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Sample records for algoa bay south

  1. Assessment of Bioflocculant Production by Bacillus sp. Gilbert, a Marine Bacterium Isolated from the Bottom Sediment of Algoa Bay

    PubMed Central

    Nontembiso, Piyo; Sekelwa, Cosa; Leonard, Mabinya V.; Anthony, Okoh I.

    2011-01-01

    The bioflocculant-producing potentials of a marine bacteria isolated from the bottom sediment of Algoa Bay was investigated using standard methods. The 16S rDNA sequence analysis revealed 98% similarity to that of Bacillus sp. HXG-C1 and the nucleotide sequence was deposited in GenBank as Bacillus sp. Gilbert with accession number HQ537128. Bioflocculant was optimally produced when sucrose (72% flocculating activity) and ammonium chloride (91% flocculating activity) were used as sole sources of carbon and nitrogen, respectively; an initial pH 6.2 of the production medium; and Mg2+ as cation. Chemical analysis of the purified bioflocculant revealed the compound to be a polysaccharide. PMID:21822413

  2. South San Francisco Bay, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dartnell, Peter; Gibbons, Helen

    2007-01-01

    View eastward. Elevations in mapped area color coded: purple (approx 15 m below sea level) to red-orange (approx 90 m above sea level). South San Francisco Bay is very shallow, with a mean water depth of 2.7 m (8.9 ft). Trapezoidal depression near San Mateo Bridge is where sediment has been extracted for use in cement production and as bay fill. Land from USGS digital orthophotographs (DOQs) overlaid on USGS digital elevation models (DEMs). Distance across bottom of image approx 11 km (7 mi); vertical exaggeration 1.5X.

  3. 33 CFR 100.124 - Maggie Fischer Memorial Great South Bay Cross Bay Swim, Great South Bay, New York.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Maggie Fischer Memorial Great South Bay Cross Bay Swim, Great South Bay, New York. 100.124 Section 100.124 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY REGATTAS AND MARINE PARADES SAFETY OF LIFE...

  4. 33 CFR 100.124 - Maggie Fischer Memorial Great South Bay Cross Bay Swim, Great South Bay, New York.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Maggie Fischer Memorial Great South Bay Cross Bay Swim, Great South Bay, New York. 100.124 Section 100.124 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY REGATTAS AND MARINE PARADES SAFETY OF LIFE...

  5. 5. SOUTH BAY SHOWING ROOF CONSTRUCTION, SOUTH BAY 5TON P&H ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. SOUTH BAY SHOWING ROOF CONSTRUCTION, SOUTH BAY 5-TON P&H ELECTRIC OVERHEAD TRAVEL CRANE. VIEW EAST SHOWING JUNCTURE WITH NORTHWEST CORNER OF OFFICE/MACHINE SHOP - Oldman Boiler Works, Fabricating Shop, 32 Illinois Street, Buffalo, Erie County, NY

  6. 75 FR 29891 - Special Local Regulation; Maggie Fischer Memorial Great South Bay Cross Bay Swim, Great South Bay...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-28

    ... Swim, Great South Bay, NY, in the Federal Register (74 FR 32428). We did not receive any comments or... published at 74 FR 32428 on July 8, 2009, is adopted as a final rule with the following changes: PART 100... Coast Guard is establishing a permanent special local regulation on Great South Bay, NY between...

  7. Salt Ponds, South San Francisco Bay

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    higher resolution 1000 pixel-wide image The red and green colors of the salt ponds in South San Francisco Bay are brilliant visual markers for astronauts. The STS-111 crew photographed the bay south of the San Mateo bridge in June, 2002. This photograph is timely because a large number of the salt ponds (more than 16,500 acres) that are owned by Cargill, Inc. will be sold in September for wetlands restoration-a restoration project second in size only to the Florida Everglades project. Rough boundaries of the areas to be restored are outlined on the image. Over the past century, more than 80% of San Francisco Bay's wetlands have been filled and developed or diked off for salt mining. San Francisco Bay has supported salt mining since 1854. Cargill has operated most of the bay's commercial salt ponds since 1978, and had already sold thousands of acres to the State of California and the Don Edwards National Wildlife Refuge. This new transaction will increase San Francisco Bay's existing tidal wetlands by 50%. The new wetlands, to be managed by the California Department of Fish and Game and the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, will join the Don Edwards National Wildlife Refuge, and provide valuable habitat for birds, fish and other wildlife. The wetlands will contribute to better water quality and flood control in the bay, and open up more coastline for public enjoyment. Additional information: Cargill Salt Ponds (PDF) Turning Salt Into Environmental Gold Salt Ponds on Way to Becoming Wetlands Historic Agreement Reached to Purchase San Francisco Bay Salt Ponds Astronaut photograph STS111-376-3 was provided by the Earth Sciences and Image Analysis Laboratory at Johnson Space Center. Additional images taken by astronauts and cosmonauts can be viewed at the NASA-JSC Gateway to Astronaut Photography of Earth

  8. 15. SOUTH BAY, EAST END. LOOKING UP TO RIDGELINE. THE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. SOUTH BAY, EAST END. LOOKING UP TO RIDGELINE. THE ARCHED "CONCRETE" IS PART OF A TEMPORARY MOVIE SET. - Hughes Aircraft Company, Cargo Building, 6775 Centinela Avenue, Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA

  9. Oblique interior view of the south side bay showing the ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Oblique interior view of the south side bay showing the presses. View facing southeast - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Forge Shop & Galvanizing Shop, Sixth Street between Avenues D & E, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  10. View of garage interior from northern bay looking south. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of garage interior from northern bay looking south. - Presidio of San Francisco, Officers' Vehicles Garage, 1055 General Kennedy Avenue, Letterman Hospital Complex, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  11. View of front of garage, bays 37, facing south ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of front of garage, bays 3-7, facing south - Presidio of San Francisco, Officers' Vehicles Garage, 1055 General Kennedy Avenue, Letterman Hospital Complex, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  12. 70. Joe Moore, Photographer. September, 1996. BEVATRON HIGH BAY: SOUTH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    70. Joe Moore, Photographer. September, 1996. BEVATRON HIGH BAY: SOUTH SIDE, LOOKING WEST TOWARD 51A - University of California Radiation Laboratory, Bevatron, 1 Cyclotron Road, Berkeley, Alameda County, CA

  13. Overview of the south bay (taller half) of interior from ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Overview of the south bay (taller half) of interior from the east end. View facing northwest - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Shipfitters, Metal Workers & Boiler Shop, Lake Erie Street at Russell Avenue, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  14. PERSPECTIVE VIEW OF CENTRAL BAY OF EAST ARMORY, LOOKING SOUTH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    PERSPECTIVE VIEW OF CENTRAL BAY OF EAST ARMORY, LOOKING SOUTH SOUTHEAST. - Colt Fire Arms Company, East Armory Building, 36-150 Huyshope Avenue, 17-170 Van Dyke Avenue, 49 Vredendale Avenue, Hartford, Hartford County, CT

  15. 2. VIEW SOUTH, NORTH ELEVATION SHOWING BAYS 2 and 3, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. VIEW SOUTH, NORTH ELEVATION SHOWING BAYS 2 and 3, DIESEL AND TURNTABLE Photocopy of photograph, 1976 (Courtesy of Chesapeake Beach Railway Museum; Roy Hartman, photographer) - Chesapeake Beach Railroad Engine House, 21 Yost Place, Seat Pleasant, Prince George's County, MD

  16. 1. Ice Plant, south facade, two central bays. On the ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Ice Plant, south facade, two central bays. On the right, the Creamery; to the left, loading dock of Hay and Grain Warehouse. - Curtis Wharf, Ice Plant, O & Second Streets, Anacortes, Skagit County, WA

  17. 2005 hydrographic survey of south San Francisco Bay, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Foxgrover, Amy C.; Jaffe, Bruce E.; Hovis, Gerald T.; Martin, Craig A.; Hubbard, James R.; Samant, Manoj R.; Sullivan, Steve M.

    2007-01-01

    An acoustic hydrographic survey of South San Francisco Bay (South Bay) was conducted in 2005. Over 20 million soundings were collected within an area of approximately 250 sq km (97 sq mi) of the bay extending south of Coyote Point on the west shore, to the San Leandro marina on the east, including Coyote Creek and Ravenswood, Alviso, Artesian, and Mud Sloughs. This is the first survey of this scale that has been conducted in South Bay since the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration National Ocean Service (NOS) last surveyed the region in the early 1980s. Data from this survey will provide insight to changes in bay floor topography from the 1980s to 2005 and will also serve as essential baseline data for tracking changes that will occur as restoration of the South San Francisco Bay salt ponds progress. This report provides documentation on how the survey was conducted, an assessment of accuracy of the data, and distributes the sounding data with Federal Geographic Data Committee (FGDC) compliant metadata. Reports from NOS and Sea Surveyor, Inc., containing additional survey details are attached as appendices.

  18. 29. DETAIL: View from the west bay to the south ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    29. DETAIL: View from the west bay to the south corner of the gate pivot area, showing the brace area, including the metal pivot, wood supports and wear (in a circular pattern surrounding the pivot) from the gate post. The view is looking northeast, from the bay west of the west gate sill. - Wabash & Erie Canal, Lock No. 2, 8 miles east of Fort Wayne, adjacent to U.S. Route 24, New Haven, Allen County, IN

  19. Looking west at Machine Shop (Bldg. 163) south bay interior. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Looking west at Machine Shop (Bldg. 163) south bay interior. Note the Shaw 15-ton bridge crane. This portion of the building housed machine tools and locomotive component repair functions that supported the erecting shop operations - Atchison, Topeka, Santa Fe Railroad, Albuquerque Shops, Machine Shop, 908 Second Street, Southwest, Albuquerque, Bernalillo County, NM

  20. 13. South bay of the east elevation (Note the square ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. South bay of the east elevation (Note the square patch of discoloration on the lower left side of the first-floor window. This is a test cleaning patching in anticipation of stone conservation, completed during the fall 2001. - John Bartram House & Garden, House, 54th Street & Lindbergh Boulevard, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  1. 16. Detail of west end of south wing, showing bay ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    16. Detail of west end of south wing, showing bay window with stone foundation, adobe walls deteriorating under paint, standard sash windows, and rafters projecting at eves. - Fort Ord, Soldiers' Club, California State Highway 1 near Eighth Street, Seaside, Monterey County, CA

  2. The critical role of islands for waterbird breeding and foraging habitat in managed ponds of the South Bay Salt Pond Restoration Project, South San Francisco Bay, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ackerman, Joshua T.; Hartman, C. Alex; Herzog, Mark P.; Smith, Lacy M.; Moskal, Stacy M.; De La Cruz, Susan E. W.; Yee, Julie L.; Takekawa, John Y.

    2014-01-01

    The South Bay Salt Pond Restoration Project aims to restore 50–90 percent of former salt evaporation ponds into tidal marsh in South San Francisco Bay, California. However, large numbers of waterbirds use these ponds annually as nesting and foraging habitat. Islands within ponds are particularly important habitat for nesting, foraging, and roosting waterbirds. To maintain current waterbird populations, the South Bay Salt Pond Restoration Project plans to create new islands within former salt ponds in South San Francisco Bay. In a series of studies, we investigated pond and individual island attributes that are most beneficial to nesting, foraging, and roosting waterbirds.

  3. 33 CFR 334.390 - Atlantic Ocean south of entrance to Chesapeake Bay; firing range.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Atlantic Ocean south of entrance to Chesapeake Bay; firing range. 334.390 Section 334.390 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF....390 Atlantic Ocean south of entrance to Chesapeake Bay; firing range. (a) The danger zone. A...

  4. 33 CFR 334.390 - Atlantic Ocean south of entrance to Chesapeake Bay; firing range.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Atlantic Ocean south of entrance to Chesapeake Bay; firing range. 334.390 Section 334.390 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF....390 Atlantic Ocean south of entrance to Chesapeake Bay; firing range. (a) The danger zone. A...

  5. 33 CFR 334.390 - Atlantic Ocean south of entrance to Chesapeake Bay; firing range.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Atlantic Ocean south of entrance to Chesapeake Bay; firing range. 334.390 Section 334.390 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF....390 Atlantic Ocean south of entrance to Chesapeake Bay; firing range. (a) The danger zone. A...

  6. 33 CFR 334.390 - Atlantic Ocean south of entrance to Chesapeake Bay; firing range.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Atlantic Ocean south of entrance to Chesapeake Bay; firing range. 334.390 Section 334.390 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF....390 Atlantic Ocean south of entrance to Chesapeake Bay; firing range. (a) The danger zone. A...

  7. 33 CFR 334.390 - Atlantic Ocean south of entrance to Chesapeake Bay; firing range.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Atlantic Ocean south of entrance to Chesapeake Bay; firing range. 334.390 Section 334.390 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF....390 Atlantic Ocean south of entrance to Chesapeake Bay; firing range. (a) The danger zone. A...

  8. 33 CFR 207.160 - All waterways tributary to the Atlantic Ocean south of Chesapeake Bay and all waterways tributary...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Atlantic Ocean south of Chesapeake Bay and all waterways tributary to the Gulf of Mexico east and south of... tributary to the Gulf of Mexico east and south of St. Marks, Fla.; use, administration, and navigation. (a... Atlantic Ocean south of Chesapeake Bay or with the Gulf of Mexico east and south......

  9. 33 CFR 207.160 - All waterways tributary to the Atlantic Ocean south of Chesapeake Bay and all waterways tributary...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Atlantic Ocean south of Chesapeake Bay and all waterways tributary to the Gulf of Mexico east and south of... tributary to the Gulf of Mexico east and south of St. Marks, Fla.; use, administration, and navigation. (a... Atlantic Ocean south of Chesapeake Bay or with the Gulf of Mexico east and south of St. Marks, Florida....

  10. Factors Controlling Tidal Flat Morphology in South San Francisco Bay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bearman, J. A.; Foxgrover, A.; Friedrichs, C.; Jaffe, B.

    2006-12-01

    Since the 1850's, the San Francisco Bay has been subjected to a wide array of human-induced change. From the time of the first US Coast and Geodetic Survey bathymetric surveys in 1858, the saltmarshes and mudflats of South San Francisco Bay (SSFB) have decreased in area by 80% and 40%, respectively. Much of the saltmarsh loss was due to salt pond leveeing, while mudflat loss can be related to lack of sediment input, wind-wave erosion, and sea level rise. Plans for marsh restoration include breaching of salt pond levees with the goal of restoring the 15,100 acres of acquired ponds to tidal marsh the largest such restoration in the western US. The effect this would have upon the adjacent mudflats is unclear. In this analysis, the tidal flats of SSFB are broken into geographically similar regions and multiple cross-sections are drawn from mean high water to below mean lower low water at close intervals, allowing for a mean tidal flat bathymetric profile to be determined for each segment and for each time period 1858, 1898, 1931, 1956, 1983, 2005. Eigenfunction analysis is used to separate the spatial and temporal changes in profile shape into the dominant components of variability, allowing evaluation of the behavior of mudflats relative to spatially and temporally-varying forcings. The components of bathymetric variability derived from objective statistical analysis are compared to theoretical models for tidal flat profiles as a function of waves, tides and sediment supply. Theoretical models predict that wave-dominated or sediment-starved flats tend to have concave-upwards bathymetric profiles, whereas tide-dominated or accretionary flats tend to have convex-upwards bathymetric profiles. Initial results from an analysis of the 1980's bathymetry data suggest the South Bay mudflats can be broken into three morphologically distinct sections: 1) concave-up, erosional mudflats in the Eastern zone, which is most subject to wind waves; 2) convex-up, accretionary flats in

  11. Assessment for water quality by artificial neural network in Daya Bay, South China Sea.

    PubMed

    Wu, Mei-Lin; Wang, You-Shao; Gu, Ji-Dong

    2015-10-01

    In this study, artificial neural network such as a self-organizing map (SOM) was used to assess for the effects caused by climate change and human activities on the water quality in Daya Bay, South China Sea. SOM has identified the anthropogenic effects and seasonal characters of water quality. SOM grouped the four seasons as four groups (winter, spring, summer and autumn). The Southeast Asian monsoons, northeasterly from October to the next April and southwesterly from May to September have also an important influence on the water quality in Daya Bay. Spatial pattern is mainly related to anthropogenic activities and hydrodynamics conditions. In spatial characteristics, the water quality in Daya Bay was divided into two groups by chemometrics. The monitoring stations (S3, S8, S10 and S11) were in these area (Dapeng Ao, Aotou Harbor) and northeast parts of Daya Bay, which are areas of human activity. The thermal pollution has been observed near water body in Daya Bay Nuclear Power Plant (S5). The rest of the monitoring sites were in the south, central and eastern parts of Daya Bay, which are areas that experience water exchanges from South China Sea. The results of this study may provide information on the spatial and temporal patterns in Daya Bay. Further research will be carry out more research concerning functional changes in the bay ecology with respect to changes in climatic factor, human activities and bay morphology in Daya Bay. PMID:25847104

  12. Plankton studies in San Francisco Bay; V, Zooplankton species composition and abundance in the South Bay, 1980-1981

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hutchinson, Anne

    1982-01-01

    Data are presented that summarize zooplankton species composition and abundance in South San Francisco Bay during 1980 and 1981. Sampling was conducted at least twice monthly at thirteen stations, from the southern extremity of the South Bay to the Golden Gate Bridge between January 1980 and May 1981. Samples were collected by pump at three depths in the shipping channel and one depth over the shoals. Subsamples were enumerated while alive. Total zooplankton biomass as carbon was calculated from estimated carbon quotas and abundances of each organism enumerated.

  13. 76 FR 31851 - Safety Zone; Put-in-Bay Fireworks, Fox's the Dock Pier; South Bass Island, Put-in-Bay, OH

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-02

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Put-in-Bay Fireworks, Fox's the Dock Pier...-0417 Safety Zone; Put-In-Bay Fireworks, Fox's the Dock Pier, South Bass Island; Put-In-Bay, OH....

  14. 73. SECOND FLOOR, HEATER ROOM, BAY 31/5 SOUTH, WITH FANFORCED ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    73. SECOND FLOOR, HEATER ROOM, BAY 31/5 SOUTH, WITH FAN-FORCED HOT AIR HEATER; TO SOUTHEAST - Ford Motor Company Edgewater Assembly Plant, Assembly Building, 309 River Road, Edgewater, Bergen County, NJ

  15. 10. SOUTH BAY SHOWING 300TON R.D. WOOD CO. HYDRAULIC CRIMPING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. SOUTH BAY SHOWING 300-TON R.D. WOOD CO. HYDRAULIC CRIMPING PRESS. VIEW EAST ALSO SHOWING NORTHWEST CORNER OF OFFICE/MACHINE SHOP - Oldman Boiler Works, Fabricating Shop, 32 Illinois Street, Buffalo, Erie County, NY

  16. Plankton studies in San Francisco Bay, VIII, Chlorophyll distributions and hydrographic properties of South San Francisco Bay, 1983

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Alpine, Andrea E.; Wienke, Sally M.; Cloern, James E.; Cole, Brian E.; Wong, Raymond L. J.

    1985-01-01

    This report summarizes the distribution of phytoplankton Momass and selected hydrographic properties measured in South San Francisco Bay during 1983- There were a total of 45 cruises over the year with the most frequent sampling occurring during the spring. Parameters measured were: chlorophyll a, phaeopigments, in-vivo fluorescence, turbidity, salinity, and temperature.

  17. Plankton studies in San Francisco Bay; IX, Chlorophyll distributions and hydrographic properties of South San Francisco Bay, 1984-86

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Alpine, Andrea A.; Wienke, Sally M.; Cloern, James E.; Cole, Brian E.

    1988-01-01

    This report summarizes the distribution of phytoplankton biomass and selected hydrographic properties in South San Francisco Bay during 1984- 1986. There were a total of 67 cruises during the three-year period with the most frequent sampling occurring during the spring. Parameters measured were chlorophyll a, phaeopigments, in-vivo fluorescence, turbidity, salinity, and temperature.

  18. The Distribution and Composition Characteristics of Siliceous Rocks from Qinzhou Bay-Hangzhou Bay Joint Belt, South China: Constraint on the Tectonic Evolution of Plates in South China

    PubMed Central

    Li, Hongzhong; Zhai, Mingguo; Zhang, Lianchang; Zhou, Yongzhang; Yang, Zhijun; He, Junguo; Liang, Jin; Zhou, Liuyu

    2013-01-01

    The Qinzhou Bay-Hangzhou Bay joint belt is a significant tectonic zone between the Yangtze and Cathaysian plates, where plentiful hydrothermal siliceous rocks are generated. Here, the authors studied the distribution of the siliceous rocks in the whole tectonic zone, which indicated that the tensional setting was facilitating the development of siliceous rocks of hydrothermal genesis. According to the geochemical characteristics, the Neopalaeozoic siliceous rocks in the north segment of the Qinzhou Bay-Hangzhou Bay joint belt denoted its limited width. In comparison, the Neopalaeozoic Qinzhou Bay-Hangzhou Bay joint belt was diverse for its ocean basin in the different segments and possibly had subduction only in the south segment. The ocean basin of the north and middle segments was limited in its width without subduction and possibly existed as a rift trough that was unable to resist the terrigenous input. In the north segment of the Qinzhou Bay-Hangzhou Bay joint belt, the strata of hydrothermal siliceous rocks in Dongxiang copper-polymetallic ore deposit exhibited alternative cycles with the marine volcanic rocks, volcanic tuff, and metal sulphide. These sedimentary systems were formed in different circumstances, whose alternative cycles indicated the release of internal energy in several cycles gradually from strong to weak. PMID:24302882

  19. The distribution and composition characteristics of siliceous rocks from Qinzhou Bay-Hangzhou Bay joint belt, South China: constraint on the tectonic evolution of plates in South China.

    PubMed

    Li, Hongzhong; Zhai, Mingguo; Zhang, Lianchang; Zhou, Yongzhang; Yang, Zhijun; He, Junguo; Liang, Jin; Zhou, Liuyu

    2013-01-01

    The Qinzhou Bay-Hangzhou Bay joint belt is a significant tectonic zone between the Yangtze and Cathaysian plates, where plentiful hydrothermal siliceous rocks are generated. Here, the authors studied the distribution of the siliceous rocks in the whole tectonic zone, which indicated that the tensional setting was facilitating the development of siliceous rocks of hydrothermal genesis. According to the geochemical characteristics, the Neopalaeozoic siliceous rocks in the north segment of the Qinzhou Bay-Hangzhou Bay joint belt denoted its limited width. In comparison, the Neopalaeozoic Qinzhou Bay-Hangzhou Bay joint belt was diverse for its ocean basin in the different segments and possibly had subduction only in the south segment. The ocean basin of the north and middle segments was limited in its width without subduction and possibly existed as a rift trough that was unable to resist the terrigenous input. In the north segment of the Qinzhou Bay-Hangzhou Bay joint belt, the strata of hydrothermal siliceous rocks in Dongxiang copper-polymetallic ore deposit exhibited alternative cycles with the marine volcanic rocks, volcanic tuff, and metal sulphide. These sedimentary systems were formed in different circumstances, whose alternative cycles indicated the release of internal energy in several cycles gradually from strong to weak. PMID:24302882

  20. Estimation of Freshwater Flow to Joe Bay, South Florida.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zucker, M. A.; Hittle, C. D.

    2002-05-01

    During the last century, drainage canals were constructed as part of the Central and Southern Flood Control (C&SF) project. Flood control was achieved but degradation to the Everglades ecosystem was evident. Problems related to Florida Bay include sea grass die off, algae blooms, and extreme salinity conditions. Modifications to the C&SF project are proposed as part of the Comprehensive Everglades Restoration Plan (CERP). One objective of CERP is to improve the timing and distribution of freshwater flow within the Everglades ecosystem and to Florida Bay. Several CERP projects propose changes to the existing canal network that borders Everglades National Park (ENP) in southern Miami-Dade County. An examination of flows to Joe Bay, a small embayment on the northeastern shores of Florida Bay, has provided baseline information on current spatial and temporal water deliveries prior to CERP modifications. Understanding the existing complex water delivery system and the effects the system has on Everglades hydrology will provide a necessary benchmark against which to measure restoration success. The study was initiated by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in May 1999 to estimate creek flows to Joe Bay and determine the relative amounts derived from Taylor Slough and overflow from the C-111 Canal. It is important to understand the source of freshwater to Joe Bay before it enters Florida Bay. Taylor Slough transports freshwater to northeastern Florida Bay from the northwest while overflow from the C-111 Canal provides freshwater to northeastern Florida Bay from the northeast. Joe Bay, receives part of the freshwater from each of these sources via sheet flow and small estuarine creeks, and subsequently discharges southward to northeastern Florida Bay via Trout Creek. Trout Creek contributes approximately 50 percent of the total freshwater flow to northeastern Florida Bay (Hittle 2001). Eight non-gaged creeks entering Joe Bay were selected for acoustic Doppler current

  1. Bottom boundary layer in south San Francisco Bay, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cheng, Ralph T.; Gartner, Jeffrey W.; Smith, Richard E.

    1997-01-01

    Detailed velocity distributions within the benthic turbulent boundary layer were measured by a Broad Band Acoustic Doppler Current Profiler (BB-ADCP) in South San Francisco Bay, California. In "mode 5", the BB-ADCP was able to measure velocity in 5 cm increments. The validation of these measurements was achieved by comparing the BB-ADCP measurements with the velocities measured by a Narrow Band Acoustic Doppler Current Profiler (NB-ADCP) in close proximity. There were thirty-three (33) velocity time-series measured by the BB-ADCP beginning at 7 cm above bed and extending to 175 cm in water column for about two weeks. The velocities from locations at 7 cm and 12 cm above the bed were determined to be of lower accuracy, and they were not used in estimates of friction velocity, u.. The values of u. at 95% confidence level were determined with relative error less than 20%. The time-series of u. varied with velocity outside of the boundary layer, and responded to spring-neap tidal variations. Attempts to use acoustic backscatterance echo intensity to measure suspended sediment concentration showed prom ise, and merit consideration in future studies.

  2. 33 CFR 162.65 - All waterways tributary to the Atlantic Ocean south of Chesapeake Bay and all waterways tributary...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Engineers also has regulations dealing with this section in 33 CFR Part 207. ... Atlantic Ocean south of Chesapeake Bay and all waterways tributary to the Gulf of Mexico east and south of... All waterways tributary to the Atlantic Ocean south of Chesapeake Bay and all waterways tributary...

  3. 33 CFR 162.65 - All waterways tributary to the Atlantic Ocean south of Chesapeake Bay and all waterways tributary...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Engineers also has regulations dealing with this section in 33 CFR Part 207. ... Atlantic Ocean south of Chesapeake Bay and all waterways tributary to the Gulf of Mexico east and south of... All waterways tributary to the Atlantic Ocean south of Chesapeake Bay and all waterways tributary...

  4. 33 CFR 162.65 - All waterways tributary to the Atlantic Ocean south of Chesapeake Bay and all waterways tributary...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Engineers also has regulations dealing with this section in 33 CFR Part 207. ... Atlantic Ocean south of Chesapeake Bay and all waterways tributary to the Gulf of Mexico east and south of... All waterways tributary to the Atlantic Ocean south of Chesapeake Bay and all waterways tributary...

  5. 33 CFR 334.720 - Gulf of Mexico, south from Choctawhatchee Bay; guided missiles test operations area, Headquarters...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Gulf of Mexico, south from... Mexico, south from Choctawhatchee Bay; guided missiles test operations area, Headquarters Air Proving... Mexico south from Choctawhatchee Bay within an area described as follows: Beginning at a point...

  6. 33 CFR 334.720 - Gulf of Mexico, south from Choctawhatchee Bay; guided missiles test operations area, Headquarters...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Gulf of Mexico, south from... Mexico, south from Choctawhatchee Bay; guided missiles test operations area, Headquarters Air Proving... Mexico south from Choctawhatchee Bay within an area described as follows: Beginning at a point...

  7. A history of intertidal flat area in south San Francisco Bay, California: 1858 to 2005

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jaffe, Bruce; Foxgrover, Amy

    2006-01-01

    A key question in salt pond restoration in South San Francisco Bay is whether sediment sinks created by opening ponds will result in the loss of intertidal flats. Analyses of a series of bathymetric surveys of South San Francisco Bay made from 1858 to 2005 reveal changes in intertidal flat area in both space and time that can be used to better understand the pre-restoration system. This analysis also documents baseline conditions of intertidal flats that may be altered by restoration efforts. From 1858 to 2005, intertidal flat area decreased by about 25% from 69.2 +6.4/-7.6 km2 to 51.2 +4.8/-5.8 km2. Intertidal flats in the north tended to decrease in area during the period of this study whereas those south of Dumbarton Bridge were either stable or increased in area. From 1983 to 2005, intertidal flats south of Dumbarton Bridge increased from 17.6 +1.7/-2.5 km2 to 24.2 +1.0/-1.8 km2. Intertidal flats along the east shore of the bay tended to be more erosional and decreased in area while those along the west shore of the bay did not significantly change in area. Loss of intertidal flats occurred intermittently along the eastern shore of the bay north of the Dumbarton Bridge. There was little or no loss from 1931 to 1956 and from 1983 to 2005. Predictions of future change in intertidal flat area that do not account for this spatial and temporal variability are not likely to be accurate. The causes of the spatial and temporal variability in intertidal flat area in South San Francisco Bay are not fully understood, but appear related to energy available to erode sediments, sediment redistribution from north to south in the bay, and sediment available to deposit on the flats. Improved understanding of sediment input to South San Francisco Bay, especially from Central Bay, how it is likely to change in the future, the redistribution of sediment within the bay, and ultimately its effect on intertidal flat area would aid in the management of restoration of South San

  8. 33 CFR 334.720 - Gulf of Mexico, south from Choctawhatchee Bay; Missile test area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Gulf of Mexico, south from... the Gulf of Mexico south from Choctawhatchee Bay within an area described as follows: Beginning at a..., DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE DANGER ZONE AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.720 Gulf...

  9. 33 CFR 334.720 - Gulf of Mexico, south from Choctawhatchee Bay; Missile test area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Gulf of Mexico, south from... the Gulf of Mexico south from Choctawhatchee Bay within an area described as follows: Beginning at a..., DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE DANGER ZONE AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.720 Gulf...

  10. 33 CFR 334.720 - Gulf of Mexico, south from Choctawhatchee Bay; Missile test area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Gulf of Mexico, south from... the Gulf of Mexico south from Choctawhatchee Bay within an area described as follows: Beginning at a..., DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE DANGER ZONE AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.720 Gulf...

  11. Harmonic analysis of tides and tidal currents in South San Francisco Bay, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cheng, R.T.; Gartner, J.W.

    1985-01-01

    Water level observations from tide stations and current observations from current-meter moorings in South San Francisco Bay (South Bay), California have been harmonically analysed. At each tide station, 13 harmonic constituents have been computed by a least-squares regression without inference. Tides in South Bay are typically mixed; there is a phase lag of approximately 1 h and an amplification of 1??5 from north to south for a mean semi-diurnal tide. Because most of the current-meter records are between 14 and 29 days, only the five most important harmonics have been solved for east-west and north-south velocity components. The eccentricity of tidal-current ellipse is generally very small, which indicates that the tidal current in South Bay is strongly bidirectional. The analyses further show that the principal direction and the magnitude of tidal current are well correlated with the basin bathymetry. Patterns of Eulerian residual circulation deduced from the current-meter data show an anticlockwise gyre to the west and a clockwise gyre to the east of the main channel in the summer months due to the prevailing westerly wind. Opposite trends have been observed during winter when the wind was variable. ?? 1985.

  12. Low-frequency variations in sea level and currents in south San Francisco Bay

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Walters, Roy A.

    1982-01-01

    In order to examine physical process in the subtidal time range, sea-level and current meter data for south San Francisco Bay (South Bay) were filtered using a low-pass digital filter to remove tidal period variations. and then subjected to an empirical orthogonal function analysis. For the sea-level data, there is one dominant empirical mode that is correlated with nonlocal coastal forcing. A small amount of the variance is associated with local wind setup. For the current meter data, there are two dominant empirical modes that correlate with local wind forcing and tidal forcing over the spring-neap cycle. In general, South Bay is dominated by coastal forcing on sea level during all seasons, and dominated by wind and tidal forcing on the residual currants during the summer.

  13. Continuous resistivity profiling data from Great South Bay, Long Island, New York

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cross, V.A.; Bratton, J.F.; Kroeger, K.D.; Crusius, John; Worley, C.R.

    2013-01-01

    An investigation of submarine aquifers adjacent to the Fire Island National Seashore and Long Island, New York was conducted to assess the importance of submarine groundwater discharge as a potential nonpoint source of nitrogen delivery to Great South Bay. Over 200 kilometers of continuous resistivity profiling data were collected to image the fresh-saline groundwater interface in sediments beneath the bay. In addition, groundwater sampling was performed at sites (1) along the north shore of Great South Bay, particularly in Patchogue Bay, that were representative of the developed Long Island shoreline, and (2) at sites on and adjacent to Fire Island, a 50-kilometer-long barrier island on the south side of Great South Bay. Other field activities included sediment coring, stationary electrical resistivity profiling, and surveys of in situ pore water conductivity. Results of continuous resistivity profiling surveys are described in this report. The onshore and offshore shallow hydrostratigraphy of the Great South Bay shorelines, particularly the presence and nature of submarine confining units, appears to exert primary control on the dimensions and chemistry of the submarine groundwater flow and discharge zones. Sediment coring has shown that the confining units commonly consist of drowned and buried peat layers likely deposited in salt marshes. Low-salinity groundwater extends from 10 to 100 meters offshore along much of the north and south shores of Great South Bay based on continuous resistivity profiling data, especially off the mouths of tidal creeks and beneath shallow flats to the north of Fire Island adjacent to modern salt marshes. Human modifications of much of the shoreline and nearshore areas along the north shore of the bay, including filling of salt marshes, construction of bulkheads and piers, and dredging of navigation channels, has substantially altered the natural hydrogeology of the bay's shorelines by truncating confining units and increasing

  14. Maps showing textural characteristics of benthic sediments in the Corpus Christi Bay estuarine system, south Texas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Shideler, Gerald L.; Stelting, Charles E.; McGowen, Joseph H.

    1981-01-01

    Corpus Christi Bay is a heavily used estuary on the south Texas coast in the northwest Gulf of Mexico (fig. 1).  The Bay is stressed by diverse activities which could substantially affect its ecosystem.  Such activities include shipping, resource production (oil, gas, and construction aggregate), commercial and sport fishing, and recreation.  Shipping activities alone have had a substantial impact on the bay.  For example, the past maintenance of navigation channels has required extensive dredging and spoil disposal within the estuarine system.  Numerous subaqueous spoil disposal sites and subaerial spoil banks are present throughout the bay (fig. 1), and the selection of future spoil disposal sites is becoming a critical local problem.  As activities in the bay increase, the need for effective environmental management becomes increasingly important, and effective management necessitates a good understanding of the bay's physical characteristics.  The objective of this study is to provide detailed information about the textural composition of bottom sediments within the estuarine system, information which could be used in making environmental-management decisions.  Visual descriptions of bottom sediments in Corpus Christi Bay and adjacent areas have been presented by McGowen and Morton (1979).  Additionally, a study of the textures of sediments on the Inner Continental Shelf adjacent to the bay has been presented by Shideler and Berryhill (1977).

  15. 33 CFR 334.60 - Cape Cod Bay south of Wellfleet Harbor, Mass.; naval aircraft bombing target area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Cape Cod Bay south of Wellfleet Harbor, Mass.; naval aircraft bombing target area. 334.60 Section 334.60 Navigation and Navigable Waters... REGULATIONS § 334.60 Cape Cod Bay south of Wellfleet Harbor, Mass.; naval aircraft bombing target area....

  16. 33 CFR 334.60 - Cape Cod Bay south of Wellfleet Harbor, Mass.; naval aircraft bombing target area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Cape Cod Bay south of Wellfleet Harbor, Mass.; naval aircraft bombing target area. 334.60 Section 334.60 Navigation and Navigable Waters... REGULATIONS § 334.60 Cape Cod Bay south of Wellfleet Harbor, Mass.; naval aircraft bombing target area....

  17. 33 CFR 334.60 - Cape Cod Bay south of Wellfleet Harbor, Mass.; naval aircraft bombing target area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Cape Cod Bay south of Wellfleet Harbor, Mass.; naval aircraft bombing target area. 334.60 Section 334.60 Navigation and Navigable Waters... REGULATIONS § 334.60 Cape Cod Bay south of Wellfleet Harbor, Mass.; naval aircraft bombing target area....

  18. 33 CFR 334.60 - Cape Cod Bay south of Wellfleet Harbor, Mass.; naval aircraft bombing target area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Cape Cod Bay south of Wellfleet Harbor, Mass.; naval aircraft bombing target area. 334.60 Section 334.60 Navigation and Navigable Waters... REGULATIONS § 334.60 Cape Cod Bay south of Wellfleet Harbor, Mass.; naval aircraft bombing target area....

  19. 75 FR 38721 - Safety Zone; Munising 4th of July Fireworks, South Bay, Lake Superior, Munising, MI

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-06

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Munising 4th of July Fireworks, South Bay... is intended to restrict vessels from a portion of South Bay during the Munising 4th of July Fireworks... from hazards associated with the Munising 4th of July Fireworks display. Based on the explosive...

  20. 33 CFR 334.380 - Atlantic Ocean south of entrance to Chesapeake Bay off Dam Neck, Virginia; naval firing range.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Atlantic Ocean south of entrance to Chesapeake Bay off Dam Neck, Virginia; naval firing range. 334.380 Section 334.380 Navigation and... RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.380 Atlantic Ocean south of entrance to Chesapeake Bay off Dam...

  1. 33 CFR 334.380 - Atlantic Ocean south of entrance to Chesapeake Bay off Dam Neck, Virginia; naval firing range.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Atlantic Ocean south of entrance to Chesapeake Bay off Dam Neck, Virginia; naval firing range. 334.380 Section 334.380 Navigation and... RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.380 Atlantic Ocean south of entrance to Chesapeake Bay off Dam...

  2. 33 CFR 334.400 - Atlantic Ocean south of entrance to Chesapeake Bay off Camp Pendleton, Virginia; naval restricted...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Atlantic Ocean south of entrance to Chesapeake Bay off Camp Pendleton, Virginia; naval restricted area. 334.400 Section 334.400... AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.400 Atlantic Ocean south of entrance to Chesapeake Bay off...

  3. 33 CFR 334.380 - Atlantic Ocean south of entrance to Chesapeake Bay off Dam Neck, Virginia; naval firing range.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Atlantic Ocean south of entrance to Chesapeake Bay off Dam Neck, Virginia; naval firing range. 334.380 Section 334.380 Navigation and... RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.380 Atlantic Ocean south of entrance to Chesapeake Bay off Dam...

  4. 33 CFR 334.380 - Atlantic Ocean south of entrance to Chesapeake Bay off Dam Neck, Virginia; naval firing range.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Atlantic Ocean south of entrance to Chesapeake Bay off Dam Neck, Virginia; naval firing range. 334.380 Section 334.380 Navigation and... RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.380 Atlantic Ocean south of entrance to Chesapeake Bay off Dam...

  5. 33 CFR 334.400 - Atlantic Ocean south of entrance to Chesapeake Bay off Camp Pendleton, Virginia; naval restricted...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Atlantic Ocean south of entrance to Chesapeake Bay off Camp Pendleton, Virginia; naval restricted area. 334.400 Section 334.400... AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.400 Atlantic Ocean south of entrance to Chesapeake Bay off...

  6. 33 CFR 334.380 - Atlantic Ocean south of entrance to Chesapeake Bay off Dam Neck, Virginia; naval firing range.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Atlantic Ocean south of entrance to Chesapeake Bay off Dam Neck, Virginia; naval firing range. 334.380 Section 334.380 Navigation and... RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.380 Atlantic Ocean south of entrance to Chesapeake Bay off Dam...

  7. 33 CFR 334.400 - Atlantic Ocean south of entrance to Chesapeake Bay off Camp Pendleton, Virginia; naval restricted...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Atlantic Ocean south of entrance to Chesapeake Bay off Camp Pendleton, Virginia; naval restricted area. 334.400 Section 334.400... AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.400 Atlantic Ocean south of entrance to Chesapeake Bay off...

  8. 33 CFR 334.400 - Atlantic Ocean south of entrance to Chesapeake Bay off Camp Pendleton, Virginia; naval restricted...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Atlantic Ocean south of entrance to Chesapeake Bay off Camp Pendleton, Virginia; naval restricted area. 334.400 Section 334.400... AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.400 Atlantic Ocean south of entrance to Chesapeake Bay off...

  9. 33 CFR 334.400 - Atlantic Ocean south of entrance to Chesapeake Bay off Camp Pendleton, Virginia; naval restricted...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Atlantic Ocean south of entrance to Chesapeake Bay off Camp Pendleton, Virginia; naval restricted area. 334.400 Section 334.400... AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.400 Atlantic Ocean south of entrance to Chesapeake Bay off...

  10. 33 CFR 334.60 - Cape Cod Bay south of Wellfleet Harbor, Mass.; naval aircraft bombing target area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Cape Cod Bay south of Wellfleet Harbor, Mass.; naval aircraft bombing target area. 334.60 Section 334.60 Navigation and Navigable Waters... REGULATIONS § 334.60 Cape Cod Bay south of Wellfleet Harbor, Mass.; naval aircraft bombing target area....

  11. 33 CFR 334.640 - Gulf of Mexico south of Apalachee Bay, Fla.; Air Force rocket firing range.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Gulf of Mexico south of Apalachee Bay, Fla.; Air Force rocket firing range. 334.640 Section 334.640 Navigation and Navigable Waters... REGULATIONS § 334.640 Gulf of Mexico south of Apalachee Bay, Fla.; Air Force rocket firing range. (a)...

  12. 33 CFR 334.640 - Gulf of Mexico south of Apalachee Bay, Fla.; Air Force rocket firing range.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Gulf of Mexico south of Apalachee Bay, Fla.; Air Force rocket firing range. 334.640 Section 334.640 Navigation and Navigable Waters... REGULATIONS § 334.640 Gulf of Mexico south of Apalachee Bay, Fla.; Air Force rocket firing range. (a)...

  13. Water quality in South San Francisco Bay, California: current condition and potential issues for the South Bay Salt Pond Restoration Project.

    PubMed

    Grenier, J Letitia; Davis, Jay A

    2010-01-01

    The SBSPRP is an extensive tidal wetland restoration project that is underway at the margin of South San Francisco Bay, California. The Project, which aims to restore former salt ponds to tidal marsh and manage other ponds for water bird support, is taking place in the context of a highly urbanized watershed and an Estuary already impacted by chemical contaminants. There is an intimate relationship between water quality in the watershed, the Bay, and the transitional wetland areas where the Project is located. The Project seeks to restore habitat for endangered and endemic species and to provide recreational opportunities for people. Therefore, water quality and bioaccumulation of contaminants in fish and wildlife is an important concern for the success of the Project. Mercury, PCBs, and PBDEs are the persistent contaminants of greatest concern in the region. All of these contaminants are present at elevated concentrations both in the abiotic environment and in wildlife. Dioxins, pyrethroids, PAHs, and selenium are also problematic. Organochlorine insecticides have historically impacted the Bay, and they remain above thresholds for concern in a small proportion of samples. Emerging contaminants, such as PFCs and non-PBDE flame retardants, are also an important water quality issue. Beyond chemical pollutants, other concerns for water quality in South San Francisco Bay exist, and include biological constituents, especially invasive species, and chemical attributes, such as dissolved oxygen and salinity. Future changes, both from within the Project and from the Bay and watershed, are likely to influence water quality in the region. Project actions to restore wetlands could worsen, improve, or not affect the already impaired water quality in South Bay. Accelerated erosion of buried sediment as a consequence of Project restoration actions is a potentially serious regional threat to South Bay water and sediment quality. Furthermore, the planned restoration of salt ponds

  14. Breastfeeding Practices of Japanese Mothers in the South Bay Area of Los Angeles.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hongo, Hiroko

    A study investigated the attitudes of Japanese breastfeeding mothers in the South Bay area in Los Angeles. The sample consisted of 20 Japanese mothers over the age of 18 who were born in Japan, who recently came to the United States, and whose youngest child has been breastfed for at least 6 months. Subjects were interviewed in their native…

  15. 33 CFR 334.220 - Chesapeake Bay, south of Tangier Island, Va.; naval firing range.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Island, Va.; naval firing range. 334.220 Section 334.220 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF....220 Chesapeake Bay, south of Tangier Island, Va.; naval firing range. (a) The danger zone. Beginning... especially notified to the contrary. (2) All vessels, other than naval craft, are forbidden to anchor...

  16. 33 CFR 334.220 - Chesapeake Bay, south of Tangier Island, Va.; naval firing range.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Island, Va.; naval firing range. 334.220 Section 334.220 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF....220 Chesapeake Bay, south of Tangier Island, Va.; naval firing range. (a) The danger zone. Beginning... especially notified to the contrary. (2) All vessels, other than naval craft, are forbidden to anchor...

  17. Ecosystem responses to phytoplankton blooms - examples from south San Francisco Bay

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cloern, J.E.

    1995-01-01

    In 1968, USGS began a program of basic research in San Francisco Bay that has complemented the research and monitoring elements of the Interagency Program. Although the USGS program ranges its focus of study. From year to year, it has elements of continuity because some measurements have been made routinely for decades. One of these elements has been a study of the spring phytoplankton bloom in South San Francisco Bay. Here I present data from multiple sources to explain why such emphasis has been placed on this biological phenomenon.

  18. Chemistry and microbiology of a sewage spill in South San Francisco Bay.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cloern, J.E.; Oremland, R.S.

    1983-01-01

    During September 1979, the breakdown of a waste treatment plant resulted in discharge of 1.5 X 107 m3 of primary- treated sewage into a tributary of South San Francisco Bay. Chemical and microbial changes occurred within the tributary as decomposition and nitrification depleted dissolved oxygen. Associated with anoxia were relatively high concentrations of particulate organic carbon, dissolved CO2, CH4, C2H4, NH4+, and fecal bacteria, and low phytoplankton biomass and photosynthetic oxygen production. South San Francisco Bay experienced only small changes in water quality, presumably because of its large volume and the assimilation of wastes that occurred within the tributary. Water quality improved rapidly in the tributary once normal tertiary treatment resumed. -Authors

  19. Factors affecting suspended-solids concentrations in South San Francisco Bay, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schoellhamer, D.H.

    1996-01-01

    Measurements of suspended-solids concentration (SSC) were made at two depths at three sites in South San Francisco Bay (South Bay) to determine the factors that affect SSC. Twenty-eight segments of reliable and continuous SSC time series data longer than 14 days were collected from late 1991 or 1992 through September 1993. Spectral analysis and singular spectrum analysis were used to relate these data segments to time series of several potential forcing factors, including diurnal and semidiurnal tides, the spring-neap tidal cycle, wind shear, freshwater runoff, and longitudinal density differences. SSC is greatest during summer when a landward wind shear is applied to South Bay by the afternoon sea breeze. About one half the variance of SSC is caused by the spring-neap cycle, and SSC lags the spring-neap cycle by about 2 days. Relatively short duration of slack water limits the duration of deposition of suspended solids and consolidation of newly deposited bed sediment during the tidal cycle, so suspended solids accumulate in the water column as a spring tide is approached and slowly deposit as a neap tide is approached. Perturbations in SSC caused by wind and local runoff from winter storms during the study period were usually much smaller than SSC variations caused by the spring-neap cycle. Variations of SSC at the study sites at tidal timescales are tidally forced, and nonlinear physical processes are significant. Advective transport dominates during spring tides when water with higher SSC due to wind wave resuspension is advected to the main channel from shallow water, but during neap tides, advective transport is less significant. The findings of this and other studies indicate that the tidally averaged transport of suspended solids responds to seasonal variations of wind shear in South Bay.

  20. Ecological evaluation of proposed dredged material from Winyah Bay, South Carolina

    SciTech Connect

    Ward, J.A.; Gardiner, W.W.; Pinza, M.R.; Word, J.Q.

    1993-10-01

    The navigational channels of Winyah Bay, Georgetown Harbor, South Carolina require dredging to enable normal shipping traffic to use these areas. Before dredging, environmental assessments must be conducted to determine the suitability of this dredged sediment for unconfined, open-water disposal. The Charleston, South Carolina District Office of the US Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) requested that the Battelle/Marine Science Laboratory (MSL) collect sediment samples and conduct the required physical/chemical, toxicological, and bioaccumulation evaluations as required in the 1991 Implementation Manual. This report is intended to provide information required to address potential ecological effects of the Entrance Channel and Inner Harbor sediments proposed disposal in the ocean.

  1. Benthic flux of dissolved nickel into the water column of south San Francisco Bay

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Topping, B.R.; Kuwabara, J.S.; Parcheso, Francis; Hager, S.W.; Arnsberg, A.J.; Murphy, Fred

    2001-01-01

    Field and laboratory studies were conducted between April, 1998 and May, 1999 to provide the first direct measurements of the benthic flux of dissolved (0.2-micron filtered) nickel between the bottom sediment and water column at three sites in the southern component of San Francisco Bay (South Bay), California. Dissolved nickel and predominant ligands (represented by dissolved organic carbon, and sulfides) were the solutes of primary interest, although a variety of ancillary measurements were also performed to provide a framework for interpretation. Results described herein integrate information needs identified by the State Water Resources Control Board and local stakeholders with fundamental research associated with the U.S. Geological Survey Toxic Substances Hydrology Program. Dissolved-Ni concentrations in the bottom water over the three sampling dates ranged from 34 to 43 nanomoles per liter. Dissolved-macronutrient concentrations in the bottom water were consistently higher (frequently by orders of magnitude) than surface-water determinations reported for similar times and locations (Regional Monitoring Program, 2001). This is consistent with measured positive benthic fluxes for the macronutrients. Benthic-flux estimates for dissolved nickel from core-incubations, when areally averaged over the South Bay, were significant (that is, of equivalent or greater order of magnitude) relative to previously reported freshwater point and non-point sources. This observation is consistent with previous determinations for other metals, and with the potential remobilization of sediment-associated metals that have been ubiquitously distributed in the South Bay. Similar to dissolved-nickel results, benthic flux of macronutrients was also consistently significant relative to surface-water inputs. These results add to a growing body of knowledge that strongly suggests a need to consider contaminant transport across the sediment-water interface when establishing future

  2. 33 CFR 162.65 - All waterways tributary to the Atlantic Ocean south of Chesapeake Bay and all waterways tributary...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false All waterways tributary to the Atlantic Ocean south of Chesapeake Bay and all waterways tributary to the Gulf of Mexico east and south of St. Marks, Fla. 162.65 Section 162.65 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PORTS...

  3. 78 FR 75561 - South Bay Energy Corp.; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-12

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission South Bay Energy Corp.; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market- Based Rate Filing Includes Request for Blanket Section 204 Authorization This is a supplemental notice in the above-referenced proceeding, of South...

  4. 33 CFR 334.640 - Gulf of Mexico south of Apalachee Bay, Fla.; Air Force rocket firing range.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Gulf of Mexico south of Apalachee... CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE DANGER ZONE AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.640 Gulf of Mexico south of Apalachee Bay, Fla.; Air Force rocket firing range. (a)...

  5. 33 CFR 334.640 - Gulf of Mexico south of Apalachee Bay, Fla.; Air Force rocket firing range.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Gulf of Mexico south of Apalachee... CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE DANGER ZONE AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.640 Gulf of Mexico south of Apalachee Bay, Fla.; Air Force rocket firing range. (a)...

  6. 33 CFR 334.640 - Gulf of Mexico south of Apalachee Bay, Fla.; Air Force rocket firing range.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Gulf of Mexico south of Apalachee... CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE DANGER ZONE AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.640 Gulf of Mexico south of Apalachee Bay, Fla.; Air Force rocket firing range. (a)...

  7. Features of the soft-bottom subtidal macrobenthos in Nha Trang Bay (Vietnam, South China Sea)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Udalov, A. A.; Britaev, T. A.; Than, N. T. H.

    2006-07-01

    General characteristics of macrobenthos of the muddy sediments of the subtidal (19-24 m) zone in Nha Trang Bay (South Vietnam) were described based on the survey performed in April-May 2002. The mean abundance of organisms was 637 ind/m2 and the mean biomass was 2.3 g/m2. Sixty-seven macrobenthic species were found during the study. The main structural features of the macrobenthos were high species diversity, low species recurrence, and high eveness of the species structure with the absence of clearly manifested dominants. The number of species encountered regularly increased with the increase in the total area sampled from 210 to 5000 cm2, though the relation did not reach saturation. The similarities and differences between the macrobenthos structures in Nha Trang Bay and those in some tropical and boreal soft-bottom communities are discussed.

  8. Assessment of metal contamination in surface sediments from Zhelin Bay, the South China Sea.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhao-Hui; Feng, Jie; Jiang, Tao; Gu, Yang-Guang

    2013-11-15

    Metals and biogenic elements were analyzed from surface sediments collected from Zhelin Bay in the South China Sea in December 2008. The high concentrations of TOC, TN and BSi indicate the high nutrient level and diatom productivity in Zhelin Bay. The concentrations of metals were generally far lower than the effects-range-low (ERL) values that define pollutant levels. Enrichment factors (EF) and geoaccumulation indices (Igeo) suggest there are pollution levels of Cd, Cu and Zn at some stations. As, Cu, and Pb are potentially biotoxic in some stations. Correlation and principal component analyses indicate that most of the metals primarily originate from natural sources, and from maricultural activities as well. Mariculture contributes considerable Cd and Cu contamination. As and Pb comes primarily from combustion of gasoline and diesel fuel by ships. PMID:23998852

  9. The distribution characteristics of rare metal elements in surface sediments from four coastal bays on the northwestern South China Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Shuhong; Li, Jin; Wu, Shuzhuang; Yan, Wen; Huang, Weixia; Miao, Li; Chen, Zhong

    2016-02-01

    The distribution of rare metal elements (Zr, Sn, Ti, Y, Nb, Ta, Ce, La, Nd and Th) in surface sediments from four bays along the northwestern coast of the South China Sea allowed infer their main controlling factors and their mineralization potential as metals placer. The results revealed that their contents in surface sediments are very variable but show a clear geographic regularity. The average content of all elements in those areas decreases from the East to the West, with the minimum value of all elements in Leizhou Bay, the maximum value of Zr, Y, La, Ce, Nd and Th in Zhanjiang Bay, and the maximum values of Sn, Ti, Nb and Ta in Hailing Bay. The relative enrichment of these elements in two easternmost bays (Hailing Bay and Shuidong Bay) are attributed to the southwest alongshore current, which drain and transport terrigenous sediments from the granite region of the South China into these two bays. The correlation results between all element contents and fine sediment fraction (<63 μm) suggested that the main factors controlling the distribution of Ti, Nb and Sn should be the fine fraction of the sediment, but alternatively Zr, Y, La, Ce, Nd and Th are rich in heavy minerals and/or bioclasts, and Ta maybe affected by both. Detail analysis shows that sediments from Hailing Bay may contain abundant zircon, cassiterite, ilmenite (or rutile), xenotime, monazite, niobium tantalite and other rare metal minerals, with a good prospect as a rare metal placer resource, and the zircon, xenotime and monazite may also have good metallogenic prospects in Shuidong Bay and in the local area of Zhangjian Bay.

  10. Residency, Habitat Use and Sexual Segregation of White Sharks, Carcharodon carcharias in False Bay, South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Kock, Alison; O’Riain, M. Justin; Mauff, Katya; Meÿer, Michael; Kotze, Deon; Griffiths, Charles

    2013-01-01

    White sharks (Carcharodon carcharias) are threatened apex predators and identification of their critical habitats and how these are used are essential to ensuring improved local and ultimately global white shark protection. In this study we investigated habitat use by white sharks in False Bay, South Africa, using acoustic telemetry. 56 sharks (39 female, 17 male), ranging in size from 1.7–5 m TL, were tagged with acoustic transmitters and monitored on an array of 30 receivers for 975 days. To investigate the effects of season, sex and size on habitat use we used a generalized linear mixed effects model. Tagged sharks were detected in the Bay in all months and across all years, but their use of the Bay varied significantly with the season and the sex of the shark. In autumn and winter males and females aggregated around the Cape fur seal colony at Seal Island, where they fed predominantly on young of the year seals. In spring and summer there was marked sexual segregation, with females frequenting the Inshore areas and males seldom being detected. The shift from the Island in autumn and winter to the Inshore region in spring and summer by females mirrors the seasonal peak in abundance of juvenile seals and of migratory teleost and elasmobranch species respectively. This study provides the first evidence of sexual segregation at a fine spatial scale and demonstrates that sexual segregation in white sharks is not restricted to adults, but is apparent for juveniles and sub-adults too. Overall, the results confirm False Bay as a critical area for white shark conservation as both sexes, across a range of sizes, frequent the Bay on an annual basis. The finding that female sharks aggregate in the Inshore regions when recreational use peaks highlights the need for ongoing shark-human conflict mitigation strategies. PMID:23383052

  11. Deposition, erosion, and bathymetric change in South San Francisco Bay: 1858-1983

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Foxgrover, Amy C.; Higgins, Shawn A.; Ingraca, Melissa K.; Jaffe, Bruce E.; Smith, Richard E.

    2004-01-01

    Since the California Gold Rush of 1849, sediment deposition, erosion, and the bathymetry of South San Francisco Bay have been altered by both natural processes and human activities. Historical hydrographic surveys can be used to assess how this system has evolved over the past 150 years. The National Ocean Service (NOS) (formerly the United States Coast and Geodetic Survey (USCGS), collected five hydrographic surveys of South San Francisco Bay from 1858 to 1983. Analysis of these surveys enables us to reconstruct the surface of the bay floor for each time period and quantify spatial and temporal changes in deposition, erosion, and bathymetry. The creation of accurate bathymetric models involves many steps. Sounding data was obtained from the original USCGS and NOS hydrographic sheets and were supplemented with hand drawn depth contours. Shorelines and marsh areas were obtained from topographic sheets. The digitized soundings and shorelines were entered into a Geographic Information System (GIS), and georeferenced to a common horizontal datum. Using surface modeling software, bathymetric grids with a horizontal resolution of 50 m were developed for each of the five hydrographic surveys. Prior to conducting analyses of sediment deposition and erosion, we converted all of the grids to a common vertical datum and made adjustments to correct for land subsidence that occurred from 1934 to 1967. Deposition and erosion that occurred during consecutive periods was then computed by differencing the corrected grids. From these maps of deposition and erosion, we calculated volumes and rates of net sediment change in the bay. South San Francisco Bay has lost approximately 90 x 106 m3 of sediment from 1858 to 1983; however within this timeframe there have been periods of both deposition and erosion. During the most recent period, from 1956 to 1983, sediment loss approached 3 x 106 m3/yr. One of the most striking changes that occurred from 1858 to 1983 was the conversion of more

  12. The influence of finfish aquaculture on benthic fish and crustacean assemblages in Fitzgerald Bay, South Australia.

    PubMed

    Tanner, Jason E; Williams, Kane

    2015-01-01

    The influence of sea-cage aquaculture on wildfish assemblages has received little attention outside of Europe. Sea-cage aquaculture of finfish is a major focus in South Australia, and while the main species farmed is southern bluefin tuna (Thunnus maccoyii), there is also an important yellowtail kingfish (Seriola lalandi) industry. Yellowtail kingfish aquaculture did not appear to have any local or regional effects on demersal assemblages (primarily fish, but also some crustaceans) surveyed by baited remote underwater video (BRUV) in Fitzgerald Bay. We did, however, detect small scale spatial variations in assemblages within the bay. The type of bait used strongly influenced the assemblage recorded, with significantly greater numbers of fish attracted to deployments where sardines were used as the bait to compared to those with no bait. The pelleted feed used by the aquaculture industry was just as attractive as sardines at one site, and intermediate between sardines and no bait at the other. There was significant temporal variability in assemblages at both farm sites and one control site, while the second control site was temporally stable (over the 9 weeks of the study). Overall, the results suggested that aquaculture was having little if any impact on the abundance and assemblage structure of the demersal macrofauna in Fitzgerald Bay. PMID:26401452

  13. The influence of finfish aquaculture on benthic fish and crustacean assemblages in Fitzgerald Bay, South Australia

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Kane

    2015-01-01

    The influence of sea-cage aquaculture on wildfish assemblages has received little attention outside of Europe. Sea-cage aquaculture of finfish is a major focus in South Australia, and while the main species farmed is southern bluefin tuna (Thunnus maccoyii), there is also an important yellowtail kingfish (Seriola lalandi) industry. Yellowtail kingfish aquaculture did not appear to have any local or regional effects on demersal assemblages (primarily fish, but also some crustaceans) surveyed by baited remote underwater video (BRUV) in Fitzgerald Bay. We did, however, detect small scale spatial variations in assemblages within the bay. The type of bait used strongly influenced the assemblage recorded, with significantly greater numbers of fish attracted to deployments where sardines were used as the bait to compared to those with no bait. The pelleted feed used by the aquaculture industry was just as attractive as sardines at one site, and intermediate between sardines and no bait at the other. There was significant temporal variability in assemblages at both farm sites and one control site, while the second control site was temporally stable (over the 9 weeks of the study). Overall, the results suggested that aquaculture was having little if any impact on the abundance and assemblage structure of the demersal macrofauna in Fitzgerald Bay. PMID:26401452

  14. 33 CFR 334.770 - Gulf of Mexico and St. Andrew Sound, south of East Bay, Fla., Tyndall Drone Launch Corridor...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Sound, south of East Bay, Fla., Tyndall Drone Launch Corridor, Tyndall Air Force Base, Fla.; restricted.... Andrew Sound, south of East Bay, Fla., Tyndall Drone Launch Corridor, Tyndall Air Force Base, Fla... referred to as the “Tyndall Drone Launch Corridor.” (b) The regulations. (1) Military usage of areas...

  15. 33 CFR 334.770 - Gulf of Mexico and St. Andrew Sound, south of East Bay, Fla., Tyndall Drone Launch Corridor...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Sound, south of East Bay, Fla., Tyndall Drone Launch Corridor, Tyndall Air Force Base, Fla.; restricted.... Andrew Sound, south of East Bay, Fla., Tyndall Drone Launch Corridor, Tyndall Air Force Base, Fla... referred to as the “Tyndall Drone Launch Corridor.” (b) The regulations. (1) Military usage of areas...

  16. 33 CFR 334.770 - Gulf of Mexico and St. Andrew Sound, south of East Bay, Fla., Tyndall Drone Launch Corridor...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Sound, south of East Bay, Fla., Tyndall Drone Launch Corridor, Tyndall Air Force Base, Fla.; restricted.... Andrew Sound, south of East Bay, Fla., Tyndall Drone Launch Corridor, Tyndall Air Force Base, Fla... referred to as the “Tyndall Drone Launch Corridor.” (b) The regulations. (1) Military usage of areas...

  17. 33 CFR 334.770 - Gulf of Mexico and St. Andrew Sound, south of East Bay, Fla., Tyndall Drone Launch Corridor...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Sound, south of East Bay, Fla., Tyndall Drone Launch Corridor, Tyndall Air Force Base, Fla.; restricted.... Andrew Sound, south of East Bay, Fla., Tyndall Drone Launch Corridor, Tyndall Air Force Base, Fla... referred to as the “Tyndall Drone Launch Corridor.” (b) The regulations. (1) Military usage of areas...

  18. 33 CFR 334.770 - Gulf of Mexico and St. Andrew Sound, south of East Bay, Fla., Tyndall Drone Launch Corridor...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Sound, south of East Bay, Fla., Tyndall Drone Launch Corridor, Tyndall Air Force Base, Fla.; restricted.... Andrew Sound, south of East Bay, Fla., Tyndall Drone Launch Corridor, Tyndall Air Force Base, Fla... referred to as the “Tyndall Drone Launch Corridor.” (b) The regulations. (1) Military usage of areas...

  19. Flow and suspended particulate transport in a tidal bottom layer, south San Francisco Bay, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cheng, R.T.; Gartner, J.W.; Cacchione, D.A.; Tate, G.B.

    1998-01-01

    Field investigations of the hydrodynamics and the resuspension and transport of particulate matter in a bottom boundary layer were carried out in South San Francisco Bay, California during March-April 1995. The GEOPROBE, an instrumented bottom tripod, and broad-band acousti Doppler current profilers were used in this investigation. The instrument assemblage provided detailed measurements of 1) turbulent mean velocity distribution within 1.5 m of sediment-w interface; 2) characteristics of 3-D tidal current in the water column; 3) friction velocity u* or bottom shear stress and bottom roughness length zo; 4) hydrodynamic conditions conducive for s resuspension; and 5) circulation patterns which are responsible for transporting suspended particulate matter in South San Francisco Bay. An unusual flow event was recorded by the instruments during March 8-11, 1995. A 3-D numerical model was implemented which re qualitatively, the unusual observations and supported the hypothesis that the unusual flow event caused by a combination of wind driven circulation and weak neap tides.

  20. Does the benthos control phytoplankton biomass in South San Francisco Bay?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cloern, James E.

    1982-01-01

    South San Francisco Bay, USA, is a shallow coastal embayment that receives large inputs of nutrients (N. P, Si) and small local inputs of freshwater. Phytoplankton dynamics are typically characterized by a spring bloom when surface chlorophyll a increases from < 5 to > 40 mg m-3. The bloom persists for 2 to 4 wk, and then dissipates. Phytoplankton biomass remains low (chlorophyll a < 5 mg m-3) from May through December, although light and nutrient availability are sufficient to sustain growth rates of 1 to 1.5 divisions d-1 in the expansive shallows. Transport processes apparently exert a small influence on phytoplankton biomass, and calculated zooplankton grazing accounts for only a small reduction in net rate of phytoplankton population growth in the shallows. However, suspension-feeding bivalves are sufficiently abundant to filter a volume equivalent to the volume of South Bay at least once daily. These observations suggest that grazing by benthos is the primary mechanism controlling phytoplankton biomass during summer and fall.

  1. Ecological evaluation of proposed dredged material from the Point Frazer Bend Reach, Winyah Bay, South Carolina

    SciTech Connect

    Gardiner, W.W.; Ward, J.A.; Word, J.Q.

    1995-02-01

    The port of Georgetown, South Carolina, is served by navigational channels within Winyah Bay and the lower Sampit River. Dredging is required to maintain these waterways and to facilitate normal shipping traffic. Prior to dredging, ecological evaluations must be conducted to determine the suitability of the proposed dredged material for open-ocean disposal. These evaluations are to be performed under Section 103 of the Marine Protection, Research, and, Sanctuaries Act of 1972 (MPRSA), following the testing protocols presented in Evaluation of Dredged Material Proposed for Ocean Disposal Testing Manual, hereafter referred to as the 1991 Implementation Manual. The Charleston Intensive Project is a reevaluation of sediments collected from two stations (IH-2 and IH-3) in the Frazier Point Bend reach of the Winyah Bay channel. Reference sediment was also collected from site IH-R2, just south of Hare Island. The results of physical/chemical analyses indicated that some contaminants of concern were present in test treatments representing dredged material when compared with the reference treatment IH-R2. The results of this study indicate that, based on the acute toxicity and chemical analyses, dredged material represented by these test treatments is suitable for open-ocean disposal.

  2. Hyperspectral Biofilm Classification Analysis for Carrying Capacity of Migratory Birds in the South Bay Salt Ponds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hsu, Wei-Chen; Kuss, Amber Jean; Ketron, Tyler; Nguyen, Andrew; Remar, Alex Covello; Newcomer, Michelle; Fleming, Erich; Debout, Leslie; Debout, Brad; Detweiler, Angela; Skiles, Joseph

    2011-01-01

    Tidal marshes are highly productive ecosystems that support migratory birds as roosting and over-wintering habitats on the Pacific Flyway. Microphytobenthos, or more commonly 'biofilms' contribute significantly to the primary productivity of wetland ecosystems, and provide a substantial food source for macroinvertebrates and avian communities. In this study, biofilms were characterized based on taxonomic classification, density differences, and spectral signatures. These techniques were then applied to remotely sensed images to map biofilm densities and distributions in the South Bay Salt Ponds and predict the carrying capacity of these newly restored ponds for migratory birds. The GER-1500 spectroradiometer was used to obtain in situ spectral signatures for each density-class of biofilm. The spectral variation and taxonomic classification between high, medium, and low density biofilm cover types was mapped using in-situ spectral measurements and classification of EO-1 Hyperion and Landsat TM 5 images. Biofilm samples were also collected in the field to perform laboratory analyses including chlorophyll-a, taxonomic classification, and energy content. Comparison of the spectral signatures between the three density groups shows distinct variations useful for classification. Also, analysis of chlorophyll-a concentrations show statistically significant differences between each density group, using the Tukey-Kramer test at an alpha level of 0.05. The potential carrying capacity in South Bay Salt Ponds is estimated to be 250,000 birds.

  3. Hyperspectral Biofilm Classification Analysis for Carrying Capacity of Migratory Birds in the South Bay Salt Ponds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ketron, T.; Hsu, W.; Kuss, A. M.; Nguyen, A.; Remar, A. C.; Newcomer, M. E.; Fleming, E.; Bebout, L.; Bebout, B.; Detweiler, A. M.; Skiles, J. W.

    2011-12-01

    Tidal marshes are highly productive ecosystems that support migratory birds as roosting and over-wintering habitats on the Pacific Flyway. Microphytobenthos, or more commonly 'biofilms' contribute significantly to the primary productivity of wetland ecosystems, and provide a substantial food source for macroinvertebrates and avian communities. In this study, biofilms were characterized based on taxonomic classification, density differences, and spectral signatures. These techniques were then applied to remotely sensed images to map biofilm densities and distributions in the South Bay Salt Ponds and predict the carrying capacity of these newly restored ponds for migratory birds. The GER-1500 spectroradiometer was used to obtain in situ spectral signatures for each density-class of biofilm. The spectral variation and taxonomic classification between high, medium, and low density biofilm cover types was mapped using in-situ spectral measurements and classification of EO-1 Hyperion and Landsat TM 5 images. Biofilm samples were also collected in the field to perform laboratory analyses including chlorophyll-a, taxonomic classification, and energy content. Comparison of the spectral signatures between the three density groups shows distinct variations useful for classification. Also, analysis of chlorophyll-a concentrations show statistically significant differences between each density group, using the Tukey-Kramer test at an alpha level of 0.05. The potential carrying capacity in South Bay Salt Ponds is estimated to be 250,000 birds.

  4. Sea surface temperature in False Bay (South Africa): Towards a better understanding of its seasonal and inter-annual variability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dufois, François; Rouault, Mathieu

    2012-07-01

    Two sea surface temperature (SST) products, Pathfinder version 5.0 and MODIS/TERRA are evaluated and used to study the seasonal and the inter-annual variability of sea surface temperature (SST) together with local SST and wind data in the vicinity of False Bay (Western Cape, South Africa). At the monthly scale, differences of up to 3 °C are detected between the two products in the bay. In the northern half of the bay, SST is fairly well explained by seasonality. In contrast, the southern half exhibits a higher inter-annual variability in SST. The southern half of the bay and the Western Cape upwelling system (Cape Agulhas to Cape Columbine) share most of their variance. Furthermore, the inter-annual variability of SST in False Bay is correlated with both the Niño 3.4 index and local wind speed anomalies. El Niño (La Niña) events induce an equatorward (poleward) shift in the South Atlantic High pressure system leading to a weakening (strengthening) of upwelling favourable south-easterly. Those changes induce a warm (cold) SST anomaly along the West Coast of Southern Africa.

  5. Metals and pesticides in commercial bivalve mollusc production areas in the North and South Bays, Santa Catarina (Brazil).

    PubMed

    de Souza, R V; Garbossa, L H P; Campos, C J A; Vianna, L F de N; Vanz, A; Rupp, G S

    2016-04-15

    Concentrations of heavy metals were quantified in mussels Perna perna and Pacific oysters Crassostrea gigas in 28 cultivation sites in the North and South Bays, SC (Brazil). Concentrations of pesticides were also quantified in these bivalve, water and sediment samples collected in 14 cultivation sites on four occasions in the period October 2012-October 2013. Pesticides were not detected in any of the mussel, oyster, water or sediment samples. The South Bay was found to be generally more contaminated with As while the North Bay showed higher concentrations of Ni. Concentrations of Pb and Cd were below the limit of detection of the method (0.5mg/kg) in all samples. Mussels accumulated more As and Ni than oysters, while the opposite was observed for Cu. Metal concentrations were below the maximum levels for foodstuffs specified in the Brazilian legislation. PMID:26897362

  6. 33 CFR 334.660 - Gulf of Mexico and Apalachicola Bay south of Apalachicola, Fla., Drone Recovery Area, Tyndall Air...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Gulf of Mexico and Apalachicola Bay south of Apalachicola, Fla., Drone Recovery Area, Tyndall Air Force Base, Fla. 334.660 Section 334... Apalachicola, Fla., Drone Recovery Area, Tyndall Air Force Base, Fla. (a) The restricted area. A...

  7. 33 CFR 334.660 - Gulf of Mexico and Apalachicola Bay south of Apalachicola, Fla., Drone Recovery Area, Tyndall Air...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Gulf of Mexico and Apalachicola Bay south of Apalachicola, Fla., Drone Recovery Area, Tyndall Air Force Base, Fla. 334.660 Section 334... Apalachicola, Fla., Drone Recovery Area, Tyndall Air Force Base, Fla. (a) The restricted area. A...

  8. 33 CFR 334.660 - Gulf of Mexico and Apalachicola Bay south of Apalachicola, Fla., Drone Recovery Area, Tyndall Air...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Gulf of Mexico and Apalachicola Bay south of Apalachicola, Fla., Drone Recovery Area, Tyndall Air Force Base, Fla. 334.660 Section 334... Apalachicola, Fla., Drone Recovery Area, Tyndall Air Force Base, Fla. (a) The restricted area. A...

  9. 33 CFR 334.660 - Gulf of Mexico and Apalachicola Bay south of Apalachicola, Fla., Drone Recovery Area, Tyndall Air...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Gulf of Mexico and Apalachicola Bay south of Apalachicola, Fla., Drone Recovery Area, Tyndall Air Force Base, Fla. 334.660 Section 334... Apalachicola, Fla., Drone Recovery Area, Tyndall Air Force Base, Fla. (a) The restricted area. A...

  10. 33 CFR 334.660 - Gulf of Mexico and Apalachicola Bay south of Apalachicola, Fla., Drone Recovery Area, Tyndall Air...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Gulf of Mexico and Apalachicola Bay south of Apalachicola, Fla., Drone Recovery Area, Tyndall Air Force Base, Fla. 334.660 Section 334... Apalachicola, Fla., Drone Recovery Area, Tyndall Air Force Base, Fla. (a) The restricted area. A...

  11. Realtime Monitoring of the Extreme Oceanic Conditions in the Kangjin Bay, South Sea, Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ro, Y.; Jung, K.

    2006-05-01

    Realtime(RT) monitoring system for the oceanic state variables was developed and has been operating since April, 2004 in the Kangjin Bay, South Sea, Korea shown. The RT production of data stream and display on the Internet web page are made possible in continuous functions of various system elements. Detailed technical information for the RT monitoring system can be referred to Ro et al. (2004). The water quality parameters, current and meteorological conditions are continuously monitored with very high sampling resolution (10 min.) throughout the year and are being published on the Internet web pages (http://oceaninfo.co.kr/kangjin). The research project encompass several important subjects focusing on the extreme oceanic conditions such as very cold water mass formation during the wintertime cold outbreak, highly diluted sea water during the dam water discharge in the summertime monsoon and the subsequent formation of the hypoxia in the shallow Kangjin Bay. These are the typical extreme events captured possibly by the RT monitoring system, without which could never have been observed and understood. These extreme conditions would exert dramatic ecological impact to the local aqua-culture ecology. This study would elucidate the series of physico-chemical processes and its implication of the local eco-system. To understand the complicated processes, various research tools have been employed such as numerical modeling of tidal circulation, density-driven current, water-quality and formation of hypoxia, time series analyses of various water quality properties including multi-variate correlation.

  12. Modelling Hydrodynamics, Sediment Transport and Provenance in the South San Francisco Bay Salt Ponds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holleman, R. C.; Gross, E. S.; MacVean, L. J.; Stacey, M. T.; Fringer, O. B.

    2012-12-01

    Restoration of the South San Francisco Bay Salt Ponds is an immense and ongoing project with potentially far-reaching ramifications related to sediment supply, resuspension of contaminants, salt intrusion dynamics, tidal propagation and morphologic change. The rate of accretion in breached ponds depends on many factors, and the source of deposited material may be local or from other embayments. We present a high resolution hydrodynamic model of San Francisco Bay which resolves a broad range of spatial scales ranging from tens of kilometers in the coastal ocean, down to meters in a series of breached levees located in the Island Ponds. Complexities of the hydrodynamic model include both the generation of intertidal bathymetry and the numerical stability of wetting and drying when grid resolution is at the meter scale. Tides and currents show good validation against observed flows near the breaches. Hydrodynamic results are used to drive a particle-tracking based sediment model, allowing for detailed sediment provenance studies. Results demonstrate the viability of pond-deposited sediments sourced from beyond Calaveras Point even over short time periods.

  13. Bioavailability of Cd, Cr, and Zn to bivalves in south San Francisco Bay

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, B.G.; Luoma, S.N.; Geen, A. van

    1995-12-31

    The bioavailability of Cd, Cr, and Zn to benthic bivalves (Potamocorbular amurensis and Macoma balthica) is affected by the type of natural particles the animals ingest, and the concentration and speciation of dissolved metals. During a spring phytoplankton bloom in south San Francisco Bay dissolved Cd and Zn concentrations decreased to about half of pre-bloom concentrations. The concentrations of particulate Cd and Zn concentrations increased due to preferential uptake of these metals by phytoplankton. Assimilation of Cd was more efficient when clams ate pure phytoplankton (80% for M. balthica and 29% for P. amurensis) than when they were exposed to inorganic-dominated particles. M. balthica and P. amurensis assimilated 72% and 42% of Zn associated with the particles during the bloom. Assimilation of Cr was low (<6%) and particle type had little effect on its availability. Accumulation of Cd via the dissolved route was low in high salinity waters (15 ppt). Metal bioaccumulation in the bivalves was modeled using the experimentally determined physiological parameters. The results were compared to metal concentrations in clams from the Bay. The model suggested that the clams accumulated Cd and Zn at higher rates during the phytoplankton bloom, although dissolved metal concentrations in the water column were reduced.

  14. HELL HOLE BAY, WAMBAW SWAMP, LITTLE WAMBAW SWAMP, AND WAMBAW CREEK WILDERNESSES, SOUTH CAROLINA.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cameron, Cornelia C.; Martin, Clay M.

    1984-01-01

    Four wildernesses, including Hell Hole Bay about 10. 6 sq mi, Wambaw Swamp about 8 sq mi, Little Wambaw Swamp about 4 sq mi, and Wambaw Creek about 2. 5 sq mi, are swamp lands in the Francis Marion National Forest on the lower Atlantic Coastal Plain of South Carolina, about 30 mi northeast of Charleston. A mineral survey of the wildernesses showed that one of the areas, Wambaw Swamp, has a peat resource potential. An estimated 810,000 tons of demonstrated peat resources on the dry basis occurs in an area of substantiated peat resource potential within easy access to a good road network. No mineral or other energy resources were identified in this study.

  15. Space use by Forster's Terns breeding in South San Francisco Bay

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bluso-Demers, J.; Colwell, M.A.; Takekawa, J.Y.; Ackerman, J.T.

    2008-01-01

    Parental care behaviors often differ in dimorphic seabirds, leading to sex-specific differences in foraging behaviors. However, few studies have examined sex-specific foraging behaviors in monomorphic seabirds. Using radio-telemetry, we studied Forster's Terns (Sterna forsteri) - a monomorphic and socially monogamous seabird - breeding in the South San Francisco Bay, California. Space use did not differ between males and females. Instead, space use varied by breeding stage and colony affiliation. Forster's Terns were located farthest from the nest during pre-breeding and post-breeding time periods, and closest to the nest during incubation and chick-rearing. Home-range size and core-use areas decreased as the breeding season progressed and were most concentrated in the post-breeding stage. The results of this and other studies indicate that tems, unlike other monomorphic seabirds studied, do not exhibit sex-specific differences in space use.

  16. Geologic Framework and Surficial Sediment Mapping Within South Carolina's Long Bay, From Little River to Winyah Bay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baldwin, W. E.; Morton, R. A.; Schwab, W. C.; Gayes, P. T.; Driscoll, N. W.

    2002-12-01

    High-resolution seismic reflection profiles, sidescan-sonar imagery and interferometric swath-bathymetry, groundtruthed with surficial sediment samples and vibracores, allow for a detailed interpretation of the shallow geologic framework within South Carolina's Long Bay. This mapping provides a better understanding of the area's nearshore geology by identifying structural and stratigraphic controls that influence the location of paleochannel incisions and distribution and thickness of surficial sediment bodies. The study area lies on the southwest flank of the Cape Fear Arch (CFA) or Mid-Carolina Platform High. The CFA accounts for the regional southerly dip and localized folding within lithified Cretaceous and Tertiary continental shelf strata that comprise the sedimentary base of the study area. Uplift of the CFA is also primarily responsible for the observed sediment starvation of this inner shelf region, because of massive diversion of post-Cretaceous fluvial sediment input away from its axis into the bounding Southeast Georgia and Albemarle embayments. The dipping and folded strata that underlie the area are incised by paleochannels that are progressively larger and more frequent to the southwest, where they display characteristics of integrated drainage networks. These features are the products of fluvial incision during multiple lowstands in sea level. In many areas, differential resistance to erosion of the underlying shelf strata appears to influence both the location and depth of paleochannel incision. Nested fill geometries within the paleochannels indicate that their stratigraphic histories are complex and likely include repeated periods of abandonment and reoccupation. Differential erosion of paleochannel fill and continental shelf strata produce a well-defined unconformity. This surface is mapped throughout the area and considered to represent the last marine transgression. Coarse clastic and biogenic surficial sediments (sand, gravel, and shell hash

  17. Impacts of storms on coastal circulation in Long Bay, South Carolina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, H.; Warner, J. C.; Voulgaris, G.; Work, P.

    2006-12-01

    We investigate the effects of coastal storms on the regional circulation in Long Bay, South Carolina, using a coupled ROMS (Regional Ocean Modeling System)- SWAN (Simulating WAves Nearshore) model. Meteorological observations during the South Carolina Coastal Erosion Study (October 2003 April 2004) reveal three dominant types of storms in the region warm fronts, cold fronts, and tropical storms. Each storm has a characteristic progression of wind patterns: (1) Warm fronts start with southwestward winds and change to northeastward after the front passes; (2) Cold fronts begin with northeastward winds and shift to southeastward when the front moves out; and (3) Tropical storms change wind directions from the southwest to the southeast during the storm. It is observed the coastal circulation distinctly responds to such atmospheric disturbances in either a upwelling-favorable condition to the northeastward winds or a downwelling-favorable condition to the southwestward winds. The study domain encompasses 300-km of gently arcing shoreline between Cape Romain to Cape Fear, and approximately 100-km offshore to the shelf edge. The model domain is resolved by a 300×130 mesh at 1-km intervals in the horizontal and twenty terrain-following layers in the vertical. The ROMS model is driven by tides and wind stress, and it includes wave-current interactions via dynamic coupling to the surface wave model SWAN. Salinity and temperature along the open boundaries are included by nudging to climatological values. A time period of six months is simulated from October 2003 to April 2004, concurrent with the observation study. Model results are compared to an extensive set of measurements collected at eight sites in the inner part of Long Bay, and are used to identify varying circulation response to each storm type. In addition, we investigate the significance of the Capes on the development of the alongshore pressure gradients, and examine the importance of wave-current interactions

  18. Contaminant profiles of two species of shorebirds foraging together at two neighboring sites in South San Francisco Bay, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hui, C.A.; Takekawa, J.Y.; Warnock, S.E.

    2001-01-01

    The San Francisco Bay estuary is used by over one million shorebirds during spring migration and is home to several hundred thousand during the winter. Most shorebird use occurs in the southern reach of the estuary (South Bay). The reduced water circulation and discharge from industrial sources in the South Bay are responsible for the highest levels of some trace elements in the estuary. Wintering shorebirds have been found to have strong site fidelity to areas as small as a few kilometers in the South Bay, which may increase their exposure to contaminants near local point sources. In addition, different shorebird species foraging at the same site have been shown to have different contaminant burdens. Thus, our objectives were to test whether contaminant burdens differed by species, or whether contaminant burdens differed in shorebirds collected at adjacent sites. We examined the contaminant profiles of two species of shorebirds, long-billed dowitchers (Limnodromus scolopaceus) and western sandpipers (Calidris mauri) that forage together at two sites, Hayward and Newark, separated by 8 km in the South Bay. We used multivariate analysis of variance tests to compare the composition of 14 elemental analytes in their liver tissues and estimated their molar ratios of Hg and Se. Composite samples were used for contaminant analyses because of the small body size of the shorebirds. Seven elemental analytes (Ag, Ba, Be, Cr, Ni, Pb, V) were below detection limits in a majority of the samples so statistical analyses were precluded. In the measurable analytes (As, Cd, Cu, Hg, Mn, Se, Zn), we found no significant intra-site differences of contaminant profiles for the two species. We pooled the samples to examine inter-site differences and found significant differences in contaminant profiles between shorebirds at the neighboring sites (P = 0.03). Shorebirds at Newark had higher (P 0.05).

  19. Seasonal occurrence of Calanus sinicus in the northern South China Sea: A case study in Daya Bay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Kaizhi; Yan, Yan; Yin, Jianqiang; Tan, Yehui; Huang, Liangmin

    2016-07-01

    Calanus sinicus is a calanoid copepod species that is distributed broadly in the continental shelf waters of the Northwest Pacific Ocean. This study aims to understand the seasonal variations of the distribution and abundance of C. sinicus in Daya Bay from the northern South China Sea (nSCS) and to explore its possible seasonal occurrence based on current and historical data. Monthly surveys of the species were conducted in Daya Bay, a subtropical bay in the nSCS, during the period between May 2013 and April 2014. C. sinicus was present from January to May, and disappeared after June. The spatial pattern of C. sinicus in the bay was characterized by its distribution into the southwestern part of the bay in January, bay-wide spread in February, patchiness in March and virtual retreat from the bay mouth in April. Reproduction occurred from January to April at a low rate. Adults were mostly abundant in January and declined to a minimum in April. The percentage of early developmental stages increased from 54.1% in January to 90.1% in April, as collected by a fine mesh size. Based on historical data from Daya Bay and from the coastal waters of the nSCS, C. sinicus was carried into the nSCS from the East China Sea by the China Coastal Current during the northeastern monsoon period and survived from December to October of the next year. The summer coastal upwelling may provide suitable refuges for the species in the nSCS by limiting the adverse effects caused by high temperatures. Our results confirm the viewpoint that C. sinicus could exist in the nSCS in summer and fall.

  20. Restoration of mangrove plantations and colonisation by native species in Leizhou bay, South China

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ren, H.; Jian, S.; Lu, H.; Zhang, Q.; Shen, W.; Han, W.; Yin, Z.; Guo, Q.

    2008-01-01

    To examine the natural colonisation of native mangrove species into remediated exotic mangrove stands in Leizhou Bay, South China, we compared soil physical-chemical properties, community structure and recruitments of barren mangrove areas, native mangrove species plantations, and exotic mangrove species-Sonneratia apetala Buch.Ham-between plantations and natural forest. We found that severely degraded mangrove stands could not regenerate naturally without human intervention due to severely altered local environments, whereas some native species had been recruited into the 4-10 year S. apetala plantations. In the first 10 years, the exotic species S. apetala grew better than native species such as Rhizophora stylosa Griff and Kandelia candel (Linn.) Druce. The mangrove plantation gradually affected soil physical and chemical properties during its recovery. The exotic S. apetala was more competitive than native species and its plantation was able to restore soil organic matter in about 14 years. Thus, S. apetala can be considered as a pioneer species to improve degraded habitats to facilitate recolonisation by native mangrove species. However, removal to control proliferation may be needed at late stages to facilitate growth of native species. To ensure sustainability of mangroves in South China, the existing mangrove wetlands must be managed as an ecosystem, with long-term scientific monitoring program in place. ?? 2007 The Ecological Society of Japan.

  1. Bioflocculant production by Bacillus sp. Gilbert isolated from a marine environment in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Ugbenyen, A M; Cosa, S; Mabinya, L V; Okoh, A I

    2014-01-01

    In our previous study we reported on the bioflocculant production by a Bacillus species isolated from sediment samples of Algoa Bay in the Eastern Cape Province of South Africa. In current study we carried out further evaluation on the effect of different culture conditions on the bioflocculant production, as well as characterised the bioflocculant produced in detail. The bacteria produced bioflocculant optimally under the following conditions: using sodium carbonate (95.2% flocculating activity) and potassium nitrate (76.6% flocculating activity) as carbon and nitrogen sources, respectively; inoculum size of 3% (v/v); initial pH 9.0; and Al3+ as coagulant aid. The crude bioflocculant retained 44.2% residual flocculating activity after heating at 100 degrees C for 15 min. Chemical analysis of the Bacillus sp. Gilbert purified bioflocculant demonstrated that it was composed mainly of polysaccharide. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy analysis revealed the presence of hydroxyl, carboxyl and methylene groups in the bioflocculant and energy-dispersive X-ray analysis detected the elemental composition in mass proportion (% w/w) of C, N, O, S and P as 4.12 : 7.40: 39.92: 3.00: 13.91. Scanning electron micrograph image of the bioflocculant revealed an amorphous compound. PMID:25272753

  2. Vegetation establishment success in restored carolina bay depressions on the Savannah River Site, South Carolina - phase one.

    SciTech Connect

    Sharitz, Rebecca, A.; Mulhouse, John, M.

    2004-05-01

    Successful wetlands restoration must re-establish or enhance three parameters: wetland hydrology, hydric soils, and hydrophytic vegetation (Mitsch and Gosselink 2000). On the Savannah River Site, South Carolina, restoration of small Carolina bay depression-wetlands was initiated in FY 2001 to provide wetland acreage for mitigation banking (US DOE 1997). Sixteen small depressions that had historically been drained for agricultural purposes were selected for restoration, and an additional four were initially chosen to serve as non-restored controls. Restoration treatments included plugging the existing ditches to increase water volume retention and wetland hydroperiod and clear-cutting removal of woody vegetation in the interiors. Planned endpoints of the restoration were herbaceous meadow and forested savanna bay interiors, and pine savanna and pine/hardwood forested bay margins (Barton and Singer 2001). To promote forested savanna interiors, saplings of bald cypress and swamp tupelo were planted following removal of the woody species.

  3. Legacy Mercury in Alviso Slough, South San Francisco Bay, California: Concentration, Speciation and Mobility

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Marvin-DiPasquale, Mark; Cox, Marisa H.

    2007-01-01

    Mercury (Hg) is a significant contaminant in the waters, sediment and biota of San Francisco Bay, largely resulting from extensive historic regional mining activities. Alviso Slough represents one of the most mercury contaminated waterways entering south San Francisco Bay, as it is associated with the drainage of the New Almaden mercury mining district. Wetland habitat restoration of former salt manufacturing ponds adjacent to Alviso Slough is currently being planned. One management scenario being considered is a levee breach between Alviso Slough and Pond A8, which will allow reconnection of the salt pond with the tidal slough. This action is projected to increase the tidal prism within Alviso Slough and result in some degree of sediment remobilization as the main channel deepens and widens. The focus of the current study is to assess: a) the current mercury species composition and concentration in sediments within the Alviso Slough main channel and its associated fringing marsh plain, b) how much of each mercury species will be mobilized as a result of projected channel deepening and widening, and c) potential changes in inorganic reactive mercury bioavailability (for conversion to toxic methylmercury) associated with the mobilized sediment fraction. The current report details the field sampling approach and all laboratory analyses conducted, as well as provides the complete dataset associated with this project including a) a quantitative assessment of mercury speciation (total mercury, reactive mercury and methylmercury), b) estimates of the quantity of sediment and mercury mobilized based on 20-foot and 40-foot levee wall notch scenarios, and c) results from a sediment scour experiment examining the changes in the reactive mercury pool under four treatment conditions (high / low salinity and oxic / anoxic water). Ancillary sediment data also collected and reported herein include bulk density, organic content, magnetic susceptibility, percent dry weight, grain

  4. Temporal and spatial distribution of the meiobenthic community in Daya Bay, South China Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, L.; Li, H. X.; Yan, Y.

    2012-04-01

    Spatial and temporal biodiversity patterns of the meiobenthos were studied for the first time in Daya Bay, which is a tropical semi-enclosed basin located in the South China Sea. The abundance, biomass, and composition of the meiobenthos and the basic environmental factors in the bay were investigated. The following 19 taxonomic groups were represented in the meiofauna: Nematoda, Copepoda, Polychaeta, Oligochaeta, Kinorhyncha, Gastrotricha, Ostracoda, Bivalvia, Turbellaria, Nemertinea, Sipuncula, Hydroida, Amphipoda, Cumacea, Halacaroidea, Priapulida, Echinodermata, Tanaidacea, and Rotifera. Total abundance and biomass of the meiobenthos showed great spatial and temporal variation, with mean values of 993.57 ± 455.36 ind cm-2 and 690.51 ± 210.64 μg 10 cm-2, respectively. Nematodes constituted 95.60 % of the total abundance and thus had the greatest effect on meiofauna quantity and distribution, followed by copepods (1.55 %) and polychaetes (1.39 %). Meiobenthos abundance was significantly negatively correlated with water depth at stations (r=-0.747, P<0.05) and significantly negatively correlated with silt-clay content (r=-0.516, P<0.01) and medium diameter (r=-0.499, P<0.01) of the sediment. Similar results were found for correlations of biomass and abundance of nematodes with environmental parameters. Polychaete abundance was positively correlated with the bottom water temperature (r=0.456, P<0.01). Meiobenthos abundance differed significantly among seasons (P<0.05), although no significant difference among stations and the interaction of station × season was detected by two-way ANOVA. In terms of vertical distribution, most of the meiobenthos was found in the surface layer of sediment. This pattern was apparent for nematodes and copepods, but a vertical distribution pattern for polychaetes was not as obvious. Based on the biotic indices and analyses of their correlations and variance, the diversity of this community was likely to be influenced by

  5. Phytoplankton community structure and environmental parameters in aquaculture areas of Daya Bay, South China Sea.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhaohui; Zhao, Jiangang; Zhang, Yujuan; Cao, Yu

    2009-01-01

    Environmental characteristics and phytoplankton community structure were investigated in two aquaculture areas in Dapeng Cove of Daya Bay, South China Sea, between April 2005 and June 2006. Phytoplankton abundance ranged between 5.0 and 8877.5 cells/mL, with an average of 751.8 cells/mL. The seasonal cycle of phytoplankton were demonstrated by frequent oscillations, with recurrent high abundances from late spring to autumn and a peak stage in late winter. Diatoms were the predominant phytoplankton group, accounting for 93.21% of the total abundance. The next most abundant group was the dinoflagellates, which made up only 1.24% of total abundance. High concentrations of Alexandrium tamarense (Lebour) Balech with a maximum of 603.0 cells/mL were firstly recorded in this area known for high rates of paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP) contamination. Temperatures and salinities were within the suitable values for the growth of phytoplankton, and were important in phytoplankton seasonal fluctuations. The operation of the Daya Bay Nuclear Power Station (DNPS) exerts influences on the phytoplankton community and resulted in the high abundances of toxic dinoflagellate species during the winter months. Dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN) and dissolved silicate (DSi) were sufficient, and rarely limited for the growth of phytoplankton. Dissolved inorganic phosphorus (DIP) was the most necessary element for phytoplankton growth. The enriched environments accelerated the growth of small diatoms, and made for the shift in predominant species from large diatom Rhizosolenia spp. to chain-forming diatoms such as Skeletonema costatum, Pseudo-nitzschia spp. and Thalassiosira subtilis. PMID:19999976

  6. Carbon cycling fed by methane seepage at the shallow Cumberland Bay, South Georgia, sub-Antarctic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geprägs, Patrizia; Torres, Marta E.; Mau, Susan; Kasten, Sabine; Römer, Miriam; Bohrmann, Gerhard

    2016-04-01

    Recent studies have suggested that the marine contribution of methane from shallow regions and melting marine-terminating glaciers may have been underestimated. Here we report on methane sources and potential sinks associated with methane seeps in Cumberland Bay, South Georgia's largest fjord system. The average organic carbon content in the upper 8 m of the sediment is around 0.65 wt %; this observation combined with Parasound data suggest that the methane gas accumulations probably originate from peat-bearing sediments currently located several tens of meters below the seafloor. Only one of our cores indicates upward advection; instead most of the methane is transported via diffusion. Sulfate and methane flux estimates indicate that a large fraction of methane is consumed by anaerobic oxidation of methane (AOM). Carbon cycling at the sulfate-methane transition (SMT) results in a marked fractionation of the δ13C-CH4 from an estimated source value of -65‰ to a value as low as -96‰ just below the SMT. Methane concentrations in sediments are high, especially close to the seepage sites (˜40 mM); however, concentrations in the water column are relatively low (max. 58 nM) and can be observed only close to the seafloor. Methane is trapped in the lowermost water mass; however, measured microbial oxidation rates reveal very low activity with an average turnover of 3.1 years. We therefore infer that methane must be transported out of the bay in the bottom water layer. A mean sea-air flux of only 0.005 nM/m2 s confirms that almost no methane reaches the atmosphere.

  7. Storm-induced inner-continental shelf circulation and sediment transport: Long Bay, South Carolina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Warner, John C.; Armstrong, Brandy; Sylvester, Charlene S.; Voulgaris, George; Nelson, Tim; Schwab, William C.; Denny, Jane F.

    2012-07-01

    Long Bay is a sediment-starved, arcuate embayment located along the US East Coast connecting both South and North Carolina. In this region the rates and pathways of sediment transport are important because they determine the availability of sediments for beach nourishment, seafloor habitat, and navigation. The impact of storms on sediment transport magnitude and direction were investigated during the period October 2003-April 2004 using bottom mounted flow meters, acoustic backscatter sensors and rotary sonars deployed at eight sites offshore of Myrtle Beach, SC, to measure currents, water levels, surface waves, salinity, temperature, suspended sediment concentrations, and bedform morphology. Measurements identify that sediment mobility is caused by waves and wind driven currents from three predominant types of storm patterns that pass through this region: (1) cold fronts, (2) warm fronts and (3) low-pressure storms. The passage of a cold front is accompanied by a rapid change in wind direction from primarily northeastward to southwestward. The passage of a warm front is accompanied by an opposite change in wind direction from mainly southwestward to northeastward. Low-pressure systems passing offshore are accompanied by a change in wind direction from southwestward to southeastward as the offshore storm moves from south to north. During the passage of cold fronts more sediment is transported when winds are northeastward and directed onshore than when the winds are directed offshore, creating a net sediment flux to the north-east. Likewise, even though the warm front has an opposite wind pattern, net sediment flux is typically to the north-east due to the larger fetch when the winds are northeastward and directed onshore. During the passage of low-pressure systems strong winds, waves, and currents to the south are sustained creating a net sediment flux southwestward. During the 3-month deployment a total of 8 cold fronts, 10 warm fronts, and 10 low-pressure systems

  8. Lower Flathead System Fisheries Study, South Bay of Flathead Lake, Volume III, 1983-1987 Final Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Cross, David; Waite, Ian

    1988-06-01

    The Lower Flathead System Fisheries Study assessed the effects of Kerr Dam operation on the fisheries of the lower Flathead ecosystem. South Bay, the southern most lobe of Flathead Lake, is the most extensive area of shallow water, and therefore, most effected by changes in lake levels. This study began in January of 1984 and was completed in early 1987. Vegetative and structural cover are relatively limited in South Bay, a condition which could contribute to lower recruitment for some fish species. Our data show that the study area contained 0.04% structural and 5.4% vegetative cover in June at full pool. Both figures are less than 1.0% at minimum pool. Structural complexity mediates the ecological interactions between littoral zone fish and their prey, and can affect local productivity and growth in fish. Structural complexity may also be important to overwinter survival of young perch in Flathead Lake. Winter conditions, including ice cover and fall drawdown, seasonally eliminate the vegetative portion of most rooted macrophytes in South Bay. This results in substantial loss of what little structural cover exists, depriving the perch population of habitat which has been occupied all summer. The loss of cover from draw-down concentrates and probably exposes perch to greater predation, including cannibalism, than would occur if structural complexity were greater. 33 refs., 10 figs., 5 tabs.

  9. Geochemical Profile of Groundwater Discharge Across the Beachface of Long Bay, South Carolina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Viso, R. F.; Lewis, B.; McCoy, C. A.; Gregory, H.; Stankiewicz, F.

    2008-12-01

    Groundwater discharge from land to sea provides a significant, yet often overlooked pathway for delivery of dissolved nutrients and contaminants to nearshore waters. Recent research is focused on refining groundwater and associated dissolved chemical species flux estimates, geological controls on flow pathways, and geological contributions to the chemistry of the pore water. In Long Bay, South Carolina, extensive seismic imagery provides many clues to control of the geologic framework morphology of the nearshore area. In addition, recent mapping of the electrical structure of the upper few meters of marine nearshore sediment compared with nearby Chirp subbottom profiles provide indications of the relationships between framework geology and submarine groundwater discharge. Continuous electrical resistivity profiles also suggest that mixing between ocean water and upland-derived fresh water within shallow aquifers occurs to a large extent within the surf zone and shoreface. At present, work is underway to estimate shallow groundwater seepage rates of nutrients and metals across the beach face into the adjacent surf zone. A beach perpendicular transect of 1 meter deep wells was installed from the swash zone to approximately 100 meters inland and sampled over two complete tidal cycles. The groundwater salinity gradient ranged from approximately 30 to 2 ppt. All wells showed suboxic conditions and maxima in dissolved nitrogen, phosphorus and iron at mid-range salinity. The latter corresponded to high dissolved organic content, indicating a maximum in decomposition and a concomitant release of nutrients into the groundwater. Measurements of radon and radium isotopes will be used to estimate the net movement of groundwater seaward from the beach. These groundwater discharge estimates will be applied to measured concentrations of N, P and metals in an effort to derive fluxes. Preliminary results from Rn activity measurements indicate groundwater fluxes in the range of 1

  10. Cosmic noise absorption and ionospheric currents at the South Pole and Frobisher Bay: Initial results

    SciTech Connect

    Rosenberg, T.J. ); Wolfe, A. AT T Bell Laboratories, Murray Hill, NJ ); Lanzerotti, L.J. )

    1987-01-01

    Studies of the conjugacy of auroral and ionospheric phenomena at very high latitudes are an important aspect of magnetospheric physics research. The extent to which auroral phenomena in opposite hemispheres are similar in occurrence and in the details of their temporal, spatial, and spectral characteristics can be used to infer the commonality of the source(s) of the disturbances. At one extreme in this consideration is the questions of whether sources lie on open or closed magnetic field lines. The University of Maryland and AT T Bell Laboratories have operated riometers and fluxgate magnetometers, respectively, at South Pole since 1982. Corresponding measurements at Frobisher Bay were begun in mid-1985. Riometers record the absorption of cosmic radio noise in the ionosphere produced by the enhances precipitation of energetic charged particles. The studies of the riometer data relate mainly to the effects of the influx of magnetospheric electrons, which give rise to auroral absorption of the cosmic signals. Intense currents (electrojets) that often flow in the ionosphere in association with auroral absorption events produce magnetic field changes that can be recorded on the ground by appropriately sited magnetometers. This report presents some initial results of the comparison of the two data sets.

  11. Bioavailable metals in tourist beaches of Richards Bay, Kwazulu-Natal, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Vetrimurugan, E; Jonathan, M P; Roy, Priyadarsi D; Shruti, V C; Ndwandwe, O M

    2016-04-15

    Acid Leachable Trace Metal (ALTMs) concentrations in tourist beaches of Richards Bay, Kwazulu-Natal, South Africa were assessed. 53 surface sediment samples were collected from five different beaches (Kwambonambi Long Beach; Nhlabane Beach; Five Mile Beach; Alkanstrand Beach and Port Durnford Beach). The results of ALTMs (Fe, Mn, Cr, Cu, Ni, Co, Pb, Cd, Zn, As, Hg) suggest that they are enriched naturally and with some local industrial sources for (avg. in μgg(-1)) Fe (3530-7219), Mn (46-107.11), Cd (0.43-1.00) and Zn (48-103.98). Statistical results indicate that metal concentrations were from natural origin attributed to leaching, weathering process and industrial sources. Comparative studies of metal concentrations with sediment quality guidelines and ecotoxicological values indicate that there is no adverse biological effect. Enrichment factor and geoaccumulation indices results indicate moderate enhancement of Fe (Igeo class 1 in FMB), Cd (EF>50; Igeo classes 2-4) and Zn (Igeo classes 1 & 2). PMID:26853593

  12. On Lagrangian residual currents with applications in south San Francisco Bay, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cheng, Ralph T.; Casulli, Vincenzo

    1982-01-01

    The Lagrangian residual circulation has often been introduced as the sum of the Eulerian residual circulation and the Stokes' drift. Unfortunately, this definition of the Lagrangian residual circulation is conceptually incorrect because both the Eulerian residual circulation and the Stokes' drift are Eulerian variables. In this paper a classification of various residual variables are reviewed and properly defined. The Lagrangian residual circulation is then studied by means of a two-stage formulation of a computer model. The tidal circulation is first computed in a conventional Eulerian way, and then the Lagrangian residual circulation is determined by a method patterned after the method of markers and cells. To demonstrate properties of the Lagrangian residual circulation, application of this approach in South San Francisco Bay, California, is considered. With the aid of the model results, properties of the Eulerian and Lagrangian residual circulation are examined. It can be concluded that estimation of the Lagrangian residual circulation from Eulerian data may lead to unacceptable error, particularly in a tidal estuary where the tidal excursion is of the same order of magnitude as the length scale of the basin. A direction calculation of the Lagrangian residual circulation must be made and has been shown to be feasible.

  13. Physical and biological changes in the south Bay of Bengal due to the Baaz cyclone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muni Krishna, K.; Song, Guiting

    2015-10-01

    Baaz cyclone is a slow moving weak cyclone in the south central Bay of Bengal (SCBoB) and it lingered for 3 days and caused a significant cooling (2.6 °C) and enhancement of chlorophyll-a (5.6 mg/m3) at the right side of the cyclone track. In this study multi-satellite observations are used to explore the bio-physical changes due to the cyclone. We found that the speed of the Ekman pumping velocity is ten times more and the mixed layer is deepened about 19 meters during the cyclone than pre cyclone period. The maximum sea surface cooling (1.2-2.6 °C) took place when the translation speed of cyclone is only 1.2-2.3 m/s. So the extent of the sea surface temperature drop is probably related to the moving speed of cyclone and the mixed layer depth. In addition, the area with large decline of the SSH can signify the location where the maximum cooling occurs.

  14. Diversity and characterization of culturable fungi from marine sediment collected from St. Helena Bay, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Mouton, Marnel; Postma, Ferdinand; Wilsenach, Jac; Botha, Alfred

    2012-08-01

    Marine fungi are known to originate from a wide variety of habitats within the marine environment. Marine sediment represents one environmental niche, with most fungi occurring in these sediments being facultative marine fungi with terrestrial origins. It has not been proven whether these fungi merely survive the harsh environmental conditions presented by the ocean sediment, as opposed to playing an active role in this ecological niche. During this study, marine sediment was collected from St. Helena Bay, on the west coast of the Western Cape, South Africa. Using dilution, enrichment, and repetitive culturing techniques, 59 fungal isolates were obtained from marine sediments and identified to at least genus level using morphological and molecular methods. Moreover, a series of tests were performed to characterize the physical and physicochemical attributes of the isolates. Results showed that the isolates not only survived but also had the potential to grow in the natural conditions present in this environment. Extracellular cellulase was produced by the filamentous fungal isolates indicating their probable role in detrital decay processes and therefore the carbon cycle on the ocean bed. Also, denitrification patterns were observed when isolates were grown in liquid media amended with NaNO(2), NaNO(3), and (NH(4))SO(4), implicating that these fungi have the potential to play an active role in denitrification, co-denitrification, and ammonification phases of nitrogen cycles occurring in the marine sediments. PMID:22430506

  15. Diachronic Change within the Still Bay at Blombos Cave, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Archer, Will; Gunz, Philipp; van Niekerk, Karen L; Henshilwood, Christopher S; McPherron, Shannon P

    2015-01-01

    Characteristically shaped bifacial points are stone artefacts with which the Middle Stone Age Still Bay techno-complex in Southern Africa is identified. Traditional approaches such as chaîne opératoire and two-dimensional metrics in combination with attribute analyses have been used to analyse variability within Still Bay point assemblages. Here we develop a protocol to extract and analyse high resolution 3-dimensional geometric morphometric information about Still Bay point morphology. We also investigate ways in which the independent variables of time, raw-material and tool size may be driving patterns of shape variation in the Blombos Cave point assemblage. We demonstrate that at a single, stratified Still Bay site points undergo significant modal changes in tool morphology and standardization. Our results caution against (1) treatment of the Still Bay as a static technological entity and (2) drawing demographic inferences stemming from grouping Still Bay point collections within the same cultural label. PMID:26134976

  16. Diachronic Change within the Still Bay at Blombos Cave, South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Archer, Will; Gunz, Philipp; van Niekerk, Karen L.; Henshilwood, Christopher S.; McPherron, Shannon P.

    2015-01-01

    Characteristically shaped bifacial points are stone artefacts with which the Middle Stone Age Still Bay techno-complex in Southern Africa is identified. Traditional approaches such as chaîne opératoire and two-dimensional metrics in combination with attribute analyses have been used to analyse variability within Still Bay point assemblages. Here we develop a protocol to extract and analyse high resolution 3-dimensional geometric morphometric information about Still Bay point morphology. We also investigate ways in which the independent variables of time, raw-material and tool size may be driving patterns of shape variation in the Blombos Cave point assemblage. We demonstrate that at a single, stratified Still Bay site points undergo significant modal changes in tool morphology and standardization. Our results caution against (1) treatment of the Still Bay as a static technological entity and (2) drawing demographic inferences stemming from grouping Still Bay point collections within the same cultural label. PMID:26134976

  17. Transgressive Shoreface Architecture Within a Sediment Starved Arcuate Strand: Long Bay, South Carolina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gayes, P. T.; Schwab, W. C.; Driscoll, N. W.; Morton, R. A.; Baldwin, W. E.; Denny, J. F.; German, O. Y.; Park, J. Y.

    2002-12-01

    A regional geophysical mapping survey of Long Bay provides a comprehensive image of sea-floor character, bathymetry and shallow subbottom stratigraphy within the shoreface and across the inner shelf along 90 kilometers of the northern South Carolina coast. Chirp subbottom profiles, sidescan-sonar imagery and interferometric swath-bathymetry imaged the shallow stratigraphy and the geometry of the Holocene transgressive surface developing within the modern shoreface. Along a 20 km section of central Long Bay, across the shoreface and inner shelf, centered on Myrtle Beach, SC, oceanographic processes are actively eroding older Tertiary- and Cretaceous-age strata exposed at the sea floor. Long beach profiles are interrupted by these outcrops and deviate substantially from typical concave-up geometries. The modern (mobile) sediment lens is restricted to the surf zone. Along an adjacent area, near North Myrtle Beach, the Holocene erosional unconformity surface continues to exhibit an irregular character eroding into older Cretaceous-age deposits. Within the shoreface, however, a relatively continuous cover of modern mobile sand covers the upper- to mid-shoreface. Cretaceous-age strata crop out across the inner shelf and locally within the lower shoreface. Beach profiles are relatively smooth and linear across the mid-shoreface and become disrupted by strata cropping out near the base of the shoreface and inner shelf. Further north, near the North Carolina border, three planar marine unconformities are visible underlying the shoreface and inner shelf and define seaward thinning wedges of Quaternary deposits. Beach profiles in this area exhibit a low slope and generally define a concave-up low slope profile geometry. The modern mobile sediment lens is more continuous in this area and the Holocene erosional surface can be observed to have eroded previous highstand deposits. The detailed resolution of the chirp subbottom data allows the geometry of the developing marine

  18. 33 CFR 334.670 - Gulf of Mexico south and west of Apalachicola, San Blas, and St. Joseph bays; air-to-air firing...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Gulf of Mexico south and west of Apalachicola, San Blas, and St. Joseph bays; air-to-air firing practice range, Tyndall Air Force Base, Fla. 334..., DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE DANGER ZONE AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.670 Gulf of Mexico south and west...

  19. 33 CFR 334.670 - Gulf of Mexico south and west of Apalachicola, San Blas, and St. Joseph bays; air-to-air firing...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Gulf of Mexico south and west of Apalachicola, San Blas, and St. Joseph bays; air-to-air firing practice range, Tyndall Air Force Base, Fla. 334..., DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE DANGER ZONE AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.670 Gulf of Mexico south and west...

  20. Contaminant profiles of two species of shorebirds foraging together at two neighboring sites in South San Francisco Bay, California.

    PubMed

    Hui, C A; Takekawa, J Y; Warnock, S E

    2001-10-01

    The San Francisco Bay estuary is used by over one million shorebirds during spring migration and is home to several hundred thousand during the winter. Most shorebird use occurs in the southern reach of the estuary (South Bay). The reduced water circulation and discharge from industrial sources in the South Bay are responsible for the highest levels of some trace elements in the estuary. Wintering shorebirds have been found to have strong site fidelity to areas as small as a few kilometers in the South Bay, which may increase their exposure to contaminants near local point sources. In addition, different shorebird species foraging at the same site have been shown to have different contaminant burdens. Thus, our objectives were to test whether contaminant burdens differed by species, or whether contaminant burdens differed in shorebirds collected at adjacent sites. We examined the contaminant profiles of two species of shorebirds, long-billed dowitchers (Limnodromus scolopaceus) and western sandpipers (Calidris mauri) that forage together at two sites, Hayward and Newark, separated by 8 km in the South Bay. We used multivariate analysis of variance tests to compare the composition of 14 elemental analytes in their liver tissues and estimated their molar ratios of Hg and Se. Composite samples were used for contaminant analyses because of the small body size of the shorebirds. Seven elemental analytes (Ag, Ba, Be, Cr, Ni, Pb, V) were below detection limits in a majority of the samples so statistical analyses were precluded. In the measurable analytes (As, Cd, Cu, Hg, Mn, Se, Zn), we found no significant intra-site differences of contaminant profiles for the two species. We pooled the samples to examine inter-site differences and found significant differences in contaminant profiles between shorebirds at the neighboring sites (P = 0.03). Shorebirds at Newark had higher (P < 0.05) concentrations of As, Cd, and Se than those at Hayward. Dowitchers at Newark had

  1. In-Situ Water Quality Monitoring in South San Francisco Bay: Data Validation and Interpretation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Craig, M.; Schemel, L.; Dare, C.; Yang, D.; Brafman, R.; Andrews, J.

    2007-05-01

    We monitored water quality from 2005 to 2007 in South San Francisco Bay using in-situ sondes that recorded time-series records of temperature, salinity, tidal depth, turbidity, and chlorophyll fluorescence. A vertical array of two sondes was used at Dumbarton Bridge, one sonde near water bottom, at 5 m mean water depth, and the other near the surface. An additional sonde was located at San Leandro. In order to validate sonde salinity data, we conducted laboratory analysis of 36 water samples collected at the locations over a 14 month period. Salinity values measured in the laboratory were in excellent agreement with data from the sondes at the corresponding times. High rainfall storms in winter 2005-2006 caused a remarkable decrease in salinity over a two-week period, and high turbidity values for nearly a week. Additional episodes of high rainfall and runoff continued into Spring 2006, producing unusually low salinity levels. Using data from the two-sonde array at Dumbarton Bridge, we identified periods of thermal stratification and destratification of several days in duration that appear to be induced by tidal mixing. We observed episodes of thermal stratification during low-energy neap tides, and destratification during high-energy spring tides. Salinity stratification appeared to be more persistent than thermal stratification, and less subject to tidal influence. We conducted periodogram analysis of time-series data. At Dumbarton Bridge, narrow high-amplitude peaks in spectral density occurred at periods of 12 and 24 hours for most parameters logged, reflecting the strong overprint of semidiurnal tides on physical processes there. At San Leandro, limited tidal circulation was reflected in the periodograms of many parameters by diffuse low-amplitude peaks at tidal periods.

  2. Sea Level Rise Modifies Biogeochemical Cycles in Winyah Bay, South Carolina Wetlands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chow, A. T.; Conner, W.; Rhew, R. C.; Suhre, D.; Wang, J.

    2013-12-01

    Rising sea level along the relatively flat southeastern US coastal plain significantly changes both vegetation composition and salinity of coastal wetlands, eventually modifying ecosystem functions and biogeochemical processes of these wetlands. We conducted a two-year study to evaluate the dynamics and relationships among aboveground productivity, greenhouse and halocarbon gas emissions, nutrients, and dissolved organic matter of a freshwater forested wetland, a salt-impacted and degraded forested wetland, and a salt marsh in Winyah Bay, South Carolina, representing the salinity gradient and the transition from freshwater forested wetland to salt marsh due to sea level rise. The degraded forested wetland had significantly lower above-ground productivity with annual stem growth of 102 g/m^2/yr and litterfall of 392 g/m^2/yr compared to the freshwater forested wetland (230 and 612 g/m^2/yr, respectively). High methane emission [> 50 mmol/m2/day, n = 4] was only observed in the freshwater-forested wetland but there was a strong smell of sulfide noticed in the salt marsh, suggesting that different redox processes control the decomposition of natural organic matter along the salinity gradient. In addition, the largest CHCl3 [209 × 183 nmol/m2/day, n = 4] emission was observed in the degraded forested wetland, but net CH3Cl [257 × 190 nmol/m2/day, n = 4] and CH3Br [28 × 20 nmol/m2/day, n = 4] emissions were only observed in the salt marsh, suggesting different mechanisms in response to salt intrusion at that sites. The highest DOC concentration (28 - 42 mg/L) in monthly water samples was found in degraded forest wetland, followed by the freshwater forested wetland (19 - 38 mg/L) and salt marsh (9 - 18 mg/L). Results demonstrate that the salt-impacted degraded wetland has unique biogeochemical cycles that differ from unaltered freshwater forested wetland and salt marsh.

  3. Marsh expansion at Calaveras Point Marsh, South San Francisco Bay, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watson, Elizabeth Burke

    2008-07-01

    Studies of shoreline progradation along low-energy vegetated shorelines have been limited, as these environments are generally experiencing erosion rather than deposition, with extreme erosion rates frequently found. This study examined yearly changes along a vegetated shoreline at Calaveras Point Marsh, South San Francisco Bay, California, using aerial photography, to determine the roles of climatic, watershed, and coastal process in driving shoreline changes. In addition, sediment accumulation was monitored on a yearly basis at 48 locations across the marsh to determine the role of geomorphic factors in promoting accumulation. Calaveras Point Marsh was found to have expanded from 49.26 ± 5.2 to 165.7 ± 4.7 ha between 1975 and 2005. Although the rate of marsh expansion was not positively correlated with yearly variability in precipitation, local streamflow, delta outflow, water level observations, population growth, or ENSO indices, marsh growth was greater during years of higher than average temperatures. Warmer temperatures may have promoted the recruitment and growth of Spartina foliosa, a C 4 grass known to be highly responsive to temperature. Other factors, such as the formation of a coastal barrier, a recent change in the location of the mouth of the Guadalupe River, and channel readjustment in response to diking are credited with driving the bulk of the marsh expansion. Sediment accumulation was found to be high closest to channels and to the shoreline, at low elevations and in recently vegetated marsh. Globally, the pace of sea level rise exerts the primary control on wetland development and persistence. However, at local geographic scales, factors such as tectonic events, modifications to natural sediment transport pathways or land use changes may overwhelm the effects of regional sea level rise, and allow for wetlands to develop, expand and persist despite rapid sea level rise.

  4. Benthic Oxygen Demand in Three Former Salt Ponds Adjacent to South San Francisco Bay, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Topping, Brent R.; Kuwabara, James S.; Athearn, Nicole D.; Takekawa, John Y.; Parcheso, Francis; Henderson, Kathleen D.; Piotter, Sara

    2009-01-01

    Sampling trips were coordinated in the second half of 2008 to examine the interstitial water in the sediment and the overlying bottom waters of three shallow (average depth 2 meters). The water column at all deployment sites was monitored with dataloggers for ancillary water-quality parameters (including dissolved oxygen, salinity, specific conductance, temperature, and pH) to facilitate the interpretation of benthic-flux results. Calculated diffusive benthic flux of dissolved (0.2-micron filtered) oxygen was consistently negative (that is, drawn from the water column into the sediment) and ranged between -0.5 x 10-6 and -37 x 10-6 micromoles per square centimeter per second (site averages depicted in table 2). Assuming pond areas of 1.0, 1.4, and 2.3 square kilometers for ponds A16, A14, and A3W, respectively, this converts to an oxygen mass flux into the ponds' sediment ranging from -1 to -72 kilograms per day. Diffusive oxygen flux into the benthos (listed as negative) was lowest in pond A14 (-0.5 x 10-6 to -1.8 x 10-6 micromoles per square centimeter per second) compared with diffusive flux estimates for ponds A16 and A3W (site averages -26 x 10-6 to -35 x 10-6 and -34 x 10-6 to -37 x 10-6 micromoles per square centimeter per second, respectively). These initial diffusive-flux estimates are of the order of magnitude of those measured in the South Bay using core-incubation experiments (Topping and others, 2004), which include bioturbation and bioirrigation effects. Estimates of benthic oxygen demand reported herein, based on molecular diffusion, serve as conservative estimates of benthic flux because solute transport across the sediment-water interface can be enhanced by multidisciplinary processes including bioturbation, bioirrigation, ground-water advection, and wind resuspension (Kuwabara and others, 2009).

  5. Heavy metals in bivalve mollusks collected from Da-Peng Bay Lagoon in south-southwestern Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Shue, Meei-Fang; Chen, Wen-Der; Su, Chia-Chi; Lu, Ming-Chun

    2014-01-01

    In this study, concentrations of several heavy metals (Cu, Pb, Zn, Ni, Cr, and Cd) were measured in Katelysia hiantina, Anomalocardia squamosa, Perna viridis, Anadara antiquata, Paphia undulata, and Sanguinolaria diphos bivalve mollusks from Da-Peng Bay Lagoon near the south-southwestern coast of Taiwan. The metal pollution index (MPI) values were highest and lowest in winter and autumn, respectively. The MPI value in the viscera of P. viridis was higher than in muscles. In all four seasons, Zn concentrations in viscera and muscles of P. viridis were higher than for other metals. The capacities of A. squamosa to accumulate the concentrations of Cu, Ni, and Cr and of A. antiquata to accumulate concentrations of Pb, Zn, and Cd were significant. Analytical results suggested that A. squamosa and A. antiquata may be used as bioindicators for monitoring Cu, Ni, Cr, Pb, Zn, and Cd heavy-metal pollution in Da-Peng Bay Lagoon throughout the year. PMID:24555680

  6. Hydrocarbon-bearing sandstone in the Upper Jurassic Naknek Formation on the south shore of Kamishak Bay

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stanley, Richard G.; Herriott, Trystan M.; Helmold, Kenneth P.; Gillis, Robert J.; Lillis, Paul G.

    2013-01-01

    The presence of an active petroleum system in Kamishak Bay is demonstrated by an outcrop of hydrocarbon-bearing sandstone in the Upper Jurassic Naknek Formation near the south shore of the bay (fig. 1). The outcrop is about 140 km southwest of Homer on a small, unnamed island near the mouth of the Douglas River (fig. 17). The existence of this outcrop was kindly reported to us by Les Magoon (U.S. Geological Survey, emeritus), who also provided a topographic map showing its exact position. The outcrop was mentioned very briefly in publications by Magoon and others (1975, p. 19) and by Lyle and Morehouse (1977, p. E-1), but to our knowledge there are no detailed descriptions of this outcrop or its hydrocarbons in the published scientific literature.

  7. Generation of deterministic tsunami hazard maps in the Bay of Cadiz, south-west Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Álvarez-Gómez, J. A.; Otero, L.; Olabarrieta, M.; González, M.; Carreño, E.; Baptista, M. A.; Miranda, J. M.; Medina, R.; Lima, V.

    2009-04-01

    The bay of Cádiz is a densely populated and industrialized area, and an important centre of tourism which multiplies its population in the summer months. This bay is situated in the Gulf of Cádiz, the south-west Atlantic margin of the Iberian Peninsula. From a tectonic point of view this area can be defined as a diffuse plate boundary, comprising the eastern edge of the Gloria and Tydeman transforms (where the deformation is mainly concentrated in these shear corridors), the Gorringe Bank, the Horseshoe Abyssal plain, the Portimao and Guadalquivir banks, and the western termination of the arcuated Gibraltar Arc. This deformation zone is the eastern edge of the Azores - Gibraltar seismic zone, being the present day boundary between the Eurasian and African plates. The motion between the plates is mainly convergent in the Gulf of Cádiz, but gradually changes to almost pure transcurrent along the Gloria Fault. The relative motion between the two plates is of the order of 4-5 mm/yr. In order to define the different tsunamigenic zones and to characterize its worst tsunamigenic source we have used seismic, structural and geological data. The numerical model used to simulate the wave propagation and coastal inundation is the C3 (Cantabria, COMCOT and Tsunami-Claw) model. C3 is a hybrid finite difference-finite volume method which balances between efficiency and accuracy. For offshore domain in deep waters the model applies an explicit finite difference scheme (FD), which is computationally fast and accurate in large grids. For near coast domains in coastal areas, it applies a finite volume scheme (VOF). It solves correctly the bore formation and the bore propagation. It is very effective solving the run-up and the run down. A set of five worst case tsunamigenic sources has been used with four different sea levels (minimum tide, most probable low tide, most probable high tide and maximum tide), in order to produce the following thematic maps with the C3 model: maximum

  8. NASA Ames DEVELOP Interns Collaborate with the South Bay Salt Pond Restoration Project to Monitor and Study Restoration Efforts using NASA's Satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Newcomer, Michelle E.; Kuss, Amber Jean; Nguyen, Andrew; Schmidt, Cynthia L.

    2012-01-01

    In the past, natural tidal marshes in the south bay were segmented by levees and converted into ponds for use in salt production. In an effort to provide habitat for migratory birds and other native plants and animals, as well as to rebuild natural capital, the South Bay Salt Pond Restoration Project (SBSPRP) is focused on restoring a portion of the over 15,000 acres of wetlands in California's South San Francisco Bay. The process of restoration begins when a levee is breached; the bay water and sediment flow into the ponds and eventually restore natural tidal marshes. Since the spring of 2010 the NASA Ames Research Center (ARC) DEVELOP student internship program has collaborated with the South Bay Salt Pond Restoration Project (SBSPRP) to study the effects of these restoration efforts and to provide valuable information to assist in habitat management and ecological forecasting. All of the studies were based on remote sensing techniques -- NASA's area of expertise in the field of Earth Science, and used various analytical techniques such as predictive modeling, flora and fauna classification, and spectral detection, to name a few. Each study was conducted by a team of aspiring scientists as a part of the DEVELOP program at Ames.

  9. Geologic framework studies of South Carolina's Long Bay from Little River Inlet to Winyah Bay, 1999-2003: geospatial data release

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Baldwin, W.E.; Denny, J.F.; Schwab, W.C.; Gayes, P.T.; Morton, R.; Driscoll, N.W.

    2007-01-01

    offshore of the northern South Carolina coast. The digital data presented herein accompany USGS Open-File Reports OFR 2004-1013 and OFR 2005-1345, describing the stratigraphic framework and modern sediment distribution within Long Bay, respectively. Direct on-line links to these publications are available within 'References' on the navigation bar to the left. Additional links to other publications and web sites are also available.

  10. Gazetteer of hydrologic characteristics of streams in Massachusetts; coastal river basins of the South Shore and Buzzards Bay

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wandle, S.W.; Morgan, M.A.

    1984-01-01

    The coastal river basins include the minor river basins draining into Massachusetts Bay along the South Shore or into Buzzards Bay. The larger of these basins are the North, South, Jones, Wareham, Weweantic, Mattapoisett, Acushnet, and Slocums River basins. Drainage areas, using the latest available 1:24,000 scale topographic maps, were computed for data collection sites. Statistics on streamflow characteristics computed with a new data base are presented for six gaged streams. Daily-flow records through 1982 were used to compute annual and monthly flow statistics, duration of daily flow values, and the annual 7-day mean low flow at the 2-year and 10-year recurrence intervals. Seven-day low-flow statistics are presented for 49 partial-record sites and procedures used to determine the hydrologic characteristics of the basin are summarized. This gazetteer will aid in the planning and siting of water-resources related activities and will provide a common data base for governmental agencies and the engineering and planning communities. (USGS)

  11. Modeling the fate of p,p'-DDT in water and sediment of two typical estuarine bays in South China: Importance of fishing vessels' inputs.

    PubMed

    Fang, Shu-Ming; Zhang, Xianming; Bao, Lian-Jun; Zeng, Eddy Y

    2016-05-01

    Antifouling paint applied to fishing vessels is the primary source of dichloro-diphenyl-trichloroethane (DDT) to the coastal marine environments of China. With the aim to provide science-based support of potential regulations on DDT use in antifouling paint, we utilized a fugacity-based model to evaluate the fate and impact of p,p'-DDT, the dominant component of DDT mixture, in Daya Bay and Hailing Bay, two typical estuarine bays in South China. The emissions of p,p'-DDT from fishing vessels to the aquatic environments of Hailing Bay and Daya Bay were estimated as 9.3 and 7.7 kg yr(-1), respectively. Uncertainty analysis indicated that the temporal variability of p,p'-DDT was well described by the model if fishing vessels were considered as the only direct source, i.e., fishing vessels should be the dominant source of p,p'-DDT in coastal bay areas of China. Estimated hazard quotients indicated that sediment in Hailing Bay posed high risk to the aquatic system, and it would take at least 21 years to reduce the hazards to a safe level. Moreover, p,p'-DDT tends to migrate from water to sediment in the entire Hailing Bay and Daya Bay. On the other hand, our previous research indicated that p,p'-DDT was more likely to migrate from sediment to water in the maricultured zones located in shallow waters of these two bays, where fishing vessels frequently remain. These findings suggest that relocating mariculture zones to deeper waters would reduce the likelihood of farmed fish contamination by p,p'-DDT. PMID:27016888

  12. Morphology and texture of modern sediments on the inner shelf of South Carolina's Long Bay from Little River Inlet to Winyah Bay

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Denny, J.F.; Baldwin, W.E.; Schwab, W.C.; Gayes, P.T.; Morton, R.; Driscoll, N.W.

    2007-01-01

    High-resolution sea-floor mapping techniques, including sidecan-sonar, seismic-reflection, swath bathymetric systems, and bottom sampling, were used to map the geologic framework offshore of the northern South Carolina coast in order to provide a better understanding of the physical processes controlling coastal erosion and shoreline change. Four general sea floor environments were identified through analysis of sidescan-sonar, swath bathymetry, and surface sediment texture: inlet shoal complexes, shore-detached shoals, hardground, and mixed zones. Inlet shoal complexes generally lie offshore of modern inlet systems, with the exception of a shore-detached shoal lying offshore of Myrtle Beach. The shoals show 1 - 3 m in relief and comprise the largest accumulations of modern sediment within the inner shelf survey area. Surficial sediments within the shoal complexes are characterized by a low-backscatter, moderately sorted fine sand. Hardground areas are characterized by exposures of Cretaceous and Tertiary strata and Pleistocene channel-fill deposits. These areas display little to no bathymetric relief and are characterized by high-backscatter, coarser grained sand. Mixed zones show small-scale spatial variations in bathymetry, surface texture and backscatter. These areas are characterized by a thin layer of modern sediment ( Textural and geomorphic variations suggest a long-term net southerly flow within the study area. The general acoustic and textural character of the inner shelf within Long Bay suggests long-term erosion, reworking and continued modification of inner-shelf deposits by modern nearshore processes.

  13. Dissolved Oxygen in Guadalupe Slough and Pond A3W, South San Francisco Bay, California, August and September 2007

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Shellenbarger, Gregory; Schoellhamer, David H.; Morgan, Tara L.; Takekawa, John Y.; Athearn, Nicole D.; Henderson, Kathleen D.

    2008-01-01

    Initial restoration of former salt evaporation ponds under the South Bay Salt Pond Restoration Project in San Francisco Bay included the changing of water-flow patterns and the monitoring of water quality of discharge waters from the ponds. Low dissolved oxygen (DO) concentrations became evident in discharge waters when the ponds first were opened in 2004. This was a concern, because of the potential for low-DO pond discharge to decrease the DO concentrations in the sloughs that receive water from the ponds. However, as of summer 2007, only limited point-measurements of DO concentrations had been made in the receiving sloughs adjacent to the discharge ponds. In this report, we describe two short studies aimed at understanding the natural variability of slough DO and the effect of pond discharge on the DO concentrations in the sloughs. Pond A3W (a discharge pond) and the adjacent Guadalupe Slough were instrumented in August and September 2007 to measure DO, temperature, conductivity, and pH. In addition, Mowry and Newark Sloughs were instrumented during the August study to document DO variability in nearby sloughs that were unaffected by pond discharge. The results showed that natural tidal variability in the slough appeared to dominate and control the slough DO concentrations. Water-quality parameters between Guadalupe Slough and Mowry and Newark Sloughs could not be directly compared because deployment locations were different distances from the bay. Pond-discharge water was identified in Guadalupe Slough using the deployed instruments, but, counter to the previous assumption, the pond discharge, at times, increased DO concentrations in the slough. The effects of altering the volume of pond discharge were overwhelmed by natural spring-neap tidal variability in the slough. This work represents a preliminary investigation by the U.S. Geological Survey of the effects of pond discharge on adjacent sloughs, and the results will be used in designing a comprehensive DO

  14. Biogeochemical study of water and bottom sediments from the Khai river - Nha Trang Bay estuarine system, South China Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shulga, Natalia; Lobys, Nikolay; Drozdova, Anastasia; Peresypkin, Valery

    2014-05-01

    The present study was carried out in Nha Trang Bay (Southern Vietnam, the South China Sea). The samples of water, suspended matter and bottom sediments were collected in summer 2010-2012 in section from the estuary of the Khai River to the marine part of the bay. The samples were analyzed in the stationary lab of IO RAS, Moscow, by TOC-V-CPH, GC/MS and pirolysis methods. We report here the novel data on sources, transformation and burial of OM coming from the Khai river waters. The investigation is focused on ontent and distribution of suspended matter (SM) in the estuary, dissolved organic carbon (DOC), particulated organic carbon (POC); molecular and group composition of hydrocarbons (n-alkanes, steranes, hopanes) and mercury content in water, SM and bottom sediments. It was found that concentration of POC and SM decrease in the Nha Trang Bay waters from estuary to the open part of the bay. However, major changes in the concentration of SM and POC belong to the zone of salinity gradient.DOC behavior is more stable throughout the study area. Organic-geochemical indicators estimation allowed recognition of genesis and transformation degree of organic matter in the study area. The estuary is characterized by mixed genesis of SM with a predominance of allochthonous organic matter whereas outlying parts of the Nha Trang bay are characterized by autochthonous OM. Composition of OM in sediments reflects regularities identified above, despite of the interannual and seasonal variability in the study area. The investigation reveals a predominance of terrestrial organic matter in the silt sediments of the estuary, transported by the Khai river. Distribution of OM in sediments of marine part of the bay is mosaic, with a predominance of planktonogenic, bacterial or terrestrial input at their complex combination. Local anthropogenic pollution as well as an impact of industrial city effluents are found in river- and seaport areas. According to obtained data sedimentation rate

  15. A Case History of the Science and Management Collaboration in Understanding Hypoxia Events in Long Bay, South Carolina, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanger, Denise; Hernandez, Debra; Libes, Susan; Voulgaris, George; Davis, Braxton; Smith, Erik; Shuford, Rebecca; Porter, Dwayne; Koepfler, Eric; Bennett, Joseph

    2010-09-01

    Communication of knowledge between the scientific and management communities is a difficult process complicated by the distinctive nature of professional career goals of scientists and decision-makers. This article provides a case history highlighting a collaboration between the science and management communities that resulted from a response to a 2004 hypoxia, or low dissolved oxygen, event in Long Bay, off Myrtle Beach, South Carolina. A working group of scientists and decision-makers was established at the time of the event and has continued to interact to develop a firm understanding of the drivers responsible for hypoxia formation in Long Bay. Several factors were found to be important to ensure that these collaborative efforts were productive: (1) genuine interest in collaboratively working across disciplines to examine a problem; (2) commitment by agency leadership, decision-makers, and researchers to create successful communication mechanisms; (3) respect for each others’ perspectives and an understanding how science and management are performed and that they are not mutually exclusive; (4) networking among researchers and decision-makers to ensure appropriate team members are involved in the process; (5) use of decision-maker input in the formulation of research and monitoring projects; and (6) commitment of resources for facilitation to ensure that researchers and decision-makers are communicating effectively.

  16. Effects of hypoxia caused by mussel farming on benthic foraminifera in semi-closed Gamak Bay, South Korea.

    PubMed

    Lee, Yeon Gyu; Jeong, Da Un; Lee, Jung Sick; Choi, Yang Ho; Lee, Moon Ok

    2016-08-15

    Seawater monitoring and geochemical and benthic foraminiferal analysis of sediments were conducted to identify the effects of hypoxia created by a mussel farm on benthic foraminifera in a semi-closed bay. Extremely polluted reductive conditions with a high content of organic matter (OM) at >12.0% and oxygen minimum zones (OMZs) with dissolved oxygen (DO) <0.4mg∙L(-1) were formed below the mussel farm in the northwest area of Gamak Bay, and gradually diffused toward the south. Highly similar patterns of variation were observed in species diversity, abundance frequency, and benthic foraminiferal assemblage distributed from Elphidium subarcticum-Ammonia beccarii in the northwest area through E. subarcticum-A. beccarii-Trochammina hadai, E. subarcticum-A. beccarii-Elphidiumclavatum, and E. clavatum-Ammonia ketienziensis in the southern area. These phenomena were caused by hydrodynamics in the current water mass. It was thought that E. subarcticum is a bioindicator of organic pollution caused by the mussel farm. PMID:27267115

  17. Otolith chemistry of fishes from Kosi Bay, South Africa: A preliminary multiple analytical methods approach to reconstruct fish migrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holbach, Andreas; Cowley, Paul D.; Kramar, Utz; Neumann, Thomas

    2012-08-01

    Over exploitation of fish stocks in coastal areas is a subject of global concern. Increasing numbers of traditional fish traps, recreational fishing effort and unknown extents of illegal gillnetting are blamed for the declining abundance of estuarine-dependent fish species in the Kosi Bay estuarine lake system in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. Otoliths from four important fishery species (Lutjanus argentimaculatus, Pomadasys commersonnii, Acanthopagrus vagus, and Rhabdosargus sarba) and water samples collected from throughout the Kosi Bay system were analyzed for trace element constituents and δ18O values, in an attempt to reconstruct fish movements. The applied microscopic X-ray fluorescence analysis proved valuable in detecting μm-scale spatially resolved Sr/Ca ratio distributions across otolith thin sections. Sr/Ca ratios and δ18O in otoliths correlated well with ambient water conditions and, thus, enabled us to reconstruct migratory histories of individual fish in the estuarine lake system. The findings are representative of the known biology of these species, although exact spatial and temporal ranges of migrations remain unclear. Interestingly, samples of two species (L. argentimaculatus and R. sarba) did not show any clue of migrations back to sea, which would be necessary for successful spawning. Further laboratory and field investigations with larger sample sizes are necessary to detect fishery impacts on migratory behavior at a population level.

  18. Seasonal community structure of mesozooplankton in the Daya Bay, South China Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Huaxue; Li, Kaizhi; Huang, Honghui; Song, Xingyu; Yin, Jianqiang; Huang, Liangmin

    2013-09-01

    Mesozooplankton are key components of coastal ecosystems, linking the microbial food web to the classic food chain. In this study, species composition and abundance of mesozooplankton is studied for the Daya Bay in April (spring) and October (fall), 2006. A total of 27 species of mesozooplankton were identified in spring and 58 species in fall. Dominant species were Oithona tenuis, Flaccisagitta enflata, Penilia avirostris and Centropages tenuiremis in spring, shifting to Microsetella norvegica, Oithona tenuis and Parvocalanus crassirostris in fall. Higher mesozooplankton abundance was found at Aotou Cove and Dapeng'ao Cove compared to other stations, indicating the influence of eutrophication on mesozooplankton community in the Daya Bay. The outbreak of Noctiluca scintillans bloom in spring reduced the species diversity and abundance of mesozooplankton.

  19. Vegetation disturbance and maintenance of diversity in intermittently flooded Carolina Bays in South Carolina

    SciTech Connect

    Kirkman, L.K.; Sharitz, R.R. )

    1994-02-01

    The authors manipulated the fire regime and soil disturbance in four grass-dominated Carolina bay wetlands during a prolonged drought period and examined vegetation composition and cover within dominant vegetation types prior to and after treatments. The authors used the seedling emergence technique to determine the role of the seed bank in the recovery process. Burning did not affect richness, evenness, or diversity (all vegetation types combined); however, soil tillage increased diversity, including both evenness and richness. Percent similarity of the vegetation before and after disturbance was greater in the burning treatment than in the tillage treatment, probably due to greater disruption of the rhizomes of the perennial vegetation by tillage. Vegetation types varied in degree of recovery, although dominance was not altered by either treatment. Several native fugitive species increased following disturbance, indicating that species coexistence in these Carolina bay wetlands depends on the life history characteristics of residual vegetation, as well as that of seed bank species.

  20. [Annual change of phytoplankton ecological features in Fangchenggang Bay of Guangxi, South China].

    PubMed

    Zhuang, Jun-Lian; Xu, Ming-Ben; Zhang, Rong-Can; Chen, Bo

    2011-05-01

    In March, June, September, and December 2007, investigations were conducted on the species composition, dominant species, community structure, and abundance distribution of phytoplankton in the Fangchenggang Bay of Guangxi. Based on the investigation data, the phytoplankton abundance, biotic index, and their correlations with environmental factors were analyzed. A total of 138 species of 54 genera were identified, among which, 112 species belonged to 37 genera of diatoms, 21 species belonged to 12 genera of dinoflagellates, 2 species belonged to chrysophyta, 2 species belonged to chlorophyta, and 1 species belonged to cyanophyta. In whole year, the dominant species was Skeletonema costatum. The species number had a trend decreasing from the outer to the inner of the Bay and from spring to winter, while the cell abundance was decreased from the inner to the outer of the Bay. There was an obvious annual change in the cell abundance, being the highest (151.39 x 10(4) cells x dm(-3)) in summer (June) and the lowest (0.35 x 10(4) cells x dm(-3)) in winter (December). In spring, both the diversity and the species number were higher. Correlation analysis demonstrated that the distribution of phytoplankton community had definite correlations with water nutrient content, temperature and salinity. At the observation stations 1 and 2 in west Bay, due to the effects of Fangcheng River runoff and hydrodynamic forces such as tide, water salinity was lower and nutrient content was higher, and accordingly, S. costatum cells in summer could greatly reproduce, even result in high probability of red tide. PMID:21812311

  1. The South Carolina Coastal Erosion Study: Numerical modeling of circulation and sediment transport in Long Bay, SC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Warner, J. C.; Sullivan, C.; Voulgaris, G.; Work, P.; Haas, K.; Hanes, D. M.

    2004-12-01

    Long Bay, South Carolina, is a heavily populated coastal region that supports a large tourism industry. Sand resources are important for both recreation and coastal habitat. Earlier geological framework studies have identified a large sand deposit oblique to the shoreline, oriented clockwise in the offshore direction. This sand feature is ~ 10 km long, 2 km wide, and in excess of 3m thick, possibly providing a source for beach nourishment material. Objectives of this study are to describe the physical processes that control the transport of sediment in Long Bay, specifically off the coast of Myrtle Beach, South Carolina. Specifically we seek to 1) measure and model the oceanographic circulation in the region, 2) identify the processes that maintain the presence of the offshore sand feature, 3) quantify the control that the shoal exerts on the nearshore through changes in wave energy propagation, and 4) identify consequences of removal of the offshore sand feature. Both observational and numerical experiments are used to study the oceanographic circulation and transport of sediment. The observational study is described in an accompanying poster and consists of eight sites that measured tides, surface waves, currents, salinity, temperature, suspended sediment concentrations, and bed forms from October 2003 to April 2004. Numerical modeling for circulation and sediment transport in the study region uses a new version of ROMS (v2.1) that now includes transport of multiple grain sizes, coupling of sediment transport to wave bottom boundary layer models, and evolution of the bottom morphology. The SWAN model is used to compute wave propagation. Results indicate that currents in the study area are strongly influenced by both tidal motion and wind driven setup / setdown. The presence of the offshore sand feature alters the residual flows in the region. Sediment transport is more significant during periods of sustained strong winds that generate local waves. Wind direction

  2. Cross-shore variation of wind-driven flows on the inner shelf in Long Bay, South Carolina, United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gutierrez, Benjamin T.; Voulgaris, George; Work, Paul A.

    2006-03-01

    The cross-shore structure of subtidal flows on the inner shelf (7 to 12 m water depth) of Long Bay, South Carolina, a concave-shaped bay, is examined through the analysis of nearly 80 days of near-bed (1.7-2.2 m above bottom) current observations acquired during the spring and fall of 2001. In the spring and under northeastward winds (upwelling favorable) a two-layered flow was observed at depths greater than 10 m, while closer to the shore the currents were aligned with the wind. The two-layered flow is attributed to the presence of stratification, which has been observed under similar conditions in the South Atlantic Bight. When the wind stress was southwestward (downwelling favorable) and exceeded 0.1 N/m2, vertical mixing occurred, the two-layered flow pattern disappeared, and currents were directed alongshore with the wind at all sites and throughout the water column. In the fall, near-bed flows close to the shore (water depth <7 m) were often reduced compared to or opposed those measured farther offshore under southwestward winds. A simplified analysis of the depth-averaged, alongshore momentum balance illustrates that the alongshore pressure gradient approached or exceeded the magnitude of the alongshore wind stress at the same time that the nearshore alongshore current opposed the wind stress and alongshore currents farther offshore. In addition, the analysis suggests that the wind stress is reduced closer to shore so that the alongshore pressure gradient is large enough to drive the flow against the wind.

  3. Metal uptake by phytoplankton during a bloom in South San Francisco Bay: Implications for metal cycling in estuaries

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Luoma, S.N.; VanGeen, A.; Lee, B.-G.; Cloern, J.E.

    1998-01-01

    The 1994 spring phytoplankton bloom in South San Francisco Bay caused substantial reductions in concentrations of dissolved Cd, Ni, and Zn, but not Cu. We estimate that the equivalent of ~60% of the total annual input of Cd, Ni, and Zn from local waste-water treatment plants is cycled through the phytoplankton in South Bay. The results suggest that processes that affect phytoplankton bloom frequency or intensity in estuaries (e.g. nutrient enrichment) may also affect metal trapping. The bloom was characterized by hydrographic surveys conducted at weekly intervals for 9 weeks. Metal samples were collected from the water column on three occasions, timed to bracket the period when the bloom was predicted. Factors that might confound observations of biological influences, such as freshwater inputs, were relatively constant during the study. Before the bloom, concentrations of dissolved Cd were 0.81 ?? 0.02 nmol kg-1, Zn concentrations were 19.8 ?? 1.5 nmol kg-1, Ni were 42 ?? 1.4 nmol kg-1, and Cu were 37 ?? 1.4 nmol kg-1. The values are elevated relative to riverine and coastal end-members, reflecting inputs from wastewater and(or) sediments. At the height of the bloom, dissolved Zn, Cd, and Ni were reduced to 19, 50, and 75% of their prebloom concentrations, respectively. Dissolved Cu concentrations increased 20%. The mass of Cd taken up by phytoplankton was similar to the mass of Cd removed from solution if particle settling was considered, and Cd concentrations estimated in phytoplankton were higher than concentrations in suspended particulate material (SPM). Particulate concentrations of Zn and Ni during the bloom appeared to be dominated by the influence of changes in resuspension of Zn- and Ni-rich sediments.

  4. Geological controls on submarine groundwater discharge in Long Bay, South Carolina (USA)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Viso, Richard; McCoy, Clay; Gayes, Paul; Quafisi, Dimitri

    2010-02-01

    A combination of geophysical methods including continuous electrical resistivity and high-resolution Chirp sub-bottom profiling were utilized to characterize geologic controls on pore fluid salinity in the nearshore of Long Bay, SC. Resistivity values ranged from less than 1 Ω m to greater than 40 Ω m throughout the bay. Areas of elevated electrical resistivity suggest the influence of relatively fresher water on pore water composition. Geophysical evidence alone does not eliminate all ambiguity associated with lithological and porosity variations that may also contribute to electrical structure of shallow marine sediments. The anomalous field is of sufficient magnitude that lithological variation alone does not control the spatial distribution of elevated electrical resistivity zones. Geographical distribution of electrical anomalies and structures interpreted from nearby sub-bottom profiles indicates abrupt changes in shallow geologic units control preferential pathways for discharge of fresh water into the marine environment. Shore parallel resistivity profiles show dramatic decreases in magnitude with increasing distance from shore, suggesting a significant portion of the terrestrially driven fresh SGD in Long Bay is occurring via the surficial aquifer within a few hundred meters of shore.

  5. Estimating the Response of Physical Processes in the South San Francisco Bay for Flood Stage Frequency Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andes, L.; Wu, F.; MacWilliams, M.; Lu, C.; Lo, J.

    2012-12-01

    Coastal flooding in the far south San Francisco Bay (SSFB) can be a function of astronomical tide, residual tide, in-bay wind speed and direction and fluvial discharge. These physical processes and coastal levee failure were considered as input parameters into a Monte Carlo Simulation (MCS) to estimate coastal flood stage frequency in the SSFB. Limited data is available in the SSFB to estimate the contribution of these physical processes to coastal flood statistics. Over 100 years of measured water surface elevation (WSE) is available at the San Francisco tide station which can be used as input to hydrodynamic model simulations to estimate the WSE response in the SSFB. Data sampling criteria have been developed to select significant events at the San Francisco tide station for data transfer to the project site and statistical analysis. The coincidently sampled astronomical and residual tides at the San Francisco tide station were analyzed to cover the full range of the combinations of astronomical and residual tides that contribute to coastal flood statistics at the project site. A look-up table of astronomical and residual tide in the form of WSE responses at the project site from the hydrodynamic simulations was established for the interpolation in the MCS. The hydrodynamic model simulations indicated that the higher-high astronomical tides between 5.15 and 7.25 feet MLLW amplifies with a factor of 1.40 to 1.90 as a function of tidal frequency and water depth, including tidal range. The residual tide varies minimally as it propagates into the SSFB. In-Bay wind set-up from a significant event was found to contribute on the order of one foot to the total WSE in the SSFB; however, wind events with strong magnitudes along the primary axis of the bay occur infrequently making an insignificant contribution to the overall flood statistics. The fluvial discharges of Guadalupe River and Coyote Creek were considered in the hydrodynamic simulations as they are located

  6. The Natural History and Conservation of Indian Ocean Humpback Dolphins (Sousa plumbea) in South African Waters.

    PubMed

    Plön, Stephanie; Cockcroft, Victor G; Froneman, William P

    2015-01-01

    Although most knowledge on the biology of Sousa plumbea has primarily come from South African waters, a number of research gaps remain on the natural history and status of the species in the region. Research on two populations in South African waters for which some historical data exist may aid in highlighting long-term changes in the biology and natural history of this little known coastal delphinid. Recent studies on the age, growth and reproduction of animals incidentally caught in shark nets in Richards Bay, KwaZulu-Natal, yielded a lower maximum age estimate of 24 (previously 46) growth-layer-groups (GLGs), sexual maturity of 7.5 and 8 GLGs in males and females (previously 12-13 and 10 GLGs, respectively), an ovulation rate of 0.2 and a 5-year calving interval (previously 0.3 and 3-year calving interval) than previously reported. These differences may be due to a difference in the interpretation of GLGs between observers or a predominance of young males being caught in the shark nets. Stomach content analysis revealed a change in the relative proportions of the main prey items over the past 25 years, but no difference in species richness or diversity was found between the sexes. No change in trophic level was recorded between 1972 and 2009. Field studies in Algoa Bay, Eastern Cape, conducted 16 years apart indicated a decline in the mean group size (from 7 to 3 animals), a decline in the maximum group size (from 24 to 13 animals), an increase in solitary individuals (15.4-36%), and a change in behaviour from predominantly foraging (64-18%) to mainly travelling (24-49%). The observed changes are suggestive of a change in food availability, resulting in a range shift or a potential decline in numbers. These studies indicate the importance of long-term studies to monitor population changes and their possible causes. A number of threats, such as shark nets, pollution (noise and chemical), and coastal development and disturbance, to the humpback dolphin populations

  7. Impacts of mariculture practices on the temporal distribution of macrobenthos in Sandu Bay, South China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Jin

    2012-05-01

    Sandu Bay is located in the East China Sea and is characterized by high-density fish farming and kelp culture. Despite this, little is known about the impacts of these different mariculture practices on the local environment. We investigated the temporal variation in macrobenthos and environmental conditions at three sites in the bay (fish farming site, kelp culture site, and a control site). We collected water and sediment samples during nine cruises between May 2009 and February 2010. The density of macrobenthos peaked at the fish farming site in July (655 ind./m2) whereas density did not fluctuate as widely at the other two sites. Biomass varied significantly at both the control and kelp culture sites, but had only a single peak at the fish farming site in June (21.90 g/m2). The dominant species varied throughout the study period at the control and kelp culture sites, whereas a single terebellid species ( Lysilla pacifica) dominated the macrobenthos at the fish farming site. The diversity index H' increased at the control site beginning in February then decreased after May, whereas H' was low at the other sites in December. The mean dissolved oxygen level was highest at the control site (6.59 mg/L) and lowest at the fish farming site (5.54 mg/L). DO levels were lowest at all sites in summer (July and August). The sediment acid volatile sulfide content was higher at the fish farming site (1.46 mg/g dry weight) than those at the kelp culture and control sites (1.22 and 0.14 mg/g, respectively). Our results suggest that mariculture practices have a clear impact on the benthic environment/community in Sandu Bay.

  8. Effect of channel bifurcation on residual estuarine circulation: Winyah Bay, South Carolina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Yong H.; Voulgaris, George

    2005-12-01

    The residual circulation pattern of Winyah Bay, the fourth largest estuary on the eastern coast of the US, is examined using stationary and shipborne current measurements during periods of low freshwater discharge. The estuary has a complex morphology with a single channel and narrow banks at the river entrance and the bay mouth, and a bifurcated channel system (main and western channels, respectively) in the middle part that appears to affect the residual circulation. Overall, the upper (single channel morphology) and middle (dual-channel morphology) parts of the estuary exhibit a baroclinic residual circulation. The presence of bifurcated channels in the middle part of the estuary modifies the typical gravitational circulation. The near-bed landward-directed residual flow is stronger in the deeper main channel than the shallower western channel. This is the result of the fact that the magnitude of residual flow scales with the water depth of the channel and it is also influenced by the opposing patterns of channel alignment in the northern and southern junctions. Analytical modeling confirms that the observed residual currents in the upper and middle estuary are density-induced. In the lower estuary, residual flow is directed seaward throughout the water column of the channel while in the adjacent shoals the residual flow is directed landward, suggesting that in contrast to the upper and middle estuary, the residual flow near the mouth is barotropic, controlled by the tides and the channel-bank morphology.

  9. Occurrence and Distribution of Microplastics in the Sea Surface Microlayer in Jinhae Bay, South Korea.

    PubMed

    Song, Young Kyoung; Hong, Sang Hee; Jang, Mi; Han, Gi Myung; Shim, Won Joon

    2015-10-01

    Microplastic contamination of the marine environment is a worldwide concern. The abundance of microplastics was evaluated in the sea surface microlayer in Jinhae Bay, on the southern coast of Korea. The microplastics in this study are divided into paint resin particles and plastics by polymer type. The mean abundance of paint resin particles (94 ± 68 particles/L) was comparable to that of plastics (88 ± 68 particles/L). Fragmented microplastics, including paint resin particles, accounted for 75 % of total particles, followed by spherules (14 %), fibers (5.8 %), expanded polystyrene (4.6 %), and sheets (1.6 %). Alkyd (35 %) and poly(acrylate/styrene) (16 %) derived from ship paint resin were dominant, and the other microplastic samples consisted of polypropylene, polyethylene, phenoxy resin, polystyrene, polyester, synthetic rubber, and other polymers. The abundance of plastics was significantly (p < 0.05) higher in Jinhae Bay, which is surrounded by a coastal city, than along the east coast of Geoje, which is relatively open sea. The floating microplastic abundance in surface water was the highest reported worldwide. PMID:26254899

  10. Implication of salt marsh foraminiferal assemblages in Suncheon Bay, South Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeong, Da Un; Lee, Yeon Gyu; Kang, Sora; Kim, Shin; Lee, Jung Sick

    2016-03-01

    Analyses of the compositions of benthic foraminifera and sediment, observations of tidal level and salinity, and a geographic survey of the tidal salt marsh in Suncheon Bay were conducted to examine the vertical distribution of foraminifera and evaluate their potential use for sea level studies. The salt marsh is composed mainly of fine-grained silty clay sediment and its salinity is below approximately 11 psu. The tidal current flows in the southwest-tonortheast direction with an average velocity of 26.57 cm/s. A total of 33 species of foraminifera (17 agglutinated and 16 calcareoushyaline) belonging to 24 genera was identified. The species diversity (1.1 on average) was relatively low. Dominant species were Ammonia beccarii, Miliammina fusca, Haplophragmoides wilberti, and Jadammina macrescens. Calcareous foraminifera (29.5%) were dominantly represented by the Ammonia beccarii assemblage, which characterized the region between mean tide level and mean low high water (MLHW). Agglutinated species (70.5%) were represented mostly by Miliammina fusca, Miliammina fusca-Haplophragmoides wilberti, and Haplophragmoides wilberti assemblages, which characterized the MLHW-mean high water (MHW), MHW-mean highest high water (MHHW), and MHHW-Approx. highest high water tide levels, respectively. In particular, the Haplophragmoides wilberti assemblage is believed to represent the highest elevation zone of foraminifera in the salt marshes of Suncheon Bay and is considered to be a reliable indicator of sea level as a result of its narrow vertical range.

  11. Effects of temperature and nutrients on changes in genetic diversity of bacterioplankton communities in a semi-closed bay, South Korea.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyun Jung; Jung, Seung Won; Lim, Dhong-Il; Jang, Min-Chul; Lee, Taek-Kyun; Shin, Kyoungsoon; Ki, Jang-Seu

    2016-05-15

    Bacterioplankton communities in a semi-closed bay (Jangmok Bay, South Korea) were analysed using a 16S rDNA multiplex 454 pyrosequencing approach. Diversity and operational taxonomic units of bacterioplankton communities in the Jangmok Bay are highest in cold water seasons and lowest in warm water ones. During cold seasons, α-proteobacteria respond rapidly to pulses of the concentration of inorganic nutrients, while γ-proteobacteria during warm water seasons are the most active type of bacterioplankton resent in the prevailing conditions, which include high dissolved organic carbon, chemical oxygen demand and primary production. Cyanobacteria, a minor group constituting 4.58% of the total bacterioplankton, are more abundant at low temperature. Flavobacteria are more abundant in nutrient-rich conditions and the abundance of this group also demonstrated a delayed decline following summer phytoplankton blooms. The pronounced seasonal oscillations in phosphorus concentration and temperature exert strong selection pressure on bacterioplankton communities. PMID:27001714

  12. Relation between species assemblages of fishes and water quality in salt ponds and sloughs in South San Francisco Bay

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mejia, F.; Saiki, M.K.; Takekawa, J.Y.

    2008-01-01

    This study was conducted to characterize fishery resources inhabiting salt-evaporation ponds and sloughs in South San Francisco Bay, and to identify key environmental variables that influence distribution of fishes. The ponds, which were originally constructed and operated for commercial production of salt, have undergone preliminary modifications (installation of culverts, gates, and other water-control structures) in preparation for full restoration to mostly tidal wetlands over the next 2 decades. We sampled fish from two salt-pond complexes (Alviso complex and Eden Landing complex), each consisting of several pond systems and their associated sloughs. Cluster analysis of species of fish indicated that at least two species assemblages were present, one characteristic of ponds and the other characteristic of sloughs and slough-like ponds. The slough-like ponds exhibited water-quality conditions (especially salinity) that resembled conditions found in the sloughs. Pond fishes were represented by 12 species, whereas slough fishes were represented by 22 species. Except for bay pipefish (Syngnathus leptorhynchus), which was unique to ponds, all species present in ponds also were in sloughs and slough-like ponds. These results indicated that species of fish in ponds originated from the sloughs. According to canonical-discriminant analysis, four environmental variables were useful for discriminating between the two species assemblages. Most discriminatory power was contributed by the index of habitat connectivity, a measure of minimum distance that a fish must travel to reach a particular pond from the nearest slough. Apparently, as fish from sloughs enter and move through interconnected salt ponds, environmental stress factors increase in severity until only the more tolerant species remain. The most likely source of stress is salinity, because this variable was second in importance to the index of habitat connectivity in discriminating between the two species

  13. Using Hyperspectral Remote Sensing Models to Determine Phytoplankton Density in the Coastal Waters of Long Bay, South Carolina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harrington, J. E.; Ali, K.

    2013-12-01

    The southeast coastal region is one of the fastest growing regions in the United States and the increasing utilization of open water bodies has led to the deterioration of water quality and aquatic ecology, placing the future of these resources at risk. In coastal zones, a key index that can be used to assess the stress on the environment is the water quality. The shallow nearshore waters of Long Bay, South Carolina (SC) are heavily influenced by multiple biogeochemical constituents or color producing agents (CPAs) such as, phytoplankton, suspend matter, and dissolved organic carbon. The interaction of the various chemical, biological and physical components gives rise to the optical complexity observed in the coastal waters producing turbid waters. Ecological stress on these environments is reflected by the increase in the frequency and severity of Harmful Algal Blooms (HABs), a prime agent of water quality deterioration, including foul odors and tastes, deoxygenation of bottom waters (hypoxia), toxicity, fish kills, and food web alterations. These are of great concern for human health and are detrimental to the marine life. Therefore, efficient monitoring tools are required for early detection and forecasting purposes as well as to understand the state of the conditions and better protect, manage and address the question of how various natural and anthropogenic factors affect the health of these environments. This study assesses the efficiency remote sensing as a potential tool for accurate and timely detection of HABs, as well as for providing high spatial and temporal resolution information regarding the biogeodynamics in coastal water bodies. Existing blue-green and NIR-red based remote sensing algorithms are applied to the reflectance data obtained using ASD spectroradiometer to predict the amount of chlorophyll, an independent of other associated CPAs in the Long Bay waters. The pigment is the primary light harvesting pigment in all phytoplankton and is used

  14. Development of a regional ocean color algorithm using field- and satellite-derived datasets: Long Bay, South Carolina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryan, Kimberly Susan

    Coastal and inland waters represent a diverse set of resources that support natural habitat and provide numerous ecosystem services to the human population. Conventional techniques to monitor water quality using in situ sensors and laboratory analysis of water samples can be very time- and cost-intensive. Alternatively, remote sensing techniques offer better spatial coverage and temporal resolution to accurately characterize the dynamic and unique water quality parameters. However, bio and geo-optical models are required that relate the remotely sensed spectral data with color producing agents (CPAs) that define the water quality. These CPAs include chlorophyll-a, suspended sediments, and colored-dissolved organic matter. Developing these models may be challenging for coastal environments such as Long Bay, South Carolina, due to the presence of multiple optically interfering CPAs. In this work, a regionally tiered ocean color model was developed using band ratio techniques to specifically predict the variability of chlorophyll-a concentrations in the turbid Long Bay waters. This model produced higher accuracy results (r-squared = 0.62; RMSE = 0.87 micrograms per liter) compared to the existing models, which gave a highest r-squared value of 0.58 and RMSE = 0.99 micrograms per liter. To further enhance the retrievals of chlorophyll-a in these optically complex waters, a novel multivariate-based approach was developed using current generation hyperspectral data. This approach uses a partial least-squares regression model to identify wavelengths that are more sensitive to chlorophyll-a relative to other associated CPAs. This model was able to explain 80% of the observed chlorophyll-a variability in Long Bay with RMSE = 2.03 micrograms per liter. This approach capitalizes on the spectral advantage gained from hyperspectral sensors, thus providing a more robust predicting model. This enhanced mode of water quality monitoring in marine environments will provide insight

  15. Multi-element study of sediments from the river Khai River - Nha Trang Bay estuarine system, South China Sea.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koukina, Sofia; Lobus, Nikolai; Peresypkin, Valery; Baturin, Gleb; Smurov, Andrey

    2013-04-01

    Major (Al, Fe, Ti, Mg, Ca, Na, K), minor (Mn) and trace (Cr, Ni, Cd, V, Zn, Cu, Pb, Sb, Bi, Sn, Ag, Li, Co, As, Zr, Mo, Hg) elements along with nutrients (TOC, TS, TP) and TIC were first determined in ten surface sediment samples from the Khai River - Nha Trang Bay estuarine system, South China Sea. According to the sediment quality guidelines and reference background values, most of the element contents that were studied were below the threshold levels, while the content of Ag exceeded significantly the hazardous levels in the most of the samples along the river - sea transect. The local anthropogenic and/or environmental sources of Ag within the region need special study. Aluminum and lithium normalization indicated some specific features in the abundance and distribution of the elements along the salinity gradient. The mean grain size of the sediments decreased from the river part to the bay part of the transect. Sedimentary TOC was relatively low (1-2 %) and showed independent distribution along the river - sea transect in relation to the other elements that were studied. Ca, Ba and Sr distribution showed some sporadic enrichment and were largely controlled by the TIC content in sediments. Sedimentary TP, Al, Fe, Mn, Ti, Na, K, Li, Co, Cs, Zn and V varied within the narrow range and tended to increase seaward. These elements are most likely controlled by the accumulation of their fine grained aluminosilicate host minerals and materials at sites determined by hydrodynamic conditions, i. e., in the sea floor depression. TS, As, Sn, Bi, U, Cd and Mo were relatively low in the sediments studied and tended to decrease seaward with the slight elevation in the intermediate part of the transect. These elements can be scavenged by and/or co-precipitated with the dissolved and particulate materials of the river discharge and further deposited on the river - sea geochemical barrier in the course of estuarine sedimentation. The distribution of Ni, Cr, Zr Cu, Pb, Sb, Hg and

  16. 33 CFR 165.T09-0417 - Safety Zone; Put-In-Bay Fireworks, Fox's the Dock Pier, South Bass Island; Put-In-Bay, OH.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Safety Zone; Put-In-Bay Fireworks... Limited Access Areas Ninth Coast Guard District § 165.T09-0417 Safety Zone; Put-In-Bay Fireworks, Fox's... radius of the fireworks launch site located at position 41°39′17″ N, 082°48′57″ W. All...

  17. The 2014 M 6.0 South Napa Earthquake in the Context of the Earthquake Cycle in the San Francisco Bay Area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaume, S. C.

    2014-12-01

    The 2014 M 6.0 South Napa earthquake is the second M ≥ 5.5 earthquake to occur in the San Francisco Bay region since the 1989 M 7.0 Loma Prieta earthquake. This poster will examine how this earthquake fits into the earthquake history of the Bay region, which has shown considerable variation in the rate of moderate (M 5.5-6.5) earthquakes. A number of models have been developed to explain these changes in moderate earthquake rates, including the Accelerating Moment Release model (e.g., Sykes and Jaumé, Nature, 1990; Bufe and Varnes, J. Geophys. Res., 1993) and the Stress Shadow model (e.g., Harris and Simpson, J. Geophys. Res., 1998). In addition, various groups have made projections of future earthquake activity in the San Francisco Bay region, including the Working Group on California Earthquake Probabilities (Field et al., USGS OFR, 2008) and Bebbington et al. (PAGEOPH, 2010), utilizing different physical models for earthquake occurrence. In my poster I will compare and contrast these different views of seismicity in the Bay region and where the 2014 South Napa earthquake fits into them. In particular, I will explore what these different models imply for future moderate earthquake occurrence and hazards thereof.

  18. 78 FR 56921 - South Bay Salt Pond Restoration Project, Phase 2 (Ponds R3, R4, R5, S5, A1, A2W, A8, A8S, A19...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-16

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service South Bay Salt Pond Restoration Project, Phase 2 (Ponds R3, R4, R5, S5, A1... restoration of ponds R3, R4, R5, S5, A1, A2W, A8, A8S, A19, A20, and A21 at the Don Edwards National Wildlife... 2 of the South Bay Salt Pond Restoration Project and consists of restoring and enhancing over...

  19. Diurnal and seasonal variations of carbonate system parameters on Luhuitou fringing reef, Sanya Bay, Hainan Island, South China Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Chenglong; Huang, Hui; Ye, Cheng; Huang, Liangmin; Li, Xiubao; Lian, Jiansheng; Liu, Sheng

    2013-11-01

    The 3-day diurnal dynamics of carbonate system and related parameters on Luhuitou fringing reef of Sanya Bay-adjacent to the South China Sea (SCS) were observed in December of 2009 (early winter), April (spring), July (summer) and November (late-autumn) of 2010. The Luhuitou fringing reef ecosystem was generally dominated by macro and planktonic algae throughout the year except by coralline algae in winter. The system parameters showed distinct diurnal trends in the four seasons. Averaged ranges of diurnal variation for dissolved oxygen and partial pressure of CO2 (pCO2) were higher in the autumn, 4.67mgL-1 and 218.2μatm, respectively than other seasons. Averaged ranges of diurnal variation for normalized total alkalinity (NTA) was higher in the winter (61.3μmolkg-1), and lower in the spring (16.0μmolkg-1). The diurnal variations are mainly controlled by biological activities, especially by the processes of photosynthesis and respiration in the reef ecosystem. In winter, however, calcification and dissolution contributed more to the diurnal variations, compared with the other three seasons. Total alkalinity was largely related to seasonal changes in river inflow rates. Dissolved oxygen, pH, total CO2 and aragonite saturation also showed seasonal variations. These variations were mainly controlled by the seasonal changes of photosynthesis and respiration, which were mainly affected by changes in benthic community structure, temperature and river inflow rates. The oversaturated pCO2 in the reef ecosystem with respect to the atmosphere in the winter and summer resulted in CO2 discharge from the reef ecosystem to the SCS. The whole system served as net source of CO2 to the atmosphere and the adjacent South China Sea on an annual time scale.

  20. Picoplankton and virioplankton abundance and community structure in Pearl River Estuary and Daya Bay, South China.

    PubMed

    Ni, Zhixin; Huang, Xiaoping; Zhang, Xia

    2015-06-01

    By using flow cytometry techniques, we investigated the abundance and composition of the heterotrophic prokaryotes, virioplankton and picophytoplankton community in the Pearl River Estuary and Daya Bay in the summer of 2012. We identified two subgroups of prokaryotes, high nucleic acid (HNA) and low nucleic acid (LNA), characterized by different nucleic acid contents. HNA abundance was significantly correlated with larger phytoplankton and Synechococcus (Syn) abundance, which suggested the important role of organic substrates released from primary producers on bacterial growth. Although LNA did not show any association with environmental variables, it was a vital component of the microbial community. In contrast to previous studies, the total virioplankton concentration had a poor relationship with nutrient availability. The positive relationship between large-sized phytoplankton abundance and the V-I population confirmed that V-I was a phytoplankton-infecting viral subgroup. Although the V-II group (bacteriophages) was dominant in the virioplankton community, it was not related with prokaryotic abundance, which indicated factors other than hosts controlling V-II abundance or the uncertainty of virus-host coupling. With respect to the picophytoplankton community, our results implied that river input exerted a strong limitation to Syn distribution in the estuary, while picoeukaryotes (Euk) were numerically less abundant and showed a quite different distribution pattern from that of Syn, and hence presented ecological properties distinct from Syn in our two studied areas. PMID:26040741

  1. New data on the occurrence of Acanthocephala in some fish in Admiralty Bay (South Shetland Islands).

    PubMed

    Zdzitowiecki, Krzysztof; Laskowski, Zdzisław

    2013-12-01

    New data on the infection with Acanthocephala of 33 fish caught in Admiralty Bay in November 2007 to January 2008 are given. These fish belong to 5 species: Notothenia rossii (22 immature specimens), Lindbergichthys nudifrons (n = 7), Trematomus bernacchii (n = 1), T. newnesi (n = 1) and Harpagifer antarcticus (n = 2). Three species of Echinorhynchida: Aspersentis megarhynchus, Metacanthocephalus dalmori and M. johnstoni and four species of Polymorphida: Corynosoma arctocephali, C. bullosum, C. hamanni and C. pseudohamanni, were found. Prevalence of N. rossii and L. nudifrons was 100%. The mean abundance of infection of N. rossii (125.09) was larger than that of Notothenia coriiceps (82.93). Data of infection of N. rossii in 2007 was almost identical with that in 1979 (mean abundance 118.66). The most abundant in this host were A. megarhynchus, M. johnstoni, C. hamanni and C. pseudohamanni (mean abundances 36.36, 29.77, 13.86 and 44.73, respectively). In total Echinorhynchida were more abundant than Polymorphida in 2007/08 (66.18 versus 58.91). Reverse situation was in 1979 (mean abundance 47.36 for Echinorhynchida and 71.3 for Polymorphida. Only 7 L. nudifrons were examined in 2007/08 and Echinorhynchida were more numerous in this host (mean abundance 26.71) than Polymorphida (10.29). Single specimens of other fish were infected with a few Acanthocephala belonging to species recorded in the same hosts with those found in 1978/79. PMID:24338317

  2. Uncovering the Paleoclimate and Paleoproductivity of a South Texas Incised Bay and Estuary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mckay, M.; Musella, A.; Besonen, M. R.

    2014-12-01

    Sediment cores collected from the Nueces Estuary, an incised bay/estuary system located in Southern Texas, were used to reconstruct the paleoclimate, salinity and biological productivity in this water body over the last millennium. The sediment cores were analyzed using microfossil analysis, and other non-destructive and destructive methods in order to provide a long-term perspective about the baseline environmental conditions existing for these systems prior to significant human impact. This work documents the natural variability in these systems as related to climatic events such as periods of drought, high precipitation, and runoff. This work was designed to produce the first, well-dated, high-resolution paleosalinity and paleoproductivity records for the coastal water body mentioned above. Some pre-existing paleo records are available for the system, however, the dating is very limited, or they focus on a significantly different timescale. This work focuses on salinity and biological productivity in this water body as a background to anthropogenic impacts.

  3. Observed oceanic response to tropical cyclone Jal from a moored buoy in the south-western Bay of Bengal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Girishkumar, M. S.; Suprit, K.; Chiranjivi, Jayaram; Udaya Bhaskar, T. V. S.; Ravichandran, M.; Shesu, R. Venkat; Pattabhi Rama Rao, E.

    2014-03-01

    Upper oceanographic and surface meteorological time-series observations from a moored buoy located at 9.98°N, 88°E in the south-western Bay of Bengal (BoB) were used to quantify variability in upper ocean, forced by a tropical cyclone (TC) Jal during November 2010. Before the passage of TC Jal, salinity and temperature profiles showed a typical BoB post-monsoon structure with relatively warm (30 °C) and low-saline (32.8 psu) waters in the upper 30- to 40-m layer, and relatively cooler and higher salinity (35 psu) waters below. After the passage of cyclone, an abrupt increase of 1 psu (decrease of 1 °C) in salinity (temperature) in the near-surface layers (up to 40-m depth) was observed from buoy measurements, which persisted up to 10-12 days during the relaxation stage of cyclone. Mixed layer heat budget analysis showed that vertical processes are the dominant contributors towards the observed cooling. The net surface heat flux and horizontal advection together contributed approximately 33 % of observed cooling, during TC Jal forced stage. Analysis showed the existence of strong inertial oscillation in the thermocline region and currents with periodicity of ˜2.8 days. During the relaxation stage of the cyclone, upward movement of thermocline in near-inertial frequencies played significant role in mixed layer temperature and salinity variability, by much freer turbulent exchange between the mixed layer and thermocline.

  4. Three tropical seagrasses as potential bio-indicators to trace metals in Xincun Bay, Hainan Island, South China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Lei; Huang, Xiaoping

    2012-03-01

    Concentrations of the trace metals Cu, Cd, Pb, and Zn were measured in seawater, rhizosphere sediments, interstitial water, and the tissues of three tropical species of seagrasses ( Thalassia hemprichii, Enhalus acoroides and Cymodocea rotundata) from Xincun Bay of Hainan Island, South China. We analyzed different environmental compartments and the highest concentrations of Pb and Zn were found in the interstitial and seawater. The concentrations of Cd and Zn were significantly higher in blades compared with roots or rhizomes in T. hemprichii and E. acoroides, respectively. A metal pollution index (MPI) demonstrated that sediment, interstitial water, and seagrasses in the sites located nearest anthropogenic sources of pollution had the most abundant metal concentrations. There was obvious seasonal variation of these metals in the three seagrasses with higher concentrations of Cu, Pb and Zn in January and Cd in July. Furthermore, the relationships between metal concentrations in seagrasses and environmental compartments were positively correlated significantly. The bioconcentration factors (BCF) demonstrated that Cd from the tissues of the three seagrasses might be absorbed from the sediment by the roots. However, for C. rotundata, Zn is likely to be derived from the seawater through its blades. Therefore, the blades of T. hemprichii, E. acoroides and C. rotundata are potential bio-indicators to Cd content in sediment, and additionally Zn content ( C. rotundata only) in seawater.

  5. Prototype Application of NASA Missions to Identify Patterns of Wetland Vegetation Development within the South San Francisco Bay Salt Ponds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsu, W.; Newcomer, M. E.; Justice, E.; Guild, L. S.; Skiles, J. W.

    2010-12-01

    The South Bay Salt Pond Restoration Project is the largest tidal wetland restoration on the west coast of the United States. Monitoring vegetation development in these emergent habitats with remote sensing can provide restoration managers with an indication of ecological health and progress of development. Remotely sensed imagery was used to monitor vegetation development and to map vegetation patterns and biota changes historically, during, and after salt pond construction for ponds A19, A20, and A21. Percent vegetative cover was mapped using the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) from MODIS, Tasseled Cap Greenness (TCG) and NDVI from Landsat TM, and the Ratio Vegetation Index (RVI) from ASTER. Field parameters included in-situ measurements and geographic locations for percent vegetative cover, and site specific species information. Field data were incorporated into GIS, and vegetation was analyzed using spatial statistics methods and a qualitative post-classification comparison technique. NDVI values obtained from the Landsat scenes indicated a net gain of 3.35 acres of vegetation cover from February 2006 (before pond breaching) to August 2009 for pond A21 and 1.33 acres and 3.14 acres for ponds A20 and A19, respectively. Increases in vegetation indicate the marsh has built up to a steady-state condition to provide appropriate habitat for endangered plant and animal species and also indicates the success of restoration practices.

  6. Occurrence, source analysis and risk assessment of androgens, glucocorticoids and progestagens in the Hailing Bay region, South China Sea.

    PubMed

    Liu, Shan; Chen, Hui; Zhou, Guang-Jie; Liu, Shuang-Shuang; Yue, Wei-Zhong; Yu, Shen; Sun, Kai-Feng; Cheng, Hefa; Ying, Guang-Guo; Xu, Xiang-Rong

    2015-12-01

    The occurrence and spatial distribution of 40 steroids in the environmental matrices of the Hailing Bay region, South China Sea, were investigated by rapid resolution liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (RRLC-MS/MS). Seventeen, 14 and 11 of 40 steroids were detected with the concentrations ranging from 0.04 (testosterone) to 40.00 ng/L (prednisolone), 1.33 (4-hydroxy-androst-4-ene-17-dione) to 1855 ng/L (androsta-1,4-diene-3,17-dione) and <0.19 (androsta-1,4-diene-3,17-dione) to 2.37 ng/g (progesterone) in the seawater, the municipal sewage discharged effluent and the sediment samples, respectively. The concentrations and risk quotients (RQs) of the steroids detected in the water samples decreased in the order of municipal sewage discharge site>wharves~aquaculture zones~tourism areas>offshore areas. The distribution of steroids in the marine environment was significantly correlated with the levels of chemical oxygen demand (COD) and ammonium nitrogen (NH4-N). Source analysis indicated that untreated municipal sewage was the main source of steroids in the marine environment. Furthermore, progesterone was found to be a reliable chemical indicator to surrogate different steroids in both the water and sediment phases based on the correlation analysis. PMID:26196074

  7. Reservoir geology of Crystal Viking field, Lower Cretaceous estuarine tidal channel-bay complex, south-central Alberta

    SciTech Connect

    Reinson, G.E.; Clark, J.E.; Foscolos, A.E.

    1988-10-01

    The Lower Cretaceous Viking Formation in the Crystal field of south-central Alberta contains a linear sandstone body, as much as 30 m thick, that forms a complicated dual-pool hydrocarbon reservoir. This contrasts sharply with most other Viking reservoirs, which are much thinner, are commonly oriented northwest, and are composed of a single hydrocarbon pool. Thickness, orientation, and pool duality are attributed to the complicated depositional history of the Viking in the Crystal region. The sandstone body is interpreted as a multistage tidal channel-fill deposit within a larger estuarine channel-bay complex, which rests unconformably on inner shelf-lower shoreface facies. A major lowstand of sea level that occurred approximately 97 m.y. ago is believed to be responsible for incisement of the estuarine valley, which was filled during rising sea level. A depositional model of progressive estuarine valley fill under transgressive conditions readily accounts for the occurrence of two hydrodynamically separated oil pools, and also for differences in reservoir continuity and performance trends within the main oil-bearing A pool. Highly productive wells in the main pool correspond to specific channel-fill deposits, or are situated in areas where deposits of successive channel stages are highly superimposed. Conversely, marginally productive wells and poor reservoir communication between producing wells occur in areas where the different channel-stage deposits diverge. 22 figures, 2 tables.

  8. Temporal fluctuations of silver, copper and zinc in the bivalve Macoma balthica at five stations in South San Francisco Bay

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Luoma, S.N.; Cain, D.; Johansson, C.

    1985-01-01

    Concentrations of Cu, Ag and Zn were measured in the soft tissues of the estuarine bivalve Macoma balthica in South San Francisco Bay at near-monthly intervals for periods of two to three years at four stations, and eight years at a metal-enriched station. The amplitude and frequency of fluctuations differed among stations and among metals. Fluctuations were greatest at stations with the greatest metal enrichment and with the least dilution and flushing of wastes. A consistent seasonal pattern of fluctuation in Cu and Ag concentrations was evident in M. balthica at the metal-enriched station. These seasonal changes in tissue metal concentrations appeared to be affected by metal inputs, hydrologic processes that may affect both metal concentrations and bioavailability, and seasonal changes in the weight of the bivalve. The contributions of each of these interacting factors could not be determined quantitatively. At the metal-enriched station significant variation in the amplitude of seasonal fluctuations was also evident from year to year. Interpretation of metal concentrations in bivalves from estuaries will require careful consideration of the processes which affect metal dynamics in these complex environments. ?? 1985 Dr W. Junk Publishers.

  9. Geologic framework of the long bay inner shelf: implications for coastal evolution in South Carolina

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barnhardt, W.; Denny, J.; Baldwin, W.; Schwab, W.; Morton, R.; Gayes, P.; Driscoll, N.

    2007-01-01

    The inner continental shelf off northern South Carolina is a sediment-limited environment characterized by extensive hardground areas, where coastal plain strata and ancient channel-fill deposits are exposed at the sea floor. Holocene sand is concentrated in large shoals associated with active tidal inlets, an isolated shore-detached sand body, and a widespread series of low-relief sand ridges. The regional geologic framework is a strong control on the production, movement and deposition of sediment. High-resolution geologic mapping of the sea floor supports conceptual models indicative of net southwestward sediment transport along the coast.

  10. Linkage of bioaccumulation and biological effects to changes in pollutant loads in south San Francisco Bay

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hornberger, M.I.; Luoma, S.N.; Cain, D.J.; Parchaso, F.; Brown, C.L.; Bouse, R.M.; Wellise, C.; Thompson, J.K.

    2000-01-01

    The developed world has invested billions of dollars in waste treatment since the 1970s; however, changes in ecological or biological responses are rarely associated with reductions in metal pollutants. Here we present a novel, 23-yr time series of environmental change from a San Francisco Bay mudflat located 1 km from the discharge of a suburban domestic sewage treatment plant. Samples of surface sediment, the bioindicator Macoma balthica, and metals loading data were used to establish links between discharge, bioaccumulation, and effects. Mean annual Ag concentrations in M. balthica were 106 ??g/g in 1978 and 3.67 ??g/g in 1998. Concentrations of Cu declined from 287 ??g/g in 1980 to a minimum of 24 ??g/g in 1991. Declining Cu bioaccumulation was strongly correlated with decreasing Cu loads from the plant between 1977 and 1998. Relationships with bioaccumulation and total annual precipitation suggested that inputs from nonpoint sources were most important in controlling Zn bioavailability during the same period. Ecoepidemiological criteria were used to associate failed gamete production in M. balthica to a metals-enriched environment. Reproduction persistently failed between the mid-1970s and mid-1980s; it recovered after metal contamination declined. Other potential environmental causes such as food availability, sediment chemistry, or seasonal salinity fluctuations were not related to the timing of the change in reproductive capability. The results establish an associative link, suggesting that it is important to further investigate the chemical interference of Cu and/or Ag with invertebrate reproduction at relatively moderate levels of environmental contamination.

  11. Numerical Modeling of the Impact of the River Runoff on the Formation of the Anoxia in the Kangjin Bay, South Sea, Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ro, Y.

    2005-05-01

    Introduction The Kangjin Bay, located in the central part of the South Sea of Korea, is interconnected to neighboring bays and the South Sea through the three narrow channels. The geometry is very complex and the depth is less than 20 m in general. The width at the narrowest site of the Noryang Channel is about 500 m, and the narrowest width of the Changson Channel is about 300 m. The bay receives the Sumjin and Namgang River runoff from the north. The averaged annual discharge of the Sumjin River is about 120 cms. The main objectives of this study to understand the circulation pattern in the Kangjin Bay by tidal current and the impact of the river runoff from the Sumjin River on the ecosystem in the Bay. The Kangjin Bay has been a renowned aqua-culturing bed for several important shellfishes such as large arc shell (Scapharca broughtonii) and short-necked clam(Tapes philippinarum) et al. The water quality, current and meteorological conditions are continuously monitored with very high sampling resolution (10 min.) throughout the year and is published on the Internet web pages (http://oceaninfo.co.kr/kangjin). Detailed technical information for the realtime monitoring system can be referred to Ro et al. (2004). Numerical Solution The tidal circulation of the Kangjin Bay was simulated based on ECOM-3D by forcing the tidal elevations at the open boundaries. The model domain is consisted of the 265*320 grid points with the horizontal grid size is 200 m and 11 vertical sigma levels. Under the CFL condition, the external time step is 10 sec and the internal time step is 300 sec. The drying-flooding procedure was taken into account for treating the area of intertidal flats in the Kangjin bay. Model Results Results of the model simulations will be presented to show the tidal current distributions at flood and ebb phases. The tidal currents in the Kangjin Bay are rather complicated due to its physical settings such as complicated geometry, bottom topography and three open

  12. Thermohaline structure and hydrochemical characteristics under the fast ice in the south-eastern Laptev Sea coastal zone (the Buor-Khaya Bay)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Savelieva, N.; Salyuk, A.; Semiletov, I.; Spivak, E.

    2009-04-01

    The Lena River input in the Laptev Sea creates specific oceanographic conditions, which in turn play a key role in ice formation and heat exchange in the Arctic Basin. The summertime thermohaline conditions in the Lena-Laptev sea system were studied well, but the reliable wintertime data are absent. Thus we focus our attention on the Buor-Khaya Gulf where processes of interaction between the Lena River and adjacent part of the Laptev Sea are most pronounced. Observations in the estuarine zone of the Lena River have been carried out in April, 2007. CTD profiles (temperature, salinity, turbidity) and hydrochemistry sampling (silica, phosphate, nitrite, nitrate) were fulfilled under the fast ice at 53 oceanographic stations. Winter oceanographic conditions in the Buor-Khaya Bay are characterized by significant spatial variability. Below ice-cover in the central part of the Bay frontal zone are revealed. It crossed the Bay in north-south direction. Two general type of water masses are recognized: (1) surface water mass, which formed as a result of mixing river and coastal water of the Laptev Sea with high turbidity, high concentration of nutrients, low oxygen saturation; (2) near bottom water mass with negative temperature high salinity and low turbidity and less concentration of nutrients. The latter is subdivided on two modifications due to the nutrients content and oxygen saturation. Two-layer structure observed in the deeper eastern part of the Bay. The surface layer is ~ 6 m thickness (temperature 0

  13. Migration of the Pee Dee River system inferred from ancestral paleochannels underlying the South Carolina Grand Strand and Long Bay inner shelf

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Baldwin, W.E.; Morton, R.A.; Putney, T.R.; Katuna, M.P.; Harris, M.S.; Gayes, P.T.; Driscoll, N.W.; Denny, J.F.; Schwab, W.C.

    2006-01-01

    Several generations of the ancestral Pee Dee River system have been mapped beneath the South Carolina Grand Strand coastline and adjacent Long Bay inner shelf. Deep boreholes onshore and high-resolution seismic-reflection data offshore allow for reconstruction of these paleochannels, which formed during glacial lowstands, when the Pee Dee River system incised subaerially exposed coastal-plain and continental-shelf strata. Paleochannel groups, representing different generations of the system, decrease in age to the southwest, where the modern Pee Dee River merges with several coastal-plain tributaries at Winyah Bay, the southern terminus of Long Bay. Positions of the successive generational groups record a regional, southwestward migration of the river system that may have initiated during the late Pliocene. The migration was primarily driven by barrier-island deposition, resulting from the interaction of fluvial and shoreline processes during eustatic highstands. Structurally driven, subsurface paleotopography associated with the Mid-Carolina Platform High has also indirectly assisted in forcing this migration. These results provide a better understanding of the evolution of the region and help explain the lack of mobile sediment on the Long Bay inner shelf. Migration of the river system caused a profound change in sediment supply during the late Pleistocene. The abundant fluvial source that once fed sand-rich barrier islands was cut off and replaced with a limited source, supplied by erosion and reworking of former coastal deposits exposed at the shore and on the inner shelf.

  14. Energy Flow in the Kromme Estuarine Ecosystem, St Francis Bay, South Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heymans, J. J.; Baird, D.

    1995-07-01

    An energy flow network was constructed for the Kromme estuary, South Africa. Extensive data, collected on this estuary, were used to calculate the energetics of each of the 27 compartments identified in this system. The model consists of three non-living and 24 living compartments. The non-living compartments were dissolved organic carbon (DOC), suspended and sediment particulate organic carbon (POC), while the living compartments consisted of four plant groups, three bacterial groups and 17 animal groups. The animals range from meiofauna to macrofauna and fish. Biomass of all compartments were estimated in mg C m -2and exchanges in mg C m -2day -1. It was found that the main primary producers are the marsh halophytes and macrophytes. It seems that although the salt marshes cover only 38% of the Kromme estuary, the marsh halophytes contribute 78% of the total primary production, making it the most important producer in this estuary. Less than 10% of the halophyte production enters the grazing food-chain, with the remainder being broken down to sediment detritus. This indicates that the sediment detritus, as well as the animals that feed on it, forms the most important part of this food-web.

  15. Tsunami-related scour-and-drape undulations in Middle Pliocene restricted-bay carbonate deposits (Salento, south Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Massari, F.; D'Alessandro, A.

    2000-09-01

    Middle Pliocene transgressive shelly carbonate deposits in the Pesculuse area (Salento, south Italy) were laid down in a protected bay bounded on the seaward side by a ridge of Cretaceous limestone. Within this setting, a number of palaeocommunities influenced by water energy, turbidity, rate of sedimentation and consistency of substrata have been recognized. Episodically, the low-energy background sedimentation was punctuated by events of exceptional energy, which produced giant wavy scours up to more than 50 m in wavelength, draped by graded and laminated and locally trough cross-bedded calcarenites. There are some descriptions of giant scour-and-drape features of comparable scale in the literature. However, only in rare cases were they interpreted as tsunamiites. Although the physical aspects of the scouring mechanism remain obscure, the large-scale wavy structures are thought to result from the passage of tsunami surges encroaching landwards in relatively protected waters, and then sweeping back offshore. This assumption is based not only on the exceptional scale and regularity of the scours, but also on a number of additional features, such as the evidence of opposite flows directed both landwards and seawards, composition of calcarenites pointing to the mixing of sediments supplied by different sources and bi or tripartition of the beds suggesting that the high-energy events consisted of a number of pulses rapidly following one another. Nearshore low-energy areas are sites where the record of tsunamis may be preserved without loss, because they are efficient sediment traps where subsequent reworking is prevented by the low energy level of the environment.

  16. Gas exchange rates across the sediment-water and air-water interfaces in south San Francisco Bay

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hartman, Blayne; Hammond, Douglas E.

    1984-01-01

    Radon 222 concentrations in the water and sedimentary columns and radon exchange rates across the sediment-water and air-water interfaces have been measured in a section of south San Francisco Bay. Two independent methods have been used to determine sediment-water exchange rates, and the annual averages of these methods agree within the uncertainty of the determinations, about 20%. The annual average of benthic fluxes from shoal areas is nearly a factor of 2 greater than fluxes from the channel areas. Fluxes from the shoal and channel areas exceed those expected from simple molecular diffusion by factors of 4 and 2, respectively, apparently due to macrofaunal irrigation. Values of the gas transfer coefficient for radon exchange across the air-water interface were determined by constructing a radon mass balance for the water column and by direct measurement using floating chambers. The chamber method appears to yield results which are too high. Transfer coefficients computed using the mass balance method range from 0.4 m/day to 1.8 m/day, with a 6-year average of 1.0 m/day. Gas exchange is linearly dependent upon wind speed over a wind speed range of 3.2–6.4 m/s, but shows no dependence upon current velocity. Gas transfer coefficients predicted from an empirical relationship between gas exchange rates and wind speed observed in lakes and the oceans are within 30% of the coefficients determined from the radon mass balance and are considerably more accurate than coefficients predicted from theoretical gas exchange models.

  17. Spatial distribution and ecological risk of polychlorinated biphenyls in sediments from Qinzhou Bay, Beibu Gulf of South China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jinlian; Li, Yuanyuan; Wang, Yinghui; Zhang, Yuanyuan; Zhang, Dan; Zhang, Ruijie; Li, Jun; Zhang, Gan

    2014-03-15

    The residual level of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) was determined in the surface sediments collected from the Qinzhou Bay, Beibu Gulf of Southern China. The results showed that the total concentration of PCBs ranged from 1.62 to 62.63 ng/g dry wt, with a mean of 9.87 ng/g dry wt. Generally, the average PCBs concentrations in three sample groups descended in this order: inner bay > outer bay > rivers. On a mean level, with respect to the PCBs homologue profiles, the analysis suggested that tetrachlorinated biphenyls was the most abundant PCB, followed by hexachlorinated biphenyls, pentachlorinated biphenyls. PCB profiles varied according to the nature of the site and its proximity to the sources. PCA with multiple linear regression analysis indicated that Aroclor products contributed to the PCBs in Qinzhou Bay. Risk assessments conducted on the levels indicated that PCBs in sediments of Qinzhou Bay posed no significant risk to human health. PMID:24380702

  18. South San Francisco Bay tidal marsh vegetation and elevation surveys-Corkscrew Marsh, Bird Island, and Palo Alto Baylands, California, 1983

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Orlando, James L.; Drexler, Judy Z.; Dedrick, Kent G.

    2005-01-01

    Changes in the topography and ecology of the San Francisco Bay Estuary ('Estuary') during the past 200 years have resulted in the loss of nearly 80 percent of the historical salt marsh in the region. Currently, numerous projects are being undertaken by federal, state, and local governments in an attempt to restore wetland habitat and ecosystem function at a number of locations within the Estuary. Much information is needed concerning the historical topographic and ecologic characteristics of the Estuary to facilitate these restoration efforts. This report presents previously unpublished vegetation and elevation data collected in 1983 by the California State Lands Commission at Corkscrew marsh, Bird Island, and Palo Alto Baylands, all located in South San Francisco Bay. These precise and detailed elevation and plant surveys represent a snapshot of South Bay flora before invasion by the Atlantic smooth cordgrass, Spartina alterniflora. Such precise elevation data are rare for relatively undisturbed marshes in the San Francisco Bay; publication of these historical data may facilitate wetland restoration efforts. Marsh-surface and tidal-channel elevations were determined at a total of 962 stations by differential leveling to established tidal benchmark stations at each site and referenced to Mean Lower Low Water (MLLW) relative to the National Tidal Datum Epoch (1960-78). In addition, presence or absence of nine salt marsh species, percentage plant cover, and percentage bare soil were recorded for 1-square meter quadrats at 648 stations where elevations were determined. Collectively, over the three sites, salt marsh vegetation ranged in elevation from 0.98 to 2.94 m above MLLW. S. foliosa and Salicornia virginica were the most frequently observed plant species. Atriplex patula, Deschampsia cespitosa, and Limonium californicum were each recorded at only one of the three sites.

  19. Assessment of occupational exposure to BTEX compounds at a bus diesel-refueling bay: A case study in Johannesburg, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Moolla, Raeesa; Curtis, Christopher J; Knight, Jasper

    2015-12-15

    Of increasing concern is pollution by volatile organic compounds, with particular reference to five aromatic hydrocarbons (benzene, toluene, ethyl benzene and two isomeric xylenes; BTEX). These pollutants are classified as hazardous air pollutants. Due to the potential health risks associated with these pollutants, BTEX concentrations were monitored at a bus diesel-refueling bay, in Johannesburg, South Africa, using gas chromatography, coupled with a photo-ionization detector. Results indicate that o-xylene (29-50%) and benzene (13-33%) were found to be the most abundant species of total BTEX at the site. Benzene was within South African occupational limits, but above international occupational exposure limits. On the other hand, occupational concentrations of toluene, ethyl-benzene and xylenes were within national and international occupational limits throughout the monitoring period, based on 8-hour workday weighted averages. Ethyl-benzene and p-xylene concentrations, during winter, correspond to activity at the site, and thus idling of buses during refueling may elevate results. Overall, occupational air quality at the refueling bay is a matter of health concern, especially with regards to benzene exposure, and future reduction strategies are crucial. Discrepancies between national and international limit values merit further investigation to determine whether South African guidelines for benzene are sufficiently precautionary. PMID:26282739

  20. Characterization and closure of the Met Lab Carolina Bay at the Savannah River site, Aiken, South Carolina

    SciTech Connect

    Jerome, K.M.; Frazier, W.L.; Haselow, L.A.; Voss, L.

    1993-07-01

    The Met Lab Carolina Bay is subject to Subtitle C of RCRA and CERCLA requirements. Located in the northwestern section of the Savannah River Site, the Met Lab Carolina Bay is a marshy, oval-shaped natural depression covering approximately six acres. The Carolina Bay received wastes from three sources: the Met Lab Basin A-007 drainage outfall, the A-Area coal-fire power plant A-008 drainage outfall and the A/M-Area vehicle maintenance parking lot stormwater runoff A-009 outfall. Two characterization efforts conducted in 1988/89 and 1991 indicate the presence of metals in the sediments and soils of the bay. The greatest concentrations of the metals and organics being in the north-central portion of the bay. The metals and organics were primarily associated with surface sediments and the organic-rich soil layer to a depth of about two feet. Conclusions from the Human Health Baseline Risk indicate the future on-unit resident exposure to sediments and soil poses an unacceptable level of risk to human health. However, the assumptions built into the calculations lead to conservative human health risk findings. A qualitative Ecological Risk Assessment was performed on the Carolina Bay. This ecological assessment, based on historical and existing sampling data, was found to be insufficient to make a definitive decision on the contaminants` effects on the ecology of the bay. The proposed action for the Carolina Bay is to conduct an ecological characterization. It appears that the ecological risks will be in the driving factor in determining the remedial action for the Met Lab Carolina Bay.

  1. Concerted sampling of water for trace organic contaminants by bivalves and semipermeable membrane devices in south San Francisco Bay and Elkhorn Slough

    SciTech Connect

    Hodgins, M.M.; Jacobson, L.A.; Prest, H.F.

    1995-12-31

    Bivalves have been widely applied as biomonitors in detecting organic contaminants in aquatic environments. Recently semipermeable membrane devices (SPMDS) have been shown to be effective pre-concentrators of trace levels of organic compounds in water and air. This study compares accumulation of trace organic compounds in oysters (Crassotrea gigas) and mussels (Mytilus califorianus) to those in SPMDs in south San Francisco Bay and Elkhorn Slough. The authors report concentration levels and trends in the profiles for organochlorine pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls and polyaromatic hydrocarbons in SPMDs and bivalves from a series of locations in both areas.

  2. Nitrogen budget of the eelgrass, Zostera marina in a bay system on the south coast of Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Sang Rul; Kim, Young Kyun; Kim, Seung Hyeon; Lee, Kun-Seop

    2013-12-01

    Above- and below-ground productivities and tissue N content were measured monthly to quantify N incorporation to sustain eelgrass growth in Koje Bay on the south coast of Korea from January to December 2002. N acquisition was also estimated through measurements of N uptake kinetics, tissue biomass, and in situ inorganic N concentrations in water column and sediments. Above- and below-ground productivities were highest in summer and lowest in late fall and winter. Leaf tissue N content was highest in December and lowest in July, while rhizome tissue N content was highest in October and lowest in April. Estimated monthly N incorporation by leaf tissues based on the leaf productivity and N content ranged from 0.4 g N m-2 month-1 in November to 2.0 g N m-2 month-1 in May. N incorporation by below-ground tissues ranged from 0.1 g N m-2 month-1 in February to 0.2 g N m-2 month-1 in October. Annual whole plant N incorporation was 14.5 g N m-2 y-1, and N incorporation by leaf tissues accounted for about 87 % of total N incorporation. Maximum uptake rate ( V max ) and half saturation constant ( K m ) of leaf NH4 + uptake were significantly lower than those of root NH4 + uptake. Above- and below-ground biomass ranged from 20.8 g DW m-2 and 8.6 g DW m-2 in winter to 350.0 g DW m-2 and 81.3 g DW m-2 in spring, respectively. NH4 + concentrations varied from 0.2 to 4.3 mM in water column and from 93.0 to 551.7 mM in sediment pore water. Based on these measurements, annual N acquisition by root tissues contributed slightly higher than that by leaf tissues to total plant N acquisition. During winter, monthly leaf N acquisition was lower than monthly leaf N incorporation. This implies that Z. marina has internal nitrogen retention system to offset the shortage and excess of nitrogen.

  3. Levels and interactions of selenium with group IIB metals in mussels from Swansea Bay, South Wales, U. K

    SciTech Connect

    Micallef, S.; Tyler, P.A.

    1989-03-01

    Swansea Bay is an inlet located on the northern coastline of the Bristol Channel, U.K. Past and present urban and industrialized development has led to the direct or indirect input to the bay, the latter from rivers, of various industrial and domestic waste discharge containing appreciable amounts of metal effluents. This area also supports a small commercial fishery. In an aquatic dynamic system such as this, the fate of a single chemical is complicated by possible interaction with other elements. In this study the results of a survey of the Group IIB metals, zinc, cadmium and mercury in the mussel, Mytilus edulis, from the Swansea bay area are presented. In addition, selenium concentrations are reported since it has been reported that this micronutrient can exert an antagonistic effect on these metals. Correlations between the different elements are included.

  4. Tampa Bay: Chapter N

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Handley, Larry; Spear, Kathryn; Cross, Lindsay; Baumstark, René; Moyer, Ryan; Thatcher, Cindy

    2013-01-01

    Tampa Bay is Florida’s largest open-water estuary and encompasses an area of approximately 1036 km2 (400 mi2) (Burgan and Engle, 2006; TBNEP, 2006). The Bay’s watershed drains 5,698 km2 (2,200 mi2) of land and includes freshwater from the Hillsborough River to the north east, the Alafia and Little Manatee rivers to the east, and the Manatee River to the south (Figure 1). Freshwater inflow also enters the bay from the Lake Tarpon Canal, from small tidal tributaries, and from watershed runoff. Outflow travels from the upper bay segments (Hillsborough Bay and Old Tampa Bay) into Middle and Lower Tampa Bay. Southwestern portions of the water shed flow through Boca Ciega Bay into the Intracoastal Waterway and through the Southwest Channel and Passage Key Inlet into the Gulf of Mexico. The average depth in most of Tampa Bay is only 3.4 m (11 ft); however, 129 km (80 mi) of shipping channels with a maximum depth of 13.1 m (43 ft) have been dredged over time and are regularly maintained. These channels help to support the three ports within the bay, as well as commercial and recreational boat traffic.

  5. 78 FR 1246 - Otay River Estuary Restoration Project; South San Diego Bay Unit and Sweetwater Marsh Unit of the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-08

    ... both the Commission and the San Diego Regional Water Quality Control Board (SDRWQCB). On February 9... November 14, 2011 (76 FR 70480), and scoping comments were accepted through January 12, 2012. Since then... management of the San Diego Bay National Wildlife Refuge over a 15-year period (71 FR 64552, November 2,...

  6. Impact of off-road vehicles (ORVs) on ghost crabs of sandy beaches with traffic restrictions: a case study of Sodwana Bay, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Lucrezi, Serena; Saayman, Melville; van der Merwe, Peet

    2014-03-01

    Off-road vehicles (ORVs) are popular in coastal recreation, although they have negative impacts on sandy shores. In South Africa, ORVs are banned from most coastal areas, while some areas are designated for restricted ORV use, providing an opportunity to assess whether ORV traffic restrictions translate into biological returns. In Sodwana Bay, the impact of ORVs on ghost crab populations was investigated. During Easter 2012, ghost crab burrows were counted on beach sections open and closed to traffic. Burrow density in the Impact section was less than a third that of the Reference section, and by the end of the study burrow size in the Impact section was half that of the Reference section. ORV traffic caused a shift in burrow distribution to the Lower beach. However, differences in burrow densities between sections were 14 times smaller than differences obtained at a time when ORV use in Sodwana Bay was not controlled. While confirming the well-established detrimental effects of ORV use on sandy beach ecosystems, results demonstrated that traffic restrictions on beaches measurably minimize impacts to the fauna, thus translating into clear-cut biological returns. PMID:24370998

  7. Impact of Off-road Vehicles (ORVs) on Ghost Crabs of Sandy Beaches with Traffic Restrictions: A Case Study of Sodwana Bay, South Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lucrezi, Serena; Saayman, Melville; van der Merwe, Peet

    2014-03-01

    Off-road vehicles (ORVs) are popular in coastal recreation, although they have negative impacts on sandy shores. In South Africa, ORVs are banned from most coastal areas, while some areas are designated for restricted ORV use, providing an opportunity to assess whether ORV traffic restrictions translate into biological returns. In Sodwana Bay, the impact of ORVs on ghost crab populations was investigated. During Easter 2012, ghost crab burrows were counted on beach sections open and closed to traffic. Burrow density in the Impact section was less than a third that of the Reference section, and by the end of the study burrow size in the Impact section was half that of the Reference section. ORV traffic caused a shift in burrow distribution to the Lower beach. However, differences in burrow densities between sections were 14 times smaller than differences obtained at a time when ORV use in Sodwana Bay was not controlled. While confirming the well-established detrimental effects of ORV use on sandy beach ecosystems, results demonstrated that traffic restrictions on beaches measurably minimize impacts to the fauna, thus translating into clear-cut biological returns.

  8. Concentrations and human health implications of heavy metals in wild aquatic organisms captured from the core area of Daya Bay's Fishery Resource Reserve, South China Sea.

    PubMed

    Gu, Yang-Guang; Huang, Hong-Hui; Lin, Qin

    2016-07-01

    Heavy metal concentrations in edible organisms from the core area of Daya Bay's Fishery Resource Reserve, South China Sea, were determined. Samples of 14 crustacean, fish, and shellfish species were collected and analyzed. The As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg, Ni, Pb, and Zn concentrations were 0.18-1.16, 0.002-0.919, 0.40-2.85, 0.07-4.10, 0.004-0.055, 0.14-1.19, 0.014-0.070, and 4.57-15.94μg/g wet weight, respectively. The As concentrations were higher than the Chinese maximum permissible levels in all of the fish and shellfish species and two crustacean species, indicating that consumption of these wild species by humans may pose health risks. However, calculations of the health risks posed to humans indicated that no significant adverse health effects would be associated with consuming these species. PMID:27267423

  9. Yearly fluctuation of the spring phytoplankton bloom in south San Francisco Bay - An example of ecological variability at the land-sea interface

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cloern, James E.; Jassby, Alan D.

    1995-01-01

    Estuaries are transitional ecosystems at the interface of the terrestrial and marine realms. Their unique physiographic position gives rise to large spatial variability, and to dynamic temporal variability resulting, in part, from a variety of forces and fluxes at the oceanic and terrestrial boundaries. River flow, in particular, is an important mechanism for delivering watershed-derived materials such as fresh water, sediments, and nutrients; each of these quantities in turn directly influences the physical structure and biological communities of estuaries. With this setting in mind, we consider here the general proposition that estuarine variability at the yearly time scale can be caused by annual fluctuations in river flow. We use a “long-term” (15-year) time series of phytoplankton biomass variability in South San Francisco Bay (SSFB), a lagoon-type estuary in which phytoplankton primary production is the largest source of organic carbon (Jassby et al. 1993).

  10. Metal pollution status in Zhelin Bay surface sediments inferred from a sequential extraction technique, South China Sea.

    PubMed

    Gu, Yang-Guang; Lin, Qin; Jiang, Shi-Jun; Wang, Zhao-Hui

    2014-04-15

    Surface sediments collected from Zhelin Bay, the largest mariculture base of eastern Guangdong Province, were analyzed for total metal concentrations and chemical speciation. The results demonstrated that the average total concentration (mg/kg) ranges were 36.7-65.8 (Pb), 53.8-98.8 (Cr), 39.0-87.1 (Ni), 50.9-144.5 (Cu), and 175.0-251.2 (Zn), which were clearly higher with respect to their corresponding benchmark values. The predominant speciation of Pb was reducible and comprised a residual fraction, whereas a major portion (57.6-95.4%) of Cr, Ni, Cu, and Zn was strongly associated with the residual fractions. Taking as a whole, surface sediments of Zhelin Bay had a 21% probability of toxicity based on the mean effects range-median quotient. PMID:24486039

  11. Physical and Acoustic Properties of Gas-bearing Sediments in Jinhae Bay, the South Sea of Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, D. C.; Lee, G. S.; Lee, G. H.; Park, S. C.

    2007-05-01

    High-resolution seismic survey and sediment core sampling were conducted to investigate acoustic characteristics of gas-bearing sediments in Jinhae Bay, the southeast of Korea. . The sediment in the Jinhae Bay is mostly homogenous mud deposited after Holocene transgression. Along with the 410 km of chirp seismic profiling, 13 piston core samples were collected on the track lines. Gassy sediments are common and widely occurred in the bay. Core samples were analyzed for physical properties (porosity, water content, bulk density, grain density and shear strength), acoustic properties (compressional wave velocity and attenuation), and electrical resistivity. Pulse transmission technique (1 MHz) that programmed to pick up first arrival signal was used to calculate accurate velocity. Electrical resistivity was measured by the standard four electrode method. Sediment texture was also analyzed using sedimentation method. Subsampling interval was 10 cm. X- radiograph image analysis was also performed to observe the shape of degassing cracks. Both quantitative and composition analyses of free gas were carried out for the cores of gas zone. Carbon isotope was also determined for the origin of the gas. There is no significant downcore variation on physical and sediment textures regardless of existence of gas bubbles. However, velocity dramatically decreases from average 1480 to 1350~911 m/s for the cores that penetrate the gas-bearing zones. This is probably due to degassying cracks which developed by escaping gases and free gas bubbles that still trapped in the cores. Electrical resistivity is the only geotechnical property increase in the gas-bearing zone where velocity decreases abruptly. This indicates the possibility of electrical resistivity as an index variable as well as velocity for sediment microstructure because there is little changes in texture and composition of sediment. Methane is a dominant component with about 5% average content in the gassy zones. The carbon

  12. 42. VIEW OF DEMULTIPLEX BAY OF TELEMETRY CHECKOUT SYSTEM. BAY ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    42. VIEW OF DEMULTIPLEX BAY OF TELEMETRY CHECKOUT SYSTEM. BAY LOCATED CENTRALLY IN TELEMETRY ROOM (ROOM 107) MIDWAY BETWEEN NORTH AND SOUTH WALLS. - Vandenberg Air Force Base, Space Launch Complex 3, Launch Operations Building, Napa & Alden Roads, Lompoc, Santa Barbara County, CA

  13. Assessment of intrinsic bioremediation of gasoline contamination in the shallow aquifer, Laurel Bay Exchange, Marine Corps Air Station Beaufort, South Carolina

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Landmeyer, J.E.; Chapelle, Francis; Bradley, P.M.

    1996-01-01

    Laboratory, field, and digital solute-transport- modeling studies demonstrate that microorganisms indigenous to the shallow ground-water system at Laurel Bay Exchange, Marine Corps Air Station Beaufort, South Carolina, can degrade petroleum hydrocarbons in gasoline released at the site. Microorganisms in aquifer sediments incubated in the laboratory under aerobic and anaerobic conditions mineralized radiolabeled carbon 14-toluene to 14C-carbon dioxide with first-order rate constants of Kbio = -0.640 per day and Kbio = -0.003 per day, respectively. Digital solute- transport modeling using the numerical code SUTRA revealed that anaerobic biodegradation of benzene occurs with a first-order rate constant near Kbio = -0.00025 per day. Sandy aquifer material beneath Laurel Bay Exchange is characterized by relatively high hydraulic conductivities (Kaq = 8.9 to 17.3 feet per day), average ground-water flow rate of about 60 feet per year, and a relatively uniform hydraulic gradient of 0.004 feet per foot. The sandy aquifer material also has low adsorptive potentials for toluene and benzene (both about Kad = 2.0 x 10-9 cubic feet per milligram), because of the lack of natural organic matter in the aquifer. The combination of this ground-water-flow rate and absence of significant adsorptive capacity in the aquifer permits toluene and benzene concentrations to be detected downgradient from the source area in monitoring wells, even though biodegradation of these compounds has been demonstrated. Solute-transport simulations, however, indicate that toluene and benzene will not reach the Broad River, the nearest point of contact with wildlife or human populations, about 3,600 feet west of the site boundary. These simulations also show that contamination will not be transported to the nearest Marine Corps property line about 2,400 feet south of the site. This is primarily because the source of contaminants has essentially been removed, and the low adsorptive capacity of the aquifer

  14. Chesapeake Bay plume dynamics from LANDSAT

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Munday, J. C., Jr.; Fedosh, M. S.

    1981-01-01

    LANDSAT images with enhancement and density slicing show that the Chesapeake Bay plume usually frequents the Virginia coast south of the Bay mouth. Southwestern (compared to northern) winds spread the plume easterly over a large area. Ebb tide images (compared to flood tide images) show a more dispersed plume. Flooding waters produce high turbidity levels over the shallow northern portion of the Bay mouth.

  15. Potamocorbula amurensis discovered in San Francisco Bay

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schemel, Laurence E.

    1989-01-01

    The small Asian clam, Potamocorbula amurensis, is now a major component of benthic communities in most areas of northern San Francisco Bay and some areas of South Bay. Because of its wide tolerance of salinity and other environmental variables and its high abundance in many areas, benthic ecologists believe this recent invasion may represent a major and permanent change in the bay system.

  16. Composition and fluxes of particulate organic matter in a temperate estuary (Winyah Bay, South Carolina, USA) under contrasting physical forcings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goñi, Miguel A.; Voulgaris, George; Kim, Yong H.

    2009-11-01

    To understand the role that physical processes play on the biogeochemical cycles of estuaries, we conducted intense field studies of the turbidity maximum region within a partially mixed estuary (Winyah Bay, SC, USA) under contrasting conditions of river discharge, tides and wind. Water samples and hydrographic data were collected at different depths and locations along the main channel over several tidal cycles during several cruises to Winyah Bay. Tidal variations in current speed, salinity, total suspended solid concentrations were measured within each cruise and were consistent with estuarine circulation processes. Salinity and total suspended solid concentrations ranged from 0 to 32 and from 20 to over 500 mg L -1, respectively, with the highest salinity and total suspended solid values measured during periods of low river discharge. In fact, comparison of tidally averaged salinity and total suspended solid concentrations revealed marked differences among cruises that were negatively correlated to river discharge and SW wind speed. Moreover, significant contrasts in the chemical compositions of suspended particles were evident among periods of contrasting river discharge and wind regime. For example, the weight percent organic carbon content of suspended particles ranged from 1 to over 6% and displayed a positive correlation with river discharge. Similarly, both the molar carbon to nitrogen ratios (10 to 20 mol:mol) and stable carbon isotopic compositions (-25 to -29%) of the suspended organic matter varied significantly as a function of discharge and wind. Such trends indicate that in Winyah Bay low river discharge and steady SW winds promote resuspension of bed sediments from shallow regions of the estuary. These materials contain highly altered organic matter and their incorporation into the water column leads to the observed trends in suspended particle concentrations and compositions. Furthermore, these conditions result in net landward fluxes of salt

  17. Yaquina Bay Topobathy DEM

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S.EPA contracted with the U.S.ACE to obtain intertidal and subtidal bathymetric soundings of Yaquina Bay between Poole Slough and the South Beach Marina in 2002. These data were compiled with U.S.ACE subtidal soundings from 1999, 1998, 2000 and National Ocean Service soundi...

  18. Measurements of salinity, temperature, and tides in south San Francisco Bay, California, at Dumbarton Bridge; 1990-93 water years

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schemel, Laurence E.

    1995-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey measures salinity, temperature, and water levels (tides) in southern San Francisco Bay at Dumbarton Bridge as part of a cooperative program with the California State Department of Water Resources. During water years 1990-93, measurements were made at 15-minute intervals with electonic sensors located approximately one meter above the substrate in approximately six meters of water (at mean water level). During March and April of 1991 and 1992, salinity and temperature also were measured with a self-contained system floating one meter below the surface of the water. Sections of the data set were selected to illustrate influences of tidal currents, weather events, and seasonal and interannual variations in climate on salinity, temperature, and water levels at this location. The edited data are provided on high-density disks in comma-delimited, ASCII text files.

  19. Dissolved, particulate, and sedimentary organic matter in the Cai River basin (Nha Trang Bay of the South China Sea)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lobus, N. V.; Peresypkin, V. I.; Shulga, N. A.; Drozdova, A. N.; Gusev, E. S.

    2015-05-01

    The data were obtained on the content of organic carbon in the water, particulate matter, and bottom sediments of the Cai River and its tributaries (the basin of Nha Trang Bay). The surface waters of the considered basin contained OM mainly in a dissolved form (DOC/POC = 3). The fraction of Corg in particulate matter amounted to 4.9% on average. Based on the analysis of n-alkanes in bottom sediments, three OM types—autochthonous, mixed, and mainly terrigenous genesis—were distinguished. These types are alternated in series in the lengthwise profile of the river. All the OM types are in close relation to the peculiarities of sedimentation and hydrodynamics of the waters in the treated aquatic area. The geochemical indices (Pr/Ph, OEP17-19, and CPI values) represent the influence of oxidative conditions on OM formation and the intense microbiological transformation of its autochthonous component.

  20. 33 CFR 162.65 - All waterways tributary to the Atlantic Ocean south of Chesapeake Bay and all waterways tributary...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Engineers also has regulations dealing with this section in 33 CFR Part 207. ... St. Marks, Fla. 162.65 Section 162.65 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF... the Gulf of Mexico east and south of St. Marks, Fla. (a) Description. This section applies to...

  1. Estimating the Response and Uncertainty Limits of Physical Processes in the South San Francisco Bay for Extreme Water Elevation Frequency Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andes, L.; Wu, F.; Lo, J.; MacWilliams, M.; Lu, C.; Dean, R.; Hanes, D. M.

    2013-12-01

    Coastal flooding in the far south San Francisco Bay (SSFB) can be a function of astronomical tide, residual tide (i.e. water elevation deviation from computed astronomical tide that is associated with many possible physical processes), in-bay wind speed and direction and fluvial discharge. These physical processes and coastal levee failure were considered as input parameters into a Monte Carlo Simulation (MCS) to estimate extreme water elevation frequency in the SSFB. Limited data is available in the SSFB to estimate the contribution of these physical processes to extreme water elevation statistics. Over 100 years of measured water surface elevation (WSE) data is available at the San Francisco (SF) tide station. A sensitivity analysis of storm event sampling criteria was conducted to select significant events at the SF tide station for data transfer to the project site and statistical analysis. The coincidently sampled astronomical and residual tides at the San Francisco tide station were analyzed and used to develop the storm event databases. Sampling methods employed were compared with annual maximum and partial duration approaches. Additional statistical testing was performed to justify the assumption of coincident sampling. The selected database was found to be most representative of the full range of the combinations of astronomical and residual tides that contribute to extreme water elevation statistics at the project site. A look-up table of astronomical and residual tide, wind speed and direction, and levee failure in the form of WSE responses at the project site from the hydrodynamic simulations was established for the interpolation in the MCS. The hydrodynamic model simulations indicated that the astronomical tides in the SSFB amplify inversely as a function of tidal range at the SF tide station. The residual tide varies minimally as it propagates into the SSFB. In-Bay wind set-up from a significant event was found to contribute on the order of one foot

  2. South Africa

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-16

    ... atmospheric and oceanic conditions. At Elands Bay in South Africa's Western Cape province, about 1000 tons of rock lobsters beached ... red tide. At the same time, people came from across South Africa to gather the undersized creatures for food. The effects of the losses ...

  3. Near-field receiving water monitoring of a benthic community near the Palo Alto Water Quality Control Plant in south San Francisco Bay: February 1974 through December 2003

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Shouse, Michelle K.; Parcheso, Francis; Thompson, Janet K.

    2004-01-01

    Analyses of the benthic community structure of a mudflat in South San Francisco Bay over a 29-year period show that changes in the community have occurred concurrent with reduced concentrations of metals in the sediment and in the tissues of the biosentinal clam Macoma balthica from the same area. The community has shifted from being dominated by several opportunistic species to a community where the species are more similar in abundance, a pattern that could be indicative of a more stable community that is subjected to less stress. In addition, two of the opportunistic species (Ampelisca abdita and Streblospio benedicti) that brood their young and live on the surface of the sediment in tubes have shown a continual decline in dominance coincident with the decline in metals. Heteromastus filiformis, a subsurface polychaete worm that lives in the sediment, consumes sediment and organic particles residing in the sediment, and reproduces by laying their eggs on or in the sediment has shown a concurrent increase in dominance. These changes in species dominance reflect a change in the community from one dominated by surface dwelling, brooding species to one with species with varying life history characteristics. Analysis of the reproductive activity of Macoma balthica shows increases in reproductive activity concurrent with the decline in metal concentrations in the tissue of this organism. Reproductive activity is presently stable with almost all animals reproducing during the two reproductive seasons (spring and fall) of most years. These findings are consistent with findings previously reported for the 1974 through 2002 period.

  4. Effects of abundance and water temperature on recruitment and growth of alewife (Alosa pseudoharengus) near South Bay, Lake Huron, 1954-82

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Henderson, Bryan A.; Brown, Edward H., Jr.

    1985-01-01

    Analysis of catches in pound nets provided indices of population size (ages 2–6) and of recruitment (ages 4–6) for alewives (Alosa pseudoharengus) spawning in South Bay (1954–82). Four hypotheses concerning the effects of stock size and water temperature on growth and recruitment were tested statistically. The number of recruits per spawner was not a function of parental stock size, but was dependent on surface-water temperatures in June and July. Although the size of both males and females at age 3 yr was positively related to surface-water temperatures in the three preceding summers, growth rates were only a function of water temperatures during the second year of growth (age 1). However, growth rates during the first, second, and third years of growth were all related to year-class strength. Thus, population abundance, through recruitment, was determined by an abiotic factor (water temperature), but growth was mostly affected by intraspecific competition for, presumably, food.

  5. Spatial and temporal variability in South San Francisco Bay (USA). I. Horizontal distributions of salinity, suspended sediments, and phytoplankton biomass and productivity

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Powell, T.M.; Cloern, J.E.; Huzzey, L.M.

    1989-01-01

    The horizontal pattern of mesoscale (1-4 km) variability in salinity was a poor predictor of mesoscale patterns in chlorophyll a, suspended particulate matter, and daily primary productivity in the South San Francisco Bay estuary during spring 1987. The tidally-averaged salinity distribution varied over weekly time scales, reflecting inputs of freshwater as well as transport processes. Spatial distributions of the other quantities also varied weekly, but not in concert with the salt field. Spatial patterns of phytoplankton biomass (chlorophyll a) deviated from the salinity patterns, largely reflecting in situ production of phytoplankton biomass during the spring bloom. The tidally-averaged distribution of suspended particulate matter (SPM) was highly dynamic and responded to (1) the riverine input of suspended sediment during a freshet, (2) neap-spring variations in tidally-driven resuspension, and (3) resuspension in shallows following a period of wind mixing. Two-dimensional distributions of primary productivity P???, derived from maps of biomass and turbidity (SPM), also varied weekly, but the spatial variability of P??? was only about half that of SPM and chlorophyll. Since the magnitude and patterns of spatial variability differ among nonconservative quantities, at least in part because of local sources and sinks, we conclude that the spatial distributions of nonconservative quantities cannot be predicted from distributions of conservative tracers, such as salinity. ?? 1989.

  6. 19. GENERAL VIEW OF A BAY; LOOKING SSW. THE TALLER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    19. GENERAL VIEW OF A BAY; LOOKING SSW. THE TALLER B BAY (AND REMAINDER OF THE BUILDING) CAN BE SEEN BEYOND THE POSTS. (Ryan) - Watervliet Arsenal, Building No. 135, Gillespie Road, South of Parker Road, Watervliet, Albany County, NY

  7. 27 CFR 9.157 - San Francisco Bay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... Mountain, California, scale 1:24,000, dated 1956, Photorevised 1980; (25) Half Moon Bay, California, scale... Francisco South, Montara Mountain, Half Moon Bay, San Gregorio, Pigeon Point, Franklin Point, Año Nuevo...

  8. 27 CFR 9.157 - San Francisco Bay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Mountain, California, scale 1:24,000, dated 1956, Photorevised 1980; (25) Half Moon Bay, California, scale... Francisco South, Montara Mountain, Half Moon Bay, San Gregorio, Pigeon Point, Franklin Point, Año Nuevo...

  9. 27 CFR 9.157 - San Francisco Bay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... Mountain, California, scale 1:24,000, dated 1956, Photorevised 1980; (25) Half Moon Bay, California, scale... Francisco South, Montara Mountain, Half Moon Bay, San Gregorio, Pigeon Point, Franklin Point, Año Nuevo...

  10. 27 CFR 9.157 - San Francisco Bay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... Mountain, California, scale 1:24,000, dated 1956, Photorevised 1980; (25) Half Moon Bay, California, scale... Francisco South, Montara Mountain, Half Moon Bay, San Gregorio, Pigeon Point, Franklin Point, Año Nuevo...

  11. Recent sediment transport and deposition in the Cap-Ferret Canyon, South-East margin of Bay of Biscay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidt, Sabine; Howa, Hélène; Diallo, Amy; Martín, Jacobo; Cremer, Michel; Duros, Pauline; Fontanier, Christophe; Deflandre, Bruno; Metzger, Edouard; Mulder, Thierry

    2014-06-01

    The Cap-Ferret Canyon (CFC), a major morphologic feature of the eastern margin of the Bay of Biscay, occupies a deep structural depression that opens about 60 km southwest of the Gironde Estuary. Detailed depth profiles of the particle-reactive radionuclides 234Th and 210Pb in interface sediments were used to characterise the present sedimentation (bioturbation, sediment mass accumulation, and focusing) in the CFC region. Two bathymetric transects were sampled along the CFC axis and the southern adjacent margin. Particle fluxes were recorded from the nearby Landes Plateau by means of sediment traps in 2006 and 2007. This dataset provides a new and comprehensive view of particulate matter transfer in the Cap-Ferret Canyon region, through a direct comparison of the canyon with the adjacent southern margin. Radionuclide profiles (234Th and 210Pb) and mass fluxes demonstrate that significant particle dynamics occur on the SE Aquitanian margin in comparison with nearby margins. The results also suggest show three distinct areas in terms of sedimentary activity. In the upper canyon (<500 m), there is little net sediment accumulation, suggesting a by-pass area. Sediment focusing is apparent at the middle canyon (500-1500 m), that therefore acts as a depocenter for particles from the shelf and the upper canyon. The lower canyon (>2000 m) can be considered inactive at annual or decadal scales. In contrast with the slow and continuous accumulation of relatively fresh material that characterises the middle canyon, the lower canyon receives pulses of sediment via gravity flows on longer time scales. At decadal scale, the CFC can be considered as a relatively quiescent canyon. The disconnection of the CFC from major sources of sediment delivery seems to limit its efficiency in particle transfer from coastal areas to the adjacent ocean basin.

  12. A comparison of measured and modeled suspended sediment concentration profiles during different types of meteorological events on the inner-shelf of Long Bay, South Carolina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wren, P. A.; Ma, Y.

    2010-12-01

    An instrumented quadrapod was deployed on the inner-shelf of Long Bay, South Carolina at a depth of approximately 7 meters from July 2008 - December 2009. A multi-frequency Acoustic Backscatter Sensor (ABS) and a pulse-coherent Acoustic Doppler Current Profiler (PC-ADCP) were used to collect co-located long-term measurements of suspended sediment concentrations and high-resolution velocity profiles throughout the bottom boundary layer. To invert the acoustic backscatter voltage collected by the ABS, a semi-empirical backscattering theory (Thorne and Hanes, 2002) was first verified with sediment chamber measurements using local sediments. The verified theory was then employed to determine sediment grain size and suspended sediment concentrations. Additionally, to complement the field observations, two different 1-D bottom boundary layer models (Styles and Glenn, 2000 and Wiberg and Smith, 1983) were applied to estimate the bed shear stress, velocity and suspended sediment concentration profiles. Although both models are based on boundary layer theory (Smith,1977; Grant and Madsen, 1979), and require as inputs of wave and current velocities as well as characteristics of sea-bed sediment, they are distinct in some practical applications such as eddy-viscosity profile, ripple dimension estimation, model gridding, etc. Recorded waves, currents, and acoustic backscatter data revealed that nineteen sediment transport events occurred during the eighteen month study period, which resulted in an order of magnitude range of suspended sediment concentrations. Comparisons of sediment concentration profiles between the two 1-D models and the field measurements were conducted during several different types of sediment transport events. The events that were used for the comparisons included two types of frequently occurring frontal systems, as well a direct hit from Tropical Storm Hannah. During the selected events near-bottom orbital velocities ranged from 20 - 60 cm s-1 and

  13. Dynamics of nutrient cycling and related benthic nutrient and oxygen fluxes during a spring phytoplankton bloom in South San Francisco Bay (USA)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Grenz, C.; Cloern, J.E.; Hager, S.W.; Cole, B.E.

    2000-01-01

    Benthic oxygen uptake and nutrient releases of N, P and Si were measured weekly at 2 sites in South San Francisco Bay around the 1996 spring bloom. Exchanges across the sediment-water interface were estimated from whole core incubations performed in the laboratory at in situ temperature and in dark. Fluxes changed significantly on a weekly time scale. Over a period of 15 wk the fluxes of dissolved inorganic N, P and Si ranged from -40 to +200, 0 to 13 and from 30 to 400 ??mol m-2 h-1 respectively. Sediment oxygen demand increased from 10 before to 64 mg O2 m-2 h-1 just after the bloom period. During the bloom, nutrient fluxes represented about 20, 16 and 9% of the Si, P and N requirements for primary production. Before and after the bloom period, Si fluxes contributed up to 30 and > 100% of this requirement and P and N fluxes up to 15 and 50% respectively. Simple empirical models explain most of the spatial-temporal variability of benthic fluxes of Si, P and NH4 (but not NO3) from 3 predictor variables: sediment porosity, nutrient concentration in bottom waters and chlorophyll content of surficial sediments. These models show that algal blooms influence benthic-pelagic nutrient exchange through 2 processes: (1) depletion of nutrients from the water column (which enhances gradient-driven transports across the sediment-water interface) and (2) sedimentation of labile phytodetritus (which promotes remineralization in or on the surficial sediments). Rates and patterns of nutrient cycling were very different at the shallow and deep study sites, illustrating the challenge of extrapolating measurements of coupled algae-nutrient dynamics to whole ecosystems.

  14. Wind-enhanced resuspension in the shallow waters of South San Francisco Bay: Mechanisms and potential implications for cohesive sediment transport

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brand, Andreas; Lacy, Jessica R.; Hsu, Kevin; Hoover, Daniel; Gladding, Steve; Stacey, Mark T.

    2010-01-01

    We investigated the driving forces of sediment dynamics at the shoals in South San Francisco Bay. Two stations were deployed along a line perpendicular to a 14 m deep channel, 1000 and 2000 m from the middle of the channel. Station depths were 2.59 and 2.19 m below mean lower low water, respectively. We used acoustic Doppler velocimeters for the simultaneous determination of current velocities, turbulence, sediment concentration and fluxes. Maximum current shear velocities were 0.015 m s−1 at the station further from the channel (closer to the shore) and 0.02 m s−1 at the station closer to the channel. Peak wave-induced shear velocities exceeded 0.015 m s−1 at both stations. Maximum sediment concentrations were around 30 g m−3 during calm periods (root mean square wave height −3 and sediment fluxes were 5 times higher than in calm conditions (0.02 g m−2 s−1 versus >0.10 g m−2 s−1) at the station further from the channel 0.36 m above the bed. Closer to the channel, sediment concentrations and vertical fluxes due to wind wave resuspension were persistently lower (maximum concentrations around 50 g m−3 and maximum fluxes around 0.04 g m−2 s−1). Most resuspension events occurred during flood tides that followed wave events during low water. Although wave motions are able to resuspend sediment into the wave boundary layer at low tide, the observed large increases in sediment fluxes are due to the nonlinear interaction of wind waves and the tidal currents.

  15. Box Model of a Series of Salt Ponds, as Applied to the Alviso Salt Pond Complex, South San Francisco Bay, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lionberger, Megan A.; Schoellhamer, David H.; Shellenbarger, Gregory; Orlando, James L.; Ganju, Neil K.

    2007-01-01

    This report documents the development and application of a box model to simulate water level, salinity, and temperature of the Alviso Salt Pond Complex in South San Francisco Bay. These ponds were purchased for restoration in 2003 and currently are managed by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service to maintain existing wildlife habitat and prevent a build up of salt during the development of a long-term restoration plan. The model was developed for the purpose of aiding pond managers during the current interim management period to achieve these goals. A previously developed box model of a salt pond, SPOOM, which calculates daily pond volume and salinity, was reconfigured to simulate multiple connected ponds and a temperature subroutine was added. The updated model simulates rainfall, evaporation, water flowing between the ponds and the adjacent tidal slough network, and water flowing from one pond to the next by gravity and pumps. Theoretical and measured relations between discharge and corresponding differences in water level are used to simulate most flows between ponds and between ponds and sloughs. The principle of conservation of mass is used to calculate daily pond volume and salinity. The model configuration includes management actions specified in the Interim Stewardship Plan for the ponds. The temperature subroutine calculates hourly net heat transfer to or from a pond resulting in a rise or drop in pond temperature and daily average, minimum, and maximum pond temperatures are recorded. Simulated temperature was compared with hourly measured data from pond 3 of the Napa?Sonoma Salt Pond Complex and monthly measured data from pond A14 of the Alviso Salt-Pond Complex. Comparison showed good agreement of measured and simulated pond temperature on the daily and monthly time scales.

  16. Spatial and temporal variability in South San Francisco Bay (USA). II. Temporal changes in salinity, suspended sediments, and phytoplankton biomass and productivity over tidal time scales

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cloern, J.E.; Powell, T.M.; Huzzey, L.M.

    1989-01-01

    Short-term variability of a conservative quantity (salinity) and two nonconservative quantities (chlorophyll a, suspended particulate matter) was measured across a sampling grid in the South San Francisco Bay estuary. Surface measurements were made every 2 h at each of 29 (or 38) sites, on four different dates representing a range of tidal current regimes over the neap-spring cycle. From the distribution of phytoplankton biomass (chlorophyll a) and turbidity (SPM), we also estimated daily productivity and its variability at each site over the four tide cycles. As a general rule, both chlorophyll a and SPM concentrations varied about 50% from their tidal-means. However derived daily productivity varied less (about 15% from the mean) over a tidal cycle. Both chlorophyll a and SPM varied periodically with tidal stage (increasing on ebbing currents), suggesting that the short-term variability results simply from the tidal advection of spatial gradients. Calculation of the advective flux (current speed times spatial gradient) was used to test this hypothesis. For surface salinity, most (70-80%) of the observed intratidal variability was correlated with the tidal flux, both in the deep channel and over the lateral shoals. However the short-term variability of SPM concentration was only weakly correlated with the advective flux, indicating that local sources of SPM (resuspension) are important. Hourly changes in chlorophyll a were highly correlated with the advective flux in the deep channel (implying that phytoplankton biomass is conservative over short time scales there); however, chlorophyll a variability was only weakly correlated with the advective flux over the shoals, implying that local sources/sinks are important there. Hence, the magnitude and mechanisms of intratidal variability differ among constituents and among bathymetric regimes in this estuary. ?? 1989.

  17. San Francisco and Bay Area, CA, USA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    Although clouds obscure part of the city of San Francisco and the mouth of the Bay (37.5N, 122.0W), many cultural and natural features in the immediate vicinity are obvious. The Bay Bridge which was damaged in the 1989 earthquake, Candlestick Park, San Mateo and Dumbarton Bridges as well as the various colored settling ponds rimming the south end of the Bay, the San Andreas and Calaveras faults and many of the major highways can be seen.

  18. James Bay

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-17

    article title:  First Views of James Bay, Canada     ... show the winter landscape of James Bay, Ontario, Canada from three of the instrument's nine cameras. The image at left captures the opening ... down. The image on the right was taken seven minutes after the first image from the most oblique, aftward-viewing camera. "These ...

  19. Circulation on the Inner-Shelf of Long Bay, South Carolina: Vertical Current Variability and Evidence for Cross-Shelf Variation in Near-Bed Currents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gutierrez, B. T.; Voulgaris, G.; Work, P. A.; Seim, H.; Warner, J. C.

    2004-12-01

    Cross-shelf variations of near-bed currents and variations in vertical flow were investigated on the inner shelf of Long Bay, South Carolina during the spring and fall of 2001. Current meters sampled near-bed currents at six locations as well as vertical current profiles at three of the sites. The observations showed that the tides accounted for approximately 45-66% of the flow variability. The dominant tidal component, the semi-diurnal constituent M2, exhibited tidal ellipse orientations that are increasingly aligned with the coast closer to the shore. The largest M2 current magnitudes were identified closest to shore and over the top of a sand shoal located 5.5 km offshore of Myrtle Beach. The remaining flow variability was associated with sub-tidal flows which respond to the passage of low-pressure systems across the region. These weather systems were characterized by periods of southwesterly winds in advance of low-pressure centers followed by northeasterly winds as the systems passed over the study area. When strong southwesterly winds persisted, surface flow was oriented approximately in the direction of the wind. At the same time near-bottom flows were also directed to the northeast in the direction of the wind except during periods of stratification when vertical current profiles suggest near-bed onshore flow. The stratified flows were observed mainly during the spring deployment. For periods of strong northeasterly winds, currents were directed alongshore to the southwest and exhibited little variation throughout the water column. These observations are consistent with recent field and modeling studies for the inner-shelf. Comparison of the near-bed flow measurements during the fall deployment revealed a cross-shore gradient in alongshore flow during periods of strong northeasterly winds. During these episodes flows at the offshore measurement stations were oriented in the direction of the wind, while flows closest to shore occurred in the opposite

  20. On tide-induced Lagrangian residual current and residual transport: 2. Residual transport with application in south San Francisco Bay, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Feng, Shizuo; Cheng, Ralph T.; Pangen, Xi

    1986-01-01

    of intertidal transport processes is illustrated by an analytical solution for an amphidromic system and by a numerical application in South San Francisco Bay, California. The present formulation reveals that the mechanism for long-term transport of solutes is mainly convection due to the Lagrangian residual current in the interior of a tidal estuary. This result also points out the weakness in the tidal dispersion formulation, and explains the large variability of the observed values for tidal dispersion coefficients. Further research on properties of the dispersion boundary layer is needed.

  1. Near field receiving water monitoring of trace metals in clams (macoma balthica) and sediments near the Palo Alto Water Quality Control Plant in South San Francisco Bay, California: 2000

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Moon, Edward; Luoma, Samuel N.; Cain, Daniel J.; Hornberger, Michelle I.; David, Carlos Primo C.

    2004-01-01

    Trace element concentrations were analyzed on samples of fine-grained sediments and clams (Macoma balthica) collected from a mudflat one kilometer south of the discharge of the Palo Alto Regional Water Quality Control Plant in South San Francisco Bay. This report serves as a continuation of the Near Field Receiving Water Monitoring Study, which was started in 1994. The data for 2003, herein, are interpreted within that context. Metal concentrations in both sediments and clam tissue samples have been within the range of values produced by seasonal variability; however, copper and zinc, display continued decreases over the last decade. In 2003, copper in sediment was observed to drop below the ERL (Effects Range-Low) concentration for the third consecutive year and zinc concentrations never exceeded the ERL. Yearly average concentrations of copper, zinc and silver in Macoma balthica for 2003 are some of the lowest recorded since monitoring began in 1975. Mercury and selenium concentrations in sediments and clams at Palo Alto were similar to concentrations observed elsewhere in the San Francisco Bay.

  2. Near field receiving water monitoring of trace metals in clams (Macoma balthica) and sediments near the Palo Alto water quality control plant in south San Francisco Bay, California : 2002

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Moon, Edward; David, Carlos Primo C.; Luoma, Samuel N.; Cain, Daniel J.; Hornberger, Michelle I.; Lavigne, Irene R.

    2003-01-01

    This report presents trace element concentrations analyzed on samples of fine-grained sediments and clams (Macoma balthica) collected from a mudflat one kilometer south of the discharge of the Palo Alto Regional Water Quality Control Plant in South San Francisco Bay. This report serves as a continuation of the Near Field Receiving Water Monitoring Study, which was started in 1994. The data for 2002, herein, are interpreted within that context. Metal concentrations in both sediments and clam tissue samples have been within the range of values produced by seasonal variability. However, copper and zinc, display continued decreases. Copper in sediment was observed to drop below the ERL (Effects Range-Low) concentration for the third consecutive year and zinc concentrations never exceeded the ERL. Yearly average concentrations of copper, zinc and silver in Macoma balthica for 2002 are some of the lowest recorded since monitoring began in 1975. Mercury and selenium concentrations in sediments and clams at Palo Alto were similar concentrations observed elsewhere in the San Francisco Bay.

  3. Plankton studies in San Francisco Bay; II, Phytoplankton abundance and species composition, July 1977-December 1979

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wong, Raymond L. J.; Cloern, James E.

    1981-01-01

    Data are presented on the phytoplankton species composition and abundance in San Francisco Bay from July 1977 through December 1979. Phytoplankton identification and enumerations were made at selected stations. Sample collections were made at selected stations in the main channel of the Bay from Rio Vista on the Sacramento River to Calaveras Point in South San Francisco Bay, and at shoal stations in the central portion of South San Francisco Bay, San Pablo Bay, and Suisun Bay. Also reported, from October 1978 through December 1979, are the calculated phytoplankton carbon and percent nondiatom carbon, and the species list. This study is one component of an ongoing interdisciplinary study of San Francisco Bay. (USGS)

  4. Spatial characteristics of sediment trace metals in an eastern boundary upwelling retention area (St. Helena Bay, South Africa): A hydrodynamic biological pump hypothesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monteiro, Pedro M. S.; Roychoudhury, Alakendra N.

    2005-10-01

    St. Helena Bay, a retention zone located in the southern Benguela upwelling system, is an important fish nursery. However, it suffers from seasonal bottom water hypoxia causing major economic losses. Anoxic conditions are linked to sulfide fluxes from bottom sediments defined by a high sedimentation rate of organic matter. It is proposed that trace metals may play an important role in alleviating part of the ecological stress by forming sulfide complexes in such systems. A spatially intensive data set of sediment biogeochemical characteristics showed that POC and trace metals (Cr, Cu, Zn, Ni, etc.) accumulated in the central zone of the Bay. Furthermore, trace metal concentrations were strongly correlated with both POC and Al. To explain the observed biogeochemical relationships in St. Helena Bay, we propose a hypothesis that links the upwelling retention hydrodynamics, primary productivity and sediment trace metal distribution. Trace metals are incorporated into phytoplankton cells in the euphotic zone but rapidly sediment along with particulate organics, on their senescence. Both, the biological pump and the dispersion of particulates are primarily controlled by the hydrodynamics prevalent within St. Helena Bay, which also govern the retention zone in the shadow of one of the major upwelling cells. The dynamics of entrainment-stratification drives the productivity, while a residual cyclonic gyre concentrates the surface productivity within the bay. Bed-shear stresses spatially constrain the accumulation of biogenic organic matter, which governs the trace metal biogeochemistry of the sediments, along a narrow terrigenous mud belt.

  5. Algae Reefs in Shark Bay, Western Australia, Australia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    Numerous algae reefs are seen in Shark Bay, Western Australia, Australia (26.0S, 113.5E) especially in the southern portions of the bay. The south end is more saline because tidal flow in and out of the bay is restricted by sediment deposited at the north and central end of the bay opposite the mouth of the Wooramel River. This extremely arid region produces little sediment runoff so that the waters are very clear, saline and rich in algae.

  6. Human and riverine impacts on the dynamics of biogeochemical parameters in Kwangyang Bay, South Korea revealed by time-series data and multivariate statistics.

    PubMed

    Kim, Tae-Wook; Kim, Dongseon; Baek, Seung Ho; Kim, Young Ok

    2015-01-15

    The successful management of sustainable coastal environments that are beneficial to both humans and marine ecosystems requires knowledge about factors that are harmful to such environments. Here, we investigated seawater nutrient and carbon parameters between 2010 and 2012 in Kwangyang Bay, Korea, a coastal environment that has been exposed to intensive anthropogenic activities. The data were analyzed using cluster and factor analysis. We found that the biogeochemical cycles of nutrients and carbon were determined by river discharge into the bay and biological activity. However, the impacts of these factors varied both spatially and seasonally. During the past 10 years, nutrient loads from the river and industrial complexes to the bay have decreased. The impacts of this decrease are visible in the phosphate concentration, which has fallen to a third of its initial value. We also examined the potential role of atmospheric nitrogen deposition in nitrogen cycling in the study area. PMID:25481735

  7. Tsunami Inundation modeling for Tolaga Bay, Tokomaru Bay, Hicks Bay and Te Araroa communities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barberopoulou, A.; Wang, X.; Power, W. L.

    2012-12-01

    We assess the tsunami hazard to four communities in Raukumara Peninsula (Northeastern region of North Island of New Zealand): Tokomaru Bay, Tolaga Bay, Hicks Bay and Te Araroa. Representative severe but realistic scenarios that could affect the Raukumara peninsula are earthquakes that rupture the interface between the Australian and Pacific plates, earthquakes that rupture faults within the overlying Australian plate or the subducting Pacific plate (location is not always well constrained). Earthquakes that rupture both the plate interface and simultaneously faults within the crust of the Australian plate are also a possibility. Tsunamis may also be caused by submarine landslides that occur near the edge of the continental shelf, but these are not considered here. For this study four scenario events were constructed, including a distant event from South America (offshore Peru), outer rise events and a thrust event in the Hikurangi region off the east coast of New Zealand. The sources are not exhaustive but representative of the types of significant events that could occur in the region and were either improved from earlier sources or derived from recent studies. Available high resolution LiDAR and RTK data were combined with topographic and LINZ data for the development of bathymetric/topographic grids. Our modelling results show that Tolaga Bay appears most vulnerable to tsunami inundation although Hicks Bay and Te Araroa are also significantly inundated in several of the scenarios. Tokomaru Bay is naturally well protected because the rapid change in elevation limits the range of inundation. The worst scenario for Tokomaru Bay was an earthquake in the Hikurangi subduction zone resulting in large flow depths, whereas for Tolaga Bay inundation is severe from most scenarios. Hicks Bay and Te Araroa get the most severe flooding from earthquakes in South America and on the Hikurangi subduction zone. Inundation extent is similar for Tolaga Bay during the Outer Rise and

  8. GALVESTON BAY CCMP

    EPA Science Inventory

    Galveston Bay ranks high among the nation's great bay systems, providing huge economic benefits to the region and state. Remarkably, the bay's natural resources are self-renewing as long as the bay remains healthy and productive. However, Galveston Bay, like many other U.S. bays,...

  9. A method for examining the geospatial distribution of CO2 storage resources applied to the Pre-Punta Gorda Composite and Dollar Bay reservoirs of the South Florida Basin, U.S.A

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Roberts-Ashby, Tina; Brandon N. Ashby

    2016-01-01

    This paper demonstrates geospatial modification of the USGS methodology for assessing geologic CO2 storage resources, and was applied to the Pre-Punta Gorda Composite and Dollar Bay reservoirs of the South Florida Basin. The study provides detailed evaluation of porous intervals within these reservoirs and utilizes GIS to evaluate the potential spatial distribution of reservoir parameters and volume of CO2 that can be stored. This study also shows that incorporating spatial variation of parameters using detailed and robust datasets may improve estimates of storage resources when compared to applying uniform values across the study area derived from small datasets, like many assessment methodologies. Geospatially derived estimates of storage resources presented here (Pre-Punta Gorda Composite = 105,570 MtCO2; Dollar Bay = 24,760 MtCO2) were greater than previous assessments, which was largely attributed to the fact that detailed evaluation of these reservoirs resulted in higher estimates of porosity and net-porous thickness, and areas of high porosity and thick net-porous intervals were incorporated into the model, likely increasing the calculated volume of storage space available for CO2 sequestration. The geospatial method for evaluating CO2 storage resources also provides the ability to identify areas that potentially contain higher volumes of storage resources, as well as areas that might be less favorable.

  10. 33 CFR 334.670 - Gulf of Mexico south and west of Apalachicola, San Blas, and St. Joseph bays; air-to-air firing...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Gulf of Mexico south and west of....670 Section 334.670 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE DANGER ZONE AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.670 Gulf of Mexico south and west...

  11. 33 CFR 334.670 - Gulf of Mexico south and west of Apalachicola, San Blas, and St. Joseph bays; air-to-air firing...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Gulf of Mexico south and west of....670 Section 334.670 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE DANGER ZONE AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.670 Gulf of Mexico south and west...

  12. 33 CFR 334.670 - Gulf of Mexico south and west of Apalachicola, San Blas, and St. Joseph bays; air-to-air firing...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Gulf of Mexico south and west of....670 Section 334.670 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE DANGER ZONE AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.670 Gulf of Mexico south and west...

  13. Plankton studies in San Francisco Bay; IV, Phytoplankton abundance and species composition, January 1980 - February 1981

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wong, R.L.; Cloern, J.E.

    1982-01-01

    Data are presented on the phytoplankton species composition and abundance in San Francisco Bay from January 1980 through February 1981. Phytoplankton were identified and enumerated in surface samples collected approximately every two weeks at selected stations in the main channel of the Bay, and at shoal stations in the central portion of South San Francisco Bay, San Pablo Bay, and Suisun Bay. Also reported are separate species lists for microphytoplankton (< 60 micrometers) and macrophytoplankton (> 60 micrometers). (Author 's abstract)

  14. James Bay

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-17

    article title:  First Light over James Bay     View Larger Image MISR "First light", 16:40 UTC, 24 February 2000 . This is the first image of Earth's ... the line of flight. At the top of the image, the dark-to-light transition captures the opening of the MISR cover. Progressing southward, ...

  15. Narragansett Bay

    EPA Science Inventory

    Narragansett Bay, situated on the eastern side of Rhode Island, comprises about 15% of the State’s total area. Ninety-five percent of the Bay’s surface area is in Rhode Island with the remainder in southeastern Massachusetts; 60% of the Bay’s watershed is in Massachusetts. At the...

  16. Near field receiving water monitoring of trace metals in clams (macoma balthica) and sediments near the Palo Alto Water Quality Control Plant in South San Francisco Bay, California: 1999-2001

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    David, Carlos Primo C.; Luoma, Samuel N.; Brown, Cynthia L.; Cain, Daniel J.; Hornberger, Michelle I.; Lavigne, Irene R.

    2002-01-01

    This report presents trace element concentrations analyzed on samples of fine-grained sediments and clams (Macoma balthica) collected from a mudflat one kilometer south of the discharge of the Palo Alto Regional Water Quality Control Plant in South San Francisco Bay. This report serves as a continuation of the Near Field Receiving Water Monitoring Study which was started in 1994. The data for 1999-2001 are interpreted within that context. Generally, metal concentrations in both sediments and clam tissue samples have been within the range of values produced by seasonal variability. Copper and zinc, however, display a continued decrease, recording the lowest winter maxima concentrations in both sediment and tissue samples in 2001. Yearly average of bioavailable copper, zinc and silver concentrations in 1999-2001 are some of the lowest recorded since monitoring began in 1975. A slight increase in mercury in sediments and selenium in tissue in early 2001 are also observed. These enrichments are believed to be mainly caused by hydrogeologic processes affecting the area although only continued sampling will confirm whether anthropogenic sources influence the concentrations of these elements.

  17. San Francisco and Bay Area, CA, USA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    Although clouds obscure part of the city of San Francisco and the mouth of the Bay (37.5N, 122.0W), many cultural and natural features in the immediate vicinity are obvious. The Bay Bridge which was damaged in the 1989 earthquake, Candlestick Park, San Mateo and Dumbarton Bridges as well as the various colored settling ponds rimming the south end of the Bay, the San Andreas and Calaveras faults and many of the major highways can be seen. Color infrared photography is very useful for haze penetration and greater definition of the imagery as well as vegetation detection, depicted as shades of red.

  18. The Small Mammal Sequence from the c. 76 - 72 ka Still Bay Levels at Blombos Cave, South Africa - Taphonomic and Palaeoecological Implications for Human Behaviour.

    PubMed

    Nel, Turid Hillestad; Henshilwood, Christopher Stuart

    2016-01-01

    The Still Bay, c. 76-72 ka, a prominent techno-tradition during the Middle Stone Age of southern Africa, has yielded innovative technologies, symbolic material culture, and shows evidence of expansion of hunting techniques and subsistence strategies. In this paper we present the results of the first systematic, taphonomic and palaeoenvironmental study of micromammals from the Still Bay levels at Blombos Cave. Our taphonomic analysis indicates that the micromammals were accumulated by avian predators occupying the cave. Post-depositional processes affecting the micromammal assemblage include organic waste decomposition and conditions associated with a limestone cave environment. The palaeoenvironmental reconstruction shows that Marine Isotope Stage (MIS) 5a at Blombos Cave had diverse micromammal communities occupying a variety of habitats and with rainfall pattern equal to present. The transition from MIS 5a to 4 is indicated by less diverse micromammal assemblages, increase in grassland and scrub vegetation, shifts in seasonal precipitation, and a decline in shrubs associated with fynbos. The onset of the glacial conditions associated with MIS 4 is visible in the micromammal assemblage. However humans occupying Blombos Cave during this c. 5 ka period showed an ability to cope with changing environmental conditions and were able to adapt and utilise a variety of available resources. PMID:27509023

  19. The Small Mammal Sequence from the c. 76 – 72 ka Still Bay Levels at Blombos Cave, South Africa – Taphonomic and Palaeoecological Implications for Human Behaviour

    PubMed Central

    Nel, Turid Hillestad; Henshilwood, Christopher Stuart

    2016-01-01

    The Still Bay, c. 76–72 ka, a prominent techno-tradition during the Middle Stone Age of southern Africa, has yielded innovative technologies, symbolic material culture, and shows evidence of expansion of hunting techniques and subsistence strategies. In this paper we present the results of the first systematic, taphonomic and palaeoenvironmental study of micromammals from the Still Bay levels at Blombos Cave. Our taphonomic analysis indicates that the micromammals were accumulated by avian predators occupying the cave. Post-depositional processes affecting the micromammal assemblage include organic waste decomposition and conditions associated with a limestone cave environment. The palaeoenvironmental reconstruction shows that Marine Isotope Stage (MIS) 5a at Blombos Cave had diverse micromammal communities occupying a variety of habitats and with rainfall pattern equal to present. The transition from MIS 5a to 4 is indicated by less diverse micromammal assemblages, increase in grassland and scrub vegetation, shifts in seasonal precipitation, and a decline in shrubs associated with fynbos. The onset of the glacial conditions associated with MIS 4 is visible in the micromammal assemblage. However humans occupying Blombos Cave during this c. 5 ka period showed an ability to cope with changing environmental conditions and were able to adapt and utilise a variety of available resources. PMID:27509023

  20. 8. VIEW OF SOUTH ELEVATION (REPRESENTATIVE OF APPEARANCE OF BOTH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. VIEW OF SOUTH ELEVATION (REPRESENTATIVE OF APPEARANCE OF BOTH ELEVATIONS), LOOKING NORTHWEST - Central of Georgia Railway, Bay Street Viaduct, U.S. 17 & Bay Street, spanning Central of Georgia Railroad, Savannah, Chatham County, GA

  1. 4. AERIAL PERSPECTIVE SHOWING MAJORITY OF SOUTH ELEVATION, LOOKING NORTH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. AERIAL PERSPECTIVE SHOWING MAJORITY OF SOUTH ELEVATION, LOOKING NORTH - Central of Georgia Railway, Bay Street Viaduct, U.S. 17 & Bay Street, spanning Central of Georgia Railroad, Savannah, Chatham County, GA

  2. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in sediments of Zhelin Bay, the largest mariculture base on the eastern Guangdong coast, South China: Characterization and risk implications.

    PubMed

    Gu, Yang-Guang; Ke, Chang-Liang; Liu, Qi; Lin, Qin

    2016-09-15

    We investigated distribution, sources, and potential risks of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the surface sediments from the largest mariculture base in the eastern part of the province of Guangdong in southern China. Total concentrations of ∑PAHs were 29.38-815.46ng/g (dry weight), with a mean of 421.48ng/g. The composition of PAHs was characterized by an abundance of low molecular weight PAHs (2-3 benzenoid ring), and Phenanthrene (PHE), Anthracene (AN) and Fluoranthene (FA) were the predominant constituents. PAHs in this area appear to have mainly originated from petroleum sources and the combustion of grass, wood, and coal. PAHs in surface sediments of Zhelin Bay had a 9% incidence of causing adverse biological effects on aquatic organisms, according to the mean effects range-median quotient. PMID:27287864

  3. Picoplankton Bloom in Global South? A High Fraction of Aerobic Anoxygenic Phototrophic Bacteria in Metagenomes from a Coastal Bay (Arraial do Cabo—Brazil)

    PubMed Central

    Cuadrat, Rafael R. C.; Ferrera, Isabel; Grossart, Hans-Peter; Dávila, Alberto M. R.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Marine habitats harbor a great diversity of microorganism from the three domains of life, only a small fraction of which can be cultivated. Metagenomic approaches are increasingly popular for addressing microbial diversity without culture, serving as sensitive and relatively unbiased methods for identifying and cataloging the diversity of nucleic acid sequences derived from organisms in environmental samples. Aerobic anoxygenic phototrophic bacteria (AAP) play important roles in carbon and energy cycling in aquatic systems. In oceans, those bacteria are widely distributed; however, their abundance and importance are still poorly understood. The aim of this study was to estimate abundance and diversity of AAPs in metagenomes from an upwelling affected coastal bay in Arraial do Cabo, Brazil, using in silico screening for the anoxygenic photosynthesis core genes. Metagenomes from the Global Ocean Sample Expedition (GOS) were screened for comparative purposes. AAPs were highly abundant in the free-living bacterial fraction from Arraial do Cabo: 23.88% of total bacterial cells, compared with 15% in the GOS dataset. Of the ten most AAP abundant samples from GOS, eight were collected close to the Equator where solar irradiation is high year-round. We were able to assign most retrieved sequences to phylo-groups, with a particularly high abundance of Roseobacter in Arraial do Cabo samples. The high abundance of AAP in this tropical bay may be related to the upwelling phenomenon and subsequent picoplankton bloom. These results suggest a link between upwelling and light abundance and demonstrate AAP even in oligotrophic tropical and subtropical environments. Longitudinal studies in the Arraial do Cabo region are warranted to understand the dynamics of AAP at different locations and seasons, and the ecological role of these unique bacteria for biogeochemical and energy cycling in the ocean. PMID:26871866

  4. Implementation of mesh refinement method in a 3d coastal model of bay of Biscay to study the Loire plume off south Brittany

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jouan, M.; Debreu, L.; Dumas, F.

    2003-04-01

    In order to study the spreading of the big river discharges over the continental shelf in the bay of Biscay, a 3D model that solves the primitive equations has been developped. Following Blumberg and Mellor (1987), it is a split-implicit free-surface version for the sigma coordinates system based on a finite difference approximation. For the bay of Biscay continental shelf implementation, the domain covers the two main estuaries of Loire and Gironde with a 5km resolution. An enhancement of local resolution must significantly improve the results. As the gradients apart from thess particular areas are weaker, we focus on both areas and increase resolution up to 1.5km. For this purpose, a mesh refinement technique has been implemented in the 5km resolution configuration ; it is based on Berger-Oliger technique (i.e. domain decomposition with full overlapping). The AGRIF software library allows two computational modes : - one way : at each step on the fine grid, open boundary conditions are interpolated in time and space from the upper level - two way : in addition to the previous mode, a retroactive forcing updates some state variables on the coarser grid from the fine grid values. In one way mode, results on the fine grid can vary depending on type of prescribed variables at the interface. Results of the two way mode tend to prove the necessity to update the upper level to reproduce as fine as possible density structure and therefore improve the global solution, hence the boundary conditions of the fine grid itself. Paying attention to particular features (consistancy of the bathymetry), the system is rather stable. This configuration is then used to follow the low salinity lenses and to determine under which conditions these appear.

  5. Implementation of mesh refinement method in 3D coastal model of bay of Biscay to study the Loire plume off south Brittany

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jouan, M.; Debreu, L.; Dumas, F.

    2003-04-01

    In order to study the spreading of the big river discharges over the continental shelf in the bay of Biscay, a 3D model that solves the primitive equations has been developped. Following Blumberg and Mellor (1987), it is a split-implicit free-surface version for the sigma coordinates system based on a finite difference approximation. For the bay of Biscay continental shelf implementation, the domain covers the two main estuaries of Loire and Gironde with a 5km resolution. An enhancement of local resolution must significantly improve the results. As the gradients apart from thess particular areas are weaker, we focus on both areas and increase resolution up to 1.5km. For this purpose, a mesh refinement technique has been implemented in the 5km resolution configuration ; it is based on Berger-Oliger technique (i.e. domain decomposition with full overlapping). The AGRIF software library allows two computational modes : - one way : at each step on the fine grid, open boundary conditions are interpolated in time and space from the upper level - two way : in addition to the previous mode, a retroactive forcing updates some state variables on the coarser grid from the fine grid values. In one way mode, results on the fine grid can vary depending on type of prescribed variables at the interface. Results of the two way mode tend to prove the necessity to update the upper level to reproduce as fine as possible density structure and therefore improve the global solution, hence the boundary conditions of the fine grid itself. Paying attention to particular features (consistancy of the bathymetry), the system is rather stable. This configuration is then used to follow the low salinity lenses and to determine under which conditions these appear.

  6. Picoplankton Bloom in Global South? A High Fraction of Aerobic Anoxygenic Phototrophic Bacteria in Metagenomes from a Coastal Bay (Arraial do Cabo--Brazil).

    PubMed

    Cuadrat, Rafael R C; Ferrera, Isabel; Grossart, Hans-Peter; Dávila, Alberto M R

    2016-02-01

    Marine habitats harbor a great diversity of microorganism from the three domains of life, only a small fraction of which can be cultivated. Metagenomic approaches are increasingly popular for addressing microbial diversity without culture, serving as sensitive and relatively unbiased methods for identifying and cataloging the diversity of nucleic acid sequences derived from organisms in environmental samples. Aerobic anoxygenic phototrophic bacteria (AAP) play important roles in carbon and energy cycling in aquatic systems. In oceans, those bacteria are widely distributed; however, their abundance and importance are still poorly understood. The aim of this study was to estimate abundance and diversity of AAPs in metagenomes from an upwelling affected coastal bay in Arraial do Cabo, Brazil, using in silico screening for the anoxygenic photosynthesis core genes. Metagenomes from the Global Ocean Sample Expedition (GOS) were screened for comparative purposes. AAPs were highly abundant in the free-living bacterial fraction from Arraial do Cabo: 23.88% of total bacterial cells, compared with 15% in the GOS dataset. Of the ten most AAP abundant samples from GOS, eight were collected close to the Equator where solar irradiation is high year-round. We were able to assign most retrieved sequences to phylo-groups, with a particularly high abundance of Roseobacter in Arraial do Cabo samples. The high abundance of AAP in this tropical bay may be related to the upwelling phenomenon and subsequent picoplankton bloom. These results suggest a link between upwelling and light abundance and demonstrate AAP even in oligotrophic tropical and subtropical environments. Longitudinal studies in the Arraial do Cabo region are warranted to understand the dynamics of AAP at different locations and seasons, and the ecological role of these unique bacteria for biogeochemical and energy cycling in the ocean. PMID:26871866

  7. Near-field receiving water monitoring of trace metals and a benthic community near the Palo Alto regional water quality control plant in south San Francisco Bay, California: 2005

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cain, Daniel J.; Parcheso, Francis; Thompson, Janet K.; Luoma, Samuel N.; Lorenzi, Allison H.; Moon, Edward; Shouse, Michelle K.; Hornberger, Michelle I.; Dyke, Jessica

    2006-01-01

    Trace elements in sediment and the clam Macoma petalum (formerly reported as Macoma balthica (Cohen and Carlton 1995), clam reproductive activity and benthic, macroinvertebrate community structure are reported for a mudflat one kilometer south of the discharge of the Palo Alto Regional Water Quality Control Plant in South San Francisco Bay. This report includes data collected for the period January to December 2005, and extends a critical long-term biogeochemical record dating back to 1974. These data serve as the basis for the City of Palo Alto's Near-Field Receiving Water Monitoring Program, initiated in 1994. Metal concentrations in both sediments and clam tissue during 2005 were consistent with results observed since 1990. Copper and zinc concentrations in sediment and bivalve tissue displayed a continued decrease over the last decade. In 2005, Cu concentrations were at or below the effects range-low (ERL) concentration (34 ?g/g) for the entire year, the first time this has been observed. Also, zinc concentrations never exceeded the ERL (150 ?g/g). Yearly average concentrations of copper, zinc and silver in Macoma petalum for 2005 were some of the lowest recorded since monitoring for metals began in 1975. The concentrations of mercury and selenium in sediments, during April and January 2004, respectively, were the highest values observed for these elements during this study. Later in 2005, concentrations decreased to historic levels. The increase in mercury and selenium in 2004 was not a permanent trend and concentrations of these elements in sediments and clams at Palo Alto remain similar to concentrations observed elsewhere in the San Francisco Bay. Analyses of the benthic-community structure of a mudflat in South San Francisco Bay over a 31-year period show that changes in the community have occurred concurrent with reduced concentrations of metals in the sediment and in the tissues of the biosentinal clam Macoma petalum from the same area. Analysis of the

  8. 15. TURNTABLE RECONSTRUCTION BAY & TAYLOR: Photocopy of January ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. TURNTABLE RECONSTRUCTION - BAY & TAYLOR: Photocopy of January 1941 photograph taken during reconstruction of the Bay and Taylor turntable. View to the south. The 'spider' that carries the actual turntable is in place in the pit. - San Francisco Cable Railway, Washington & Mason Streets, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  9. Interior view of the Fire Truck Bay, to southwest, brass ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Interior view of the Fire Truck Bay, to southwest, brass fire pole at center, descending from the second floor living quarters - Mare Island Naval Shipyard, South Fire Station, Railroad Avenue near Eighteenth Street, Vallejo, Solano County, CA

  10. 6. VIEW NORTHWEST OF TRANSMISSION MECHANISMS; TURBINE BAYS AT LEFT, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. VIEW NORTHWEST OF TRANSMISSION MECHANISMS; TURBINE BAYS AT LEFT, GENERATOR AT EXTREME REAR - Willimantic Linen Company, Mill No. 2, South Main Street opposite Durham Street, North bank Willimantic River, Windham, Windham County, CT

  11. DETAIL, WEST SIDE SHOWING TYPICAL BUTTRESSES AND WINDOW BAY; VIEW ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    DETAIL, WEST SIDE SHOWING TYPICAL BUTTRESSES AND WINDOW BAY; VIEW TO NORTHEAST - Fort Bragg, Noncommissioned Officers' Service Club, Guest House Building, South of Butner Road, Fayetteville, Cumberland County, NC

  12. 5. View bay door and single man door on north ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. View bay door and single man door on north elevation of power plant, looking south - Naval Air Station Fallon, Power Plant, 800 Complex, off Carson Road near intersection of Pasture & Berney Roads, Fallon, Churchill County, NV

  13. 17. INTERIOR VIEW LOOKING NORTH AT ELECTRICAL BAYS. OPERATORS SWITCHBOARD ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    17. INTERIOR VIEW LOOKING NORTH AT ELECTRICAL BAYS. OPERATORS SWITCHBOARD ONE LEVEL UP, TURBINE #1 TO LEFT, TURBINE #2 TO RIGHT - Georgetown Steam Plant, South Warsaw Street, King County Airport, Seattle, King County, WA

  14. INTERIOR VIEW LOOKING NORTH AT ELECTRICAL BAYS. OPERATORS SWITCHBOARD ONE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    INTERIOR VIEW LOOKING NORTH AT ELECTRICAL BAYS. OPERATORS SWITCHBOARD ONE LEVEL UP, TURBINE #1 TO LEFT, TURBINE #2 TO RIGHT - Georgetown Steam Plant, South Warsaw Street, King County Airport, Seattle, King County, WA

  15. CHESAPEAKE BAY MONITORING PROGRAM

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Chesapeake Bay Program is the unique regional partnership which has been directing and conducting the restoration of the Chesapeake Bay since the signing of the historic 1983 Chesapeake Bay Agreement. The Chesapeake Bay Program partners include the states of Maryland, Pennsyl...

  16. Middle and late Pleistocene Middle Stone Age lithic technology from Pinnacle Point 13B (Mossel Bay, Western Cape Province, South Africa).

    PubMed

    Thompson, Erin; Williams, Hope M; Minichillo, Tom

    2010-01-01

    Excavations at a complex of caves and open air sites at Pinnacle Point, Mossel Bay, Southern Africa have uncovered rich stratified assemblages of Middle Stone Age materials, including those from Pinnacle Point Cave 13B (PP13B) that comprises the first modernly excavated assemblage in southern Africa to be securely dated to the Middle Pleistocene. We report here on the complete excavated lithic artifact assemblage from PP13B. Both technological and typological analyses of the complete assemblage were performed. The assemblage-scale analysis allows for intrasite comparison as well as comparison of the PP13B assemblage with other sites from the region. No size-related pattern of change over time was observed within the PP13B assemblage, although there is significant evidence for varying strategies of lithic reduction between excavation areas within the cave. Comparison with other material from the Southern African MSA suggests that there is significant inter- and intra-site variability in the Southern African Middle Stone Age, even between portions of assemblages that are roughly contemporaneous. PMID:20934091

  17. Stable isotope composition of subfossil Cerastoderma glaucum shells from the Szczecin Bay brackish deposits and its palaeogeographical implications (South Baltic Coast, Poland)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borówka, Ryszard K.; Strobel, Wacław; Hałas, Stanisław

    2012-03-01

    The environmental conditions of the Szczecin Bay, which existed prior to Szczecin Lagoon, have been reconstructed on the basis of the stable carbon and oxygen isotope (18O and 13C) analysis and radiocarbon dates obtained for subfossil shells of Cerastoderma (Cardium) glaucum. The shells in the collected core were well preserved in their life positions, representing a geochemical record of past temperature variation over the middle Holocene. Three major periods with different thermal conditions have been distinguished in the interval ~ 6000-4300 cal yr BP, when the important Littorina regional transgression took place. During the first period, 6000-5250 cal yr BP, water temperature decreased by 1.4°C, and then remained constant over the second period (5250-4750 cal yr BP). In contrast, during the third period (4750-4300 cal yr BP) both δ-values were highly variable and the mean summer temperature (March-November) increased by about 3.5°C. During first two periods, δ18O and δ13C were significantly correlated, indicating stability of the environmental conditions.

  18. Near-field receiving water monitoring of trace metals and a benthic community near the Palo Alto Regional Water Quality Control Plant in South San Francisco Bay, California-2010

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dyke, Jessica; Parcheso, Francis; Thompson, Janet K.; Cain, Daniel J.; Luoma, Samuel N.; Hornberger, Michelle I.

    2011-01-01

    Analyses of the benthic community structure of a mudflat in South San Francisco Bay over a 37-year period show that changes in the community have occurred concurrent with reduced concentrations of metals in the sediment and in the tissues of the biosentinel clam, M. petalum, from the same area. Analysis of the M. petalum community shows increases in reproductive activity concurrent with the decline in metal concentrations in the tissues of this organism. Reproductive activity is presently stable (2010), with almost all animals initiating reproduction in the fall and spawning the following spring of most years. The community has shifted from being dominated by several opportunistic species to a community where the species are more similar in abundance, a pattern that indicates a more stable community that is subjected to fewer stressors. In addition, two of the opportunistic species (Ampelisca abdita and Streblospio benedicti) that brood their young and live on the surface of the sediment in tubes have shown a continual decline in dominance coincident with the decline in metals; both species had short-lived rebounds in abundance in 2008, 2009, and 2010. Heteromastus filiformis (a subsurface polychaete worm that lives in the sediment, consumes sediment and organic particles residing in the

  19. Planktonic biodiversity as a tracer to estimate the biological role of microorganisms in stratified seawaters of the Masan bay (South Korea)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jimie, Y.; Lee, S.; Lee, T.

    2012-12-01

    A limited downward mixing of well-oxygenated surface water and the oxygen depletion by biological consumption would bring about the stratified water in the aquatic ecosystem. The anoxic water might negatively affect on the various aerobic life and cause serious environmental problems. Therefore, to survey the planktonic biodiversity in the stratified waters is important to understand why those biodiversity could be formed and maintained in the extreme anoxic environment. Mostly, Masan Bay shows high eutrophic seawater by inputs of urban sewage and waste water introduced from highly industrialized Masan city. Moreover, the anoxia had been occasionally developed in the bottom layers in summer. In this study, we surveyed the bacterial and protistan biodiversity in the stratified water masses. We sampled in two depths (surface and depth 14 m) at 18th July 2011 and measured hydrographic factors (water temperature (28.1/surface, 16.5 °C/depth 14 m), salinity (17.62, 32.89 psu), dissolved oxygen (7.85, 1.14 ml-1l)). 18S and 16S rDNA clone libraries were constructed from each depth. We found 115 phylotypes from 332 clones (18S rDNA) and isolated 588 clones of 16S rDNA. Species compositions and phylogenetic affiliation were distinctly different between surface water (oxic) and depth 14 m water (anoxic). Chlorophyta clones were only found in surface and more diatoms clones were isolated from surface than depth 14 m. In depth 14 m, most of clones were affiliated with Dinophyceae and Metazoa. From the results, we developed the combined analysis based on 18S rDNA and 16S rDNA. We believe this metagenomic method for both eukaryotes and prokaryotes can provide useful information to evaluate the biological role of plankton in the stratified waters.

  20. BAY DELTA CROSS CHANNEL OPERATIONAL STUDIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Delta Cross Channel was constructed in 1953 to deliver low-salinity water from the Sacramento River in Northern California to the South Delta where it is pumped to the San Francisco Bay Area and other parts of the State for public consumption and to the San Joaquin Valley for...

  1. Near-Field Receiving Water Monitoring of Trace Metals and a Benthic Community Near the Palo Alto Regional Water Quality Control Plant in South San Francisco Bay, California: 2007

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lorenzi, Allison H.; Cain, Daniel J.; Parcheso, Francis; Thompson, Janet K.; Luoma, Samuel N.; Hornberger, Michelle I.; Dyke, Jessica

    2008-01-01

    Results reported herein include trace element concentrations in sediment and in the clam Macoma petalum (formerly reported as Macoma balthica (Cohen and Carlton 1995)), clam reproductive activity, and benthic macroinvertebrate community structure for a mudflat one kilometer south of the discharge of the Palo Alto Regional Water Quality Control Plant in South San Francisco Bay. This report includes data collected for the period January 2007 to December 2007, and extends a critical long-term biogeochemical record dating back to 1974. These data serve as the basis for the City of Palo Alto?s Near-Field Receiving Water Monitoring Program, initiated in 1994. Metal concentrations in both sediments and clam tissue during 2007 remained consistent with results observed since 1990. Most notably, copper and silver concentrations in sediment and clam tissue are elevated for the second consecutive year, but the values remain well within the range of past findings. Other metals such as chromium, nickel, vanadium, and zinc remained relatively constant throughout the year except for maximum values that generally occur in winter months (January-March). Mercury levels in sediment and clam tissue were some of the lowest seen on record. Last year?s elevated selenium levels appear to be transient, and selenium concentrations have returned to background levels. Overall, metal concentrations in sediments and tissue remain within past findings. Analyses of the benthic-community structure of a mudflat in South San Francisco Bay over a 31-year period show that changes in the community have occurred concurrent with reduced concentrations of metals in the sediment and in the tissues of the biosentinel clam, M. petalum, from the same area. Analysis of the reproductive activity of M. petalum shows increases in reproductive activity concurrent with the decline in metal concentrations in the tissues of this organism. Reproductive activity is presently stable, with almost all animals initiating

  2. Near-field receiving water monitoring of trace metals and a benthic community near the Palo Alto Regional Water Quality Control Plant in south San Francisco Bay, California; 2009

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dyke, Jessica; Parchaso, Janet K.; Thompson, Janet K.; Cain, Daniel J.; Luoma, Samuel N.; Hornberger, Michelle I.

    2010-01-01

    Results reported herein include trace element concentrations in sediment and in the clam Macoma petalum (formerly reported as Macoma balthica (Cohen and Carlton, 1995)), clam reproductive activity, and benthic macroinvertebrate community structure for a mudflat one kilometer south of the discharge of the Palo Alto Regional Water Quality Control Plant (PARWQCP) in South San Francisco Bay. This report includes data collected for the period January 2009 to December 2009 and extends a critical long-term biogeochemical record dating back to 1974. These data serve as the basis for the City of Palo Alto's Near-Field Receiving Water Monitoring Program, initiated in 1994. In 2009, metal concentrations in both sediments and clam tissue were among the lowest concentrations on record and consistent with results observed since 1991. Following significant reductions in the late 1980s, silver (Ag) and copper (Cu) concentrations appeared to have stabilized. Annual mean concentrations have fluctuated modestly (2-4 fold) in a nondirectional manner. Data for other metals, including chromium, mercury, nickel, selenium, vanadium, and zinc, have been collected since 1994. Over this period, concentrations of these elements, which more likely reflect regional inputs and systemwide processes, have remained relatively constant, aside from typical seasonal variation that is common to all elements. Within years, the winter months (January-March) generally exhibit maximum concentrations, with a decline to annual minima in spring through fall. Mercury (Hg) in sediments and M. petalum were comparable to concentrations observed in 2008 and were generally consistent with data from previous years. Selenium (Se) concentrations in sediment varied among years and showed no sustained temporal trend. In 2009, sedimentary Se concentrations declined from the record high concentrations observed in 2008 to concentrations that were among the lowest on record. Selenium in M. petalum was unchanged from 2008

  3. Near-Field Receiving Water Monitoring of Trace Metals and a Benthic Community Near the Palo Alto Regional Water Quality Control Plant in South San Francisco Bay, California: 2008

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cain, Daniel J.; Thompson, Janet K.; Dyke, Jessica; Parcheso, Francis; Luoma, Samuel N.; Hornberger, Michelle I.

    2009-01-01

    Results reported herein include trace element concentrations in sediment and in the clam Macoma petalum (formerly reported as Macoma balthica (Cohen and Carlton, 1995)), clam reproductive activity, and benthic macroinvertebrate community structure for a mudflat one kilometer south of the discharge of the Palo Alto Regional Water Quality Control Plant (PARWQCP) in South San Francisco Bay. This report includes data collected for the period January 2008 to December 2008 and extends a critical long-term biogeochemical record dating back to 1974. These data serve as the basis for the City of Palo Alto's Near-Field Receiving Water Monitoring Program, initiated in 1994. In 2008, metal concentrations in both sediments and clam tissue were among the lowest concentrations on record and consistent with results observed since 1991. Following significant reductions in the late 1980's, silver (Ag) and copper (Cu) concentrations appeared to have stabilized. Annual mean concentrations have fluctuated modestly (2-4 fold) in a nondirectional manner. Data for other metals, including chromium, mercury, nickel, selenium, vanadium, and zinc, have been collected since 1994. Over this period, concentrations of these elements, which more likely reflect regional inputs and systemwide processes, have remained relatively constant, aside from typical seasonal variation that is common to all elements. Within years, concentrations generally reach maximum in winter months (January-March) and decline to annual minima in spring through fall. Mercury (Hg) in sediments spiked to the highest observed level in January 2008. However, sedimentary concentrations for the rest of the year and concentrations of Hg in M. petalum for the entire year were consistent with data from previous years. Average selenium (Se) concentrations in sediment were the highest on record, but there is no evidence, yet, to suggest a temporal trend of increasing sedimentary Se. Selenium in M. petalum was not elevated relative to

  4. Near-Field Receiving Water Monitoring of Trace Metals and a Benthic Community Near the Palo Alto Regional Water Quality Control Plant in South San Francisco Bay, California: 2006

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lorenzi, Allison H.; Cain, Daniel J.; Parcheso, Francis; Thompson, Janet K.; Luoma, Samuel N.; Hornberger, Michelle I.; Dyke, Jessica; Cervantes, Raul; Shouse, Michelle K.

    2007-01-01

    Results reported herein include trace element concentrations in sediment and in the clam Macoma petalum (formerly reported as Macoma balthica (Cohen and Carlton 1995)), clam reproductive activity, and benthic macroinvertebrate community structure for a mudflat one kilometer south of the discharge of the Palo Alto Regional Water Quality Control Plant in South San Francisco Bay. This report includes data collected for the period January 2006 to December 2006, and extends a critical long-term biogeochemical record dating back to 1974. These data serve as the basis for the City of Palo Alto's Near-Field Receiving Water Monitoring Program, initiated in 1994. Metal concentrations in both sediments and clam tissue during 2006 were consistent with results observed since 1990. Most notably, copper and silver concentrations in sediment and clam tissue increased in the last year but the values remain well within range of past data. Other metals such as chromium, nickel, vanadium, and zinc remained relatively constant throughout the year except for maximum values generally occurring in winter months (January-March). Mercury levels in sediment and clam tissue were some of the lowest seen on record. Conversely, selenium concentrations reached a maximum level but soon returned to baseline levels. In all, metal concentrations in sediments and tissue remain within past findings. There are no obvious directional trends (increasing or decreasing). Analyses of the benthic-community structure of a mudflat in South San Francisco Bay over a 31-year period show that changes in the community have occurred concurrent with reduced concentrations of metals in the sediment and in the tissues of the biosentinel clam M. petalum from the same area. Analysis of the reproductive activity of M. petalum shows increases in reproductive activity concurrent with the decline in metal concentrations in the tissues of this organism. Reproductive activity is presently stable, with almost all animals

  5. Gradient Analysis and Classification of Carolina Bay Vegetation: A Framework for Bay Wetlands Conservation and Restoration

    SciTech Connect

    Diane De Steven,Ph.D.; Maureen Tone,PhD.

    1997-10-01

    This report address four project objectives: (1) Gradient model of Carolina bay vegetation on the SRS--The authors use ordination analyses to identify environmental and landscape factors that are correlated with vegetation composition. Significant factors can provide a framework for site-based conservation of existing diversity, and they may also be useful site predictors for potential vegetation in bay restorations. (2) Regional analysis of Carolina bay vegetation diversity--They expand the ordination analyses to assess the degree to which SRS bays encompass the range of vegetation diversity found in the regional landscape of South Carolina's western Upper Coastal Plain. Such comparisons can indicate floristic status relative to regional potentials and identify missing species or community elements that might be re-introduced or restored. (3) Classification of vegetation communities in Upper Coastal Plain bays--They use cluster analysis to identify plant community-types at the regional scale, and explore how this classification may be functional with respect to significant environmental and landscape factors. An environmentally-based classification at the whole-bay level can provide a system of templates for managing bays as individual units and for restoring bays to desired plant communities. (4) Qualitative model for bay vegetation dynamics--They analyze present-day vegetation in relation to historic land uses and disturbances. The distinctive history of SRS bays provides the possibility of assessing pathways of post-disturbance succession. They attempt to develop a coarse-scale model of vegetation shifts in response to changing site factors; such qualitative models can provide a basis for suggesting management interventions that may be needed to maintain desired vegetation in protected or restored bays.

  6. Nelson River and Hudson Bay

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Rivers that empty into large bodies of water can have a significant impact on the thawing of nearshore winter ice. This true-color Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) image from May 18, 2001, shows the Nelson River emptying spring runoff from the Manitoba province to the south into the southwestern corner of Canada's Hudson Bay. The warmer waters from more southern latitudes hasten melting of ice near the shore, though some still remained, perhaps because in shallow coastal waters, the ice could have been anchored to the bottom. High volumes of sediment in the runoff turned the inflow brown, and the rim of the retreating ice has taken on a dirty appearance even far to the east of the river's entrance into the Bay. The sediment would have further hastened the melting of the ice because its darker color would have absorbed more solar radiation than cleaner, whiter ice. Image courtesy Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team at NASA GSFC

  7. Description of Pseudorhabdosynochus justinei n. sp. (Monogenea: Diplectanidae) and redescription of P. vagampullum (Young, 1969) Kritsky & Beverley-Burton, 1986 from the gills of the longfin grouper Epinephelus quoyanus (Valenciennes) (Perciformes: Serranidae) in Dapeng Bay, South China Sea.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Bijian; Yang, Tingbao

    2007-03-01

    Pseudorhabdosynochus justinei n. sp. is reported and described from the gills of the longfin grouper Epinephelus quoyanus in Dapeng Bay, South China Sea off the town of Nan'ao, Shenzhen, Guangdong Province, China. P. justinei n. sp. is characterised by the presence of a male copulatory organ (MCO) composed of a moderately quadriloculate organ, a short cone and a long, variable internal tube, and a sclerotised vagina comprising anterior 'trumpet' with a characteristic sclerotised ring, slightly medially curved canal, heavily sclerotised principal chamber and star-shaped lateral structure with accessory chambers. It is differentiated from the most similar species, P. caledonicus Justine, 2005, by the absence of a thinly sclerotised posterior tube of the MCO and by the size and morphology of the sclerotised vagina. P. vagampullum (Young, 1969) is redescribed based on specimens collected from the same species of host and locality as P. justinei n. sp. In comparison with the original description by Young [Young, P. C. (1969). Journal of Helminthology, 43, 223-254] and the redescription by Justine [Justine, J.-L. (2005a). Systematic Parasitology, 62, 1-37; (2005b). Systematic Parasitology, 62, 39-45] based on old museum material, the new specimens of P. vagampullum clearly showed the internal anatomy of the terminal genitalia, especially the sclerotised vagina, consisting of a distal, cylindrical canal with an anterior 'trumpet' continuing as an unsclerotised, curved, bulb-shaped vaginal pore, a conical principal chamber and a star-shaped lateral structure with an accessory chambers leading to the seminal receptacle via a fine, unsclerotised duct. PMID:17143574

  8. Distribution and enrichment of trace metals in marine sediments of Bay of Bengal, off Ennore, south-east coast of India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raj, S. Muthu; Jayaprakash, M.

    2008-11-01

    In order to avoid the pollution of trace metals in marine environment, it is necessary to establish the data and understand the mechanisms influencing the distribution of trace metals in marine environment. The concentration of heavy metals (Fe, Mn, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, Zn, Co and Cd) were studied in sediments of Ennore shelf, to understand the metal contamination due to heavily industrialized area of Ennore, south-east coast of India. Concentration of metals shows significant variability and range from 1.7 to 3.7% for Fe, 284 460 μg g-1 for Mn, 148.6 243.2 μg g-1 for Cr, 385 657 μg g-1 for Cu, 19.8 53.4 μg g-1 for Ni, 5.8 11.8 μg g-1 for Co, 24.9 40 μg g-1 for Pb, 71.3 201 μg g-1 for Zn and 4.6 7.5 μg g-1 for Cd. For various metals the contamination factor (CF) and geoaccumulation index ( I geo) has been calculated to assess the degree of pollution in sediments. The geoaccumulation index shows that Cd, Cr and Cu moderately to extremely pollute the sediments. This study shows that the major sources of metal contamination in the Ennore shelf are land-based anthropogenic ones, such as discharge of industrial wastewater, municipal sewage and run-off through the Ennore estuary. The intermetallic relationship revealed the identical behavior of metals during its transport in the marine environment.

  9. BUZZARDS BAY IR, 2002

    EPA Science Inventory

    The 2002 Buzzards Bay Implementation Review (IR) summarizes the progress and challenges ahead for the Buzzards Bay Project. Major new completed actions during the past two years include: designation of Buzzards Bay as a no discharge area in August 2000; full support by the Massac...

  10. Dynamics of inner-shelf, multi-scale bedforms off the south Aquitaine coast over three decades (Southeast Bay of Biscay, France)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mazières, Alaïs; Gillet, Hervé; Idier, Deborah; Mulder, Thierry; Garlan, Thierry; Mallet, Cyril; Marieu, Vincent; Hanquiez, Vincent

    2015-01-01

    This paper aims to investigate the seabed morphodynamics of the south Aquitaine inner shelf in the area known as "La Salie" (150 km2, Atlantic ocean, west coast of France), through a descriptive and comparative analysis (time lapse of 29 years) of geophysical and sedimentological datasets. At a water depth of 24-50 m, four orders of sedimentary body types were observed at different scales. The first order are large cross-shore "morphological ridges," corresponding with the properties of very large sorted bedforms. The second order consisted in patchy sorted bedforms, composed of alternately medium to fine sand patches (0.5-2 m in thickness), cut by smaller, elongated coarse sediment depressions. In particular, the data from the sub-bottom profiler revealed that sand patches predominantly overlayed the coarse-grained blankets on the eastern (shoreward) extremities, while coarse-grained blanket wedges were found in front of the sand patches (southwestward) or locally overlying them on the southwestern extremities. The third order of bedforms involved groups of dune-like features (fine/medium sand), lying in wide areas of coarse-grained sediment. Finally, in the fouth order, the entire inner shelf was covered with wave-generated ripples, oriented N15°, that were larger where sediments were coarse (wavelengths of 2.2 m) than where sediments were fine (wavelengths of 0.3 m). Over the past 29 years, at a large scale of observation, patchy sorted bedforms have remained remarkably persistent, as has their overall appearance. However, at a smaller scale, weak but constant movements were observed. The coarse depressions have become elongated at their extremities (by a maximum of 300 m over 15 years), and certain coarse/fine sediment boundaries have moved toward the northeast and southeast (by a maximum of 75 m over 12 years). The general movement has been shoreward as has the migration of third-order submarine dune-like features. The persistence of sorted bedforms thus

  11. Control of hardwood regeneration in restored carolina bay depression wetlands.

    SciTech Connect

    Moser, Lee, J.; Barton, Christopher, D.; Blake, John, I.

    2012-06-01

    Carolina bays are depression wetlands located in the coastal plain region of the eastern United States. Disturbance of this wetland type has been widespread, and many sites contain one or more drainage ditches. Restoration of bays is of interest because they are important habitats for rare flora and fauna. Previous bay restoration projects have identified flood-tolerant woody competitors in the seedbank and re-sprouting as impediments to the establishment of desired herbaceous wetland vegetation communities. We restored 3 bays on the Savannah River Site, South Carolina, by plugging drainage ditches, harvesting residual pine/hardwood stands within the bays, and monitoring the vegetative response of the seedbank to the hydrologic change. We applied a foliar herbicide on one-half of each bay to control red maple (Acerrubrum), sweetgum (Liquidambar styraciflua), and water oak (Quercus nigra) sprouting, and we tested its effectiveness across a hydrologic gradient in each bay. Hardwood regeneration was partially controlled by flooding in bays that exhibited long growing season hydroperiods. The findings also indicated that herbicide application was an effective means for managing hardwood regeneration and re-sprouting in areas where hydrologic control was ineffective. Herbicide use had no effect on species richness in the emerging vegetation community. In late-season drawdown periods, or in bays where hydroperiods are short, more than one herbicide application may be necessary.

  12. 33 CFR 110.78 - Sturgeon Bay, Sturgeon Bay, Wis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Sturgeon Bay, Sturgeon Bay, Wis... ANCHORAGES ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Special Anchorage Areas § 110.78 Sturgeon Bay, Sturgeon Bay, Wis. (a) Area 1. Beginning at a point bearing 126°, 3,000 feet from the fixed green Sturgeon Bay Canal Leading Light...

  13. Near-field receiving water monitoring of trace metals and a benthic community near the Palo Alto Regional Water Quality Control Plant in south San Francisco Bay, California: 2011

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dyke, Jessica; Thompson, Janet K.; Cain, Daniel J.; Kleckner, Amy E.; Parcheso, Francis; Luoma, Samuel N.; Hornberger, Michelle I.

    2012-01-01

    Trace-metal concentrations in sediment and in the clam Macoma petalum (formerly reported as Macoma balthica), clam reproductive activity, and benthic macroinvertebrate community structure were investigated in a mudflat 1 kilometer south of the discharge of the Palo Alto Regional Water Quality Control Plant (PARWQCP) in South San Francisco Bay, Calif. This report includes the data collected by U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) scientists for the period January 2011 to December 2011. These data serve as the basis for the City of Palo Alto's Near-Field Receiving Water Monitoring Program, initiated in 1994. Following significant reductions in the late 1980s, silver (Ag) and copper (Cu) concentrations in sediment and M. petalum appear to have stabilized. Data for other metals, including chromium, mercury, nickel, selenium, and zinc, have been collected since 1994. Over this period, concentrations of these elements have remained relatively constant, aside from seasonal variation that is common to all elements. In 2011, concentrations of Ag and Cu in M. petalum varied seasonally in response to a combination of site-specific metal exposures and annual growth and reproduction, as reported previously. Seasonal patterns for other elements, including Cr, Hg, Ni, Se, and Zn, were generally similar in timing and magnitude as those for Ag and Cu. In 2011, metal concentrations in both sediments and clam tissue were among the lowest concentrations on record. This record suggests that regional-scale factors now largely control sedimentary and bioavailable concentrations of Ag and Cu, as well as other elements of regulatory interest, at the Palo Alto site. Analyses of the benthic community structure of a mudflat in South San Francisco Bay over a 38-year period show that changes in the community have occurred concurrent with reduced concentrations of metals in the sediment and in the tissues of the biosentinel clam, M. petalum, from the same area. Analysis of the M. petalum community

  14. Near-field receiving water monitoring of trace metals and a benthic community near the Palo Alto Regional Water Quality Control Plant in south San Francisco Bay, California, 2012

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dyke, Jessica; Thompson, Janet K.; Cain, Daniel J.; Kleckner, Amy E.; Parcheso, Francis; Luoma, Samuel N.; Hornberger, Michelle I.

    2013-01-01

    Trace-metal concentrations in sediment and in the clam Macoma petalum (formerly reported as Macoma balthica), clam reproductive activity, and benthic macroinvertebrate community structure were investigated in a mudflat 1 kilometer south of the discharge of the Palo Alto Regional Water Quality Control Plant (PARWQCP) in South San Francisco Bay, Calif. This report includes the data collected by U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) scientists for the period January to December 2012. These data serve as the basis for the City of Palo Alto’s Near-Field Receiving Water Monitoring Program, initiated in 1994. Following significant reductions in the late 1980s, silver (Ag) and copper (Cu) concentrations in sediment and in M. petalum appear to have stabilized. Data for other metals, including chromium (Cr), mercury (Hg), nickel (Ni), selenium (Se), and zinc (Zn), have been collected since 1994. Over this period, concentrations of these elements have remained relatively constant, aside from seasonal variation that is common to all elements. In 2012, concentrations of Ag and Cu in M. petalum varied seasonally in response to a combination of site-specific metal exposures and annual growth and reproduction, as reported for previous time periods. Seasonal patterns for other elements, including Cr, Ni, Zn, Hg, and Se were generally similar in timing and magnitude as those for Ag and Cu. In 2012, metal concentrations in both sediments and clam tissue were among the lowest concentrations on record. This record suggests that regional-scale factors now largely control sedimentary and bioavailable concentrations of Ag and Cu, as well as other elements of regulatory interest, at the Palo Alto site. Analyses of the benthic community structure of a mudflat in South San Francisco Bay over a 39-year period show that changes in the community have occurred concurrent with reduced concentrations of metals in the sediment and in the tissues of the biosentinel clam, M. petalum, from the same area

  15. Near-field receiving water monitoring of trace metals and a benthic community near the Palo Alto Regional Water Quality Control Plant in South San Francisco Bay, California: 2013

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dyke, Jessica; Cain, Daniel J.; Thompson, Janet K.; Kleckner, Amy E.; Parcheso, Francis; Hornberger, Michelle I.; Luoma, Samuel N.

    2014-01-01

    Trace-metal concentrations in sediment and in the clam Macoma petalum (formerly reported as Macoma balthica), clam reproductive activity, and benthic macroinvertebrate community structure were investigated in a mudflat 1 kilometer south of the discharge of the Palo Alto Regional Water Quality Control Plant (PARWQCP) in South San Francisco Bay, Calif. This report includes the data collected by U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) scientists for the period January 2013 to December 2013. These data serve as the basis for the City of Palo Alto’s Near-Field Receiving Water Monitoring Program, initiated in 1994. Following significant reductions in the late 1980s, silver (Ag) and copper (Cu) concentrations in sediment and M. petalum appear to have stabilized. Data for other metals, including chromium (Cr), mercury (Hg), nickel (Ni), selenium (Se), and zinc (Zn), have been collected since 1994. Over this period, concentrations of these elements have remained relatively constant, aside from seasonal variation that is common to all elements. In 2013, concentrations of Ag and Cu in M. petalum varied seasonally in response to a combination of site-specific metal exposures and annual growth and reproduction, as reported previously. Seasonal patterns for other elements, including Cr, Ni, Zn, Hg, and Se, were generally similar in timing and magnitude as those for Ag and Cu. In M. petalum, all observed elements showed annual maxima in January–February and minima in April, except for Zn, which was lowest in December. In sediments, annual maxima also occurred in January–February, and minima were measured in June and September. In 2013, metal concentrations in both sediments and clam tissue were among the lowest concentrations on record. This record suggests that regional-scale factors now largely control sedimentary and bioavailable concentrations of Ag and Cu, as well as other elements of regulatory interest, at the Palo Alto site. Analyses of the benthic community structure of a

  16. 6. DETAIL: Crib supporting bay west of west gate. View ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. DETAIL: Crib supporting bay west of west gate. View from the south, looking north at the southern or rear wall of the crib. In the background, west gate sill and bay is visible. Canal chamber is in upper right background. - Wabash & Erie Canal, Lock No. 2, 8 miles east of Fort Wayne, adjacent to U.S. Route 24, New Haven, Allen County, IN

  17. MTR OFFICE WINGS AT WEST SIDE OF MTR HIGH BAY ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    MTR OFFICE WINGS AT WEST SIDE OF MTR HIGH BAY REACTOR BUILDING. CONTEXTUAL VIEW. CAMERA FACING NORTHEAST. FROM LEFT TO RIGHT, TRA-652 (OFFICE WING), TRA-661 (SOUTH WING EXTENSION), SECOND/THIRD FLOOR (BALCONIES) OF MTR-603, MTR HIGH-BAY. AT RIGHT EDGE OF VIEW IS REACTOR SERVICES BUILDING (TRA-635). INL NEGATIVE NO. HD46-44-1. Mike Crane, Photographer, 4/2005 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  18. Subsurface geology of Corpus Christi Bay, Neuces County, Texas

    SciTech Connect

    Collins, J.W.

    1996-09-01

    Prolific production in Corpus Christi Bay has occurred mainly in the regressive Frio Barrier Bar System and the associated shore face-shelf environment. All production in Corpus Christi Bay area is below the Anahuac transgressive wedge with the greatest accumulation in the 1st Marg. sand, which has produced a minimum of 680 BCF of gas in the Red Fish Bay-Mustang Island Common 10 reservoir, the largest single reservoir in South Texas. The 1st Marg. sands have produced in excess of 990 BCFG from four fields in Corpus Christi Bay. Shallow hydrocarbons in Corpus Christi Bay are associated with the South Texas Frio Barrier Bar System and are structurally trapped on large fault bound anticlines or up-to-the-coast relief faults. Deeper production from the Frio Sands is mainly on the Barrier Bar shoreface and associated with fault bounded anticlinal closures. Structural complexity increases with depth especially along the large strike aligned growth faults, some up to 4000 ft displacement, and the associated rollover anticlines. subsidiary faults, and shale plugs. These deeper reservoirs are usually pressure-depletion drives. The oil industry can point with pride to the co-existence with the fragile bay environment while extracting huge reserves. Most of the wells are on State of Texas marine leases and are controlled by State rules and City of Corpus Christi Bay drilling ordinances.

  19. Tidal characteristics of Maputo Bay, Mozambique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Canhanga, Sinibaldo; Dias, João Miguel

    2005-12-01

    The tidal characteristics of Maputo Bay (a bay located in South part of Mozambique) were assessed in this work through the implementation of a numerical model (SIMSYS2D) and exploration of its numerical results, and by the analysis of observed time series of free surface elevations in Maputo Harbor. The calibration of the numerical model was carried out based on time series of tidal currents and free surface elevation, which were collected at Maputo Harbor, Baixo Ribeiro and Portuguese Island. By means of the model results, important harmonic constants of the tidal heights and currents, as well as the form factor, were computed. These results have revealed that there is a phase delay and an increase in amplitude of the major constituents as the tide propagates to the inshore zone. Based on these results, the tidal ellipses in whole Maputo Bay were also computed, which showed the pattern of the tidal currents. The hydrodynamics of the Maputo Bay under extreme tidal conditions were also analyzed (during the largest spring tide and smallest neap tide). The phase difference between tidal heights and currents revealed that there are no maximum fluxes of energy in most of Maputo Bay and that the mean tidal current (residual) may be different from zero in this system.

  20. Chesapeake Bay study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Love, W. J.

    1972-01-01

    The objectives and scope of the Chesapeake Bay study are discussed. The physical, chemical, biological, political, and social phenomena of concern to the Chesapeake Bay area are included in the study. The construction of a model of the bay which will provide a means of accurately studying the interaction of the ecological factors is described. The application of the study by management organizations for development, enhancement, conservation, preservation, and restoration of the resources is examined.

  1. Responses of upland herpetofauna to the restoration of Carolina Bays and thinning of forested Bay Margins.

    SciTech Connect

    Ledvina, Joseph A.

    2008-05-01

    Research on the effects of wetland restoration on reptiles and amphibians is becoming more common, but almost all of these studies have observed the colonization of recently disturbed habitats that were completely dry at the time of restoration. In a similar manner, investigations herpetofaunal responses to forest management have focused on clearcuts, and less intensive stand manipulations are not as well studied. To evaluate community and population responses of reptiles and amphibians to hydrology restoration and canopy removal in the interior of previously degraded Carolina bays, I monitored herpetofauna in the uplands adjacent to six historically degraded Carolina bays at the Savannah River Site (SRS) in South Carolina for four years after restoration. To evaluate the effects of forest thinning on upland herpetofauna, forests were thinned in the margins of three of these bays. I used repeated measures ANOVA to compare species richness and diversity and the abundance of selected species and guilds between these bays and with those at three reference bays that were not historically drained and three control bays that remained degraded. I also used Non-metric Multidimensional Scaling (NMDS) to look for community-level patterns based treatments.

  2. Influence of net freshwater supply on salinity in Florida Bay

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nuttle, W.K.; Fourqurean, J.W.; Cosby, B.J.; Zieman, J.C.; Robblee, M.B.

    2000-01-01

    An annual water budget for Florida Bay, the large, seasonally hypersaline estuary in the Everglades National Park, was constructed using physically based models and long-term (31 years) data on salinity, hydrology, and climate. Effects of seasonal and interannual variations of the net freshwater supply (runoff plus rainfall minus evaporation) on salinity variation within the bay were also examined. Particular attention was paid to the effects of runoff, which are the focus of ambitious plans to restore and conserve the Florida Bay ecosystem. From 1965 to 1995 the annual runoff from the Everglades into the bay was less than one tenth of the annual direct rainfall onto the bay, while estimated annual evaporation slightly exceeded annual rainfall. The average net freshwater supply to the bay over a year was thus approximately zero, and interannual variations in salinity appeared to be affected primarily by interannual fluctuations in rainfall. At the annual scale, runoff apparently had little effect on the bay as a whole during this period. On a seasonal basis, variations in rainfall, evaporation, and runoff were not in phase, and the net freshwater supply to the bay varied between positive and negative values, contributing to a strong seasonal pattern in salinity, especially in regions of the bay relatively isolated from exchanges with the Gulf of Mexico and Atlantic Ocean. Changes in runoff could have a greater effect on salinity in the bay if the seasonal patterns of rainfall and evaporation and the timing of the runoff are considered. One model was also used to simulate spatial and temporal patterns of salinity responses expected to result from changes in net freshwater supply. Simulations in which runoff was increased by a factor of 2 (but with no change in spatial pattern) indicated that increased runoff will lower salinity values in eastern Florida Bay, increase the variability of salinity in the South Region, but have little effect on salinity in the Central

  3. Coastal upwelling on the far eastern Agulhas Bank associated with large meanders in the Agulhas Current

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goschen, W. S.; Bornman, T. G.; Deyzel, S. H. P.; Schumann, E. H.

    2015-06-01

    Six large solitary meanders in the Agulhas Current, so-called Natal Pulses, propagated down the eastern coast of South Africa between 2009 and 2011. Their influence on the coastal waters between Port Alfred and Algoa Bay, on the far eastern Agulhas Bank, was measured by thermistor strings moored at 30-80 m bottom depths and two current metres (30 m bottom depth) located at both sides of Algoa Bay. During all events active upwelling lasting 1-3 weeks was observed over the inner shelf and in Algoa Bay. During upwelling the isotherms ascended at an average rate of 1.8 m day-1 as the cold bottom layer increased in thickness to 40-60 m, although upwelled water did not break the surface in all cases. Cold water remained in the area for a further 2-3 weeks. During three Natal Pulses the water temperatures at the outer moorings initially increased as the plume of the leading edge (crest) of the meander moved onshore. During one Natal Pulse upwelling was recorded before the warm water plume impacted the moorings. At the onset of upwelling currents switched to the southwest in the case of Bird Island and southward at the Cape Recife inner-bay site and reached a maximum speed of 80 cm s-1. During all Natal Pulses cold bottom water (10-12 °C) flooded over the 80 m bottom depth moorings as the crest of the meander moved onshore, but also around the same time the core of the Agulhas Current began to move offshore. In all cases upwelling was wide-spread.

  4. CASCO BAY PLAN

    EPA Science Inventory

    Casco Bay lies at the heart of Maine's most populated area. The health of its waters, wetlands, and wildlife depend in large part on the activities of the quarter-million residents who live in its watershed. Less than 30 years ago, portions of Casco Bay were off-limits to recr...

  5. Bay Mills' Bold Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freedman, Eric

    2011-01-01

    It's a long, long way from Bay Mills Community College, near the shores of frigid Lake Superior, to Detroit. But distance, time and demographics aside, the school and the city are united by Bay Mills' status as the nation's only tribally controlled college that authorizes quasi-public schools, known officially as public school academies. And it's…

  6. 33 CFR 110.156 - Randall Bay, Freeport, Long Island, N.Y.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Randall Bay, Freeport, Long... SECURITY ANCHORAGES ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Anchorage Grounds § 110.156 Randall Bay, Freeport, Long Island, N... and parallel to the west side of South Long Beach Avenue, said line extending northerly to a point...

  7. 33 CFR 334.320 - Chesapeake Bay entrance; naval restricted area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Chesapeake Bay entrance; naval... entrance; naval restricted area. (a) The area. Beginning at a point on the south shore of Chesapeake Bay at... shall be placed on or near the bottom. (2) This section shall be enforced by the Commandant, Fifth...

  8. Near-field receiving water monitoring of trace metals and a benthic community near the Palo Alto Regional Water Quality Control Plant in south San Francisco Bay, California: 2014

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cain, Daniel J.; Thompson, Janet K.; Crauder, Jeff; Parcheso, Francis; Stewart, Robin; Kleckner, Amy E.; Dyke, Jessica; Hornberger, Michelle I.; Luoma, Samuel N.

    2015-01-01

    Analyses of the benthic community structure of a mudflat in South San Francisco Bay over a 40-year period show that changes in the community have occurred concurrent with reduced concentrations of metals in the sediment and in the tissues of the biosentinel clam, M. petalum, from the same area. Analysis of M. petalum shows increases in reproductive activity concurrent with the decline in metal concentrations in the tissues of this organism. Reproductive activity is presently stable (2014), with almost all animals initiating reproduction in the fall and spawning the following spring. The entire infaunal community has shifted from being dominated by several opportunistic species to a community where the species are more similar in abundance, a pattern that indicates a more stable community that is subjected to fewer stressors. In addition, two of the opportunistic species (Ampelisca abdita and Streblospio benedicti) that brood their young and live on the surface of the sediment in tubes have shown a continual decline in dominance coincident with the decline in metals; both species had short-lived rebounds in abundance in 2008, 2009, and 2010. Heteromastus filiformis (a subsurface polychaete worm that lives in the sediment, consumes sediment and organic particles residing in the sediment, and reproduces by laying its eggs on or in the sediment) showed a concurrent increase in dominance and, in the last several years before 2008, showed a stable population. H. filiformis abundance increased slightly in 2011–2012 and returned to pre-2011 numbers in 2014. An unidentified disturbance occurred on the mudflat in early 2008 that resulted in the loss of the benthic animals, except for deep-dwelling animals like Macoma petalum. However, within two months of this event animals returned to the mudflat. The resilience of the community suggested that the disturbance was not due to a persistent toxin or to anoxia. The reproductive mode of most species present in 2014 is

  9. 33 CFR 165.1305 - Commencement Bay, Tacoma, WA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... portions of Commencement Bay bounded by the following coordinates: Latitude 47°17′38″ N, Longitude 122°28′43 W; thence south easterly to Latitude 47°17′4″ N, Longitude 122°27′32″ W; thence south westerly to Latitude 47°16′35″ N, Longitude 122°28′1″ W; thence north westerly along the shoreline to Latitude...

  10. Invertebrates that aestivate in dry basins of Carolina bay wetlands.

    SciTech Connect

    Dietz-Brantley, Susan, E.; Taylor, Barbera, E.; Batzer, Darold, P.; DeBiase, Adrienne, E.

    2002-12-01

    Dietz-Brantley, S.E., B.E. Taylor, D.P. Batzer, and A.E. DeBiase. 2002. Invertebrates that aestivate in dry basins of carolina bay wetlands. Wetlands 22(4):767-775. Water levels fluctuate widely in Carolina bay wetlands and most dry periodically. Aquatic organisims inhabiting these wetlands have the capacity to either resist desication or to recolonize newly flooded habitats. The objective of this study was to determine which invertebrates aestivate in the soil of dry Carolina bays and to describe how differences in habitat affect the composition of aestivating invertebrates. Eight Carolina bays located on the Savannah River Site (SRS) near Aiken, South Carolina, USA were examined for this study. Although all of the wetlands dried seasonally, three of the wetlands were relatively wet (inundated 47-92% of the year on average), one was intermediate, and four were relatively dry (inundated 20% of the year on average). Sections of soil were removed from each bay during August and November when all sites were dry, placed into tubs, flooded, and covered with fine mesh. Invertebrates were sampled from the water biweekly for four weeks. Invertebrate assemblages were contrasted between naturally inundated bays and rehydrated samples, wetter and drier bays, August and November collections, and remnant ditches and the main basins.

  11. Lutzow-Holm Bay

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-16

    article title:  Lutzow-Holm Bay and the Shirase Glacier, Antarctica ... in the lower right-hand corner of these images, are the primary drainage systems for the Antarctic ice sheet. These two views ...

  12. 4. VIEW TO THE NORTHWEST OF THE COLD BAY ON ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. VIEW TO THE NORTHWEST OF THE COLD BAY ON THE NORTH (RIGHT) AND THE POST-MORTEM CELLS ON THE SOUTH (LEFT). ALSO ILLUSTRATED ARE THE DIFFERENT ROOF HEIGHTS OF THE BUILDING. - Nevada Test Site, Engine Maintenance Assembly & Disassembly Facility, Area 25, Jackass Flats, Mercury, Nye County, NV

  13. Pump room level, looking north in service bay area. Visible ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Pump room level, looking north in service bay area. Visible from left to right are the direct current breaker panel, battery bank, door to stairwell, and hanging tools. - Wellton-Mohawk Irrigation System, Pumping Plant No. 2, Bounded by Interstate 8 to south, Wellton, Yuma County, AZ

  14. Looking southwest in the service bay area, pump room level, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Looking southwest in the service bay area, pump room level, at the ventilation fan ducts associated with the evaporative cooling system. Stairs to the operating deck above the intakes are at the far left - Wellton-Mohawk Irrigation System, Pumping Plant No. 2, Bounded by Interstate 8 to south, Wellton, Yuma County, AZ

  15. Service bay area, pump room level, showing ventilation fans and ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Service bay area, pump room level, showing ventilation fans and ducts association with evaporative-cooling system. Note battery bank at far right. View to the east - Wellton-Mohawk Irrigation System, Pumping Plant No. 3, South of Interstate 8, Wellton, Yuma County, AZ

  16. 14. GENERAL VIEW OF D BAY; LOOKING S. GUN TUBE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. GENERAL VIEW OF D BAY; LOOKING S. GUN TUBE STOCK CAN BE SEEN IN THE FOREGROUND & ELECTRIC FURNACE EQUIPMENT BEYOND. TWO SHEPARD NILES 10 TON CRANES CAN BE SEEN ON THE CRANEWAY. (Ryan) - Watervliet Arsenal, Building No. 135, Gillespie Road, South of Parker Road, Watervliet, Albany County, NY

  17. 4. DETAIL: Crib supporting bay, east of west (or upper) ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. DETAIL: Crib supporting bay, east of west (or upper) gate, looking south from inside lock. Tenon of crib timber is quite visible since the inner wall 2' planking has been burned off. Spikes holding remaining planks are discernable. - Wabash & Erie Canal, Lock No. 2, 8 miles east of Fort Wayne, adjacent to U.S. Route 24, New Haven, Allen County, IN

  18. South Africa

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    contained within South Africa's boundaries. In the upper righthand corner of the image is the Bay of Maputo, where sits Maputo, the capital of Mozambique. Fires are visible in the northeast corner of the image, near Maputo. Just north of Maputo is where the Limpopo River empties into the Indian Ocean. Tracing the Limpopo inland back toward the west, this river defines the northern boundary of South Africa with both Zimbabwe and Botswana. Johannesburg, the commercial capital of South Africa, can be seen as the greyish pixels in the northeastern region of the country. The country's legislative capital, Pretoria, is about 50 miles north of Johannesburg and 250 miles west of Maputo, in the heart of the Northern Province (formerly known as Transvaal). (Image courtesy Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Group, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center)

  19. Dietary mercury exposure and bioaccumulation in amphibian larvae inhabiting Carolina bay wetlands.

    PubMed

    Unrine, J M; Jagoe, C H; Brinton, A C; Brant, H A; Garvin, N T

    2005-05-01

    Inorganic mercury and methylmercury concentrations were measured both in guts and remaining carcasses of southern leopard frog (Rana sphenocephala) larvae from 10 Carolina bay wetlands in South Carolina, USA. Significant variation among bays in methylmercury and inorganic mercury concentrations existed both in guts and carcasses. There was a moderate negative correlation between dissolved organic carbon concentration in bays and mean inorganic mercury concentrations in guts. There was also a weak positive correlation between pH in bays and mean methylmercury concentrations in carcasses. The ratio of methylmercury to inorganic mercury decreased with increasing total mercury concentration in guts and in larvae, but the rate of decrease was highly variable among bays. Ratios of concentrations in carcasses to concentrations in guts were inversely related to gut concentration. Mercury concentrations in carcasses in some bays were within the range of concentrations at which adverse effects have been observed in laboratory studies of R. sphenocephala. PMID:15734584

  20. Integrating science and resource management in Tampa Bay, Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Yates, Kimberly K.; Greening, Holly; Morrison, Gerold

    2011-01-01

    Tampa Bay is recognized internationally for its remarkable progress towards recovery since it was pronounced "dead" in the late 1970s. Due to significant efforts by local governments, industries and private citizens throughout the watershed, water clarity in Tampa Bay is now equal to what it was in 1950, when population in the watershed was less than one-quarter of what it is today. Seagrass extent has increased by more than 8,000 acres since the mid-1980s, and fish and wildlife populations are increasing. Central to this successful turn-around has been the Tampa Bay resource management community's long-term commitment to development and implementation of strong science-based management strategies. Research institutions and agencies, including Eckerd College, the Florida Wildlife Commission Fish and Wildlife Research Institute, Mote Marine Laboratory, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, the Southwest Florida Water Management District, University of South Florida, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, U.S. Geological Survey, local and State governments, and private companies contribute significantly to the scientific basis of our understanding of Tampa Bay's structure and ecological function. Resource management agencies, including the Tampa Bay Regional Planning Council's Agency on Bay Management, the Southwest Florida Water Management District's Surface Water Improvement and Management Program, and the Tampa Bay Estuary Program, depend upon this scientific basis to develop and implement regional adaptive management programs. The importance of integrating science with management has become fully recognized by scientists and managers throughout the region, State and Nation. Scientific studies conducted in Tampa Bay over the past 10–15 years are increasingly diverse and complex, and resource management programs reflect our increased knowledge of geology, hydrology and hydrodynamics, ecology and restoration techniques. However, a synthesis of this

  1. Rockyhock and Kimbel Carolina Bays: Extraterrestrial Impact or Terrestrial Genesis?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lecompte, M. A.; Branch, B. D.; Barnes, L.; Hall, C.

    2009-12-01

    Evidence for the harsh climate prevalent during the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) are seen in topographical features visible south of the ice sheet margin in the uplands and coastal regions of the southeastern United States. Among the features attributed to ice age climate are numerous elliptical, shallow depressions called collectively Carolina Bays, hypothesized to have been formed by “blow outs” of loose sediment by the strong, sustained winds and arid, cold climate characteristic of glacial epochs (Raisz, 1934, Johnson, 1942 and Kaczorowski, 1977). This view eclipsed the 1933 proposition by Melton and Schriever, and expanded by Prouty (1934, 1953), that extraterrestrial debris produced by an aerial meteorite or comet explosion in the vicinity of the Great Lakes during the late Pleistocene formed the bays. 12,900 years ago, post-LGM warming was interrupted by a return to a glacial climate that persisted for over 1,000 years. The events precipitating the cooling, known as the Younger Dryas (YD), are the subject of debate. Recently Firestone et. al. (2007) proposed that an impact in the Laurentide ice sheet by a fragmented comet might have simultaneously initiated the YD and formed the Carolina Bays. Carbon 14 dating and pollen analysis of core samples taken from Rockyhock Bay, in Chowan County, NC, by Whitehead (1980) indicate a pre-YD genesis. However, a number of the bays have been found to contain materiel associated with extraterrestrial impacts including carbon and magnetic spherules, glass-like carbon, charcoal and nanodiamonds (Firestone, et. al. 2007). The discoveries reinvigorated the debate over the bay’s origins. Were the bays created by an impact or were they merely receptacles for impact materiel injected into the environment. If created before the YD, the bays would have experienced episodic post-formation modification due to cold, dry, windy periods alternating with warm, moist and calmer climatic conditions. Carolina Bays would thus

  2. 33 CFR 167.102 - In the approaches to Narragansett Bay, RI, and Buzzards Bay, MA: Narragansett Bay approach.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false In the approaches to Narragansett Bay, RI, and Buzzards Bay, MA: Narragansett Bay approach. 167.102 Section 167.102 Navigation and....102 In the approaches to Narragansett Bay, RI, and Buzzards Bay, MA: Narragansett Bay approach. (a)...

  3. 33 CFR 167.102 - In the approaches to Narragansett Bay, RI, and Buzzards Bay, MA: Narragansett Bay approach.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false In the approaches to Narragansett Bay, RI, and Buzzards Bay, MA: Narragansett Bay approach. 167.102 Section 167.102 Navigation and....102 In the approaches to Narragansett Bay, RI, and Buzzards Bay, MA: Narragansett Bay approach. (a)...

  4. 33 CFR 167.103 - In the approaches to Narragansett Bay, RI, and Buzzards Bay, MA: Buzzards Bay approach.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false In the approaches to Narragansett Bay, RI, and Buzzards Bay, MA: Buzzards Bay approach. 167.103 Section 167.103 Navigation and Navigable... the approaches to Narragansett Bay, RI, and Buzzards Bay, MA: Buzzards Bay approach. (a) A...

  5. 33 CFR 167.102 - In the approaches to Narragansett Bay, RI, and Buzzards Bay, MA: Narragansett Bay approach.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false In the approaches to Narragansett Bay, RI, and Buzzards Bay, MA: Narragansett Bay approach. 167.102 Section 167.102 Navigation and....102 In the approaches to Narragansett Bay, RI, and Buzzards Bay, MA: Narragansett Bay approach. (a)...

  6. 33 CFR 167.103 - In the approaches to Narragansett Bay, RI, and Buzzards Bay, MA: Buzzards Bay approach.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false In the approaches to Narragansett Bay, RI, and Buzzards Bay, MA: Buzzards Bay approach. 167.103 Section 167.103 Navigation and Navigable... the approaches to Narragansett Bay, RI, and Buzzards Bay, MA: Buzzards Bay approach. (a) A...

  7. 33 CFR 167.102 - In the approaches to Narragansett Bay, RI, and Buzzards Bay, MA: Narragansett Bay approach.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false In the approaches to Narragansett Bay, RI, and Buzzards Bay, MA: Narragansett Bay approach. 167.102 Section 167.102 Navigation and....102 In the approaches to Narragansett Bay, RI, and Buzzards Bay, MA: Narragansett Bay approach. (a)...

  8. 33 CFR 167.103 - In the approaches to Narragansett Bay, RI, and Buzzards Bay, MA: Buzzards Bay approach.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false In the approaches to Narragansett Bay, RI, and Buzzards Bay, MA: Buzzards Bay approach. 167.103 Section 167.103 Navigation and Navigable... the approaches to Narragansett Bay, RI, and Buzzards Bay, MA: Buzzards Bay approach. (a) A...

  9. 33 CFR 167.103 - In the approaches to Narragansett Bay, RI, and Buzzards Bay, MA: Buzzards Bay approach.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false In the approaches to Narragansett Bay, RI, and Buzzards Bay, MA: Buzzards Bay approach. 167.103 Section 167.103 Navigation and Navigable... the approaches to Narragansett Bay, RI, and Buzzards Bay, MA: Buzzards Bay approach. (a) A...

  10. 33 CFR 165.1185 - Regulated Navigation Area; San Francisco Bay, San Pablo Bay, Carquinez Strait, Suisun Bay...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Francisco Bay, San Pablo Bay, Carquinez Strait, Suisun Bay, Sacramento River, San Joaquin River, and..., Sacramento River, San Joaquin River, and connecting waters in California. (a) Location. All waters of San Francisco Bay, San Pablo Bay, Carquinez Strait, Suisun Bay, Sacramento River, San Joaquin River,...

  11. 33 CFR 165.1185 - Regulated Navigation Area; San Francisco Bay, San Pablo Bay, Carquinez Strait, Suisun Bay...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Francisco Bay, San Pablo Bay, Carquinez Strait, Suisun Bay, Sacramento River, San Joaquin River, and..., Sacramento River, San Joaquin River, and connecting waters in California. (a) Location. All waters of San Francisco Bay, San Pablo Bay, Carquinez Strait, Suisun Bay, Sacramento River, San Joaquin River,...

  12. 33 CFR 165.1185 - Regulated Navigation Area; San Francisco Bay, San Pablo Bay, Carquinez Strait, Suisun Bay...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Francisco Bay, San Pablo Bay, Carquinez Strait, Suisun Bay, Sacramento River, San Joaquin River, and..., Sacramento River, San Joaquin River, and connecting waters in California. (a) Location. All waters of San Francisco Bay, San Pablo Bay, Carquinez Strait, Suisun Bay, Sacramento River, San Joaquin River,...

  13. 33 CFR 165.1185 - Regulated Navigation Area; San Francisco Bay, San Pablo Bay, Carquinez Strait, Suisun Bay...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Francisco Bay, San Pablo Bay, Carquinez Strait, Suisun Bay, Sacramento River, San Joaquin River, and..., Sacramento River, San Joaquin River, and connecting waters in California. (a) Location. All waters of San Francisco Bay, San Pablo Bay, Carquinez Strait, Suisun Bay, Sacramento River, San Joaquin River,...

  14. A review of circulation and mixing studies of San Francisco Bay, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smith, Lawrence H.

    1987-01-01

    influenced by delta discharge, and South Bay, a tributary estuary which responds to conditions in Central Bay. In the northern reach net circulation is characterized by the river-induced seaward, flow and a resulting gravitational circulation in the channels, and by a tide- and wind-induced net horizontal circulation. A surface layer of relatively fresh water in Central Bay generated by high delta discharges can induce gravitational circulation in South Bay. During low delta discharges South Bay has nearly the same salinity as Central Bay and is characterized by tide- and wind-induced net horizontal circulation. Several factors control the patterns of circulation and mixing in San Francisco Bay. Viewing circulation and mixing over different time-periods and at different geographic scales causes the influences of different factors to be emphasized. The exchange between the bay and coastal ocean and freshwater inflows determine the year-to-year behavior of San Francisco Bay as a freshwater-saltwater mixing zone. Within the bay, exchanges between the embayments control variations over a season. Circulation and mixing patterns within the embayments and the magnitude of river-induced seaward flow influence the between-bay exchanges. The within-bay patterns are in turn determined by tides, winds, and freshwater inflows. Because freshwater inflow is the only factor that can be managed, a major study focus is estimation of inflow-related effects. Most questions relate to the patterns of freshwater inflow necessary to protect valuable resources whose welfare is dependent on conditions in the bay. Among the important questions being addressed are: --What quantity of freshwater inflow is necessary to prevent salt intrusion into the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta, and what salinity distributions in the bay would result from various inflow patterns? --What quantity of freshwater inflow is sufficient to flush pollutants through the bay? Knowledge of circul

  15. 333. Caltrans, Photographer October 15, 1935 "NORTH AND SOUTH CABLESSPAN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    333. Caltrans, Photographer October 15, 1935 "NORTH AND SOUTH CABLES-SPAN ANCHORAGE-WI"; VIEW OF NORTH CABLES FROM SAN FRANCISCO ANCHORAGE LOOKING TOWARDS TOWER W-l UNDER CONSTRUCTION. 6-1443 - San Francisco Oakland Bay Bridge, Spanning San Francisco Bay, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  16. 7. VIEW OF SOUTH ELEVATION AS IT TRANSITIONS TO THE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. VIEW OF SOUTH ELEVATION AS IT TRANSITIONS TO THE FILL OF THE EASTERN APPROACH (TALMADGE BRIDGE IN BACKGROUND), LOOKING NORTHEAST - Central of Georgia Railway, Bay Street Viaduct, U.S. 17 & Bay Street, spanning Central of Georgia Railroad, Savannah, Chatham County, GA

  17. 9. VIEW OF SOUTH ELEVATION AND ONE OF THREE WIDE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. VIEW OF SOUTH ELEVATION AND ONE OF THREE WIDE SPANS LOCATED ALONG LENGTH OF BRIDGE TO ACCOMMODATE ROADS OR RAILWAYS, LOOKING NORTH - Central of Georgia Railway, Bay Street Viaduct, U.S. 17 & Bay Street, spanning Central of Georgia Railroad, Savannah, Chatham County, GA

  18. Salinity pathways between Arabian Sea and Bay of Bengal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krishna Kailasam, Muni

    2016-07-01

    Surface as well as subsurface salinity are highly heterogeneous in the Arabian Sea and the Bay of Bengal. Due to the strong seasonal reversal of currents in the two seas tremendous salt exchange occurred. The present study focuses on the exchange of salt between the Arabian Sea and Bay of Bengal by using remote sensing observations like SMOS and Aquarius. Inflow of high salinity water from the central Arabians Sea into the south Bay of Bengal is significant and occurs during August-September. Freshwater transport out of the Bay of Bengal is southward throughout the year along the along the east coast of the Indian sub-continent. Only a small fraction of low salinity water is advected into the eastern Arabian Sea from the Bay of Bengal. The pathways of salinity between the two seas are also examined using SODA data. It shows that relatively low salinity Bay of Bengal water is transported southward across the equator throughout the year. A considerable southward cross-equatorial exchange of Arabian Sea water occurs during the southwest monsoon season.

  19. 33 CFR 334.760 - Naval Support Activity Panama City and Alligator Bayou, a tributary of St. Andrew Bay, Fla...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... City and Alligator Bayou, a tributary of St. Andrew Bay, Fla.; naval restricted area. 334.760 Section... Alligator Bayou, a tributary of St. Andrew Bay, Fla.; naval restricted area. (a) The area. The waters within... the south side of the entrance to Alligator Bayou; thence directly across the entrance to a point...

  20. 33 CFR 334.760 - Naval Support Activity Panama City and Alligator Bayou, a tributary of St. Andrew Bay, Fla...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... City and Alligator Bayou, a tributary of St. Andrew Bay, Fla.; naval restricted area. 334.760 Section... Alligator Bayou, a tributary of St. Andrew Bay, Fla.; naval restricted area. (a) The area. The waters within... the south side of the entrance to Alligator Bayou; thence directly across the entrance to a point...

  1. 33 CFR 334.760 - Naval Support Activity Panama City and Alligator Bayou, a tributary of St. Andrew Bay, Fla...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... City and Alligator Bayou, a tributary of St. Andrew Bay, Fla.; naval restricted area. 334.760 Section... Alligator Bayou, a tributary of St. Andrew Bay, Fla.; naval restricted area. (a) The area. The waters within... the south side of the entrance to Alligator Bayou; thence directly across the entrance to a point...

  2. 33 CFR 334.760 - Naval Support Activity Panama City and Alligator Bayou, a tributary of St. Andrew Bay, Fla...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... City and Alligator Bayou, a tributary of St. Andrew Bay, Fla.; naval restricted area. 334.760 Section... Alligator Bayou, a tributary of St. Andrew Bay, Fla.; naval restricted area. (a) The area. The waters within... the south side of the entrance to Alligator Bayou; thence directly across the entrance to a point...

  3. 33 CFR 334.760 - Naval Support Activity Panama City and Alligator Bayou, a tributary of St. Andrew Bay, Fla...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... City and Alligator Bayou, a tributary of St. Andrew Bay, Fla.; naval restricted area. 334.760 Section... Alligator Bayou, a tributary of St. Andrew Bay, Fla.; naval restricted area. (a) The area. The waters within... the south side of the entrance to Alligator Bayou; thence directly across the entrance to a point...

  4. A Combined Modeling Approach to Evaluate Water Quality Benefits of Riparian Buffers in the Jobos Bay Watershed

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Jobos Bay Watershed, located in south-central Puerto Rico, is a tropical Conservation Effects Assessment Project (CEAP) Special Emphasis Watershed. The purpose of CEAP is to quantify environmental benefits of conservation practices and includes field and watershed modeling. In Jobos Bay, the goa...

  5. South side elevation, note clerestory above the lowpitch main roof, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    South side elevation, note clerestory above the low-pitch main roof, view facing north - U.S. Marine Corps Base Hawaii, Kaneohe Bay, Warehouse 250, Aviation Storehouse, C Street between Fifth & Sixth Streets, Kaneohe, Honolulu County, HI

  6. Oblique view of the south and west sides, view facing ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Oblique view of the south and west sides, view facing northeast - U.S. Marine Corps Base Hawaii, Kaneohe Bay, Warehouse 250, Aviation Storehouse, C Street between Fifth & Sixth Streets, Kaneohe, Honolulu County, HI

  7. 14. INTERIOR VIEW TO THE SOUTH OF ROOM 136, COLD ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. INTERIOR VIEW TO THE SOUTH OF ROOM 136, COLD ASSEMBLY BAY NO. 2. - Nevada Test Site, Reactor Maintenance Assembly & Dissassembly Facility, Area 25, Jackass Flats, Junction of Roads F & G, Mercury, Nye County, NV

  8. 8. NORTH ELEVATION. ALSO SHOWS NORTH (right) AND SOUTH (in ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. NORTH ELEVATION. ALSO SHOWS NORTH (right) AND SOUTH (in background) DEPENDENCIES, HABS No. SC-204 A AND HABS No. SC-204 B RESPECTIVELY - Faber House, 631 East Bay Street, Charleston, Charleston County, SC

  9. 4. South elevation looking north with side view of outdoor ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. South elevation looking north with side view of outdoor service bay - Sinclair Service Station, Natchez Street (State Highway 15) & Pine Street intersection, southeast corner, Wisner, Franklin Parish, LA

  10. 37. Historic American Buildings Survey L. C. Durette, Photographer SOUTH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    37. Historic American Buildings Survey L. C. Durette, Photographer SOUTH WEST ROOM 2nd. FLOOR CHIMNEY GIRT HAS BEEN CUT BACK TO MAKE LATER PLASTER WALL FLUSH - Doe Garrison, Lamprey River & Great Bay, Newmarket, Rockingham County, NH

  11. 28. Historic American Buildings Survey L. C. Durette, Photographer SOUTH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    28. Historic American Buildings Survey L. C. Durette, Photographer SOUTH WINDOW OF EAST ROOM (See Description) First Floor, SPLIT BOARDS USED FOR LATHS ARE OLD OUTSIDE FINISH USED OVER. - Doe Garrison, Lamprey River & Great Bay, Newmarket, Rockingham County, NH

  12. 12. INTERIOR VIEW TO THE SOUTH OF COOLING VATS AT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. INTERIOR VIEW TO THE SOUTH OF COOLING VATS AT THE WEST END OF ROOM 102, THE DISASSEMBLY BAY. - Nevada Test Site, Pluto Facility, Disassembly Building, Area 26, Wahmonie Flats, Cane Spring Road, Mercury, Nye County, NV

  13. 1. VIEW LOOKING SOUTH, SHOWING AFRAME OF WALKING BEAM ENGINE, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. VIEW LOOKING SOUTH, SHOWING A-FRAME OF WALKING BEAM ENGINE, BOW END TO LEFT Edward Larrabee, photographer, November 1984 - Shooters Island, Ships Graveyard, Vessel No. 53, Newark Bay, Staten Island (subdivision), Richmond County, NY

  14. 20. VIEW LOOKING SOUTH FROM THIRD LEVEL GUARD STATION, CELL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    20. VIEW LOOKING SOUTH FROM THIRD LEVEL GUARD STATION, CELL BLOCK 'B' IS ON THE LEFT AND CELL BLOCK 'C' IN ON THE RIGHT - Alcatraz, Cell House, Alcatraz Island, San Francisco Bay, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  15. Mobile Bay turbidity study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crozier, G. F.; Schroeder, W. W.

    1978-01-01

    The termination of studies carried on for almost three years in the Mobile Bay area and adjacent continental shelf are reported. The initial results concentrating on the shelf and lower bay were presented in the interim report. The continued scope of work was designed to attempt a refinement of the mathematical model, assess the effectiveness of optical measurement of suspended particulate material and disseminate the acquired information. The optical characteristics of particulate solutions are affected by density gradients within the medium, density of the suspended particles, particle size, particle shape, particle quality, albedo, and the angle of refracted light. Several of these are discussed in detail.

  16. Megaflutes in a continental shelf setting, Placentia Bay, Newfoundland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shaw, John; Puig, Pere; Han, Guoqi

    2013-05-01

    Megaflutes - erosional scours normally found in deep water on continental slopes - were identified in 1978 on sidescan sonograms and seismic reflection profiles from Placentia Bay on the south coast of Newfoundland, Canada. Data from recent extensive multibeam sonar surveys provide an opportunity to describe the morphology and distribution of the megaflutes in detail, and to consider the formative processes. They occur on the east side of the outer bay, at a depth of ~ 200 m, in a 2-3 km-wide swath that continues to the south into Halibut Channel, over a total distance of ~ 100 km. The megaflutes have been formed by removal of a layer of postglacial mud, exposing underlying glaciomarine sediments and releasing a volume of 4.5 km3. They occur in a range of forms, including single, multiple, and coalescent types, and in some areas at least their inception was related to pre-existing pockmarks. Radiocarbon dates from piston cores are used to demonstrate that megaflute formation post-dated ca. 9 ka. Megaflute formation in Placentia Bay has been attributed to a 'reverse flow' from the tsunami generated by the 1929 Grand Banks earthquake, and this is still the accepted hypothesis. We argue that the return flow from a tsunami did not generate the megaflutes, and suggest instead that they could be formed during south-flowing density currents generated when volumes of cold saline water stored in the deep (> 250 m) basins at the head of Placentia Bay are intermittently displaced and spilled south in a shallow channel at the east side of the bay after intense coastal surface dense water formation events, perhaps during very cold winters.

  17. Pine Island Bay

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-16

    ... article title:  Birth of a Large Iceberg in Pine Island Bay, Antarctica     View ... iceberg (42 kilometers x 17 kilometers) broke off Pine Island Glacier, West Antarctica (75°S latitude, 102°W longitude) sometime ...

  18. PECONIC BAY SYSTEM AQUACULTURE

    EPA Science Inventory

    PECONIC BAY SYSTEM AQUACULTURE This reference document serves as the aquaculture sub-section for Phase II of a four-phase series of economic studies being conducted by Economic Analysis, Inc., for the Peconic Estuary Program. It provides an evaluation of the history, current stat...

  19. Chesapeake Bay Critters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mackay-Atha, Lynne

    2005-01-01

    When students enter the author's classroom on the first day of school, they are greeted with live crabs scuttling around in large bins. The crabs are her way of grabbing students' attention and launching the unit on the Chesapeake Bay watershed. She chooses to start the year with this unit because, despite the fact that the Potomac River can be…

  20. Regional geochemistry of trace elements in Chesapeake Bay sediments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sinex, S. A.; Helz, G. R.

    1981-11-01

    The concentrations of Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Cd, and Pb in 177 surface sediment samples from throughout Chesapeake Bay are reported. Analyses were made of both unfractionated samples and the <63 μm fractions. Analytical uncertainty, always less than ±10%, controlled reproducibility in analyses of the <63 μm fractions, but sampling variance controlled reproducibility in the unfractionated samples, especially when coarse-grained sediments were being analyzed. Sediments in the northernmost part of the bay are enriched relative to average continental crust in all elements except Cr. This reflects the composition of dissolved and suspended material being delivered to that region by the Susquehanna River. The enriched sediments appear not to be transported south of Baltimore in significant quantily. Zinc, cadmium, and lead are enriched relative to average crust throughout the bay and in most other estuaries in the eastern United States.

  1. ASTER Images San Francisco Bay Area

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    This image of the San Francisco Bay region was acquired on March 3, 2000 by the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) on NASA's Terra satellite. With its 14 spectral bands from the visible to the thermal infrared wavelength region, and its high spatial resolution of 15 to 90 meters about 50 to 300 feet ), ASTER will image Earth for the next 6 years to map and monitor the changing surface of our planet.

    Image: This image covers an area 60 kilometers (37 miles) wide and 75 kilometers (47 miles) long in three bands of the reflected visible and infrared wavelength region. The combination of bands portrays vegetation in red, and urban areas in gray. Sediment in the Suisun Bay, San Pablo Bay, San Francisco Bay, and the Pacific Ocean shows up as lighter shades of blue. Along the west coast of the San Francisco Peninsula, strong surf can be seen as a white fringe along the shoreline. A powerful rip tide is visible extending westward from Daly City into the Pacific Ocean. In the lower right corner, the wetlands of the South San Francisco Bay National Wildlife Refuge appear as large dark blue and brown polygons. The high spatial resolution of ASTER allows fine detail to be observed in the scene. The main bridges of the area (San Mateo, San Francisco-Oakland Bay, Golden Gate, Richmond-San Rafael, Benicia-Martinez, and Carquinez) are easily picked out, connecting the different communities in the Bay area. Shadows of the towers along the Bay Bridge can be seen over the adjacent bay water. With enlargement the entire road network can be easily mapped; individual buildings are visible, including the shadows of the high-rises in downtown San Francisco.

    Inset: This enlargement of the San Francisco Airport highlights the high spatial resolution of ASTER. With further enlargement and careful examination, airplanes can be seen at the terminals.

    Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) is one of five Earth

  2. Summary of Suspended-Sediment Concentration Data, San Francisco Bay, California, Water Year 2005

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Buchanan, Paul A.; Lionberger, Megan A.

    2007-01-01

    Suspended-sediment concentration data were collected by the U.S. Geological Survey in San Francisco Bay during water year 2005 (October 1, 2004-September 30, 2005). Optical sensors and water samples were used to monitor suspended-sediment concentration at two sites in Suisun Bay, three sites in San Pablo Bay, two sites in Central San Francisco Bay, and three sites in South San Francisco Bay. Sensors were positioned at two depths at most sites. Water samples were collected periodically and analyzed for concentrations of suspended sediment. The results of the analyses were used to calibrate the output of the optical sensors so that a record of suspended-sediment concentrations could be derived. This report presents the data-collection methods used and summarizes, in graphs, the suspended-sediment concentration data collected from October 2004 through September 2005. Calibration curves and plots of the processed data for each sensor also are presented.

  3. Water level response in back-barrier bays unchanged following Hurricane Sandy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aretxabaleta, Alfredo L.; Butman, Bradford; Ganju, Neil K.

    2014-05-01

    On 28-30 October 2012, Hurricane Sandy caused severe flooding along portions of the northeast coast of the United States and cut new inlets across barrier islands in New Jersey and New York. About 30% of the 20 highest daily maximum water levels observed between 2007 and 2013 in Barnegat and Great South Bay occurred in 5 months following Hurricane Sandy. Hurricane Sandy provided a rare opportunity to determine whether extreme events alter systems protected by barrier islands, leaving the mainland more vulnerable to flooding. Comparisons between water levels before and after Hurricane Sandy at bay stations and an offshore station show no significant differences in the transfer of sea level fluctuations from offshore to either bay following Sandy. The post-Hurricane Sandy bay high water levels reflected offshore sea levels caused by winter storms, not by barrier island breaching or geomorphic changes within the bays.

  4. Specific conductance, water temperature, and water level data, San Francisco Bay, California, water year 1998

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Buchanan, Paul A.

    1999-01-01

    Specific conductance and water temperature data are continuously recorded at four sites in San Francisco Bay, California: San Pablo Strait at Point San Pablo, Central San Francisco Bay at Presidio Military Reservation, Pier 24 at Bay Bridge, and South San Francisco Bay at San Mateo Bridge near Foster City (Figure 1). Water level data are recorded only at San Pablo Strait at Point San Pablo. These data were recorded by the Department of Water Resources (DWR) before 1988, by the US Geological Survey (USGS) National Research Program from 1988 to 1989, and by the USGS-DWR cooperative program since 1990. This article presents time-series plots of data from the four sites in San Francisco Bay during water year 1998 (1 October 1997 through 30 September 1998).

  5. Water level, specific conductance, and water temperature data, San Francisco Bay, California, for Water Year 2000

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Buchanan, P.A.

    2002-01-01

    Time series of water-level, specific-conductance, and watertemperature data were collected at seven sites in San Francisco Bay during water year 2000 (October 1, 1999 through September 30, 2000). Water-level data were recorded only at Point San Pablo. Specific-conductance and water-temperature data were recorded at 15-minute intervals at the following locations (Figure 1): • Carquinez Strait at Carquinez Bridge • Napa River at Mare Island Causeway near Vallejo • San Pablo Bay at Petaluma River Channel Marker 9 • San Pablo Strait at Point San Pablo • Central San Francisco Bay at Presidio Military Reservation • Central San Francisco Bay at Pier 24 • South San Francisco Bay at San Mateo Bridge near Foster City.

  6. Bayes and the Law

    PubMed Central

    Fenton, Norman; Neil, Martin; Berger, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Although the last forty years has seen considerable growth in the use of statistics in legal proceedings, it is primarily classical statistical methods rather than Bayesian methods that have been used. Yet the Bayesian approach avoids many of the problems of classical statistics and is also well suited to a broader range of problems. This paper reviews the potential and actual use of Bayes in the law and explains the main reasons for its lack of impact on legal practice. These include misconceptions by the legal community about Bayes’ theorem, over-reliance on the use of the likelihood ratio and the lack of adoption of modern computational methods. We argue that Bayesian Networks (BNs), which automatically produce the necessary Bayesian calculations, provide an opportunity to address most concerns about using Bayes in the law. PMID:27398389

  7. What is Still Bay? Human biogeography and bifacial point variability.

    PubMed

    Archer, Will; Pop, Cornel M; Gunz, Philipp; McPherron, Shannon P

    2016-08-01

    'Still Bay' is the name given to a cultural phase within the southern African Middle Stone Age, which remains critical to our understanding of modern human behavioural evolution. Although represented in only a handful of sites, the Still Bay is widespread geographically and, at certain localities, persisted over a substantial period of time. Many studies have focused on tracing the temporal range and geographic reach of the Still Bay, as well as inferring degrees of early modern human demographic connectedness from these parameters. Variation within the Still Bay, relative to the accuracy with which it can be identified, has received considerably less attention. However, demographic models based on the spread of the Still Bay in space and time hinge on the reliability with which it can be recognized in the archaeological record. Here we document patterns of bifacial point shape and size variation in some key Still Bay assemblages, and analyse these patterns using the statistical shape analysis tools of geometric morphometrics. Morphological variation appears to be geographically structured and is driven by the spatial separation between north-eastern and south-western clusters of sites. We argue that allometric variation is labile and reflects environmentally driven differences in point reduction, whereas shape differences unrelated to size more closely reflect technological and cultural fragmentation. Our results suggest that the biogeographic structure of Middle Stone Age populations was complex during the period associated with the Still Bay, and provide little support for heightened levels of cultural interconnectedness between distantly separated groups at this time. We briefly discuss the implications of our findings for tracing classic techno-traditions in the Middle Stone Age record of southern Africa, and for inferring underpinning population dynamics from these patterns. PMID:27457545

  8. A field study of littoral processes in Estero Bay, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dingler, J.R.; Anima, R.J.; Molzan, D.E.; Luepke, Gretchen; Peterson, C.L.

    1982-01-01

    Estero Bay, which lies on the central California coast, has rocky headlands at both ends and sandy beaches within it. The shoreline of the bay has adjusted to be in equilibrium with the predominant wave climate, which is from the northwest. Because of its present shoreline configuration, the net southward littoral transport found along much of the California coast does not occur within Estero Bay. Instead, the sand primarily moves on- and offshore with a reversing longshore component. This sand transport pattern produces a littoral cell within Estero Bay even though there is no submarine canyon in the area. The primary sand sinks for this cell appear to be the sand spit south of Morro Rock and the entrance to Morro Bay itself, although this opinion was not experimentally verified. Field work during one summer (1978) and the following winter (1979) produced baseline data on the profile of and grain-size distribution across the littoral zone. In the offshore part of the littoral zone we also studied ripple size and type, internal structure, depth of erosion, and mineralogy. Although these data, which were collected along nine transects spaced 2 km apart, are inadequate to yield transport and energy rates, they indicate a northward decrease in wave energy within Estero Bay and a mixing of the sediments in the offshore. Box core and rod height data from grid points in seven meters of water showed that on the order of a meter of erosion occurred in the central part of the bay between the two sampling periods. Offshore, the data were incomplete, but at one station, in 17 m of water, at least 20 cm of erosion occurred.

  9. Potential Inundation in the San Francisco Bay Region Due to Rising Sea Levels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knowles, N.

    2009-12-01

    An increase in the rate of sea level rise is one of the primary impacts of projected global climate change. To assess potential inundation associated with a continued acceleration of sea level rise, the highest resolution elevation data available were assembled from various sources and mosaicked to cover the land surfaces of the San Francisco Bay region. Next, to quantify high water levels throughout the Bay, a hydrodynamic model of the San Francisco Estuary was driven by a projection of hourly water levels near the Golden Gate Bridge. This projection was based on a combination of climate model outputs and empirical models and incorporates astronomical, storm surge, El Niño, and long-term sea level rise influences. Based on the resulting data, maps of areas vulnerable to inundation were produced, corresponding to specific amounts of sea level rise and recurrence intervals. These maps portray areas where inundation will likely be an increasing concern. In the North Bay, wetland survival and developed fill areas are at risk. In Central and South bays, a key feature is the bay-ward periphery of developed areas that would be newly vulnerable to inundation. Nearly all municipalities adjacent to South Bay face this risk to some degree. For the Bay as a whole, as early as 2050 under this scenario, the one-year peak event nearly equals the 100-year peak event in 2000. Maps of vulnerable areas are presented and some implications discussed.

  10. Potential Inundation due to Rising Sea Levels in the San Francisco Bay Region

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Knowles, Noah

    2009-01-01

    An increase in the rate of sea level rise is one of the primary impacts of projected global climate change. To assess potential inundation associated with a continued acceleration of sea level rise, the highest resolution elevation data available were assembled from various sources and mosaicked to cover the land surfaces of the San Francisco Bay region. Next, to quantify high water levels throughout the bay, a hydrodynamic model of the San Francisco Estuary was driven by a projection of hourly water levels at the Presidio. This projection was based on a combination of climate model outputs and empirical models and incorporates astronomical, storm surge, El Niño, and long-term sea level rise influences. Based on the resulting data, maps of areas vulnerable to inundation were produced, corresponding to specific amounts of sea level rise and recurrence intervals. These maps portray areas where inundation will likely be an increasing concern. In the North Bay, wetland survival and developed fill areas are at risk. In Central and South bays, a key feature is the bay-ward periphery of developed areas that would be newly vulnerable to inundation. Nearly all municipalities adjacent to South Bay face this risk to some degree. For the Bay as a whole, as early as 2050 under this scenario, the one-year peak event nearly equals the 100-year peak event in 2000. Maps of vulnerable areas are presented and some implications discussed.

  11. Research Spotlight: Narwhals document continued warming of Baffin Bay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Mohi

    2011-03-01

    Baffin Bay, situated between northern Greenland and Canada, is a major gateway between waters from the North Atlantic and Arctic oceans. Dynamics within the bay help govern how much water from the Arctic flows south and sinks to form North Atlantic Deep Water, a deep current that drives ocean circulation on a global scale. Unfortunately, monitoring the deep reaches of Baffin Bay throughout the year is difficult—most oceanographic data are collected in the summer when the area is ice free. To overcome this inability to collect data in harsh winter conditions, Laidre et al. hit upon a novel solution: mounting instruments on narwhals to collect temperature and depth data. Narwhals, a top predator in this frigid ecosystem, make annual migrations from summering grounds in the Canadian High Arctic and western Greenland to wintering grounds in the dense offshore pack ice of Baffin Bay. Moreover, narwhals, which rank among the deepest-diving whales in the world, dive extensively and repeatedly to depths exceeding 1800 meters under pack ice to reach their major food source, the flatfish that swarm on the seafloor of Baffin Bay. Narwhal dives are nearly vertical, making this whale an ideal platform on which to mount surveying instruments. (Journal of Geophysical Research-Oceans, doi:10.1029/2009JC005820, 2010)

  12. Spatial and temporal trends of contaminants in eggs of wading birds from San Francisco Bay, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hothem, R.L.; Roster, D.L.; King, K.A.; Keldsen, T.J.; Marois, K.C.; Wainwright, S.E.

    1995-01-01

    Between 1989 and 1991, reproduction by black-crowned night-herons (Nycticorax nycticorax) and snowy egrets (Egretta thula) was studied at sites in San Francisco Bay. Eggs were collected from these and other bay sites and from South Wilbur Flood Area, a reference site in California's San Joaquin Valley. Eggs were analyzed for inorganic trace elements, organochlorine pesticides, and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). Results were compared among sites and years and with results of previous studies. There was some evidence of impaired reproduction, but concentrations of contaminants were generally lower than threshold levels for such effects. Egg hatchability was generally good, with predation being the factor that most limited reproductive success. Mean PCB concentrations were generally higher in eggs from the south end of San Francisco Bay than from the north, but the only temporal change, an increase, was observed at Alcatraz Island. There were spatial differences for p,p'-DDE in night-heron eggs in 1990, but the highest mean concentration of DDE was in night-heron eggs from South Wilbur in 1991. Temporal declines in maximum concentrations of DDE in eggs were observed in the bay, but means did not change significantly over time, At Bair Island in the southern end of the bay, mean concentrations of mercury decreased while selenium increased in night-heron eggs over time, but there were no clear bay-wide spatial or temporal trends for either element.

  13. Spatial and temporal trends of contaminants in eggs of wading birds from San Francisco Bay, California

    SciTech Connect

    Hothem, R.L.; Marois, K.C.; Wainwright, S.E.; Roster, D.L.; King, K.A.; Keldsen, T.J.

    1995-08-01

    Between 1989 and 1991, reproduction by black-crowned night-herons (Nycticorax nycticorax) and snowy egrets (Egretta thula) was studied at sites in San Francisco Bay. Eggs were collected from these and other bay sites and from South Wilbur Flood Area, a reference site in California`s San Joaquin Valley. Eggs were analyzed for inorganic trace elements, organochlorine pesticides, and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). Results were compared among sites and years and with results of previous studies. There was some evidence of impaired reproduction, but concentrations of contaminants were generally lower than threshold levels for such effects. Egg hatchability was generally good, with predation being the factor that most limited reproductive success. Mean PCB concentrations were generally higher in eggs from the south end of San Francisco Bay than from the north, but the only temporal change, an increase, was observed at Alcatraz Island. There were spatial differences for p,p{prime}-DDE in night-heron eggs in 1990, but the highest mean concentration of DDE was in night-heron eggs from South Wilbur in 1991. Temporal declines in maximum concentrations of DDE in eggs were observed in the bay, but means did not change significantly over time. At Bair Island in the southern end of the bay, mean concentrations of mercury decreased while selenium increased in night-heron eggs over time, but there were no clear bay-wide spatial or temporal trends for either element.

  14. Modern benthic ostracodes from Lutzow-Holm Bay, East Antarctica: paleoceanographic, paleobiogeographic, and evolutionary significance

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Yasuhara, Moriaki; Kato, Masako; Ikeya, Noriyuki; Seto, Koji

    2007-01-01

    Seventy-three ostracode species from 38 genera were recovered from the 55 surface sediment samples in Lützow-Holm Bay, northeastern Antarctica. We investigated bathymetric and geographic distributions of modern benthic ostracode species in the bay and compared this fauna with published modern and fossil ostracode data of Antarctic and southern South American regions. The results show: (1) Four biotopes and three sub-biotopes are recognized based on Q-mode cluster analysis, which suggest distributions of modern ostracodes are mainly controlled by water-mass structure, ice scouring, and light availability. (2) Comparison between the Lützow-Holm Bay fauna and other ostracode faunas from Antarctica and southern South America shows high endemism and homogeneity of Antarctic ostracode fauna, suggesting in situ evolution of most extant Antarctic species. (3) Most species are endemic to the Antarctica, a few species also inhabit South American waters.

  15. Intersex condition and molecular markers of endocrine disruption in relation with burdens of emerging pollutants in thicklip grey mullets (Chelon labrosus) from Basque estuaries (South-East Bay of Biscay).

    PubMed

    Bizarro, C; Ros, O; Vallejo, A; Prieto, A; Etxebarria, N; Cajaraville, M P; Ortiz-Zarragoitia, M

    2014-05-01

    Endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) interfere with the functioning of the endocrine system, causing reproductive and developmental disturbances in aquatic wildlife. Appearance of intersex gonads and elevated plasma levels of vitellogenin in male fish are well known biomarkers of exposure to xenoestrogenic EDCs. In the present study, intersex condition and transcription levels of vtg and cyp19a1b were assessed in five thicklip grey mullet populations from the Basque coast (Bay of Biscay). Levels of EDCs (estrogenic hormones, polycyclic musks, bisphenol-A, phthalates, alkylphenols and pesticides) were determined in water and fish bile. Intersex gonads were observed in three out of five mullet populations. Vtg and cyp19a1b were up-regulated in mullet populations with relatively higher EDCs load. Phthalates and pesticides were the most abundant EDCs in bile, followed by alkylphenols, musks, bisphenol-A and estrogenic hormones. Statistically significant correlations were found between concentrations of individual and total EDCs in bile and water samples and transcription levels of vtg and cyp19a1b. PMID:24262030

  16. Minimum Bayes risk image correlation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Minter, T. C., Jr.

    1980-01-01

    In this paper, the problem of designing a matched filter for image correlation will be treated as a statistical pattern recognition problem. It is shown that, by minimizing a suitable criterion, a matched filter can be estimated which approximates the optimum Bayes discriminant function in a least-squares sense. It is well known that the use of the Bayes discriminant function in target classification minimizes the Bayes risk, which in turn directly minimizes the probability of a false fix. A fast Fourier implementation of the minimum Bayes risk correlation procedure is described.

  17. USGS Tampa Bay Pilot Study

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Yates, K.K.; Cronin, T. M.; Crane, M.; Hansen, M.; Nayeghandi, A.; Swarzenski, P.; Edgar, T.; Brooks, G.R.; Suthard, B.; Hine, A.; Locker, S.; Willard, D.A.; Hastings, D.; Flower, B.; Hollander, D.; Larson, R.A.; Smith, K.

    2007-01-01

    Providing a web-based digital information management system of information for scientists and the public, including a system that supports the work of those officials who must make decisions that affect the state of the bay. The Tampa Bay Study is in its sixth year and will continue through September 2007. This paper presents a non-inclusive summary of key findings associated with the six primary project components listed above. Component 4 (above) is described in detail in the following chapter 13. More information on the Tampa Bay Study is available from our on-line digital information system for the Tampa Bay Study at http://gulfsci.usgs.gov.

  18. 18. CELLAR, SECOND BAY FROM EAST END. First floor joist ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    18. CELLAR, SECOND BAY FROM EAST END. First floor joist studded with rose head nails in the pattern, 'AC + IC 1755 +'. 'AC' is Abraham Carlisle, one of the carpenters of the Greater Meeting House built at Second and Market Streets in 1755. 'IC' may be his apprentice Isaac or John Coates. See the account of the 125th anniversary of the Twelfth Street Meeting House written by Albert Savery. - Twelfth Street Meeting House, 20 South Twelfth Street, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  19. Gulf of Mexico integrated science - Tampa Bay study, the impact of groundwater and contaminants on Tampa Bay

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Swarzenski, Peter W.

    2005-01-01

    Despite the recreational and economic value of coastal bays and estuaries, these ecosystems are often among our most 'troubled' natural environments. Urbanization, agriculture, mining, and shipping are just a few activities that can have a profound and lasting impact on the coastal zone. In order to maintain a healthy coastal ecosystem, it is crucial to develop reasonable management practices around expert scientific information. We still have much to learn about the quantity and quality of groundwater being discharged into Tampa Bay, Florida. We also need to improve our knowledge of a wide range of contaminants entering the bay and must be able to determine where they accumulate in seafloor sediments. Such buried contaminants can potentially be harmful to biota if they are released to the water column. U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) scientists and research partners from the University of South Florida (USF), the University of Florida (UF), and the Florida Marine Research Institute (FMRI) are mapping sources of groundwater, measuring groundwater flow into Tampa Bay, and assessing the impact of contaminants and sediments on bay water quality and ecosystem health.

  20. Relationships between precipitation and surface water chemistry in three Carolina bays

    SciTech Connect

    Monegue, R.L.; Jagoe, C.H.

    1995-12-31

    Carolina Bays are shallow freshwater wetlands, the only naturally occurring lentic systems on the southeastern coastal plain. Bays are breeding sites for many amphibian species, but data on precipitation/surface water relationships and long-term chemical trends are lacking. Such data are essential to interpret major fluctuations in amphibian populations. Surface water and bulk precipitation were sampled bi-weekly for over two years at three bays along a 25 km transect on the Savannah River Site in South Carolina. Precipitation chemistry was similar at all sites; average pH was 4.56, and the major ions were H{sup +} (30.8 % of total), and SO{sub 4} (50.3% of total). H{sup +} was positively correlated with SO{sub 4}, suggesting the importance of anthropogenic acids to precipitation chemistry. All three bays, Rainbow Bay (RB), Thunder Bay (TB), and Ellenton Bay (EB), contained soft (specific conductivity 5--90 {micro}S/cm), acidic water (pH 4.0--5.9) with DOM from 4--40 mg/L. The major cation for RB, TB, and EB, respectively, was: Mg (30.8 % of total); Na (27% of total); and Ca (34.2% of total). DOM was the major anion for all bays, and SO{sub 4} represented 13 to 28 % of total anions. H{sup +} was not correlated to DOM or SO, in RB; H{sup +} was positively correlated to DOM and SO{sub 4} in TB, and negatively correlated to DOM and SO{sub 4} in EB. Different biogeochemical processes probably control pH and other chemical variables in each bay. While surface water H{sup +} was not directly correlated with precipitation H{sup +}, NO{sub 3}, or SO{sub 4}, precipitation and shallow groundwater are dominant water sources for these bays. Atmospheric inputs of anthropogenic acids and other chemicals are important factors influencing bay chemistry.

  1. 32. View looking south. A high perspective of the first ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    32. View looking south. A high perspective of the first bay on the south side of the lock. The recesses and grooves are plainly seen in the west lock gate sills. - Wabash & Erie Canal, Lock No. 2, 8 miles east of Fort Wayne, adjacent to U.S. Route 24, New Haven, Allen County, IN

  2. 7. South wall of blacksmith shop section of roundhouse at ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. South wall of blacksmith shop section of roundhouse at left. West wall and south end wall of machine shop section of roundhouse at right. View to northeast. - Duluth & Iron Range Rail Road Company Shops, Roundhouse, Southwest of downtown Two Harbors, northwest of Agate Bay, Two Harbors, Lake County, MN

  3. A comparison of levels of bat flight and foraging activity at 10 meters and 30 meters above drained Carolina bays and reference bays, prior to bay restoration.

    SciTech Connect

    Menzel, Michael, A.; Ford, W., Mark; Edwards, John, W.; Kilgo, John, C.

    2001-08-01

    A technical report of a monitoring study of bat flight and foraging activity above drained and undrained Carolina bays at the Savannah River Site (SRS), located near Aiken, South Carolina. In order to determine if the vegetational community type or structure of the forest community surrounding the bays affected bat activity levels, bat activity was monitored over 3 drained and 3 undrained reference bays surrounded by pine/mixed hardwood communities and 3 drained and 3 undrained reference bays surrounded by pine monocultures. Bat activity was monitored using time expansion bat detectors. Calls were recorded to Sony Professional tape recorders (Sony WMD3). Detectors positioned at 10 m heights were linked directly to the tape recorders. Time expansion radiomicrophones were used to monitor activity at 30 m heights. The radiomicrophones were attached to 2-m diameter helium balloons and suspended approximately 30 m above the forest floor. Calls detected by the radiomicrophones were transmitted via a FM narrowband frequency to a scanner on the ground.

  4. Learning on the Big Bay

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Philp, Michael J.

    1978-01-01

    Anne Arundel Community College uses the Chesapeake Bay for a flexible ocean engineering technology program which includes mechanical, electrical, and environmental options for transfer and/or vocational students, and adult education programs covering such subjects as sailing, Bay history, boat building, scuba-diving, and marine biology. (RT)

  5. The Bayes Inference Engine

    SciTech Connect

    Hanson, K.M.; Cunningham, G.S.

    1996-04-01

    The authors are developing a computer application, called the Bayes Inference Engine, to provide the means to make inferences about models of physical reality within a Bayesian framework. The construction of complex nonlinear models is achieved by a fully object-oriented design. The models are represented by a data-flow diagram that may be manipulated by the analyst through a graphical programming environment. Maximum a posteriori solutions are achieved using a general, gradient-based optimization algorithm. The application incorporates a new technique of estimating and visualizing the uncertainties in specific aspects of the model.

  6. 33 CFR 334.1100 - San Pablo Bay, Carquinez Strait, and Mare Island Strait in vicinity of U.S. Naval Shipyard, Mare...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... of San Pablo Bay, Carquinez Strait, and Mare Island Strait, within 100 yards of the shore of that part of the Navy Yard, Mare Island, south of the causeway between the City of Vallejo and Mare Island... Yard to its northwesterly limit on the waters of San Pablo Bay, and the waters within 50 yards of...

  7. Tampa Bay environmental atlas

    SciTech Connect

    Kunneke, J.T.; Palik, T.F.

    1984-12-01

    Biological and water resource data for Tampa Bay were compiled and mapped at a scale of 1:24,000. This atlas consists of (1) composited information overlain on 18 biological and 20 water resource base maps and (2) an accompanying map narrative. Subjects mapped on the water resource maps are contours of the mean middepth specific conductivity which can be converted to salinity; bathymetry, sediments, tidal currents, the freshwater/saltwater interface, dredge spoil disposal sites; locations of industrial and municipal point source discharges, tide stations, and water quality sampling stations. The point source discharge locations show permitted capacity and the water quality sampling stations show 5-year averages for chlorophyll, conductivity, turbidity, temperature, and total nitrogen. The subjects shown on the biological resource maps are clam and oyster beds, shellfish harvest areas, colonial bird nesting sites, manatee habitat, seagrass beds and artificial reefs. Spawning seasons, nursery habitats, and adult habitats are identified for major fish species. The atlas will provide useful information for coastal planning and management in Tampa Bay.

  8. 76 FR 54380 - Safety Zone; Suttons Bay Labor Day Fireworks, Suttons Bay, Grand Traverse Bay, MI

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-01

    ... Bay, Grand Traverse Bay, MI AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Temporary final rule. SUMMARY: The Coast... rule is effective from 8 until 11 p.m. on September 3, 2011. ADDRESSES: Documents indicated in this... Department, Coast Guard, Sector Sault Sainte Marie, MI, telephone (906) 253-2429, e-mail...

  9. 33 CFR 162.125 - Sturgeon Bay and the Sturgeon Bay Ship Canal, Wisc.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...: The Corps of Engineers also has regulations dealing with these areas in 33 CFR Part 207. ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Sturgeon Bay and the Sturgeon Bay... Sturgeon Bay and the Sturgeon Bay Ship Canal, Wisc. (a) In the Sturgeon Bay Ship Canal: (1) No vessel...

  10. 33 CFR 162.125 - Sturgeon Bay and the Sturgeon Bay Ship Canal, Wisc.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...: The Corps of Engineers also has regulations dealing with these areas in 33 CFR Part 207. ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Sturgeon Bay and the Sturgeon Bay... Sturgeon Bay and the Sturgeon Bay Ship Canal, Wisc. (a) In the Sturgeon Bay Ship Canal: (1) No vessel...

  11. 33 CFR 162.125 - Sturgeon Bay and the Sturgeon Bay Ship Canal, Wisc.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...: The Corps of Engineers also has regulations dealing with these areas in 33 CFR Part 207. ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Sturgeon Bay and the Sturgeon Bay... Sturgeon Bay and the Sturgeon Bay Ship Canal, Wisc. (a) In the Sturgeon Bay Ship Canal: (1) No vessel...

  12. Chesapeake Bay: Introduction to an Ecosystem.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC.

    The Chesapeake Bay is the largest estuary in the contiguous United States. The Bay and its tidal tributaries make up the Chesapeake Bay ecosystem. This document, which focuses of various aspects of this ecosystem, is divided into four major parts. The first part traces the geologic history of the Bay, describes the overall physical structure of…

  13. Bay of Fundy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    The highest tides on Earth occur in the Minas Basin, the eastern extremity of the Bay of Fundy, Nova Scotia, Canada, where the tide range can reach 16 meters when the various factors affecting the tides are in phase. The primary cause of the immense tides of Fundy is a resonance of the Bay of Fundy-Gulf of Maine system. The system is effectively bounded at this outer end by the edge of the continental shelf with its approximately 40:1 increase in depth. The system has a natural period of approximately 13 hours, which is close to the 12h25m period of the dominant lunar tide of the Atlantic Ocean. Like a father pushing his daughter on a swing, the gentle Atlantic tidal pulse pushes the waters of the Bay of Fundy-Gulf of Maine basin at nearly the optimum frequency to cause a large to-and-fro oscillation. The greatest slosh occurs at the head (northeast end) of the system. The high tide image (top) was acquired April 20, 2001, and the low tide image (bottom) was acquired September 30, 2002. The images cover an area of 16.5 by 21 km, and are centered near 64 degrees west longitude and 45.5 degrees north latitude.

    With its 14 spectral bands from the visible to the thermal infrared wavelength region, and its high spatial resolution of 15 to 90 meters (about 50 to 300 feet), ASTER images Earth to map and monitor the changing surface of our planet.

    ASTER is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18, 1999, on NASA's Terra satellite. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products.

    The broad spectral coverage and high spectral resolution of ASTER provides scientists in numerous disciplines with critical information for surface mapping, and monitoring of dynamic conditions and temporal change. Example applications are: monitoring glacial advances and retreats; monitoring potentially active

  14. The phytoplankton component of seston in San Francisco Bay

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wienke, S.M.; Cloern, J.E.

    1987-01-01

    Phytoplankton biomass (as carbon) was estimated from chlorophyll a concentrations (Chla) and a mean value for the ratio of phytoplankton carbon to chlorophyll a in San Francisco Bay. The ratio was determined as the slope of a Model II regression of POC' against (Chla), where POC' is total particulate organic carbon minus sediment-associated non-phytoplankton carbon. Samples from 30 fixed sites in the channel and lateral shoals of San Francisco Bay were collected once or twice a month from April to November 1980, and at irregular intervals in South Bay during 1984 and 1985. For all data the calculated mean value of phytoplankton C:Chla was 51 (95% confidence interval = 47-54). No significant differences were found in the C:Chla ratio between shallow and deep sites (where light availability differs) or between northern and southern San Francisco Bay (where phytoplankton community composition differs). Using the mean C:Chla ratio of 51, we calculated that phytoplankton biomass constitutes about one third of seston carbon under most circumstances, but this fraction ranges from about 95% during phytoplankton blooms to less than 20% during spring periods of low phytoplankton biomass and high suspended sediment concentration. ?? 1987.

  15. Summary of Suspended-Sediment Concentration Data, San Francisco Bay, California, Water Year 2007

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Buchanan, Paul A.; Morgan, Tara L.

    2010-01-01

    Suspended-sediment concentration data were collected by the U.S. Geological Survey in San Francisco Bay during water year 2007 (October 1, 2006-September 30, 2007). Optical sensors and water samples were used to monitor suspended-sediment concentration at two sites in Suisun Bay, two sites in Central San Francisco Bay, and one site in South San Francisco Bay. Sensors were positioned at two depths at most sites to help define the vertical variability of suspended sediments.Water samples were collected periodically and analyzed for concentrations of suspended sediment. The results of the analyses were used to calibrate the output of the optical sensors so that a record of suspended-sediment concentrations could be derived. This report presents the data-collection methods used and summarizes, in graphs, the suspended-sediment concentration data collected from October 2006 through September 2007. Calibration curves and plots of the processed data for each sensor also are presented.

  16. Summary of suspended-sediment concentration data, San Francisco Bay, California, water year 2008

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Buchanan, Paul A.; Morgan, Tara L.

    2011-01-01

    Suspended-sediment concentration data were collected by the U.S. Geological Survey in San Francisco Bay during water year 2008 (October 1, 2007–September 30, 2008). Optical sensors and water samples were used to monitor suspended-sediment concentration at two sites in Suisun Bay, two sites in Central San Francisco Bay, and one site in South San Francisco Bay. Sensors were positioned at two depths at most sites to help define the vertical variability of suspended sediments. Water samples were collected periodically and analyzed for concentrations of suspended sediment. The results of the analyses were used to calibrate the output of the optical sensors so that a record of suspended-sediment concentrations could be derived. This report presents the data-collection methods used and summarizes, in graphs, the suspended-sediment concentration data collected from October 2007 through September 2008. Calibration curves and plots of the processed data for each sensor also are presented.

  17. Investigations on classification categories for wetlands of Chesapeake Bay using remotely sensed data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williamson, F. S. L.

    1974-01-01

    The use of remote sensors to determine the characteristics of the wetlands of the Chesapeake Bay and surrounding areas is discussed. The objectives of the program are stated as follows: (1) to use data and remote sensing techniques developed from studies of Rhode River, West River, and South River salt marshes to develop a wetland classification scheme useful in other regions of the Chesapeake Bay and to evaluate the classification system with respect to vegetation types, marsh physiography, man-induced perturbation, and salinity; and (2) to develop a program using remote sensing techniques, for the extension of the classification to Chesapeake Bay salt marshes and to coordinate this program with the goals of the Chesapeake Research Consortium and the states of Maryland and Virginia. Maps of the Chesapeake Bay areas are developed from aerial photographs to display the wetland structure and vegetation.

  18. Bat response to carolina bays and wetland restoration in the southeastern U.S. Coastal Plain.

    SciTech Connect

    Menzel, Jennifer M.; Michael A. Menzel; John C. Kilgo; W. Mark Ford; John W. Edwards.

    2005-09-01

    Abstract: Bat activity in the southeastern United States is concentrated over riparian areas and wetland habitats. The restoration and creation of wetlands for mitigation purposes is becoming common in the Southeast. Understanding the effects of these restoration efforts on wetland flora and fauna is thus becoming increasingly important. Because bats (Order: Chiroptera) consist of many species that are of conservation concern and are commonly associated with wetland and riparian habitats in the Southeast (making them a good general indicator for the condition of wetland habitats), we monitored bat activity over restored and reference Carolina bays surrounded by pine savanna (Pinus spp.) or mixed pine-hardwood habitat types at the Savannah River Site in South Carolina. In order to determine how wetland restoration efforts affected the bat community, we monitored bat activity above drained Carolina bays pre- and post-restoration. Our results indicate that bat activity was greater over reference (i.e., undrained) than drained bays prior to the restorative efforts. One year following combined hydrologic and vegetation treatment, however, bat activity was generally greater over restored than reference bays. Bat activity was also greater over both reference and restored bays than in random, forested interior locations. We found significantly more bat activity after restoration than prior to restoration for all but one species in the treatment bays, suggesting that Carolina bay restoration can have almost immediate positive impacts on bat activity.

  19. Distribution of biologic, anthropogenic, and volcanic constituents as a proxy for sediment transport in the San Francisco Bay coastal system, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGann, M.; Erikson, L. H.; Wan, E.; Powell, C., II; Maddocks, R. F.

    2012-12-01

    The biological, anthropogenic, and volcanic constituents of more than 300 samples collected from 1995 to 2010 in San Francisco Bay and the nearby coastal area were analyzed to discern patterns of sediment transport and deposition. The biological constituents investigated include microfauna (benthic and planktic foraminifers, ostracods, radiolarians, diatoms, and thecamoebians), macrofauna (bivalve mollusks, gastropods, barnacles, bryozoa, worm tubes, echinoids, crabs, and fish fragments), and flora (woody stems, roots, spores, and seeds). The distributional pattern of the benthic foraminifers was further refined by Q-mode cluster analysis into four assemblages that reflect where the taxa reside: the Brackish Shallow Subtidal Assemblage, the Estuarine Shallow Subtidal Assemblage, the Estuarine Intermediate/Deep Subtidal Assemblage, and the Nearshore Marine Assemblage. The anthropogenic objects recovered in this study include welding slag and glass microspheres most likely used to increase roadway line reflectivity. The volcanic constituents are glass shards of the Pliocene (3.27 Ma) Nomlaki Tuff, and Miocene tephra mostly derived from the Great Central Valley (including from the 23-19 Ma Valley Springs Formation, among others) and from the Sonoma Volcanic Field of California. The presence of allochthonous sedimentological constituents in this study was used to identify pathways of sediment transport and deposition within the San Francisco Bay coastal system. Several patterns have been identified: 1) volcanic glass shards are transported from the Great Central Valley through the delta to all regions of the bay, including the extreme end of south bay, as well as along the coast outside the bay and southward to Pedro Point; 2) microorganisms (benthic and planktic foraminifers, ostracods, diatoms, and radiolaria) from the marine realm outside San Francisco Bay are found in the estuary at the southern end of south bay, commonly in the middle of San Pablo Bay, and

  20. VIEW OF SOUTH AND EAST SIDES OF FILTER ROOM/BATHHOUSE BUILDING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF SOUTH AND EAST SIDES OF FILTER ROOM/BATHHOUSE BUILDING S-196, FACING NORTHWEST. - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Outdoor Swimming Pool, Corner of Liscome Bay Street & St. Lo Avenue, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  1. Radar image San Francisco Bay Area, California

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    The San Francisco Bay Area in California and its surroundings are shown in this radar image from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM). On this image, smooth areas, such as the bay, lakes, roads and airport runways appear dark, while areas with buildings and trees appear bright. Downtown San Francisco is at the center and the city of Oakland is at the right across the San Francisco Bay. Some city areas, such as the South of Market district in San Francisco, appear bright due to the alignment of streets and buildings with respect to the incoming radar beam. Three of the bridges spanning the Bay are seen in this image. The Bay Bridge is in the center and extends from the city of San Francisco to Yerba Buena and Treasure Islands, and from there to Oakland. The Golden Gate Bridge is to the left and extends from San Francisco to Sausalito. The Richmond-San Rafael Bridge is in the upper right and extends from San Rafael to Richmond. Angel Island is the large island east of the Golden Gate Bridge, and lies north of the much smaller Alcatraz Island. The Alameda Naval Air Station is seen just below the Bay Bridge at the center of the image. Two major faults bounding the San Francisco-Oakland urban areas are visible on this image. The San Andreas fault, on the San Francisco peninsula, is seen on the left side of the image. The fault trace is the straight feature filled with linear reservoirs, which appear dark. The Hayward fault is the straight feature on the right side of the image between the urban areas and the hillier terrain to the east.

    This radar image was acquired by just one of SRTM's two antennas and, consequently, does not show topographic data, but only the strength of the radar signal reflected from the ground. This signal, known as radar backscatter, provides insight into the nature of the surface, including its roughness, vegetation cover and urbanization. The overall faint striping pattern in the images is a data processing artifact due to the

  2. Benthic fluxes in San Francisco Bay

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hammond, Douglas E.; Fuller, C.; Harmon, D.; Hartman, Blayne; Korosec, M.; Miller, L.G.; Rea, R.; Warren, S.; Berelson, W.; Hager, S.W.

    1985-01-01

    Measurements of benthic fluxes have been made on four occasions between February 1980 and February 1981 at a channel station and a shoal station in South San Francisco Bay, using in situ flux chambers. On each occasion replicate measurements of easily measured substances such as radon, oxygen, ammonia, and silica showed a variability (??1??) of 30% or more over distances of a few meters to tens of meters, presumably due to spatial heterogeneity in the benthic community. Fluxes of radon were greater at the shoal station than at the channel station because of greater macrofaunal irrigation at the former, but showed little seasonal variability at either station. At both stations fluxes of oxygen, carbon dioxide, ammonia, and silica were largest following the spring bloom. Fluxes measured during different seasons ranged over factors of 2-3, 3, 4-5, and 3-10 (respectively), due to variations in phytoplankton productivity and temperature. Fluxes of oxygen and carbon dioxide were greater at the shoal station than at the channel station because the net phytoplankton productivity is greater there and the organic matter produced must be rapidly incorporated in the sediment column. Fluxes of silica were greater at the shoal station, probably because of the greater irrigation rates there. N + N (nitrate + nitrite) fluxes were variable in magnitude and in sign. Phosphate fluxes were too small to measure accurately. Alkalinity fluxes were similar at the two stations and are attributed primarily to carbonate dissolution at the shoal station and to sulfate reduction at the channel station. The estimated average fluxes into South Bay, based on results from these two stations over the course of a year, are (in mmol m-2 d-1): O2 = -27 ?? 6; TCO2 = 23 ?? 6; Alkalinity = 9 ?? 2; N + N = -0.3 ?? 0.5; NH3 = 1.4 ?? 0.2; PO4 = 0.1 ?? 0.4; Si = 5.6 ?? 1.1. These fluxes are comparable in magnitude to those in other temperate estuaries with similar productivity, although the seasonal

  3. Eutrophication in the Chesapeake Bay

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ulanowicz, R. E.

    1978-01-01

    The advantages and limitations of using remote sensing to acquire fast reliable data on the nutrient problem in the Chesapeake Bay ecosystem are discussed. Pollution effects to phytoplankton blooms during late summer and early fall months are also considered.

  4. Heavy-mineral provenance in an estuarine environment, Willapa Bay, Washington, USA: palaeogeographic implications and estuarine evolution

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Luepke Bynum, Gretchen

    2007-01-01

    Modern sediments from representative localities in Willapa Bay, Washington, comprise two principal heavy-mineral suites. One contains approximately equivalent amounts of hornblende, orthopyroxene, and clinopyroxene; this is derived from the Columbia River, which discharges into the Pacific Ocean a short distance south of the bay. The other suite, dominated by clinopyroxene, is restricted to sands of rivers flowing into the bay from the east. The heavy-mineral distributions within the bay suggest that sand discharged from the Columbia River, borne north by longshore transport and carried into the bay by tidal currents, accounts for nearly all of the sand within the interior of Willapa Bay today. Pleistocene deposits on the east side of the bay contain three heavy-mineral assemblages, two of which are identical to the modern assemblages described above. These assemblages reflect the relative influence of tidal and fluvial processes on the Late Pleistocene deposits (100,000–200,000 BP. Amino acid racemization in Quaternary shell deposits at Willapa Bay, Washington. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 43, 1505–1520). They are also consistent with those processes inferred on the basis of sedimentary structures and stratigraphic relations in about two-thirds of the samples examined. Anomalies can be explained by recycling of sand from older deposits. The persistence of the two heavy-mineral suites suggests that the pattern of estuarine sedimentation in Late Pleistocene deposits closely resembled that of the modern bay. The third heavy-mineral suite is enriched in epidote and occurs in a few older Pleistocene units. On the north side of the bay, the association of this suite with southwest-directed foresets in cross-bedded gravel indicates derivation from the northeast, perhaps from an area of glacial outwash. The presence of this suite in ancient estuarine sands exposed on the northeast side of the bay suggests that input from this northerly source may have

  5. 33 CFR 110.194a - Mobile Bay, Ala., and Mississippi Sound, Miss.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Sound, Miss. 110.194a Section 110.194a Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF... Mississippi Sound, Miss. (a) The anchorage grounds. (1) The waters of lower Mobile Bay, near Cedar Point... south by latitude 30°20′00″, and on the west by longitude 88°06′00″. (2) The waters of Mississippi...

  6. 33 CFR 110.194a - Mobile Bay, Ala., and Mississippi Sound, Miss.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Sound, Miss. 110.194a Section 110.194a Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF... Mississippi Sound, Miss. (a) The anchorage grounds. (1) The waters of lower Mobile Bay, near Cedar Point... south by latitude 30°20′00″, and on the west by longitude 88°06′00″. (2) The waters of Mississippi...

  7. 33 CFR 110.194a - Mobile Bay, Ala., and Mississippi Sound, Miss.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Sound, Miss. 110.194a Section 110.194a Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF... Mississippi Sound, Miss. (a) The anchorage grounds. (1) The waters of lower Mobile Bay, near Cedar Point... south by latitude 30°20′00″, and on the west by longitude 88°06′00″. (2) The waters of Mississippi...

  8. 33 CFR 110.194a - Mobile Bay, Ala., and Mississippi Sound, Miss.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Sound, Miss. 110.194a Section 110.194a Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF... Mississippi Sound, Miss. (a) The anchorage grounds. (1) The waters of lower Mobile Bay, near Cedar Point... south by latitude 30°20′00″, and on the west by longitude 88°06′00″. (2) The waters of Mississippi...

  9. 33 CFR 110.194a - Mobile Bay, Ala., and Mississippi Sound, Miss.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Sound, Miss. 110.194a Section 110.194a Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF... Mississippi Sound, Miss. (a) The anchorage grounds. (1) The waters of lower Mobile Bay, near Cedar Point... south by latitude 30°20′00″, and on the west by longitude 88°06′00″. (2) The waters of Mississippi...

  10. Multidisciplinary Investigations of Submarine Flow to Biscayne Bay, Florida

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Halley, R. B.; Reich, C. D.; Swarzenski, P. W.; Langevin, C. D.

    2005-05-01

    Biscayne Bay and Biscayne National Park (BNP) are located next to the Miami-Dade urban complex and are adjacent to the Dade County South Dade Landfill Facility and the Miami-Dade Water and Sewer South District Plant. The base of the landfill is lined to separate it from the underlying Miami Limestone, the host rock for the surficial Biscayne Aquifer. The sewage-treatment facility injects treated sewage into the lower Florida Aquifer (750 m) that is overlain by an aquitard termed the Middle Confining Unit (450 m). The Biscayne Aquifer (up to 50 m thick) borders the western margin of BNP, and the Floridan Aquifer underlies the entire park. There is concern about leakage of contaminated aquifer water into BNP and its potential effects on water quality. Groundwater flux to Biscayne Bay is being studied using pressure measurements and geochemical analyses from submarine wells, electromagnetic seepage meters, streaming resistivity profiling, and local and regional model simulations. Both seepage meters and water analyses provide point information that can be placed into the regional context provided by flow models and geochemical and geophysical profiling, which, in turn, constrain the groundwater contribution. Water samples were collected approximately quarterly from August 2002 until March 2004 from submarine wells along a transect through Biscayne Bay and across the reef to the shelf edge. Samples were analyzed for conductivity (salinity), dissolved oxygen, temperature, redox potential, nutrients, metals, strontium isotopes, radon, sulfate, and wastewater compounds. Low-salinity water was identified from nearshore wells and indicates seepage from the Biscayne Aquifer and/or surface-water intrusion into the rocks along western Biscayne Bay. Analyses of water samples (n = 109) collected from wells across the Florida shelf show no consistent evidence of wastewater contaminants occurring in groundwater beneath BNP. No significant leakage from the Floridan Aquifer

  11. Ice conditions on the Chesapeake Bay as observed from LANDSAT during the winters of 1977, 1978 and 1979

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Foster, J. L.

    1980-01-01

    The LANDSAT observations during the winters of 1977, 1978 and 1979, which were unusually cold in the northeastern U.S. and in the Chesapeake Bay area, were evaluated. Abnormal atmospheric circulation patterns displaced cold polar air to the south, and as a result, the Chesapeake Bay experienced much greater than normal icing conditions during these 3 years. The LANDSAT observations of the Chesapeake Bay area during these winters demonstrate the satellite's capabilities to monitor ice growth and melt, to detect ice motions, and to measure ice extent.

  12. Arbovirus circulation, temporal distribution, and abundance of mosquito species in two Carolina bay habitats.

    PubMed

    Ortiz, D I; Wozniak, A; Tolson, M W; Turner, P E

    2005-01-01

    Carolina bays, a type of geomorphic feature, may be important in the ecology of mosquito vectors in South Carolina. Their hydrology varies from wetland habitats with marked flooding/drying regimes to permanently flooded spring-fed lakes. Moreover, they possess characteristics that contribute to the support of a particularly abundant and diverse invertebrate fauna. Although it has been estimated that 2,700+ bays exist in South Carolina, approximately 97% have been altered; < or = 200 bays remain intact, and only 36 are protected by state-funded conservation projects. We conducted a study in two distinct Carolina bay habitats, Savage Bay Heritage Preserve (SBHP) and Woods Bay State Park (WBSP), from June 1997 to July 1998 to determine mosquito temporal distribution, species composition, and the occurrence of arbovirus activity. The largest mosquito collection was obtained at WBSP (n = 31,172) representing 25 species followed by SBHP (n = 3,940) with 24 species. Anopheles crucians complex were the most common species encountered in both bays. Two virus isolates were obtained from SBHP in 1997: Keystone (KEY) virus from Ochlerotatus atlanticus-tormentor and Cache Valley (CV) virus from Oc. canadensis canadensis. Twenty-nine (29) arbovirus-positive pools were obtained from WBSP: 28 in 1997 and one in 1998. KEY virus was isolated from three pools of Oc. atlanticus-tormentor and Tensaw (TEN) virus was isolated from two pools of An. crucians complex; 10 isolates could not be identified with the sera available. Additionally, 14 pools of An. crucians complex tested positive for Eastern equine encephalitis (EEE) virus antigen. These represent the first record of KEY and CV viruses in South Carolina. Our data indicate the presence of high mosquito density and diversity in both Carolina bay habitats, which may be influenced, in part, by seasonal changes in their hydroperiods. The study of mosquito and arbovirus ecology in Carolina Bay habitats could provide more information on

  13. Using Natural Geochemical Tracers to Discern the Dominant Sources of Freshwater into Biscayne Bay, Southeast Florida

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stalker, J. C.; Price, R. M.; Swart, P. K.

    2005-05-01

    Biscayne Bay is a sub-tropical estuary located on the carbonate platform of south Florida. The water occupying Biscayne Bay is a balance of saltwater influx from the open ocean and freshwater inputs from precipitation, surface water runoff, and submarine groundwater discharge. The bays watershed includes a total of 3 million inhabitants, the major urban centers of Miami and Ft. Lauderdale, as well as the Everglades system. With the development of south Florida, the natural diffuse groundwater and stream flow into the bay has been replaced by a large system of canals and levees in an effort to control flooding and drain swampland. The Comprehensive Everglades Restoration Plan includes changes in the freshwater deliveries to Biscayne Bay from point-source discharges via canals to non-point source discharges via wetlands and groundwater flow. The balance of salinity in Biscayne Bay effects sensitive seagrass and tidal ecosystems including numerous species of corals and other biota. A comprehensive understanding of the flow of freshwater into the bay is crucial to future planned developments and restorations. The goal of this study is to use naturally occurring geochemical constituents as tracers to identify and quantify the sources of freshwater, i.e. rainfall, canal flow, and groundwater, discharge to Biscayne Bay. In this study, discrete samples of precipitation, canal water, terrestrial groundwater, marine groundwater, and bay surface water are collected monthly and analyzed for the stable isotopes of hydrogen and oxygen as well as for major cations and anions. Initial results indicate that fresh groundwater has an isotopic signature (del 18O = -2.66 per mil, del D, -7.60 per mil) similar to rainfall (del 18O = -2.86 per mil, del D =-4.78 per mil). In contrast canal water has a heavy isotopic signature (del 18O = -0.46 per mil, del D = -2.48 per mil) due to evaporation. Thus it is possible to use stable isotopes of oxygen and hydrogen to separate canal water from

  14. Using a food-web model to assess the trophic structure and energy flows in Daya Bay, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Zuozhi; Xu, Shannan; Qiu, Yongsong

    2015-12-01

    Daya Bay, is one of the largest and most important semi-closed bays along the southern coast of China. Due to the favorable geomorphological and climatic conditions, this bay has become an important conservation zone of aquatic germplasm resources in South China Sea. To characterize the trophic structure, ecosystem properties and keystone species, a food-web model for Daya Bay has been developed by the means of a mass-balance approach using the Ecopath with Ecosim software. The mean trophic transfer efficiency for the entire ecosystem as a whole is 10.9% while the trophic level II is 5.1%. The primary- and secondary-producers, including phytoplankton, zooplankton and micro-zoobenthos demonstrated the important overall impacts on the rest of the groups based on mixed trophic impact (MIT) analysis and are classified as the keystone groups. The analysis of ecosystem attributes indicated that ecosystem of Daya Bay can be categorized as an immature one and/or is in the degraded stage. A comparison of this model with other coastal ecosystems, including Kuosheng Bay, Tongoy Bay, Beibu Gulf and Cadiz Gulf, underpinned that the ecosystem of Daye Bay is an obviously stressed system and is more vulnerable to the external disturbance. In general, our study indicates that a holistic approach is needed to minimize the impacts of anthropogenic activities to ensure the sustainability of the ecosystem in the future.

  15. Low calcium carbonate saturation state in an Arctic inland sea having large and varying fluvial inputs: The Hudson Bay system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azetsu-Scott, Kumiko; Starr, Michel; Mei, Zhi-Ping; Granskog, Mats

    2014-09-01

    The Hudson Bay system (HBS) is a shallow inland sea in the Arctic, composed of Hudson Strait, Foxe Basin/Channel, James Bay, and Hudson Bay. Dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) and total alkalinity (TA) measurements were used to investigate the state of ocean acidification, specifically calcium carbonate saturation states (Ω) and pH. The freshwater sources were identified from the relationship between oxygen isotope composition (δ18O) and salinity to understand the role of freshwater in ocean acidification. The saturation state of seawater with respect to calcium carbonate (Ω) in surface water (<10 m) of the HBS was strongly influenced by river runoff. Aragonite under-saturation (Ωarg < 1) was observed in the surface water of the south-eastern Hudson Bay, where the river runoff fraction was high (>10%). The watershed characteristics, however, influenced the alkalinity of river runoff in different parts of Hudson Bay, which contributed to Ω variation in the coastal region. In southwestern Hudson Bay where the watershed is dominated by limestone, Ω was higher compared to eastern Hudson Bay, where the watershed consists of an igneous rock formation. In deeper waters, low Ω is caused by remineralization of organic matter. The highest DIC concentrations (>2300 µmol/kg) were observed in the depths of central Hudson Bay with a pHtotal of 7.49 and Ωarg of 0.37. Over 67% and 22% of the bottom water of Hudson Bay was undersaturated with respect to aragonite and calcite respectively, despite Hudson Bay being very shallow (less than 250 m deep). The aragonite saturation horizon in the central Hudson Bay was around 50 m.

  16. The Holocene History of Placentia Bay, Newfoundland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheldon, Christina; Seidenkrantz, Marit-Solveig; Reynisson, Njáll; Juncker Hansen, Mette; Zilmer Christensen, Eva; Kuijpers, Antoon

    2013-04-01

    Marine sediments analyzed from cores taken in Placentia Bay, Newfoundland, located in the Labrador Sea, captured oceanographic and climatic changes from the end of the Younger Dryas through the Holocene. Placentia Bay is an ideal site to capture changes in both the south-flowing Labrador Current and the north-flowing Gulf Stream, currents which are closely tied to the strength of the North Atlantic sub-polar gyre and the North Atlantic Oscillation. Changes in the atmospheric and oceanographic circulation patterns in the North Atlantic after the last glacial period are inferred from faunal assemblages, mineralogy and dinoflagellate analyses. During the 2007 Akademik Ioffe cruise, three cores were taken from Placentia Bay: AI07-14G, representing the time period 12.7 to 9.8 cal kyr BP, AI07-10G, covering the period ca. 10.4 cal kya BP to the present, and AI07-12G, representing the last 5.7 cal kya. These cores have been analyzed using several climate proxies, including benthic foraminifera, diatoms, IP25, dinoflagellate cysts and XRF. Together, these cores provide high-resolution records of the changes in climatic conditions over the last ca. 13,000 years in the southern Labrador Sea. After the Younger Dryas ended, the beginning of the warmer early Holocene was recorded by an increase in productivity-linked foraminiferal and diatom assemblages, as well as a drop in the presence of the sea-ice indicator IP25 in core 14G (Pearce et al., 2012). Variability in atmospheric circulation during the Holocene was analyzed in core 12G and used to reconstruct changes in the mode of the North Atlantic Oscillation during the late Holocene by analysis of exotic pollen grains. Sea-surface conditions during the late Holocene in Placentia Bay reflect a decrease in the strength of the Labrador Current, based on warmer sea-surface temperatures and a simultaneous decline in Arctic water export, from ~4000 cal years to ~3000 cal years BP, which falls into the overall large-scale trend of

  17. Development of San Leandro synform and neotectonics of the San Francisco Bay block, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Marlow, M. S.; Jachens, R.C.; Hart, P.E.; Carlson, P.R.; Anima, R.J.; Childs, J. R.

    1999-01-01

    High-resolution, 24-channel seismic-reflection data show a stratified synform beneath south San Francisco Bay. These seismic-reflection data reveal an eastward-dipping bedrock surface that is about 40 m deep (subbottom) beneath the western south bay, and that reaches a maximum observed depth of 500-800 m (subbottom) below the eastern half of the south bay. An angular unconformity cuts both the synform and underlying bedrock. The age of the unconformity is unknown but may be Pleistocene, when these strata forming the synform were presumably exposed subaerially during lowered sea levels. The synformal strata, the unconformity, and some generally flat-lying and overlying strata are folded near the eastern shore of the bay. This folding may result from movement on the Hayward fault (fault interactions and localized strain partitioning) or from compressional deformation in the East Bay Hills related to NE-SW ('fault-normal') convergence between the Pacific and North American plates. In general, reflections from sediment overlying the unconformity are flat lying (except near the eastern shore of the bay), whereas reflections beneath the unconformity dip eastward. The overlying, flat sediment section fills a shallow basin that is coincident with an elliptical residual gravity low. This low appears to be related to the deeper sedimentary, synformal section based on the spatial correlation between the east-dipping reflections and the gravity anomaly. Projecting the east-dipping reflections to the center of the gravity low suggests that the total section of flat-lying and dipping reflections in the synform may exceed 1000 m. Modeling of the gravity low suggests a total low-density section, about 1.5 km thick, at the center of the synform relative to the surrounding bedrock of presumed Franciscan Complex.High-resolution, 24-channel seismic-reflection data show a stratified synform beneath south San Francisco Bay. These seismic-reflection data reveal an eastward

  18. Seasonal Sea-Level Variations in San Francisco Bay in Response to Atmospheric Forcing, 1980

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wang, Jingyuan; Cheng, R.T.; Smith, P.C.

    1997-01-01

    The seasonal response of sea level in San Francisco Bay (SFB) to atmospheric forcing during 1980 is investigated. The relations between sea-level data from the Northern Reach, Central Bay and South Bay, and forcing by local wind stresses, sea level pressure (SLP), runoff and the large scale sea level pressure field are examined in detail. The analyses show that the sea-level elevations and slopes respond to the along-shore wind stress T(V) at most times of the year, and to the cross-shore wind stress T(N) during two transition periods in spring and autumn. River runoff raises the sea-level elevation during winter. It is shown that winter precipitation in the SFB area is mainly attributed to the atmospheric circulation associated with the Alcutian Low, which transports the warm, moist air into the Bay area. A multiple linear regression model is employed to estimate the independent contributions of barometric pressure and wind stress to adjusted sea level. These calculations have a simple dynamical interpretation which confirms the importance of along-shore wind to both sea level and north-south slope within the Bay.

  19. 33 CFR 165.1185 - Regulated Navigation Area; San Francisco Bay, San Pablo Bay, Carquinez Strait, Suisun Bay...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Regulated Navigation Area; San Francisco Bay, San Pablo Bay, Carquinez Strait, Suisun Bay, Sacramento River, San Joaquin River, and connecting waters in California. 165.1185 Section 165.1185 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY...

  20. 33 CFR 100.911 - Bay City Airshow, Bay City, MI.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Bay City Airshow, Bay City, MI. 100.911 Section 100.911 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY REGATTAS AND MARINE PARADES SAFETY OF LIFE ON NAVIGABLE WATERS § 100.911 Bay City Airshow, Bay City, MI....

  1. 33 CFR 100.919 - International Bay City River Roar, Bay City, MI.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false International Bay City River Roar, Bay City, MI. 100.919 Section 100.919 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF... Bay City River Roar, Bay City, MI. (a) Regulated Area. A regulated area is established to include...

  2. 33 CFR 100.911 - Bay City Airshow, Bay City, MI.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Bay City Airshow, Bay City, MI. 100.911 Section 100.911 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY REGATTAS AND MARINE PARADES SAFETY OF LIFE ON NAVIGABLE WATERS § 100.911 Bay City Airshow, Bay City, MI....

  3. 33 CFR 100.919 - International Bay City River Roar, Bay City, MI.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false International Bay City River Roar, Bay City, MI. 100.919 Section 100.919 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF... Bay City River Roar, Bay City, MI. (a) Regulated Area. A regulated area is established to include...

  4. 33 CFR 100.911 - Bay City Airshow, Bay City, MI.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Bay City Airshow, Bay City, MI. 100.911 Section 100.911 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY REGATTAS AND MARINE PARADES SAFETY OF LIFE ON NAVIGABLE WATERS § 100.911 Bay City Airshow, Bay City, MI....

  5. 33 CFR 100.919 - International Bay City River Roar, Bay City, MI.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false International Bay City River Roar, Bay City, MI. 100.919 Section 100.919 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF... Bay City River Roar, Bay City, MI. (a) Regulated Area. A regulated area is established to include...

  6. 33 CFR 100.911 - Bay City Airshow, Bay City, MI.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Bay City Airshow, Bay City, MI. 100.911 Section 100.911 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY REGATTAS AND MARINE PARADES SAFETY OF LIFE ON NAVIGABLE WATERS § 100.911 Bay City Airshow, Bay City, MI....

  7. 33 CFR 100.919 - International Bay City River Roar, Bay City, MI.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false International Bay City River Roar, Bay City, MI. 100.919 Section 100.919 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF... Bay City River Roar, Bay City, MI. (a) Regulated Area. A regulated area is established to include...

  8. 33 CFR 100.919 - International Bay City River Roar, Bay City, MI.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false International Bay City River Roar, Bay City, MI. 100.919 Section 100.919 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF... Bay City River Roar, Bay City, MI. (a) Regulated Area. A regulated area is established to include...

  9. 33 CFR 100.911 - Bay City Airshow, Bay City, MI.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Bay City Airshow, Bay City, MI. 100.911 Section 100.911 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY REGATTAS AND MARINE PARADES SAFETY OF LIFE ON NAVIGABLE WATERS § 100.911 Bay City Airshow, Bay City, MI....

  10. NASA Satellites Aid in Chesapeake Bay Recovery

    NASA Video Gallery

    By studying the landscape around the Chesapeake Bay, NASA spacecrafts are helping land managers figure out how to battle the harmful pollutants that have added to the destruction of the bay's once ...

  11. Facility Layout Problems Using Bays: A Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davoudpour, Hamid; Jaafari, Amir Ardestani; Farahani, Leila Najafabadi

    2010-06-01

    Layout design is one of the most important activities done by industrial Engineers. Most of these problems have NP hard Complexity. In a basic layout design, each cell is represented by a rectilinear, but not necessarily convex polygon. The set of fully packed adjacent polygons is known as a block layout (Asef-Vaziri and Laporte 2007). Block layout is divided by slicing tree and bay layout. In bay layout, departments are located in vertical columns or horizontal rows, bays. Bay layout is used in real worlds especially in concepts such as semiconductor and aisles. There are several reviews in facility layout; however none of them focus on bay layout. The literature analysis given here is not limited to specific considerations about bay layout design. We present a state of art review for bay layout considering some issues such as the used objectives, the techniques of solving and the integration methods in bay.

  12. 33 CFR 167.100 - In the approaches to Narragansett Bay, RI, and Buzzards Bay, MA: General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Bay, RI, and Buzzards Bay, MA: General. 167.100 Section 167.100 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST... approaches to Narragansett Bay, RI, and Buzzards Bay, MA: General. The traffic separation scheme in the approaches to Narragansett Bay, RI, and Buzzards Bay, MA, consists of four parts: Two precautionary areas...

  13. 33 CFR 167.100 - In the approaches to Narragansett Bay, RI, and Buzzards Bay, MA: General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Bay, RI, and Buzzards Bay, MA: General. 167.100 Section 167.100 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST... approaches to Narragansett Bay, RI, and Buzzards Bay, MA: General. The traffic separation scheme in the approaches to Narragansett Bay, RI, and Buzzards Bay, MA, consists of four parts: Two precautionary areas...

  14. 33 CFR 167.100 - In the approaches to Narragansett Bay, RI, and Buzzards Bay, MA: General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Bay, RI, and Buzzards Bay, MA: General. 167.100 Section 167.100 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST... approaches to Narragansett Bay, RI, and Buzzards Bay, MA: General. The traffic separation scheme in the approaches to Narragansett Bay, RI, and Buzzards Bay, MA, consists of four parts: Two precautionary areas...

  15. 33 CFR 167.100 - In the approaches to Narragansett Bay, RI, and Buzzards Bay, MA: General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Bay, RI, and Buzzards Bay, MA: General. 167.100 Section 167.100 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST... approaches to Narragansett Bay, RI, and Buzzards Bay, MA: General. The traffic separation scheme in the approaches to Narragansett Bay, RI, and Buzzards Bay, MA, consists of four parts: Two precautionary areas...

  16. San Francisco Bay Sediment Concentration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    This March 3, 2000 image of the San Francisco Bay region shows a 60 by 75 kilometer Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) image in band 1 (near infrared, 0.52-0.60 microns). The color coded suspended sediment image was created from band 1 by blacking out the land, and assigning colors to the relative brightnesses in the water. High values were colored white, then red, yellow, green, and blue. Brighter values in band 1 indicate higher sediment load in the water. The highest values are in Suisun and San Pablo Bays, into which the Sacramento River empties, and along the coast of the San Francisco Peninsula. The Pacific Ocean and San Francisco Bay water are relatively clear. Image courtesy ASTER Science Team

  17. Biodiversity inventories and conservation of the marine fishes of Bootless Bay, Papua New Guinea

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The effective management and conservation of biodiversity is predicated on clearly defined conservation targets. Species number is frequently used as a metric for conservation prioritization and monitoring changes in ecosystem health. We conducted a series of synoptic surveys focusing on the fishes of the Bootless Bay region of Papua New Guinea to generate a checklist of fishes of the region. Bootless Bay lies directly south of Port Moresby, the capital of Papua New Guinea, and experiences the highest human population density of any marine area in the country. Our checklist will set a baseline against which future environmental changes can be tracked. Results We generated a checklist of 488 fish species in 72 families found in Bootless Bay during a two-week sampling effort. Using incident-based methods of species estimation, we extrapolate there to be approximately 940 fish species in Bootless Bay, one of the lowest reported numbers in Papua New Guinea. Conclusions Our data suggest that the Bootless Bay ecosystem of Papua New Guinea, while diverse in absolute terms, has lower fish biodiversity compared to other shallow marine areas within the country. These differences in faunal diversity are most likely a combination of unequal sampling effort as well as biophysical factors within Bootless Bay compounded by historical and/or contemporary anthropogenic disturbances. PMID:22849436

  18. MOBILE BAY AND WATERSHED WATER QUALITY MODELING

    EPA Science Inventory

    Two major products will come out of this project. The first is a compilation of 2001 water quality data for the Mobile bay area. The second is to develop and run a water quality moded for the bay to assist with development of TMDLs for the Bay

  19. 33 CFR 117.1101 - Sturgeon Bay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Sturgeon Bay. 117.1101 Section... DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Wisconsin § 117.1101 Sturgeon Bay. (a) The draw of the Michigan Street Bridge, mile 4.3 at Sturgeon Bay, shall open as follows: (1) From March 15 through...

  20. 33 CFR 117.1101 - Sturgeon Bay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Sturgeon Bay. 117.1101 Section... DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Wisconsin § 117.1101 Sturgeon Bay. (a) The draw of the Michigan Street Bridge, mile 4.3 at Sturgeon Bay, shall open as follows: (1) From March 15 through...

  1. 33 CFR 117.1101 - Sturgeon Bay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Sturgeon Bay. 117.1101 Section... DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Wisconsin § 117.1101 Sturgeon Bay. (a) The draw of the Michigan Street Bridge, mile 4.3 at Sturgeon Bay, shall open as follows: (1) From March 15 through...

  2. BAY REGION ATMOSPHERIC CHEMISTRY EXPERIMENT (BRACE)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Tampa Bay Estuary Program (TBEP) was formed in 1991 to assist the community in developing a comprehensive plan to restore and protect Tampa Bay. The ecological indicator of the health of the Bay is the coverage of seagrasses, historically in decline, which are important to...

  3. SARASOTA BAY 2000: A DECADE OF PROGRESS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Sarasota Bay 2000: A Decade of Progress is produced by the Sarasota Bay National Estuary Program for the people of Manatee and Sarasota counties. This document presents information on the current condition of Sarasota Bay and the progress made in implementing the Comprehensive Co...

  4. Bayes factors and multimodel inference

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Link, W.A.; Barker, R.J.

    2009-01-01

    Multimodel inference has two main themes: model selection, and model averaging. Model averaging is a means of making inference conditional on a model set, rather than on a selected model, allowing formal recognition of the uncertainty associated with model choice. The Bayesian paradigm provides a natural framework for model averaging, and provides a context for evaluation of the commonly used AIC weights. We review Bayesian multimodel inference, noting the importance of Bayes factors. Noting the sensitivity of Bayes factors to the choice of priors on parameters, we define and propose nonpreferential priors as offering a reasonable standard for objective multimodel inference.

  5. Mobile Bay turbidity plume study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crozier, G. F.

    1976-01-01

    Laboratory and field transmissometer studies on the effect of suspended particulate material upon the appearance of water are reported. Quantitative correlations were developed between remotely sensed image density, optical sea truth data, and actual sediment load. Evaluation of satellite image sea truth data for an offshore plume projects contours of transmissivity for two different tidal phases. Data clearly demonstrate the speed of change and movement of the optical plume for water patterns associated with the mouth of Mobile bay in which relatively clear Gulf of Mexico water enters the bay on the eastern side. Data show that wind stress in excess of 15 knots has a marked impact in producing suspended sediment loads.

  6. Carbon Biogeochemistry in Baffin Bay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, Helmuth; Shadwick, Elizabeth H.; Dehairs, Frank; Gratton, Yves

    2013-04-01

    The Arctic Ocean and its carbon cycle are expected to be disproportionately sensitive to climatic change and, thus the Arctic is thought to be an area where such changes may most easily be detected. In particular the carbon cycle in polar ocean is vulnerable due to the relatively high Revelle factor and correspondingly weaker CO2 buffer capacity. The Arctic ocean is influenced by runoff and precipitation, sea ice formation and melting, and the inflow of saline waters from Bering and Fram Straits as well as the Barents Sea Shelf. Pacific water is recognizable as low(er) salinity water, with high concentrations of dissolved inorganic carbon, flowing from the Arctic Ocean to the North Atlantic via the Canadian Arctic Archipelago. In the Baffin Bay area, at the eastern entrance to the Canadian Arctic Archipelago, the water masses of three major oceans meet. Atlantic Ocean water traveling into Baffin Bay as the east Greenland current mixes with waters from the Arctic Ocean and the Pacific Ocean, which enter Baffin Bay via Nares Strait and various outflows of the Canadian Arctic Archipelago, before the waters head southward along the western side of Baffin Bay, eventually feeding into the Labrador Current and the North Atlantic Ocean. Altered mixing ratios of these three water masses and freshwater in the Arctic Ocean have been recorded in recent decades. Any climatically driven alterations in the composition of waters leaving Baffin Bay may have implications for anthropogenic CO2 uptake and, hence, acidification, of the subpolar and temperate North Atlantic. We present carbon cycle, Barium and stable oxygen isotope composition data of sea water and related data from two east to west section across Baffin Bay at 75N and 76N as well as from shelf sections long the eastern and western shelves of Baffin Bay. We investigate water mass characteristics and mixing pattern of the above three major water masses in Baffin Bay. The data have been collected in the framework of two

  7. Studies of the San Francisco Bay, California, estuarine ecosystem regional monitoring program results, 1996

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Baylosis, Jelriza I.; Edmunds, Jody L.; Cole, Brian E.; Cloern, James E.

    1997-01-01

    As part of a regional monitoring program, water samples were collected in the San Francisco Bay estuary during 21 cruises from January through December 1996. Conductivity, temperature, light attenuation, turbidity, oxygen, and in-vivo chlorophyll fluorescence were measured longitudinally and vertically in the main channel of the estuary from south of the Dumbarton Bridge in the southern part of the Bay to Rio Vista on the Sacramento River. Discrete water samples were analyzed for chlorophyll a, phaeopigments, suspended participate matter, and dissolved oxygen. Water density was calculated from salinity, temperature, and pressure (depth), and is included in the data summaries.

  8. NARRAGANSETT BAY: COMPREHENSIVE CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT PLAN FOR NARRAGANSETT BAY

    EPA Science Inventory

    This document sets forth goals and implementation strategies to improve and sustain the health of Narragansett Bay. It is the culmination of six years of research and review of the issues by scientists, planners, interest groups, and legal experts, an endeavor funded by the U.S. ...

  9. Evidence for an Extraterrestrial Impact Origin of the Carolina Bays on the Atlantic Coast of North America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Howard, G. A.; West, A.; Firestone, R. B.; Kennett, J. P.; Kimbel, D.; Newell, W.; Kobres, R.

    2007-05-01

    The Carolina Bays, one of the most conspicuous geomorphic features on the Atlantic Coastal Plain of the United States, are a group of about 500,000, oriented, crater-like, elliptical lakes, wetlands, and depressions, ranging from a few dozen meters to about 11 km in length. Although long proposed as impact structures (Melton and Schriever, 1933; Prouty, 1934), this origin for the Carolina Bays has remained controversial mainly because of an apparent absence of associated extraterrestrial materials. Analyses of Bay orientation showed that their long axes converge near the Great Lakes, suggesting that an impact or airburst over that region may have formed the Bays (Eyton and Parkhurst, 1975). However, Bays dates have been reported over a wide range, calling into question whether all Carolina Bays could have formed simultaneously, although this issue remains unresolved and controversial. Many Bay researchers, who subscribe to widely differing theories, agree that modern Carolina Bays have been subject to repeated modification and that they most likely evolved from some type of ancestral depressions. Now for the first time, we present conclusive geochemical and sedimentary evidence in support of an extraterrestrial connection for the Carolina Bays. Analyses of sediment from the rim sands and basins of fifteen Bays, widely distributed across North and South Carolina, reveal anomalously high abundances of microspherules, iridium, fullerenes with ET helium, carbon spherules, glass-like carbon, and other potential markers for extraterrestrial impact. No such markers were found in paleosols beneath the rim sands or basal sediments of the Bays examined. The assemblage of geochemical and sediment signatures of extraterrestrial impact found in Bay sediments are essentially the same as in the pan-North-American Younger Dryas impact boundary layer (the YDB), dated at 12.9 ka. We hypothesize that at least some Bays were formed by the YD impact during the last deglacial, and we

  10. Tarpum Bay, Bahamas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    In this ASTER image the features that look like folded material are carbonate sand dunes in the shallow waters of Tarpum Bay, southwest of Eleuthera Island in the Bahamas. The sand making up the dunes comes from the erosion of limestone coral reefs, and has been shaped into dunes by ocean currents.

    This image was acquired on May 12, 2002 by the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) on NASA's Terra satellite. With its 14 spectral bands from the visible to the thermal infrared wavelength region, and its high spatial resolution of 15 to 90 meters (about 50 to 300 feet), ASTER images Earth to map and monitor the changing surface of our planet.

    ASTER is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18, 1999, on NASA's Terra satellite. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products.

    The broad spectral coverage and high spectral resolution of ASTER will provide scientists in numerous disciplines with critical information for surface mapping, and monitoring of dynamic conditions and temporal change. Example applications are: monitoring glacial advances and retreats; monitoring potentially active volcanoes; identifying crop stress; determining cloud morphology and physical properties; wetlands evaluation; thermal pollution monitoring; coral reef degradation; surface temperature mapping of soils and geology; and measuring surface heat balance. Dr. Anne Kahle at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, California, is the U.S. Science team leader; Bjorn Eng of JPL is the project manager. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Earth Science Enterprise, a long- term research effort to understand and protect our home planet. Through the study of Earth, NASA will help to provide sound science to policy and economic decision-makers so as to better life here, while developing the

  11. A review of circulation and mixing studies of San Francisco Bay, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smith, L.H.

    1987-01-01

    A description of the major characteristics and remaining unknowns of circulation and mixing in San Francisco Bay has been constructed from a review of published studies. Description of net circulation and mixing over a few days to a few months illustrates best the interactions of major components. The discharge of the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta into Suisun Bay is approximately 90% of the freshwater inflow to San Francisco Bay. Annual delta discharge is characterized by a winter season of high runoff and a summer season of low runoff. For the period 1956 to 1985 the mean of monthly discharges exceeded 1,000 cu m/s (35,000 cu ft/s) for the months of December through April, whereas for July through October, it was < 400 cu m/s (14,000 cu ft/s). The months of November, May, and June commonly were transition months between these seasons. Large year-to-year deviations from this annual pattern have occurred frequently. Much less is known about the ocean-bay exchange process. Net exchanges depend on net seaward flow in the bay, tidal amplitude , and longshore coastal currents, but exchanges have not yet been measured successfully. The bay is composed of a northern reach, which is strongly influenced by delta discharge, and South Bay, a tributary estuary which responds to conditions in Central Bay. In the northern reach net circulation is characterized by the river-induced seaward flow and a resulting gravitational circulation in the channels, and by a tide and wind-induced net horizontal circulation. During low delta discharges South Bay has nearly the same salinity as Central Bay and is characterized by tide and wind-induced net horizontal circulation. In the northern reach a nontidal current null zone moves rapidly seaward in response to increases in delta discharge, and after runoff events returns landward over a few months. During the low-discharge period the northern reach achieves an approximate salt balance in two to three months. When gravitational circulation

  12. Superfund Record of Decision (EPA region 4): Harris/Palm Bay facility, Palm Bay, Brevard County, FL; (First remedial action), June 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-06-28

    The 345-acre Harris/Palm Bay Facility site is an electronics manufacturing company in Palm Bay, Brevard County, Florida. Surrounding land use is commercial, residential, and industrial. The site overlies an unconsolidated aquifer, which is used by a public wellfield located south of and downgradient of the site, from the 1950s to 1967. In 1981, EPA identified VOCs in ground water wells located south of the Government Systems facility. Ground water contamination was attributed to several onsite incidents at the Government Systems plant including two fires, which resulted in the dumping of chemical vats, a broken acid/solvent line, and spillage at drum storage areas. The primary contaminants of concern affecting the ground water are VOCs including TCE; metals including chromium and lead; and other inorganics including fluoride.

  13. Hydrodynamic Characteristics and Salinity Patterns in Estero Bay, Lee County, Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Byrne, Michael J.; Gabaldon, Jessica N.

    2008-01-01

    Estero Bay is an estuary (about 12 miles long and 3 miles wide) on the southwestern Florida coast, with several inlets connecting the bay to the Gulf of Mexico and numerous freshwater tributaries. Continuous stage and salinity data were recorded at eight gaging stations in Estero Bay estuary from October 2001 to September 2005. Continuous water velocity data were recorded at six of these stations for the purpose of measuring discharge. In addition, turbidity data were recorded at four stations, suspended sediment concentration were measured at three stations, and wind measurements were taken at one station. Salinity surveys, within and around Estero Bay, were conducted 15 times from July 2002 to January 2004. The average daily discharge ranged from 35,000 to -34,000 ft3/s (cubic feet per second) at Big Carlos Pass, 10,800 to -11,200 ft3/s at Matanzas Pass, 2,200 to -2,900 ft3/s at Big Hickory Pass, 680 to -700 ft3/s at Mullock Creek, 330 to -370 ft3/s at Estero River, and 190 to -180 ft3/s at Imperial River. Flood tide is expressed as negative discharge and ebb flow as positive discharge. Reduced salinity at Matanzas Pass was negatively correlated (R2 = 0.48) to freshwater discharge from the Caloosahatchee River at Franklin Locks (S-79). Matanzas Pass is hydrologically linked to Hell Peckney Bay; therefore, water-quality problems associated with the Caloosahatchee River also affect Hell Peckney Bay. Rocky Bay was significantly less saline than Coconut Point and Matanzas Pass was significantly less saline than Ostego Bay, based on data from the salinity surveys. The quality-checked and edited continuous data and the salinity maps have been compiled and are stored on the U.S. Geological Survey South Florida Information Access (SOFIA) website (http://sofia.usgs.gov).

  14. Gravity anomalies and deep structure of eastern Hudson bay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mukhopadhyay, Manoj; Gibb, R. A.

    1981-01-01

    The Cape Smith and Belcher foldbelts of Lower Proterozoic (Aphebian) rocks form parts of the proposed Circum-Superior suture which separates the Superior and Churchill structural provinces of the Canadian Shield. Recent marine gravity surveys in eastern Hudson Bay (1976-1979) show that the distinctive linear gravity pattern of paired positive and negative anomalies along the Cape Smith foldbelt of northern Ungava extends southwards into Hudson Bay to the Belcher Islands. Interpretation of five gravity profiles across the Cape Smith and Belcher foldbelts suggests that the Churchill crust is thicker and denser than the Superior. The boundary between the two contrasting crustal blocks is interpreted as a collisional suture. The rocks of the foldbelts which are progressively more volcanic northwards are the source of a residual positive anomaly associated with the Cape Smith foldbelt and a series of discontinuous positive residual anomalies in the Bay. To the north the thicknesses of the foldbelt rocks are estimated to be between 4 and 9 km with a local maximum of 13 km in the northernmost profile. To the south in the Belcher Islands, where geological estimates of formation thickness and measured rock densities provide more constraints on the interpretation of the residual anomalies, the foldbelt rocks are generally 6-7 km thick with a local maximum thickness of about 9 km. One possible interpretation of paleomagnetic results for Belcher Islands rocks in terms of a two-plate model lends support to the collision hypothesis.

  15. MARYLAND COASTAL BAYS IR 2002

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Maryland Coastal Bays Program Implementation Review (IR) summarizes the progress and challenges ahead for the Program through examination of its activities in relation to the CCMP. During the CCMP planning phase the stakeholders prioritized the actions and determined the impl...

  16. OPTICAL HETEROGENEITY IN GREEN BAY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Differences in light penetration and light attenuating components and processes are documented along 112 km of the major (NE/SW) axis of Green Bay (Lake Michigan) during a three-day cruise (May 25-27, 1982). easurements included diffuse attenuation of downwelling irradiance (kd),...

  17. Tampa Bay Ecosystem Services webpage

    EPA Science Inventory

    Public website describing research on the large-scale physical, chemical, and biological dynamics of coastal wetlands and estuaries, with emphasis on the Gulf of Mexico. Hyperlinks direct users to mapped ecosystem services of interest and value to Tampa Bay area residents, and i...

  18. Shifting shoals and shattered rocks : How man has transformed the floor of west-central San Francisco Bay

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chin, John L.; Wong, Florence L.; Carlson, Paul R.

    2004-01-01

    subembayments--north bay (San Pablo and Suisun Bays), central bay, and south bay--each characterized by a central area of open water surrounded by intertidal mudflats and marshes. Central bay includes Alcatraz and Angel Islands and also a number of submerged bedrock knobs that protrude through the sediment of the bay floor and rise to within about 40 feet (12 m) of the water surface. The most prominent of these are Harding, Shag, Arch, and Blossom Rocks. These rocks have been lowered by blasting several times in the past, but they remain a potential hazard to shipping because newer cargo vessels are designed with increasingly deeper drafts. Central bay's location adjacent to two major population and commerce centers, San Francisco and Oakland, subjects it to greater human influences than less developed parts of the estuary. The western part of central San Francisco Bay is adjacent to the Golden Gate, the estuary's outlet to the Pacific Ocean. The changing submarine topography of the west-central bay, as well as its geology, form the main focus of this book.

  19. View looking south from pavilion, showing south entrance house, south ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View looking south from pavilion, showing south entrance house, south wing, and engine house - Fairmount Waterworks, East bank of Schuylkill River, Aquarium Drive, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  20. COASTAL BEND BAYS PLAN TO CONSERVE AND MANAGE THE COASTAL BEND BAYS OF SOUTH TEXAS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The enormous physical and geological forces that sculpt their shores define coastal regions. Wind and waves, the flow of freshwater from the land, evaporation, and the ebb and flow of tides place these areas at the center of a huge energy transfer. The result is tremendous biolog...

  1. Tumor prevalence and biomarkers of genotoxicity in brown bullhead (Ameiurus nebulosus) in Chesapeake Bay tributaries

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pinkney, A.E.; Harshbarger, J.C.; Karouna-Renier, N. K.; Jenko, K.; Balk, L.; Skarpheinsdottir, H.; Liewenborg, B.; Rutter, M.A.

    2011-01-01

    We surveyed four Chesapeake Bay tributaries for skin and liver tumors in brown bullhead (Ameiurus nebulosus). We focused on the South River, where the highest skin tumor prevalence (53%) in the Bay watershed had been reported. The objectives were to 1) compare tumor prevalence with nearby rivers (Severn and Rhode) and a more remote river (Choptank); 2) investigate associations between tumor prevalence and polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and alkylating agents; and 3) statistically analyze Chesapeake Bay bullhead tumor data from 1992 through 2008. All four South River collections exhibited high skin tumor prevalence (19% to 58%), whereas skin tumor prevalence was 2%, 10%, and 52% in the three Severn collections; 0% and 2% in the Choptank collections; and 5.6% in the Rhode collection. Liver tumor prevalence was 0% to 6% in all but one South River collection (20%) and 0% to 6% in the three other rivers. In a subset of samples, PAH-like biliary metabolites and 32P-DNA adducts were used as biomarkers of exposure and response to polycyclic aromatic compounds (PACs). Adducts from alkylating agents were detected as O6-methyl-2'-deoxyguanosine (O6Me-dG) and O6-ethyl-2'-deoxyguanosine (O6Et-dG) modified DNA. Bullheads from the contaminated Anacostia River were used as a positive control for DNA adducts. 32P-DNA adduct concentrations were significantly higher in Anacostia bullhead livers compared with the other rivers. We identified alkyl DNA adducts in bullhead livers from the South and Anacostia, but not the Choptank. Neither the PAH-like bile metabolite data, sediment PAH data, nor the DNA adduct data suggest an association between liver or skin tumor prevalence and exposure to PACs or alkylating agents in the South, Choptank, Severn, or Rhode rivers. Logistic regression analysis of the Chesapeake Bay database revealed that sex and length were significant covariates for liver tumors and length was a significant covariate for skin tumors. ?? 2011.

  2. Tumor prevalence and biomarkers of genotoxicity in brown bullhead (Ameiurus nebulosus) in Chesapeake Bay tributaries

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pinkney, Alfred E.; Harshbarger, John C.; Karouna-Renier, Natalie K.; Jenko, Kathryn; Balk, Lennart; Skarphéðinsdóttir, Halldora; Liewenborg, Birgitta; Rutter, Michael A.

    2011-01-01

    We surveyed four Chesapeake Bay tributaries for skin and liver tumors in brown bullhead (Ameiurus nebulosus). We focused on the South River, where the highest skin tumor prevalence (53%) in the Bay watershed had been reported. The objectives were to 1) compare tumor prevalence with nearby rivers (Severn and Rhode) and a more remote river (Choptank); 2) investigate associations between tumor prevalence and polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and alkylating agents; and 3) statistically analyze Chesapeake Bay bullhead tumor data from 1992 through 2008. All four South River collections exhibited high skin tumor prevalence (19% to 58%), whereas skin tumor prevalence was 2%, 10%, and 52% in the three Severn collections; 0% and 2% in the Choptank collections; and 5.6% in the Rhode collection. Liver tumor prevalence was 0% to 6% in all but one South River collection (20%) and 0% to 6% in the three other rivers. In a subset of samples, PAH-like biliary metabolites and 32P-DNA adducts were used as biomarkers of exposure and response to polycyclic aromatic compounds (PACs). Adducts from alkylating agents were detected as O6-methyl-2'-deoxyguanosine (O6Me-dG) and O6-ethyl-2'-deoxyguanosine (O6Et-dG) modified DNA. Bullheads from the contaminated Anacostia River were used as a positive control for DNA adducts. 32P-DNA adduct concentrations were significantly higher in Anacostia bullhead livers compared with the other rivers. We identified alkyl DNA adducts in bullhead livers from the South and Anacostia, but not the Choptank. Neither the PAH-like bile metabolite data, sediment PAH data, nor the DNA adduct data suggest an association between liver or skin tumor prevalence and exposure to PACs or alkylating agents in the South, Choptank, Severn, or Rhode rivers. Logistic regression analysis of the Chesapeake Bay database revealed that sex and length were significant covariates for liver tumors and length was a significant covariate for skin tumors.

  3. 29. Aerial photograph (1973) looking south across Gould Island. Firing ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    29. Aerial photograph (1973) looking south across Gould Island. Firing pier (still possessing third and fourth levels) in foreground. Pitched roof extending from south end of firing pier marks location of frame approach between pier and shop building (center rear) and power plant (to right of shop). Photo courtesy of Naval Undersea Warfare Center, Division Newport, Rhode Island. - Naval Torpedo Station, Firing Pier, North end of Gould Island in Narragansett Bay, Newport, Newport County, RI

  4. 3. AERIAL VIEW, LOOKING SOUTH, OF BUILDING 371 BASEMENT UNDER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. AERIAL VIEW, LOOKING SOUTH, OF BUILDING 371 BASEMENT UNDER CONSTRUCTION. THE BASEMENT HOUSES HEATING, VENTILATION, AND AIR CONDITIONING EQUIPMENT AND MECHANICAL UTILITIES, THE UPPER PART OF THE PLUTONIUM STORAGE VAULT AND MAINTENANCE BAY, AND SMALL PLUTONIUM PROCESSING AREAS. THE BASEMENT LEVEL IS DIVIDED INTO NEARLY EQUAL NORTH AND SOUTH PARTS BY THE UPPER PORTION OF THE PLUTONIUM STORAGE VAULT. (10/7/74) - Rocky Flats Plant, Plutonium Recovery Facility, Northwest portion of Rocky Flats Plant, Golden, Jefferson County, CO

  5. 21. DETAIL: East forebay, south wall. A gap between the ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    21. DETAIL: East forebay, south wall. A gap between the wing wall and the lock wall in the bay just east of the east gate. No sill is present at this juncture, although one may have been originally located here. The reason for the notch, which is repeated on the south side of the lock is undetermined. - Wabash & Erie Canal, Lock No. 2, 8 miles east of Fort Wayne, adjacent to U.S. Route 24, New Haven, Allen County, IN

  6. Ancylomenes australis sp. nov. (Crustacea: Decapoda: Pontoniinae) from South Africa.

    PubMed

    Bruce, A J

    2013-01-01

    The holotype specimen of Ancylomenes australis, new species, (Crustacea: Decapoda: Pontoniinae) from Sodwana Bay, South Africa, is described and illustrated. It is the only species of the genus reported from south east Africa. It is an associate of cerianthid anemones and has a species specific colour pattern. Closely similar to A. venustus (Bruce, 1990) it is readily distinguished from it and all other species of the genus by its characteristic rostrum and blunt inferior orbital angle. PMID:26171516

  7. Effects of waves on water dispersion in a semi-enclosed estuarine bay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delpey, M. T.; Ardhuin, F.; Otheguy, P.

    2012-04-01

    The bay of Saint Jean de Luz - Ciboure is a touristic destination located in the south west of France on the Basque coast. This small bay is 1.5km wide for 1km long. It is semi-enclosed by breakwaters, so that the area is mostly protected from waves except in its eastern part, where wave breaking is regularly observed over a shallow rock shelf. In the rest of the area the currents are generally weak. The bay receives fresh water inflows from two rivers. During intense raining events, the rivers can introduce pollutants in the bay. The input of pollutants combined with the low level dynamic of the area can affect the water quality for several days. To study such a phenomenon, mechanisms of water dispersion in the bay are investigated. The present paper focuses on the effects of waves on bay dynamics. Several field experiments were conducted in the area, combining wave and current measurements from a set of ADCP and ADV, lagrangian difter experiments in the surfzone, salinity and temperature profile measurements. An analysis of this set of various data is provided. It reveals that the bay combines remarkable density stratification due to fresh water inflows and occasionally intense wave-induced currents in the surfzone. These currents have a strong influence on river plume dynamics when the sea state is energetic. Moreover, modifications of hydrodynamics in the bay passes are found to be remarkably correlated with sea state evolutions. This result suggests a significant impact of waves on the bay flushing. To further analyse these phenomena, a three dimensional numerical model of bay hydrodynamics is developed. The model aims at reproducing fresh water inflows combined with wind-, tide- and wave-induced currents and mixing. The model of the bay is implemented using the code MOHID , which has been modified to allow the three dimensional representation of wave-current interactions proposed by Ardhuin et al. [2008b] . The circulation is forced by the wave field modelled

  8. Lagrangian circulation study near Cape Henry, Virginia. [Chesapeake Bay

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, R. E.

    1981-01-01

    A study of the circulation near Cape Henry, Virginia, was made using surface and seabed drifters and radar tracked surface buoys coupled to subsurface drag plates. Drifter releases were conducted on a line normal to the beach just south of Cape Henry. Surface drifter recoveries were few; wind effects were strongly noted. Seabed drifter recoveries all exhibited onshore motion into Chesapeake Bay. Strong winds also affected seabed recoveries, tending to move them farther before recovery. Buoy trajectories in the vicinity of Cape Henry appeared to be of an irrotational nature, showing a clockwise rotary tide motion. Nearest the cape, the buoy motion elongated to almost parallel depth contours around the cape. Buoy motion under the action of strong winds showed that currents to at least the depth of the drag plates substantially are altered from those of low wind conditions near the Bay mouth. Only partial evidence could be found to support the presence of a clockwise nontidal eddy at Virginia Beach, south of Cape Henry.

  9. Cathodic Protection of the Yaquina Bay Bridge

    SciTech Connect

    Bullard, Sophie J.; Cramer, Stephen D.; Covino, Bernard S., Jr.; Holcomb, Gordon R.; Russell, James H.; Laylor, H.M.; Cryer, C.B.

    2001-02-01

    The Yaquina Bay Bridge in Newport, Oregon, was designed by Conde B. McCullough and built in 1936. The 3,223-foot (982 m) structure is a combination of concrete arch approach spans and a steel through arch over the shipping channel. Cathodic protection is used to prevent corrosion damage to the concrete arches. The Oregon Department of Transportation (Oregon DOT) installed a carbon anode coating (DAC-85) on two of the north approach spans in 1985. This anode was operated at a current density of 6.6 mA/m2(0.6 mA/ft2). No failure of the conductive anode was observed in 1990, five years after application, or in 2000, 15 years after application. Thermal-sprayed zinc anodes 20 mils (0.5 mm) thick were applied to half the south approach spans beginning in 1990. Thermal-sprayed zinc anodes 15 mils (0.4 mm) thick were applied to the remaining spans in 1996. These anodes were operated at a current density of 2.2 mA/m2(0.2 mA/ft2). In 1999, four zones on the approach spans were included in a two-year field trial of humectants to improve zinc anode performance. The humectants LiNO3 and LiBr were applied to two zones; the two adjacent zones were left untreated as controls. The humectants substantially reduced circuit resistance compared to the controls.

  10. Evidence for the existence of Persian Gulf Water and Red Sea Water in the Bay of Bengal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jain, Vineet; Shankar, D.; Vinayachandran, P. N.; Kankonkar, A.; Chatterjee, Abhisek; Amol, P.; Almeida, A. M.; Michael, G. S.; Mukherjee, A.; Chatterjee, Meenakshi; Fernandes, R.; Luis, R.; Kamble, Amol; Hegde, A. K.; Chatterjee, Siddhartha; Das, Umasankar; Neema, C. P.

    2016-07-01

    The high-salinity water masses that originate in the North Indian Ocean are Arabian Sea High-Salinity Water (ASHSW), Persian Gulf Water (PGW), and Red Sea Water (RSW). Among them, only ASHSW has been shown to exist in the Bay of Bengal. We use CTD data from recent cruises to show that PGW and RSW also exist in the bay. The presence of RSW is marked by a deviation of the salinity vertical profile from a fitted curve at depths ranging from 500 to 1000 m; this deviation, though small (of the order of ~0.005 psu and therefore comparable to the CTD accuracy of 0.003 psu), is an order of magnitude larger than the ~0.0003 psu fluctuations associated with the background turbulence or instrument noise in this depth regime, allowing us to infer the existence of RSW throughout the bay. PGW is marked by the presence of a salinity maximum at 200-450 m; in the southwestern bay, PGW can be distinguished from the salinity maximum due to ASHSW because of the intervening Arabian Sea Salinity Minimum. This salinity minimum and the maximum associated with ASHSW disappear east and north of the south-central bay (85°E, 8°N) owing to mixing between the fresher surface waters that are native to the bay (Bay of Bengal Water or BBW) with the high-salinity ASHSW. Hence, ASHSW is not seen as a distinct water mass in the northern and eastern bay and the maximum salinity over most of the bay is associated with PGW. The surface water over most of the bay is therefore a mixture of ASHSW and the low-salinity BBW. As a corollary, we can also infer that the weak oxygen peak seen within the oxygen-minimum zone in the bay at a depth of 250-400 m is associated with PGW. The hydrographic data also show that these three high-salinity water masses are advected into the bay by the Summer Monsoon Current, which is seen to be a deep current extending to 1000 m. These deep currents extend into the northern bay as well, providing a mechanism for spreading ASHSW, PGW, and RSW throughout the bay.

  11. Re-evaluating Bay-breasted Warbler breeding range: nine-years presence in Lower Michigan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ellison, K.; Sykes, P.W., Jr.; Bocetti, C.I.

    2002-01-01

    The breeding range of the Bay-breasted Warbler (Dendroica castanea) is thought to include only the northernmost portions of six northeastern and northcentral states in the United States. During a 10-year banding study of Kirtland's Warblers (Dendroica kirtlandii) in northern Lower Michigan, we caught 44 Bay-breasted Warblers outside of their reported migration dates during 9 of the 10 years. Two birds captured in 1997 were in breeding condition; one possessed a cloacal protuberance and the other a full brood patch. We also captured two hatching year birds with fleshy rictal flanges in 1997. We suggest that these records indicate a long term presence of Bay-breasted Warblers on breeding grounds considerably farther south than previously recorded.

  12. STS-90 payload bay door closure in OPF Bay 3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    The STS-90 Neurolab payload and two of the four Getaway Specials (GAS) await payload bay door closure in the orbiter Columbia today in Orbiter Processing Facility bay 3. Investigations during the Neurolab mission will focus on the effects of microgravity on the nervous system. The GAS container on the left contains the COLLisions Into Dust Experiment, or COLLIDE, which will study low velocity collisions between space-borne particles in an attempt to better understand planetary ring dynamics. The STS-90 mission is a joint venture of six space agencies and seven U.S. research agencies. Agencies participating in this mission include six institutes of the National Institutes of Health, the National Science Foundation, and the Office of Naval Research, as well as the space agencies of Canada, France, Germany, and Japan, and the European Space Agency (ESA).

  13. STS-90 payload bay door closure in OPF Bay 3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    The STS-90 Neurolab payload and two of the four Getaway Specials (GAS) await payload bay door closure in the orbiter Columbia today in Orbiter Processing Facility bay 3. Investigations during the Neurolab mission will focus on the effects of microgravity on the nervous system. The mission is a joint venture of six space agencies and seven U.S. research agencies. Investigator teams from nine countries will conduct 31 studies in the microgravity environment of space. Other agencies participating in this mission include six institutes of the National Institutes of Health, the National Science Foundation, and the Office of Naval Research, as well as the space agencies of Canada, France, Germany, and Japan, and the European Space Agency (ESA).

  14. 19. DETAIL OF INTERIOR WALL CONSTRUCTION, VIEW TOWARD SOUTH, THIRD ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    19. DETAIL OF INTERIOR WALL CONSTRUCTION, VIEW TOWARD SOUTH, THIRD BAY Showing asphalt felt applied to both sides of interior wall studs beneath wood cladding. Back-nailing of felt indicates sequence of felt and cladding installation. - U.S. Military Academy, Ice House, Mills Road at Howze Place, West Point, Orange County, NY

  15. 33. 'Firing Pier, Elevations, North & South,' submitted 29 December ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    33. 'Firing Pier, Elevations, North & South,' submitted 29 December 1941 by John Brackett, Consulting Engineer, to Public Works Department, Bureau of Yards & Docks. PW Drawing 3870-46, Y&D Drawing 190844. Scales as noted. - Naval Torpedo Station, Firing Pier, North end of Gould Island in Narragansett Bay, Newport, Newport County, RI

  16. 35. 'Firing Pier, Cross Sections, Looking South,' submitted 29 December ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    35. 'Firing Pier, Cross Sections, Looking South,' submitted 29 December 1941 by John Brackett, Consulting Engineer, to Public Works Department, Bureau of Yards & Docks. PW Drawing 3874-46, Y&D Drawing 190848. Scale 1/8' = 1'. - Naval Torpedo Station, Firing Pier, North end of Gould Island in Narragansett Bay, Newport, Newport County, RI

  17. 1. Light tower and fog signal house, view south southeast, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Light tower and fog signal house, view south southeast, east and north sides of tower, northeast and northwest sides of signal house - Libby Island Light Station, At southern tip of Libby Island at entrance to Machias Bay, Machiasport, Washington County, ME

  18. 14. View south from first level roof of firing pier. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. View south from first level roof of firing pier. Pitched corrugated metal roof marks location of the frame approach connecting the firing pier to the shop (shown in left distance). - Naval Torpedo Station, Firing Pier, North end of Gould Island in Narragansett Bay, Newport, Newport County, RI

  19. Panoramic view from bluff south of Grand Coulee Dam; this ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Panoramic view from bluff south of Grand Coulee Dam; this segment of the panorama shows Crescent Bay Lake (in the foreground), the southern limits of the town of Grand Coulee, and Grand Coulee Dam, looking north. - Columbia Basin Project, Grand Coulee, Grant County, WA

  20. Oblique view of rear, showing twostory south wing and threestory ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Oblique view of rear, showing two-story south wing and three-story southwest wing, as seen from roof of Facility No. 75 - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Barracks & Mess Hall, Hornet Avenue between Liscome Bay & Enterprise Streets, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  1. Southwest side of sandhouse. South front and west end of ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Southwest side of sandhouse. South front and west end of oil house (MN-99-C) at left. View to northeast - Duluth & Iron Range Rail Road Company Shops, Sand Tower, Southwest of downtown Two Harbors, northwest of Agate Bay, Two Harbors, Lake County, MN

  2. 8. South wall and east front of engine house section ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. South wall and east front of engine house section of roundhouse. Top of machine shop section of roundhouse in background at left. View to northwest. - Duluth & Iron Range Rail Road Company Shops, Roundhouse, Southwest of downtown Two Harbors, northwest of Agate Bay, Two Harbors, Lake County, MN

  3. 1. South front wall of main section of roundhouse. Machine ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. South front wall of main section of roundhouse. Machine shop section of roundhouse at left. View to northwest. - Duluth & Iron Range Rail Road Company Shops, Roundhouse, Southwest of downtown Two Harbors, northwest of Agate Bay, Two Harbors, Lake County, MN

  4. 5. General view of complex. South side of railroad yard. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. General view of complex. South side of railroad yard. Machine shop section of roundhouse (MN-99-A) at far left. Engine house section of roundhouse at center. View to northwest. - Duluth & Iron Range Rail Road Company Shops, Southwest of downtown Two Harbors, northwest of Agate Bay, Two Harbors, Lake County, MN

  5. 2. South front wall and southeast end of main section ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. South front wall and southeast end of main section of roundhouse. Sand tower (MN-99-E) at right. View to east. - Duluth & Iron Range Rail Road Company Shops, Roundhouse, Southwest of downtown Two Harbors, northwest of Agate Bay, Two Harbors, Lake County, MN

  6. Perspective view of the south elevation; this facade faces Constitution ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Perspective view of the south elevation; this facade faces Constitution Avenue and is nineteen bays long with twelve single columns and two sets of paired columns - United States Department of Commerce, Bounded by Fourteenth, Fifteenth, and E streets and Constitution Avenue, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  7. 4. DETAIL VIEW, LOOKING SOUTH, ACROSS HULL NEAR BOW END, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. DETAIL VIEW, LOOKING SOUTH, ACROSS HULL NEAR BOW END, TOP OF FORWARD STARBOARD CARGO HATCH IN FOREGROUND, OPENING FOR PORT HATCH BEYOND Edward Larrabee, photographer, November 1984 - Shooters Island, Ships Graveyard, Vessel No. 54, Newark Bay, Staten Island (subdivision), Richmond County, NY

  8. 38. NORTHEAST ROOM, SECOND FLOOR, SOUTH WALL. ROOM COMPLETELY WALLED ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    38. NORTHEAST ROOM, SECOND FLOOR, SOUTH WALL. ROOM COMPLETELY WALLED WITH RANDOM WIDTH BOARDS WHICH WERE PAPERED OR PLASTERED OVER. THIS WAS TYPICAL THROUGHOUT HOUSE EXCEPT FOR WOOD PANELED WALLS - John Mark Verdier House, 801 Bay & Scott Streets, Beaufort, Beaufort County, SC

  9. Overall south looking north. Building to the left is the ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Overall south looking north. Building to the left is the former Castine School. Grindle House shows matching pediment shown in HABS ME-229-3 and a large bay window in the first floor kitchen ell just visible to the right rear. - Samuel P. Grindle House, 13 School Street, Castine, Hancock County, ME

  10. Tampa Bay Regional Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment: Overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atkeson, T. D.

    2003-12-01

    The Tampa Bay Estuary Program (TBEP) was formed in 1991 to assist in developing a comprehensive plan to restore and protect Tampa Bay in Florida, USA. An ecological indicator of the health of the Bay is the coverage of seagrasses, historically in decline, which are important to the aquatic habitat and food web of the bay. Seagrass decline is linked to excess of plant-stimulating forms of nitrogen to the bay, promoting algae growth, which shades out light needed to sustain seagrasses. One element of the TBEP is a private-local-state, multi-agency Nitrogen Management Consortium that seeks to limit nitrogen loading to the Bay to the 1992-1994 average. Present estimates suggest atmospheric deposition comprises ~ 30% of the nitrogen budget of the Bay. This estimate was based, however, on limited ambient monitoring data and simple models, typical of such national estuary program efforts nationwide. In the Bay Regional Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment Florida DEP joined with TBEP to increase the intensity, sophistication and spatial scope of monitoring and modeling and provide better information on air quality in the Tampa Bay area. The result will be improved estimates of the effects of local and regional emissions of oxides of nitrogen (NOx) on the Bay and the benefits to be gained from implementation of emissions reduction strategies.

  11. Using Stable Isotopes to Link Nutrient Sources in the Everglades and Biological Sinks in Florida Bay: A Biogeochemical Approach to Evaluate Ecosystem Response to Changing Nutrient Regimes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoare, A. M.; Hollander, D. J.; Heil, C.; Glibert, P.; Murasko, S.; Revilla, M.; Alexander, J.

    2005-05-01

    Anthropogenic influences in South Florida have led to deterioration of its two major ecosystems, the Everglades wetlands and the Florida Bay estuary. Consequently, the Comprehensive Everglades Restoration Plan has been proposed to restore the Everglades ecosystem; however, restoration efforts will likely exert new ecological changes in the Everglades and ultimately Florida Bay. The success of the Florida Everglades restoration depends on our understanding and ability to predict how regional changes in the distribution and composition of dissolved organic and inorganic nutrients will direct the downstream biogeochemical dynamics of Florida Bay. While the transport of freshwater and nutrients to Florida Bay have been studied, much work remains to directly link nutrient dynamics in Florida Bay to nutrient sources in the Everglades. Our study uses stable C and N isotopic measurements of chemical and biological materials from the Everglades and Florida Bay as part of a multi-proxy approach to link nutrient sources in the Everglades to biological sinks in Florida Bay. Isotopic analyses of dissolved and particulate species of water, aquatic vegetation and sedimentary organic matter show that the watersheds within the Everglades are chemically distinct and that these signatures are also reflected in the bay. A large east-west gradient in both carbon and nitrogen (as much as 10‰ for δ15N POM) reflect differing nutrient sources for each region of Florida Bay and is strongly correlated with upstream sources in the Everglades. Isotopic signatures also reflect seasonal relationships associated with wet and dry periods. High C and N measurements of DOM and POM measurements suggest significant influence from waste water in Canal C-111 in eastern Florida Bay, particularly during the dry season. These observations show that nutrients from the Everglades watersheds enter Florida Bay and are important in controlling biogeochemical processes in the bay. This study proves that

  12. Satellite Remote Sensing of the Thermal Plume from the Daya Bay Nuclear Power Station, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, D.; Kester, D.; Wang, Z.; Lian, J.

    The 1800 megawatt Daya Bay Nuclear Power Station (DBNPS), China's first nuclear power station, is located on the coast of the South China Sea. DBNPS discharges 29 million m3 y -1 of warm water from its cooling system into Daya Bay, which could have ecological consequences. This study examines satellite sea surface temperature data and shipboard water column measure ments from Daya Bay. Sea surface temperatures were derived from the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) onboard National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) polar orbiting satellites during November 1997 to February 1999. A total of 2,905 images were examined. Among those images, 342 have sufficient quality for quantitative analysis. Water temperature, salinity, dissolved oxygen, ammonia, and chlorophyll data from ship surveys were also examined. The AVHRR data show a seasonal pattern of thermal plumes in Daya Bay. During the winter months (December to March), the thermal plume is localized to an area within a few km of the power plant, and the temperature difference between the plume and non-plume areas is about 1.5 oC. During the summer and fall months (May to November), there is a larger thermal plume extending 8 10 km south along the coast from DBNPS, and the temperature- change is about 1.0 oC. These results are consistent with field observations at 12 sampling stations in Daya Bay. The strong seasonal difference in the thermal plume is related to vertical mixing of the water column in winter and stratification in summer. Further investigations are needed to determine if there are biological effects of the Daya Bay thermal plume.

  13. Recent estuarine deposits, Chesapeake Bay and Apalachicola Bay

    SciTech Connect

    Donoghue, J.F.

    1985-02-01

    Estuarine facies are not easily discernible in the ancient record, because they represent a transition stage between fluvial and marine deposits. Modern estuarine sediments, nevertheless, are widespread because of the ongoing marine transgression. This widespread occurrence indicates that, during a highstand, estuaries are important centers for deposition of sediments shed from the continents. Sedimentologic studies have been made of 2 major estuaries: Chesapeake Bay (the largest US estuary) and Apalachicola Bay (estuary of the largest river in Florida). A detailed sediment budget for the Chesapeake, using radiotracers, clay mineralogy, magnetic stratigraphy, and other methods, demonstrates that the estuary is filling rapidly with sediment. Its remaining sedimentologic lifetime can be measured in centuries. Most of this filling has come at the expense of shoreline erosion. The rate of sedimentation, as measured by C-14, Pb-210, and Cs-137, has accelerated sharply over the past 2 centuries, from a few millimeters per year to present rates of a few centimeters per year. Sediment trapping effectiveness of the Chesapeake is nearly 100%. For Apalachicola Bay, the filling rate has been slower, although it appears to be nearly as efficient in retaining sediment. It has undergone a comparable change in sedimentation rates and sources over the past few centuries, as shown by magnetic stratigraphy and clay mineralogy. Given favorable conditions, such estuaries might be expected to contribute relatively thin but areally extensive bodies of fine-grained sediment to the rock record.

  14. Accumulation of selenium in benthic bivalves and fine-grained sediments of San Francisco Bay, the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta, and selected tributaries, 1984-1986

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johns, C.; Luoma, S.N.

    1987-01-01

    Fine-grained, oxidized, surface sediments and two benthic bivalves (Corbicula sp., a suspension-feeding freshwater clam, and Macoma balthica, a deposit-feeding brackish water clam) were used to examine spatial distributions of selenium within San Francisco Bay and the Sacramento/San Joaquin River Delta and to compare riverine with local inputs of biologically available selenium to this large, complex, urbanized estuary. Selenium concentrations in Corbicula were elevated in the western Delta and northern reach of San Francisco Bay compared to concentrations in Corbicula from river systems not enriched in selenium. Biologically available selenium did not appear to enter the southern Delta or northern reach of the Bay from the San Joaquin River, a possible source, in levels that could measurably influence bioaccumulation by Corbicula. Selenium concentrations in Macoma balthica also were elevated in southern South San Francisco Bay and near the western edge of Suisun Bay.

  15. WAQUOIT BAY WATERSHED ECOLOGICAL RISK ASSESSMENT: THE EFFECT OF LAND-DERIVED NITROGEN LOADS ON ESTUARINE EUTROPHICATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    A watershed ecological risk assessment of Waquoit Bay, located on the south coast of Cape Cod, MA, was performed for managers to better understand the environmental impacts of human activities. An interdisciplinary and interagency workgroup identified all the stressors of concer...

  16. GC/MS ANALYSIS OF PCB CONGENERS IN BLOOD OF THE HARBOR SEAL PHOCA VITULINA FROM SAN FRANCISCO BAY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Here we report a validated technique for quantifying up to 20 specific PCB congeners in 1-2 g samples of whole blood with a detection limit below 1 ng/g (ppb) wet weight. Specimens were analyzed from 14 harbor seals sampled in south San Francisco Bay, California during 1991-1992....

  17. 33 CFR 334.170 - Chesapeake Bay, in the vicinity of Chesapeake Beach, Md.; firing range, Naval Research Laboratory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... of Chesapeake Beach, Md.; firing range, Naval Research Laboratory. 334.170 Section 334.170 Navigation... RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.170 Chesapeake Bay, in the vicinity of Chesapeake Beach, Md.; firing range...-west line through Chesapeake Beach Light 2 at the entrance channel to Fishing Creek; on the south by...

  18. 33 CFR 334.170 - Chesapeake Bay, in the vicinity of Chesapeake Beach, Md.; firing range, Naval Research Laboratory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... of Chesapeake Beach, Md.; firing range, Naval Research Laboratory. 334.170 Section 334.170 Navigation... RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.170 Chesapeake Bay, in the vicinity of Chesapeake Beach, Md.; firing range...-west line through Chesapeake Beach Light 2 at the entrance channel to Fishing Creek; on the south by...

  19. 33 CFR 334.170 - Chesapeake Bay, in the vicinity of Chesapeake Beach, Md.; firing range, Naval Research Laboratory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... of Chesapeake Beach, Md.; firing range, Naval Research Laboratory. 334.170 Section 334.170 Navigation... RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.170 Chesapeake Bay, in the vicinity of Chesapeake Beach, Md.; firing range...-west line through Chesapeake Beach Light 2 at the entrance channel to Fishing Creek; on the south by...

  20. 33 CFR 334.170 - Chesapeake Bay, in the vicinity of Chesapeake Beach, Md.; firing range, Naval Research Laboratory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... of Chesapeake Beach, Md.; firing range, Naval Research Laboratory. 334.170 Section 334.170 Navigation... RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.170 Chesapeake Bay, in the vicinity of Chesapeake Beach, Md.; firing range...-west line through Chesapeake Beach Light 2 at the entrance channel to Fishing Creek; on the south by...