lactamase producing strains: Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae) were used as indicator strains. Alginate beads in which lactobacilli proliferated to the beads surface (ES and C(ES)) differed significantly from the other types of beads in their physicochemical properties, showing smoother surface morphology, more spherical shape, bigger weight, lower calcium content, density and crushing force. Lactobacilli cultures, at high cell concentrations (10(8)cfu/ml) were active against both Gram-positive and negative multi-resistant bacteria. Beads containing both entrapped and surface lactobacilli (ES) resulted in viability and antibacterial activity most similar to non-processed lactobacilli cultures. The viability and antibacterial activity of the immobilized lactobacilli remained stable after 6 months storage.

  15. Optimizing alginate beads for the immobilisation of Phaeodactylum tricornutum in estuarine waters.

    PubMed

    Cabrita, Maria Teresa; Raimundo, Joana; Pereira, Patrícia; Vale, Carlos

    2013-01-01

    This study addresses the influence of calcium as hardening agent, on alginate gel bead stability and suitability for the growth of Phaeodactylum tricornutum Bohlin (Bacillariophyceae) in estuarine waters. Alginate beads produced with 1, 2, 4, 5 and 6% of CaCl2 solutions were investigated for stability and suitability for growth of P. tricornutum cells, under mean salinity 27, at 220 and 440 rpm stirring laboratory conditions, and in devices placed under in situ estuarine conditions. Gel stability and suitability for cell growth were evaluated through bead diameter, bead disruption, dissolution and loss of spherical shape, cell viability and specific growth rates. Beads gelled with 5% CaCl2 were found the most suitable to sustain gel stability and cell growth in the estuarine waters. These beads were surveyed during dredging operations in the Tagus estuary, both in situ and in estuarine water under laboratory conditions, showing significantly lowered growth rates possibly due to Mn, Co and As accumulated in the cells. Results confirmed that the monitoring tool presented is reliable and effective for the assessment of anthropogenic impacts.

  16. Prosopis alba exudate gum as excipient for improving fish oil stability in alginate-chitosan beads.

    PubMed

    Vasile, Franco Emanuel; Romero, Ana María; Judis, María Alicia; Mazzobre, María Florencia

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present work was to employ an exudate gum obtained from a South American wild tree (Prosopis alba), as wall material component to enhance the oxidative stability of fish oil encapsulated in alginate-chitosan beads. For this purpose, beads were vacuum-dried and stored under controlled conditions. Oxidation products, fatty acid profiles and lipid health indices were measured during storage. Alginate-chitosan interactions and the effect of gum were manifested in the FT-IR spectra. The inclusion of the gum in the gelation media allowed decreasing the oxidative damage during storage in comparison to the free oil and alginate-chitosan beads. The gum also improved wall material properties, providing higher oil retention during the drying step and subsequent storage. Fatty acids quality and lipid health indices were widely preserved in beads containing the gum. Present results showed a positive influence of the gum on oil encapsulation and stability, being the main mechanism attributed to a physical barrier effect.

  17. pH-dependent release property of alginate beads containing calcium carbonate particles.

    PubMed

    Han, M R; Kwon, M C; Lee, H Y; Kim, J C; Kim, J D; Yoo, S K; Sin, I S; Kim, S M

    2007-12-01

    Alginate bead containing calcium carbonate particle were prepared by dropping the suspension of alginate/calcium carbonate (4/1, w/w) into aqueous solution of CaCl(2) (0.1 M). The pH-dependent release property of the bead was observed for 12 h using blue dextran as a model drug. The release increased up to 4 h in a saturation manner. When no calcium carbonate was contained, the release exhibited no marked variation with pH and the values were 27-39%. On the other hand, in case calcium carbonate was included in the matrix of alginate beads, intensive release(40-50%) was achieved in acidic and neutral conditions and the degrees of release were suppressed in alkali conditions and the values were approximately 20%. The pH-sensitive release property is possibly because the particles of calcium carbonate embedded in the matrix of beads were leached out in acidic and neutral conditions, leaving cavities in the matrix. The cavities are likely to be main pathways for the release of blue dextran.

  18. Water status and thermal analysis of alginate beads used in cryopreservation of plant germplasm.

    PubMed

    Block, William

    2003-08-01

    Encapsulation and dehydration techniques using alginate beads are used increasingly for the pre-treatment of various plant materials for cryopreservation to improve survival post-cryogenic storage. This study reports the effects of the water content of beads (formed with 3% (w/v) alginic acid in liquid S-RIB), polymerisation time (in 100 mM calcium chloride solution), osmotic dehydration (in 0.75 M sucrose solution), and evaporative air desiccation on the thermal properties of alginate beads used in cryopreservation protocols. Experimental beads were assayed using a differential scanning calorimeter (DSC) with a cooling programme to -150 degrees C, followed by re-warming. Resultant thermograms were evaluated with particular reference to the onset temperature and enthalpy of the melt endotherm from which the quantities of frozen and unfrozen water were calculated. Treatments were applied sequentially to samples of beads and their thermal features evaluated at each stage of the protocol. Using 'standard' beads (40-55 mg fresh weight), formed using plastic disposable pipettes, the degree of polymerisation (>10 min) proportionally reduced their dry weight and increased their water content. Thermal characteristics of the beads were unaffected by polymerisation times >10 min, but the maximum level (23%) of unfrozen (osmotically inactive) water was achieved after 15 min polymerisation. Osmotic dehydration using 0.75 M sucrose significantly lowered bead water content and mean dry weight approximately doubled with 20-24 h immersion time. Bead desiccation in still air reduced their water content by 83% of fresh weight, whilst dry weight remained constant. After 8 h desiccation in air between 27 and 37% of the water in the bead was osmotically inactive (unfrozen) in DSC scans. Desiccation >18 h reduced this fraction to zero. The melt onset temperature and the enthalpy of melting were directly related to bead water content. The unfrozen water fraction increased substantially

  19. Design and performance of a sericin-alginate interpenetrating network hydrogel for cell and drug delivery.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yeshun; Liu, Jia; Huang, Lei; Wang, Zheng; Wang, Lin

    2015-01-01

    Although alginate hydrogels have been extensively studied for tissue engineering applications, their utilization is limited by poor mechanical strength, rapid drug release, and a lack of cell adhesive ability. Aiming to improve these properties, we employ the interpenetrating hydrogel design rationale. Using alginate and sericin (a natural protein with many unique properties and a major component of silkworm silk), we develop an interpenetrating polymer network (IPN) hydrogel comprising interwoven sericin and alginate double networks. By adjusting the sericin-to-alginate ratios, IPNs' mechanical strength can be adjusted to meet stiffness requirements for various tissue repairs. The IPNs with high sericin content show increased stability during degradation, avoiding pure alginate's early collapse. These IPNs have high swelling ratios, benefiting various applications such as drug delivery. The IPNs sustain controlled drug release with the adjustable rates. Furthermore, these IPNs are adhesive to cells, supporting cell proliferation, long-term survival and migration. Notably, the IPNs inherit sericin's photoluminescent property, enabling bioimaging in vivo. Together, our study indicates that the sericin-alginate IPN hydrogels may serve as a versatile platform for delivering cells and drugs, and suggests that sericin may be a building block broadly applicable for generating IPN networks with other biomaterials for diverse tissue engineering applications. PMID:26205586

  20. Novel copper (II) alginate hydrogels and their potential for use as anti-bacterial wound dressings.

    PubMed

    Klinkajon, Wimonwan; Supaphol, Pitt

    2014-08-01

    The incorporation of a metal ion, with antimicrobial activity, into an alginate dressing is an attractive approach to minimize infection in a wound. In this work, copper (II) cross-linked alginate hydrogels were successfully prepared using a two-step cross-linking procedure. In the first step, solid alginate films were prepared using a solvent-casting method from soft gels of alginate solutions that had been lightly cross-linked using a copper (II) (Cu(2+)) sulfate solution. In the second step, the films were further cross-linked in a corresponding Cu(2+) sulfate solution using a dipping method to further improve their dimensional stability. Alginate solution (at 2%w/v) and Cu(2+) sulfate solution (at 2%w/v) in acetate buffer at a low pH provided soft films with excellent swelling behavior. An increase in either Cu(2+) ion concentration or cross-linking time led to hydrogels with more densely-cross-linked networks that limited water absorption. The hydrogels clearly showed antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), Staphylococcus epidermidis and Streptococcus pyogenes, which was proportional to the Cu(2+) ion concentration. Blood coagulation studies showed that the tested copper (II) cross-linked alginate hydrogels had a tendency to coagulate fibrin, and possibly had an effect on pro-thrombotic coagulation and platelet activation. Conclusively, the prepared films are likely candidates as antibacterial wound dressings.

  1. Novel copper (II) alginate hydrogels and their potential for use as anti-bacterial wound dressings.

    PubMed

    Klinkajon, Wimonwan; Supaphol, Pitt

    2014-08-01

    The incorporation of a metal ion, with antimicrobial activity, into an alginate dressing is an attractive approach to minimize infection in a wound. In this work, copper (II) cross-linked alginate hydrogels were successfully prepared using a two-step cross-linking procedure. In the first step, solid alginate films were prepared using a solvent-casting method from soft gels of alginate solutions that had been lightly cross-linked using a copper (II) (Cu(2+)) sulfate solution. In the second step, the films were further cross-linked in a corresponding Cu(2+) sulfate solution using a dipping method to further improve their dimensional stability. Alginate solution (at 2%w/v) and Cu(2+) sulfate solution (at 2%w/v) in acetate buffer at a low pH provided soft films with excellent swelling behavior. An increase in either Cu(2+) ion concentration or cross-linking time led to hydrogels with more densely-cross-linked networks that limited water absorption. The hydrogels clearly showed antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), Staphylococcus epidermidis and Streptococcus pyogenes, which was proportional to the Cu(2+) ion concentration. Blood coagulation studies showed that the tested copper (II) cross-linked alginate hydrogels had a tendency to coagulate fibrin, and possibly had an effect on pro-thrombotic coagulation and platelet activation. Conclusively, the prepared films are likely candidates as antibacterial wound dressings. PMID:25029588

  2. Novel crosslinked alginate/hyaluronic acid hydrogels for nerve tissue engineering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Min-Dan; Zhai, Peng; Schreyer, David J.; Zheng, Ruo-Shi; Sun, Xiao-Dan; Cui, Fu-Zhai; Chen, Xiong-Biao

    2013-09-01

    Artificial tissue engineering scaffolds can potentially provide support and guidance for the regrowth of severed axons following nerve injury. In this study, a hybrid biomaterial composed of alginate and hyaluronic acid (HA) was synthesized and characterized in terms of its suitability for covalent modification, biocompatibility for living Schwann cells and feasibility to construct three dimensional (3D) scaffolds. Carbodiimide mediated amide formation for the purpose of covalent crosslinking of the HA was carried out in the presence of calciumions that ionically crosslink alginate. Amide formation was found to be dependent on the concentrations of carbodiimide and calcium chloride. The double-crosslinked composite hydrogels display biocompatibility that is comparable to simple HA hydrogels, allowing for Schwann cell survival and growth. No significant difference was found between composite hydrogels made from different ratios of alginate and HA. A 3D BioPlotter™ rapid prototyping system was used to fabricate 3D scaffolds. The result indicated that combining HA with alginate facilitated the fabrication process and that 3D scaffolds with porous inner structure can be fabricated from the composite hydrogels, but not from HA alone. This information provides a basis for continuing in vitro and in vivo tests of the suitability of alginate/HA hydrogel as a biomaterial to create living cell scaffolds to support nerve regeneration.

  3. Tough Al-alginate/poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) hydrogel with tunable LCST for soft robotics.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Wen Jiang; An, Ning; Yang, Jian Hai; Zhou, Jinxiong; Chen, Yong Mei

    2015-01-28

    Tough Al-alginate/poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (PNIPAM) hydrogel has been synthesized by introducing an interpenetrating network with hybrid physically cross-linked alginate and chemically cross-linked PNIPAM. Varying the concentration of AlCl3 regulates the mechanical properties of the tough hydrogel and tunes its lower critical solution temperature (LCST) as well. The tough Al-alginate/PNIPAM exhibits 6.3 ± 0.3 MPa of compressive stress and 9.95 of uniaxial stretch. Tunability of LCST is also achieved in a wide range within 22.5-32 °C. A bending beam actuator and a four-arm gripper made of bilayer (Na-alginate/PNIPAM)/(Al-alginate/PNIPAM) hydrogel as prototype of all-hydrogel soft robotics are demonstrated. A finite element (FE) simulation model is developed to simulate the deformation of the soft robotics. The FE simulation not only reproduces the deformation process of performed experiments but also predicts more complicated devices that can be explored in the future. This work broadens the application of temperature-responsive PNIPAM-based hydrogels.

  4. Tough Al-alginate/poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) hydrogel with tunable LCST for soft robotics.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Wen Jiang; An, Ning; Yang, Jian Hai; Zhou, Jinxiong; Chen, Yong Mei

    2015-01-28

    Tough Al-alginate/poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (PNIPAM) hydrogel has been synthesized by introducing an interpenetrating network with hybrid physically cross-linked alginate and chemically cross-linked PNIPAM. Varying the concentration of AlCl3 regulates the mechanical properties of the tough hydrogel and tunes its lower critical solution temperature (LCST) as well. The tough Al-alginate/PNIPAM exhibits 6.3 ± 0.3 MPa of compressive stress and 9.95 of uniaxial stretch. Tunability of LCST is also achieved in a wide range within 22.5-32 °C. A bending beam actuator and a four-arm gripper made of bilayer (Na-alginate/PNIPAM)/(Al-alginate/PNIPAM) hydrogel as prototype of all-hydrogel soft robotics are demonstrated. A finite element (FE) simulation model is developed to simulate the deformation of the soft robotics. The FE simulation not only reproduces the deformation process of performed experiments but also predicts more complicated devices that can be explored in the future. This work broadens the application of temperature-responsive PNIPAM-based hydrogels. PMID:25561431

  5. Hydrous ferric oxide doped alginate beads for fluoride removal: Adsorption kinetics and equilibrium studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sujana, M. G.; Mishra, A.; Acharya, B. C.

    2013-04-01

    A new biopolymer beads, composite of hydrous ferric oxide (HFO) and alginate were synthesised, characterised and studied for its fluoride efficiency from water. The beads were characterised by chemical analysis, BET surface area, pHPZC and X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis. The optimum conditions for fluoride removal were determined by studying operational variables viz. pH, contact time, initial F- concentration, bead dose and temperature. Presence of other anions like SO42-, PO43-, NO3-, Cl- and HCO3- effect on fluoride removal efficiency of prepared beads was also tested. The beads were 0.8-0.9 mm in size and contain 32-33% Fe (III) and showed specific surface area of 25.80 m2 g-1 and pHPZC of 5.15. Modified beads demonstrated Langmuir F- adsorption capacity of 8.90 mg g-1 at pH 7.0. The adsorption kinetics were best described by the pseudo-second order kinetic model followed by intra-particle diffusion as the rate determining step. It was found that about 80% of the adsorbed fluoride could be desorbed by using 0.05 M HCl. The FTIR, Raman and SEM-EDAX analysis were used to study the fluoride adsorption mechanisms on beads. Studies were also conducted to test the potential application of beads for F- removal from drinking water and the treated water quality.

  6. Influence of various alginate brands on the redifferentiation of dedifferentiated bovine articular chondrocytes in alginate bead culture under high and low oxygen tension.

    PubMed

    Domm, C; Schünke, M; Steinhagen, J; Freitag, S; Kurz, B

    2004-01-01

    We examined the influence of various alginates on the redifferentiation of dedifferentiated articular chondrocytes in alginate bead culture under low (5%) and (21%) high oxygen supply. Isolated bovine articular chondrocytes were dedifferentiated and multiplied by 2-week monolayer culture under 21% oxygen. They were subcultured at a density of 10(7) cells/mL in six different commercially available sodium alginates (1.2%, w/v) and held under 21 or 5% oxygen for 3 weeks. Proliferation (DNA measurement on days 0 and 21 of culture), collagen type II production (immunocytochemistry and Western blotting), and [(3)H]proline and [(35)S]sulfate incorporation were monitored. Collagen type II production was significantly stronger under 5% oxygen compared with 21% oxygen in two alginates (three other alginates nearly reached the significance level). However, alginate-based differences proved not to be significant. [(3)H]Proline incorporation was not influenced by alginate but showed strong oxygen dependency (up to 3-fold higher under 5% oxygen). For [(35)S]sulfate incorporation oxygen dependency was even stronger (up to 8-fold higher under 5% oxygen) and significant alginate-dependent differences were found for several alginates. The effects of the different alginates did not correlate with their pH, viscosity, or guluronic:mannuronic acid ratio. Thus, the type of alginate and even more, the oxygen supply, influence the redifferentiation and matrix production of dedifferentiated bovine articular chondrocytes. PMID:15684688

  7. Comparative study of calcium alginate, activated carbon, and their composite beads on methylene blue adsorption.

    PubMed

    Hassan, A F; Abdel-Mohsen, A M; Fouda, Moustafa M G

    2014-02-15

    Three adsorbents, calcium alginate beads (AB), sodium hydroxide activated carbon based coconut shells (C), and calcium alginate/activated carbon composite beads (ACB) were prepared. Their textural properties were characterized by N2-adsorption at -196°C and scanning electron microscopy. The porosity, surface area and total pore volume of C>ACB>AB, but AB adsorbent was more acidic function groups more than the other adsorbents. Adsorption experiments were conducted to examine the effects of adsorbent dosage, pH, time, temperature and initial concentration of methylene blue. Methylene blue adsorption on C, AB and ACB was observed at pH>6 to avoid the competition of H(+). The amount of dye adsorbed increases as the adsorbent dosage increase. Adsorption of dye follows pseudo-second order mechanism. Thermodynamic studies show spontaneous and endothermic nature of the overall adsorption process.

  8. Improving the Stability of Astaxanthin by Microencapsulation in Calcium Alginate Beads.

    PubMed

    Lin, Shen-Fu; Chen, Ying-Chen; Chen, Ray-Neng; Chen, Ling-Chun; Ho, Hsiu-O; Tsung, Yu-Han; Sheu, Ming-Thau; Liu, Der-Zen

    2016-01-01

    There has been considerable interest in the biological functions of astaxanthin and its potential applications in the nutraceutical, cosmetics, food, and feed industries in recent years. However, the unstable structure of astaxanthin considerably limits its application. Therefore, this study reports the encapsulation of astaxanthin in calcium alginate beads using the extrusion method to improve its stability. This study also evaluates the stability of the encapsulated astaxanthin under different storage conditions. The evaluation of astaxanthin stability under various environmental factors reveals that temperature is the most influential environmental factor in astaxanthin degradation. Stability analysis shows that, regardless of the formulation used, the content of astaxanthin encapsulated in alginate beads remains above 90% of the original amount after 21 days of storage at 25°C. These results suggest that the proposed technique is a promising way to enhance the stability of other sensitive compounds. PMID:27093175

  9. Development of a new antibacterial biomaterial by tetracycline immobilization on calcium-alginate beads.

    PubMed

    Ozseker, Emine Erdogan; Akkaya, Alper

    2016-10-20

    In recent years, increasing risk of infection, caused by resistant microorganism to antibiotics, has become the limelight discovery of new and natural antibacterial materials. Heavy metals, such as silver, copper, mercury and titanium, have antibacterial activity. Products, which improved these metals, do not have stable antibacterial property. Therefore, use of these products is restricted. The aim of this study was to immobilize tetracycline to alginate and improve an antibacterial biomaterial. For this purpose, calcium-alginate beads were formed by dropping to calcium-chloride solution and tetracycline was immobilized to beads using 1-ethyl-3-(3-dimethylaminopropyl)carbodiimide at optimum conditions. After immobilization, actualization of immobilization was investigated by analyzing ATR-FTIR spectrum and SEM images. Also, antibacterial property of obtained product was tested. Improved product demonstrated antibacterial property. It has potential for open wound, surgical drapes, bed and pillow sheath in hospitals and it may also be used for increasing human comfort in daily life. PMID:27474587

  10. Development of a new antibacterial biomaterial by tetracycline immobilization on calcium-alginate beads.

    PubMed

    Ozseker, Emine Erdogan; Akkaya, Alper

    2016-10-20

    In recent years, increasing risk of infection, caused by resistant microorganism to antibiotics, has become the limelight discovery of new and natural antibacterial materials. Heavy metals, such as silver, copper, mercury and titanium, have antibacterial activity. Products, which improved these metals, do not have stable antibacterial property. Therefore, use of these products is restricted. The aim of this study was to immobilize tetracycline to alginate and improve an antibacterial biomaterial. For this purpose, calcium-alginate beads were formed by dropping to calcium-chloride solution and tetracycline was immobilized to beads using 1-ethyl-3-(3-dimethylaminopropyl)carbodiimide at optimum conditions. After immobilization, actualization of immobilization was investigated by analyzing ATR-FTIR spectrum and SEM images. Also, antibacterial property of obtained product was tested. Improved product demonstrated antibacterial property. It has potential for open wound, surgical drapes, bed and pillow sheath in hospitals and it may also be used for increasing human comfort in daily life.

  11. Improving the Stability of Astaxanthin by Microencapsulation in Calcium Alginate Beads

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Shen-Fu; Chen, Ying-Chen; Chen, Ray-Neng; Chen, Ling-Chun; Ho, Hsiu-O; Tsung, Yu-Han; Sheu, Ming-Thau; Liu, Der-Zen

    2016-01-01

    There has been considerable interest in the biological functions of astaxanthin and its potential applications in the nutraceutical, cosmetics, food, and feed industries in recent years. However, the unstable structure of astaxanthin considerably limits its application. Therefore, this study reports the encapsulation of astaxanthin in calcium alginate beads using the extrusion method to improve its stability. This study also evaluates the stability of the encapsulated astaxanthin under different storage conditions. The evaluation of astaxanthin stability under various environmental factors reveals that temperature is the most influential environmental factor in astaxanthin degradation. Stability analysis shows that, regardless of the formulation used, the content of astaxanthin encapsulated in alginate beads remains above 90% of the original amount after 21 days of storage at 25°C. These results suggest that the proposed technique is a promising way to enhance the stability of other sensitive compounds. PMID:27093175

  12. Cetylpyridinium chloride/magnetic alginate beads: an efficient system to remove p-nitrophenol from wastewater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Obeid, Layaly; Bee, Agnes; Talbot, Delphine; Abramson, Sebastien; Welschbillig, Mathias

    2014-05-01

    The adsorption process is one of the most efficient methods to remove pollutants from wastewater provided that suitable adsorbents are used. In order to produce environmentally safe adsorbents, natural polymers have received increasing attention in recent years. Thus, alginate, a polysaccharide extracted from brown seaweeds, is extensively used as inexpensive, non-toxic and efficient biosorbent. Furthermore, it has been shown that the encapsulation of magnetic materials in alginate beads facilitates their recovery from wastewater after the adsorption step, by the use of an external magnetic field gradient, obtained with a magnet or an electromagnet [1, 2]. In the present work, we have studied the adsorption affinity of magnetic alginate beads (called magsorbents)for p-nitrophenol (PNP), used as a hydrophobic pollutant, in presence of cetylpyridinium chloride (CPC), a cationic surfactant. First, the effect of different parameters (pH solution, contact time, surfactant initial concentration…) on the adsorption of CPC on the alginate beads was investigated. Adsorption of the surfactant occurs due to electrostatic attractions between its cationic head groups and negative carboxylate functions of the alginate beads. At larger surfactant concentrations, adsorption is also due to the interaction between the hydrocarbon chains of CPC forming aggregated structures capable of solubilizing hydrophobic solutes. In a second step, we showed that PNP can reach up to 95% of adsorption in the beads in presence of CPC, although the pollutant is poorly adsorbed by alginate in absence of the surfactant. At highest CPC concentrations, desorption occurs as micellar solubilization is preferred over coadsorption. Our magsorbents appear to efficiently remove both cationic surfactant and hydrophobic pollutants and we hope that this fundamental research will be helpful for the future development of magnetically assisted processes in water treatment plants. 1. A.Bee, D.Talbot, S.Abramson, V

  13. Encapsulation of lactase (β-galactosidase) into κ-carrageenan-based hydrogel beads: Impact of environmental conditions on enzyme activity.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zipei; Zhang, Ruojie; Chen, Long; McClements, David Julian

    2016-06-01

    Encapsulation of enzymes in hydrogel beads may improve their utilization and activity in foods. In this study, the potential of carrageenan hydrogel beads for encapsulating β-galactosidase was investigated. Hydrogel beads were fabricated by injecting an aqueous solution, containing β-galactosidase (26 U) and carrageenan (1 wt%), into a hardening solution (5% potassium chloride). Around 63% of the β-galactosidase was initially encapsulated in the hydrogel beads. Encapsulated β-galactosidase had a higher activity than that of the free enzyme over a range of pH and thermal conditions, which was attributed to the stabilization of the enzyme structure by K(+) ions within the carrageenan beads. Release of the enzyme from the beads was observed during storage in aqueous solutions, which was attributed to the relatively large pore size of the hydrogel matrix. Our results suggest that carrageenan hydrogel beads may be useful encapsulation systems, but further work is needed to inhibit enzyme leakage.

  14. Boron removal from aqueous solutions using alginate gel beads in fixed-bed systems

    PubMed Central

    Demey-Cedeño, Hary; Ruiz, Montserrat; Barron-Zambrano, Jesús Alberto; Sastre, Ana Maria

    2014-01-01

    Background A column sorption study was carried out using calcium alginate gel beads as adsorbent for the removal of boron from aqueous solutions. The breakthrough curve was obtained as a function of pH, initial concentration of boron, feed flow rate, adsorbent mass and column diameter. The breakthrough capacity values and adsorption percentage of calcium alginate gel for boron were calculated. Column data obtained at different conditions were described using the Adams–Bohart model and bed-depth service time (BDST), derived from the Adams–Bohart equation to predict breakthrough curves and to determine the characteristic column parameters required for process design. Results The maximum adsorption percentage of boron on calcium alginate gel beads using an initial concentration of boron of 50 mg L−1 at pH 11 and room temperature (20±1°C) was calculated to be 55.14%. Conclusion The results indicated that calcium alginate can be used in a continuous packed-bed column for boron adsorption. The optimal conditions for boron adsorption were obtained at high pH, higher initial boron concentration, increased column depth and lower flow velocity. © 2014 The Authors. Journal of Chemical Technology & Biotechnology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Society of Chemical Industry. PMID:25821332

  15. Modified alginate beads for mucoadhesive drug delivery system: an updated review of patents.

    PubMed

    Swain, Suryakanta; Behera, Aurobinda; Beg, Sarwar; Patra, Chinam N; Dinda, Subash C; Sruti, Jammula; Rao, Muddana E B

    2012-12-01

    Pharmaceutical research and inventions are increasingly developed for the design of an ideal dosage regimen in drug therapy of many diseases, which attains therapeutic concentration of drug in plasma and maintains it constant for the entire duration of treatment and also minimizes the side effects. Recent trends in pharmaceutical technology indicated that mucoadhesive micro particle and modified alginate beads as drug delivery system especially suitable for achieving delivery of drug in a predetermined rate locally or systemically for a prolonged period of time. The release of drug from microparticle depends on a variety of factors including carrier used to form the micro particle and amount of drug contained in them. The main aim of the present review is to explain the various theories, mechanisms, advanced mucoadhesive polymers, various delivery approaches, methodologies for developing a mucoadhesive micro-particle and modified alginate beads formulation, in vitro, ex vivo and in vivo characterization. Apart from this, an innovative test method that is biacore is highlighted in this review to measure the mucoadhesive strength. This review is also briefly explained about the updated patenting system for the development of micro-particle and modified alginate beads as drug delivery system.

  16. Kinetics of fungal extracellular alpha-amylase from Fusarium solani immobilized in calcium alginate beads.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Devendra; Muthukumar, M; Garg, Neelima

    2012-11-01

    Extracellular alpha-amylase mass produced by Fusarium solani using mango kernel as substrate was immobilized in calcium alginate beads through entrapment technique. Maximum enzyme immobilization efficiency was achieved in 2 mm size beads formed by 6.5% (w/v) of sodium alginate in 2% (w/v) calcium chloride. The catalytic properties of the immobilized alpha-amylase were compared with that of free enzyme (soluble). The activity yield of the immobilized enzyme was 81% of the free enzyme. The immobilized enzyme showed optimum activityat pH 4.5-6.0 and temperature 40 degrees C, in contrast to the free enzyme at 5.5 and 30 degrees C, respectively. Thermal stability of the immobilized enzyme was found to be more than the free enzyme over a longer time interval. The immobilized enzyme retained activity upto 20% of optimum even after 180 min. While the free enzyme lost its 80% activity after 60 min and lost total activity down to zero by 120 min. The kinetic constants, viz., K(M) (Michaelis constant), V(max) and activation energy were affected by immobilization. However, the immobilized alpha-amylase in calcium alginate beads supports its long-term storage which has immense industrial applications.

  17. Ca-alginate hydrogel mechanical transformations--the influence on yeast cell growth dynamics.

    PubMed

    Pajić-Lijaković, Ivana; Plavsić, Milenko; Bugarski, Branko; Nedović, Viktor

    2007-05-01

    A mathematical model was formulated to describe yeast cell growth within the Ca-alginate microbead during air-lift bioreactor cultivation. Model development was based on experimentally obtained data for the intra-bead cell concentration profile, after reached the equilibrium state, as well as, total yeast cell concentration per microbed and microbead volume as function of time. Relatively uniform cell concentration in the carrier matrix indicated that no internal nutrient diffusion limitations, but microenvironmental restriction, affected dominantly the dynamics of cell growth. Also interesting phenomenon of very different rates of cell number growth during cultivation is observed. After some critical time, the growth rate of cell colonies decreased drastically, but than suddenly increased again under all other experimental condition been the same. It is interpreted as disintegration of gel network and opening new free space for growth of cell clusters. These complex phenomena are modeled using the thermodynamical, free energy formalism. The particular form of free energy functional is proposed to describe various kinds of interactions, which affected the dynamics of cell growth and cause pseudo-phase transition of hydrogel. The good agreement of experimentally obtained data and model predictions are obtained. In that way the model provides both, the quantitative tools for further technological optimization of the process and deeper insight into dynamics of cell growth mechanism.

  18. Design and performance of a sericin-alginate interpenetrating network hydrogel for cell and drug delivery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yeshun; Liu, Jia; Huang, Lei; Wang, Zheng; Wang, Lin

    2015-07-01

    Although alginate hydrogels have been extensively studied for tissue engineering applications, their utilization is limited by poor mechanical strength, rapid drug release, and a lack of cell adhesive ability. Aiming to improve these properties, we employ the interpenetrating hydrogel design rationale. Using alginate and sericin (a natural protein with many unique properties and a major component of silkworm silk), we develop an interpenetrating polymer network (IPN) hydrogel comprising interwoven sericin and alginate double networks. By adjusting the sericin-to-alginate ratios, IPNs’ mechanical strength can be adjusted to meet stiffness requirements for various tissue repairs. The IPNs with high sericin content show increased stability during degradation, avoiding pure alginate’s early collapse. These IPNs have high swelling ratios, benefiting various applications such as drug delivery. The IPNs sustain controlled drug release with the adjustable rates. Furthermore, these IPNs are adhesive to cells, supporting cell proliferation, long-term survival and migration. Notably, the IPNs inherit sericin’s photoluminescent property, enabling bioimaging in vivo. Together, our study indicates that the sericin-alginate IPN hydrogels may serve as a versatile platform for delivering cells and drugs, and suggests that sericin may be a building block broadly applicable for generating IPN networks with other biomaterials for diverse tissue engineering applications.

  19. Design and performance of a sericin-alginate interpenetrating network hydrogel for cell and drug delivery

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yeshun; Liu, Jia; Huang, Lei; Wang, Zheng; Wang, Lin

    2015-01-01

    Although alginate hydrogels have been extensively studied for tissue engineering applications, their utilization is limited by poor mechanical strength, rapid drug release, and a lack of cell adhesive ability. Aiming to improve these properties, we employ the interpenetrating hydrogel design rationale. Using alginate and sericin (a natural protein with many unique properties and a major component of silkworm silk), we develop an interpenetrating polymer network (IPN) hydrogel comprising interwoven sericin and alginate double networks. By adjusting the sericin-to-alginate ratios, IPNs’ mechanical strength can be adjusted to meet stiffness requirements for various tissue repairs. The IPNs with high sericin content show increased stability during degradation, avoiding pure alginate’s early collapse. These IPNs have high swelling ratios, benefiting various applications such as drug delivery. The IPNs sustain controlled drug release with the adjustable rates. Furthermore, these IPNs are adhesive to cells, supporting cell proliferation, long-term survival and migration. Notably, the IPNs inherit sericin’s photoluminescent property, enabling bioimaging in vivo. Together, our study indicates that the sericin-alginate IPN hydrogels may serve as a versatile platform for delivering cells and drugs, and suggests that sericin may be a building block broadly applicable for generating IPN networks with other biomaterials for diverse tissue engineering applications. PMID:26205586

  20. NMR microscopy of heavy metal absorption in calcium alginate beads

    SciTech Connect

    Nestle, N.; Kimmich, R.

    1996-01-01

    In recent years, heavy metal uptake by biopolymer gels, such as Cal-Alginate or chitosan, has been studied by various methods. This is of interest because such materials might be an alternative to synthetical ion-exchange resins in the treatment of industrial waste waters. Most of the work done in this field consisted of studies of equilibrium absorption of different heavy metal ions with dependence on various experimental parameters. In some publications, the kinetics of absorption were studied, too. However, no experiments on the spatial distribution of heavy metals during the absorption process are known to us. Using Cu as an example, it is demonstrated in this article that NMR microscopy is an appropriate tool for such studies. By the method presented here, it is possible to monitor the spatial distribution of heavy metal ions with a time resolution of about 5 min and a spatial resolution of 100 {mu}m or even better. 14 refs., 10 figs.

  1. Alginate/magnetite hybrid beads for magnetically stimulated release of dopamine.

    PubMed

    Kondaveeti, Stalin; Cornejo, Daniel R; Petri, Denise Freitas Siqueira

    2016-02-01

    Hybrid beads composed of magnetite nanoparticles (MNP) and alginate (Alg) were synthesized and coded as Alg-MNP. They were incubated in dopamine (DOPA) solution (5 g/L), at pH 7.4 and 8 °C, during 12 h, promoting the DOPA loaded magnetic beads, coded as Alg-MNP/DOPA. The release of DOPA was further evaluated in the absence and the presence of external magnetic field (EMF) of 0.4 T. The products Alg-MNP and Alg-MNP/DOPA were characterized by scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive spectroscopy (SEM-EDS), Fourier transform infrared vibrational spectroscopy (FTIR), UV spectrophotometry, thermogravimetric analyses (TGA), inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES) analyses and superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) magnetometer. The magnetic and chemical properties of Alg-MNP beads were not affected by DOPA loading. The incorporation of DOPA into the beads depended on the pH and on the negative charge density. At pH 7.4 38% of DOPA were loaded into Alg-MNP beads, whereas at pH 2 or using neat Alg beads (lower charge density than Alg-MNP) the loading efficiency decreased to one third or less. In the absence of EMF, 24% of the loaded DOPA was released from Alg-MNP at pH 7.4 over a period of 26 h. The released amount increased to 33% under the stimulus of EMF. A model was proposed to explain the loading efficiency of charged drugs, as DOPA, into hybrid beads and the role played by EMF on delivery systems, where drug and matrix are oppositely charged. The results suggest that the alginate combined with magnetite nanoparticles is a promising system for release of DOPA in the presence of EMF.

  2. Dual-crosslinked oxidized, methacrylated alginate/PEG hydrogels for bioadhesive applications

    PubMed Central

    Jeon, Oju; Samorezov, Julia E.; Alsberg, Eben

    2013-01-01

    A degradable, cytocompatible bioadhesive can facilitate surgical procedures and minimize patient pain and postsurgical complications. In this study, a bioadhesive hydrogel system based on oxidized, methacrylated alginate/8-arm poly(ethylene glycol) amine (OMA/PEG) has been developed, and the bioadhesive characteristics of the crosslinked OMA/PEG hydrogels are evaluated. Here, we demonstrate that the swelling behavior, degradation profiles, and storage moduli of crosslinked OMA/PEG hydrogels are tunable by varying the degree of alginate oxidation. The crosslinked OMA/PEG hydrogels exhibit cytocompatibility when cultured with human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells. In addition, the adhesion strength of these hydrogels, controllable by varying the alginate oxidation level and measured using a porcine skin model, is superior to commercially available fibrin glue. This OMA/PEG hydrogel system with controllable biodegradation and mechanical properties and adhesion strength may be a promising bioadhesive for clinical use in biomedical applications, such as drug delivery, wound closure and healing, biomedical device implantation, and tissue engineering. PMID:24035886

  3. Enzymatically cross-linked injectable alginate-g-pyrrole hydrogels for neovascularization.

    PubMed

    Devolder, Ross; Antoniadou, Eleni; Kong, Hyunjoon

    2013-11-28

    Microparticles capable of releasing protein drugs are often incorporated into injectable hydrogels to minimize their displacement at an implantation site, reduce initial drug burst, and further control drug release rates over a broader range. However, there is still a need to develop methods for releasing drug molecules over extended periods of time, in order to sustain the bioactivity of drug molecules at an implantation site. In this study, we hypothesized that a hydrogel formed through the cross-linking of pyrrole units linked to a hydrophilic polymer would release protein drugs in a more sustained manner, because of an enhanced association between cross-linked pyrrole groups and the drug molecules. To examine this hypothesis, we prepared hydrogels of alginate substituted with pyrrole groups, alginate-g-pyrrole, through a horse-radish peroxidase (HRP)-activated cross-linking of the pyrrole groups. The hydrogels were encapsulated with poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) microparticles loaded with vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). The resulting hydrogel system released VEGF in a more sustained manner than Ca(2+) alginate or Ca(2+) alginate-g-pyrrole gel systems. Finally, implantations of the VEGF-releasing HRP-activated alginate-g-pyrrole hydrogel system on chicken chorioallantoic membranes resulted in the formation of blood vessels in higher densities and with larger diameters, compared to other control conditions. Overall, the drug releasing system developed in this study will be broadly useful for regulating release rates of a wide array of protein drugs, and further enhance the quality of protein drug-based therapies. PMID:23886705

  4. Facile synthesis of chitosan/ZnO bio-nanocomposite hydrogel beads as drug delivery systems.

    PubMed

    Yadollahi, Mehdi; Farhoudian, Sana; Barkhordari, Soroush; Gholamali, Iman; Farhadnejad, Hassan; Motasadizadeh, Hamidreza

    2016-01-01

    ZnO nanoparticles were synthesized in situ during the formation of physically cross-linked chitosan hydrogel beads using sodium tripolyphosphate as the cross-linker. The aim of the study was to investigate whether these nanocomposite beads have the potential to be used in drug delivery applications. The formation of ZnO nanoparticles (ZnONPs) in the hydrogels was confirmed by X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy studies. SEM micrographs revealed the formation of ZnONPs with size range of 10-25 nm within the hydrogel matrix. Furthermore, the swelling and drug release properties of the beads were studied. The prepared nanocomposite hydrogels showed a pH sensitive swelling behavior. The ZnO nanocomposite hydrogels have rather higher swelling ratio in different aqueous solutions in comparison with neat hydrogel. In vitro drug release test was carried out to prove the effectiveness of this novel type of nanocomposite beads as a controlled drug delivery system. A prolonged and more controlled drug releases were observed for ZnONPs containing chitosan beads, which increased by the increase in ZnONPs content.

  5. Development and evaluation of alginate-chitosan gastric floating beads loading with oxymatrine solid dispersion.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yanhua; Chen, Lihong; Zhou, Chengming; Yang, Jianhong; Hou, Yanhui; Wang, Wenping

    2016-01-01

    Oxymatrine (OM) can be metabolized to matrine in gastrointestinal ileocecal valve after oral administration, which affects pharmacological activity and reduce bioavailability of OM. A type of multiple-unit alginate-chitosan (Alg-Cs) floating beads was prepared by the ionotropic gelation method for gastroretention delivery of OM. A solid dispersion technique was applied and incorporated into beads to enhance the OM encapsulation efficiency (EE) and sustain the drug release. The surface morphology and internal hollow structure of beads were evaluated using optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The developed Alg-Cs beads were spherical in shape with hollow internal structure and had particle size of 3.49 ± 0.09 mm and 1.33 ± 0.09 mm for wet and dried beads. Over 84% of the optimized OM solid dispersion-loaded Alg-Cs beads were able to continuously float over the simulated gastric fluid for 12 h in vitro. The OM solid dispersion-loaded Alg-Cs beads showed drug EE of 67.07%, which was much higher than that of beads loading with pure OM. Compared with the immediate release of OM capsules and pure OM-loaded beads, the release of OM from solid dispersion-loaded Alg-Cs beads was in a sustained-release manner for 12 h. Prolonged gastric retention time of over 8.5 h was achieved for OM solid dispersion-loaded Alg-Cs floating beads in healthy rabbit in in vivo floating ability evaluated by X-ray imaging. The developed Alg-Cs beads loading with OM solid dispersion displayed excellent performance features characterized by excellent gastric floating ability, high drug EE and sustained-release pattern. The study illustrated the potential use of Alg-Cs floating beads combined with the solid dispersion technique for prolonging gastric retention and sustaining release of OM, which could provide a promising drug delivery system for gastric-specific delivery of OM for bioavailability enhancement.

  6. Adsorptive removal of patulin from apple juice using Ca-alginate-activated carbon beads.

    PubMed

    Yue, Tianli; Guo, Caixia; Yuan, Yahong; Wang, Zhouli; Luo, Ying; Wang, Ling

    2013-10-01

    This study aimed to investigate the adsorption of patulin from apple juice by Ca-alginate-activated carbon (Ca-alginate-AC) beads. The capacity of patulin was determined by high-performance liquid chromatography. The results showed that Ca-alginate-AC beads have significant ability to reduce patulin from contaminated apple juice. Furthermore, the adsorption process did not affect the quality of apple juice. The effects of contact time, initial patulin concentration, adsorbent dose, and temperature were assessed. The removal percentage of patulin increased with contact time, adsorbent dose, and temperature. A reduction was also noted to bind patulin at increased levels of contamination. The equilibrium data were fitted to Langmuir, Freundlich, and Temkin isotherm models and the isotherm constants were calculated at different temperatures. The adsorption equilibrium was best described by the Freundlich isotherm (R(2) > 0.990). The pseudo 1st-order model was found to describe the kinetic data satisfactorily. Thermodynamic parameters such as standard Gibbs free energy (ΔG◦◦), standard enthalpy (ΔH◦), and standard entropy (ΔS◦) were evaluated. The results showed that the adsorption was spontaneous and endothermic nature.

  7. Effects of alginate hydrogel cross-linking density on mechanical and biological behaviors for tissue engineering.

    PubMed

    Jang, Jinah; Seol, Young-Joon; Kim, Hyeon Ji; Kundu, Joydip; Kim, Sung Won; Cho, Dong-Woo

    2014-09-01

    An effective cross-linking of alginate gel was made through reaction with calcium carbonate (CaCO3). We used human chondrocytes as a model cell to study the effects of cross-linking density. Three different pore size ranges of cross-linked alginate hydrogels were fabricated. The morphological, mechanical, and rheological properties of various alginate hydrogels were characterized and responses of biosynthesis of cells encapsulated in each gel to the variation in cross-linking density were investigated. Desired outer shape of structure was maintained when the alginate solution was cross-linked with the applied method. The properties of alginate hydrogel could be tailored through applying various concentrations of CaCO3. The rate of synthesized GAGs and collagens was significantly higher in human chondrocytes encapsulated in the smaller pore structure than that in the larger pore structure. The expression of chondrogenic markers, including collagen type II and aggrecan, was enhanced in the smaller pore structure. It was found that proper structural morphology is a critical factor to enhance the performance and tissue regeneration.

  8. Combination of Controllably Released Platelet Rich Plasma Alginate Beads and Bone Morphogenic Protein-2 Gene-Modified Mesenchymal Stem Cells for Bone Regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Fernandes, Gabriela; Wang, Changdong; Yuan, Xue; Liu, Zunpeng; Dziak, Rosemary; Yang, Shuying

    2016-01-01

    Background Platelet rich plasma (PRP) consists of platelet derived growth factor (PDGF) and Transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-β) that increase cell proliferation of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), whereas, bone morphogenic Protein-2 (BMP2) promotes osteogenic differentiation of MSCs. However, the high degradation rate of fibrin leads to the dissociation of cytokines even before the process of bone regeneration has begun. Hence, for the first time, we studied the combined effect of sustained released PRP from alginate beads on BMP2 modified MSCs osteogenic differentiation in vitro and of sustained PRP alone on a fracture defect model ex vivo as well as its effect on the calvarial suture closure. Methods After optimizing the concentration of alginate for the microspheres, the osteogenic and mineralization effect of PRP and BMP2 in combinations on MSCs was studied. A self-setting alginate hydrogel carrying PRP was tested on a femur defect model ex-vivo. The effect of PRP was studied on the closure of the embryonic (E15) mouse calvaria sutures ex vivo. Results Increase of PRP concentration promoted cellular proliferation of MSCs. 2.5%–10% of PRP displayed gradually increased ALP activity on the cells in a dose dependent manner. Sustained release PRP and BMP2 demonstrated a significantly higher ALP and mineralization activity (p<0.05). The radiographs of alginate hydrogel with PRP treated bone demonstrated a nearly complete healing of the fracture and the histological sections of the embryonic calvaria revealed that PRP leads to suture fusion. Conclusions Sustained release of PRP along with BMP2 gene modified MSCs can significantly promote bone regeneration. PMID:26745613

  9. The effect of calcium chloride concentration on alginate/Fmoc-diphenylalanine hydrogel networks.

    PubMed

    Çelik, Ekin; Bayram, Cem; Akçapınar, Rümeysa; Türk, Mustafa; Denkbaş, Emir Baki

    2016-09-01

    Peptide based hydrogels gained a vast interest in the tissue engineering studies thanks to great superiorities such as biocompatibility, supramolecular organization without any need of additional crosslinker, injectability and tunable nature. Fmoc-diphenylalanine (FmocFF) is one of the earliest and widely used example of these small molecule gelators that have been utilized in biomedical studies. However, Fmoc-peptides are not feasible for long term use due to low stability and weak mechanical properties at neutral pH. In this study, Fmoc-FF dipeptides were mechanically enhanced by incorporation of alginate, a biocompatible and absorbable polysaccharide. The binary hydrogel is obtained via molecular self-assembly of FmocFF dipeptide in alginate solution followed by ionic crosslinking of alginate moieties with varying concentrations of calcium chloride. Hydrogel characterization was evaluated in terms of morphology, viscoelastic moduli and diffusional phenomena and the structures were tested as 3D scaffolds for bovine chondrocytes. In vitro evaluation of scaffolds lasted up to 14days and cell viability, sulphated glycosaminoglycan (sGAG) levels, collagen type II synthesis were determined. Our results showed that alginate incorporation into FmocFF hydrogels leads to better mechanical properties and higher stability with good biocompatibility.

  10. Influence of hydrophobic modification in alginate-based hydrogels for biomedical applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choudhary, Soumitra

    Alginate has been exploited commercially for decades in foods, textiles, paper, pharmaceutical industries, and also as a detoxifier for removing heavy metals. Alginate is also popular in cell encapsulation because of its relatively mild gelation protocol and simple chemistry with which biological active entities can be immobilized. Surface modification of alginate gels has been explored to induce desired cell interactions with the gel matrix. These modifications alter the bulk properties, which strongly determine on how cells feel and response to the three-dimensional microenvironment. However, there is a need to develop strategies to engineer functionalities into bulk alginate hydrogels that not only preserve their inherent qualities but are also less toxic. In this thesis, our main focus was to optimize the mechanical properties of alginate-based hydrogels, and by doing so control the performance of the biomaterials. In the first scheme, we used alginate and hydrophobically modified ethyl hydroxy ethyl cellulose as components in interpenetrating polymer network (IPN) gels. The second network was used to control gelation time and rheological properties. We believe these experiments also may provide insight into the mechanical and structural properties of more complex biopolymer gels and naturally-occurring IPNs. Next, we worked on incorporating a hydrophobic moiety directly into the alginate chain, resulting in materials for extended release of hydrophobic drugs. We successfully synthesized hydrophobically modified alginate (HMA) by attaching octylamine groups onto the alginate backbone by standard carbodiimide based amide coupling reaction. Solubility of several model hydrophobic drugs in dilute HMA solutions was found to be increased by more than an order of magnitude. HMA hydrogels, prepared by crosslinking the alginate chains with calcium ions, were found to exhibit excellent mechanical properties (modulus ˜100 kPa) with release extended upto 5 days. Ability

  11. Perfluorinated alginate for cellular encapsulation.

    PubMed

    Gattás-Asfura, Kerim M; Fraker, Christopher A; Stabler, Cherie L

    2012-08-01

    Molecules of pentadecafluorooctanoyl chloride (PFC) were grafted onto alginate (Alg) using a linear poly(ethylene glycol) linker and amide bonds. The resulting Alg-PFC material was characterized by proton nuclear magnetic resonance and infrared spectroscopies. The degree of PFC functionalization significantly influenced the physical and chemical properties of Alg-PFC, particularly when the resulting polymer was ionically crosslinked into hydrogels. Alg-PFC hydrogel beads fabricated via Ba(2+) crosslinking were found to match the permeability properties of control alginate beads, except upon swelling over time in culture media. When used to encapsulate MIN6 cells, a beta cell line, Alg-PFC beads demonstrated enhanced cell proliferation over alginate control beads. These results indicate that Alg-PFC hydrogels retain some of the PFC's biological-relevant benefits, such as enhancement of mass transport and bioinertness, to enhance cellular viability within alginate three-dimensional hydrogel environments. We envision these functionalized hydrogels to be particularly useful in the encapsulation of cells with a high metabolic demand, such as pancreatic islets.

  12. Biodegradation of crystal violet using Burkholderia vietnamiensis C09V immobilized on PVA-sodium alginate-kaolin gel beads.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Ying; Lin, HongYan; Chen, Zuliang; Megharaj, Mallavarapu; Naidu, Ravi

    2012-09-01

    The strain, Burkholderia vietnamiensis C09V was immobilized on PVA-alginate-kaolin gel beads as a biomaterial to improve the degradation of crystal violet from aqueous solution. The results show that 98.6% (30 mg L(-1)) crystal violet was removed from aqueous solution using immobilized cells on PVA-alginate-kaolin gel beads, while 94.0% crystal violet was removed by free cells after degradation at the pH 5 and 30°C for 30 h. Kinetics studies show that the pseudo-second-order kinetics well described the adsorption of crystal violet on the PVA-alginate-kaolin beads. Biodegradation of crystal violet on immobilized cells was fitted well by first-order reaction kinetics, indicating that CV was adsorbed onto kaolin and followed their degradation by immobilized cells onto the the PVA-alginate-kaolin beads. Characterization with SEM shows that cells attached well to the surface of PVA-alginate-kaolin beads, leading to improved crystal violet transfer from aqueous solution to immobilized cells. In addition, UV-vis show that the absorption peak at 588 nm was reduced by the degraded N-bond linkages, as well as the formation of degrading products were observed by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR). These results suggest that crystal violet was biodegraded to N,N-dimethylaminophenol and Michler's Ketone prior to these intermediates being further degraded. PMID:22789742

  13. Biodegradation of crystal violet using Burkholderia vietnamiensis C09V immobilized on PVA-sodium alginate-kaolin gel beads.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Ying; Lin, HongYan; Chen, Zuliang; Megharaj, Mallavarapu; Naidu, Ravi

    2012-09-01

    The strain, Burkholderia vietnamiensis C09V was immobilized on PVA-alginate-kaolin gel beads as a biomaterial to improve the degradation of crystal violet from aqueous solution. The results show that 98.6% (30 mg L(-1)) crystal violet was removed from aqueous solution using immobilized cells on PVA-alginate-kaolin gel beads, while 94.0% crystal violet was removed by free cells after degradation at the pH 5 and 30°C for 30 h. Kinetics studies show that the pseudo-second-order kinetics well described the adsorption of crystal violet on the PVA-alginate-kaolin beads. Biodegradation of crystal violet on immobilized cells was fitted well by first-order reaction kinetics, indicating that CV was adsorbed onto kaolin and followed their degradation by immobilized cells onto the the PVA-alginate-kaolin beads. Characterization with SEM shows that cells attached well to the surface of PVA-alginate-kaolin beads, leading to improved crystal violet transfer from aqueous solution to immobilized cells. In addition, UV-vis show that the absorption peak at 588 nm was reduced by the degraded N-bond linkages, as well as the formation of degrading products were observed by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR). These results suggest that crystal violet was biodegraded to N,N-dimethylaminophenol and Michler's Ketone prior to these intermediates being further degraded.

  14. Alginate bead fabrication and encapsulation of living cells under centrifugally induced artificial gravity conditions.

    PubMed

    Haeberle, Stefan; Naegele, Lars; Burger, Robert; von Stetten, Felix; Zengerle, Roland; Ducrée, Jens

    2008-06-01

    This study presents a novel method for the direct, centrifugally induced fabrication of small, Ca2+-hardened alginate beads at polymer-tube micronozzles. The bead diameter can arbitrarily be adjusted between 180-800 microm by the nozzle geometry and spinning frequencies between 5-28 Hz. The size distribution of the main peak features a CV of 7-16%, only. Up to 600 beads per second and channel are issued from the micronozzle through an air gap towards the curing agent contained in a standard lab tube ('Eppi'). Several tubes can be mounted on a 'flying bucket' rotor where they align horizontally under rotation and return to a vertical position as soon as the rotor is at rest. The centrifugally induced, ultra-high artificial gravity conditions (up to 180 g) even allow the micro-encapsulation of alginate solutions displaying viscosities up to 50 Pa s, i.e. approximately 50,000 times the viscosity of water! With this low cost technology for microencapsulation, HN25 and PC12 cells have successfully been encapsulated while maintaining vitality.

  15. Behavior of encapsulated MG-63 cells in RGD and gelatine-modified alginate hydrogels.

    PubMed

    Grigore, Alexandra; Sarker, Bapi; Fabry, Ben; Boccaccini, Aldo R; Detsch, Rainer

    2014-08-01

    Achieving cell spreading and proliferation inside hydrogels that are compatible with microencapsulation technology represents a major challenge for tissue engineering scaffolding and for the development of three-dimensional cell culture models. In this study, microcapsules of 650-900 μm in diameter were fabricated from oxidized alginate covalently cross-linked with gelatine (AlGel). Schiff's base bond formed in AlGel, detected by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, which confirmed the cross-linking of oxidized alginate with gelatine. Biological properties of alginate based hydrogels were studied by comparing the viability and morphology of MG-63 osteosarcoma cells encapsulated in gelatine and RGD-modified alginate. We hypothesized that the presence of gelatine and RGD will support cell adhesion and spreading inside the microcapsules and finally, also vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) secretion. After 4 days of incubation, cells formed extensive cortical protrusions and after 2 weeks they proliferated, migrated, and formed cellular networks through the AlGel material. In contrast, cells encapsulated in pure alginate and in RGD-modified alginate formed spherical aggregates with limited cell mobility and VEGF secretion. Metabolic activity was doubled after 5 days of incubation, making AlGel a promising material for cell encapsulation.

  16. Characterization of dextransucrase immobilized on calcium alginate beads from Leuconostoc mesenteroides PCSIR-4.

    PubMed

    Ul Qader, Shah Ali; Aman, Afsheen; Syed, Noman; Bano, Saeeda; Azhar, Abid

    2007-06-01

    Immobilization of dextransucrase from Leuconostoc mesenteroides PCSIR-4 on alginate is optimized for application in the production of dextran from sucrose. Dextransucrase was partially purified by ethanol upto 2.5 fold. Properties of dextransucrase were less affected by immobilization on alginate beads from soluble enzyme. Highest activities of both soluble and immobilized dextransucrase found to be at 35 degrees C and optimum pH for activity remain 5.00. Substrate maxima for immobilized enzyme changed from 125 mg/ml to 200 mg/ml. Incubation time for enzyme-substrate reaction for maximum enzyme activity was increased from 15 minutes to 60 minutes in case of immobilized enzyme. Maximum stability of immobilized dextransucrase was achieved at 25 degrees C with respect to time.

  17. A study towards release dynamics of thiram fungicide from starch-alginate beads to control environmental and health hazards.

    PubMed

    Singh, Baljit; Sharma, D K; Gupta, Atul

    2009-01-15

    In order to make the judicious use of thiram fungicide we have developed starch- and alginate-based controlled and sustained agrochemical delivery system in the form of beads using calcium chloride (CaCl2) as crosslinker. The beads were characterized by FTIR and swelling studies. To study the effect of composition of the beads on the release dynamics of fungicide (thiram), beads were prepared by varying the amount of starch, alginate and crosslinker in the beads. Formulation characteristics like entrapment efficiency, bead size, percentage equilibrium swelling of the beads and diffusion mechanism for thiram release have been evaluated. Maximum (93.33+/-2.89)% swelling and maximum (80.67+/-0.83)% thiram release has occurred in the beads prepared with 15% starch, 1% alginate and 0.1M crosslinker solution. In most of the formulations the entrapment efficacy of thiram has been observed more than 90% and the values for the diffusion exponent 'n' have been obtained >1 which shows that the release of fungicides occurred through Case II diffusion mechanism.

  18. Preparation of calcium alginate microgel beads in an electrodispersion reactor using an internal source of calcium carbonate nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yinyan; Carvajal, M Teresa; Won, You-Yeon; Harris, Michael T

    2007-12-01

    An electrodispersion reactor has been used to prepare calcium alginate (Ca-alginate) microgel beads in this study. In the electrodispersion reactor, pulsed electric fields are utilized to atomize aqueous mixtures of sodium alginate and CaCO3 nanoparticles (dispersed phase) from a nozzle into an immiscible, insulating second liquid (continuous phase) containing a soluble organic acid. This technique combines the features of the electrohydrodynamic force driven emulsion processes and externally triggered gelations in microreactors (the droplets) ultimately to yield soft gel beads. The average particle size of the Ca-alginate gels generated by this method changed from 412 +/- 90 to 10 +/- 3 microm as the applied peak voltage was increased. A diagram depicting structural information for the Ca-alginate was constructed as a function of the concentrations of sodium alginate and CaCO3 nanoparticles. From this diagram, a critical concentration of sodium alginate required for sol-gel transformation was observed. The characteristic highly porous structure of Ca-alginate particles made by this technique appears suitable for microencapsulation applications. Finally, time scale analysis was performed for the electrodispersion processes that include reactions in the microreactor droplets to provide guidelines for the future employment of this technique. This electrodispersion reactor can be used potentially in the formation of many reaction-based microencapsulation systems.

  19. Determination of diffusion coefficients and diffusion characteristics for chlorferon and diethylthiophosphate in Ca-alginate gel beads.

    PubMed

    Ha, Jiyeon; Engler, Cady R; Lee, Seung Jae

    2008-07-01

    Diffusion characteristics of chlorferon and diethylthiophosphate (DETP) in Ca-alginate gel beads were studied to assist in designing and operating bioreactor systems. Diffusion coefficients for chlorferon and DETP in Ca-alginate gel beads determined at conditions suitable for biodegradation studies were 2.70 x 10(-11) m(2)/s and 4.28 x 10(-11) m(2)/s, respectively. Diffusivities of chlorferon and DETP were influenced by several factors, including viscosity of the bulk solution, agitation speed, and the concentrations of diffusing substrate and immobilized cells. Diffusion coefficients increased with increasing agitation speed, probably due to poor mixing at low speed and some attrition of beads at high speeds. Diffusion coefficients also increased with decreasing substrate concentration. Increased cell concentration in the gel beads caused lower diffusivity. Theoretical models to predict diffusivities as a function of cell weight fraction overestimated the effective diffusivities for both chlorferon and DETP, but linear relations between effective diffusivity and cell weight fraction were derived from experimental data. Calcium-alginate gel beads with radii of 1.65-1.70 mm used in this study were not subject to diffusional limitations: external mass transfer resistances were negligible based on Biot number calculations and effectiveness factors indicated that internal mass transfer resistance was negligible. Therefore, the degradation rates of chlorferon and DETP inside Ca-alginate gel beads were reaction-limited. PMID:18080347

  20. Evaluation of novel in situ synthesized nano-hydroxyapatite/collagen/alginate hydrogels for osteochondral tissue engineering.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Li; Jiang, Xianfang; Chen, Xuening; Fan, Hongsong; Zhang, Xingdong

    2014-12-01

    Collagen hydrogel has been widely used for osteochondral repair, but its mechanical properties cannot meet the requirements of clinical application. Previous studies have shown that the addition of either polysaccharide or inorganic particles could reinforce the polymer matrix. However, their synergic effects on collagen-based hydrogel have seldom been studied, and the potential application of triple-phased composite gel in osteochondral regeneration has not been reported. In this study, nano-hydroxyapatite (nano-HA) reinforced collagen-alginate hydrogel (nHCA) was prepared by the in situ synthesis of nano-HA in collagen gel followed by the addition of alginate and Ca(2+). The properties of triple-phased nHCA hydrogel were studied and compared with pure collagen and biphasic gels, and the triple-phased composite of collagen-alginate-HA gels showed a superiority in not only mechanical but also biological features, as evidenced by the enhanced tensile and compressive modulus, higher cell viability, faster cell proliferation and upregulated hyaline cartilage markers. In addition, it was found that the synthesis process could also affect the properties of the triple-phased composite, compared to blend-mixing HCA. The in situ-synthesized nHCA hydrogel showed an enhanced tensile modulus, as well as enhanced biological features compared with HCA. Our study demonstrated that the nHCA composite hydrogel holds promise in osteochondral regeneration. The addition of alginate and nano-HA contribute to the increase in both mechanical and biological properties. This study may provide a valuable reference for the design of an appropriate composite scaffold for osteochondral tissue engineering.

  1. An investigation into the suitability of amidated pectin hydrogel beads as a delivery matrix for chloroquine.

    PubMed

    Munjeri, O; Hodza, P; Osim, E E; Musabayane, C T

    1998-08-01

    The aim of the present study was to delay the release of chloroquine to distal parts of the gastrointestinal tract by using a multiparticulate hydrogel formulation. Amidated pectin chloroquine beads (PC) with varying pectin-to-chloroquine ratios (PC) w/w loadings of 4:1, 2:1, and 1:1 in the dried beads were prepared by the gelation of drug-loaded pectin solutions in the presence of calcium. In vitro release studies of chloroquine from pectin-chloroquine hydrogel beads and chloroquine diphosphate powder were carried out in simulated gastric and intestinal fluids. The total release of the entrapped chloroquine from the hydrogel beads was achieved between 4 and 7 h in simulated intestinal fluid, but total release was not achieved in simulated gastric fluid. However, total release from chloroquine diphosphate powder was achieved by 1.5 and 2 h in gastric and intestinal fluids, respectively. The plasma pharmacokinetics of chloroquine from pectin hydrogel beads and chloroquine diphosphate solution following single or repeated dosing were compared in male Sprague-Dawley rats over a period of 60 h. Oral administration of the hyrogel beads to rats produced maximum plasma concentrations by 7 h, but highest plasma concentrations following chloroquine solution administration were observed by 2 h. The dissolution data and appearance of significant plasma concentrations of chloroquine 2 to 4 h after oral administration suggests release in duodenum, jejunum, or ileum.

  2. Rheological behavior and Ibuprofen delivery applications of pH responsive composite alginate hydrogels.

    PubMed

    Jabeen, Suraya; Maswal, Masrat; Chat, Oyais Ahmad; Rather, Ghulam Mohammad; Dar, Aijaz Ahmad

    2016-03-01

    Synthesis and structural characterization of hydrogels composed of sodium alginate, polyethylene oxide and acrylic acid with cyclodextrin as the hydrocolloid prepared at different pH values is presented. The hydrogels synthesized show significant variations in rheological properties, drug encapsulation capability and release kinetics. The hydrogels prepared at lower pH (pH 1) are more elastic, have high tensile strength and remain almost unaffected by varying temperature or frequency. Further, their Ibuprofen encapsulation capacity is low and releases it slowly. The hydrogel prepared at neutral pH (pH 7) is viscoelastic, thermo-reversible and also exhibits sol-gel transition on applying frequency and changing temperature. It shows highest Ibuprofen encapsulation capacity and also optimum drug release kinetics. The hydrogel prepared at higher pH (pH 12) is more viscous, has low tensile strength, is unstable to change in temperature and has fast drug release rate. The study highlights the pH responsiveness of three composite alginate hydrogels prepared under different conditions to be employed in drug delivery applications. PMID:26717508

  3. A tunable silk-alginate hydrogel scaffold for stem cell culture and transplantation.

    PubMed

    Ziv, Keren; Nuhn, Harald; Ben-Haim, Yael; Sasportas, Laura S; Kempen, Paul J; Niedringhaus, Thomas P; Hrynyk, Michael; Sinclair, Robert; Barron, Annelise E; Gambhir, Sanjiv S

    2014-04-01

    One of the major challenges in regenerative medicine is the ability to recreate the stem cell niche, which is defined by its signaling molecules, the creation of cytokine gradients, and the modulation of matrix stiffness. A wide range of scaffolds has been developed in order to recapitulate the stem cell niche, among them hydrogels. This paper reports the development of a new silk-alginate based hydrogel with a focus on stem cell culture. This biocomposite allows to fine tune its elasticity during cell culture, addressing the importance of mechanotransduction during stem cell differentiation. The silk-alginate scaffold promotes adherence of mouse embryonic stem cells and cell survival upon transplantation. In addition, it has tunable stiffness as function of the silk-alginate ratio and the concentration of crosslinker--a characteristic that is very hard to accomplish in current hydrogels. The hydrogel and the presented results represents key steps on the way of creating artificial stem cell niche, opening up new paths in regenerative medicine. PMID:24484675

  4. Ultrasoft Alginate Hydrogels Support Long-Term Three-Dimensional Functional Neuronal Networks.

    PubMed

    Palazzolo, Gemma; Broguiere, Nicolas; Cenciarelli, Orlando; Dermutz, Harald; Zenobi-Wong, Marcy

    2015-08-01

    Neuron development and function are exquisitely sensitive to the mechanical properties of their surroundings. Three-dimensional (3D) cultures are therefore being explored as they better mimic the features of the native extracellular matrix. Limitations of existing 3D culture models include poorly defined composition, rapid degradation, and suboptimal biocompatibility. Here we show that ionically cross-linked ultrasoft hydrogels made from unmodified alginate can potently promote neuritogenesis. Alginate hydrogels were characterized mechanically and a remarkable range of stiffness (10-4000 Pa) could be produced by varying the macromer content (0.1-0.4% w/v) and CaCl2 concentration. Dissociated rat embryonic cortical neurons encapsulated within the softest of the hydrogels (0.1% w/v, 10 mM CaCl2) showed excellent viability, extensive formation of axons and dendrites, and long-term activity as determined by calcium imaging. In conclusion, alginate is an off-the-shelf, easy to handle, and inexpensive material, which can be used to make ultrasoft hydrogels for the formation of stable and functional 3D neuronal networks. This 3D culture system could have important applications in neuropharmacology, toxicology, and regenerative medicine.

  5. Encapsulated human hepatocellular carcinoma cells by alginate gel beads as an in vitro metastasis model

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, Xiao-xi; Liu, Chang; Liu, Yang; Li, Nan; Guo, Xin; Wang, Shu-jun; Sun, Guang-wei; Wang, Wei; Ma, Xiao-jun

    2013-08-15

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the most common primary liver cancer and often forms metastases, which are the most important prognostic factors. For further elucidation of the mechanism underlying the progression and metastasis of HCC, a culture system mimicking the in vivo tumor microenvironment is needed. In this study, we investigated the metastatic ability of HCC cells cultured within alginate gel (ALG) beads. In the culture system, HCC cells formed spheroids by proliferation and maintained in nuclear abnormalities. The gene and protein expression of metastasis-related molecules was increased in ALG beads, compared with the traditional adhesion culture. Furthermore, several gene expression levels in ALG bead culture system were even closer to liver cancer tissues. More importantly, in vitro invasion assay showed that the invasion cells derived from ALG beads was 7.8-fold higher than adhesion cells. Our results indicated that the in vitro three-dimensional (3D) model based on ALG beads increased metastatic ability compared with adhesion culture, even partly mimicked the in vivo tumor tissues. Moreover, due to the controllable preparation conditions, steady characteristics and production at large-scale, the 3D ALG bead model would become an important tool used in the high-throughput screening of anti-metastasis drugs and the metastatic mechanism research. -- Highlights: •We established a 3D metastasis model mimicking the metastatic ability in vivo. •The invasion ability of cells derived from our model was increased significantly. •The model is easy to reproduce, convenient to handle, and amenable for large-scale.

  6. Simultaneous detection and removal of radioisotopes with modified alginate beads containing an azo-based probe using RGB coordinates.

    PubMed

    Jo, Ara; Jang, Geunseok; Namgung, Ho; Kim, Choongho; Kim, Daigeun; Kim, Yujun; Kim, Jongho; Lee, Taek Seung

    2015-12-30

    We prepared alginate beads that were modified with an azo-based probe molecule to monitor simultaneously the removal (by alginate) and probing (by the azo-probe molecule) of radioisotopes such as cobalt, strontium, and cesium ions. As an azo-probe molecule, Basic Orange 2 (BO2) was immobilized to the alginate bead. The BO2 in aqueous solution exhibited a slight red shift in absorption with a change in color from orange to dark orange upon addition of cobalt and strontium ions. In contrast, the color of BO2 did not change upon exposure to cesium ions. Thus, the covalently embedded BO2 in alginate beads could adsorb cobalt and strontium ions resulting in recognizable color change of the beads, which was induced by the formation of a complex between BO2 and metal ions. The color changes of the beads in the presence of metal ions were determined quantitatively using RGB color coordinate values. In addition to effectively removing metal ions, the colorimetric coordinate method provides a convenient and simple sensing technique for naked-eye metal ion detection. PMID:26188865

  7. Chemical oxidation of a malodorous compound, indole, using iron entrapped in calcium alginate beads.

    PubMed

    Ben Hammouda, Samia; Adhoum, Nafaâ; Monser, Lotfi

    2016-01-15

    Iron-alginate beads (Fe-ABs) were successfully prepared by the ion-gelation method, and applied as heterogeneous Fenton catalysts for the removal of a malodorous compound 'indole'. Similarly, copper-enriched alginate beads (Cu-ABs) were synthesized and tested as like-Fenton catalyst, however, their application proved not to be effective for this purpose. Fe-ABs catalysts were characterized by FTIR, SEM, EDS and AAS spectroscopy. Results pointed out that the parameters affecting Fenton catalysis must be carefully chosen to avoid excessive iron release. Under optimal conditions, complete indole removal and considerably high reduction of TOC, without significant leaching was achieved. Indole decay followed a pseudo-first-order kinetics. The absolute rate constant for indole hydroxylation was 3.59×10(9) M(-1) s(-1), as determined by the competition kinetics method. Four reaction intermediates (Isatin, Dioxindole, Oxindole and Anthralinic acid) were identified by ULC/MS/MS analysis. Short-chain aliphatic carboxylic acids like formic, acetic, oxalic, maleic, oxamic and pyruvic acids were identified by ion exclusion chromatography and as end-products. Based on the identified by-products, a plausible mineralization pathway was proposed. Moreover, the catalyst was recovered quantitatively by simple filtration and reused for several times without significant loss of activity. PMID:26384996

  8. In vitro development of preimplantation porcine embryos using alginate hydrogels as a three-dimensional extracellular matrix.

    PubMed

    Sargus-Patino, Catherine N; Wright, Elane C; Plautz, Sarah A; Miles, Jeremy R; Vallet, Jeff L; Pannier, Angela K

    2014-08-01

    Between Days 10 and 12 of gestation, porcine embryos undergo a dramatic morphological change, known as elongation, with a corresponding increase in oestrogen production that triggers maternal recognition of pregnancy. Elongation deficiencies contribute to embryonic loss, but exact mechanisms of elongation are poorly understood due to the lack of an effective in vitro culture system. Our objective was to use alginate hydrogels as three-dimensional scaffolds that can mechanically support the in vitro development of preimplantation porcine embryos. White cross-bred gilts were bred at oestrus (Day 0) to Duroc boars and embryos were recovered on Days 9, 10 or 11 of gestation. Spherical embryos were randomly assigned to be encapsulated within double-layered 0.7% alginate beads or remain as non-encapsulated controls (ENC and CONT treatment groups, respectively) and were cultured for 96h. Every 24h, half the medium was replaced with fresh medium and an image of each embryo was recorded. At the termination of culture, embryo images were used to assess morphological changes and cell survival. 17β-Oestradiol levels were measured in the removed media by radioimmunoassay. Real-time polymerase chain reaction was used to analyse steroidogenic transcript expression at 96h in ENC and CONT embryos, as well as in vivo-developed control embryos (i.e. spherical, ovoid and tubular). Although no differences in cell survival were observed, 32% (P<0.001) of the surviving ENC embryos underwent morphological changes characterised by tubal formation with subsequent flattening, whereas none of the CONT embryos exhibited morphological changes. Expression of steroidogenic transcripts STAR, CYP11A1 and CYP19A1 was greater (P<0.07) in ENC embryos with morphological changes (ENC+) compared with CONT embryos and ENC embryos with no morphological changes (ENC-), and was more similar to expression of later-stage in vivo-developed controls. Furthermore, a time-dependent increase (P<0.001) in 17

  9. In vitro development of preimplantation porcine embryos using alginate hydrogels as a three-dimensional extracellular matrix.

    PubMed

    Sargus-Patino, Catherine N; Wright, Elane C; Plautz, Sarah A; Miles, Jeremy R; Vallet, Jeff L; Pannier, Angela K

    2014-08-01

    Between Days 10 and 12 of gestation, porcine embryos undergo a dramatic morphological change, known as elongation, with a corresponding increase in oestrogen production that triggers maternal recognition of pregnancy. Elongation deficiencies contribute to embryonic loss, but exact mechanisms of elongation are poorly understood due to the lack of an effective in vitro culture system. Our objective was to use alginate hydrogels as three-dimensional scaffolds that can mechanically support the in vitro development of preimplantation porcine embryos. White cross-bred gilts were bred at oestrus (Day 0) to Duroc boars and embryos were recovered on Days 9, 10 or 11 of gestation. Spherical embryos were randomly assigned to be encapsulated within double-layered 0.7% alginate beads or remain as non-encapsulated controls (ENC and CONT treatment groups, respectively) and were cultured for 96h. Every 24h, half the medium was replaced with fresh medium and an image of each embryo was recorded. At the termination of culture, embryo images were used to assess morphological changes and cell survival. 17β-Oestradiol levels were measured in the removed media by radioimmunoassay. Real-time polymerase chain reaction was used to analyse steroidogenic transcript expression at 96h in ENC and CONT embryos, as well as in vivo-developed control embryos (i.e. spherical, ovoid and tubular). Although no differences in cell survival were observed, 32% (P<0.001) of the surviving ENC embryos underwent morphological changes characterised by tubal formation with subsequent flattening, whereas none of the CONT embryos exhibited morphological changes. Expression of steroidogenic transcripts STAR, CYP11A1 and CYP19A1 was greater (P<0.07) in ENC embryos with morphological changes (ENC+) compared with CONT embryos and ENC embryos with no morphological changes (ENC-), and was more similar to expression of later-stage in vivo-developed controls. Furthermore, a time-dependent increase (P<0.001) in 17

  10. 3 dimensional cell cultures: a comparison between manually and automatically produced alginate beads.

    PubMed

    Lehmann, R; Gallert, C; Roddelkopf, T; Junginger, S; Wree, A; Thurow, K

    2016-08-01

    Cancer diseases are a common problem of the population caused by age and increased harmful environmental influences. Herein, new therapeutic strategies and compound screenings are necessary. The regular 2D cultivation has to be replaced by three dimensional cell culturing (3D) for better simulation of in vivo conditions. The 3D cultivation with alginate matrix is an appropriate method for encapsulate cells to form cancer constructs. The automated manufacturing of alginate beads might be an ultimate method for large-scaled manufacturing constructs similar to cancer tissue. The aim of this study was the integration of full automated systems for the production, cultivation and screening of 3D cell cultures. We compared the automated methods with the regular manual processes. Furthermore, we investigated the influence of antibiotics on these 3D cell culture systems. The alginate beads were formed by automated and manual procedures. The automated steps were processes by the Biomek(®) Cell Workstation (celisca, Rostock, Germany). The proliferation and toxicity were manually and automatically evaluated at day 14 and 35 of cultivation. The results visualized an accumulation and expansion of cell aggregates over the period of incubation. However, the proliferation and toxicity were faintly and partly significantly decreased on day 35 compared to day 14. The comparison of the manual and automated methods displayed similar results. We conclude that the manual production process could be replaced by the automation. Using automation, 3D cell cultures can be produced in industrial scale and improve the drug development and screening to treat serious illnesses like cancer.

  11. Pectin and charge modified pectin hydrogel beads as a colon-targeted drug delivery carrier.

    PubMed

    Jung, Jiyoung; Arnold, Robert D; Wicker, Louise

    2013-04-01

    The physical and chemical properties of commercial low methoxyl citrus pectins, CP 28 and CP 55, and a pectinmethylesterase (PME) charge modified citrus pectin (MP 38) were compared, and the differences in ability to encapsulate indomethacin in hydrogel beads was determined at 0.5 or 1.0% (w/v) indomethacin ratio, and 100, 200 or 300 mM CaCl(2) solution. In order to investigate the drug release characteristics, indomethacin loaded dried hydrogel beads were immersed in simulated gastric fluids (pH 1.2) for 2h, followed by immersing in simulated intestinal fluids (pH 7.4) for 3h. Pectin type was highly significant (p<0.0001) for encapsulation efficiency and in vitro release assay. Encapsulation efficiency was also highly affected (p<0.0001) by indomethacin ratio and CaCl(2) concentration. The accumulative release rate of indomethacin from pectin hydrogel bead was less than 15% in simulated gastro-intestinal fluids. MP 38 beads showed significantly higher entrapment efficiency and lower release rate than beads formed from CP 28 or CP 55. MP 38 hydrogel formulated with 300 mM CaCl(2) and 0.5% indomethacin ratio showed the highest entrapment efficiency. These studies suggest that charge modification of pectin improves encapsulation efficiency of drugs for colon targeted drug delivery system through oral administration.

  12. 3D Bioprinting of Heterogeneous Aortic Valve Conduits with Alginate/Gelatin Hydrogels

    PubMed Central

    Duan, Bin; Hockaday, Laura A.; Kang, Kevin H.; Butcher, Jonathan T.

    2013-01-01

    Heart valve disease is a serious and growing public health problem for which prosthetic replacement is most commonly indicated. Current prosthetic devices are inadequate for younger adults and growing children. Tissue engineered living aortic valve conduits have potential for remodeling, regeneration, and growth, but fabricating natural anatomical complexity with cellular heterogeneity remain challenging. In the current study, we implement 3D bioprinting to fabricate living alginate/gelatin hydrogel valve conduits with anatomical architecture and direct incorporation of dual cell types in a regionally constrained manner. Encapsulated aortic root sinus smooth muscle cells (SMC) and aortic valve leaflet interstitial cells (VIC) were viable within alginate/gelatin hydrogel discs over 7 days in culture. Acellular 3D printed hydrogels exhibited reduced modulus, ultimate strength, and peak strain reducing slightly over 7-day culture, while the tensile biomechanics of cell-laden hydrogels were maintained. Aortic valve conduits were successfully bioprinted with direct encapsulation of SMC in the valve root and VIC in the leaflets. Both cell types were viable (81.4±3.4% for SMC and 83.2±4.0% for VIC) within 3D printed tissues. Encapsulated SMC expressed elevated alpha-smooth muscle actin when printed in stiff matrix, while VIC expressed elevated vimentin in soft matrix. These results demonstrate that anatomically complex, heterogeneously encapsulated aortic valve hydrogel conduits can be fabricated with 3D bioprinting. PMID:23015540

  13. Lipase in biphasic alginate beads as a biocatalyst for esterification of butyric acid and butanol in aqueous media.

    PubMed

    Ng, Choong Hey; Yang, Kun-Lin

    2016-01-01

    Esterification of organic acids and alcohols in aqueous media is very inefficient due to thermodynamic constraints. However, fermentation processes used to produce organic acids and alcohols are often conducted in aqueous media. To produce esters in aqueous media, biphasic alginate beads with immobilized lipase are developed for in situ esterification of butanol and butyric acid. The biphasic beads contain a solid matrix of calcium alginate and hexadecane together with 5 mg/mL of lipase as the biocatalyst. Hexadecane in the biphasic beads serves as an organic phase to facilitate the esterification reaction. Under optimized conditions, the beads are able to catalyze the production of 0.16 mmol of butyl butyrate from 0.5 mmol of butyric acid and 1.5 mmol of butanol. In contrast, when monophasic beads (without hexadecane) are used, only trace amount of butyl butyrate is produced. One main application of biphasic beads is in simultaneous fermentation and esterification (SFE) because the organic phase inside the beads is very stable and does not leach out into the culture medium. SFE is successfully conducted with an esterification yield of 6.32% using biphasic beads containing iso-octane even though the solvent is proven toxic to the butanol-producing Clostridium spp. PMID:26672465

  14. Facile synthesis of magnetic-/pH-responsive hydrogel beads based on Fe3O4 nanoparticles and chitosan hydrogel as MTX carriers for controlled drug release.

    PubMed

    Wu, Juan; Jiang, Wei; Tian, Renbing; Shen, Yewen; Jiang, Wei

    2016-10-01

    In the present study, methotrexate (MTX)-encapsulated magnetic-/pH-responsive hydrogel beads based on Fe3O4 nanoparticles and chitosan were successfully prepared through a one-step gelation process, which is a very facile, economic and environmentally friendly route. The developed hydrogel beads exhibited homogeneous porous structure and super-paramagnetic responsibility. MTX can be successfully encapsulated into magnetic chitosan hydrogel beads, and the drug encapsulation efficiency (%) and encapsulation content (%) were 93.8 and 6.28%, respectively. In addition, the drug release studies in vitro indicated that the MTX-encapsulated magnetic chitosan hydrogel beads had excellent pH-sensitivity, 90.6% MTX was released from the magnetic chitosan hydrogel beads within 48 h at pH 4.0. WST-1 assays in human liver hepatocellular carcinoma cells (HepG2) demonstrated that the MTX-encapsulated magnetic chitosan hydrogel beads had good cytocompatibility and high anti-tumor activity. Therefore, our results revealed that the MTX-encapsulated magnetic chitosan hydrogel beads would be a competitive candidate for controlled drug release in the area of targeted cancer therapy in the near future.

  15. Facile synthesis of magnetic-/pH-responsive hydrogel beads based on Fe3O4 nanoparticles and chitosan hydrogel as MTX carriers for controlled drug release.

    PubMed

    Wu, Juan; Jiang, Wei; Tian, Renbing; Shen, Yewen; Jiang, Wei

    2016-10-01

    In the present study, methotrexate (MTX)-encapsulated magnetic-/pH-responsive hydrogel beads based on Fe3O4 nanoparticles and chitosan were successfully prepared through a one-step gelation process, which is a very facile, economic and environmentally friendly route. The developed hydrogel beads exhibited homogeneous porous structure and super-paramagnetic responsibility. MTX can be successfully encapsulated into magnetic chitosan hydrogel beads, and the drug encapsulation efficiency (%) and encapsulation content (%) were 93.8 and 6.28%, respectively. In addition, the drug release studies in vitro indicated that the MTX-encapsulated magnetic chitosan hydrogel beads had excellent pH-sensitivity, 90.6% MTX was released from the magnetic chitosan hydrogel beads within 48 h at pH 4.0. WST-1 assays in human liver hepatocellular carcinoma cells (HepG2) demonstrated that the MTX-encapsulated magnetic chitosan hydrogel beads had good cytocompatibility and high anti-tumor activity. Therefore, our results revealed that the MTX-encapsulated magnetic chitosan hydrogel beads would be a competitive candidate for controlled drug release in the area of targeted cancer therapy in the near future. PMID:27464586

  16. Calcium alginate beads encapsulated PMMA-g-CS nano-particles for α-chymotrypsin immobilization.

    PubMed

    Abd El-Ghaffar, M A; Hashem, M S

    2013-02-15

    Chitosan grafted with polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA-g-CS) was prepared via a free-radicals polymerization technique as a carrier for enzyme immobilization. α-Chymotrypsin (CT), as an enzyme model in this study, was immobilized onto the prepared PMMA-g-CS via covalent bonding. Calcium alginate (CA) beads were developed for encapsulating PMMA-g-CS-CT to produce PMMA-g-CS-CT/CA composite beads. Morphology and size of PMMA-g-CS particles were investigated by TEM and found to be in the nanoscale. The structure and surface morphology of the beads before and after immobilization process were characterized by FT-IR and SEM, respectively. Both the bound CT content and relative activity of immobilized enzyme were measured. A higher retained activity (about 97.7%) obtained for the immobilized CT at pH 9 for 24 h. The results indicated that immobilized CT maintained excellent performance even after 25 reuses and retained 75% from its original activity after 60 days of storage at 25 °C.

  17. Self-crosslinked oxidized alginate/gelatin hydrogel as injectable, adhesive biomimetic scaffolds for cartilage regeneration.

    PubMed

    Balakrishnan, Biji; Joshi, Nitin; Jayakrishnan, Athipettah; Banerjee, Rinti

    2014-08-01

    Biopolymeric hydrogels that mimic the properties of extracellular matrix have great potential in promoting cellular migration and proliferation for tissue regeneration. The authors reported earlier that rapidly gelling, biodegradable, injectable hydrogels can be prepared by self-crosslinking of periodate oxidized alginate and gelatin in the presence of borax, without using any toxic crosslinking agents. The present paper investigates the suitability of this hydrogel as a minimally invasive injectable, cell-attractive and adhesive scaffold for cartilage tissue engineering for the treatment of osteoarthritis. Time and frequency sweep rheology analysis confirmed gel formation within 20s. The hydrogel integrated well with the cartilage tissue, with a burst pressure of 70±3mmHg, indicating its adhesive nature. Hydrogel induced negligible inflammatory and oxidative stress responses, a prerequisite for the management and treatment of osteoarthritis. Scanning electron microscopy images of primary murine chondrocytes encapsulated within the matrix revealed attachment of cells onto the hydrogel matrix. Chondrocytes demonstrated viability, proliferation and migration within the matrix, while maintaining their phenotype, as seen by expression of collagen type II and aggrecan, and functionality, as seen by enhanced glycosoaminoglycan (GAG) deposition with time. DNA content and GAG deposition of chondrocytes within the matrix can be tuned by incorporation of bioactive signaling molecules such as dexamethasone, chondroitin sulphate, platelet derived growth factor (PDGF-BB) and combination of these three agents. The results suggest that self-crosslinked oxidized alginate/gelatin hydrogel may be a promising injectable, cell-attracting adhesive matrix for neo-cartilage formation in the management and treatment of osteoarthritis. PMID:24811827

  18. Time-Dependent Effect of Encapsulating Alginate Hydrogel on Neurogenic Potential

    PubMed Central

    Razavi, Shahnaz; Khosravizadeh, Zahra; Bahramian, Hamid; Kazemi, Mohammad

    2015-01-01

    Objective Due to the restricted potential of neural stem cells for regeneration of central nervous system (CNS) after injury, providing an alternative source for neural stem cells is essential. Adipose derived stem cells (ADSCs) are multipotent cells with properties suitable for tissue engineering. In addition, alginate hydrogel is a biocompatible polysaccharide polymer that has been used to encapsulate many types of cells. The aim of this study was to assess the proliferation rate and level of expression of neural markers; NESTIN, glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) and microtubule-associated protein 2 (MAP2) in encapsulated human ADSCs (hADSCs) 10 and14 days after neural induction. Materials and Methods In this experimental study, ADSCs isolated from human were cultured in neural induction media and seeded into alginate hydrogel. The rate of proliferation and differentiation of encapsulated cells were evaluated by 3-[4, 5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2, 5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay, immunocytoflourescent and realtime reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) analyzes 10 and 14 days after induction. Results The rate of proliferation of encapsulated cells was not significantly changed with time passage. The expression of NESTIN and GFAP significantly decreased on day 14 relative to day 10 (P<0.001) but MAP2 expression was increased. Conclusion Alginate hydrogel can promote the neural differentiation of encapsulated hADSCs with time passage. PMID:26199909

  19. Layer-shaped alginate hydrogels enhance the biological performance of human adipose-derived stem cells

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The reconstruction of adipose tissue defects is often challenged by the complications that may occur following plastic and reconstructive surgery, including donor-site morbidity, implant migration and foreign body reaction. To overcome these problems, adipose tissue engineering (ATE) using stem cell-based regeneration strategies has been widely explored in the last years. Mounting evidence has shown that adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs) represent a promising cell source for ATE. In the context of a small number of reports concerning adipose tissue regeneration using three-dimensional (3-D) systems, the present study was designed to evaluate the biological performance of a novel alginate matrix that incorporates human ADSCs (hADSCs). Results Culture-expanded cells isolated from the stromal vascular fraction (SVF), corresponding to the third passage which showed the expression of mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) markers, were used in the 3-D culture systems. The latter represented a calcium alginate hydrogel, obtained by the diffusion of calcium gluconate (CGH matrix), and shaped as discoid-thin layer. For comparative purposes, a similar hADSC-laden alginate hydrogel cross-linked with calcium chloride was considered as reference hydrogel (RH matrix). Both hydrogels showed a porous structure under scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and the hADSCs embedded displayed normal spherical morphologies, some of them showing signs of mitosis. More than 85% of the entrapped cells survived throughout the incubation period of 7 days. The percentage of viable cells was significantly higher within CGH matrix at 2 days post-seeding, and approximately similar within both hydrogels after 7 days of culture. Moreover, both alginate-based hydrogels stimulated cell proliferation. The number of hADSC within hydrogels has increased during the incubation period of 7 days and was higher in the case of CGH matrix. Cells grown under adipogenic conditions for 21 days showed

  20. Development, optimization and in vitro-in vivo evaluation of pioglitazone- loaded jackfruit seed starch-alginate beads.

    PubMed

    Nayak, Amit Kumar; Pal, Dilipkumar; Hasnain, Saquib Md

    2013-10-01

    The present investigation describes development and optimization of pioglitazone-loaded jackfruit seed starch (JFSS)-alginate beads by ionotropic-gelation using 3(2) factorial design. The effect of polymer-blend ratio and CaCl2 concentration on the drug encapsulation efficiency (DEE, %), and cumulative drug release after 10 hours (R10h, %) was optimized. The DEE (%) of these beads were 64.80 ± 1.92 to 94.07 ± 3.82 % with sustained in vitro drug release of 64.± 1.83 to 92.66 ± 4.54 % over 10 hours. The in vitro drug release from these beads followed controlled-release pattern with super case-II transport. Particle size range of these beads was 0.77 ± 0.04 to 1.24 ± 0.09 mm. The beads were also characterized by SEM and FTIR. The swelling of these beads was influenced by pH of the test medium. The optimized pioglitazone-loaded JFSS-alginate beads showed significant hypoglycemic effect in alloxan-induced diabetic rats over prolonged period after oral administration.

  1. Alginate beads as a carrier for omeprazole/SBA-15 inclusion compound: A step towards the development of personalized paediatric dosage forms.

    PubMed

    Del Gaudio, Pasquale; De Cicco, Felicetta; Sansone, Francesca; Aquino, Rita Patrizia; Adami, Renata; Ricci, Maurizio; Giovagnoli, Stefano

    2015-11-20

    The treatment of gastro-esophageal reflux disease (GERD) shows several issues among paediatric patients. This work aims to the formulation of enteric alginate beads loaded with omeprazole (OME) allowing age- and weight-related personalized dosages in children. OME was entrapped in SBA-15 mesoporous compound, characterized and loaded into alginate beads by prilling at different OME and alginate concentrations. The beads resulted of homogeneous size, spherical morphology and very consistent in drug loading and distribution. Formulations demonstrated limited swelling and release (about 10%) in simulated gastric fluid (SGF) after 2h and a prolonged release in simulated intestinal fluid (SIF), till 6h, due to a mixed diffusion-case II transport mechanism. The beads were superior to the market product, which showed lower release in SGF but immediate dissolution in SIF. The high alginate beads uniformity and release properties make them a potential novel tool for a personalized treatment of GERD in children. PMID:26344303

  2. Effect of different cross-linking methods and processing parameters on drug release from hydrogel beads.

    PubMed

    Mitra, Shataneek; Maity, Siddhartha; Sa, Biswanath

    2015-03-01

    The purpose of this work was to evaluate different methods of cross-linking for developing diltiazem-resin complex loaded carboxymethyl xanthan gum (CMXG) hydrogel beads to achieve highest possible drug entrapment and extended release for effective cardio-protection. The hydrogel beads were prepared by ionic cross-linking and dual cross-linking using simultaneous (SIM) and sequential (SEQ) methods. Among the three methods, SEQ method produced smaller sized beads having higher drug entrapment efficacy and prolonged release characteristics as evidenced from mean dissolution time and diffusion coefficient of drug. Keeping the concentration of ionic cross-linker constant, increase in the amount of covalent cross-linker and cross-linking time decreased the drug release. Higher release of the drug in acid solution was attributed to the higher solubility of the basic drug and higher swelling of the matrices in acid solution. Comparison of FTIR spectra, drug content and dissolution profiles indicated that the drug was stable in the beads when kept under stress condition up to 3 months. In conclusion, the sequential method was found superior for producing CMXG hydrogel beads as a prolonged release delivery device in cardiovascular diseases. PMID:25576745

  3. A tunable silk-alginate hydrogel scaffold for stem cell culture and transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Ziv, Keren; Nuhn, Harald; Ben-Haim, Yael; Sasportas, Laura S.; Kempen, Paul J.; Niedringhaus, Thomas P.; Hrynyk, Michael; Sinclair, Robert; Barron, Annelise E.; Gambhir, Sanjiv S.

    2014-01-01

    One of the major challenges in regenerative medicine is the ability to recreate the stem cell niche, which is defined by its signaling molecules, the creation of cytokine gradients, and the modulation of matrix stiffness. A wide range of scaffolds has been developed in order to recapitulate the stem cell niche, among them hydrogels. This paper reports the development of a new silk-alginate based hydrogel with a focus on stem cell culture. This biocomposite allows to fine tune its elasticity during cell culture, addressing the importance of mechanotransduction during stem cell differentiation. The silk-alginate scaffold promotes adherence of mouse embryonic stem cells and cell survival upon transplantation. In addition, it has tunable stiffness as function of the silk-alginte ratio and the concentration of crosslinker - a characteristic that is very hard to accomplish in current hydrogels. The hydrogel and the presented results represents key steps on the way of creating artificial stem cell niche, opening up new paths in regenerative medicine. PMID:24484675

  4. Neuralization of mouse embryonic stem cells in alginate hydrogels under retinoic acid and SAG treatment.

    PubMed

    Delivopoulos, Evangelos; Shakesheff, Kevin M; Peto, Heather

    2015-08-01

    This paper examines the differentiation of a mouse embryonic stem cell line (CGR8) into neurons, under retinoic acid (RA) and smoothened agonist (SAG) treatment. When stem cells underwent through an embryoid body (EB) formation stage, dissociation and seeding on glass coverslips, immunofluorescent labelling for neuronal markers (Nestin, b-Tubulin III, MAP2) revealed the presence of both immature neural progenitors and mature neurons. Undifferentiated CGR8 were also encapsulated in tubular, alginate-gelatin hydrogels and incubated in differentiation media containing retinoic acid (RA) and smoothened agonist (SAG). Cryo-sections of the hydrogel tubes were positive for Nestin, Pax6 and b-Tubulin III, verifying the presence of neurons and neural progenitors. Provided neural induction can be more precisely directed in the tubular hydrogels, these scaffolds will become a powerful model of neural tube development in embryos and will highlight potential strategies for spinal cord regeneration. PMID:26737053

  5. Novel zinc alginate hydrogels prepared by internal setting method with intrinsic antibacterial activity.

    PubMed

    Straccia, Maria Cristina; d'Ayala, Giovanna Gomez; Romano, Ida; Laurienzo, Paola

    2015-07-10

    In this paper, a controlled gelation of alginate was performed for the first time using ZnCO3 and GDL. Uniform and transparent gels were obtained and investigated as potential wound dressings. Homogeneity, water content, swelling capability, water evaporation rate, stability in normal saline solution, mechanical properties and antibacterial activity were assessed as a function of zinc concentration. Gelation rate increased at increasing zinc content, while a decrease in water uptake and an improvement of stability were found. Release of zinc in physiological environments showed that concentration of zinc released in solution lies below the cytotoxicity level. Hydrogels showed antimicrobial activity against Escherichia coli. The hydrogel with highest zinc content was stabilized with calcium by immersion in a calcium chloride solution. The resulting hydrogel preserved homogeneity and antibacterial activity. Furthermore, it showed even an improvement of stability and mechanical properties, which makes it suitable as long-lasting wound dressing.

  6. Ultrasound-assisted dextranase entrapment onto Ca-alginate gel beads.

    PubMed

    Bashari, Mohanad; Wang, Pei; Eibaid, Ahmed; Tian, Yaoqi; Xu, Xueming; Jin, Zhengyu

    2013-07-01

    In this research work, dextranase has immobilized onto calcium alginate beads using a novel ultrasound method. The process of immobilization of the enzyme was carried out in a one-step ultrasound process. Effects of ultrasound conditions on loading efficiency and immobilization yield of the enzyme onto calcium alginate beads were investigated. Furthermore, the activity of the free and immobilized enzymes prepared with and without ultrasound treatment, as a function of pH, temperature, recyclability and enzyme kinetic parameters, was compared. The maximum loading efficiency and the immobilization yield were observed when the immobilized dextranase was prepared with an ultrasonic irradiation at 25 kHz, 40 W for 15 min, under which the loading efficiency and the immobilization yield increased by 27.21% and 18.77%, respectively, compared with the immobilized enzymes prepared without ultrasonic irradiation. On the other hand, immobilized enzyme prepared with ultrasonic irradiation showed Vmax and KM value higher than that for the immobilized enzyme prepared without ultrasonic irradiation, likewise, both the catalytic and specificity constants of immobilized enzyme prepared with ultrasonic irradiation were higher than that for immobilized enzyme prepared without ultrasound, indicating that, this new ultrasonic method improved the catalytic kinetics activity of immobilized dextranase at all the reaction conditions studied. Compared with immobilized enzyme prepared without ultrasound treatment, the immobilized enzymes prepared with ultrasound irradiation exhibited: a higher pH optimum, optimal reaction temperature, activation energy, and thermal stability, as well as, a higher recyclability, which, illustrating the effectiveness of the sonochemical method. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on the effect of ultrasound treatments on the immobilization of dextranase.

  7. Alginate-polyester comacromer based hydrogels as physiochemically and biologically favorable entities for cardiac tissue engineering.

    PubMed

    Thankam, Finosh G; Muthu, Jayabalan

    2015-11-01

    The physiochemical and biological responses of tissue engineering hydrogels are crucial in determining their desired performance. A hybrid comacromer was synthesized by copolymerizing alginate and poly(mannitol fumarate-co-sebacate) (pFMSA). Three bimodal hydrogels pFMSA-AA, pFMSA-MA and pFMSA-NMBA were synthesized by crosslinking with Ca(2+) and vinyl monomers acrylic acid (AA), methacrylic acid (MA) and N,N'-methylene bisacrylamide (NMBA), respectively. Though all the hydrogels were cytocompatible and exhibited a normal cell cycle profile, pFMSA-AA exhibited superior physiochemical properties viz non-freezable water content (58.34%) and water absorption per unit mass (0.97 g water/g gel) and pore length (19.92±3.91 μm) in comparing with other two hydrogels. The increased non-freezable water content and water absorption of pFMSA-AA hydrogels greatly influenced its biological performance, which was evident from long-term viability assay and cell cycle proliferation. The physiochemical and biological favorability of pFMSA-AA hydrogels signifies its suitability for cardiac tissue engineering.

  8. Enzymatically cross-linked alginic-hyaluronic acid composite hydrogels as cell delivery vehicles.

    PubMed

    Ganesh, Nitya; Hanna, Craig; Nair, Shantikumar V; Nair, Lakshmi S

    2013-04-01

    An injectable composite gel was developed from alginic and hyaluronic acid. The enzymatically cross-linked injectable gels were prepared via the oxidative coupling of tyramine modified sodium algiante and sodium hyaluronate in the presence of horse radish peroxidase (HRP) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). The composite gels were prepared by mixing equal parts of the two tyraminated polymer solutions in 10U HRP and treating with 1.0% H2O2. The properties of the alginate gels were significantly affected by the addition of hyaluronic acid. The percentage water absorption and storage modulus of the composite gels were found to be lower than the alginate gels. The alginate and composite gels showed lower protein release compared to hyaluronate gels in the absence of hyaluronidase. Even hyaluronate gels showed only approximately 10% protein release after 14 days incubation in phosphate buffer solution. ATDC-5 cells encapsulated in the injectable gels showed high cell viability. The composite gels showed the presence of enlarged spherical cells with significantly higher metabolic activity compared to cells in hyaluronic and alginic acid gels. The results suggest the potential of the composite approach to develop covalently cross-linked hydrogels with tuneable physical, mechanical, and biological properties. PMID:23357799

  9. Enzymatically Cross-linked Alginic-Hyaluronic acid Composite Hydrogels As Cell Delivery Vehicles

    PubMed Central

    Ganesh, Nitya; Hanna, Craig; Nair, Shantikumar V.; Nair, Lakshmi S.

    2013-01-01

    An injectable composite gel was developed from alginic and hyaluronic acid. The ezymatically cross-linked injectable gels were prepared via the oxidative coupling of tyramine modified sodium algiante and sodium hyaluronate in the presence of horse radish peroxidase (HRP) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). The composite gels were prepared by mixing equal parts of the two tryaminated polymer solutions in 10U HRP and treating with 1.0% H2O2. The properties of the alginate gels were significanly affected by the addition of hyaluronic acid. The percentage water absorption and storage modulus of the composite gels were found to be lower than the alginate gels. The alginate and composite gels showed lower protein release compared to hyaluronate gels in the absence of hyaluronidase. Even hyaluronate gels showed only approximately 10% protein release after 14 days incubation in phosphate buffer solution. ATDC-5 cells encapsulated in the injectable gels showed high cell viability. The composite gels showed the presence of enlarged spherical cells with significantly higher metabolic activity compared to cells in hyaluronic and alginic acid gels. The results suggest the potential of the composite approach to develop covalently cross-linked hydrogels with tuneable physical, mechanical, and biological properties. PMID:23357799

  10. Calcium/Cobalt Alginate Beads as Functional Scaffolds for Cartilage Tissue Engineering

    PubMed Central

    Focaroli, Stefano; Teti, Gabriella; Salvatore, Viviana; Orienti, Isabella; Falconi, Mirella

    2016-01-01

    Articular cartilage is a highly organized tissue with complex biomechanical properties. However, injuries to the cartilage usually lead to numerous health concerns and often culminate in disabling symptoms, due to the poor intrinsic capacity of this tissue for self-healing. Although various approaches are proposed for the regeneration of cartilage, its repair still represents an enormous challenge for orthopedic surgeons. The field of tissue engineering currently offers some of the most promising strategies for cartilage restoration, in which assorted biomaterials and cell-based therapies are combined to develop new therapeutic regimens for tissue replacement. The current study describes the in vitro behavior of human adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hADSCs) encapsulated within calcium/cobalt (Ca/Co) alginate beads. These novel chondrogenesis-promoting scaffolds take advantage of the synergy between the alginate matrix and Co+2 ions, without employing costly growth factors (e.g., transforming growth factor betas (TGF-βs) or bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs)) to direct hADSC differentiation into cartilage-producing chondrocytes. PMID:27057167

  11. Adsorption studies of cadmium ions on alginate-calcium carbonate composite beads

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahmood, Zahid; Amin, Athar; Zafar, Uzma; Raza, Muhammad Amir; Hafeez, Irfan; Akram, Adnan

    2015-07-01

    Alginate-calcium carbonate composite material was prepared in the form of beads and characterized using Fourier transform infra red (FT-IR) spectroscopy and scanning electron microscope (SEM) techniques. The adsorption of Cd2+ ions was studied through batch experiments. The adsorption parameters such as contact time (120 min), adsorbent dose (1.5 g), initial metal ion concentration(10 mg/L), pH (6) and agitation speed (150 rpm) were optimized at room temperature. Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms were applied to the data and it was noted that the adsorption of Cd2+ ions is better explained by Freundlich model. The kinetic studies showed that the adsorption of Cd2+ ions followed pseudo-first order kinetics. Thermodynamic parameters like ∆G 0, ∆H 0 and ∆S 0 were calculated and on the basis of these values it was established that the adsorption process is feasible and endothermic in nature. It was concluded from the study that the composite material of alginate and calcium carbonate can effectively be used to recover Cd2+ ions from wastewater.

  12. Freestanding 3-D microvascular networks made of alginate hydrogel as a universal tool to create microchannels inside hydrogels.

    PubMed

    Hu, Chong; Sun, Han; Liu, Zhengzhi; Chen, Yin; Chen, Yangfan; Wu, Hongkai; Ren, Kangning

    2016-07-01

    The diffusion of molecules such as nutrients and oxygen through densely packed cells is impeded by blockage and consumption by cells, resulting in a limited depth of penetration. This has been a major hurdle to a bulk (3-D) culture. Great efforts have been made to develop methods for generating branched microchannels inside hydrogels to support mass exchange inside a bulk culture. These previous attempts faced a common obstacle: researchers tried to fabricate microchannels with gels already loaded with cells, but the fabrication procedures are often harmful to the embedded cells. Herein, we present a universal strategy to create microchannels in different types of hydrogels, which effectively avoids cell damage. This strategy is based on a freestanding alginate 3-D microvascular network prepared by in-situ generation of copper ions from a sacrificial copper template. This alginate network could be used as implants to create microchannels inside different types of hydrogels. This approach effectively addresses the issue of cell damage during microfabrication and made it possible to create microchannels inside different types of gels. The microvascular network produced with this method is (1) strong enough to allow handling, (2) biocompatible to allow cell culturing, and (3) appropriately permeable to allow diffusion of small molecules, while sufficiently dense to prevent blocking of channels when embedded in different types of gels. In addition, composite microtubules could be prepared by simply pre-loading other materials, e.g., particles and large biomolecules, in the hydrogel. Compared with other potential strategies to fabricate freestanding gel channel networks, our method is more rapid, low-cost and scalable due to parallel processing using an industrially mass-producible template. We demonstrated the use of such vascular networks in creating microchannels in different hydrogels and composite gels, as well as with a cell culture in a nutrition gradient based

  13. One-pot synthesis of antibacterial chitosan/silver bio-nanocomposite hydrogel beads as drug delivery systems.

    PubMed

    Yadollahi, Mehdi; Farhoudian, Sana; Namazi, Hassan

    2015-08-01

    Silver nanoparticles were synthesized in situ during the formation of physically crosslinked chitosan hydrogel beads using sodium tripolyphosphate as the crosslinker. The aim of the study was to investigate whether these nanocomposite beads have the potential to be used in drug delivery applications. The formation of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) in the hydrogels was confirmed by X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy studies. Furthermore, the antibacterial and swelling properties of the beads were studied. The nanocomposite hydrogels demonstrated good antibacterial effects against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus bacteria. AgNPs caused an increase in the swelling capacity of the beads. In vitro drug release test was carried out to prove the effectiveness of this novel type of nanocomposite beads as a controlled drug delivery system. Prolonged and more controlled drug releases were observed for AgNPs containing chitosan beads, which increased by the increase in AgNPs content.

  14. Formulation and stability evaluation of 3D alginate beads potentially useful for cumulus-oocyte complexes culture.

    PubMed

    Dorati, Rossella; Genta, Ida; Ferrari, Michela; Vigone, Giulia; Merico, Valeria; Garagna, Silvia; Zuccotti, Maurizio; Conti, Bice

    2016-01-01

    Ovarian follicle encapsulation in synthetic or natural matrixes based on biopolymers is potentially a promising approach to in vitro maturation (IVM) process, since it maintains follicle 3D organisation by preventing its flattening and consequent disruption of gap junctions, preserving the functional relationship between oocyte and companion follicle cells. The aim of the work was to optimise physico-chemical parameters of alginate microcapsules for perspective IVM under 3D environments. On this purpose alginate and cross-linking agent concentrations were investigated. Alginate concentration between 0.75% and 0.125% w/w and Mg(2+), Ba(2+), Ca(2+ )at concentration between 100 and 20 mM were tested. Follicle encapsulation was obtained by on purpose modified diffusion setting gelation technique, and evaluated together with beads, chemical and mechanical stability in standard and stressing conditions. Beads permeability was tested towards albumin, fetuin, pyruvate, glucose, pullulan. Results demonstrated that 0.25% alginate cross-linked in 100 mM CaCl2 beads is suitable to follicle encapsulation. PMID:26791322

  15. In vivo bioengineered ovarian tumors based on collagen, matrigel, alginate and agarose hydrogels: a comparative study.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Li; Hu, Xuefeng; Huang, Yuanjie; Xu, Guojie; Yang, Jinsong; Li, Li

    2015-01-29

    Scaffold-based tumor engineering is rapidly evolving the study of cancer progression. However, the effects of scaffolds and environment on tumor formation have seldom been investigated. In this study, four types of injectable hydrogels, namely, collagen type I, Matrigel, alginate and agarose gels, were loaded with human ovarian cancer SKOV3 cells and then injected into nude mice subcutaneously. The growth of the tumors in vitro was also investigated. After four weeks, the specimens were harvested and analyzed. We found that tumor formation by SKOV3 cells was best supported by collagen, followed by Matrigel, alginate, control (without scaffold) and agarose in vivo. The collagen I group exhibited a larger tumor volume with increased neovascularization and increased necrosis compared with the other materials. Further, increased MMP activity, upregulated expression of laminin and fibronectin and higher levels of HIF-1α and VEGF-A in the collagen group revealed that the engineered tumor is closer to human ovarian carcinoma. In order, collagen, Matrigel, alginate, control (without scaffold) and agarose exhibited decreases in tumor formation. All evidence indicated that the in vivo engineered tumor is scaffold-dependent. Bioactive hydrogels are superior to inert hydrogels at promoting tumor regeneration. In particular, biomimetic hydrogels are advantageous because they provide a microenvironment that mimics the ECM of natural tumors. On the other hand, typical features of cancer cells and the expression of genes related to cancer malignancy were far less similar to the natural tumor in vitro, which indicated the importance of culture environment in vivo. Superior to the in vitro culture, nude mice can be considered satisfactory in vivo 'bioreactors' for the screening of favorable cell vehicles for tumor engineering in vitro.

  16. The smaller, the better? The size effect of alginate beads carrying plant growth-promoting bacteria for seed coating.

    PubMed

    Berninger, Teresa; Mitter, Birgit; Preininger, Claudia

    2016-01-01

    A range of lab-scale methods for encapsulation of plant growth-promoting bacteria in alginate beads intended for seed coating was evaluated: contact-spotting, extrusion through syringe with/without vibration, ejection by robotic liquid handler, extrusion by centrifugal force and commercial devices (nanodispenser, aerodynamically assisted jetting, encapsulator). Two methods were selected based on throughput (encapsulator: 1.5-5 mL/min; syringe with subsequent pulverisation: 5 mL/min). Four bead sizes (55 ± 39 μm, 104 ± 23 μm, 188 ± 16 μm and 336 ± 20 μm after lyophilisation) were produced. Bacterial viability, release, bead morphology, seed surface coverage and attrition were investigated. Release from the smallest bead size was approximately 10 times higher than from the largest. Seed surface coverage was highest (69 ± 3%) when alginate beads produced with nozzle size 80 μm were applied. Pulverised macro-beads are an alternative option, if high throughput is top priority. PMID:26791103

  17. Engineering tissues with a perfusable vessel-like network using endothelialized alginate hydrogel fiber and spheroid-enclosing microcapsules.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yang; Sakai, Shinji; Taya, Masahito

    2016-02-01

    Development of the technique for constructing an internal perfusable vascular network is a challenging issue in fabrication of dense three-dimensional tissues in vitro. Here, we report a method for realizing it. We assembled small tissue (about 200 μm in diameter)-enclosing hydrogel microcapsules and a single hydrogel fiber, both covered with human vascular endothelial cells in a collagen gel. The microcapsules and fiber were made from alginate and gelatin derivatives, and had cell adhesive surfaces. The endothelial cells on the hydrogel constructs sprouted and spontaneously formed a network connecting the hydrogel constructs with each other in the collagen gel. Perfusable vascular network-like structure formation after degrading the alginate-based hydrogel constructs by alginate lyase was confirmed by introducing solution containing tracer particles of about 3 μm in diameter into the lumen templated by the alginate hydrogel fiber. The introduced solution flowed into the spontaneously formed capillary branches and passed around the individual spherical tissues.

  18. Removal of ofloxacin antibiotic using heterogeneous Fenton process over modified alginate beads.

    PubMed

    Titouhi, Hana; Belgaied, Jamel-Eddine

    2016-07-01

    The aim of this work is to study the heterogeneous oxidative degradation of ofloxacin antibiotic using a composite material prepared from sodium alginate and cyclohexane dinitrilo tetraacetic acid (CDTA). The characterization tests indicated the successful incorporation of metal chelator and iron. It was also demonstrated that the synthesized beads are mesoporous. The influence of several experimental parameters (i.e.: H2O2 dose, working temperature, beads loading and initial drug concentration) on the process performances was evaluated. The reaction temperature significantly affects the drug conversion efficiency. It was also observed that the synthesized material was efficient toward the target antibiotic degradation in the presence of small quantities of hydrogen peroxide. Under optimum conditions (0.05 g of granules, initial drug concentration=10mg/L, 25μL of 10mmol/L H2O2), conducted in a batch reaction, 94% degradation of ofloxacin was reached. The results also indicate that the composite material showed a reasonable stability; a relatively low decrease of activity after four successive runs (only 9%) and a negligible iron leaching (0.8%) have been observed. The synthesized composite material offered interesting advantages in terms of simplicity, good stability, ease of recovery from the liquid medium after use and its efficiency in the presence of low quantities of oxidant. It constitutes a good candidate in the water treatment area.

  19. HAp granules encapsulated oxidized alginate-gelatin-biphasic calcium phosphate hydrogel for bone regeneration.

    PubMed

    Sarker, Avik; Amirian, Jhaleh; Min, Young Ki; Lee, Byong Taek

    2015-11-01

    Bone repair in the critical size defect zone using 3D hydrogel scaffold is still a challenge in tissue engineering field. A novel type of hydrogel scaffold combining ceramic and polymer materials, therefore, was fabricated to meet this challenge. In this study, oxidized alginate-gelatin-biphasic calcium phosphate (OxAlg-Gel-BCP) and spherical hydroxyapatite (HAp) granules encapsulated OxAlg-Gel-BCP hydrogel complex were fabricated using freeze-drying method. Detailed morphological and material characterizations of OxAlg-Gel-BCP hydrogel (OGB00), 25wt% and 35wt% granules encapsulated hydrogel (OGB25 and OGB35) were carried out for micro-structure, porosity, chemical constituents, and compressive stress analysis. Cell viability, cell attachment, proliferation and differentiation behavior of rat bone marrow-derived stem cell (BMSC) on OGB00, OGB25 and OGB35 scaffolds were confirmed by MTT assay, Live-Dead assay, and confocal imaging in vitro experiments. Finally, OGB00 and OGB25 hydrogel scaffolds were implanted in the critical size defect of rabbit femoral chondyle for 4 and 8 weeks. The micro-CT analysis and histological studies conducted by H&E and Masson's trichrome demonstrated that a significantly higher (***p<0.001) and earlier bone formation happened in case of 25% HAp granules encapsulated OxAlg-Gel-BCP hydrogel than in OxAlg-Gel-BCP complex alone. All results taken together, HAp granules encapsulated OxAlg-Gel-BCP system can be a promising 3D hydrogel scaffold for the healing of a critical bone defect.

  20. Sodium lauryl sulfate impedes drug release from zinc-crosslinked alginate beads: switching from enteric coating release into biphasic profiles.

    PubMed

    Taha, Mutasem O; Nasser, Wissam; Ardakani, Adel; Alkhatib, Hatim S

    2008-02-28

    The aim of this research is to investigate the effects of sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS) on ionotropically cross-linked alginate beads. Different levels of SLS were mixed with sodium alginate and chlorpheniramine maleate (as loaded model drug). The resulting viscous solutions were dropped onto aqueous solutions of zinc or calcium ions for ionotropic curing. The generated beads were assessed by their drug releasing profiles, infrared and differential scanning colorimetery (DSC) traits. SLS was found to exert profound concentration-dependent impacts on the characteristics of zinc-crosslinked alginate beads such that moderate modifications in the levels of SLS switched drug release from enteric coating-like behavior to a biphasic release modifiable to sustained-release by the addition of minute amounts of xanthan gum. Calcium cross-linking failed to reproduce the same behavior, probably due to the mainly ionic nature of calcium-carboxylate bonds compared to the coordinate character of their zinc-carboxylate counterparts. Apparently, moderate levels of SLS repel water penetration into the beads, and therefore minimize chlorpheniramine release. However, higher SLS levels seem to discourage polymeric cross-linking and therefore allow biphasic drug release.

  1. Degradation of trichloroethylene (TCE) by nanoscale zero-valent iron (nZVI) immobilized in alginate bead.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hojeong; Hong, Hye-Jin; Jung, Juri; Kim, Seong-Hye; Yang, Ji-Won

    2010-04-15

    Nowadays, many researchers have studied the environmental application of the nanoscale zero-valent iron (nZVI) and several field applications for the groundwater remediation have been reported. Still, there are many concerns on the fate and transport of the nZVI and the corresponding risks. To avoid such concerns, it was investigated to immobilize nZVI in a support and then it was applied to degrade trichloroethylene (TCE). The nZVI and palladium-doped nZVI (Fe(0)- and Fe/Pd-alginate) were immobilized in the alginate bead where ferric and barium ions are used as the cross-linking cations of the bead. According to TEM (transmission electron microscopy), the size of the immobilized ZVI was as small as a few nanometers. From the surface analysis of the Fe/Pd-alginate, it is found that the immobilized nZVI has the core-shell structure. The core is composed of single crystal Fe(0), while most of irons on the surface are oxidized to Fe(3+). When 50 g/L of Fe/Pd-alginate (3.7 g Fe/L) was introduced to the aqueous solution, >99.8% of TCE was removed and the release of metal from the support was <3% of the loaded iron. The removal of TCE by Fe/Pd-alginate followed pseudo-first-order kinetics. The observed pseudo-first-order reaction constant (k(obs)) of Fe/Pd-alginate was 6.11 h(-1) and the mass normalized rate constant (k(m)) was 1.6 L h(-1) g(-1). The k(m) is the same order of magnitude with that of iron nanoparticles. In conclusion, it is considered that Fe/Pd-alginate can be used efficiently in the treatment of chlorinated solvent.

  2. Interplay between flow and diffusion in capillary alginate hydrogels.

    PubMed

    Schuster, Erich; Sott, Kristin; Ström, Anna; Altskär, Annika; Smisdom, Nick; Gebäck, Tobias; Lorén, Niklas; Hermansson, Anne-Marie

    2016-05-01

    Alginate gels with naturally occurring macroscopic capillaries have been used as a model system to study the interplay between laminar flow and diffusion of nanometer-sized solutes in real time. Calcium alginate gels that contain homogeneously distributed parallel-aligned capillary structures were formed by external addition of crosslinking ions to an alginate sol. The effects of different flow rates (0, 1, 10, 50 and 100 μl min(-1)) and three different probes (fluorescein, 10 kDa and 500 kDa fluorescein isothiocyanate-dextran) on the diffusion rates of the solutes across the capillary wall and in the bulk gel in between the capillaries were investigated using confocal laser scanning microscopy. The flow in the capillaries was produced using a syringe pump that was connected to the capillaries via a tube. Transmission electron microscopy revealed an open aggregated structure close to the capillary wall, followed by an aligned network layer and the isotropic network of the bulk gel. The most pronounced effect was observed for the 1 nm-diameter fluorescein probe, for which an increase in flow rate increased the mobility of the probe in the gel. Fluorescence recovery after photobleaching confirmed increased mobility close to the channel, with increasing flow rate. Mobility maps derived using raster image correlation spectroscopy showed that the layer with the lowest mobility corresponded to the anisotropic layer of ordered network chains. The combination of microscopy techniques used in the present study elucidates the flow and diffusion behaviors visually, qualitatively and quantitatively, and represents a promising tool for future studies of mass transport in non-equilibrium systems.

  3. Exploration of alginate hydrogel/nano zinc oxide composite bandages for infected wounds.

    PubMed

    Mohandas, Annapoorna; Kumar P T, Sudheesh; Raja, Biswas; Lakshmanan, Vinoth-Kumar; Jayakumar, Rangasamy

    2015-01-01

    Alginate hydrogel/zinc oxide nanoparticles (nZnO) composite bandage was developed by freeze-dry method from the mixture of nZnO and alginate hydrogel. The developed composite bandage was porous with porosity at a range of 60%-70%. The swelling ratios of the bandages decreased with increasing concentrations of nZnO. The composite bandages with nZnO incorporation showed controlled degradation profile and faster blood clotting ability when compared to the KALTOSTAT® and control bandages without nZnO. The prepared composite bandages exhibited excellent antimicrobial activity against Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Candida albicans, and methicillin resistant S. aureus (MRSA). Cytocompatibility evaluation of the prepared composite bandages done on human dermal fibroblast cells by Alamar assay and infiltration studies proved that the bandages have a non-toxic nature at lower concentrations of nZnO whereas slight reduction in viability was seen with increasing nZnO concentrations. The qualitative analysis of ex-vivo re-epithelialization on porcine skin revealed keratinocyte infiltration toward wound area for nZnO alginate bandages.

  4. Exploration of alginate hydrogel/nano zinc oxide composite bandages for infected wounds

    PubMed Central

    Mohandas, Annapoorna; PT, Sudheesh Kumar; Raja, Biswas; Lakshmanan, Vinoth-Kumar; Jayakumar, Rangasamy

    2015-01-01

    Alginate hydrogel/zinc oxide nanoparticles (nZnO) composite bandage was developed by freeze-dry method from the mixture of nZnO and alginate hydrogel. The developed composite bandage was porous with porosity at a range of 60%–70%. The swelling ratios of the bandages decreased with increasing concentrations of nZnO. The composite bandages with nZnO incorporation showed controlled degradation profile and faster blood clotting ability when compared to the KALTOSTAT® and control bandages without nZnO. The prepared composite bandages exhibited excellent antimicrobial activity against Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Candida albicans, and methicillin resistant S. aureus (MRSA). Cytocompatibility evaluation of the prepared composite bandages done on human dermal fibroblast cells by Alamar assay and infiltration studies proved that the bandages have a non-toxic nature at lower concentrations of nZnO whereas slight reduction in viability was seen with increasing nZnO concentrations. The qualitative analysis of ex-vivo re-epithelialization on porcine skin revealed keratinocyte infiltration toward wound area for nZnO alginate bandages. PMID:26491307

  5. Raman-based imaging uncovers the effects of alginate hydrogel implants in spinal cord injury

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galli, Roberta; Tamosaityte, Sandra; Koch, Maria; Sitoci-Ficici, Kerim H.; Later, Robert; Uckermann, Ortrud; Beiermeister, Rudolf; Gelinsky, Michael; Schackert, Gabriele; Kirsch, Matthias; Koch, Edmund; Steiner, Gerald

    2015-07-01

    The treatment of spinal cord injury by using implants that provide a permissive environment for axonal growth is in the focus of the research for regenerative therapies. Here, Raman-based label-free techniques were applied for the characterization of morphochemical properties of surgically induced spinal cord injury in the rat that received an implant of soft unfunctionalized alginate hydrogel. Raman microspectroscopy followed by chemometrics allowed mapping the different degenerative areas, while multimodal multiphoton microscopy (e.g. the combination of coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS), endogenous two-photon fluorescence and second harmonic generation on the same platform) enabled to address the morphochemistry of the tissue at cellular level. The regions of injury, characterized by demyelination and scarring, were retrieved and the distribution of key tissue components was evaluated by Raman mapping. The alginate hydrogel was detected in the lesion up to six months after implantation and had positive effects on the nervous tissue. For instance, multimodal multiphoton microscopy complemented the results of Raman mapping, providing the micromorphology of lipid-rich tissue structures by CARS and enabling to discern lipid-rich regions that contained myelinated axons from degenerative regions characterized by myelin fragmentation and presence of foam cells. These findings demonstrate that Raman-based imaging methods provide useful information for the evaluation of alginate implant effects and have therefore the potential to contribute to new strategies for monitoring degenerative and regenerative processes induced in SCI, thereby improving the effectiveness of therapies.

  6. Reduction of graphene oxide/alginate composite hydrogels for enhanced adsorption of hydrophobic compounds.

    PubMed

    Kim, Semin; Yoo, Youngjae; Kim, Hanbit; Lee, Eunju; Lee, Jae Young

    2015-10-01

    Carbon-based materials, consisting of graphene oxide (GO) or reduced GO (rGO), possess unique abilities to interact with various molecules. In particular, rGO materials hold great promise for adsorption and delivery applications of hydrophobic molecules. However, conventional production and/or usage of rGO in aqueous solution often causes severe aggregation due to its low water solubility and thus difficulties in handling and applications. In our study, to prevent the severe aggregation of GO during reduction and to achieve a high adsorption capacity with hydrophobic compounds, GO/alginate composite hydrogels were first prepared and then reduced in an aqueous ascorbic acid solution at 37 °C. Adsorption studies with a model hydrophobic substance, rhodamine B, revealed that the reduced composite hydrogels are more highly absorbent than the unreduced hydrogels. In addition, the adsorption properties of the composite hydrogels, which are consequences of hydrophobic and ionic interactions, could be modulated by controlling the degree of reduction for the adsorption of different molecules. The composite hydrogels embedding rGO can be very useful in applications related to drug delivery, waste treatment, and biosensing.

  7. Reduction of graphene oxide/alginate composite hydrogels for enhanced adsorption of hydrophobic compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Semin; Yoo, Youngjae; Kim, Hanbit; Lee, Eunju; Lee, Jae Young

    2015-10-01

    Carbon-based materials, consisting of graphene oxide (GO) or reduced GO (rGO), possess unique abilities to interact with various molecules. In particular, rGO materials hold great promise for adsorption and delivery applications of hydrophobic molecules. However, conventional production and/or usage of rGO in aqueous solution often causes severe aggregation due to its low water solubility and thus difficulties in handling and applications. In our study, to prevent the severe aggregation of GO during reduction and to achieve a high adsorption capacity with hydrophobic compounds, GO/alginate composite hydrogels were first prepared and then reduced in an aqueous ascorbic acid solution at 37 °C. Adsorption studies with a model hydrophobic substance, rhodamine B, revealed that the reduced composite hydrogels are more highly absorbent than the unreduced hydrogels. In addition, the adsorption properties of the composite hydrogels, which are consequences of hydrophobic and ionic interactions, could be modulated by controlling the degree of reduction for the adsorption of different molecules. The composite hydrogels embedding rGO can be very useful in applications related to drug delivery, waste treatment, and biosensing.

  8. Continuous fixed bed adsorption of Cu(II) by halloysite nanotube-alginate hybrid beads: an experimental and modelling study.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yanyan; Zhang, Xiang; Wang, Qiuru; Zhang, Bing; Liu, Jindun

    2014-01-01

    We used natural resources of halloysite nanotubes and alginate to prepare a novel porous adsorption material of organic-inorganic hybrid beads. The adsorption behaviour of Cu(II) onto the hybrid beads was examined by a continuous fixed bed column adsorption experiment. Meanwhile, the factors affecting the adsorption capacity such as bed height, influent concentration and flow rate were investigated. The adsorption capacity (Q0) reached 74.13 mg/g when the initial inlet concentration was 100 mg/L with a bed height of 12 cm and flow rate of 3 ml/min. The Thomas model and bed-depth service time fitted well with the experimental data. In the regeneration experiment, the hybrid beads retained high adsorption capacity after three adsorption-desorption cycles. Over the whole study, the new hybrid beads showed excellent adsorption and regeneration properties as well as favourable stability. PMID:25051464

  9. Enhancement of osteoblastic differentiation in alginate gel beads with bioactive octacalcium phosphate particles.

    PubMed

    Endo, Kosei; Anada, Takahisa; Yamada, Masumi; Seki, Minoru; Sasaki, Keiichi; Suzuki, Osamu

    2015-12-01

    The present study investigated whether alginate (Alg) hydrogel microbeads have a role in maintaining mouse bone marrow stromal ST-2 cells and release the cells after being stimulated by synthetic octacalcium phosphate (OCP), which is a mineral crystal capable of stimulating osteoblastic differentiation during a conversion process to hydroxyapatite (HA). The ST-2 cell suspension in the alginate solution, which contained various concentrations of OCP granules with diameters less than 53 μm, was extruded drop-wise into a stirred gelation solution containing BaCl2 using an encapsulator with nitrogen gas stream. The Alg-microbeads (Alg/OCP · ST-2 microbeads) that were generated, which had a diameter of approximately 400 μm, were incubated for up to 14 d and then assessed for osteoblastic differentiation. Alg-microbeads with cells were also incubated to identify the possible conversion from OCP to HA. Osteoblast differentiation markers in ST-2 cells, alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and collagen type I, were up-regulated in the presence of higher amounts of OCP. X-ray diffraction analysis and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy confirmed that the OCP tended to convert to HA over time, suggesting that the OCP in Alg-microbeads interacts three-dimensionally with ST-2 cells and stimulates its osteoblastic differentiation. The release of ST-2 cells from the microbeads was also estimated. ST-2 cells were identified outside of the microbeads, although the cell number tended to decrease with increasing OCP. These results suggest that Alg/OCP microbeads could be used as a vehicle to activate osteoblastic cells and deliver them to sites where bone regeneration is needed. PMID:26657659

  10. Influence of immobilization parameters on growth and lactic acid production by Streptococcus thermophilus and Lactobacillus bulgaricus co-immobilized in calcium alginate gel beads.

    PubMed

    Garbayo, I; Vílchez, C; Vega, J M; Nava-Saucedo, J E; Barbotin, J N

    2004-12-01

    Streptococcus thermophilus and Lactobacillus bulgaricus were co-immobilized in different systems with varying calcium (0.1-1.5 M) and alginate (1-2%, w/v) concentrations. Highest lactic acid production was 35 g l(-1) when both bacteria were in high viscosity beads (1%, w/v alginate) hardened in 0.1 M CaCl2 . The gel bead composition affected size and distribution of entrapped lactic acid bacteria.

  11. Prussian blue caged in alginate/calcium beads as adsorbents for removal of cesium ions from contaminated water.

    PubMed

    Vipin, Adavan Kiliyankil; Hu, Baiyang; Fugetsu, Bunshi

    2013-08-15

    Prussian blue encapsulated in alginate beads reinforced with highly dispersed carbon nanotubes were prepared for the safe removal of cesium ions from aqueous solutions. Equilibrium and kinetic studies were conducted using different models and the goodness of mathematical fitting of the experimental data on the adsorption isotherms was in the order Langmuir>Freundlich, and that of the kinetic models were in the order of pseudo second order>pseudo first order. Fixed bed adsorption column analysis indicated that the beads can be used for large scale treatment of cesium contaminated water.

  12. Calcium-Ion-Triggered Co-assembly of Peptide and Polysaccharide into a Hybrid Hydrogel for Drug Delivery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Yanyan; Zhao, Jun; Huang, Renliang; Qi, Wei; Wang, Yuefei; Su, Rongxin; He, Zhimin

    2016-04-01

    We report a new approach to constructing a peptide-polysaccharide hybrid hydrogel via the calcium-ion-triggered co-assembly of fluorenylmethyloxycarbonyl-diphenylalanine (Fmoc-FF) peptide and alginate. Calcium ions triggered the self-assembly of Fmoc-FF peptide into nanofibers with diameter of about 30 nm. Meanwhile, alginate was rapidly crosslinked by the calcium ions, leading to the formation of stable hybrid hydrogel beads. Compared to alginate or Fmoc-FF hydrogel alone, the hybrid Fmoc-FF/alginate hydrogel had much better stability in both water and a phosphate-buffered solution (PBS), probably because of the synergistic effect of noncovalent and ionic interactions. Furthermore, docetaxel was chosen as a drug model, and it was encapsulated by hydrogel beads to study the in vitro release behavior. The sustained and controlled docetaxel release was obtained by varying the concentration ratio between Fmoc-FF peptide and alginate.

  13. Calcium-Ion-Triggered Co-assembly of Peptide and Polysaccharide into a Hybrid Hydrogel for Drug Delivery.

    PubMed

    Xie, Yanyan; Zhao, Jun; Huang, Renliang; Qi, Wei; Wang, Yuefei; Su, Rongxin; He, Zhimin

    2016-12-01

    We report a new approach to constructing a peptide-polysaccharide hybrid hydrogel via the calcium-ion-triggered co-assembly of fluorenylmethyloxycarbonyl-diphenylalanine (Fmoc-FF) peptide and alginate. Calcium ions triggered the self-assembly of Fmoc-FF peptide into nanofibers with diameter of about 30 nm. Meanwhile, alginate was rapidly crosslinked by the calcium ions, leading to the formation of stable hybrid hydrogel beads. Compared to alginate or Fmoc-FF hydrogel alone, the hybrid Fmoc-FF/alginate hydrogel had much better stability in both water and a phosphate-buffered solution (PBS), probably because of the synergistic effect of noncovalent and ionic interactions. Furthermore, docetaxel was chosen as a drug model, and it was encapsulated by hydrogel beads to study the in vitro release behavior. The sustained and controlled docetaxel release was obtained by varying the concentration ratio between Fmoc-FF peptide and alginate.

  14. Calcium-Ion-Triggered Co-assembly of Peptide and Polysaccharide into a Hybrid Hydrogel for Drug Delivery.

    PubMed

    Xie, Yanyan; Zhao, Jun; Huang, Renliang; Qi, Wei; Wang, Yuefei; Su, Rongxin; He, Zhimin

    2016-12-01

    We report a new approach to constructing a peptide-polysaccharide hybrid hydrogel via the calcium-ion-triggered co-assembly of fluorenylmethyloxycarbonyl-diphenylalanine (Fmoc-FF) peptide and alginate. Calcium ions triggered the self-assembly of Fmoc-FF peptide into nanofibers with diameter of about 30 nm. Meanwhile, alginate was rapidly crosslinked by the calcium ions, leading to the formation of stable hybrid hydrogel beads. Compared to alginate or Fmoc-FF hydrogel alone, the hybrid Fmoc-FF/alginate hydrogel had much better stability in both water and a phosphate-buffered solution (PBS), probably because of the synergistic effect of noncovalent and ionic interactions. Furthermore, docetaxel was chosen as a drug model, and it was encapsulated by hydrogel beads to study the in vitro release behavior. The sustained and controlled docetaxel release was obtained by varying the concentration ratio between Fmoc-FF peptide and alginate. PMID:27067732

  15. Optimisation of decolourisation and degradation of Reactive Black 5 dye under electro-Fenton process using Fe alginate gel beads.

    PubMed

    Iglesias, O; Fernández de Dios, M A; Rosales, E; Pazos, M; Sanromán, M A

    2013-04-01

    The aim of this work was to improve the ability of the electro-Fenton process using Fe alginate gel beads for the remediation of wastewater contaminated with synthetic dyes and using a model diazo dye such as Reactive Black 5 (RB5). Batch experiments were conducted to study the effects of main parameters, such as voltage, pH and iron concentration. Dye decolourisation, reduction of chemical oxygen demand (COD) and energy consumption were studied. Central composite face-centred experimental design matrix and response surface methodology were applied to design the experiments and to evaluate the interactive effects of the three studied parameters. A total of 20 experimental runs were set, and the kinetic data were analysed using first-order and second-order models. In all cases, the experimental data were fitted to the empirical second-order model with a suitable degree for the maximum decolourisation of RB5, COD reduction and energy consumption by electro-Fenton-Fe alginate gel beads treatment. Working with the obtained empirical model, the optimisation of the process was carried out. The second-order polynomial regression model suggests that the optimum conditions for attaining maximum decolourisation, COD reduction and energy consumption are voltage, 5.69 V; pH 2.24 and iron concentration, 2.68 mM. Moreover, the fixation of iron on alginate beads suggests that the degradation process can be developed under this electro-Fenton process in repeated batches and in a continuous mode.

  16. Optimisation of decolourisation and degradation of Reactive Black 5 dye under electro-Fenton process using Fe alginate gel beads.

    PubMed

    Iglesias, O; Fernández de Dios, M A; Rosales, E; Pazos, M; Sanromán, M A

    2013-04-01

    The aim of this work was to improve the ability of the electro-Fenton process using Fe alginate gel beads for the remediation of wastewater contaminated with synthetic dyes and using a model diazo dye such as Reactive Black 5 (RB5). Batch experiments were conducted to study the effects of main parameters, such as voltage, pH and iron concentration. Dye decolourisation, reduction of chemical oxygen demand (COD) and energy consumption were studied. Central composite face-centred experimental design matrix and response surface methodology were applied to design the experiments and to evaluate the interactive effects of the three studied parameters. A total of 20 experimental runs were set, and the kinetic data were analysed using first-order and second-order models. In all cases, the experimental data were fitted to the empirical second-order model with a suitable degree for the maximum decolourisation of RB5, COD reduction and energy consumption by electro-Fenton-Fe alginate gel beads treatment. Working with the obtained empirical model, the optimisation of the process was carried out. The second-order polynomial regression model suggests that the optimum conditions for attaining maximum decolourisation, COD reduction and energy consumption are voltage, 5.69 V; pH 2.24 and iron concentration, 2.68 mM. Moreover, the fixation of iron on alginate beads suggests that the degradation process can be developed under this electro-Fenton process in repeated batches and in a continuous mode. PMID:22733554

  17. Ultra-structural changes and expression of chondrogenic and hypertrophic genes during chondrogenic differentiation of mesenchymal stromal cells in alginate beads

    PubMed Central

    Dashtdar, Havva; Selvaratnam, Lakshmi; Balaji Raghavendran, Hanumantharao; Suhaeb, Abdulrazzaq Mahmod; Ahmad, Tunku Sara

    2016-01-01

    Chondrogenic differentiation of mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) in the form of pellet culture and encapsulation in alginate beads has been widely used as conventional model for in vitro chondrogenesis. However, comparative characterization between differentiation, hypertrophic markers, cell adhesion molecule and ultrastructural changes during alginate and pellet culture has not been described. Hence, the present study was conducted comparing MSCs cultured in pellet and alginate beads with monolayer culture. qPCR was performed to assess the expression of chondrogenic, hypertrophic, and cell adhesion molecule genes, whereas transmission electron microscopy (TEM) was used to assess the ultrastructural changes. In addition, immunocytochemistry for Collagen type II and aggrecan and glycosaminoglycan (GAG) analysis were performed. Our results indicate that pellet and alginate bead cultures were necessary for chondrogenic differentiation of MSC. It also indicates that cultures using alginate bead demonstrated significantly higher (p < 0.05) chondrogenic but lower hypertrophic (p < 0.05) gene expressions as compared with pellet cultures. N-cadherin and N-CAM1 expression were up-regulated in second and third weeks of culture and were comparable between the alginate bead and pellet culture groups, respectively. TEM images demonstrated ultrastructural changes resembling cell death in pellet cultures. Our results indicate that using alginate beads, MSCs express higher chondrogenic but lower hypertrophic gene expression. Enhanced production of extracellular matrix and cell adhesion molecules was also observed in this group. These findings suggest that alginate bead culture may serve as a superior chondrogenic model, whereas pellet culture is more appropriate as a hypertrophic model of chondrogenesis. PMID:26966647

  18. Degradation of synthetic pollutants in real wastewater using laccase encapsulated in core-shell magnetic copper alginate beads.

    PubMed

    Le, Thao Thanh; Murugesan, Kumarasamy; Lee, Chung-Seop; Vu, Chi Huong; Chang, Yoon-Seok; Jeon, Jong-Rok

    2016-09-01

    Immobilization of laccase has been highlighted to enhance their stability and reusability in bioremediation. In this study, we provide a novel immobilization technique that is very suitable to real wastewater treatment. A perfect core-shell system composing copper alginate for the immobilization of laccase (Lac-beads) was produced. Additionally, nFe2O3 was incorporated for the bead recycling through magnetic force. The beads were proven to immobilize 85.5% of total laccase treated and also to be structurally stable in water, acetate buffer, and real wastewater. To test the Lac-beads reactivity, triclosan (TCS) and Remazol Brilliant Blue R (RBBR) were employed. The Lac-beads showed a high percentage of TCS removal (89.6%) after 8h and RBBR decolonization at a range from 54.2% to 75.8% after 4h. Remarkably, the pollutants removal efficacy of the Lac-beads was significantly maintained in real wastewater with the bead recyclability, whereas that of the corresponding free laccase was severely deteriorated. PMID:27240236

  19. Physical characteristics of poly(vinyl alcohol) and calcium alginate hydrogels for the immobilization of activated sludge.

    PubMed

    Doria-Serrano, M C; Ruiz-Treviño, F A; Rios-Arciga, C; Hernández-Esparza, M; Santiago, P

    2001-01-01

    Hydrogels based on poly(vinyl alcohol), PVA, and calcium alginate were prepared by a freezing and thawing cycle process and characterized, in terms of the role of the polymer mixture percentage and the number of treatment cycles, on their weight swelling ratio, WSR, gel fraction, and activated sludge entrapment and immobilization. The results show that the morphology of these hydrogels is highly dependent on the PVA-Ca alginate ratio of 5 wt % total polymer content in the initial aqueous solution and that the number of entrapped microorganisms which survive the freezing-thawing procedure is independent of this ratio. For 80/20 PVA-Ca alginate hydrogels, results also show that for up to three freezing and thawing cycles, the WSR, which is in average 24, is not severely affected by the number of the cycles. For the hydrogels with three cycles, the calculated gel fraction for the composite hydrogel is 0.99. Immobilized microorganisms from sedimented activated sludge, constituted by bacteria and fungi, die in high numbers during the freezing and thawing treatment. However, with a proper time of incubation with glucose as carbon source, the population of bacteria is recovered and mainly proliferate inside the hydrogel, attached on top of the fibril network formed by the polymers, while fungi are recovered predominantly on the surface of the spheres.

  20. Development of pH-sensitive tamarind seed polysaccharide-alginate composite beads for controlled diclofenac sodium delivery using response surface methodology.

    PubMed

    Nayak, Amit Kumar; Pal, Dilipkumar

    2011-11-01

    The present study deals with the development of novel pH-sensitive tamarind seed polysaccharide (TSP)-alginate composite beads for controlled diclofenac sodium delivery using response surface methodology by full 3(2) factorial design. The effect of polymer-blend ratio (sodium alginate:TSP) and cross-linker (CaCl(2)) concentration on the drug encapsulation efficiency (DEE, %) and drug release from diclofenac sodium loaded TSP-alginate composite beads prepared by ionotropic gelation was optimized. The observed responses were coincided well with the predicted values by the experimental design. The DEE (%) of these beads containing diclofenac sodium was within the range between 72.23±2.14 and 97.32±4.03% with sustained in vitro drug release (69.08±2.36-96.07±3.54% in 10 h). The in vitro drug release from TSP-alginate composite beads containing diclofenac sodium was followed by controlled-release pattern (zero-order kinetics) with case-II transport mechanism. Particle size range of these beads was 0.71±0.03-1.33±0.04 mm. The swelling and degradation of the developed beads were influenced by different pH of the test medium. The FTIR and NMR analyses confirmed the compatibility of the diclofenac sodium with TSP and sodium alginate used to prepare the diclofenac sodium loaded TSP-alginate composite beads. The newly developed TSP-alginate composite beads are suitable for controlled delivery of diclofenac sodium for prolonged period.

  1. Development of pH-sensitive tamarind seed polysaccharide-alginate composite beads for controlled diclofenac sodium delivery using response surface methodology.

    PubMed

    Nayak, Amit Kumar; Pal, Dilipkumar

    2011-11-01

    The present study deals with the development of novel pH-sensitive tamarind seed polysaccharide (TSP)-alginate composite beads for controlled diclofenac sodium delivery using response surface methodology by full 3(2) factorial design. The effect of polymer-blend ratio (sodium alginate:TSP) and cross-linker (CaCl(2)) concentration on the drug encapsulation efficiency (DEE, %) and drug release from diclofenac sodium loaded TSP-alginate composite beads prepared by ionotropic gelation was optimized. The observed responses were coincided well with the predicted values by the experimental design. The DEE (%) of these beads containing diclofenac sodium was within the range between 72.23±2.14 and 97.32±4.03% with sustained in vitro drug release (69.08±2.36-96.07±3.54% in 10 h). The in vitro drug release from TSP-alginate composite beads containing diclofenac sodium was followed by controlled-release pattern (zero-order kinetics) with case-II transport mechanism. Particle size range of these beads was 0.71±0.03-1.33±0.04 mm. The swelling and degradation of the developed beads were influenced by different pH of the test medium. The FTIR and NMR analyses confirmed the compatibility of the diclofenac sodium with TSP and sodium alginate used to prepare the diclofenac sodium loaded TSP-alginate composite beads. The newly developed TSP-alginate composite beads are suitable for controlled delivery of diclofenac sodium for prolonged period. PMID:21816168

  2. Immobilization of Multi-biocatalysts in Alginate Beads for Cofactor Regeneration and Improved Reusability.

    PubMed

    Gao, Hui; Khera, Eshita; Lee, Jung-Kul; Wen, Fei

    2016-04-22

    We have recently developed a simple, reusable and coupled whole-cell biocatalytic system with the capability of cofactor regeneration and biocatalyst immobilization for improved production yield and sustained synthesis. Described herewith is the experimental procedure for the development of such a system consisting of two E. coli strains that express functionally complementary enzymes. Together, these two enzymes can function co-operatively to mediate the regeneration of expensive cofactors for improving the product yield of the bioreaction. In addition, the method of synthesizing an immobilized form of the coupled biocatalytic system by encapsulation of whole cells in calcium alginate beads is reported. As an example, we present the improved biosynthesis of L-xylulose from L-arabinitol by coupling E. coli cells expressing the enzymes L-arabinitol dehydrogenase or NADH oxidase. Under optimal conditions and using an initial concentration of 150 mM L-arabinitol, the maximal L-xylulose yield reached 96%, which is higher than those reported in the literature. The immobilized form of the coupled whole-cell biocatalysts demonstrated good operational stability, maintaining 65% of the yield obtained in the first cycle after 7 cycles of successive re-use, while the free cell system almost completely lost the catalytic activity. Therefore, the methods reported here provides two strategies that could help improve the industrial production of L-xylulose, as well as other value-added compounds requiring the use of cofactors in general.

  3. High pressure studies on hesperitin production with hesperidinase free and immobilized in calcium alginate beads

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Furtado, Andreia; Rosário, Pedro M.; Calado, António R. T.; Alfaia, António J. I.; Ribeiro, Maria H. L.

    2012-03-01

    The use of high pressure for the enzymatic synthesis of pharmacologically interesting molecules is a very important tool. Hesperidin and hesperitin exhibit anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, antioxidant, and anticarcinogenic properties and prevent bone loss. However, hesperidin has a low bioavailability compared with hesperitin, due to the rutinoside moiety attached to the flavonoid. The aim of this work was the enzymatic production of hesperitin from hesperidin (soluble and insoluble) with hesperidinase free and immobilized in Ca-alginate beads, under high pressure conditions. The work was focused on the optimization of enzyme activity, studying the effects: pressure (50-150 MPa), temperature (35-75 °C), concentration of substrate (100-800 mg/L), and immobilization of hesperidinase. An 18-fold increase in hesperidinase residual activity was observed under high pressure conditions of 100 MPa compared to 0.1 MPa. A higher specificity of the hydrolytic reaction under high pressure (100 MPa) with a two-and three-fold increase in the ratio K cat/K M (specificity constant) at 55 °C and 75 °C was observed. A two-fold increase in the maximum activity at 100 MPa was observed with immobilized hesperinase compared to 0.1 MPa. In the second reutilization, almost a four-fold increase was obtained under high pressure conditions in comparison to atmospheric pressure.

  4. Hydrogels of sodium alginate in cationic surfactants: Surfactant dependent modulation of encapsulation/release toward Ibuprofen.

    PubMed

    Jabeen, Suraya; Chat, Oyais Ahmad; Maswal, Masrat; Ashraf, Uzma; Rather, Ghulam Mohammad; Dar, Aijaz Ahmad

    2015-11-20

    The interaction of cetyltrimethylammoium bromide (CTAB) and its gemini homologue (butanediyl-1,4-bis (dimethylcetylammonium bromide), 16-4-16 with biocompatible polymer sodium alginate (SA) has been investigated in aqueous medium. Addition of K2CO3 influences viscoelastic properties of surfactant impregnated SA via competition between electrostatic and hydrophobic interactions. Viscosity of these polymer-surfactant systems increases with increase in concentration of K2CO3, and a cryogel is formed at about 0.5M K2CO3 concentration. The thermal stability of gel (5% SA+0.5M K2CO3) decreases with increase in surfactant concentration, a minimum is observed with increase in 16-4-16 concentration. The impact of surfactant addition on the alginate structure vis-à-vis its drug loading capability and release thereof was studied using Ibuprofen (IBU) as the model drug. The hydrogel with 16-4-16 exhibits higher IBU encapsulation and faster release in comparison to the one containing CTAB. This higher encapsulation-cum-faster release capability has been related to micelle mediated solubilization and greater porosity of the hydrogel with gemini surfactant.

  5. [Comparison of rheologic properties between Ca-alginate hydrogel microspheres suspension and whole blood].

    PubMed

    Xu, Pei; Wang, Xiang; Li, Yaojin; Wang, Feifei; Duan, Ming; Yang, Li

    2013-02-01

    Starting from the form of red blood cells and the hematocrit (Hct, about 45 vol% of whole blood), we tried to prepare a kind of microspheres suspension to imitate non-Newtonian fluid property of whole blood, exploring its potentiality to be applied in blood viscosity quality control substance. In our study, we produced Ca-alginate hydrogel microspheres using emulsion polymerization, then we suspended the microspheres in 0.9 wt% NaCl solution to obtain a kind of liquid sample with the microspheres taking 45% volume. Then we used two types of viscometers to measure and analyse the changes of sample viscosity at different shear rate. We observed the forms of Ca-alginate hydrogel microspheres with microscope, and found them to be relatively complete, and their diameters to be normally distributed. Diameters of about 90% of the microspheres were distributed in a range from 6 to 22 micron. The samples were examined with viscometer FASCO-3010 and LG-R-80c respectively, both of which have shown a shear-thinning effect. After 5-week stability test, the CV of viscosity results corresponding to the two instruments were 7.3% to 13.8% and 8.9% to 14.2%, respectively. Although some differences existed among the results under the same shear rate, the general variation trends of the corresponding results were consistent, so the sample had the potentiality to be widely used in calibrating a different type of blood viscometer. PMID:23488147

  6. Novel Model-Based Inquiry of Ionic Bonding in Alginate Hydrogels Used in Tissue Engineering for High School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowles, Robby D.; Saroka, James M.; Archer, Shivaun D.; Bonassar, Lawrence J.

    2012-01-01

    Because of cost and time, it is difficult to relate to students how fundamental chemical principles are involved in cutting edge biomedical breakthroughs being reported in the national media. The laboratory exercise presented here is aimed at high school chemistry students and uses alginate hydrogels, a common material used in tissue engineering,…

  7. Histomorphometric Evaluation of Cartilage Degradation using Rabbit Articular Chondrocytes Cultured in Alginate Beads − Effects of Hyaluronan

    PubMed Central

    Nakatsuka, K.; Kurita, K.; Hayakawa, Taro; Nakashima, Katsuhito; Yamashita, Kyoko; Hoshino, Takeshi; Miyazaki, Kyosuke

    2010-01-01

    Objective: A 3-dimensional alginate bead culturing method using rabbit articular chondrocytes was studied for the screening of the effectiveness of drugs for articular diseases. Design: The beads cultured with IL-1β, TGF-β, and Hyaluronan (HA) were evaluated histochemically with Alecian blue and immunohistochemically with CS-56 antibody. Chondrocytes in alginate beads were arbitrarily classified into four groups: 1) chodrocyte surrounded with cell-associated matrix (CAM) in which proteoglycan (PG) was positively stained (PG-possitive chondrocyte); 2) chondrocyte with PG-negative CAM; 3) PG-positive CAM alone, and 4) PG-negative CAM alone. Total sulfated GAG concentrations in the culture media were quantitated by dimethylmethylene blue (DMMB) assay. ProMMP-3, TIMP-1 and –2 concentrations in the culture media were determined by sandwich enzyme immunoassays. Results: Significant increase of PG-nagative cells were immunohistochemically found by IL-1β stimulation. The pretreatment with TGF-β almost fully suppressed those increase of PG-negative cells by IL-1β. Both GAG and proMMP-3 concentrations in the culture media were significantly increased after IL-1β stimulation. There were no significant differences in both TIMP-1 and TIMP-2 concentrations in the culture media with or without IL-1β stimulation. 800-kDa HA reduced significantly the number of PG-negative cells and proMMP-3 concentration in the culture media, but showed no effects on the concentrations of both TIMPs. Conclusions: Because this 3-dimensional chondrocyte culture in alginate beads is close to in vivo conditions, this method can be used for evaluation of the effectiveness of novel drugs for articular diseases. PMID:23675183

  8. The Effect of Chondroitin Sulphate and Hyaluronic Acid on Chondrocytes Cultured within a Fibrin-Alginate Hydrogel.

    PubMed

    Little, Christopher J; Kulyk, William M; Chen, Xiongbiao

    2014-01-01

    Osteoarthritis is a painful degenerative joint disease that could be better managed if tissue engineers can develop methods to create long-term engineered articular cartilage tissue substitutes. Many of the tissue engineered cartilage constructs currently available lack the chemical stimuli and cell-friendly environment that promote the matrix accumulation and cell proliferation needed for use in joint cartilage repair. The goal of this research was to test the efficacy of using a fibrin-alginate hydrogel containing hyaluronic acid (HA) and/or chondroitin sulphate (CS) supplements for chondrocyte culture. Neonatal porcine chondrocytes cultured in fibrin-alginate hydrogels retained their phenotype better than chondrocytes cultured in monolayer, as evidenced by analysis of their relative expression of type II versus type I collagen mRNA transcripts. HA or CS supplementation of the hydrogels increased matrix glycosaminoglycan (GAG) production during the first week of culture. However, the effects of these supplements on matrix accumulation were not additive and were no longer observed after two weeks of culture. Supplementation of the hydrogels with CS or a combination of both CS and HA increased the chondrocyte cell population after two weeks of culture. Statistical analysis indicated that the HA and CS treatment effects on chondrocyte numbers may be additive. This research suggests that supplementation with CS and/or HA has positive effects on cartilage matrix production and chondrocyte proliferation in three-dimensional (3D) fibrin-alginate hydrogels. PMID:25238548

  9. Nanoindentation and finite element modelling of chitosan-alginate multilayer coated hydrogels.

    PubMed

    Sherstova, Tatyana; Stokke, Bjørn Torger; Skallerud, Bjørn; Maurstad, Gjertrud; Prot, Victorien Emile

    2016-09-21

    Composite soft materials are used as compounds for determining the effects of mechanical cues on cell behavior and cell encapsulation and for controlling drug release. The appropriate composite soft materials are conventionally prepared by selective deposition of polymers at the surface of an ionic hydrogel. In the present study we address the impact of a mechanically stratified two-layer structure of these materials on their overall mechanical characterization by applying a combination of nanoindentation, confocal microscopy and finite element modelling. We prepare covalent cross-linked hydrogels based on acrylamide (AAM) and including an anionic group, and impregnate them using a multilayer deposition strategy of alternating exposure to cationic chitosan and anionic alginate. The thickness of the chitosan-alginate layer on the hydrogels was determined to be 0.4 ± 0.05 μm for 4 bilayers, and 0.7 ± 0.1 μm for the 8 bilayer deposition procedure employing a fluorescently labelled chitosan and confocal microscopy. The force-indentation data for the AAM gels were highly reproducible, whereas 77% and 50% of the force-indentation data were reproducible following the 4 and 8 bilayer deposition. The main trends in the reproducible force-distance data were found to yield an apparent increased Young's modulus after the deposition. Finite element modelling showed that adaption of a homogeneous Young's modulus for the specimens with deposited layers yields approximately three times too low stiffness compared to the estimate of the mechanical properties of the outer part in the two-layered mechanical model. The thickness of the multilayer region determined by confocal microscopy was used in the model. This study shows that the mechanical layered property needs to be included in the interpretation of the nanoindentation data when there is a significant mechanical contrast.

  10. Affinity covalent immobilization of glucoamylase onto ρ-benzoquinone-activated alginate beads: II. Enzyme immobilization and characterization.

    PubMed

    Eldin, M S Mohy; Seuror, E I; Nasr, M A; Tieama, H A

    2011-05-01

    A novel affinity covalent immobilization technique of glucoamylase enzyme onto ρ-benzoquinone-activated alginate beads was presented and compared with traditional entrapment one. Factors affecting the immobilization process such as enzyme concentration, alginate concentration, calcium chloride concentration, cross-linking time, and temperature were studied. No shift in the optimum temperature and pH of immobilized enzymes was observed. In addition, K (m) values of free and entrapped glucoamylase were found to be almost identical, while the covalently immobilized enzyme shows the lowest affinity for substrate. In accordance, V (m) value of covalently immobilized enzyme was found lowest among free and immobilized counter parts. On the other hand, the retained activity of covalently immobilized glucoamylase has been improved and was found higher than that of entrapped one. Finally, the industrial applicability of covalently immobilized glucoamylase has been investigated through monitoring both shelf and operational stability characters. The covalently immobilized enzyme kept its activity over 36 days of shelf storage and after 30 repeated use runs. Drying the catalytic beads greatly reduced its activity in the beginning but recovered its lost part during use. In general, the newly developed affinity covalent immobilization technique of glucoamylase onto ρ-benzoquinone-activated alginate carrier is simple yet effective and could be used for the immobilization of some other enzymes especially amylases.

  11. HYDROGEL TRACER BEADS: THE DEVELOPMENT, MODIFICATION, AND TESTING OF AN INNOVATIVE TRACER FOR BETTER UNDERSTANDING LNAPL TRANSPORT IN KARST AQUIFERS

    SciTech Connect

    Amanda Laskoskie, Harry M. Edenborn, and Dorothy J. Vesper

    2012-01-01

    The goal of this specific research task is to develop proxy tracers that mimic contaminant movement to better understand and predict contaminant fate and transport in karst aquifers. Hydrogel tracer beads are transported as a separate phase than water and can used as a proxy tracer to mimic the transport of non-aqueous phase liquids (NAPL). They can be constructed with different densities, sizes & chemical attributes. This poster describes the creation and optimization of the beads and the field testing of buoyant beads, including sampling, tracer analysis, and quantitative analysis. The buoyant beads are transported ahead of the dissolved solutes, suggesting that light NAPL (LNAPL) transport in karst may occur faster than predicted from traditional tracing techniques. The hydrogel beads were successful in illustrating this enhanced transport.

  12. Rapid purification of cell encapsulated hydrogel beads from oil phase to aqueous phase in a microfluidic device.

    PubMed

    Deng, Yuliang; Zhang, Nangang; Zhao, Libo; Yu, Xiaolei; Ji, Xinghu; Liu, Wei; Guo, Shishang; Liu, Kan; Zhao, Xing-Zhong

    2011-12-01

    In this paper, we demonstrate a new type of microfluidic chip that can realize continuous-flow purification of hydrogel beads from a carrier oil into aqueous solution by using a laminar-like oil/water interface. The microfluidic chip is composed by two functional components: (1) a flow-focusing bead generation module that can control size and shape of beads, (2) a bead extraction module capable of purifying hydrogel beads from oil into aqueous solution. This module is featured with large branch channels on one side and small ones on the opposite side. Water is continuously infused into the bead extraction module through the large branch channels, resulting in a laminar-like oil/water interface between the branch junctions. Simulation and experimental data show that the efficiency of oil depletion is determined by the relative flow rates between infused water and carrier oil. By using such a microfluidic device, viable cells (HCT116, colon cancer cell line) can be encapsulated in the hydrogel beads and purified into a cell culture media. Significantly improved cell viability was achieved compared to that observed by conventional bead purification approaches. This facile microfluidic chip could be a promising candidate for sample treatment in lab-on-a-chip applications.

  13. Sustained Release of Diltiazem Hydrochloride from Cross-linked Biodegradable IPN Hydrogel Beads of Pectin and Modified Xanthan Gum.

    PubMed

    Giri, T K; Choudhary, C; Alexander, A; Ajazuddin; Badwaik, H; Tripathy, M; Tripathi, D K

    2013-11-01

    Interpenetrating polymer network hydrogel beads of pectin and sodium carboxymethyl xanthan were prepared by ionotropic gelation with Al(+3) ions and covalent cross-linking with glutaraldehyde for sustained delivery of diltiazem hydrochloride. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, differential scanning colorimetry and scanning electron microscopy were used to characterise the hydrogel beads. The swelling of the hydrogel and the release of drug were relatively low in pH 1.2 buffer solutions. However, higher swelling and drug release were observed in pH 6.8 buffer solutions. The carboxyl functional groups of hydrogels undergo ionisation and the osmotic pressure inside the beads increases resulting in higher swelling and drug release in higher pH. The release of drug depends on concentration of polymer, amount and exposure time of cross-linker and drug content in the hydrogel matrices. The present study indicated that the hydrogel beads minimised the drug release in pH 1.2 buffer solutions and to prolong the drug release in pH 6.8 buffer solutions.

  14. Self-Healing and Thermoresponsive Dual-Cross-Linked Alginate Hydrogels Based on Supramolecular Inclusion Complexes.

    PubMed

    Miao, Tianxin; Fenn, Spencer L; Charron, Patrick N; Oldinski, Rachael A

    2015-12-14

    β-Cyclodextrin (β-CD), with a lipophilic inner cavity and hydrophilic outer surface, interacts with a large variety of nonpolar guest molecules to form noncovalent inclusion complexes. Conjugation of β-CD onto biomacromolecules can form physically cross-linked hydrogel networks upon mixing with a guest molecule. Herein, the development and characterization of self-healing, thermoresponsive hydrogels, based on host-guest inclusion complexes between alginate-graft-β-CD and Pluronic F108 (poly(ethylene glycol)-b-poly(propylene glycol)-b-poly(ethylene glycol)), are described. The mechanics, flow characteristics, and thermal response were contingent on the polymer concentration and the host-guest molar ratio. Transient and reversible physical cross-linking between host and guest polymers governed self-assembly, allowing flow to occur under shear stress and facilitating complete recovery of the material's properties within a few seconds of unloading. The mechanical properties of the dual-cross-linked, multi-stimuli-responsive hydrogels were tuned as high as 30 kPa at body temperature and are advantageous for biomedical applications such as drug delivery and cell transplantation. PMID:26509214

  15. Synthesis of interpenetrating network hydrogel from poly(acrylic acid-co-hydroxyethyl methacrylate) and sodium alginate: modeling and kinetics study for removal of synthetic dyes from water.

    PubMed

    Mandal, Bidyadhar; Ray, Samit Kumar

    2013-10-15

    Several interpenetrating network (IPN) hydrogels were made by free radical in situ crosslink copolymerization of acrylic acid (AA) and hydroxy ethyl methacrylate in aqueous solution of sodium alginate. N,N'-methylenebisacrylamide (MBA) was used as comonomer crosslinker for making these crosslink hydrogels. All of these hydrogels were characterized by carboxylic content, FTIR, SEM, XRD, DTA-TGA and mechanical properties. Swelling, diffusion and network parameters of the hydrogels were studied. These hydrogels were used for adsorption of two important synthetic dyes, i.e. Congo red and methyl violet from water. Isotherms, kinetics and thermodynamics of dye adsorption by these hydrogels were also studied.

  16. Removal of arsenic from drinking water by ferric hydroxide microcapsule-loaded alginate beads in packed adsorption column.

    PubMed

    Sarkar, Priyabrata; Pal, Priyabrata; Bhattacharyay, Dipankar; Banerjee, Suchanda

    2010-11-01

    In this paper we have presented a unique low cost arsenic removal technique using ferric hydroxide microcapsule-loaded alginate beads (FHMCA) as an adsorbent in a continuous packed column. The microencapsulated particles of ferric hydroxide were produced in a spray dryer and subsequently coated with calcium alginate to form spherical beads of about 2 mm diameter. Batch experiments were conducted with these beads to generate isotherm data. The loading capacity was found to be 3.8 mg arsenic/gm of adsorbent. The experimental data conformed to Freundlich adsorption isotherm. A generalized mathematical model was also developed and the visual basic codes run with the physical parameters of the adsorbent and isotherm data that were evaluated experimentally was achieved for a continuous 75 days' operation. The safe disposal of the spent adsorbent was confirmed by the toxicity characteristic leaching procedure (TCLP) results. With known set of physical parameters of the adsorbent, input water flow rate and its arsenic concentration, the model could predict the number of days the column would run with output below a specific arsenic concentration.

  17. Immobilization of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) pectinmethylesterase in calcium alginate beads and its application in fruit juice clarification.

    PubMed

    Bogra, Pushpa; Kumar, Ashwani; Kuhar, Kalika; Panwar, Surbhi; Singh, Randhir

    2013-11-01

    Clarity of fruit juices is desirable to maintain an aesthetically pleasing quality and international standards. The most commonly used enzymes in juice industries are pectinases. A partially-purified pectinmethylesterase from tomato was entrapped in calcium alginate beads and used for juice clarification. The activity yield was maximum at 1 % (w/v) CaCl2 and 2.5 % (w/v) alginate. The immobilized enzyme retained ~55 % of its initial activity (5.7 × 10(-2) units) after more than ten successive batch reactions. The Km, pH and temperature optima were increased after immobilization. The most effective clarification of fruit juice (%T620 ~60 %) by the immobilized enzyme was at 4 °C with a holding time of 20 min. The viscosity dropped by 56 % and the filterability increased by 260 %. The juice remains clear after 2 months of storage at 4 °C.

  18. Increased Growth of the Microalga Chlorella vulgaris when Coimmobilized and Cocultured in Alginate Beads with the Plant-Growth-Promoting Bacterium Azospirillum brasilense†

    PubMed Central

    Gonzalez, Luz E.; Bashan, Yoav

    2000-01-01

    Coimmobilization of the freshwater microalga Chlorella vulgaris and the plant-growth-promoting bacterium Azospirillum brasilense in small alginate beads resulted in a significantly increased growth of the microalga. Dry and fresh weight, total number of cells, size of the microalgal clusters (colonies) within the bead, number of microalgal cells per cluster, and the levels of microalgal pigments significantly increased. Light microscopy revealed that both microorganisms colonized the same cavities inside the beads, though the microalgae tended to concentrate in the more aerated periphery while the bacteria colonized the entire bead. The effect of indole-3-acetic acid addition to microalgal culture prior to immobilization of microorganisms in alginate beads partially imitated the effect of A. brasilense. We propose that coimmobilization of microalgae and plant-growth-promoting bacteria is an effective means of increasing microalgal populations within confined environments. PMID:10742237

  19. pH- and Temperature-Responsive P(DMAEMA-GMA)-Alginate Semi-IPN Hydrogels Formed by Radical and Ring-Opening Polymerization for Aminophylline Release.

    PubMed

    Gao, Chunmei; Liu, Mingzhu; Chen, Jun; Chen, Chen

    2012-01-01

    A novel poly((2-dimethylamino) ethyl methacrylate-glycidyl methacrylate)-alginate (P(DMAEMA-GMA)alginate) semi-IPN hydrogel was synthesized via radical polymerization of the double bonds and ring-opening of the epoxy groups without using catalyst and cross-linker. (1)H-NMR, FT-IR and DSC data were consistent with the expected structures for the hydrogels. The interior morphology of the hydrogels was also investigated by SEM. The swelling ratio and compressive strength of the hydrogels were measured. The semi-IPN hydrogel had pH and temperature sensitivity, and pH-sensitive points of all hydrogels were found to be at pH 5.0. The release behavior of the model drug, aminophylline, was found to be dependent on the hydrogel composition and environment pH, which manifests that these materials have potential applications as intelligent drug carriers. PMID:21513583

  20. Chitosan hydrogel beads impregnated with hexadecylamine for improved reactive blue 4 adsorption.

    PubMed

    Vakili, Mohammadtaghi; Rafatullah, Mohd; Ibrahim, Mahamad Hakimi; Abdullah, Ahmad Zuhairi; Salamatinia, Babak; Gholami, Zahra

    2016-02-10

    Adsorption performance of chitosan (CS) hydrogel beads was investigated after impregnation of CS with hexadecylamine (HDA) as a cationic surfactant, for the elimination of reactive blue 4 (RB4) from wastewater. The CS/HDA beads formed with 3.8% HDA were the most effective adsorbent. The adsorption capacity was increased by 1.43 times from 317 mg/g (CS) to 454 mg/g (CS/HDA). The RB4 removal increased with decrease in the pH of dye solution from 4 to 9. The isotherm data obtained from RB4 adsorption on CS and CS/HDA are adequately described by Freundlich model (R(2)=0.946 and 0.934, χ(2)=22.414 and 64.761). The kinetic study revealed that the pseudo-second-order rate model (R(2)=0.996 and 0.997) was in better agreement with the experimental data. The negative values of ΔG° (-2.28 and -6.30 kJ/mol) and ΔH° (-172.18 and -101.62 kJ/mol) for CS beads and HDA modified CS beads, respectively; suggested a spontaneous and exothermic process for RB4 adsorption.

  1. Compressive stress-strain response of covalently crosslinked oxidized-alginate/N-succinyl-chitosan hydrogels.

    PubMed

    Rogalsky, Allan D; Kwon, H J; Lee-Sullivan, Pearl

    2011-12-01

    Novel injectable hydrogels have been formed at 37°C under physiological pH using a polymer-polymer crosslinking reaction. Three different formulations were tested. After 1-day cure time at body temperature, the elastic modulus of unswollen samples ranged between 3 and 5 kPa but after 11 additional days at 4°C exceeded the target modulus of 10 kPa. Modulus data showed good agreement with theoretical crosslink density, enabling the prediction of stiffer/faster curing gel formulations. Rubber elasticity theory provided a good fit to the experimental data up to 73% compressive true strain. Based on an analysis of modulus results, it was inferred that despite the presence of two aldehyde functional groups, only one mechanically significant crosslink can form per oxidized repeat unit on the alginate chain.

  2. Utilizing Core–Shell Fibrous Collagen-Alginate Hydrogel Cell Delivery System for Bone Tissue Engineering

    PubMed Central

    Perez, Roman A.; Kim, Meeju; Kim, Tae-Hyun; Kim, Joong-Hyun; Lee, Jae Ho; Park, Jeong-Hui; Knowles, Jonathan C.

    2014-01-01

    Three-dimensional matrices that encapsulate and deliver stem cells with defect-tuned formulations are promising for bone tissue engineering. In this study, we designed a novel stem cell delivery system composed of collagen and alginate as the core and shell, respectively. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) were loaded into the collagen solution and then deposited directly into a fibrous structure while simultaneously sheathing with alginate using a newly designed core–shell nozzle. Alginate encapsulation was achieved by the crosslinking within an adjusted calcium-containing solution that effectively preserved the continuous fibrous structure of the inner cell-collagen part. The constructed hydrogel carriers showed a continuous fiber with a diameter of ∼700–1000 μm for the core and 200–500 μm for the shell area, which was largely dependent on the alginate concentration (2%–5%) as well as the injection rate (20–80 mL/h). The water uptake capacity of the core–shell carriers was as high as 98%, which could act as a pore channel to supply nutrients and oxygen to the cells. Degradation of the scaffolds showed a weight loss of ∼22% at 7 days and ∼43% at 14 days, suggesting a possible role as a degradable tissue-engineered construct. The MSCs encapsulated within the collagen core showed excellent viability, exhibiting significant cellular proliferation up to 21 days with levels comparable to those observed in the pure collagen gel matrix used as a control. A live/dead cell assay also confirmed similar percentages of live cells within the core–shell carrier compared to those in the pure collagen gel, suggesting the carrier was cell compatible and was effective for maintaining a cell population. Cells allowed to differentiate under osteogenic conditions expressed high levels of bone-related genes, including osteocalcin, bone sialoprotein, and osteopontin. Further, when the core–shell fibrous carriers were implanted in a rat calvarium defect, the bone

  3. Synthesis of photoresponsive hybrid alginate hydrogel with photo-controlled release behavior.

    PubMed

    Chiang, Chien-Ying; Chu, Chih-Chien

    2015-03-30

    A photoresponsive hybrid alginate hydrogel was successfully prepared by Ca(2+)-mediated crosslinking reaction with a mixture of β-cyclodextrin-grafted alginate (β-CD-Alg) and diazobenzene-modified poly(ethylene glycol) (Az2-PEG). The water-soluble Az2-PEG exhibits efficient trans-to-cis isomerization of the terminal azobenzene moieties under UV-light irradiation and readily switched back to the initial trans state under visible light. Because of low affinity between β-CD and cis-Az, the host-guest inclusion complex formed by β-CD and trans-Az gradually dissociates under UV-light exposure. Accordingly, the bulk gel exhibits substantial photo-induced transformation in gel morphology by the appearance of significant comb-like cavities. This photosensitive behavior accompanied by the structural degradation enables the rapid release of entrapped dye molecules under UV light stimulus. Moreover, an incident light with higher power and mild acidic environment are capable of accelerating the photo-triggered release, thus allowing the potential applications toward acute wound healing. PMID:25563940

  4. Influence of Aloe vera on water absorption and enzymatic in vitro degradation of alginate hydrogel films.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Rúben F; Carvalho, Anabela; Gil, M H; Mendes, Ausenda; Bártolo, Paulo J

    2013-10-15

    This study investigates the influence of Aloe vera on water absorption and the in vitro degradation rate of Aloe vera-Ca-alginate hydrogel films, for wound healing and drug delivery applications. The influence of A. vera content (5%, 15% and 25%, v/v) on water absorption was evaluated by the incubation of the films into a 0.1 M HCl solution (pH 1.0), acetate buffer (pH 5.5) and simulated body fluid solution (pH 7.4) during 24h. Results show that the water absorption is significantly higher for films containing high A. vera contents (15% and 25%), while no significant differences are observed between the alginate neat film and the film with 5% of A. vera. The in vitro enzymatic degradation tests indicate that an increase in the A. vera content significantly enhances the degradation rate of the films. Control films, incubated in a simulated body fluid solution without enzymes, are resistant to the hydrolytic degradation, exhibiting reduced weight loss and maintaining its structural integrity. Results also show that the water absorption and the in vitro degradation rate of the films can be tailored by changing the A. vera content.

  5. Impact of alginate composition: from bead mechanical properties to encapsulated HepG2/C3A cell activities for in vivo implantation.

    PubMed

    Capone, Stephanie H; Dufresne, Murielle; Rechel, Mathias; Fleury, Marie-José; Salsac, Anne-Virginie; Paullier, Patrick; Daujat-Chavanieu, Martine; Legallais, Cecile

    2013-01-01

    Recently, interest has focused on hepatocytes' implantation to provide end stage liver failure patients with a temporary support until spontaneous recovery or a suitable donor becomes available. To avoid cell damage and use of an immunosuppressive treatment, hepatic cells could be implanted after encapsulation in a porous biomaterial of bead or capsule shape. The aim of this study was to compare the production and the physical properties of the beads, together with some hepatic cell functions, resulting from the use of different material combinations for cell microencapsulation: alginate alone or combined with type I collagen with or without poly-L-lysine and alginate coatings. Collagen and poly-L-lysine increased the bead mechanical resistance but lowered the mass transfer kinetics of vitamin B12. Proliferation of encapsulated HepG2/C3A cells was shown to be improved in alginate-collagen beads. Finally, when the beads were subcutaneously implanted in mice, the inflammatory response was reduced in the case of alginate mixed with collagen. This in vitro and in vivo study clearly outlines, based on a systematic comparison, the necessity of compromising between material physical properties (mechanical stability and porosity) and cell behavior (viability, proliferation, functionalities) to define optima hepatic cell microencapsulation conditions before implantation.

  6. Impact of Alginate Composition: From Bead Mechanical Properties to Encapsulated HepG2/C3A Cell Activities for In Vivo Implantation

    PubMed Central

    Capone, Stephanie H.; Dufresne, Murielle; Rechel, Mathias; Fleury, Marie-José; Salsac, Anne-Virginie; Paullier, Patrick; Daujat-Chavanieu, Martine; Legallais, Cecile

    2013-01-01

    Recently, interest has focused on hepatocytes’ implantation to provide end stage liver failure patients with a temporary support until spontaneous recovery or a suitable donor becomes available. To avoid cell damage and use of an immunosuppressive treatment, hepatic cells could be implanted after encapsulation in a porous biomaterial of bead or capsule shape. The aim of this study was to compare the production and the physical properties of the beads, together with some hepatic cell functions, resulting from the use of different material combinations for cell microencapsulation: alginate alone or combined with type I collagen with or without poly-L-lysine and alginate coatings. Collagen and poly-L-lysine increased the bead mechanical resistance but lowered the mass transfer kinetics of vitamin B12. Proliferation of encapsulated HepG2/C3A cells was shown to be improved in alginate-collagen beads. Finally, when the beads were subcutaneously implanted in mice, the inflammatory response was reduced in the case of alginate mixed with collagen. This in vitro and in vivo study clearly outlines, based on a systematic comparison, the necessity of compromising between material physical properties (mechanical stability and porosity) and cell behavior (viability, proliferation, functionalities) to define optima hepatic cell microencapsulation conditions before implantation. PMID:23637958

  7. Thermodynamic, Kinetic, and Equilibrium Parameters for the Removal of Lead and Cadmium from Aqueous Solutions with Calcium Alginate Beads

    PubMed Central

    Alfaro-Cuevas-Villanueva, Ruth; Hidalgo-Vázquez, Aura Roxana; Cortés Penagos, Consuelo de Jesús; Cortés-Martínez, Raúl

    2014-01-01

    The sorption of cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb) by calcium alginate beads (CAB) from aqueous solutions in batch systems was investigated. The kinetic and thermodynamic parameters, as well as the sorption capacities of CAB in each system at different temperatures, were evaluated. The rate of sorption for both metals was rapid in the first 10 minutes and reached a maximum in 50 minutes. Sorption kinetic data were fitted to Lagergren, pseudo-second-order and Elovich models and it was found that the second-order kinetic model describes these data for the two metals; comparing kinetic parameters for Cd and Pb sorption a higher kinetic rate (K2) for Pb was observed, indicating that the interaction between lead cations and alginate beads was faster than for cadmium. Similarly, isotherm data were fitted to different models reported in literature and it was found that the Langmuir-Freundlich (L-F) and Dubinin-Radushkevich (D-R) models describe the isotherms in all cases. CAB sorption capacity for cadmium was 27.4 mg/g and 150.4 mg/g for lead, at 25°C. Sorption capacities of Cd and Pb increase as temperature rises. According to the thermodynamic parameters, the cadmium and lead adsorption process was spontaneous and endothermic. It was also found that pH has an important effect on the adsorption of these metals by CAB, as more were removed at pH values between 6 and 7. PMID:24587740

  8. Efficient Pb(II) removal using sodium alginate-carboxymethyl cellulose gel beads: Preparation, characterization, and adsorption mechanism.

    PubMed

    Ren, Huixue; Gao, Zhimin; Wu, Daoji; Jiang, Jiahui; Sun, Youmin; Luo, Congwei

    2016-02-10

    Alginate-carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) gel beads were prepared in this study using sodium alginate (SA) and sodium CMC through blending and cross-linking. The specific surface area and aperture of the prepared SA-CMC gel beads were tested. The SA-CMC structure was characterized and analyzed via infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. Static adsorption experiment demonstrated that Pb(II) adsorption of SA-CMC exceeded 99% under the optimized conditions. In addition, experiments conducted under the same experimental conditions showed that the lead ion removal efficiency of SA-CMC was significantly higher than that of conventional adsorbents. The Pb(II) adsorption process of SA-CMC followed the Langmuir adsorption isotherm, and the dynamic adsorption model could be described through a pseudo-second-order rate equation. Pb(II) removal mechanisms of SA-CMC, including physical, chemical, and electrostatic adsorptions, were discussed based on microstructure analysis and adsorption kinetics. Chemical adsorption was the main adsorption method among these mechanisms. PMID:26686144

  9. Modeling studies: Adsorption of aniline blue by using Prosopis Juliflora carbon/Ca/alginate polymer composite beads.

    PubMed

    Kumar, M; Tamilarasan, R

    2013-02-15

    The research article describes the experimental and modeling study for the adsorptive removal of aniline blue dye (AB dye) from aqueous matrices using a Prosopis Juliflora modified carbon/Ca/alginate polymer bead as a low cost and eco-friendly adsorbent. The rate of adsorption was investigated under various experimental parameters such as contact time, adsorbent dose, dye concentration, pH and temperature. The kinetics, equilibrium and thermodynamic studies were assessed to find out the efficiency of the adsorption process. The equilibrium uptake capacity of the adsorption process was found with Freundlich and Langmuir adsorption isotherm equations and it was evaluated by dimensionless separation factor (R(L)). The dynamics of adsorption was predicted by pseudo-first order, pseudo-second order Lagergren's equation and intra particle diffusion model. Adsorption feasibility was assessed with thermodynamic parameters such as isosteric heat of adsorption (ΔH°), standard entropy (ΔS°) and Gibbs free energy (ΔG°) using VantHoff plot. The alginate bead was characterized with FTIR spectroscopy and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM).

  10. Biological evaluation of alginate-based hydrogels, with antimicrobial features by Ce(III) incorporation, as vehicles for a bone substitute.

    PubMed

    Morais, D S; Rodrigues, M A; Lopes, M A; Coelho, M J; Maurício, A C; Gomes, R; Amorim, I; Ferraz, M P; Santos, J D; Botelho, C M

    2013-09-01

    A novel hydrogel, based on an alginate/hyaluronate mixture and Ce(III) ions, with effective bioactive and antimicrobial ability was developed to be used as vehicle of a synthetic bone substitute producing an injectable substitute (IBS). Firstly, three different IBSs were prepared using three developed alginate-based hydrogels, the hydrogel Alg composed by alginate, the hydrogel Alg/Ch composed by an alginate/chitosan mixture and the hydrogel Alg/HA composed by an alginate/hyaluronate mixture. MG63 cells viability on the IBSs was evaluated, being observed a significantly higher cell viability on the Alg/HA_IBS at all time points, which indicates a better cell adaptation to the material, increasing their predisposition to produce extracellular matrix and thus allowing a better bone regeneration. Moreover, SEM analysis showed evident filopodia and a spreader shape of MG63 cells when seeded on Alg/HA_IBS. This way, based upon the in vitro results, the hydrogel Alg/HA was chosen to the in vivo study by subcutaneous implantation in an animal model, promoting a slight irritating tissue response and visible tissue repairing. The next step was to grant antimicrobial properties to the hydrogel that showed the best biological behavior by incorporation of Ce(III) ions into the Alg/HA, producing the hydrogel Alg/HA2. The antimicrobial activity of these hyaluronate-based hydrogels was evaluated against Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Candida albicans. Results showed that Ce(III) ions can significantly enhance the hydrogel antimicrobial ability without compromising the osteoconductivity improvement promoted by the vehicle association to the synthetic bone substitute.

  11. Infrared and Fluorescence Spectroscopic Investigations of the Acyl Surface Modification of Hydrogel Beads for the Deposition of a Phospholipid Coating.

    PubMed

    Grossutti, Michael; Seenath, Ryan; Lipkowski, Jacek

    2015-10-27

    The scaffolded vesicle has been employed as an alternative means of developing natural model membranes and envisioned as a potential nutraceutical transporter. Furthering the research of the scaffolded vesicle system, a nucleophilic substitution reaction was implemented to form an ester linkage between palmitate and terminal hydroxyl groups of dextran in order to hydrophobically modify the hydrogel scaffold. An average tilt angle of 38° of the hydrophobic palmitate modifying layer on the surface of the hydrogel was determined from dichroic ratios obtained from infrared spectra collected in the attenuated total reflection (ATR) configuration. ATR-IR studies of the DMPC-coated acylated hydrogel demonstrated that the hydrocarbon chains of the DMPC coating was similar to those of the DMPC bilayers and that the underlying palmitate layer had a negligible effect on the average tilt angle (26°) of the DMPC coating. The permeability of this acylated hydrogel was investigated with fluorescence spectroscopy and the terbium/dipicolinic acid assay. The hydrophobic modification on the surface of the hydrogel bead allowed for an efficient deposition of a DMPC layer that served as an impermeable barrier to terbium efflux. About 72% of DMPC-coated acylated hydrogel beads showed ideal barrier properties. The remaining 28% were leaking, but the half-life of terbium efflux of the DMPC-coated acylated hydrogel was increasing, and the total amount of leaked terbium was decreasing with the incubation time. The half-life time and the retention were considered a marked improvement relative to past scaffolded vesicle preparations. The process of acylating hydrogel beads for efficient DMPC deposition has been identified as another viable method for controlling the permeability of the scaffolded vesicle.

  12. Infrared and Fluorescence Spectroscopic Investigations of the Acyl Surface Modification of Hydrogel Beads for the Deposition of a Phospholipid Coating.

    PubMed

    Grossutti, Michael; Seenath, Ryan; Lipkowski, Jacek

    2015-10-27

    The scaffolded vesicle has been employed as an alternative means of developing natural model membranes and envisioned as a potential nutraceutical transporter. Furthering the research of the scaffolded vesicle system, a nucleophilic substitution reaction was implemented to form an ester linkage between palmitate and terminal hydroxyl groups of dextran in order to hydrophobically modify the hydrogel scaffold. An average tilt angle of 38° of the hydrophobic palmitate modifying layer on the surface of the hydrogel was determined from dichroic ratios obtained from infrared spectra collected in the attenuated total reflection (ATR) configuration. ATR-IR studies of the DMPC-coated acylated hydrogel demonstrated that the hydrocarbon chains of the DMPC coating was similar to those of the DMPC bilayers and that the underlying palmitate layer had a negligible effect on the average tilt angle (26°) of the DMPC coating. The permeability of this acylated hydrogel was investigated with fluorescence spectroscopy and the terbium/dipicolinic acid assay. The hydrophobic modification on the surface of the hydrogel bead allowed for an efficient deposition of a DMPC layer that served as an impermeable barrier to terbium efflux. About 72% of DMPC-coated acylated hydrogel beads showed ideal barrier properties. The remaining 28% were leaking, but the half-life of terbium efflux of the DMPC-coated acylated hydrogel was increasing, and the total amount of leaked terbium was decreasing with the incubation time. The half-life time and the retention were considered a marked improvement relative to past scaffolded vesicle preparations. The process of acylating hydrogel beads for efficient DMPC deposition has been identified as another viable method for controlling the permeability of the scaffolded vesicle. PMID:26429738

  13. Fe(0)-Fe3O4 nanocomposites embedded polyvinyl alcohol/sodium alginate beads for chromium (VI) removal.

    PubMed

    Lv, Xiaoshu; Jiang, Guangming; Xue, Xiaoqin; Wu, Donglei; Sheng, Tiantian; Sun, Chen; Xu, Xinhua

    2013-11-15

    In this study, Fe(0)-Fe3O4 nanocomposites embedded polyvinyl alcohol (PVA)/sodium alginate (SA) beads were synthesized, which exhibited an excellent physical properties and catalytic reactivity, and a robust performance of post-separation (complete separation using a simple grille) and reusability (efficiency of 69.8% after four runs) in Cr(VI) removal. 5.0 wt% PVA with 1.5 wt% SA was the optimal proportion for beads molding, and the followed acidification and reduction treatments were critical to ensure high mechanical strength and high Cr(VI) removal ability of beads. Effects of Fe(0) and Fe3O4 mass fraction, initial pH and Cr(VI) concentration on final removal efficiency were also evaluated. Merely 0.075 wt% Fe(0) together with 0.30 wt% Fe3O4 was sufficient to deal with 20 mg L(-1) Cr(VI) solution. The efficiency decreased from 100 to 79.5% as initial Cr(VI) increased from 5 to 40 mg L(-1), while from 99.3 to 76.3% with increasing pH from 3.0 to 11.0. This work provides a practical and high-efficient method for heavy metal removal from water body, and simultaneously solves the problems in stabilization, separation and regeneration of Fe(0) nanoparticles.

  14. Chitosan coated alginate-xanthan gum bead enhanced pH and thermotolerance of Lactobacillus plantarum LAB12.

    PubMed

    Fareez, Ismail M; Lim, Siong Meng; Mishra, Rakesh K; Ramasamy, Kalavathy

    2015-01-01

    The vulnerability of probiotics at low pH and high temperature has limited their optimal use as nutraceuticals. This study addressed these issues by adopting a physicochemical driven approach of incorporating Lactobacillus plantarum LAB12 into chitosan (Ch) coated alginate-xanthan gum (Alg-XG) beads. Characterisation of Alg-XG-Ch, which elicited little effect on bead size and polydispersity, demonstrated good miscibility with improved bead surface smoothness and L. plantarum LAB12 entrapment when compared to Alg, Alg-Ch and Alg-XG. Sequential incubation of Alg-XG-Ch in simulated gastric juice and intestinal fluid yielded high survival rate of L. plantarum LAB12 (95%) at pH 1.8 which in turn facilitated sufficient release of probiotics (>7 log CFU/g) at pH 6.8 in both time- and pH-dependent manner. Whilst minimising viability loss at 75 and 90 °C, Alg-XG-Ch improved storage durability of L. plantarum LAB12 at 4 °C. The present results implied the possible use of L. plantarum LAB12 incorporated in Alg-XG-Ch as new functional food ingredient with health claims.

  15. Preparation and characterization of a novel sodium alginate incorporated self-assembled Fmoc-FF composite hydrogel.

    PubMed

    Gong, Xiao; Branford-White, Christopher; Tao, Lei; Li, Shubai; Quan, Jing; Nie, Huali; Zhu, Limin

    2016-01-01

    Dipeptides and their derivatives have attracted tremendous attention owning to their excellent abilities of self-assemble assembling into various structures which have great potentials for applications in biology and/or nanotechnology. In the present study, we dedicate to fabricate a rigid and structure controllable Fmoc-FF/SA composite hydrogel. We found that the modified dipeptide, fluorenyl-9-methoxycarbonyl (Fmoc)-diphenylalanine (Phe-Phe) can self-assemble into rigid hydrogels with structures of nanowires, layered thin films or honeycombs as the change of sodium alginate (SA) concentration. Meanwhile, CD-spectroscopy demonstrated that SA appeared to control the process, but it did not change the arrangement of the Fmoc-FF peptide. Our results demonstrated that the formed hydrogel showed physical and chemical stability as well as possessing good biocompatibility. Rheological measurements showed that the addition of SA could improve the stability of the hydrogel. Cell viability assay revealed that the Fmoc-FF and Fmoc-FF/SA hydrogels are both beneficial for cell proliferation in-vitro. Our results indicated that the fabricated Fmoc-FF/SA composite hydrogels could be used in tissue engineering and drug delivery in the future. PMID:26478335

  16. Preparation and characterization of a novel sodium alginate incorporated self-assembled Fmoc-FF composite hydrogel.

    PubMed

    Gong, Xiao; Branford-White, Christopher; Tao, Lei; Li, Shubai; Quan, Jing; Nie, Huali; Zhu, Limin

    2016-01-01

    Dipeptides and their derivatives have attracted tremendous attention owning to their excellent abilities of self-assemble assembling into various structures which have great potentials for applications in biology and/or nanotechnology. In the present study, we dedicate to fabricate a rigid and structure controllable Fmoc-FF/SA composite hydrogel. We found that the modified dipeptide, fluorenyl-9-methoxycarbonyl (Fmoc)-diphenylalanine (Phe-Phe) can self-assemble into rigid hydrogels with structures of nanowires, layered thin films or honeycombs as the change of sodium alginate (SA) concentration. Meanwhile, CD-spectroscopy demonstrated that SA appeared to control the process, but it did not change the arrangement of the Fmoc-FF peptide. Our results demonstrated that the formed hydrogel showed physical and chemical stability as well as possessing good biocompatibility. Rheological measurements showed that the addition of SA could improve the stability of the hydrogel. Cell viability assay revealed that the Fmoc-FF and Fmoc-FF/SA hydrogels are both beneficial for cell proliferation in-vitro. Our results indicated that the fabricated Fmoc-FF/SA composite hydrogels could be used in tissue engineering and drug delivery in the future.

  17. Alginate-okra gum blend beads of diclofenac sodium from aqueous template using ZnSO4 as a cross-linker.

    PubMed

    Sinha, Priyanka; Ubaidulla, U; Hasnain, M Saquib; Nayak, Amit Kumar; Rama, Bobba

    2015-08-01

    Zinc (Zn(2+))-ion induced diclofenac sodium (DS)-loaded alginate-okra (Hibiscus esculentus) gum (OG) blend beads was successfully formulated through Zn(2+)-ion induced ionic-gelation cross-linking method in a complete aqueous environment. Effects of polymer-blend ratio and cross-linker concentration on drug encapsulation efficiency (DEE) and cumulative drug release at 8 h (R8h) were optimized by 3(2)-factorial design. The optimized formulation of Zn(2+)-ion induced DS-loaded alginate-OG beads demonstrated 89.27±3.58% of DEE and 43.73±2.83% of R8h. The bead sizes were within 1.10±0.07 to 1.38±0.14 mm. The bead surface morphology was analyzed by SEM. The drug-polymer interaction in the optimized bead matrix was analyzed by FTIR and P-XRD. These beads exhibited sustained in vitro drug release over a prolonged period of 8h and followed controlled-release (zero-order) pattern with super case-II transport mechanism. The swelling and degradation of the optimized beads was influenced by the pH of test mediums, which might be suitable for intestinal drug delivery.

  18. Alginate-okra gum blend beads of diclofenac sodium from aqueous template using ZnSO4 as a cross-linker.

    PubMed

    Sinha, Priyanka; Ubaidulla, U; Hasnain, M Saquib; Nayak, Amit Kumar; Rama, Bobba

    2015-08-01

    Zinc (Zn(2+))-ion induced diclofenac sodium (DS)-loaded alginate-okra (Hibiscus esculentus) gum (OG) blend beads was successfully formulated through Zn(2+)-ion induced ionic-gelation cross-linking method in a complete aqueous environment. Effects of polymer-blend ratio and cross-linker concentration on drug encapsulation efficiency (DEE) and cumulative drug release at 8 h (R8h) were optimized by 3(2)-factorial design. The optimized formulation of Zn(2+)-ion induced DS-loaded alginate-OG beads demonstrated 89.27±3.58% of DEE and 43.73±2.83% of R8h. The bead sizes were within 1.10±0.07 to 1.38±0.14 mm. The bead surface morphology was analyzed by SEM. The drug-polymer interaction in the optimized bead matrix was analyzed by FTIR and P-XRD. These beads exhibited sustained in vitro drug release over a prolonged period of 8h and followed controlled-release (zero-order) pattern with super case-II transport mechanism. The swelling and degradation of the optimized beads was influenced by the pH of test mediums, which might be suitable for intestinal drug delivery. PMID:25987461

  19. Plantago ovata F. Mucilage-Alginate Mucoadhesive Beads for Controlled Release of Glibenclamide: Development, Optimization, and In Vitro-In Vivo Evaluation.

    PubMed

    Nayak, Amit Kumar; Pal, Dilipkumar; Santra, Kousik

    2013-01-01

    The current study deals with the development and optimization of ispaghula (Plantago ovata F.) husk mucilage- (IHM-) alginate mucoadhesive beads containing glibenclamide by ionotropic gelation technique. The effects of sodium alginate (SA) to IHM and cross-linker (CaCl2) concentration on the drug encapsulation efficiency (DEE, %), as well as cumulative drug release after 10 hours (R10 h, %), were optimized using 3(2) factorial design based on response surface methodology. The observed responses were coincided well with the predicted values by the experimental design. The optimized mucoadhesive beads exhibited 94.43 ± 4.80% w/w of DEE and good mucoadhesivity with the biological membrane in wash-off test and sustained drug release profile over 10 hours. The beads were also characterized by SEM and FTIR analyses. The in vitro drug release from these beads was followed by controlled release (zero-order) pattern with super case-II transport mechanism. The optimized glibenclamide-loaded IHM-alginate mucoadhesive beads showed significant antidiabetic effect in alloxan-induced diabetic rats over prolonged period after oral administration. PMID:26555967

  20. Efficiency of barium removal from radioactive waste water using the combination of maghemite and titania nanoparticles in PVA and alginate beads.

    PubMed

    Majidnia, Zohreh; Idris, Ani; Majid, MuhdZaimiAbd; Zin, RosliMohamad; Ponraj, Mohanadoss

    2015-11-01

    In this paper, both maghemite (γ-Fe2O3) and titanium oxide (TiO2) nanoparticles were synthesized and mixed in various ratios and embedded in PVA and alginate beads. Batch sorption experiments were applied for removal of barium ions from aqueous solution under sunlight using the beads. The process has been investigated as a function of pH, contact time, temperature, initial barium ion concentration and TiO2:γ-Fe2O3 ratios (1:10, 1:60 and 1). The recycling attributes of these beads were also considered. Furthermore, the results revealed that 99% of the Ba(II) was eliminated in 150min at pH 8 under sunlight. Also, the maghemite and titania PVA-alginate beads can be readily isolated from the aqueous solution after the process and reused for at least 7 times without significant losses of their initial properties. The reduction of Ba(II) with maghemite and titania PVA-alginate beads fitted the pseudo first order and second order Langmuir-Hinshelwood (L-H) kinetic model.

  1. Efficiency of barium removal from radioactive waste water using the combination of maghemite and titania nanoparticles in PVA and alginate beads.

    PubMed

    Majidnia, Zohreh; Idris, Ani; Majid, MuhdZaimiAbd; Zin, RosliMohamad; Ponraj, Mohanadoss

    2015-11-01

    In this paper, both maghemite (γ-Fe2O3) and titanium oxide (TiO2) nanoparticles were synthesized and mixed in various ratios and embedded in PVA and alginate beads. Batch sorption experiments were applied for removal of barium ions from aqueous solution under sunlight using the beads. The process has been investigated as a function of pH, contact time, temperature, initial barium ion concentration and TiO2:γ-Fe2O3 ratios (1:10, 1:60 and 1). The recycling attributes of these beads were also considered. Furthermore, the results revealed that 99% of the Ba(II) was eliminated in 150min at pH 8 under sunlight. Also, the maghemite and titania PVA-alginate beads can be readily isolated from the aqueous solution after the process and reused for at least 7 times without significant losses of their initial properties. The reduction of Ba(II) with maghemite and titania PVA-alginate beads fitted the pseudo first order and second order Langmuir-Hinshelwood (L-H) kinetic model. PMID:26275818

  2. Influence of a cationic surfactant on adsorption of p-nitrophenol by a magsorbent based on magnetic alginate beads.

    PubMed

    Obeid, Layaly; El Kolli, Nadia; Talbot, Delphine; Welschbillig, Mathias; Bée, Agnès

    2015-11-01

    The paper focuses on the removal of p-nitrophenol by an adsorption process. A magnetic adsorbent was synthesized by encapsulation of magnetic functionalized nanoparticles using alginate as a green biopolymer matrix. A cationic surfactant, cetylpyridinium chloride (CPyCl), was used to confer a hydrophobic character to the magnetic beads and thus to promote their adsorption efficiency. The effect of different parameters such as initial concentrations of both PNP and CPyCl, contact time and solution pH value on the adsorption of PNP in the presence of CPyCl was investigated. It should be noted that combination of magnetic and adsorption properties in a same material is an interesting challenge which could overcome the recovery problems of pollutant-loaded adsorbent. PMID:26188728

  3. Biodegradation of wastewater pollutants by activated sludge encapsulated inside calcium-alginate beads in a tubular packed bed reactor.

    PubMed

    Sergio, A Martinez D; Bustos, T Yaneth

    2009-09-01

    The wastewater treatment plants produce large quantities of biomass (sludge) that require about one-third of the total inversion and operation plant costs for their treatment. By the microorganisms immobilization it is possible to handle high cell concentration in the reactor, increasing its efficiency, reducing the loss of biomass and the wash out is avoided. Moreover, there is no cell growth then the sludge production is reduced. In this study, the COD removal and VSS variation were modeled in a tubular reactor with activated sludge immobilized in Ca-alginate. Moreover, two aspects that are commonly not considered in the performance of the actual reactors of this kind were introduced; the performance in non-steady state and the dispersion effect. The model was calibrated with an actual wastewater taken out from a Mexican wastewater treatment plant. The results of the performance of the tubular bioreactor at different scenarios (i.e., different residence time and VSS in the reactor) are presented. With longer residence times and higher VSS concentration in the Ca-alginate beads in the tubular bioreactor it is possible to increase the time operation of the bioreactor and to treat higher volumes of wastewater. During the process, the sludge generation was drastically reduced and it is possible to remove nitrogen form the wastewater making this process more attractive.

  4. Bioplotting of a bioactive alginate dialdehyde-gelatin composite hydrogel containing bioactive glass nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Leite, Álvaro J; Sarker, Bapi; Zehnder, Tobias; Silva, Raquel; Mano, João F; Boccaccini, Aldo R

    2016-01-01

    Alginate dialdehyde-gelatin (ADA-GEL) constructs incorporating bioactive glass nanoparticles (BGNPs) were produced by biofabrication to obtain a grid-like highly-hydrated composite. The material could induce the deposition of an apatite layer upon immersion in a biological-like environment to sustain cell attachment and proliferation. Composites were formulated with different concentrations of BGNPs synthetized from a sol-gel route, namely 0.1% and 0.5% (w/v). Strontium doped BGNPs were also used. EDS analysis suggested that the BGNPs loading promoted the growth of bone-like apatite layer on the surface when the constructs were immersed in a simulated body fluid. Moreover, the composite constructs could incorporate with high efficiency ibuprofen as a drug model. Furthermore, the biofabrication process allowed the successful incorporation of MG-63 cells into the composite material. Cells were distributed homogeneously within the hydrogel composite, and no differences were found in cell viability between ADA-GEL and the composite constructs, proving that the addition of BGNPs did not influence cell fate. Overall, the composite material showed potential for future applications in bone tissue engineering. PMID:27432012

  5. Spray-by-spray in situ cross-linking alginate hydrogels delivering a tea tree oil microemulsion.

    PubMed

    Catanzano, O; Straccia, M C; Miro, A; Ungaro, F; Romano, I; Mazzarella, G; Santagata, G; Quaglia, F; Laurienzo, P; Malinconico, M

    2015-01-23

    In this paper we propose an in situ forming ionically cross-linked alginate (Alg) hydrogel delivering a Tea Tree Oil microemulsion (MeTTO) and potentially useful as an advanced dressing for infected wounds. Alg hydrogels were prepared by a spray-by-spray deposition method with the aim to minimize the discomforts during application. From pseudoternary phase diagrams, it was found that proper combination of TTO, water, polysorbate 80 and ethanol gave stable spherical MeTTO with good antimicrobial activity. On this basis, MeTTO at 20% TTO was selected for further inclusion in an Alg hydrogel prepared by alternating sprays of Alg/MeTTO and calcium chloride solutions. Homogeneous dispersion of MeTTO inside cross-linked Alg was assessed by different macroscopic and microscopic methods demonstrating the superior propensity of MeTTO to be integrated in the water-based hydrogel as compared to TTO. Antimicrobial effect of Alg/MeTTO hydrogels on Escherichia Coli strains was remarkable, highlighting the potential of the system as bioactive wound dressing. PMID:25277680

  6. Suppression of leaf feeding and oviposition of phytophagous ladybird beetles (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) by chitinase gene-transformed phylloplane bacteria and their specific bacteriophages entrapped in alginate gel beads.

    PubMed

    Otsu, Yasunari; Mori, Hirofumi; Komuta, Kenji; Shimizu, Hiroyuki; Nogawa, Souta; Matsuda, Yoshinori; Nonomura, Teruo; Sakuratani, Yasuyuki; Tosa, Yukio; Mayama, Shigeyuki; Toyoda, Hideyoshi

    2003-06-01

    The chitinase gene-transformed strain KPM-007E/chi of Enterobacter cloacae was vitally entrapped in sodium alginate gel beads with its specific virulent bacteriophage EcP-01 to provide a new method for microbially digesting chitinous peritrophic membranes of phytophagous ladybird beetles Epilachna vigintioctopunctata. First, chitinase SH1 from a gram-positive bacterium Kurthia zopfii was overproduced by Escherichia coli cells and purified by affinity column chromatography. The purified enzyme effectively digested peritrophic membranes dissected from the ladybird beetles to expose epithelial tissues beneath the peritrophic membrane, and the beetles that had ingested chitinase after submergence in chitinase solution had considerably reduced their feeding on tomato leaves. KPM-007E/chi, entrapped in the alginate beads, released the chitinase. More chitinase was released when KPM-007E/chi was present with their specific virulent bacteriophage EcP-01 in the beads because of lysis of bacterial cells infected with the bacteriophages. This chitinase release from the microbial beads (containing KPM-007E/chi and EcP-01) was sufficient to digest the peritrophic membrane as well as to suppress feeding of bead-sprayed tomato leaves by the ladybird beetles. A daily supply of tomato leaves treated with the microbial beads considerably suppressed leaf feeding and oviposition by the ladybird beetles, suggesting a possible application of chitinase-secreting bacteria for suppressing herbivorous insect pests.

  7. Development of a sodium alginate-based organic/inorganic superabsorbent composite hydrogel for adsorption of methylene blue.

    PubMed

    Thakur, Sourbh; Pandey, Sadanand; Arotiba, Omotayo A

    2016-11-20

    Batch adsorption experiments were carried out for the removal of methylene blue (MB) cationic dye from aqueous solution using organic/inorganic hydrogel nanocomposite of titania incorporated sodium alginate crosslinked polyacrylic acid (SA-cl-poly(AA)-TiO2). The hydrogel was prepared by graft copolymerization of acrylic acid (AA) onto sodium alginate (SA) biopolymer in the presence of a crosslinking agent, a free radical initiator and TiO2 nanoparticles. The hydrogel exhibited a high swelling capacity of 412.98g/g. The factors influencing adsorption capacity of the absorbents such as pH of the dye solutions, initial concentration of the dye, amount of absorbents, and temperature were investigated and used to propose a possible mechanism of adsorption. The adsorption process concurs with a pseudo-second-order kinetics and with Langmuir isotherm equation. A very high adsorption capacity (Qmax=2257.36 (mg/g)) and a correlation coefficient of 0.998 calculated from isotherm equations show the high efficiency of the absorbent and thus expected to be a good candidate as an absorbent for water treatment.

  8. Development of a sodium alginate-based organic/inorganic superabsorbent composite hydrogel for adsorption of methylene blue.

    PubMed

    Thakur, Sourbh; Pandey, Sadanand; Arotiba, Omotayo A

    2016-11-20

    Batch adsorption experiments were carried out for the removal of methylene blue (MB) cationic dye from aqueous solution using organic/inorganic hydrogel nanocomposite of titania incorporated sodium alginate crosslinked polyacrylic acid (SA-cl-poly(AA)-TiO2). The hydrogel was prepared by graft copolymerization of acrylic acid (AA) onto sodium alginate (SA) biopolymer in the presence of a crosslinking agent, a free radical initiator and TiO2 nanoparticles. The hydrogel exhibited a high swelling capacity of 412.98g/g. The factors influencing adsorption capacity of the absorbents such as pH of the dye solutions, initial concentration of the dye, amount of absorbents, and temperature were investigated and used to propose a possible mechanism of adsorption. The adsorption process concurs with a pseudo-second-order kinetics and with Langmuir isotherm equation. A very high adsorption capacity (Qmax=2257.36 (mg/g)) and a correlation coefficient of 0.998 calculated from isotherm equations show the high efficiency of the absorbent and thus expected to be a good candidate as an absorbent for water treatment. PMID:27561469

  9. 3D Dynamic Culture of Rabbit Articular Chondrocytes Encapsulated in Alginate Gel Beads Using Spinner Flasks for Cartilage Tissue Regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Feiyue; Xu, Lei; Wang, Qi; Ye, Zhaoyang; Zhou, Yan; Tan, Wen-Song

    2014-01-01

    Cell-based therapy using chondrocytes for cartilage repair suffers from chondrocyte dedifferentiation. In the present study, the effects of an integrated three-dimensional and dynamic culture on rabbit articular chondrocytes were investigated. Cells (passages 1 and 4) were encapsulated in alginate gel beads and cultured in spinner flasks in chondrogenic and chondrocyte growth media. Subcutaneous implantation of the cell-laden beads was performed to evaluate the ectopic chondrogenesis. It was found that cells remained viable after 35 days in the three-dimensional dynamic culture. Passage 1 cells demonstrated a proliferative growth in both media. Passage 4 cells showed a gradual reduction in DNA content in growth medium, which was attenuated in chondrogenic medium. Deposition of glycosaminoglycans (GAG) was found in all cultures. While passage 1 cells generally produced higher amounts of GAG than passage 4 cells, GAG/DNA became similar on day 35 for both cells in growth media. Interestingly, GAG/DNA in growth medium was greater than that in chondrogenic medium for both cells. Based on GAG quantification and gene expression analysis, encapsulated passage 1 cells cultured in growth medium displayed the best ectopic chondrogenesis. Taken together, the three-dimensional and dynamic culture for chondrocytes holds great potential in cartilage regeneration. PMID:25506593

  10. In situ injectable nano-composite hydrogel composed of curcumin, N,O-carboxymethyl chitosan and oxidized alginate for wound healing application.

    PubMed

    Li, Xingyi; Chen, Shuo; Zhang, Binjun; Li, Mei; Diao, Kai; Zhang, Zhaoliang; Li, Jie; Xu, Yu; Wang, Xianhuo; Chen, Hao

    2012-11-01

    In this paper, an in situ injectable nano-composite hydrogel composed of curcumin, N,O-carboxymethyl chitosan and oxidized alginate as a novel wound dressing was successfully developed for the dermal wound repair application. Nano-curcumin with improved stability and similar antioxidant efficiency compared with that of unmodified curcumin was developed by using methoxy poly(ethylene glycol)-b-poly(ε-caprolactone) copolymer (MPEG-PCL) as carrier followed by incorporating into the N,O-carboxymethyl chitosan/oxidized alginate hydrogel (CCS-OA hydrogel). In vitro release study revealed that the encapsulated nano-curcumin was slowly released from CCS-OA hydrogel with the diffusion-controllable manner at initial phase followed by the corrosion manner of hydrogel at terminal phase. In vivo wound healing study was performed by injecting hydrogels on rat dorsal wounds. Histological study revealed that application of nano-curcumin/CCS-OA hydrogel could significantly enhance the re-epithelialization of epidermis and collagen deposition in the wound tissue. DNA, protein and hydroxyproline content in wound tissue from each group were measured on 7th day of post wounding and the results also indicated that combined using nano-curcumin and CCS-OA hydrogel could significantly accelerate the process of wound healing. Therefore, all these results suggested that the developed nano-curcumin/CCS-OA hydrogel as a promising wound dressing might have potential application in the wound healing. PMID:22903048

  11. Orally administered, insulin-loaded amidated pectin hydrogel beads sustain plasma concentrations of insulin in streptozotocin-diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Musabayane, C T; Munjeri, O; Bwititi, P; Osim, E E

    2000-01-01

    We report successful oral administration of insulin entrapped in amidated pectin hydrogel beads in streptozotocin (STZ)-diabetic rats, with a concomitant reduction in plasma glucose concentration. The pectin-insulin (PI) beads were prepared by the gelation of humilin-pectin solutions in the presence of calcium. Separate groups of STZ-diabetic rats were orally administered two PI beads (30 micrograms insulin) once or twice daily or three beads (46 micrograms) once daily for 2 weeks. Control non-diabetic and STZ-diabetic rats were orally administered pectin hydrogel drug-free beads. By comparison with control non-diabetic rats, untreated STZ-diabetic rats exhibited significantly low plasma insulin concentration (0.32+/-0. 03 ng/ml, n=6, compared with 2.60+/-0.44 ng/ml in controls, n=6) and increased plasma glucose concentrations (25.84+/-1.44 mmol/l compared with 10.72+/- 0.52 mmol/l in controls). Administration of two PI beads twice daily (60 micrograms active insulin) or three beads (46 micrograms) once a day to STZ-diabetic rats increased plasma insulin concentrations (0.89+/-0.09 ng/ml and 1.85+/- 0.26 ng/ml, respectively), with a concomitant reduction in plasma glucose concentration (15.45+/-1.63 mmol/l and 10.56+/-0.26 mmol/l, respectively). However, a single dose of PI beads (30 micrograms) did not affect plasma insulin concentrations, although plasma glucose concentrations (17.82+/-2.98 mmol/l) were significantly reduced compared with those in untreated STZ-diabetic rats. Pharmacokinetic parameters in STZ-diabetic rats show that the orally administered PI beads (30 micrograms insulin) were more effective in sustaining plasma insulin concentrations than was s.c. insulin (30 micrograms). The data from this study suggest that this insulin-loaded amidated pectin hydrogel bead formulation not only produces sustained release of insulin, but may also reduce plasma glucose concentration in diabetes mellitus.

  12. Isolation of Inositol Hexaphosphate (IHP)-Degrading Bacteria from Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungal Hyphal Compartments Using a Modified Baiting Method Involving Alginate Beads Containing IHP

    PubMed Central

    Hara, Shintaro; Saito, Masanori

    2016-01-01

    Phytate (inositol hexaphosphate; IHP)-degrading microbes have been suggested to contribute to arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF)-mediated P transfer from IHP to plants; however, no IHP degrader involved in AMF-mediated P transfer has been isolated to date. We herein report the isolation of IHP-degrading bacteria using a modified baiting method. We applied alginate beads as carriers of IHP powder, and used them as recoverable IHP in the AM fungal compartment of plant cultivation experiments. P transfer from IHP in alginate beads via AMF was confirmed, and extracted DNA from alginate beads was analyzed by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis targeting the 16S rRNA gene and a clone library method for the beta-propeller phytase (BPP) gene. The diversities of the 16S rRNA and BPP genes of microbes growing on IHP beads were simple and those of Sphingomonas spp. and Caulobacter spp. dominated. A total of 187 IHP-utilizing bacteria were isolated and identified, and they were consistent with the results of DNA analysis. Furthermore, some isolated Sphingomonas spp. and Caulobacter sp. showed IHP-degrading activity. Therefore, we successfully isolated dominant IHP-degrading bacteria from IHP in an AMF hyphal compartment. These strains may contribute to P transfer from IHP via AMF. PMID:27383681

  13. Hydroxyapatite-doped alginate beads as scaffolds for the osteoblastic differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells.

    PubMed

    Wang, Martha O; Bracaglia, Laura; Thompson, Joshua A; Fisher, John P

    2016-09-01

    This work investigates the role of an osteoblastic matrix component, hydroxyapatite (HA), in modular alginate scaffolds to support osteoblastic differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells for the purpose of tissue engineered bone constructs. This system is first evaluated in a tubular perfusion bioreactor, which has been shown to improve osteoblastic differentiation over static culture conditions. HMSCs in alginate scaffolds that contain HA show increased osteoblastic gene expression compared to cells in pure alginate scaffolds, as well as significantly more matrix production and mineralization. The differentiated hMSCs and cell-laid matrix are ultimately evaluated in an in vivo site specific model. Implantation of these scaffolds with preformed matrix into the rat femoral condyle defects results in abundant bone growth and significant incorporation of the scaffold into the surrounding tissue. The developed mineralized matrix, induced in part by the HA component in the scaffold, could lead to increased tissue development in critically sized defects, and should be included in future implant strategies. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part A: 104A: 2325-2333, 2016.

  14. Photo-activated ionic gelation of alginate hydrogel: real-time rheological monitoring of the two-step crosslinking mechanism.

    PubMed

    Higham, Alina K; Bonino, Christopher A; Raghavan, Srinivasa R; Khan, Saad A

    2014-07-21

    We examine the gelation of alginate undergoing ionic crosslinking upon ultraviolet (UV) irradiation using in situ dynamic rheology. Hydrogels are formed by combining alginate with calcium carbonate (CaCO3) particles and a photoacid generator (PAG). The PAG is photolyzed upon UV irradiation, resulting in the release of free calcium ions for ionic crosslinking. The viscous and elastic moduli during gelation are monitored as a function of the UV irradiation intensity, exposure time, alginate concentration, and the ratio between alginate and calcium carbonate. Gel time decreases as irradiation intensity increases because a larger concentration of PAG is photolyzed. Interestingly, dark curing, the continuing growth of microstructure in the absence of UV light, is observed. In some instances, the sample transitions from a solution to a gel during the dark curing phase. Additionally, when exposed to constant UV irradiation after the dark curing phase, samples reach the same plateau modulus as samples exposed to constant UV without dark curing, implying that dark curing does not affect the gelation mechanism. We believe the presence of dark curing is the result of the acidic environment persisting within the sample, allowing CaCO3 to dissociate, thereby releasing free Ca(2+) ions capable of binding with the available appropriate ionic blocks of the polymer chains. The growth of microstructure is then detected if the activation barrier has been crossed to release sufficient calcium ions. In this regard, we calculate a value of 30 J that represents the activation energy required to initiate gelation.

  15. Photo-activated ionic gelation of alginate hydrogel: real-time rheological monitoring of the two-step crosslinking mechanism.

    PubMed

    Higham, Alina K; Bonino, Christopher A; Raghavan, Srinivasa R; Khan, Saad A

    2014-07-21

    We examine the gelation of alginate undergoing ionic crosslinking upon ultraviolet (UV) irradiation using in situ dynamic rheology. Hydrogels are formed by combining alginate with calcium carbonate (CaCO3) particles and a photoacid generator (PAG). The PAG is photolyzed upon UV irradiation, resulting in the release of free calcium ions for ionic crosslinking. The viscous and elastic moduli during gelation are monitored as a function of the UV irradiation intensity, exposure time, alginate concentration, and the ratio between alginate and calcium carbonate. Gel time decreases as irradiation intensity increases because a larger concentration of PAG is photolyzed. Interestingly, dark curing, the continuing growth of microstructure in the absence of UV light, is observed. In some instances, the sample transitions from a solution to a gel during the dark curing phase. Additionally, when exposed to constant UV irradiation after the dark curing phase, samples reach the same plateau modulus as samples exposed to constant UV without dark curing, implying that dark curing does not affect the gelation mechanism. We believe the presence of dark curing is the result of the acidic environment persisting within the sample, allowing CaCO3 to dissociate, thereby releasing free Ca(2+) ions capable of binding with the available appropriate ionic blocks of the polymer chains. The growth of microstructure is then detected if the activation barrier has been crossed to release sufficient calcium ions. In this regard, we calculate a value of 30 J that represents the activation energy required to initiate gelation. PMID:24894636

  16. Biodegradation of tetrahydrofuran by Pseudomonas oleovorans DT4 immobilized in calcium alginate beads impregnated with activated carbon fiber: mass transfer effect and continuous treatment.

    PubMed

    Chen, Dong-Zhi; Fang, Jun-Yi; Shao, Qian; Ye, Jie-Xu; Ouyang, Du-Juan; Chen, Jian-Meng

    2013-07-01

    A novel entrapment matrix, calcium alginate (CA) coupled with activated carbon fiber (ACF), was prepared to immobilize Pseudomonas oleovorans DT4 for degrading tetrahydrofuran (THF). The addition of 1.5% ACF increased the adsorption capacity of the immobilized bead, thus resulting in an enhanced average removal rate of 30.3mg/(Lh). The synergism between adsorption and biodegradation was observed in the hybrid CA-ACF beads instead of in the system comprising CA beads and freely suspended ACF. The effective diffusion coefficient of the CA-ACF bead was not significantly affected by bead size, but the bead's value of 1.14×10(-6)cm(2)/s (for the bead diameter of 0.4 cm) was larger than that of the CA bead by almost one order of magnitude based on the intraparticle diffusion-reaction kinetics analysis. Continuous treatment of the THF-containing wastewater was succeeded by CA-ACF immobilized cells in a packed-bed reactor for 54 d with a >90% removal efficiency. PMID:23644074

  17. Biodegradation of tetrahydrofuran by Pseudomonas oleovorans DT4 immobilized in calcium alginate beads impregnated with activated carbon fiber: mass transfer effect and continuous treatment.

    PubMed

    Chen, Dong-Zhi; Fang, Jun-Yi; Shao, Qian; Ye, Jie-Xu; Ouyang, Du-Juan; Chen, Jian-Meng

    2013-07-01

    A novel entrapment matrix, calcium alginate (CA) coupled with activated carbon fiber (ACF), was prepared to immobilize Pseudomonas oleovorans DT4 for degrading tetrahydrofuran (THF). The addition of 1.5% ACF increased the adsorption capacity of the immobilized bead, thus resulting in an enhanced average removal rate of 30.3mg/(Lh). The synergism between adsorption and biodegradation was observed in the hybrid CA-ACF beads instead of in the system comprising CA beads and freely suspended ACF. The effective diffusion coefficient of the CA-ACF bead was not significantly affected by bead size, but the bead's value of 1.14×10(-6)cm(2)/s (for the bead diameter of 0.4 cm) was larger than that of the CA bead by almost one order of magnitude based on the intraparticle diffusion-reaction kinetics analysis. Continuous treatment of the THF-containing wastewater was succeeded by CA-ACF immobilized cells in a packed-bed reactor for 54 d with a >90% removal efficiency.

  18. Use of alginate beads as carriers for lactic acid bacteria in a structured system and preliminary validation in a meat product.

    PubMed

    Corbo, Maria Rosaria; Bevilacqua, Antonio; Speranza, Barbara; Di Maggio, Barbara; Gallo, Mariangela; Sinigaglia, Milena

    2016-01-01

    This paper proposes the microencapsulation into alginate beads of 4 isolates of lactic acid bacteria (Lactobacillus spp.), previously isolated from pork meat. First, the beads were studied in relation to the encapsulation yield (EY), kinetic of cell release in a structured system, and survival throughout bead storage at 4 °C. EY was 93-96% and the survival of the encapsulated microorganisms was variable, with two isolates showing a bacterial population of 6.1-6.9 log cfu/g after 35 days under refrigerated conditions. Thereafter, the paper addressed a preliminary validation in a meat model system, containing salt, nitrites and nitrates, lactose, pepper, and then in a commercial preparation of pork meat. For the validation in pork meat, free cells were used as controls. Cell released from beads were able to achieve a significant acidification; in particular, after 7 days they showed the same results of free cells. PMID:26476507

  19. Use of alginate beads as carriers for lactic acid bacteria in a structured system and preliminary validation in a meat product.

    PubMed

    Corbo, Maria Rosaria; Bevilacqua, Antonio; Speranza, Barbara; Di Maggio, Barbara; Gallo, Mariangela; Sinigaglia, Milena

    2016-01-01

    This paper proposes the microencapsulation into alginate beads of 4 isolates of lactic acid bacteria (Lactobacillus spp.), previously isolated from pork meat. First, the beads were studied in relation to the encapsulation yield (EY), kinetic of cell release in a structured system, and survival throughout bead storage at 4 °C. EY was 93-96% and the survival of the encapsulated microorganisms was variable, with two isolates showing a bacterial population of 6.1-6.9 log cfu/g after 35 days under refrigerated conditions. Thereafter, the paper addressed a preliminary validation in a meat model system, containing salt, nitrites and nitrates, lactose, pepper, and then in a commercial preparation of pork meat. For the validation in pork meat, free cells were used as controls. Cell released from beads were able to achieve a significant acidification; in particular, after 7 days they showed the same results of free cells.

  20. Multifunctional interpenetrating polymer network hydrogels based on methacrylated alginate for the delivery of small molecule drugs and sustained release of protein.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Jun; Zhao, Xin; Guo, Baolin; Ma, Peter X

    2014-09-01

    Multifunctional injectable thermo-/pH-responsive hydrogels as release systems for the oral delivery of small molecule drugs and the local delivery of protein are presented. The injectable interpenetrating polymer network (IPN) hydrogels based on poly(ethylene glycol) methacrylate, N-isopropylacrylamide, and methacrylated alginate were prepared by using ammonium persulfate (APS) and N,N,N',N'-tetramethylethylenediamine (TEMED) as a redox initiator system at body temperature, and the obtained hydrogels overcame the instability of calcium cross-linked alginate hydrogels under physiological conditions. The hydrogels showed good mechanical strength by rheometer and exhibited temperature and pH sensitivity by a swelling test. Diclofenac sodium (DCS) as a model for small molecule water-soluble anti-inflammatory drugs and bovine serum albumin (BSA) as a model for protein drugs were encapsulated in situ in the hydrogel. The DCS and BSA release results indicated that these hydrogels, as carriers, have great potential for use in the oral delivery of small molecule drugs and for long-term localized protein release. Furthermore, the cytotoxicity of these hydrogels was studied via live/dead viability and alamarBlue assays using adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells. PMID:25102223

  1. Characterization of structure, physico-chemical properties and diffusion behavior of Ca-Alginate gel beads prepared by different gelation methods.

    PubMed

    Puguan, John Marc C; Yu, Xiaohong; Kim, Hern

    2014-10-15

    Ca-Alginate beads were prepared with either external or internal calcium sources by dripping technique. It was found that beads synthesized with internal calcium source had a looser structure and bigger pore size than those produced with external calcium source. Consequently, a faster diffusion rate of Vitamin B12 (VB12) within the beads with an internal calcium source was observed. Furthermore, the concentration of calcium ion, ionic strength and pH of the external gel beads formation solution were investigated. Results showed that (a) the concentration of the calcium ion was found to be the determining factor in the gel formation phenomenon; (b) the weight and volume losses are in effect due to water removal; (c) NaCl acts as a competitor with calcium and a screen in the electrostatic repulsion; and (d) the pH controls the gel formation process by regulating the dissociation of alginate and the complexation of the calcium cations. These results are keys to understanding the behavior and performance of beads in their utilization medium.

  2. Removal of mercury (II) from aqueous solution using papain immobilized on alginate bead: optimization of immobilization condition and modeling of removal study.

    PubMed

    Bhattacharyya, Aparupa; Dutta, Susmita; De, Parameswar; Ray, Parthasarathi; Basu, Srabanti

    2010-12-01

    Papain having the characteristics of metal binding ability is immobilized on alginate bead. Design Expert Software (Version 7.1.6) uses Response Surface Methodology (RSM) for statistical designing of operating condition for immobilization of papain on alginate bead considering concentration of papain, concentration of sodium alginate, concentration of calcium chloride and pH as numeric factors and Specific Enzymatic Activity (SEA) of immobilized papain sample as response. Immobilization using 25.96 g/L papain, 20 g/L sodium alginate and 20 g/L calcium chloride at pH 7 gives the desired product as indicated by ANOVA (Analysis of Variance). Three parameters viz., initial concentration of mercury (II), amount of AIP and pH are varied in a systematic manner. Maximum 98.88% removal of mercury (II) has been achieved within 8 min when simulated aqueous solution of mercury (II) with initial concentration of 10mg/L has been contacted with 5 g of AIP at pH 9 and at 35 degrees C in a batch contactor. A mathematical model has been developed and the value of equilibrium constant for binding of mercury (II) with AIP has been found to be 126797.3. PMID:20696575

  3. Removal of mercury (II) from aqueous solution using papain immobilized on alginate bead: optimization of immobilization condition and modeling of removal study.

    PubMed

    Bhattacharyya, Aparupa; Dutta, Susmita; De, Parameswar; Ray, Parthasarathi; Basu, Srabanti

    2010-12-01

    Papain having the characteristics of metal binding ability is immobilized on alginate bead. Design Expert Software (Version 7.1.6) uses Response Surface Methodology (RSM) for statistical designing of operating condition for immobilization of papain on alginate bead considering concentration of papain, concentration of sodium alginate, concentration of calcium chloride and pH as numeric factors and Specific Enzymatic Activity (SEA) of immobilized papain sample as response. Immobilization using 25.96 g/L papain, 20 g/L sodium alginate and 20 g/L calcium chloride at pH 7 gives the desired product as indicated by ANOVA (Analysis of Variance). Three parameters viz., initial concentration of mercury (II), amount of AIP and pH are varied in a systematic manner. Maximum 98.88% removal of mercury (II) has been achieved within 8 min when simulated aqueous solution of mercury (II) with initial concentration of 10mg/L has been contacted with 5 g of AIP at pH 9 and at 35 degrees C in a batch contactor. A mathematical model has been developed and the value of equilibrium constant for binding of mercury (II) with AIP has been found to be 126797.3.

  4. Development of a morphogenetically active scaffold for three-dimensional growth of bone cells: biosilica-alginate hydrogel for SaOS-2 cell cultivation.

    PubMed

    Müller, Werner E G; Schröder, Heinz C; Feng, Qingling; Schlossmacher, Ute; Link, Thorben; Wang, Xiaohong

    2015-11-01

    Polymeric silica is formed from ortho-silicate during a sol-gel formation process, while biosilica is the product of an enzymatically driven bio-polycondensation reaction. Both polymers have recently been described as a template that induces an increased expression of the genes encoding bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP-2) and osteoprotegerin in osteoblast-related SaOS-2 cells; simultaneously or subsequently the cells respond with enhanced hydroxyapatite formation. In order to assess whether the biocompatible polymeric silica/biosilica can serve as a morphogenetically active matrix suitable for three-dimensional (3D) cell growth, or even for 3D cell bioprinting, SaOS-2 cells were embedded into a Na-alginate-based hydrogel. Four different gelatinous hydrogel matrices were used for suspending SaOS-2 cells: (a) the hydrogel alone; (b) the hydrogel with 400 μM ortho-silicate; (c) the hydrogel supplemented with 400 μM ortho-silicate and recombinant silicatein to allow biosilica synthesis to occur; and (d) the hydrogel with ortho-silicate and BSA. The SaOS-2 cells showed an increased growth if silica/biosilica components were present in the hydrogel. Likewise intensified was the formation of hydroxyapatite nodules in the silica-containing hydrogels. After an incubation period of 2 weeks, cells present in silica-containing hydrogels showed a significantly higher expression of the genes encoding the cytokine BMP-2, the major fibrillar structural protein collagen 1 and likewise of carbonic anhydrase. It is concluded that silica, and to a larger extent biosilica, retains its morphogenetic/osteogenic potential after addition to Na-alginate-based hydrogels. This property might qualify silica hydrogels to be also used as a matrix for 3D cell printing.

  5. Simultaneous Alcoholic and Malolactic Fermentations by Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Oenococcus oeni Cells Co-immobilized in Alginate Beads

    PubMed Central

    Bleve, Gianluca; Tufariello, Maria; Vetrano, Cosimo; Mita, Giovanni; Grieco, Francesco

    2016-01-01

    Malolactic fermentation (MLF) usually takes place after the end of alcoholic fermentation (AF). However, the inoculation of lactic acid bacteria together with yeast starter cultures is a promising system to enhance the quality and safety of wine. In recent years, the use of immobilized cell systems has been investigated, with interesting results, for the production of different fermented foods and beverages. In this study we have carried out the simultaneous immobilization of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Oenococcus oeni in alginate beads and used them in microvinifications tests to produce Negroamaro wine. The process was monitored by chemical and sensorial analyses and dominance of starters and cell leaking from beads were also checked. Co-immobilization of S. cerevisiae and O. oeni allowed to perform an efficient fermentation process, producing low volatile acidity levels and ethanol and glycerol concentrations comparable with those obtained by cell sequential inoculum and co-inoculum of yeast and bacteria cells in free form. More importantly, co-immobilization strategy produced a significant decrease of the time requested to complete AF and MLF. The immobilized cells could be efficiently reused for the wine fermentation at least three times without any apparent loss of cell metabolic activities. This integrated biocatalytic system is able to perform simultaneously AF and MLF, producing wines similar in organoleptic traits in comparison with wines fermented following traditional sequential AF and MLF with free cell starters. The immobilized-cell system, that we here describe for the first time in our knowledge, offers many advantages over conventional free cell fermentations, including: (i) elimination of non-productive cell growth phases; (ii) feasibility of continuous processing; (iii) re-use of the biocatalyst. PMID:27379072

  6. Simultaneous Alcoholic and Malolactic Fermentations by Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Oenococcus oeni Cells Co-immobilized in Alginate Beads.

    PubMed

    Bleve, Gianluca; Tufariello, Maria; Vetrano, Cosimo; Mita, Giovanni; Grieco, Francesco

    2016-01-01

    Malolactic fermentation (MLF) usually takes place after the end of alcoholic fermentation (AF). However, the inoculation of lactic acid bacteria together with yeast starter cultures is a promising system to enhance the quality and safety of wine. In recent years, the use of immobilized cell systems has been investigated, with interesting results, for the production of different fermented foods and beverages. In this study we have carried out the simultaneous immobilization of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Oenococcus oeni in alginate beads and used them in microvinifications tests to produce Negroamaro wine. The process was monitored by chemical and sensorial analyses and dominance of starters and cell leaking from beads were also checked. Co-immobilization of S. cerevisiae and O. oeni allowed to perform an efficient fermentation process, producing low volatile acidity levels and ethanol and glycerol concentrations comparable with those obtained by cell sequential inoculum and co-inoculum of yeast and bacteria cells in free form. More importantly, co-immobilization strategy produced a significant decrease of the time requested to complete AF and MLF. The immobilized cells could be efficiently reused for the wine fermentation at least three times without any apparent loss of cell metabolic activities. This integrated biocatalytic system is able to perform simultaneously AF and MLF, producing wines similar in organoleptic traits in comparison with wines fermented following traditional sequential AF and MLF with free cell starters. The immobilized-cell system, that we here describe for the first time in our knowledge, offers many advantages over conventional free cell fermentations, including: (i) elimination of non-productive cell growth phases; (ii) feasibility of continuous processing; (iii) re-use of the biocatalyst. PMID:27379072

  7. Use of carboxylated cellulose nanofibrils-filled magnetic chitosan hydrogel beads as adsorbents for Pb(II).

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yiming; Fu, Shiyu; Zhang, Liangliang; Zhan, Huaiyu; Levit, Mikhail V

    2014-01-30

    Novel magnetic hydrogel beads (m-CS/PVA/CCNFs), consisting of carboxylated cellulose nanofibrils (CCNFs), amine-functionalized magnetite nanoparticles and poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) blended chitosan (CS), were prepared by an instantaneous gelation method. SEM, XRD, and TGA techniques were applied to investigate the structure of the hydrogel materials. The magnetic hydrogels were employed as absorbents for removal of Pb(II) ions from aqueous solutions and the fundamental adsorption behavior was studied. Experimental results revealed that the m-CS/PVA/CCNFs hydrogels exhibit higher adsorption capacity with the value of 171.0mg/g, and the carboxylate groups on the CCNFs surface play an important role in Pb(II) adsorption. Moreover, adsorption isotherm data were reliably described by the Langmuir model and the adsorption kinetics closely followed pseudo-second order model. Additionally, the Pb(II)-loaded m-CS/PVA/CCNFs hydrogels could be easily regenerated in weak acid solution and the adsorption effectiveness of 90% can be maintained after the 4 cycles.

  8. Production of endothelial cell-enclosing alginate-based hydrogel fibers with a cell adhesive surface through simultaneous cross-linking by horseradish peroxidase-catalyzed reaction in a hydrodynamic spinning process.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yang; Sakai, Shinji; Taya, Masahito

    2012-09-01

    We developed an alginate-based hydrogel fiber enabling to enclose endothelial cells, degradable on-demand by alginate lyase, and having a cell adhesive surface. The hydrogel fiber was obtained by extruding an aqueous solution of 4% (w/v) alginate derivative possessing phenolic hydroxyl moieties (Alg-Ph) and horseradish peroxidase (HRP) into a flow of aqueous solution containing 0.3 mM H(2)O(2) and gelatin derivative possessing Ph moieties (Gelatin-Ph). In the process, cross-linking of Alg-Ph resulting in a hydrogel fiber and immobilization of Gelatin-Ph on the surface of the hydrogel fiber were simultaneously accomplished by an HRP-catalyzed cross-linking reaction between Ph moieties. The diameter of the hydrogel fiber and the quantity of immobilized Gelatin-Ph on the fiber were controllable by changing the flow rates of the solutions and the concentration of HRP in the Alg-Ph-containing solution, respectively. The viability of the human endothelial cells enclosed in the hydrogel fibers obtained by 10 s of flowing in the H(2)O(2)-containing solution was 87.1%. In addition, the cells harvested from the hydrogel fibers through degradation using alginate lyase grew on tissue culture dishes in the same fashion as the cells seeded by a conventional subculture protocol. Human smooth muscle cells adhered, grew and achieved confluence on the surface of the hydrogel fibers. By degrading the hydrogel fibers using alginate lyase, a tubular cell construct was successfully obtained.

  9. Microfluidics-assisted generation of stimuli-responsive hydrogels based on alginates incorporated with thermo-responsive and amphiphilic polymers as novel biomaterials.

    PubMed

    Karakasyan, C; Mathos, J; Lack, S; Davy, J; Marquis, M; Renard, D

    2015-11-01

    We used a droplet-based microfluidics technique to produce monodisperse responsive alginate-block-polyetheramine copolymer microgels. The polyetheramine group (PEA), corresponding to a propylene oxide /ethylene oxide ratio (PO/EO) of 29/6 (Jeffamine(®) M2005), was condensed, via the amine link, to alginates with various mannuronic/guluronic acids ratios and using two alginate:jeffamine mass ratios. The size of the grafted-alginate microgels varied from 60 to 80 μm depending on the type of alginate used and the degree of substitution. The droplet-based microfluidics technique offered exquisite control of both the dimension and physical chemical properties of the grafted-alginate microgels. These microgels were therefore comparable to isolated grafted-alginate chains in retaining both their amphiphilic and thermo-sensitive properties. Amphiphilicity was demonstrated at the oil-water interface where grafted-alginate microgels were found to decrease interfacial tension by ∼ 50%. The thermo-sensitivity of microgels was clearly demonstrated and a 10 to 20% reduction in size between was evidenced on increasing the temperature above the lower critical solution temperature (TLCST) of Jeffamine. In addition, the reversibility of thermo-sensitivity was demonstrated by studying the oil-water affinity of microgels with temperature after Congo red labeling. Finally, droplet-based microfluidics was found to be a good and promising tool for generating responsive biobased hydrogels for drug delivery applications and potential new colloidal stabilizers for dispersed systems such as Pickering emulsions.

  10. Injectable in situ self-cross-linking hydrogels based on poly(L-glutamic acid) and alginate for cartilage tissue engineering.

    PubMed

    Yan, Shifeng; Wang, Taotao; Feng, Long; Zhu, Jie; Zhang, Kunxi; Chen, Xuesi; Cui, Lei; Yin, Jingbo

    2014-12-01

    Injectable hydrogels as an important biomaterial class have been widely used in regenerative medicine. A series of injectable poly(l-glutamic acid)/alginate (PLGA/ALG) hydrogels were fabricated by self-cross-linking of hydrazide-modified poly(l-glutamic acid) (PLGA-ADH) and aldehyde-modified alginate (ALG-CHO). Both the degree of PLGA modification and the oxidation degree of ALG-CHO could be adjusted by the amount of activators and sodium periodate, respectively. The effect of the solid content of the hydrogels and oxidation degree of ALG-CHO on the gelation time, equilibrium swelling, mechanical properties, microscopic morphology, and in vitro degradation of the hydrogels was examined. Encapsulation of rabbit chondrocytes within hydrogels showed viability of the entrapped cells and good biocompatibility of the injectable hydrogels. A preliminary study exhibited injectability and rapid in vivo gel formation, as well as mechanical stability, cell ingrowth, and ectopic cartilage formation. The injectable PLGA/ALG hydrogels demonstrated attractive properties for future application in a variety of pharmaceutical delivery and tissue engineering, especially in cartilage tissue engineering.

  11. Enhanced trophic factor secretion by mesenchymal stem/stromal cells with Glycine-Histidine-Lysine (GHK)-modified alginate hydrogels

    PubMed Central

    Jose, Soumia; Hughbanks, Marissa L.; Binder, Bernard Y.K.; Ingavle, Ganesh C.; Leach, J. Kent

    2014-01-01

    Recombinant proteins and cytokines are under broad preclinical and clinical investigation to promote angiogenesis, but their success is limited by ineffective delivery, lack of long-term stability, and excessive cost. Mesenchymal stem/stromal cells (MSC) secrete bioactive trophic factors, and thus, may provide an effective alternative to address these challenges. Glycine-Histidine-Lysine (GHK) is a peptide fragment of osteonectin (SPARC), a matricellular protein with reported proangiogenic potential. We examined the capacity of GHK to upregulate secretion of proangiogenic factors from human MSC in culture and when covalently coupled to alginate hydrogels. GHK had no apparent cytotoxic effects on MSC in culture over a wide range of concentrations. We detected a dose-dependent increase in vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) concentration in media conditioned by GHK-treated MSC, which increased endothelial cell proliferation, migration, and tubule formation. We covalently coupled GHK to alginate using carbodiimide chemistry, and human MSC were entrapped in alginate hydrogels to assess VEGF secretion. Similar to monolayer culture, MSC responded to GHK-modified gels by secreting increased concentrations of VEGF and basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) compared to unmodified gels. The pre-treatment of MSC with antibodies to α6 and β1 integrins prior to entrapment in GHK-modified gels abrogated VEGF secretion, suggesting that the proangiogenic response of MSC was integrin-mediated. These data demonstrate that the proangiogenic potential of MSC can be significantly increased by the presentation of GHK with a biodegradable carrier, therefore increasing their clinical potential when used for tissue repair. PMID:24468583

  12. Decolorization of textile effluent by bitter gourd peroxidase immobilized on concanavalin A layered calcium alginate-starch beads.

    PubMed

    Matto, Mahreen; Husain, Qayyum

    2009-05-30

    Bitter gourd peroxidase immobilized on the surface of concanavalin A layered calcium alginate-starch beads was used for the successful and effective decolorization of textile industrial effluent. Effluent was recalcitrant to the action of bitter gourd peroxidase; however, in the presence of some redox mediators, it was successfully decolorized. Effluent decolorization was maximum (70%) in the presence of 1.0mM 1-hydroxybenzotriazole within 1h of incubation. However, immobilized bitter gourd peroxidase showed maximum decolorization at pH 5.0 and 40 degrees C. Immobilized bitter gourd peroxidase decolorized more than 90% effluent after 3h of incubation in a batch process. The two-reactor system, one reactor containing immobilized peroxidase and the other had activated silica, was quite effective in the decolorization of textile effluent. The system was capable of decolorizing 40% effluent even after 2 months of continuous operation. The absorption spectra of the untreated and treated effluent exhibited a marked difference in absorbance at various wavelengths. Immobilized peroxidase/1-hydroxybenzotriazole system could be employed for the treatment of a large volume of effluent in a continuous reactor.

  13. Evaluation of propidium monoazide real-time PCR for enumeration of probiotic lactobacilli microencapsulated in calcium alginate beads.

    PubMed

    Oketič, K; Matijašić, B Bogovič; Obermajer, T; Radulović, Z; Lević, S; Mirković, N; Nedović, V

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate real-time PCR coupled with propidium monoazide (PMA) treatment for enumeration of microencapsulated probiotic lactobacilli microencapsulated in calcium alginate beads. Lactobacillus gasseri K7 (CCM 7710) and Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus (CCM 7712) were analysed by plate counting and PMA real-time PCR during storage at 4 °C for 90 days. PMA was effective in preventing PCR amplification of the target sequences of DNA released from heat-compromised bacteria. The values obtained by real-time PCR of non-treated samples were in general higher than those obtained by real-time PCR of PMA-treated samples or by plate counting, indicating the presence of sub-lethally injured cells. This study shows that plate count could not be completely replaced by culture independent method PMA real-time PCR for enumeration of probiotics, but may rather complement the well-established plate counting, providing useful information about the ratio of compromised bacteria in the samples.

  14. Production, partial characterization, and immobilization in alginate beads of an alkaline protease from a new thermophilic fungus Myceliophthora sp.

    PubMed

    Zanphorlin, Letícia Maria; Facchini, Fernanda Dell Antonio; Vasconcelos, Filipe; Bonugli-Santos, Rafaella Costa; Rodrigues, André; Sette, Lara Durães; Gomes, Eleni; Bonilla-Rodriguez, Gustavo Orlando

    2010-06-01

    Thermophilic fungi produce thermostable enzymes which have a number of applications, mainly in biotechnological processes. In this work, we describe the characterization of a protease produced in solidstate (SSF) and submerged (SmF) fermentations by a newly isolated thermophilic fungus identified as a putative new species in the genus Myceliophthora. Enzyme-production rate was evaluated for both fermentation processes, and in SSF, using a medium composed of a mixture of wheat bran and casein, the proteolytic output was 4.5-fold larger than that obtained in SmF. Additionally, the peak of proteolytic activity was obtained after 3 days for SSF whereas for SmF it was after 4 days. The crude enzyme obtained by both SSF and SmF displayed similar optimum temperature at 50 degrees C, but the optimum pH shifted from 7 (SmF) to 9(SSF). The alkaline protease produced through solid-state fermentation (SSF), was immobilized on beads of calcium alginate, allowing comparative analyses of free and immobilized proteases to be carried out. It was observed that both optimum temperature and thermal stability of the immobilized enzyme were higher than for the free enzyme. Moreover, the immobilized enzyme showed considerable stability for up to 7 reuses.

  15. Rapid degradation of phenanthrene by using Sphingomonas sp. GY2B immobilized in calcium alginate gel beads.

    PubMed

    Tao, Xue-Qin; Lu, Gui-Ning; Liu, Jie-Ping; Li, Ting; Yang, Li-Ni

    2009-09-01

    The strain Sphingomonas sp. GY2B is a high efficient phenanthrene-degrading strain isolated from crude oil contaminated soils that displays a broad-spectrum degradation ability towards PAHs and related aromatic compounds. This paper reports embedding immobilization of strain GY2B in calcium alginate gel beads and the rapid degradation of phenanthrene by the embedded strains. Results showed that embedded immobilized strains had high degradation percentages both in mineral salts medium (MSM) and 80% artificial seawater (AS) media, and had higher phenanthrene degradation efficiency than the free strains. More than 90% phenanthrene (100 mg x L(-1)) was degraded within 36 h, and the phenanthrene degradation percentages were >99.8% after 72 h for immobilized strains. 80% AS had significant negative effect on the phenanthrene degradation rate (PDR) of strain GY2B during the linear-decreasing stage of incubation and preadsorption of cells onto rice straw could improve the PDR of embedded strain GY2B. The immobilization of strain GY2B possesses a good potential for application in the treatment of industrial wastewater containing phenanthrene and other related aromatic compounds.

  16. Batch and continuous flow studies of adsorptive removal of Cr(VI) by adapted bacterial consortia immobilized in alginate beads.

    PubMed

    Samuel, Jastin; Pulimi, Mrudula; Paul, Madona L; Maurya, Arun; Chandrasekaran, Natarajan; Mukherjee, Amitava

    2013-01-01

    The adsorptive removal of Cr(VI) by alginate beads containing Cr(VI)-adapted Acinetobacter junii, Escherichia coli and Bacillus subtilis in batch and continuous packed bed column reactors was investigated. Under optimized conditions (pH 3.0; contact time, 180 min; 30 °C; initial Cr(VI) concentration of 100 mg/L), 65.86 mg/g adsorption capacity was recorded in the batch study. When an adsorbent dosage of 1g/L, a flow rate of 5 mL/min, a bed height of 20 cm, an initial Cr(VI) concentration of 300 mg/L was employed, a capacity of 657 mg/g was noted for the continuous column assay. The batch sorption data followed the Langmuir isotherm and pseudo second order kinetics. Five sorption/desorption cycles yielded 100%, 99.63%, 95.31%, 80.7% and 74.22% regeneration, respectively. Cr(VI) adsorption studies using spiked ground water, freshwater and domestic wastewater in a packed bed reactor demonstrated Cr(VI) removals of 64.8%, 55.08%, 56.86% respectively. Cr(VI) sorption on immobilized bacteria was confirmed with Fourier-transform infrared and Energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. PMID:23201524

  17. Improving of catalase stability properties by encapsulation in alginate/Fe3O4 magnetic composite beads for enzymatic removal of H2O2.

    PubMed

    Doğaç, Yasemin Ispirli; Çinar, Mürvet; Teke, Mustafa

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was enhancing of stability properties of catalase enzyme by encapsulation in alginate/nanomagnetic beads. Amounts of carrier (10-100 mg) and enzyme concentrations (0.25-1.5 mg/mL) were analyzed to optimize immobilization conditions. Also, the optimum temperature (25-50°C), optimum pH (3.0-8.0), kinetic parameters, thermal stability (20-70°C), pH stability (4.0-9.0) operational stability (0-390 min), and reusability were investigated for characterization of the immobilized catalase system. The optimum pH levels of both free and immobilized catalase were 7.0. At the thermal stability studies, the magnetic catalase beads protected 90% activity, while free catalase maintained only 10% activity at 70°C. The thermal profile of magnetic catalase beads was spread over a large area. Similarly, this system indicated the improving of the pH stability. The reusability, which is especially important for industrial applications, was also determined. Thus, the activity analysis was done 50 times in succession. Catalase encapsulated magnetic alginate beads protected 83% activity after 50 cycles.

  18. Gingival Mesenchymal Stem Cell (GMSC) Delivery System Based on RGD-Coupled Alginate Hydrogel with Antimicrobial Properties: A Novel Treatment Modality for Peri-Implantitis

    PubMed Central

    Diniz, Ivana M. A.; Chen, Chider; Ansari, Sahar; Zadeh, Homayoun H.; Moshaverinia, Maryam; Chee, Daniel; Marques, Márcia M.; Shi, Songtao; Moshaverinia, Alireza

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Peri-implantitis is one of the most common inflammatory complications in dental implantology. Similar to periodontitis, in peri-implantitis, destructive inflammatory changes take place in the tissues surrounding a dental implant. Bacterial flora at the failing implant sites resemble the pathogens in periodontal disease and consist of Gram-negative anaerobic bacteria including Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans (Aa). Here we demonstrate the effectiveness of a silver lactate (SL)-containing RGD-coupled alginate hydrogel scaffold as a promising stem cell delivery vehicle with antimicrobial properties. Materials and Methods Gingival mesenchymal stem cells (GMSCs) or human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (hBMMSCs) were encapsulated in SL-loaded alginate hydrogel microspheres. Stem cell viability, proliferation, and osteo-differentiation capacity were analyzed. Results Our results showed that SL exhibited antimicrobial properties against Aa in a dose-dependent manner, with 0.50 mg/ml showing the greatest antimicrobial properties while still maintaining cell viability. At this concentration, SL-containing alginate hydrogel was able to inhibit Aa on the surface of Ti discs and significantly reduce the bacterial load in Aa suspensions. Silver ions were effectively released from the SL-loaded alginate microspheres for up to 2 weeks. Osteogenic differentiation of GMSCs and hBMMSCs encapsulated in the SL-loaded alginate microspheres were confirmed by the intense mineral matrix deposition and high expression of osteogenesis-related genes. Conclusion Taken together, our findings confirm that GMSCs encapsulated in RGD-modified alginate hydrogel containing SL show promise for bone tissue engineering with antimicrobial properties against Aa bacteria in vitro. PMID:26216081

  19. Self-Healing and Thermo-Responsive Dual-Crosslinked Alginate Hydrogels based on Supramolecular Inclusion Complexes

    PubMed Central

    Miao, Tianxin; Fenn, Spencer L.; Charron, Patrick N.; Oldinski, Rachael A.

    2015-01-01

    β-cyclodextrin (β-CD), with a lipophilic inner cavity and hydrophilic outer surface, interacts with a large variety of non-polar guest molecules to form non-covalent inclusion complexes. Conjugation of β-CD onto biomacromolecules can form physically-crosslinked hydrogel networks upon mixing with a guest molecule. Herein describes the development and characterization of self-healing, thermo-responsive hydrogels, based on host-guest inclusion complexes between alginate-graft-β-CD and Pluronic® F108 (poly(ethylene glycol)-b-poly(propylene glycol)-b-poly(ethylene glycol)). The mechanics, flow characteristics, and thermal response were contingent on the polymer concentrations, and the host-guest molar ratio. Transient and reversible physical crosslinking between host and guest polymers governed self-assembly, allowing flow under shear stress, and facilitating complete recovery of the material properties within a few seconds of unloading. The mechanical properties of the dual-crosslinked, multi-stimuli responsive hydrogels were tuned as high as 30 kPa at body temperature, and are advantageous for biomedical applications such as drug delivery and cell transplantation. PMID:26509214

  20. Cell-on-hydrogel platform made of agar and alginate for rapid, low-cost, multidimensional test of antimicrobial susceptibility.

    PubMed

    Sun, Han; Liu, Zhengzhi; Hu, Chong; Ren, Kangning

    2016-08-01

    Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is a rapidly increasing threat to the effective treatment of infectious diseases worldwide. The two major remedies include: (1) using narrow-spectrum antibiotics based on rapid diagnosis; and (2) developing new antibiotics. A key part of both remedies is the antimicrobial susceptibility test (AST). However, the current standard ASTs that monitor colony formation are costly and time-consuming and the new strategies proposed are not yet practical to be implemented. Herein, we report a strategy to fabricate whole-hydrogel microfluidic chips using alginate-doped agar. This agar-based microfabrication makes it possible to prepare inexpensive hydrogel devices, and allows a seamless link between microfluidics and conventional agar-based cell culture. Different from common microfluidic systems, in our system the cells are cultured on top of the device, similar to normal agar plate culture; on the other hand, the microfluidic channels inside the hydrogel allow precise generation of linear gradient of drugs, thus giving a better performance than the conventional disk diffusion method. Cells in this system are not exposed to any shear flow, which allows the reliable tracking of individual cells and AST results to be obtained within 2-3 hours. Furthermore, our system could test the synergistic effect of drugs through two-dimensional gradient generation. Finally, the platform could be directly implemented to new drug discovery and other applications wherein a fast, cost-efficient method for studying the response of microorganisms upon drug administration is desirable. PMID:27452345

  1. Preparation and swelling behavior of a novel self-assembled β-cyclodextrin/acrylic acid/sodium alginate hydrogel.

    PubMed

    Huang, Zhanhua; Liu, Shouxin; Zhang, Bin; Wu, Qinglin

    2014-11-26

    A novel biodegradable β-cyclodextrin/acrylic acid/sodium alginate (CSA) hydrogel with a three-dimensional network structure was self-assembled by inverse suspension copolymerization. The CSA resin was pH sensitive and had good water absorption properties in pH 6-8 buffer solutions. At a β-CD:AA:SA mass ratio of 1:9:3 the CSA water absorbency was found to be 1403 g/g and the CSA hydrogel strength was 4.968 N. In 0.005-0.1 mol/L chloride salt and sulfate salt solutions the CSA water absorbencies increased as follows: NaCl>KCl>MgCl2>CaCl2>FeCl3, and Na2SO4>K2SO4>FeSO4>Al2(SO4)3, respectively. The release of water from the CSA hydrogel occurred slowly over 120 h. The biodegradation efficiency of the resin reached 85.3% for Lentinula edodes. The super water absorbency, good salt resistance and excellent water retention properties of CSA make it suitable for application as an agricultural water retention agent in saline soils. PMID:25256504

  2. Analysis of Healing Effect of Alginate Sulfate Hydrogel Dressing Containing Antimicrobial Peptide on Wound Infection Caused by Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus

    PubMed Central

    Babavalian, Hamid; Latifi, Ali Mohammad; Shokrgozar, Mohammad Ali; Bonakdar, Shahin; Mohammadi, Sajjad; Moosazadeh Moghaddam, Mehrdad

    2015-01-01

    Background: Wound infections caused by methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus are a health problem worldwide; therefore, it is necessary to develop new antimicrobial compounds. Considering broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity and low probability of drug resistance to peptides, applications these peptides are being studied extensively. Objectives: In this study, to control drug release over time, an alginate sulfate-based hydrogel impregnated with the CM11 peptide as the antimicrobial agent was developed, and its healing effects were tested on skin infections caused by methicillin-resistant S. aureus strains in a mouse model. Materials and Methods: Minimum inhibitory and minimum bactericidal concentrations of the CM11 peptide and alginate hydrogel in combination with the peptide were determined. Forty mice were divided into 4 groups: 1 group as a negative control (without treatment; however, 5 mice received hydrogel dressing without peptide), 1 group as a positive control (2% mupirocin treatment), and 2 groups as test groups. To establish skin infection, 200 μL of bacterial suspension with 3 × 108 CFU/mL concentration was subcutaneously injected in the scapular region of the mice. On the basis of the in vitro minimal bactericidal concentration of the alginate hydrogel containing peptide for 15 clinical isolates, hydrogel containing 128 mg/L of peptide was used for wound dressing over an 8-day period. Results: The highest and lowest numbers of wounds were observed on day 2 in the negative and positive control groups, respectively. During the 8-day period, the positive control and hydrogel containing peptide treatment groups showed similar levels of wound healing. Conclusions: This study showed that compared to standard drug treatment, treatment with hydrogel containing peptide had substantial antibacterial effects on S. aureus wound infections in mice. PMID:26487923

  3. Calcium alginate bead immobilization of cells containing tyrosine ammonia lyase activity for use in the production of p-hydroxycinnamic acid.

    PubMed

    Trotman, Robert J; Camp, Carl E; Ben-Bassat, Arie; DiCosimo, Robert; Huang, Lixuan; Crum, Grace A; Sariaslani, F Sima; Haynie, Sharon L

    2007-01-01

    An Escherichia coli catalyst with tyrosine ammonia lyase activity (TAL) has been stabilized for repeated use in batch conversions of high tyrosine solids to p-hydroxycinnamic acid (pHCA). The TAL biocatalyst was stabilized by controlling the reaction pH to 9.8 +/- 0.1 and immobilizing the cells within a calcium alginate matrix that was cross-linked with glutaraldehyde and polyethyleneimine (GA/PEI). We found a GA range where the bead-encapsulated TAL was not inactivated, and the resulting cross-linking provided the beads with the mechanical stability necessary for repeated use in consecutive batch reactions with catalyst recycle. The GA/PEI calcium alginate TAL catalyst was used in 41 1-L batch reactions where 50 g L(-1) tyrosine was converted to 39 +/- 4 g L(-1) pHCA in each batch. The practical usefulness and ease of this process was demonstrated by scaling up the TAL bead immobilization and using the immobilized TAL catalyst in four 125-L bioconversion reactions to produce over 12 kg of purified pHCA.

  4. Fabrication of three-dimensional porous cell-laden hydrogel for tissue engineering

    PubMed Central

    Hwang, Chang Mo; Sant, Shilpa; Masaeli, Mahdokht; Kachouie, Nezamoddin N; Zamanian, Behnam; Lee, Sang-Hoon; Khademhosseini, Ali

    2012-01-01

    For tissue engineering applications, scaffolds should be porous to enable rapid nutrient and oxygen transfer while providing a three-dimensional (3D) microenvironment for the encapsulated cells. This dual characteristic can be achieved by fabrication of porous hydrogels that contain encapsulated cells. In this work, we developed a simple method that allows cell encapsulation and pore generation inside alginate hydrogels simultaneously. Gelatin beads of 150–300 μm diameter were used as a sacrificial porogen for generating pores within cell-laden hydrogels. Gelation of gelatin at low temperature (4 °C) was used to form beads without chemical crosslinking and their subsequent dissolution after cell encapsulation led to generation of pores within cell-laden hydrogels. The pore size and porosity of the scaffolds were controlled by the gelatin bead size and their volume ratio, respectively. Fabricated hydrogels were characterized for their internal microarchitecture, mechanical properties and permeability. Hydrogels exhibited a high degree of porosity with increasing gelatin bead content in contrast to nonporous alginate hydrogel. Furthermore, permeability increased by two to three orders while compressive modulus decreased with increasing porosity of the scaffolds. Application of these scaffolds for tissue engineering was tested by encapsulation of hepatocarcinoma cell line (HepG2). All the scaffolds showed similar cell viability; however, cell proliferation was enhanced under porous conditions. Furthermore, porous alginate hydrogels resulted in formation of larger spheroids and higher albumin secretion compared to nonporous conditions. These data suggest that porous alginate hydrogels may have provided a better environment for cell proliferation and albumin production. This may be due to the enhanced mass transfer of nutrients, oxygen and waste removal, which is potentially beneficial for tissue engineering and regenerative medicine applications. PMID:20823504

  5. Characterization of slow-gelling alginate hydrogels for intervertebral disc tissue-engineering applications.

    PubMed

    Growney Kalaf, Emily A; Flores, Reynaldo; Bledsoe, J Gary; Sell, Scott A

    2016-06-01

    Reversal of intervertebral disc degeneration can have a potentially monumental effect on spinal health. As such, the goal of this research is to create an injectable, cellularized alginate-based nucleus pulposus that will restore disc function; with the primary goal of creating an alginate gel with tailorable rates of gelation to improve functionality over standard CaCl2 crosslinking techniques. Gelation characteristics of 1% sodium alginate were analyzed over various molar concentrations of a 1:2 ratio of CaCO3:glucono-δ-lactone (GDL), with 10% CaCl2 as the control crosslinker. Alginate construct characterization for all concentrations was performed via ultimate and cyclic compressive testing over a 28day degradation period in PBS. Dehydration, swell testing, and albumin release kinetics were determined, and cytotoxicity and cell homogeneity tests showed promise for cellularization strategies. Overall, the 30 and 60mM GDL alginate concentrations presented the most viable option for use in further studies, with a gelation time between 10 and 30min, low hysteresis over control, low percent change in thickness and weight under both PBS degradation and swelling conditions, and stable mechanical properties over 28days in vitro. PMID:27040212

  6. Promoting extracellular matrix remodeling via ascorbic acid enhances the survival of primary ovarian follicles encapsulated in alginate hydrogels.

    PubMed

    Tagler, David; Makanji, Yogeshwar; Tu, Tao; Bernabé, Beatriz Peñalver; Lee, Raymond; Zhu, Jie; Kniazeva, Ekaterina; Hornick, Jessica E; Woodruff, Teresa K; Shea, Lonnie D

    2014-07-01

    The in vitro growth of ovarian follicles is an emerging technology for fertility preservation. Various strategies support the culture of secondary and multilayer follicles from various species including mice, non-human primate, and human; however, the culture of early stage (primary and primordial) follicles, which are more abundant in the ovary and survive cryopreservation, has been limited. Hydrogel-encapsulating follicle culture systems that employed feeder cells, such as mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs), stimulated the growth of primary follicles (70-80 µm); yet, survival was low and smaller follicles (<70 µm) rapidly lost structure and degenerated. These morphologic changes were associated with a breakdown of the follicular basement membrane; hence, this study investigated ascorbic acid based on its role in extracellular matrix (ECM) deposition/remodeling for other applications. The selection of ascorbic acid was further supported by a microarray analysis that suggested a decrease in mRNA levels of enzymes within the ascorbate pathway between primordial, primary, and secondary follicles. The supplementation of ascorbic acid (50 µg/mL) significantly enhanced the survival of primary follicles (<80 µm) cultured in alginate hydrogels, which coincided with improved structural integrity. Follicles developed antral cavities and increased to diameters exceeding 250 µm. Consistent with improved structural integrity, the gene/protein expression of ECM and cell adhesion molecules was significantly changed. This research supports the notion that modifying the culture environment (medium components) can substantially enhance the survival and growth of early stage follicles.

  7. Hyper alginate gel microbead formation by molecular diffusion at the hydrogel/droplet interface.

    PubMed

    Hirama, Hirotada; Kambe, Taisuke; Aketagawa, Kyouhei; Ota, Taku; Moriguchi, Hiroyuki; Torii, Toru

    2013-01-15

    We report a simple method for forming monodispersed, uniformly shaped gel microbeads with precisely controlled sizes. The basis of our method is the placement of monodispersed sodium alginate droplets, formed by a microfluidic device, on an agarose slab gel containing a high-osmotic-pressure gelation agent (CaCl(2) aq.): (1) the droplets are cross-linked (gelated) due to the diffusion of the gelation agent from the agarose slab gel to the sodium alginate droplets and (2) the droplets simultaneously shrink to a fraction of their original size (<100 μm in diameter) due to the diffusion of water molecules from the sodium alginate droplets to the agarose slab gel. We verified the mass transfer mechanism between the droplet and the agarose slab gel. This method circumvents the limitations of gel microbead formation, such as the need to prepare microchannels of various sizes, microchannel clogging, and the deformation of the produced gel microbeads.

  8. Fabrication and detection of tissue engineered bone aggregates based on encapsulated human ADSCs within hybrid calcium alginate/bone powder gel-beads in a spinner flask.

    PubMed

    Song, Kedong; Yang, Yanfei; Xu, Lili; Tian, Jiaxin; Fan, Jiangli; Jiao, Zeren; Feng, Shihao; Wang, Hong; Wang, Yiwei; Wang, Ling; Liu, Tianqing

    2016-05-01

    Traditional treatment for bone diseases limits their clinical application due to undesirable host immune rejection, limited donator sources and severe pain and suffering for patients. Bone tissue engineering therefore is expected to be a more effective way in treating bone diseases. In the present study, hybrid calcium alginate/bone powder gel-beads with a uniform size distribution, good biocompatibility and osteoinductive capability, were prepared to be used as an in-vitro niche-like matrix. The beads were optimized using 2.5% (w/v) sodium alginate solution, 4.5% (w/v) CaCl2 solution and 5.0mg/mL bone powder using an easy-to-use method. Human ADSCs were cultured and induced into chondrocytes and osteoblasts, respectively. The cells were characterized by histological staining showing the ADSCs were able to maintain their characteristic morphology with multipotent differentiation ability. ADSCs at density of 5 × 10(6)cells/mL were encapsulated into the gel-beads aiming to explore cell expansion under different conditions and the osteogenic induction of ADSCs was verified by specific staining. Results demonstrated that the encapsulated ADSCs expanded 5.6 folds in 10 days under dynamic condition via spinner flask, and were able to differentiate into osteoblasts (OBs) with extensive mineralized nodules forming the bone aggregates over 3 weeks postosteogenic induction. In summary, hybrid gel-beads encapsulating ADSCs are proved to be feasible as a new method to fabricate tissue engineered bone aggregation with potential to treat skeletal injury in the near future. PMID:26952485

  9. Preparation and characterization of gatifloxacin-loaded sodium alginate hydrogel membranes supplemented with hydroxypropyl methylcellulose and hydroxypropyl cellulose polymers for wound dressing

    PubMed Central

    Prabu, Durai; Majdalawieh, Amin F.; Abu-Yousef, Imad A.; Inbasekaran, Kadambari; Balasubramaniam, Tharani; Nallaperumal, Narayanan; Gunasekar, Conjeevaram J.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: The aim of this study is to evaluate gatifloxacin-loaded sodium alginate hydrogel membranes, supplemented with glycerol (a plasticizer), glutaraldehyde (a cross-linking agent), and hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC) or hydroxypropyl cellulose (HPC) polymers, as potential wound dressing materials based on their physicochemical properties and the sustain-release phenomenon. Materials and Methods: The physicochemical properties of the prepared hydrogel membranes were evaluated by several methods including Fourier transform infrared and differential scanning calorimetry. Different techniques were used to assess the swelling behavior, tensile strength and elongation, % moisture absorption, % moisture loss, water vapor transmission rate (WVTR), and microbial penetration for the hydrogel membranes. In vitro gatifloxacin release from the hydrogel membranes was examined using the United States Pharmacopeia XXIII dissolution apparatus. Four kinetics models (zero-order, first-order, Higuchi equation, and Korsmeyer-Peppas equation) were applied to study drug release kinetics. Results: The addition of glycerol, glutaraldehyde, HPMC, and HPC polymers resulted in a considerable increase in the tensile strength and flexibility/elasticity of the hydrogel membranes. WVTR results suggest that hydrated hydrogel membranes can facilitate water vapor transfer. None of the hydrogel membranes supported microbial growth. HPMC-treated and HPC-treated hydrogel membranes allow slow, but sustained, release of gatifloxacin for 48 h. Drug release kinetics revealed that both diffusion and dissolution play an important role in gatifloxacin release. Conclusions: Given their physicochemical properties and gatifloxacin release pattern, HPMC-treated and HPC-treated hydrogel membranes exhibit effective and sustained drug release. Furthermore, HPMC-treated and HPC-treated hydrogel membranes possess physiochemical properties that make them effective and safe wound dressing materials. PMID

  10. A prospective comparison of alginate-hydrogel with standard medical therapy to determine impact on functional capacity and clinical outcomes in patients with advanced heart failure (AUGMENT-HF trial)

    PubMed Central

    Anker, Stefan D.; Coats, Andrew J.S.; Cristian, Gabriel; Dragomir, Dinu; Pusineri, Enrico; Piredda, Massimo; Bettari, Luca; Dowling, Robert; Volterrani, Maurizio; Kirwan, Bridget-Anne; Filippatos, Gerasimos; Mas, Jean-Louis; Danchin, Nicolas; Solomon, Scott D.; Lee, Randall J.; Ahmann, Frank; Hinson, Andy; Sabbah, Hani N.; Mann, Douglas L.

    2015-01-01

    Aims AUGMENT-HF was an international, multi-centre, prospective, randomized, controlled trial to evaluate the benefits and safety of a novel method of left ventricular (LV) modification with alginate-hydrogel. Methods Alginate-hydrogel is an inert permanent implant that is directly injected into LV heart muscle and serves as a prosthetic scaffold to modify the shape and size of the dilated LV. Patients with advanced chronic heart failure (HF) were randomized (1 : 1) to alginate-hydrogel (n = 40) in combination with standard medical therapy or standard medical therapy alone (Control, n = 38). The primary endpoint of AUGMENT-HF was the change in peak VO2 from baseline to 6 months. Secondary endpoints included changes in 6-min walk test (6MWT) distance and New York Heart Association (NYHA) functional class, as well as assessments of procedural safety. Results Enrolled patients were 63 ± 10 years old, 74% in NYHA functional class III, had a LV ejection fraction of 26 ± 5% and a mean peak VO2 of 12.2 ± 1.8 mL/kg/min. Thirty-five patients were successfully treated with alginate-hydrogel injections through a limited left thoracotomy approach without device-related complications; the 30-day surgical mortality was 8.6% (3 deaths). Alginate-hydrogel treatment was associated with improved peak VO2 at 6 months—treatment effect vs. Control: +1.24 mL/kg/min (95% confidence interval 0.26–2.23, P = 0.014). Also 6MWT distance and NYHA functional class improved in alginate-hydrogel-treated patients vs. Control (both P < 0.001). Conclusion Alginate-hydrogel in addition to standard medical therapy for patients with advanced chronic HF was more effective than standard medical therapy alone for improving exercise capacity and symptoms. The results of AUGMENT-HF provide proof of concept for a pivotal trial. Trial Registration Number NCT01311791. PMID:26082085

  11. Calcium-Alginate Hydrogel-Encapsulated Fibroblasts Provide Sustained Release of Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor

    PubMed Central

    Hunt, Nicola C.; Shelton, Richard M.; Henderson, Deborah J.

    2013-01-01

    Vascularization of engineered or damaged tissues is essential to maintain cell viability and proper tissue function. Revascularization of the left ventricle (LV) of the heart after myocardial infarction is particularly important, since hypoxia can give rise to chronic heart failure due to inappropriate remodeling of the LV after death of cardiomyocytes (CMs). Fibroblasts can express vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), which plays a major role in angiogenesis and also acts as a chemoattractant and survival factor for CMs and cardiac progenitors. In this in vitro model study, mouse NIH 3T3 fibroblasts encapsulated in 2% w/v Ca-alginate were shown to remain viable for 150 days. Semiquantitative reverse transcription–polymerase chain reaction and immunohistochemistry demonstrated that over 21 days of encapsulation, fibroblasts continued to express VEGF, while enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay showed that there was sustained release of VEGF from the Ca-alginate during this period. The scaffold degraded gradually over the 21 days, without reduction in volume. Cells released from the Ca-alginate at 7 and 21 days as a result of scaffold degradation were shown to retain viability, to adhere to fibronectin in a normal manner, and continue to express VEGF, demonstrating their potential to further contribute to maintenance of cardiac function after scaffold degradation. This model in vitro study therefore demonstrates that fibroblasts encapsulated in Ca-alginate provide sustained release of VEGF. PMID:23082964

  12. Enzymatic detection of mercuric ions in ground-water from vegetable wastes by immobilizing pumpkin (Cucumis melo) urease in calcium alginate beads.

    PubMed

    Prakash, Om; Talat, Mahe; Hasan, Syed Hadi; Pandey, Rajesh K

    2008-07-01

    Present report describes a quick and simple test based on enzyme inhibition for the detection of mercury in aqueous medium by urease immobilized in alginate beads. Urease was extracted from the discarded seeds of pumpkin (Cucumis melo) and was purified to apparent homogeneity (5.2-fold) by heat treatment at 48+/-0.1 degrees C and gel filtration through Sephadex G-200. The homogeneous enzyme preparation (Sp activity 353 U/mg protein, A(280)/A(260)=1.12) was immobilized in 3.5% alginate leading to 86% immobilization. Effect of mercuric ion on the activity of soluble as well as immobilized enzyme was investigated. Hg(2+) exhibited a concentration-dependent inhibition both in the presence and absence of the substrate. The alginate immobilized enzyme showed less inhibition. There was no leaching of the enzyme over a period of 15 days at 4 degrees C. The inhibition was non-competitive and the K(i) was found to be 1.26x10(-1)microM. Time-dependent interaction of urease with Hg(2+) exhibited a biphasic inhibition behavior in which approximately half of the initial activity was lost rapidly (within 10 min) and reminder in a slow phase. Binding of Hg(2+) with the enzyme was largely irreversible, as the activity could not be restored by dialysis. The significance of the observations is discussed.

  13. A comprehensive approach to in vitro functional evaluation of Ag/alginate nanocomposite hydrogels.

    PubMed

    Stojkovska, Jasmina; Kostić, Danijela; Jovanović, Željka; Vukašinović-Sekulić, Maja; Mišković-Stanković, Vesna; Obradović, Bojana

    2014-10-13

    In this work, we present a comprehensive approach to evaluation of alginate microbeads with included silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) at the concentration range of 0.3-5mM for potential biomedical use by combining cytotoxicity, antibacterial activity, and silver release studies. The microbeads were investigated regarding drying and rehydration showing retention of ∼ 80-85% of the initial nanoparticles as determined by UV-vis and SEM analyses. Both wet and dry microbeads were shown to release AgNPs and/or ions inducing similar growth delays of Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli at the total released silver concentrations of ∼ 10 μg/ml. On the other hand, these concentrations were highly toxic for bovine chondrocytes in conventional monolayer cultures while nontoxic when cultured in alginate microbeads under biomimetic conditions in 3D perfusion bioreactors. The applied approach outlined directions for further optimization studies demonstrating Ag/alginate microbeads as potentially attractive components of soft tissue implants as well as antimicrobial wound dressings.

  14. Factors influencing alginate gel biocompatibility.

    PubMed

    Tam, Susan K; Dusseault, Julie; Bilodeau, Stéphanie; Langlois, Geneviève; Hallé, Jean-Pierre; Yahia, L'Hocine

    2011-07-01

    Alginate remains the most popular polymer used for cell encapsulation, yet its biocompatibility is inconsistent. Two commercially available alginates were compared, one with 71% guluronate (HiG), and the other with 44% (IntG). Both alginates were purified, and their purities were verified. After 2 days in the peritoneal cavity of C57BL/6J mice, barium (Ba)-gel and calcium (Ca)-gel beads of IntG alginate were clean, while host cells were adhered to beads of HiG alginate. IntG gel beads, however, showed fragmentation in vivo while HiG gel beads stayed firm. The physicochemical properties of the sodium alginates and their gels were thoroughly characterized. The intrinsic viscosity of IntG alginate was 2.5-fold higher than that of HiG alginate, suggesting a greater molecular mass. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy indicated that both alginates were similar in elemental composition, including low levels of counterions in all gels. The wettabilities of the alginates and gels were also identical, as measured by contact angles of water on dry films. Ba-gel beads of HiG alginate resisted swelling and degradation when immersed in water, much more than the other gel beads. These results suggest that the main factors contributing to the biocompatibility of gels of purified alginate are the mannuronate/guluronate content and/or intrinsic viscosity.

  15. Optimization of methylene blue using Ca(2+) and Zn(2+) bio-polymer hydrogel beads: A comparative study.

    PubMed

    Kumar, M; Tamilarasan, R; Arthanareeswaran, G; Ismail, A F

    2015-11-01

    Recently noted that the methylene blue cause severe central nervous system toxicity. It is essential to optimize the methylene blue from aqueous environment. In this study, a comparison of an optimization of methylene blue was investigated by using modified Ca(2+) and Zn(2+) bio-polymer hydrogel beads. A batch mode study was conducted using various parameters like time, dye concentration, bio-polymer dose, pH and process temperature. The isotherms, kinetics, diffusion and thermodynamic studies were performed for feasibility of the optimization process. Freundlich and Langmuir isotherm equations were used for the prediction of isotherm parameters and correlated with dimensionless separation factor (RL). Pseudo-first order and pseudo-second order Lagegren's kinetic equations were used for the correlation of kinetic parameters. Intraparticle diffusion model was employed for diffusion of the optimization process. The Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) shows different absorbent peaks of Ca(2+) and Zn(2+) beads and the morphology of the bio-polymer material analyzed with Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM). The TG & DTA studies show that good thermal stability with less humidity without production of any non-degraded products.

  16. Adsorption of a cationic dye, methylene blue, on to chitosan hydrogel beads generated by anionic surfactant gelation.

    PubMed

    Chatterjee, Sudipta; Chatterjee, Tania; Lim, Seong-Rin; Woo, Seung H

    2011-10-01

    Chitosan hydrogel beads (CSB) formed by sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS) gelation were used for the removal of a cationic dye, methylene blue (MB), from aqueous solutions. The adsorption capacity of chitosan beads (CB) formed by alkali gelation was low because of charge repulsions between the chitosan (CS) and the MB. The adsorption capacity of CSB (4 g/L SDS gelation) for MB (100 mg/L) was 129.44 mg/g, and it decreased significantly with increasing SDS concentration during gelation. This decrease was a result of increased density of the CSB membrane materials. The CSB membrane materials formed with the 4 g/L SDS gelation showed the highest volumetric adsorption capacity. The MB adsorption on to CB and CSB increased with increasing values for the initial pH of solution. Data from both CB and CSB showed good fit to Sips isotherm models, and the maximum adsorption capacity of CSB (226.24 mg/g) was higher than that of CB (99.01 mg/g).

  17. Comparing different methods to fix and to dehydrate cells on alginate hydrogel scaffolds using scanning electron microscopy.

    PubMed

    Santana, Bianca Palma; Nedel, Fernanda; Perelló Ferrúa, Camila; Marques e Silva, Ricardo; da Silva, Adriana Fernandes; Demarco, Flávio Fernando; Lenin Villarreal Carreño, Neftali

    2015-07-01

    Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) is commonly used in the analysis of scaffolds morphology, as well as cell attachment, morphology and spreading on to the scaffolds. However, so far a specific methodology to prepare the alginate hydrogel (AH) scaffolds for SEM analysis has not been evaluated. This study compared different methods to fix/dehydrate cells in AH scaffolds for SEM analysis. AH scaffolds were prepared and seeded with NIH/3T3 cell line; fixed with glutaraldehyde, osmium tetroxide, or the freeze drying method and analyzed by SEM. Results demonstrated that the freeze dried method interferes less with cell morphology and density, and preserves the scaffolds structure. The fixation with glutaraldehyde did not affect cells morphology and density; however, the scaffolds morphology was affected in some level. The fixation with osmium tetroxide interfered in the natural structure of cells and scaffold. In conclusion the freeze drying and glutaraldehyde are suitable methods for cell fixation in AH scaffold for SEM, although scaffolds structure seems to be affected by glutaraldehyde.

  18. Comparing different methods to fix and to dehydrate cells on alginate hydrogel scaffolds using scanning electron microscopy.

    PubMed

    Santana, Bianca Palma; Nedel, Fernanda; Perelló Ferrúa, Camila; Marques e Silva, Ricardo; da Silva, Adriana Fernandes; Demarco, Flávio Fernando; Lenin Villarreal Carreño, Neftali

    2015-07-01

    Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) is commonly used in the analysis of scaffolds morphology, as well as cell attachment, morphology and spreading on to the scaffolds. However, so far a specific methodology to prepare the alginate hydrogel (AH) scaffolds for SEM analysis has not been evaluated. This study compared different methods to fix/dehydrate cells in AH scaffolds for SEM analysis. AH scaffolds were prepared and seeded with NIH/3T3 cell line; fixed with glutaraldehyde, osmium tetroxide, or the freeze drying method and analyzed by SEM. Results demonstrated that the freeze dried method interferes less with cell morphology and density, and preserves the scaffolds structure. The fixation with glutaraldehyde did not affect cells morphology and density; however, the scaffolds morphology was affected in some level. The fixation with osmium tetroxide interfered in the natural structure of cells and scaffold. In conclusion the freeze drying and glutaraldehyde are suitable methods for cell fixation in AH scaffold for SEM, although scaffolds structure seems to be affected by glutaraldehyde. PMID:25871651

  19. Enhanced molar sorption ratio for naphthalene through the impregnation of surfactant into chitosan hydrogel beads.

    PubMed

    Chatterjee, Sudipta; Lee, Dae S; Lee, Min W; Woo, Seung H

    2010-06-01

    Surfactants in their impregnated forms in chitosan beads (CBs) were used for sorption of naphthalene (NAP) from aqueous solutions. Three different surfactants, Triton X-100 (TX100), cetyltrimethyl ammonium bromide (CTAB) and sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), were selected for this study. The results showed that surfactant-impregnated CS beads (SICBs) in the form of a separate phase surfactant were very effective for NAP sorption. The calculated molar sorption ratio (MSR(B) mol NAP/mol surfactant) of the surfactant impregnated into SICBs was much greater than the intrinsic molar solubilization ratio (MSR) in liquid phase. The high MSR(B) value could be explained by favorable configurations of surfactants in beads, such as micelles in sorbed form. The equilibrium isotherm did not follow Langmuir or Freundlich models, but followed Chapman sigmoidal equation, indicating co-operative sorption of solutes. Using SICBs as a separate phase surfactant may be a valuable tool for remediation of groundwater contaminated with hydrophobic organic compounds.

  20. Effects of Perfusion and Dynamic Loading on Human Neocartilage Formation in Alginate Hydrogels

    PubMed Central

    Grogan, Shawn P.; Sovani, Sujata; Pauli, Chantal; Chen, Jianfen; Hartmann, Andreas; Colwell, Clifford W.; Lotz, Martin K.

    2012-01-01

    Dynamic loading and perfusion culture environments alone are known to enhance cartilage extracellular matrix (ECM) production in dedifferentiated articular chondrocytes. In this study, we explored whether a combination of these factors would enhance these processes over a free-swelling (FS) condition using adult human articular chondrocytes embedded in 2% alginate. The alginate constructs were placed into a bioreactor for perfusion (P) only (100 μL/per minute) or perfusion and dynamic compressive loading (PL) culture (20% for 1 h, at 0.5 Hz), each day. Control FS alginate gels were maintained in six-well static culture. Gene expression analysis was conducted on days 7 and 14, while cell viability, immunostaining, and mechanical property testing were performed on day 14 only. Total glycosaminoglycan (GAG) content and GAG synthesis were assessed after 14 days. Col2a1 mRNA expression levels were significantly higher (at least threefold; p<0.05) in both bioreactor conditions compared with FS by days 7 and 14. For all gene studies, no significant differences were seen between P and PL treatments. Aggrecan mRNA levels were not significantly altered in any condition although both GAG/DNA and 35S GAG incorporation studies indicated higher GAG retention and synthesis in the FS treatment. Collagen type II protein deposition was low in all samples, link protein distribution was more diffuse in FS condition, and aggrecan deposition was located in the outer regions of the alginate constructs in both bioreactor conditions, yet more uniformly in the FS condition. Catabolic gene expression (matrix metalloproteinase 3 [MMP3] and inducible nitric oxide synthase [iNOS]) was higher in bioreactor conditions compared with FS, although iNOS expression levels decreased to approximately fourfold less than the FS condition by day 14. Our data indicate that conditions created in the bioreactor enhanced both anabolic and catabolic responses, similar to other loading studies. Perfusion

  1. In Vivo Assessment of Bone Regeneration in Alginate/Bone ECM Hydrogels with Incorporated Skeletal Stem Cells and Single Growth Factors

    PubMed Central

    Gothard, David; Smith, Emma L.; Kanczler, Janos M.; Black, Cameron R.; Wells, Julia A.; Roberts, Carol A.; White, Lisa J.; Qutachi, Omar; Peto, Heather; Rashidi, Hassan; Rojo, Luis; Stevens, Molly M.; El Haj, Alicia J.; Rose, Felicity R. A. J.; Shakesheff, Kevin M.; Oreffo, Richard O. C.

    2015-01-01

    The current study has investigated the use of decellularised, demineralised bone extracellular matrix (ECM) hydrogel constructs for in vivo tissue mineralisation and bone formation. Stro-1-enriched human bone marrow stromal cells were incorporated together with select growth factors including VEGF, TGF-β3, BMP-2, PTHrP and VitD3, to augment bone formation, and mixed with alginate for structural support. Growth factors were delivered through fast (non-osteogenic factors) and slow (osteogenic factors) release PLGA microparticles. Constructs of 5 mm length were implanted in vivo for 28 days within mice. Dense tissue assessed by micro-CT correlated with histologically assessed mineralised bone formation in all constructs. Exogenous growth factor addition did not enhance bone formation further compared to alginate/bone ECM (ALG/ECM) hydrogels alone. UV irradiation reduced bone formation through degradation of intrinsic growth factors within the bone ECM component and possibly also ECM cross-linking. BMP-2 and VitD3 rescued osteogenic induction. ALG/ECM hydrogels appeared highly osteoinductive and delivery of angiogenic or chondrogenic growth factors led to altered bone formation. All constructs demonstrated extensive host tissue invasion and vascularisation aiding integration and implant longevity. The proposed hydrogel system functioned without the need for growth factor incorporation or an exogenous inducible cell source. Optimal growth factor concentrations and spatiotemporal release profiles require further assessment, as the bone ECM component may suffer batch variability between donor materials. In summary, ALG/ECM hydrogels provide a versatile biomaterial scaffold for utilisation within regenerative medicine which may be tailored, ultimately, to form the tissue of choice through incorporation of select growth factors. PMID:26675008

  2. In Vivo Assessment of Bone Regeneration in Alginate/Bone ECM Hydrogels with Incorporated Skeletal Stem Cells and Single Growth Factors.

    PubMed

    Gothard, David; Smith, Emma L; Kanczler, Janos M; Black, Cameron R; Wells, Julia A; Roberts, Carol A; White, Lisa J; Qutachi, Omar; Peto, Heather; Rashidi, Hassan; Rojo, Luis; Stevens, Molly M; El Haj, Alicia J; Rose, Felicity R A J; Shakesheff, Kevin M; Oreffo, Richard O C

    2015-01-01

    The current study has investigated the use of decellularised, demineralised bone extracellular matrix (ECM) hydrogel constructs for in vivo tissue mineralisation and bone formation. Stro-1-enriched human bone marrow stromal cells were incorporated together with select growth factors including VEGF, TGF-β3, BMP-2, PTHrP and VitD3, to augment bone formation, and mixed with alginate for structural support. Growth factors were delivered through fast (non-osteogenic factors) and slow (osteogenic factors) release PLGA microparticles. Constructs of 5 mm length were implanted in vivo for 28 days within mice. Dense tissue assessed by micro-CT correlated with histologically assessed mineralised bone formation in all constructs. Exogenous growth factor addition did not enhance bone formation further compared to alginate/bone ECM (ALG/ECM) hydrogels alone. UV irradiation reduced bone formation through degradation of intrinsic growth factors within the bone ECM component and possibly also ECM cross-linking. BMP-2 and VitD3 rescued osteogenic induction. ALG/ECM hydrogels appeared highly osteoinductive and delivery of angiogenic or chondrogenic growth factors led to altered bone formation. All constructs demonstrated extensive host tissue invasion and vascularisation aiding integration and implant longevity. The proposed hydrogel system functioned without the need for growth factor incorporation or an exogenous inducible cell source. Optimal growth factor concentrations and spatiotemporal release profiles require further assessment, as the bone ECM component may suffer batch variability between donor materials. In summary, ALG/ECM hydrogels provide a versatile biomaterial scaffold for utilisation within regenerative medicine which may be tailored, ultimately, to form the tissue of choice through incorporation of select growth factors. PMID:26675008

  3. Alginate hydrogel matrix stiffness influences the in vitro development of caprine preantral follicles.

    PubMed

    Brito, I R; Silva, C M G; Duarte, A B G; Lima, I M T; Rodrigues, G Q; Rossetto, R; Sales, A D; Lobo, C H; Bernuci, M P; Rosa-E-Silva, A C J S; Campello, C C; Xu, M; Figueiredo, J R

    2014-07-01

    This study examined caprine follicular development in different concentrations of alginate matrix to determine the optimal conditions for culture. Caprine preantral follicles were cultured in a two-dimensional system (control) or a three-dimensional encapsulated system in 0.25%, 0.5%, or 1% alginate (ALG 0.25, ALG 0.5, and ALG 1, respectively). A higher percentage of morphologically normal follicles developed in ALG 0.5 and ALG 1 than in ALG 0.25 or the control (P < 0.05). The rate of antrum formation, however, was higher in ALG 0.25 than in ALG 0.5 and ALG 1 conditions (P < 0.05), but similar to the control. Follicles cultured in ALG 0.25 had higher growth rates and meiotic resumption than those cultured in ALG 0.5, ALG 1, or the control (P < 0.05). Moreover, follicles cultured in ALG 0.25 had higher levels of estradiol and progesterone than those cultured in ALG 0.5, ALG 1, or the control, as well as higher levels of CYP19A1 and HSD3B mRNA. In conclusion, a three-dimensional system that uses ALG 0.25 fosters the in vitro development of caprine preantral follicles and increases the rate of meiotic resumption.

  4. Enhanced degradation of phenol by Pseudomonas sp. CP4 entrapped in agar and calcium alginate beads in batch and continuous processes.

    PubMed

    Aneez Ahamad, P Y; Mohammad Kunhi, A A

    2011-04-01

    Phenol is one of the major toxic pollutants in the wastes generated by a number of industries and needs to be eliminated before their discharge. Although microbial degradation is a preferred method of waste treatment for phenol removal, the general inability of the degrading strains to tolerate higher substrate concentrations has been a bottleneck. Immobilization of the microorganism in suitable matrices has been shown to circumvent this problem to some extent. In this study, cells of Pseudomonas sp. CP4, a laboratory isolate that degrades phenol, cresols, and other aromatics, were immobilized by entrapment in Ca-alginate and agar gel beads, separately and their performance in a fluidized bed bioreactor was compared. In batch runs, with an aeration rate of 1 vol(-1) vol(-1) min(-1), at 30°C and pH 7.0 ± 0.2, agar-encapsulated cells degraded up to 3000 mg l(-1) of phenol as compared to 1500 mg l(-1) by Ca-alginate-entrapped cells whereas free cells could tolerate only 1000 mg l(-1). In a continuous process with Ca-alginate entrapped cells a degradation rate of 200 mg phenol l(-1) h(-1) was obtained while agar-entrapped cells were far superior and could withstand and degrade up to 4000 mg phenol l(-1) in the feed with a maximum degradation rate of 400 mg phenol l(-1) h(-1). The results indicate a clear possibility of development of an efficient treatment technology for phenol containing waste waters with the agar-entrapped bacterial strain, Pseudomonas sp. CP4.

  5. Characteristics of biochar derived from marine macroalgae and fabrication of granular biochar by entrapment in calcium-alginate beads for phosphate removal from aqueous solution.

    PubMed

    Jung, Kyung-Won; Jeong, Tae-Un; Kang, Ho-Jeong; Ahn, Kyu-Hong

    2016-07-01

    In this work, granular biochar, Laminaria japonica-derived biochar (LB)-calcium alginate beads (LB-CAB), was successfully prepared by dropping a mixture of powder biochar and alginate solution into a calcium chloride solution for phosphate adsorption. Among different marine macroalgae derived biochars, LB exhibited the best performance, showing a phosphate removal rate of 97.02%, which was attributed to its high Ca/P and Mg/P ratios. With increasing pyrolysis temperature up to 600°C, the physicochemical properties of LB became suitable for adsorbing phosphate. Experimental results of kinetics and equilibrium isotherms at different temperatures (10-30°C) showed that the phosphate adsorption process is endothermic and is mainly controlled by external mass transfer and the intraparticle diffusion rate. The maximum adsorption capacity was found to be 157.7mgg(-1) at 30°C, as fitted by the Langmuir-Freundlich model, which is higher than capacities of other powder form of biochars.

  6. Evaluation of crosslinked chitosan hydrogel beads as a carrier for prolonged delivery of diclofenac sodium: in vitro and in vivo studies.

    PubMed

    Alsarra, Ibrahim A

    2004-12-01

    Chitosan hydrogel beads containing diclofanac sodium were prepared using ionotropic gelation technique in which tripolyphosphate solution was used as a counterion. Chitosan molecular weight, tripolyphosphate concentration and crosslinking time were found to have an effect on the percentage of the drug loading. The loading efficiency of diclofenac sodium was very high (more than 90%). A longer-period of contact with the counterion ions decreased the efficiency of drug loading. The beads produced all had good spherical geometry. The beads showed a narrow size distribution in which 95% of the beads prepared were in the range of 2-3 mm. Comparison of release rate-time plots of dissolution data of marketed product with the newly developed dosage form indicated the ability of the later to sustain more diclofenac sodium release. The beads were evaluated for their bioavailability in six beagle dogs relative to the commercial enteric-coated Voltaren tablets. The in vivo availability study, reveled that the prepared beads filled in hard gelatin capsules had a 126.22% bioavailability relative to that of the commercial Voltaren tablets. The beads showed comparable pharmacokinetic parameters to that of the commercial tablets. The results suggested the possibility of producing a promising sustained drug delivery system for diclofenac sodium. PMID:15881815

  7. Microencapsulation in Alginate and Chitosan Microgels to Enhance Viability of Bifidobacterium longum for Oral Delivery

    PubMed Central

    Yeung, Timothy W.; Üçok, Elif F.; Tiani, Kendra A.; McClements, David J.; Sela, David A.

    2016-01-01

    Probiotic microorganisms are incorporated into a wide variety of foods, supplements, and pharmaceuticals to promote human health and wellness. However, maintaining bacterial cell viability during storage and gastrointestinal transit remains a challenge. Encapsulation of bifidobacteria within food-grade hydrogel particles potentially mitigates their sensitivity to environmental stresses. In this study, Bifidobacterium longum subspecies and strains were encapsulated in core-shell microgels consisting of an alginate core and a microgel shell. Encapsulated obligate anaerobes Bifidobacterium longum subsp. infantis and Bifidobacterium longum subsp. longum exhibited differences in viability in a strain-dependent manner, without a discernable relationship to subspecies lineage. This includes viability under aerobic storage conditions and modeled gastrointestinal tract conditions. Coating alginate microgels with chitosan did not improve viability compared to cells encapsulated in alginate microgels alone, suggesting that modifying the surface charge alone does not enhance delivery. Thus hydrogel beads have great potential for improving the stability and efficacy of bifidobacterial probiotics in various nutritional interventions. PMID:27148184

  8. Dodecenyl succinylated alginate as a novel material for encapsulation and hyperactivation of lipases.

    PubMed

    Falkeborg, Mia; Paitaid, Pattarapon; Shu, Allen Ndonwi; Pérez, Bianca; Guo, Zheng

    2015-11-20

    Alginate was modified with dodecenyl succinic anhydride (SAC12) in an aqueous reaction medium at neutral pH. The highest degree of succinylation (33.9±3.5%) was obtained after 4h at 30°C, using four mole SAC12 per mol alginate monomer. Alginate was modified with succinic anhydride (SAC0) for comparison, and the structures and thermal properties of alg-SAC0 and alg-SAC12 were evaluated using FTIR, (1)H NMR, and DSC. Calcium-hydrogel beads were formed from native and modified alginates, in which lipases were encapsulated with a load of averagely 76μg lipase per mg alginate, irrespective of the type of alginate. Lipases with a "lid", which usually are dependent on interfacial activation, showed a 3-fold increase in specific activity toward water-soluble substrates when encapsulated in alg-SAC12, compared to the free lipase. Such hyperactivation was not observed for lipases independent of interfacial activation, or for lipases encapsulated in native alginate or alg-SAC0 hydrogels. PMID:26344272

  9. Gelling process for sodium alginate: New technical approach by using calcium rich micro-spheres.

    PubMed

    Vicini, Silvia; Castellano, Maila; Mauri, Marco; Marsano, Enrico

    2015-12-10

    Alginate based materials have become an important class of products in many fields from the pharmaceutical industry to tissue engineering, because of their ability to create stimuli responsive hydrogels. We present a new technical approach for obtaining a controlled gelling process, based on the quantities of Ca(2+) rich alginate micro-beads added as crosslinkers. The gels have been evaluated in light of the amount of Ca(2+) added to the alginate solution, and in light of the different dimensions of the micro-beads, using rheological measurements to assess the variation in the storage modulus (G'), loss modulus (G'') and complex viscosity (η(*)) as well as swelling and deswelling tests. The methodology was developed to obtain a material with specific characteristics for application in the field of conservation. The material had to be able to create a stable gel after being applied on the artwork surface and to confine the solvent action at the interface during cleaning operations.

  10. Swirl Flow Bioreactor coupled with Cu-alginate beads: A system for the eradication of Coliform and Escherichia coli from biological effluents.

    PubMed

    Atkinson, Sov; Thomas, Simon F; Goddard, Paul; Bransgrove, Rachel M; Mason, Paul T; Oak, Ajeet; Bansode, Anand; Patankar, Rohit; Gleason, Zachary D; Sim, Marissa K; Whitesell, Andrew; Allen, Michael J

    2015-05-21

    It is estimated that approximately 1.1 billion people globally drink unsafe water. We previously reported both a novel copper-alginate bead, which quickly reduces pathogen loading in waste streams and the incorporation of these beads into a novel swirl flow bioreactor (SFB), of low capital and running costs and of simple construction from commercially available plumbing pipes and fittings. The purpose of the present study was to trial this system for pathogen reduction in waste streams from an operating Dewats system in Hinjewadi, Pune, India and in both simulated and real waste streams in Seattle, Washington, USA. The trials in India, showed a complete inactivation of coliforms in the discharged effluent (Mean Log removal Value (MLRV) = 3.51), accompanied by a total inactivation of E. coli with a MLRV of 1.95. The secondary clarifier effluent also showed a 4.38 MLRV in viable coliforms during treatment. However, the system was slightly less effective in reducing E. coli viability, with a MLRV of 1.80. The trials in Seattle also demonstrated the efficacy of the system in the reduction of viable bacteria, with a LRV of 5.67 observed of viable Raoultella terrigena cells (100%).

  11. Swirl Flow Bioreactor coupled with Cu-alginate beads: A system for the eradication of Coliform and Escherichia coli from biological effluents

    PubMed Central

    Atkinson, Sov; Thomas, Simon F.; Goddard, Paul; Bransgrove, Rachel M.; Mason, Paul T.; Oak, Ajeet; Bansode, Anand; Patankar, Rohit; Gleason, Zachary D.; Sim, Marissa K.; Whitesell, Andrew; Allen, Michael J.

    2015-01-01

    It is estimated that approximately 1.1 billion people globally drink unsafe water. We previously reported both a novel copper-alginate bead, which quickly reduces pathogen loading in waste streams and the incorporation of these beads into a novel swirl flow bioreactor (SFB), of low capital and running costs and of simple construction from commercially available plumbing pipes and fittings. The purpose of the present study was to trial this system for pathogen reduction in waste streams from an operating Dewats system in Hinjewadi, Pune, India and in both simulated and real waste streams in Seattle, Washington, USA. The trials in India, showed a complete inactivation of coliforms in the discharged effluent (Mean Log removal Value (MLRV) = 3.51), accompanied by a total inactivation of E. coli with a MLRV of 1.95. The secondary clarifier effluent also showed a 4.38 MLRV in viable coliforms during treatment. However, the system was slightly less effective in reducing E. coli viability, with a MLRV of 1.80. The trials in Seattle also demonstrated the efficacy of the system in the reduction of viable bacteria, with a LRV of 5.67 observed of viable Raoultella terrigena cells (100%). PMID:25999243

  12. Microfabrication of a tunable collagen/alginate-chitosan hydrogel membrane for controlling cell-cell interactions.

    PubMed

    Song, Yizhe; Zhang, Demeng; Lv, Yan; Guo, Xin; Lou, Ruyun; Wang, Shujun; Wang, Xiuli; Yu, Weiting; Ma, Xiaojun

    2016-11-20

    Indirect cell contact co-culture system is increasingly becoming more attractable owing to their advantages of easy cell separation and desirable outcomes for cell-cell interactions. However, how to precisely control the spatial position of cells within multicellular co-cultures is still experimentally challenging due to the incapability of the conventional methods in vitro. In the present study, a tunable collagen/alginate-chitosan (Col/Alg-Chi) membrane was established, which was capable of controlling intercellular distance between the neighboring cells at a level of micrometer resolution. It was showed that intercellular distance between the hepatocytes and the fibroblasts exerted significant influence on hepatic function in vitro. In particular, maintenance of the functionality of primary hepatocytes requires direct contact between the hepatocytes and their supportive stromal cells, and their effective contact distance is within 30μm. This technical platform would potentially enable investigations of dynamic cell-cell interaction in a multitude of applications including organogenesis, development or even neoplastic transformation. PMID:27561537

  13. Composite alginate hydrogel microparticulate delivery system of zidovudine hydrochloride based on counter ion induced aggregation

    PubMed Central

    Roy, Harekrishna; Rao, P. Venkateswar; Panda, Sanjay Kumar; Biswal, Asim Kumar; Parida, Kirti Ranjan; Dash, Jharana

    2014-01-01

    Aim: The present study deals with preparation of zidovudine loaded microparticle by counter ion induced aggregation method. During this study effect of polyacrylates and hypromellose polymers on release study were investigated. Materials and Methods: The ion induced aggregated alginate based microparticles were characterized for surface morphology, particle size analysis, drug entrapment study, in-vitro study, Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) study. Results and Discussion: The result showed Eudragit RL-100 (ERL) based formulations had smoother surface as well as their mean particle sizes were found greater compared with Eudragit RS-100 (ERS) microparticles. Furthermore, drug entrapments were found to be more in ERL formulae as compared with ERS. RL3 released 101.05% drug over a period of 8th h and followed Higuchi profile and Fickian diffusion. Moreover, data obtained illustrated that, higher amount of quaternary ammonium group, alkali value, and glass transition temperature may be possible reason for improving permeability of ERL based formulations. It was also noticed, hyroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC) K4M premium grade polymer sustained drug release more than HPMC K15M. In addition, drug-excipient interaction study was carried out by FTIR and DSC study. PMID:25298940

  14. Adsorption of Rare Earths(Ⅲ) Using an Efficient Sodium Alginate Hydrogel Cross-Linked with Poly-γ-Glutamate

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Shuxia; Wang, Zhiwei; Gao, Yuqian; Zhang, Shimin; Wu, Kun

    2015-01-01

    With the exploitation of rare earth ore, more and more REEs came into groundwater. This was a waste of resources and could be harmful to the organisms. This study aimed to find an efficient adsorption material to mitigate the above issue. Through doping sodium alginate (SA) with poly-γ-glutamate (PGA), an immobilized gel particle material was produced. The composite exhibited excellent capacity for adsorbing rare earth elements (REEs). The amount of La3+ adsorbed on the SA-PGA gel particles reached approximately 163.93 mg/g compared to the 81.97 mg/g adsorbed on SA alone. The factors that potentially affected the adsorption efficiency of the SA-PGA composite, including the initial concentration of REEs, the adsorbent dosage, and the pH of the solution, were investigated. 15 types of REEs in single and mixed aqueous solutions were used to explore the selective adsorption of REEs on gel particles. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy analyses of the SA and SA-PGA gel beads suggested that the carboxyl groups in the composite might play a key role in the adsorption process and the morphology of SA-PGA changed from the compact structure of SA to a porous structure after doping PGA. The kinetics and thermodynamics of the adsorption of REEs were well fit with the pseudo-second-order equation and the Langmuir adsorption isotherm model, respectively. It appears that SA-PGA is useful for recycling REEs from wastewater. PMID:25996388

  15. Matrix-driven formation of mesenchymal stem cell-extracellular matrix microtissues on soft alginate hydrogels.

    PubMed

    Maia, F Raquel; Fonseca, Keila B; Rodrigues, Gabriela; Granja, Pedro L; Barrias, Cristina C

    2014-07-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) can be made to rearrange into microtissues in response to specific matrix cues, a process that depends on a balance between cell-matrix and cell-cell interactions. The effect of such cues, and especially their interplay, is still not fully understood, particularly in three-dimensional (3-D) systems. Here, the behaviour of human MSCs cultured within hydrogel matrices with tailored stiffness and composition was evaluated. MSC aggregation occurred only in more compliant matrices (G'≤ 120 Pa), when compared to stiffer ones, both in the presence and in the absence of matrix-bound arginine-glycine-aspartic acid cell-adhesion ligands (RGD; 0, 100 and 200 μM). Fibronectin assembly stabilized cell-cell contacts within aggregates, even in non-adhesive matrices. However, MSCs were able to substantially contract the artificial matrix only when RGD was present. Moreover, compliant matrices facilitated cell proliferation and provided an environment conducive for MSC osteogenic differentiation, even without RGD. Cell interactions with the original matrix became less important as time progressed, while the de novo-produced extracellular matrix became a more critical determinant of cell fate. These data provide further insights into the mechanisms by which MSCs sense their microenvironment to organize into tissues, and provide new clues to the design of cell-instructive 3-D matrices.

  16. Matrix-driven formation of mesenchymal stem cell-extracellular matrix microtissues on soft alginate hydrogels.

    PubMed

    Maia, F Raquel; Fonseca, Keila B; Rodrigues, Gabriela; Granja, Pedro L; Barrias, Cristina C

    2014-07-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) can be made to rearrange into microtissues in response to specific matrix cues, a process that depends on a balance between cell-matrix and cell-cell interactions. The effect of such cues, and especially their interplay, is still not fully understood, particularly in three-dimensional (3-D) systems. Here, the behaviour of human MSCs cultured within hydrogel matrices with tailored stiffness and composition was evaluated. MSC aggregation occurred only in more compliant matrices (G'≤ 120 Pa), when compared to stiffer ones, both in the presence and in the absence of matrix-bound arginine-glycine-aspartic acid cell-adhesion ligands (RGD; 0, 100 and 200 μM). Fibronectin assembly stabilized cell-cell contacts within aggregates, even in non-adhesive matrices. However, MSCs were able to substantially contract the artificial matrix only when RGD was present. Moreover, compliant matrices facilitated cell proliferation and provided an environment conducive for MSC osteogenic differentiation, even without RGD. Cell interactions with the original matrix became less important as time progressed, while the de novo-produced extracellular matrix became a more critical determinant of cell fate. These data provide further insights into the mechanisms by which MSCs sense their microenvironment to organize into tissues, and provide new clues to the design of cell-instructive 3-D matrices. PMID:24607421

  17. Preparation and Evaluation of Mucoadhesive Beads/Discs of Alginate and Algino-Pectinate of Piroxicam for Colon-Specific Drug Delivery Via Oral Route

    PubMed Central

    Jelvehgari, Mitra; Mobaraki, Vajihe; Montazam, Seyed Hassan

    2014-01-01

    Background: Targeted drug delivery to colon would ensure direct treatment at the disease site, decrease in dose administration and reduction side effects improved drug utilization. Objective: The purpose of this research was to decrease gastric side effects of piroxicam by formulating microspheres of alginate and algino-pectinate beads of the drug. Materials and Methods: Ionotropic gelation was used to entrap piroxicam into alginate and algino-pectinate mucoadhesive microspheres as a potential drug carrier for oral delivery of piroxicam. Microparticles with different drug to polymers ratio were prepared and characterized by encapsulation efficiency, particle size, DSC (differential scanning calorimetric), mucoadhesive property, gastroretentive time and drug release studies. Results: The best drug to polymer ratio of microparticles was 1:2.5 (F1) with Na-Alg and 1:7.5 (F4) with Alg-Na with pectin, respectively. The microparticles F1 and F4 showed 28.80%, 50.01% loading efficiency, 82.57%, 82.31% production yield and 945.4, 899.91 µm mean particle size. DSC showed stable character of piroxicam in drug-loaded microparticles and revealed amorphous form. It was found that microparticles (Na-Alg) prepared had faster release and microparticles (Alg-Na and pectin mixture) prepared had slower release than untreated piroxicam (P < 0.05). Microparticles (mixture of Na-Alg and pectin) exhibited very good percentage of mucoadhesion and flowability properties. Mucoadhesion strength and retention time study showed better retention of piroxicam microparticles in intestine. Besides, there was a significant higher retention of mucoadhesive microparticles in upper GI tract. Conclusions: Algino-pectinate mucoadhesive formulations exhibited promising properties of a sustained release form for piroxicam and provided distinct tissue protection in stomach. PMID:25625047

  18. Study of the potential of the air lift bioreactor for xylitol production in fed-batch cultures by Debaryomyces hansenii immobilized in alginate beads.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Bibbins, Belinda; de Souza Oliveira, Ricardo Pinheiro; Torrado, Ana; Aguilar-Uscanga, María Guadalupe; Domínguez, José Manuel

    2014-01-01

    Cell immobilization has shown to be especially adequate for xylitol production. This work studies the suitability of the air lift bioreactor for xylitol production by Debaryomyces hansenii immobilized in Ca-alginate operating in fed-batch cultures to avoid substrate inhibition. The results showed that the air lift bioreactor is an adequate system since the minimum air flow required for fluidization was even lower than that leading to the microaerobic conditions that trigger xylitol accumulation by this yeast, also maintaining the integrity of the alginate beads and the viability of the immobilized cells until 3 months of reuses. Maximum productivities and yields of 0.43 g/l/h and 0.71 g/g were achieved with a xylose concentration of 60 g/l after each feeding. The xylose feeding rate, the air flow, and the biomass concentration at the beginning of the fed-batch operation have shown to be critical parameters for achieving high productivities and yields. Although a maximum xylitol production of 139 g/l was obtained, product inhibition was evidenced in batch experiments, which allowed estimating at 200 and 275 g/l the IC50 for xylitol productivity and yield, respectively. The remarkable production of glycerol in the absence of glucose was noticeable, which could not only be attributed to the osmoregulatory function of this polyol in conditions of high osmotic pressure caused by high xylitol concentrations but also to the role of the glycerol synthesis pathway in the regeneration of NAD(+) in conditions of suboptimal microaeration caused by insufficient aeration or high oxygen demand when high biomass concentrations were achieved.

  19. Confined Flocculation of Ionic Pollutants by Poly(L-dopa)-Based Polyelectrolyte Complexes in Hydrogel Beads for Three-Dimensional, Quantitative, Efficient Water Decontamination.

    PubMed

    Yu, Li; Liu, Xiaokong; Yuan, Weichang; Brown, Lauren Joan; Wang, Dayang

    2015-06-16

    The development of simple and recyclable adsorbents with high adsorption capacity is a technical imperative for water treatment. In this work, we have successfully developed new adsorbents for the removal of ionic pollutants from water via encapsulation of polyelectrolyte complexes (PECs) made from positively charged poly(allylamine hydrochloride) (PAH) and negatively charged poly(l-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine) (PDopa), obtained via the self-polymerization of l-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (l-Dopa). Given the outstanding mass transport through the hydrogel host matrixes, the PDopa-PAH PEC guests loaded inside can effectively and efficiently remove various ionic pollutants, including heavy metal ions and ionic organic dyes, from water. The adsorption efficiency of the PDopa-PAH PECs can be quantitatively correlated to and tailored by the PDopa-to-PAH molar ratio. Because PDopa embodies one catechol group, one carboxyl group, and one amino group in each repeating unit, the resulting PDopa-PAH PECs exhibit the largest capacity of adsorption of heavy metal ions compared to available adsorbents. Because both PDopa and PAH are pH-sensitive, the PDopa-PAH PEC-loaded agarose hydrogel beads can be easily and completely recovered after the adsorption of ionic pollutants by adjusting the pH of the surrounding media. The present strategy is similar to the conventional process of using PECs to flocculate ionic pollutants from water, while in our system flocculation is confined to the agarose hydrogel beads, thus allowing easy separation of the resulting adsorbents from water.

  20. Immobilization of Candida krusei cells producing phytase in alginate gel beads: an application of the preparation of myo-inositol phosphates.

    PubMed

    Quan, C S; Fan, S D; Ohta, Y

    2003-07-01

    Cells of Candida krusei capable of producing phytase were immobilized in Ca-alginate gel beads and used for the preparation of myo-inositol phosphates. The immobilization yield was increased about 5-fold after the beads were treated for 96 h at pH 4.0, 4 degrees C. The increased yield was retained, even after 1 month, when the cells were kept at this temperature and pH. No shift in the pH optima of phytase of the immobilized cells was observed, compared with that of free cells. However, the optimum temperature for the enzyme of the immobilized cells was 55 degrees C, which was 15 degrees C higher than that of free cells. The degradation characteristics of the phytate in immobilized cells packed in a glass column (i.d. 1.2 cm, length 20 cm) were investigated. The variation in the composition of the products results from a change in the flow rate of phytate solution (5 mM). At a flow rate of 1.30 ml/min, a mixture of myo-inositol-2-monophosphate, myo-inositol-1,2,5-triphosphate and myo-inositol-1,2,5,6-tetrakisphosphate was produced, in which the latter two were physiologically active. Also, it was found by NMR analysis that the enzyme of this strain produced only one isomer of each of the inositol phosphates, with the exception of myo-inositol pentakisphosphate. Therefore, the pure isomers were easily isolated using ion-exchange chromatography.

  1. Mussel-inspired alginate gel promoting the osteogenic differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells and anti-infection.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Shiwen; Xu, Kaige; Darabi, Mohammad Ali; Yuan, Quan; Xing, Malcolm

    2016-12-01

    Alginate hydrogels have been used in cell encapsulation for many years but a prevalent issue with pure alginates is that they are unable to provide enough bioactive properties to interact with mammalian cells. This paper discusses the modification of alginate with mussel-inspired dopamine for cell loading and anti-infection. Mouse bone marrow stem cells were immobilized into alginate and alginate-dopamine beads and fibers. Through live-dead and MTT assay, alginates modified by dopamine promoted cell viability and proliferation. In vitro cell differentiation results showed that such an alginate-dopamine gel can promote the osteogenic differentiation of mesenchymal stem cell after PCR and ALP assays. In addition to that, the adhesive prosperities of dopamine allowed for coating the surface of alginate-dopamine gel with silver nanoparticles, which provided the gel with significant antibacterial characteristics. Overall, these results demonstrate that a dopamine-modified alginate gel can be a great tool for cell encapsulation to promote cell proliferation and can be applied to bone regeneration, especially in contaminated bone defects. PMID:27612740

  2. The functional behavior of a macrophage/fibroblast co-culture model derived from normal and diabetic mice with a marine gelatin-oxidized alginate hydrogel.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Qiong; Chen, Weiliam

    2010-08-01

    Tissues/cells-mediated biodegradable material degradation is epitomized by the constantly changing tissues/cell-implant interface, implicating the constant adaptation of the tissues/cells. Macrophages and fibroblasts are multi-functional cells highly involved in the interactions; the two cell types modulates the behaviors of each other, but their combinatorial functional behavior in the presence of interactive bioactive wound dressings has not been adequately examined. The activity is further complicated by the implantation of biodegradable materials, such as hydrogels commonly utilized as wound dressings, in a pathological environment and this is exemplified by the macrophages with a diabetic pathology producing an alternative cytokine profile which is implicated in wound healing delay. In this study, an in situ gelable formable/conformable hydrogel formulated from modified alginate and marine gelatin was used as a model biodegradable interactive wound dressing to elucidate the combinatorial behavior of macrophages/fibroblasts derived from both normal and diabetic hosts. Cell proliferation, migration and distribution were first characterized; this was followed by simultaneous quantitative detection of 40 inflammatory cytokines and chemokines by a protein microarray. The results showed that the macrophages/fibroblasts co-culture promoted fibroblasts proliferation and migration in the presence of the hydrogel; moreover, the expressions of inflammatory cytokines and chemokines were altered when compared with the corresponding fibroblasts or macrophages monocultures. The inflammatory cytokines patterns between the normal and diabetic hosts were considerably different.

  3. The functional behavior of a macrophage/fibroblast co-culture model derived from normal and diabetic mice with a marine gelatin-oxidized alginate hydrogel.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Qiong; Chen, Weiliam

    2010-08-01

    Tissues/cells-mediated biodegradable material degradation is epitomized by the constantly changing tissues/cell-implant interface, implicating the constant adaptation of the tissues/cells. Macrophages and fibroblasts are multi-functional cells highly involved in the interactions; the two cell types modulates the behaviors of each other, but their combinatorial functional behavior in the presence of interactive bioactive wound dressings has not been adequately examined. The activity is further complicated by the implantation of biodegradable materials, such as hydrogels commonly utilized as wound dressings, in a pathological environment and this is exemplified by the macrophages with a diabetic pathology producing an alternative cytokine profile which is implicated in wound healing delay. In this study, an in situ gelable formable/conformable hydrogel formulated from modified alginate and marine gelatin was used as a model biodegradable interactive wound dressing to elucidate the combinatorial behavior of macrophages/fibroblasts derived from both normal and diabetic hosts. Cell proliferation, migration and distribution were first characterized; this was followed by simultaneous quantitative detection of 40 inflammatory cytokines and chemokines by a protein microarray. The results showed that the macrophages/fibroblasts co-culture promoted fibroblasts proliferation and migration in the presence of the hydrogel; moreover, the expressions of inflammatory cytokines and chemokines were altered when compared with the corresponding fibroblasts or macrophages monocultures. The inflammatory cytokines patterns between the normal and diabetic hosts were considerably different. PMID:20452666

  4. The Functional Behavior of a Macrophage/Fibroblast Co-culture Model Derived from Normal and Diabetic Mice with a Marine Gelatin - Oxidized Alginate Hydrogel

    PubMed Central

    Zeng, Qiong; Chen, Weiliam

    2010-01-01

    Tissues/cells-mediated biodegradable material degradation is epitomized by the constantly changing tissues/cell-implant interface, implicating the constant adaptation of the tissues/cells. Macrophages and fibroblasts are multi-functional cells highly involved in the interactions; the two cell types modulates the behaviors of each other, but their combinatorial functional behavior in the presence of interactive bioactive wound dressings has not been adequately examined. The activity is further complicated by the implantation of biodegradable materials, such as hydrogels commonly utilized as wound dressings, in a pathological environment and this is exemplified by the macrophages with a diabetic pathology producing an alternative cytokine profile which is implicated in wound healing delay. In this study, an in situ gelable formable/conformable hydrogel formulated from modified alginate and marine gelatin was used as a model biodegradable interactive wound dressing to elucidate the combinatorial behavior of macrophages/fibroblasts derived from both normal and diabetic hosts. Cell proliferation, migration and distribution were first characterized; this was followed by simultaneous quantitative detection of 40 inflammatory cytokines and chemokines by a protein microarray. The results showed that the macrophages/fibroblasts co-culture promoted fibroblasts proliferation and migration in the presence of the hydrogel; moreover, the expressions of inflammatory cytokines and chemokines were altered when compared with the corresponding fibroblasts or macrophages monocultures. The inflammatory cytokines patterns between the normal and diabetic hosts were considerably different. PMID:20452666

  5. Fabrication of granular activated carbons derived from spent coffee grounds by entrapment in calcium alginate beads for adsorption of acid orange 7 and methylene blue.

    PubMed

    Jung, Kyung-Won; Choi, Brian Hyun; Hwang, Min-Jin; Jeong, Tae-Un; Ahn, Kyu-Hong

    2016-11-01

    Biomass-based granular activated carbon was successfully prepared by entrapping activated carbon powder derived from spent coffee grounds into calcium-alginate beads (SCG-GAC) for the removal of acid orange 7 (AO7) and methylene blue (MB) from aqueous media. The dye adsorption process is highly pH-dependent and essentially independent of ionic effects. The adsorption kinetics was satisfactorily described by the pore diffusion model, which revealed that pore diffusion was the rate-limiting step during the adsorption process. The equilibrium isotherm and isosteric heat of adsorption indicate that SCG-GAC possesses an energetically heterogeneous surface and operates via endothermic process in nature. The maximum adsorption capacities of SCG-GAC for AO7 (pH 3.0) and MB (pH 11.0) adsorption were found to be 665.9 and 986.8mg/g at 30°C, respectively. Lastly, regeneration tests further confirmed that SCG-GAC has promising potential in its reusability, showing removal efficiency of more than 80% even after seven consecutive cycles.

  6. Enhanced lipid production by co-cultivation and co-encapsulation of oleaginous yeast Trichosporonoides spathulata with microalgae in alginate gel beads.

    PubMed

    Kitcha, Suleeporn; Cheirsilp, Benjamas

    2014-05-01

    This study attempted to enhance biomass and lipid productivity of an oleaginous yeast Trichosporonoides spathulata by co-culturing with microalgae Chlorella spp., optimizing culture conditions, and encapsulating them in alginate gel beads. The co-culture of the yeast with microalgae Chlorella vulgaris var. vulgaris TISTR 8261 most enhanced overall biomass and lipid productivity by 1.6-fold of the yeast pure culture at 48 h and by 1.1-fold at 72 h. After optimization and scale-up in a bioreactor, this co-culture produced the highest biomass of 12.2 g/L with a high lipid content of 47 %. The dissolved oxygen monitoring system in the bioreactor showed that the microalgae worked well as an oxygen supplier to the yeast. This study also showed that the co-encapsulated yeast and microalgae could grow and produce lipid as same as their free cells did. Therefore, it is possible to apply this encapsulation technique for lipid production and simplification of downstream harvesting process. This co-culture system also produced the lipid with high content of saturated fatty acids, indicating its potential use as biodiesel feedstock with high oxidative stability.

  7. Statistical optimization of alpha-amylase production by Streptomyces erumpens MTCC 7317 cells in calcium alginate beads using response surface methodology.

    PubMed

    Kar, Shaktimay; Ray, Ramesh C

    2008-01-01

    Alpha-amylase has a wide range of applications in starch industries, i.e. baking, brewing, distillery, etc. The alpha-amylase production from Streptomyces erumpens MTCC 7317 immobilized cells was compared with that of free cells. The immobilized cells of S. erumpens in calcium alginate beads were more effective for production of alpha-amylase (12.2% more yield) than free cells. Response surface methodology (RSM) was used to evaluate the effect of main variables, i.e. incubation period, pH and temperature on enzyme production with immobilized cells. A full factorial Central Composite Design (CCD) was applied to study these main factors that affected alpha-amylase production. The experimental results showed that the optimum incubation period, pH and temperature were 36 h, 6.0 and 50 degrees C, respectively for immobilized cells. Repeated batch fermentation of immobilized cells in shake flasks carried out in starch-beef extract medium showed that S. erumpens cells were physiologically active on the support even after four cycles of fermentation.

  8. Synthesis of magnetic alginate beads based on Fe3O4 nanoparticles for the removal of 3-methylindole from aqueous solution using Fenton process.

    PubMed

    Hammouda, Samia Ben; Adhoum, Nafaâ; Monser, Lotfi

    2015-08-30

    A novel magnetic heterogeneous catalyst has been developed by incorporation of iron(II) and magnetic functionalized nanoparticles Fe3O4 in alginate beads with the aim of using them in the advanced Fenton oxidation of a malodorous compound (3 methyl-indole: 3-MI). The effects of significant operational parameters such as initial pH, oxidant concentration and catalyst amount were investigated and optimized for a better removal of 3-MI at initial concentration of 20mgL(-1). Besides, the catalyst stability was evaluated according to the iron leached into the aqueous solution. Results revealed that the parameters affecting Fenton catalysis must be carefully chosen to avoid excessive iron release. Under optimized conditions, the magnetic catalyst exhibited a good catalytic performance. Total removal of 3 methyl indole and a remarkable organic mineralization, without significant leaching of iron, were attained within 120min at pH 3.0 by using 0.4gL(-1) of Fe-MABs and 9.8mmolL(-1) of H2O2. The novel magnetic catalyst would be of potential application due to its high efficiency, easy recovery and good structural stability. PMID:25867585

  9. Fabrication of granular activated carbons derived from spent coffee grounds by entrapment in calcium alginate beads for adsorption of acid orange 7 and methylene blue.

    PubMed

    Jung, Kyung-Won; Choi, Brian Hyun; Hwang, Min-Jin; Jeong, Tae-Un; Ahn, Kyu-Hong

    2016-11-01

    Biomass-based granular activated carbon was successfully prepared by entrapping activated carbon powder derived from spent coffee grounds into calcium-alginate beads (SCG-GAC) for the removal of acid orange 7 (AO7) and methylene blue (MB) from aqueous media. The dye adsorption process is highly pH-dependent and essentially independent of ionic effects. The adsorption kinetics was satisfactorily described by the pore diffusion model, which revealed that pore diffusion was the rate-limiting step during the adsorption process. The equilibrium isotherm and isosteric heat of adsorption indicate that SCG-GAC possesses an energetically heterogeneous surface and operates via endothermic process in nature. The maximum adsorption capacities of SCG-GAC for AO7 (pH 3.0) and MB (pH 11.0) adsorption were found to be 665.9 and 986.8mg/g at 30°C, respectively. Lastly, regeneration tests further confirmed that SCG-GAC has promising potential in its reusability, showing removal efficiency of more than 80% even after seven consecutive cycles. PMID:27494099

  10. Preparation and characterization of immobilized [A336][MTBA] in PVA-alginate gel beads as novel solid-phase extractants for an efficient recovery of Hg (II) from aqueous solutions.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yun; Kogelnig, Daniel; Morgenbesser, Cornelia; Stojanovic, Anja; Jirsa, Franz; Lichtscheidl-Schultz, Irene; Krachler, Regina; Li, Yanfeng; Keppler, Bernhard K

    2011-11-30

    The coarse PVA-alginate matrix gel beads entrapping the micro-droplets of the ionic liquid tricaprylylmethylammonium 2-(methylthio) benzoate ([A336][MTBA]) as novel solid-phase extractants were prepared for the removal of mercury (II) from aqueous media. The ionic liquid [A336][MTBA] immobilized PVA-alginate beads (PVA/IL) have been characterized by FTIR, SEM and TGA. The influence of the uptake conditions was investigated including aqueous pH, PVA/IL dosage, the content of [A336][MTBA] and initial Hg (II) concentration; maximum Hg (II) ion adsorption capacity obtained was 49.89 (± 0.11)mgg(-1) at pH 5.8 with adsorptive removal of approximately 99.98%. The selectivity of the PVA/IL beads towards Hg (II), Pb (II) and Cu (II) ions tested was Hg>Pb>Cu. The rate kinetic study was found to follow second-order and the applicability of Langmuir, Freundlich and Tempkin adsorption isotherm model were tested as well. The results of the study showed that PVA/IL beads could be efficiently used as novel extractants for the removal of divalent mercury from aqueous solutions under comparatively easy operation conditions.

  11. Kinetic Characterization and Effect of Immobilized Thermostable β-Glucosidase in Alginate Gel Beads on Sugarcane Juice

    PubMed Central

    Keerti; Gupta, Anuradha; Dubey, Ashutosh; Verma, A. K.

    2014-01-01

    A thermostable β-glucosidase was effectively immobilized on alginate by the method of gel entrapment. After optimization of immobilized conditions, recovered enzyme activity was 60%. Optimum pH, temperature, kinetic parameters, thermal and pH stability, reusability, and storage stability were investigated. The Km and Vmax for immobilized β-glucosidase were estimated to be 5.0 mM and 0.64 U/ml, respectively. When comparing, free and immobilized enzyme, change was observed in optimum pH and temperature from 5.0 to 6.0 and 60°C to 80°C, respectively. Immobilized enzyme showed an increase in pH stability over the studied pH range (3.0–10.0) and stability at temperature up to 80°C. The storage stability and reusability of the immobilized β-glucosidase were improved significantly, with 12.09% activity retention at 30°C after being stored for 25 d and 17.85% residual activity after being repeatedly used for 4 times. The effect of both free and immobilized β-glucosidase enzyme on physicochemical properties of sugarcane juice was also analyzed. PMID:25969764

  12. Augmentation of Left Ventricular Wall Thickness With Alginate Hydrogel Implants Improves Left Ventricular Function and Prevents Progressive Remodeling in Dogs With Chronic Heart Failure

    PubMed Central

    Sabbah, Hani N.; Wang, Mengjun; Gupta, Ramesh C.; Rastogi, Sharad; Ilsar, Itamar; Sabbah, Michael S.; Kohli, Smita; Helgerson, Sam; Lee, Randall J.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives The study tested the hypothesis that augmentation of the left ventricular (LV) wall thickness with direct intramyocardial injections of alginate hydrogel implants (AHI) reduces LV cavity size, restores LV shape, and improves LV function in dogs with heart failure (HF). Background Progressive LV dysfunction, enlargement, and chamber sphericity are features of HF associated with increased mortality and morbidity. Methods Studies were performed in 14 dogs with HF produced by intracoronary microembolizations (LV ejection fraction [EF] <30%). Dogs were randomized to AHI treatment (n = 8) or to sham-operated control (n = 6). During an open-chest procedure, dogs received either intramyocardial injections of 0.25 to 0.35 ml of alginate hydrogel (Algisyl-LVR, LoneStar Heart, Inc., Laguna Hills, California) or saline. Seven injections were made ∼1.0 to 1.5 cm apart (total volume 1.8 to 2.1 ml) along the circumference of the LV free wall halfway between the apex and base starting from the anteroseptal groove and ending at the posteroseptal groove. Hemodynamic and ventriculographic measurements were made before treatment (PRE) and repeated post-surgery for up to 17 weeks (POST). Results Compared to control, AHI significantly reduced LV end-diastolic and end-systolic volumes and improved LV sphericity. AHI treatment significantly increased EF (26 ± 0.4% at PRE to 31 ± 0.4% at POST; p < 0.05) compared to the decreased EF seen in control dogs (27 ± 0.3% at PRE to 24 ± 1.3% at POST; p < 0.05). AHI treatment was well tolerated and was not associated with increased LV diastolic stiffness. Conclusions In HF dogs, circumferential augmentation of LV wall thickness with AHI improves LV structure and function. The results support continued development of AHI for the treatment of patients with advanced HF. PMID:23998003

  13. Adsorption of As(III), As(V) and Cu(II) on zirconium oxide immobilized alginate beads in aqueous phase.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Oh-Hun; Kim, Jong-Oh; Cho, Dong-Wan; Kumar, Rahul; Baek, Seung Han; Kurade, Mayur B; Jeon, Byong-Hun

    2016-10-01

    A composite adsorbent to remove arsenite [As(III)], arsenate [As(V)], and copper [Cu(II)] from aqueous phase was synthesized by immobilizing zirconium oxide on alginate beads (ZOAB). The composition (wt%) of ZOAB (Zr-34.0; O-32.7; C-21.3; Ca-1.0) was confirmed by energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) analysis. Sorption studies were conducted on single and binary sorbate systems, and the effects of contact time, initial adsorbate concentration, and pH on the adsorption performance of ZOAB (pHPZC = 4.3) were monitored. The sorption process for As(III)/As(V) and Cu(II) reached an equilibrium state within 240 h and 24 h, respectively, with maximum sorption capacities of 32.3, 28.5, and 69.9 mg g(-1), respectively. The addition of Cu(II) was favorable for As(V) sorption in contrast to As(III). In the presence of 48.6 mg L(-1) Cu(II), the sorption capacity of As(V) increased from 1.5 to 3.8 mg g(-1) after 240 h. The sorption data for As(III)/As(V) and Cu(II) conformed the Freundlich and Langmuir isotherm models, respectively. The adsorption of As(III), As(V), and Cu(II) followed pseudo second order kinetics. The effect of arsenic species on Cu(II) sorption was insignificant. The results of present study demonstrated that the synthesized sorbent could be useful for the simultaneous removal of both anionic and cationic contaminants from wastewaters.

  14. Kinetics studies of p-cresol biodegradation by using Pseudomonas putida in batch reactor and in continuous bioreactor packed with calcium alginate beads.

    PubMed

    Mathur, A K; Bala, Shashi; Majumder, C B; Sarkar, S

    2010-01-01

    Present study deals with the biodegradation of p-cresol by using Pseudomonas putida in a batch reactor and a continuous bioreactor packed with calcium alginate beads. The maximum specific growth rate of 0.8121 h(-1) was obtained at 200 mg L(-1) concentration of p-cresol in batch reactor. The maximum p-cresol degradation rate was obtained 6.598 mg L(-1) h(-1) at S(o)=200 mg L(-1) and 62.8 mg L(-1) h(-1) at S(o)=500 mg L(-1) for batch reactor and a continuous bioreactor, respectively. The p-cresol degradation rate of continuous bioreactor was 9 to 10-fold higher than those of the batch reactor. It shows that the continuous bioreactor could tolerate a higher concentration of p-cresol. A Haldane model was also used for p-cresol inhibition in batch reactor and a modified equation similar to Haldane model for continuous bioreactor. The Haldane parameters were obtained as µ(max) 0.3398 h(-1), K(s) 110.9574 mg L(-1), and K(I) 497.6169 mg L(-1) in batch reactor. The parameters used in continuous bioreactor were obtained as D(max) 91.801 mg L(-1) h(-1), K(s) 131.292 mg L(-1), and K(I) 1217.7 mg L(-1). The value K(I) of continuous bioreactor is approximately 2.5 times higher than the batch reactor. Higher K(I) value of continuous bioreactor indicates P. putida can grow at high range of p-cresol concentration. The ability of tolerance of higher p-cresol concentrations may be one reason for biofilm attachment on the packed bed in the continuous operation.

  15. Adsorption of As(III), As(V) and Cu(II) on zirconium oxide immobilized alginate beads in aqueous phase.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Oh-Hun; Kim, Jong-Oh; Cho, Dong-Wan; Kumar, Rahul; Baek, Seung Han; Kurade, Mayur B; Jeon, Byong-Hun

    2016-10-01

    A composite adsorbent to remove arsenite [As(III)], arsenate [As(V)], and copper [Cu(II)] from aqueous phase was synthesized by immobilizing zirconium oxide on alginate beads (ZOAB). The composition (wt%) of ZOAB (Zr-34.0; O-32.7; C-21.3; Ca-1.0) was confirmed by energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) analysis. Sorption studies were conducted on single and binary sorbate systems, and the effects of contact time, initial adsorbate concentration, and pH on the adsorption performance of ZOAB (pHPZC = 4.3) were monitored. The sorption process for As(III)/As(V) and Cu(II) reached an equilibrium state within 240 h and 24 h, respectively, with maximum sorption capacities of 32.3, 28.5, and 69.9 mg g(-1), respectively. The addition of Cu(II) was favorable for As(V) sorption in contrast to As(III). In the presence of 48.6 mg L(-1) Cu(II), the sorption capacity of As(V) increased from 1.5 to 3.8 mg g(-1) after 240 h. The sorption data for As(III)/As(V) and Cu(II) conformed the Freundlich and Langmuir isotherm models, respectively. The adsorption of As(III), As(V), and Cu(II) followed pseudo second order kinetics. The effect of arsenic species on Cu(II) sorption was insignificant. The results of present study demonstrated that the synthesized sorbent could be useful for the simultaneous removal of both anionic and cationic contaminants from wastewaters. PMID:27372261

  16. Local structure of Ca(2+) induced hydrogels of alginate-oligoguluronate blends determined by small-angle-X-ray scattering.

    PubMed

    Yuguchi, Yoshiaki; Hasegawa, Ami; Padoł, Anna Maria; Draget, Kurt Ingar; Stokke, Bjørn Torger

    2016-11-01

    Short oligoguluronates, oligoG's, are reported to affect the ionotropic gelation of alginates both with respect to altered gelation kinetics and elastic properties of the resulting gels. The local structure of Ca(2+) induced changes in oligoguluronates and blends of oligoguluronates and alginates was determined by small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS). Calcium was introduced in the aqueous polysaccharide solutions by in situ release of Ca(2+) from Ca-EGTA. The scattering profiles of the Ca(2+)-induced structures in the alginate-oligoG blends were accounted for by a two-component broken rod-like model, also with an additional term representing structural inhomogeneity by a Debye-Bueche term. Adding oligoG to the alginate yields an increase in the largest cross-sectional radius in the region of fractional Ca(2+) saturation of α-l-GulA units from 0.5 to 1. The time-lapse characterization during the Ca-induced changes in the alginate-oligoG blends shows that oligoG delays the emergence of the more extensive laterally aggregated junction zones. PMID:27516301

  17. Local structure of Ca(2+) induced hydrogels of alginate-oligoguluronate blends determined by small-angle-X-ray scattering.

    PubMed

    Yuguchi, Yoshiaki; Hasegawa, Ami; Padoł, Anna Maria; Draget, Kurt Ingar; Stokke, Bjørn Torger

    2016-11-01

    Short oligoguluronates, oligoG's, are reported to affect the ionotropic gelation of alginates both with respect to altered gelation kinetics and elastic properties of the resulting gels. The local structure of Ca(2+) induced changes in oligoguluronates and blends of oligoguluronates and alginates was determined by small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS). Calcium was introduced in the aqueous polysaccharide solutions by in situ release of Ca(2+) from Ca-EGTA. The scattering profiles of the Ca(2+)-induced structures in the alginate-oligoG blends were accounted for by a two-component broken rod-like model, also with an additional term representing structural inhomogeneity by a Debye-Bueche term. Adding oligoG to the alginate yields an increase in the largest cross-sectional radius in the region of fractional Ca(2+) saturation of α-l-GulA units from 0.5 to 1. The time-lapse characterization during the Ca-induced changes in the alginate-oligoG blends shows that oligoG delays the emergence of the more extensive laterally aggregated junction zones.

  18. Novel pH- and temperature-responsive blend hydrogel microspheres of sodium alginate and PNIPAAm-g-GG for controlled release of isoniazid.

    PubMed

    Kajjari, Praveen B; Manjeshwar, Lata S; Aminabhavi, Tejraj M

    2012-12-01

    This paper reports the preparation and characterization of novel pH- and thermo-responsive blend hydrogel microspheres of sodium alginate (NaAlg) and poly(N-isopropylacrylamide)(PNIPAAm)-grafted-guar gum (GG) i.e., PNIPAAm-g-GG by emulsion cross-linking method using glutaraldehyde (GA) as a cross-linker. Isoniazid (INZ) was chosen as the model antituberculosis drug to achieve encapsulation up to 62%. INZ has a plasma half-life of 1.5 h, whose release was extended up to 12 h. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy was used to confirm the grafting reaction and chemical stability of INZ during the encapsulation. Differential scanning calorimetry was used to investigate the drug's physical state, while powder X-ray diffraction confirmed the molecular level dispersion of INZ in the matrix. Scanning electron microscopy confirmed varying surface morphologies of the drug-loaded microspheres. Temperature- and pH-responsive nature of the blend hydrogel microspheres were investigated by equilibrium swelling, and in vitro release experiments were performed in pH 1.2 and pH 7.4 buffer media at 37°C as well as at 25°C. Kinetics of INZ release was analyzed by Ritger-Peppas empirical equation to compute the diffusional exponent parameter (n), whose value ranged between 0.27 and 0.58, indicating the release of INZ follows a diffusion swelling controlled release mechanism. PMID:22956057

  19. A Comparison between Ultraviolet Disinfection and Copper Alginate Beads within a Vortex Bioreactor for the Deactivation of Bacteria in Simulated Waste Streams with High Levels of Colour, Humic Acid and Suspended Solids

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, Simon F.; Rooks, Paul; Rudin, Fabian; Atkinson, Sov; Goddard, Paul; Bransgrove, Rachel M.; Mason, Paul T.; Allen, Michael J.

    2014-01-01

    We show in this study that the combination of a swirl flow reactor and an antimicrobial agent (in this case copper alginate beads) is a promising technique for the remediation of contaminated water in waste streams recalcitrant to UV-C treatment. This is demonstrated by comparing the viability of both common and UV-C resistant organisms in operating conditions where UV-C proves ineffective - notably high levels of solids and compounds which deflect UV-C. The swirl flow reactor is easy to construct from commonly available plumbing parts and may prove a versatile and powerful tool in waste water treatment in developing countries. PMID:25541706

  20. A comparison between ultraviolet disinfection and copper alginate beads within a vortex bioreactor for the deactivation of bacteria in simulated waste streams with high levels of colour, humic acid and suspended solids.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Simon F; Rooks, Paul; Rudin, Fabian; Atkinson, Sov; Goddard, Paul; Bransgrove, Rachel M; Mason, Paul T; Allen, Michael J

    2014-01-01

    We show in this study that the combination of a swirl flow reactor and an antimicrobial agent (in this case copper alginate beads) is a promising technique for the remediation of contaminated water in waste streams recalcitrant to UV-C treatment. This is demonstrated by comparing the viability of both common and UV-C resistant organisms in operating conditions where UV-C proves ineffective - notably high levels of solids and compounds which deflect UV-C. The swirl flow reactor is easy to construct from commonly available plumbing parts and may prove a versatile and powerful tool in waste water treatment in developing countries.

  1. Alginate: properties and biomedical applications

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Kuen Yong; Mooney, David J.

    2011-01-01

    Alginate is a biomaterial that has found numerous applications in biomedical science and engineering due to its favorable properties, including biocompatibility and ease of gelation. Alginate hydrogels have been particularly attractive in wound healing, drug delivery, and tissue engineering applications to date, as these gels retain structural similarity to the extracellular matrices in tissues and can be manipulated to play several critical roles. This review will provide a comprehensive overview of general properties of alginate and its hydrogels, their biomedical applications, and suggest new perspectives for future studies with these polymers. PMID:22125349

  2. Dental mesenchymal stem cells encapsulated in an alginate hydrogel co-delivery microencapsulation system for cartilage regeneration.

    PubMed

    Moshaverinia, Alireza; Xu, Xingtian; Chen, Chider; Akiyama, Kentaro; Snead, Malcolm L; Shi, Songtao

    2013-12-01

    Dental-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are promising candidates for cartilage regeneration, with a high capacity for chondrogenic differentiation. This property helps make dental MSCs an advantageous therapeutic option compared to current treatment modalities. The MSC delivery vehicle is the principal determinant for the success of MSC-mediated cartilage regeneration therapies. The objectives of this study were to: (1) develop a novel co-delivery system based on TGF-β1 loaded RGD-coupled alginate microspheres encapsulating periodontal ligament stem cells (PDLSCs) or gingival mesenchymal stem cells (GMSCs); and (2) investigate dental MSC viability and chondrogenic differentiation in alginate microspheres. The results revealed the sustained release of TGF-β1 from the alginate microspheres. After 4 weeks of chondrogenic differentiation in vitro, PDLSCs and GMSCs as well as human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (hBMMSCs) (as positive control) revealed chondrogenic gene expression markers (Col II and Sox-9) via qPCR, as well as matrix positively stained by Toluidine Blue and Safranin-O. In animal studies, ectopic cartilage tissue regeneration was observed inside and around the transplanted microspheres, confirmed by histochemical and immunofluorescent staining. Interestingly, PDLSCs showed more chondrogenesis than GMSCs and hBMMSCs (p<0.05). Taken together, these results suggest that RGD-modified alginate microencapsulating dental MSCs make a promising candidate for cartilage regeneration. Our results highlight the vital role played by the microenvironment, as well as value of presenting inductive signals for viability and differentiation of MSCs. PMID:23891740

  3. Immobilization of Aspergillus niger F7-02 Lipase in Polysaccharide Hydrogel Beads of Irvingia gabonensis Matrix

    PubMed Central

    Kareem, Safaradeen Olateju; Adio, Olayinka Quadri; Osho, Michael Bamitale

    2014-01-01

    The potential of polysaccharide Irvingia gabonensis matrix as enzyme immobilization support was investigated. Lipase of Aspergillus niger F7-02 was immobilized by entrapment using glutaraldehyde as the cross-linking agent and stabilized in ethanolic-formaldehyde solution. The pH and temperature stability and activity yield of the immobilized enzyme were determined. Such parameters as enzyme load, bead size, number of beads, and bead reusability were also optimized. Adequate gel strength to form stabilized beads was achieved at 15.52% (w/v) Irvingia gabonensis powder, 15% (v/v) partially purified lipase, 2.5% (v/v) glutaraldehyde, and 3 : 1 (v/v) ethanolic-formaldehyde solution. There was 3.93-fold purification when the crude enzyme was partially purified in two-step purification using Imarsil and activated charcoal. Optimum lipase activity 75.3 Ug−1 was achieved in 50 mL test solution containing 15 beads of 7 mm bead size. Relative activity 80% was retained at eight repeated cycles. The immobilization process gave activity yield of 59.1% with specific activity of 12.3 Umg−1 and stabilized at optimum pH 4.5 and temperature 55°C. Thus the effectiveness and cost-efficiency of I. gabonensis as a polymer matrix for lipase immobilization have been established. PMID:25614829

  4. Supplemented αMEM/F12-based medium enables the survival and growth of primary ovarian follicles encapsulated in alginate hydrogels

    PubMed Central

    Tagler, David; Makanji, Yogeshwar; Anderson, Nicholas R.; Woodruff, Teresa K.; Shea, Lonnie D.

    2013-01-01

    Hydrogel-encapsulating culture systems for ovarian follicles support the in vitro growth of secondary follicles from various species including mouse, non-primate human, and human; however, the growth of early stage follicles (primary and primordial) has been limited. While encapsulation maintains the structure of early stage follicles, feeder cell populations, such as mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs), are required to stimulate growth and development. Hence, in this report, we investigated feeder-free culture environments for early stage follicle development. Mouse ovarian follicles were encapsulated within alginate hydrogels and cultured in various growth medium formulations. Initial studies employed embryonic stem cell medium formulations as a tool to identify factors that influence the survival, growth, and meiotic competence of early stage follicles. The medium formulation that maximized survival and growth was identified as αMEM/F12 supplemented with fetuin, insulin, transferrin, selenium, and follicle stimulating hormone (FSH). This medium stimulated the growth of late primary (average initial diameter of 80 µm) and early secondary (average initial diameter of 90 µm) follicles, which developed antral cavities and increased to terminal diameters exceeding 300 µm in 14 days. Survival ranged from 18% for 80 µm follicles to 36% for 90 µm follicles. Furthermore, 80% of the oocytes from surviving follicles with an initial diameter of 90–100 µm underwent germinal vesicle breakdown (GVBD), and the percentage of metaphase II (MII) eggs was 50%. Follicle/oocyte growth and GVBD/MII rates were not significantly different from MEF co-culture. Survival was reduced relative to MEF co-culture, yet substantially increased relative to the control medium that had been previously used for secondary follicles. Continued development of culture medium could enable mechanistic studies of early stage folliculogenesis and emerging strategies for fertility preservation. PMID

  5. Alginate based 3D hydrogels as an in vitro co-culture model platform for the toxicity screening of new chemical entities

    SciTech Connect

    Lan, Shih-Feng; Starly, Binil

    2011-10-01

    Prediction of human response to potential therapeutic drugs is through conventional methods of in vitro cell culture assays and expensive in vivo animal testing. Alternatives to animal testing require sophisticated in vitro model systems that must replicate in vivo like function for reliable testing applications. Advancements in biomaterials have enabled the development of three-dimensional (3D) cell encapsulated hydrogels as in vitro drug screening tissue model systems. In this study, we have developed an in vitro platform to enable high density 3D culture of liver cells combined with a monolayer growth of target breast cancer cell line (MCF-7) in a static environment as a representative example of screening drug compounds for hepatotoxicity and drug efficacy. Alginate hydrogels encapsulated with serial cell densities of HepG2 cells (10{sup 5}-10{sup 8} cells/ml) are supported by a porous poly-carbonate disc platform and co-cultured with MCF-7 cells within standard cell culture plates during a 3 day study period. The clearance rates of drug transformation by HepG2 cells are measured using a coumarin based pro-drug. The platform was used to test for HepG2 cytotoxicity 50% (CT{sub 50}) using commercially available drugs which further correlated well with published in vivo LD{sub 50} values. The developed test platform allowed us to evaluate drug dose concentrations to predict hepatotoxicity and its effect on the target cells. The in vitro 3D co-culture platform provides a scalable and flexible approach to test multiple-cell types in a hybrid setting within standard cell culture plates which may open up novel 3D in vitro culture techniques to screen new chemical entity compounds. - Graphical abstract: Display Omitted Highlights: > A porous support disc design to support the culture of desired cells in 3D hydrogels. > Demonstrated the co-culture of two cell types within standard cell-culture plates. > A scalable, low cost approach to toxicity screening involving

  6. The use of a dual PEDOT and RGD-functionalized alginate hydrogel coating to provide sustained drug delivery and improved cochlear implant function

    PubMed Central

    Chikar, JA; Hendricks, JL; Richardson-Burns, SM; Raphael, Y; Pfingst, BE; Martin, DC

    2011-01-01

    Cochlear implants provide hearing by electrically stimulating the auditory nerve. Implant function can be hindered by device design variables, including electrode size and electrode-to-nerve distance, and cochlear environment variables, including the degeneration of the auditory nerve following hair cell loss. We have developed a dual component cochlear implant coating to improve both the electrical function of the implant and the biological stability of the inner ear, thereby facilitating the long-term perception of sound through a cochlear implant. This coating is a combination of an arginine-glycine-aspartic acid (RGD)-functionalized alginate hydrogel and the conducting polymer poly(3, 4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT). Both in vitro and in vivo assays on the effects of these electrode coatings demonstrated improvements in device performance. We found that the coating reduced electrode impedance, improved charge delivery, and locally released significant levels of a trophic factor into cochlear fluids. This coating is non-cytotoxic, clinically relevant, and has the potential to significantly improve the cochlear implant user’s experience. PMID:22182748

  7. A degradable, bioactive, gelatinized alginate hydrogel to improve stem cell/growth factor delivery and facilitate healing after myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Della Rocca, Domenico G; Willenberg, Bradley J; Ferreira, Leonardo F; Wate, Prateek S; Petersen, John W; Handberg, Eileen M; Zheng, Tong; Steindler, Dennis A; Terada, Naohiro; Batich, Christopher D; Byrne, Barry J; Pepine, Carl J

    2012-11-01

    Despite remarkable effectiveness of reperfusion and drug therapies to reduce morbidity and mortality following myocardial infarction (MI), many patients have debilitating symptoms and impaired left ventricular (LV) function highlighting the need for improved post-MI therapies. A promising concept currently under investigation is intramyocardial injection of high-water content, polymeric biomaterial gels (e.g., hydrogels) to modulate myocardial scar formation and LV adverse remodeling. We propose a degradable, bioactive hydrogel that forms a unique microstructure of continuous, parallel capillary-like channels (Capgel). We hypothesize that the innovative architecture and composition of Capgel can serve as a platform for endogenous cell recruitment and drug/cell delivery, therefore facilitating myocardial repair after MI.

  8. A degradable, bioactive, gelatinized alginate hydrogel to improve stem cell/growth factor delivery and facilitate healing after myocardial infarction

    PubMed Central

    Della Rocca, Domenico G.; Willenberg, Bradley J.; Ferreira, Leonardo F.; Wate, Prateek S.; Petersen, John W.; Handberg, Eileen M.; Zheng, Tong; Steindler, Dennis A.; Terada, Naohiro; Batich, Christopher D.; Byrne, Barry J.; Pepine, Carl J.

    2013-01-01

    Despite remarkable effectiveness of reperfusion and drug therapies to reduce morbidity and mortality following myocardial infarction (MI), many patients have debilitating symptoms and impaired left ventricular (LV) function highlighting the need for improved post-MI therapies. A promising concept currently under investigation is intramyocardial injection of high-water content, polymeric biomaterial gels (e.g., hydrogels) to modulate myocardial scar formation and LV adverse remodeling. We propose a degradable, bioactive hydrogel that forms a unique microstructure of continuous, parallel capillary-like channels (Capgel). We hypothesize that the innovative architecture and composition of Capgel can serve as a platform for endogenous cell recruitment and drug/cell delivery, therefore facilitating myocardial repair after MI. PMID:22939314

  9. Development of a Biomimetic Chondroitin Sulfate-modified Hydrogel to Enhance the Metastasis of Tumor Cells

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yang; Wang, Shujun; Sun, Dongsheng; Liu, Yongdong; Liu, Yang; Wang, Yang; Liu, Chang; Wu, Hao; Lv, Yan; Ren, Ying; Guo, Xin; Sun, Guangwei; Ma, Xiaojun

    2016-01-01

    Tumor metastasis with resistance to anticancer therapies is the main cause of death in cancer patients. It is necessary to develop reliable tumor metastasis models that can closely recapitulate the pathophysiological features of the native tumor tissue. In this study, chondroitin sulfate (CS)-modified alginate hydrogel beads (ALG-CS) are developed to mimic the in vivo tumor microenvironment with an abnormally increased expression of CS for the promotion of tumor cell metastasis. The modification mechanism of CS on alginate hydrogel is due to the cross-linking between CS and alginate molecules via coordination of calcium ions, which enables ALG-CS to possess significantly different physical characteristics than the traditional alginate beads (ALG). And quantum chemistry calculations show that in addition to the traditional egg-box structure, novel asymmetric egg-box-like structures based on the interaction between these two kinds of polymers are also formed within ALG-CS. Moreover, tumor cell metastasis is significantly enhanced in ALG-CS compared with that in ALG, as confirmed by the increased expression of MMP genes and proteins and greater in vitro invasion ability. Therefore, ALG-CS could be a convenient and effective 3D biomimetic scaffold that would be used to construct standardized tumor metastasis models for tumor research and anticancer drug screening. PMID:27432752

  10. Calcium-Alginate-Inulin Microbeads as Carriers for Aqueous Carqueja Extract.

    PubMed

    Balanč, Bojana; Kalušević, Ana; Drvenica, Ivana; Coelho, Maria Teresa; Djordjević, Verica; Alves, Vitor D; Sousa, Isabel; Moldão-Martins, Margarida; Rakić, Vesna; Nedović, Viktor; Bugarski, Branko

    2016-01-01

    Carqueja (Pterospartum tridentatum) is an endemic species and various bioactive compounds have been identified in its aqueous extract. The aim of this study was to protect the natural antioxidants from the aqueous extract of carqueja by encapsulation in Ca-alginate microbeads and Ca-alginate microbeads containing 10% and 20% (w/v) of inulin. The microbeads produced by electrostatic extrusion technique had an average diameter from 625 μm to 830 μm depending on the portion of inulin. The sphericity factor of the hydrogel microbeads had values between 0.014 and 0.026, while freeze dried microbeads had irregular shape, especially those with no excipient. The reduction in microbeads size after freeze drying process (expressed as shrinkage factor) ranged from 0.338 (alginate microbeads with 20% (w/v) of inulin) to 0.523 (plain alginate microbeads). The expressed radical scavenging activity against ABTS and DPPH radicals was found to be between 30% and 40% for encapsulated extract, while the fresh extract showed around 47% and 57% of radical scavenging activity for ABTS and DPPH radicals, respectively. The correlation between antioxidant activity and the total phenolic content were found to be positive (in both assay methods, DPPH and ABTS), which indicate that the addition of inulin didn't have influence on antioxidant activity. The presence of inulin reduced stiffness of the hydrogel, and protected bead structure from collapse upon freeze-drying. Alginate-inulin beads are envisaged to be used for delivery of aqueous P. tridentatum extract in functional food products.

  11. Calcium-Alginate-Inulin Microbeads as Carriers for Aqueous Carqueja Extract.

    PubMed

    Balanč, Bojana; Kalušević, Ana; Drvenica, Ivana; Coelho, Maria Teresa; Djordjević, Verica; Alves, Vitor D; Sousa, Isabel; Moldão-Martins, Margarida; Rakić, Vesna; Nedović, Viktor; Bugarski, Branko

    2016-01-01

    Carqueja (Pterospartum tridentatum) is an endemic species and various bioactive compounds have been identified in its aqueous extract. The aim of this study was to protect the natural antioxidants from the aqueous extract of carqueja by encapsulation in Ca-alginate microbeads and Ca-alginate microbeads containing 10% and 20% (w/v) of inulin. The microbeads produced by electrostatic extrusion technique had an average diameter from 625 μm to 830 μm depending on the portion of inulin. The sphericity factor of the hydrogel microbeads had values between 0.014 and 0.026, while freeze dried microbeads had irregular shape, especially those with no excipient. The reduction in microbeads size after freeze drying process (expressed as shrinkage factor) ranged from 0.338 (alginate microbeads with 20% (w/v) of inulin) to 0.523 (plain alginate microbeads). The expressed radical scavenging activity against ABTS and DPPH radicals was found to be between 30% and 40% for encapsulated extract, while the fresh extract showed around 47% and 57% of radical scavenging activity for ABTS and DPPH radicals, respectively. The correlation between antioxidant activity and the total phenolic content were found to be positive (in both assay methods, DPPH and ABTS), which indicate that the addition of inulin didn't have influence on antioxidant activity. The presence of inulin reduced stiffness of the hydrogel, and protected bead structure from collapse upon freeze-drying. Alginate-inulin beads are envisaged to be used for delivery of aqueous P. tridentatum extract in functional food products. PMID:26613390

  12. Characterization of smart auto-degradative hydrogel matrix containing alginate lyase to enhance levofloxacin delivery against bacterial biofilms.

    PubMed

    Islan, German A; Dini, Cecilia; Bartel, Laura C; Bolzán, Alejandro D; Castro, Guillermo R

    2015-12-30

    The aim of the present work is the characterization of smart auto-degradable microspheres composed of calcium alginate/high methoxylated pectin containing an alginate lyase (AL) from Sphingobacterium multivorum and levofloxacin. Microspheres were prepared by ionotropic gelation containing AL in its inactive form at pH 4.0. Incubation of microspheres in Tris-HCl and PBS buffers at pH 7.40 allowed to establish the effect of ion-chelating phosphate on matrix erodability and suggested an intrinsically activation of AL by turning the pH close to neutrality. Scanning electron and optical microscopies revealed the presence of holes and surface changes in AL containing microspheres. Furthermore, texturometric parameters, DSC profiles and swelling properties were showing strong changes in microspheres properties. Encapsulation of levofloxacin into microspheres containing AL showed 70% efficiency and 35% enhancement of antimicrobial activity against Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilm. Levofloxacin release from microspheres was not changed at acidic pH, but was modified at neutral pH in presence of AL. Advantageously, only gel matrix debris were detectable after overnight incubation, indicating an autodegradative gel process activated by the pH. Absence of matrix cytotoxicity and a reduction of the levofloxacin toxicity after encapsulation were observed in mammalian CHO-K1 cell cultures. These properties make the system a potent and versatile tool for antibiotic oral delivery targeted to intestine, enhancing the drug bioavailability to eradicate bacterial biofilm and avoiding possible intestinal obstructions.

  13. Novel alginate-based nanocarriers as a strategy to include high concentrations of hydrophobic compounds in hydrogels for topical application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguyen, H. T. P.; Munnier, E.; Souce, M.; Perse, X.; David, S.; Bonnier, F.; Vial, F.; Yvergnaux, F.; Perrier, T.; Cohen-Jonathan, S.; Chourpa, I.

    2015-06-01

    The cutaneous penetration of hydrophobic active molecules is of foremost concern in the dermatology and cosmetic formulation fields. The poor solubility in water of those molecules limits their use in hydrophilic forms such as gels, which are favored by patients with chronic skin disease. The aim of this work is to design a novel nanocarrier of hydrophobic active molecules and to determine its potential as an ingredient of a topical form. The nanocarrier consists of an oily core surrounded by a protective shell of alginate, a natural polysaccharide isolated from brown algae. These calcium alginate-based nanocarriers (CaANCs) were prepared at room temperature and without the use of organic solvent by an accelerated nanoemulsification-polymer crosslinking method. The size (hydrodynamic diameter ˜200 nm) and surface charge (zeta potential ˜ - 30 mV) of the CaANCs are both compatible with their application on skin. CaANCs loaded with a fluorescent label were stable in model hydrophilic galenic forms under different storage conditions. Curcumin was encapsulated in CaANCs with an efficiency of ˜95%, fully retaining its antioxidant activity. The application of the curcumin-loaded CaANCs on excised human skin led to a significant accumulation of the active molecules in the upper layers of the skin, asserting the potential of these nanocarriers in active pharmaceutical and cosmetic ingredients topical delivery.

  14. VEGF-conjugated alginate hydrogel prompt angiogenesis and improve pancreatic islet engraftment and function in type 1 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Yin, Nina; Han, Yongming; Xu, Hanlin; Gao, Yisen; Yi, Tao; Yao, Jiale; Dong, Li; Cheng, Dejun; Chen, Zebin

    2016-02-01

    Type 1 diabetes was a life-long disease that affected numerous people around the world. Insulin therapy has its limitations that may involve hyperglycemia and heavy burden of patient by repeated dose. Islet transplantation emerged as a promising approach to reach periodical reverse of diabetes, however, transplanted islets suffer from foreign body reaction and lack of nutrition and oxygen supply, especially in the blood-vessel-shortage subcutaneous site which was preferred by patient and surgeon. In this study, we designed and synthesized a vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) conjugated alginate material to encapsulate the transplanted islets via 1-Ethyl-3-(3-dimethylaminopropyl) carbodiimide/N-hydroxysuccinimide (EDC/NHS) reaction, and successful conjugation was confirmed by Nuclear Magnetic Resonance H1 spectrum. The best VEGF concentration (100ng/ml) was determined by the combined studies of the mechanical property and endothelial cell growth assay. In vivo study, conjugated VEGF on alginate exhibited sustained promoting angiogenesis property after subcutaneous transplantation by histology study and islets encapsulated in this material achieved long term therapeutic effect (up to 50days) in the diabetic mice model. In conclusion, this study establishes a simple biomaterial strategy for islet transplantation to enhance islet survival and function, which could be a feasible therapeutic alternative for type 1 diabetes. PMID:26652453

  15. Tunable functional hydrogels formed from a versatile water-soluble chitosan.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Congming; You, Rongrui; Fan, Ying; Zhang, Yue

    2016-04-01

    A versatile water-soluble chitosan (WSC) was applied to construct two kinds of controllable functional hydrogels. Magnetic beads were prepared by physical cross-linking WSC with sodium alginate, soaking particles with ferrous chloride and being subjected to self-oxidation. Magnetic character of the beads was tunable by simply changing the initial concentration of ferrous ions. The beads could bind compounds that contained different charges. Their adsorption capacities for coomassie brilliant blue, rhodamine and hemoglobin were 1, 0.5 and 2.3mg/g respectively. Another kind of functional hydrogel was prepared through radical cross-linking reaction between WSC and a macromonomer (PVAM) derived from well-defined polyvinyl alcohol. The dynamic mechanical thermal analysis and thermogravimetric analysis results revealed that the mechanical strength and thermal stability of this hydrogel depended on the structure of PVAM. The capability to bind heavy metal ions of the hydrogel also relied on the structure of PVAM. The adsorption capacities of the hydrogels for Cu(2+) and Pb(2+) could reach 20.3 and 60.1mg/g respectively. PMID:26772916

  16. Stability of alginate-immobilized algal cells

    SciTech Connect

    Dainty, A.L.; Goulding, K.H.; Robinson, P.K.; Simpkins, I; Trevan, M.D.

    1986-01-01

    Investigations were carried out using immobilized Chlorella cells to determine the diameter, compressibility, tolerance to phosphate chelation, and ability to retain algal cells during incubation of various alginate beads. These physical bead-characteristics were affected by a variety of interactive factors, including multivalent cation type (hardening agent) and cell, cation, and alginate concentration, the latter exhibiting a predominant influence. The susceptibility of alginate beads to phosphate chelation involved a complex interaction of cation type, concentration, and pH of phosphate solution. A scale of response ranging from gel swelling to gel shrinking was observed for a range of conditions. However, stable Ca alginate beads were maintained in incubation media with a pH of 5.5 and a phosphate concentration of 5 micro M. A preliminary investigation into cell leakage from the beads illustrated the importance of maintaining a stable gel structure and limiting cell growth to reduce leakage.

  17. Electrodeposition of alginate gels for construction of vascular-like structures.

    PubMed

    Ozawa, Fumisato; Ino, Kosuke; Takahashi, Yasufumi; Shiku, Hitoshi; Matsue, Tomokazu

    2013-04-01

    In this study, tubular hydrogel structures were constructed via electrodeposition using alginate gels. Electrolysis of water in alginate solutions with calcium carbonate particles induced gel aggregation around Pt wire electrodes, forming tubular alginate gel structures. The simple method is a promising approach for construction of multi-layer tubular hydrogel structures for tissue engineering.

  18. Effect of calcination temperature on physical parameters and photocatalytic activity of mesoporous titania spheres using chitosan/poly(vinyl alcohol) hydrogel beads as a template

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, R.; Zhu, H.-Y.; Chen, H.-H.; Yao, J.; Fu, Y.-Q.; Zhang, Z.-Y.; Xu, Y.-M.

    2014-11-01

    Mesoporous titania spheres were prepared by modified sol-gel method using chitosan/poly(vinyl alcohol) hydrogel beads as a template. Effects of calcination temperature on physical parameters were investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD), N2 adsorption-desorption, Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectra, thermogravimetry and differential thermal analyses (TG-DTA), high-resolution transmission electron microscope (HRTEM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The photocatalytic activity of mesoporous titania spheres prepared was also evaluated by photocatalytic degradation of phenol as a model molecule under UV irradiation. With increasing calcination temperature, average crystallite size and pore size increased. In contrast, Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) specific surface areas, porosity and pore volumes steadily decreased. Results of characterization proved that prepared titania spheres with highly organized pores were mesoporous structure. The photocatalytic activity of mesoporous titania spheres calcined at 500 °C was more effective than those calcined at other temperatures, which were attributed to the porous structure, large BET surface area, crystalline, and smaller crystallite size. This work may provide new insights into the preparation of novel mesoporous titania spheres and further practical applications in the treatment of wastewater.

  19. Engineering alginate as bioink for bioprinting.

    PubMed

    Jia, Jia; Richards, Dylan J; Pollard, Samuel; Tan, Yu; Rodriguez, Joshua; Visconti, Richard P; Trusk, Thomas C; Yost, Michael J; Yao, Hai; Markwald, Roger R; Mei, Ying

    2014-10-01

    Recent advances in three-dimensional (3-D) printing offer an excellent opportunity to address critical challenges faced by current tissue engineering approaches. Alginate hydrogels have been used extensively as bioinks for 3-D bioprinting. However, most previous research has focused on native alginates with limited degradation. The application of oxidized alginates with controlled degradation in bioprinting has not been explored. Here, a collection of 30 different alginate hydrogels with varied oxidation percentages and concentrations was prepared to develop a bioink platform that can be applied to a multitude of tissue engineering applications. The authors systematically investigated the effects of two key material properties (i.e. viscosity and density) of alginate solutions on their printabilities to identify a suitable range of material properties of alginates to be applied to bioprinting. Further, four alginate solutions with varied biodegradability were printed with human adipose-derived stem cells (hADSCs) into lattice-structured, cell-laden hydrogels with high accuracy. Notably, these alginate-based bioinks were shown to be capable of modulating proliferation and spreading of hADSCs without affecting the structure integrity of the lattice structures (except the highly degradable one) after 8days in culture. This research lays a foundation for the development of alginate-based bioink for tissue-specific tissue engineering applications. PMID:24998183

  20. Engineering alginate as bioink for bioprinting

    PubMed Central

    Jia, Jia; Richards, Dylan J.; Pollard, Samuel; Tan, Yu; Rodriguez, Joshua; Visconti, Richard P.; Trusk, Thomas C.; Yost, Michael J.; Yao, Hai; Markwald, Roger R.; Mei, Ying

    2015-01-01

    Recent advances in 3D printing offer an excellent opportunity to address critical challenges faced by current tissue engineering approaches. Alginate hydrogels have been extensively utilized as bioinks for 3D bioprinting. However, most previous research has focused on native alginates with limited degradation. The application of oxidized alginates with controlled degradation in bioprinting has not been explored. Here, we prepared a collection of 30 different alginate hydrogels with varied oxidation percentages and concentrations to develop a bioink platform that can be applied to a multitude of tissue engineering applications. We systematically investigated the effects of two key material properties (i.e. viscosity and density) of alginate solutions on their printabilities to identify a suitable range of material properties of alginates to be applied to bioprinting. Further, four alginate solutions with varied biodegradability were printed with human adipose-derived stem cells (hADSCs) into lattice-structured, cell-laden hydrogels with high accuracy. Notably, these alginate-based bioinks were shown to be capable of modulating proliferation and spreading of hADSCs without affecting structure integrity of the lattice structures (except the highly degradable one) after 8 days in culture. This research lays a foundation for the development of alginate-based bioink for tissue-specific tissue engineering applications. PMID:24998183

  1. Imaging contrast effects in alginate microbeads containing trapped emulsion droplets.

    PubMed

    Hester-Reilly, Holly J; Shapley, Nina C

    2007-09-01

    This study focuses on spherical microparticles made of cross-linked alginate gel and microcapsules composed of an oil-in-water emulsion where the continuous aqueous phase is cross-linked into an alginate gel matrix. We have investigated the use of these easily manufactured microbeads as contrast agents for the study of the flow properties of fluids using nuclear magnetic resonance imaging. Results demonstrate that combined spin-spin (T(2)) relaxation and diffusion contrast in proton NMR imaging can be used to distinguish among rigid polymer particles, plain alginate beads, and alginate emulsion beads. Multi-echo CPMG spin-echo imaging indicates that the average spin-lattice (T(1)) and spin-spin (T(2)) relaxation times of the plain alginate and alginate emulsion beads are comparable. Meanwhile, diffusion-weighted imaging produces sharp contrast between the two types of alginate beads, due to restricted diffusion inside the embedded oil droplets of the alginate emulsion beads. While the signal obtained from most materials is severely attenuated under applied diffusion gradients, the alginate emulsion beads maintain signal strength. The alginate emulsion beads were added to a suspension and imaged in an abrupt, annular expansion flow. The emulsion beads could be clearly distinguished from the surrounding suspending fluid and rigid polystyrene particles, through either T(2) relaxation or diffusion contrast. Such a capability allows future use of the alginate emulsion beads as tracer particles and as one particle type among many in a multimodal suspension where detailed concentration profiles or particle size separation must be quantified during flow. PMID:17600742

  2. Aging and microwave effects on alginate/chitosan matrices.

    PubMed

    Wong, Tin Wui; Chan, Lai Wah; Kho, Shyan Bin; Heng, Paul Wan Sia

    2005-06-01

    The influence of microwave irradiation on the drug release properties of freshly prepared and aged alginate, alginate-chitosan and chitosan beads was investigated. The beads were prepared by extrusion method with sulphathiazole as a model drug. The dried beads were subjected to microwave irradiation at 80 W for 10 min, 20 min or three consecutive cycles of 10 and 20 min, respectively. The profiles of drug dissolution, drug content, drug stability, drug polymorphism, drug-polymer interaction, polymer crosslinkage and complexation were determined by dissolution testing, drug content assay, differential scanning calorimetry and Fourier transform infra-red spectroscopy. The chemical stability of drug embedded in beads was unaffected by microwave conditions and length of storage time. The release property of drug was mainly governed by the extent of polymer interaction in beads. The aged alginate beads required intermittent cycles of microwave irradiation to induce drug release retarding effect in contrast to their freshly prepared samples. Unlike the alginate beads, the level of polymer interaction was higher in aged alginate-chitosan beads than the corresponding fresh beads. The drug release retarding property of aged alginate-chitosan beads could be significantly enhanced through subjecting the beads to microwave irradiation for 10 min. No further change in drug release from these beads was observed beyond 30 min of microwave irradiation. Unlike beads containing alginate, the rate and extent of drug released from the aged chitosan beads were higher upon treatment by microwave in spite of the higher degree of polymer interaction shown by the latter on prolonged storage. The observation suggested that the response of polymer matrix to microwave irradiation in induction of drug release retarding property was largely affected by the molecular arrangement of the polymer chains.

  3. Comparison of some biochemical properties of artichoke polyphenol oxidase entrapped in alginate-carrageenan and alginate gels.

    PubMed

    Yagar, Hulya; Kocaturk, Selin

    2014-08-01

    Polyphenol oxidase (PPO, EC.1.14.18.1) isolated from artichoke (Cynara scolymus) was entrapped within alginate and alginate+ carrageenan beads, and the catecholase and cresolase activities of both entrapped enzymes were determined. Some properties of these immobilized enzymes such as optimum pH and temperature, kinetic parameters (Km and Vmax), thermal, and storage stability were determined and compared to each other. The highest catecholase activity was observed in alginate gel (370 U/g bead) while the highest cresolase activity was in alginate+ carrageenan gel (90 U/g bead). For catecholase and cresolase activities, optimum pHs of alginate and alginate+ carrageenan beads were determined to be 7.0 and 4.0, respectively. Optimum temperatures for catecholase activity were determined to be 40°C for both entrapped enzymes. These values for cresolase activity were 30°C and 20°C, respectively. Immobilized artichoke PPOs greatly preserved their thermal stability which exists anyway. The catalytic efficiency value (Vmax/Km) of the alginate beads is approximately high as two-and-a-half folds of that of alginate+κ-carrageenan beads for cresolase activity. These values were very close for catecholase activity. Immobilized beads saved their both activities after 30 days of storage at 4°C. PMID:23795723

  4. Comparison of some biochemical properties of artichoke polyphenol oxidase entrapped in alginate-carrageenan and alginate gels.

    PubMed

    Yagar, Hulya; Kocaturk, Selin

    2014-08-01

    Polyphenol oxidase (PPO, EC.1.14.18.1) isolated from artichoke (Cynara scolymus) was entrapped within alginate and alginate+ carrageenan beads, and the catecholase and cresolase activities of both entrapped enzymes were determined. Some properties of these immobilized enzymes such as optimum pH and temperature, kinetic parameters (Km and Vmax), thermal, and storage stability were determined and compared to each other. The highest catecholase activity was observed in alginate gel (370 U/g bead) while the highest cresolase activity was in alginate+ carrageenan gel (90 U/g bead). For catecholase and cresolase activities, optimum pHs of alginate and alginate+ carrageenan beads were determined to be 7.0 and 4.0, respectively. Optimum temperatures for catecholase activity were determined to be 40°C for both entrapped enzymes. These values for cresolase activity were 30°C and 20°C, respectively. Immobilized artichoke PPOs greatly preserved their thermal stability which exists anyway. The catalytic efficiency value (Vmax/Km) of the alginate beads is approximately high as two-and-a-half folds of that of alginate+κ-carrageenan beads for cresolase activity. These values were very close for catecholase activity. Immobilized beads saved their both activities after 30 days of storage at 4°C.

  5. Role of Calcium Alginate and Mannitol in Protecting Bifidobacterium

    PubMed Central

    Dianawati, Dianawati; Mishra, Vijay

    2012-01-01

    Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy was carried out to ascertain the mechanism of Ca-alginate and mannitol protection of cell envelope components and secondary proteins of Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis Bb12 after freeze-drying and after 10 weeks of storage at room temperature (25°C) at low water activities (aw) of 0.07, 0.1, and 0.2. Preparation of Ca-alginate and Ca-alginate-mannitol as microencapsulants was carried out by dropping an alginate or alginate-mannitol emulsion containing bacteria using a burette into CaCl2 solution to obtain Ca-alginate beads and Ca-alginate-mannitol beads, respectively. The wet beads were then freeze-dried. The aw of freeze-dried beads was then adjusted to 0.07, 0.1, and 0.2 using saturated salt solutions; controls were prepared by keeping Ca-alginate and Ca-alginate-mannitol in aluminum foil without aw adjustment. Mannitol in the Ca-alginate system interacted with cell envelopes during freeze-drying and during storage at low aws. In contrast, Ca-alginate protected cell envelopes after freeze-drying but not during 10-week storage. Unlike Ca-alginate, Ca-alginate-mannitol was effective in retarding the changes in secondary proteins during freeze-drying and during 10 weeks of storage at low aws. It appears that Ca-alginate-mannitol is more effective than Ca-alginate in preserving cell envelopes and proteins after freeze-drying and after 10 weeks of storage at room temperature (25°C). PMID:22843535

  6. Role of calcium alginate and mannitol in protecting Bifidobacterium.

    PubMed

    Dianawati, Dianawati; Mishra, Vijay; Shah, Nagendra P

    2012-10-01

    Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy was carried out to ascertain the mechanism of Ca-alginate and mannitol protection of cell envelope components and secondary proteins of Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis Bb12 after freeze-drying and after 10 weeks of storage at room temperature (25°C) at low water activities (a(w)) of 0.07, 0.1, and 0.2. Preparation of Ca-alginate and Ca-alginate-mannitol as microencapsulants was carried out by dropping an alginate or alginate-mannitol emulsion containing bacteria using a burette into CaCl(2) solution to obtain Ca-alginate beads and Ca-alginate-mannitol beads, respectively. The wet beads were then freeze-dried. The a(w) of freeze-dried beads was then adjusted to 0.07, 0.1, and 0.2 using saturated salt solutions; controls were prepared by keeping Ca-alginate and Ca-alginate-mannitol in aluminum foil without a(w) adjustment. Mannitol in the Ca-alginate system interacted with cell envelopes during freeze-drying and during storage at low a(w)s. In contrast, Ca-alginate protected cell envelopes after freeze-drying but not during 10-week storage. Unlike Ca-alginate, Ca-alginate-mannitol was effective in retarding the changes in secondary proteins during freeze-drying and during 10 weeks of storage at low a(w)s. It appears that Ca-alginate-mannitol is more effective than Ca-alginate in preserving cell envelopes and proteins after freeze-drying and after 10 weeks of storage at room temperature (25°C). PMID:22843535

  7. Removal of the organic content from a bleached kraft pulp mill effluent by a treatment with silica-alginate-fungi biocomposites.

    PubMed

    Duarte, Katia; Justino, Celine I L; Pereira, Ruth; Panteleitchouk, Teresa S L; Freitas, Ana C; Rocha-Santos, Teresa A P; Duarte, Armando C

    2013-01-01

    This study attempts a treatment strategy of a bleached kraft pulp mill effluent with Rhizopus oryzae or Pleurotus sajor caju encapsulated on silica-alginate (biocomposite of silica-alginate-fungi, with the purpose of reducing its potential impact in the environment. Active (alive) or inactive (death by sterilization) Rhizopus oryzae or Pleurotus sajor caju was encapsulated in alginate beads. Five beads containing active and inactive fungus were placed in a mold and filled with silica hydrogel (biocomposites). The biocomposites were added to batch reactors containing the bleached kraft pulp mill effluent. The treatment of bleached kraft pulp mill effluent by active and inactive biocomposites was performed throughout 29 days at 28°C. The efficiency of treatment was evaluated by measuring the removal of organic compounds, chemical oxygen demand and the relative absorbance ratio over time. Both fungi species showed potential for removal of organic compounds, colour and chemical oxygen demand. Maximum values of reduction in terms of colour (56%), chemical oxygen demand (65%) and organic compounds (72-79%) were attained after 29 days of treatment of bleached kraft pulp mill effluent by active Rhizopus oryzae biocomposites. The immobilization of fungi, the need for low fungal biomass, and the possibility of reutlization of the biocomposites clearly demonstrate the industrial and environmental interest in bleached kraft pulp mill effluent treatment by silica-alginate-fungi biocomposites. PMID:23043338

  8. Modified alginate and chitosan for lactic acid bacteria immobilization.

    PubMed

    Le-Tien, Canh; Millette, Mathieu; Mateescu, Mircea-Alexandru; Lacroix, Monique

    2004-06-01

    Beads with enhanced-stability acid media, which were based on alginate and chitosan functionalized by succinylation (increasing the anionic charges able to retain protons) or by acylation (improving matrix hydrophobicity), were developed for immobilization of bacterial cells. Beads (3 mm diameter) formed by ionotropic gelation with CaCl(2) presented good mechanical characteristics. After 30 min incubation of viable free Lactobacillus rhamnosus cells in simulated gastric fluid (pH 1.5), we noticed that the level of viable bacteria was undetectable. Bacterial immobilization in native-alginate-based beads generated a viable-cell count of 22-26%, whereas, when entrapped in succinylated alginate and chitosan beads, the percentage of viable cells was of 60 and 66%, respectively. Best viability (87%) was found for bacteria immobilized in N -palmitoylaminoethyl alginate, which affords a high protective effect, probably due to long alkyl pendants that improve the beads' hydrophobicity, limiting hydration in the acidic environment.

  9. Degradation potential of protocatechuate 3,4-dioxygenase from crude extract of Stenotrophomonas maltophilia strain KB2 immobilized in calcium alginate hydrogels and on glyoxyl agarose.

    PubMed

    Guzik, Urszula; Hupert-Kocurek, Katarzyna; Krysiak, Marta; Wojcieszyńska, Danuta

    2014-01-01

    Microbial intradiol dioxygenases have been shown to have a great potential for bioremediation; however, their structure is sensitive to various environmental and chemical agents. Immobilization techniques allow for the improvement of enzyme properties. This is the first report on use of glyoxyl agarose and calcium alginate as matrixes for the immobilization of protocatechuate 3,4-dioxygenase. Multipoint attachment of the enzyme to the carrier caused maintenance of its initial activity during the 21 days. Immobilization of dioxygenase in calcium alginate or on glyoxyl agarose resulted in decrease in the optimum temperature by 5 °C and 10 °C, respectively. Entrapment of the enzyme in alginate gel shifted its optimum pH towards high-alkaline pH while immobilization of the enzyme on glyoxyl agarose did not influence pH profile of the enzyme. Protocatechuate 3,4-dioygenase immobilized in calcium alginate showed increased activity towards 2,5-dihydroxybenzoate, caffeic acid, 2,3-dihydroxybenzoate, and 3,5-dihydroxybenzoate. Slightly lower activity of the enzyme was observed after its immobilization on glyoxyl agarose. Entrapment of the enzyme in alginate gel protected it against chelators and aliphatic alcohols while its immobilization on glyoxyl agarose enhanced enzyme resistance to inactivation by metal ions. PMID:24693536

  10. Degradation potential of protocatechuate 3,4-dioxygenase from crude extract of Stenotrophomonas maltophilia strain KB2 immobilized in calcium alginate hydrogels and on glyoxyl agarose.

    PubMed

    Guzik, Urszula; Hupert-Kocurek, Katarzyna; Krysiak, Marta; Wojcieszyńska, Danuta

    2014-01-01

    Microbial intradiol dioxygenases have been shown to have a great potential for bioremediation; however, their structure is sensitive to various environmental and chemical agents. Immobilization techniques allow for the improvement of enzyme properties. This is the first report on use of glyoxyl agarose and calcium alginate as matrixes for the immobilization of protocatechuate 3,4-dioxygenase. Multipoint attachment of the enzyme to the carrier caused maintenance of its initial activity during the 21 days. Immobilization of dioxygenase in calcium alginate or on glyoxyl agarose resulted in decrease in the optimum temperature by 5 °C and 10 °C, respectively. Entrapment of the enzyme in alginate gel shifted its optimum pH towards high-alkaline pH while immobilization of the enzyme on glyoxyl agarose did not influence pH profile of the enzyme. Protocatechuate 3,4-dioygenase immobilized in calcium alginate showed increased activity towards 2,5-dihydroxybenzoate, caffeic acid, 2,3-dihydroxybenzoate, and 3,5-dihydroxybenzoate. Slightly lower activity of the enzyme was observed after its immobilization on glyoxyl agarose. Entrapment of the enzyme in alginate gel protected it against chelators and aliphatic alcohols while its immobilization on glyoxyl agarose enhanced enzyme resistance to inactivation by metal ions.

  11. Freeze-thaw induced gelation of alginates.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Ying; Shen, Wei; Chen, Zhigang; Wu, Tao

    2016-09-01

    Adding divalent ions or lowering pH below the pKa values of alginate monomers are common ways in preparing alginate gels. Herein a new way of preparing alginate gels using freeze-thaw technique is described. Solvent crystallization during freezing drove the polymers to associate into certain structures that became the junction zones of hydrogels after thawing. It enabled the preparation of alginate gels at pH 4.0 and 3.5, two pH at which the gel could not be formed previously. At pH 3.0 where alginate gel could be formed initially, applying freeze-thaw treatment increased the gel storage modulus almost 100 times. The formation of hydrogels and the resulting gel properties, such as dynamic moduli and gel syneresis were influenced by the pH values, number of freeze-thaw cycles, alginate concentrations, and ionic strengths. The obtained hydrogels were soft and demonstrated a melting behavior upon storage, which may find novel applications in the biomedical industry.

  12. Interactions between Chitosan and Alginate Dialdehyde Biopolymers and Their Layer-by-Layer Assemblies.

    PubMed

    Aston, Robyn; Wimalaratne, Medini; Brock, Aidan; Lawrie, Gwendolyn; Grøndahl, Lisbeth

    2015-06-01

    Biopolymers are researched extensively for their applications in biomaterials science and drug delivery including structures and complexes of more than one polymer. Chemical characterization of complexes formed between chitosan (CHI) and alginate dialdehyde (ADA) biopolymers established that while electrostatic interactions dominate (as determined from X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS)) covalent cross-linking between these biopolymers also contribute to their stability (evidenced from immersion in salt solution). It was furthermore found that imine bond formation could not be directly detected by any of the techniques XPS, FTIR, (1)H NMR, or fluorescence. The layer-by-layer assemblies of the biopolymers formed on silica colloids, glass slides, and alginate hydrogel beads were evaluated using XPS, as well as zeta potential measurements for the silica colloids and changes to hydration properties for the hydrogels. It was found that the degree of oxidation of ADA affected the LbL assemblies in terms of a greater degree of CHI penetration observed when using the more conformationally flexible biopolymer ADA (higher degree of oxidation).

  13. Removal of uranium and other metals from wastewaters using calcium alginate and bacteria immobilized in calcium alginate

    SciTech Connect

    Gardner, K.R.; Montgomery, J.R.; Adams, D.J.

    1995-12-31

    Calcium alginate beads, containing immobilized bacteria, removed turanium and other metals from mine wastewaters. Batch tests using 2% calcium alginate beads with and without immobilized bacteria showed both were effective at removing uranium. Beads containing live and dead cells removed essentially the same amount of uranium and removed significantly more uranium than beads without bacteria. The bacteria-alginate system was used to treat waters containing 24.5 mg/L uranium and produced effluents containing 1.0 mg/L uranium in 1 hr and <0.1 mg/L uranium in 24 hr. Calcium alginate beads, with and without immobilized bacteria, also removed arsenic, selenium, and other metals from wastewaters. Bacteria investigated for immobilization in the alginate beads include Bacillus and Pseudomonas sp. A spray technique using an air nozzle has been tested to disperse the alginate into mine wastewater eliminating the bead-making process. Ninety-nine percent of the uranium was removed in less than 15 min contact.

  14. Mechanical properties of C-5 epimerized alginates.

    PubMed

    Mørch, Y A; Holtan, S; Donati, I; Strand, B L; Skjåk-Braek, G

    2008-09-01

    There is an increased need for alginate materials with both enhanced and controllable mechanical properties in the fields of food, pharmaceutical and specialty applications. In the present work, well-characterized algal polymers and mannuronan were enzymatically modified using C-5 epimerases converting mannuronic acid residues to guluronic acid in the polymer chain. Composition and sequential structure of controls and epimerized alginates were analyzed by (1)H NMR spectroscopy. Mechanical properties of Ca-alginate gels were further examined giving Young's modulus, syneresis, rupture strength, and elasticity of the gels. Both mechanical strength and elasticity of hydrogels could be improved and manipulated by epimerization. In particular, alternating sequences were found to play an important role for the final mechanical properties of alginate gels, and interestingly, a pure polyalternating sample resulted in gels with extremely high syneresis and rupture strength. In conclusion, enzymatic modification was shown to be a valuable tool in modifying the mechanical properties of alginates in a highly specific manner.

  15. Core-Shell Composite Hydrogels for Controlled Nanocrystal Formation and Release of Hydrophobic Active Pharmaceutical Ingredients.

    PubMed

    Badruddoza, Abu Zayed Md; Godfrin, P Douglas; Myerson, Allan S; Trout, Bernhardt L; Doyle, Patrick S

    2016-08-01

    Although roughly 40% of pharmaceuticals being developed are poorly water soluble, this class of drugs lacks a formulation strategy capable of producing high loads, fast dissolution kinetics, and low energy input. In this work, a novel bottom-up approach is developed for producing and formulating nanocrystals of poorly water-soluble active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) using core-shell composite hydrogel beads. Organic phase nanoemulsion droplets stabilized by polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) and containing a model hydrophobic API (fenofibrate) are embedded in the alginate hydrogel matrix and subsequently act as crystallization reactors. Controlled evaporation of this composite material produces core-shell structured alginate-PVA hydrogels with drug nanocrystals (500-650 nm) embedded within the core. Adjustable loading of API nanocrystals up to 83% by weight is achieved with dissolution (of 80% of the drug) occurring in as little as 30 min. A quantitative model is also developed and experimentally validated that the drug release patterns of the fenofibrate nanocrystals can be modulated by controlling the thickness of the PVA shell and drug loading. Thus, these composite materials offer a "designer" drug delivery system. Overall, our approach enables a novel means of simultaneous controlled crystallization and formulation of hydrophobic drugs that circumvents energy intensive top-down processes in traditional manufacturing. PMID:27249402

  16. Stability of alginate microbead properties in vitro

    PubMed Central

    Moya, Monica L.; Morley, Michael; Khanna, Omaditya; Opara, Emmanuel C.

    2013-01-01

    Alginate microbeads have been investigated clinically for a number of therapeutic interventions, including drug delivery for treatment of ischemic tissues, cell delivery for tissue regeneration, and islet encapsulation as a therapy for type I diabetes. The physical properties of the microbeads play an important role in regulating cell behavior, protein release, and biological response following implantation. In this research alginate microbeads were synthesized, varying composition (mannuronic acid to guluronic acid ratio), concentration of alginate and needle gauge size. Following synthesis, the size, volume fraction, and morphometry of the beads were quantified. In addition, these properties were monitored over time in vitro in the presence of varying calcium levels in the microenvironment. The initial volume available for solute diffusion increased with alginate concentration and mannuronic (M) acid content, and bead diameter decreased with M content but increased with needle diameter. Interestingly, microbeads eroded completely in saline in less than 3 weeks regardless of synthesis conditions much faster than what has been observed in vivo. However, microbead stability was increased by the addition of calcium in the culture medium. Beads synthesized with low alginate concentration and high G content exhibited a more rapid change in physical properties even in the presence of calcium. These data suggest that temporal variations in the physical characteristics of alginate microbeads can occur in vitro depending on synthesis conditions and microbead environment. The results presented here will assist in optimizing the design of the materials for clinical application in drug delivery and cell therapy. PMID:22350778

  17. Monodisperse alginate microgel formation in a three-dimensional microfluidic droplet generator

    SciTech Connect

    Lian, Meng; Collier, C. Patrick; Doktycz, Mitchel J.; Retterer, Scott T.

    2012-12-01

    Droplet based microfluidic systems provide an ideal platform for partitioning and manipulating aqueous samples for analysis. Identifying stable operating conditions under which droplets are generated is challenging yet crucial for real-world applications. A novel three-dimensional microfluidic platform that facilitates the consistent generation and gelation of alginate-calcium hydrogel microbeads for microbial encapsulation, over a broad range of backing pressures, in the absence of surfactants, is described. The unique three-dimensional design of the fluidic network utilizes a height difference at the junction between the aqueous sample injection and organic carrier channels to induce droplet formation via a surface tension enhanced self-shearing mechanism. Combined within a flow-focusing geometry, under constant pressure control, this arrangement facilitates predictable generation of droplets over a much broader range of operating conditions than conventional two-dimensional systems. The impact of operating pressures and geometry on droplet gelation, aqueous and organic material flow rates, microbead size and bead generation frequency are described. The system presented provides a robust platform for encapsulating single microbes in complex mixtures into individual hydrogel beads, and provides the foundation for the development of a complete system for sorting and analyzing microbes at the single cell level.

  18. 4D Printing with Mechanically Robust, Thermally Actuating Hydrogels.

    PubMed

    Bakarich, Shannon E; Gorkin, Robert; in het Panhuis, Marc; Spinks, Geoffrey M

    2015-06-01

    A smart valve is created by 4D printing of hydrogels that are both mechanically robust and thermally actuating. The printed hydrogels are made up of an interpenetrating network of alginate and poly(N-isopropylacrylamide). 4D structures are created by printing the "dynamic" hydrogel ink alongside other static materials. PMID:25864515

  19. 4D Printing with Mechanically Robust, Thermally Actuating Hydrogels.

    PubMed

    Bakarich, Shannon E; Gorkin, Robert; in het Panhuis, Marc; Spinks, Geoffrey M

    2015-06-01

    A smart valve is created by 4D printing of hydrogels that are both mechanically robust and thermally actuating. The printed hydrogels are made up of an interpenetrating network of alginate and poly(N-isopropylacrylamide). 4D structures are created by printing the "dynamic" hydrogel ink alongside other static materials.

  20. Preparation, characterisation and viability of encapsulated Trichoderma harzianum UPM40 in alginate-montmorillonite clay.

    PubMed

    Adzmi, Fariz; Meon, Sariah; Musa, Mohamed Hanafi; Yusuf, Nor Azah

    2012-01-01

    Microencapsulation is a process by which tiny parcels of an active ingredient are packaged within a second material for the purpose of shielding the active ingredient from the surrounding environment. This study aims to determine the ability of the microencapsulation technique to improve the viability of Trichoderma harzianum UPM40 originally isolated from healthy groundnut roots as effective biological control agents (BCAs). Alginate was used as the carrier for controlled release, and montmorillonite clay (MMT) served as the filler. The encapsulated Ca-alginate-MMT beads were characterised using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The FTIR results showed the interaction between the functional groups of alginate and MMT in the Ca-alginate-MMT beads. Peaks at 1595, 1420 and 1020 cm(-1) characterised alginate, and peaks at 1028 and 453 cm(-1) characterised MMT; both sets of peaks appeared in the Ca-alginate-MMT FTIR spectrum. The TGA analysis showed an improvement in the thermal stability of the Ca-alginate-MMT beads compared with the alginate beads alone. SEM analysis revealed a homogeneous distribution of the MMT particles throughout the alginate matrix. T. harzianum UPM40 was successfully encapsulated in the Ca-alginate-MMT beads. Storage analysis of the encapsulated T. harzianum UPM40 showed that the low storage temperature of 5°C resulted in significantly (p < 0.05) better storage compared with room temperature (30°C). PMID:22309479

  1. Montmorillonite-Alginate Composites as a Drug delivery System: Intercalation and In vitro Release of Diclofenac sodium

    PubMed Central

    Kevadiya, B. D.; Patel, H. A.; Joshi, G. V.; Abdi, S. H. R.; Bajaj, H. C.

    2010-01-01

    Diclofenac sodium and alginate was intercalated into montmorillonite to form uniform sized beads by gelation method. The structure and surface morphology of the synthesized composite beads were characterized by powdered X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, thermo gravimetric analysis and scanning electron microscopy. Diclofenac release kinetics of the composite in simulated intestinal fluid medium (pH 7.4) and effect of montmorillonite content on the in vitro release of diclofenac from diclofenac-montmorillonite-alginate composites bead was investigated by UV/Vis spectrophotometer. Diclofenac encapsulation efficiency in the montmorillonite-alginate composites bead increases with an increase in the montmorillonite content. The control release of diclofenac from diclofenac-montmorillonite-alginate composites beads was observed to be better as compared to diclofenac-alginate beads. PMID:21969745

  2. Polygalacturonase production by calcium alginate immobilized Enterobacter aerogenes NBO2 cells.

    PubMed

    Darah, I; Nisha, M; Lim, Sheh-Hong

    2015-03-01

    Bacterial cells of Enterobacter aerogenes NBO2 were entrapped in calcium alginate beads in order to enhance polygalacturonase production compared to free cells. The optimized condition of 5 % (w/v) sodium alginate concentration, agitation speed of 250 rpm, and 15 beads of calcium alginate with inoculum size of 4 % (v/v; 5.4 × 10(7) cells/ml) produced 23.48 U/mL of polygalacturonase compared to free cells of 18.54 U/ml. There was about 26.6 % increment in polygalaturonase production. However, in this study, there was 296.6 % of increment in polygalacturonase production after improvement parameters compared to before improvement parameters of calcium alginate bead immobilization cells (5.92 U/ml). This research has indicated that optimized physical parameters of calcium alginate bead immobilization cells have significantly enhanced the production of polygalacturonase.

  3. Gel bead composition for metal adsorption

    DOEpatents

    Scott, Charles D.; Woodward, Charlene A.; Byers, Charles H.

    1991-01-01

    The invention is a gel bead comprising propylene glycol alginate and bone gelatin and is capable of removing metals such as Sr and Cs from solution without adding other adsorbents. The invention could have application to the nuclear industry's waste removal activities.

  4. Gel bead composition for metal adsorption

    DOEpatents

    Scott, Charles D.; Woodward, Charlene A.; Byers, Charles H.

    1990-01-01

    The invention is a gel bead comprising propylene glycol alginate and bone gelatin and is capable of removing metals such as Sr and Cs from solution without adding other adsorbents. The invention could have application to the nuclear industry's waste removal activities.

  5. Facile fabrication processes for hydrogel-based microfluidic devices made of natural biopolymers

    PubMed Central

    Yajima, Yuya; Yamada, Masumi; Yamada, Emi; Iwase, Masaki; Seki, Minoru

    2014-01-01

    We present facile strategies for the fabrication of two types of microfluidic devices made of hydrogels using the natural biopolymers, alginate, and gelatin as substrates. The processes presented include the molding-based preparation of hydrogel plates and their chemical bonding. To prepare calcium-alginate hydrogel microdevices, we suppressed the volume shrinkage of the alginate solution during gelation using propylene glycol alginate in the precursor solution along with sodium alginate. In addition, a chemical bonding method was developed using a polyelectrolyte membrane of poly-L-lysine as the electrostatic glue. To prepare gelatin-based microdevices, we used microbial transglutaminase to bond hydrogel plates chemically and to cross-link and stabilize the hydrogel matrix. As an application, mammalian cells (fibroblasts and vascular endothelial cells) were cultivated on the microchannel surface to form three-dimensional capillary-embedding tissue models for biological research and tissue engineering. PMID:24803964

  6. Differentiation Effects of Platelet-Rich Plasma Concentrations on Synovial Fluid Mesenchymal Stem Cells from Pigs Cultivated in Alginate Complex Hydrogel

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Hao-Che; Chen, Wei-Chuan; Chiang, Chih-Wei; Chen, Lei-Yen; Chang, Yu-Ching; Chen, Chih-Hwa

    2015-01-01

    This article studied the effects of platelet-rich plasma (PRP) on the potential of synovial fluid mesenchymal stem cells (SF-MSCs) to differentiate. The PRP and SF-MSCs were obtained from the blood and knees of pigs, respectively. The identification of SF-MSCs and their ability to differentiate were studied by histological and surface epitopes, respectively. The SF-MSCs can undergo trilineage mesenchymal differentiation under osteogenic, chondrogenic, and adipocyte induction. The effects of various PRP concentrations (0%, 20% and 50% PRP) on differentiation were evaluated using the SF-MSCs-alginate system, such as gene expression and DNA proliferation. A 50% PRP concentration yielded better differentiation than the 20% PRP concentration. PRP favored the chondrogenesis of SF-MSCs over their osteogenesis in a manner that depended on the ratios of type II collagen/type I collagen and aggrecan/osteopontin. Eventually, PRP promoted the proliferation of SF-MSCs and induced chondrogenic differentiation of SF-MSCs in vitro. Both PRP and SF-MSCs could be feasibly used in regenerative medicine and orthopedic surgeries. PMID:26262616

  7. Early Exposure of Murine Embryonic Stem Cells to Hematopoietic Cytokines Differentially Directs Definitive Erythropoiesis and Cardiomyogenesis in Alginate Hydrogel Three-Dimensional Cultures

    PubMed Central

    Fauzi, Iliana

    2014-01-01

    HepG2-conditioned medium (CM) facilitates early differentiation of murine embryonic stem cells (mESCs) into hematopoietic cells in two-dimensional cultures through formation of embryoid-like colonies (ELCs), bypassing embryoid body (EB) formation. We now demonstrate that three-dimensional (3D) cultures of alginate-encapsulated mESCs cultured in a rotating wall vessel bioreactor can be differentially driven toward definitive erythropoiesis and cardiomyogenesis in the absence of ELC formation. Three groups were evaluated: mESCs in maintenance medium with leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF, control) and mESCs cultured with HepG2 CM (CM1 and CM2). Control and CM1 groups were cultivated for 8 days in early differentiation medium with murine stem cell factor (mSCF) followed by 10 days in hematopoietic differentiation medium (HDM) containing human erythropoietin, m-interleukin (mIL)-3, and mSCF. CM2 cells were cultured for 18 days in HDM, bypassing early differentiation. In CM1, a fivefold expansion of hematopoietic colonies was observed at day 14, with enhancement of erythroid progenitors, hematopoietic genes (Gata-2 and SCL), erythroid genes (EKLF and β-major globin), and proteins (Gata-1 and β-globin), although ζ-globin was not expressed. In contrast, CM2 primarily produced beating colonies in standard hematopoietic colony assay and expressed early cardiomyogenic markers, anti-sarcomeric α-actinin and Gata-4. In conclusion, a scalable, automatable, integrated, 3D bioprocess for the differentiation of mESC toward definitive erythroblasts has been established. Interestingly, cardiomyogenesis was also directed in a specific protocol with HepG2 CM and hematopoietic cytokines making this platform a useful tool for the study of erythroid and cardiomyogenic development. PMID:24926614

  8. Nano-in-Micro Self-Reporting Hydrogel Constructs.

    PubMed

    Tirella, Annalisa; La Marca, Margherita; Brace, Leigh-Anne; Mattei, Giorgio; Aylott, Jonathan W; Ahluwalia, Arti

    2015-08-01

    Highly reproducible Nano-in-Micro constructs are fabricated to provide a well-defined and self-reporting biomimetic environment for hepatocytes. Based on a protein/hydrogel formulation with controlled shape, size and composition, the constructs enable efficient nutrient exchange and provide an adhesive 3D framework to cells. Co-encapsulation of hepatocytes and ratiometric optical nanosensors with pH sensitivity in the physiological range allows continuous monitoring of the microenvironment. The lobule-sized microbeads are fabricated using an automated droplet generator, Sphyga (Spherical Hydrogel Generator) combining alginate, collagen, decellularized hepatic tissue, pH-nanosensors and hepatocytes. The pH inside the Nano-in-Micro constructs is monitored during culture, while assaying media for hepatic function and vitality markers. Although the local pH changes by several units during bead fabrication, when encapsulated cells are most likely to undergo stress, it is stable and buffered by cell culture media thereafter. Albumin secretion and urea production are significantly higher in the microbeads compared with controls, indicating that the encapsulated Nano-in-Micro environment is conducive to enhanced hepatic function.

  9. Step-Index Optical Fiber Made of Biocompatible Hydrogels.

    PubMed

    Choi, Myunghwan; Humar, Matjaž; Kim, Seonghoon; Yun, Seok-Hyun

    2015-07-15

    A biocompatible step-index optical fiber made of poly(ethylene glycol) and alginate hydrogels is demonstrated. The fabricated fiber exhibits excellent light-guiding efficiency in biological tissues. Moreover, the core of hydrogel fibers can be easily doped with functional molecules and nanoparticles for localized light emission, sensing, and therapy.

  10. Bioactive apatite incorporated alginate microspheres with sustained drug-delivery for bone regeneration application.

    PubMed

    Li, Haibin; Jiang, Fei; Ye, Song; Wu, Yingying; Zhu, Kaiping; Wang, Deping

    2016-05-01

    The strontium-substituted hydroxyapatite microspheres (SrHA) incorporated alginate composite microspheres (SrHA/Alginate) were prepared via adding SrHA/alginate suspension dropwise into calcium chloride solution, in which the gel beads were formed by means of crosslinking reaction. The structure, morphology and in vitro bioactivity of the composite microspheres were studied by using XRD, SEM and EDS methods. The biological behaviors were characterized and analyzed through inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES), CCK-8, confocal laser microscope and ALP activity evaluations. The experimental results indicated that the synthetic SrHA/Alginate showed similar morphology to the well-known alginate microspheres (Alginate) and both of them possessed a great in vitro bioactivity. Compared with the control Alginate, the SrHA/Alginate enhanced MC3T3-E1 cell proliferation and ALP activity by releasing osteoinductive and osteogenic Sr ions. Furthermore, vancomycin was used as a model drug to investigate the drug release behaviors of the SrHA/Alginate, Alginate and SrHA. The results suggested that the SrHA/Alginate had a highest drug-loading efficiency and best controlled drug release properties. Additionally, the SrHA/Alginate was demonstrated to be pH-sensitive as well. The increase of the pH value in phosphate buffer solution (PBS) accelerated the vancomycin release. Accordingly, the multifunctional SrHA/Alginate can be applied in the field of bioactive drug carriers and bone filling materials. PMID:26952484

  11. Physically crosslinked-sacran hydrogel films for wound dressing application.

    PubMed

    Wathoni, Nasrul; Motoyama, Keiichi; Higashi, Taishi; Okajima, Maiko; Kaneko, Tatsuo; Arima, Hidetoshi

    2016-08-01

    The thin hydrogel films consisting of water-swollen polymer networks can potentially be applied for biomedical fields. Recently, natural polysaccharides have great attentions to be developed as wound healing and protection. In the present study, we newly prepared and characterized a physically crosslinked-hydrogel film composed of a novel megamolecular polysaccharide sacran for wound dressing application. We successfully fabricated a physically crosslinked-sacran hydrogel film by a solvent-casting method. The thickness of a sacran hydrogel film was lower than that of a sodium alginate (Na-alginate) film. Importantly, the swollen ratio of a sacran hydrogel film in water at 24h was 19-fold, compared to initial weight. Meanwhile, a Na-alginate hydrogel film was completely broken apart after rehydration. Moreover, a sacran hydrogel film did not show any cytotoxicity on NIH3T3 cells, a murine fibroblast cell line. The in vivo skin hydration study revealed that a sacran hydrogel film significantly increased the moisture content on hairless mice skin and considerably improved wound healing ability, compared to control (non-treated), probably due to not only the moisturing effect but also the anti-inflammatory effect of sacran. These results suggest that sacran has the potential properties as a basic biomaterial in a hydrogel film for wound dressing application. PMID:27151668

  12. Injectable and responsively degradable hydrogel for personalized photothermal therapy.

    PubMed

    Wang, Changping; Wang, Xinyu; Dong, Kunyu; Luo, Jian; Zhang, Qiang; Cheng, Yiyun

    2016-10-01

    Near infrared-absorbing hydrogels are used for the repeated photothermal treatments of cancer. However, a long-term retention of hydrogel in the body leads to increased risk of toxicity. Here we developed an injectable and on-demand degradable hydrogel to conduct the repeated photothermal therapies (PTTs). Alginate-calcium hydrogel immobilized dendrimer-encapsulated platinum nanoparticles (DEPts) in its matrix represented excellent biocompatibility, and was degraded upon injecting chelates. Results from the in vivo studies reveal that the hydrogel/DEPts-mediated repeated PTTs suppressed tumor growth efficiently, and the hydrogel was degraded on-demand to allow renal secretion of DEPts out of the body. Furthermore, coating hydrogel/DEPts on the tumor instead of intratumoral injection could still ablate tumor efficiently. Our investigation provides a smart and safe hydrogel for photothermal cancer therapy.

  13. Injectable and responsively degradable hydrogel for personalized photothermal therapy.

    PubMed

    Wang, Changping; Wang, Xinyu; Dong, Kunyu; Luo, Jian; Zhang, Qiang; Cheng, Yiyun

    2016-10-01

    Near infrared-absorbing hydrogels are used for the repeated photothermal treatments of cancer. However, a long-term retention of hydrogel in the body leads to increased risk of toxicity. Here we developed an injectable and on-demand degradable hydrogel to conduct the repeated photothermal therapies (PTTs). Alginate-calcium hydrogel immobilized dendrimer-encapsulated platinum nanoparticles (DEPts) in its matrix represented excellent biocompatibility, and was degraded upon injecting chelates. Results from the in vivo studies reveal that the hydrogel/DEPts-mediated repeated PTTs suppressed tumor growth efficiently, and the hydrogel was degraded on-demand to allow renal secretion of DEPts out of the body. Furthermore, coating hydrogel/DEPts on the tumor instead of intratumoral injection could still ablate tumor efficiently. Our investigation provides a smart and safe hydrogel for photothermal cancer therapy. PMID:27449949

  14. Biotechnologically produced microbial alginate dressings show enhanced gel forming capacity compared to commercial alginate dressings of marine origin.

    PubMed

    Hoefer, Dirk; Schnepf, Julia K; Hammer, Timo R; Fischer, Melissa; Marquardt, Christoph

    2015-04-01

    Marine alginate fibre dressings are well established in wound management. Alginate fibres can absorb plenty of wound exudate due to their gel forming abilities and ion exchange. Alginates from bacteria have never been studied for medical applications so far, although the microbial polymer raises expectations for improved gelling capacity due to its unique O-acetylation. To prove the gelling capacity of bacterial alginate, we extracted the co-polymer from fermentation of the soil bacterium Azotobacter vinelandii ATCC 9046, cultivated on crude glycerol as an alternative carbon source. Bacterial alginate was isolated in high purity and extruded by a wet spinning method. Fibre structure and properties were characterised by infrared spectroscopy, NMR, GPC, scanning electron microscopy and tensile testing. The fibres could be processed into biocompatible needle web dressings, which showed more than twice the gel formation in saline compared to commercial dressings made of marine alginates. Gelled dressings of bacterial alginate formed stable hydrogels of sufficient shape and strength for wound healing applications. This work suggests that the increased gel formation of bacterial alginate from A. vinelandii may be optimal for the preparation of novel wound dressings.

  15. 3D Printing of Highly Stretchable and Tough Hydrogels into Complex, Cellularized Structures.

    PubMed

    Hong, Sungmin; Sycks, Dalton; Chan, Hon Fai; Lin, Shaoting; Lopez, Gabriel P; Guilak, Farshid; Leong, Kam W; Zhao, Xuanhe

    2015-07-15

    A 3D printable and highly stretchable tough hydrogel is developed by combining poly(ethylene glycol) and sodium alginate, which synergize to form a hydrogel tougher than natural cartilage. Encapsulated cells maintain high viability over a 7 d culture period and are highly deformed together with the hydrogel. By adding biocompatible nanoclay, the tough hydrogel is 3D printed in various shapes without requiring support material. PMID:26033288

  16. 3D Printing of Highly Stretchable and Tough Hydrogels into Complex, Cellularized Structures.

    PubMed

    Hong, Sungmin; Sycks, Dalton; Chan, Hon Fai; Lin, Shaoting; Lopez, Gabriel P; Guilak, Farshid; Leong, Kam W; Zhao, Xuanhe

    2015-07-15

    A 3D printable and highly stretchable tough hydrogel is developed by combining poly(ethylene glycol) and sodium alginate, which synergize to form a hydrogel tougher than natural cartilage. Encapsulated cells maintain high viability over a 7 d culture period and are highly deformed together with the hydrogel. By adding biocompatible nanoclay, the tough hydrogel is 3D printed in various shapes without requiring support material.

  17. In-situ photopolymerization of monodisperse and discoid oxidized methacrylated alginate microgels in a microfluidic channel

    DOE PAGES

    Wang, Shuo; Jeon, Oju; Shankles, Peter G.; Liu, Yuan; Alsberg, Eben; Retterer, Scott T.; Lee, Bruce P.; Choi, Chang Kyoung

    2016-02-03

    Here, we present a simple microfluidic technique to in-situ photopolymerize (by 365 nm ultraviolet) monodisperse oxidized methacrylated alginate (OMA) microgels using a photoinitiator (VA-086). By this technique, we generated monodisperse spherical OMA beads and discoid non-spherical beads with better shape consistency than ionic crosslinking methods do. We found that a high monomer concentration (8 w/v %), a high photoinitiator concentration (1.5 w/v %) and absence of oxygen are critical factors to cure OMA microgels. This photopolymerizing method is an alternative to current methods to form alginate microgels and is a simpler approach to generate non-spherical alginate microgels.

  18. Drug release behavior of poly (lactic-glycolic acid) grafting from sodium alginate (ALG-g-PLGA) prepared by direct polycondensation.

    PubMed

    Shi, Gang; Ding, Yuanyuan; Zhang, Xin; Wu, Luyan; He, Fei; Ni, Caihua

    2015-01-01

    Hydrophobically modified sodium alginate, poly (lactic-glycolic acid) grafting from sodium alginate (ALG-g-PLGA), was successfully synthesized through direct one-step polymerization of sodium alginate, glycolic acid, and lactic acid. ALG-g-PLGA self-assembled to colloidal nanoparticles and subsequently hydrogel microspheres were obtained by crosslinking ALG-g-PLGA nanoparticles in the solution of calcium chloride. The modified hydrogel microspheres could be used as the drug delivery vehicles for a hydrophobic ibuprofen. Compared with sodium alginate, ALG-g-PLGA demonstrated an improved drug loading rate, encapsulation efficiency, and prolonged release speed. The products, as novel and highly promising biomaterials, have potential applications.

  19. Gelling process of sodium alginate with bivalent ions rich microsphere: Nature of bivalent ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mauri, Marco; Vicini, Silvia; Castellano, Maila

    2016-05-01

    In the paper we present a new approach for obtaining a controlled gelling process of sodium alginate, based on the quantity of bivalent ions rich alginate micro-beads added as crosslinkers. Typically, calcium ions are used in gelation of alginate solutions. In this study we present different gelling systems realized with alginate microspheres, made by electrospinning methodology, enriched with different bivalent ions (Ca2+, Ba2+ and Mg2+). The microspheres were characterized under the point of view of the morphology by OM and as the ions content. Realized gels were characterized in light of the amount of the ions added to the alginate solution, and in light of the different dimensions of the micro-beads, using rheological measurements to assess the variation in the storage modulus (G'), loss modulus (G″) and complex viscosity (η*).

  20. Enzyme-entrapping behaviors in alginate fibers and their papers

    SciTech Connect

    Kobayashi, Y.; Matsuo, R.; Ohya, T.; Yokoi, N.

    1987-01-01

    Enzyme immobilization in the form of fiber and paper was easily achieved by wet spinning of aqueous admixture of sodium alginate and enzymes into divalent metallic ion solution as a coagulating bath, followed by paper making of resultant shortly cut fibers. Entrapment yields of enzymes used, e.g., glucoamylase, cyclodextrin glucanotransferase, endo-polygalacturonase, and protease, were always higher in calcium alginate fibers and their papers than those in corresponding beads. It was found that the yields increased with an increase of the discharge rate through the spinning nozzle because the higher discharge rate could provide more highly oriented metal-chelate linear polymer molecules along the fiber axis for preventing leakage of entrapped enzymes. Divalent metallic ions affected greatly the entrapment of glucoamylase in alginate fibers, the order of which followed rougly the ionotropic series of Thiele. Entrapment of glucoamylase in bicomponent systems comprising alginate and other water-soluble polymers was also investigated. (Refs. 41).

  1. Hydrogel Beads: The New Slime Lab?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brockway, Debra; Libera, Matthew; Welner, Heidi

    2011-01-01

    Creating slime fascinates students. Unfortunately, though intrigue is at its peak, the educational aspect of this activity is often minimal. This article describes a chemistry lab that closely relates to the slime lab and allows high school students to explore the concepts of chemical bonding, properties, and replacement reactions. It involves the…

  2. Transdermal delivery of selegiline from alginate-Pluronic composite thermogels.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chih-Chieh; Fang, Chia-Lang; Al-Suwayeh, Saleh A; Leu, Yann-Lii; Fang, Jia-You

    2011-08-30

    The present work was carried out to design a practical, controlled-release transdermal system for selegiline using thermosensitive hydrogels. The copolymers of alginate and Pluronic F127 (PF127) were used to design thermogels by either physical blending (A+P) or chemical grafting (AP). The thermogels were characterized in terms of the sol-gel temperature, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), degradation ratio, and skin permeation behavior. The chemical grafting of alginate to PF127 could delay the sol-gel temperature from 24.1 to 30.4°C, which is near the temperature of the skin surface. The gelling temperature of the physical mixture of alginate and PF127 (A+P) did not significantly differ. The porosity of the A+P structure was greater compared to that of the AP structure. AP thermogels were regularly degraded, with 60% of the gel matrix remaining after a 48-h incubation. PF127 and A+P hydrogels showed almost no degradation. The results of skin permeation across porcine skin and nude mouse skin suggested that the thermogels could produce sustained selegiline release, with AP showing the most-sustained permeation. AP hydrogels exhibited linear permeation properties for the transdermal delivery of selegiline. Inter-subject variations in skin permeation were reduced by incorporation of the thermogel. Such a thermosensitive hydrogel can be advantageous as a topical therapeutic formulation for selegiline.

  3. Jellyfish collagen and alginate: Combined marine materials for superior chondrogenesis of hMSC.

    PubMed

    Pustlauk, W; Paul, B; Gelinsky, M; Bernhardt, A

    2016-07-01

    Marine, hybrid constructs of porous scaffolds from fibrillized jellyfish collagen and alginate hydrogel are mimicking both of the main tissue components of cartilage, thus being a promising approach for chondrogenic differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSC). Investigating their potential for articular cartilage repair, the present study examined scaffolds being either infiltrated with an alginate-cell-suspension (ACS) or seeded with hMSC and embedded in alginate after cell adhesion (EAS). Hybrid constructs with 2×10(5) and 4.5×10(5)hMSC/scaffold were compared to hMSC encapsulated in pure alginate discs, both chondrogenically stimulated for 21days. Typical round, chondrocyte-like morphology was observed in pure alginate gels and ACS scaffolds, while cells in EAS were elongated and tightly attached to the collagen pores. Col 2 gene expression was comparable in all scaffold types examined. However, the Col 2/Col 1 ratio was higher for pure alginate discs and ACS scaffolds compared to EAS. In contrast, cells in EAS scaffolds displayed higher gene expression of Sox 9, Col 11 and ACAN compared to ACS and pure alginate. Secretion of sulfated glycosaminoglycans (sGAG) was comparable for ACS and EAS scaffolds. In conclusion hybrid constructs of jellyfish collagen and alginate support hMSC chondrogenic differentiation and provide more stable and constructs compared to pure hydrogels. PMID:27127044

  4. Immobilization of alginate-encapsulated Bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis containing different multivalent counterions for mosquito control.

    PubMed

    Prabakaran, G; Hoti, S L

    2008-08-01

    Immobilized techniques have been used widely for the controlled release formulation of mosquitoes. Among the microbial formulations, polymeric matrices play an important role in the controlled release of microbial pesticide at rates sufficiently effective to kill mosquitoes in the field. The advantage of these matrices is that they enhance the stability of both spores and toxin against pH, temperature variations, and UV irradiation. The disadvantage of using calcium alginate beads is that they are unstable upon contact with phosphate of potassium or sodium ions rich in the mosquito habitats. To overcome these problems, attempts were made to encapsulate Bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis within alginate by using different multivalent counterions, namely, calcium chloride, zinc sulfate, copper sulfate, cobalt chloride, and ferric chloride, and the beads formed were tested for its mosquito larvicidal activity. Among all the beads tested, zinc alginate beads resulted in maximum larvicidal activity of 98% (+/-1.40 SE) against Culex quinquefasciatus IIIrd instar larvae and maximum spore count of 3.36 x 10(5) (+/-5291.50 SE) CFU/ml. Zinc alginate beads maintained their structure for up to 48 h when shaken vigorously on a rotary shaker at 180 rpm in the presence of 10 mM potassium phosphate buffer (pH 6.8 +/- 0.1). In conclusion, our results suggest that the use of zinc sulfate as counterions to encapsulate B. thuringiensis var. israelensis within alginate may be a potent mosquito control program in the habitats where more phosphate ions are present.

  5. Zinc cross-linked hydroxamated alginates for pulsed drug release

    PubMed Central

    Raut, Neha S; Deshmukh, Prasad R; Umekar, Milind J; Kotagale, Nandkishor R

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Alginates can be tailored chemically to improve solubility, physicochemical, and biological properties and its complexation with metal ion is useful for controlling the drug release. Materials And Methods: Synthesized N,O-dimethyl, N-methyl, or N-Benzyl hydroxylamine derivatives of sodium alginate were subsequently complexed with zinc to form beads. Hydroxamation of sodium alginate was confirmed by Fourier transform infra-red spectroscopy (FTIR) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). Results: The synthesized polymeric material exhibited reduced aqueous, HCl and NaOH solubility. The hydroxamated derivatives demonstrated pulsed release where change in pH of the dissolution medium stimulated the atenolol release. Conclusion: Atenolol loaded Zn cross-linked polymeric beads demonstrated the sustained the plasma drug levels with increased half-life. Although the synthesized derivatives greatly altered the aqueous solubility of sodium alginate, no significant differences in in vitro and in vivo atenolol release behavior amongst the N,O-dimethyl, N-methyl, or N-Benzyl hydroxylamine derivatives of sodium alginate were observed. PMID:24350039

  6. Encapsulating Non-Human Primate Multipotent Stromal Cells in Alginate via High Voltage for Cell-Based Therapies and Cryopreservation

    PubMed Central

    Gryshkov, Oleksandr; Pogozhykh, Denys; Hofmann, Nicola; Pogozhykh, Olena; Mueller, Thomas; Glasmacher, Birgit

    2014-01-01

    Alginate cell-based therapy requires further development focused on clinical application. To assess engraftment, risk of mutations and therapeutic benefit studies should be performed in an appropriate non-human primate model, such as the common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus). In this work we encapsulated amnion derived multipotent stromal cells (MSCs) from Callithrix jacchus in defined size alginate beads using a high voltage technique. Our results indicate that i) alginate-cell mixing procedure and cell concentration do not affect the diameter of alginate beads, ii) encapsulation of high cell numbers (up to 10×106 cells/ml) can be performed in alginate beads utilizing high voltage and iii) high voltage (15–30 kV) does not alter the viability, proliferation and differentiation capacity of MSCs post-encapsulation compared with alginate encapsulated cells produced by the traditional air-flow method. The consistent results were obtained over the period of 7 days of encapsulated MSCs culture and after cryopreservation utilizing a slow cooling procedure (1 K/min). The results of this work show that high voltage encapsulation can further be maximized to develop cell-based therapies with alginate beads in a non-human primate model towards human application. PMID:25259731

  7. Development of clindamycin-loaded wound dressing with polyvinyl alcohol and sodium alginate.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jong Oh; Choi, Jun Young; Park, Jung Kil; Kim, Jeong Hoon; Jin, Sung Giu; Chang, Sun Woo; Li, Dong Xun; Hwang, Ma-Ro; Woo, Jong Soo; Kim, Jung-Ae; Lyoo, Won Seok; Yong, Chul Soon; Choi, Han-Gon

    2008-12-01

    To develop a clindamycin-loaded wound dressing, cross-linked hydrogel films were prepared using freeze-thawing method with various mixtures of polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) and sodium alginate (SA). The physicochemical properties such as swelling ratio, tensile strength and elongation of hydrogels were evaluated. The drug release from this clindamycin-loaded hydrogel, in vitro protein adsorption test and in vivo wound healing observations in rats were then performed. Increased SA concentration decreased the gelation %, maximum strength and break elongation, but it resulted into an increment in the swelling ability, elasticity and thermal stability of hydrogel film. However, SA had insignificant effect on the release of clindamycin. This hydrogel improved the healing rate of artificial wounds in rats. Thus, a clindamycin-loaded wound dressing with PVA and SA hydrogel should be a candidate for wound care.

  8. Finely dispersed single-walled carbon nanotubes for polysaccharide hydrogels.

    PubMed

    Yan, Liang Yu; Chen, Hailan; Li, Peng; Kim, Dong-Hwan; Chan-Park, Mary B

    2012-09-26

    Here we demonstrate a polysaccharide hydrogel reinforced with finely dispersed single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) using biocompatible dispersants O-carboxymethylchitosan (OC) and chondroitin sulfate A (CS-A) as a structural support. Both of the dispersants can disperse SWNTs in aqueous solutions and hydrogel matrix as individual tubes or small bundles. Additionally, we have found that compressive modulus and strain of the hydrogels reinforced with SWNTs were enhanced as much as two times by the addition of a few weight percent of SWNTs. Moreover, the SWNT-incorporated hydrogels exhibited lower impedance and higher charge capacity than the alginate/dispersant hydrogel without SWNTs. The OC and the CS-A demonstrated much higher reinforcing enhancement than a commercially available dispersant, sodium dodecyl sulfate. Combined with the experimental data on the mechanical and electrical properties, the biocompatibility of OC and CS-A can provide the possibility of biomedical application of the SWNT-reinforced hydrogels. PMID:22909447

  9. Alginate based polyurethanes: A review of recent advances and perspective.

    PubMed

    Zia, Khalid Mahmood; Zia, Fatima; Zuber, Mohammad; Rehman, Saima; Ahmad, Mirza Nadeem

    2015-08-01

    The trend of using biopolymers in combination with synthetic polymers was increasing rapidly from last two or three decades. Polysaccharide based biopolymers especially starch, cellulose, chitin, chitosan, alginate, etc. found extensive applications for different industrial uses, as they are biocompatible, biodegradable, bio-renewable resources and chiefly environment friendly. Segment block copolymer character of polyurethanes that endows them a broad range of versatility in terms of tailoring their properties was employed in conjunction with various natural polymers resulted in modified biomaterials. Alginate is biodegradable, biocompatible, bioactive, less toxic and low cost anionic polysaccharide, as a part of structural component of bacteria and brown algae (sea weed) is quite abundant in nature. It is used in combination with polyurethanes to form elastomers, nano-composites, hydrogels, etc. that especially revolutionized the food and biomedical industries. The review summarized the development in alginate based polyurethanes with their potential applications.

  10. The collagen I mimetic peptide DGEA enhances an osteogenic phenotype in mesenchymal stem cells when presented from cell-encapsulating hydrogels.

    PubMed

    Mehta, Manav; Madl, Christopher M; Lee, Shimwoo; Duda, Georg N; Mooney, David J

    2015-11-01

    Interactions between cells and the extracellular matrix (ECM) are known to play critical roles in regulating cell phenotype. The identity of ECM ligands presented to mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) has previously been shown to direct the cell fate commitment of these cells. To enhance osteogenic differentiation of MSCs, alginate hydrogels were prepared that present the DGEA ligand derived from collagen I. When presented from hydrogel surfaces in 2D, the DGEA ligand did not facilitate cell adhesion, while hydrogels presenting the RGD ligand derived from fibronectin did encourage cell adhesion and spreading. However, the osteogenic differentiation of MSCs encapsulated within alginate hydrogels presenting the DGEA ligand was enhanced when compared with unmodified alginate hydrogels and hydrogels presenting the RGD ligand. MSCs cultured in DGEA-presenting gels exhibited increased levels of osteocalcin production and mineral deposition. These data suggest that the presentation of the collagen I-derived DGEA ligand is a feasible approach for selectively inducing an osteogenic phenotype in encapsulated MSCs.

  11. Gelatin blends with alginate: gels for lipase immobilization and purification.

    PubMed

    Fadnavis, Nitin W; Sheelu, Gurrala; Kumar, Bezavada Mani; Bhalerao, Mahendra U; Deshpande, Ashlesha A

    2003-01-01

    Blends of natural polysaccharide sodium alginate (5%) with gelatin (3%) cross-linked with glutaraldehyde provide beads with excellent compressive strength (8 x 10(4) Pa) and regular structure on treatment with calcium chloride. Lipases from porcine pancreas, Pseudomonas cepacia, and Candida rugosa were immobilized in such a blend with excellent efficiency. The immobilized enzymes were stable and were reused several times without significant loss of enzyme activity both in aqueous and reverse micellar media. The beads were functionalized with succinic anhydride to obtain beads with extra carboxylic acid groups. These functionalized beads were then successfully used for 7.4-fold purification of crude porcine pancreatic lipase in a simple operation of protein binding at pH 5 and release at pH 8.5.

  12. Evaluation of the use of Sr2+ in alginate immobilization of cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Widerøe, Hege; Danielsen, Signe

    2001-05-01

    In recent years the method of immobilization of living cells in Ca-alginate beads has gained a wide range of applications. In all cases high chemical stability of the immobilization material and mild conditions for the cells are prerequisites. However, in long-term experiments that may last for several days Ca-alginate may dissolve due to an exchange of Ca2+ with Na+, forming fluid Na-alginate. As well as Ca-alginate, the more chemically stable Sr-alginate and Ba-alginate are materials that have been used for the immobilization of living cells. In this study, the effects of Ca2+, Sr2+ and Ba2+ on growth, viability and intracellular free calcium concentration in a human leukemic T cell line (Jurkat) were investigated. The findings in this study, and the fact that Sr-alginate has a considerably higher chemical stability than Ca-alginate, led to the conclusion that Sr-alginate is a more suitable material for use in the entrapment of living cells in long-term studies.

  13. Evaluation of the use of Sr2+ in alginate immobilization of cells.

    PubMed

    Widerøe, H; Danielsen, S

    2001-05-01

    In recent years the method of immobilization of living cells in Ca-alginate beads has gained a wide range of applications. In all cases high chemical stability of the immobilization material and mild conditions for the cells are prerequisites. However, in long-term experiments that may last for several days Ca-alginate may dissolve due to an exchange of Ca2+ with Na+, forming fluid Na-alginate. As well as Ca-alginate, the more chemically stable Sr-alginate and Ba-alginate are materials that have been used for the immobilization of living cells. In this study, the effects of Ca2+, Sr2+ and Ba2+ on growth, viability and intracellular free calcium concentration in a human leukemic T cell line (Jurkat) were investigated. The findings in this study, and the fact that Sr-alginate has a considerably higher chemical stability than Ca-alginate, led to the conclusion that Sr-alginate is a more suitable material for use in the entrapment of living cells in long-term studies.

  14. Calcium alginate gel as encapsulation matrix for coimmobilized enzyme systems.

    PubMed

    Blandino, A; Macías, M; Cantero, D

    2003-07-01

    Encapsulation within calcium alginate gel capsules was used to produce a coimmobilized enzyme system. Glucose oxidase (GOD) and catalase (CAT) were chosen as model enzymes. The same values of Vmax and Km app for the GOD encapsulated system and for the GOD-CAT coencapsulated system were calculated. When gel beads and capsules were compared, the same catalyst deactivation sequence for the two enzymes was observed. However, when capsules were employed as immobilization support, GOD efficiencies were higher than for the gel beads. These results were explained in terms of the structure of the capsules.

  15. Enzyme-catalysed assembly of DNA hydrogel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Um, Soong Ho; Lee, Jong Bum; Park, Nokyoung; Kwon, Sang Yeon; Umbach, Christopher C.; Luo, Dan

    2006-10-01

    DNA is a remarkable polymer that can be manipulated by a large number of molecular tools including enzymes. A variety of geometric objects, periodic arrays and nanoscale devices have been constructed. Previously we synthesized dendrimer-like DNA and DNA nanobarcodes from branched DNA via ligases. Here we report the construction of a hydrogel entirely from branched DNA that are three-dimensional and can be crosslinked in nature. These DNA hydrogels were biocompatible, biodegradable, inexpensive to fabricate and easily moulded into desired shapes and sizes. The distinct difference of the DNA hydrogel to other bio-inspired hydrogels (including peptide-based, alginate-based and DNA (linear)-polyacrylamide hydrogels) is that the crosslinking is realized via efficient, ligase-mediated reactions. The advantage is that the gelling processes are achieved under physiological conditions and the encapsulations are accomplished in situ-drugs including proteins and even live mammalian cells can be encapsulated in the liquid phase eliminating the drug-loading step and also avoiding denaturing conditions. Fine tuning of these hydrogels is easily accomplished by adjusting the initial concentrations and types of branched DNA monomers, thus allowing the hydrogels to be tailored for specific applications such as controlled drug delivery, tissue engineering, 3D cell culture, cell transplant therapy and other biomedical applications.

  16. Alginate Encapsulation Parameters Influence the Differentiation of Microencapsulated Embryonic Stem Cell Aggregates

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, Jenna L.; Najia, Mohamad Ali; Saeed, Rabbia; McDevitt, Todd C.

    2014-01-01

    Pluripotent embryonic stem cells (ESCs) have tremendous potential as tools for regenerative medicine and drug discovery, yet the lack of processes to manufacture viable and homogenous cell populations of sufficient numbers limits the clinical translation of current and future cell therapies. Microencapsulation of ESCs within microbeads can shield cells from hydrodynamic shear forces found in bioreactor environments while allowing for sufficient diffusion of nutrients and oxygen through the encapsulation material. Despite initial studies examining alginate microbeads as a platform for stem cell expansion and directed differentiation, the impact of alginate encapsulation parameters on stem cell phenotype has not been thoroughly investigated. Therefore, the objective of this study was to systematically examine the effects of varying alginate compositions on microencapsulated ESC expansion and phenotype. Pre-formed aggregates of murine ESCs were encapsulated in alginate microbeads composed of a high or low ratio of guluronic to mannuronic acid residues (High G and High M, respectively), with and without a poly-l-lysine (PLL) coating, thereby providing four distinct alginate bead compositions for analysis. Encapsulation in all alginate compositions was found to delay differentiation, with encapsulation within High G alginate yielding the least differentiated cell population. The addition of a PLL coating to the High G alginate prevented cell escape from beads for up to 14 days. Furthermore, encapsulation within High M alginate promoted differentiation toward a primitive endoderm phenotype. Taken together, the findings of this study suggest that distinct ESC expansion capacities and differentiation trajectories emerge depending on the alginate composition employed, indicating that encapsulation material physical properties can be used to control stem cell fate. PMID:24166004

  17. Alginate/Poly(γ-glutamic Acid) Base Biocompatible Gel for Bone Tissue Engineering

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Wing P.; Kung, Fu-Chen; Kuo, Yu-Lin; Yang, Ming-Chen; Lai, Wen-Fu Thomas

    2015-01-01

    A technique for synthesizing biocompatible hydrogels by cross-linking calcium-form poly(γ-glutamic acid), alginate sodium, and Pluronic F-127 was created, in which alginate can be cross-linked by Ca2+ from Ca–γ-PGA directly and γ-PGA molecules introduced into the alginate matrix to provide pH sensitivity and hemostasis. Mechanical properties, swelling behavior, and blood compatibility were investigated for each hydrogel compared with alginate and for γ-PGA hydrogel with the sodium form only. Adding F-127 improves mechanical properties efficiently and influences the temperature-sensitive swelling of the hydrogels but also has a minor effect on pH-sensitive swelling and promotes anticoagulation. MG-63 cells were used to test biocompatibility. Gelation occurred gradually through change in the elastic modulus as the release of calcium ions increased over time and caused ionic cross-linking, which promotes the elasticity of gel. In addition, the growth of MG-63 cells in the gel reflected nontoxicity. These results showed that this biocompatible scaffold has potential for application in bone materials. PMID:26504784

  18. Alginate/Poly(γ-glutamic Acid) Base Biocompatible Gel for Bone Tissue Engineering.

    PubMed

    Chan, Wing P; Kung, Fu-Chen; Kuo, Yu-Lin; Yang, Ming-Chen; Lai, Wen-Fu Thomas

    2015-01-01

    A technique for synthesizing biocompatible hydrogels by cross-linking calcium-form poly(γ-glutamic acid), alginate sodium, and Pluronic F-127 was created, in which alginate can be cross-linked by Ca(2+) from Ca-γ-PGA directly and γ-PGA molecules introduced into the alginate matrix to provide pH sensitivity and hemostasis. Mechanical properties, swelling behavior, and blood compatibility were investigated for each hydrogel compared with alginate and for γ-PGA hydrogel with the sodium form only. Adding F-127 improves mechanical properties efficiently and influences the temperature-sensitive swelling of the hydrogels but also has a minor effect on pH-sensitive swelling and promotes anticoagulation. MG-63 cells were used to test biocompatibility. Gelation occurred gradually through change in the elastic modulus as the release of calcium ions increased over time and caused ionic cross-linking, which promotes the elasticity of gel. In addition, the growth of MG-63 cells in the gel reflected nontoxicity. These results showed that this biocompatible scaffold has potential for application in bone materials. PMID:26504784

  19. Pectin/zein beads for potential colon-specific drug delivery: synthesis and in vitro evaluation.

    PubMed

    Liu, LinShu; Fishman, Marshall L; Hicks, Kevin B; Kende, Meir; Ruthel, Gordon

    2006-01-01

    Novel complex hydrogel beads were prepared from two edible polymers: pectin, a carbohydrate from citrus fruits, and zein, a protein from corn. The pectin/zein complex hydrogels did not swell in physiological environments, but hydrolyzed in the presence of pectinases. An in vitro study showed the capacity of the hydrogels to endure protease attack and residence time variation. The physical and biological properties of the new hydrogels were attributed to molecular entanglement of the two polymers. The pectin networks were stabilized by the bound zein molecules. In turn, the pectin networks shielded the bound zein from protease digestion.

  20. Bioacetylation of Seaweed Alginate

    PubMed Central

    Lee, J. W.; Day, D. F.

    1995-01-01

    Seaweed alginate was acetylated by intact, resting cells of Pseudomonas syringae ATCC 19304. Maximum acetylation of this polymer occurred at a pH of 6.0 and a temperature of 25 deg C. Aeration and gluconic acid were required for an optimal reaction. A reactor which contained carbon-immobilized cells was constructed to continuously acetylate alginate. The maximal yield of acetylation was about 90%, and the half-life of this system was 6.5 days. PMID:16534934

  1. Osteogenic differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells in defined protein beads.

    PubMed

    Lund, Amanda W; Bush, Jeff A; Plopper, George E; Stegemann, Jan P

    2008-10-01

    There is a need to develop improved methods for directing and maintaining the differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSC) for regenerative medicine. Here, we present a method for embedding cells in defined protein microenvironments for the directed osteogenic differentiation of hMSC. Composite matrices of collagen I and agarose were produced by emulsification and simultaneous polymerization in the presence of hMSC to produce 30-150 mum diameter hydrogel "beads." The proliferation, morphology, osteogenic gene expression, and calcium deposition of hMSC in bead environments were compared to other two- and three-dimensional culture environments over 14-21 days in culture. Cells embedded within 40% collagen beads exhibited equivalent proliferation rates to those in gel disks, but showed upregulation of bone sialoprotein and increased calcium deposition over 2D controls. Osteocalcin gene expression was not changed in 3D beads and disks, while collagen type I gene expression was downregulated relative to cells in 2D culture. The hydrogel bead format allows controlled cell differentiation and is a cell delivery vehicle that may also enhance vascular invasion and host incorporation. Our results indicate that the application of such beads can be used to promote the osteogenic phenotype in hMSC, which is an important step toward using them in bone repair applications.

  2. Porous Agarose-Based Semi-IPN Hydrogels: Characterization and Cell Affinity Studies.

    PubMed

    Vardar, E; Vert, Michel; Coudane, Jean; Hasirci, V; Hasirci, N

    2012-01-01

    Hydrogels are frequently considered for medical applications due to the ease of preparation in different forms and high water content that makes them comparable to natural tissues. However, these general properties are not sufficient to make any hydrogel suitable for cell attachment and growth which are necessary for their use in tissue regeneration. Besides, the high water content makes the hydrogels mechanically weak. The formation of semi-interpenetrating networks (semi-IPNs) can be used in attempts to enhance physical, mechanical and thermal properties. In this study, semi-IPNs of agarose were prepared with chitosan and alginate, two polyelectrolytes that are positively and negatively charged under physiological conditions, respectively. Zeta potential was used to confirm the formation of charged hydrogels. All hydrogels had ultimate compression strengths in the range of 91-210 Pa where the value for pure agarose was about 103 Pa. Chitosan increased the compressive strength about two folds whereas the alginate had opposite effects. The amount of strongly bound water present in the hydrogels were estimated from TGA and DSC analysis and the highest value was found for alginate-agarose hydrogels as about 15%. The attachment and the migration of L929 fibroblasts were monitored in vitro using the MTS assay and confocal microscopy. The highest cell proliferation and penetration were observed for positively charged chitosan-agarose semi-IPN hydrogels.

  3. Microencapsulation of Lactobacillus plantarum spp in an alginate matrix coated with whey proteins.

    PubMed

    Gbassi, Gildas Komenan; Vandamme, Thierry; Ennahar, Saïd; Marchioni, Eric

    2009-01-31

    Whey proteins were used as a coating material to improve encapsulation of Lactobacillus plantarum strains in calcium alginate beads. L. plantarum 299v, L. plantarum 800 and L. plantarum CIP A159 were used in this study. Inactivation experiments were carried out in simulated gastric fluid (SGF) and simulated intestinal fluid (SIF). Cross-sections of freeze-dried beads revealed the random distribution of bacteria throughout the alginate network. From an initial count of 10.04+/-0.01 log(10) CFU g(-1) for L. plantarum 299v, 10.12+/-0.04 for L. plantarum CIP A159 and 10.03+/-0.01 for L. plantarum 800, bacteria in coated beads and incubated in SGF (37 degrees C, 60 min) showed a better survival for L. plantarum 299v, L. plantarum CIP A159 and L. plantarum 800 (respectively 7.76+/-0.12, 6.67+/-0.08 and 5.81+/-0.25 log(10) CFU g(-1)) when compared to uncoated beads (2.19+/-0.09, 1.89+/-0.09 and 1.65+/-0.10 log(10) CFU g(-1)) (p<0.05). Only bacteria in the coated beads survived in the SIF medium (37 degrees C, 180 min) after SGF treatment. This preliminary work showed that whey proteins are a convenient, cheap and efficient material for coating alginate beads loaded with bacteria.

  4. Enzyme Induced Formation of Monodisperse Hydrogel Nanoparticles Tunable in Size

    SciTech Connect

    Bocharova, Vera; Sharp, Danna; Jones, Aaron; Cheng, Shiwang; Griffin, Philip J.; Agapov, Alexander L.; Voylov, Dmitry; Wang, Yangyang; Kisliuk, Alexander; Melman, Artem; Sokolov, Alexei P.

    2015-03-09

    Here, we report a novel approach to synthesize monodisperse hydrogel nanoparticles that are tunable in size. The distinctive feature of our approach is the use of a multicopper oxidase enzyme, laccase, as both a biocatalyst and template for nanoparticle growth. We utilize the ferroxidase activity of laccase to initiate localized production of iron(III) cations from the oxidation of iron(II) cations. We demonstrate that nanoparticles are formed in a dilute polymer solution of alginate as a result of cross-linking between alginate and enzymatically produced iron(III) cations. Exerting control over the enzymatic reaction allows for nanometer-scale tuning of the hydrogel nanoparticle radii in the range of 30–100 nm. Moreover, the nanoparticles and their growth kinetics were characterized via dynamic light scattering, atomic force microscopy, and UV–vis spectroscopy. Our finding opens up a new avenue for the synthesis of tunable nanoscale hydrogel particles for biomedical applications.

  5. Sonochemical processing and characterization of composite materials based on soy protein and alginate containing micron-sized bioactive glass particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silva, Raquel; Bulut, Buse; Roether, Judith A.; Kaschta, Joachim; Schubert, Dirk W.; Boccaccini, Aldo R.

    2014-09-01

    Novel composite hydrogels based on the combination of natural polymers; namely alginate and soy protein isolate, and bioactive glass (BG) particles (mean size: 2 μm) were developed. For this purpose a sonochemical approach was used and homogeneous composite hydrogels, incorporating two concentrations of BG particles, were successfully obtained. Further physico-chemical characterization was performed in order to evaluate the influence of each component on hydrogel properties. The water uptake ability, weight loss, protein release, as well as FTIR, SEM and DMTA characterization were carried out. The biomineralization process in simulated body fluid (SBF) was followed over time and the results demonstrated that the composite materials have the ability to form a surface apatite layer after 7 days in SBF. The design of novel composite hydrogels based on soy protein, alginate and BG can be a suitable approach for bone regeneration applications.

  6. Structurally stable gel bead containing entrapped enzyme and method for manufacture thereof

    DOEpatents

    Woodward, Jonathan

    1998-01-01

    A structurally stable gel bead containing an entrapped enzyme and a method for its manufacture. The enzyme is covalently cross-linked to gelatin in the presence of glutaraldehyde prior to the formation of the gel bead, to prevent leakage of the enzyme. Propylene glycol alginate is then added to the mixture. Once the gel beads are formed, they are then soaked in glutaraldehyde, which imparts structural stability to the gel beads. This method can be used with many types of enzymes, such as proteases, carbohydrases, proteases, ligases, isomerases, oxidoreductases, and specialty enzymes. These and other enzymes can be immobilized in the gel beads and utilized in a number of enzymatic processes. Exogenously added ions are not required to maintain the structural stability of these gel beads.

  7. Structurally stable gel bead containing entrapped enzyme and method for manufacture thereof

    DOEpatents

    Woodward, J.

    1998-12-08

    This research provides a structurally stable gel bead containing an entrapped enzyme and a method for its manufacture. The enzyme is covalently cross-linked to gelatin in the presence of glutaraldehyde prior to the formation of the gel bead, to prevent leakage of the enzyme. Propylene glycol alginate is then added to the mixture. Once the gel beads are formed, they are then soaked in glutaraldehyde, which imparts structural stability to the gel beads. This method can be used with many types of enzymes, such as proteases, carbohydrases, proteases, ligases, isomerases, oxidoreductases, and specialty enzymes. These and other enzymes can be immobilized in the gel beads and utilized in a number of enzymatic processes. Exogenously added ions are not required to maintain the structural stability of these gel beads. 7 figs.

  8. Survival of different cell lines in alginate-agarose microcapsules.

    PubMed

    Orive, G; Hernández, R M; Gascón, A R; Igartua, M; Pedraz, J L

    2003-01-01

    Cell microencapsulation has emerged as a promising therapeutic strategy to treat a wide range of diseases. The optimisation of this technology depends on several critical issues such as the careful selection of the cell line, the controlled manufacture of microcapsules and the suitable adaptation of the construct design to the selected cell line. In this work, we studied the behavior of hybridoma cells once enclosed in solid and liquefied core alginate-agarose beads. Results show that hybridoma cells presented a better growing pattern and improved their viability and antibody production within liquefied beads. However, when these beads were evaluated with a compression resistance study, they were found to be mechanically more fragile than solid ones. To address this problem, we entrapped non-autologous cells (BHK fibroblast and C2C12 myoblast) in solid alginate-agarose beads and observed that they showed an improved growing profile and prolonged their viability up to 70 days in comparison to the 15 days seen for the hybridoma cells.

  9. Comparing the efficacies of alginate, foam, hydrocolloid, hydrofiber, and hydrogel dressings in the management of diabetic foot ulcers and venous leg ulcers: a systematic review and meta-analysis examining how to dress for success.

    PubMed

    Saco, Michael; Howe, Nicole; Nathoo, Rajiv; Cherpelis, Basil

    2016-01-01

    Diabetic foot ulcers and venous leg ulcers are chronic wounds frequently encountered by dermatologists. Choosing appropriate wound dressings can effectively promote wound healing and potentially reduce morbidity and financial burden experienced by patients. The objective of our systematic review and meta-analysis was to evaluate wound healing efficacies of synthetic active dressings in diabetic foot ulcer and venous leg ulcer management. For data collection, PubMed, Embase, Cochrane Library, CINAHL, and clinicaltrials.gov online databases were searched from database inception to 10 May 2015. Fixed and random effects modeling were used to calculate pooled risk ratios for complete ulcer healing from pairwise dressing comparisons. The results of our review showed moderate-quality level evidence that hydrogels were more effective in healing diabetic foot ulcers than basic wound contact dressings (RR 1.80 [95% CI, 1.27-2.56]). The other dressing comparisons showed no statistically significant differences between the interventions examined in terms of achieving complete diabetic foot ulcer healing. Non-adherent dressings were more cost-effective than hydrofiber dressings for diabetic foot ulcers in terms of mean total cost per patient of the dressings themselves. All venous leg ulcer pairwise dressing comparisons showed equivalent dressing efficacies in terms of promoting complete ulcer healing. Overall, most synthetic active dressings and traditional wound dressings are equally efficacious in treating diabetic foot ulcers and venous leg ulcers. For treating diabetic foot ulcers, hydrogels are more efficacious than basic wound contact dressings, and non-adherent dressings are more cost-effective than hydrofiber dressings. Ultimately, dressing choice should be tailored to the wound and the patient. PMID:27617934

  10. Preparation and Characterization of Azadirachtin Alginate-Biosorbent Based Formulations: Water Release Kinetics and Photodegradation Study.

    PubMed

    Flores-Céspedes, Francisco; Martínez-Domínguez, Gerardo P; Villafranca-Sánchez, Matilde; Fernández-Pérez, Manuel

    2015-09-30

    The botanical insecticide azadirachtin was incorporated in alginate-based granules to obtain controlled release formulations (CRFs). The basic formulation [sodium alginate (1.47%) - azadirachtin (0.28%) - water] was modified by the addition of biosorbents, obtaining homogeneous hybrid hydrogels with high azadirachtin entrapment efficiency. The effect on azadirachtin release rate caused by the incorporation of biosorbents such as lignin, humic acid, and olive pomace in alginate formulation was studied by immersion of the granules in water under static conditions. The addition of the biosorbents to the basic alginate formulation reduces the rate of release because the lignin-based formulation produces a slower release. Photodegradation experiments showed the potential of the prepared formulations in protecting azadirachtin against simulated sunlight, thus improving its stability. The results showed that formulation prepared with lignin provided extended protection. Therefore, this study provides a new procedure to encapsulate the botanical insecticide azadirachtin, improving its delivery and photostability. PMID:26345112

  11. Short-Duration Low-Direct-Current Electrical Field Treatment Is a Practical Tool for Considerably Reducing Counts of Gram-Negative Bacteria Entrapped in Gel Beads

    PubMed Central

    Zvitov, R.; Zohar-Perez, C.; Nussinovitch, A.

    2004-01-01

    Application of a direct-current electrical field for very short times can serve as a practical nonthermal procedure to reduce or modify the microbial distribution in gel beads. The viability of Escherichia coli and Serratia marcescens entrapped in alginate and agarose beads decreases as the field intensity and duration of electrical field increase. PMID:15184192

  12. TiO₂ beads and TiO₂-chitosan beads for urease immobilization.

    PubMed

    Ispirli Doğaç, Yasemin; Deveci, Ilyas; Teke, Mustafa; Mercimek, Bedrettin

    2014-09-01

    The aim of the present study is to synthesize TiO2 beads for urease immobilization. Two different strategies were used to immobilize the urease on TiO2 beads. In the first method (A), urease enzyme was immobilized onto TiO2 beads by adsorption and then crosslinking. In the second method (B), TiO2 beads were coated with chitosan-urease mixture. To determine optimum conditions of immobilization, different parameters were investigated. The parameters of optimization were initial enzyme concentration (0.5; 1; 1.5; 2mg/ml), alginate concentration (1; 2; 3%), glutaraldehyde concentration (1; 2; 3% v/v) and chitosan concentration (2; 3; 4 mg/ml). The optimum enzyme concentrations were determined as 1.5mg/ml for A and 1.0mg/ml for B. The other optimum conditions were found 2.0% (w/v) for alginate concentration (both A and B); 3.0mg/ml for chitosan concentration (B) and 2.0% (v/v) for glutaraldehyde concentration (A). The optimum temperature (20-60°C), optimum pH (3.0-10.0), kinetic parameters, thermal stability (4-70°C), pH stability (4.0-9.0), operational stability (0-230 min) and reusability (20 times) were investigated for characterization. The optimum temperatures were 30°C (A), 40°C (B) and 35°C (soluble). The temperature profiles of the immobilized ureases were spread over a large area. The optimum pH values for the soluble urease and immobilized urease prepared by using methods (A) and (B) were found to be 7.5, 7.0, 7.0, respectively. The thermal stabilities of immobilized enzyme sets were studied and they maintained 50% activity at 65°C. However, at this temperature free urease protected only 15% activity. PMID:25063138

  13. [Study on PVA-alginate co-immobilization of Xanthomonas ampelina TS206].

    PubMed

    Chen, Qingsen; Liu, Jian

    2003-08-01

    Ice nucleation activity and anti-leaking capability are both important technical parameters in INA (Ice nucleation active bactetia) bacteria immobilization which can be adopted on freezing concentrate. Both PVA and alginate are good medium for immobilization. They can be used on co-immobilization of ice nucleation-active bacteria (Xanthomonas ampelinaTS206). The results showed that quantity of embedding affects ice nucleation activity greatly. The order of importance to comprehensive scores of technical standard should be concentration of Sodium alginate > Boric acid > PVA > CaCl2. The optimized concentration are PVA 8%, sodium alginate 1%, CaCl2 1.1% and boric acid 5%. A conclusion can be draw that ice nucleation activity increases with the number of beads and shows little pertinency with the time of immobilization, whereas anti-leaking capability can be influenced faintly by the number of beads and the time of immobilization. PMID:16276925

  14. Influence of mechanical properties of alginate-based substrates on the performance of Schwann cells in culture.

    PubMed

    Ning, Liqun; Xu, Yitong; Chen, Xiongbiao; Schreyer, David J

    2016-06-01

    In tissue engineering, artificial tissue scaffolds containing living cells have been studied for tissue repair and regeneration. Notably, the performance of these encapsulated-in-scaffolds cells in terms of cell viability, proliferation, and expression of function during and after the scaffold fabrication process, has not been well documented because of the influence of mechanical, chemical, and physical properties of the scaffold substrate materials. This paper presents our study on the influence of mechanical properties of alginate-based substrates on the performance of Schwann cells, which are the major glial cells of peripheral nervous system. Given the fact that alginate polysaccharide hydrogel has poor cell adhesion properties, in this study, we examined several types of cell-adhesion supplements and found that alginate covalently modified with RGD peptide provided improved cell proliferation and adhesion. We prepared alginate-based substrates for cell culture using varying alginate concentrations for altering their mechanical properties, which were confirmed by compression testing. Then, we examined the viability, proliferation, morphology, and expression of the extracellular matrix protein laminin of Schwann cells that were seeded on the surface of alginate-based substrates (or 2D culture) or encapsulated within alginate-based substrates (3D cultures), and correlated the examined cell performance to the alginate concentration (or mechanical properties) of hydrogel substrates. Our findings suggest that covalent attachment of RGD peptide can improve the success of Schwann cell encapsulation within alginate-based scaffolds, and provide guidance for regulating the mechanical properties of alginate-based scaffolds containing Schwann cells for applications in peripheral nervous system regeneration and repair. PMID:27012482

  15. Influence of mechanical properties of alginate-based substrates on the performance of Schwann cells in culture.

    PubMed

    Ning, Liqun; Xu, Yitong; Chen, Xiongbiao; Schreyer, David J

    2016-06-01

    In tissue engineering, artificial tissue scaffolds containing living cells have been studied for tissue repair and regeneration. Notably, the performance of these encapsulated-in-scaffolds cells in terms of cell viability, proliferation, and expression of function during and after the scaffold fabrication process, has not been well documented because of the influence of mechanical, chemical, and physical properties of the scaffold substrate materials. This paper presents our study on the influence of mechanical properties of alginate-based substrates on the performance of Schwann cells, which are the major glial cells of peripheral nervous system. Given the fact that alginate polysaccharide hydrogel has poor cell adhesion properties, in this study, we examined several types of cell-adhesion supplements and found that alginate covalently modified with RGD peptide provided improved cell proliferation and adhesion. We prepared alginate-based substrates for cell culture using varying alginate concentrations for altering their mechanical properties, which were confirmed by compression testing. Then, we examined the viability, proliferation, morphology, and expression of the extracellular matrix protein laminin of Schwann cells that were seeded on the surface of alginate-based substrates (or 2D culture) or encapsulated within alginate-based substrates (3D cultures), and correlated the examined cell performance to the alginate concentration (or mechanical properties) of hydrogel substrates. Our findings suggest that covalent attachment of RGD peptide can improve the success of Schwann cell encapsulation within alginate-based scaffolds, and provide guidance for regulating the mechanical properties of alginate-based scaffolds containing Schwann cells for applications in peripheral nervous system regeneration and repair.

  16. The use of fibrin beads for tissue engineering and subsequential transplantation.

    PubMed

    Perka, C; Arnold, U; Spitzer, R S; Lindenhayn, K

    2001-06-01

    New biological technologies such as tissue engineering procedures require the transplantation of functionally active cells within supportive carrier matrices. This paper describes a sequential culture procedure for different types of cells. The technique includes the initial preparation of a mixed alginate-fibrin vehicle that guaranteed an initial cell proliferation and differentiation to establish a stable matrix structure, and the subsequent removal of the alginate component prior to transplantation to circumvent the problem of missing bioresorbability. The resulting biodegradable carrier is mechanically stable and promotes further tissue maturation. Chondrocytes, periosteal-derived cells, as well as nucleus pulposus cells were entrapped in fibrin-alginate beads and in fibrin beads. The results indicate a promising technical approach to create stable transplants for reconstructive surgery of cartilage and bone.

  17. 21 CFR 184.1724 - Sodium alginate.