Science.gov

Sample records for algoa bay south

  1. Thermostable Bacterial Bioflocculant Produced by Cobetia Spp. Isolated from Algoa Bay (South Africa)

    PubMed Central

    Ugbenyen, Anthony; Cosa, Sekelwa; Mabinya, Leonard; Babalola, Olubukola O.; Aghdasi, Farhad; Okoh, Anthony

    2012-01-01

    A novel bioflocculant-producing bacteria was isolated from sediment samples of Algoa Bay in the Eastern Cape Province of South Africa and the effect of culture conditions on the bioflocculant production was investigated. Analysis of the partial nucleotide sequence of the 16S rDNA of the bacteria revealed 99% similarity to Cobetia sp. L222 and the sequence was deposited in GenBank as Cobetia sp. OAUIFE (accession number JF799092). Cultivation condition studies revealed that bioflocculant production was optimal with an inoculum size of 2% (v/v), initial pH of 6.0, Mn2+ as the metal ion, and glucose as the carbon source. Metal ions, including Na+, K+, Li+, Ca2+and Mg2+ stimulated bioflocculant production, resulting in flocculating activity of above 90%. This crude bioflocculant is thermally stable, with about 78% of its flocculating activity remaining after heating at 100 °C for 25 min. Analysis of the purified bioflocculant revealed it to be an acidic extracellular polysaccharide. PMID:22829793

  2. Thermostable bacterial bioflocculant produced by Cobetia spp. isolated from Algoa Bay (South Africa).

    PubMed

    Ugbenyen, Anthony; Cosa, Sekelwa; Mabinya, Leonard; Babalola, Olubukola O; Aghdasi, Farhad; Okoh, Anthony

    2012-06-01

    A novel bioflocculant-producing bacteria was isolated from sediment samples of Algoa Bay in the Eastern Cape Province of South Africa and the effect of culture conditions on the bioflocculant production was investigated. Analysis of the partial nucleotide sequence of the 16S rDNA of the bacteria revealed 99% similarity to Cobetia sp. L222 and the sequence was deposited in GenBank as Cobetia sp. OAUIFE (accession number JF799092). Cultivation condition studies revealed that bioflocculant production was optimal with an inoculum size of 2% (v/v), initial pH of 6.0, Mn(2+) as the metal ion, and glucose as the carbon source. Metal ions, including Na(+), K(+), Li(+), Ca(2+)and Mg(2+) stimulated bioflocculant production, resulting in flocculating activity of above 90%. This crude bioflocculant is thermally stable, with about 78% of its flocculating activity remaining after heating at 100 °C for 25 min. Analysis of the purified bioflocculant revealed it to be an acidic extracellular polysaccharide.

  3. Bioflocculant production by Virgibacillus sp. Rob isolated from the bottom sediment of Algoa Bay in the Eastern Cape, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Cosa, Sekelwa; Mabinya, Leonard V; Olaniran, Ademola O; Okoh, Omobola O; Bernard, Kim; Deyzel, Shaun; Okoh, Anthony I

    2011-03-14

    A bioflocculant-producing marine bacterium previously isolated from marine sediment of Algoa Bay was screened for flocculant production. Comparative analysis of 16S rDNA sequence identified the isolate to have 99% similarity to Virgibacillus sp. XQ-1 and it was deposited in the GenBank as Virgibacillus sp. Rob with accession number HQ537127. The bacterium produced biflocculants optimally in glucose (70.4%) and peptone (70.4%) as sole sources of carbon and nitrogen, alkaline pH (12) (74%); and the presence of Fe2+ (74%). Chemical analysis of the bioflocculant revealed it to be a polysaccharide.

  4. Antibacterial Activities of Bacteria Isolated from the Marine Sponges Isodictya compressa and Higginsia bidentifera Collected from Algoa Bay, South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Matobole, Relebohile Matthew; van Zyl, Leonardo Joaquim; Parker-Nance, Shirley; Davies-Coleman, Michael T.; Trindade, Marla

    2017-01-01

    Due to the rise in multi-drug resistant pathogens and other diseases, there is renewed interest in marine sponge endosymbionts as a rich source of natural products (NPs). The South African marine environment is rich in marine biota that remains largely unexplored and may represent an important source for the discovery of novel NPs. We first investigated the bacterial diversity associated with five South African marine sponges, whose microbial populations had not previously been investigated, and select the two sponges (Isodictya compressa and Higginsia bidentifera) with highest species richness to culture bacteria. By employing 33 different growth conditions 415 sponge-associated bacterial isolates were cultured and screened for antibacterial activity. Thirty-five isolates showed antibacterial activity, twelve of which exhibited activity against the multi-drug resistant Escherichia coli 1699, implying that some of the bioactive compounds could be novel. Genome sequencing of two of these isolates confirmed that they harbour uncharacterized biosynthetic pathways that may encode novel chemical structures. PMID:28218694

  5. Production and characterization of bioflocculant produced by Halobacillus sp. Mvuyo isolated from bottom sediment of Algoa Bay.

    PubMed

    Cosa, Sekelwa; Mabinya, Leonard V; Olaniran, Ademola O; Okoh, Anthony I

    2012-01-01

    A bioflocculant-producing bacteria isolated from marine sediment of Algoa Bay was assessed for its bioflocculant-producing potentials. Based on 16S recombinant deoxyribonucleic acid (rDNA) sequence analysis, the isolate was identified as Halobacillus sp. and deposited in the Genbank as Halobacillus sp. Mvuyo with accession number HQ537125. The bacteria produced bioflocculant optimally in the presence of glucose (76% flocculating activity) and ammonium chloride (93% flocculating activity) as sole sources of carbon and nitrogen, respectively. The flocculating capabilities of the flocculant were increased by the addition of Ca2+ (76% flocculating activity) and the highest flocculating activity was observed at neutral pH (7.0). The chemical analysis of the bioflocculant revealed that it contained mainly polysaccharide and protein.

  6. Assessment of bioflocculant production by Bacillus sp. Gilbert, a marine bacterium isolated from the bottom sediment of Algoa Bay.

    PubMed

    Nontembiso, Piyo; Sekelwa, Cosa; Leonard, Mabinya V; Anthony, Okoh I

    2011-01-01

    The bioflocculant-producing potentials of a marine bacteria isolated from the bottom sediment of Algoa Bay was investigated using standard methods. The 16S rDNA sequence analysis revealed 98% similarity to that of Bacillus sp. HXG-C1 and the nucleotide sequence was deposited in GenBank as Bacillus sp. Gilbert with accession number HQ537128. Bioflocculant was optimally produced when sucrose (72% flocculating activity) and ammonium chloride (91% flocculating activity) were used as sole sources of carbon and nitrogen, respectively; an initial pH 6.2 of the production medium; and Mg²⁺ as cation. Chemical analysis of the purified bioflocculant revealed the compound to be a polysaccharide.

  7. Assessment of Bioflocculant Production by Bacillus sp. Gilbert, a Marine Bacterium Isolated from the Bottom Sediment of Algoa Bay

    PubMed Central

    Nontembiso, Piyo; Sekelwa, Cosa; Leonard, Mabinya V.; Anthony, Okoh I.

    2011-01-01

    The bioflocculant-producing potentials of a marine bacteria isolated from the bottom sediment of Algoa Bay was investigated using standard methods. The 16S rDNA sequence analysis revealed 98% similarity to that of Bacillus sp. HXG-C1 and the nucleotide sequence was deposited in GenBank as Bacillus sp. Gilbert with accession number HQ537128. Bioflocculant was optimally produced when sucrose (72% flocculating activity) and ammonium chloride (91% flocculating activity) were used as sole sources of carbon and nitrogen, respectively; an initial pH 6.2 of the production medium; and Mg2+ as cation. Chemical analysis of the purified bioflocculant revealed the compound to be a polysaccharide. PMID:21822413

  8. Antibacterial Activities of Bacteria Isolated from the  Marine Sponges Isodictya compressa and Higginsia  bidentifera Collected from Algoa Bay, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Matobole, Relebohile Matthew; van Zyl, Leonardo Joaquim; Parker-Nance, Shirley; Davies-Coleman, Michael T; Trindade, Marla

    2017-02-17

    Due to the rise in multi-drug resistant pathogens and other diseases, there is renewed interest in marine sponge endosymbionts as a rich source of natural products (NPs). The South African marine environment is rich in marine biota that remains largely unexplored and may represent an important source for the discovery of novel NPs. We first investigated the bacterial diversity associated with five South African marine sponges, whose microbial populations had not previously been investigated, and select the two sponges (Isodictya compressa and Higginsia bidentifera) with highest species richness to culture bacteria. By employing 33 different growth conditions 415 sponge-associated bacterial isolates were cultured and screened for antibacterial activity. Thirty-five isolates showed antibacterial activity, twelve of which exhibited activity against the multi-drug resistant Escherichia coli 1699, implying that some of the bioactive compounds could be novel. Genome sequencing of two of these isolates confirmed that they harbour uncharacterized biosynthetic pathways that may encode novel chemical structures.

  9. 33 CFR 100.124 - Maggie Fischer Memorial Great South Bay Cross Bay Swim, Great South Bay, New York.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... South Bay Cross Bay Swim, Great South Bay, New York. 100.124 Section 100.124 Navigation and Navigable... NAVIGABLE WATERS § 100.124 Maggie Fischer Memorial Great South Bay Cross Bay Swim, Great South Bay, New York... swimmer or safety craft on the swim event race course bounded by the following points: Starting Point...

  10. 75 FR 29891 - Special Local Regulation; Maggie Fischer Memorial Great South Bay Cross Bay Swim, Great South Bay...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-28

    ... South Bay Cross Bay Swim, Great South Bay, NY AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: The... Fischer Memorial Great South Bay Cross Bay Swim. This special local regulation is necessary to protect... Swim, Great South Bay, NY, in the Federal Register (74 FR 32428). We did not receive any comments...

  11. 33 CFR 100.124 - Maggie Fischer Memorial Great South Bay Cross Bay Swim, Great South Bay, New York.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... South Bay Cross Bay Swim, Great South Bay, New York. 100.124 Section 100.124 Navigation and Navigable... NAVIGABLE WATERS § 100.124 Maggie Fischer Memorial Great South Bay Cross Bay Swim, Great South Bay, New York... swimmer or safety craft on the swim event race course bounded by the following points: Starting Point...

  12. South San Francisco Bay, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dartnell, Peter; Gibbons, Helen

    2007-01-01

    View eastward. Elevations in mapped area color coded: purple (approx 15 m below sea level) to red-orange (approx 90 m above sea level). South San Francisco Bay is very shallow, with a mean water depth of 2.7 m (8.9 ft). Trapezoidal depression near San Mateo Bridge is where sediment has been extracted for use in cement production and as bay fill. Land from USGS digital orthophotographs (DOQs) overlaid on USGS digital elevation models (DEMs). Distance across bottom of image approx 11 km (7 mi); vertical exaggeration 1.5X.

  13. South Bay Salt Pond Mercury Studies Project

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Information about the SFBWQP South Bay Salt Pond Mercury Studies Project, part of an EPA competitive grant program to improve SF Bay water quality focused on restoring impaired waters and enhancing aquatic resources.

  14. 5. SOUTH BAY SHOWING ROOF CONSTRUCTION, SOUTH BAY 5TON P&H ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. SOUTH BAY SHOWING ROOF CONSTRUCTION, SOUTH BAY 5-TON P&H ELECTRIC OVERHEAD TRAVEL CRANE. VIEW EAST SHOWING JUNCTURE WITH NORTHWEST CORNER OF OFFICE/MACHINE SHOP - Oldman Boiler Works, Fabricating Shop, 32 Illinois Street, Buffalo, Erie County, NY

  15. 6. MAIN AND SOUTH BAYS. DETAIL OF TOP OF MAIN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. MAIN AND SOUTH BAYS. DETAIL OF TOP OF MAIN BAY COLUMN, GIRDER FOR ELECTRIC OVERHEAD TRAVEL CRANE, AND ROOF GIRDERS - Oldman Boiler Works, Fabricating Shop, 32 Illinois Street, Buffalo, Erie County, NY

  16. South Bay Salt Pond Tidal Wetland Restoration Phase II Planning

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Information about the SFBWQP South Bay Salt Pond Tidal Wetland Restoration Phase II Planning project, part of an EPA competitive grant program to improve SF Bay water quality focused on restoring impaired waters and enhancing aquatic re

  17. South Bay Salt Pond Restoration, Phase II at Ravenswood

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Information about the South Bay Salt Pond Restoration Project: Phase II Construction at Ravenswood, part of an EPA competitive grant program to improve SF Bay water quality focused on restoring impaired waters and enhancing aquatic resources.

  18. 15. SOUTH BAY, EAST END. LOOKING UP TO RIDGELINE. THE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. SOUTH BAY, EAST END. LOOKING UP TO RIDGELINE. THE ARCHED "CONCRETE" IS PART OF A TEMPORARY MOVIE SET. - Hughes Aircraft Company, Cargo Building, 6775 Centinela Avenue, Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA

  19. 2. VIEW SOUTH, NORTH ELEVATION SHOWING BAYS 2 and 3, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. VIEW SOUTH, NORTH ELEVATION SHOWING BAYS 2 and 3, DIESEL AND TURNTABLE Photocopy of photograph, 1976 (Courtesy of Chesapeake Beach Railway Museum; Roy Hartman, photographer) - Chesapeake Beach Railroad Engine House, 21 Yost Place, Seat Pleasant, Prince George's County, MD

  20. View of front of garage, bays 37, facing south ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of front of garage, bays 3-7, facing south - Presidio of San Francisco, Officers' Vehicles Garage, 1055 General Kennedy Avenue, Letterman Hospital Complex, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  1. View of garage interior from northern bay looking south. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of garage interior from northern bay looking south. - Presidio of San Francisco, Officers' Vehicles Garage, 1055 General Kennedy Avenue, Letterman Hospital Complex, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  2. 6. DETAIL, WEST SIDE, SOUTH BAY, SHOWING ENTRANCE TO INSTRUMENTATION ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. DETAIL, WEST SIDE, SOUTH BAY, SHOWING ENTRANCE TO INSTRUMENTATION ROOM. - Edwards Air Force Base, Air Force Rocket Propulsion Laboratory, Test Stand 1-4, Test Area 1-115, northwest end of Saturn Boulevard, Boron, Kern County, CA

  3. VIEW OF EASTERN PARTITION OF FRONT BAY ROOM, FACING SOUTH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF EASTERN PARTITION OF FRONT BAY ROOM, FACING SOUTH - Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, Launch Complex 34, Operations Support Building, Freedom Road, Southwest of Launch Stand CX-34, Cape Canaveral, Brevard County, FL

  4. VIEW OF WESTERN PARTITION OF FRONT BAY ROOM, FACING SOUTH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF WESTERN PARTITION OF FRONT BAY ROOM, FACING SOUTH - Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, Launch Complex 34, Operations Support Building, Freedom Road, Southwest of Launch Stand CX-34, Cape Canaveral, Brevard County, FL

  5. 68. Detail view, exterior, south bay of east facade. This ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    68. Detail view, exterior, south bay of east facade. This view was taken following cleaning and repointing of the exterior stonework during the fall 2001. - John Bartram House & Garden, House, 54th Street & Lindbergh Boulevard, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  6. 2005 hydrographic survey of south San Francisco Bay, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Foxgrover, Amy C.; Jaffe, Bruce E.; Hovis, Gerald T.; Martin, Craig A.; Hubbard, James R.; Samant, Manoj R.; Sullivan, Steve M.

    2007-01-01

    An acoustic hydrographic survey of South San Francisco Bay (South Bay) was conducted in 2005. Over 20 million soundings were collected within an area of approximately 250 sq km (97 sq mi) of the bay extending south of Coyote Point on the west shore, to the San Leandro marina on the east, including Coyote Creek and Ravenswood, Alviso, Artesian, and Mud Sloughs. This is the first survey of this scale that has been conducted in South Bay since the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration National Ocean Service (NOS) last surveyed the region in the early 1980s. Data from this survey will provide insight to changes in bay floor topography from the 1980s to 2005 and will also serve as essential baseline data for tracking changes that will occur as restoration of the South San Francisco Bay salt ponds progress. This report provides documentation on how the survey was conducted, an assessment of accuracy of the data, and distributes the sounding data with Federal Geographic Data Committee (FGDC) compliant metadata. Reports from NOS and Sea Surveyor, Inc., containing additional survey details are attached as appendices.

  7. Causes of COD increases in Gwangyang Bay, South Korea.

    PubMed

    Lee, Young Sik; Kang, Chang-Keun

    2010-08-05

    Water quality, the carbon isotope ratio of particulate organic matter (POM) and sediment, and the nutrients limiting phytoplankton growth were investigated to determine the cause of organic matter increase and to determine an effective countermeasure for chemical oxygen demand (COD) increase in Gwangyang Bay, South Korea. The sources of most NO(3)-N and SiO(2)-Si entering Gwangyang Bay seem to be land-based, and the primary source of P appears to be industrial complex and/or domestic wastewater. The major cause of the COD increase in Gwangyang Bay was phytoplankton growth. Phytoplankton growth was limited by N at high salinity and by P at relatively low salinity. Phytoplankton growth was more limited by N in Gwangyang Bay than in similar bays because of a strong point source of P in Gwangyang Bay. In the rainy season, phytoplankton were able to massively grow in Gwangyang Bay after heavy rainfall events because of the high input of N from runoff, input of P and Si, and increasing sunlight after the rainy season. The peak chlorophyll a concentration observed in winter may have resulted from mixing N from the lower layer and because Eucampia grew well at low water temperatures. To improve COD levels in Gwangyang Bay, it is important to control the phytoplankton growth in the rainy season, particularly by limiting the input of NO(3)-N from outside the bay.

  8. 29. DETAIL: View from the west bay to the south ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    29. DETAIL: View from the west bay to the south corner of the gate pivot area, showing the brace area, including the metal pivot, wood supports and wear (in a circular pattern surrounding the pivot) from the gate post. The view is looking northeast, from the bay west of the west gate sill. - Wabash & Erie Canal, Lock No. 2, 8 miles east of Fort Wayne, adjacent to U.S. Route 24, New Haven, Allen County, IN

  9. Breeding avifauna of the south San Francisco Bay estuary

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gill, Robert E.

    1977-01-01

    San Francisco Bay represents one of the largest estuarine areas on the Pacific Coast of North America. Its open waters, tidal flats, tidal marshes and solar evaporation ponds provide critical foraging, resting and breeding habitat for migratory and resident birds. The avifauna of San Francisco Bay has received considerable attention; however, little of it has been directed toward assessing the overall importance of the Bay as a nesting area. Works by Grinnell and Wythe (1927), Grinnell and Miller (1944) and Sibley (1952) are the only comprehensive studies of San Francisco Bay avifauna. These studies, while major contributions, are broad in scope as they relate to the breeding avifauna of the Bay's estuarine areas. Several studies by Johnston (1955, 1956a, b), Marshall (1948a, b), DeGroot (1927, 1931) and Zucca (1954) have concentrated on the breeding biology of individual species; however, much of the marsh reclamation and Bay fill has occurred since. The present breeding status of many resident and migratory birds is poorly known for San Francisco Bay. Included among these are three rare or endangered forms: California Black Rail, California Clapper Rail and California Least Tern. In addition, some species now found in the area represent recent breeding range extensions. This study, undertaken from March to September 1971 and including a few more recent data, presents a quantitative assessment of the present breeding bird populations in the South San Francisco Bay area.

  10. Looking west at Machine Shop (Bldg. 163) south bay interior. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Looking west at Machine Shop (Bldg. 163) south bay interior. Note the Shaw 15-ton bridge crane. This portion of the building housed machine tools and locomotive component repair functions that supported the erecting shop operations - Atchison, Topeka, Santa Fe Railroad, Albuquerque Shops, Machine Shop, 908 Second Street, Southwest, Albuquerque, Bernalillo County, NM

  11. 13. South bay of the east elevation (Note the square ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. South bay of the east elevation (Note the square patch of discoloration on the lower left side of the first-floor window. This is a test cleaning patching in anticipation of stone conservation, completed during the fall 2001. - John Bartram House & Garden, House, 54th Street & Lindbergh Boulevard, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  12. 70. Detail view, exterior, south bay of east facade. This ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    70. Detail view, exterior, south bay of east facade. This view was taken following the cleaning and repointing of the exterior stonework during the fall 2001 (Similar to HALS PA-1-A-69). - John Bartram House & Garden, House, 54th Street & Lindbergh Boulevard, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  13. The critical role of islands for waterbird breeding and foraging habitat in managed ponds of the South Bay Salt Pond Restoration Project, South San Francisco Bay, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ackerman, Joshua T.; Hartman, C. Alex; Herzog, Mark P.; Smith, Lacy M.; Moskal, Stacy M.; De La Cruz, Susan E. W.; Yee, Julie L.; Takekawa, John Y.

    2014-01-01

    The South Bay Salt Pond Restoration Project aims to restore 50–90 percent of former salt evaporation ponds into tidal marsh in South San Francisco Bay, California. However, large numbers of waterbirds use these ponds annually as nesting and foraging habitat. Islands within ponds are particularly important habitat for nesting, foraging, and roosting waterbirds. To maintain current waterbird populations, the South Bay Salt Pond Restoration Project plans to create new islands within former salt ponds in South San Francisco Bay. In a series of studies, we investigated pond and individual island attributes that are most beneficial to nesting, foraging, and roosting waterbirds.

  14. South Bay Salt Pond Tidal Marsh Restoration at Pond A17 Project

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Information about the SFBWQP South Bay Salt Pond Tidal Marsh Restoration at Pond A17 Project, part of an EPA competitive grant program to improve SF Bay water quality focused on restoring impaired waters and enhancing aquatic resources.

  15. Ecosystem history of South Florida; Biscayne Bay sediment core descriptions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ishman, S.E.

    1997-01-01

    The 'Ecosystem History of Biscayne Bay and the southeast Coast' project of the U.S. Geological Survey is part of a multi-disciplinary effort that includes Florida Bay and the Everglades to provide paleoecologic reconstructions for the south Florida region. Reconstructions of past salinity, nutrients, substrate, and water quality are needed to determine ecosystem variability due to both natural and human-induced causes. Our understanding of the relations between the south Florida ecosystem and introduced forces will allow managers to make informed decisions regarding the south Florida ecosystem restoration and monitoring. The record of past ecosystem conditions can be found in shallow sediment cores. This U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report describes six shallow sediment cores collected from Biscayne Bay. The cores described herein are being processed for a variety of analytical procedures, and this provides the descriptive framework for future analyses of the included cores. This report is preliminary and has not been reviewed for conformity with U.S. Geological Survey editorial standards or with the North American Stratigraphic Code. Any use of trade, product, or firm names is for descriptive purposes only and does not imply endorsement by the U.S. Government.

  16. 33 CFR 334.720 - Gulf of Mexico, south from Choctawhatchee Bay; Missile test area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Gulf of Mexico, south from... Mexico, south from Choctawhatchee Bay; Missile test area. (a) The danger zone. The danger zone shall... the Gulf of Mexico south from Choctawhatchee Bay within an area described as follows: Beginning at...

  17. Brown tides and mariculture in Saldanha Bay, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Probyn, T; Pitcher, G; Pienaar, R; Nuzzi, R

    2001-05-01

    In 1997, the brown tide organism, Aureococcus anophageffens, was detected for the first time in Saldanha Bay, South Africa. Its presence was limited to an isolated, tidal dam that was similarly impacted during the late summer of the following two years but not in 2000. Bloom concentrations are typically of the order of 10(-9) cells l-1. This is one of the few reported occurrences of these nuisance blooms outside the north-eastern United States. A small oyster grow-out facility based in the dam has been severely affected by the reduced growth of oysters during these blooms. Reduced flushing of this culture site is a possible explanation for bloom initiation and persistence. However, Aureococcus blooms can be considerably more extensive as was evident during 1998 when the whole of the bay system, including Langebaan Lagoon, was affected for 6-8 weeks during late summer.

  18. 33 CFR 334.220 - Chesapeake Bay, south of Tangier Island, Va.; naval firing range.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Chesapeake Bay, south of Tangier Island, Va.; naval firing range. 334.220 Section 334.220 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF....220 Chesapeake Bay, south of Tangier Island, Va.; naval firing range. (a) The danger zone....

  19. 33 CFR 334.390 - Atlantic Ocean south of entrance to Chesapeake Bay; firing range.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Atlantic Ocean south of entrance to Chesapeake Bay; firing range. 334.390 Section 334.390 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF....390 Atlantic Ocean south of entrance to Chesapeake Bay; firing range. (a) The danger zone. A...

  20. 33 CFR 334.390 - Atlantic Ocean south of entrance to Chesapeake Bay; firing range.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Atlantic Ocean south of entrance to Chesapeake Bay; firing range. 334.390 Section 334.390 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF....390 Atlantic Ocean south of entrance to Chesapeake Bay; firing range. (a) The danger zone. A...

  1. 33 CFR 334.390 - Atlantic Ocean south of entrance to Chesapeake Bay; firing range.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Atlantic Ocean south of entrance to Chesapeake Bay; firing range. 334.390 Section 334.390 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF....390 Atlantic Ocean south of entrance to Chesapeake Bay; firing range. (a) The danger zone. A...

  2. 33 CFR 334.390 - Atlantic Ocean south of entrance to Chesapeake Bay; firing range.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Atlantic Ocean south of entrance to Chesapeake Bay; firing range. 334.390 Section 334.390 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF....390 Atlantic Ocean south of entrance to Chesapeake Bay; firing range. (a) The danger zone. A...

  3. 33 CFR 334.390 - Atlantic Ocean south of entrance to Chesapeake Bay; firing range.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Atlantic Ocean south of entrance to Chesapeake Bay; firing range. 334.390 Section 334.390 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF....390 Atlantic Ocean south of entrance to Chesapeake Bay; firing range. (a) The danger zone. A...

  4. Assessment for water quality by artificial neural network in Daya Bay, South China Sea.

    PubMed

    Wu, Mei-Lin; Wang, You-Shao; Gu, Ji-Dong

    2015-10-01

    In this study, artificial neural network such as a self-organizing map (SOM) was used to assess for the effects caused by climate change and human activities on the water quality in Daya Bay, South China Sea. SOM has identified the anthropogenic effects and seasonal characters of water quality. SOM grouped the four seasons as four groups (winter, spring, summer and autumn). The Southeast Asian monsoons, northeasterly from October to the next April and southwesterly from May to September have also an important influence on the water quality in Daya Bay. Spatial pattern is mainly related to anthropogenic activities and hydrodynamics conditions. In spatial characteristics, the water quality in Daya Bay was divided into two groups by chemometrics. The monitoring stations (S3, S8, S10 and S11) were in these area (Dapeng Ao, Aotou Harbor) and northeast parts of Daya Bay, which are areas of human activity. The thermal pollution has been observed near water body in Daya Bay Nuclear Power Plant (S5). The rest of the monitoring sites were in the south, central and eastern parts of Daya Bay, which are areas that experience water exchanges from South China Sea. The results of this study may provide information on the spatial and temporal patterns in Daya Bay. Further research will be carry out more research concerning functional changes in the bay ecology with respect to changes in climatic factor, human activities and bay morphology in Daya Bay.

  5. Plankton studies in San Francisco Bay; V, Zooplankton species composition and abundance in the South Bay, 1980-1981

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hutchinson, Anne

    1982-01-01

    Data are presented that summarize zooplankton species composition and abundance in South San Francisco Bay during 1980 and 1981. Sampling was conducted at least twice monthly at thirteen stations, from the southern extremity of the South Bay to the Golden Gate Bridge between January 1980 and May 1981. Samples were collected by pump at three depths in the shipping channel and one depth over the shoals. Subsamples were enumerated while alive. Total zooplankton biomass as carbon was calculated from estimated carbon quotas and abundances of each organism enumerated.

  6. 33 CFR 162.65 - All waterways tributary to the Atlantic Ocean south of Chesapeake Bay and all waterways tributary...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Atlantic Ocean south of Chesapeake Bay and all waterways tributary to the Gulf of Mexico east and south of... All waterways tributary to the Atlantic Ocean south of Chesapeake Bay and all waterways tributary to..., which are tributary to or connected by other waterways with the Atlantic Ocean south of Chesapeake...

  7. 76 FR 31851 - Safety Zone; Put-in-Bay Fireworks, Fox's the Dock Pier; South Bass Island, Put-in-Bay, OH

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-02

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Put-in-Bay Fireworks, Fox's the Dock Pier; South Bass Island, Put-in-Bay, OH AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Temporary final rule. SUMMARY: The..., Put-in-Bay, Ohio. This Zone is intended to restrict vessels from portions of Lake Erie for the...

  8. 10. SOUTH BAY SHOWING 300TON R.D. WOOD CO. HYDRAULIC CRIMPING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. SOUTH BAY SHOWING 300-TON R.D. WOOD CO. HYDRAULIC CRIMPING PRESS. VIEW EAST ALSO SHOWING NORTHWEST CORNER OF OFFICE/MACHINE SHOP - Oldman Boiler Works, Fabricating Shop, 32 Illinois Street, Buffalo, Erie County, NY

  9. Remediation System Evaluation, Comm. Bay/South Tacoma Channel, Well 12A Superfund Site

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The first operable unit (OU1) of the Commencement Bay/South Tacoma Channel Superfund Site addressessoil and groundwater contamination associated with the Time Oil property that was first discovered inpublic supply Well 12A in 1981.

  10. 76 FR 70480 - Otay River Estuary Restoration Project, South San Diego Bay Unit of the San Diego Bay National...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-14

    ... by the State Lands Commission. In order to restore estuarine habitat in the Otay River floodplain, we... Fish and Wildlife Service Otay River Estuary Restoration Project, South San Diego Bay Unit of the San... River Estuary Restoration Project. The proposed project involves the restoration of 66.4 acres...

  11. The distribution and composition characteristics of siliceous rocks from Qinzhou Bay-Hangzhou Bay joint belt, South China: constraint on the tectonic evolution of plates in South China.

    PubMed

    Li, Hongzhong; Zhai, Mingguo; Zhang, Lianchang; Zhou, Yongzhang; Yang, Zhijun; He, Junguo; Liang, Jin; Zhou, Liuyu

    2013-01-01

    The Qinzhou Bay-Hangzhou Bay joint belt is a significant tectonic zone between the Yangtze and Cathaysian plates, where plentiful hydrothermal siliceous rocks are generated. Here, the authors studied the distribution of the siliceous rocks in the whole tectonic zone, which indicated that the tensional setting was facilitating the development of siliceous rocks of hydrothermal genesis. According to the geochemical characteristics, the Neopalaeozoic siliceous rocks in the north segment of the Qinzhou Bay-Hangzhou Bay joint belt denoted its limited width. In comparison, the Neopalaeozoic Qinzhou Bay-Hangzhou Bay joint belt was diverse for its ocean basin in the different segments and possibly had subduction only in the south segment. The ocean basin of the north and middle segments was limited in its width without subduction and possibly existed as a rift trough that was unable to resist the terrigenous input. In the north segment of the Qinzhou Bay-Hangzhou Bay joint belt, the strata of hydrothermal siliceous rocks in Dongxiang copper-polymetallic ore deposit exhibited alternative cycles with the marine volcanic rocks, volcanic tuff, and metal sulphide. These sedimentary systems were formed in different circumstances, whose alternative cycles indicated the release of internal energy in several cycles gradually from strong to weak.

  12. The Distribution and Composition Characteristics of Siliceous Rocks from Qinzhou Bay-Hangzhou Bay Joint Belt, South China: Constraint on the Tectonic Evolution of Plates in South China

    PubMed Central

    Li, Hongzhong; Zhai, Mingguo; Zhang, Lianchang; Zhou, Yongzhang; Yang, Zhijun; He, Junguo; Liang, Jin; Zhou, Liuyu

    2013-01-01

    The Qinzhou Bay-Hangzhou Bay joint belt is a significant tectonic zone between the Yangtze and Cathaysian plates, where plentiful hydrothermal siliceous rocks are generated. Here, the authors studied the distribution of the siliceous rocks in the whole tectonic zone, which indicated that the tensional setting was facilitating the development of siliceous rocks of hydrothermal genesis. According to the geochemical characteristics, the Neopalaeozoic siliceous rocks in the north segment of the Qinzhou Bay-Hangzhou Bay joint belt denoted its limited width. In comparison, the Neopalaeozoic Qinzhou Bay-Hangzhou Bay joint belt was diverse for its ocean basin in the different segments and possibly had subduction only in the south segment. The ocean basin of the north and middle segments was limited in its width without subduction and possibly existed as a rift trough that was unable to resist the terrigenous input. In the north segment of the Qinzhou Bay-Hangzhou Bay joint belt, the strata of hydrothermal siliceous rocks in Dongxiang copper-polymetallic ore deposit exhibited alternative cycles with the marine volcanic rocks, volcanic tuff, and metal sulphide. These sedimentary systems were formed in different circumstances, whose alternative cycles indicated the release of internal energy in several cycles gradually from strong to weak. PMID:24302882

  13. Bottom boundary layer in south San Francisco Bay, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cheng, Ralph T.; Gartner, Jeffrey W.; Smith, Richard E.

    1997-01-01

    Detailed velocity distributions within the benthic turbulent boundary layer were measured by a Broad Band Acoustic Doppler Current Profiler (BB-ADCP) in South San Francisco Bay, California. In "mode 5", the BB-ADCP was able to measure velocity in 5 cm increments. The validation of these measurements was achieved by comparing the BB-ADCP measurements with the velocities measured by a Narrow Band Acoustic Doppler Current Profiler (NB-ADCP) in close proximity. There were thirty-three (33) velocity time-series measured by the BB-ADCP beginning at 7 cm above bed and extending to 175 cm in water column for about two weeks. The velocities from locations at 7 cm and 12 cm above the bed were determined to be of lower accuracy, and they were not used in estimates of friction velocity, u.. The values of u. at 95% confidence level were determined with relative error less than 20%. The time-series of u. varied with velocity outside of the boundary layer, and responded to spring-neap tidal variations. Attempts to use acoustic backscatterance echo intensity to measure suspended sediment concentration showed prom ise, and merit consideration in future studies.

  14. A history of intertidal flat area in south San Francisco Bay, California: 1858 to 2005

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jaffe, Bruce; Foxgrover, Amy

    2006-01-01

    A key question in salt pond restoration in South San Francisco Bay is whether sediment sinks created by opening ponds will result in the loss of intertidal flats. Analyses of a series of bathymetric surveys of South San Francisco Bay made from 1858 to 2005 reveal changes in intertidal flat area in both space and time that can be used to better understand the pre-restoration system. This analysis also documents baseline conditions of intertidal flats that may be altered by restoration efforts. From 1858 to 2005, intertidal flat area decreased by about 25% from 69.2 +6.4/-7.6 km2 to 51.2 +4.8/-5.8 km2. Intertidal flats in the north tended to decrease in area during the period of this study whereas those south of Dumbarton Bridge were either stable or increased in area. From 1983 to 2005, intertidal flats south of Dumbarton Bridge increased from 17.6 +1.7/-2.5 km2 to 24.2 +1.0/-1.8 km2. Intertidal flats along the east shore of the bay tended to be more erosional and decreased in area while those along the west shore of the bay did not significantly change in area. Loss of intertidal flats occurred intermittently along the eastern shore of the bay north of the Dumbarton Bridge. There was little or no loss from 1931 to 1956 and from 1983 to 2005. Predictions of future change in intertidal flat area that do not account for this spatial and temporal variability are not likely to be accurate. The causes of the spatial and temporal variability in intertidal flat area in South San Francisco Bay are not fully understood, but appear related to energy available to erode sediments, sediment redistribution from north to south in the bay, and sediment available to deposit on the flats. Improved understanding of sediment input to South San Francisco Bay, especially from Central Bay, how it is likely to change in the future, the redistribution of sediment within the bay, and ultimately its effect on intertidal flat area would aid in the management of restoration of South San

  15. Harmonic analysis of tides and tidal currents in South San Francisco Bay, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cheng, R.T.; Gartner, J.W.

    1985-01-01

    Water level observations from tide stations and current observations from current-meter moorings in South San Francisco Bay (South Bay), California have been harmonically analysed. At each tide station, 13 harmonic constituents have been computed by a least-squares regression without inference. Tides in South Bay are typically mixed; there is a phase lag of approximately 1 h and an amplification of 1??5 from north to south for a mean semi-diurnal tide. Because most of the current-meter records are between 14 and 29 days, only the five most important harmonics have been solved for east-west and north-south velocity components. The eccentricity of tidal-current ellipse is generally very small, which indicates that the tidal current in South Bay is strongly bidirectional. The analyses further show that the principal direction and the magnitude of tidal current are well correlated with the basin bathymetry. Patterns of Eulerian residual circulation deduced from the current-meter data show an anticlockwise gyre to the west and a clockwise gyre to the east of the main channel in the summer months due to the prevailing westerly wind. Opposite trends have been observed during winter when the wind was variable. ?? 1985.

  16. Historical Seismicity in the South San Francisco Bay Region

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bakun, William H.

    2008-01-01

    Locations (intensity centers) and moment magnitude M for 24 earthquakes (1858-1911) in the southern San Francisco Bay area are estimated from Modified Mercalli intensity (MMI) assignments. The uncertainties in location and M are generally large because there are few MMI assignments available. Preferred locations are selected to be consistent with a simple model for seismic activity on the central and southern Calaveras fault. Significant seismic activity can be explained by repetitive failure of the same fault areas in nearly identical earthquakes. Significant earthquake activity occurred on both east- and west-Bay faults in the ten or so years before the 1868 east-Bay earthquake and before the1906 and 1989 west-Bay earthquakes.

  17. 33 CFR 165.T09-0417 - Safety Zone; Put-In-Bay Fireworks, Fox's the Dock Pier, South Bass Island; Put-In-Bay, OH.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Safety Zone; Put-In-Bay Fireworks, Fox's the Dock Pier, South Bass Island; Put-In-Bay, OH. 165.T09-0417 Section 165.T09-0417 Navigation... Limited Access Areas Ninth Coast Guard District § 165.T09-0417 Safety Zone; Put-In-Bay Fireworks,...

  18. Continuous resistivity profiling data from Great South Bay, Long Island, New York

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cross, V.A.; Bratton, J.F.; Kroeger, K.D.; Crusius, John; Worley, C.R.

    2013-01-01

    An investigation of submarine aquifers adjacent to the Fire Island National Seashore and Long Island, New York was conducted to assess the importance of submarine groundwater discharge as a potential nonpoint source of nitrogen delivery to Great South Bay. Over 200 kilometers of continuous resistivity profiling data were collected to image the fresh-saline groundwater interface in sediments beneath the bay. In addition, groundwater sampling was performed at sites (1) along the north shore of Great South Bay, particularly in Patchogue Bay, that were representative of the developed Long Island shoreline, and (2) at sites on and adjacent to Fire Island, a 50-kilometer-long barrier island on the south side of Great South Bay. Other field activities included sediment coring, stationary electrical resistivity profiling, and surveys of in situ pore water conductivity. Results of continuous resistivity profiling surveys are described in this report. The onshore and offshore shallow hydrostratigraphy of the Great South Bay shorelines, particularly the presence and nature of submarine confining units, appears to exert primary control on the dimensions and chemistry of the submarine groundwater flow and discharge zones. Sediment coring has shown that the confining units commonly consist of drowned and buried peat layers likely deposited in salt marshes. Low-salinity groundwater extends from 10 to 100 meters offshore along much of the north and south shores of Great South Bay based on continuous resistivity profiling data, especially off the mouths of tidal creeks and beneath shallow flats to the north of Fire Island adjacent to modern salt marshes. Human modifications of much of the shoreline and nearshore areas along the north shore of the bay, including filling of salt marshes, construction of bulkheads and piers, and dredging of navigation channels, has substantially altered the natural hydrogeology of the bay's shorelines by truncating confining units and increasing

  19. 33 CFR 334.400 - Atlantic Ocean south of entrance to Chesapeake Bay off Camp Pendleton, Virginia; naval restricted...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Atlantic Ocean south of entrance to Chesapeake Bay off Camp Pendleton, Virginia; naval restricted area. 334.400 Section 334.400... AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.400 Atlantic Ocean south of entrance to Chesapeake Bay off...

  20. 33 CFR 334.380 - Atlantic Ocean south of entrance to Chesapeake Bay off Dam Neck, Virginia; naval firing range.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Atlantic Ocean south of entrance to Chesapeake Bay off Dam Neck, Virginia; naval firing range. 334.380 Section 334.380 Navigation and... RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.380 Atlantic Ocean south of entrance to Chesapeake Bay off Dam...

  1. 33 CFR 334.400 - Atlantic Ocean south of entrance to Chesapeake Bay off Camp Pendleton, Virginia; naval restricted...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Atlantic Ocean south of entrance to Chesapeake Bay off Camp Pendleton, Virginia; naval restricted area. 334.400 Section 334.400... AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.400 Atlantic Ocean south of entrance to Chesapeake Bay off...

  2. 33 CFR 334.400 - Atlantic Ocean south of entrance to Chesapeake Bay off Camp Pendleton, Virginia; naval restricted...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Atlantic Ocean south of entrance to Chesapeake Bay off Camp Pendleton, Virginia; naval restricted area. 334.400 Section 334.400... AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.400 Atlantic Ocean south of entrance to Chesapeake Bay off...

  3. 33 CFR 334.380 - Atlantic Ocean south of entrance to Chesapeake Bay off Dam Neck, Virginia; naval firing range.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Atlantic Ocean south of entrance to Chesapeake Bay off Dam Neck, Virginia; naval firing range. 334.380 Section 334.380 Navigation and... RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.380 Atlantic Ocean south of entrance to Chesapeake Bay off Dam...

  4. 33 CFR 334.380 - Atlantic Ocean south of entrance to Chesapeake Bay off Dam Neck, Virginia; naval firing range.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Atlantic Ocean south of entrance to Chesapeake Bay off Dam Neck, Virginia; naval firing range. 334.380 Section 334.380 Navigation and... RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.380 Atlantic Ocean south of entrance to Chesapeake Bay off Dam...

  5. 33 CFR 334.720 - Gulf of Mexico, south from Choctawhatchee Bay; guided missiles test operations area, Headquarters...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Gulf of Mexico, south from Choctawhatchee Bay; guided missiles test operations area, Headquarters Air Proving Ground Command, U.S. Air Force... Mexico, south from Choctawhatchee Bay; guided missiles test operations area, Headquarters Air...

  6. 33 CFR 334.720 - Gulf of Mexico, south from Choctawhatchee Bay; guided missiles test operations area, Headquarters...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Gulf of Mexico, south from Choctawhatchee Bay; guided missiles test operations area, Headquarters Air Proving Ground Command, U.S. Air Force... Mexico, south from Choctawhatchee Bay; guided missiles test operations area, Headquarters Air...

  7. 33 CFR 334.400 - Atlantic Ocean south of entrance to Chesapeake Bay off Camp Pendleton, Virginia; naval restricted...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Atlantic Ocean south of entrance to Chesapeake Bay off Camp Pendleton, Virginia; naval restricted area. 334.400 Section 334.400... AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.400 Atlantic Ocean south of entrance to Chesapeake Bay off...

  8. 33 CFR 334.380 - Atlantic Ocean south of entrance to Chesapeake Bay off Dam Neck, Virginia; naval firing range.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Atlantic Ocean south of entrance to Chesapeake Bay off Dam Neck, Virginia; naval firing range. 334.380 Section 334.380 Navigation and... RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.380 Atlantic Ocean south of entrance to Chesapeake Bay off Dam...

  9. 33 CFR 334.380 - Atlantic Ocean south of entrance to Chesapeake Bay off Dam Neck, Virginia; naval firing range.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Atlantic Ocean south of entrance to Chesapeake Bay off Dam Neck, Virginia; naval firing range. 334.380 Section 334.380 Navigation and... RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.380 Atlantic Ocean south of entrance to Chesapeake Bay off Dam...

  10. 33 CFR 334.400 - Atlantic Ocean south of entrance to Chesapeake Bay off Camp Pendleton, Virginia; naval restricted...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Atlantic Ocean south of entrance to Chesapeake Bay off Camp Pendleton, Virginia; naval restricted area. 334.400 Section 334.400... AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.400 Atlantic Ocean south of entrance to Chesapeake Bay off...

  11. Maps showing textural characteristics of benthic sediments in the Corpus Christi Bay estuarine system, south Texas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Shideler, Gerald L.; Stelting, Charles E.; McGowen, Joseph H.

    1981-01-01

    Corpus Christi Bay is a heavily used estuary on the south Texas coast in the northwest Gulf of Mexico (fig. 1).  The Bay is stressed by diverse activities which could substantially affect its ecosystem.  Such activities include shipping, resource production (oil, gas, and construction aggregate), commercial and sport fishing, and recreation.  Shipping activities alone have had a substantial impact on the bay.  For example, the past maintenance of navigation channels has required extensive dredging and spoil disposal within the estuarine system.  Numerous subaqueous spoil disposal sites and subaerial spoil banks are present throughout the bay (fig. 1), and the selection of future spoil disposal sites is becoming a critical local problem.  As activities in the bay increase, the need for effective environmental management becomes increasingly important, and effective management necessitates a good understanding of the bay's physical characteristics.  The objective of this study is to provide detailed information about the textural composition of bottom sediments within the estuarine system, information which could be used in making environmental-management decisions.  Visual descriptions of bottom sediments in Corpus Christi Bay and adjacent areas have been presented by McGowen and Morton (1979).  Additionally, a study of the textures of sediments on the Inner Continental Shelf adjacent to the bay has been presented by Shideler and Berryhill (1977).

  12. 33 CFR 334.60 - Cape Cod Bay south of Wellfleet Harbor, Mass.; naval aircraft bombing target area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Cape Cod Bay south of Wellfleet... REGULATIONS § 334.60 Cape Cod Bay south of Wellfleet Harbor, Mass.; naval aircraft bombing target area. (a... bombing target hulk James Longstreet in Cape Cod Bay at latitude 41°49′46″, longitude 70°02′54″. (b)...

  13. 33 CFR 334.60 - Cape Cod Bay south of Wellfleet Harbor, Mass.; naval aircraft bombing target area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Cape Cod Bay south of Wellfleet... REGULATIONS § 334.60 Cape Cod Bay south of Wellfleet Harbor, Mass.; naval aircraft bombing target area. (a... bombing target hulk James Longstreet in Cape Cod Bay at latitude 41°49′46″, longitude 70°02′54″. (b)...

  14. 33 CFR 334.60 - Cape Cod Bay south of Wellfleet Harbor, Mass.; naval aircraft bombing target area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Cape Cod Bay south of Wellfleet... REGULATIONS § 334.60 Cape Cod Bay south of Wellfleet Harbor, Mass.; naval aircraft bombing target area. (a... bombing target hulk James Longstreet in Cape Cod Bay at latitude 41°49′46″, longitude 70°02′54″. (b)...

  15. 33 CFR 334.60 - Cape Cod Bay south of Wellfleet Harbor, Mass.; naval aircraft bombing target area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Cape Cod Bay south of Wellfleet... REGULATIONS § 334.60 Cape Cod Bay south of Wellfleet Harbor, Mass.; naval aircraft bombing target area. (a... bombing target hulk James Longstreet in Cape Cod Bay at latitude 41°49′46″, longitude 70°02′54″. (b)...

  16. Sediment deposition and erosion in south San Francisco Bay, California from 1956 to 2005

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jaffe, Bruce; Foxgrover, Amy

    2006-01-01

    Sediment deposition and erosion in South San Francisco Bay from 1956 to 2005 was studied by comparing bathymetric surveys made in 1956, 1983, and 2005. From 1956 to 1983, the region was erosional. In contrast, from 1983 to 2005, the region was depositional. Analysis of subregions defined by depth, morphology and location revealed similarities in behavior during both the erosional and depositional periods. During the entire period of the study, there was net erosion in the shallows (<1 m depth) on the eastern shore of the bay north of the Dumbarton Bridge and net deposition in the region south of Dumbarton Bridge. The rates, however, reflected the sediment regime of each time period. Erosional areas were less erosional during the period with net deposition and depositional zones were more depositional. The cause for the increase in deposition from 1983 to 2005 is unknown, but could be related to an increase in sediment supply from Central Bay. The patterns of deposition and erosion and the change in rates are consistent with an increase in sediment supply from the north, as would occur if the supply from Central Bay increased from 1956-1983 to 1983-2005. Additional research is needed to fully understand why South San Francisco Bay became depositional from 1983 to 2005 and to determine the implications of this change to the planned salt pond restoration in the region.

  17. Water quality in South San Francisco Bay, California: current condition and potential issues for the South Bay Salt Pond Restoration Project.

    PubMed

    Grenier, J Letitia; Davis, Jay A

    2010-01-01

    The SBSPRP is an extensive tidal wetland restoration project that is underway at the margin of South San Francisco Bay, California. The Project, which aims to restore former salt ponds to tidal marsh and manage other ponds for water bird support, is taking place in the context of a highly urbanized watershed and an Estuary already impacted by chemical contaminants. There is an intimate relationship between water quality in the watershed, the Bay, and the transitional wetland areas where the Project is located. The Project seeks to restore habitat for endangered and endemic species and to provide recreational opportunities for people. Therefore, water quality and bioaccumulation of contaminants in fish and wildlife is an important concern for the success of the Project. Mercury, PCBs, and PBDEs are the persistent contaminants of greatest concern in the region. All of these contaminants are present at elevated concentrations both in the abiotic environment and in wildlife. Dioxins, pyrethroids, PAHs, and selenium are also problematic. Organochlorine insecticides have historically impacted the Bay, and they remain above thresholds for concern in a small proportion of samples. Emerging contaminants, such as PFCs and non-PBDE flame retardants, are also an important water quality issue. Beyond chemical pollutants, other concerns for water quality in South San Francisco Bay exist, and include biological constituents, especially invasive species, and chemical attributes, such as dissolved oxygen and salinity. Future changes, both from within the Project and from the Bay and watershed, are likely to influence water quality in the region. Project actions to restore wetlands could worsen, improve, or not affect the already impaired water quality in South Bay. Accelerated erosion of buried sediment as a consequence of Project restoration actions is a potentially serious regional threat to South Bay water and sediment quality. Furthermore, the planned restoration of salt ponds

  18. 33 CFR 334.220 - Chesapeake Bay, south of Tangier Island, Va.; naval firing range.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Island, Va.; naval firing range. 334.220 Section 334.220 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF....220 Chesapeake Bay, south of Tangier Island, Va.; naval firing range. (a) The danger zone. Beginning... the range will be conducted intermittently by one or more vessels, depending on weather and...

  19. 33 CFR 334.220 - Chesapeake Bay, south of Tangier Island, Va.; naval firing range.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Island, Va.; naval firing range. 334.220 Section 334.220 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF....220 Chesapeake Bay, south of Tangier Island, Va.; naval firing range. (a) The danger zone. Beginning... the range will be conducted intermittently by one or more vessels, depending on weather and...

  20. Facility 3A, interior of flat roof bay on south side ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Facility 3A, interior of flat roof bay on south side clerestory to left, racks on wall to right. View facing east - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Instrument Shop & Electrical Shop Lean-to, Avenue E, between Sixth & Seventh Streets, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  1. Breastfeeding Practices of Japanese Mothers in the South Bay Area of Los Angeles.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hongo, Hiroko

    A study investigated the attitudes of Japanese breastfeeding mothers in the South Bay area in Los Angeles. The sample consisted of 20 Japanese mothers over the age of 18 who were born in Japan, who recently came to the United States, and whose youngest child has been breastfed for at least 6 months. Subjects were interviewed in their native…

  2. Organic markers as source discriminants and sediment transport indicators in south San Francisco Bay, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hostettler, F.D.; Rapp, J.B.; Kvenvolden, K.A.; Samuel, N L.

    1989-01-01

    Sediment samples from nearshore sites in south San Francisco Bay and from streams flowing into that section of the Bay have been characterized in terms of their content of biogenic and anthropogenic molecular marker compounds. The distributions, input sources, and applicability of these compounds in determining sediment movement are discussed. By means of inspection and multivariate analysis, the compounds were grouped according to probable input sources and the sampling stations according to the relative importance of source contributions. A suite of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) dominated by pyrene, fluoranthene and phenanthrene, typical of estuarine environments worldwide, and suites of mature sterane and hopane biomarkers were found to be most suitable as background markers for the Bay. A homologous series of long-chain n-aldehydes (C12-C32) with a strong even-over-odd carbon number dominance in the higher molecular weight range and the ubiquitous n-alkanes (n-C24-C34) with a strong odd-over-even carbon number dominance were utilized as terrigenous markers. Several ratios of these terrigenous and Bay markers were calculated for each station. These ratios and the statistical indicators from the multivariate analysis point toward a strong terrigenous signal in the terminus of South Bay and indicate net directional movement of recently introduced sediment where nontidal currents had been considered to be minimal or nonexistent and tidal currents had been assumed to be dominant. ?? 1989.

  3. Organochlorine pesticides in the sediment core of Gwangyang bay, South Korea.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yun-Seok; Eun, Heesoo; Cho, Hyeon-Seo; Kim, Kyoung-Soo; Sakamoto, Toshihiro; Watanabe, Eiki; Baba, Koji; Katase, Takao

    2008-04-01

    The nine organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) in the sediment samples taken from Gwangyang Bay, which is a heavy chemical industrial region in South Korea, are analyzed to evaluate their contaminations during the past 50 years. The vertical distributions of SigmaOCPs concentration in the sediment core were in good agreement with the temporal amount of pesticides used in South Korea except for the top sediment layer. The DDTs were predominant, their concentrations ranging from 78.0 to 202 pg/g dry wt and attributed more than 60% to SigmaOCPs in all the sediment layers. Based on the ratio of DDT metabolite compositions, the DDT contamination in the top layer might be caused from recent input. This is due to the highest residual concentration of OCPs in the top layer. Although HCB and mirex have been unregistered as pesticides in South Korea, two compounds were detectable in all of the sediment samples in the range from 0.243 to 16.7 pg/g dry wt in the study area. The emission source of HCB in the sediment core could be estimated to be due to incomplete combustion in the industrial chemical processes rather than pesticide application. Regarding horizontal distribution of SigmaOCPs, the concentration was slightly higher than for the inner bay than the outer bay. The OCPs in the sediments of Gwangyang Bay were compared with those of other countries by hierarchical cluster analysis and principal component analysis.

  4. 33 CFR 334.640 - Gulf of Mexico south of Apalachee Bay, Fla.; Air Force rocket firing range.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Bay, Fla.; Air Force rocket firing range. 334.640 Section 334.640 Navigation and Navigable Waters... REGULATIONS § 334.640 Gulf of Mexico south of Apalachee Bay, Fla.; Air Force rocket firing range. (a) The... enforced by the Commander, Moody Air Force Base, Valdosta, Georgia, and such agencies as he may designate....

  5. 33 CFR 334.640 - Gulf of Mexico south of Apalachee Bay, Fla.; Air Force rocket firing range.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Bay, Fla.; Air Force rocket firing range. 334.640 Section 334.640 Navigation and Navigable Waters... REGULATIONS § 334.640 Gulf of Mexico south of Apalachee Bay, Fla.; Air Force rocket firing range. (a) The... enforced by the Commander, Moody Air Force Base, Valdosta, Georgia, and such agencies as he may designate....

  6. 33 CFR 334.640 - Gulf of Mexico south of Apalachee Bay, Fla.; Air Force rocket firing range.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Bay, Fla.; Air Force rocket firing range. 334.640 Section 334.640 Navigation and Navigable Waters... REGULATIONS § 334.640 Gulf of Mexico south of Apalachee Bay, Fla.; Air Force rocket firing range. (a) The... enforced by the Commander, Moody Air Force Base, Valdosta, Georgia, and such agencies as he may designate....

  7. 33 CFR 334.640 - Gulf of Mexico south of Apalachee Bay, Fla.; Air Force rocket firing range.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Bay, Fla.; Air Force rocket firing range. 334.640 Section 334.640 Navigation and Navigable Waters... REGULATIONS § 334.640 Gulf of Mexico south of Apalachee Bay, Fla.; Air Force rocket firing range. (a) The... enforced by the Commander, Moody Air Force Base, Valdosta, Georgia, and such agencies as he may designate....

  8. 33 CFR 334.640 - Gulf of Mexico south of Apalachee Bay, Fla.; Air Force rocket firing range.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Bay, Fla.; Air Force rocket firing range. 334.640 Section 334.640 Navigation and Navigable Waters... REGULATIONS § 334.640 Gulf of Mexico south of Apalachee Bay, Fla.; Air Force rocket firing range. (a) The... enforced by the Commander, Moody Air Force Base, Valdosta, Georgia, and such agencies as he may designate....

  9. Late Holocene sedimentary environments of south San Francisco Bay, California, illustrated in gravity cores

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Woodrow, Donald L.; Fregoso, Theresa A.; Wong, Florence L.; Jaffe, Bruce E.

    2014-01-01

    Data are reported here from 51 gravity cores collected from the southern part of San Francisco Bay by the U.S. Geological Survey in 1990. The sedimentary record in the cores demonstrates a stable geographic distribution of facies and spans a few thousand years. Carbon-14 dating of the sediments suggests that sedimentation rates average about 1 mm/yr. The geometry of the bay floor and the character of the sediment deposited have remained about the same in the time spanned by the cores. However, the sedimentary record over periods of centuries or decades is likely to be much more variable. Sediments containing a few bivalve shells and bivalve or oyster coquinas are most often found west of the main channel and near the San Mateo Bridge. Elsewhere in the south bay, shells are rare except in the southernmost reaches where scattered gastropod shells are found.

  10. Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in a benthic ecosystem in Gwangyang Bay, South Korea.

    PubMed

    Hong, Sang Hee; Kannan, Narayanan; Yim, Un Hyuk; Choi, Jin-Woo; Shim, Won Joon

    2011-12-01

    Benthic ecosystem in Gwangyang Bay, a fast developing industrial area with steel production, port container handling, petroleum and other chemical processing in South Korea was studied. The average levels of polychlorinated biphenyls (ΣPCB) in the benthic components were: seawater 2.99 ± 0.13 (ng/L); sediment 294 ± 118 (ng/g TOC); [biota=ng/g lipid] starfish 92; prawn 131 ± 2; mussels 127 ± 22; crab 182 ± 114; clam 187; polychaeta 215; sea cucumber 497 ± 90; squill 603 ± 38; fish 396 ± 159. Levels in the inner bay samples were higher than the outer bay samples suggesting land based pollution. Good correlation (r(2)=0.79; p<0.05) existed between PCB concentration and lipid content indicating partitioning processes in action. PCB signature in the abiotic and biotic components shows enrichment of lower chlorinated congeners emitted by a unique source nearby, viz. steel manufacturing plant.

  11. 33 CFR 334.60 - Cape Cod Bay south of Wellfleet Harbor, Mass.; naval aircraft bombing target area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... REGULATIONS § 334.60 Cape Cod Bay south of Wellfleet Harbor, Mass.; naval aircraft bombing target area. (a) The danger zone. A circular area with a radius of 1,000 yards having its center on the...

  12. Chemistry and microbiology of a sewage spill in South San Francisco Bay.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cloern, J.E.; Oremland, R.S.

    1983-01-01

    During September 1979, the breakdown of a waste treatment plant resulted in discharge of 1.5 X 107 m3 of primary- treated sewage into a tributary of South San Francisco Bay. Chemical and microbial changes occurred within the tributary as decomposition and nitrification depleted dissolved oxygen. Associated with anoxia were relatively high concentrations of particulate organic carbon, dissolved CO2, CH4, C2H4, NH4+, and fecal bacteria, and low phytoplankton biomass and photosynthetic oxygen production. South San Francisco Bay experienced only small changes in water quality, presumably because of its large volume and the assimilation of wastes that occurred within the tributary. Water quality improved rapidly in the tributary once normal tertiary treatment resumed. -Authors

  13. Estimates of bottom roughness length and bottom shear stress in South San Francisco Bay, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cheng, R.T.; Ling, C.-H.; Gartner, J.W.; Wang, P.-F.

    1999-01-01

    A field investigation of the hydrodynamics and the resuspension and transport of participate matter in a bottom boundary layer was carried out in South San Francisco Bay (South Bay), California, during March-April 1995. Using broadband acoustic Doppler current profilers, detailed measurements of turbulent mean velocity distribution within 1.5 m above bed have been obtained. A global method of data analysis was used for estimating bottom roughness length zo and bottom shear stress (or friction velocities u*). Field data have been examined by dividing the time series of velocity profiles into 24-hour periods and independently analyzing the velocity profile time series by flooding and ebbing periods. The global method of solution gives consistent properties of bottom roughness length zo and bottom shear stress values (or friction velocities u*) in South Bay. Estimated mean values of zo and u* for flooding and ebbing cycles are different. The differences in mean zo and u* are shown to be caused by tidal current flood-ebb inequality, rather than the flooding or ebbing of tidal currents. The bed shear stress correlates well with a reference velocity; the slope of the correlation defines a drag coefficient. Forty-three days of field data in South Bay show two regimes of zo (and drag coefficient) as a function of a reference velocity. When the mean velocity is >25-30 cm s-1, the ln zo (and thus the drag coefficient) is inversely proportional to the reference velocity. The cause for the reduction of roughness length is hypothesized as sediment erosion due to intensifying tidal currents thereby reducing bed roughness. When the mean velocity is <25-30 cm s-1, the correlation between zo and the reference velocity is less clear. A plausible explanation of scattered values of zo under this condition may be sediment deposition. Measured sediment data were inadequate to support this hypothesis, but the proposed hypothesis warrants further field investigation.

  14. Ecological evaluation of proposed dredged material from Winyah Bay, South Carolina

    SciTech Connect

    Ward, J.A.; Gardiner, W.W.; Pinza, M.R.; Word, J.Q.

    1993-10-01

    The navigational channels of Winyah Bay, Georgetown Harbor, South Carolina require dredging to enable normal shipping traffic to use these areas. Before dredging, environmental assessments must be conducted to determine the suitability of this dredged sediment for unconfined, open-water disposal. The Charleston, South Carolina District Office of the US Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) requested that the Battelle/Marine Science Laboratory (MSL) collect sediment samples and conduct the required physical/chemical, toxicological, and bioaccumulation evaluations as required in the 1991 Implementation Manual. This report is intended to provide information required to address potential ecological effects of the Entrance Channel and Inner Harbor sediments proposed disposal in the ocean.

  15. Benthic flux of dissolved nickel into the water column of south San Francisco Bay

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Topping, B.R.; Kuwabara, J.S.; Parcheso, Francis; Hager, S.W.; Arnsberg, A.J.; Murphy, Fred

    2001-01-01

    Field and laboratory studies were conducted between April, 1998 and May, 1999 to provide the first direct measurements of the benthic flux of dissolved (0.2-micron filtered) nickel between the bottom sediment and water column at three sites in the southern component of San Francisco Bay (South Bay), California. Dissolved nickel and predominant ligands (represented by dissolved organic carbon, and sulfides) were the solutes of primary interest, although a variety of ancillary measurements were also performed to provide a framework for interpretation. Results described herein integrate information needs identified by the State Water Resources Control Board and local stakeholders with fundamental research associated with the U.S. Geological Survey Toxic Substances Hydrology Program. Dissolved-Ni concentrations in the bottom water over the three sampling dates ranged from 34 to 43 nanomoles per liter. Dissolved-macronutrient concentrations in the bottom water were consistently higher (frequently by orders of magnitude) than surface-water determinations reported for similar times and locations (Regional Monitoring Program, 2001). This is consistent with measured positive benthic fluxes for the macronutrients. Benthic-flux estimates for dissolved nickel from core-incubations, when areally averaged over the South Bay, were significant (that is, of equivalent or greater order of magnitude) relative to previously reported freshwater point and non-point sources. This observation is consistent with previous determinations for other metals, and with the potential remobilization of sediment-associated metals that have been ubiquitously distributed in the South Bay. Similar to dissolved-nickel results, benthic flux of macronutrients was also consistently significant relative to surface-water inputs. These results add to a growing body of knowledge that strongly suggests a need to consider contaminant transport across the sediment-water interface when establishing future

  16. 78 FR 75561 - South Bay Energy Corp.; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-12

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission South Bay Energy Corp.; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market- Based Rate Filing Includes Request for Blanket Section 204 Authorization This is a supplemental notice in the above-referenced proceeding, of South...

  17. Assessment of metal contamination in surface sediments from Zhelin Bay, the South China Sea.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhao-Hui; Feng, Jie; Jiang, Tao; Gu, Yang-Guang

    2013-11-15

    Metals and biogenic elements were analyzed from surface sediments collected from Zhelin Bay in the South China Sea in December 2008. The high concentrations of TOC, TN and BSi indicate the high nutrient level and diatom productivity in Zhelin Bay. The concentrations of metals were generally far lower than the effects-range-low (ERL) values that define pollutant levels. Enrichment factors (EF) and geoaccumulation indices (Igeo) suggest there are pollution levels of Cd, Cu and Zn at some stations. As, Cu, and Pb are potentially biotoxic in some stations. Correlation and principal component analyses indicate that most of the metals primarily originate from natural sources, and from maricultural activities as well. Mariculture contributes considerable Cd and Cu contamination. As and Pb comes primarily from combustion of gasoline and diesel fuel by ships.

  18. Residency, habitat use and sexual segregation of white sharks, Carcharodon carcharias in False Bay, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Kock, Alison; O'Riain, M Justin; Mauff, Katya; Meÿer, Michael; Kotze, Deon; Griffiths, Charles

    2013-01-01

    White sharks (Carcharodon carcharias) are threatened apex predators and identification of their critical habitats and how these are used are essential to ensuring improved local and ultimately global white shark protection. In this study we investigated habitat use by white sharks in False Bay, South Africa, using acoustic telemetry. 56 sharks (39 female, 17 male), ranging in size from 1.7-5 m TL, were tagged with acoustic transmitters and monitored on an array of 30 receivers for 975 days. To investigate the effects of season, sex and size on habitat use we used a generalized linear mixed effects model. Tagged sharks were detected in the Bay in all months and across all years, but their use of the Bay varied significantly with the season and the sex of the shark. In autumn and winter males and females aggregated around the Cape fur seal colony at Seal Island, where they fed predominantly on young of the year seals. In spring and summer there was marked sexual segregation, with females frequenting the Inshore areas and males seldom being detected. The shift from the Island in autumn and winter to the Inshore region in spring and summer by females mirrors the seasonal peak in abundance of juvenile seals and of migratory teleost and elasmobranch species respectively. This study provides the first evidence of sexual segregation at a fine spatial scale and demonstrates that sexual segregation in white sharks is not restricted to adults, but is apparent for juveniles and sub-adults too. Overall, the results confirm False Bay as a critical area for white shark conservation as both sexes, across a range of sizes, frequent the Bay on an annual basis. The finding that female sharks aggregate in the Inshore regions when recreational use peaks highlights the need for ongoing shark-human conflict mitigation strategies.

  19. Residency, Habitat Use and Sexual Segregation of White Sharks, Carcharodon carcharias in False Bay, South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Kock, Alison; O’Riain, M. Justin; Mauff, Katya; Meÿer, Michael; Kotze, Deon; Griffiths, Charles

    2013-01-01

    White sharks (Carcharodon carcharias) are threatened apex predators and identification of their critical habitats and how these are used are essential to ensuring improved local and ultimately global white shark protection. In this study we investigated habitat use by white sharks in False Bay, South Africa, using acoustic telemetry. 56 sharks (39 female, 17 male), ranging in size from 1.7–5 m TL, were tagged with acoustic transmitters and monitored on an array of 30 receivers for 975 days. To investigate the effects of season, sex and size on habitat use we used a generalized linear mixed effects model. Tagged sharks were detected in the Bay in all months and across all years, but their use of the Bay varied significantly with the season and the sex of the shark. In autumn and winter males and females aggregated around the Cape fur seal colony at Seal Island, where they fed predominantly on young of the year seals. In spring and summer there was marked sexual segregation, with females frequenting the Inshore areas and males seldom being detected. The shift from the Island in autumn and winter to the Inshore region in spring and summer by females mirrors the seasonal peak in abundance of juvenile seals and of migratory teleost and elasmobranch species respectively. This study provides the first evidence of sexual segregation at a fine spatial scale and demonstrates that sexual segregation in white sharks is not restricted to adults, but is apparent for juveniles and sub-adults too. Overall, the results confirm False Bay as a critical area for white shark conservation as both sexes, across a range of sizes, frequent the Bay on an annual basis. The finding that female sharks aggregate in the Inshore regions when recreational use peaks highlights the need for ongoing shark-human conflict mitigation strategies. PMID:23383052

  20. Deposition, erosion, and bathymetric change in South San Francisco Bay: 1858-1983

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Foxgrover, Amy C.; Higgins, Shawn A.; Ingraca, Melissa K.; Jaffe, Bruce E.; Smith, Richard E.

    2004-01-01

    Since the California Gold Rush of 1849, sediment deposition, erosion, and the bathymetry of South San Francisco Bay have been altered by both natural processes and human activities. Historical hydrographic surveys can be used to assess how this system has evolved over the past 150 years. The National Ocean Service (NOS) (formerly the United States Coast and Geodetic Survey (USCGS), collected five hydrographic surveys of South San Francisco Bay from 1858 to 1983. Analysis of these surveys enables us to reconstruct the surface of the bay floor for each time period and quantify spatial and temporal changes in deposition, erosion, and bathymetry. The creation of accurate bathymetric models involves many steps. Sounding data was obtained from the original USCGS and NOS hydrographic sheets and were supplemented with hand drawn depth contours. Shorelines and marsh areas were obtained from topographic sheets. The digitized soundings and shorelines were entered into a Geographic Information System (GIS), and georeferenced to a common horizontal datum. Using surface modeling software, bathymetric grids with a horizontal resolution of 50 m were developed for each of the five hydrographic surveys. Prior to conducting analyses of sediment deposition and erosion, we converted all of the grids to a common vertical datum and made adjustments to correct for land subsidence that occurred from 1934 to 1967. Deposition and erosion that occurred during consecutive periods was then computed by differencing the corrected grids. From these maps of deposition and erosion, we calculated volumes and rates of net sediment change in the bay. South San Francisco Bay has lost approximately 90 x 106 m3 of sediment from 1858 to 1983; however within this timeframe there have been periods of both deposition and erosion. During the most recent period, from 1956 to 1983, sediment loss approached 3 x 106 m3/yr. One of the most striking changes that occurred from 1858 to 1983 was the conversion of more

  1. Waterbird egg mercury concentrations in response to wetland restoration in south San Francisco Bay, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ackerman, Joshua T.; Herzog, Mark P.; Hartman, Christopher A.; Watts, Trevor C.; Barr, Jarred R.

    2014-01-01

    The conversion of 50–90 percent of 15,100 acres of former salt evaporation ponds to tidal marsh habitat in the south San Francisco Bay, California, is planned as part of the South Bay Salt Pond Restoration Project. This large-scale habitat restoration may change the bioavailability of methylmercury. The South Bay already is known to have high methylmercury concentrations, with methylmercury concentrations in several waterbirds species more than known toxicity thresholds where avian reproduction is impaired. In this 2013 study, we continued monitoring bird egg mercury concentrations in response to the restoration of the Pond A8/A7/A5 Complex to a potential tidal marsh in the future. The restoration of the Pond A8/A7/A5 Complex began in autumn 2010, and the Pond A8 Notch was opened 5 feet (one of eight gates) to muted tidal action on June 1, 2011, and then closed in the winter. In autumn 2010, internal levees between Ponds A8, A7, and A5 were breached and water depths were substantially increased by flooding the Pond A8/A7/A5 Complex in February 2011. In June 2012, 15 feet (three of eight gates) of the Pond A8 Notch was opened, and then closed in December 2012. In June 2013, 15 feet of the Pond A8 Notch again was opened, and the Pond A8/A7/A5 Complex was a relatively deep and large pond with muted tidal action in the summer. This report synthesizes waterbird data from the 2013 breeding season, and combines it with our prior study’s data from 2010 and 2011.

  2. Occurrence of the Diamondback Terrapin (Malaclemys Terrapin Littoralis) at South Deer Island in Galveston Bay, Texas, April 2001-May 2002

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-01-01

    TEXAS Galveston Bay GU LF OF ME XI CO In cooperation with the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service Occurrence of the Diamondback Terrapin (Malaclemys...Occurrence of the Diamondback Terrapin (Malaclemys Terrapin Littoralis) at South Deer Island in Galveston Bay, Texas, April 2001-May 2002 5a. CONTRACT...of Diamondback terrapin by L.S. Coplin, U.S. Geological Survey. U.S. Department of the Interior U.S. Geological Survey Occurrence of the Diamondback

  3. The influence of finfish aquaculture on benthic fish and crustacean assemblages in Fitzgerald Bay, South Australia

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Kane

    2015-01-01

    The influence of sea-cage aquaculture on wildfish assemblages has received little attention outside of Europe. Sea-cage aquaculture of finfish is a major focus in South Australia, and while the main species farmed is southern bluefin tuna (Thunnus maccoyii), there is also an important yellowtail kingfish (Seriola lalandi) industry. Yellowtail kingfish aquaculture did not appear to have any local or regional effects on demersal assemblages (primarily fish, but also some crustaceans) surveyed by baited remote underwater video (BRUV) in Fitzgerald Bay. We did, however, detect small scale spatial variations in assemblages within the bay. The type of bait used strongly influenced the assemblage recorded, with significantly greater numbers of fish attracted to deployments where sardines were used as the bait to compared to those with no bait. The pelleted feed used by the aquaculture industry was just as attractive as sardines at one site, and intermediate between sardines and no bait at the other. There was significant temporal variability in assemblages at both farm sites and one control site, while the second control site was temporally stable (over the 9 weeks of the study). Overall, the results suggested that aquaculture was having little if any impact on the abundance and assemblage structure of the demersal macrofauna in Fitzgerald Bay. PMID:26401452

  4. The influence of finfish aquaculture on benthic fish and crustacean assemblages in Fitzgerald Bay, South Australia.

    PubMed

    Tanner, Jason E; Williams, Kane

    2015-01-01

    The influence of sea-cage aquaculture on wildfish assemblages has received little attention outside of Europe. Sea-cage aquaculture of finfish is a major focus in South Australia, and while the main species farmed is southern bluefin tuna (Thunnus maccoyii), there is also an important yellowtail kingfish (Seriola lalandi) industry. Yellowtail kingfish aquaculture did not appear to have any local or regional effects on demersal assemblages (primarily fish, but also some crustaceans) surveyed by baited remote underwater video (BRUV) in Fitzgerald Bay. We did, however, detect small scale spatial variations in assemblages within the bay. The type of bait used strongly influenced the assemblage recorded, with significantly greater numbers of fish attracted to deployments where sardines were used as the bait to compared to those with no bait. The pelleted feed used by the aquaculture industry was just as attractive as sardines at one site, and intermediate between sardines and no bait at the other. There was significant temporal variability in assemblages at both farm sites and one control site, while the second control site was temporally stable (over the 9 weeks of the study). Overall, the results suggested that aquaculture was having little if any impact on the abundance and assemblage structure of the demersal macrofauna in Fitzgerald Bay.

  5. Spatial trends in tidal flat shape and associated environmental parameters in South San Francisco Bay

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bearman, J.A.; Friedrichs, Carl T.; Jaffe, B.E.; Foxgrover, A.C.

    2010-01-01

    Spatial trends in the shape of profiles of South San Francisco Bay (SSFB) tidal flats are examined using bathymetric and lidar data collected in 2004 and 2005. Eigenfunction analysis reveals a dominant mode of morphologic variability related to the degree of convexity or concavity in the cross-shore profileindicative of (i) depositional, tidally dominant or (ii) erosional, wave impacted conditions. Two contrasting areas of characteristic shapenorth or south of a constriction in estuary width located near the Dumbarton Bridgeare recognized. This pattern of increasing or decreasing convexity in the inner or outer estuary is correlated to spatial variability in external and internal environmental parameters, and observational results are found to be largely consistent with theoretical expectations. Tidal flat convexity in SSFB is observed to increase (in decreasing order of significance) in response to increased deposition, increased tidal range, decreased fetch length, decreased sediment grain size, and decreased tidal flat width. ?? 2010 Coastal Education and Research Foundation.

  6. 33 CFR 334.770 - Gulf of Mexico and St. Andrew Sound, south of East Bay, Fla., Tyndall Drone Launch Corridor...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Sound, south of East Bay, Fla., Tyndall Drone Launch Corridor, Tyndall Air Force Base, Fla.; restricted.... Andrew Sound, south of East Bay, Fla., Tyndall Drone Launch Corridor, Tyndall Air Force Base, Fla... referred to as the “Tyndall Drone Launch Corridor.” (b) The regulations. (1) Military usage of areas...

  7. 33 CFR 334.770 - Gulf of Mexico and St. Andrew Sound, south of East Bay, Fla., Tyndall Drone Launch Corridor...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Sound, south of East Bay, Fla., Tyndall Drone Launch Corridor, Tyndall Air Force Base, Fla.; restricted.... Andrew Sound, south of East Bay, Fla., Tyndall Drone Launch Corridor, Tyndall Air Force Base, Fla.... Warnings will be broadcast by the Air Force on Channel 16 (156.80 MHz) and Channel 13 (27.115 MHz)...

  8. 33 CFR 334.770 - Gulf of Mexico and St. Andrew Sound, south of East Bay, Fla., Tyndall Drone Launch Corridor...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Sound, south of East Bay, Fla., Tyndall Drone Launch Corridor, Tyndall Air Force Base, Fla.; restricted.... Andrew Sound, south of East Bay, Fla., Tyndall Drone Launch Corridor, Tyndall Air Force Base, Fla.... Warnings will be broadcast by the Air Force on Channel 16 (156.80 MHz) and Channel 13 (27.115 MHz)...

  9. 33 CFR 334.770 - Gulf of Mexico and St. Andrew Sound, south of East Bay, Fla., Tyndall Drone Launch Corridor...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Sound, south of East Bay, Fla., Tyndall Drone Launch Corridor, Tyndall Air Force Base, Fla.; restricted.... Andrew Sound, south of East Bay, Fla., Tyndall Drone Launch Corridor, Tyndall Air Force Base, Fla.... Warnings will be broadcast by the Air Force on Channel 16 (156.80 MHz) and Channel 13 (27.115 MHz)...

  10. 33 CFR 334.770 - Gulf of Mexico and St. Andrew Sound, south of East Bay, Fla., Tyndall Drone Launch Corridor...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Sound, south of East Bay, Fla., Tyndall Drone Launch Corridor, Tyndall Air Force Base, Fla.; restricted.... Andrew Sound, south of East Bay, Fla., Tyndall Drone Launch Corridor, Tyndall Air Force Base, Fla.... Warnings will be broadcast by the Air Force on Channel 16 (156.80 MHz) and Channel 13 (27.115 MHz)...

  11. Ecological evaluation of proposed dredged material from the Point Frazer Bend Reach, Winyah Bay, South Carolina

    SciTech Connect

    Gardiner, W.W.; Ward, J.A.; Word, J.Q.

    1995-02-01

    The port of Georgetown, South Carolina, is served by navigational channels within Winyah Bay and the lower Sampit River. Dredging is required to maintain these waterways and to facilitate normal shipping traffic. Prior to dredging, ecological evaluations must be conducted to determine the suitability of the proposed dredged material for open-ocean disposal. These evaluations are to be performed under Section 103 of the Marine Protection, Research, and, Sanctuaries Act of 1972 (MPRSA), following the testing protocols presented in Evaluation of Dredged Material Proposed for Ocean Disposal Testing Manual, hereafter referred to as the 1991 Implementation Manual. The Charleston Intensive Project is a reevaluation of sediments collected from two stations (IH-2 and IH-3) in the Frazier Point Bend reach of the Winyah Bay channel. Reference sediment was also collected from site IH-R2, just south of Hare Island. The results of physical/chemical analyses indicated that some contaminants of concern were present in test treatments representing dredged material when compared with the reference treatment IH-R2. The results of this study indicate that, based on the acute toxicity and chemical analyses, dredged material represented by these test treatments is suitable for open-ocean disposal.

  12. Mapping South San Francisco Bay's seabed diversity for use in wetland restoration planning

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fregoso, Theresa; Jaffe, B.; Rathwell, G.; Collins, W.; Rhynas, K.; Tomlin, V.; Sullivan, S.

    2006-01-01

    Data for an acoustic seabed classification were collected as a part of a California Coastal Conservancy funded bathymetric survey of South Bay in early 2005.  A QTC VIEW seabed classification system recorded echoes from a sungle bean 50 kHz echosounder.  Approximately 450,000 seabed classification records were generated from an are of of about 30 sq. miles.  Ten district acoustic classes were identified through an unsupervised classification system using principle component and cluster analyses.  One hundred and sixty-one grab samples and forty-five benthic community composition data samples collected in the study area shortly before and after the seabed classification survey, further refined the ten classes into groups based on grain size.  A preliminary map of surficial grain size of South Bay was developed from the combination of the seabed classification and the grab and benthic samples.  The initial seabed classification map, the grain size map, and locations of sediment samples will be displayed along with the methods of acousitc seabed classification.

  13. Hyperspectral Biofilm Classification Analysis for Carrying Capacity of Migratory Birds in the South Bay Salt Ponds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ketron, T.; Hsu, W.; Kuss, A. M.; Nguyen, A.; Remar, A. C.; Newcomer, M. E.; Fleming, E.; Bebout, L.; Bebout, B.; Detweiler, A. M.; Skiles, J. W.

    2011-12-01

    Tidal marshes are highly productive ecosystems that support migratory birds as roosting and over-wintering habitats on the Pacific Flyway. Microphytobenthos, or more commonly 'biofilms' contribute significantly to the primary productivity of wetland ecosystems, and provide a substantial food source for macroinvertebrates and avian communities. In this study, biofilms were characterized based on taxonomic classification, density differences, and spectral signatures. These techniques were then applied to remotely sensed images to map biofilm densities and distributions in the South Bay Salt Ponds and predict the carrying capacity of these newly restored ponds for migratory birds. The GER-1500 spectroradiometer was used to obtain in situ spectral signatures for each density-class of biofilm. The spectral variation and taxonomic classification between high, medium, and low density biofilm cover types was mapped using in-situ spectral measurements and classification of EO-1 Hyperion and Landsat TM 5 images. Biofilm samples were also collected in the field to perform laboratory analyses including chlorophyll-a, taxonomic classification, and energy content. Comparison of the spectral signatures between the three density groups shows distinct variations useful for classification. Also, analysis of chlorophyll-a concentrations show statistically significant differences between each density group, using the Tukey-Kramer test at an alpha level of 0.05. The potential carrying capacity in South Bay Salt Ponds is estimated to be 250,000 birds.

  14. Does the benthos control phytoplankton biomass in South San Francisco Bay?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cloern, James E.

    1982-01-01

    South San Francisco Bay, USA, is a shallow coastal embayment that receives large inputs of nutrients (N. P, Si) and small local inputs of freshwater. Phytoplankton dynamics are typically characterized by a spring bloom when surface chlorophyll a increases from < 5 to > 40 mg m-3. The bloom persists for 2 to 4 wk, and then dissipates. Phytoplankton biomass remains low (chlorophyll a < 5 mg m-3) from May through December, although light and nutrient availability are sufficient to sustain growth rates of 1 to 1.5 divisions d-1 in the expansive shallows. Transport processes apparently exert a small influence on phytoplankton biomass, and calculated zooplankton grazing accounts for only a small reduction in net rate of phytoplankton population growth in the shallows. However, suspension-feeding bivalves are sufficiently abundant to filter a volume equivalent to the volume of South Bay at least once daily. These observations suggest that grazing by benthos is the primary mechanism controlling phytoplankton biomass during summer and fall.

  15. Hyperspectral Biofilm Classification Analysis for Carrying Capacity of Migratory Birds in the South Bay Salt Ponds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hsu, Wei-Chen; Kuss, Amber Jean; Ketron, Tyler; Nguyen, Andrew; Remar, Alex Covello; Newcomer, Michelle; Fleming, Erich; Debout, Leslie; Debout, Brad; Detweiler, Angela; Skiles, Joseph

    2011-01-01

    Tidal marshes are highly productive ecosystems that support migratory birds as roosting and over-wintering habitats on the Pacific Flyway. Microphytobenthos, or more commonly 'biofilms' contribute significantly to the primary productivity of wetland ecosystems, and provide a substantial food source for macroinvertebrates and avian communities. In this study, biofilms were characterized based on taxonomic classification, density differences, and spectral signatures. These techniques were then applied to remotely sensed images to map biofilm densities and distributions in the South Bay Salt Ponds and predict the carrying capacity of these newly restored ponds for migratory birds. The GER-1500 spectroradiometer was used to obtain in situ spectral signatures for each density-class of biofilm. The spectral variation and taxonomic classification between high, medium, and low density biofilm cover types was mapped using in-situ spectral measurements and classification of EO-1 Hyperion and Landsat TM 5 images. Biofilm samples were also collected in the field to perform laboratory analyses including chlorophyll-a, taxonomic classification, and energy content. Comparison of the spectral signatures between the three density groups shows distinct variations useful for classification. Also, analysis of chlorophyll-a concentrations show statistically significant differences between each density group, using the Tukey-Kramer test at an alpha level of 0.05. The potential carrying capacity in South Bay Salt Ponds is estimated to be 250,000 birds.

  16. Flow and suspended particulate transport in a tidal bottom layer, south San Francisco Bay, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cheng, R.T.; Gartner, J.W.; Cacchione, D.A.; Tate, G.B.

    1998-01-01

    Field investigations of the hydrodynamics and the resuspension and transport of particulate matter in a bottom boundary layer were carried out in South San Francisco Bay, California during March-April 1995. The GEOPROBE, an instrumented bottom tripod, and broad-band acousti Doppler current profilers were used in this investigation. The instrument assemblage provided detailed measurements of 1) turbulent mean velocity distribution within 1.5 m of sediment-w interface; 2) characteristics of 3-D tidal current in the water column; 3) friction velocity u* or bottom shear stress and bottom roughness length zo; 4) hydrodynamic conditions conducive for s resuspension; and 5) circulation patterns which are responsible for transporting suspended particulate matter in South San Francisco Bay. An unusual flow event was recorded by the instruments during March 8-11, 1995. A 3-D numerical model was implemented which re qualitatively, the unusual observations and supported the hypothesis that the unusual flow event caused by a combination of wind driven circulation and weak neap tides.

  17. 78 FR 56921 - South Bay Salt Pond Restoration Project, Phase 2 (Ponds R3, R4, R5, S5, A1, A2W, A8, A8S, A19...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-16

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service South Bay Salt Pond Restoration Project, Phase 2 (Ponds R3, R4, R5, S5, A1... 2 of the South Bay Salt Pond Restoration Project and consists of restoring and enhancing over 2,000.... The overall south bay salt pond restoration area includes 15,100 acres which the USFWS and the...

  18. First results on the Experiment FESTER on optical turbulence over False Bay South Africa: dependencies and consequences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sprung, Detlev; van Eijk, Alexander M. J.; Sucher, Erik; Eisele, Christian; Seiffer, Dirk; Stein, Karin

    2016-10-01

    The experiment FESTER (First European South African Transmission ExpeRiment) took place in 2015 to investigate the atmospheric influence on electro-optical systems performance across False Bay / South Africa on a long term basis. Several permanent stations for monitoring electro-optical propagation and atmospheric parameters were set up around the Bay. Additional intensive observation periods (IOPs) allowed for boat runs to assess the inhomogeneous atmospheric propagation conditions over water. In this paper we focus on the distribution of optical turbulence over the Bay. The different impact of water masses originating from the Indian Ocean and the Benguela current on the development of optical turbulence is discussed. The seasonal behavior of optical turbulence is presented and its effect on electro-optical system performance examined.

  19. Metals and pesticides in commercial bivalve mollusc production areas in the North and South Bays, Santa Catarina (Brazil).

    PubMed

    de Souza, R V; Garbossa, L H P; Campos, C J A; Vianna, L F de N; Vanz, A; Rupp, G S

    2016-04-15

    Concentrations of heavy metals were quantified in mussels Perna perna and Pacific oysters Crassostrea gigas in 28 cultivation sites in the North and South Bays, SC (Brazil). Concentrations of pesticides were also quantified in these bivalve, water and sediment samples collected in 14 cultivation sites on four occasions in the period October 2012-October 2013. Pesticides were not detected in any of the mussel, oyster, water or sediment samples. The South Bay was found to be generally more contaminated with As while the North Bay showed higher concentrations of Ni. Concentrations of Pb and Cd were below the limit of detection of the method (0.5mg/kg) in all samples. Mussels accumulated more As and Ni than oysters, while the opposite was observed for Cu. Metal concentrations were below the maximum levels for foodstuffs specified in the Brazilian legislation.

  20. 33 CFR 334.660 - Gulf of Mexico and Apalachicola Bay south of Apalachicola, Fla., Drone Recovery Area, Tyndall Air...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Gulf of Mexico and Apalachicola Bay south of Apalachicola, Fla., Drone Recovery Area, Tyndall Air Force Base, Fla. 334.660 Section 334... Apalachicola, Fla., Drone Recovery Area, Tyndall Air Force Base, Fla. (a) The restricted area. A...

  1. 78 FR 1246 - Otay River Estuary Restoration Project; South San Diego Bay Unit and Sweetwater Marsh Unit of the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-08

    ... of the strategies identified to meet this goal is to restore native habitats in the Otay River... Marina. In order to restore estuarine habitat in the Otay River floodplain, we have initially estimated... Fish and Wildlife Service Otay River Estuary Restoration Project; South San Diego Bay Unit...

  2. 33 CFR 334.660 - Gulf of Mexico and Apalachicola Bay south of Apalachicola, Fla., Drone Recovery Area, Tyndall Air...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Bay south of Apalachicola, Fla., Drone Recovery Area, Tyndall Air Force Base, Fla. 334.660 Section 334... Apalachicola, Fla., Drone Recovery Area, Tyndall Air Force Base, Fla. (a) The restricted area. A rectangular... by the Commander, Headquarters 4756th Air Defense Wing (Weapons) U. S. Air Force, Tyndall Air...

  3. 33 CFR 334.660 - Gulf of Mexico and Apalachicola Bay south of Apalachicola, Fla., Drone Recovery Area, Tyndall Air...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Bay south of Apalachicola, Fla., Drone Recovery Area, Tyndall Air Force Base, Fla. 334.660 Section 334... Apalachicola, Fla., Drone Recovery Area, Tyndall Air Force Base, Fla. (a) The restricted area. A rectangular... by the Commander, Headquarters 4756th Air Defense Wing (Weapons) U. S. Air Force, Tyndall Air...

  4. 33 CFR 334.660 - Gulf of Mexico and Apalachicola Bay south of Apalachicola, Fla., Drone Recovery Area, Tyndall Air...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Bay south of Apalachicola, Fla., Drone Recovery Area, Tyndall Air Force Base, Fla. 334.660 Section 334... Apalachicola, Fla., Drone Recovery Area, Tyndall Air Force Base, Fla. (a) The restricted area. A rectangular... by the Commander, Headquarters 4756th Air Defense Wing (Weapons) U. S. Air Force, Tyndall Air...

  5. 33 CFR 334.660 - Gulf of Mexico and Apalachicola Bay south of Apalachicola, Fla., Drone Recovery Area, Tyndall Air...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Bay south of Apalachicola, Fla., Drone Recovery Area, Tyndall Air Force Base, Fla. 334.660 Section 334... Apalachicola, Fla., Drone Recovery Area, Tyndall Air Force Base, Fla. (a) The restricted area. A rectangular... by the Commander, Headquarters 4756th Air Defense Wing (Weapons) U. S. Air Force, Tyndall Air...

  6. Bioavailability of Cd, Cr, and Zn to bivalves in south San Francisco Bay

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, B.G.; Luoma, S.N.; Geen, A. van

    1995-12-31

    The bioavailability of Cd, Cr, and Zn to benthic bivalves (Potamocorbular amurensis and Macoma balthica) is affected by the type of natural particles the animals ingest, and the concentration and speciation of dissolved metals. During a spring phytoplankton bloom in south San Francisco Bay dissolved Cd and Zn concentrations decreased to about half of pre-bloom concentrations. The concentrations of particulate Cd and Zn concentrations increased due to preferential uptake of these metals by phytoplankton. Assimilation of Cd was more efficient when clams ate pure phytoplankton (80% for M. balthica and 29% for P. amurensis) than when they were exposed to inorganic-dominated particles. M. balthica and P. amurensis assimilated 72% and 42% of Zn associated with the particles during the bloom. Assimilation of Cr was low (<6%) and particle type had little effect on its availability. Accumulation of Cd via the dissolved route was low in high salinity waters (15 ppt). Metal bioaccumulation in the bivalves was modeled using the experimentally determined physiological parameters. The results were compared to metal concentrations in clams from the Bay. The model suggested that the clams accumulated Cd and Zn at higher rates during the phytoplankton bloom, although dissolved metal concentrations in the water column were reduced.

  7. View of the Salinas River Valley area south of Monterey Bay, California

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    A vertical view of the Salinas River Valley area south of Monterey Bay, California area is seen in this Skylab 3 Earth Resources Experiments Package S190-B (five-inch earth terrain camera) photograph taken from the Skylab space station in Earth orbit. The valley is an irrigated agricultural area, as indicated by the dark-green and light-gray rectangular patterns in the center of the picture. The city of Salinas is barely visible under the cloud cover at the top (north) end of the valley. The dark mass on the left (west) side of the valley is the Santa Lucia mountain range. The Big Sur area is on the left and partly covered by clouds. The Diablo Range forms the dark mass in the lower right (southeast) corner of the photograph. The town of Hillister is the grey area in the dark-green rectangular farm tracts which occupy the floor of the San Benito Valley in the upper right (northeast) corner of the photograph. The Salinas River flows northwestward toward Monterey Bay. The towns of Soleda

  8. Space use by Forster's Terns breeding in South San Francisco Bay

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bluso-Demers, J.; Colwell, M.A.; Takekawa, J.Y.; Ackerman, J.T.

    2008-01-01

    Parental care behaviors often differ in dimorphic seabirds, leading to sex-specific differences in foraging behaviors. However, few studies have examined sex-specific foraging behaviors in monomorphic seabirds. Using radio-telemetry, we studied Forster's Terns (Sterna forsteri) - a monomorphic and socially monogamous seabird - breeding in the South San Francisco Bay, California. Space use did not differ between males and females. Instead, space use varied by breeding stage and colony affiliation. Forster's Terns were located farthest from the nest during pre-breeding and post-breeding time periods, and closest to the nest during incubation and chick-rearing. Home-range size and core-use areas decreased as the breeding season progressed and were most concentrated in the post-breeding stage. The results of this and other studies indicate that tems, unlike other monomorphic seabirds studied, do not exhibit sex-specific differences in space use.

  9. South-Eastern Bay of Biscay eddy-induced anomalies and their effect on chlorophyll distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caballero, Ainhoa; Rubio, Anna; Ruiz, Simón; Le Cann, Bernard; Testor, Pierre; Mader, Julien; Hernández, Carlos

    2016-10-01

    The analysis of deep-water glider hydrographic and fluorescence data, together with satellite measurements provides a new insight into eddy-induced anomalies within the South-Eastern Bay of Biscay, during summer. Two cyclonic eddies and a SWODDY have been observed in different glider transects and by means of different sources of satellite data. Vertical profiles reveal complex structures (characteristic of the second baroclinic mode): upward/downward displacement of the seasonal/permanent thermocline in the case of X13 and the opposite thermocline displacements in the case of the cyclones. This is a typical behaviour of mode-water and "cyclonic thinny" eddies. A qualitative analysis of the vertical velocities in the anticyclone indicates that though geostrophy dominates the main water column, depressing the isopycnals, near the sea-surface the eddy-wind interaction affects the vertical currents, favouring Ekman pumping and upwelling. The analysis of the Θ-S properties corroborates that inside cyclones and between the 26 and 27 isopycnals, net downwelling occurs. These two types of intra-thermocline lenses appear to deeply impact the Chl-a fluorescence profiles, since the maximum Chl-a fluorescence is located just below the seasonal thermocline. The mean Chl-a fluorescence was higher in the anticyclone than within the cyclones and the mean for the entire study period; the highest values were observed in the centre of the anticyclone. These results are in agreement with previous findings concerning the SWODDY F90 and surrounding cyclones, located in the South-Western Bay of Biscay. Significant differences in the Θ-S properties of the two cyclonic mesoscale structures have been observed: higher temperatures and lower salinity in the easternmost cyclone. Finally, time variation of the salinity content of the shallowest water masses of the anticyclone (salinity decreasing over time), probably indicates advective mixing processes occurred during the mission.

  10. Seasonal occurrence of Calanus sinicus in the northern South China Sea: A case study in Daya Bay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Kaizhi; Yan, Yan; Yin, Jianqiang; Tan, Yehui; Huang, Liangmin

    2016-07-01

    Calanus sinicus is a calanoid copepod species that is distributed broadly in the continental shelf waters of the Northwest Pacific Ocean. This study aims to understand the seasonal variations of the distribution and abundance of C. sinicus in Daya Bay from the northern South China Sea (nSCS) and to explore its possible seasonal occurrence based on current and historical data. Monthly surveys of the species were conducted in Daya Bay, a subtropical bay in the nSCS, during the period between May 2013 and April 2014. C. sinicus was present from January to May, and disappeared after June. The spatial pattern of C. sinicus in the bay was characterized by its distribution into the southwestern part of the bay in January, bay-wide spread in February, patchiness in March and virtual retreat from the bay mouth in April. Reproduction occurred from January to April at a low rate. Adults were mostly abundant in January and declined to a minimum in April. The percentage of early developmental stages increased from 54.1% in January to 90.1% in April, as collected by a fine mesh size. Based on historical data from Daya Bay and from the coastal waters of the nSCS, C. sinicus was carried into the nSCS from the East China Sea by the China Coastal Current during the northeastern monsoon period and survived from December to October of the next year. The summer coastal upwelling may provide suitable refuges for the species in the nSCS by limiting the adverse effects caused by high temperatures. Our results confirm the viewpoint that C. sinicus could exist in the nSCS in summer and fall.

  11. Pesticide occurrence in selected South Florida canals and Biscayne Bay during high agricultural activity.

    PubMed

    Harman-Fetcho, Jennifer A; Hapeman, Cathleen J; McConnell, Laura L; Potter, Thomas L; Rice, Clifford P; Sadeghi, Ali M; Smith, Ramona D; Bialek, Krystyna; Sefton, Kerry A; Schaffer, Bruce A; Curry, Richard

    2005-07-27

    Climate and soil conditions in South Florida along with an extensive canal system facilitate movement of agricultural pesticides into surface waters. In a two-year study (2002-2004) of the currently used pesticides in South Florida, atrazine, endosulfan, metolachlor, chlorpyrifos, and chlorothalonil were the most frequently detected in the canals and in Biscayne Bay, with average concentrations of 16, 11, 9.0, 2.6, and 6.0 ng/L, respectively. Concentrations of atrazine and chlorpyrifos were highest near corn production. Chlorothalonil and endosulfan concentrations were highest near vegetable production, with no clear trend for metolachlor, which is used on multiple crops. Concentration data were used to calculate an aquatic life hazard potential for the planting period (November) versus the harvest period (March). This analysis indicated that a higher hazard potential occurs during harvest, primarily from the use of endosulfan. These data will also serve to document canal conditions prior to implementation of the Comprehensive Everglades Restoration Plan (CERP).

  12. Restoration of mangrove plantations and colonisation by native species in Leizhou bay, South China

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ren, H.; Jian, S.; Lu, H.; Zhang, Q.; Shen, W.; Han, W.; Yin, Z.; Guo, Q.

    2008-01-01

    To examine the natural colonisation of native mangrove species into remediated exotic mangrove stands in Leizhou Bay, South China, we compared soil physical-chemical properties, community structure and recruitments of barren mangrove areas, native mangrove species plantations, and exotic mangrove species-Sonneratia apetala Buch.Ham-between plantations and natural forest. We found that severely degraded mangrove stands could not regenerate naturally without human intervention due to severely altered local environments, whereas some native species had been recruited into the 4-10 year S. apetala plantations. In the first 10 years, the exotic species S. apetala grew better than native species such as Rhizophora stylosa Griff and Kandelia candel (Linn.) Druce. The mangrove plantation gradually affected soil physical and chemical properties during its recovery. The exotic S. apetala was more competitive than native species and its plantation was able to restore soil organic matter in about 14 years. Thus, S. apetala can be considered as a pioneer species to improve degraded habitats to facilitate recolonisation by native mangrove species. However, removal to control proliferation may be needed at late stages to facilitate growth of native species. To ensure sustainability of mangroves in South China, the existing mangrove wetlands must be managed as an ecosystem, with long-term scientific monitoring program in place. ?? 2007 The Ecological Society of Japan.

  13. Vegetation establishment success in restored carolina bay depressions on the Savannah River Site, South Carolina - phase one.

    SciTech Connect

    Sharitz, Rebecca, A.; Mulhouse, John, M.

    2004-05-01

    Successful wetlands restoration must re-establish or enhance three parameters: wetland hydrology, hydric soils, and hydrophytic vegetation (Mitsch and Gosselink 2000). On the Savannah River Site, South Carolina, restoration of small Carolina bay depression-wetlands was initiated in FY 2001 to provide wetland acreage for mitigation banking (US DOE 1997). Sixteen small depressions that had historically been drained for agricultural purposes were selected for restoration, and an additional four were initially chosen to serve as non-restored controls. Restoration treatments included plugging the existing ditches to increase water volume retention and wetland hydroperiod and clear-cutting removal of woody vegetation in the interiors. Planned endpoints of the restoration were herbaceous meadow and forested savanna bay interiors, and pine savanna and pine/hardwood forested bay margins (Barton and Singer 2001). To promote forested savanna interiors, saplings of bald cypress and swamp tupelo were planted following removal of the woody species.

  14. Phytoplankton community structure and environmental parameters in aquaculture areas of Daya Bay, South China Sea.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhaohui; Zhao, Jiangang; Zhang, Yujuan; Cao, Yu

    2009-01-01

    Environmental characteristics and phytoplankton community structure were investigated in two aquaculture areas in Dapeng Cove of Daya Bay, South China Sea, between April 2005 and June 2006. Phytoplankton abundance ranged between 5.0 and 8877.5 cells/mL, with an average of 751.8 cells/mL. The seasonal cycle of phytoplankton were demonstrated by frequent oscillations, with recurrent high abundances from late spring to autumn and a peak stage in late winter. Diatoms were the predominant phytoplankton group, accounting for 93.21% of the total abundance. The next most abundant group was the dinoflagellates, which made up only 1.24% of total abundance. High concentrations of Alexandrium tamarense (Lebour) Balech with a maximum of 603.0 cells/mL were firstly recorded in this area known for high rates of paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP) contamination. Temperatures and salinities were within the suitable values for the growth of phytoplankton, and were important in phytoplankton seasonal fluctuations. The operation of the Daya Bay Nuclear Power Station (DNPS) exerts influences on the phytoplankton community and resulted in the high abundances of toxic dinoflagellate species during the winter months. Dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN) and dissolved silicate (DSi) were sufficient, and rarely limited for the growth of phytoplankton. Dissolved inorganic phosphorus (DIP) was the most necessary element for phytoplankton growth. The enriched environments accelerated the growth of small diatoms, and made for the shift in predominant species from large diatom Rhizosolenia spp. to chain-forming diatoms such as Skeletonema costatum, Pseudo-nitzschia spp. and Thalassiosira subtilis.

  15. Carbon cycling fed by methane seepage at the shallow Cumberland Bay, South Georgia, sub-Antarctic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geprägs, Patrizia; Torres, Marta E.; Mau, Susan; Kasten, Sabine; Römer, Miriam; Bohrmann, Gerhard

    2016-04-01

    Recent studies have suggested that the marine contribution of methane from shallow regions and melting marine-terminating glaciers may have been underestimated. Here we report on methane sources and potential sinks associated with methane seeps in Cumberland Bay, South Georgia's largest fjord system. The average organic carbon content in the upper 8 m of the sediment is around 0.65 wt %; this observation combined with Parasound data suggest that the methane gas accumulations probably originate from peat-bearing sediments currently located several tens of meters below the seafloor. Only one of our cores indicates upward advection; instead most of the methane is transported via diffusion. Sulfate and methane flux estimates indicate that a large fraction of methane is consumed by anaerobic oxidation of methane (AOM). Carbon cycling at the sulfate-methane transition (SMT) results in a marked fractionation of the δ13C-CH4 from an estimated source value of -65‰ to a value as low as -96‰ just below the SMT. Methane concentrations in sediments are high, especially close to the seepage sites (˜40 mM); however, concentrations in the water column are relatively low (max. 58 nM) and can be observed only close to the seafloor. Methane is trapped in the lowermost water mass; however, measured microbial oxidation rates reveal very low activity with an average turnover of 3.1 years. We therefore infer that methane must be transported out of the bay in the bottom water layer. A mean sea-air flux of only 0.005 nM/m2 s confirms that almost no methane reaches the atmosphere.

  16. Legacy Mercury in Alviso Slough, South San Francisco Bay, California: Concentration, Speciation and Mobility

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Marvin-DiPasquale, Mark; Cox, Marisa H.

    2007-01-01

    Mercury (Hg) is a significant contaminant in the waters, sediment and biota of San Francisco Bay, largely resulting from extensive historic regional mining activities. Alviso Slough represents one of the most mercury contaminated waterways entering south San Francisco Bay, as it is associated with the drainage of the New Almaden mercury mining district. Wetland habitat restoration of former salt manufacturing ponds adjacent to Alviso Slough is currently being planned. One management scenario being considered is a levee breach between Alviso Slough and Pond A8, which will allow reconnection of the salt pond with the tidal slough. This action is projected to increase the tidal prism within Alviso Slough and result in some degree of sediment remobilization as the main channel deepens and widens. The focus of the current study is to assess: a) the current mercury species composition and concentration in sediments within the Alviso Slough main channel and its associated fringing marsh plain, b) how much of each mercury species will be mobilized as a result of projected channel deepening and widening, and c) potential changes in inorganic reactive mercury bioavailability (for conversion to toxic methylmercury) associated with the mobilized sediment fraction. The current report details the field sampling approach and all laboratory analyses conducted, as well as provides the complete dataset associated with this project including a) a quantitative assessment of mercury speciation (total mercury, reactive mercury and methylmercury), b) estimates of the quantity of sediment and mercury mobilized based on 20-foot and 40-foot levee wall notch scenarios, and c) results from a sediment scour experiment examining the changes in the reactive mercury pool under four treatment conditions (high / low salinity and oxic / anoxic water). Ancillary sediment data also collected and reported herein include bulk density, organic content, magnetic susceptibility, percent dry weight, grain

  17. Temporal and spatial distribution of the meiobenthic community in Daya Bay, South China Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, L.; Li, H. X.; Yan, Y.

    2012-04-01

    Spatial and temporal biodiversity patterns of the meiobenthos were studied for the first time in Daya Bay, which is a tropical semi-enclosed basin located in the South China Sea. The abundance, biomass, and composition of the meiobenthos and the basic environmental factors in the bay were investigated. The following 19 taxonomic groups were represented in the meiofauna: Nematoda, Copepoda, Polychaeta, Oligochaeta, Kinorhyncha, Gastrotricha, Ostracoda, Bivalvia, Turbellaria, Nemertinea, Sipuncula, Hydroida, Amphipoda, Cumacea, Halacaroidea, Priapulida, Echinodermata, Tanaidacea, and Rotifera. Total abundance and biomass of the meiobenthos showed great spatial and temporal variation, with mean values of 993.57 ± 455.36 ind cm-2 and 690.51 ± 210.64 μg 10 cm-2, respectively. Nematodes constituted 95.60 % of the total abundance and thus had the greatest effect on meiofauna quantity and distribution, followed by copepods (1.55 %) and polychaetes (1.39 %). Meiobenthos abundance was significantly negatively correlated with water depth at stations (r=-0.747, P<0.05) and significantly negatively correlated with silt-clay content (r=-0.516, P<0.01) and medium diameter (r=-0.499, P<0.01) of the sediment. Similar results were found for correlations of biomass and abundance of nematodes with environmental parameters. Polychaete abundance was positively correlated with the bottom water temperature (r=0.456, P<0.01). Meiobenthos abundance differed significantly among seasons (P<0.05), although no significant difference among stations and the interaction of station × season was detected by two-way ANOVA. In terms of vertical distribution, most of the meiobenthos was found in the surface layer of sediment. This pattern was apparent for nematodes and copepods, but a vertical distribution pattern for polychaetes was not as obvious. Based on the biotic indices and analyses of their correlations and variance, the diversity of this community was likely to be influenced by

  18. Glaciomarine sedimentation and landforms in Admiralty Bay, South Shetland Islands, Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Magrani, Fabio; Ayres Neto, Arthur; Vieira, Rosemary

    2015-04-01

    This work consists on the integration and interpretation of high-resolution seismic profiles, geological sampling and multibeam bathymetry in order to analyze and understand the evolution of the deglaciation of Admiralty Bay, South Shetland Islands, Antarctica, since the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM). Data were obtained from three expeditions to Antarctica between 2009 and 2013, totaling 500 km of seismic lines and five geological cores. The characterization of the bottom geology was performed by analyzing the echocharacters and the sedimentary thickness of the glaciomarine deposits. Its correlation with the collected samples provided interpretation of the depositional paleoenvironments, allowing the reconstruction and evolution of the glaciers since the LGM and the recognition of glaciomarine processes. Multibeam bathymetry also provided records of submarine landforms related to glacial events and changes in positions of glaciers in the region. In this way, we ought to answer the question: which glaciomarine records are present in Admiralty Bay that can broaden our understanding of the evolution of its deglaciation during the advances and retreats of glaciers that once dominated the fjord, and its sedimentary processes? Four different echocharacters have been identified. Echoes I and II show good resolution and are characterized by continuous and sharp echoes with sub-parallel reflections and the presence of glaciomarine muds. Very prolonged echoes and absence of sub-parallel reflectors characterizes Echoes III and IV. Eco III is associated with the shallower portions of the bay, with little sediment thickness, sandier content and presence of ice rafted debris. Eco IV is associated with morainical banks and grounding zones. Seabed landform features show that the region experienced major glacial advance, with subsequent rapid retreat of the glaciers in the deeper parts of the fjord, followed by slower retreat, with the presence of several recessional moraines in the

  19. Storm-induced inner-continental shelf circulation and sediment transport: Long Bay, South Carolina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Warner, John C.; Armstrong, Brandy; Sylvester, Charlene S.; Voulgaris, George; Nelson, Tim; Schwab, William C.; Denny, Jane F.

    2012-07-01

    Long Bay is a sediment-starved, arcuate embayment located along the US East Coast connecting both South and North Carolina. In this region the rates and pathways of sediment transport are important because they determine the availability of sediments for beach nourishment, seafloor habitat, and navigation. The impact of storms on sediment transport magnitude and direction were investigated during the period October 2003-April 2004 using bottom mounted flow meters, acoustic backscatter sensors and rotary sonars deployed at eight sites offshore of Myrtle Beach, SC, to measure currents, water levels, surface waves, salinity, temperature, suspended sediment concentrations, and bedform morphology. Measurements identify that sediment mobility is caused by waves and wind driven currents from three predominant types of storm patterns that pass through this region: (1) cold fronts, (2) warm fronts and (3) low-pressure storms. The passage of a cold front is accompanied by a rapid change in wind direction from primarily northeastward to southwestward. The passage of a warm front is accompanied by an opposite change in wind direction from mainly southwestward to northeastward. Low-pressure systems passing offshore are accompanied by a change in wind direction from southwestward to southeastward as the offshore storm moves from south to north. During the passage of cold fronts more sediment is transported when winds are northeastward and directed onshore than when the winds are directed offshore, creating a net sediment flux to the north-east. Likewise, even though the warm front has an opposite wind pattern, net sediment flux is typically to the north-east due to the larger fetch when the winds are northeastward and directed onshore. During the passage of low-pressure systems strong winds, waves, and currents to the south are sustained creating a net sediment flux southwestward. During the 3-month deployment a total of 8 cold fronts, 10 warm fronts, and 10 low-pressure systems

  20. Lower Flathead System Fisheries Study, South Bay of Flathead Lake, Volume III, 1983-1987 Final Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Cross, David; Waite, Ian

    1988-06-01

    The Lower Flathead System Fisheries Study assessed the effects of Kerr Dam operation on the fisheries of the lower Flathead ecosystem. South Bay, the southern most lobe of Flathead Lake, is the most extensive area of shallow water, and therefore, most effected by changes in lake levels. This study began in January of 1984 and was completed in early 1987. Vegetative and structural cover are relatively limited in South Bay, a condition which could contribute to lower recruitment for some fish species. Our data show that the study area contained 0.04% structural and 5.4% vegetative cover in June at full pool. Both figures are less than 1.0% at minimum pool. Structural complexity mediates the ecological interactions between littoral zone fish and their prey, and can affect local productivity and growth in fish. Structural complexity may also be important to overwinter survival of young perch in Flathead Lake. Winter conditions, including ice cover and fall drawdown, seasonally eliminate the vegetative portion of most rooted macrophytes in South Bay. This results in substantial loss of what little structural cover exists, depriving the perch population of habitat which has been occupied all summer. The loss of cover from draw-down concentrates and probably exposes perch to greater predation, including cannibalism, than would occur if structural complexity were greater. 33 refs., 10 figs., 5 tabs.

  1. Health Effects Due to Radionuclides Content of Solid Minerals within Port of Richards Bay, South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Masok, Felix B.; Masiteng, Paulus L.; Mavunda, Risimati D.; Maleka, Peane P.

    2016-01-01

    This study assessed the radiological health hazards to various body organs of workers working within Transnet Precinct in Richards Bay in Kwazulu-Natal, South Africa due to radionuclide content of mineral ores often stored within the facility. Thirty samples were collected from five mineral ores (rock phosphate, rutile, zircon, coal and hematite) and analyzed for 238U, 234U, 226Ra, 210Pb, 235U, 232Th, 228Ra, 228Th and 40K using delayed neutron activation analysis and low energy gamma spectroscopy. Rutile was found to be the most radioactive mineral ore within the facility with 210Pb concentration of 759.00 ± 106.00 Bq·kg−1. Effective annual dose rate in (mSv·y−1) delivered to different organs of the body: testes, bone marrow, whole body, lungs and ovaries from mineral ores were such that dose from mineral ores decreased in the order coal > rutile > rock phosphate > hematite > zircon. The organs with the highest received dose rate were the testes and this received dose was from coal. However, all of the calculated absorbed dose rates to organs of the body were below the maximum permissible safety limits. PMID:27898013

  2. Bioavailable metals in tourist beaches of Richards Bay, Kwazulu-Natal, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Vetrimurugan, E; Jonathan, M P; Roy, Priyadarsi D; Shruti, V C; Ndwandwe, O M

    2016-04-15

    Acid Leachable Trace Metal (ALTMs) concentrations in tourist beaches of Richards Bay, Kwazulu-Natal, South Africa were assessed. 53 surface sediment samples were collected from five different beaches (Kwambonambi Long Beach; Nhlabane Beach; Five Mile Beach; Alkanstrand Beach and Port Durnford Beach). The results of ALTMs (Fe, Mn, Cr, Cu, Ni, Co, Pb, Cd, Zn, As, Hg) suggest that they are enriched naturally and with some local industrial sources for (avg. in μgg(-1)) Fe (3530-7219), Mn (46-107.11), Cd (0.43-1.00) and Zn (48-103.98). Statistical results indicate that metal concentrations were from natural origin attributed to leaching, weathering process and industrial sources. Comparative studies of metal concentrations with sediment quality guidelines and ecotoxicological values indicate that there is no adverse biological effect. Enrichment factor and geoaccumulation indices results indicate moderate enhancement of Fe (Igeo class 1 in FMB), Cd (EF>50; Igeo classes 2-4) and Zn (Igeo classes 1 & 2).

  3. Physical and biological changes in the south Bay of Bengal due to the Baaz cyclone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muni Krishna, K.; Song, Guiting

    2015-10-01

    Baaz cyclone is a slow moving weak cyclone in the south central Bay of Bengal (SCBoB) and it lingered for 3 days and caused a significant cooling (2.6 °C) and enhancement of chlorophyll-a (5.6 mg/m3) at the right side of the cyclone track. In this study multi-satellite observations are used to explore the bio-physical changes due to the cyclone. We found that the speed of the Ekman pumping velocity is ten times more and the mixed layer is deepened about 19 meters during the cyclone than pre cyclone period. The maximum sea surface cooling (1.2-2.6 °C) took place when the translation speed of cyclone is only 1.2-2.3 m/s. So the extent of the sea surface temperature drop is probably related to the moving speed of cyclone and the mixed layer depth. In addition, the area with large decline of the SSH can signify the location where the maximum cooling occurs.

  4. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in surface sediments and marine organisms from the Daya Bay, South China.

    PubMed

    Sun, Run-Xia; Lin, Qin; Ke, Chang-Liang; Du, Fei-Yan; Gu, Yang-Guang; Cao, Kun; Luo, Xiao-Jun; Mai, Bi-Xian

    2016-02-15

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were investigated in the marine ecosystem of the Daya Bay, South China. The PAH concentrations ranged from 340 to 710 ng/g dry weight in the sediments and from 110 to 520 ng/g wet weight in marine organisms, respectively. The dominant compounds were three- and four-ring PAHs in the sediments (53%-89%) and two- and three-ring PAHs in the marine species (67%-94%), respectively. PAHs mainly originated from both pyrolytic and petrogenic sources. Comparison with the effects-based sediment quality guideline values suggested that the ecological risk caused by the total PAHs was relatively low (less than 25% incidence of adverse effects) in the sedimentary environment. The median cancer risk level via seafood consumption (1.6 × 10(-5) for urban residents and 1.2 × 10(-5) for rural residents, respectively) was slightly higher than the maximum admissible level (10(-5)) set by US EPA, but lower than the priority risk level (10(-4)).

  5. Mandelalides A-D, cytotoxic macrolides from a new Lissoclinum species of South African tunicate.

    PubMed

    Sikorska, Justyna; Hau, Andrew M; Anklin, Clemens; Parker-Nance, Shirley; Davies-Coleman, Michael T; Ishmael, Jane E; McPhail, Kerry L

    2012-07-20

    Mandelalides A-D are variously glycosylated, unusual polyketide macrolides isolated from a new species of Lissoclinum ascidian collected from South Africa, Algoa Bay near Port Elizabeth and the surrounding Nelson Mandela Metropole. Their planar structures were elucidated on submilligram samples by comprehensive analysis of 1D and 2D NMR data, supported by mass spectrometry. The assignment of relative configuration was accomplished by consideration of homonuclear and heteronuclear coupling constants in tandem with ROESY data. The absolute configuration was assigned for mandelalide A after chiral GC-MS analysis of the hydrolyzed monosaccharide (2-O-methyl-α-L-rhamnose) and consideration of ROESY correlations between the monosaccharide and aglycone in the intact natural product. The resultant absolute configuration of the mandelalide A macrolide was extrapolated to propose the absolute configurations of mandelalides B-D. Remarkably, mandelalide B contained the C-4' epimeric 2-O-methyl-6-dehydro-α-L-talose. Mandelalides A and B showed potent cytotoxicity to human NCI-H460 lung cancer cells (IC(50), 12 and 44 nM, respectively) and mouse Neuro-2A neuroblastoma cells (IC(50), 29 and 84 nM, respectively).

  6. Bioflocculant production by Bacillus sp. Gilbert isolated from a marine environment in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Ugbenyen, A M; Cosa, S; Mabinya, L V; Okoh, A I

    2014-01-01

    In our previous study we reported on the bioflocculant production by a Bacillus species isolated from sediment samples of Algoa Bay in the Eastern Cape Province of South Africa. In current study we carried out further evaluation on the effect of different culture conditions on the bioflocculant production, as well as characterised the bioflocculant produced in detail. The bacteria produced bioflocculant optimally under the following conditions: using sodium carbonate (95.2% flocculating activity) and potassium nitrate (76.6% flocculating activity) as carbon and nitrogen sources, respectively; inoculum size of 3% (v/v); initial pH 9.0; and Al3+ as coagulant aid. The crude bioflocculant retained 44.2% residual flocculating activity after heating at 100 degrees C for 15 min. Chemical analysis of the Bacillus sp. Gilbert purified bioflocculant demonstrated that it was composed mainly of polysaccharide. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy analysis revealed the presence of hydroxyl, carboxyl and methylene groups in the bioflocculant and energy-dispersive X-ray analysis detected the elemental composition in mass proportion (% w/w) of C, N, O, S and P as 4.12 : 7.40: 39.92: 3.00: 13.91. Scanning electron micrograph image of the bioflocculant revealed an amorphous compound.

  7. Mandelalides A-D, cytotoxic macrolides from a new Lissoclinum species of South African tunicate

    PubMed Central

    Sikorska, Justyna; Hau, Andrew M.; Anklin, Clemens; Parker-Nance, Shirley; Davies-Coleman, Michael T.; Ishmael, Jane E.; McPhail, Kerry L.

    2012-01-01

    Mandelalides A-D are variously glycosylated, unusual polyketide macrolides isolated from a new species of Lissoclinum ascidian collected from South Africa, Algoa Bay near Port Elizabeth and the surrounding Nelson Mandela Metropole. Their planar structures were elucidated on sub-milligram samples by comprehensive analysis of 1D and 2D NMR data, supported by mass spectrometry. The assignment of relative configuration was accomplished by consideration of homonuclear and heteronuclear coupling constants in tandem with ROESY data. The absolute configuration was assigned for mandelalide A after chiral GC-MS analysis of the hydrolyzed monosaccharide (2-O-methyl-α-L-rhamnose) and consideration of ROESY correlations between the monosaccharide and aglycone in the intact natural product. The resultant absolute configuration of the mandelalide A macrolide was extrapolated to propose the absolute configurations of mandelalides B-D. Remarkably, mandelalide B contained the C-4′ epimeric 2-O-methyl-6-dehydro-α-L-talose. Mandelalides A and B showed potent cytotoxicity to human NCI-H460 lung cancer cells (IC50, 12 and 44 nM, respectively) and mouse Neuro-2A neuroblastoma cells (IC50, 29 and 84 nM, respectively). PMID:22712890

  8. Storm-induced inner-continental shelf circulation and sediment transport: Long Bay, South Carolina

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Warner, John C.; Armstrong, Brandy N.; Sylvester, Charlene S.; Voulgaris, George; Nelson, Tim; Schwab, William C.; Denny, Jane F.

    2012-01-01

    Long Bay is a sediment-starved, arcuate embayment located along the US East Coast connecting both South and North Carolina. In this region the rates and pathways of sediment transport are important because they determine the availability of sediments for beach nourishment, seafloor habitat, and navigation. The impact of storms on sediment transport magnitude and direction were investigated during the period October 2003–April 2004 using bottom mounted flow meters, acoustic backscatter sensors and rotary sonars deployed at eight sites offshore of Myrtle Beach, SC, to measure currents, water levels, surface waves, salinity, temperature, suspended sediment concentrations, and bedform morphology. Measurements identify that sediment mobility is caused by waves and wind driven currents from three predominant types of storm patterns that pass through this region: (1) cold fronts, (2) warm fronts and (3) low-pressure storms. The passage of a cold front is accompanied by a rapid change in wind direction from primarily northeastward to southwestward. The passage of a warm front is accompanied by an opposite change in wind direction from mainly southwestward to northeastward. Low-pressure systems passing offshore are accompanied by a change in wind direction from southwestward to southeastward as the offshore storm moves from south to north.During the passage of cold fronts more sediment is transported when winds are northeastward and directed onshore than when the winds are directed offshore, creating a net sediment flux to the north–east. Likewise, even though the warm front has an opposite wind pattern, net sediment flux is typically to the north–east due to the larger fetch when the winds are northeastward and directed onshore. During the passage of low-pressure systems strong winds, waves, and currents to the south are sustained creating a net sediment flux southwestward. During the 3-month deployment a total of 8 cold fronts, 10 warm fronts, and 10 low

  9. Diachronic Change within the Still Bay at Blombos Cave, South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Archer, Will; Gunz, Philipp; van Niekerk, Karen L.; Henshilwood, Christopher S.; McPherron, Shannon P.

    2015-01-01

    Characteristically shaped bifacial points are stone artefacts with which the Middle Stone Age Still Bay techno-complex in Southern Africa is identified. Traditional approaches such as chaîne opératoire and two-dimensional metrics in combination with attribute analyses have been used to analyse variability within Still Bay point assemblages. Here we develop a protocol to extract and analyse high resolution 3-dimensional geometric morphometric information about Still Bay point morphology. We also investigate ways in which the independent variables of time, raw-material and tool size may be driving patterns of shape variation in the Blombos Cave point assemblage. We demonstrate that at a single, stratified Still Bay site points undergo significant modal changes in tool morphology and standardization. Our results caution against (1) treatment of the Still Bay as a static technological entity and (2) drawing demographic inferences stemming from grouping Still Bay point collections within the same cultural label. PMID:26134976

  10. A prominent colour front in False Bay, South Africa: Cross-frontal structure, composition and origin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waldron, H. N.; Wainman, C. K.; Waldron, M. E.; Whittle, C.; Brundrit, G. B.

    2008-05-01

    Colour fronts are a frequent occurrence in False Bay, South Africa, and their occurrence has been the subject of previous study and anecdotal conjecture. The opportunity arose to make a cross-frontal study of this feature in November 2005. Photographs were taken and, subsequently, satellite imagery was obtained. Measurements were made of temperature, salinity, turbidity, dissolved oxygen, suspended solids, plant nutrients and chlorophyll a. Cross-frontal comparisons were also made on particulate material using a scanning electron microscope (SEM) and elemental dispersive x-ray (EDX) analysis. Frontal waters were milky white-green in colour, in stark contrast to the adjacent clearer, green-blue waters. The milky white-green water (MW-GW) was found to be warmer, (apparently) less saline, more turbid, richer in nitrate and silicate and had a higher chlorophyll a concentration. The dissolved oxygen signal was less pronounced, both water types being supersaturated. Paradoxically, in spite of the higher turbidity in the MW-GW, both water types had similar weights of suspended solids, although the MW-GW material was found to be more abundant and fragmentary when compared with its green-blue water (G-BW) counterpart. The MW-GW was rich in calcium whereas the G-BW was silicon enriched. The central findings of this study are that the strong southerly, onshore wind conditions prior to MW-GW formation introduced calcium-rich, fine particulates into the waters of the surf-zone. The sources of these particulates are thought to be the sea bed sediments and the sea/land interface. The particulates are close to neutral buoyancy enabling the MW-GW to persist over the time-scale of days. A mechanism reinforced by the warming of this water in the nearshore zone. The water was then advected by wind-forcing and subsequently, its own inertia around the north-west corner of False Bay, at which stage it was easily observed and sampled. It is suggested that the eventual collapse of the

  11. Seismic stratigraphy and late Quaternary shelf history, south-central Monterey Bay, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chin, J.L.; Clifton, H.E.; Mullins, H.T.

    1988-01-01

    The south-central Monterey Bay shelf is a high-energy, wave-dominated, tectonically active coastal region on the central California continental margin. A prominent feature of this shelf is a sediment lobe off the mouth of the Salinas River that has surface expression. High-resolution seismic-reflection profiles reveal that an angular unconformity (Quaternary?) underlies the entire shelf and separates undeformed strata above it from deformed strata below it. The Salinas River lobe is a convex bulge on the shelf covering an area of approximately 72 km2 in water depths from 10 to 90 m. It reaches a maximum thickness of 35 m about 2.5 km seaward of the river mouth and thins in all directions away from this point. Adjacent shelf areas are characterized by only a thin (2 to 5 m thick) and uniform veneer of sediment. Acoustic stratigraphy of the lobe is complex and is characterized by at least three unconformity-bounded depositional sequences. Acoustically, these sequences are relatively well bedded. Acoustic foresets occur within the intermediate sequence and dip seaward at 0.7?? to 2.0??. Comparison with sedimentary sequences in uplifted onshore Pleistocene marine-terrace deposits of the Monterey Bay area, which were presumably formed in a similar setting under similar processes, suggests that a general interpretation can be formulated for seismic stratigraphic patterns. Depositional sequences are interpreted to represent shallowing-upwards progradational sequences of marine to nonmarine coastal deposits formed during interglacial highstands and/or during early stages of falling sea level. Acoustic foresets within the intermediate sequence are evidence of seaward progradation. Acoustic unconformities that separate depositional sequences are interpreted as having formed largely by shoreface planation and may be the only record of the intervening transgressions. The internal stratigraphy of the Salinas River lobe thus suggests that at least several late Quaternary

  12. Transgressive Shoreface Architecture Within a Sediment Starved Arcuate Strand: Long Bay, South Carolina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gayes, P. T.; Schwab, W. C.; Driscoll, N. W.; Morton, R. A.; Baldwin, W. E.; Denny, J. F.; German, O. Y.; Park, J. Y.

    2002-12-01

    A regional geophysical mapping survey of Long Bay provides a comprehensive image of sea-floor character, bathymetry and shallow subbottom stratigraphy within the shoreface and across the inner shelf along 90 kilometers of the northern South Carolina coast. Chirp subbottom profiles, sidescan-sonar imagery and interferometric swath-bathymetry imaged the shallow stratigraphy and the geometry of the Holocene transgressive surface developing within the modern shoreface. Along a 20 km section of central Long Bay, across the shoreface and inner shelf, centered on Myrtle Beach, SC, oceanographic processes are actively eroding older Tertiary- and Cretaceous-age strata exposed at the sea floor. Long beach profiles are interrupted by these outcrops and deviate substantially from typical concave-up geometries. The modern (mobile) sediment lens is restricted to the surf zone. Along an adjacent area, near North Myrtle Beach, the Holocene erosional unconformity surface continues to exhibit an irregular character eroding into older Cretaceous-age deposits. Within the shoreface, however, a relatively continuous cover of modern mobile sand covers the upper- to mid-shoreface. Cretaceous-age strata crop out across the inner shelf and locally within the lower shoreface. Beach profiles are relatively smooth and linear across the mid-shoreface and become disrupted by strata cropping out near the base of the shoreface and inner shelf. Further north, near the North Carolina border, three planar marine unconformities are visible underlying the shoreface and inner shelf and define seaward thinning wedges of Quaternary deposits. Beach profiles in this area exhibit a low slope and generally define a concave-up low slope profile geometry. The modern mobile sediment lens is more continuous in this area and the Holocene erosional surface can be observed to have eroded previous highstand deposits. The detailed resolution of the chirp subbottom data allows the geometry of the developing marine

  13. Contaminant profiles of two species of shorebirds foraging together at two neighboring sites in south San Francisco Bay, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hui, Clifford A.; Takekawa, John Y.; Warnock, Sarah E.

    2001-01-01

    The San Francisco Bay estuary isused by over one million shorebirds during springmigration and is home to several hundred thousandduring the winter. Most shorebird use occurs in thesouthern reach of the estuary (South Bay). Thereduced water circulation and discharge fromindustrial sources in the South Bay are responsiblefor the highest levels of some trace elements in theestuary. Wintering shorebirds have been found to havestrong site fidelity to areas as small as a fewkilometers in the South Bay, which may increase theirexposure to contaminants near local point sources. Inaddition, different shorebird species foraging at thesame site have been shown to have differentcontaminant burdens. Thus, our objectives were totest whether contaminant burdens differed by species,or whether contaminant burdens differed in shorebirdscollected at adjacent sites. We examined thecontaminant profiles of two species of shorebirds,long-billed dowitchers (Limnodromus scolopaceus)and western sandpipers (Calidris mauri) thatforage together at two sites, Hayward and Newark,separated by 8 km in the South Bay. We usedmultivariate analysis of variance tests to compare thecomposition of 14 elemental analytes in their livertissues and estimated their molar ratios of Hg and Se. Composite samples were used for contaminant analysesbecause of the small body size of the shorebirds. Seven elemental analytes (Ag, Ba, Be, Cr, Ni, Pb, V)were below detection limits in a majority of thesamples so statistical analyses were precluded. Inthe measurable analytes (As, Cd, Cu, Hg, Mn, Se, Zn),we found no significant intra-site differences ofcontaminant profiles for the two species. We pooledthe samples to examine inter-site differences andfound significant differences in contaminant profilesbetween shorebirds at the neighboring sites (P = 0.03). Shorebirds at Newark had higher (P < 0.05) concentrations of As, Cd, and Se than those at Hayward. Dowitchers at Newark had concentrations of Hg and Se which were

  14. Sea Level Rise Modifies Biogeochemical Cycles in Winyah Bay, South Carolina Wetlands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chow, A. T.; Conner, W.; Rhew, R. C.; Suhre, D.; Wang, J.

    2013-12-01

    Rising sea level along the relatively flat southeastern US coastal plain significantly changes both vegetation composition and salinity of coastal wetlands, eventually modifying ecosystem functions and biogeochemical processes of these wetlands. We conducted a two-year study to evaluate the dynamics and relationships among aboveground productivity, greenhouse and halocarbon gas emissions, nutrients, and dissolved organic matter of a freshwater forested wetland, a salt-impacted and degraded forested wetland, and a salt marsh in Winyah Bay, South Carolina, representing the salinity gradient and the transition from freshwater forested wetland to salt marsh due to sea level rise. The degraded forested wetland had significantly lower above-ground productivity with annual stem growth of 102 g/m^2/yr and litterfall of 392 g/m^2/yr compared to the freshwater forested wetland (230 and 612 g/m^2/yr, respectively). High methane emission [> 50 mmol/m2/day, n = 4] was only observed in the freshwater-forested wetland but there was a strong smell of sulfide noticed in the salt marsh, suggesting that different redox processes control the decomposition of natural organic matter along the salinity gradient. In addition, the largest CHCl3 [209 × 183 nmol/m2/day, n = 4] emission was observed in the degraded forested wetland, but net CH3Cl [257 × 190 nmol/m2/day, n = 4] and CH3Br [28 × 20 nmol/m2/day, n = 4] emissions were only observed in the salt marsh, suggesting different mechanisms in response to salt intrusion at that sites. The highest DOC concentration (28 - 42 mg/L) in monthly water samples was found in degraded forest wetland, followed by the freshwater forested wetland (19 - 38 mg/L) and salt marsh (9 - 18 mg/L). Results demonstrate that the salt-impacted degraded wetland has unique biogeochemical cycles that differ from unaltered freshwater forested wetland and salt marsh.

  15. Persistence of an introduced mud flat community in south San Francisco Bay, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nichols, Frederic H.; Thompson, Janet K.

    1985-01-01

    The benthic invertebrate community inhabiting the extensive and sedimentologically homogeneous mudflats of South San Francisco Bay has demonstrated a high degree of constancy in both species composition and relative abundance among species throughout 10 yr of observation. The community, composed predominantly of introduced species with opportunistic lifestyles, is dominated numerically by Gemma gernma, Ampelisca abdita, and Streblospio benedicti. The key to the persistent co-occurrence of these species on the mudflats seems to lie in the combination of (1) the recurrence of minor disturbances of the mudflat habitat (e.g. sediment deposition/erosion, inundation by low-salinity water) on time scales comparable to that of life cycles; (2) opportunistic life history strategies (rapid maturity, brooding of young, multiple generations each year, ease of local dispersal of both juveniles and adults) that permit continued colonization of the mudflat surface or rapid recolonization after disturbances. Only 1 of the 3 numerically-dominant species. A. abdita, displays an annual periodicity in abundance. S. benedicti and G. gemma, through broadly flexible reproductive strategies permitted in the mild San Francisco climate, can exhibit strong recruitment at any time between spring and autumn. The most extreme community changes, involving temporary reduction or elimination of normally dominant populations, occurred as a result of anomalous disturbances such as unusual buildup and decay of an algal mat during 1 summer and prolonged periods of unusually high freshwater inflow during 2 successive winters. The introduced opportunists routinely co-occur at high densities. However, one of these, the tube-dwelling amphipod A. abdita, may control the abundance of the native mollusk Macoma balthica.

  16. Suspended-solids flux at a shallow-water site in south San Francisco Bay, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lacy, Jessica R.; Schoellhamer, David H.; Burau, Jon R.

    1996-01-01

    Time series measurements of current velocity and suspended solids-concentration (SSC) made during December 1993 and March 1994 at a shallow-water site in South San Francisco Bay were used to estimate and compare suspended-solids flux during the two periods. In December, the average residual flux at the site was 2.88 g/m/s, to the northeast, whereas in March the average residual flux was four times greater, 12.2 g/m/s, and was directed to the southeast, the direction of flood tide. Residual flux was decomposed and the three components that accounted for most of the flux were analyzed: residual advective flux (Stokes drift flux (u'h'c), and dispersive flux, which is the tidal cycle correlation between velocity and SSC (u'h'c). During both periods, the Stokes drift flux was to the north, and the dispersive flux was to the southeast. In December, these two components, with nearly opposite directions, had the greatest magnitudes, resulting in a lower total residual flux. In March, the residual advective flux was greater than the Stokes drift flux and was in the same direction as the dispersive flux because of a southeasterly residual current. Wind data indicate that the residual current in March was induced by persistent northwest winds. The southeasterly dispersive flux in March and December was due to generally higher SSC on flood than ebb tides. Increases in SSC frequently occurred at low water (before flood tides). Comparison of calculated bottom orbital velocities to SSC identified wind waves as a mechanism of resuspension.

  17. Shoreline and Oceano Fault Zones' Intersection Geometry, San Luis Obispo Bay, Offshore South Central Coastal California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hogan, P. J.; Nishenko, S. P.; Greene, H. G.; Bergkamp, B.

    2015-12-01

    As part of the Central Coastal California Seismic Imaging Project, high-resolution 3D low energy marine seismic-reflection data were acquired within San Luis Obispo Bay in 2011 and 2012. Mapping of the sediment-buried bedrock surface using 2D and 3D data clearly reveals that the trace of the Shoreline fault zone bifurcates at Souza Rock. The eastern strand is a reverse fault that trends toward the east-southeast, connecting with the Oceano fault zone onshore. The Shoreline fault is a vertical dextral fault with a very linear geometry that continues south to near the Santa Maria river mouth, and may intersect the Casmalia fault onshore. Both of these fault strands are crossed by Pleistocene low-stand paleochannels eroded into bedrock, and are buried by marine and non-marine sediment. The 3D data show that both the Oceano and Shoreline faults are narrow, well defined fault zones. The reverse slip rate for the Oceano fault (~0.1 mm/y.) falls within published slip rate estimates for the Oceano fault onshore (0.01-0.20 mm/y). The dextral slip rate for the Shoreline fault southeast of Souza Rock is estimated to be 0.06 mm/y. Souza Rock is located on the hanging wall of the Oceano Fault, north of the point of intersection between the Shoreline and Oceano faults. Water depths shoal from 60 m on the surrounding seafloor to 5 m on top of Souza Rock. This structure is interpreted as a structural popup in a restraining bend where the N65°W-trending Oceano fault intersects the N25°W-trending Shoreline fault. The structural geometry near the point of intersection has several minor secondary fault strands, but is remarkably simple.

  18. Benthic Oxygen Demand in Three Former Salt Ponds Adjacent to South San Francisco Bay, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Topping, Brent R.; Kuwabara, James S.; Athearn, Nicole D.; Takekawa, John Y.; Parcheso, Francis; Henderson, Kathleen D.; Piotter, Sara

    2009-01-01

    Sampling trips were coordinated in the second half of 2008 to examine the interstitial water in the sediment and the overlying bottom waters of three shallow (average depth 2 meters). The water column at all deployment sites was monitored with dataloggers for ancillary water-quality parameters (including dissolved oxygen, salinity, specific conductance, temperature, and pH) to facilitate the interpretation of benthic-flux results. Calculated diffusive benthic flux of dissolved (0.2-micron filtered) oxygen was consistently negative (that is, drawn from the water column into the sediment) and ranged between -0.5 x 10-6 and -37 x 10-6 micromoles per square centimeter per second (site averages depicted in table 2). Assuming pond areas of 1.0, 1.4, and 2.3 square kilometers for ponds A16, A14, and A3W, respectively, this converts to an oxygen mass flux into the ponds' sediment ranging from -1 to -72 kilograms per day. Diffusive oxygen flux into the benthos (listed as negative) was lowest in pond A14 (-0.5 x 10-6 to -1.8 x 10-6 micromoles per square centimeter per second) compared with diffusive flux estimates for ponds A16 and A3W (site averages -26 x 10-6 to -35 x 10-6 and -34 x 10-6 to -37 x 10-6 micromoles per square centimeter per second, respectively). These initial diffusive-flux estimates are of the order of magnitude of those measured in the South Bay using core-incubation experiments (Topping and others, 2004), which include bioturbation and bioirrigation effects. Estimates of benthic oxygen demand reported herein, based on molecular diffusion, serve as conservative estimates of benthic flux because solute transport across the sediment-water interface can be enhanced by multidisciplinary processes including bioturbation, bioirrigation, ground-water advection, and wind resuspension (Kuwabara and others, 2009).

  19. Temporal changes in TBT pollution in water, sediment, and oyster from Jinhae Bay after the total ban in South Korea.

    PubMed

    Kim, Nam Sook; Hong, Sang Hee; Yim, Un Hyuk; Shin, Kyung-Hoon; Shim, Won Joon

    2014-09-15

    Temporal change in tributyltin (TBT) levels in Jinhae Bay, which has various TBT sources, was investigated in water, sediments, and oysters from 2003 to 2013 after its total ban in South Korea. The seawater TBT levels decreased over 500-fold from 1995/97 to 2008/09. The oyster TBT levels were about fourfold lower in 2012/13 than in 1995/97. However, the sediment TBT levels did not significantly change, even 10 years after the partial TBT ban on small ships and 7 years after the total TBT ban on all oceangoing vessels in Korea. The total ban of TBT use effectively reduced water and oyster TBT levels in Jinhae Bay, but TBT levels in water, oysters, and sediment remained above the global environmental quality standards established to protect marine organisms.

  20. Heavy metals in bivalve mollusks collected from Da-Peng Bay Lagoon in south-southwestern Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Shue, Meei-Fang; Chen, Wen-Der; Su, Chia-Chi; Lu, Ming-Chun

    2014-01-01

    In this study, concentrations of several heavy metals (Cu, Pb, Zn, Ni, Cr, and Cd) were measured in Katelysia hiantina, Anomalocardia squamosa, Perna viridis, Anadara antiquata, Paphia undulata, and Sanguinolaria diphos bivalve mollusks from Da-Peng Bay Lagoon near the south-southwestern coast of Taiwan. The metal pollution index (MPI) values were highest and lowest in winter and autumn, respectively. The MPI value in the viscera of P. viridis was higher than in muscles. In all four seasons, Zn concentrations in viscera and muscles of P. viridis were higher than for other metals. The capacities of A. squamosa to accumulate the concentrations of Cu, Ni, and Cr and of A. antiquata to accumulate concentrations of Pb, Zn, and Cd were significant. Analytical results suggested that A. squamosa and A. antiquata may be used as bioindicators for monitoring Cu, Ni, Cr, Pb, Zn, and Cd heavy-metal pollution in Da-Peng Bay Lagoon throughout the year.

  1. Hydrocarbon-bearing sandstone in the Upper Jurassic Naknek Formation on the south shore of Kamishak Bay

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stanley, Richard G.; Herriott, Trystan M.; Helmold, Kenneth P.; Gillis, Robert J.; Lillis, Paul G.

    2013-01-01

    The presence of an active petroleum system in Kamishak Bay is demonstrated by an outcrop of hydrocarbon-bearing sandstone in the Upper Jurassic Naknek Formation near the south shore of the bay (fig. 1). The outcrop is about 140 km southwest of Homer on a small, unnamed island near the mouth of the Douglas River (fig. 17). The existence of this outcrop was kindly reported to us by Les Magoon (U.S. Geological Survey, emeritus), who also provided a topographic map showing its exact position. The outcrop was mentioned very briefly in publications by Magoon and others (1975, p. 19) and by Lyle and Morehouse (1977, p. E-1), but to our knowledge there are no detailed descriptions of this outcrop or its hydrocarbons in the published scientific literature.

  2. Seasonal and spatial variations of water quality and trophic status in Daya Bay, South China Sea.

    PubMed

    Wu, Mei-Lin; Wang, You-Shao; Wang, Yu-Tu; Sun, Fu-Lin; Sun, Cui-Ci; Cheng, Hao; Dong, Jun-De

    2016-11-15

    Coastal water quality and trophic status are subject to intensive environmental stress induced by human activities and climate change. Quarterly cruises were conducted to identify environmental characteristics in Daya Bay in 2013. Water quality is spatially and temporally dynamic in the bay. Cluster analysis (CA) groups 12 monitoring stations into two clusters. Cluster I consists of stations (S1, S2, S4-S7, S9, and S12) located in the central, eastern, and southern parts of the bay, representing less polluted regions. Cluster II includes stations (S3, S8, S10, and S11) located in the western and northern parts of the bay, indicating the highly polluted regions receiving a high amount of wastewater and freshwater discharge. Principal component analysis (PCA) identified that water quality experience seasonal change (summer, winter, and spring-autumn seasons) because of two monsoons in the study area. Eutrophication in the bay is graded as high by Assessment of Estuarine Trophic Status (ASSETS).

  3. Populations and productivity of seabirds at South Marble Island, Glacier Bay, Alaska, during May-July, 1999

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zador, Stephani G.; Piatt, John F.

    1999-01-01

    In the course of directed research on glaucous-winged gulls, we investigated the numbers and activities of all breeding and non-breeding seabirds associated with South Marble Island in Glacier Bay, Alaska, during mid-May to late July, 1999. Most observations were made from the island; additional observations were made during transportation to and from the island. Data were collected on the presence and numbers of all seabirds observed. Detailed information on breeding chronology and productivity were also collected for glaucous-winged gulls (Larus glaucescens), pigeon guillemots (Cepphus columba), black-legged kittiwakes (Rissa tridactyla), and black oystercatchers (Haemantopus bachmani).

  4. Generation of deterministic tsunami hazard maps in the Bay of Cadiz, south-west Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Álvarez-Gómez, J. A.; Otero, L.; Olabarrieta, M.; González, M.; Carreño, E.; Baptista, M. A.; Miranda, J. M.; Medina, R.; Lima, V.

    2009-04-01

    The bay of Cádiz is a densely populated and industrialized area, and an important centre of tourism which multiplies its population in the summer months. This bay is situated in the Gulf of Cádiz, the south-west Atlantic margin of the Iberian Peninsula. From a tectonic point of view this area can be defined as a diffuse plate boundary, comprising the eastern edge of the Gloria and Tydeman transforms (where the deformation is mainly concentrated in these shear corridors), the Gorringe Bank, the Horseshoe Abyssal plain, the Portimao and Guadalquivir banks, and the western termination of the arcuated Gibraltar Arc. This deformation zone is the eastern edge of the Azores - Gibraltar seismic zone, being the present day boundary between the Eurasian and African plates. The motion between the plates is mainly convergent in the Gulf of Cádiz, but gradually changes to almost pure transcurrent along the Gloria Fault. The relative motion between the two plates is of the order of 4-5 mm/yr. In order to define the different tsunamigenic zones and to characterize its worst tsunamigenic source we have used seismic, structural and geological data. The numerical model used to simulate the wave propagation and coastal inundation is the C3 (Cantabria, COMCOT and Tsunami-Claw) model. C3 is a hybrid finite difference-finite volume method which balances between efficiency and accuracy. For offshore domain in deep waters the model applies an explicit finite difference scheme (FD), which is computationally fast and accurate in large grids. For near coast domains in coastal areas, it applies a finite volume scheme (VOF). It solves correctly the bore formation and the bore propagation. It is very effective solving the run-up and the run down. A set of five worst case tsunamigenic sources has been used with four different sea levels (minimum tide, most probable low tide, most probable high tide and maximum tide), in order to produce the following thematic maps with the C3 model: maximum

  5. Illumina-based analysis the microbial diversity associated with Thalassia hemprichii in Xincun Bay, South China Sea.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Yu-Feng; Ling, Juan; Dong, Jun-De; Chen, Biao; Zhang, Yan-Ying; Zhang, Yuan-Zhou; Wang, You-Shao

    2015-10-01

    In order to increase our understanding of the microbial diversity associated with seagrass Thalassia hemprichii in Xincun Bay, South China Sea, 16S rRNA gene was identified by highthrough sequencing method. Bacteria associated with seagrass T. hemprichii belonged to 37 phyla, 99 classes. The diversity of bacteria associated with seagrass was similar among the geographically linked coastal locations of Xincun Bay. Proteobacteria was the dominant bacteria and the α-proteobacteria had adapted to the seagrass ecological niche. As well, α-proteobacteria and Pseudomonadales were associated microflora in seagrass meadows, but the interaction between the bacteria and plant is needed to further research. Burkholderiales and Verrucomicrobiae indicated the influence of the bay from anthropogenic activities. Further, Cyanobacteria could imply the difference of the nutrient conditions in the sites. γ-proteobacteria, Desulfobacterales and Pirellulales played a role in the cycle of sulfur, organic mineralization and meadow ecosystem, respectively. In addition, the less abundance bacteria species have key functions in the seagrass meadows, but there is lack knowledge of the interaction of the seagrass and less abundance bacteria species. Microbial communities can response to surroundings and play key functions in the biochemical cycle.

  6. NASA Ames DEVELOP Interns Collaborate with the South Bay Salt Pond Restoration Project to Monitor and Study Restoration Efforts using NASA's Satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Newcomer, Michelle E.; Kuss, Amber Jean; Nguyen, Andrew; Schmidt, Cynthia L.

    2012-01-01

    In the past, natural tidal marshes in the south bay were segmented by levees and converted into ponds for use in salt production. In an effort to provide habitat for migratory birds and other native plants and animals, as well as to rebuild natural capital, the South Bay Salt Pond Restoration Project (SBSPRP) is focused on restoring a portion of the over 15,000 acres of wetlands in California's South San Francisco Bay. The process of restoration begins when a levee is breached; the bay water and sediment flow into the ponds and eventually restore natural tidal marshes. Since the spring of 2010 the NASA Ames Research Center (ARC) DEVELOP student internship program has collaborated with the South Bay Salt Pond Restoration Project (SBSPRP) to study the effects of these restoration efforts and to provide valuable information to assist in habitat management and ecological forecasting. All of the studies were based on remote sensing techniques -- NASA's area of expertise in the field of Earth Science, and used various analytical techniques such as predictive modeling, flora and fauna classification, and spectral detection, to name a few. Each study was conducted by a team of aspiring scientists as a part of the DEVELOP program at Ames.

  7. Database of well and areal data, South San Francisco Bay and Peninsula area, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Leighton, D.A.; Fio, J.L.; Metzger, L.F.

    1995-01-01

    A database was developed to organize and manage data compiled for a regional assessment of geohydrologic and water-quality conditions in the south San Francisco Bay and Peninsula area in California. Available data provided by local, State, and Federal agencies and private consultants was utilized in the assessment. The database consists of geographicinformation system data layers and related tables and American Standard Code for Information Interchange files. Documentation of the database is necessary to avoid misinterpretation of the data and to make users aware of potential errors and limitations. Most of the data compiled were collected from wells and boreholes (collectively referred to as wells in this report). This point-specific data, including construction, water-level, waterquality, pumping test, and lithologic data, are contained in tables and files that are related to a geographic information system data layer that contains the locations of the wells. There are 1,014 wells in the data layer and the related tables contain 35,845 water-level measurements (from 293 of the wells) and 9,292 water-quality samples (from 394 of the wells). Calculation of hydraulic heads and gradients from the water levels can be affected adversely by errors in the determination of the altitude of land surface at the well. Cation and anion balance computations performed on 396 of the water-quality samples indicate high cation and anion balance errors for 51 (13 percent) of the samples. Well drillers' reports were interpreted for 762 of the wells, and digital representations of the lithology of the formations are contained in files following the American Standard Code for Information Interchange. The usefulness of drillers' descriptions of the formation lithology is affected by the detail and thoroughness of the drillers' descriptions, as well as the knowledge, experience, and vocabulary of the individual who described the drill cuttings. Additional data layers were created that

  8. Bacterial growth efficiency in a partly eutrophicated bay of South China Sea: Implication for anthropogenic impacts and potential hypoxia events.

    PubMed

    Song, Xing-Yu; Liu, Hua-Xue; Zhong, Yu; Tan, Ye-Hui; Qin, Geng; Li, Kai-Zhi; Shen, Ping-Ping; Huang, Liang-Min; Wang, You-Shao

    2015-10-01

    Bacterial metabolism plays a dual role [bacterial production (BP) and bacterial respiration (BR)] in the aquatic ecosystem and potentially leads to hypoxia in the coastal eutrophic area. Bacterial growth efficiency (BGE) is an important index showing the contribution of bacterial metabolism to marine biological production and carbon budget in the pelagic ecosystem. In this study, the spatial and seasonal variety as well as diurnal variation dynamics of BGE and associated ecological characteristics were investigated in a partly eutrophicated subtropical bay (the Daya Bay) located in the northern South China Sea. Furthermore, the relationship between bacterial metabolism and potential hypoxia event was analyzed. The average BGE was 0.14 and 0.22 in summer and winter, respectively, which was lower than the mean value ever reported in other coastal and estuarine waters. The diurnal variations of BGE and BP were widely fluctuated in the Daya Bay, with approximately 3-8 fold variation of BP and 2-3 fold variation of BR in different seasons, suggesting the importance of short-term ecological dynamics on evaluating the long-term ecological processes in the coastal waters. BR was the predominant contributor to the bacterial carbon demand; however, the variation of BGE was controlled by BP in both seasons. BGE was always high in the near-shore waters with higher eutrophic level and more active BP and BR. The bacterial metabolism could deplete dissolved oxygen (DO) in the Daya bay within about 9 days when the water body was enclosed and photosynthesis was prohibited. Therefore, low DO concentration and potential hypoxia was more likely to be found in the near-shore waters of the Daya Bay in summer, since the water was stratified and enclosed with poor water exchange capacity in this area. While in winter, hypoxia seldom occurred due to vertical mixing throughout the water column. Further biological-physical coupling research is recommended to find out the detailed formation

  9. Gazetteer of hydrologic characteristics of streams in Massachusetts; coastal river basins of the South Shore and Buzzards Bay

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wandle, S.W.; Morgan, M.A.

    1984-01-01

    The coastal river basins include the minor river basins draining into Massachusetts Bay along the South Shore or into Buzzards Bay. The larger of these basins are the North, South, Jones, Wareham, Weweantic, Mattapoisett, Acushnet, and Slocums River basins. Drainage areas, using the latest available 1:24,000 scale topographic maps, were computed for data collection sites. Statistics on streamflow characteristics computed with a new data base are presented for six gaged streams. Daily-flow records through 1982 were used to compute annual and monthly flow statistics, duration of daily flow values, and the annual 7-day mean low flow at the 2-year and 10-year recurrence intervals. Seven-day low-flow statistics are presented for 49 partial-record sites and procedures used to determine the hydrologic characteristics of the basin are summarized. This gazetteer will aid in the planning and siting of water-resources related activities and will provide a common data base for governmental agencies and the engineering and planning communities. (USGS)

  10. Geologic framework studies of South Carolina's Long Bay from Little River Inlet to Winyah Bay, 1999-2003: geospatial data release

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Baldwin, W.E.; Denny, J.F.; Schwab, W.C.; Gayes, P.T.; Morton, R.; Driscoll, N.W.

    2007-01-01

    offshore of the northern South Carolina coast. The digital data presented herein accompany USGS Open-File Reports OFR 2004-1013 and OFR 2005-1345, describing the stratigraphic framework and modern sediment distribution within Long Bay, respectively. Direct on-line links to these publications are available within 'References' on the navigation bar to the left. Additional links to other publications and web sites are also available.

  11. Modeling the fate of p,p'-DDT in water and sediment of two typical estuarine bays in South China: Importance of fishing vessels' inputs.

    PubMed

    Fang, Shu-Ming; Zhang, Xianming; Bao, Lian-Jun; Zeng, Eddy Y

    2016-05-01

    Antifouling paint applied to fishing vessels is the primary source of dichloro-diphenyl-trichloroethane (DDT) to the coastal marine environments of China. With the aim to provide science-based support of potential regulations on DDT use in antifouling paint, we utilized a fugacity-based model to evaluate the fate and impact of p,p'-DDT, the dominant component of DDT mixture, in Daya Bay and Hailing Bay, two typical estuarine bays in South China. The emissions of p,p'-DDT from fishing vessels to the aquatic environments of Hailing Bay and Daya Bay were estimated as 9.3 and 7.7 kg yr(-1), respectively. Uncertainty analysis indicated that the temporal variability of p,p'-DDT was well described by the model if fishing vessels were considered as the only direct source, i.e., fishing vessels should be the dominant source of p,p'-DDT in coastal bay areas of China. Estimated hazard quotients indicated that sediment in Hailing Bay posed high risk to the aquatic system, and it would take at least 21 years to reduce the hazards to a safe level. Moreover, p,p'-DDT tends to migrate from water to sediment in the entire Hailing Bay and Daya Bay. On the other hand, our previous research indicated that p,p'-DDT was more likely to migrate from sediment to water in the maricultured zones located in shallow waters of these two bays, where fishing vessels frequently remain. These findings suggest that relocating mariculture zones to deeper waters would reduce the likelihood of farmed fish contamination by p,p'-DDT.

  12. Physico-chemical Speciation of Lead in South San Francisco Bay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kozelka, P. B.; Sañudo-Wilhelmy, S.; Flegal, A. R.; Bruland, K. W.

    1997-06-01

    The speciation of lead at a site in the South San Francisco Bay was determined using a combination of physical size fractionation and electrochemical analyses. The ' total dissolvable ' Pb was 8·1 nM from analysis of an acidified unfiltered sample. The ' dissolved ' Pb was equal to 0·20 nM (41 ng l-1), only 2·5% of the ' total dissolvable ' Pb. The difference yielded the ' particulate ' Pb equal to 7·9 nM (1·6 μg l-1). Results from crossflow ultrafiltration indicated that almost all (0·19 nM) of the dissolved Pb was ' in solution ' [<10K nominal molecular weight (MW)] and that colloidal Pb (10K MW to 0·2 μm)accounted for onlyc. 1% of the dissolved Pb at this station. This small concentration (0·01 nM) of colloidal Pb may be attributed to the low amount of organic carbon associated with colloid size fraction as determined by dissolved organic carbon analyses. The chemical speciation of lead was determined in the dissolved sample and ultrafiltered sub-sample. Differential pulse anodic stripping voltammetry (DPASV) on a thin mercury film (TMF) rotating glassy carbon disk electrode (RGCDE) was used to distinguish the kinetically labile inorganic species (Pb‧) from the Pb-chelated by organic ligands (PbLi). Lead titration results were similar for both samples revealing that Pb‧, PbLiand excess unbound ligands were present primarily in the ultrafiltrate, rather than in the colloidal phase. The titration data can be interpreted as dissolved Pb being influenced by two classes of Pb-binding ligands. In the dissolved sample, the concentration of the stronger class of ligands was [L1]=0·89±0·35 nM, with a conditional stability constant ofKcondL1,Pb‧=3±1×1010M-1. The weaker class was [L2]=12·8±1·9 nM, withKcondL1,Pb‧=4±1×108 M-1. The presence of these ligands, in excess of the dissolved Pb, resulted in [Pb‧]=7±2 pM and [Pb2+]=0·3 pM (62 pg l-1). While less than 2·4% of the ambient Pb was ' in solution ', it existed chiefly in the form of

  13. Current status and historical trends of organochlorine pesticides in the ecosystem of Deep Bay, South China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiu, Yao-Wen; Zhang, Gan; Guo, Ling-Li; Cheng, Hai-Rong; Wang, Wen-Xiong; Li, Xiang-Dong; Wai, Onyx W. H.

    2009-11-01

    To characterize the current status and historical trends in organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) contamination in Deep Bay, an important water body between Hong Kong and mainland China with a Ramsar mangrove wetland (Maipo), samples from seawater, suspended particulate matter (SPM), surface sediment, sediment core and fish were collected to determine the OCPs concentrations. Sediment core dating was accomplished using the 210Pb method. The average concentrations of DDTs, HCHs and chlordanes in water were 1.96, 0.71, 0.81 ng l -1, while in SPM were 36.5, 2.5, 35.7 ng g -1 dry weight, in surface sediment were 20.2, 0.50, 2.4 ng g -1 dry weight, and in fish were 125.4, 0.43, 13.1 ng g -1 wet weight, respectively. DDTs concentrations in various matrices of Deep Bay were intermediate compared with those in other areas. Temporal trends of the targeted OCPs levels in sediment core generally increased from 1948 to 2004, with the highest levels in top or sub-surface sediment. Both DDT composition and historical trends indicated an ongoing fresh DDT input. A positive relationship between the bioconcentration factor (BCF) of target chemicals and the corresponding octanol-water partition coefficient ( Kow), and between the biota-sediment accumulation factors (BSAF) and the Kow were observed in the Bay. The risk assessment indicated that there were potential ecological and human health risks for the target OCPs in Deep Bay.

  14. Morphology and texture of modern sediments on the inner shelf of South Carolina's Long Bay from Little River Inlet to Winyah Bay

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Denny, J.F.; Baldwin, W.E.; Schwab, W.C.; Gayes, P.T.; Morton, R.; Driscoll, N.W.

    2007-01-01

    High-resolution sea-floor mapping techniques, including sidecan-sonar, seismic-reflection, swath bathymetric systems, and bottom sampling, were used to map the geologic framework offshore of the northern South Carolina coast in order to provide a better understanding of the physical processes controlling coastal erosion and shoreline change. Four general sea floor environments were identified through analysis of sidescan-sonar, swath bathymetry, and surface sediment texture: inlet shoal complexes, shore-detached shoals, hardground, and mixed zones. Inlet shoal complexes generally lie offshore of modern inlet systems, with the exception of a shore-detached shoal lying offshore of Myrtle Beach. The shoals show 1 - 3 m in relief and comprise the largest accumulations of modern sediment within the inner shelf survey area. Surficial sediments within the shoal complexes are characterized by a low-backscatter, moderately sorted fine sand. Hardground areas are characterized by exposures of Cretaceous and Tertiary strata and Pleistocene channel-fill deposits. These areas display little to no bathymetric relief and are characterized by high-backscatter, coarser grained sand. Mixed zones show small-scale spatial variations in bathymetry, surface texture and backscatter. These areas are characterized by a thin layer of modern sediment ( Textural and geomorphic variations suggest a long-term net southerly flow within the study area. The general acoustic and textural character of the inner shelf within Long Bay suggests long-term erosion, reworking and continued modification of inner-shelf deposits by modern nearshore processes.

  15. Dissolved Oxygen in Guadalupe Slough and Pond A3W, South San Francisco Bay, California, August and September 2007

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Shellenbarger, Gregory; Schoellhamer, David H.; Morgan, Tara L.; Takekawa, John Y.; Athearn, Nicole D.; Henderson, Kathleen D.

    2008-01-01

    Initial restoration of former salt evaporation ponds under the South Bay Salt Pond Restoration Project in San Francisco Bay included the changing of water-flow patterns and the monitoring of water quality of discharge waters from the ponds. Low dissolved oxygen (DO) concentrations became evident in discharge waters when the ponds first were opened in 2004. This was a concern, because of the potential for low-DO pond discharge to decrease the DO concentrations in the sloughs that receive water from the ponds. However, as of summer 2007, only limited point-measurements of DO concentrations had been made in the receiving sloughs adjacent to the discharge ponds. In this report, we describe two short studies aimed at understanding the natural variability of slough DO and the effect of pond discharge on the DO concentrations in the sloughs. Pond A3W (a discharge pond) and the adjacent Guadalupe Slough were instrumented in August and September 2007 to measure DO, temperature, conductivity, and pH. In addition, Mowry and Newark Sloughs were instrumented during the August study to document DO variability in nearby sloughs that were unaffected by pond discharge. The results showed that natural tidal variability in the slough appeared to dominate and control the slough DO concentrations. Water-quality parameters between Guadalupe Slough and Mowry and Newark Sloughs could not be directly compared because deployment locations were different distances from the bay. Pond-discharge water was identified in Guadalupe Slough using the deployed instruments, but, counter to the previous assumption, the pond discharge, at times, increased DO concentrations in the slough. The effects of altering the volume of pond discharge were overwhelmed by natural spring-neap tidal variability in the slough. This work represents a preliminary investigation by the U.S. Geological Survey of the effects of pond discharge on adjacent sloughs, and the results will be used in designing a comprehensive DO

  16. A major fish stranding caused by a natural hypoxic event in a shallow bay of the eastern South Pacific Ocean.

    PubMed

    Hernández-Miranda, E; Quiñones, R A; Aedo, G; Valenzuela, A; Mermoud, N; Román, C; Yañez, F

    2010-05-01

    A massive beaching and mortality of fishes occurred in Coliumo Bay, a shallow bay located along the coast of the eastern South Pacific Ocean on 3 January 2008. This stranding was a consequence of an abrupt decrease in the dissolved oxygen concentration throughout the whole water column, due to the effect of intense upwelling along the coast off central-southern Chile. The main objectives of this study were: (1) to characterize taxonomically and biologically the fish species assemblage present in this beaching; (2) to evaluate several physiological indicators for the condition of the beached species at the time of their death; and (3) to assess the possible cause-effect mechanisms involved in the fishes death and the changes that took place in the fish community throughout the time. In this beaching, 26 fish species were identified: 23 teleosts, one myxiniform and two elasmobranchs. Most beached specimens were juveniles. Haematological and histological evidence indicate that severe hypoxia that lasted for at least 48 h was the most plausible cause of death. The main conclusion of this study is that the presence of oxygen-poor equatorial sub-surface water in the shallow coastal zone due to intense regional-scale upwelling caused the fish stranding. Although the effect of the hypoxic event was severe for the fish assemblage of Coliumo Bay, the rapid recuperation observed suggests that hypoxic events at the local spatial scale can be buffered by migration processes from the fish community inhabiting close by areas non-affected by low oxygen conditions. The effect that severe hypoxic events may have on larger spatial scales remains unknown.

  17. Biogeochemical study of water and bottom sediments from the Khai river - Nha Trang Bay estuarine system, South China Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shulga, Natalia; Lobys, Nikolay; Drozdova, Anastasia; Peresypkin, Valery

    2014-05-01

    The present study was carried out in Nha Trang Bay (Southern Vietnam, the South China Sea). The samples of water, suspended matter and bottom sediments were collected in summer 2010-2012 in section from the estuary of the Khai River to the marine part of the bay. The samples were analyzed in the stationary lab of IO RAS, Moscow, by TOC-V-CPH, GC/MS and pirolysis methods. We report here the novel data on sources, transformation and burial of OM coming from the Khai river waters. The investigation is focused on ontent and distribution of suspended matter (SM) in the estuary, dissolved organic carbon (DOC), particulated organic carbon (POC); molecular and group composition of hydrocarbons (n-alkanes, steranes, hopanes) and mercury content in water, SM and bottom sediments. It was found that concentration of POC and SM decrease in the Nha Trang Bay waters from estuary to the open part of the bay. However, major changes in the concentration of SM and POC belong to the zone of salinity gradient.DOC behavior is more stable throughout the study area. Organic-geochemical indicators estimation allowed recognition of genesis and transformation degree of organic matter in the study area. The estuary is characterized by mixed genesis of SM with a predominance of allochthonous organic matter whereas outlying parts of the Nha Trang bay are characterized by autochthonous OM. Composition of OM in sediments reflects regularities identified above, despite of the interannual and seasonal variability in the study area. The investigation reveals a predominance of terrestrial organic matter in the silt sediments of the estuary, transported by the Khai river. Distribution of OM in sediments of marine part of the bay is mosaic, with a predominance of planktonogenic, bacterial or terrestrial input at their complex combination. Local anthropogenic pollution as well as an impact of industrial city effluents are found in river- and seaport areas. According to obtained data sedimentation rate

  18. A case history of the science and management collaboration in understanding hypoxia events in Long Bay, South Carolina, USA.

    PubMed

    Sanger, Denise; Hernandez, Debra; Libes, Susan; Voulgaris, George; Davis, Braxton; Smith, Erik; Shuford, Rebecca; Porter, Dwayne; Koepfler, Eric; Bennett, Joseph

    2010-09-01

    Communication of knowledge between the scientific and management communities is a difficult process complicated by the distinctive nature of professional career goals of scientists and decision-makers. This article provides a case history highlighting a collaboration between the science and management communities that resulted from a response to a 2004 hypoxia, or low dissolved oxygen, event in Long Bay, off Myrtle Beach, South Carolina. A working group of scientists and decision-makers was established at the time of the event and has continued to interact to develop a firm understanding of the drivers responsible for hypoxia formation in Long Bay. Several factors were found to be important to ensure that these collaborative efforts were productive: (1) genuine interest in collaboratively working across disciplines to examine a problem; (2) commitment by agency leadership, decision-makers, and researchers to create successful communication mechanisms; (3) respect for each others' perspectives and an understanding how science and management are performed and that they are not mutually exclusive; (4) networking among researchers and decision-makers to ensure appropriate team members are involved in the process; (5) use of decision-maker input in the formulation of research and monitoring projects; and (6) commitment of resources for facilitation to ensure that researchers and decision-makers are communicating effectively.

  19. A Case History of the Science and Management Collaboration in Understanding Hypoxia Events in Long Bay, South Carolina, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanger, Denise; Hernandez, Debra; Libes, Susan; Voulgaris, George; Davis, Braxton; Smith, Erik; Shuford, Rebecca; Porter, Dwayne; Koepfler, Eric; Bennett, Joseph

    2010-09-01

    Communication of knowledge between the scientific and management communities is a difficult process complicated by the distinctive nature of professional career goals of scientists and decision-makers. This article provides a case history highlighting a collaboration between the science and management communities that resulted from a response to a 2004 hypoxia, or low dissolved oxygen, event in Long Bay, off Myrtle Beach, South Carolina. A working group of scientists and decision-makers was established at the time of the event and has continued to interact to develop a firm understanding of the drivers responsible for hypoxia formation in Long Bay. Several factors were found to be important to ensure that these collaborative efforts were productive: (1) genuine interest in collaboratively working across disciplines to examine a problem; (2) commitment by agency leadership, decision-makers, and researchers to create successful communication mechanisms; (3) respect for each others’ perspectives and an understanding how science and management are performed and that they are not mutually exclusive; (4) networking among researchers and decision-makers to ensure appropriate team members are involved in the process; (5) use of decision-maker input in the formulation of research and monitoring projects; and (6) commitment of resources for facilitation to ensure that researchers and decision-makers are communicating effectively.

  20. Otolith chemistry of fishes from Kosi Bay, South Africa: A preliminary multiple analytical methods approach to reconstruct fish migrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holbach, Andreas; Cowley, Paul D.; Kramar, Utz; Neumann, Thomas

    2012-08-01

    Over exploitation of fish stocks in coastal areas is a subject of global concern. Increasing numbers of traditional fish traps, recreational fishing effort and unknown extents of illegal gillnetting are blamed for the declining abundance of estuarine-dependent fish species in the Kosi Bay estuarine lake system in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. Otoliths from four important fishery species (Lutjanus argentimaculatus, Pomadasys commersonnii, Acanthopagrus vagus, and Rhabdosargus sarba) and water samples collected from throughout the Kosi Bay system were analyzed for trace element constituents and δ18O values, in an attempt to reconstruct fish movements. The applied microscopic X-ray fluorescence analysis proved valuable in detecting μm-scale spatially resolved Sr/Ca ratio distributions across otolith thin sections. Sr/Ca ratios and δ18O in otoliths correlated well with ambient water conditions and, thus, enabled us to reconstruct migratory histories of individual fish in the estuarine lake system. The findings are representative of the known biology of these species, although exact spatial and temporal ranges of migrations remain unclear. Interestingly, samples of two species (L. argentimaculatus and R. sarba) did not show any clue of migrations back to sea, which would be necessary for successful spawning. Further laboratory and field investigations with larger sample sizes are necessary to detect fishery impacts on migratory behavior at a population level.

  1. Effect of the South Bay Ocean Outfall (SBOO) on ocean beach water quality near the USA-Mexico border.

    PubMed

    Gersberg, Richard; Tiedge, Jürgen; Gottstein, Dana; Altmann, Sophie; Watanabe, Kayo; Lüderitz, Volker

    2008-04-01

    In early 1999, primary treatment and discharge of sewage from Tijuana, Mexico (approximately 95 million liters per day) began through South Bay Ocean Outfall (SBOO) into the ocean 4.3 km offshore. In this study, statistical comparisons were made of the bacterial water quality (total and fecal coliforms and enterococci densities) of the ocean, both before and after discharge of sewage to the SBOO began, so that the effect of this ocean discharge on nearshore ocean water quality could be quantitatively assessed. The frequency of exceedence of bacterial indicator thresholds was statistically analyzed for 11 shore (surfzone) stations throughout US and Mexico using the Fisher's exact test, for the years before (1995-1998) as compared to after the SBOO discharge began (1999-2003). Only four of the 11 shoreline stations (S2, S3, S11, and S12) showed significant improvement (decreased frequency of exceedence of bacterial indicator thresholds) after SBOO discharge began.

  2. Cultivation-dependent analysis of the microbial diversity associated with the seagrass meadows in Xincun Bay, South China Sea.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Yu-Feng; Ling, Juan; Wang, You-Shao; Chen, Biao; Zhang, Yan-Ying; Dong, Jun-De

    2015-10-01

    Microbial communities have largely existed in the seagrass meadows. A total of 496 strains of the bacteria in the seagrass meadows, which belonged to 50 genera, were obtained by the plate cultivation method from three sites of Xincun Bay, South China Sea. The results showed that Bacillales and Vibrionales accounted for the highest proportions of organisms in all communities. The diversity of the bacteria in the sediment was higher than that associated with seagrass. Thalassia hemperichii possessed the highest abundance of bacteria, followed by Enhalus acoroides and Cymodocea rotundata. Robust seasonal dynamics in microbial community composition were also observed. It was found that microbial activities were closely tied to the growth stage of the seagrass. The microbial distribution was the lowest in site 3. The abundance of the bacteria was linked to the interactions between bacteria and plants, the condition of plant and even the coastal water quality and the nutrition level in the sediment.

  3. Antibiotics in the coastal environment of the Hailing Bay region, South China Sea: Spatial distribution, source analysis and ecological risks.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hui; Liu, Shan; Xu, Xiang-Rong; Zhou, Guang-Jie; Liu, Shuang-Shuang; Yue, Wei-Zhong; Sun, Kai-Feng; Ying, Guang-Guo

    2015-06-15

    In this study, the occurrence and spatial distribution of 38 antibiotics in surface water and sediment samples of the Hailing Bay region, South China Sea, were investigated. Twenty-one, 16 and 15 of 38 antibiotics were detected with the concentrations ranging from <0.08 (clarithromycin) to 15,163ng/L (oxytetracycline), 2.12 (methacycline) to 1318ng/L (erythromycin-H2O), <1.95 (ciprofloxacin) to 184ng/g (chlortetracycline) in the seawater, discharged effluent and sediment samples, respectively. The concentrations of antibiotics in the water phase were correlated positively with chemical oxygen demand and nitrate. The source analysis indicated that untreated domestic sewage was the primary source of antibiotics in the study region. Fluoroquinolones showed strong sorption capacity onto sediments due to their high pseudo-partitioning coefficients. Risk assessment indicated that oxytetracycline, norfloxacin and erythromycin-H2O posed high risks to aquatic organisms.

  4. Scenarios of nutrient alterations and responses of phytoplankton in a changing Daya Bay, South China Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Mei-Lin; Wang, You-Shao; Wang, Yu-Tu; Yin, Jian-Ping; Dong, Jun-De; Jiang, Zhao-Yu; Sun, Fu-Lin

    2017-01-01

    The coastal ecosystem in the Daya Bay is sensitive to the environmental changes induced by highly intensive human activities. We obtained and compiled the recent 30 years' field observational data on nutrients and phytoplankton communities to explore the changing ecosystem. Dissolved inorganic nitrogen concentration (DIN) has significantly increased, while phosphate concentration (DIP) dramatically decreased because of costal anthropogenic influence. The limited factors for phytoplankton have changed from nitrogen in the 1980s to phosphate in the mid-1990s. The net-collected phytoplankton communities has the miniaturized trend, while there is drastic increase of Chlorophyll a (Chl-a) concentration. Even though the diatoms still dominate in phytoplankton community, the dominant species have slightly changed. The alga bloom greatly changed from diatoms dominated to dinoflagellates due to changes of nutrient structure. All these changes on nutrients and phytoplankton communities appear to be closely associated with human activities along the coast of the Daya Bay.

  5. Metal uptake by phytoplankton during a bloom in South San Francisco Bay: Implications for metal cycling in estuaries

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Luoma, S.N.; VanGeen, A.; Lee, B.-G.; Cloern, J.E.

    1998-01-01

    The 1994 spring phytoplankton bloom in South San Francisco Bay caused substantial reductions in concentrations of dissolved Cd, Ni, and Zn, but not Cu. We estimate that the equivalent of ~60% of the total annual input of Cd, Ni, and Zn from local waste-water treatment plants is cycled through the phytoplankton in South Bay. The results suggest that processes that affect phytoplankton bloom frequency or intensity in estuaries (e.g. nutrient enrichment) may also affect metal trapping. The bloom was characterized by hydrographic surveys conducted at weekly intervals for 9 weeks. Metal samples were collected from the water column on three occasions, timed to bracket the period when the bloom was predicted. Factors that might confound observations of biological influences, such as freshwater inputs, were relatively constant during the study. Before the bloom, concentrations of dissolved Cd were 0.81 ?? 0.02 nmol kg-1, Zn concentrations were 19.8 ?? 1.5 nmol kg-1, Ni were 42 ?? 1.4 nmol kg-1, and Cu were 37 ?? 1.4 nmol kg-1. The values are elevated relative to riverine and coastal end-members, reflecting inputs from wastewater and(or) sediments. At the height of the bloom, dissolved Zn, Cd, and Ni were reduced to 19, 50, and 75% of their prebloom concentrations, respectively. Dissolved Cu concentrations increased 20%. The mass of Cd taken up by phytoplankton was similar to the mass of Cd removed from solution if particle settling was considered, and Cd concentrations estimated in phytoplankton were higher than concentrations in suspended particulate material (SPM). Particulate concentrations of Zn and Ni during the bloom appeared to be dominated by the influence of changes in resuspension of Zn- and Ni-rich sediments.

  6. The South Carolina Coastal Erosion Study: Numerical modeling of circulation and sediment transport in Long Bay, SC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Warner, J. C.; Sullivan, C.; Voulgaris, G.; Work, P.; Haas, K.; Hanes, D. M.

    2004-12-01

    Long Bay, South Carolina, is a heavily populated coastal region that supports a large tourism industry. Sand resources are important for both recreation and coastal habitat. Earlier geological framework studies have identified a large sand deposit oblique to the shoreline, oriented clockwise in the offshore direction. This sand feature is ~ 10 km long, 2 km wide, and in excess of 3m thick, possibly providing a source for beach nourishment material. Objectives of this study are to describe the physical processes that control the transport of sediment in Long Bay, specifically off the coast of Myrtle Beach, South Carolina. Specifically we seek to 1) measure and model the oceanographic circulation in the region, 2) identify the processes that maintain the presence of the offshore sand feature, 3) quantify the control that the shoal exerts on the nearshore through changes in wave energy propagation, and 4) identify consequences of removal of the offshore sand feature. Both observational and numerical experiments are used to study the oceanographic circulation and transport of sediment. The observational study is described in an accompanying poster and consists of eight sites that measured tides, surface waves, currents, salinity, temperature, suspended sediment concentrations, and bed forms from October 2003 to April 2004. Numerical modeling for circulation and sediment transport in the study region uses a new version of ROMS (v2.1) that now includes transport of multiple grain sizes, coupling of sediment transport to wave bottom boundary layer models, and evolution of the bottom morphology. The SWAN model is used to compute wave propagation. Results indicate that currents in the study area are strongly influenced by both tidal motion and wind driven setup / setdown. The presence of the offshore sand feature alters the residual flows in the region. Sediment transport is more significant during periods of sustained strong winds that generate local waves. Wind direction

  7. [Annual change of phytoplankton ecological features in Fangchenggang Bay of Guangxi, South China].

    PubMed

    Zhuang, Jun-Lian; Xu, Ming-Ben; Zhang, Rong-Can; Chen, Bo

    2011-05-01

    In March, June, September, and December 2007, investigations were conducted on the species composition, dominant species, community structure, and abundance distribution of phytoplankton in the Fangchenggang Bay of Guangxi. Based on the investigation data, the phytoplankton abundance, biotic index, and their correlations with environmental factors were analyzed. A total of 138 species of 54 genera were identified, among which, 112 species belonged to 37 genera of diatoms, 21 species belonged to 12 genera of dinoflagellates, 2 species belonged to chrysophyta, 2 species belonged to chlorophyta, and 1 species belonged to cyanophyta. In whole year, the dominant species was Skeletonema costatum. The species number had a trend decreasing from the outer to the inner of the Bay and from spring to winter, while the cell abundance was decreased from the inner to the outer of the Bay. There was an obvious annual change in the cell abundance, being the highest (151.39 x 10(4) cells x dm(-3)) in summer (June) and the lowest (0.35 x 10(4) cells x dm(-3)) in winter (December). In spring, both the diversity and the species number were higher. Correlation analysis demonstrated that the distribution of phytoplankton community had definite correlations with water nutrient content, temperature and salinity. At the observation stations 1 and 2 in west Bay, due to the effects of Fangcheng River runoff and hydrodynamic forces such as tide, water salinity was lower and nutrient content was higher, and accordingly, S. costatum cells in summer could greatly reproduce, even result in high probability of red tide.

  8. Impacts of mariculture practices on the temporal distribution of macrobenthos in Sandu Bay, South China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Jin

    2012-05-01

    Sandu Bay is located in the East China Sea and is characterized by high-density fish farming and kelp culture. Despite this, little is known about the impacts of these different mariculture practices on the local environment. We investigated the temporal variation in macrobenthos and environmental conditions at three sites in the bay (fish farming site, kelp culture site, and a control site). We collected water and sediment samples during nine cruises between May 2009 and February 2010. The density of macrobenthos peaked at the fish farming site in July (655 ind./m2) whereas density did not fluctuate as widely at the other two sites. Biomass varied significantly at both the control and kelp culture sites, but had only a single peak at the fish farming site in June (21.90 g/m2). The dominant species varied throughout the study period at the control and kelp culture sites, whereas a single terebellid species ( Lysilla pacifica) dominated the macrobenthos at the fish farming site. The diversity index H' increased at the control site beginning in February then decreased after May, whereas H' was low at the other sites in December. The mean dissolved oxygen level was highest at the control site (6.59 mg/L) and lowest at the fish farming site (5.54 mg/L). DO levels were lowest at all sites in summer (July and August). The sediment acid volatile sulfide content was higher at the fish farming site (1.46 mg/g dry weight) than those at the kelp culture and control sites (1.22 and 0.14 mg/g, respectively). Our results suggest that mariculture practices have a clear impact on the benthic environment/community in Sandu Bay.

  9. Implication of salt marsh foraminiferal assemblages in Suncheon Bay, South Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeong, Da Un; Lee, Yeon Gyu; Kang, Sora; Kim, Shin; Lee, Jung Sick

    2016-03-01

    Analyses of the compositions of benthic foraminifera and sediment, observations of tidal level and salinity, and a geographic survey of the tidal salt marsh in Suncheon Bay were conducted to examine the vertical distribution of foraminifera and evaluate their potential use for sea level studies. The salt marsh is composed mainly of fine-grained silty clay sediment and its salinity is below approximately 11 psu. The tidal current flows in the southwest-tonortheast direction with an average velocity of 26.57 cm/s. A total of 33 species of foraminifera (17 agglutinated and 16 calcareoushyaline) belonging to 24 genera was identified. The species diversity (1.1 on average) was relatively low. Dominant species were Ammonia beccarii, Miliammina fusca, Haplophragmoides wilberti, and Jadammina macrescens. Calcareous foraminifera (29.5%) were dominantly represented by the Ammonia beccarii assemblage, which characterized the region between mean tide level and mean low high water (MLHW). Agglutinated species (70.5%) were represented mostly by Miliammina fusca, Miliammina fusca-Haplophragmoides wilberti, and Haplophragmoides wilberti assemblages, which characterized the MLHW-mean high water (MHW), MHW-mean highest high water (MHHW), and MHHW-Approx. highest high water tide levels, respectively. In particular, the Haplophragmoides wilberti assemblage is believed to represent the highest elevation zone of foraminifera in the salt marshes of Suncheon Bay and is considered to be a reliable indicator of sea level as a result of its narrow vertical range.

  10. Occurrence and Distribution of Microplastics in the Sea Surface Microlayer in Jinhae Bay, South Korea.

    PubMed

    Song, Young Kyoung; Hong, Sang Hee; Jang, Mi; Han, Gi Myung; Shim, Won Joon

    2015-10-01

    Microplastic contamination of the marine environment is a worldwide concern. The abundance of microplastics was evaluated in the sea surface microlayer in Jinhae Bay, on the southern coast of Korea. The microplastics in this study are divided into paint resin particles and plastics by polymer type. The mean abundance of paint resin particles (94 ± 68 particles/L) was comparable to that of plastics (88 ± 68 particles/L). Fragmented microplastics, including paint resin particles, accounted for 75 % of total particles, followed by spherules (14 %), fibers (5.8 %), expanded polystyrene (4.6 %), and sheets (1.6 %). Alkyd (35 %) and poly(acrylate/styrene) (16 %) derived from ship paint resin were dominant, and the other microplastic samples consisted of polypropylene, polyethylene, phenoxy resin, polystyrene, polyester, synthetic rubber, and other polymers. The abundance of plastics was significantly (p < 0.05) higher in Jinhae Bay, which is surrounded by a coastal city, than along the east coast of Geoje, which is relatively open sea. The floating microplastic abundance in surface water was the highest reported worldwide.

  11. Distribution of radionuclides in a marine sediment core off the waterspout of the nuclear power plants in Daya Bay, northeastern South China Sea.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Peng; Li, Dongmei; Li, Haitao; Fang, Hongda; Huang, Chuguang; Zhang, Yusheng; Zhang, Hongbiao; Zhao, Li; Zhou, Junjie; Wang, Hua; Yang, Jie

    2015-07-01

    A sediment core was collected and dated using (210)Pbex dating method off the waterspout of nuclear power base of Daya Bay, northeastern South China Sea. The γ-emitting radionuclides were analyzed using HPGe γ spectrometry, gross alpha and beta radioactivity as well as other geochemical indicators were deliberated to assess the impact of nuclear power plants (NPP) operation and to study the past environment changes. It suggested that NPP provided no new radioactivity source to sediment based on the low specific activity of (137)Cs. Two broad peaks of TOC, TC and LOI accorded well with the commercial operations of Daya Bay NPP (1994.2 and 1994.5) and LNPP Phase I (2002.5 and 2003.3), implying that the mass input of cooling water from NPP may result into a substantial change in the ecological environment and Daya Bay has been severely impacted by human activities.

  12. Contrasting sedimentation patterns in two semi-enclosed mesotidal bays along the west and south coasts of Korea controlled by their orientation to the regional monsoon climate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hong, Seok Hwi; Chun, Seung Soo; Chang, Tae Soo; Jang, Dae Geon

    2016-11-01

    Sedimentation patterns of tidal flats along the Korean west coast have long been known to be largely controlled by the monsoon climate. On the other hand, much less is known about the effect of the monsoon on sedimentation in coastal embayments with mouths of different geographic orientations. Good examples are Hampyeong and Yeoja bays along the west and south coasts, respectively. Both have narrow entrances, but their mouths open toward the northwest and the south, respectively. With mean tidal ranges of 3.46 and 3.2 m, respectively, the two bays experience similar tidal regimes and are hence excellent candidates to compare the effect of different exposure to the same regional monsoon climate on their respective sediment distribution patterns. The winter monsoon, in particular, is characterized by strong northwesterly winds that directly impact the west coast, but blow offshore along the south coast. For the purpose of this study, surficial sediment samples were collected from intertidal and subtidal flats of the two bays, both in summer and winter. Grain-size analyses were carried out by sieving (sand fraction) and Sedigraph (mud fraction). In the case of Yeoja Bay, the sediments consist mostly of mud (mean grain sizes of 5.4 to 8.8 phi). Seasonal changes are very subtle, the sediments being slightly coarser in summer when silt-dominated sediments are supplied by two streams to the northern parts of the bay in response to heavy rainfall. With the exception of the deeper tidal channels, Yeoja Bay is characterized by a thick mud blanket the year round, which is modulated by processes associated with the summer monsoon that predominantly blows from the east. Textural parameters suggest severely restricted sediment mixing on the subtidal and intertidal flats, the overall low energy situation preventing sands from reaching the tidal flats. The sediments of Hampyeong Bay, by contrast, are characterized by a distinct shoreward fining trend. Mean grain sizes average

  13. Relation between species assemblages of fishes and water quality in salt ponds and sloughs in South San Francisco Bay

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mejia, F.; Saiki, M.K.; Takekawa, J.Y.

    2008-01-01

    This study was conducted to characterize fishery resources inhabiting salt-evaporation ponds and sloughs in South San Francisco Bay, and to identify key environmental variables that influence distribution of fishes. The ponds, which were originally constructed and operated for commercial production of salt, have undergone preliminary modifications (installation of culverts, gates, and other water-control structures) in preparation for full restoration to mostly tidal wetlands over the next 2 decades. We sampled fish from two salt-pond complexes (Alviso complex and Eden Landing complex), each consisting of several pond systems and their associated sloughs. Cluster analysis of species of fish indicated that at least two species assemblages were present, one characteristic of ponds and the other characteristic of sloughs and slough-like ponds. The slough-like ponds exhibited water-quality conditions (especially salinity) that resembled conditions found in the sloughs. Pond fishes were represented by 12 species, whereas slough fishes were represented by 22 species. Except for bay pipefish (Syngnathus leptorhynchus), which was unique to ponds, all species present in ponds also were in sloughs and slough-like ponds. These results indicated that species of fish in ponds originated from the sloughs. According to canonical-discriminant analysis, four environmental variables were useful for discriminating between the two species assemblages. Most discriminatory power was contributed by the index of habitat connectivity, a measure of minimum distance that a fish must travel to reach a particular pond from the nearest slough. Apparently, as fish from sloughs enter and move through interconnected salt ponds, environmental stress factors increase in severity until only the more tolerant species remain. The most likely source of stress is salinity, because this variable was second in importance to the index of habitat connectivity in discriminating between the two species

  14. Multi-element study of sediments from the river Khai River - Nha Trang Bay estuarine system, South China Sea.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koukina, Sofia; Lobus, Nikolai; Peresypkin, Valery; Baturin, Gleb; Smurov, Andrey

    2013-04-01

    Major (Al, Fe, Ti, Mg, Ca, Na, K), minor (Mn) and trace (Cr, Ni, Cd, V, Zn, Cu, Pb, Sb, Bi, Sn, Ag, Li, Co, As, Zr, Mo, Hg) elements along with nutrients (TOC, TS, TP) and TIC were first determined in ten surface sediment samples from the Khai River - Nha Trang Bay estuarine system, South China Sea. According to the sediment quality guidelines and reference background values, most of the element contents that were studied were below the threshold levels, while the content of Ag exceeded significantly the hazardous levels in the most of the samples along the river - sea transect. The local anthropogenic and/or environmental sources of Ag within the region need special study. Aluminum and lithium normalization indicated some specific features in the abundance and distribution of the elements along the salinity gradient. The mean grain size of the sediments decreased from the river part to the bay part of the transect. Sedimentary TOC was relatively low (1-2 %) and showed independent distribution along the river - sea transect in relation to the other elements that were studied. Ca, Ba and Sr distribution showed some sporadic enrichment and were largely controlled by the TIC content in sediments. Sedimentary TP, Al, Fe, Mn, Ti, Na, K, Li, Co, Cs, Zn and V varied within the narrow range and tended to increase seaward. These elements are most likely controlled by the accumulation of their fine grained aluminosilicate host minerals and materials at sites determined by hydrodynamic conditions, i. e., in the sea floor depression. TS, As, Sn, Bi, U, Cd and Mo were relatively low in the sediments studied and tended to decrease seaward with the slight elevation in the intermediate part of the transect. These elements can be scavenged by and/or co-precipitated with the dissolved and particulate materials of the river discharge and further deposited on the river - sea geochemical barrier in the course of estuarine sedimentation. The distribution of Ni, Cr, Zr Cu, Pb, Sb, Hg and

  15. Using Hyperspectral Remote Sensing Models to Determine Phytoplankton Density in the Coastal Waters of Long Bay, South Carolina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harrington, J. E.; Ali, K.

    2013-12-01

    The southeast coastal region is one of the fastest growing regions in the United States and the increasing utilization of open water bodies has led to the deterioration of water quality and aquatic ecology, placing the future of these resources at risk. In coastal zones, a key index that can be used to assess the stress on the environment is the water quality. The shallow nearshore waters of Long Bay, South Carolina (SC) are heavily influenced by multiple biogeochemical constituents or color producing agents (CPAs) such as, phytoplankton, suspend matter, and dissolved organic carbon. The interaction of the various chemical, biological and physical components gives rise to the optical complexity observed in the coastal waters producing turbid waters. Ecological stress on these environments is reflected by the increase in the frequency and severity of Harmful Algal Blooms (HABs), a prime agent of water quality deterioration, including foul odors and tastes, deoxygenation of bottom waters (hypoxia), toxicity, fish kills, and food web alterations. These are of great concern for human health and are detrimental to the marine life. Therefore, efficient monitoring tools are required for early detection and forecasting purposes as well as to understand the state of the conditions and better protect, manage and address the question of how various natural and anthropogenic factors affect the health of these environments. This study assesses the efficiency remote sensing as a potential tool for accurate and timely detection of HABs, as well as for providing high spatial and temporal resolution information regarding the biogeodynamics in coastal water bodies. Existing blue-green and NIR-red based remote sensing algorithms are applied to the reflectance data obtained using ASD spectroradiometer to predict the amount of chlorophyll, an independent of other associated CPAs in the Long Bay waters. The pigment is the primary light harvesting pigment in all phytoplankton and is used

  16. The 2014 M 6.0 South Napa Earthquake in the Context of the Earthquake Cycle in the San Francisco Bay Area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaume, S. C.

    2014-12-01

    The 2014 M 6.0 South Napa earthquake is the second M ≥ 5.5 earthquake to occur in the San Francisco Bay region since the 1989 M 7.0 Loma Prieta earthquake. This poster will examine how this earthquake fits into the earthquake history of the Bay region, which has shown considerable variation in the rate of moderate (M 5.5-6.5) earthquakes. A number of models have been developed to explain these changes in moderate earthquake rates, including the Accelerating Moment Release model (e.g., Sykes and Jaumé, Nature, 1990; Bufe and Varnes, J. Geophys. Res., 1993) and the Stress Shadow model (e.g., Harris and Simpson, J. Geophys. Res., 1998). In addition, various groups have made projections of future earthquake activity in the San Francisco Bay region, including the Working Group on California Earthquake Probabilities (Field et al., USGS OFR, 2008) and Bebbington et al. (PAGEOPH, 2010), utilizing different physical models for earthquake occurrence. In my poster I will compare and contrast these different views of seismicity in the Bay region and where the 2014 South Napa earthquake fits into them. In particular, I will explore what these different models imply for future moderate earthquake occurrence and hazards thereof.

  17. 33 CFR 334.720 - Gulf of Mexico, south from Choctawhatchee Bay; Missile test area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... point five nautical miles southeasterly from USC&GS Station Tuck 3, at latitude 30°23′10.074″ N, longitude 086°48′25.433″ W, three nautical miles offshore of Santa Rosa Island; thence easterly three... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Gulf of Mexico, south...

  18. Bioaccumulation of heavy metals both in wild and mariculture food chains in Daya Bay, South China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiu, Yao-Wen

    2015-09-01

    Bioaccumulation and trophic transfer of heavy metals both in the natural marine ecosystem (seawater, sediment, coral reef, phytoplankton, macrophyte, shrimp, crab, shellfish, planktivorous and carnivorous fish) and in the mariculture ecosystem (compound feed, trash fish, farmed pompano and snapper) were studied at Daya Bay, a typical subtropical bay in Southern China. The levels of Cu, Zn, Pb and Cd in sediment were 11.7, 10.2, 53.8 and 2.8 times than those in coral reef, respectively. Pb and Zn levels were markedly higher in phytoplankton than in macrophyte, probably caused by the larger specific surface area in phytoplankton. The highest levels of Zn (98.1), Pb (1.87) and Cd (5.11 μg g-1 dw) in wild organisms were all found in clam (Veremolpa scabra), indicating that these metals were apt to bioaccumulate in shellfish. The average concentrations of Cu, Zn, Pb and Cd in wild fish were 3.7, 2.1, 0.4 and 22.2 times than those in farmed fish, confirming the "growth dilution" hypothesis in farmed fish. Heavy metal bioconcentration factors (BCFs) in algae, bioaccumulation factors (BAFs) in wild species and transfer factors (TFs) in organism were calculated and discussed. The results suggested that biologically essential Cu and Zn were easier to accumulate in fish than non-essential Cd. Concentrations of Cu, Zn and Cd were several times higher in wild fish than in farmed fish whereas the opposite was observed for Pb. This metal also showed the highest transfer factor from food, which means that special attention must be given to fish feed production in relation to metal contamination.

  19. The Natural History and Conservation of Indian Ocean Humpback Dolphins (Sousa plumbea) in South African Waters.

    PubMed

    Plön, Stephanie; Cockcroft, Victor G; Froneman, William P

    2015-01-01

    Although most knowledge on the biology of Sousa plumbea has primarily come from South African waters, a number of research gaps remain on the natural history and status of the species in the region. Research on two populations in South African waters for which some historical data exist may aid in highlighting long-term changes in the biology and natural history of this little known coastal delphinid. Recent studies on the age, growth and reproduction of animals incidentally caught in shark nets in Richards Bay, KwaZulu-Natal, yielded a lower maximum age estimate of 24 (previously 46) growth-layer-groups (GLGs), sexual maturity of 7.5 and 8 GLGs in males and females (previously 12-13 and 10 GLGs, respectively), an ovulation rate of 0.2 and a 5-year calving interval (previously 0.3 and 3-year calving interval) than previously reported. These differences may be due to a difference in the interpretation of GLGs between observers or a predominance of young males being caught in the shark nets. Stomach content analysis revealed a change in the relative proportions of the main prey items over the past 25 years, but no difference in species richness or diversity was found between the sexes. No change in trophic level was recorded between 1972 and 2009. Field studies in Algoa Bay, Eastern Cape, conducted 16 years apart indicated a decline in the mean group size (from 7 to 3 animals), a decline in the maximum group size (from 24 to 13 animals), an increase in solitary individuals (15.4-36%), and a change in behaviour from predominantly foraging (64-18%) to mainly travelling (24-49%). The observed changes are suggestive of a change in food availability, resulting in a range shift or a potential decline in numbers. These studies indicate the importance of long-term studies to monitor population changes and their possible causes. A number of threats, such as shark nets, pollution (noise and chemical), and coastal development and disturbance, to the humpback dolphin populations

  20. Impact of South China Sea Cold Surges and Typhoon Peipah on Initiating Cyclone Sidr in the Bay of Bengal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vissa, Naresh Krishna; Satyanarayana, A. N. V.; Kumar, B. Prasad

    2013-12-01

    In the present study, an attempt was made to understand the role of South China Sea (SCS) convection associated with northerly cold surges and Typhoon Peipah in initiating Cyclone Sidr in the Bay of Bengal (BoB). The variation of air sea fluxes during the entire history of Cyclone Sidr tracking before its landfall over Bangladesh was also studied. The presence of cold surges in the north SCS associated with heavy rainfall episodes has been noticed at the southern Gulf of Tonkin coast prior to the formation of Typhoon Peipah. Subsequently, these surges migrated south, which resulted in intensification of a deep convection on reaching the Vietnamese coast. During the same period in the western Pacific, Typhoon Peipah developed, propagating in the westward direction and entering the SCS. Analysis of geostationary water vapour images, mean sea level pressure, and surface wind maps clearly depicted the transport of convective cloud clusters, moisture, and westward momentum from Typhoon Peipah to the deep convection cells over the SCS. Consequently, the existing deep convection over the Vietnamese coast resulted in a westward direction and entered the Gulf of Thailand and Andaman Sea. The availability of higher latent heat fluxes, warmer sea surface temperatures, and suitable atmospheric conditions over this region favoured the formation of a tropical depression in the Andaman Sea. This depression further intensified in the southeast BoB, resulting in the formation of Cyclone Sidr. NCEP/NCAR wind fields and air-sea fluxes revealed left asymmetry surface winds and higher latent heat flux on the left side of the track during the intensification phase of Sidr.

  1. Feeding selectivity of calanoid copepods on phytoplankton in Jangmok Bay, south coast of Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jang, Min-Chul; Shin, Kyoungsoon; Lee, Tongsup; Noh, Il

    2010-06-01

    Grazing impacts of calanoid copepods on size-fractionated phytoplankton biomass [chlorophyll (Chl)- a] were measured in Jangmok Bay, Geoje Island, Korea, monthly from November 2004 to October 2005. The ingestion rate of calanoid copepods on total phytoplankton biomass ranged between 1 and 215 ng Chl- a copepod-1 day-1 during bottle incubations. Results indicated that microphytoplankton (> 20 μm) was the primary food source for calanoid copepods in grazing experiments on 3 phytoplankton size categories (< 3 μm, 3-20 μm, and > 20 μm). The ingestion rate on microphytoplankton showed a significant increase (r = 0.93, p < 0.01) with Chl- a concentration. Nanophytoplankton (3-20 μm) showed a negative ingestion rate from June 2005 to October 2005, but the reason is not completely understood. Calanoid copepods were unable to feed efficiently on picophytoplankton (< 3 μm) due to unfavorable size. Calanoid copepods removed between 0.1% and 27.7% (average, 3.6 ± 15.8%) of the phytoplankton biomass daily during grazing experiments. Grazing pressure was high in winter and early spring (January-March: 15.6-27.7%), while low in summer (June-August: -33.1-0.0%) and autumn (September-November: -1.4-5.1%). Results suggest that calanoid copepods play an important role in controlling the biomass and size structure of phytoplankton in winter and early spring.

  2. Uncovering the Paleoclimate and Paleoproductivity of a South Texas Incised Bay and Estuary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mckay, M.; Musella, A.; Besonen, M. R.

    2014-12-01

    Sediment cores collected from the Nueces Estuary, an incised bay/estuary system located in Southern Texas, were used to reconstruct the paleoclimate, salinity and biological productivity in this water body over the last millennium. The sediment cores were analyzed using microfossil analysis, and other non-destructive and destructive methods in order to provide a long-term perspective about the baseline environmental conditions existing for these systems prior to significant human impact. This work documents the natural variability in these systems as related to climatic events such as periods of drought, high precipitation, and runoff. This work was designed to produce the first, well-dated, high-resolution paleosalinity and paleoproductivity records for the coastal water body mentioned above. Some pre-existing paleo records are available for the system, however, the dating is very limited, or they focus on a significantly different timescale. This work focuses on salinity and biological productivity in this water body as a background to anthropogenic impacts.

  3. New data on the occurrence of Acanthocephala in some fish in Admiralty Bay (South Shetland Islands).

    PubMed

    Zdzitowiecki, Krzysztof; Laskowski, Zdzisław

    2013-12-01

    New data on the infection with Acanthocephala of 33 fish caught in Admiralty Bay in November 2007 to January 2008 are given. These fish belong to 5 species: Notothenia rossii (22 immature specimens), Lindbergichthys nudifrons (n = 7), Trematomus bernacchii (n = 1), T. newnesi (n = 1) and Harpagifer antarcticus (n = 2). Three species of Echinorhynchida: Aspersentis megarhynchus, Metacanthocephalus dalmori and M. johnstoni and four species of Polymorphida: Corynosoma arctocephali, C. bullosum, C. hamanni and C. pseudohamanni, were found. Prevalence of N. rossii and L. nudifrons was 100%. The mean abundance of infection of N. rossii (125.09) was larger than that of Notothenia coriiceps (82.93). Data of infection of N. rossii in 2007 was almost identical with that in 1979 (mean abundance 118.66). The most abundant in this host were A. megarhynchus, M. johnstoni, C. hamanni and C. pseudohamanni (mean abundances 36.36, 29.77, 13.86 and 44.73, respectively). In total Echinorhynchida were more abundant than Polymorphida in 2007/08 (66.18 versus 58.91). Reverse situation was in 1979 (mean abundance 47.36 for Echinorhynchida and 71.3 for Polymorphida. Only 7 L. nudifrons were examined in 2007/08 and Echinorhynchida were more numerous in this host (mean abundance 26.71) than Polymorphida (10.29). Single specimens of other fish were infected with a few Acanthocephala belonging to species recorded in the same hosts with those found in 1978/79.

  4. Prototype Application of NASA Missions to Identify Patterns of Wetland Vegetation Development within the South San Francisco Bay Salt Ponds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsu, W.; Newcomer, M. E.; Justice, E.; Guild, L. S.; Skiles, J. W.

    2010-12-01

    The South Bay Salt Pond Restoration Project is the largest tidal wetland restoration on the west coast of the United States. Monitoring vegetation development in these emergent habitats with remote sensing can provide restoration managers with an indication of ecological health and progress of development. Remotely sensed imagery was used to monitor vegetation development and to map vegetation patterns and biota changes historically, during, and after salt pond construction for ponds A19, A20, and A21. Percent vegetative cover was mapped using the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) from MODIS, Tasseled Cap Greenness (TCG) and NDVI from Landsat TM, and the Ratio Vegetation Index (RVI) from ASTER. Field parameters included in-situ measurements and geographic locations for percent vegetative cover, and site specific species information. Field data were incorporated into GIS, and vegetation was analyzed using spatial statistics methods and a qualitative post-classification comparison technique. NDVI values obtained from the Landsat scenes indicated a net gain of 3.35 acres of vegetation cover from February 2006 (before pond breaching) to August 2009 for pond A21 and 1.33 acres and 3.14 acres for ponds A20 and A19, respectively. Increases in vegetation indicate the marsh has built up to a steady-state condition to provide appropriate habitat for endangered plant and animal species and also indicates the success of restoration practices.

  5. Occurrence, source analysis and risk assessment of androgens, glucocorticoids and progestagens in the Hailing Bay region, South China Sea.

    PubMed

    Liu, Shan; Chen, Hui; Zhou, Guang-Jie; Liu, Shuang-Shuang; Yue, Wei-Zhong; Yu, Shen; Sun, Kai-Feng; Cheng, Hefa; Ying, Guang-Guo; Xu, Xiang-Rong

    2015-12-01

    The occurrence and spatial distribution of 40 steroids in the environmental matrices of the Hailing Bay region, South China Sea, were investigated by rapid resolution liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (RRLC-MS/MS). Seventeen, 14 and 11 of 40 steroids were detected with the concentrations ranging from 0.04 (testosterone) to 40.00 ng/L (prednisolone), 1.33 (4-hydroxy-androst-4-ene-17-dione) to 1855 ng/L (androsta-1,4-diene-3,17-dione) and <0.19 (androsta-1,4-diene-3,17-dione) to 2.37 ng/g (progesterone) in the seawater, the municipal sewage discharged effluent and the sediment samples, respectively. The concentrations and risk quotients (RQs) of the steroids detected in the water samples decreased in the order of municipal sewage discharge site>wharves~aquaculture zones~tourism areas>offshore areas. The distribution of steroids in the marine environment was significantly correlated with the levels of chemical oxygen demand (COD) and ammonium nitrogen (NH4-N). Source analysis indicated that untreated municipal sewage was the main source of steroids in the marine environment. Furthermore, progesterone was found to be a reliable chemical indicator to surrogate different steroids in both the water and sediment phases based on the correlation analysis.

  6. Three-dimensional fault framework of the 2014 South Napa Earthquake, San Francisco Bay region, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graymer, R. W.

    2014-12-01

    Assignment of the South Napa earthquake to a mapped fault is difficult, as it occurred where three large, northwest-trending faults converge and may interact in the subsurface. The surface rupture did not fall on the main trace of any of these faults, but instead between the Carneros and West Napa faults and northwest along strike from the northern mapped end of the Franklin Fault. The 2014 rupture plane appears to be nearly vertical, based on focal mechanisms of the mainshock and connection of the surface trace/rupture to the relocated hypocenter (J. Hardebeck, USGS). 3D surfaces constructed from published data show that the Carneros Fault is a steeply west-dipping fault that runs just west of the near-vertical 2014 rupture plane. The Carneros Fault does not appear to have been involved in the earthquake, although relocated aftershocks suggest possible minor triggered slip. The main West Napa Fault is also steeply west-dipping and that its projection intersects the 2014 rupture plane at around the depth of the mainshock hypocenter. UAVSAR data (A. Donnellan, JPL) and relocated aftershocks suggest that the main West Napa Fault experienced triggered slip/afterslip along a length of roughly 20 km. It is possible that the 2014 rupture took place along a largely unrecognized westerly strand of the West Napa Fault. The Franklin Fault is a steeply east-dipping fault (with a steeply west-dipping subordinate trace east of Mare Island) that has documented late Quaternary offset. Given the generally aligned orientation of the 3D fault surfaces, an alternative interpretation is that the South Napa earthquake occurred on the northernmost reach of the Franklin Fault within it's 3D junction with the West Napa Fault. This interpretation is supported, but not proven, by a short but prominent linear feature in the UAVSAR data at Slaughterhouse Point west of Vallejo, along trend south-southeast of the observed coseismic surface rupture.

  7. Geologic framework of the long bay inner shelf: implications for coastal evolution in South Carolina

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barnhardt, W.; Denny, J.; Baldwin, W.; Schwab, W.; Morton, R.; Gayes, P.; Driscoll, N.

    2007-01-01

    The inner continental shelf off northern South Carolina is a sediment-limited environment characterized by extensive hardground areas, where coastal plain strata and ancient channel-fill deposits are exposed at the sea floor. Holocene sand is concentrated in large shoals associated with active tidal inlets, an isolated shore-detached sand body, and a widespread series of low-relief sand ridges. The regional geologic framework is a strong control on the production, movement and deposition of sediment. High-resolution geologic mapping of the sea floor supports conceptual models indicative of net southwestward sediment transport along the coast.

  8. Linkage of bioaccumulation and biological effects to changes in pollutant loads in south San Francisco Bay

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hornberger, M.I.; Luoma, S.N.; Cain, D.J.; Parchaso, F.; Brown, C.L.; Bouse, R.M.; Wellise, C.; Thompson, J.K.

    2000-01-01

    The developed world has invested billions of dollars in waste treatment since the 1970s; however, changes in ecological or biological responses are rarely associated with reductions in metal pollutants. Here we present a novel, 23-yr time series of environmental change from a San Francisco Bay mudflat located 1 km from the discharge of a suburban domestic sewage treatment plant. Samples of surface sediment, the bioindicator Macoma balthica, and metals loading data were used to establish links between discharge, bioaccumulation, and effects. Mean annual Ag concentrations in M. balthica were 106 ??g/g in 1978 and 3.67 ??g/g in 1998. Concentrations of Cu declined from 287 ??g/g in 1980 to a minimum of 24 ??g/g in 1991. Declining Cu bioaccumulation was strongly correlated with decreasing Cu loads from the plant between 1977 and 1998. Relationships with bioaccumulation and total annual precipitation suggested that inputs from nonpoint sources were most important in controlling Zn bioavailability during the same period. Ecoepidemiological criteria were used to associate failed gamete production in M. balthica to a metals-enriched environment. Reproduction persistently failed between the mid-1970s and mid-1980s; it recovered after metal contamination declined. Other potential environmental causes such as food availability, sediment chemistry, or seasonal salinity fluctuations were not related to the timing of the change in reproductive capability. The results establish an associative link, suggesting that it is important to further investigate the chemical interference of Cu and/or Ag with invertebrate reproduction at relatively moderate levels of environmental contamination.

  9. Waveform tomography of crustal structure in the south San Francisco Bay region

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pollitz, F.F.; Fletcher, J.P.

    2005-01-01

    We utilize a scattering-based seismic tomography technique to constrain crustal tructure around the southern San Francisco Bay region (SFBR). This technique is based on coupled traveling wave scattering theory, which has usually been applied to the interpretation of surface waves in large regional-scale studies. Using fully three-dimensional kernels, this technique is here applied to observed P, S, and surface waves of intermediate period (3-4 s dominant period) observed following eight selected regional events. We use a total of 73 seismograms recorded by a U.S. Geological Survey short-period seismic array in the western Santa Clara Valley, the Berkeley Digital Seismic Network, and the Northern California Seismic Network. Modifications of observed waveforms due to scattering from crustal structure include (positive or negative) amplification, delay, and generation of coda waves. The derived crustal structure explains many of the observed signals which cannot be explained with a simple layered structure. There is sufficient sensitivity to both deep and shallow crustal structure that even with the few sources employed in the present study, we obtain shallow velocity structure which is reasonably consistent with previous P wave tomography results. We find a depth-dependent lateral velocity contrast across the San Andreas fault (SAF), with higher velocities southwest of the SAF in the shallow crust and higher velocities northeast of the SAF in the midcrust. The method does not have the resolution to identify very slow sediment velocities in the upper approximately 3 km since the tomographic models are smooth at a vertical scale of about 5 km. Copyright 2005 by the American Geophysical Union.

  10. Rehabilitating mussel beds in Coffee Bay, South Africa: Towards fostering cooperative small-scale fisheries governance and enabling community upliftment.

    PubMed

    Calvo-Ugarteburu, Gurutze; Raemaekers, Serge; Halling, Christina

    2017-03-01

    Along the coast of South Africa, marine resources play a significant role in supporting livelihoods and contributing to food security in impoverished rural communities. Post-apartheid fisheries laws and policies have begun to address traditional fishing rights and development needs, and new management arrangements are being implemented. One such initiative has been the Mussel Rehabilitation Project in Coffee Bay, which piloted a resource rehabilitation technique at several over-exploited fishing sites. Mussel stocks in these exploited areas had dropped to under 1 % mussel cover, and during the project period, stocks increased to >80 % cover, supporting a sustainable harvest well above national daily bag limits. This stock enhancement was achieved only after the project had started to address social challenges such as the lack of local management institutions and the need to enhance food security. The project embarked on training and institution-building; it formed a robust community mussel management committee; and developed a local resource management plan, facilitating increased community participation in the day-to-day management of the resource. The project also saw the initiation of various ancillary projects aimed at improving food security and stimulating the local economy and hence alleviating pressure on the marine resources. Here we review this 10-year project's outcomes, and present lessons for small-scale fisheries governance in South Africa and internationally. We show, through empirical experience, that balancing stock rebuilding needs in a context of widespread poverty and dependency on natural resources by a local fisher community can only be addressed through an integrated approach to development. Participation of resource users and a thorough understanding of the local context are imperative to negotiating appropriate small-scale fisheries governance approaches. We recommend that the implementation of South Africa's newly minted Small

  11. Heavy metal contamination and ecological risk in Futian mangrove forest sediment in Shenzhen Bay, South China.

    PubMed

    Li, Rongyu; Li, Ruili; Chai, Minwei; Shen, Xiaoxue; Xu, Hualin; Qiu, Guoyu

    2015-12-15

    Surface sediments in the Futian mangrove forest (South China) were analyzed for heavy metals including cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr), copper (Cu), lead (Pb) and zinc (Zn). The heavy metal distributions varied greatly in surface sediments, reflecting some sediment heterogeneity. The heavy metal concentrations decreased in the order of Zn>Cr>Pb>Cu>Cd. According to the mean probable effects level quotient, the combination of studied metals had a 21% probability of being toxic. The potential ecological risk index and geo-accumulation index also revealed high metal contamination. Cd was of primary concern due to its higher assessment values and potential for adverse biological effects. Multivariate analysis implied that clay and silt played a significant role in raising the levels of Cr, Cu and Zn. The percentage of mobile heavy metals was relatively higher, without considerable ecological risk to the biota based on the risk assessment code.

  12. Migration of the Pee Dee River system inferred from ancestral paleochannels underlying the South Carolina Grand Strand and Long Bay inner shelf

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Baldwin, W.E.; Morton, R.A.; Putney, T.R.; Katuna, M.P.; Harris, M.S.; Gayes, P.T.; Driscoll, N.W.; Denny, J.F.; Schwab, W.C.

    2006-01-01

    Several generations of the ancestral Pee Dee River system have been mapped beneath the South Carolina Grand Strand coastline and adjacent Long Bay inner shelf. Deep boreholes onshore and high-resolution seismic-reflection data offshore allow for reconstruction of these paleochannels, which formed during glacial lowstands, when the Pee Dee River system incised subaerially exposed coastal-plain and continental-shelf strata. Paleochannel groups, representing different generations of the system, decrease in age to the southwest, where the modern Pee Dee River merges with several coastal-plain tributaries at Winyah Bay, the southern terminus of Long Bay. Positions of the successive generational groups record a regional, southwestward migration of the river system that may have initiated during the late Pliocene. The migration was primarily driven by barrier-island deposition, resulting from the interaction of fluvial and shoreline processes during eustatic highstands. Structurally driven, subsurface paleotopography associated with the Mid-Carolina Platform High has also indirectly assisted in forcing this migration. These results provide a better understanding of the evolution of the region and help explain the lack of mobile sediment on the Long Bay inner shelf. Migration of the river system caused a profound change in sediment supply during the late Pleistocene. The abundant fluvial source that once fed sand-rich barrier islands was cut off and replaced with a limited source, supplied by erosion and reworking of former coastal deposits exposed at the shore and on the inner shelf.

  13. Salinity and temperature in South San Francisco Bay, California, at Dumbarton Bridge: results from the 1999-2002 water years and an overview of previous data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schemel, Laurence E.; Brown, Randall L.; Bell, Norton W.

    2003-01-01

    Salinity and temperature were measured in near-surface waters at Dumbarton Bridge in South San Francisco Bay during the 1999?2002 water years (1999WY?2002WY). The complete data set from this site, which included 1990WY?1993WY and 1995WY?1998WY, provided a time?series of observations covering a wide range of hydrologic conditions. These conditions included critically dry years and years with above-normal and near?record precipitation and discharges from the major rivers and local streams. Data collection at 15?minute intervals allowed resolution of variability associated with daily tides and other short-term phenomena. Both local stream discharges to South San Francisco Bay and Sacramento?San Joaquin River discharges to North San Francisco Bay affected salinity at Dumbarton Bridge. Salinity at Dumbarton Bridge varied with the daily tides, and the lowest salinity values (annual) coincided with precipitation and freshwater inflows usually in winter. Short?term and seasonal variations in temperature at Dumbarton Bridge typically followed changes in air temperature and solar irradiance.

  14. Occurrence of the diamondback terrapin (Malaclemys terrapin littoralis) at South Deer Island in Galveston Bay, Texas, April 2001-May 2002

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hogan, Jennifer L.

    2003-01-01

    One-hundred thirty-five terrapins were captured (116 individuals, 19 recaptures) in occurrence and nesting and basking surveys at South Deer Island in Galveston Bay, Texas, during April 2001–May 2002. Along the southern shore of the island, terrapins were captured in crab traps placed in shallow water offshore; in the lagoon on the island, terrapins were captured by hand while walking along the shore. In the nesting and basking surveys, areas of the island with continuous patches of exposed shell typically were checked twice a day for nesting and basking terrapins, except during the last 2 months of the study, when more intensive monitoring was conducted. The occurrence surveys resulted in 119 terrapins captured in crab traps and nine captured by hand around the lagoon. The nesting and basking surveys yielded seven terrapins. Only one was nesting, although the nest is believed to be the first documented terrapin nest found in Texas. Three terrapins were captured swimming near shell beaches, and three more were captured basking on shell beaches. The most terrapins were captured during April–May 2001 and April–May 2002. Biometric data collected on terrapins captured showed size dimorphism on the basis of sex. The median female straight-line carapace length was 17.8 centimeters, 1.4 times larger than the median male carapace length, 13.1 centimeters. The median female mass was 1,021 grams, 2.9 times larger than the median male mass, 354 grams. Intra-specific variation occurred in the colorations and markings of terrapins captured. Anomalies - lesions, deformities, barnacles, and algae - were common among terrapins captured. Both lesions and deformities were more common among males than females. Dominant vegetation or substrate associated with terrapin habitat included saltwort, slender seapurslane, seabeach orache, shell, and woody debris.

  15. Gas exchange rates across the sediment-water and air-water interfaces in south San Francisco Bay

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hartman, Blayne; Hammond, Douglas E.

    1984-01-01

    Radon 222 concentrations in the water and sedimentary columns and radon exchange rates across the sediment-water and air-water interfaces have been measured in a section of south San Francisco Bay. Two independent methods have been used to determine sediment-water exchange rates, and the annual averages of these methods agree within the uncertainty of the determinations, about 20%. The annual average of benthic fluxes from shoal areas is nearly a factor of 2 greater than fluxes from the channel areas. Fluxes from the shoal and channel areas exceed those expected from simple molecular diffusion by factors of 4 and 2, respectively, apparently due to macrofaunal irrigation. Values of the gas transfer coefficient for radon exchange across the air-water interface were determined by constructing a radon mass balance for the water column and by direct measurement using floating chambers. The chamber method appears to yield results which are too high. Transfer coefficients computed using the mass balance method range from 0.4 m/day to 1.8 m/day, with a 6-year average of 1.0 m/day. Gas exchange is linearly dependent upon wind speed over a wind speed range of 3.2–6.4 m/s, but shows no dependence upon current velocity. Gas transfer coefficients predicted from an empirical relationship between gas exchange rates and wind speed observed in lakes and the oceans are within 30% of the coefficients determined from the radon mass balance and are considerably more accurate than coefficients predicted from theoretical gas exchange models.

  16. South San Francisco Bay tidal marsh vegetation and elevation surveys-Corkscrew Marsh, Bird Island, and Palo Alto Baylands, California, 1983

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Orlando, James L.; Drexler, Judy Z.; Dedrick, Kent G.

    2005-01-01

    Changes in the topography and ecology of the San Francisco Bay Estuary ('Estuary') during the past 200 years have resulted in the loss of nearly 80 percent of the historical salt marsh in the region. Currently, numerous projects are being undertaken by federal, state, and local governments in an attempt to restore wetland habitat and ecosystem function at a number of locations within the Estuary. Much information is needed concerning the historical topographic and ecologic characteristics of the Estuary to facilitate these restoration efforts. This report presents previously unpublished vegetation and elevation data collected in 1983 by the California State Lands Commission at Corkscrew marsh, Bird Island, and Palo Alto Baylands, all located in South San Francisco Bay. These precise and detailed elevation and plant surveys represent a snapshot of South Bay flora before invasion by the Atlantic smooth cordgrass, Spartina alterniflora. Such precise elevation data are rare for relatively undisturbed marshes in the San Francisco Bay; publication of these historical data may facilitate wetland restoration efforts. Marsh-surface and tidal-channel elevations were determined at a total of 962 stations by differential leveling to established tidal benchmark stations at each site and referenced to Mean Lower Low Water (MLLW) relative to the National Tidal Datum Epoch (1960-78). In addition, presence or absence of nine salt marsh species, percentage plant cover, and percentage bare soil were recorded for 1-square meter quadrats at 648 stations where elevations were determined. Collectively, over the three sites, salt marsh vegetation ranged in elevation from 0.98 to 2.94 m above MLLW. S. foliosa and Salicornia virginica were the most frequently observed plant species. Atriplex patula, Deschampsia cespitosa, and Limonium californicum were each recorded at only one of the three sites.

  17. Ocean-atmosphere relationships from synoptic scale to local scale in South San Francisco Bay, with implications to flood risk at NASA Ames Research Center, Silicon Valley

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mills, W. B.; Costa-Cabral, M. C.; Bromirski, P. D.; Miller, N. L.; Coats, R. N.; Loewenstein, M.; Roy, S. B.; MacWilliams, M.

    2012-12-01

    This work evaluates the implications to flooding risk at the low-lying NASA Ames Research Center in South San Francisco Bay under historical and projected climate and sea level rise. Atmospheric circulation patterns over the Pacific Ocean, influenced by ENSO and PDO, can result in extended periods of higher mean coastal sea level in California. Simultaneously they originate a larger number of storms that make landfall and have higher mean intensity. These storms generate barometrically-induced high water anomalies, and winds that are sometimes capable of producing large coastal waves. Storm surges that propagate from the coast into the estuary and South Bay, and locally-generated waves, may compromise the discharge capacity of stream channels. These conditions also typically generate high intensity rainfall, and the reduced channel capacity may result in fluvial flooding. Such atmospheric circulation patterns may persist for many months, during which California experiences more precipitation events of longer mean duration and higher intensity, leading to large precipitation totals that saturate soils and may exceed the storage capacity of stormwater retention ponds. Future scenarios of sea level rise, that may surpass a meter in this century according to the projections recently published by the National Research Council for states of CA, OR and WA, and projected atmospheric circulation changes associated with anthropogenic climate change, may amplify these risks. We evaluate the impacts of these changes on NASA's Ames Research Center through four areas of study: (i) wetland accretion and evolution as mean sea level rises, with implications to the Bay's response to the sea level rise and storm surges, (ii) hydrodynamic modeling to simulate the propagation of tidal height and storm surges in the Bay and the influence of local winds on wave height, (iii) evaluation of historical data and future climate projections to identify extreme precipitation events, and (iv

  18. Estimation of seasonal topographic variation in tidal flats using waterline method: A case study in Gomso and Hampyeong Bay, South Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Zhen; Kim, Duk-jin; Kim, Seung Hee; Cho, Yang-Ki; Lee, Sun-Gu

    2016-12-01

    Morphologic and topographic changes of tidal flats can be key indicators for monitoring environmental changes and sea level rise. Recently, a number of studies have been performed to estimate temporal topographic changes in tidal flats based on the waterline method using a number of remote sensing data that were acquired at different tidal heights. However, the effect of seasonal variation has not been taken into consideration, nor been understood so far. In this study, 18 scenes of Landsat TM and ETM+ data, covering the period 2003-2004, and corresponding tidal gauge observation data, were used to estimate seasonal topographic variations in two major tidal flats in Gomso and Hampyeong Bay in the southern part of the west sea of South Korea, using the waterline method. Our results showed that the summer deposition was dominant in Gomso Bay with overall average seasonal topographic increase of approximately 18.6 cm. In contrast, Hampyeong Bay showed more dominant summer erosion with overall average seasonal topographic subsidence of about 5.0 cm. In addition, the net overall sedimentation budget was estimated as 6,308,047 m3 and -2,210,986 m3 in Gomso and Hampyeong Bay, respectively. The results also indicates that although both bays of Gomso and Hampyeong are classified as semi-enclosed tidal flat, the sedimentary facies caused by formation geometry and sediment type led to different topographic changes. The results demonstrate that the amount of seasonal topographic variations is not negligible and are expected to improve the accuracy of topographic change derived by the waterline method.

  19. Characterization and closure of the Met Lab Carolina Bay at the Savannah River site, Aiken, South Carolina

    SciTech Connect

    Jerome, K.M.; Frazier, W.L.; Haselow, L.A.; Voss, L.

    1993-07-01

    The Met Lab Carolina Bay is subject to Subtitle C of RCRA and CERCLA requirements. Located in the northwestern section of the Savannah River Site, the Met Lab Carolina Bay is a marshy, oval-shaped natural depression covering approximately six acres. The Carolina Bay received wastes from three sources: the Met Lab Basin A-007 drainage outfall, the A-Area coal-fire power plant A-008 drainage outfall and the A/M-Area vehicle maintenance parking lot stormwater runoff A-009 outfall. Two characterization efforts conducted in 1988/89 and 1991 indicate the presence of metals in the sediments and soils of the bay. The greatest concentrations of the metals and organics being in the north-central portion of the bay. The metals and organics were primarily associated with surface sediments and the organic-rich soil layer to a depth of about two feet. Conclusions from the Human Health Baseline Risk indicate the future on-unit resident exposure to sediments and soil poses an unacceptable level of risk to human health. However, the assumptions built into the calculations lead to conservative human health risk findings. A qualitative Ecological Risk Assessment was performed on the Carolina Bay. This ecological assessment, based on historical and existing sampling data, was found to be insufficient to make a definitive decision on the contaminants` effects on the ecology of the bay. The proposed action for the Carolina Bay is to conduct an ecological characterization. It appears that the ecological risks will be in the driving factor in determining the remedial action for the Met Lab Carolina Bay.

  20. Concerted sampling of water for trace organic contaminants by bivalves and semipermeable membrane devices in south San Francisco Bay and Elkhorn Slough

    SciTech Connect

    Hodgins, M.M.; Jacobson, L.A.; Prest, H.F.

    1995-12-31

    Bivalves have been widely applied as biomonitors in detecting organic contaminants in aquatic environments. Recently semipermeable membrane devices (SPMDS) have been shown to be effective pre-concentrators of trace levels of organic compounds in water and air. This study compares accumulation of trace organic compounds in oysters (Crassotrea gigas) and mussels (Mytilus califorianus) to those in SPMDs in south San Francisco Bay and Elkhorn Slough. The authors report concentration levels and trends in the profiles for organochlorine pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls and polyaromatic hydrocarbons in SPMDs and bivalves from a series of locations in both areas.

  1. Halomonas sp. OKOH--a marine bacterium isolated from the bottom sediment of Algoa Bay--produces a polysaccharide bioflocculant: partial characterization and biochemical analysis of its properties.

    PubMed

    Mabinya, Leonard V; Cosa, Sekelwa; Mkwetshana, Noxolo; Okoh, Anthony I

    2011-05-25

    A bioflocculant-producing bacterium isolated from seawater was identified based on 16S rRNA gene nucleotide sequence to have 99% similarity to that of Halomonas sp. Au160H and the nucleotide sequence was deposited as Halomonas sp. OKOH (Genbank accession number is HQ875722). Influences of carbon source, nitrogen source, salt ions and pH on flocculating activity were investigated. The bioflocculant was optimally produced when glucose (87% flocculating activity) and urea (88% flocculating activity) were used as sources of carbon and nitrogen, respectively. Also, initial pH of 7.0 and Ca²⁺ supported optimal production of the bioflocculant with flocculating activities of 87% respectively. Chemical analyses revealed the bioflocculant to be a polysaccharide.

  2. A study using demographic data of genetic drift and natural selection in an isolated Mediterranean community: Bayárcal (La Alpujarra, south-east Spain).

    PubMed

    Luna, F; Tarelho, A R; Camargo, A M; Alonso, V

    2011-07-01

    Natural selection and genetic drift are two evolutionary mechanisms that can be analysed in human populations using their fertility and mortality patterns, and their reproductive size and isolation, respectively. This paper analyses the models of natural selection and genetic drift in Bayárcal, south-east Spain, and compares them with the observed models in the rest of the Alpujarran region. Demographic data were obtained from a sample of 77 families (48.45% of the population, with 547 inhabitants). The genetic drift and natural selection action was evaluated with the Coefficient of Breeding Isolation (CBI of Lasker and Kaplan) and Crow's index, respectively. The CBI (23.23/12.61) suggests that genetic drift is near to acting, and Crow's index (I=0.58) is slightly higher than that observed in the rest of La Alpujarra. Although the reproductive isolation of Bayárcal is not effective enough for genetic drift to act, it is near when marital migrants inside the Bayárcal valley are considered as a native population. The natural selection pattern is not different from that of the rest of La Alpujarra, but it tends towards the model of developing communities, where the demographic transition has not yet begun.

  3. Spatial and Temporal Inputs of Freshwater to a Subtropical Estuary Using Geochemical Tracers, Biscayne Bay, South Florida.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stalker, J. C.; Price, R. M.; Swart, P. K.

    2008-12-01

    Biscayne Bay is a coastal estuary in Southeast Florida that receives contributions of freshwater from precipitation, canal discharge, and submarine groundwater inputs. Very little is known about the proportions or spatial influence of these freshwater sources. In an effort to differentiate the freshwater inputs to the bay, samples of precipitation, canal water, groundwater, and bay surface water were collected from July 2004 to July 2006 and analyzed for salinity, stable isotopes of O, and H and Sr2+/Ca2+ ratios. These tracers were used in three mixing models and then combined to trace the magnitude and timing of the fresh water inputs to the estuary. The modeling results indicate rainfall dominating freshwater inputs in the wet season with the ratio of canal-precipitation-groundwater inputs of 30%-60%-10%, respectively. In the dry season canal inputs increase in importance with the ratio of canal-precipitation-groundwater inputs changing to 40%-55%- 5%, respectively. For a bay wide water budget that includes saltwater and freshwater mixing, fresh groundwater accounts for 2% of the total input. However, most groundwater inputs occur along the western shoreline of the bay, while precipitation dominates in the eastern portion of the bay.

  4. Nitrogen budget of the eelgrass, Zostera marina in a bay system on the south coast of Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Sang Rul; Kim, Young Kyun; Kim, Seung Hyeon; Lee, Kun-Seop

    2013-12-01

    Above- and below-ground productivities and tissue N content were measured monthly to quantify N incorporation to sustain eelgrass growth in Koje Bay on the south coast of Korea from January to December 2002. N acquisition was also estimated through measurements of N uptake kinetics, tissue biomass, and in situ inorganic N concentrations in water column and sediments. Above- and below-ground productivities were highest in summer and lowest in late fall and winter. Leaf tissue N content was highest in December and lowest in July, while rhizome tissue N content was highest in October and lowest in April. Estimated monthly N incorporation by leaf tissues based on the leaf productivity and N content ranged from 0.4 g N m-2 month-1 in November to 2.0 g N m-2 month-1 in May. N incorporation by below-ground tissues ranged from 0.1 g N m-2 month-1 in February to 0.2 g N m-2 month-1 in October. Annual whole plant N incorporation was 14.5 g N m-2 y-1, and N incorporation by leaf tissues accounted for about 87 % of total N incorporation. Maximum uptake rate ( V max ) and half saturation constant ( K m ) of leaf NH4 + uptake were significantly lower than those of root NH4 + uptake. Above- and below-ground biomass ranged from 20.8 g DW m-2 and 8.6 g DW m-2 in winter to 350.0 g DW m-2 and 81.3 g DW m-2 in spring, respectively. NH4 + concentrations varied from 0.2 to 4.3 mM in water column and from 93.0 to 551.7 mM in sediment pore water. Based on these measurements, annual N acquisition by root tissues contributed slightly higher than that by leaf tissues to total plant N acquisition. During winter, monthly leaf N acquisition was lower than monthly leaf N incorporation. This implies that Z. marina has internal nitrogen retention system to offset the shortage and excess of nitrogen.

  5. Responses of submarine groundwater to silty-sand coast reclamation: A case study in south of Laizhou Bay, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Sen; Gao, Maosheng; Tang, Zhonghua; Hou, Guohua; Guo, Fei

    2016-11-01

    Coastal reclamation can result in considerable changes in the quality and quantity of submarine groundwater at the land/sea interface. In this study, submarine groundwater monitoring wells and water samples were designed and implemented to get data of groundwater level, electrical conductivity, temperature, and hydrochemistry data to examine the responses of silty-sand submarine groundwater in different sedimentary strata to reclamation in south of Laizhou Bay. The submarine groundwater is mainly saline water and its salinity in the deep aquifer is higher than that of seawater and close to brine. It was formed in the Late Pleistocene and Holocene. Drilling core data indicates that there is a stratigraphic boundary at a depth of 18.58 m, with Holocene strata above, and Late Pleistocene strata below, this level. Continuous electrical conductivity data indicates that the submarine groundwater properties are stratigraphically distributed in this study area. And there is an interface at a depth of 38 m. Above the 38 m depth, the water quantity of submarine ground-saline water is freshening. The major ions showed a tendency to change continually above 25 m, but the tended to stabilize below 25 m depth. Freshwater is the major recharge source in the upper section of the Holocene strata, between the surface and 8.00 m depth, and the hydrochemical type has changed from Clsbnd Na to Cl·HCO3sbnd Na. In the lower section of Holocene strata (8.00-23.00 m) and upper section of late Late Pleistocene strata (23.00-38.00 m), groundwater is influenced by seawater and groundwater of upper aquifer. The freshwater, seawater, and groundwater recharge in the upper aquifer has no influence on the groundwater in the section below the late Late Pleistocene (between 38.00 and 49.15 m) and the early Late Pleistocene strata (between 49.15 and 75.00 m). The filling layer, added in the coastal reclamation project, is comprised of clayey silt and fine sand, and its high porosity means that it is

  6. Sedimentary archives of the French Atlantic coast (inner Bay of Vilaine, south Brittany): Depositional history and late Holocene climatic and environmental signals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sorrel, Philippe; Tessier, Bernadette; Demory, François; Baltzer, Agnès; Bouaouina, Firas; Proust, Jean-Noël; Menier, David; Traini, Camille

    2010-06-01

    The late Holocene is of particular interest to our understanding of the evolution of coastal sedimentary systems because this period encompasses warmer and cooler periods, and rising sea level in northern Europe. Based on an approach combining AMS 14C, sedimentological and rock magnetic analyses on sediment cores complemented with seismic data collected in the macrotidal Bay of Vilaine (south Brittany), we document the depositional history of the inner bay coeval to the mid- to late-Holocene transgression in south Brittany. Correlation between sedimentary archives revealed the main sedimentary infilling phases during the last 6000 years. Four units (U1-U4) are recognized in the coastal sediment wedge of the system, corresponding to the stepwise marine invasion of the bay. We show that (1) marine inundation, due to the steep morphology of the bedrock, is diachronous between distal and proximal records. A time lag of ˜1000 years is inferred over a distance of less than 5 km; (2) in the outer areas, the sedimentation has been condensed since 3000 years; (3) proximal estuarine archives offer the best record of sedimentary processes covering the last 2000 years, including the Medieval Warm Period (MWP). Correlations in proximal records in the Bay of Vilaine assess the connection between coastal sedimentary dynamics, climatic conditions and anthropogenic activities during the MWP. We match the preservation of clay deposits to increased river-borne suspended matter transported to the estuary probably as a result of accelerated land-use development (higher soil erosion) in the catchment area between ca. 880 and 1050 AD. Because the preservation of estuarine sedimentary successions is favoured when coastal wave sediment reworking is minimal, it is proposed that the prevailing climatic regime in south Brittany during the MWP likely resembled to that of the preferred negative phase of the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO). Our data are fairly consistent with other late

  7. Levels and interactions of selenium with group IIB metals in mussels from Swansea Bay, South Wales, U. K

    SciTech Connect

    Micallef, S.; Tyler, P.A.

    1989-03-01

    Swansea Bay is an inlet located on the northern coastline of the Bristol Channel, U.K. Past and present urban and industrialized development has led to the direct or indirect input to the bay, the latter from rivers, of various industrial and domestic waste discharge containing appreciable amounts of metal effluents. This area also supports a small commercial fishery. In an aquatic dynamic system such as this, the fate of a single chemical is complicated by possible interaction with other elements. In this study the results of a survey of the Group IIB metals, zinc, cadmium and mercury in the mussel, Mytilus edulis, from the Swansea bay area are presented. In addition, selenium concentrations are reported since it has been reported that this micronutrient can exert an antagonistic effect on these metals. Correlations between the different elements are included.

  8. The intertidal soft sediments and their macrofauna in the Greater Swansea Bay area (Worm's Head to Nash Point), South Wales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shackley, Susan E.

    1981-05-01

    The zonation and abundance of the infauna of 11 soft shores in the Greater Swansea Bay area are described in relation to sediment grain size composition and exposure to wave action. Faunal associations are more characteristic of a boreal sand community but with reduced species diversity. Exposure to wave action accounts, at least in part, for this reduced fauna but the combined effects of industrial and urban development in the Swansea Bay area cannot be ignored. This study provides a baseline for future work in a region subject to pollution, completing the infaunal species lists for the northern coastline of the Bristol Channel.

  9. Tampa Bay: Chapter N

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Handley, Larry; Spear, Kathryn; Cross, Lindsay; Baumstark, René; Moyer, Ryan; Thatcher, Cindy

    2013-01-01

    Tampa Bay is Florida’s largest open-water estuary and encompasses an area of approximately 1036 km2 (400 mi2) (Burgan and Engle, 2006; TBNEP, 2006). The Bay’s watershed drains 5,698 km2 (2,200 mi2) of land and includes freshwater from the Hillsborough River to the north east, the Alafia and Little Manatee rivers to the east, and the Manatee River to the south (Figure 1). Freshwater inflow also enters the bay from the Lake Tarpon Canal, from small tidal tributaries, and from watershed runoff. Outflow travels from the upper bay segments (Hillsborough Bay and Old Tampa Bay) into Middle and Lower Tampa Bay. Southwestern portions of the water shed flow through Boca Ciega Bay into the Intracoastal Waterway and through the Southwest Channel and Passage Key Inlet into the Gulf of Mexico. The average depth in most of Tampa Bay is only 3.4 m (11 ft); however, 129 km (80 mi) of shipping channels with a maximum depth of 13.1 m (43 ft) have been dredged over time and are regularly maintained. These channels help to support the three ports within the bay, as well as commercial and recreational boat traffic.

  10. Impact of off-road vehicles (ORVs) on ghost crabs of sandy beaches with traffic restrictions: a case study of Sodwana Bay, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Lucrezi, Serena; Saayman, Melville; van der Merwe, Peet

    2014-03-01

    Off-road vehicles (ORVs) are popular in coastal recreation, although they have negative impacts on sandy shores. In South Africa, ORVs are banned from most coastal areas, while some areas are designated for restricted ORV use, providing an opportunity to assess whether ORV traffic restrictions translate into biological returns. In Sodwana Bay, the impact of ORVs on ghost crab populations was investigated. During Easter 2012, ghost crab burrows were counted on beach sections open and closed to traffic. Burrow density in the Impact section was less than a third that of the Reference section, and by the end of the study burrow size in the Impact section was half that of the Reference section. ORV traffic caused a shift in burrow distribution to the Lower beach. However, differences in burrow densities between sections were 14 times smaller than differences obtained at a time when ORV use in Sodwana Bay was not controlled. While confirming the well-established detrimental effects of ORV use on sandy beach ecosystems, results demonstrated that traffic restrictions on beaches measurably minimize impacts to the fauna, thus translating into clear-cut biological returns.

  11. Enrichment of hexabromocyclododecanes in coastal sediments near aquaculture areas and a wastewater treatment plant in a semi-enclosed bay in South Korea.

    PubMed

    Al-Odaini, Najat Ahmed; Shim, Won Joon; Han, Gi Myung; Jang, Mi; Hong, Sang Hee

    2015-02-01

    The contamination status and potential sources of hexabromocyclododecanes (HBCDs) in the coastal environment were investigated using sediment samples from a semi-enclosed bay in South Korea. HBCDs displayed a very different distribution profile compared to polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and nonylphenol, indicating different emission sources inside the bay. A strong enrichment of HBCDs was found near aquaculture areas that used expanded polystyrene (EPS) buoys, which were confirmed to be the main source of HBCDs following an analysis of buoys collected from a market and the coast. EPS buoys contained large amounts of HBCDs, with lower levels in the outside layer than inside, implying the leaching of HBCDs from the surface throughout their lifetime. This was reflected in the high levels of HBCDs measured in coastal sediments near aquaculture farms. A wastewater treatment plant was found to be an additional source of HBCDs. A dated core sample revealed an increase in HBCD concentrations over time. The isomeric profiles for most of the surface and core sediment samples were dominated by the γ-diastereoisomer.

  12. Impact of Off-road Vehicles (ORVs) on Ghost Crabs of Sandy Beaches with Traffic Restrictions: A Case Study of Sodwana Bay, South Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lucrezi, Serena; Saayman, Melville; van der Merwe, Peet

    2014-03-01

    Off-road vehicles (ORVs) are popular in coastal recreation, although they have negative impacts on sandy shores. In South Africa, ORVs are banned from most coastal areas, while some areas are designated for restricted ORV use, providing an opportunity to assess whether ORV traffic restrictions translate into biological returns. In Sodwana Bay, the impact of ORVs on ghost crab populations was investigated. During Easter 2012, ghost crab burrows were counted on beach sections open and closed to traffic. Burrow density in the Impact section was less than a third that of the Reference section, and by the end of the study burrow size in the Impact section was half that of the Reference section. ORV traffic caused a shift in burrow distribution to the Lower beach. However, differences in burrow densities between sections were 14 times smaller than differences obtained at a time when ORV use in Sodwana Bay was not controlled. While confirming the well-established detrimental effects of ORV use on sandy beach ecosystems, results demonstrated that traffic restrictions on beaches measurably minimize impacts to the fauna, thus translating into clear-cut biological returns.

  13. Yearly fluctuation of the spring phytoplankton bloom in south San Francisco Bay - An example of ecological variability at the land-sea interface

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cloern, James E.; Jassby, Alan D.

    1995-01-01

    Estuaries are transitional ecosystems at the interface of the terrestrial and marine realms. Their unique physiographic position gives rise to large spatial variability, and to dynamic temporal variability resulting, in part, from a variety of forces and fluxes at the oceanic and terrestrial boundaries. River flow, in particular, is an important mechanism for delivering watershed-derived materials such as fresh water, sediments, and nutrients; each of these quantities in turn directly influences the physical structure and biological communities of estuaries. With this setting in mind, we consider here the general proposition that estuarine variability at the yearly time scale can be caused by annual fluctuations in river flow. We use a “long-term” (15-year) time series of phytoplankton biomass variability in South San Francisco Bay (SSFB), a lagoon-type estuary in which phytoplankton primary production is the largest source of organic carbon (Jassby et al. 1993).

  14. Concentrations and human health implications of heavy metals in wild aquatic organisms captured from the core area of Daya Bay's Fishery Resource Reserve, South China Sea.

    PubMed

    Gu, Yang-Guang; Huang, Hong-Hui; Lin, Qin

    2016-07-01

    Heavy metal concentrations in edible organisms from the core area of Daya Bay's Fishery Resource Reserve, South China Sea, were determined. Samples of 14 crustacean, fish, and shellfish species were collected and analyzed. The As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg, Ni, Pb, and Zn concentrations were 0.18-1.16, 0.002-0.919, 0.40-2.85, 0.07-4.10, 0.004-0.055, 0.14-1.19, 0.014-0.070, and 4.57-15.94μg/g wet weight, respectively. The As concentrations were higher than the Chinese maximum permissible levels in all of the fish and shellfish species and two crustacean species, indicating that consumption of these wild species by humans may pose health risks. However, calculations of the health risks posed to humans indicated that no significant adverse health effects would be associated with consuming these species.

  15. The effects of the Chesapeake Bay impact crater on the geologic framework and the correlation of hydrogeologic units of southeastern Virginia, south of the James River

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Powars, David S.

    2000-01-01

    About 35 million years ago, a large comet or meteor slammed into the shallow shelf on the western margin of the Atlantic Ocean, creating the Chesapeake Bay impact crater. This report, the second in a series, refines the geologic framework of southeastern Virginia, south of the James River in and near the impact crater, and presents evidence for the existence of a pre-impact James River structural zone. The report includes detailed correlations of core lithologies with borehole geophysical logs; the correlations provide the foundation for the compilation of stratigraphic cross sections. These cross sections are tied into the geologic framework of the lower York-James Peninsula as presented in the first report in the series, Professional Paper 1612

  16. Metal pollution status in Zhelin Bay surface sediments inferred from a sequential extraction technique, South China Sea.

    PubMed

    Gu, Yang-Guang; Lin, Qin; Jiang, Shi-Jun; Wang, Zhao-Hui

    2014-04-15

    Surface sediments collected from Zhelin Bay, the largest mariculture base of eastern Guangdong Province, were analyzed for total metal concentrations and chemical speciation. The results demonstrated that the average total concentration (mg/kg) ranges were 36.7-65.8 (Pb), 53.8-98.8 (Cr), 39.0-87.1 (Ni), 50.9-144.5 (Cu), and 175.0-251.2 (Zn), which were clearly higher with respect to their corresponding benchmark values. The predominant speciation of Pb was reducible and comprised a residual fraction, whereas a major portion (57.6-95.4%) of Cr, Ni, Cu, and Zn was strongly associated with the residual fractions. Taking as a whole, surface sediments of Zhelin Bay had a 21% probability of toxicity based on the mean effects range-median quotient.

  17. Petroleum pollution in surface sediments of Daya Bay, South China, revealed by chemical fingerprinting of aliphatic and alicyclic hydrocarbons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Xuelu; Chen, Shaoyong

    2008-10-01

    Nine surface sediments collected from Daya Bay have been Soxhlet-extracted with 2:1 (v/v) dichloromethane-methanol. The non-aromatic hydrocarbon (NAH) fraction of solvent extractable organic matter (EOM) and some bulk geochemical parameters have been analyzed to determine petroleum pollution of the bay. The NAH content varies from 32 to 276 μg g -1 (average 104 μg g -1) dry sediment and accounts for 5.8-64.1% (average 41.6%) of the EOM. n-Alkanes with carbon number ranging from 15 to 35 are identified to be derived from both biogenic and petrogenic sources in varying proportions. The contribution of marine authigenic input to the sedimentary n-alkanes is lower than the allochthonous input based on the average n-C 31/ n-C 19 alkane ratio. 25.6-46.5% of the n-alkanes, with a mean of 35.6%, are contributed by vascular plant wax. Results of unresolved complex mixture, isoprenoid hydrocarbons, hopanes and steranes also suggest possible petroleum contamination. There is strong evidence of a common petroleum contamination source in the bay.

  18. [Hydrological and edaphic structure of an oyster-farming site: Duna Blanca (Bay of Dakhla, south Morocco)].

    PubMed

    Zidane, H; Orbi, A; Mouradi, A; Zidane, F; Blais, J F

    2008-09-01

    Morocco shelters lagoons, estuaries and bays along its paralic coasts which are among the most productive in the world. The Bay of Dakhla is the longest and the most important site in Morocco due to its halieutic richness. In fact, this bay is an ecosystem with great potential in terms of aquaculture, mainly shellfish farming, and shelters favorable zones for tapiculture, mytiliculture and ostreiculture, in accordance with ecological planning. A hydrological study (temperature, salinity, chlorophyll "a", suspended matter and organic matter) was conducted on a breeding project of the cupped oyster (Crassostrea gigas) installed on the Duna Blanca site since April 2003. A seasonal follow-up of sediment structure was carried out involving granulometric and metallic studies. The hydrological sampling was performed monthly on the surface and at the bottom, during spring tides, low tide and high tide. The results confirmed that the site encompasses a wealth of nutritive elements and a significant chlorophyll-rich biomass. A gradient of hypersalinity is well correlated with seasonal variation of the temperature. The sedimentary structure ranges from muddy-sandy to sandy type. The metal concentrations in the sediments never exceeded the toxicity thresholds. However, the site's production potential cannot be limitless and could be affected by the extension and installation of new conchylaceous farms.

  19. Assessment of intrinsic bioremediation of gasoline contamination in the shallow aquifer, Laurel Bay Exchange, Marine Corps Air Station Beaufort, South Carolina

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Landmeyer, J.E.; Chapelle, Francis; Bradley, P.M.

    1996-01-01

    Laboratory, field, and digital solute-transport- modeling studies demonstrate that microorganisms indigenous to the shallow ground-water system at Laurel Bay Exchange, Marine Corps Air Station Beaufort, South Carolina, can degrade petroleum hydrocarbons in gasoline released at the site. Microorganisms in aquifer sediments incubated in the laboratory under aerobic and anaerobic conditions mineralized radiolabeled carbon 14-toluene to 14C-carbon dioxide with first-order rate constants of Kbio = -0.640 per day and Kbio = -0.003 per day, respectively. Digital solute- transport modeling using the numerical code SUTRA revealed that anaerobic biodegradation of benzene occurs with a first-order rate constant near Kbio = -0.00025 per day. Sandy aquifer material beneath Laurel Bay Exchange is characterized by relatively high hydraulic conductivities (Kaq = 8.9 to 17.3 feet per day), average ground-water flow rate of about 60 feet per year, and a relatively uniform hydraulic gradient of 0.004 feet per foot. The sandy aquifer material also has low adsorptive potentials for toluene and benzene (both about Kad = 2.0 x 10-9 cubic feet per milligram), because of the lack of natural organic matter in the aquifer. The combination of this ground-water-flow rate and absence of significant adsorptive capacity in the aquifer permits toluene and benzene concentrations to be detected downgradient from the source area in monitoring wells, even though biodegradation of these compounds has been demonstrated. Solute-transport simulations, however, indicate that toluene and benzene will not reach the Broad River, the nearest point of contact with wildlife or human populations, about 3,600 feet west of the site boundary. These simulations also show that contamination will not be transported to the nearest Marine Corps property line about 2,400 feet south of the site. This is primarily because the source of contaminants has essentially been removed, and the low adsorptive capacity of the aquifer

  20. Chesapeake Bay plume dynamics from LANDSAT

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Munday, J. C., Jr.; Fedosh, M. S.

    1981-01-01

    LANDSAT images with enhancement and density slicing show that the Chesapeake Bay plume usually frequents the Virginia coast south of the Bay mouth. Southwestern (compared to northern) winds spread the plume easterly over a large area. Ebb tide images (compared to flood tide images) show a more dispersed plume. Flooding waters produce high turbidity levels over the shallow northern portion of the Bay mouth.

  1. Deriving a High-Resolution - Continuous Record of Climate Change for the Past 15,000 cal BP, Maxwell Bay Sediment Core, South Shetland Islands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milliken, K. T.; Anderson, J. B.; Wellner, J. S.; Manley, P.; Bohaty, S.

    2005-12-01

    In the Antarctic Peninusla area, a climatic gradient, created by orographic and oceanographic effects, is manifested in extreme temperature and precipitation patterns. Thus, the area provides a natural laboratory to study the nature and timing of climate change at high southern latitudes during the past several thousand years. Two benchmark long term continuous records can now be compared; Maxwell Bay, situated in a warm wet subpolar climate setting and Palmer Deep, located in a cold wet subpolar climatic regime. Both of these records span the past 14000 years, document the LGM ice pullback and provide the means to contrast climate fluctuations in two different area. This paper presents the preliminary results from a 108 m sediment core (93 % recovery) recovered from Maxwell Bay (South Shetland islands). The pre-existing Palmer Deep cores sampled 50 m of structureless diatom ooze/mud, rhythmically interbedded diatom ooze and pebbly mud and muddy diatomicton (Domack et. al., 2001). The alternation of diatom ooze and diatomaceous mud is interpreted to represent climate driven oscillations of biogenic productivity. Magnetic susceptibility and other paleoenvironmental proxies track biogenic productivity and provide a means to quantify decadal, century, and millennia scales of climate change. Additionally, five global climate intervals are noted including, deglaciation, climatic reversal, Hypsithermal (Holocene Climatic Optimum), Neoglacial, and Little Ice Age. Several radiocarbon dates are used to establish an age model and show significant variations in sedimentation rates through time. The sedimentation rate variations correspond to sediment facies changes within the core. High sedimentation rates (10 to 30 mm/yr) correspond to silty diatomaceous mud with abundant sand laminae interpreted as proximal glaciomarine facies. Lower sedimentation rates (4 mm/yr) are associated with diatomaceous mud with few sand laminae and abundant bioturbation, interpreted to represent

  2. Measurements of salinity, temperature, and tides in south San Francisco Bay, California, at Dumbarton Bridge; 1990-93 water years

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schemel, Laurence E.

    1995-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey measures salinity, temperature, and water levels (tides) in southern San Francisco Bay at Dumbarton Bridge as part of a cooperative program with the California State Department of Water Resources. During water years 1990-93, measurements were made at 15-minute intervals with electonic sensors located approximately one meter above the substrate in approximately six meters of water (at mean water level). During March and April of 1991 and 1992, salinity and temperature also were measured with a self-contained system floating one meter below the surface of the water. Sections of the data set were selected to illustrate influences of tidal currents, weather events, and seasonal and interannual variations in climate on salinity, temperature, and water levels at this location. The edited data are provided on high-density disks in comma-delimited, ASCII text files.

  3. Distribution, enrichment and source of heavy metals in surface sediments of the eastern Beibu Bay, South China Sea.

    PubMed

    Dou, Yanguang; Li, Jun; Zhao, Jingtao; Hu, Bangqi; Yang, Shouye

    2013-02-15

    Sixty-nine samples of surface sediments (0-5 cm) recovered from the eastern Beibu Bay were analyzed for TOC and heavy metals to examine the element distribution pattern and potential pollutant sources. The sediments in the study area are characterized by variable heavy metal concentrations that are comparable with those of the surrounding regions. Obvious positive correlations were observed amongst the concentrations of Zn, Cr, Pb, Cd, Cu and the clay contents, suggesting that fine clay particles are important carriers of trace metals in the sediments. Hg and As show a considerable/low positive correlation with TOC, indicating that organic matter may play a discernible role in the sediment chemistry. Cd contamination was detected in the north of the study area primarily due to the input of phosphate fertilizers carried by rivers. In comparison, Zn, Cr, Pb, and partly Cu are predominantly sourced from lithogenic components, and Hg and As are mainly from organic matter related to anthropogenic input.

  4. Yaquina Bay Topobathy DEM

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S.EPA contracted with the U.S.ACE to obtain intertidal and subtidal bathymetric soundings of Yaquina Bay between Poole Slough and the South Beach Marina in 2002. These data were compiled with U.S.ACE subtidal soundings from 1999, 1998, 2000 and National Ocean Service soundi...

  5. Field guide to the Mesozoic accretionary complex along Turnagain Arm and Kachemak Bay, south-central Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bradley, Dwight C.; Kusky, Timothy M.; Karl, Susan M.; Haeussler, Peter J.

    1997-01-01

    Turnagain Arm, just east of Anchorage, provides a readily accessible, world-class cross section through a Mesozoic accretionary wedge. Nearly continuous exposures along the Seward Highway, the Alaska Railroad, and the shoreline of Turnagain Arm display the two main constituent units of the Chugach terrane: the McHugh Complex and Valdez Group. In this paper we describe seven bedrock geology stops along Turnagain Arm, and two others in the Chugach Mountains just to the north (Stops 1-7 and 9), which will be visited as part of the May, 1997 field trip of the Alaska Geological Society. Outcrops along Turnagain Arm have already been described in two excellent guidebook articles (Clark, 1981; Winkler and others 1984), both of which remain as useful and valid today as when first published. Since the early 1980's, studies along Turnagain Arm have addressed radiolarian ages of chert and conodont ages of limestone in the McHugh Complex (Nelson and others, 1986, 1987); geochemistry of basalt in the McHugh Complex (Nelson and Blome, 1991); post-accretion brittle faulting (Bradley and Kusky, 1990; Kusky and others, 1997); and the age and tectonic setting of gold mineralization (Haeussler and others, 1995). Highlights of these newer findings will described both in the text below, and in the stop descriptions.Superb exposures along the southeastern shore of Kachemak Bay show several other features of the McHugh Complex that are either absent or less convincing along Turnagain Arm. While none of these outcrops can be reached via the main road network, they are still reasonably accessible - all are within an hour by motorboat from Homer, seas permitting. Here, we describe seven outcrops along the shore of Kachemak Bay that we studied between 1989 and 1993 during geologic mapping of the Seldovia 1:250,000- scale quadrangle. These outcrops (Stops 61-67) will not be part of the 1997 itinerary, but are included here tor the benefit of those who may wish to visit them later.

  6. Effects of abundance and water temperature on recruitment and growth of alewife (Alosa pseudoharengus) near South Bay, Lake Huron, 1954-82

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Henderson, Bryan A.; Brown, Edward H.

    1985-01-01

    Analysis of catches in pound nets provided indices of population size (ages 2–6) and of recruitment (ages 4–6) for alewives (Alosa pseudoharengus) spawning in South Bay (1954–82). Four hypotheses concerning the effects of stock size and water temperature on growth and recruitment were tested statistically. The number of recruits per spawner was not a function of parental stock size, but was dependent on surface-water temperatures in June and July. Although the size of both males and females at age 3 yr was positively related to surface-water temperatures in the three preceding summers, growth rates were only a function of water temperatures during the second year of growth (age 1). However, growth rates during the first, second, and third years of growth were all related to year-class strength. Thus, population abundance, through recruitment, was determined by an abiotic factor (water temperature), but growth was mostly affected by intraspecific competition for, presumably, food.

  7. Near-field receiving water monitoring of a benthic community near the Palo Alto Water Quality Control Plant in south San Francisco Bay: February 1974 through December 2003

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Shouse, Michelle K.; Parcheso, Francis; Thompson, Janet K.

    2004-01-01

    Analyses of the benthic community structure of a mudflat in South San Francisco Bay over a 29-year period show that changes in the community have occurred concurrent with reduced concentrations of metals in the sediment and in the tissues of the biosentinal clam Macoma balthica from the same area. The community has shifted from being dominated by several opportunistic species to a community where the species are more similar in abundance, a pattern that could be indicative of a more stable community that is subjected to less stress. In addition, two of the opportunistic species (Ampelisca abdita and Streblospio benedicti) that brood their young and live on the surface of the sediment in tubes have shown a continual decline in dominance coincident with the decline in metals. Heteromastus filiformis, a subsurface polychaete worm that lives in the sediment, consumes sediment and organic particles residing in the sediment, and reproduces by laying their eggs on or in the sediment has shown a concurrent increase in dominance. These changes in species dominance reflect a change in the community from one dominated by surface dwelling, brooding species to one with species with varying life history characteristics. Analysis of the reproductive activity of Macoma balthica shows increases in reproductive activity concurrent with the decline in metal concentrations in the tissue of this organism. Reproductive activity is presently stable with almost all animals reproducing during the two reproductive seasons (spring and fall) of most years. These findings are consistent with findings previously reported for the 1974 through 2002 period.

  8. 18. DETAIL VIEW OF THE HIGH BAY STRUCTURAL SYSTEM AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    18. DETAIL VIEW OF THE HIGH BAY STRUCTURAL SYSTEM AND WINDOW ILLUMINATION AT THE SHRINK PIT AREA, S END OF B BAY; LOOKING SSE. (Ceronie) - Watervliet Arsenal, Building No. 135, Gillespie Road, South of Parker Road, Watervliet, Albany County, NY

  9. 27 CFR 9.157 - San Francisco Bay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Mountain, California, scale 1:24,000, dated 1956, Photorevised 1980; (25) Half Moon Bay, California, scale... Francisco South, Montara Mountain, Half Moon Bay, San Gregorio, Pigeon Point, Franklin Point, Año Nuevo...

  10. 27 CFR 9.157 - San Francisco Bay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Mountain, California, scale 1:24,000, dated 1956, Photorevised 1980; (25) Half Moon Bay, California, scale... Francisco South, Montara Mountain, Half Moon Bay, San Gregorio, Pigeon Point, Franklin Point, Año Nuevo...

  11. 27 CFR 9.157 - San Francisco Bay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... Mountain, California, scale 1:24,000, dated 1956, Photorevised 1980; (25) Half Moon Bay, California, scale... Francisco South, Montara Mountain, Half Moon Bay, San Gregorio, Pigeon Point, Franklin Point, Año Nuevo...

  12. 27 CFR 9.157 - San Francisco Bay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... Mountain, California, scale 1:24,000, dated 1956, Photorevised 1980; (25) Half Moon Bay, California, scale... Francisco South, Montara Mountain, Half Moon Bay, San Gregorio, Pigeon Point, Franklin Point, Año Nuevo...

  13. 27 CFR 9.157 - San Francisco Bay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... Mountain, California, scale 1:24,000, dated 1956, Photorevised 1980; (25) Half Moon Bay, California, scale... Francisco South, Montara Mountain, Half Moon Bay, San Gregorio, Pigeon Point, Franklin Point, Año Nuevo...

  14. Postglacial vegetation history of the Kachemak Bay area, Cook Inlet, south-central Alaska: A section in Geologic studies in Alaska by the U.S. Geological Survey, 1998

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ager, Thomas A.

    2000-01-01

    Pollen records from two sites on the north shore of Kachemak Bay, south-central Alaska, provide the first radiocarbon-dated histories of postglacial vegetation development for southern Cook Inlet. During the late Wisconsin glacial interval, glaciers covered most of Cook Inlet. Deglaciation of Kachemak Bay began prior to 13,000 yr B.P. Pollen evidence indicates that a pioneering herbaceous tundra began to develop by 12,800 yr B.P., but was soon replaced by a shrub tundra of dwarf birch (Betula), Ericales (Ericaceae and Empetrum) and willows (Salix).By 9,500 yr B.P., a shrub-dominated vegetation of alders (Alnus) and willows, with some deciduous trees (Populus spp.) quickly developed and persisted until late Holocene time. By about 4,000–3,800 yr B.P., spruce trees (Picea glauca and (or) P. mariana) from the interior boreal forests reached the northern Kachemak Bay area from upper Cook Inlet and began to displace the alder-dominated vegetation. A coastal forest of Sitka spruce (Picea sitchensis) began to colonize Kachemak Bay more recently, about 1,650 yr B.P. (minimum age), apparently from sources in Prince William Sound to the east. Where Sitka spruce came into proximity with boreal white spruce (Picea glauca), hybridization occurred, ultimately influencing the spruce forests over a large area of the Kenai Lowland. Some key findings of this study are: (1) the Kachemak Bay-area pollen records do not display persuasive evidence for a “Younger Dryas” cold, dry interval ca. 11,000–10,000 yr B.P. that has been reported from pollen records on Kodiak Island (Gulf of Alaska) and Pleasant Island (southeastern Alaska); (2) at least one species of alder may have survived in refugia in south-central Alaska during the last glacial interval; (3) coastal forests appear to be still migrating west along the coast of south-central Alaska, but their spread northward is being limited by drier, colder winter climates; (4) the mountainous topography of south-central Alaska

  15. Spatial and temporal variability in South San Francisco Bay (USA). II. Temporal changes in salinity, suspended sediments, and phytoplankton biomass and productivity over tidal time scales

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cloern, J.E.; Powell, T.M.; Huzzey, L.M.

    1989-01-01

    Short-term variability of a conservative quantity (salinity) and two nonconservative quantities (chlorophyll a, suspended particulate matter) was measured across a sampling grid in the South San Francisco Bay estuary. Surface measurements were made every 2 h at each of 29 (or 38) sites, on four different dates representing a range of tidal current regimes over the neap-spring cycle. From the distribution of phytoplankton biomass (chlorophyll a) and turbidity (SPM), we also estimated daily productivity and its variability at each site over the four tide cycles. As a general rule, both chlorophyll a and SPM concentrations varied about 50% from their tidal-means. However derived daily productivity varied less (about 15% from the mean) over a tidal cycle. Both chlorophyll a and SPM varied periodically with tidal stage (increasing on ebbing currents), suggesting that the short-term variability results simply from the tidal advection of spatial gradients. Calculation of the advective flux (current speed times spatial gradient) was used to test this hypothesis. For surface salinity, most (70-80%) of the observed intratidal variability was correlated with the tidal flux, both in the deep channel and over the lateral shoals. However the short-term variability of SPM concentration was only weakly correlated with the advective flux, indicating that local sources of SPM (resuspension) are important. Hourly changes in chlorophyll a were highly correlated with the advective flux in the deep channel (implying that phytoplankton biomass is conservative over short time scales there); however, chlorophyll a variability was only weakly correlated with the advective flux over the shoals, implying that local sources/sinks are important there. Hence, the magnitude and mechanisms of intratidal variability differ among constituents and among bathymetric regimes in this estuary. ?? 1989.

  16. Wind-enhanced resuspension in the shallow waters of South San Francisco Bay: Mechanisms and potential implications for cohesive sediment transport

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brand, Andreas; Lacy, Jessica R.; Hsu, Kevin; Hoover, Daniel; Gladding, Steve; Stacey, Mark T.

    2010-01-01

    We investigated the driving forces of sediment dynamics at the shoals in South San Francisco Bay. Two stations were deployed along a line perpendicular to a 14 m deep channel, 1000 and 2000 m from the middle of the channel. Station depths were 2.59 and 2.19 m below mean lower low water, respectively. We used acoustic Doppler velocimeters for the simultaneous determination of current velocities, turbulence, sediment concentration and fluxes. Maximum current shear velocities were 0.015 m s−1 at the station further from the channel (closer to the shore) and 0.02 m s−1 at the station closer to the channel. Peak wave-induced shear velocities exceeded 0.015 m s−1 at both stations. Maximum sediment concentrations were around 30 g m−3 during calm periods (root mean square wave height −3 and sediment fluxes were 5 times higher than in calm conditions (0.02 g m−2 s−1 versus >0.10 g m−2 s−1) at the station further from the channel 0.36 m above the bed. Closer to the channel, sediment concentrations and vertical fluxes due to wind wave resuspension were persistently lower (maximum concentrations around 50 g m−3 and maximum fluxes around 0.04 g m−2 s−1). Most resuspension events occurred during flood tides that followed wave events during low water. Although wave motions are able to resuspend sediment into the wave boundary layer at low tide, the observed large increases in sediment fluxes are due to the nonlinear interaction of wind waves and the tidal currents.

  17. Box Model of a Series of Salt Ponds, as Applied to the Alviso Salt Pond Complex, South San Francisco Bay, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lionberger, Megan A.; Schoellhamer, David H.; Shellenbarger, Gregory; Orlando, James L.; Ganju, Neil K.

    2007-01-01

    This report documents the development and application of a box model to simulate water level, salinity, and temperature of the Alviso Salt Pond Complex in South San Francisco Bay. These ponds were purchased for restoration in 2003 and currently are managed by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service to maintain existing wildlife habitat and prevent a build up of salt during the development of a long-term restoration plan. The model was developed for the purpose of aiding pond managers during the current interim management period to achieve these goals. A previously developed box model of a salt pond, SPOOM, which calculates daily pond volume and salinity, was reconfigured to simulate multiple connected ponds and a temperature subroutine was added. The updated model simulates rainfall, evaporation, water flowing between the ponds and the adjacent tidal slough network, and water flowing from one pond to the next by gravity and pumps. Theoretical and measured relations between discharge and corresponding differences in water level are used to simulate most flows between ponds and between ponds and sloughs. The principle of conservation of mass is used to calculate daily pond volume and salinity. The model configuration includes management actions specified in the Interim Stewardship Plan for the ponds. The temperature subroutine calculates hourly net heat transfer to or from a pond resulting in a rise or drop in pond temperature and daily average, minimum, and maximum pond temperatures are recorded. Simulated temperature was compared with hourly measured data from pond 3 of the Napa?Sonoma Salt Pond Complex and monthly measured data from pond A14 of the Alviso Salt-Pond Complex. Comparison showed good agreement of measured and simulated pond temperature on the daily and monthly time scales.

  18. Dynamics of nutrient cycling and related benthic nutrient and oxygen fluxes during a spring phytoplankton bloom in South San Francisco Bay (USA)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Grenz, C.; Cloern, J.E.; Hager, S.W.; Cole, B.E.

    2000-01-01

    Benthic oxygen uptake and nutrient releases of N, P and Si were measured weekly at 2 sites in South San Francisco Bay around the 1996 spring bloom. Exchanges across the sediment-water interface were estimated from whole core incubations performed in the laboratory at in situ temperature and in dark. Fluxes changed significantly on a weekly time scale. Over a period of 15 wk the fluxes of dissolved inorganic N, P and Si ranged from -40 to +200, 0 to 13 and from 30 to 400 ??mol m-2 h-1 respectively. Sediment oxygen demand increased from 10 before to 64 mg O2 m-2 h-1 just after the bloom period. During the bloom, nutrient fluxes represented about 20, 16 and 9% of the Si, P and N requirements for primary production. Before and after the bloom period, Si fluxes contributed up to 30 and > 100% of this requirement and P and N fluxes up to 15 and 50% respectively. Simple empirical models explain most of the spatial-temporal variability of benthic fluxes of Si, P and NH4 (but not NO3) from 3 predictor variables: sediment porosity, nutrient concentration in bottom waters and chlorophyll content of surficial sediments. These models show that algal blooms influence benthic-pelagic nutrient exchange through 2 processes: (1) depletion of nutrients from the water column (which enhances gradient-driven transports across the sediment-water interface) and (2) sedimentation of labile phytodetritus (which promotes remineralization in or on the surficial sediments). Rates and patterns of nutrient cycling were very different at the shallow and deep study sites, illustrating the challenge of extrapolating measurements of coupled algae-nutrient dynamics to whole ecosystems.

  19. 33 CFR 334.670 - Gulf of Mexico south and west of Apalachicola, San Blas, and St. Joseph bays; air-to-air firing...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Apalachicola, San Blas, and St. Joseph bays; air-to-air firing practice range, Tyndall Air Force Base, Fla. 334... Apalachicola, San Blas, and St. Joseph bays; air-to-air firing practice range, Tyndall Air Force Base, Fla. (a... the Commanding Officer, Tyndall Air Force Base, Florida, and such agencies as he may designate.......

  20. 33 CFR 334.670 - Gulf of Mexico south and west of Apalachicola, San Blas, and St. Joseph bays; air-to-air firing...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Apalachicola, San Blas, and St. Joseph bays; air-to-air firing practice range, Tyndall Air Force Base, Fla. 334... Apalachicola, San Blas, and St. Joseph bays; air-to-air firing practice range, Tyndall Air Force Base, Fla. (a... the Commanding Officer, Tyndall Air Force Base, Florida, and such agencies as he may designate.......

  1. 33 CFR 334.670 - Gulf of Mexico south and west of Apalachicola, San Blas, and St. Joseph bays; air-to-air firing...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Apalachicola, San Blas, and St. Joseph bays; air-to-air firing practice range, Tyndall Air Force Base, Fla. 334... Apalachicola, San Blas, and St. Joseph bays; air-to-air firing practice range, Tyndall Air Force Base, Fla. (a... the Commanding Officer, Tyndall Air Force Base, Florida, and such agencies as he may designate.......

  2. 33 CFR 334.670 - Gulf of Mexico south and west of Apalachicola, San Blas, and St. Joseph bays; air-to-air firing...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Apalachicola, San Blas, and St. Joseph bays; air-to-air firing practice range, Tyndall Air Force Base, Fla. 334... Apalachicola, San Blas, and St. Joseph bays; air-to-air firing practice range, Tyndall Air Force Base, Fla. (a... the Commanding Officer, Tyndall Air Force Base, Florida, and such agencies as he may designate.......

  3. 33 CFR 334.670 - Gulf of Mexico south and west of Apalachicola, San Blas, and St. Joseph bays; air-to-air firing...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Apalachicola, San Blas, and St. Joseph bays; air-to-air firing practice range, Tyndall Air Force Base, Fla. 334... Apalachicola, San Blas, and St. Joseph bays; air-to-air firing practice range, Tyndall Air Force Base, Fla. (a... the Commanding Officer, Tyndall Air Force Base, Florida, and such agencies as he may designate.......

  4. San Francisco and Bay Area, CA, USA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    Although clouds obscure part of the city of San Francisco and the mouth of the Bay (37.5N, 122.0W), many cultural and natural features in the immediate vicinity are obvious. The Bay Bridge which was damaged in the 1989 earthquake, Candlestick Park, San Mateo and Dumbarton Bridges as well as the various colored settling ponds rimming the south end of the Bay, the San Andreas and Calaveras faults and many of the major highways can be seen.

  5. [Characteristics of Pahs pollution in sediments from Leizhou coastal marine area, Liusha Bay and Shenzhen Bay].

    PubMed

    Zhao, Li-Rong; Sun, Sheng-Li; Ke, Sheng

    2012-04-01

    Leizhou coastal marine area, Liusha Bay and Shenzhen Bay represented open coastal area and half-closed bay, respectively. This study discussed the differences of PAHs concentration levels, spatial distribution and sources in sediments from these three marine areas. The results showed that detected ratios of 15 PAHs were 100%, and major compounds were 3-ring and 4-ring PAHs, especialy Phe, Fla, Pry and Bbf; Sigma PAHs concentration was Leizhou < Shenzhen < Liusha. In spatial distribution, PAHs concentrations were the east < the south < the west in Leizhou; the inside > the outside, and the aquaculture > the non-aquaculture in Liusha Bay and Shenzhen Bay. It suggested that large-scale mariculture inside bay played an important role in PAHs pollution and might make it serious. Oil, fossil fuels and biomass burning were the dominant sources of PAHs in sediments from Leizhou coastal area, Liusha Bay and Shenzhen Bay.

  6. On tide-induced Lagrangian residual current and residual transport: 2. Residual transport with application in south San Francisco Bay, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Feng, Shizuo; Cheng, Ralph T.; Pangen, Xi

    1986-01-01

    of intertidal transport processes is illustrated by an analytical solution for an amphidromic system and by a numerical application in South San Francisco Bay, California. The present formulation reveals that the mechanism for long-term transport of solutes is mainly convection due to the Lagrangian residual current in the interior of a tidal estuary. This result also points out the weakness in the tidal dispersion formulation, and explains the large variability of the observed values for tidal dispersion coefficients. Further research on properties of the dispersion boundary layer is needed.

  7. Circulation on the Inner-Shelf of Long Bay, South Carolina: Vertical Current Variability and Evidence for Cross-Shelf Variation in Near-Bed Currents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gutierrez, B. T.; Voulgaris, G.; Work, P. A.; Seim, H.; Warner, J. C.

    2004-12-01

    Cross-shelf variations of near-bed currents and variations in vertical flow were investigated on the inner shelf of Long Bay, South Carolina during the spring and fall of 2001. Current meters sampled near-bed currents at six locations as well as vertical current profiles at three of the sites. The observations showed that the tides accounted for approximately 45-66% of the flow variability. The dominant tidal component, the semi-diurnal constituent M2, exhibited tidal ellipse orientations that are increasingly aligned with the coast closer to the shore. The largest M2 current magnitudes were identified closest to shore and over the top of a sand shoal located 5.5 km offshore of Myrtle Beach. The remaining flow variability was associated with sub-tidal flows which respond to the passage of low-pressure systems across the region. These weather systems were characterized by periods of southwesterly winds in advance of low-pressure centers followed by northeasterly winds as the systems passed over the study area. When strong southwesterly winds persisted, surface flow was oriented approximately in the direction of the wind. At the same time near-bottom flows were also directed to the northeast in the direction of the wind except during periods of stratification when vertical current profiles suggest near-bed onshore flow. The stratified flows were observed mainly during the spring deployment. For periods of strong northeasterly winds, currents were directed alongshore to the southwest and exhibited little variation throughout the water column. These observations are consistent with recent field and modeling studies for the inner-shelf. Comparison of the near-bed flow measurements during the fall deployment revealed a cross-shore gradient in alongshore flow during periods of strong northeasterly winds. During these episodes flows at the offshore measurement stations were oriented in the direction of the wind, while flows closest to shore occurred in the opposite

  8. Near field receiving water monitoring of trace metals in clams (macoma balthica) and sediments near the Palo Alto Water Quality Control Plant in South San Francisco Bay, California: 2000

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Moon, Edward; Luoma, Samuel N.; Cain, Daniel J.; Hornberger, Michelle I.; David, Carlos Primo C.

    2004-01-01

    Trace element concentrations were analyzed on samples of fine-grained sediments and clams (Macoma balthica) collected from a mudflat one kilometer south of the discharge of the Palo Alto Regional Water Quality Control Plant in South San Francisco Bay. This report serves as a continuation of the Near Field Receiving Water Monitoring Study, which was started in 1994. The data for 2003, herein, are interpreted within that context. Metal concentrations in both sediments and clam tissue samples have been within the range of values produced by seasonal variability; however, copper and zinc, display continued decreases over the last decade. In 2003, copper in sediment was observed to drop below the ERL (Effects Range-Low) concentration for the third consecutive year and zinc concentrations never exceeded the ERL. Yearly average concentrations of copper, zinc and silver in Macoma balthica for 2003 are some of the lowest recorded since monitoring began in 1975. Mercury and selenium concentrations in sediments and clams at Palo Alto were similar to concentrations observed elsewhere in the San Francisco Bay.

  9. Near field receiving water monitoring of trace metals in clams (Macoma balthica) and sediments near the Palo Alto water quality control plant in south San Francisco Bay, California : 2002

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Moon, Edward; David, Carlos Primo C.; Luoma, Samuel N.; Cain, Daniel J.; Hornberger, Michelle I.; Lavigne, Irene R.

    2003-01-01

    This report presents trace element concentrations analyzed on samples of fine-grained sediments and clams (Macoma balthica) collected from a mudflat one kilometer south of the discharge of the Palo Alto Regional Water Quality Control Plant in South San Francisco Bay. This report serves as a continuation of the Near Field Receiving Water Monitoring Study, which was started in 1994. The data for 2002, herein, are interpreted within that context. Metal concentrations in both sediments and clam tissue samples have been within the range of values produced by seasonal variability. However, copper and zinc, display continued decreases. Copper in sediment was observed to drop below the ERL (Effects Range-Low) concentration for the third consecutive year and zinc concentrations never exceeded the ERL. Yearly average concentrations of copper, zinc and silver in Macoma balthica for 2002 are some of the lowest recorded since monitoring began in 1975. Mercury and selenium concentrations in sediments and clams at Palo Alto were similar concentrations observed elsewhere in the San Francisco Bay.

  10. Plankton studies in San Francisco Bay; II, Phytoplankton abundance and species composition, July 1977-December 1979

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wong, Raymond L. J.; Cloern, James E.

    1981-01-01

    Data are presented on the phytoplankton species composition and abundance in San Francisco Bay from July 1977 through December 1979. Phytoplankton identification and enumerations were made at selected stations. Sample collections were made at selected stations in the main channel of the Bay from Rio Vista on the Sacramento River to Calaveras Point in South San Francisco Bay, and at shoal stations in the central portion of South San Francisco Bay, San Pablo Bay, and Suisun Bay. Also reported, from October 1978 through December 1979, are the calculated phytoplankton carbon and percent nondiatom carbon, and the species list. This study is one component of an ongoing interdisciplinary study of San Francisco Bay. (USGS)

  11. 33 CFR 110.78 - Sturgeon Bay, Sturgeon Bay, Wis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    .... Beginning at a point bearing 126°, 3,000 feet from the fixed green Sturgeon Bay Canal Leading Light mounted... extended; thence south 530 feet to a point 100 feet from the northern edge of the channel; thence southeasterly 2,350 feet along a line parallel to the northern edge of the channel to a point on the east...

  12. 33 CFR 110.78 - Sturgeon Bay, Sturgeon Bay, Wis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    .... Beginning at a point bearing 126°, 3,000 feet from the fixed green Sturgeon Bay Canal Leading Light mounted... extended; thence south 530 feet to a point 100 feet from the northern edge of the channel; thence southeasterly 2,350 feet along a line parallel to the northern edge of the channel to a point on the east...

  13. 33 CFR 110.78 - Sturgeon Bay, Sturgeon Bay, Wis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    .... Beginning at a point bearing 126°, 3,000 feet from the fixed green Sturgeon Bay Canal Leading Light mounted... extended; thence south 530 feet to a point 100 feet from the northern edge of the channel; thence southeasterly 2,350 feet along a line parallel to the northern edge of the channel to a point on the east...

  14. 33 CFR 110.78 - Sturgeon Bay, Sturgeon Bay, Wis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    .... Beginning at a point bearing 126°, 3,000 feet from the fixed green Sturgeon Bay Canal Leading Light mounted... extended; thence south 530 feet to a point 100 feet from the northern edge of the channel; thence southeasterly 2,350 feet along a line parallel to the northern edge of the channel to a point on the east...

  15. 33 CFR 110.78 - Sturgeon Bay, Sturgeon Bay, Wis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    .... Beginning at a point bearing 126°, 3,000 feet from the fixed green Sturgeon Bay Canal Leading Light mounted... extended; thence south 530 feet to a point 100 feet from the northern edge of the channel; thence southeasterly 2,350 feet along a line parallel to the northern edge of the channel to a point on the east...

  16. Algae Reefs in Shark Bay, Western Australia, Australia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    Numerous algae reefs are seen in Shark Bay, Western Australia, Australia (26.0S, 113.5E) especially in the southern portions of the bay. The south end is more saline because tidal flow in and out of the bay is restricted by sediment deposited at the north and central end of the bay opposite the mouth of the Wooramel River. This extremely arid region produces little sediment runoff so that the waters are very clear, saline and rich in algae.

  17. Human and riverine impacts on the dynamics of biogeochemical parameters in Kwangyang Bay, South Korea revealed by time-series data and multivariate statistics.

    PubMed

    Kim, Tae-Wook; Kim, Dongseon; Baek, Seung Ho; Kim, Young Ok

    2015-01-15

    The successful management of sustainable coastal environments that are beneficial to both humans and marine ecosystems requires knowledge about factors that are harmful to such environments. Here, we investigated seawater nutrient and carbon parameters between 2010 and 2012 in Kwangyang Bay, Korea, a coastal environment that has been exposed to intensive anthropogenic activities. The data were analyzed using cluster and factor analysis. We found that the biogeochemical cycles of nutrients and carbon were determined by river discharge into the bay and biological activity. However, the impacts of these factors varied both spatially and seasonally. During the past 10 years, nutrient loads from the river and industrial complexes to the bay have decreased. The impacts of this decrease are visible in the phosphate concentration, which has fallen to a third of its initial value. We also examined the potential role of atmospheric nitrogen deposition in nitrogen cycling in the study area.

  18. Tsunami Inundation modeling for Tolaga Bay, Tokomaru Bay, Hicks Bay and Te Araroa communities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barberopoulou, A.; Wang, X.; Power, W. L.

    2012-12-01

    We assess the tsunami hazard to four communities in Raukumara Peninsula (Northeastern region of North Island of New Zealand): Tokomaru Bay, Tolaga Bay, Hicks Bay and Te Araroa. Representative severe but realistic scenarios that could affect the Raukumara peninsula are earthquakes that rupture the interface between the Australian and Pacific plates, earthquakes that rupture faults within the overlying Australian plate or the subducting Pacific plate (location is not always well constrained). Earthquakes that rupture both the plate interface and simultaneously faults within the crust of the Australian plate are also a possibility. Tsunamis may also be caused by submarine landslides that occur near the edge of the continental shelf, but these are not considered here. For this study four scenario events were constructed, including a distant event from South America (offshore Peru), outer rise events and a thrust event in the Hikurangi region off the east coast of New Zealand. The sources are not exhaustive but representative of the types of significant events that could occur in the region and were either improved from earlier sources or derived from recent studies. Available high resolution LiDAR and RTK data were combined with topographic and LINZ data for the development of bathymetric/topographic grids. Our modelling results show that Tolaga Bay appears most vulnerable to tsunami inundation although Hicks Bay and Te Araroa are also significantly inundated in several of the scenarios. Tokomaru Bay is naturally well protected because the rapid change in elevation limits the range of inundation. The worst scenario for Tokomaru Bay was an earthquake in the Hikurangi subduction zone resulting in large flow depths, whereas for Tolaga Bay inundation is severe from most scenarios. Hicks Bay and Te Araroa get the most severe flooding from earthquakes in South America and on the Hikurangi subduction zone. Inundation extent is similar for Tolaga Bay during the Outer Rise and

  19. A method for examining the geospatial distribution of CO2 storage resources applied to the Pre-Punta Gorda Composite and Dollar Bay reservoirs of the South Florida Basin, U.S.A

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Roberts-Ashby, Tina; Brandon N. Ashby,

    2016-01-01

    This paper demonstrates geospatial modification of the USGS methodology for assessing geologic CO2 storage resources, and was applied to the Pre-Punta Gorda Composite and Dollar Bay reservoirs of the South Florida Basin. The study provides detailed evaluation of porous intervals within these reservoirs and utilizes GIS to evaluate the potential spatial distribution of reservoir parameters and volume of CO2 that can be stored. This study also shows that incorporating spatial variation of parameters using detailed and robust datasets may improve estimates of storage resources when compared to applying uniform values across the study area derived from small datasets, like many assessment methodologies. Geospatially derived estimates of storage resources presented here (Pre-Punta Gorda Composite = 105,570 MtCO2; Dollar Bay = 24,760 MtCO2) were greater than previous assessments, which was largely attributed to the fact that detailed evaluation of these reservoirs resulted in higher estimates of porosity and net-porous thickness, and areas of high porosity and thick net-porous intervals were incorporated into the model, likely increasing the calculated volume of storage space available for CO2 sequestration. The geospatial method for evaluating CO2 storage resources also provides the ability to identify areas that potentially contain higher volumes of storage resources, as well as areas that might be less favorable.

  20. Narragansett Bay

    EPA Science Inventory

    Narragansett Bay, situated on the eastern side of Rhode Island, comprises about 15% of the State’s total area. Ninety-five percent of the Bay’s surface area is in Rhode Island with the remainder in southeastern Massachusetts; 60% of the Bay’s watershed is in Massachusetts. At the...

  1. James Bay

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-17

    article title:  First Light over James Bay     View Larger Image MISR "First light", 16:40 UTC, 24 February 2000 . This is the first image of Earth's ... the line of flight. At the top of the image, the dark-to-light transition captures the opening of the MISR cover. Progressing southward, ...

  2. Near field receiving water monitoring of trace metals in clams (macoma balthica) and sediments near the Palo Alto Water Quality Control Plant in South San Francisco Bay, California: 1999-2001

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    David, Carlos Primo C.; Luoma, Samuel N.; Brown, Cynthia L.; Cain, Daniel J.; Hornberger, Michelle I.; Lavigne, Irene R.

    2002-01-01

    This report presents trace element concentrations analyzed on samples of fine-grained sediments and clams (Macoma balthica) collected from a mudflat one kilometer south of the discharge of the Palo Alto Regional Water Quality Control Plant in South San Francisco Bay. This report serves as a continuation of the Near Field Receiving Water Monitoring Study which was started in 1994. The data for 1999-2001 are interpreted within that context. Generally, metal concentrations in both sediments and clam tissue samples have been within the range of values produced by seasonal variability. Copper and zinc, however, display a continued decrease, recording the lowest winter maxima concentrations in both sediment and tissue samples in 2001. Yearly average of bioavailable copper, zinc and silver concentrations in 1999-2001 are some of the lowest recorded since monitoring began in 1975. A slight increase in mercury in sediments and selenium in tissue in early 2001 are also observed. These enrichments are believed to be mainly caused by hydrogeologic processes affecting the area although only continued sampling will confirm whether anthropogenic sources influence the concentrations of these elements.

  3. The Small Mammal Sequence from the c. 76 – 72 ka Still Bay Levels at Blombos Cave, South Africa – Taphonomic and Palaeoecological Implications for Human Behaviour

    PubMed Central

    Nel, Turid Hillestad; Henshilwood, Christopher Stuart

    2016-01-01

    The Still Bay, c. 76–72 ka, a prominent techno-tradition during the Middle Stone Age of southern Africa, has yielded innovative technologies, symbolic material culture, and shows evidence of expansion of hunting techniques and subsistence strategies. In this paper we present the results of the first systematic, taphonomic and palaeoenvironmental study of micromammals from the Still Bay levels at Blombos Cave. Our taphonomic analysis indicates that the micromammals were accumulated by avian predators occupying the cave. Post-depositional processes affecting the micromammal assemblage include organic waste decomposition and conditions associated with a limestone cave environment. The palaeoenvironmental reconstruction shows that Marine Isotope Stage (MIS) 5a at Blombos Cave had diverse micromammal communities occupying a variety of habitats and with rainfall pattern equal to present. The transition from MIS 5a to 4 is indicated by less diverse micromammal assemblages, increase in grassland and scrub vegetation, shifts in seasonal precipitation, and a decline in shrubs associated with fynbos. The onset of the glacial conditions associated with MIS 4 is visible in the micromammal assemblage. However humans occupying Blombos Cave during this c. 5 ka period showed an ability to cope with changing environmental conditions and were able to adapt and utilise a variety of available resources. PMID:27509023

  4. San Francisco and Bay Area, CA, USA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    Although clouds obscure part of the city of San Francisco and the mouth of the Bay (37.5N, 122.0W), many cultural and natural features in the immediate vicinity are obvious. The Bay Bridge which was damaged in the 1989 earthquake, Candlestick Park, San Mateo and Dumbarton Bridges as well as the various colored settling ponds rimming the south end of the Bay, the San Andreas and Calaveras faults and many of the major highways can be seen. Color infrared photography is very useful for haze penetration and greater definition of the imagery as well as vegetation detection, depicted as shades of red.

  5. Environmental setting of San Francisco Bay

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Conomos, T.J.; Smith, R.E.; Gartner, J.W.

    1985-01-01

    San Francisco Bay, the largest bay on the California coast, is a broad, shallow, turbid estuary comprising two geographically and hydrologically distinct subestuaries: the northern reach lying between the connection to the Pacific Ocean at the Golden Gate and the confluence of the Sacramento-San Joaquin River system, and the southern reach (herein called South Bay) between the Golden Gate and the southern terminus of the bay. The northern reach is a partially mixed estuary dominated by seasonally varying river inflow, and the South Bay is a tidally oscillating lagoon-type estuary. Freshwater inflows, highest during winter, generate strong estuarine circulation and largely determine water residence times. They also bring large volumes of dissolved and particulate materials to the estuary. Tidal currents, generated by mixed semidiurnal and diurnal tides, mix the water column and, together with river inflow and basin geometry, determine circulation patterns. Winds, which are strongest during summer and during winter storms, exert stress on the bay's water surface, thereby creating large waves that resuspend sediment from the shallow bay bottom and, together with the tidal currents, contribute markedly to the transport of water masses throughout the shallow estuary. ?? 1985 Dr W. Junk Publishers.

  6. Near-field receiving water monitoring of trace metals and a benthic community near the Palo Alto regional water quality control plant in south San Francisco Bay, California: 2005

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cain, Daniel J.; Parcheso, Francis; Thompson, Janet K.; Luoma, Samuel N.; Lorenzi, Allison H.; Moon, Edward; Shouse, Michelle K.; Hornberger, Michelle I.; Dyke, Jessica

    2006-01-01

    Trace elements in sediment and the clam Macoma petalum (formerly reported as Macoma balthica (Cohen and Carlton 1995), clam reproductive activity and benthic, macroinvertebrate community structure are reported for a mudflat one kilometer south of the discharge of the Palo Alto Regional Water Quality Control Plant in South San Francisco Bay. This report includes data collected for the period January to December 2005, and extends a critical long-term biogeochemical record dating back to 1974. These data serve as the basis for the City of Palo Alto's Near-Field Receiving Water Monitoring Program, initiated in 1994. Metal concentrations in both sediments and clam tissue during 2005 were consistent with results observed since 1990. Copper and zinc concentrations in sediment and bivalve tissue displayed a continued decrease over the last decade. In 2005, Cu concentrations were at or below the effects range-low (ERL) concentration (34 ?g/g) for the entire year, the first time this has been observed. Also, zinc concentrations never exceeded the ERL (150 ?g/g). Yearly average concentrations of copper, zinc and silver in Macoma petalum for 2005 were some of the lowest recorded since monitoring for metals began in 1975. The concentrations of mercury and selenium in sediments, during April and January 2004, respectively, were the highest values observed for these elements during this study. Later in 2005, concentrations decreased to historic levels. The increase in mercury and selenium in 2004 was not a permanent trend and concentrations of these elements in sediments and clams at Palo Alto remain similar to concentrations observed elsewhere in the San Francisco Bay. Analyses of the benthic-community structure of a mudflat in South San Francisco Bay over a 31-year period show that changes in the community have occurred concurrent with reduced concentrations of metals in the sediment and in the tissues of the biosentinal clam Macoma petalum from the same area. Analysis of the

  7. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in sediments of Zhelin Bay, the largest mariculture base on the eastern Guangdong coast, South China: Characterization and risk implications.

    PubMed

    Gu, Yang-Guang; Ke, Chang-Liang; Liu, Qi; Lin, Qin

    2016-09-15

    We investigated distribution, sources, and potential risks of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the surface sediments from the largest mariculture base in the eastern part of the province of Guangdong in southern China. Total concentrations of ∑PAHs were 29.38-815.46ng/g (dry weight), with a mean of 421.48ng/g. The composition of PAHs was characterized by an abundance of low molecular weight PAHs (2-3 benzenoid ring), and Phenanthrene (PHE), Anthracene (AN) and Fluoranthene (FA) were the predominant constituents. PAHs in this area appear to have mainly originated from petroleum sources and the combustion of grass, wood, and coal. PAHs in surface sediments of Zhelin Bay had a 9% incidence of causing adverse biological effects on aquatic organisms, according to the mean effects range-median quotient.

  8. Picoplankton Bloom in Global South? A High Fraction of Aerobic Anoxygenic Phototrophic Bacteria in Metagenomes from a Coastal Bay (Arraial do Cabo—Brazil)

    PubMed Central

    Cuadrat, Rafael R. C.; Ferrera, Isabel; Grossart, Hans-Peter; Dávila, Alberto M. R.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Marine habitats harbor a great diversity of microorganism from the three domains of life, only a small fraction of which can be cultivated. Metagenomic approaches are increasingly popular for addressing microbial diversity without culture, serving as sensitive and relatively unbiased methods for identifying and cataloging the diversity of nucleic acid sequences derived from organisms in environmental samples. Aerobic anoxygenic phototrophic bacteria (AAP) play important roles in carbon and energy cycling in aquatic systems. In oceans, those bacteria are widely distributed; however, their abundance and importance are still poorly understood. The aim of this study was to estimate abundance and diversity of AAPs in metagenomes from an upwelling affected coastal bay in Arraial do Cabo, Brazil, using in silico screening for the anoxygenic photosynthesis core genes. Metagenomes from the Global Ocean Sample Expedition (GOS) were screened for comparative purposes. AAPs were highly abundant in the free-living bacterial fraction from Arraial do Cabo: 23.88% of total bacterial cells, compared with 15% in the GOS dataset. Of the ten most AAP abundant samples from GOS, eight were collected close to the Equator where solar irradiation is high year-round. We were able to assign most retrieved sequences to phylo-groups, with a particularly high abundance of Roseobacter in Arraial do Cabo samples. The high abundance of AAP in this tropical bay may be related to the upwelling phenomenon and subsequent picoplankton bloom. These results suggest a link between upwelling and light abundance and demonstrate AAP even in oligotrophic tropical and subtropical environments. Longitudinal studies in the Arraial do Cabo region are warranted to understand the dynamics of AAP at different locations and seasons, and the ecological role of these unique bacteria for biogeochemical and energy cycling in the ocean. PMID:26871866

  9. Galveston Bay

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Handley, Lawrence R.; Spear, Kathryn A.; Eleonor Taylor,; Thatcher, Cindy

    2011-01-01

    The Galveston Bay estuary is located on the upper Texas Gulf coast (Lester and Gonzalez, 2002). It is composed of four major sub-bays—Galveston, Trinity, East, and West Bays. It is Texas’ largest estuary on the Gulf Coast with a total area of 155,399 hectares (384,000 acres) and 1,885 km (1,171 miles) of shoreline (Burgan and Engle, 2006). The volume of the bay has increased over the past 50 years due to subsidence, dredging, and sea level rise. Outside of ship channels, the maximum depth is only 3.7 m (12 ft), with the average depth ranging from 1.2 m (4 ft) to 2.4 m (8 ft)— even shallower in areas with widespread oyster reefs (Lester and Gonzalez, 2002). The tidal range is less than 0.9 m (3 ft), but water levels and circulation are highly influenced by wind. The estuary was formed in a drowned river delta, and its bayous were once channels of the Brazos and Trinity Rivers. Today, the watersheds surrounding the Trinity and San Jacinto Rivers, along with many other smaller bayous, feed into the bay. The entire Galveston Bay watershed is 85,470 km2 (33,000 miles2 ) large (Figure 1). Galveston Island, a 5,000 year old sand bar that lies at the western edge of the bay’s opening into the Gulf of Mexico, impedes the freshwater flow of the Trinity and San Jacinto Rivers into the Gulf, the majority of which comes from the Trinity. The Bolivar Peninsula lies at the eastern edge of the bay’s opening into the Gulf. Water flows into the Gulf at Bolivar Roads, 1 U.S. Geological Survey National Wetlands Research Center, 700 Cajundome Blvd., Lafayette, LA 70506 2 Harte Research Institute for Gulf of Mexico Studies, Texas A&M University - Corpus Christi, 6300 Ocean Drive, Unit 5869, Corpus Christi, Texas 78412 2 Galveston Pass, between Galveston Island and Bolivar Peninsula, and at San Luis Pass, between the western side of Galveston Island and Follets Island.

  10. 15. TURNTABLE RECONSTRUCTION BAY & TAYLOR: Photocopy of January ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. TURNTABLE RECONSTRUCTION - BAY & TAYLOR: Photocopy of January 1941 photograph taken during reconstruction of the Bay and Taylor turntable. View to the south. The 'spider' that carries the actual turntable is in place in the pit. - San Francisco Cable Railway, Washington & Mason Streets, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  11. 33 CFR 110.75 - Corpus Christi Bay, Tex.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Corpus Christi Bay, Tex. 110.75... ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Special Anchorage Areas § 110.75 Corpus Christi Bay, Tex. (a) South area. Southward of... said breakwater; and eastward of the Corpus Christi sea wall....

  12. 14. LOOKING WEST INTO THE EAST PURSUIT PLANE BAY OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. LOOKING WEST INTO THE EAST PURSUIT PLANE BAY OF AR-9. LOW WALLED CREW SHELTER AT RIGHT. - Edwards Air Force Base, South Base, Rammed Earth Aircraft Dispersal Revetments, Western Shore of Rogers Dry Lake, Boron, Kern County, CA

  13. Interior view of the Fire Truck Bay, to southwest, brass ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Interior view of the Fire Truck Bay, to southwest, brass fire pole at center, descending from the second floor living quarters - Mare Island Naval Shipyard, South Fire Station, Railroad Avenue near Eighteenth Street, Vallejo, Solano County, CA

  14. 6. VIEW NORTHWEST OF TRANSMISSION MECHANISMS; TURBINE BAYS AT LEFT, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. VIEW NORTHWEST OF TRANSMISSION MECHANISMS; TURBINE BAYS AT LEFT, GENERATOR AT EXTREME REAR - Willimantic Linen Company, Mill No. 2, South Main Street opposite Durham Street, North bank Willimantic River, Windham, Windham County, CT

  15. Exterior view through the western bay door of the interior ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Exterior view through the western bay door of the interior of the Descanso Station garage, building no. 2304. View is toward the south. - Descanso Ranger Station, Engine Garage, 24321 Viejas Grade Road, Descanso, San Diego County, CA

  16. Front (west side) entrance bay Fitzsimons General Hospital, Swimming ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Front (west side) entrance bay - Fitzsimons General Hospital, Swimming Pool, Southeast corner of East Nineteenth Place (formerly East McAfee Avenue) & Wheeling Street (formerly South Van Valzah Street), Aurora, Adams County, CO

  17. Stable isotope composition of subfossil Cerastoderma glaucum shells from the Szczecin Bay brackish deposits and its palaeogeographical implications (South Baltic Coast, Poland)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borówka, Ryszard K.; Strobel, Wacław; Hałas, Stanisław

    2012-03-01

    The environmental conditions of the Szczecin Bay, which existed prior to Szczecin Lagoon, have been reconstructed on the basis of the stable carbon and oxygen isotope (18O and 13C) analysis and radiocarbon dates obtained for subfossil shells of Cerastoderma (Cardium) glaucum. The shells in the collected core were well preserved in their life positions, representing a geochemical record of past temperature variation over the middle Holocene. Three major periods with different thermal conditions have been distinguished in the interval ~ 6000-4300 cal yr BP, when the important Littorina regional transgression took place. During the first period, 6000-5250 cal yr BP, water temperature decreased by 1.4°C, and then remained constant over the second period (5250-4750 cal yr BP). In contrast, during the third period (4750-4300 cal yr BP) both δ-values were highly variable and the mean summer temperature (March-November) increased by about 3.5°C. During first two periods, δ18O and δ13C were significantly correlated, indicating stability of the environmental conditions.

  18. Near-field receiving water monitoring of trace metals and a benthic community near the Palo Alto Regional Water Quality Control Plant in South San Francisco Bay, California-2010

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dyke, Jessica; Parcheso, Francis; Thompson, Janet K.; Cain, Daniel J.; Luoma, Samuel N.; Hornberger, Michelle I.

    2011-01-01

    Analyses of the benthic community structure of a mudflat in South San Francisco Bay over a 37-year period show that changes in the community have occurred concurrent with reduced concentrations of metals in the sediment and in the tissues of the biosentinel clam, M. petalum, from the same area. Analysis of the M. petalum community shows increases in reproductive activity concurrent with the decline in metal concentrations in the tissues of this organism. Reproductive activity is presently stable (2010), with almost all animals initiating reproduction in the fall and spawning the following spring of most years. The community has shifted from being dominated by several opportunistic species to a community where the species are more similar in abundance, a pattern that indicates a more stable community that is subjected to fewer stressors. In addition, two of the opportunistic species (Ampelisca abdita and Streblospio benedicti) that brood their young and live on the surface of the sediment in tubes have shown a continual decline in dominance coincident with the decline in metals; both species had short-lived rebounds in abundance in 2008, 2009, and 2010. Heteromastus filiformis (a subsurface polychaete worm that lives in the sediment, consumes sediment and organic particles residing in the

  19. Floods of 1952 in California. Flood of January 1952 in the south San Francisco Bay region; Snowmelt flood of 1952 in Kern River, Tulare Lake, and San Joaquin River basins

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rantz, S.E.; Stafford, H.M.

    1956-01-01

    Two major floods occurred in California in 1952. The first was the flood of January 11-13 in the south San Francisco Bay region that resulted from heavy rains which began on the morning of January 11 and ended about noon January 13. This flood was notable for the magnitude of the peak discharges, although these discharges were reduced by the controlling effect of reservoirs for conservation and flood-control purposes. The flood damage was thereby reduced, and no lives were lost; damage, nevertheless, amounted to about $1.400.000. The second flood was due, not to the immediate runoff of heavy rain, but to the melting of one of the largest snow packs ever recorded in the Sierra Nevada range. In the spring and summer of 1952, flood runoff occurred on all the major streams draining the Sierra Nevada. In the northern half of the Central Valley basin?the Sacramento River basin?flood volumes and maximum daily discharges were not exceptional. and flood damage was not appreciable. However, in the southern half, which is formed by the Kern River, Tulare Lake, and San Joaquin River basins, new records for snowmelt runoff were established for some streams; but for below-normal temperatures and shorter, less warm hot spells, record flood discharges would have occurred on many others. In the three basins an area of 200,000 acres. largely cropland. was inundated, and damage was estimated at $11,800,000.

  20. Late Quaternary history of southern Chesapeake Bay

    SciTech Connect

    Colman, S.M.; Hobbs, C.H. III; Halka, J.P.

    1985-01-01

    More than 700 km of high-resolution, seismic-reflection profiles and sidescan-sonar images provide new information about the late Quaternary history of southern Chesapeake Bay. Sidescan-sonar images show that, excluding the nearshore zone, most of the bay bottom has a monotonously smooth surface, except that sand waves, ripples, and other bedforms occur in local areas affected by tidal currents. Seismic-reflection data show that the Quaternary stratigraphy of the southern part of the Bay is related primarily to the last cycle of sea-level change. The Quaternary section overlies an erosion surface cut deeply into gently seaward-dipping marine beds of Neogene age. Fluvial paleochannels, related to the last major low sea-level stand, are characterized by as much as 55 m of incision and by thin, irregular, terrace and channel-bottom deposits. Marine and estuarine deposits related to the Holocene transgression partially or fully bury the fluvial valleys and overlie the interfluves. A prominent feature of the Bay-mouth area is a wedge of sediment that has prograded into the Bay from the inner shelf. The common assumption--that the Chesapeake Bay is the drowned valley of the Pleistocene Susquehanna River--is only partially valid for the southern part of the Bay. The Bay mouth area, in general, is relatively young. The axial channel of the Bay is a modern tidal channel that is actively eroding Tertiary deposits and migrating toward the south and west; it is unrelated to older fluvial channels. Also, the positions of the modern axial channel and the last two fluvial paleochannels indicate long-term southward migration of the Bay mouth.

  1. Cetopirus complanatus (Cirripedia: Coronulidae) from the late Middle Pleistocene human settlement of Pinnacle Point 13B (Mossel Bay, South Africa).

    PubMed

    Collareta, Alberto; Marean, Curtis W; Jerardino, Antonieta; Bosselaers, Mark

    2017-02-27

    The late Middle Pleistocene cave site of Pinnacle Point 13B (PP13B, South Africa) has provided the archaeologically oldest evidences yet known of human consumption of marine resources. Among the marine invertebrates recognised at PP13B, an isolated whale barnacle compartment was tentatively determined as Coronula diadema and regarded as indirect evidence of human consumption of a baleen whale (likely Megaptera novaeangliae). In this paper we redetermine this coronulid specimen as Cetopirus complanatus. This record significantly extends the fossil history of C. complanatus back by about 150 ky, thus partially bridging the occurrence of Cetopirus fragilis in the early Pleistocene to the latest Quaternary record of C. complanatus. Since C. complanatus is currently known as a highly specific phoront of right whales (Eubalaena spp.), we propose that the late Middle Pleistocene human groups that inhabited PP13B fed on a stranded southern right whale. Therefore, the whale barnacle from PP13B suggests the persistence of a southern right whale population off South Africa during the predominantly glacial MIS 6, thus evoking the continuity of cetacean migrations and antitropical distribution during that global cold phase. Interestingly, the most ancient evidence of humans feeding on a whale involves Eubalaena, historically the most exploited cetacean genus, and currently still seriously threatened with extinction due to human impact.

  2. Size-dependent depletion and community disturbance of phytoplankton under intensive oyster mariculture based on HPLC pigment analysis in Daya Bay, South China Sea.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Tao; Chen, Feiyu; Yu, Zonghe; Lu, Lin; Wang, Zhaohui

    2016-12-01

    In this study, we conducted a 14-month investigation in Daya Bay, southern China to understand the effects of oyster farming on phytoplankton community and biomass by using size-fractionated phytopigments. Results proved the filtering effects of oysters on phytoplankton biomass. During the oyster culture period, the average concentration of total chlorophyll a (sum of size-fractionated Chl a) within the farming area was approximately 60% lower than that at the reference site. Phytoplankton depletion in the aquaculture zone mainly occurred in micro-sized fractions (>20 μm) of Chl a, fucoxanthin, and peridinin. The influence of oyster filtration on nano-sized (2.7-20 μm) pigments seemed less than that on micro-sized ones. The depletion of peridinin and 19'-hex-fucoxanthin in aquaculture zone was higher than those of the other pigments, which indicated that flagellated cells might be selectively filtered by oysters and could be more easily influenced by oyster aquaculture. The pico-sized Chl a (<2.7 μm) comprised 24% of total Chl a on the average in the aquaculture zone during the cultural period compared to 6% in the reference site. Picoeukaryote abundance, which was determined via flow cytometry, was significantly higher in the aquaculture zone than in the non-aquaculture areas. The abundance of picoeukaryote is significantly and positively correlated with the concentrations of pico-sized prasinoxanthin, violaxanthin, and neoxanthin, indicating that picoeukaryote is dominated by those in prasinophyte. The results suggest that oyster aquaculture might stimulate the growth of prasinophyte, although the seasonal variations are mainly controlled by the water temperature in the study area. This research highlights the successful use of size-fractionated phytopigments to estimate size-specific phytoplankton biomass and community, which can be applied as a routine method to monitor the environmental effect and food resources of bivalve aquaculture.

  3. Planktonic biodiversity as a tracer to estimate the biological role of microorganisms in stratified seawaters of the Masan bay (South Korea)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jimie, Y.; Lee, S.; Lee, T.

    2012-12-01

    A limited downward mixing of well-oxygenated surface water and the oxygen depletion by biological consumption would bring about the stratified water in the aquatic ecosystem. The anoxic water might negatively affect on the various aerobic life and cause serious environmental problems. Therefore, to survey the planktonic biodiversity in the stratified waters is important to understand why those biodiversity could be formed and maintained in the extreme anoxic environment. Mostly, Masan Bay shows high eutrophic seawater by inputs of urban sewage and waste water introduced from highly industrialized Masan city. Moreover, the anoxia had been occasionally developed in the bottom layers in summer. In this study, we surveyed the bacterial and protistan biodiversity in the stratified water masses. We sampled in two depths (surface and depth 14 m) at 18th July 2011 and measured hydrographic factors (water temperature (28.1/surface, 16.5 °C/depth 14 m), salinity (17.62, 32.89 psu), dissolved oxygen (7.85, 1.14 ml-1l)). 18S and 16S rDNA clone libraries were constructed from each depth. We found 115 phylotypes from 332 clones (18S rDNA) and isolated 588 clones of 16S rDNA. Species compositions and phylogenetic affiliation were distinctly different between surface water (oxic) and depth 14 m water (anoxic). Chlorophyta clones were only found in surface and more diatoms clones were isolated from surface than depth 14 m. In depth 14 m, most of clones were affiliated with Dinophyceae and Metazoa. From the results, we developed the combined analysis based on 18S rDNA and 16S rDNA. We believe this metagenomic method for both eukaryotes and prokaryotes can provide useful information to evaluate the biological role of plankton in the stratified waters.

  4. Near-field receiving water monitoring of trace metals and a benthic community near the Palo Alto Regional Water Quality Control Plant in south San Francisco Bay, California; 2009

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dyke, Jessica; Parchaso, Janet K.; Thompson, Janet K.; Cain, Daniel J.; Luoma, Samuel N.; Hornberger, Michelle I.

    2010-01-01

    Results reported herein include trace element concentrations in sediment and in the clam Macoma petalum (formerly reported as Macoma balthica (Cohen and Carlton, 1995)), clam reproductive activity, and benthic macroinvertebrate community structure for a mudflat one kilometer south of the discharge of the Palo Alto Regional Water Quality Control Plant (PARWQCP) in South San Francisco Bay. This report includes data collected for the period January 2009 to December 2009 and extends a critical long-term biogeochemical record dating back to 1974. These data serve as the basis for the City of Palo Alto's Near-Field Receiving Water Monitoring Program, initiated in 1994. In 2009, metal concentrations in both sediments and clam tissue were among the lowest concentrations on record and consistent with results observed since 1991. Following significant reductions in the late 1980s, silver (Ag) and copper (Cu) concentrations appeared to have stabilized. Annual mean concentrations have fluctuated modestly (2-4 fold) in a nondirectional manner. Data for other metals, including chromium, mercury, nickel, selenium, vanadium, and zinc, have been collected since 1994. Over this period, concentrations of these elements, which more likely reflect regional inputs and systemwide processes, have remained relatively constant, aside from typical seasonal variation that is common to all elements. Within years, the winter months (January-March) generally exhibit maximum concentrations, with a decline to annual minima in spring through fall. Mercury (Hg) in sediments and M. petalum were comparable to concentrations observed in 2008 and were generally consistent with data from previous years. Selenium (Se) concentrations in sediment varied among years and showed no sustained temporal trend. In 2009, sedimentary Se concentrations declined from the record high concentrations observed in 2008 to concentrations that were among the lowest on record. Selenium in M. petalum was unchanged from 2008

  5. Near-Field Receiving Water Monitoring of Trace Metals and a Benthic Community Near the Palo Alto Regional Water Quality Control Plant in South San Francisco Bay, California: 2006

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lorenzi, Allison H.; Cain, Daniel J.; Parcheso, Francis; Thompson, Janet K.; Luoma, Samuel N.; Hornberger, Michelle I.; Dyke, Jessica; Cervantes, Raul; Shouse, Michelle K.

    2007-01-01

    Results reported herein include trace element concentrations in sediment and in the clam Macoma petalum (formerly reported as Macoma balthica (Cohen and Carlton 1995)), clam reproductive activity, and benthic macroinvertebrate community structure for a mudflat one kilometer south of the discharge of the Palo Alto Regional Water Quality Control Plant in South San Francisco Bay. This report includes data collected for the period January 2006 to December 2006, and extends a critical long-term biogeochemical record dating back to 1974. These data serve as the basis for the City of Palo Alto's Near-Field Receiving Water Monitoring Program, initiated in 1994. Metal concentrations in both sediments and clam tissue during 2006 were consistent with results observed since 1990. Most notably, copper and silver concentrations in sediment and clam tissue increased in the last year but the values remain well within range of past data. Other metals such as chromium, nickel, vanadium, and zinc remained relatively constant throughout the year except for maximum values generally occurring in winter months (January-March). Mercury levels in sediment and clam tissue were some of the lowest seen on record. Conversely, selenium concentrations reached a maximum level but soon returned to baseline levels. In all, metal concentrations in sediments and tissue remain within past findings. There are no obvious directional trends (increasing or decreasing). Analyses of the benthic-community structure of a mudflat in South San Francisco Bay over a 31-year period show that changes in the community have occurred concurrent with reduced concentrations of metals in the sediment and in the tissues of the biosentinel clam M. petalum from the same area. Analysis of the reproductive activity of M. petalum shows increases in reproductive activity concurrent with the decline in metal concentrations in the tissues of this organism. Reproductive activity is presently stable, with almost all animals

  6. Near-Field Receiving Water Monitoring of Trace Metals and a Benthic Community Near the Palo Alto Regional Water Quality Control Plant in South San Francisco Bay, California: 2007

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lorenzi, Allison H.; Cain, Daniel J.; Parcheso, Francis; Thompson, Janet K.; Luoma, Samuel N.; Hornberger, Michelle I.; Dyke, Jessica

    2008-01-01

    Results reported herein include trace element concentrations in sediment and in the clam Macoma petalum (formerly reported as Macoma balthica (Cohen and Carlton 1995)), clam reproductive activity, and benthic macroinvertebrate community structure for a mudflat one kilometer south of the discharge of the Palo Alto Regional Water Quality Control Plant in South San Francisco Bay. This report includes data collected for the period January 2007 to December 2007, and extends a critical long-term biogeochemical record dating back to 1974. These data serve as the basis for the City of Palo Alto?s Near-Field Receiving Water Monitoring Program, initiated in 1994. Metal concentrations in both sediments and clam tissue during 2007 remained consistent with results observed since 1990. Most notably, copper and silver concentrations in sediment and clam tissue are elevated for the second consecutive year, but the values remain well within the range of past findings. Other metals such as chromium, nickel, vanadium, and zinc remained relatively constant throughout the year except for maximum values that generally occur in winter months (January-March). Mercury levels in sediment and clam tissue were some of the lowest seen on record. Last year?s elevated selenium levels appear to be transient, and selenium concentrations have returned to background levels. Overall, metal concentrations in sediments and tissue remain within past findings. Analyses of the benthic-community structure of a mudflat in South San Francisco Bay over a 31-year period show that changes in the community have occurred concurrent with reduced concentrations of metals in the sediment and in the tissues of the biosentinel clam, M. petalum, from the same area. Analysis of the reproductive activity of M. petalum shows increases in reproductive activity concurrent with the decline in metal concentrations in the tissues of this organism. Reproductive activity is presently stable, with almost all animals initiating

  7. Near-Field Receiving Water Monitoring of Trace Metals and a Benthic Community Near the Palo Alto Regional Water Quality Control Plant in South San Francisco Bay, California: 2008

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cain, Daniel J.; Thompson, Janet K.; Dyke, Jessica; Parcheso, Francis; Luoma, Samuel N.; Hornberger, Michelle I.

    2009-01-01

    Results reported herein include trace element concentrations in sediment and in the clam Macoma petalum (formerly reported as Macoma balthica (Cohen and Carlton, 1995)), clam reproductive activity, and benthic macroinvertebrate community structure for a mudflat one kilometer south of the discharge of the Palo Alto Regional Water Quality Control Plant (PARWQCP) in South San Francisco Bay. This report includes data collected for the period January 2008 to December 2008 and extends a critical long-term biogeochemical record dating back to 1974. These data serve as the basis for the City of Palo Alto's Near-Field Receiving Water Monitoring Program, initiated in 1994. In 2008, metal concentrations in both sediments and clam tissue were among the lowest concentrations on record and consistent with results observed since 1991. Following significant reductions in the late 1980's, silver (Ag) and copper (Cu) concentrations appeared to have stabilized. Annual mean concentrations have fluctuated modestly (2-4 fold) in a nondirectional manner. Data for other metals, including chromium, mercury, nickel, selenium, vanadium, and zinc, have been collected since 1994. Over this period, concentrations of these elements, which more likely reflect regional inputs and systemwide processes, have remained relatively constant, aside from typical seasonal variation that is common to all elements. Within years, concentrations generally reach maximum in winter months (January-March) and decline to annual minima in spring through fall. Mercury (Hg) in sediments spiked to the highest observed level in January 2008. However, sedimentary concentrations for the rest of the year and concentrations of Hg in M. petalum for the entire year were consistent with data from previous years. Average selenium (Se) concentrations in sediment were the highest on record, but there is no evidence, yet, to suggest a temporal trend of increasing sedimentary Se. Selenium in M. petalum was not elevated relative to

  8. 75 FR 11837 - Chesapeake Bay Watershed Initiative

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-12

    ..., but not exclusive, consideration to producers' applications in the following river basins: Susquehanna River, Shenandoah River, Potomac River (including North and South), and the Patuxent River. The... restore, enhance, and conserve soil, air, and related resources in the Chesapeake Bay watershed...

  9. A combinated approach to investigate the biochemistry and hydrography of a shallow bay in the south Adriatic Sea: the Gulf of Manfredonia (Italy).

    PubMed

    Focardi, S; Specchiulli, A; Spagnoli, F; Fiesoletti, F; Rossi, C

    2009-06-01

    The main goal of this study is to understand the hydrological and biochemical set up and processes of a marine coastal area located in the western side of the south Adriatic sea (the gulf of Manfredonia) by the use of both satellite images and in situ investigations A water sampling in the gulf of Manfredonia was performed at 18 fixed stations in June 2003; physico-chemical and biological parameters (temperature, salinity, dissolved oxygen and fluorescence) were measured along the water column and water samples were collected to analyse dissolved nutrients (ammonia, nitrite, nitrate, phosphate and silicate), total nutrients (nitrogen and phosphorus), chlorophyll a and total suspended solids. Surface spatial distributions of field collected data were examined to characterize biochemical and hydrographic conditions of the Gulf of Manfredonia and these results were related with the remote sensing analysis data. Remote sensed data (obtained by Landsat 7 TM and Modis Terra) were processed to obtain maps of chlorophyll a, temperature and optical characteristics of the gulf; these maps were compared to in situ data. From physico-chemical measurements no stratification was observed in the water column except for the south-eastern area. High concentrations of silicate and ammonia were observed in the northern zone of the gulf, while nitrate, phosphate, chlorophyll a and total suspended solids distributions showed higher values in the central coastal zone. These results were confirmed by remote sensing analysis; Modis elaboration showed a distribution with higher concentrations of chlorophyll a near the coast and Landsat images highlighted the extension of the surrounding agricultural areas crossed by the two main rivers which discharge into the gulf. The integration between field data with the remote sensing analysis showed to be a valid support in coastal zone management.

  10. Gradient Analysis and Classification of Carolina Bay Vegetation: A Framework for Bay Wetlands Conservation and Restoration

    SciTech Connect

    Diane De Steven,Ph.D.; Maureen Tone,PhD.

    1997-10-01

    This report address four project objectives: (1) Gradient model of Carolina bay vegetation on the SRS--The authors use ordination analyses to identify environmental and landscape factors that are correlated with vegetation composition. Significant factors can provide a framework for site-based conservation of existing diversity, and they may also be useful site predictors for potential vegetation in bay restorations. (2) Regional analysis of Carolina bay vegetation diversity--They expand the ordination analyses to assess the degree to which SRS bays encompass the range of vegetation diversity found in the regional landscape of South Carolina's western Upper Coastal Plain. Such comparisons can indicate floristic status relative to regional potentials and identify missing species or community elements that might be re-introduced or restored. (3) Classification of vegetation communities in Upper Coastal Plain bays--They use cluster analysis to identify plant community-types at the regional scale, and explore how this classification may be functional with respect to significant environmental and landscape factors. An environmentally-based classification at the whole-bay level can provide a system of templates for managing bays as individual units and for restoring bays to desired plant communities. (4) Qualitative model for bay vegetation dynamics--They analyze present-day vegetation in relation to historic land uses and disturbances. The distinctive history of SRS bays provides the possibility of assessing pathways of post-disturbance succession. They attempt to develop a coarse-scale model of vegetation shifts in response to changing site factors; such qualitative models can provide a basis for suggesting management interventions that may be needed to maintain desired vegetation in protected or restored bays.

  11. Nelson River and Hudson Bay

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Rivers that empty into large bodies of water can have a significant impact on the thawing of nearshore winter ice. This true-color Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) image from May 18, 2001, shows the Nelson River emptying spring runoff from the Manitoba province to the south into the southwestern corner of Canada's Hudson Bay. The warmer waters from more southern latitudes hasten melting of ice near the shore, though some still remained, perhaps because in shallow coastal waters, the ice could have been anchored to the bottom. High volumes of sediment in the runoff turned the inflow brown, and the rim of the retreating ice has taken on a dirty appearance even far to the east of the river's entrance into the Bay. The sediment would have further hastened the melting of the ice because its darker color would have absorbed more solar radiation than cleaner, whiter ice. Image courtesy Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team at NASA GSFC

  12. 6. VIEW OF SOUTH SECTION OF STRUCTURE SHOWING BRIDGE NOS. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. VIEW OF SOUTH SECTION OF STRUCTURE SHOWING BRIDGE NOS. 12, 13, AND 14 FROM CENTRAL STAIRWAY. LOOKING SOUTH. - Greenville Yard, Transfer Bridge System, Port of New York/New Jersey, Upper New York Bay, Jersey City, Hudson County, NJ

  13. Urban Greening Bay Area

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Information about the San Francisco Bay Water Quality Project (SFBWQP) Urban Greening Bay Area, a large-scale effort to re-envision urban landscapes to include green infrastructure (GI) making communities more livable and reducing stormwater runoff.

  14. Chesapeake Bay TMDL Document

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This page provides the Total Maximum Daily Load (TMDL) report for the Chesapeake Bay. It includes the executive summary, main report, and appendices. The Chesapeake Bay TMDL was established by U.S. EPA Region 3 on December 29, 2010

  15. Chesapeake Bay TMDL

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    In 2010 EPA established the Chesapeake Bay TMDL, a comprehensive pollution diet with accountability measures to restore clean water in the bay and local waters. It set limits for nutrients and sediment to meet water quality standards across the watershed

  16. Control of hardwood regeneration in restored carolina bay depression wetlands.

    SciTech Connect

    Moser, Lee, J.; Barton, Christopher, D.; Blake, John, I.

    2012-06-01

    Carolina bays are depression wetlands located in the coastal plain region of the eastern United States. Disturbance of this wetland type has been widespread, and many sites contain one or more drainage ditches. Restoration of bays is of interest because they are important habitats for rare flora and fauna. Previous bay restoration projects have identified flood-tolerant woody competitors in the seedbank and re-sprouting as impediments to the establishment of desired herbaceous wetland vegetation communities. We restored 3 bays on the Savannah River Site, South Carolina, by plugging drainage ditches, harvesting residual pine/hardwood stands within the bays, and monitoring the vegetative response of the seedbank to the hydrologic change. We applied a foliar herbicide on one-half of each bay to control red maple (Acerrubrum), sweetgum (Liquidambar styraciflua), and water oak (Quercus nigra) sprouting, and we tested its effectiveness across a hydrologic gradient in each bay. Hardwood regeneration was partially controlled by flooding in bays that exhibited long growing season hydroperiods. The findings also indicated that herbicide application was an effective means for managing hardwood regeneration and re-sprouting in areas where hydrologic control was ineffective. Herbicide use had no effect on species richness in the emerging vegetation community. In late-season drawdown periods, or in bays where hydroperiods are short, more than one herbicide application may be necessary.

  17. Near-field receiving water monitoring of trace metals and a benthic community near the Palo Alto Regional Water Quality Control Plant in South San Francisco Bay, California: 2013

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dyke, Jessica; Cain, Daniel J.; Thompson, Janet K.; Kleckner, Amy E.; Parcheso, Francis; Hornberger, Michelle I.; Luoma, Samuel N.

    2014-01-01

    Trace-metal concentrations in sediment and in the clam Macoma petalum (formerly reported as Macoma balthica), clam reproductive activity, and benthic macroinvertebrate community structure were investigated in a mudflat 1 kilometer south of the discharge of the Palo Alto Regional Water Quality Control Plant (PARWQCP) in South San Francisco Bay, Calif. This report includes the data collected by U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) scientists for the period January 2013 to December 2013. These data serve as the basis for the City of Palo Alto’s Near-Field Receiving Water Monitoring Program, initiated in 1994. Following significant reductions in the late 1980s, silver (Ag) and copper (Cu) concentrations in sediment and M. petalum appear to have stabilized. Data for other metals, including chromium (Cr), mercury (Hg), nickel (Ni), selenium (Se), and zinc (Zn), have been collected since 1994. Over this period, concentrations of these elements have remained relatively constant, aside from seasonal variation that is common to all elements. In 2013, concentrations of Ag and Cu in M. petalum varied seasonally in response to a combination of site-specific metal exposures and annual growth and reproduction, as reported previously. Seasonal patterns for other elements, including Cr, Ni, Zn, Hg, and Se, were generally similar in timing and magnitude as those for Ag and Cu. In M. petalum, all observed elements showed annual maxima in January–February and minima in April, except for Zn, which was lowest in December. In sediments, annual maxima also occurred in January–February, and minima were measured in June and September. In 2013, metal concentrations in both sediments and clam tissue were among the lowest concentrations on record. This record suggests that regional-scale factors now largely control sedimentary and bioavailable concentrations of Ag and Cu, as well as other elements of regulatory interest, at the Palo Alto site. Analyses of the benthic community structure of a

  18. Near-field receiving water monitoring of trace metals and a benthic community near the Palo Alto Regional Water Quality Control Plant in south San Francisco Bay, California: 2011

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dyke, Jessica; Thompson, Janet K.; Cain, Daniel J.; Kleckner, Amy E.; Parcheso, Francis; Luoma, Samuel N.; Hornberger, Michelle I.

    2012-01-01

    Trace-metal concentrations in sediment and in the clam Macoma petalum (formerly reported as Macoma balthica), clam reproductive activity, and benthic macroinvertebrate community structure were investigated in a mudflat 1 kilometer south of the discharge of the Palo Alto Regional Water Quality Control Plant (PARWQCP) in South San Francisco Bay, Calif. This report includes the data collected by U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) scientists for the period January 2011 to December 2011. These data serve as the basis for the City of Palo Alto's Near-Field Receiving Water Monitoring Program, initiated in 1994. Following significant reductions in the late 1980s, silver (Ag) and copper (Cu) concentrations in sediment and M. petalum appear to have stabilized. Data for other metals, including chromium, mercury, nickel, selenium, and zinc, have been collected since 1994. Over this period, concentrations of these elements have remained relatively constant, aside from seasonal variation that is common to all elements. In 2011, concentrations of Ag and Cu in M. petalum varied seasonally in response to a combination of site-specific metal exposures and annual growth and reproduction, as reported previously. Seasonal patterns for other elements, including Cr, Hg, Ni, Se, and Zn, were generally similar in timing and magnitude as those for Ag and Cu. In 2011, metal concentrations in both sediments and clam tissue were among the lowest concentrations on record. This record suggests that regional-scale factors now largely control sedimentary and bioavailable concentrations of Ag and Cu, as well as other elements of regulatory interest, at the Palo Alto site. Analyses of the benthic community structure of a mudflat in South San Francisco Bay over a 38-year period show that changes in the community have occurred concurrent with reduced concentrations of metals in the sediment and in the tissues of the biosentinel clam, M. petalum, from the same area. Analysis of the M. petalum community

  19. Near-field receiving water monitoring of trace metals and a benthic community near the Palo Alto Regional Water Quality Control Plant in south San Francisco Bay, California, 2012

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dyke, Jessica; Thompson, Janet K.; Cain, Daniel J.; Kleckner, Amy E.; Parcheso, Francis; Luoma, Samuel N.; Hornberger, Michelle I.

    2013-01-01

    Trace-metal concentrations in sediment and in the clam Macoma petalum (formerly reported as Macoma balthica), clam reproductive activity, and benthic macroinvertebrate community structure were investigated in a mudflat 1 kilometer south of the discharge of the Palo Alto Regional Water Quality Control Plant (PARWQCP) in South San Francisco Bay, Calif. This report includes the data collected by U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) scientists for the period January to December 2012. These data serve as the basis for the City of Palo Alto’s Near-Field Receiving Water Monitoring Program, initiated in 1994. Following significant reductions in the late 1980s, silver (Ag) and copper (Cu) concentrations in sediment and in M. petalum appear to have stabilized. Data for other metals, including chromium (Cr), mercury (Hg), nickel (Ni), selenium (Se), and zinc (Zn), have been collected since 1994. Over this period, concentrations of these elements have remained relatively constant, aside from seasonal variation that is common to all elements. In 2012, concentrations of Ag and Cu in M. petalum varied seasonally in response to a combination of site-specific metal exposures and annual growth and reproduction, as reported for previous time periods. Seasonal patterns for other elements, including Cr, Ni, Zn, Hg, and Se were generally similar in timing and magnitude as those for Ag and Cu. In 2012, metal concentrations in both sediments and clam tissue were among the lowest concentrations on record. This record suggests that regional-scale factors now largely control sedimentary and bioavailable concentrations of Ag and Cu, as well as other elements of regulatory interest, at the Palo Alto site. Analyses of the benthic community structure of a mudflat in South San Francisco Bay over a 39-year period show that changes in the community have occurred concurrent with reduced concentrations of metals in the sediment and in the tissues of the biosentinel clam, M. petalum, from the same area

  20. Discharge between San Antonio Bay and Aransas Bay, southern Gulf Coast, Texas, May-September 1999

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    East, Jeffery W.

    2001-01-01

    Along the Gulf Coast of Texas, many estuaries and bays are important habitat and nurseries for aquatic life. San Antonio Bay and Aransas Bay, located about 50 and 30 miles northeast, respectively, of Corpus Christi, are two important estuarine nurseries on the southern Gulf Coast of Texas (fig. 1). According to the Texas Parks and Wildlife Department, “Almost 80 percent of the seagrasses [along the Texas Gulf Coast] are located in the Laguna Madre, an estuary that begins just south of Corpus Christi Bay and runs southward 140 miles to South Padre Island. Most of the remaining seagrasses, about 45,000 acres, are located in the heavily traveled San Antonio, Aransas and Corpus Christi Bay areas” (Shook, 2000).Population growth has led to greater demands on water supplies in Texas. The Texas Water Development Board, the Texas Parks and Wildlife Department, and the Texas Natural Resource Conservation Commission have the cooperative task of determining inflows required to maintain the ecological health of the State’s streams, rivers, bays, and estuaries. To determine these inflow requirements, the three agencies collect data and conduct studies on the need for instream flows and freshwater/ saline water inflows to Texas estuaries.To assist in the determination of freshwater inflow requirements, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the Texas Water Development Board, conducted a hydrographic survey of discharge (flow) between San Antonio Bay and Aransas Bay during the period May–September 1999. Automated instrumentation and acoustic technology were used to maximize the amount and quality of data that were collected, while minimizing personnel requirements. This report documents the discharge measured at two sites between the bays during May–September 1999 and describes the influences of meteorologic (wind and tidal) and hydrologic (freshwater inflow) conditions on discharge between the two bays. The movement of water between the bays is

  1. Trace Metal and Nutrient Cycling in San Francisco Bay

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1998-09-30

    interest in the cycling of contaminant metals and the role of benthic macrofauna in the Bay (especially the invasive species such as Potamocorbula) but...potential role of benthic macrofauna in collaboration with Dr. Jan Thompson (USGS/WRD) and are working with her to improve the chamber design as...study of South San Francisco Bay. In addition, we also included an objective to increase our understanding of the direct influence of benthic

  2. MTR OFFICE WINGS AT WEST SIDE OF MTR HIGH BAY ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    MTR OFFICE WINGS AT WEST SIDE OF MTR HIGH BAY REACTOR BUILDING. CONTEXTUAL VIEW. CAMERA FACING NORTHEAST. FROM LEFT TO RIGHT, TRA-652 (OFFICE WING), TRA-661 (SOUTH WING EXTENSION), SECOND/THIRD FLOOR (BALCONIES) OF MTR-603, MTR HIGH-BAY. AT RIGHT EDGE OF VIEW IS REACTOR SERVICES BUILDING (TRA-635). INL NEGATIVE NO. HD46-44-1. Mike Crane, Photographer, 4/2005 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  3. Observations and a linear model of water level in an interconnected inlet-bay system

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Aretxabaleta, Alfredo; Ganju, Neil Kamal; Butman, Bradford; Signell, Richard

    2017-01-01

    A system of barrier islands and back-barrier bays occurs along southern Long Island, New York, and in many coastal areas worldwide. Characterizing the bay physical response to water level fluctuations is needed to understand flooding during extreme events and evaluate their relation to geomorphological changes. Offshore sea level is one of the main drivers of water level fluctuations in semienclosed back-barrier bays. We analyzed observed water levels (October 2007 to November 2015) and developed analytical models to better understand bay water level along southern Long Island. An increase (∼0.02 m change in 0.17 m amplitude) in the dominant M2 tidal amplitude (containing the largest fraction of the variability) was observed in Great South Bay during mid-2014. The observed changes in both tidal amplitude and bay water level transfer from offshore were related to the dredging of nearby inlets and possibly the changing size of a breach across Fire Island caused by Hurricane Sandy (after December 2012). The bay response was independent of the magnitude of the fluctuations (e.g., storms) at a specific frequency. An analytical model that incorporates bay and inlet dimensions reproduced the observed transfer function in Great South Bay and surrounding areas. The model predicts the transfer function in Moriches and Shinnecock bays where long-term observations were not available. The model is a simplified tool to investigate changes in bay water level and enables the evaluation of future conditions and alternative geomorphological settings.

  4. Pockmarks in Passamaquoddy Bay, New Brunswick, Canada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brothers, Laura; Legere, Christine; Hughes Clark, J.E.; Kelley, J.T.; Barnhardt, Walter; Andrews, Brian; Belknap, D.F.

    2016-01-01

    Pockmarks are seafloor depressions associated with fluid escape (Judd & Hovland 2007). They proliferate in the muddy seafloors of coastal Gulf of Maine and Bay of Fundy, where they are associated with shallow natural gas likely of biogenic origin (Ussler et al. 2003; Rogers et al. 2006; Wildish et al. 2008). In North America, shallow-water pockmark fields are not reported south of Long Island Sound, despite the abundance of gassy, muddy estuaries. The absence of pockmarks south of the limit of North American glaciation suggests that local and regional heterogeneities, possibly related to glacial or sea-level history or bedrock geology, influence pockmark field distribution. In shallow-water embayments, such as Passamaquoddy Bay, New Brunswick, pockmarks can be large (>200 m diameter) and number in the thousands.

  5. Responses of upland herpetofauna to the restoration of Carolina Bays and thinning of forested Bay Margins.

    SciTech Connect

    Ledvina, Joseph A.

    2008-05-01

    Research on the effects of wetland restoration on reptiles and amphibians is becoming more common, but almost all of these studies have observed the colonization of recently disturbed habitats that were completely dry at the time of restoration. In a similar manner, investigations herpetofaunal responses to forest management have focused on clearcuts, and less intensive stand manipulations are not as well studied. To evaluate community and population responses of reptiles and amphibians to hydrology restoration and canopy removal in the interior of previously degraded Carolina bays, I monitored herpetofauna in the uplands adjacent to six historically degraded Carolina bays at the Savannah River Site (SRS) in South Carolina for four years after restoration. To evaluate the effects of forest thinning on upland herpetofauna, forests were thinned in the margins of three of these bays. I used repeated measures ANOVA to compare species richness and diversity and the abundance of selected species and guilds between these bays and with those at three reference bays that were not historically drained and three control bays that remained degraded. I also used Non-metric Multidimensional Scaling (NMDS) to look for community-level patterns based treatments.

  6. Chesapeake Bay study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Love, W. J.

    1972-01-01

    The objectives and scope of the Chesapeake Bay study are discussed. The physical, chemical, biological, political, and social phenomena of concern to the Chesapeake Bay area are included in the study. The construction of a model of the bay which will provide a means of accurately studying the interaction of the ecological factors is described. The application of the study by management organizations for development, enhancement, conservation, preservation, and restoration of the resources is examined.

  7. Shoalwater Bay Defense Training Area Dugong Research Program Underwater Blast Measurements

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2000-08-01

    Queensland on Triangular Island in the east of the Shoalwater Bay Defense Training Area. Shoalwater Bay is also the home to the largest population of dugongs ...in the Great Barrier Reef Marine Park south of Hinchinbrook Channel. Concerns raised about the possible impact on the dugong population of defense...activities within Shoalwater Bay resulted in Defense managing four dugong research projects. As part of one of these projects shock parameters were

  8. Influence of net freshwater supply on salinity in Florida Bay

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nuttle, W.K.; Fourqurean, J.W.; Cosby, B.J.; Zieman, J.C.; Robblee, M.B.

    2000-01-01

    An annual water budget for Florida Bay, the large, seasonally hypersaline estuary in the Everglades National Park, was constructed using physically based models and long-term (31 years) data on salinity, hydrology, and climate. Effects of seasonal and interannual variations of the net freshwater supply (runoff plus rainfall minus evaporation) on salinity variation within the bay were also examined. Particular attention was paid to the effects of runoff, which are the focus of ambitious plans to restore and conserve the Florida Bay ecosystem. From 1965 to 1995 the annual runoff from the Everglades into the bay was less than one tenth of the annual direct rainfall onto the bay, while estimated annual evaporation slightly exceeded annual rainfall. The average net freshwater supply to the bay over a year was thus approximately zero, and interannual variations in salinity appeared to be affected primarily by interannual fluctuations in rainfall. At the annual scale, runoff apparently had little effect on the bay as a whole during this period. On a seasonal basis, variations in rainfall, evaporation, and runoff were not in phase, and the net freshwater supply to the bay varied between positive and negative values, contributing to a strong seasonal pattern in salinity, especially in regions of the bay relatively isolated from exchanges with the Gulf of Mexico and Atlantic Ocean. Changes in runoff could have a greater effect on salinity in the bay if the seasonal patterns of rainfall and evaporation and the timing of the runoff are considered. One model was also used to simulate spatial and temporal patterns of salinity responses expected to result from changes in net freshwater supply. Simulations in which runoff was increased by a factor of 2 (but with no change in spatial pattern) indicated that increased runoff will lower salinity values in eastern Florida Bay, increase the variability of salinity in the South Region, but have little effect on salinity in the Central

  9. 33 CFR 334.320 - Chesapeake Bay entrance; naval restricted area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE DANGER ZONE AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.320 Chesapeake Bay entrance; naval restricted area. (a) The area. Beginning at a point on the south shore of Chesapeake Bay at...″, longitude 75°51′00″; thence to the shore at longitude 75°58′48″, and thence northwesterly and...

  10. 33 CFR 334.320 - Chesapeake Bay entrance; naval restricted area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE DANGER ZONE AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.320 Chesapeake Bay entrance; naval restricted area. (a) The area. Beginning at a point on the south shore of Chesapeake Bay at...″, longitude 75°51′00″; thence to the shore at longitude 75°58′48″, and thence northwesterly and...

  11. 33 CFR 334.320 - Chesapeake Bay entrance; naval restricted area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... restricted area. 334.320 Section 334.320 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE DANGER ZONE AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.320 Chesapeake Bay entrance; naval restricted area. (a) The area. Beginning at a point on the south shore of Chesapeake Bay...

  12. 33 CFR 334.320 - Chesapeake Bay entrance; naval restricted area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... restricted area. 334.320 Section 334.320 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE DANGER ZONE AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.320 Chesapeake Bay entrance; naval restricted area. (a) The area. Beginning at a point on the south shore of Chesapeake Bay...

  13. Near-field receiving water monitoring of trace metals and a benthic community near the Palo Alto Regional Water Quality Control Plant in south San Francisco Bay, California: 2014

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cain, Daniel J.; Thompson, Janet K.; Crauder, Jeff; Parcheso, Francis; Stewart, Robin; Kleckner, Amy E.; Dyke, Jessica; Hornberger, Michelle I.; Luoma, Samuel N.

    2015-01-01

    Analyses of the benthic community structure of a mudflat in South San Francisco Bay over a 40-year period show that changes in the community have occurred concurrent with reduced concentrations of metals in the sediment and in the tissues of the biosentinel clam, M. petalum, from the same area. Analysis of M. petalum shows increases in reproductive activity concurrent with the decline in metal concentrations in the tissues of this organism. Reproductive activity is presently stable (2014), with almost all animals initiating reproduction in the fall and spawning the following spring. The entire infaunal community has shifted from being dominated by several opportunistic species to a community where the species are more similar in abundance, a pattern that indicates a more stable community that is subjected to fewer stressors. In addition, two of the opportunistic species (Ampelisca abdita and Streblospio benedicti) that brood their young and live on the surface of the sediment in tubes have shown a continual decline in dominance coincident with the decline in metals; both species had short-lived rebounds in abundance in 2008, 2009, and 2010. Heteromastus filiformis (a subsurface polychaete worm that lives in the sediment, consumes sediment and organic particles residing in the sediment, and reproduces by laying its eggs on or in the sediment) showed a concurrent increase in dominance and, in the last several years before 2008, showed a stable population. H. filiformis abundance increased slightly in 2011–2012 and returned to pre-2011 numbers in 2014. An unidentified disturbance occurred on the mudflat in early 2008 that resulted in the loss of the benthic animals, except for deep-dwelling animals like Macoma petalum. However, within two months of this event animals returned to the mudflat. The resilience of the community suggested that the disturbance was not due to a persistent toxin or to anoxia. The reproductive mode of most species present in 2014 is

  14. Recent climate trends, Glacier Bay, Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kopczynski, S. E.; Bigl, S. R.; Lawson, D. E.; Finnegan, D. C.

    2003-12-01

    Glaciers and ice caps respond to changes in regional climate at decadal scales and can thus serve as indicators of regional climate change. Many of the tidewater and terrestrial glaciers in Glacier Bay, Alaska have been in a state of rapid retreat since the late 1700s, with highly disparate rates of recession occurring in the western versus eastern arms, yet the combination of environmental and glaciological factors that must exist to catalyze these rapid changes is not clearly understood. The Cold Regions Research and Engineering Laboratory (CRREL) initiated the first systematic analyses of weather and precipitation patterns across Glacier Bay National Park in 2000 by establishing 26 meteorological stations with the long-term objective of better understanding regional and global factors, that control terrestrial and marine physical systems. Initial temperature and precipitation trends show rapid seasonal and annual shifts. This is consistent with apparent paleo-trends in climate and glacier advance and recession over the last 9K years, as well as the historical record that indicate the area is climatically sensitive. Comparisons of summer and winter precipitation totals show a precipitation gradient increasing northward from the lower bay to the head of Muir Inlet (east arm), and decreasing northwestward in the West Arm. Monthly averages of air temperatures span about 3.5 C between the warmest and coldest sites near sea level. Winter temperatures averaged more than 1 C colder in the West Arm than the East. We also found large gradients of increasing rainfall from north to south in the east arm, from north to south in the Western arm. Average temperatures in October decreased westward in the northern half of the Park and were milder at sites within the larger southern Bay. Continuing a long-term climate-monitoring program in Glacier Bay will assist with quantifying climate trends in the context of glacial movement, helping to determine the overall sensitivity of

  15. CASCO BAY PLAN

    EPA Science Inventory

    Casco Bay lies at the heart of Maine's most populated area. The health of its waters, wetlands, and wildlife depend in large part on the activities of the quarter-million residents who live in its watershed. Less than 30 years ago, portions of Casco Bay were off-limits to recr...

  16. Bay Mills' Bold Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freedman, Eric

    2011-01-01

    It's a long, long way from Bay Mills Community College, near the shores of frigid Lake Superior, to Detroit. But distance, time and demographics aside, the school and the city are united by Bay Mills' status as the nation's only tribally controlled college that authorizes quasi-public schools, known officially as public school academies. And it's…

  17. Building Models with Bayes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hart, Gus; Nelson, Lance J.; Reese, Shane

    2011-10-01

    The whole of modern Bayesian statistical methods is founded on the simple idea of Bayes rule, stated by the Reverend Thomas Bayes, and presented in 1763. Bayes rule is merely a simple statement of conditional probablility but can be used to make strong inferences. However, the application of Bayes rule to all but the simplest problems requires significant computation. As a result, Baysian-based approaches have been largely impractical until high-speed computing became inexpensive in the recent in the last 20 years or so. We discuss the general idea behind Bayes rule, how to use it to build physical models, and illustrate the approach for a simple case of lattice gas models.

  18. South Africa

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    contained within South Africa's boundaries. In the upper righthand corner of the image is the Bay of Maputo, where sits Maputo, the capital of Mozambique. Fires are visible in the northeast corner of the image, near Maputo. Just north of Maputo is where the Limpopo River empties into the Indian Ocean. Tracing the Limpopo inland back toward the west, this river defines the northern boundary of South Africa with both Zimbabwe and Botswana. Johannesburg, the commercial capital of South Africa, can be seen as the greyish pixels in the northeastern region of the country. The country's legislative capital, Pretoria, is about 50 miles north of Johannesburg and 250 miles west of Maputo, in the heart of the Northern Province (formerly known as Transvaal). (Image courtesy Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Group, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center)

  19. 33 CFR 165.1305 - Commencement Bay, Tacoma, WA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... portions of Commencement Bay bounded by the following coordinates: Latitude 47°17′38″ N, Longitude 122°28′43 W; thence south easterly to Latitude 47°17′4″ N, Longitude 122°27′32″ W; thence south westerly to Latitude 47°16′35″ N, Longitude 122°28′1″ W; thence north westerly along the shoreline to Latitude...

  20. 33 CFR 165.1305 - Commencement Bay, Tacoma, WA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... portions of Commencement Bay bounded by the following coordinates: Latitude 47°17′38″ N, Longitude 122°28′43 W; thence south easterly to Latitude 47°17′4″ N, Longitude 122°27′32″ W; thence south westerly to Latitude 47°16′35″ N, Longitude 122°28′1″ W; thence north westerly along the shoreline to Latitude...

  1. Observed Patterns of Water Renewal In The Small Baltic Sea Bays: Tagalaht and Uudepanga

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kõuts, T.; Laanearu, J.

    The observed hydrodynamic fields in the small bays of the Tagamõisa Cape, the Es- tonian island of Saaremaa (a largest island of the Baltic Sea) showed different water- renewal circulation schemes. In the Tagalaht Bay the two-layer flow dominate, but in the Uudepanga Bay the currents have mostly the one-layer structure. In the August- November 2000 the moderate SE-winds prevailed over the study area and different patterns of the water renewal were due to different morphology of the bays. The com- paratively larger and deeper Tagalaht Bay has oblong shape in a North-South direc- tion and since the moderate and strong southern winds create the surface-layer flow out from the bay, which is compensated by the undercurrent into the bay, i.e. the fjord-like circulation was evident from the observations. Within the SE-winds the Baltic-proper water entered into the Uudepanga Bay from the western sea-area close to the Hari- laid Cape and move out along the eastern coast of the bay toward the Undva Cape, consonant with the one-layer anticlockwise circulation in the bay. These bays are well open from the Baltic-proper sides and since the properties of the waters are close to those found in the open sea. The relationships between the atmospheric forcing and the circulation in the bays are investigated using the time series of the sea level, local wind and currents. The horizontal distribution of the currents was verified by the gela- tine pendulum current-meters, and the thermohaline structure in the bays was studied using CTD surveys. The two-layer shallow-water formalism is used to reconstruct the velocities in the upper- and lower-layer of the Tagalaht Bay. The dominating southern winds during the observations determined the flows in the small Baltic bays.

  2. Random Parameter Markov Population Process Models and Their Likelihood, Bayes and Empirical Bayes Analysis.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-09-01

    XW Dr. Douglas de Priest Statistics & Probability Program Code 411(SP) Office of Naval Research Arlington, VA 22217 Dr. Morris DeGroot Statistics...consult Morris (1983) for a review of parametric empirical Bayes methods, Robbins (1983) and in much previous work, has elucidated the non-parametric...South Street Morris Township, NJ 07960 Dr. David L. Wallace Statistics Dept. University of Chicago 5734 S. University Ave. Chicago, IL 60637 Dr. F

  3. Ecological modeling for water quality management of Kwangyang Bay, Korea.

    PubMed

    Lee, Dae In; Park, Chung Kil; Cho, Hyeon Seo

    2005-03-01

    This study estimated the appropriate pollutant load reduction from point sources in Kwangyang Bay, Korea, using an eco-hydrodynamic model. The total chemical oxygen demand (COD), nitrogen (TN), and phosphorus (TP) loads from rivers and ditches that provide input to the bay were approximately 2.8x10(4), 2.5x10(4), and 5.9x10(2) kg day-1, respectively. Wastewater discharge from industrial complexes was the greatest contributor to pollutant loads in the inner part of the bay. COD values in the inner part of the bay were greater than 3.0 mg l-1, and exceeded Korean seawater quality grade III limits. A residual current was simulated, using a hydrodynamic model, to have a slightly complicated pattern in the inner part of the bay, ranging from 0.001 to 8 cm s-1. In the outer part of the bay, the simulated current flowed out to the South Sea with a southward flow at a maximum of 15 cm s-1. The results of the ecological model simulation of COD levels showed high concentrations, exceeding 4 mg l-1, in the southwest of the Myodo, an area of wastewater discharge, and lower levels, approaching less than 1 mg l-1, closer to the outer part of the bay. Engineering countermeasures to reduce the organic and inorganic material loads from point sources by more than 45% were required to keep the COD levels below 2 mg l-1.

  4. Invertebrates that aestivate in dry basins of Carolina bay wetlands.

    SciTech Connect

    Dietz-Brantley, Susan, E.; Taylor, Barbera, E.; Batzer, Darold, P.; DeBiase, Adrienne, E.

    2002-12-01

    Dietz-Brantley, S.E., B.E. Taylor, D.P. Batzer, and A.E. DeBiase. 2002. Invertebrates that aestivate in dry basins of carolina bay wetlands. Wetlands 22(4):767-775. Water levels fluctuate widely in Carolina bay wetlands and most dry periodically. Aquatic organisims inhabiting these wetlands have the capacity to either resist desication or to recolonize newly flooded habitats. The objective of this study was to determine which invertebrates aestivate in the soil of dry Carolina bays and to describe how differences in habitat affect the composition of aestivating invertebrates. Eight Carolina bays located on the Savannah River Site (SRS) near Aiken, South Carolina, USA were examined for this study. Although all of the wetlands dried seasonally, three of the wetlands were relatively wet (inundated 47-92% of the year on average), one was intermediate, and four were relatively dry (inundated 20% of the year on average). Sections of soil were removed from each bay during August and November when all sites were dry, placed into tubs, flooded, and covered with fine mesh. Invertebrates were sampled from the water biweekly for four weeks. Invertebrate assemblages were contrasted between naturally inundated bays and rehydrated samples, wetter and drier bays, August and November collections, and remnant ditches and the main basins.

  5. The Physical and Chemical Conditions of Chesapeake Bay; An Evaluation.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1972-01-01

    Back, Magothy , and ?evern (Pritchard, 1968). The small freshwater input to these tributaries is insufficient to maintain a steady circulation patterr...including the South, Magothy , Miles, Chester, and Severn estuaries. In the upper reaches of the main body of the Bay, the Susque- hanna is the major

  6. 4. DETAIL: Crib supporting bay, east of west (or upper) ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. DETAIL: Crib supporting bay, east of west (or upper) gate, looking south from inside lock. Tenon of crib timber is quite visible since the inner wall 2' planking has been burned off. Spikes holding remaining planks are discernable. - Wabash & Erie Canal, Lock No. 2, 8 miles east of Fort Wayne, adjacent to U.S. Route 24, New Haven, Allen County, IN

  7. 4. VIEW TO THE NORTHWEST OF THE COLD BAY ON ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. VIEW TO THE NORTHWEST OF THE COLD BAY ON THE NORTH (RIGHT) AND THE POST-MORTEM CELLS ON THE SOUTH (LEFT). ALSO ILLUSTRATED ARE THE DIFFERENT ROOF HEIGHTS OF THE BUILDING. - Nevada Test Site, Engine Maintenance Assembly & Disassembly Facility, Area 25, Jackass Flats, Mercury, Nye County, NV

  8. Service bay area, pump room level, showing ventilation fans and ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Service bay area, pump room level, showing ventilation fans and ducts association with evaporative-cooling system. Note battery bank at far right. View to the east - Wellton-Mohawk Irrigation System, Pumping Plant No. 3, South of Interstate 8, Wellton, Yuma County, AZ

  9. Looking southwest in the service bay area, pump room level, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Looking southwest in the service bay area, pump room level, at the ventilation fan ducts associated with the evaporative cooling system. Stairs to the operating deck above the intakes are at the far left - Wellton-Mohawk Irrigation System, Pumping Plant No. 2, Bounded by Interstate 8 to south, Wellton, Yuma County, AZ

  10. Pump room level, looking north in service bay area. Visible ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Pump room level, looking north in service bay area. Visible from left to right are the direct current breaker panel, battery bank, door to stairwell, and hanging tools. - Wellton-Mohawk Irrigation System, Pumping Plant No. 2, Bounded by Interstate 8 to south, Wellton, Yuma County, AZ

  11. Rotary roller mandrel of no. 2 seamless line in bays ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Rotary roller mandrel of no. 2 seamless line in bays 19 and 20 of the main pipe mill building looking south. - U.S. Steel National Tube Works, Main Pipe Mill Building, Along Monongahela River, McKeesport, Allegheny County, PA

  12. Coastal upwelling on the far eastern Agulhas Bank associated with large meanders in the Agulhas Current

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goschen, W. S.; Bornman, T. G.; Deyzel, S. H. P.; Schumann, E. H.

    2015-06-01

    Six large solitary meanders in the Agulhas Current, so-called Natal Pulses, propagated down the eastern coast of South Africa between 2009 and 2011. Their influence on the coastal waters between Port Alfred and Algoa Bay, on the far eastern Agulhas Bank, was measured by thermistor strings moored at 30-80 m bottom depths and two current metres (30 m bottom depth) located at both sides of Algoa Bay. During all events active upwelling lasting 1-3 weeks was observed over the inner shelf and in Algoa Bay. During upwelling the isotherms ascended at an average rate of 1.8 m day-1 as the cold bottom layer increased in thickness to 40-60 m, although upwelled water did not break the surface in all cases. Cold water remained in the area for a further 2-3 weeks. During three Natal Pulses the water temperatures at the outer moorings initially increased as the plume of the leading edge (crest) of the meander moved onshore. During one Natal Pulse upwelling was recorded before the warm water plume impacted the moorings. At the onset of upwelling currents switched to the southwest in the case of Bird Island and southward at the Cape Recife inner-bay site and reached a maximum speed of 80 cm s-1. During all Natal Pulses cold bottom water (10-12 °C) flooded over the 80 m bottom depth moorings as the crest of the meander moved onshore, but also around the same time the core of the Agulhas Current began to move offshore. In all cases upwelling was wide-spread.

  13. 9. VIEW OF SOUTH ELEVATION AND ONE OF THREE WIDE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. VIEW OF SOUTH ELEVATION AND ONE OF THREE WIDE SPANS LOCATED ALONG LENGTH OF BRIDGE TO ACCOMMODATE ROADS OR RAILWAYS, LOOKING NORTH - Central of Georgia Railway, Bay Street Viaduct, U.S. 17 & Bay Street, spanning Central of Georgia Railroad, Savannah, Chatham County, GA

  14. 6. Oblique view, south side and east end, view to ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. Oblique view, south side and east end, view to northwest. Note original bi-fold doors in left and right bays, replacement door in center bay. - Interurban Electric Railway Bridge Yard Shop, Interstate 80 at Alameda County Postmile 2.0, Oakland, Alameda County, CA

  15. VIEW OF THE SOUTH SIDE OF BLDG 662. NOTE THE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF THE SOUTH SIDE OF BLDG 662. NOTE THE BAY WINDOW AND THE CURVED STAIR CASE. THE BAY WINDOW FRAME AND GLAZING HAVE BEEN REPLACED BUT THE ESSENCE OF THE ORIGINAL DESIGN STILL REMAINS. - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Bachelor Officer Quarters, Dealy Circle, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  16. SOUTH WING, TRA661. SOUTH SIDE. CAMERA FACING NORTH. MTR HIGH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    SOUTH WING, TRA-661. SOUTH SIDE. CAMERA FACING NORTH. MTR HIGH BAY BEYOND. INL NEGATIVE NO. HD46-45-3. Mike Crane, Photographer, 4/2005 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  17. Rockyhock and Kimbel Carolina Bays: Extraterrestrial Impact or Terrestrial Genesis?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lecompte, M. A.; Branch, B. D.; Barnes, L.; Hall, C.

    2009-12-01

    Evidence for the harsh climate prevalent during the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) are seen in topographical features visible south of the ice sheet margin in the uplands and coastal regions of the southeastern United States. Among the features attributed to ice age climate are numerous elliptical, shallow depressions called collectively Carolina Bays, hypothesized to have been formed by “blow outs” of loose sediment by the strong, sustained winds and arid, cold climate characteristic of glacial epochs (Raisz, 1934, Johnson, 1942 and Kaczorowski, 1977). This view eclipsed the 1933 proposition by Melton and Schriever, and expanded by Prouty (1934, 1953), that extraterrestrial debris produced by an aerial meteorite or comet explosion in the vicinity of the Great Lakes during the late Pleistocene formed the bays. 12,900 years ago, post-LGM warming was interrupted by a return to a glacial climate that persisted for over 1,000 years. The events precipitating the cooling, known as the Younger Dryas (YD), are the subject of debate. Recently Firestone et. al. (2007) proposed that an impact in the Laurentide ice sheet by a fragmented comet might have simultaneously initiated the YD and formed the Carolina Bays. Carbon 14 dating and pollen analysis of core samples taken from Rockyhock Bay, in Chowan County, NC, by Whitehead (1980) indicate a pre-YD genesis. However, a number of the bays have been found to contain materiel associated with extraterrestrial impacts including carbon and magnetic spherules, glass-like carbon, charcoal and nanodiamonds (Firestone, et. al. 2007). The discoveries reinvigorated the debate over the bay’s origins. Were the bays created by an impact or were they merely receptacles for impact materiel injected into the environment. If created before the YD, the bays would have experienced episodic post-formation modification due to cold, dry, windy periods alternating with warm, moist and calmer climatic conditions. Carolina Bays would thus

  18. Integrating science and resource management in Tampa Bay, Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Yates, Kimberly K.; Greening, Holly; Morrison, Gerold

    2011-01-01

    Tampa Bay is recognized internationally for its remarkable progress towards recovery since it was pronounced "dead" in the late 1970s. Due to significant efforts by local governments, industries and private citizens throughout the watershed, water clarity in Tampa Bay is now equal to what it was in 1950, when population in the watershed was less than one-quarter of what it is today. Seagrass extent has increased by more than 8,000 acres since the mid-1980s, and fish and wildlife populations are increasing. Central to this successful turn-around has been the Tampa Bay resource management community's long-term commitment to development and implementation of strong science-based management strategies. Research institutions and agencies, including Eckerd College, the Florida Wildlife Commission Fish and Wildlife Research Institute, Mote Marine Laboratory, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, the Southwest Florida Water Management District, University of South Florida, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, U.S. Geological Survey, local and State governments, and private companies contribute significantly to the scientific basis of our understanding of Tampa Bay's structure and ecological function. Resource management agencies, including the Tampa Bay Regional Planning Council's Agency on Bay Management, the Southwest Florida Water Management District's Surface Water Improvement and Management Program, and the Tampa Bay Estuary Program, depend upon this scientific basis to develop and implement regional adaptive management programs. The importance of integrating science with management has become fully recognized by scientists and managers throughout the region, State and Nation. Scientific studies conducted in Tampa Bay over the past 10–15 years are increasingly diverse and complex, and resource management programs reflect our increased knowledge of geology, hydrology and hydrodynamics, ecology and restoration techniques. However, a synthesis of this

  19. Predictability of Vibrio cholerae in Chesapeake Bay

    PubMed Central

    Louis, Valérie R.; Russek-Cohen, Estelle; Choopun, Nipa; Rivera, Irma N. G.; Gangle, Brian; Jiang, Sunny C.; Rubin, Andrea; Patz, Jonathan A.; Huq, Anwar; Colwell, Rita R.

    2003-01-01

    Vibrio cholerae is autochthonous to natural waters and can pose a health risk when it is consumed via untreated water or contaminated shellfish. The correlation between the occurrence of V. cholerae in Chesapeake Bay and environmental factors was investigated over a 3-year period. Water and plankton samples were collected monthly from five shore sampling sites in northern Chesapeake Bay (January 1998 to February 2000) and from research cruise stations on a north-south transect (summers of 1999 and 2000). Enrichment was used to detect culturable V. cholerae, and 21.1% (n = 427) of the samples were positive. As determined by serology tests, the isolates, did not belong to serogroup O1 or O139 associated with cholera epidemics. A direct fluorescent-antibody assay was used to detect V. cholerae O1, and 23.8% (n = 412) of the samples were positive. V. cholerae was more frequently detected during the warmer months and in northern Chesapeake Bay, where the salinity is lower. Statistical models successfully predicted the presence of V. cholerae as a function of water temperature and salinity. Temperatures above 19°C and salinities between 2 and 14 ppt yielded at least a fourfold increase in the number of detectable V. cholerae. The results suggest that salinity variation in Chesapeake Bay or other parameters associated with Susquehanna River inflow contribute to the variability in the occurrence of V. cholerae and that salinity is a useful indicator. Under scenarios of global climate change, increased climate variability, accompanied by higher stream flow rates and warmer temperatures, could favor conditions that increase the occurrence of V. cholerae in Chesapeake Bay. PMID:12732548

  20. 20. VIEW LOOKING SOUTH FROM THIRD LEVEL GUARD STATION, CELL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    20. VIEW LOOKING SOUTH FROM THIRD LEVEL GUARD STATION, CELL BLOCK 'B' IS ON THE LEFT AND CELL BLOCK 'C' IN ON THE RIGHT - Alcatraz, Cell House, Alcatraz Island, San Francisco Bay, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  1. 5. VIEW OF SOUTH FACADE OF HOP BARN COMPLEX, LOOKING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. VIEW OF SOUTH FACADE OF HOP BARN COMPLEX, LOOKING NORTH INTO THE 'FUEL BAY' (IN THE CENTER). - James W. Seavey Hop Driers, 0.6 mile East from junction of Highway 99 & Alexander Avenue, Corvallis, Benton County, OR

  2. 12. INTERIOR VIEW TO THE SOUTH OF COOLING VATS AT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. INTERIOR VIEW TO THE SOUTH OF COOLING VATS AT THE WEST END OF ROOM 102, THE DISASSEMBLY BAY. - Nevada Test Site, Pluto Facility, Disassembly Building, Area 26, Wahmonie Flats, Cane Spring Road, Mercury, Nye County, NV

  3. 37. Historic American Buildings Survey L. C. Durette, Photographer SOUTH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    37. Historic American Buildings Survey L. C. Durette, Photographer SOUTH WEST ROOM 2nd. FLOOR CHIMNEY GIRT HAS BEEN CUT BACK TO MAKE LATER PLASTER WALL FLUSH - Doe Garrison, Lamprey River & Great Bay, Newmarket, Rockingham County, NH

  4. 28. Historic American Buildings Survey L. C. Durette, Photographer SOUTH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    28. Historic American Buildings Survey L. C. Durette, Photographer SOUTH WINDOW OF EAST ROOM (See Description) First Floor, SPLIT BOARDS USED FOR LATHS ARE OLD OUTSIDE FINISH USED OVER. - Doe Garrison, Lamprey River & Great Bay, Newmarket, Rockingham County, NH

  5. 14. INTERIOR VIEW TO THE SOUTH OF ROOM 136, COLD ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. INTERIOR VIEW TO THE SOUTH OF ROOM 136, COLD ASSEMBLY BAY NO. 2. - Nevada Test Site, Reactor Maintenance Assembly & Dissassembly Facility, Area 25, Jackass Flats, Junction of Roads F & G, Mercury, Nye County, NV

  6. Oblique view of the south and west sides, view facing ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Oblique view of the south and west sides, view facing northeast - U.S. Marine Corps Base Hawaii, Kaneohe Bay, Warehouse 250, Aviation Storehouse, C Street between Fifth & Sixth Streets, Kaneohe, Honolulu County, HI

  7. South side elevation, note clerestory above the lowpitch main roof, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    South side elevation, note clerestory above the low-pitch main roof, view facing north - U.S. Marine Corps Base Hawaii, Kaneohe Bay, Warehouse 250, Aviation Storehouse, C Street between Fifth & Sixth Streets, Kaneohe, Honolulu County, HI

  8. 1. VIEW LOOKING SOUTH, SHOWING AFRAME OF WALKING BEAM ENGINE, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. VIEW LOOKING SOUTH, SHOWING A-FRAME OF WALKING BEAM ENGINE, BOW END TO LEFT Edward Larrabee, photographer, November 1984 - Shooters Island, Ships Graveyard, Vessel No. 53, Newark Bay, Staten Island (subdivision), Richmond County, NY

  9. 2. EXTERIOR, SOUTH FRONT, UPPER LEVELS SHOWING ROOF CORNICE AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. EXTERIOR, SOUTH FRONT, UPPER LEVELS SHOWING ROOF CORNICE AND BAY WINDOW UNIT WITH PRESSED TIN SPANDREL - West Lexington Street, Number 314 (Commercial Building), 314 West Lexington Street, Baltimore, Independent City, MD

  10. Module bay with directed flow

    DOEpatents

    Torczynski, John R.

    2001-02-27

    A module bay requires less cleanroom airflow. A shaped gas inlet passage can allow cleanroom air into the module bay with flow velocity preferentially directed toward contaminant rich portions of a processing module in the module bay. Preferential gas flow direction can more efficiently purge contaminants from appropriate portions of the module bay, allowing a reduced cleanroom air flow rate for contaminant removal. A shelf extending from an air inlet slit in one wall of a module bay can direct air flowing therethrough toward contaminant-rich portions of the module bay, such as a junction between a lid and base of a processing module.

  11. A review of circulation and mixing studies of San Francisco Bay, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smith, Lawrence H.

    1987-01-01

    influenced by delta discharge, and South Bay, a tributary estuary which responds to conditions in Central Bay. In the northern reach net circulation is characterized by the river-induced seaward, flow and a resulting gravitational circulation in the channels, and by a tide- and wind-induced net horizontal circulation. A surface layer of relatively fresh water in Central Bay generated by high delta discharges can induce gravitational circulation in South Bay. During low delta discharges South Bay has nearly the same salinity as Central Bay and is characterized by tide- and wind-induced net horizontal circulation. Several factors control the patterns of circulation and mixing in San Francisco Bay. Viewing circulation and mixing over different time-periods and at different geographic scales causes the influences of different factors to be emphasized. The exchange between the bay and coastal ocean and freshwater inflows determine the year-to-year behavior of San Francisco Bay as a freshwater-saltwater mixing zone. Within the bay, exchanges between the embayments control variations over a season. Circulation and mixing patterns within the embayments and the magnitude of river-induced seaward flow influence the between-bay exchanges. The within-bay patterns are in turn determined by tides, winds, and freshwater inflows. Because freshwater inflow is the only factor that can be managed, a major study focus is estimation of inflow-related effects. Most questions relate to the patterns of freshwater inflow necessary to protect valuable resources whose welfare is dependent on conditions in the bay. Among the important questions being addressed are: --What quantity of freshwater inflow is necessary to prevent salt intrusion into the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta, and what salinity distributions in the bay would result from various inflow patterns? --What quantity of freshwater inflow is sufficient to flush pollutants through the bay? Knowledge of circul

  12. 33 CFR 334.760 - Naval Support Activity Panama City and Alligator Bayou, a tributary of St. Andrew Bay, Fla...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... City and Alligator Bayou, a tributary of St. Andrew Bay, Fla.; naval restricted area. 334.760 Section... Alligator Bayou, a tributary of St. Andrew Bay, Fla.; naval restricted area. (a) The area. The waters within... the south side of the entrance to Alligator Bayou; thence directly across the entrance to a point...

  13. 33 CFR 334.760 - Naval Support Activity Panama City and Alligator Bayou, a tributary of St. Andrew Bay, Fla...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... City and Alligator Bayou, a tributary of St. Andrew Bay, Fla.; naval restricted area. 334.760 Section... Alligator Bayou, a tributary of St. Andrew Bay, Fla.; naval restricted area. (a) The area. The waters within... the south side of the entrance to Alligator Bayou; thence directly across the entrance to a point...

  14. 33 CFR 334.760 - Naval Support Activity Panama City and Alligator Bayou, a tributary of St. Andrew Bay, Fla...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... City and Alligator Bayou, a tributary of St. Andrew Bay, Fla.; naval restricted area. 334.760 Section... Alligator Bayou, a tributary of St. Andrew Bay, Fla.; naval restricted area. (a) The area. The waters within... the south side of the entrance to Alligator Bayou; thence directly across the entrance to a point...

  15. 33 CFR 334.760 - Naval Support Activity Panama City and Alligator Bayou, a tributary of St. Andrew Bay, Fla...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... City and Alligator Bayou, a tributary of St. Andrew Bay, Fla.; naval restricted area. 334.760 Section... Alligator Bayou, a tributary of St. Andrew Bay, Fla.; naval restricted area. (a) The area. The waters within... the south side of the entrance to Alligator Bayou; thence directly across the entrance to a point...

  16. A Combined Modeling Approach to Evaluate Water Quality Benefits of Riparian Buffers in the Jobos Bay Watershed

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Jobos Bay Watershed, located in south-central Puerto Rico, is a tropical Conservation Effects Assessment Project (CEAP) Special Emphasis Watershed. The purpose of CEAP is to quantify environmental benefits of conservation practices and includes field and watershed modeling. In Jobos Bay, the goa...

  17. Chesapeake Bay Program Grant Guidance

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Grant Guidance and appendices for the Chesapeake Bay Program that describes how the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency’s (EPA) Region 3’s Chesapeake Bay Program Office (CBPO) administers grant and cooperative agreement funds.

  18. Local wind forcing of the Monterey Bay area inner shelf

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Drake, P.T.; McManus, M.A.; Storlazzi, C.D.

    2005-01-01

    Wind forcing and the seasonal cycles of temperature and currents were investigated on the inner shelf of the Monterey Bay area of the California coast for 460 days, from June 2001 to September 2002. Temperature measurements spanned an approximate 100 km stretch of coastline from a bluff just north of Monterey Bay south to Point Sur. Inner shelf currents were measured at two sites near the bay's northern shore. Seasonal temperature variations were consistent with previous observations from the central California shelf. During the spring, summer and fall, a seasonal mean alongshore current was observed flowing northwestward in the northern bay, in direct opposition to a southeastward wind stress. A barotropic alongshore pressure gradient, potentially driving the northwestward flow, was needed to balance the alongshore momentum equation. With the exception of the winter season, vertical profiles of mean cross-shore currents were consistent with two-dimensional upwelling and existing observations from upwelling regions with poleward subsurface flow. At periods of 15-60 days, temperature fluctuations were coherent both throughout the domain and with the regional wind field. Remote wind forcing was minimal. During the spring upwelling season, alongshore currents and temperatures in the northern bay were most coherent with winds measured at a nearby land meteorological station. This wind site showed relatively low correlations to offshore buoy wind stations, indicating localized wind effects are important to the circulation along this stretch of Monterey Bay's inner shelf. ?? 2004 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Salinity pathways between Arabian Sea and Bay of Bengal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krishna Kailasam, Muni

    2016-07-01

    Surface as well as subsurface salinity are highly heterogeneous in the Arabian Sea and the Bay of Bengal. Due to the strong seasonal reversal of currents in the two seas tremendous salt exchange occurred. The present study focuses on the exchange of salt between the Arabian Sea and Bay of Bengal by using remote sensing observations like SMOS and Aquarius. Inflow of high salinity water from the central Arabians Sea into the south Bay of Bengal is significant and occurs during August-September. Freshwater transport out of the Bay of Bengal is southward throughout the year along the along the east coast of the Indian sub-continent. Only a small fraction of low salinity water is advected into the eastern Arabian Sea from the Bay of Bengal. The pathways of salinity between the two seas are also examined using SODA data. It shows that relatively low salinity Bay of Bengal water is transported southward across the equator throughout the year. A considerable southward cross-equatorial exchange of Arabian Sea water occurs during the southwest monsoon season.

  20. Megaflutes in a continental shelf setting, Placentia Bay, Newfoundland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shaw, John; Puig, Pere; Han, Guoqi

    2013-05-01

    Megaflutes - erosional scours normally found in deep water on continental slopes - were identified in 1978 on sidescan sonograms and seismic reflection profiles from Placentia Bay on the south coast of Newfoundland, Canada. Data from recent extensive multibeam sonar surveys provide an opportunity to describe the morphology and distribution of the megaflutes in detail, and to consider the formative processes. They occur on the east side of the outer bay, at a depth of ~ 200 m, in a 2-3 km-wide swath that continues to the south into Halibut Channel, over a total distance of ~ 100 km. The megaflutes have been formed by removal of a layer of postglacial mud, exposing underlying glaciomarine sediments and releasing a volume of 4.5 km3. They occur in a range of forms, including single, multiple, and coalescent types, and in some areas at least their inception was related to pre-existing pockmarks. Radiocarbon dates from piston cores are used to demonstrate that megaflute formation post-dated ca. 9 ka. Megaflute formation in Placentia Bay has been attributed to a 'reverse flow' from the tsunami generated by the 1929 Grand Banks earthquake, and this is still the accepted hypothesis. We argue that the return flow from a tsunami did not generate the megaflutes, and suggest instead that they could be formed during south-flowing density currents generated when volumes of cold saline water stored in the deep (> 250 m) basins at the head of Placentia Bay are intermittently displaced and spilled south in a shallow channel at the east side of the bay after intense coastal surface dense water formation events, perhaps during very cold winters.

  1. 76 FR 18395 - Safety Zone; Naval Air Station Corpus Christi Air Show, Oso Bay, Corpus Christi, TX

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-04

    ..., Ocean Drive Bridge over Oso Bay, (27N 42'36.2'', -97W 18'31.4'') running south to the point (27N 41'50.4'', - 97W 18'52.4''), running southeast to the Turtle Cove Park (27N 41'3.3'', -97W 17'55.6'') and running... zone resembles a triangle running from the Ocean Drive Bridge over Oso Bay south to the point in...

  2. Mobile Bay turbidity study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crozier, G. F.; Schroeder, W. W.

    1978-01-01

    The termination of studies carried on for almost three years in the Mobile Bay area and adjacent continental shelf are reported. The initial results concentrating on the shelf and lower bay were presented in the interim report. The continued scope of work was designed to attempt a refinement of the mathematical model, assess the effectiveness of optical measurement of suspended particulate material and disseminate the acquired information. The optical characteristics of particulate solutions are affected by density gradients within the medium, density of the suspended particles, particle size, particle shape, particle quality, albedo, and the angle of refracted light. Several of these are discussed in detail.

  3. The long-term salinity field in San Francisco Bay

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Uncles, R.J.; Peterson, D.H.

    1996-01-01

    spring-neap tidal range and fairly steady inflows, the stratification is higher progressing from neaps to springs than from springs to neaps. The simulated responses of the Bay to perturbations in coastal sea salinity and Delta inflow have been used to further delineate the time-scales of salinity variability. Simulations have been performed about low inflow, steady-state conditions for both salinity and Delta inflow perturbations. For salinity perturbations a small, sinusoidal salinity signal with a period of 1 yr has been applied at the coastal boundary as well as a pulse of salinity with a duration of one day. For Delta inflow perturbations a small, sinusoidally varying inflow signal with a period of 1 yr has been superimposed on an otherwise constant Delta inflow, as well as a pulse of inflow with a duration of one day. Perturbations is coastal salinity dissipate as they move through the Bay. Seasonal perturbations require about 40-45 days to propagate from the coastal ocean to the Delta and to the head of South Bay. The response times of the model to perturbations in freshwater inflow are faster than this in North Bay and comparable in South Bay. In North Bay, time-scales are consistent with advection due to lower level, up-estuary transport of coastal salinity perturbations; for inflow perturbations, faster response times arise from both upper level, down-estuary advection and much faster, down-estuary migration of isohalines in response to inflow volume continuity. In South Bay, the dominant time-scales are governed by tidal dispersion.

  4. Chesapeake Bay Critters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mackay-Atha, Lynne

    2005-01-01

    When students enter the author's classroom on the first day of school, they are greeted with live crabs scuttling around in large bins. The crabs are her way of grabbing students' attention and launching the unit on the Chesapeake Bay watershed. She chooses to start the year with this unit because, despite the fact that the Potomac River can be…

  5. On optimal Bayes detection

    SciTech Connect

    Nielsen, P. |

    1991-08-12

    The following is intended to be a short introduction to the design and analysis of a Bayes-optimal detector, and Middleton`s Locally Optimum Bayes Detector (LOBD). The relationship between these two detectors is clarified. There are three examples of varying complexity included to illustrate the design of these detectors. The final example illustrates the difficulty involved in choosing the bias function for the LOBD. For the examples, the corrupting noise is Gaussian. This allows for a relatively easy solution to the optimal and the LOBD structures. As will be shown, for Bayes detection, the threshold is determined by the costs associated with making a decision and the a priori probabilities of each hypothesis. The threshold of the test cannot be set by simulation. One will notice that the optimal Bayes detector and the LOBD look very much like the Neyman-Pearson optimal and locally optimal detectors respectively. In the latter cases though, the threshold is set by a constraint on the false alarm probability. Note that this allows the threshold to be set by simulation.

  6. On optimal Bayes detection

    SciTech Connect

    Nielsen, P. Arizona Univ., Tucson, AZ . Dept. of Electrical and Computer Engineering)

    1991-08-12

    The following is intended to be a short introduction to the design and analysis of a Bayes-optimal detector, and Middleton's Locally Optimum Bayes Detector (LOBD). The relationship between these two detectors is clarified. There are three examples of varying complexity included to illustrate the design of these detectors. The final example illustrates the difficulty involved in choosing the bias function for the LOBD. For the examples, the corrupting noise is Gaussian. This allows for a relatively easy solution to the optimal and the LOBD structures. As will be shown, for Bayes detection, the threshold is determined by the costs associated with making a decision and the a priori probabilities of each hypothesis. The threshold of the test cannot be set by simulation. One will notice that the optimal Bayes detector and the LOBD look very much like the Neyman-Pearson optimal and locally optimal detectors respectively. In the latter cases though, the threshold is set by a constraint on the false alarm probability. Note that this allows the threshold to be set by simulation.

  7. A nutrient loading budget for Biscayne Bay, Florida.

    PubMed

    Caccia, Valentina G; Boyer, Joseph N

    2007-07-01

    The water quality in Biscayne Bay has been significantly affected by past and continuing coastal and watershed development. The nutrient concentrations in the Bay have been dramatically changed by the conversion of natural creeks and sheet flow freshwater inputs to rapid and episodic canal inputs from the large and rapidly expanding Miami metropolitan area. This study is an evaluation of nutrient loadings to Biscayne Bay for 1994-2002 from canal, atmospheric, and groundwater sources. Dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN, as nitrate, nitrite, and ammonium) and total phosphorus (TP) loadings by the canals were influenced by their geographic locations relative to discharge amount, watershed land use, stormwater runoff, and proximity to landfills. Annual budgets showed that canals contributed the bulk of N loading to the bay as 1687.2 metric ton N yr(-1) (88% total load). Direct atmospheric DIN load for Biscayne Bay was only 231.7 ton N yr(-1), based on surface area. Of the canal DIN load, nitrate+nitrite (NO(x)(-)) loading (1294.5 ton N yr(-1)) made up a much greater proportion than that of ammonium (NH(4)(+), 392.6 ton N yr(-1)). In the urbanized north and central Bay, canal DIN load was evenly split between NO(x)(-) and NH(4)(+). However, in the south, 95% of the DIN load was in the form of NO(x)(-), reflecting the more agricultural land use. Contrary to N, canals contributed the only 66% of P load to the bay (27.5 ton P yr(-1)). Atmospheric TP load was 14 ton Pyr(-1). In the north, canal P load dominated the budget while in the south, atmospheric load was almost double canal load. Groundwater inputs, estimated only for the south Bay, represented an important source of N and P in this zone. Groundwater input of N (141 ton N yr(-1)) was about equal to atmospheric load, while P load (5.9 ton P yr(-1)) was about equal to canal load.

  8. ``Carolina Bays" on the Georgia (USA) Coastal Plain: Meteoritic Origin Revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Albin, E. F.

    2001-11-01

    In this investigation, forty-four elliptical depressions, with diameters > 1.0 km, have been mapped across the Georgia (USA) coastal plain. These curious features are often called pocosins (an Algonquin name for a bay-covered swamp); however, in the literature the depressions are the so-called ``Carolina Bays" [1]. Controversy has surrounded the origin of the Carolina Bays since they were first recognized in the late eighteenth century [e.g., 2]. Although terrestrial processes have been invoked to explain their origin, a meteoritic related mode of formation cannot be ruled out. Aerial imagery shows the bays on the Georgia coastal plain as dark ovals surrounded by white to light-gray rims. These rims are composed of sandy deposits that are typically less than two meters high and are better developed in the southeastern part of the oval. Magnetic anomalies occur outside of most bay depressions, approximately the distance of the short axis of the bay away from the southeastern rim. On a regional scale, bay trend is from NW to SE -- with the southern most occurring bays having a slight clockwise orientation relative to those found farther north. Arabia Bay, a 4.5 x 6.0 km feature, in Clinch County is the largest bay identified in Georgia. It is suggested that bays are late Pleistocene features produced by a series of ``Tunguska-like" atmospheric bursts associated with the fall of a massive chondritic or cometary bolide. Associated air-shock waves plowed into soft sediments, across the eastern North American coastal plain (from New Jersey to Georgia), forming a myriad of shallow depressions along its path. Further research, including laboratory modeling and field investigations, is ongoing. References: [1] Prouty, W.F., 1952, Bull. Geol. Soc. Amer., 63, 167-224. [2] Savage, H., 1982, The Mysterious Carolina Bays, Univ. South Carolina Press, 121 p.

  9. Water level response in back-barrier bays unchanged following Hurricane Sandy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aretxabaleta, Alfredo L.; Butman, Bradford; Ganju, Neil K.

    2014-05-01

    On 28-30 October 2012, Hurricane Sandy caused severe flooding along portions of the northeast coast of the United States and cut new inlets across barrier islands in New Jersey and New York. About 30% of the 20 highest daily maximum water levels observed between 2007 and 2013 in Barnegat and Great South Bay occurred in 5 months following Hurricane Sandy. Hurricane Sandy provided a rare opportunity to determine whether extreme events alter systems protected by barrier islands, leaving the mainland more vulnerable to flooding. Comparisons between water levels before and after Hurricane Sandy at bay stations and an offshore station show no significant differences in the transfer of sea level fluctuations from offshore to either bay following Sandy. The post-Hurricane Sandy bay high water levels reflected offshore sea levels caused by winter storms, not by barrier island breaching or geomorphic changes within the bays.

  10. Water level, specific conductance, and water temperature data, San Francisco Bay, California, for Water Year 2000

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Buchanan, P.A.

    2002-01-01

    Time series of water-level, specific-conductance, and watertemperature data were collected at seven sites in San Francisco Bay during water year 2000 (October 1, 1999 through September 30, 2000). Water-level data were recorded only at Point San Pablo. Specific-conductance and water-temperature data were recorded at 15-minute intervals at the following locations (Figure 1): • Carquinez Strait at Carquinez Bridge • Napa River at Mare Island Causeway near Vallejo • San Pablo Bay at Petaluma River Channel Marker 9 • San Pablo Strait at Point San Pablo • Central San Francisco Bay at Presidio Military Reservation • Central San Francisco Bay at Pier 24 • South San Francisco Bay at San Mateo Bridge near Foster City.

  11. Water level response in back-barrier bays unchanged following Hurricane Sandy

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Aretxabaleta, Alfredo L.; Butman, Bradford; Ganju, Neil K.

    2014-01-01

    On 28–30 October 2012, Hurricane Sandy caused severe flooding along portions of the northeast coast of the United States and cut new inlets across barrier islands in New Jersey and New York. About 30% of the 20 highest daily maximum water levels observed between 2007 and 2013 in Barnegat and Great South Bay occurred in 5 months following Hurricane Sandy. Hurricane Sandy provided a rare opportunity to determine whether extreme events alter systems protected by barrier islands, leaving the mainland more vulnerable to flooding. Comparisons between water levels before and after Hurricane Sandy at bay stations and an offshore station show no significant differences in the transfer of sea level fluctuations from offshore to either bay following Sandy. The post-Hurricane Sandy bay high water levels reflected offshore sea levels caused by winter storms, not by barrier island breaching or geomorphic changes within the bays.

  12. ASTER Images San Francisco Bay Area

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    This image of the San Francisco Bay region was acquired on March 3, 2000 by the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) on NASA's Terra satellite. With its 14 spectral bands from the visible to the thermal infrared wavelength region, and its high spatial resolution of 15 to 90 meters about 50 to 300 feet ), ASTER will image Earth for the next 6 years to map and monitor the changing surface of our planet.

    Image: This image covers an area 60 kilometers (37 miles) wide and 75 kilometers (47 miles) long in three bands of the reflected visible and infrared wavelength region. The combination of bands portrays vegetation in red, and urban areas in gray. Sediment in the Suisun Bay, San Pablo Bay, San Francisco Bay, and the Pacific Ocean shows up as lighter shades of blue. Along the west coast of the San Francisco Peninsula, strong surf can be seen as a white fringe along the shoreline. A powerful rip tide is visible extending westward from Daly City into the Pacific Ocean. In the lower right corner, the wetlands of the South San Francisco Bay National Wildlife Refuge appear as large dark blue and brown polygons. The high spatial resolution of ASTER allows fine detail to be observed in the scene. The main bridges of the area (San Mateo, San Francisco-Oakland Bay, Golden Gate, Richmond-San Rafael, Benicia-Martinez, and Carquinez) are easily picked out, connecting the different communities in the Bay area. Shadows of the towers along the Bay Bridge can be seen over the adjacent bay water. With enlargement the entire road network can be easily mapped; individual buildings are visible, including the shadows of the high-rises in downtown San Francisco.

    Inset: This enlargement of the San Francisco Airport highlights the high spatial resolution of ASTER. With further enlargement and careful examination, airplanes can be seen at the terminals.

    Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) is one of five Earth

  13. Carbon production and export from Biscayne Bay, Florida. II. Episodic export of organic carbon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Incze, Michael L.; Roman, M. R.

    1983-07-01

    Seasonal meteorological events of high wind energy are important in the export of organic carbon from Biscayne Bay, Florida, by altering circulation and tidal flushing patterns coincident with increased resuspension. The accumulation of detrital organic carbon in the bay during productive summer months with light south-east breezes is reversed by the onset of the winter season and associated weekly cold fronts with sustained 15 knot northerly winds. The reversal of Biscayne Bay circulation patterns and increased discharge at Caesar's Creek result in an outwelling of dissolved organic carbon and particulate organic carbon. Southward advection at the seaward extremes of exchange channels prevents reintroduction of exported organic carbon by tidal currents.

  14. Spatial and temporal trends of contaminants in eggs of wading birds from San Francisco Bay, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hothem, R.L.; Roster, D.L.; King, K.A.; Keldsen, T.J.; Marois, Katherine C.; Wainwright, S.E.

    1995-01-01

    Between 1989 and 1991, reproduction by black-crowned night-herons (Nycticorax nycticorax) and snowy egrets (Egretta thula) was studied at sites in San Francisco Bay. Eggs were collected from these and other bay sites and from South Wilbur Flood Area, a reference site in California's San Joaquin Valley. Eggs were analyzed for inorganic trace elements, organochlorine pesticides, and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). Results were compared among sites and years and with results of previous studies. There was some evidence of impaired reproduction, but concentrations of contaminants were generally lower than threshold levels for such effects. Egg hatchability was generally good, with predation being the factor that most limited reproductive success. Mean PCB concentrations were generally higher in eggs from the south end of San Francisco Bay than from the north, but the only temporal change, an increase, was observed at Alcatraz Island. There were spatial differences for p,p'-DDE in night-heron eggs in 1990, but the highest mean concentration of DDE was in night-heron eggs from South Wilbur in 1991. Temporal declines in maximum concentrations of DDE in eggs were observed in the bay, but means did not change significantly over time, At Bair Island in the southern end of the bay, mean concentrations of mercury decreased while selenium increased in night-heron eggs over time, but there were no clear bay-wide spatial or temporal trends for either element.

  15. Spatial and temporal trends of contaminants in eggs of wading birds from San Francisco Bay, California

    SciTech Connect

    Hothem, R.L.; Marois, K.C.; Wainwright, S.E.; Roster, D.L.; King, K.A.; Keldsen, T.J.

    1995-08-01

    Between 1989 and 1991, reproduction by black-crowned night-herons (Nycticorax nycticorax) and snowy egrets (Egretta thula) was studied at sites in San Francisco Bay. Eggs were collected from these and other bay sites and from South Wilbur Flood Area, a reference site in California`s San Joaquin Valley. Eggs were analyzed for inorganic trace elements, organochlorine pesticides, and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). Results were compared among sites and years and with results of previous studies. There was some evidence of impaired reproduction, but concentrations of contaminants were generally lower than threshold levels for such effects. Egg hatchability was generally good, with predation being the factor that most limited reproductive success. Mean PCB concentrations were generally higher in eggs from the south end of San Francisco Bay than from the north, but the only temporal change, an increase, was observed at Alcatraz Island. There were spatial differences for p,p{prime}-DDE in night-heron eggs in 1990, but the highest mean concentration of DDE was in night-heron eggs from South Wilbur in 1991. Temporal declines in maximum concentrations of DDE in eggs were observed in the bay, but means did not change significantly over time. At Bair Island in the southern end of the bay, mean concentrations of mercury decreased while selenium increased in night-heron eggs over time, but there were no clear bay-wide spatial or temporal trends for either element.

  16. Potential Inundation due to Rising Sea Levels in the San Francisco Bay Region

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Knowles, Noah

    2009-01-01

    An increase in the rate of sea level rise is one of the primary impacts of projected global climate change. To assess potential inundation associated with a continued acceleration of sea level rise, the highest resolution elevation data available were assembled from various sources and mosaicked to cover the land surfaces of the San Francisco Bay region. Next, to quantify high water levels throughout the bay, a hydrodynamic model of the San Francisco Estuary was driven by a projection of hourly water levels at the Presidio. This projection was based on a combination of climate model outputs and empirical models and incorporates astronomical, storm surge, El Niño, and long-term sea level rise influences. Based on the resulting data, maps of areas vulnerable to inundation were produced, corresponding to specific amounts of sea level rise and recurrence intervals. These maps portray areas where inundation will likely be an increasing concern. In the North Bay, wetland survival and developed fill areas are at risk. In Central and South bays, a key feature is the bay-ward periphery of developed areas that would be newly vulnerable to inundation. Nearly all municipalities adjacent to South Bay face this risk to some degree. For the Bay as a whole, as early as 2050 under this scenario, the one-year peak event nearly equals the 100-year peak event in 2000. Maps of vulnerable areas are presented and some implications discussed.

  17. South Oregon Coast Reinforcement.

    SciTech Connect

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1998-05-01

    The Bonneville Power Administration is proposing to build a transmission line to reinforce electrical service to the southern coast of Oregon. This FYI outlines the proposal, tells how one can learn more, and how one can share ideas and opinions. The project will reinforce Oregon`s south coast area and provide the necessary transmission for Nucor Corporation to build a new steel mill in the Coos Bay/North Bend area. The proposed plant, which would use mostly recycled scrap metal, would produce rolled steel products. The plant would require a large amount of electrical power to run the furnace used in its steel-making process. In addition to the potential steel mill, electrical loads in the south Oregon coast area are expected to continue to grow.

  18. DEDRICK DRIVE, LOOKING NORTH FROM SOUTH END OF DEDRICK DRIVE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    DEDRICK DRIVE, LOOKING NORTH FROM SOUTH END OF DEDRICK DRIVE NEAR BUILDING 80 - Pacific Coast Torpedo Station, Keyport Industrial District, Both sides of Second Street, between Dedrick Drive and Liberty Bay and one building west of Dedrick Drive and south of Second Street, Keyport, Kitsap County, WA

  19. 7. South wall of blacksmith shop section of roundhouse at ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. South wall of blacksmith shop section of roundhouse at left. West wall and south end wall of machine shop section of roundhouse at right. View to northeast. - Duluth & Iron Range Rail Road Company Shops, Roundhouse, Southwest of downtown Two Harbors, northwest of Agate Bay, Two Harbors, Lake County, MN

  20. SOUTH SIDE OF SECOND STREET, LOOKING EASTSOUTHEAST FROM NORTHWEST CORNER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    SOUTH SIDE OF SECOND STREET, LOOKING EAST-SOUTHEAST FROM NORTHWEST CORNER OF DEDRICK DRIVE AND SECOND STREET - Pacific Coast Torpedo Station, Keyport Industrial District, Both sides of Second Street, between Dedrick Drive and Liberty Bay and one building west of Dedrick Drive and south of Second Street, Keyport, Kitsap County, WA

  1. SOUTH SIDE OF SECOND STREET, LOOKING WESTSOUTHWEST FROM EAST END ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    SOUTH SIDE OF SECOND STREET, LOOKING WEST-SOUTHWEST FROM EAST END OF SECOND STREET NEAR BUILDING 825 - Pacific Coast Torpedo Station, Keyport Industrial District, Both sides of Second Street, between Dedrick Drive and Liberty Bay and one building west of Dedrick Drive and south of Second Street, Keyport, Kitsap County, WA

  2. SOUTH SIDE OF SECOND STREET, LOOKING EASTSOUTHEAST FROM SOUTHWEST CORNER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    SOUTH SIDE OF SECOND STREET, LOOKING EAST-SOUTHEAST FROM SOUTHWEST CORNER OF BUILDING 489 - Pacific Coast Torpedo Station, Keyport Industrial District, Both sides of Second Street, between Dedrick Drive and Liberty Bay and one building west of Dedrick Drive and south of Second Street, Keyport, Kitsap County, WA

  3. DEDRICK DRIVE, LOOKING SOUTH FROM NORTHEAST CORNER OF INTERSECTION OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    DEDRICK DRIVE, LOOKING SOUTH FROM NORTHEAST CORNER OF INTERSECTION OF SECOND STREET AND DEDRICK DRIVE - Pacific Coast Torpedo Station, Keyport Industrial District, Both sides of Second Street, between Dedrick Drive and Liberty Bay and one building west of Dedrick Drive and south of Second Street, Keyport, Kitsap County, WA

  4. SOUTH SIDE OF SECOND STREET, LOOKING WESTSOUTHWEST FROM NORTH SIDE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    SOUTH SIDE OF SECOND STREET, LOOKING WEST-SOUTHWEST FROM NORTH SIDE OF SECOND STREET NEAR INTERSECTION OF DOWELL AND SECOND STREETS - Pacific Coast Torpedo Station, Keyport Industrial District, Both sides of Second Street, between Dedrick Drive and Liberty Bay and one building west of Dedrick Drive and south of Second Street, Keyport, Kitsap County, WA

  5. SOUTH SIDE OF SECOND STREET, LOOKING WESTSOUTHWEST FROM NORTH SIDE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    SOUTH SIDE OF SECOND STREET, LOOKING WEST-SOUTHWEST FROM NORTH SIDE OF SECOND STREET NEAR BUILDING 489 - Pacific Coast Torpedo Station, Keyport Industrial District, Both sides of Second Street, between Dedrick Drive and Liberty Bay and one building west of Dedrick Drive and south of Second Street, Keyport, Kitsap County, WA

  6. Modern benthic ostracodes from Lutzow-Holm Bay, East Antarctica: paleoceanographic, paleobiogeographic, and evolutionary significance

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Yasuhara, Moriaki; Kato, Masako; Ikeya, Noriyuki; Seto, Koji

    2007-01-01

    Seventy-three ostracode species from 38 genera were recovered from the 55 surface sediment samples in Lützow-Holm Bay, northeastern Antarctica. We investigated bathymetric and geographic distributions of modern benthic ostracode species in the bay and compared this fauna with published modern and fossil ostracode data of Antarctic and southern South American regions. The results show: (1) Four biotopes and three sub-biotopes are recognized based on Q-mode cluster analysis, which suggest distributions of modern ostracodes are mainly controlled by water-mass structure, ice scouring, and light availability. (2) Comparison between the Lützow-Holm Bay fauna and other ostracode faunas from Antarctica and southern South America shows high endemism and homogeneity of Antarctic ostracode fauna, suggesting in situ evolution of most extant Antarctic species. (3) Most species are endemic to the Antarctica, a few species also inhabit South American waters.

  7. A field study of littoral processes in Estero Bay, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dingler, J.R.; Anima, R.J.; Molzan, D.E.; Luepke, Gretchen; Peterson, C.L.

    1982-01-01

    Estero Bay, which lies on the central California coast, has rocky headlands at both ends and sandy beaches within it. The shoreline of the bay has adjusted to be in equilibrium with the predominant wave climate, which is from the northwest. Because of its present shoreline configuration, the net southward littoral transport found along much of the California coast does not occur within Estero Bay. Instead, the sand primarily moves on- and offshore with a reversing longshore component. This sand transport pattern produces a littoral cell within Estero Bay even though there is no submarine canyon in the area. The primary sand sinks for this cell appear to be the sand spit south of Morro Rock and the entrance to Morro Bay itself, although this opinion was not experimentally verified. Field work during one summer (1978) and the following winter (1979) produced baseline data on the profile of and grain-size distribution across the littoral zone. In the offshore part of the littoral zone we also studied ripple size and type, internal structure, depth of erosion, and mineralogy. Although these data, which were collected along nine transects spaced 2 km apart, are inadequate to yield transport and energy rates, they indicate a northward decrease in wave energy within Estero Bay and a mixing of the sediments in the offshore. Box core and rod height data from grid points in seven meters of water showed that on the order of a meter of erosion occurred in the central part of the bay between the two sampling periods. Offshore, the data were incomplete, but at one station, in 17 m of water, at least 20 cm of erosion occurred.

  8. Research Spotlight: Narwhals document continued warming of Baffin Bay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Mohi

    2011-03-01

    Baffin Bay, situated between northern Greenland and Canada, is a major gateway between waters from the North Atlantic and Arctic oceans. Dynamics within the bay help govern how much water from the Arctic flows south and sinks to form North Atlantic Deep Water, a deep current that drives ocean circulation on a global scale. Unfortunately, monitoring the deep reaches of Baffin Bay throughout the year is difficult—most oceanographic data are collected in the summer when the area is ice free. To overcome this inability to collect data in harsh winter conditions, Laidre et al. hit upon a novel solution: mounting instruments on narwhals to collect temperature and depth data. Narwhals, a top predator in this frigid ecosystem, make annual migrations from summering grounds in the Canadian High Arctic and western Greenland to wintering grounds in the dense offshore pack ice of Baffin Bay. Moreover, narwhals, which rank among the deepest-diving whales in the world, dive extensively and repeatedly to depths exceeding 1800 meters under pack ice to reach their major food source, the flatfish that swarm on the seafloor of Baffin Bay. Narwhal dives are nearly vertical, making this whale an ideal platform on which to mount surveying instruments. (Journal of Geophysical Research-Oceans, doi:10.1029/2009JC005820, 2010)

  9. Bayes and the Law

    PubMed Central

    Fenton, Norman; Neil, Martin; Berger, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Although the last forty years has seen considerable growth in the use of statistics in legal proceedings, it is primarily classical statistical methods rather than Bayesian methods that have been used. Yet the Bayesian approach avoids many of the problems of classical statistics and is also well suited to a broader range of problems. This paper reviews the potential and actual use of Bayes in the law and explains the main reasons for its lack of impact on legal practice. These include misconceptions by the legal community about Bayes’ theorem, over-reliance on the use of the likelihood ratio and the lack of adoption of modern computational methods. We argue that Bayesian Networks (BNs), which automatically produce the necessary Bayesian calculations, provide an opportunity to address most concerns about using Bayes in the law. PMID:27398389

  10. 18. CELLAR, SECOND BAY FROM EAST END. First floor joist ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    18. CELLAR, SECOND BAY FROM EAST END. First floor joist studded with rose head nails in the pattern, 'AC + IC 1755 +'. 'AC' is Abraham Carlisle, one of the carpenters of the Greater Meeting House built at Second and Market Streets in 1755. 'IC' may be his apprentice Isaac or John Coates. See the account of the 125th anniversary of the Twelfth Street Meeting House written by Albert Savery. - Twelfth Street Meeting House, 20 South Twelfth Street, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  11. Low Freshwater Inflow Study. Chesapeake Bay Hydraulic Model Investigation.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-01-01

    47 discharge from other main bay tributaries such as the Elizabeth, Back (Virginia), Piankatank, Saint Mary’s, South, Magothy , Back (Maryland), Bush...Proto Ft) James R. (Continued) J- 10-01 26 2, 13, 24 Little Choptank R. LC-01-01 17 4, 12 LC-02-01 22 4, 12, 21 Magothy R. MA-01-01 21 4, 12, 18 MA-02

  12. A Proximate Biological Survey of San Diego Bay, California

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1975-01-01

    smoothhound) Carcharhinidac Galeorhinus zyoptems (soupfin sliark) Prionace glaum (blue sliark) Sphyrnidae Sphyrna zygaena ( hammerhead shark ...1 and 2, but an isolated group is also indicated in the south bay around station 10. The 28 Midshipman Bonito Sharks Croaker Bonito Figure 13...Species of fish most often collected at individual stat ions during Proximate Survey. 29 bonito and the sharks were taken, for the most part, at

  13. Nagoya, Ise Bay, Japan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    This view of Nagoya, Ise Bay and nearby Kyoto, on the main island of Honshu, Japan (35.0N, 137.0E) combines in a single photo both the political, cultural and educational centers of early Japan as well as one of the main educational and business centers of modern Japan. Besides being a business, cultural and educational center, Nagoya is near the geographic center of the Japanese home islands.

  14. Gulf of Mexico integrated science - Tampa Bay study, the impact of groundwater and contaminants on Tampa Bay

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Swarzenski, Peter W.

    2005-01-01

    Despite the recreational and economic value of coastal bays and estuaries, these ecosystems are often among our most 'troubled' natural environments. Urbanization, agriculture, mining, and shipping are just a few activities that can have a profound and lasting impact on the coastal zone. In order to maintain a healthy coastal ecosystem, it is crucial to develop reasonable management practices around expert scientific information. We still have much to learn about the quantity and quality of groundwater being discharged into Tampa Bay, Florida. We also need to improve our knowledge of a wide range of contaminants entering the bay and must be able to determine where they accumulate in seafloor sediments. Such buried contaminants can potentially be harmful to biota if they are released to the water column. U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) scientists and research partners from the University of South Florida (USF), the University of Florida (UF), and the Florida Marine Research Institute (FMRI) are mapping sources of groundwater, measuring groundwater flow into Tampa Bay, and assessing the impact of contaminants and sediments on bay water quality and ecosystem health.

  15. Minimum Bayes risk image correlation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Minter, T. C., Jr.

    1980-01-01

    In this paper, the problem of designing a matched filter for image correlation will be treated as a statistical pattern recognition problem. It is shown that, by minimizing a suitable criterion, a matched filter can be estimated which approximates the optimum Bayes discriminant function in a least-squares sense. It is well known that the use of the Bayes discriminant function in target classification minimizes the Bayes risk, which in turn directly minimizes the probability of a false fix. A fast Fourier implementation of the minimum Bayes risk correlation procedure is described.

  16. USGS Tampa Bay Pilot Study

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Yates, K.K.; Cronin, T. M.; Crane, M.; Hansen, M.; Nayeghandi, A.; Swarzenski, P.; Edgar, T.; Brooks, G.R.; Suthard, B.; Hine, A.; Locker, S.; Willard, D.A.; Hastings, D.; Flower, B.; Hollander, D.; Larson, R.A.; Smith, K.

    2007-01-01

    Providing a web-based digital information management system of information for scientists and the public, including a system that supports the work of those officials who must make decisions that affect the state of the bay. The Tampa Bay Study is in its sixth year and will continue through September 2007. This paper presents a non-inclusive summary of key findings associated with the six primary project components listed above. Component 4 (above) is described in detail in the following chapter 13. More information on the Tampa Bay Study is available from our on-line digital information system for the Tampa Bay Study at http://gulfsci.usgs.gov.

  17. A comparison of levels of bat flight and foraging activity at 10 meters and 30 meters above drained Carolina bays and reference bays, prior to bay restoration.

    SciTech Connect

    Menzel, Michael, A.; Ford, W., Mark; Edwards, John, W.; Kilgo, John, C.

    2001-08-01

    A technical report of a monitoring study of bat flight and foraging activity above drained and undrained Carolina bays at the Savannah River Site (SRS), located near Aiken, South Carolina. In order to determine if the vegetational community type or structure of the forest community surrounding the bays affected bat activity levels, bat activity was monitored over 3 drained and 3 undrained reference bays surrounded by pine/mixed hardwood communities and 3 drained and 3 undrained reference bays surrounded by pine monocultures. Bat activity was monitored using time expansion bat detectors. Calls were recorded to Sony Professional tape recorders (Sony WMD3). Detectors positioned at 10 m heights were linked directly to the tape recorders. Time expansion radiomicrophones were used to monitor activity at 30 m heights. The radiomicrophones were attached to 2-m diameter helium balloons and suspended approximately 30 m above the forest floor. Calls detected by the radiomicrophones were transmitted via a FM narrowband frequency to a scanner on the ground.

  18. Temporal variations in the benthic communities at four intertidal sites in San Francisco Bay, California, 1983-85

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hopkins, D.R.

    1987-01-01

    Benthic core samples were collected monthly from January 1983 through January 1985 at four intertidal sites in San Francisco Bay, California, two in the northern part of the bay (North Bay) and two in the southern part of the bay (South Bay). Considerable variation was observed in numbers of species and individuals at the four sites, and abundances within species varied widely. Temporal changes in species abundances appeared to be related to freshwater inflow patterns and resultant salinity variations in the estuary. The 1982-83 winter season was extremely wet, with heavy freshwater inflow to the bay from January through March, whereas the 1983-84 winter was closer to a normal pattern, with most rainfall occurring from November through January. Species were grouped into four categories depending on their patterns of abundance during the 2-yr period. Species that showed an abundance peak in the North Bay in 1983 only were Corophium sp.B and a Chironomidae larva, apparently responding to the extended period of lowered salinity throughout spring and early summer. Species with an abundance peak only in 1984 included Corophium Acherusicum, Eteone californica, Nereis succinea, and Grandidierella japonica, typical estuarine species that might have been suppressed during the extended freshwater inflows in 1983. Species with peaks in both years were Gemma gemma and Ampelisca abdita in the South Bay; both showed strong seasonal variations. A number of species in both North and South Bays, including dominant members of the intertidal community such as Macoma balthical and Streblospio benedicti, did not show any consistent seasonal or year-to-year trends. Results of this study suggest that the intensity and timing of freshwater inflow to San Francisco Bay, particularly higher-than-normal inflow during late spring and early summer, may be an important factor in determining the composition of the intertidal benthic communities. (Author 's abstract)

  19. Learning on the Big Bay

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Philp, Michael J.

    1978-01-01

    Anne Arundel Community College uses the Chesapeake Bay for a flexible ocean engineering technology program which includes mechanical, electrical, and environmental options for transfer and/or vocational students, and adult education programs covering such subjects as sailing, Bay history, boat building, scuba-diving, and marine biology. (RT)

  20. The Bayes Inference Engine

    SciTech Connect

    Hanson, K.M.; Cunningham, G.S.

    1996-04-01

    The authors are developing a computer application, called the Bayes Inference Engine, to provide the means to make inferences about models of physical reality within a Bayesian framework. The construction of complex nonlinear models is achieved by a fully object-oriented design. The models are represented by a data-flow diagram that may be manipulated by the analyst through a graphical programming environment. Maximum a posteriori solutions are achieved using a general, gradient-based optimization algorithm. The application incorporates a new technique of estimating and visualizing the uncertainties in specific aspects of the model.

  1. On some sea cucumbers (Echinodermata: Holothuroidea) from off the south and west coasts of South Africa collected by the South African Environmental and Observation Network (SAEON).

    PubMed

    Thandar, Ahmed S; Rambaran, Ryan

    2015-08-07

    Twenty four specimens of holothuroids recently received from the South African Environmental and Observation Network (SAEON), collected from off the south and west coasts of South Africa, are herein recorded and/or described. The specimens comprise eight nominal and one indeterminate species and represent both shallow-water and deep-sea forms, distributed from Plettenberg Bay to just north of Lambert's Bay in the Western Cape Province. There are no new species but two new records for the South African region and extensions of horizontal and bathymetric distributions of the other species. Additions to the South African fauna are Zygothuria lactea (Théel, 1886) and Synallactes cf. challengeri (Théel, 1886). The paper also contains the first definite record of Thyone venusta Selenka, 1868, originally described from the Red Sea. Distribution ranges of the following species have been altered Synallactes viridilimus Cherbonnier, 1952; S. mollis Cherbonnier, 1952 and Psuedostichopus langeae Thandar, 2009.

  2. VIEW OF SOUTH AND EAST SIDES OF FILTER ROOM/BATHHOUSE BUILDING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF SOUTH AND EAST SIDES OF FILTER ROOM/BATHHOUSE BUILDING S-196, FACING NORTHWEST. - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Outdoor Swimming Pool, Corner of Liscome Bay Street & St. Lo Avenue, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  3. Tampa Bay environmental atlas

    SciTech Connect

    Kunneke, J.T.; Palik, T.F.

    1984-12-01

    Biological and water resource data for Tampa Bay were compiled and mapped at a scale of 1:24,000. This atlas consists of (1) composited information overlain on 18 biological and 20 water resource base maps and (2) an accompanying map narrative. Subjects mapped on the water resource maps are contours of the mean middepth specific conductivity which can be converted to salinity; bathymetry, sediments, tidal currents, the freshwater/saltwater interface, dredge spoil disposal sites; locations of industrial and municipal point source discharges, tide stations, and water quality sampling stations. The point source discharge locations show permitted capacity and the water quality sampling stations show 5-year averages for chlorophyll, conductivity, turbidity, temperature, and total nitrogen. The subjects shown on the biological resource maps are clam and oyster beds, shellfish harvest areas, colonial bird nesting sites, manatee habitat, seagrass beds and artificial reefs. Spawning seasons, nursery habitats, and adult habitats are identified for major fish species. The atlas will provide useful information for coastal planning and management in Tampa Bay.

  4. 33 CFR 162.125 - Sturgeon Bay and the Sturgeon Bay Ship Canal, Wisc.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Sturgeon Bay and the Sturgeon Bay... Sturgeon Bay and the Sturgeon Bay Ship Canal, Wisc. (a) In the Sturgeon Bay Ship Canal: (1) No vessel may...) Each vessel must keep to the center, except when meeting or overtaking another vessel. (b) In...

  5. 33 CFR 162.125 - Sturgeon Bay and the Sturgeon Bay Ship Canal, Wisc.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Sturgeon Bay and the Sturgeon Bay... Sturgeon Bay and the Sturgeon Bay Ship Canal, Wisc. (a) In the Sturgeon Bay Ship Canal: (1) No vessel may...) Each vessel must keep to the center, except when meeting or overtaking another vessel. (b) In...

  6. 33 CFR 162.125 - Sturgeon Bay and the Sturgeon Bay Ship Canal, Wisc.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Sturgeon Bay and the Sturgeon Bay... Sturgeon Bay and the Sturgeon Bay Ship Canal, Wisc. (a) In the Sturgeon Bay Ship Canal: (1) No vessel may...) Each vessel must keep to the center, except when meeting or overtaking another vessel. (b) In...

  7. 33 CFR 162.125 - Sturgeon Bay and the Sturgeon Bay Ship Canal, Wisc.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Sturgeon Bay and the Sturgeon Bay... Sturgeon Bay and the Sturgeon Bay Ship Canal, Wisc. (a) In the Sturgeon Bay Ship Canal: (1) No vessel may...) Each vessel must keep to the center, except when meeting or overtaking another vessel. (b) In...

  8. 33 CFR 162.125 - Sturgeon Bay and the Sturgeon Bay Ship Canal, Wisc.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Sturgeon Bay and the Sturgeon Bay... Sturgeon Bay and the Sturgeon Bay Ship Canal, Wisc. (a) In the Sturgeon Bay Ship Canal: (1) No vessel may...) Each vessel must keep to the center, except when meeting or overtaking another vessel. (b) In...

  9. Chesapeake Bay: Introduction to an Ecosystem.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC.

    The Chesapeake Bay is the largest estuary in the contiguous United States. The Bay and its tidal tributaries make up the Chesapeake Bay ecosystem. This document, which focuses of various aspects of this ecosystem, is divided into four major parts. The first part traces the geologic history of the Bay, describes the overall physical structure of…

  10. Waterbird nest monitoring program in San Francisco Bay (2005-10)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ackerman, Joshua T.; Herzog, Mark P.

    2012-01-01

    Historically, Forster's Terns (Sterna forsteri), American Avocets (Recurvirostra americana), and Black-necked Stilts (Himantopus mexicanus) were uncommon residents of San Francisco Bay, California (Grinnell and others, 1918; Grinnell and Wythe, 1927; Sibley, 1952). Presently, however, avocets and stilts are the two most abundant breeding shorebirds in San Francisco Bay (Stenzel and others, 2002; Rintoul and others, 2003). More than 4,000 avocets and 1,000 stilts, roughly 20 percent of their San Francisco Bay wintering populations, breed within the estuary, making San Francisco Bay the largest breeding area for these species on the Pacific Coast (Stenzel and others, 2002; Rintoul and others, 2003). Forster's Terns were first observed breeding in the San Francisco Bay in 1948 (110 nests); they had increased to over 4000 individuals by the 1980s (Sibley, 1952; Gill, 1977; Harvey and others, 1992; Carter and others, 1990) and were estimated at 2000-3000 for 1998-2002; (Strong and others, 2004). It is hypothesized that the relatively large size of the current waterbird breeding populations is a result of the creation of artificial salt evaporation ponds from the 1930s through the 1950s (Gill, 1977; Goals Project, 1999). Until recently, these salt ponds and associated islands used by waterbirds for nesting have been managed relatively similarly and have supported large breeding waterbird populations. Recently, the South Bay Salt Pond Restoration Project has implemented plans to convert 50-90 percent of the 15,000 acres of salt ponds in the South San Francisco Bay back to tidal marsh habitat. Therefore, there is concern that the Restoration Project, while benefiting other native species, could negatively influence local breeding populations of waterbirds that are reliant on salt pond habitats for both breeding and foraging. A primary goal of the South Bay Salt Pond Restoration Project is to maintain current breeding waterbird populations (South Bay Salt Pond Long

  11. Investigations on classification categories for wetlands of Chesapeake Bay using remotely sensed data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williamson, F. S. L.

    1974-01-01

    The use of remote sensors to determine the characteristics of the wetlands of the Chesapeake Bay and surrounding areas is discussed. The objectives of the program are stated as follows: (1) to use data and remote sensing techniques developed from studies of Rhode River, West River, and South River salt marshes to develop a wetland classification scheme useful in other regions of the Chesapeake Bay and to evaluate the classification system with respect to vegetation types, marsh physiography, man-induced perturbation, and salinity; and (2) to develop a program using remote sensing techniques, for the extension of the classification to Chesapeake Bay salt marshes and to coordinate this program with the goals of the Chesapeake Research Consortium and the states of Maryland and Virginia. Maps of the Chesapeake Bay areas are developed from aerial photographs to display the wetland structure and vegetation.

  12. Summary of suspended-sediment concentration data, San Francisco Bay, California, water year 2008

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Buchanan, Paul A.; Morgan, Tara L.

    2011-01-01

    Suspended-sediment concentration data were collected by the U.S. Geological Survey in San Francisco Bay during water year 2008 (October 1, 2007–September 30, 2008). Optical sensors and water samples were used to monitor suspended-sediment concentration at two sites in Suisun Bay, two sites in Central San Francisco Bay, and one site in South San Francisco Bay. Sensors were positioned at two depths at most sites to help define the vertical variability of suspended sediments. Water samples were collected periodically and analyzed for concentrations of suspended sediment. The results of the analyses were used to calibrate the output of the optical sensors so that a record of suspended-sediment concentrations could be derived. This report presents the data-collection methods used and summarizes, in graphs, the suspended-sediment concentration data collected from October 2007 through September 2008. Calibration curves and plots of the processed data for each sensor also are presented.

  13. Summary of Suspended-Sediment Concentration Data, San Francisco Bay, California, Water Year 2007

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Buchanan, Paul A.; Morgan, Tara L.

    2010-01-01

    Suspended-sediment concentration data were collected by the U.S. Geological Survey in San Francisco Bay during water year 2007 (October 1, 2006-September 30, 2007). Optical sensors and water samples were used to monitor suspended-sediment concentration at two sites in Suisun Bay, two sites in Central San Francisco Bay, and one site in South San Francisco Bay. Sensors were positioned at two depths at most sites to help define the vertical variability of suspended sediments.Water samples were collected periodically and analyzed for concentrations of suspended sediment. The results of the analyses were used to calibrate the output of the optical sensors so that a record of suspended-sediment concentrations could be derived. This report presents the data-collection methods used and summarizes, in graphs, the suspended-sediment concentration data collected from October 2006 through September 2007. Calibration curves and plots of the processed data for each sensor also are presented.

  14. Distribution of biologic, anthropogenic, and volcanic constituents as a proxy for sediment transport in the San Francisco Bay coastal system, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGann, M.; Erikson, L. H.; Wan, E.; Powell, C., II; Maddocks, R. F.

    2012-12-01

    The biological, anthropogenic, and volcanic constituents of more than 300 samples collected from 1995 to 2010 in San Francisco Bay and the nearby coastal area were analyzed to discern patterns of sediment transport and deposition. The biological constituents investigated include microfauna (benthic and planktic foraminifers, ostracods, radiolarians, diatoms, and thecamoebians), macrofauna (bivalve mollusks, gastropods, barnacles, bryozoa, worm tubes, echinoids, crabs, and fish fragments), and flora (woody stems, roots, spores, and seeds). The distributional pattern of the benthic foraminifers was further refined by Q-mode cluster analysis into four assemblages that reflect where the taxa reside: the Brackish Shallow Subtidal Assemblage, the Estuarine Shallow Subtidal Assemblage, the Estuarine Intermediate/Deep Subtidal Assemblage, and the Nearshore Marine Assemblage. The anthropogenic objects recovered in this study include welding slag and glass microspheres most likely used to increase roadway line reflectivity. The volcanic constituents are glass shards of the Pliocene (3.27 Ma) Nomlaki Tuff, and Miocene tephra mostly derived from the Great Central Valley (including from the 23-19 Ma Valley Springs Formation, among others) and from the Sonoma Volcanic Field of California. The presence of allochthonous sedimentological constituents in this study was used to identify pathways of sediment transport and deposition within the San Francisco Bay coastal system. Several patterns have been identified: 1) volcanic glass shards are transported from the Great Central Valley through the delta to all regions of the bay, including the extreme end of south bay, as well as along the coast outside the bay and southward to Pedro Point; 2) microorganisms (benthic and planktic foraminifers, ostracods, diatoms, and radiolaria) from the marine realm outside San Francisco Bay are found in the estuary at the southern end of south bay, commonly in the middle of San Pablo Bay, and

  15. Spatial variation of phytoplankton community structure in Daya Bay, China.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Zhao-Yu; Wang, You-Shao; Cheng, Hao; Zhang, Jian-Dong; Fei, Jiao

    2015-10-01

    Daya Bay is one of the largest and most important gulfs in the southern coast of China, in the northern part of the South China Sea. The phylogenetic diversity and spatial distribution of phytoplankton from the Daya Bay surface water and the relationship with the in situ water environment were investigated by the clone library of the large subunit of ribulose-1, 5-bisphosphate carboxylase (rbcL) gene. The dominant species of phytoplankton were diatoms and eustigmatophytes, which accounted for 81.9 % of all the clones of the rbcL genes. Prymnesiophytes were widely spread and wide varieties lived in Daya Bay, whereas the quantity was limited. The community structure of phytoplankton was shaped by pH and salinity and the concentration of silicate, phosphorus and nitrite. The phytoplankton biomass was significantly positively affected by phosphorus and nitrite but negatively by salinity and pH. Therefore, the phytoplankton distribution and biomass from Daya Bay were doubly affected by anthropic activities and natural factors.

  16. Bat response to carolina bays and wetland restoration in the southeastern U.S. Coastal Plain.

    SciTech Connect

    Menzel, Jennifer M.; Michael A. Menzel; John C. Kilgo; W. Mark Ford; John W. Edwards.

    2005-09-01

    Abstract: Bat activity in the southeastern United States is concentrated over riparian areas and wetland habitats. The restoration and creation of wetlands for mitigation purposes is becoming common in the Southeast. Understanding the effects of these restoration efforts on wetland flora and fauna is thus becoming increasingly important. Because bats (Order: Chiroptera) consist of many species that are of conservation concern and are commonly associated with wetland and riparian habitats in the Southeast (making them a good general indicator for the condition of wetland habitats), we monitored bat activity over restored and reference Carolina bays surrounded by pine savanna (Pinus spp.) or mixed pine-hardwood habitat types at the Savannah River Site in South Carolina. In order to determine how wetland restoration efforts affected the bat community, we monitored bat activity above drained Carolina bays pre- and post-restoration. Our results indicate that bat activity was greater over reference (i.e., undrained) than drained bays prior to the restorative efforts. One year following combined hydrologic and vegetation treatment, however, bat activity was generally greater over restored than reference bays. Bat activity was also greater over both reference and restored bays than in random, forested interior locations. We found significantly more bat activity after restoration than prior to restoration for all but one species in the treatment bays, suggesting that Carolina bay restoration can have almost immediate positive impacts on bat activity.

  17. Bay of Fundy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    The highest tides on Earth occur in the Minas Basin, the eastern extremity of the Bay of Fundy, Nova Scotia, Canada, where the tide range can reach 16 meters when the various factors affecting the tides are in phase. The primary cause of the immense tides of Fundy is a resonance of the Bay of Fundy-Gulf of Maine system. The system is effectively bounded at this outer end by the edge of the continental shelf with its approximately 40:1 increase in depth. The system has a natural period of approximately 13 hours, which is close to the 12h25m period of the dominant lunar tide of the Atlantic Ocean. Like a father pushing his daughter on a swing, the gentle Atlantic tidal pulse pushes the waters of the Bay of Fundy-Gulf of Maine basin at nearly the optimum frequency to cause a large to-and-fro oscillation. The greatest slosh occurs at the head (northeast end) of the system. The high tide image (top) was acquired April 20, 2001, and the low tide image (bottom) was acquired September 30, 2002. The images cover an area of 16.5 by 21 km, and are centered near 64 degrees west longitude and 45.5 degrees north latitude.

    With its 14 spectral bands from the visible to the thermal infrared wavelength region, and its high spatial resolution of 15 to 90 meters (about 50 to 300 feet), ASTER images Earth to map and monitor the changing surface of our planet.

    ASTER is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18, 1999, on NASA's Terra satellite. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products.

    The broad spectral coverage and high spectral resolution of ASTER provides scientists in numerous disciplines with critical information for surface mapping, and monitoring of dynamic conditions and temporal change. Example applications are: monitoring glacial advances and retreats; monitoring potentially active

  18. Coastal Erosion along Monterey Bay.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-03-01

    RD-Al155 61@ COASTAL EROSION ALONG MONTEREY BAY(U) NAVAL1/ A8POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL MONTEREY CA A I SKLAVIDIS El AL. UNCLASSIFIED F/G 8/3 NmIIhllllllll...RESOLUTION TEST CHART NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL Monterey, California 0 to Lfl IC)I I ~JUN 2 71985 THESIS~ COASTAL EROSION ALONG MONTEREY BAY by Anastasios I...PERIOD COVERED Master’s thesis; COASTAL EROSION ALONG MONTEREY BAY March 1985 4. PERFORMING ORG. REPORT NUMBIER 7. AUTMOR(s) 6. CONTRACT OR GRANT NUMBER(a

  19. Heavy-mineral provenance in an estuarine environment, Willapa Bay, Washington, USA: palaeogeographic implications and estuarine evolution

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Luepke Bynum, Gretchen

    2007-01-01

    Modern sediments from representative localities in Willapa Bay, Washington, comprise two principal heavy-mineral suites. One contains approximately equivalent amounts of hornblende, orthopyroxene, and clinopyroxene; this is derived from the Columbia River, which discharges into the Pacific Ocean a short distance south of the bay. The other suite, dominated by clinopyroxene, is restricted to sands of rivers flowing into the bay from the east. The heavy-mineral distributions within the bay suggest that sand discharged from the Columbia River, borne north by longshore transport and carried into the bay by tidal currents, accounts for nearly all of the sand within the interior of Willapa Bay today. Pleistocene deposits on the east side of the bay contain three heavy-mineral assemblages, two of which are identical to the modern assemblages described above. These assemblages reflect the relative influence of tidal and fluvial processes on the Late Pleistocene deposits (100,000–200,000 BP. Amino acid racemization in Quaternary shell deposits at Willapa Bay, Washington. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 43, 1505–1520). They are also consistent with those processes inferred on the basis of sedimentary structures and stratigraphic relations in about two-thirds of the samples examined. Anomalies can be explained by recycling of sand from older deposits. The persistence of the two heavy-mineral suites suggests that the pattern of estuarine sedimentation in Late Pleistocene deposits closely resembled that of the modern bay. The third heavy-mineral suite is enriched in epidote and occurs in a few older Pleistocene units. On the north side of the bay, the association of this suite with southwest-directed foresets in cross-bedded gravel indicates derivation from the northeast, perhaps from an area of glacial outwash. The presence of this suite in ancient estuarine sands exposed on the northeast side of the bay suggests that input from this northerly source may have

  20. 33 CFR 110.194a - Mobile Bay, Ala., and Mississippi Sound, Miss.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Sound, Miss. 110.194a Section 110.194a Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF... Mississippi Sound, Miss. (a) The anchorage grounds. (1) The waters of lower Mobile Bay, near Cedar Point... south by latitude 30°20′00″, and on the west by longitude 88°06′00″. (2) The waters of Mississippi...

  1. 33 CFR 110.194a - Mobile Bay, Ala., and Mississippi Sound, Miss.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Sound, Miss. 110.194a Section 110.194a Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF... Mississippi Sound, Miss. (a) The anchorage grounds. (1) The waters of lower Mobile Bay, near Cedar Point... south by latitude 30°20′00″, and on the west by longitude 88°06′00″. (2) The waters of Mississippi...

  2. 33 CFR 110.140 - Buzzards Bay, Nantucket Sound, and adjacent waters, Mass.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Buzzards Bay, Nantucket Sound..., Nantucket Sound, and adjacent waters, Mass. (a) New Bedford Outer Harbor—(1) Anchorage A. West of Sconticut... Sounds—(1) Anchorage E. South of a line beginning at a point bearing 180° about 3.25 miles from...

  3. 77 FR 43514 - Anchorage Regulations; Narragansett Bay and Rhode Island Sound, RI

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-25

    ... Sound, RI AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: The Coast Guard is removing an obsolete... Island Sound south of Brenton Point, Rhode Island, for use by vessels waiting to enter Narragansett Bay... Rhode Island Sound, RI,'' in the Federal Register (76 FR 15246). We received nine comments on...

  4. 33 CFR 110.140 - Buzzards Bay, Nantucket Sound, and adjacent waters, Mass.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Buzzards Bay, Nantucket Sound..., Nantucket Sound, and adjacent waters, Mass. (a) New Bedford Outer Harbor—(1) Anchorage A. West of Sconticut... Sounds—(1) Anchorage E. South of a line beginning at a point bearing 180° about 3.25 miles from...

  5. 33 CFR 110.140 - Buzzards Bay, Nantucket Sound, and adjacent waters, Mass.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Buzzards Bay, Nantucket Sound..., Nantucket Sound, and adjacent waters, Mass. (a) New Bedford Outer Harbor—(1) Anchorage A. West of Sconticut... Sounds—(1) Anchorage E. South of a line beginning at a point bearing 180° about 3.25 miles from...

  6. 33 CFR 110.194a - Mobile Bay, Ala., and Mississippi Sound, Miss.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Sound, Miss. 110.194a Section 110.194a Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF... Mississippi Sound, Miss. (a) The anchorage grounds. (1) The waters of lower Mobile Bay, near Cedar Point... south by latitude 30°20′00″, and on the west by longitude 88°06′00″. (2) The waters of Mississippi...

  7. 33 CFR 110.194a - Mobile Bay, Ala., and Mississippi Sound, Miss.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Sound, Miss. 110.194a Section 110.194a Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF... Mississippi Sound, Miss. (a) The anchorage grounds. (1) The waters of lower Mobile Bay, near Cedar Point... south by latitude 30°20′00″, and on the west by longitude 88°06′00″. (2) The waters of Mississippi...

  8. 33 CFR 110.194a - Mobile Bay, Ala., and Mississippi Sound, Miss.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Sound, Miss. 110.194a Section 110.194a Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF... Mississippi Sound, Miss. (a) The anchorage grounds. (1) The waters of lower Mobile Bay, near Cedar Point... south by latitude 30°20′00″, and on the west by longitude 88°06′00″. (2) The waters of Mississippi...

  9. 33 CFR 110.140 - Buzzards Bay, Nantucket Sound, and adjacent waters, Mass.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Buzzards Bay, Nantucket Sound..., Nantucket Sound, and adjacent waters, Mass. (a) New Bedford Outer Harbor—(1) Anchorage A. West of Sconticut... Sounds—(1) Anchorage E. South of a line beginning at a point bearing 180° about 3.25 miles from...

  10. 76 FR 76044 - Safety Zone; Power Line Replacement, West Bay, Panama City, FL

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-06

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Power Line Replacement, West Bay, Panama... prohibited to all vessels and persons unless specifically authorized by the Captain of the Port (COTP) Mobile.... Coast Guard Sector Mobile (spw), Building 102, Brookley Complex South Broad Street Mobile, AL...

  11. Occurrence and distribution of antibiotics in coastal water of the Bohai Bay, China: impacts of river discharge and aquaculture activities.

    PubMed

    Zou, Shichun; Xu, Weihai; Zhang, Ruijie; Tang, Jianhui; Chen, Yingjun; Zhang, Gan

    2011-10-01

    The presence of 21 antibiotics in six different groups was investigated in coastal water of the Bohai Bay. Meantime, to illuminate the potential effects caused by the river discharge and aquaculture activities, wastewater from three breeding plants and surface water from six rivers flowing into the Bohai Bay were also analyzed for the selected antibiotics. The result revealed that measured antibiotics in the North Bobai Bay were generally higher than those in the South, highlighting the remarkable effects of high density of human activities on the exposure of antibiotics in environment. The antibiotics found in the six rivers were generally higher than those in the Bohai Bay reflecting the important antibiotics source of river discharge. This study reveals that the high consumption of some antibiotics in aquaculture activities may pose high ecological risk to the bay.

  12. Seasonal/Yearly Salinity Variations in San Francisco Bay

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Peterson, David H.; Cayan, Daniel R.; Dettinger, Michael D.; DiLeo, Jeanne Sandra; Hager, Stephen E.; Knowles, Noah; Nichols, Frederic H.; Schemel, Laurence E.; Smith, Richard E.; Uncles, Reginald J.

    1995-01-01

    use and b) modulate salinity for a healthy estuary. In South Bay we need to know where the freshwater comes from (the distant Delta or local streams) to sort out the sources of a) contamination or b) dilution.

  13. San Francisco Central Bay Suspended Sediment Movement. Report 1. Summer Condition Data Collection Program and Numerical Model Verification

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-09-01

    79 PLATES 1-21 APPENDIX A: BIBLIOGRAPHY ON SAN FRANCISCO BAY SEDIMENTATION ......... Al APPENDIX B: THE TABS-2...north, the Farallon Islands to the west, and Half Moon Bay to the south, which are all approximately 22 nautical miles from the Golden Cate Bridge...physical model 58 results for water levels and velocities are compared in Plates 1-7. The sta- tion locations for comparisons are shown in Figure 22

  14. Benthic fluxes in San Francisco Bay

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hammond, Douglas E.; Fuller, C.; Harmon, D.; Hartman, Blayne; Korosec, M.; Miller, L.G.; Rea, R.; Warren, S.; Berelson, W.; Hager, S.W.

    1985-01-01

    Measurements of benthic fluxes have been made on four occasions between February 1980 and February 1981 at a channel station and a shoal station in South San Francisco Bay, using in situ flux chambers. On each occasion replicate measurements of easily measured substances such as radon, oxygen, ammonia, and silica showed a variability (??1??) of 30% or more over distances of a few meters to tens of meters, presumably due to spatial heterogeneity in the benthic community. Fluxes of radon were greater at the shoal station than at the channel station because of greater macrofaunal irrigation at the former, but showed little seasonal variability at either station. At both stations fluxes of oxygen, carbon dioxide, ammonia, and silica were largest following the spring bloom. Fluxes measured during different seasons ranged over factors of 2-3, 3, 4-5, and 3-10 (respectively), due to variations in phytoplankton productivity and temperature. Fluxes of oxygen and carbon dioxide were greater at the shoal station than at the channel station because the net phytoplankton productivity is greater there and the organic matter produced must be rapidly incorporated in the sediment column. Fluxes of silica were greater at the shoal station, probably because of the greater irrigation rates there. N + N (nitrate + nitrite) fluxes were variable in magnitude and in sign. Phosphate fluxes were too small to measure accurately. Alkalinity fluxes were similar at the two stations and are attributed primarily to carbonate dissolution at the shoal station and to sulfate reduction at the channel station. The estimated average fluxes into South Bay, based on results from these two stations over the course of a year, are (in mmol m-2 d-1): O2 = -27 ?? 6; TCO2 = 23 ?? 6; Alkalinity = 9 ?? 2; N + N = -0.3 ?? 0.5; NH3 = 1.4 ?? 0.2; PO4 = 0.1 ?? 0.4; Si = 5.6 ?? 1.1. These fluxes are comparable in magnitude to those in other temperate estuaries with similar productivity, although the seasonal

  15. Radar image San Francisco Bay Area, California

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    The San Francisco Bay Area in California and its surroundings are shown in this radar image from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM). On this image, smooth areas, such as the bay, lakes, roads and airport runways appear dark, while areas with buildings and trees appear bright. Downtown San Francisco is at the center and the city of Oakland is at the right across the San Francisco Bay. Some city areas, such as the South of Market district in San Francisco, appear bright due to the alignment of streets and buildings with respect to the incoming radar beam. Three of the bridges spanning the Bay are seen in this image. The Bay Bridge is in the center and extends from the city of San Francisco to Yerba Buena and Treasure Islands, and from there to Oakland. The Golden Gate Bridge is to the left and extends from San Francisco to Sausalito. The Richmond-San Rafael Bridge is in the upper right and extends from San Rafael to Richmond. Angel Island is the large island east of the Golden Gate Bridge, and lies north of the much smaller Alcatraz Island. The Alameda Naval Air Station is seen just below the Bay Bridge at the center of the image. Two major faults bounding the San Francisco-Oakland urban areas are visible on this image. The San Andreas fault, on the San Francisco peninsula, is seen on the left side of the image. The fault trace is the straight feature filled with linear reservoirs, which appear dark. The Hayward fault is the straight feature on the right side of the image between the urban areas and the hillier terrain to the east.

    This radar image was acquired by just one of SRTM's two antennas and, consequently, does not show topographic data, but only the strength of the radar signal reflected from the ground. This signal, known as radar backscatter, provides insight into the nature of the surface, including its roughness, vegetation cover and urbanization. The overall faint striping pattern in the images is a data processing artifact due to the

  16. Missisquoi Bay Phosphorus Model Addendum

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This technical memorandum provides results of an extended load reduction simulation. The memorandum serves as an addendum to the main Missisquoi Bay Phosphorus Mass Balance Model report prepared for the Lake Champlain Basin Program by LimnoTech in 2012

  17. Eutrophication in the Chesapeake Bay

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ulanowicz, R. E.

    1978-01-01

    The advantages and limitations of using remote sensing to acquire fast reliable data on the nutrient problem in the Chesapeake Bay ecosystem are discussed. Pollution effects to phytoplankton blooms during late summer and early fall months are also considered.

  18. Keep Colon Cancer At Bay

    MedlinePlus

    ... https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_164231.html Keep Colon Cancer at Bay Colonoscopy best way to detect disease ... 22, 2017 WEDNESDAY, March 22, 2017 (HealthDay News) -- Colon cancer can be treated and cured if it's diagnosed ...

  19. Organic pollutant burden of the giant mussels Choromytilus chorus from the south-central Chilean coast.

    PubMed

    Toro, Beatriz; Palma-Fleming, Hernán; Navarro, Jorge M

    2004-04-01

    A comparative quantitative analysis was made on the contents of organochlorines (OCh) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) in tissues of the giant mussel Choromytilus chorus from three bays in south-central Chile exposed to various degrees of pollutant input. Mussels from the three bays contained levels of OCh near the detection limits of method, with a tendency to be slightly higher in the polluted bay (San Vicente) than in the other bays (Corral and Yaldad). PAH levels and types in Corral and Yaldad were well below of carcinogenicity permitted in mussels for human consumption.

  20. Ice conditions on the Chesapeake Bay as observed from LANDSAT during the winters of 1977, 1978 and 1979

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Foster, J. L.

    1980-01-01

    The LANDSAT observations during the winters of 1977, 1978 and 1979, which were unusually cold in the northeastern U.S. and in the Chesapeake Bay area, were evaluated. Abnormal atmospheric circulation patterns displaced cold polar air to the south, and as a result, the Chesapeake Bay experienced much greater than normal icing conditions during these 3 years. The LANDSAT observations of the Chesapeake Bay area during these winters demonstrate the satellite's capabilities to monitor ice growth and melt, to detect ice motions, and to measure ice extent.

  1. Multidisciplinary Investigations of Submarine Flow to Biscayne Bay, Florida

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Halley, R. B.; Reich, C. D.; Swarzenski, P. W.; Langevin, C. D.

    2005-05-01

    Biscayne Bay and Biscayne National Park (BNP) are located next to the Miami-Dade urban complex and are adjacent to the Dade County South Dade Landfill Facility and the Miami-Dade Water and Sewer South District Plant. The base of the landfill is lined to separate it from the underlying Miami Limestone, the host rock for the surficial Biscayne Aquifer. The sewage-treatment facility injects treated sewage into the lower Florida Aquifer (750 m) that is overlain by an aquitard termed the Middle Confining Unit (450 m). The Biscayne Aquifer (up to 50 m thick) borders the western margin of BNP, and the Floridan Aquifer underlies the entire park. There is concern about leakage of contaminated aquifer water into BNP and its potential effects on water quality. Groundwater flux to Biscayne Bay is being studied using pressure measurements and geochemical analyses from submarine wells, electromagnetic seepage meters, streaming resistivity profiling, and local and regional model simulations. Both seepage meters and water analyses provide point information that can be placed into the regional context provided by flow models and geochemical and geophysical profiling, which, in turn, constrain the groundwater contribution. Water samples were collected approximately quarterly from August 2002 until March 2004 from submarine wells along a transect through Biscayne Bay and across the reef to the shelf edge. Samples were analyzed for conductivity (salinity), dissolved oxygen, temperature, redox potential, nutrients, metals, strontium isotopes, radon, sulfate, and wastewater compounds. Low-salinity water was identified from nearshore wells and indicates seepage from the Biscayne Aquifer and/or surface-water intrusion into the rocks along western Biscayne Bay. Analyses of water samples (n = 109) collected from wells across the Florida shelf show no consistent evidence of wastewater contaminants occurring in groundwater beneath BNP. No significant leakage from the Floridan Aquifer

  2. Recent results from Daya Bay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chua, Ming-chung

    2016-11-01

    Utilizing powerful nuclear reactors as antineutrino sources, high mountains to provide ample shielding from cosmic rays in the vicinity, and functionally identical detectors with large target volume for near-far relative measurement, the Daya Bay Reactor Neutrino Experiment has achieved unprecedented precision in measuring the neutrino mixing angle θ13 and the neutrino mass squared difference |Δm2ee|. I will report the latest Daya Bay results on neutrino oscillations and light sterile neutrino search.

  3. Using Natural Geochemical Tracers to Discern the Dominant Sources of Freshwater into Biscayne Bay, Southeast Florida

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stalker, J. C.; Price, R. M.; Swart, P. K.

    2005-05-01

    Biscayne Bay is a sub-tropical estuary located on the carbonate platform of south Florida. The water occupying Biscayne Bay is a balance of saltwater influx from the open ocean and freshwater inputs from precipitation, surface water runoff, and submarine groundwater discharge. The bays watershed includes a total of 3 million inhabitants, the major urban centers of Miami and Ft. Lauderdale, as well as the Everglades system. With the development of south Florida, the natural diffuse groundwater and stream flow into the bay has been replaced by a large system of canals and levees in an effort to control flooding and drain swampland. The Comprehensive Everglades Restoration Plan includes changes in the freshwater deliveries to Biscayne Bay from point-source discharges via canals to non-point source discharges via wetlands and groundwater flow. The balance of salinity in Biscayne Bay effects sensitive seagrass and tidal ecosystems including numerous species of corals and other biota. A comprehensive understanding of the flow of freshwater into the bay is crucial to future planned developments and restorations. The goal of this study is to use naturally occurring geochemical constituents as tracers to identify and quantify the sources of freshwater, i.e. rainfall, canal flow, and groundwater, discharge to Biscayne Bay. In this study, discrete samples of precipitation, canal water, terrestrial groundwater, marine groundwater, and bay surface water are collected monthly and analyzed for the stable isotopes of hydrogen and oxygen as well as for major cations and anions. Initial results indicate that fresh groundwater has an isotopic signature (del 18O = -2.66 per mil, del D, -7.60 per mil) similar to rainfall (del 18O = -2.86 per mil, del D =-4.78 per mil). In contrast canal water has a heavy isotopic signature (del 18O = -0.46 per mil, del D = -2.48 per mil) due to evaporation. Thus it is possible to use stable isotopes of oxygen and hydrogen to separate canal water from

  4. Using a food-web model to assess the trophic structure and energy flows in Daya Bay, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Zuozhi; Xu, Shannan; Qiu, Yongsong

    2015-12-01

    Daya Bay, is one of the largest and most important semi-closed bays along the southern coast of China. Due to the favorable geomorphological and climatic conditions, this bay has become an important conservation zone of aquatic germplasm resources in South China Sea. To characterize the trophic structure, ecosystem properties and keystone species, a food-web model for Daya Bay has been developed by the means of a mass-balance approach using the Ecopath with Ecosim software. The mean trophic transfer efficiency for the entire ecosystem as a whole is 10.9% while the trophic level II is 5.1%. The primary- and secondary-producers, including phytoplankton, zooplankton and micro-zoobenthos demonstrated the important overall impacts on the rest of the groups based on mixed trophic impact (MIT) analysis and are classified as the keystone groups. The analysis of ecosystem attributes indicated that ecosystem of Daya Bay can be categorized as an immature one and/or is in the degraded stage. A comparison of this model with other coastal ecosystems, including Kuosheng Bay, Tongoy Bay, Beibu Gulf and Cadiz Gulf, underpinned that the ecosystem of Daye Bay is an obviously stressed system and is more vulnerable to the external disturbance. In general, our study indicates that a holistic approach is needed to minimize the impacts of anthropogenic activities to ensure the sustainability of the ecosystem in the future.

  5. Low calcium carbonate saturation state in an Arctic inland sea having large and varying fluvial inputs: The Hudson Bay system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azetsu-Scott, Kumiko; Starr, Michel; Mei, Zhi-Ping; Granskog, Mats

    2014-09-01

    The Hudson Bay system (HBS) is a shallow inland sea in the Arctic, composed of Hudson Strait, Foxe Basin/Channel, James Bay, and Hudson Bay. Dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) and total alkalinity (TA) measurements were used to investigate the state of ocean acidification, specifically calcium carbonate saturation states (Ω) and pH. The freshwater sources were identified from the relationship between oxygen isotope composition (δ18O) and salinity to understand the role of freshwater in ocean acidification. The saturation state of seawater with respect to calcium carbonate (Ω) in surface water (<10 m) of the HBS was strongly influenced by river runoff. Aragonite under-saturation (Ωarg < 1) was observed in the surface water of the south-eastern Hudson Bay, where the river runoff fraction was high (>10%). The watershed characteristics, however, influenced the alkalinity of river runoff in different parts of Hudson Bay, which contributed to Ω variation in the coastal region. In southwestern Hudson Bay where the watershed is dominated by limestone, Ω was higher compared to eastern Hudson Bay, where the watershed consists of an igneous rock formation. In deeper waters, low Ω is caused by remineralization of organic matter. The highest DIC concentrations (>2300 µmol/kg) were observed in the depths of central Hudson Bay with a pHtotal of 7.49 and Ωarg of 0.37. Over 67% and 22% of the bottom water of Hudson Bay was undersaturated with respect to aragonite and calcite respectively, despite Hudson Bay being very shallow (less than 250 m deep). The aragonite saturation horizon in the central Hudson Bay was around 50 m.

  6. Development of San Leandro synform and neotectonics of the San Francisco Bay block, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Marlow, M. S.; Jachens, R.C.; Hart, P.E.; Carlson, P.R.; Anima, R.J.; Childs, J. R.

    1999-01-01

    High-resolution, 24-channel seismic-reflection data show a stratified synform beneath south San Francisco Bay. These seismic-reflection data reveal an eastward-dipping bedrock surface that is about 40 m deep (subbottom) beneath the western south bay, and that reaches a maximum observed depth of 500-800 m (subbottom) below the eastern half of the south bay. An angular unconformity cuts both the synform and underlying bedrock. The age of the unconformity is unknown but may be Pleistocene, when these strata forming the synform were presumably exposed subaerially during lowered sea levels. The synformal strata, the unconformity, and some generally flat-lying and overlying strata are folded near the eastern shore of the bay. This folding may result from movement on the Hayward fault (fault interactions and localized strain partitioning) or from compressional deformation in the East Bay Hills related to NE-SW ('fault-normal') convergence between the Pacific and North American plates. In general, reflections from sediment overlying the unconformity are flat lying (except near the eastern shore of the bay), whereas reflections beneath the unconformity dip eastward. The overlying, flat sediment section fills a shallow basin that is coincident with an elliptical residual gravity low. This low appears to be related to the deeper sedimentary, synformal section based on the spatial correlation between the east-dipping reflections and the gravity anomaly. Projecting the east-dipping reflections to the center of the gravity low suggests that the total section of flat-lying and dipping reflections in the synform may exceed 1000 m. Modeling of the gravity low suggests a total low-density section, about 1.5 km thick, at the center of the synform relative to the surrounding bedrock of presumed Franciscan Complex.High-resolution, 24-channel seismic-reflection data show a stratified synform beneath south San Francisco Bay. These seismic-reflection data reveal an eastward

  7. 33 CFR 100.911 - Bay City Airshow, Bay City, MI.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Bay City Airshow, Bay City, MI. 100.911 Section 100.911 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY REGATTAS AND MARINE PARADES SAFETY OF LIFE ON NAVIGABLE WATERS § 100.911 Bay City Airshow, Bay City, MI....

  8. 33 CFR 100.919 - International Bay City River Roar, Bay City, MI.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false International Bay City River Roar, Bay City, MI. 100.919 Section 100.919 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF... Bay City River Roar, Bay City, MI. (a) Regulated Area. A regulated area is established to include...

  9. 77 FR 2972 - Thunder Bay Power Company, Thunder Bay Power, LLC, et al.

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-20

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Thunder Bay Power Company, Thunder Bay Power, LLC, et al.; Notice of Application for Transfer of Licenses, and Soliciting Comments and Motions To Intervene Thunder Bay Power Company Project No. 2404-095 Thunder Bay Power, LLC Midwest Hydro, Inc Project Nos. 2348-035,...

  10. 33 CFR 100.911 - Bay City Airshow, Bay City, MI.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Bay City Airshow, Bay City, MI. 100.911 Section 100.911 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY REGATTAS AND MARINE PARADES SAFETY OF LIFE ON NAVIGABLE WATERS § 100.911 Bay City Airshow, Bay City, MI....

  11. 33 CFR 100.911 - Bay City Airshow, Bay City, MI.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Bay City Airshow, Bay City, MI. 100.911 Section 100.911 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY REGATTAS AND MARINE PARADES SAFETY OF LIFE ON NAVIGABLE WATERS § 100.911 Bay City Airshow, Bay City, MI....

  12. 33 CFR 100.911 - Bay City Airshow, Bay City, MI.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Bay City Airshow, Bay City, MI. 100.911 Section 100.911 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY REGATTAS AND MARINE PARADES SAFETY OF LIFE ON NAVIGABLE WATERS § 100.911 Bay City Airshow, Bay City, MI....

  13. 33 CFR 100.911 - Bay City Airshow, Bay City, MI.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Bay City Airshow, Bay City, MI. 100.911 Section 100.911 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY REGATTAS AND MARINE PARADES SAFETY OF LIFE ON NAVIGABLE WATERS § 100.911 Bay City Airshow, Bay City, MI....

  14. 77 FR 21890 - Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Sturgeon Bay Ship Canal, Sturgeon Bay, WI

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-12

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 117 RIN 1625-AA09 Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Sturgeon Bay Ship Canal... across the Sturgeon Bay Ship Canal, at miles 4.17 and 4.3, in Sturgeon Bay, Wisconsin. The establishment... drawbridge schedules for all three drawbridges over Sturgeon Bay Ship Canal, including the two bridges...

  15. Clean Watersheds for a Clean Bay Project

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Information about the SFBWQPClean Watersheds for a Clean Bay Project: Implementing the PCB TMDL, part of an EPA competitive grant program to improve SF Bay water quality focused on restoring impaired waters and enhancing aquatic resources.

  16. NASA Satellites Aid in Chesapeake Bay Recovery

    NASA Video Gallery

    By studying the landscape around the Chesapeake Bay, NASA spacecrafts are helping land managers figure out how to battle the harmful pollutants that have added to the destruction of the bay's once ...

  17. SF Bay Water Quality Improvement Fund

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPAs grant program to protect and restore San Francisco Bay. The San Francisco Bay Water Quality Improvement Fund (SFBWQIF) has invested in 58 projects along with 70 partners contributing to restore wetlands, water quality, and reduce polluted runoff.,

  18. East Bay Municipal Utility District Settlement

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The East Bay Municipal Utility District and its seven member communities own and operate a separate sanitary sewer system, which serves approximately 650,000 customers on the eastern side of San Francisco Bay in California.

  19. Facility Layout Problems Using Bays: A Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davoudpour, Hamid; Jaafari, Amir Ardestani; Farahani, Leila Najafabadi

    2010-06-01

    Layout design is one of the most important activities done by industrial Engineers. Most of these problems have NP hard Complexity. In a basic layout design, each cell is represented by a rectilinear, but not necessarily convex polygon. The set of fully packed adjacent polygons is known as a block layout (Asef-Vaziri and Laporte 2007). Block layout is divided by slicing tree and bay layout. In bay layout, departments are located in vertical columns or horizontal rows, bays. Bay layout is used in real worlds especially in concepts such as semiconductor and aisles. There are several reviews in facility layout; however none of them focus on bay layout. The literature analysis given here is not limited to specific considerations about bay layout design. We present a state of art review for bay layout considering some issues such as the used objectives, the techniques of solving and the integration methods in bay.

  20. Assessing polar bear (Ursus maritimus) population structure in the Hudson Bay region using SNPs.

    PubMed

    Viengkone, Michelle; Derocher, Andrew Edward; Richardson, Evan Shaun; Malenfant, René Michael; Miller, Joshua Moses; Obbard, Martyn E; Dyck, Markus G; Lunn, Nick J; Sahanatien, Vicki; Davis, Corey S

    2016-12-01

    Defining subpopulations using genetics has traditionally used data from microsatellite markers to investigate population structure; however, single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) have emerged as a tool for detection of fine-scale structure. In Hudson Bay, Canada, three polar bear (Ursus maritimus) subpopulations (Foxe Basin (FB), Southern Hudson Bay (SH), and Western Hudson Bay (WH)) have been delineated based on mark-recapture studies, radiotelemetry and satellite telemetry, return of marked animals in the subsistence harvest, and population genetics using microsatellites. We used SNPs to detect fine-scale population structure in polar bears from the Hudson Bay region and compared our results to the current designations using 414 individuals genotyped at 2,603 SNPs. Analyses based on discriminant analysis of principal components (DAPC) and STRUCTURE support the presence of four genetic clusters: (i) Western-including individuals sampled in WH, SH (excluding Akimiski Island in James Bay), and southern FB (south of Southampton Island); (ii) Northern-individuals sampled in northern FB (Baffin Island) and Davis Strait (DS) (Labrador coast); (iii) Southeast-individuals from SH (Akimiski Island in James Bay); and (iv) Northeast-individuals from DS (Baffin Island). Population structure differed from microsatellite studies and current management designations demonstrating the value of using SNPs for fine-scale population delineation in polar bears.

  1. Biodiversity inventories and conservation of the marine fishes of Bootless Bay, Papua New Guinea

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The effective management and conservation of biodiversity is predicated on clearly defined conservation targets. Species number is frequently used as a metric for conservation prioritization and monitoring changes in ecosystem health. We conducted a series of synoptic surveys focusing on the fishes of the Bootless Bay region of Papua New Guinea to generate a checklist of fishes of the region. Bootless Bay lies directly south of Port Moresby, the capital of Papua New Guinea, and experiences the highest human population density of any marine area in the country. Our checklist will set a baseline against which future environmental changes can be tracked. Results We generated a checklist of 488 fish species in 72 families found in Bootless Bay during a two-week sampling effort. Using incident-based methods of species estimation, we extrapolate there to be approximately 940 fish species in Bootless Bay, one of the lowest reported numbers in Papua New Guinea. Conclusions Our data suggest that the Bootless Bay ecosystem of Papua New Guinea, while diverse in absolute terms, has lower fish biodiversity compared to other shallow marine areas within the country. These differences in faunal diversity are most likely a combination of unequal sampling effort as well as biophysical factors within Bootless Bay compounded by historical and/or contemporary anthropogenic disturbances. PMID:22849436

  2. Reconstructing the history of eastern and central Florida Bay using mollusk-shell isotope records

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Halley, R.B.; Roulier, L.M.

    1999-01-01

    Stable isotopic ratios of carbon and oxygen (??13C and ??18O) from mollusk shells reflect the water quality characteristics of Florida Bay and can be used to characterize the great temporal variability of the bay. Values of ?? 18O are directly influenced by temperature and evaporation and may be related to salinity. ??13C values of ??13C are sensitive to organic and inorganic sources of carbon and are influenced by productivity. Analyses of eight mollusk species from five short-core localities across Florida Bay show large ranges in the values of ??13C and ??18O, and reflect the variation of the bay over decades. Samples from southwestern Florida Bay have distinct ??13C values relative to samples collected in northeastern Florida Bay, and intermediate localities have intermediate values. 13C values of ??13C grade from marine in the southwest bay to more estuarine in the northeast. Long cores (> 1 m) with excellent chronologies were analyzed from central and eastern Florida Bay. Preliminary analyses of Brachiodontes exustus and Transenella spp. from the cores showed that both ??13C and ??18O changed during the first part of the twentieth century. After a century of relative stability during the 1800s, ??13C decreased between about 1910 and 1940, then stabilized at these new values for the next five decades. The magnitude of the reduction in ??13C values increased toward the northeast. Using a carbon budget model, reduced ??13C values are interpreted as resulting from decreased circulation in the bay, probably associated with decreased freshwater flow into the Bay. Mollusk shell ??18O values display several negative excursions during the 1800s, suggesting that the bay was less evaporitic than during the twentieth century. The isotope records indicate a fundamental change took place in Florida Bay circulation early in the twentieth century. The timing of the change links it to railroad building and early drainage efforts in South Florida rather than to flood control

  3. Contaminant transport in Massachusetts Bay

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Butman, Bradford

    Construction of a new treatment plant and outfall to clean up Boston Harbor is currently one of the world's largest public works projects, costing about $4 billion. There is concern about the long-term impact of contaminants on Massachusetts Bay and adjacent Gulf of Maine because these areas are used extensively for transportation, recreation, fishing, and tourism, as well as waste disposal. Public concern also focuses on Stellwagen Bank, located on the eastern side of Massachusetts Bay, which is an important habitat for endangered whales. Contaminants reach Massachusetts Bay not only from Boston Harbor, but from other coastal communities on the Gulf of Maine, as well as from the atmosphere. Knowledge of the pathways, mechanisms, and rates at which pollutants are transported throughout these coastal environments is needed to address a wide range of management questions.

  4. 3. AERIAL VIEW, LOOKING SOUTH, OF BUILDING 371 BASEMENT UNDER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. AERIAL VIEW, LOOKING SOUTH, OF BUILDING 371 BASEMENT UNDER CONSTRUCTION. THE BASEMENT HOUSES HEATING, VENTILATION, AND AIR CONDITIONING EQUIPMENT AND MECHANICAL UTILITIES, THE UPPER PART OF THE PLUTONIUM STORAGE VAULT AND MAINTENANCE BAY, AND SMALL PLUTONIUM PROCESSING AREAS. THE BASEMENT LEVEL IS DIVIDED INTO NEARLY EQUAL NORTH AND SOUTH PARTS BY THE UPPER PORTION OF THE PLUTONIUM STORAGE VAULT. (10/7/74) - Rocky Flats Plant, Plutonium Recovery Facility, Northwest portion of Rocky Flats Plant, Golden, Jefferson County, CO

  5. 29. Aerial photograph (1973) looking south across Gould Island. Firing ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    29. Aerial photograph (1973) looking south across Gould Island. Firing pier (still possessing third and fourth levels) in foreground. Pitched roof extending from south end of firing pier marks location of frame approach between pier and shop building (center rear) and power plant (to right of shop). Photo courtesy of Naval Undersea Warfare Center, Division Newport, Rhode Island. - Naval Torpedo Station, Firing Pier, North end of Gould Island in Narragansett Bay, Newport, Newport County, RI

  6. Evidence for an Extraterrestrial Impact Origin of the Carolina Bays on the Atlantic Coast of North America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Howard, G. A.; West, A.; Firestone, R. B.; Kennett, J. P.; Kimbel, D.; Newell, W.; Kobres, R.

    2007-05-01

    The Carolina Bays, one of the most conspicuous geomorphic features on the Atlantic Coastal Plain of the United States, are a group of about 500,000, oriented, crater-like, elliptical lakes, wetlands, and depressions, ranging from a few dozen meters to about 11 km in length. Although long proposed as impact structures (Melton and Schriever, 1933; Prouty, 1934), this origin for the Carolina Bays has remained controversial mainly because of an apparent absence of associated extraterrestrial materials. Analyses of Bay orientation showed that their long axes converge near the Great Lakes, suggesting that an impact or airburst over that region may have formed the Bays (Eyton and Parkhurst, 1975). However, Bays dates have been reported over a wide range, calling into question whether all Carolina Bays could have formed simultaneously, although this issue remains unresolved and controversial. Many Bay researchers, who subscribe to widely differing theories, agree that modern Carolina Bays have been subject to repeated modification and that they most likely evolved from some type of ancestral depressions. Now for the first time, we present conclusive geochemical and sedimentary evidence in support of an extraterrestrial connection for the Carolina Bays. Analyses of sediment from the rim sands and basins of fifteen Bays, widely distributed across North and South Carolina, reveal anomalously high abundances of microspherules, iridium, fullerenes with ET helium, carbon spherules, glass-like carbon, and other potential markers for extraterrestrial impact. No such markers were found in paleosols beneath the rim sands or basal sediments of the Bays examined. The assemblage of geochemical and sediment signatures of extraterrestrial impact found in Bay sediments are essentially the same as in the pan-North-American Younger Dryas impact boundary layer (the YDB), dated at 12.9 ka. We hypothesize that at least some Bays were formed by the YD impact during the last deglacial, and we

  7. 33 CFR 117.1101 - Sturgeon Bay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Sturgeon Bay. 117.1101 Section... DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Wisconsin § 117.1101 Sturgeon Bay. (a) The draw of the Michigan Street Bridge, mile 4.3 at Sturgeon Bay, shall open as follows: (1) From March 15 through...

  8. BAY REGION ATMOSPHERIC CHEMISTRY EXPERIMENT (BRACE)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Tampa Bay Estuary Program (TBEP) was formed in 1991 to assist the community in developing a comprehensive plan to restore and protect Tampa Bay. The ecological indicator of the health of the Bay is the coverage of seagrasses, historically in decline, which are important to...

  9. Mobile Bay turbidity plume study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crozier, G. F.

    1976-01-01

    Laboratory and field transmissometer studies on the effect of suspended particulate material upon the appearance of water are reported. Quantitative correlations were developed between remotely sensed image density, optical sea truth data, and actual sediment load. Evaluation of satellite image sea truth data for an offshore plume projects contours of transmissivity for two different tidal phases. Data clearly demonstrate the speed of change and movement of the optical plume for water patterns associated with the mouth of Mobile bay in which relatively clear Gulf of Mexico water enters the bay on the eastern side. Data show that wind stress in excess of 15 knots has a marked impact in producing suspended sediment loads.

  10. Bayes factors and multimodel inference

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Link, W.A.; Barker, R.J.; Thomson, David L.; Cooch, Evan G.; Conroy, Michael J.

    2009-01-01

    Multimodel inference has two main themes: model selection, and model averaging. Model averaging is a means of making inference conditional on a model set, rather than on a selected model, allowing formal recognition of the uncertainty associated with model choice. The Bayesian paradigm provides a natural framework for model averaging, and provides a context for evaluation of the commonly used AIC weights. We review Bayesian multimodel inference, noting the importance of Bayes factors. Noting the sensitivity of Bayes factors to the choice of priors on parameters, we define and propose nonpreferential priors as offering a reasonable standard for objective multimodel inference.

  11. Carbon Biogeochemistry in Baffin Bay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, Helmuth; Shadwick, Elizabeth H.; Dehairs, Frank; Gratton, Yves

    2013-04-01

    The Arctic Ocean and its carbon cycle are expected to be disproportionately sensitive to climatic change and, thus the Arctic is thought to be an area where such changes may most easily be detected. In particular the carbon cycle in polar ocean is vulnerable due to the relatively high Revelle factor and correspondingly weaker CO2 buffer capacity. The Arctic ocean is influenced by runoff and precipitation, sea ice formation and melting, and the inflow of saline waters from Bering and Fram Straits as well as the Barents Sea Shelf. Pacific water is recognizable as low(er) salinity water, with high concentrations of dissolved inorganic carbon, flowing from the Arctic Ocean to the North Atlantic via the Canadian Arctic Archipelago. In the Baffin Bay area, at the eastern entrance to the Canadian Arctic Archipelago, the water masses of three major oceans meet. Atlantic Ocean water traveling into Baffin Bay as the east Greenland current mixes with waters from the Arctic Ocean and the Pacific Ocean, which enter Baffin Bay via Nares Strait and various outflows of the Canadian Arctic Archipelago, before the waters head southward along the western side of Baffin Bay, eventually feeding into the Labrador Current and the North Atlantic Ocean. Altered mixing ratios of these three water masses and freshwater in the Arctic Ocean have been recorded in recent decades. Any climatically driven alterations in the composition of waters leaving Baffin Bay may have implications for anthropogenic CO2 uptake and, hence, acidification, of the subpolar and temperate North Atlantic. We present carbon cycle, Barium and stable oxygen isotope composition data of sea water and related data from two east to west section across Baffin Bay at 75N and 76N as well as from shelf sections long the eastern and western shelves of Baffin Bay. We investigate water mass characteristics and mixing pattern of the above three major water masses in Baffin Bay. The data have been collected in the framework of two

  12. Bayes' postulate for trinomial trials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diniz, M. A.; Polpo, A.

    2012-10-01

    In this paper, we discuss Bayes' postulate and its interpretation. We extend the binomial trial method proposed by de Finetti [1] to trinomial trials, for which we argue that the consideration of equiprobability a priori for the possible outcomes of the trinomial trials implies that the parameter vector has Dirichlet(1,1) as prior. Based on this result, we agree with Stigler [2] in that the notion in Bayes' postulate stating "absolutely know nothing" is related to the possible outcomes of an experiment and not to "non-information" about the parameter.

  13. Hydrodynamic Characteristics and Salinity Patterns in Estero Bay, Lee County, Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Byrne, Michael J.; Gabaldon, Jessica N.

    2008-01-01

    Estero Bay is an estuary (about 12 miles long and 3 miles wide) on the southwestern Florida coast, with several inlets connecting the bay to the Gulf of Mexico and numerous freshwater tributaries. Continuous stage and salinity data were recorded at eight gaging stations in Estero Bay estuary from October 2001 to September 2005. Continuous water velocity data were recorded at six of these stations for the purpose of measuring discharge. In addition, turbidity data were recorded at four stations, suspended sediment concentration were measured at three stations, and wind measurements were taken at one station. Salinity surveys, within and around Estero Bay, were conducted 15 times from July 2002 to January 2004. The average daily discharge ranged from 35,000 to -34,000 ft3/s (cubic feet per second) at Big Carlos Pass, 10,800 to -11,200 ft3/s at Matanzas Pass, 2,200 to -2,900 ft3/s at Big Hickory Pass, 680 to -700 ft3/s at Mullock Creek, 330 to -370 ft3/s at Estero River, and 190 to -180 ft3/s at Imperial River. Flood tide is expressed as negative discharge and ebb flow as positive discharge. Reduced salinity at Matanzas Pass was negatively correlated (R2 = 0.48) to freshwater discharge from the Caloosahatchee River at Franklin Locks (S-79). Matanzas Pass is hydrologically linked to Hell Peckney Bay; therefore, water-quality problems associated with the Caloosahatchee River also affect Hell Peckney Bay. Rocky Bay was significantly less saline than Coconut Point and Matanzas Pass was significantly less saline than Ostego Bay, based on data from the salinity surveys. The quality-checked and edited continuous data and the salinity maps have been compiled and are stored on the U.S. Geological Survey South Florida Information Access (SOFIA) website (http://sofia.usgs.gov).

  14. Seafloor geology of the Monterey Bay area continental shelf

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Eittreim, S.L.; Anima, R.J.; Stevenson, A.J.

    2002-01-01

    Acoustic swath-mapping of the greater Monterey Bay area continental shelf from Point An??o Nuevo to Point Sur reveals complex patterns of rock outcrops on the shelf, and coarse-sand bodies that occur in distinct depressions on the inner and mid-shelves. Most of the rock outcrops are erosional cuestas of dipping Tertiary rocks that make up the bedrock of the surrounding lands. A mid-shelf mud belt of Holocene sediment buries the Tertiary rocks in a continuous, 6-km-wide zone on the northern Monterey Bay shelf. Rock exposures occur on the inner shelf, near tectonically uplifting highlands, and on the outer shelf, beyond the reach of the mud depositing on the mid-shelf since the Holocene sea-level rise. The sediment-starved shelf off the Monterey Peninsula and south to Point Sur has a very thin cover of Holocene sediment, and bedrock outcrops occur across the whole shelf, with Salinian granite outcrops surrounding the Monterey Peninsula. Coarse-sand deposits occur both bounded within low-relief rippled scour depressions, and in broad sheets in areas like the Sur Platform where fine sediment sources are limited. The greatest concentrations of coarse-sand deposits occur on the southern Monterey Bay shelf and the Sur shelf. ?? 2002 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Spatial patterning of water quality in Biscayne Bay, Florida as a function of land use and water management.

    PubMed

    Caccia, Valentina G; Boyer, Joseph N

    2005-11-01

    An objective classification analysis was performed on a water quality data set from 25 sites collected monthly during 1994-2003. The water quality parameters measured included: TN, TON, DIN, NH4+, NO3-, NO2-, TP, SRP, TN:TP ratio, TOC, DO, CHL A, turbidity, salinity and temperature. Based on this spatial analysis, Biscayne Bay was divided into five zones having similar water quality characteristics. A robust nutrient gradient, driven mostly by dissolved inorganic nitrogen, from alongshore to offshore in the main Bay, was a large determinant in the spatial clustering. Two of these zones (Alongshore and Inshore) were heavily influenced by freshwater input from four canals which drain the South Dade agricultural area, Black Point Landfill, and sewage treatment plant. The North Bay zone, with high turbidity, phytoplankton biomass, total phosphorus, and low DO, was affected by runoff from five canals, the Munisport Landfill, and the urban landscape. The South Bay zone, an embayment surrounded by mangrove wetlands with little urban development, was high in dissolved organic constituents but low in inorganic nutrients. The Main Bay was the area most influenced by water exchange with the Atlantic Ocean and showed the lowest nutrient concentrations. The water quality in Biscayne Bay is therefore highly dependent of the land use and influence from the watershed.

  16. Southwest side of sandhouse. South front and west end of ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Southwest side of sandhouse. South front and west end of oil house (MN-99-C) at left. View to northeast - Duluth & Iron Range Rail Road Company Shops, Sand Tower, Southwest of downtown Two Harbors, northwest of Agate Bay, Two Harbors, Lake County, MN

  17. 8. South wall and east front of engine house section ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. South wall and east front of engine house section of roundhouse. Top of machine shop section of roundhouse in background at left. View to northwest. - Duluth & Iron Range Rail Road Company Shops, Roundhouse, Southwest of downtown Two Harbors, northwest of Agate Bay, Two Harbors, Lake County, MN

  18. 1. South front wall of main section of roundhouse. Machine ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. South front wall of main section of roundhouse. Machine shop section of roundhouse at left. View to northwest. - Duluth & Iron Range Rail Road Company Shops, Roundhouse, Southwest of downtown Two Harbors, northwest of Agate Bay, Two Harbors, Lake County, MN

  19. 5. General view of complex. South side of railroad yard. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. General view of complex. South side of railroad yard. Machine shop section of roundhouse (MN-99-A) at far left. Engine house section of roundhouse at center. View to northwest. - Duluth & Iron Range Rail Road Company Shops, Southwest of downtown Two Harbors, northwest of Agate Bay, Two Harbors, Lake County, MN

  20. 2. South front wall and southeast end of main section ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. South front wall and southeast end of main section of roundhouse. Sand tower (MN-99-E) at right. View to east. - Duluth & Iron Range Rail Road Company Shops, Roundhouse, Southwest of downtown Two Harbors, northwest of Agate Bay, Two Harbors, Lake County, MN